WorldWideScience

Sample records for survey results section

  1. Nurses’ perceptions of medication adherence in schizophrenia: results of the ADHES cross-sectional questionnaire survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emsley, Robin; Alptekin, Koksal; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Cañas, Fernando; Dubois, Vincent; Gorwood, Philip; Haddad, Peter M.; Naber, Dieter; Olivares, José Manuel; Papageorgiou, Georgios; Roca, Miguel; Thomas, Pierre; Hargarter, Ludger; Schreiner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Poor adherence to antipsychotic treatment is a widespread problem within schizophrenia therapy with serious consequences including increased risks of relapse and rehospitalization. Mounting evidence supports the key roles that nurses play in monitoring patient progress and facilitating long-term treatment adherence. The Adherencia Terapéutica en la Esquizofrenia (ADHES) nurses’ survey was designed to assess the opinions of nurses on the causes and management of partial/nonadherence to antipsychotic medication. Methods: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey of 4120 nurses from Europe, the Middle East and Africa. Interpretation of results was based on a descriptive comparison of responses. Results: Nurses perceived 54% of patients seen in the preceding month to be partially/nonadherent to treatment. Most nurses (90%) reported some level of experience with administration of long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics, with 24% of nurses administering >10 injections per month. The majority (85%) of nurses surveyed believed that improving adherence would improve patient outcomes. Nearly half (49%) reported that most of their patients depend on a family member or other nonprofessional carer to remind them to take their medication as prescribed. A similar proportion of nurses (43%) reported that most of their patients relied on a professional to remind them to take medication. Most nurses (92%) felt that ensuring continuous medication with LAI antipsychotics would yield long-term benefits for patients, but their opinion was that over a third of patients were unaware of LAI antipsychotic treatments. In a series of forced options, the strategy used most often by respondents (89%) to promote medication adherence was to build trusting relationships with patients while listening to and interpreting their needs and concerns. Respondents also rated this as the most effective strategy that they used (48%). Conclusion: Nurses are highly aware of adherence

  2. Nurses' perceptions of medication adherence in schizophrenia: results of the ADHES cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emsley, Robin; Alptekin, Koksal; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Cañas, Fernando; Dubois, Vincent; Gorwood, Philip; Haddad, Peter M; Naber, Dieter; Olivares, José Manuel; Papageorgiou, Georgios; Roca, Miguel; Thomas, Pierre; Hargarter, Ludger; Schreiner, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Poor adherence to antipsychotic treatment is a widespread problem within schizophrenia therapy with serious consequences including increased risks of relapse and rehospitalization. Mounting evidence supports the key roles that nurses play in monitoring patient progress and facilitating long-term treatment adherence. The Adherencia Terapéutica en la Esquizofrenia (ADHES) nurses' survey was designed to assess the opinions of nurses on the causes and management of partial/nonadherence to antipsychotic medication. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey of 4120 nurses from Europe, the Middle East and Africa. Interpretation of results was based on a descriptive comparison of responses. Nurses perceived 54% of patients seen in the preceding month to be partially/nonadherent to treatment. Most nurses (90%) reported some level of experience with administration of long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics, with 24% of nurses administering >10 injections per month. The majority (85%) of nurses surveyed believed that improving adherence would improve patient outcomes. Nearly half (49%) reported that most of their patients depend on a family member or other nonprofessional carer to remind them to take their medication as prescribed. A similar proportion of nurses (43%) reported that most of their patients relied on a professional to remind them to take medication. Most nurses (92%) felt that ensuring continuous medication with LAI antipsychotics would yield long-term benefits for patients, but their opinion was that over a third of patients were unaware of LAI antipsychotic treatments. In a series of forced options, the strategy used most often by respondents (89%) to promote medication adherence was to build trusting relationships with patients while listening to and interpreting their needs and concerns. Respondents also rated this as the most effective strategy that they used (48%). Nurses are highly aware of adherence issues faced by their patients; further patient

  3. Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test results in European countries: an ESCMID cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcini, Céline; Tebano, Gianpiero; Mutters, Nico T; Tacconelli, Evelina; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Kahlmeter, Gunnar; Jarlier, Vincent

    2017-02-01

    Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) results is one possible laboratory-based antibiotic stewardship intervention. The primary aim of this study was to identify where and how selective reporting of AST results is implemented in Europe both in inpatient and in outpatient settings. An ESCMID cross-sectional, self-administered, internet-based survey was conducted among all EUCIC (European Committee on Infection Control) or EUCAST (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) national representatives in Europe and Israel. Of 38 countries, 36 chose to participate in the survey. Selective reporting of AST results was implemented in 11/36 countries (31%), was partially implemented in 4/36 (11%) and was limited to local initiatives or was not adopted in 21/36 (58%). It was endorsed as standard of care by health authorities in only three countries. The organisation of selective reporting was everywhere discretionally managed by each laboratory, with a pronounced intra- and inter-country variability. The most frequent application was in uncomplicated community-acquired infections, particularly urinary tract and skin and soft-tissue infections. The list of reported antibiotics ranged from a few first-line options, to longer reports where only last-resort antibiotics were hidden. Several barriers to implementation were reported, mainly lack of guidelines, poor system support, insufficient resources, and lack of professionals' capability. In conclusion, selective reporting of AST results is poorly implemented in Europe and is applied with a huge heterogeneity of practices. Development of an international framework, based on existing initiatives and identified barriers, could favour its dissemination as one important element of antibiotic stewardship programmes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  4. Schizophrenia through the carers' eyes: results of a European cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svettini, A; Johnson, B; Magro, C; Saunders, J; Jones, K; Silk, S; Hargarter, L; Schreiner, A

    2015-09-01

    adherence to medication. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey of 138 carers across 16 European countries. Interpretation of results was based on a descriptive comparison of responses. Carers recognized the importance of medication to help patients get better (76%) and improve their quality of life (76%) and relationships (74%). Sixty-seven per cent believed medication damages general health. Sixty-five per cent reported that treatment adherence was a burden for patients. Thirty-eight per cent indicated that it was a daily struggle to get patients to take their medication. Fifty per cent perceived that medication administered every few weeks rather than daily was quite/very important. Ninety-three per cent agreed on the importance of family support to boost adherence, with education and information deemed important for families and patients. Carers rely less on the patient themselves when assessing adherence than psychiatrists. The burden faced by carers and patients in taking medication provides an opportunity for healthcare professionals to provide support in a multidisciplinary 'team' involving psychiatrists, nurses and carers. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Antihypertensive combination therapy in primary care offices: results of a cross-sectional survey in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roas S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Susanne Roas,1 Felix Bernhart,2 Michael Schwarz,3 Walter Kaiser,4 Georg Noll5 1Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Zurich, 2Private Practice, Biberist, 3Ambulatorium Wiesendamm, Basel, 4Healthworld (Schweiz AG, Steinhausen, 5HerzKlinik Hirslanden, Zurich, Switzerland Background: Most hypertensive patients need more than one substance to reach their target blood pressure (BP. Several clinical studies indicate the high efficacy of antihypertensive combinations, and recent guidelines recommend them in some situations even as initial therapies. In general practice they seem widespread, but only limited data are available on their effectiveness under the conditions of everyday life. The objectives of this survey among Swiss primary care physicians treating hypertensive patients were: to know the frequency of application of different treatment modalities (monotherapies, free individual combinations, single-pill combinations; to see whether there are relationships between prescribed treatment modalities and patient characteristics, especially age, treatment duration, and comorbidities; and to determine the response rate (percentage of patients reaching target BP of different treatment modalities under the conditions of daily practice. Methods: This cross-sectional, observational survey among 228 randomly chosen Swiss primary care physicians analyzed data for 3,888 consecutive hypertensive patients collected at one single consultation. Results: In this survey, 31.9% of patients received monotherapy, 41.2% two substances, 20.9% three substances, and 4.7% more than three substances. By combination mode, 34.9% took free individual combinations and 30.0% took fixed-dose single-pill combinations. Combinations were more frequently given to older patients with a long history of hypertension and/or comorbidities. In total, 67.8% of patients achieved their BP target according to their physician's judgment. When compared, single

  6. Social responsibility of the hospitals in Isfahan city, Iran: Results from a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyvanara, Mahmoud; Sajadi, Haniye Sadat

    2015-02-12

    Changes in modern societies develop the perception that the external environment is essential in organization's practices, especially in the way they deal with aspects such as human rights, community needs, market demands and environmental interests. These issues are usually under the umbrella of the concept of social responsibility. Given the importance of this concept in the context of health care delivery, suggesting a new paradigm in hospital governance, the aim of this study was to measure the social responsibility in hospitals. A cross-sectional survey was employed to collect data from a sample of 946 hospital staff of Isfahan city. Data was obtained by structured and valid self-administrated questionnaire and analyzed by descriptive and analytic statistics using SPSS. The mean score of hospitals' social responsibility was 3.0 compared with the justified range from 1.0 to 5.0. Results showed that there was a significant relationship between social responsibility score and hospitals' ownership (public or private). Also, there was no significant relationship between social responsibility and type of hospital specialty. It is recommended that hospital managers develop and apply appropriate policies and strategies to improve their hospitals' social responsibility level, especially through concentrating on their staff's working environment. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  7. Health literacy among different age groups in Germany: results of a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berens, Eva-Maria; Vogt, Dominique; Messer, Melanie; Hurrelmann, Klaus; Schaeffer, Doris

    2016-11-09

    Health literacy is of increasing importance in public health research. It is a necessary pre-condition for the involvement in decisions about health and health care and related to health outcomes. Knowledge about limited health literacy in different age groups is crucial to better target public health interventions for subgroups of the population. However, little is known about health literacy in Germany. The study therefore assesses the prevalence of limited health literacy and associated factors among different age groups. The Health Literacy Survey Germany is a cross-sectional study with 2,000 participants aged 15 years or older in private households. Perceived health literacy was assessed via computer-assisted personal interviews using the HLS-EU-Q-47 questionnaire. Descriptive analyses, chi-square tests and odds ratios were performed stratified for different age groups. The population affected by limited perceived health literacy increases by age. Of the respondents aged 15-29 years, 47.3 % had limited perceived health literacy and 47.2 % of those aged 30-45 years, whereas 55.2 % of the respondents aged 46-64 years and 66.4 % aged 65 years and older showed limited perceived health literacy. In all age groups, limited perceived health literacy was associated with limited functional health literacy, low social status, and a high frequency of doctor visits. The results suggest a need to further investigate perceived health literacy in all phases of the life-course. Particular attention should be devoted to persons with lower social status, limited functional health literacy and/or a high number of doctor visits in all age groups.

  8. Correlates of sedentary time in different age groups: results from a large cross sectional Dutch survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M. Bernaards

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence shows that prolonged sitting is associated with an increased risk of mortality, independent of physical activity (PA. The aim of the study was to identify correlates of sedentary time (ST in different age groups and day types (i.e. school-/work day versus non-school-/non-work day. Methods The study sample consisted of 1895 Dutch children (4–11 years, 1131 adolescents (12–17 years, 8003 adults (18–64 years and 1569 elderly (65 years and older who enrolled in the Dutch continuous national survey ‘Injuries and Physical Activity in the Netherlands’ between 2006 and 2011. Respondents estimated the number of sitting hours during a regular school-/workday and a regular non-school/non-work day. Multiple linear regression analyses on cross-sectional data were used to identify correlates of ST. Results Significant positive associations with ST were observed for: higher age (4-to-17-year-olds and elderly, male gender (adults, overweight (children, higher education (adults ≥ 30 years, urban environment (adults, chronic disease (adults ≥ 30 years, sedentary work (adults, not meeting the moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA guideline (children and adults ≥ 30 years and not meeting the vigorous PA (VPA guideline (4-to-17-year-olds. Correlates of ST that significantly differed between day types were working hours and meeting the VPA guideline. More working hours were associated with more ST on school-/work days. In children and adolescents, meeting the VPA guideline was associated with less ST on non-school/non-working days only. Conclusions This study provides new insights in the correlates of ST in different age groups and thus possibilities for interventions in these groups. Correlates of ST appear to differ between age groups and to a lesser degree between day types. This implies that interventions to reduce ST should be age specific. Longitudinal studies are needed to draw conclusions on causality of

  9. Attitudes toward organ donation among waitlisted transplant patients: results of a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merola, Jonathan; Pei, Kevin Y; Rodriguez-Davalos, Manuel I; Gan, Geliang; Deng, Yanhong; Mulligan, David C; Davis, Kimberly A

    2016-11-01

    Organ shortage remains a major barrier to transplantation. While many efforts have focused on educating the general population regarding donation, few studies have examined knowledge regarding donation and donor registration rates among waitlisted candidates. We aimed to determine waitlisted patients' willingness to donate, elucidate attitudes surrounding organ allocation, and identify barriers to donation. A cross-sectional survey was distributed to assess demographics, knowledge regarding organ donation, and attitudes regarding the allocation process. Responses from 225 of 579 (39%) waitlisted patients were collected. Seventy-one respondents (32%) were registered donors, while 64 patients (28%) noted no interest in participating in donation. A total of 19% of respondents felt their medical treatment would change by being a donor, while 86 patients (38%) felt their condition precluded them from donation. Forty patients (18%) felt they should be prioritized on the waitlist if they agreed to donate. A minority of patients (28%) reported discussion of organ donation with their physician. Waitlisted candidates constitute a population of willing, although often unregistered, organ donors. Moreover, many endorse misconceptions regarding the allocation process and their donation eligibility. In a population for which transplantation is not always possible, education is needed regarding organ donation among waitlisted patients, as this may enhance donation rates. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Correlates of sedentary time in different age groups: results from a large cross sectional Dutch survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaards, Claire M; Hildebrandt, Vincent H; Hendriksen, Ingrid J M

    2016-10-26

    Evidence shows that prolonged sitting is associated with an increased risk of mortality, independent of physical activity (PA). The aim of the study was to identify correlates of sedentary time (ST) in different age groups and day types (i.e. school-/work day versus non-school-/non-work day). The study sample consisted of 1895 Dutch children (4-11 years), 1131 adolescents (12-17 years), 8003 adults (18-64 years) and 1569 elderly (65 years and older) who enrolled in the Dutch continuous national survey 'Injuries and Physical Activity in the Netherlands' between 2006 and 2011. Respondents estimated the number of sitting hours during a regular school-/workday and a regular non-school/non-work day. Multiple linear regression analyses on cross-sectional data were used to identify correlates of ST. Significant positive associations with ST were observed for: higher age (4-to-17-year-olds and elderly), male gender (adults), overweight (children), higher education (adults ≥ 30 years), urban environment (adults), chronic disease (adults ≥ 30 years), sedentary work (adults), not meeting the moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) guideline (children and adults ≥ 30 years) and not meeting the vigorous PA (VPA) guideline (4-to-17-year-olds). Correlates of ST that significantly differed between day types were working hours and meeting the VPA guideline. More working hours were associated with more ST on school-/work days. In children and adolescents, meeting the VPA guideline was associated with less ST on non-school/non-working days only. This study provides new insights in the correlates of ST in different age groups and thus possibilities for interventions in these groups. Correlates of ST appear to differ between age groups and to a lesser degree between day types. This implies that interventions to reduce ST should be age specific. Longitudinal studies are needed to draw conclusions on causality of the relationship between identified correlates and ST.

  11. Competency assessment and development among health-care leaders: results of a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbrough Landry, Amy; Stowe, Michael; Haefner, James

    2012-05-01

    In light of the challenges involved in leading a health care organization, it is important that the executives and managers charged with doing so are competent in a variety of areas. However, leading at all organizational levels does not necessarily require the same levels and types of competencies. The purpose of this research is to determine how well competency training works in health care organizations, and to obtain a better understanding of the competencies needed for leaders at different points of their careers and at various organizational levels. Ten health care management competency domains thought to positively influence job performance for health care executives are presented. The study seeks to answer four hypotheses related to self-perceptions of competencies and training opportunities at various hierarchical levels. A survey method was used to sample a subset of the healthcare executive population in the USA, based on three variables of interest, competency training opportunities, self-reported level of competency and hierarchical level. A series of Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were conducted to identify perceived differences in both competency level and training opportunities among respondents of various hierarchical levels. The most significant result of our research is that competency training is effective in health care organizations. The implications and need for additional research are discussed.

  12. The organisation and needs of young sections belonging to UEG National Societies: Results of a Europe-wide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianiro, Gianluca; Castro, Valeria; Dolak, Werner; Ilie, Mădălina; Holleran, Grainne; Salaga, Maciej; van Herwaarden, Yasmijn; Burisch, Johan

    2017-08-01

    One of the aims of the Young Talent Group (YTG) is to make United European Gastroenterology (UEG) more attractive for young fellows interested in gastroenterology, and to involve them actively in UEG activities, by collaborating with young GI sections (YGIS) across Europe. Therefore, the YTG launched a survey to collect up-to-date information on YGISs belonging to UEG National Societies. The Friends of YTG were chosen as the target population and received a web-based questionnaire concerning their personal information, the structure of YGIS in their respective country, the YGIS' support mechanisms for young trainees, and ideas on how to improve them. Overall, 24 of 29 Friends answered the survey (83%). Among the Societies surveyed, only half have a young section. Typically, YGIS are supported, but not influenced, by National Societies through several initiatives. Results of the survey suggest that a lack of funding, of harmonised education, and of active roles available within National Societies, were the concerns most prevalent among young fellows. Our survey shows that the development of YGIS is being hindered by organisational, financial, and political issues. The YTG believes that a close collaboration between National Societies, UEG, and the YTG is necessary in order to offer young fellows the most productive and professionally satisfying future possible.

  13. Cesarean section indications and anthropometric parameters in Rwandan nulliparae: preliminary results from a longitudinal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakoma, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-01-01

    Maternal anthropometric parameters as risk factors for cesarean section have always been a matter of interest and concern for obstetricians. Some of these parameters have been shown to be predictors of dystocia. This study aims at showing the relationship between cesarean section indications and anthropometric parameters sizes in Rwandan nulliparae for the purpose of comparison and appropriate recommendations. A cross-sectional and analytical study was made on data collected from 32 operated patients among 152 nulliparae with singleton pregnancy at term and vertex presentation. Concerned anthropometric parameters were height, weight and six pelvic distances. Fisher exact and Student's tests were used to compare observed proportions and mean values, respectively. Findings were as follows: 1) the overall cesarean section rate was 21.05%; 2) acute fetal distress (31.3 %), generally contracted pelvis (28.1 %), and engagement failure (25%) were the most frequent indications of cesarean section; 3) all patients ≤ 145 cm tall were operated on for general pelvis contraction whose proportion was significantly higher in them than in the others (p difference with other weight categories was not significant; 5) considered external pelvic diameters but the Biiliac Diameter displayed average measurements smaller in clinically contracted pelvis than in other CS indications. External pelvimetry associated with specific other anthropometric parameters could be helpful in the screening of generally contracted pelves, and consequently pregnancies at high risk of cephalopelvic disproportion in nulliparous women, particularly in developing countries with limited resources. Further investigations are requested to deal with this topic in depth.

  14. Epidemiology of chronic rhinosinusitis: results from a cross-sectional survey in seven Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J B; Fu, Q L; Zhang, H; Cheng, L; Wang, Y J; Zhu, D D; Lv, W; Liu, S X; Li, P Z; Ou, C Q; Xu, G

    2015-05-01

    Chronic sinusitis (CRS) is a common otorhinolaryngologic disease that is frequently encountered in everyday practice, but there is a lack of precise data regarding the prevalence of CRS in developing countries. We performed a national investigation in China to determine the prevalence and associated factors of CRS. We conducted a cross-sectional investigation in 2012. A stratified four-stage sampling method was used to select participants randomly from seven cities in mainland China. All participants were interviewed face-to-face via a standardized questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between smoking and sinusitis after adjusting for socio-demographic factors. This study included a total of 10 636 respondents from seven cities. The overall prevalence of CRS was 8.0% and ranged from 4.8% to 9.7% in seven centres. Chronic sinusitis affected approximately 107 million people in mainland China. Chronic sinusitis was particularly prevalent among people with specific medical conditions, including allergic rhinitis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and gout. The prevalence was slightly higher among males (8.79%) than females (7.28%) (P = 0.004), and the prevalence varied by age group, ethnicity and marital status and education (P  0.05). Both second-hand tobacco smoke and active smoking were independent risk factors for CRS (P = 0.001). Chronic sinusitis is an important public health problem in China. Our study provides important information for the assessment of the economic burden of CRS and the development and promotion of public health policies associated with CRS particularly in developing countries. © 2015 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Cross-sectional prospective survey to study indication-based usage of antimicrobials in animals: Results of use in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyörälä Satu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indication-based data on the use of antimicrobials in animals were collected using a prospective cross-sectional survey, similarly as for surveys carried out in human medicine, but adapting the questionnaire to include veterinary-specific issues. The participating veterinarians were randomly selected from a sample population of practising veterinarians. The sampling was stratified to take into account the proportions of different types of veterinary practice in the country. All patients consulting the veterinary practice during a 1-week period were included in the study and veterinarians returned a completed questionnaire for each patient receiving antimicrobial treatment. As cattle received most of the treatments, results from the survey are given using cattle as an example species. Results The survey was sent to 681 veterinarians, of whom 262 (39% responded. In total 2850 questionnaires were completed. The largest quantities of antimicrobials, measured in kilograms, were used for cattle, followed by pigs, dogs and horses. The species that were treated most were cattle (n = 1308, dogs (n = 989 and cats (n = 311. For cattle, the most common reason for treatment was acute mastitis (52%, followed by dry-cow therapy (21%, subclinical mastitis (6% and treatment for acute enteritis (4%. The remaining treatments covered 17% of cattle patients and 15 different indications. For acute mastitis, parenteral or intramammary treatment was used in 36% and 34% of the cases, respectively. The remaining 30% received both treatments simultaneously. Of the parenteral treatments (n = 459, benzyl penicillin was used in 83% of the treated animals (n = 379, while fluoroquinolones were used in 49 cases (11%. Of the 433 cows receiving intramammary treatment, ampicillin combined with cloxacillin was most commonly used (n = 157; 36%, followed by cephalexin+streptomycin (n = 113; 26%. Conclusion This cross-sectional prospective survey provided a useful

  16. Improving immunization in Afghanistan: results from a cross-sectional community-based survey to assess routine immunization coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raveesha R. Mugali

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite progress in recent years, Afghanistan is lagging behind in realizing the full potential of immunization. The country is still endemic for polio transmission and measles outbreaks continue to occur. In spite of significant reductions over the past decade, the mortality rate of children under 5 years of age continues to remain high at 91 per 1000 live births. Methods The study was a descriptive community-based cross sectional household survey. The survey aimed to estimate the levels of immunization coverage at national and province levels. Specific objectives are to: establish valid baseline information to monitor progress of the immunization program; identify reasons why children are not immunized; and make recommendations to enhance access and quality of immunization services in Afghanistan. The survey was carried out in all 34 provinces of the country, with a sample of 6125 mothers of children aged 12–23 months. Results Nationally, 51% of children participating in the survey received all doses of each antigen irrespective of the recommended date of immunization or recommended interval between doses. About 31% of children were found to be partially vaccinated. Reasons for partial vaccination included: place to vaccinate child too far (23%, not aware of the need of vaccination (17%, no faith in vaccination (16%, mother was too busy (15%, and fear of side effects (11%. Conclusion The innovative mechanism of contracting out delivery of primary health care services in Afghanistan, including immunization, to non-governmental organizations is showing some positive results in quickly increasing coverage of essential interventions, including routine immunization. Much ground still needs to be covered with proper planning and management of resources in order to improve the immunization coverage in Afghanistan and increase survival and health status of its children.

  17. Cross-sectional prospective survey to study indication-based usage of antimicrobials in animals: results of use in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Katariina; Rantala, Merja; Hautala, Maria; Pyörälä, Satu; Kaartinen, Liisa

    2008-04-14

    Indication-based data on the use of antimicrobials in animals were collected using a prospective cross-sectional survey, similarly as for surveys carried out in human medicine, but adapting the questionnaire to include veterinary-specific issues. The participating veterinarians were randomly selected from a sample population of practising veterinarians. The sampling was stratified to take into account the proportions of different types of veterinary practice in the country. All patients consulting the veterinary practice during a 1-week period were included in the study and veterinarians returned a completed questionnaire for each patient receiving antimicrobial treatment. As cattle received most of the treatments, results from the survey are given using cattle as an example species. The survey was sent to 681 veterinarians, of whom 262 (39%) responded. In total 2850 questionnaires were completed. The largest quantities of antimicrobials, measured in kilograms, were used for cattle, followed by pigs, dogs and horses. The species that were treated most were cattle (n = 1308), dogs (n = 989) and cats (n = 311). For cattle, the most common reason for treatment was acute mastitis (52%), followed by dry-cow therapy (21%), subclinical mastitis (6%) and treatment for acute enteritis (4%). The remaining treatments covered 17% of cattle patients and 15 different indications. For acute mastitis, parenteral or intramammary treatment was used in 36% and 34% of the cases, respectively. The remaining 30% received both treatments simultaneously. Of the parenteral treatments (n = 459), benzyl penicillin was used in 83% of the treated animals (n = 379), while fluoroquinolones were used in 49 cases (11%). Of the 433 cows receiving intramammary treatment, ampicillin combined with cloxacillin was most commonly used (n = 157; 36%), followed by cephalexin+streptomycin (n = 113; 26%). This cross-sectional prospective survey provided a useful method for the collection of information on

  18. Improving immunization in Afghanistan: results from a cross-sectional community-based survey to assess routine immunization coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugali, Raveesha R; Mansoor, Farooq; Parwiz, Sardar; Ahmad, Fazil; Safi, Najibullah; Higgins-Steele, Ariel; Varkey, Sherin

    2017-04-04

    Despite progress in recent years, Afghanistan is lagging behind in realizing the full potential of immunization. The country is still endemic for polio transmission and measles outbreaks continue to occur. In spite of significant reductions over the past decade, the mortality rate of children under 5 years of age continues to remain high at 91 per 1000 live births. The study was a descriptive community-based cross sectional household survey. The survey aimed to estimate the levels of immunization coverage at national and province levels. Specific objectives are to: establish valid baseline information to monitor progress of the immunization program; identify reasons why children are not immunized; and make recommendations to enhance access and quality of immunization services in Afghanistan. The survey was carried out in all 34 provinces of the country, with a sample of 6125 mothers of children aged 12-23 months. Nationally, 51% of children participating in the survey received all doses of each antigen irrespective of the recommended date of immunization or recommended interval between doses. About 31% of children were found to be partially vaccinated. Reasons for partial vaccination included: place to vaccinate child too far (23%), not aware of the need of vaccination (17%), no faith in vaccination (16%), mother was too busy (15%), and fear of side effects (11%). The innovative mechanism of contracting out delivery of primary health care services in Afghanistan, including immunization, to non-governmental organizations is showing some positive results in quickly increasing coverage of essential interventions, including routine immunization. Much ground still needs to be covered with proper planning and management of resources in order to improve the immunization coverage in Afghanistan and increase survival and health status of its children.

  19. Cross-sectional prospective survey to study indication-based usage of antimicrobials in animals: Results of use in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Pyörälä Satu; Hautala Maria; Rantala Merja; Thomson Katariina; Kaartinen Liisa

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Indication-based data on the use of antimicrobials in animals were collected using a prospective cross-sectional survey, similarly as for surveys carried out in human medicine, but adapting the questionnaire to include veterinary-specific issues. The participating veterinarians were randomly selected from a sample population of practising veterinarians. The sampling was stratified to take into account the proportions of different types of veterinary practice in the country...

  20. Influence of internal migration on reproductive health in Myanmar: results from a recent cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhinaraset, May; Diamond-Smith, Nadia; Thet, May Me; Aung, Tin

    2016-03-09

    Maternal and reproductive health remains a significant public health issue in Myanmar. Little data exists on women's health issues, including social and demographic influences. While past studies have demonstrated rural/urban health disparities, an increasingly important population resulting from urban growth in Myanmar is the internal migrant population, individuals moving within the country for better job or educational opportunities. Past studies suggest that women make up more than half of internal migrants, yet there is a dearth of information on this new wave of migration, particularly on women's reproductive health issues. The objective of this study is to assess the influence of women's migration in Myanmar on reproductive health outcomes, including delivering in a facility, using a skilled birth attendant, and using a modern method of family planning. Data from a cross-sectional household survey using multistage cluster sampling design conducted between September to October 2014 was used to assess the accessibility and the use of maternal and child health products and services. A total of 1800 currently married women of reproductive age, including 348 from urban and 1452 from rural areas, were recruited to complete surveys. A set of multivariable regressions was performed to assess reproductive health outcomes and predictors. Across health indicators, female migrants had better health outcomes compared to non-migrants. Controlling for demographic characteristics, migrants were 1.60 times more likely to use a modern form of family planning compared to non-migrants (p migrants were 1.29 times more likely to deliver with a skilled attendant and 1.08 times more likely to deliver in a facility. This study found that female migrants in Myanmar reported better health outcomes compared to non-migrant women in regards to family planning and maternal health. Future research should focus on monitoring the outcomes of migrants and their children over time to assess

  1. Influence of internal migration on reproductive health in Myanmar: results from a recent cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Sudhinaraset

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal and reproductive health remains a significant public health issue in Myanmar. Little data exists on women’s health issues, including social and demographic influences. While past studies have demonstrated rural/urban health disparities, an increasingly important population resulting from urban growth in Myanmar is the internal migrant population, individuals moving within the country for better job or educational opportunities. Past studies suggest that women make up more than half of internal migrants, yet there is a dearth of information on this new wave of migration, particularly on women’s reproductive health issues. The objective of this study is to assess the influence of women’s migration in Myanmar on reproductive health outcomes, including delivering in a facility, using a skilled birth attendant, and using a modern method of family planning. Methods Data from a cross-sectional household survey using multistage cluster sampling design conducted between September to October 2014 was used to assess the accessibility and the use of maternal and child health products and services. A total of 1800 currently married women of reproductive age, including 348 from urban and 1452 from rural areas, were recruited to complete surveys. A set of multivariable regressions was performed to assess reproductive health outcomes and predictors. Results Across health indicators, female migrants had better health outcomes compared to non-migrants. Controlling for demographic characteristics, migrants were 1.60 times more likely to use a modern form of family planning compared to non-migrants (p < 0.01 and use antenatal care during pregnancy (p < 0.05. While not statistically significant, migrants were 1.29 times more likely to deliver with a skilled attendant and 1.08 times more likely to deliver in a facility. Conclusions This study found that female migrants in Myanmar reported better health outcomes compared to

  2. Road traffic noise and hypertension: results from a cross-sectional public health survey in southern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Östergren Per-Olof

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results from studies of road traffic noise and hypertension are heterogeneous with respect to effect size, effects among males and females and with respect to effects across age groups. Our objective was to further explore these associations. Methods The study used cross-sectional public health survey data from southern Sweden, including 24,238 adults (18 - 80 years old. We used a geographic information system (GIS to assess the average road noise (LAeq 24 hr at the current residential address. Effects on self-reported hypertension were estimated by logistic regression with adjustment for age, sex, BMI, alcohol intake, exercise, education, smoking and socioeconomic status. Results Modest exposure effects (OR ≈ 1.1 were generally noted in intermediate exposure categories (45 -64 dB(A, and with no obvious trend. The effect was more pronounced at > 64 dB(A (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.04 - 2.02. Age modified the relative effect (p = 0.018. An effect was seen among middle-aged (40 - 59 years old at noise levels 60 - 64 dB(A (OR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.02 - 1.58 and at > 64 dB(A (OR = 1.91, 95% CI 1.19 - 3.06. An effect was also indicated among younger adults but not among elderly. No apparent effect modification by gender, country of origin, disturbed sleep or strained economy was noted. Conclusion The study supports an association between road traffic noise at high average levels and self-reported hypertension in middle-aged. Future studies should use age group -specific relative effect models to account for differences in prevalence.

  3. Predictors of knowledge about tuberculosis: results from SANHANES I, a national, cross-sectional household survey in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Naidoo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa is one of the 22 high tuberculosis burden countries that contribute 80 % of the global tuberculosis cases. Tuberculosis is infectious and due to its rapid and easy transmission route poses a threat to population health. Considering the importance of social and psychological factors in influencing health outcomes, appraising knowledge and awareness of tuberculosis, remain vital for effective tuberculosis control. The main aim of this study was to investigate the factors that predict knowledge about tuberculosis among 18–64 year old adults in South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional survey method was used. Multi-stage disproportionate, stratified cluster sampling was used to select households within enumeration areas stratified by province and locality type. Based on the Human Sciences Research Council 2007 master sample, 500 Enumerator Areas representative of the socio-demographic profile of South Africa were identified and a random sample of 20 households was randomly selected from each Enumerator Area, yielding an overall sample of 10 000 households. The tuberculosis module contained in the South African National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey I was the only module that examined the social determinants of an infectious disease. This module was questionnaire-based with no biomarkers obtained to screen for the presence of tuberculosis disease among the participants. Data was collected by administering a researcher developed individual level questionnaire. Simple and multiple linear regression was used to determine the independent variables associated with tuberculosis knowledge. Results Half the sample (52.6 % was female and the majority of the respondents were black African (76.5 %. More than two thirds (68.0 % resided in urban areas, 56.9 % did not complete high school and half were not in formal employment. Significant predictors of tuberculosis knowledge were race, sex, completion of high school

  4. Defining and treating acute kidney injury patients in Brazilian intensive care units: Results from a cross-sectional nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomba, Henrique; do Amaral Campos, Pedro Paulo Zanella; Corrêa, Thiago Domingos; de Carvalho, Frederico Bruzzi; Westphal, Glauco; Gusmão, Dimitri; Lisboa, Thiago; Grion, Cintia Magalhães Carvalho; de Assunção, Murillo Santucci Cesar

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the study is to characterize the practices of Brazilian intensivists toward acute kidney injury (AKI) definition and management. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 36 Brazilian hospitals. Of 731 ICU physicians invited to participate, 310 (42%) responded to the survey. Nearly half of the intensive care unit (ICU) physicians (146/310) do not apply AKIN and/or RIFLE definitions to their ICU patients. Most of the respondents prescribe intravenous fluids as a first-line therapeutic intervention for AKI patients. Although 38% of the surveyed physicians considered worsening of respiratory parameters to be the main criterion for stopping fluid infusion, only 15% considered daily net fluid balance as a criterion. Most of the respondents believed in the benefits of early renal replacement therapy (RRT) and considered worsening acidosis the most important criteria for starting early RRT. The main reason for a nephrologist referral was an urgently needed RRT. Despite recent advances in AKI definition and management, most of the surveyed ICU physicians in Brazil have not incorporated them in their clinical practice. Important differences in the management of AKI patients were observed among Brazilian ICU physicians, which is relevant for educational interventions and future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Good clinical teachers likely to be specialist role models: results from a multicenter cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombarts, Kiki M J M H; Heineman, Maas Jan; Arah, Onyebuchi A

    2010-12-29

    Medical educational reform includes enhancing role modelling of clinical teachers. This requires faculty being aware of their role model status and performance. We developed the System for Evaluation of Teaching Qualities (SETQ) to generate individualized feedback on previously defined teaching qualities and role model status for faculty in (non) academic hospitals. (i) To examine whether teaching qualities of faculty were associated with their being seen as a specialist role model by residents, and (ii) to investigate whether those associations differed across residency years and specialties. Cross-sectional questionnaire survey amongst 549 Residents of 36 teaching programs in 15 hospitals in the Netherlands. The main outcome measure was faculty being seen as specialist role models by residents. Statistical analyses included (i) Pearson's correlation coefficients and (ii) multivariable logistic generalized estimating equations to assess the (adjusted) associations between each of five teaching qualities and 'being seen as a role model'. 407 residents completed a total of 4123 evaluations of 662 faculty. All teaching qualities were positively correlated with 'being seen as a role model' with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.49 for 'evaluation of residents' to 0.64 for 'learning climate' (Pprofessional attitude towards residents' (OR 2.70, 95% CI: 2.34-3.10) and 'creating a positive learning climate' (OR 2.45, 95% CI: 1.97-3.04). Results did not seem to vary much across residency years. The relative strength of associations between teaching qualities and being seen as a role model were more distinct when comparing specialties. Good clinical educators are more likely to be seen as specialist role models for most residents.

  6. The treatment of acute bronchitis by general practitioners in the UK. Results of a cross sectional postal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, Nigel P; Fahey, Tom

    2002-07-01

    In Australia and the UK acute bronchitis is a common presenting problem in general practice. When symptoms persist management can be difficult and despite evidence that antibiotics are usually ineffective their use is widespread. To describe prescribing behaviour for acute bronchitis by general practitioners in the United Kingdom. Cross sectional postal survey of UK GPs. Four hundred and nineteen (73%) GPs responded. Purulent sputum, fever and crepitations/crackles on chest examination were the most important reasons for prescribing antibiotics: 89% of GPs said the colour of the sputum influenced their decision; amoxycillin was the first choice; 40% of GPs believed that at least one in five consultations for ARI were affected by patient factors, usually to maintain patient satisfaction. 47% of GPs advised the use of bronchodilators, and 96% recommended the symptomatic use of paracetamol and fluids. General practitioners are influenced to use antibiotics by patient symptoms and signs for which there is little evidence. Patient psychosocial factors influence prescribing. Until clearer research findings from new studies are available, GPs may opt for a 'just in case' prescription.

  7. Correlates of problematic unrecorded alcohol consumption in Sikkim, Northeast India - Results from a cross-sectional pilot survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Amit; Rai, Tekendra K; Sharma, Bijaya; Rai, Bhim Bahadur

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude and consequences of unrecorded alcohol consumption, defined as home brewed or clandestinely produced illicit liquor or surrogate alcoholic beverage has been little investigated in India. A significant portion of all alcohol consumed globally is unrecorded, therefore these consumers constitute a significant population. Sikkim, a province in Northeast India, lies in the foothills of the Himalayas. Unrecorded alcohol use is traditionally prevalent, with more than ten types available. This study investigated correlates of problematic unrecorded alcohol consumption in rural and urban communities of Sikkim. A cross-sectional, community-based pilot survey was conducted. Intensive case-finding recruited current heavy users (at least 3 days/week) of unrecorded alcohol of either sex above 16 years of age. On enrolment, participants responded to a socio-demographic instrument including 12 questions on their pattern of alcohol consumption and a 4-item CAGE questionnaire. Alcohol problems exist significantly among the young adult population. Although consumption of unrecorded alcohol is traditional in Sikkim, it has emerged as an important public health problem, with alarmingly high rates of problematic consumption. This is also expected to have significant economic costs. Therefore, prevention and treatment measures are an urgent need as well as policy decisions on production and sales of unrecorded alcohol.

  8. Factors that influence awareness of breast cancer screening among Arab women in Qatar: results from a cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Tam Truong; Khater, Al-Hareth Al; Al-Bader, Salha Bujassoum; Al Kuwari, Mohammed Ghaith; Malik, Mariam; Al-Meer, Nabila; Singh, Rajvir; Fung, Tak

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in the State of Qatar. Due to low participation in breast cancer screening (BCS) activities, women in Qatar are often diagnosed with breast cancer at advanced stages of the disease. Findings indicate that low participation rates in BCS activities are significantly related to women's low level of awareness of breast cancer screening. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the factors that influence Qatari women's awareness of breast cancer and its screening activities: and (2) to find ways to effectively promote breast cancer screening activities among Arabic speaking women in Qatar. A multicenter, cross-sectional quantitative survey of 1,063 (87.5% response rate) female Qatari citizens and non-Qatari Arabic-speaking residents, 35 years of age or older, was conducted in Qatar from March 2011 to July 2011. Outcome measures included participant awareness levels of the most recent national recommended guidelines of BCS, participation rates in BCS activities, and factors related to awareness of BCS activities. While most participants (90.7%) were aware of breast cancer, less than half had awareness of BCS practices (28.9% were aware of breast self-examination and 41.8% of clinical breast exams, while 26.4% knew that mammography was recommended by national screening guidelines. Only 7.6% had knowledge of all three BCS activities). Regarding BCS practice, less than one-third practiced BCS appropriately (13.9% of participants performed breast self-examination (BSE) monthly, 31.3% had a clinical breast exam (CBE) once a year or once every two years, and 26.9% of women 40 years of age or older had a mammogram once every year or two years). Awareness of BCS was significantly related to BCS practice, education level, and receipt of information about breast cancer and/or BCS from a variety of sources, particularly doctors and the media. The low levels of participation rates in BCS among Arab women in this study

  9. Demographics and husbandry of pet cats living in Sydney, Australia: results of cross-sectional survey of pet ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M; Norris, Jacqueline M; White, Joanna D; Dhand, Nanveet K; Hamilton, Samuel A; Malik, Richard

    2009-06-01

    Our aim was to collect baseline data on the age, gender, breed, reproductive status and husbandry (housing, diet, vaccination, veterinary attention) of pet cats living in Sydney. Accordingly, a cross-sectional survey of 2768 households was conducted using a postal questionnaire. The 2006 Sydney residential phone book was used as the sampling frame. Non-responders were re-mailed the questionnaire on two further occasions, 2 and 4 weeks after the first posting. Completed questionnaires were received from 884 households. No pets were kept by 387 (43.8%) respondents. Dogs and cats were owned by 295 (33.4%) and 198 (22.5%) of households, respectively, with 7.8% of households having both cat(s) and dog(s). Fish and birds were the next most popular pets. Of the 198 cat-owning households, 54.0% kept only cat(s), while 46.5% kept cats with other pets. The distribution of cat ownership across Sydney was non-uniform. Each cat-owning household kept 1.3 cats on average, with the majority keeping one (75.8% households) or two (18.7%). For the 260 cats, the mean age was 7.1 years, the median 6 years, with a range of 3 months to 22 years. There were significantly more female (143; 55%) than male cats (117; 45%). Only seven cats (2.7%) were sexually entire, and these were all pet park enclosures'. Pedigree cats were significantly more likely than crossbreds to be housed indoors. Most owners fed their cats a combination of commercial dry and canned food (38.1%), although fresh meat was popular also and either fed alone (1.6%) or in combination with dry food (14.4%), tinned food (1.6%) or canned and dry food (25.8%). A diet consisting of dry food alone was fed to cats in 13.4% of households. Ninety percent of cats had been vaccinated at least once, while 72.2% received a vaccination in the last 3 years. Older cats were less likely to have been vaccinated recently than younger cats. Only 5.8% of cats had never visited a veterinarian. For the 243 cats that had received veterinary

  10. Menstrual hygiene management among Bangladeshi adolescent schoolgirls and risk factors affecting school absence: results from a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Stephen P; Halder, Amal K; Islam, Khairul; Opel, Aftab; Shoab, Abul K; Ghosh, Probir K; Rahman, Mahbubur; Mahon, Therese; Unicomb, Leanne

    2017-01-01

    Background Many adolescent girls in low-income and middle-income countries lack appropriate facilities and support in school to manage menstruation. Little research has been conducted on how menstruation affects school absence. This study examines the association of menstrual hygiene management knowledge, facilities and practice with absence from school during menstruation among Bangladeshi schoolgirls. Methods We conducted a nationally representative, cross-sectional study in Bangladeshi schools from March to June 2013 among girls 11 to 17 years old who reached menarche. We sampled 700 schools from 50 urban and 50 rural clusters using a probability proportional to size technique. We interviewed 2332 schoolgirls and conducted spot checks in each school for menstrual hygiene facilities. To assess factors associated with reported school absence, we estimated adjusted prevalence difference (APD) for controlling confounders’ effect using generalised estimating equations to account for school-level clustering. Results Among schoolgirls who reached menarche, 41% (931) reported missing school, an average of 2.8 missed days per menstrual cycle. Students who felt uncomfortable at school during menstruation (99% vs 32%; APD=58%; CI 54 to 63) and who believed menstrual problems interfere with school performance (64% vs 30%; APD=27; CI 20 to 33) were more likely to miss school during menstruation than those who did not. School absence during menstruation was less common among girls attending schools with unlocked toilet for girls (35% vs 43%; APD=−5.4; CI −10 to –1.6). School absence was more common among girls who were forbidden from any activities during menstruation (41% vs 33%; APD=9.1; CI 3.3 to 14). Conclusion Risk factors for school absence included girl’s attitude, misconceptions about menstruation, insufficient and inadequate facilities at school, and family restriction. Enabling girls to manage menstruation at school by providing knowledge and management

  11. Physical function and associations with diet and exercise: Results of a cross-sectional survey among elders with breast or prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clipp Elizabeth C

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional decline threatens independent living and is common among individuals diagnosed with cancer, especially those who are elderly. The purpose of this study was to explore whether dietary and exercise practices are associated with physical function status among older cancer survivors. Methods Mailed surveys were used to ascertain data on physical function, dietary fat, fruit and vegetable (F&V consumption, and exercise among elderly diagnosed with early stage (I-II breast (N = 286 or prostate cancer (N = 402 within the past 18 months. Results Sixty-one percent of respondents reported diets with Conclusions Results of this cross-sectional survey suggest that regular vigorous exercise and consumption of diets low in fat and rich in F&Vs are associated with higher levels of physical functioning among older cancer survivors. Interventions that promote healthful lifestyle change may deliver considerable benefit within this ever increasing and vulnerable population.

  12. Sex work during the 2010 FIFA World Cup: results from a three-wave cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delva, Wim; Richter, Marlise; De Koker, Petra; Chersich, Matthew; Temmerman, Marleen

    2011-01-01

    In the months leading up to the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa, international media postulated that at least 40,000 foreign sex workers would enter South Africa, and that an increased HIV incidence would follow. To strengthen the evidence base of future HIV prevention and sexual health programmes during international sporting events, we monitored the supply and demand of female sex work in the weeks before, during and after the 2010 FIFA World Cup. We conducted three telephonic surveys of female sex workers advertising online and in local newspapers, in the last week of May, June and July 2010. The overall response rate was 73.4% (718/978). The number of sex workers advertising online was 5.9% higher during the World Cup than before. The client turnover rate did not change significantly during (adjusted rate ratio [aRR] = 1.05; 95%CI: 0.90-1.23) or after (aRR = 1.06; 95%CI: 0.91-1.24) the World Cup. The fraction of non-South African sex workers declined during (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.50; 95%CI: 0.32-0.79) and after (aOR = 0.56; 95%CI: 0.37-0.86) the World Cup. Relatively more clients were foreign during the World Cup among sex workers advertising in the newspapers (aOR = 2.74; 95%CI: 1.37-5.48) but not among those advertising online (aOR = 1.06; 95%CI: 0.60-1.90). Self-reported condom use was high (99.0%) at baseline, and did not change during (aOR = 1.07; 95% CI: 0.16-7.30) or after (aOR = 1.13; 95% CI: 0.16-8.10) the Word Cup. Our findings do not provide evidence for mass-immigration of foreign sex workers advertising online and in local newspapers, nor a spike in sex work or risk of HIV transmission in this subpopulation of sex workers during the World Cup. Public health programmes focusing on sex work and HIV prevention during international sporting events should be based on evidence, not media-driven sensationalism that further heightens discrimination against sex workers and increases their vulnerability.

  13. Sex work during the 2010 FIFA World Cup: results from a three-wave cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Delva

    Full Text Available In the months leading up to the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa, international media postulated that at least 40,000 foreign sex workers would enter South Africa, and that an increased HIV incidence would follow. To strengthen the evidence base of future HIV prevention and sexual health programmes during international sporting events, we monitored the supply and demand of female sex work in the weeks before, during and after the 2010 FIFA World Cup.We conducted three telephonic surveys of female sex workers advertising online and in local newspapers, in the last week of May, June and July 2010. The overall response rate was 73.4% (718/978. The number of sex workers advertising online was 5.9% higher during the World Cup than before. The client turnover rate did not change significantly during (adjusted rate ratio [aRR] = 1.05; 95%CI: 0.90-1.23 or after (aRR = 1.06; 95%CI: 0.91-1.24 the World Cup. The fraction of non-South African sex workers declined during (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.50; 95%CI: 0.32-0.79 and after (aOR = 0.56; 95%CI: 0.37-0.86 the World Cup. Relatively more clients were foreign during the World Cup among sex workers advertising in the newspapers (aOR = 2.74; 95%CI: 1.37-5.48 but not among those advertising online (aOR = 1.06; 95%CI: 0.60-1.90. Self-reported condom use was high (99.0% at baseline, and did not change during (aOR = 1.07; 95% CI: 0.16-7.30 or after (aOR = 1.13; 95% CI: 0.16-8.10 the Word Cup.Our findings do not provide evidence for mass-immigration of foreign sex workers advertising online and in local newspapers, nor a spike in sex work or risk of HIV transmission in this subpopulation of sex workers during the World Cup. Public health programmes focusing on sex work and HIV prevention during international sporting events should be based on evidence, not media-driven sensationalism that further heightens discrimination against sex workers and increases their vulnerability.

  14. Uptake and correlates of contraception among postpartum women in Kenya: results from a national cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achwoka, Dunstan; Pintye, Jillian; McGrath, Christine J; Kinuthia, John; Unger, Jennifer A; Obudho, Norah; Langat, Agnes; John-Stewart, Grace; Drake, Alison L

    2017-10-12

    The objective was to characterize uptake and correlates of effective contraceptive use postpartum. We analyzed data from a national, cross-sectional evaluation of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programs that enrolled women attending 6-week or 9-month infant immunization visits at 120 Kenyan maternal and child health clinics. We classified women who resumed sexual activity postpartum and did not desire a child within 2 years as having a need for family planning (FP). We included 955 (94%) of 1012 women 8-10 months postpartum in the analysis. Mean age was 25.8 years and 36% were primigravidas. By 9 months postpartum, 62% of all women used contraception and 59% used effective contraception [injectables, implants, intrauterine devices [IUDs], oral contraceptives [OCs] and tubal ligations]. Most contraceptive users (61%) used injectables, followed by implants (10%), OCs (6%), IUDs (4%) and condoms alone (2%). The majority (n=733, 77%) had a need for FP, and 67% of 733 women with FP need used effective contraception. Among women with a need for FP, effective contraception use was higher among those who discussed FP in postnatal care (PNC) than who did not discuss FP in PNC [prevalence ratio (PR) for PNC alone: 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16-1.58; PR for PNC and antenatal care (ANC): 1.42, 95% CI: 1.21-1.67; p=.001 for both]. Two thirds of postpartum women with a need for FP used effective contraception at 9 months postpartum, and use was associated with discussing FP during PNC. Integrating FP counseling in ANC/PNC could be an effective strategy to increase effective contraception use. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Menstrual hygiene management among Bangladeshi adolescent schoolgirls and risk factors affecting school absence: results from a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mahbub-Ul; Luby, Stephen P; Halder, Amal K; Islam, Khairul; Opel, Aftab; Shoab, Abul K; Ghosh, Probir K; Rahman, Mahbubur; Mahon, Therese; Unicomb, Leanne

    2017-07-09

    Many adolescent girls in low-income and middle-income countries lack appropriate facilities and support in school to manage menstruation. Little research has been conducted on how menstruation affects school absence. This study examines the association of menstrual hygiene management knowledge, facilities and practice with absence from school during menstruation among Bangladeshi schoolgirls. We conducted a nationally representative, cross-sectional study in Bangladeshi schools from March to June 2013 among girls 11 to 17 years old who reached menarche. We sampled 700 schools from 50 urban and 50 rural clusters using a probability proportional to size technique. We interviewed 2332 schoolgirls and conducted spot checks in each school for menstrual hygiene facilities. To assess factors associated with reported school absence, we estimated adjusted prevalence difference (APD) for controlling confounders' effect using generalised estimating equations to account for school-level clustering. Among schoolgirls who reached menarche, 41% (931) reported missing school, an average of 2.8 missed days per menstrual cycle. Students who felt uncomfortable at school during menstruation (99% vs 32%; APD=58%; CI 54 to 63) and who believed menstrual problems interfere with school performance (64% vs 30%; APD=27; CI 20 to 33) were more likely to miss school during menstruation than those who did not. School absence during menstruation was less common among girls attending schools with unlocked toilet for girls (35% vs 43%; APD=-5.4; CI -10 to -1.6). School absence was more common among girls who were forbidden from any activities during menstruation (41% vs 33%; APD=9.1; CI 3.3 to 14). Risk factors for school absence included girl's attitude, misconceptions about menstruation, insufficient and inadequate facilities at school, and family restriction. Enabling girls to manage menstruation at school by providing knowledge and management methods prior to menarche, privacy and a

  16. The comparative burden of mild, moderate and severe Fibromyalgia: results from a cross-sectional survey in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldenberg Don

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibromyalgia (FM is characterized by chronic, widespread pain, fatigue, and other symptoms; yet few studies have comprehensively assessed its humanistic burden. This observational study evaluates the impact of FM severity on patients' symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQoL, and productivity in the United States. Methods 203 FM subjects were recruited from 20 physician offices. Subjects completed a questionnaire including the EuroQol 5D (EQ-5D, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ, Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue (MAF, Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale (MOS-SS, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and questions about demographics, pain and other symptoms, HRQoL and productivity. FIQ total scores were used to define FM severity, with 0- Results Mean (SD age was 47.9 (10.9; 95% were female. Most (92% were prescribed medication for FM; 24% and 66% reported moderate and severe FM, respectively. Mean (SD scores were: 6.3 (2.1 for pain intensity; 0.35 (0.35 for EQ-5D; 30.7 (14.2 for MAF; 57.5 (18.4 for MOS-SS Sleep Problems Index; 10.2 (4.8 for HADS anxiety and 9.4 (4.4 for HADS depression. Subjects with worse FM severity reported significantly increased pain severity, HRQoL, fatigue, sleep disturbance, anxiety and depression (p Conclusions FM imposes a substantial humanistic burden on patients in the United States, and leads to substantial productivity loss, despite treatment. This burden is higher among subjects with worse FM severity.

  17. Correlates of condom use among female sex workers in The Gambia: results of a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley L. Grosso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study examined correlates of condom use among 248 female sex workers (FSW in The Gambia.Methods. Between July and August 2011, FSW in The Gambia who were older than 16 years of age, the age of consent in The Gambia, were recruited for the study using venue-based sampling and snowball sampling, beginning with seeds who were established clients with the Network of AIDS Services Organizations. To be eligible, FSW must have reported selling sex for money, favors, or goods in the past 12 months. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine associations and the relative odds of the independent variables with condom use. Four different condom use dependent variables were used: consistent condom use in the past six months during vaginal or anal sex with all clients and partners; consistent condom use in the past month during vaginal sex with new clients; consistent condom use in the past month during vaginal sex with nonpaying partners (including boyfriends, husbands, or casual sexual partners; and condom use at last vaginal or anal sex with a nonpaying partner.Results. Many FSW (67.34%, n = 167 reported it was not at all difficult to negotiate condom use with clients in all applicable situations, and these FSW were more likely to report consistent condom use with all clients and partners in the past 6 months (aOR 3.47, 95% CI [1.70–7.07] compared to those perceiving any difficulty in condom negotiation. In addition, FSW were more likely to report using condoms in the past month with new clients (aOR 8.04, 95% CI [2.11–30.65] and in the past month with nonpaying partners (aOR 2.93, 95% CI [1.09–7.89] if they had been tested for HIV in the past year. Women who bought all their condoms were less likely than those who received all of their condoms for free (aOR 0.38, 95% CI [0.15–0.97] to have used a condom at last vaginal or anal sex with a nonpaying partner.Conclusions. HIV and sexually transmitted

  18. Retirement Applicant Satisfaction Survey Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset contains information about the Retirement Applicant Survey (RAS). The survey measured satisfaction results with the retirement application process. The...

  19. Association of common mental disorder symptoms with health and healthcare factors among women in rural western India: results of a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Soni, Apurv; Fahey, Nisha; Byatt, Nancy; Prabhakaran, Anusha; Moore Simas, Tiffany A.; Vankar, Jagdish; Phatak, Ajay; O'Keefe, Eileen; Allison, Jeroan; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Information about common mental disorders (CMD) is needed to guide policy and clinical interventions in low-income and middle-income countries. This study's purpose was to characterise the association of CMD symptoms with 3 inter-related health and healthcare factors among women from rural western India based on a representative, cross-sectional survey. Setting Surveys were conducted in the waiting area of various outpatient clinics at a tertiary care hospital and in 16 rural villa...

  20. Availability and price of malaria rapid diagnostic tests in the public and private health sectors in 2011: results from 10 nationally representative cross-sectional retail surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyer, Stephen; Shewchuk, Tanya; Tougher, Sarah; Ye, Yazoume; Mann, Andrea G; Willey, Barbara A; Thomson, Rebecca; Amuasi, John H; Ren, Ruilin; Wamukoya, Marilyn; Taylor, Mark; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Mberu, Blessing; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Juma, Elizabeth; Festo, Charles; Johanes, Boniface; Diap, Graciela; Bruxvoort, Katia; Ansong, Daniel; Hanson, Kara; Arnold, Fred; Goodman, Catherine

    2015-06-01

    To describe the state of the public and private malaria diagnostics market shortly after WHO updated its guidelines for testing all suspected malaria cases prior to treatment. Ten nationally representative cross-sectional cluster surveys were conducted in 2011 among public and private health facilities, community health workers and retail outlets (pharmacies and drug shops) in nine countries (Tanzania mainland and Zanzibar surveyed separately). Eligible outlets had antimalarials in stock on the day of interview or had stocked antimalarials in the past 3 months. Three thousand four hundred and thirty-nine rapid diagnostic test (RDT) products from 39 manufacturers were audited among 12,197 outlets interviewed. Availability was typically highest in public health facilities, although availability in these facilities varied greatly across countries, from 15% in Nigeria to >90% in Madagascar and Cambodia. Private for-profit sector availability was 46% in Cambodia, 20% in Zambia, but low in other countries. Median retail prices for RDTs in the private for-profit sector ranged from $0.00 in Madagascar to $3.13 in Zambia. The reported number of RDTs used in the 7 days before the survey in public health facilities ranged from 3 (Benin) to 50 (Zambia). Eighteen months after WHO updated its case management guidelines, RDT availability remained poor in the private sector in sub-Saharan Africa. Given the ongoing importance of the private sector as a source of fever treatment, the goal of universal diagnosis will not be achievable under current circumstances. These results constitute national baselines against which progress in scaling-up diagnostic tests can be assessed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Membership Survey Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis M Bowie

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to gather feedback from Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS members, the Executive sent out a survey to the membership and received replies from approximately one-third of the membership. This was an attempt to look at the role of the CTS and what the members wanted from the CTS.

  2. Physicians’ attitudes towards office-based delivery of methadone maintenance therapy: results from a cross-sectional survey of Nova Scotia primary-care physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dooley Jessica

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 90,000 Canadians use opioids each year, many of whom experience health and social problems that affect the individual user, families, communities and the health care system. For those who wish to reduce or stop their opioid use, methadone maintenance therapy (MMT is effective and supporting evidence is well-documented. However, access and availability to MMT is often inconsistent, with greater inequity outside of urban settings. Involving community based primary-care physicians in the delivery of MMT could serve to expand capacity and accessibility of MMT programs. Little is known, however, about the extent to which MMT, particularly office-based delivery, is acceptable to physicians. The aim of this study is to survey physicians about their attitudes towards MMT, particularly office-based delivery, and the perceived barriers and facilitators to MMT delivery. Methods In May 2008, facilitated by the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Nova Scotia, a cross-sectional, e-mail survey of 950 primary-care physicians practicing in Nova Scotia, Canada was administered via the OPINIO on-line survey software, to assess the acceptability of office-based MMT. Logistic regressions, adjusted for physician sociodemographic characteristics, were used to examine the association between physicians’ willingness to participate in office-based MMT, and a series of measures capturing physician attitudes and knowledge about treatment approaches, opioid use, and methadone, as well as perceived barriers to MMT. Results Overall, 19.8% of primary-care physicians responded to the survey, with 56% who indicated that they would be willing to be involved in MMT under current or similar circumstances; however, willingness was associated with numerous attitudinal and systemic factors. The barriers to involvement in MMT that were frequently cited included a lack of training or experience in MMT, lack of support services, and potential

  3. Section Level Public Land Survey - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Public Land Survey line delineations to the section level. Developed from manually digitized section corners captured from paper USGS seven and one-half map sources.

  4. Association between perceived depression, anxiety and stress with Body Mass Index: results from a community-based cross-sectional survey in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Moghimi-Dehkordi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract
    Objective: The findings of studies concerning the association between obesity and psychological disorders
    are conflicting. Some have reported a positive association, some a negative association while some found no association at all. This study aimed to investigate the associations between obesity and perceived depression, anxiety and stress.
    Methods: This study was a community-based cross-sectional survey conducted from May 2006 to December 2007 in Tehran, Iran. The sample size of 3,000 people (age≥20 years was determined using a sample size formula and participants were selected by random sampling. Survey participants were asked to state their height and weight as well as answer questions concerning whether they had experienced symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress in the past six months. Some demographic variables such as sex, age, marital status, education and tobacco smoking habits were included in the analysis.
    Results: The prevalence of perceived depression, anxiety, and stress were higher in women than in men. A higher proportion of underweight and obesity was observed in women. Being underweight, overweight and obese were associated with a one to four-fold increased risk for perceived depression, anxiety and stress.
    Conclusions: Abnormal body weight is associated with an increased risk of perceived depression in both men and women. Prospective and experimental studies in large samples are needed to explore possible explanations of the association and the direction of causal association between BMI and psychological disorders.

  5. Bulletin Survey - Early Results

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    There was a good response to our questionnaire on the Bulletin (around 450 so far). Many thanks to all of you - your views are invaluable to us. Pending publication of the full figures, which will give latecomers time to take part in the survey, here we give here answers some of your most frequent comments. Thank you for the many warm tributes and messages of encouragement we received. We also received criticisms about the way information is handled in the Bulletin and on its circulation. In today's issue we reply to these two points. Why is the Bulletin politically correct ? Many respondents reproach the Bulletin for a lack of objectivity and for being too politically correct to the point of being a propaganda organ. It is true that the Bulletin is not a newspaper, but rather a bulletin of communication (like SLAC's Beam Line). What is the difference ? A newspaper is objectively independent of the subjects it reports on, and when its reporters write stories they dig around for information from all parties...

  6. Factors associated with dog rabies vaccination in Bhol, Philippines: results of a cross-sectional cluster survey conducted following the island-wide rabies elimination campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davlin, S; Lapiz, S M; Miranda, M E; Murray, K

    2013-11-01

    The Philippines has a long history of rabies control efforts in their dog populations; however, long-term success of such programmes and the goal of rabies elimination have not yet been realized. The Bohol Rabies Prevention and Elimination Program was developed as an innovative approach to canine rabies control in 2007. The objective of this study was to assess canine rabies vaccination coverage in the owned-dog population in Bohol and to describe factors associated with rabies vaccination 2 years after implementation of the programme. We utilized a cross-sectional cluster survey based on the World Health Organization's Expanded Programme on Immunization coverage survey technique. We sampled 460 households and collected data on 539 dogs residing within these households. Seventy-seven per cent of surveyed households reported owning at least one dog. The human-to-dog ratio was approximately 4 : 1, and the mean number of dogs owned per household was 1.6. Based on this ratio, we calculated an owned-dog population of almost 300 000. Overall, 71% of dogs were reported as having been vaccinated for rabies at some time in their lives; however, only 64% of dogs were reported as having been recently vaccinated. Dogs in our study were young (median age = 24 months). The odds of vaccination increased with increasing age. Dogs aged 12-23 months had 4.6 times the odds of vaccination compared to dogs aged 3-11 months (95% CI 1.8-12.0; P = 0.002). Confinement of the dog both day and night was also associated with increased odds of vaccination (OR = 2.1; 95% CI 0.9-4.9; P = 0.07), and this result approached statistical significance. While the programme is on track to meet its goal of 80% vaccination coverage, educational efforts should focus on the need to confine dogs and vaccinate young dogs. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Mental health of college students and their non-college-attending peers: results from a large French cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Leray, Emmanuelle; Denis, Laure; Husky, Mathilde; Pitrou, Isabelle; Bodeau-Livinec, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Background The great majority of mental disorders begin during adolescence or early adulthood, although they are often detected and treated later in life. To compare mental health status of college students and their non-college-attending peers whether working, attending a secondary school, or non-college-attending peers who are neither employed nor students or trainees (NENST) will allow to focus on high risk group. Methods Data were drawn from a large cross-sectional survey conducted by pho...

  8. Racial and ethnic differences in personal cervical cancer screening amongst post-graduate physicians: Results from a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Joseph S

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Racial and ethnic disparities in cervical cancer screening have been attributed to socioeconomic, insurance, and cultural differences. Our objective was to explore racial and ethnic differences in adherence to cervical cancer screening recommendations among female post-graduate physicians. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey at one university hospital among a convenience sample of 204 female post-graduate physicians (52% of all potential participants, examining adherence to United States Preventive Services Task Force cervical cancer screening recommendations, perception of adherence to recommendations, and barriers to obtaining care. Results Overall, 83% of women were adherent to screening recommendations and 84% accurately perceived adherence or non-adherence. Women who self-identified as Asian were significantly less adherent when compared with women who self-identified as white (69% vs. 87%; Relative Risk [RR] = 0.79, 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.64–0.97; P Conclusion Among a small group of insured, highly-educated physicians who have access to health care, we found racial and ethnic differences in adherence to cervical cancer screening recommendations, suggesting that culture may play a role in cervical cancer screening.

  9. Barriers to healthy eating by National Health Service (NHS hospital doctors in the hospital setting: results of a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Sue

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With high levels of obesity and related illness, improving the health of the nation is a major public health concern. This study aimed to identify factors that prevent healthy eating among doctors, and that are associated with satisfaction with catering services. Findings Methods: Cross-sectional survey of 328 NHS doctors working in two NHS Trusts with on-site hospital canteen. Questionnaire to establish perceived barriers to healthy eating, weekly use and satisfaction with the hospital canteen, lifestyle and dietary habits, gender, age, height, weight, job details, and affect. Results: 70% of doctors reported using their hospital canteen each week, with 2 visits per week on average. Canteen opening times, lack of selection and lack of breaks were the most commonly perceived barriers to healthy eating. Availability of healthy options caused the most dissatisfaction. Only 12% felt the NHS was supportive of healthy eating. 74% did not feel their canteen advocated healthy eating. Canteen use is associated with younger age (r = -0.254, p Conclusion Interventions to encourage regular meal breaks, eating breakfast and drinking more water each day need developing. Improved canteen accessibility and availability of healthy options at evenings and weekends may be beneficial.

  10. Prevalences of scabies and pediculosis corporis among homeless people in the Paris region: results from two randomized cross-sectional surveys (HYTPEAC study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, A; Chosidow, O; Détrez, M-A; Bitar, D; Huber, F; Foulet, F; Le Strat, Y; Vandentorren, S

    2016-01-01

    Dermatological infections constitute the most common health problem in the homeless population. To estimate the prevalences of scabies and pediculosis corporis and to identify associated factors in the homeless population. Two randomized cross-sectional surveys were performed, one on the homeless population sleeping in public places in Paris, and the other on the homeless population in various shelters in the Ile-de-France administrative region. Overall 341 and 667 people, respectively, were interviewed about sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle and hygiene practices, and were examined by a nurse. In individuals sleeping in public places the prevalence of scabies was estimated at 6·5% [95% confidence interval (CI) 0·5-12·5] and for pediculosis corporis at 5·4% (95% CI 1·7-9·1). For those sleeping in shelters these values were 0·4% (95% CI 0·1-1·8) and 0·15% (95% CI 0·0-9·7), respectively (P pediculosis corporis in public places. Firstly, this study highlights the real existence of two distinct subpopulations having different sociodemographic characteristics, with specific lifestyles and practices, and with different prevalences of ectoparasitism. Secondly, the results of the multivariate analyses will help the implementation of specific actions targeting the group of people who sleep in public places. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  11. Identifying the symptom and functional domains in patients with fibromyalgia: results of a cross-sectional Internet-based survey in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salaffi F

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fausto Salaffi,1 Flavio Mozzani,2 Antonella Draghessi,1 Fabiola Atzeni,3 Rosita Catellani,2 Alessandro Ciapetti,4 Marco Di Carlo,1 Piercarlo Sarzi-Puttini5 1Rheumatology Department, Polytechnic University of Marche, Jesi (Ancona, 2Department of Internal Medicine and Rheumatology, University Hospital of Parma, Parma, 3IRCCS Galeazzi Orthopedic Department, Milan, Italy; 4Rheumatology Department, Betsi Cadwaladr University Health Board, Glan Clwyd Hospital, Bodelwyddan, Denbighshire, Wales; 5Rheumatology Department, L. Sacco University Hospital, Milan, Italy Objective: The aims of this cross-sectional study were to investigate the usefulness of using an Internet survey of patients with fibromyalgia in order to obtain information concerning symptoms and functionality and identify clusters of clinical features that can distinguish patient subsets. Methods: An Internet website has been used to collect data. Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire Revised version, self-administered Fibromyalgia Activity Score, and Self-Administered Pain Scale were used as questionnaires. Hierarchical agglomerative clustering was applied to the data obtained in order to identify symptoms and functional-based subgroups. Results: Three hundred and fifty-three patients completed the study (85.3% women. The highest scored items were those related to sleep quality, fatigue/energy, pain, stiffness, degree of tenderness, balance problems, and environmental sensitivity. A high proportion of patients reported pain in the neck (81.4%, upper back (70.1%, and lower back (83.2%. A three-cluster solution best fitted the data. The variables were significantly different (P<0.0001 among the three clusters: cluster 1 (117 patients reflected the lowest average scores across all symptoms, cluster 3 (116 patients the highest scores, and cluster 2 (120 patients captured moderate symptom levels, with low depression and anxiety. Conclusion: Three subgroups of fibromyalgia samples in a large cohort

  12. Prevalence, impact and care of foot problems in people with rheumatoid arthritis: results from a United Kingdom based cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oonagh Wilson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot symptoms in rheumatoid arthritis (RA derive from a combination of inflammation, altered foot mechanics, deformity and secondary skin lesions. Guidelines recommend regular review of patients’ feet, but the extent to which the general population of RA patients report foot symptoms and access foot care has not been established. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence, impact and care of foot problems in all patients with RA in one geographical area and identify factors associated with accessing foot care. Methods Cross-sectional survey of a random sample of patients with RA, who resided within a single community-based National Health Service (NHS podiatry service. The questionnaire collected demographic data (age, gender, local deprivation score, clinical data (disease duration, arthritis medications, disability (Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ, current foot problems, foot care accessed (podiatry, orthotics and/or orthopaedics and care received, measures of impact (Foot Impact Scale and ability to work. Results Of 1003 total eligible patients in the target population, 739 were posted survey packs. Of these 413 (56% replied. Responders and non-responders had similar age (63.5 yr. vs.61.5 yr, gender (74.1%F vs. 75.2%F, and highest deprivation category (13.3% vs.15.9%. Of the responders 92.1% reported current foot problems: articular 73.8%, cutaneous lesions 65.4%, structural 57.6%, extra-articular 42.6%. Responders’ median (IQR disease duration 10 (5–20 years, HAQ 1.5 (0.75–2.0, FISIF 10 (6–14 and FISAP 16 (7–23 and 37.8% reported impacts on work. While 69.5% had accessed foot care there were differences in the route of access (by gender and whether independent or NHS provision and were older (64.9 yr. vs 60.4 yr. p = 0.001, had longer disease duration (12 yr. vs 7 yr. p < 0.001 and had a greater proportion of females (72.2% vs 61.7% p = 0.04 than those who had not accessed

  13. Association between household food access insecurity and nutritional status indicators among children aged <5 years in Nepal: results from a national, cross-sectional household survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Ramakrishnareddy, N; Subramaniam, Mayoori

    2015-11-01

    To examine the association between household food insecurity score and Z-scores of childhood nutritional status indicators. Population-based, cross-sectional survey, Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011. A nationally representative sample of 11 085 households selected by a two-stage, stratified cluster sampling design to interview eligible men and women. Children (n 2591) aged 0-60 months in a sub-sample of households selected for men's interview. Prevalence of moderate and severe household food insecurity was 23·2% and 19·0%, respectively, for children aged 0-60 months. Weighted prevalence rates for stunting (height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) underweight (weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ) underweight by level of household food insecurity were statistically significant (Punderweight. Community nutrition interventions may use household food insecurity scales for identifying those households where children may be at risk of growth faltering.

  14. Soil-transmitted helminth infections and physical fitness in school-aged Bulang children in southwest China: results from a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yap Peiling

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections have been associated with reduced physical fitness, but available evidence is limited. The aim of this cross-sectional survey was to assess the feasibility of measuring children's physical fitness and to relate it to STH infections. Our study was carried out among school-aged children of the Bulang ethnic group in rural southwest People's Republic of China (P.R. China. Standardized, quality-controlled methods were employed to determine STH infections (Kato-Katz technique, haemoglobin levels, anthropometry (body weight and height and physical fitness (20-m shuttle run test. Results A compliance of 87% suggested good acceptance of the methods used. Among 69 children with complete data records, infection prevalence of Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm were 81%, 44% and 6%, respectively. The maximum volume of oxygen that can be utilized within 1 min during exhaustive exercise (VO2 max estimate of T. trichiura-infected children was 1.94 ml kg-1 min-1 lower than that of their non-infected counterparts (P = 0.005. Until exhaustion, T. trichiura-infected children had completed 6.14 20-m laps less (P = 0.004. Additionally, the mean VO2 max estimate of stunted children was lowered by 1.63 ml kg-1 min-1 (P = 0.002 and they completed 5.32 20-m laps less (P = 0.001 compared to children of normal stature. No significant association between stunting and infection with any STH species could be established. Conclusions Implementation of physical fitness tests in rural, resource-constraint settings is feasible. The physical fitness of children who are stunted or infected with STHs, particularly T. trichiura, is significantly impaired. We have launched a larger study and will determine the dynamics of school-aged children's physical fitness over a 7-month period after administration of anthelminthic drugs.

  15. Satisfaction with childbirth services provided in public health facilities: results from a cross- sectional survey among postnatal women in Chhattisgarh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Paridhi; Larsson, Margareta; Christensson, Kyllike; Skoog Svanberg, Agneta

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: A woman’s satisfaction with childbirth services can have a significant impact on her mental health and ability to bond with her neonate. Knowing postnatal women’s opinions and satisfaction with services makes the services more women-friendly. Indian women’s satisfaction with childbirth services has been explored qualitatively, or by using non-standard local questionnaires, but scientific data gathered with standardised questionnaires are extremely limited. Objective: To measure postnatal Indian women’s satisfaction with childbirth services at selected public health facilities in Chhattisgarh, India. Methods: Cross-sectional survey using consecutive sampling (n = 1004) was conducted from March to May 2015. Hindi-translated and validated versions of the Scale for Measuring Maternal Satisfaction for Vaginal Births (VB) and Caesarean Births (CB) were used for data collection. Results: Although most of the women (VB 68.7%; CB 79.2%) were satisfied with the overall childbirth services received, those who had VB were least satisfied with the processes around meeting their neonates (mean subscale score 1.8, SD 1.3), while women having CB were least satisfied with postpartum care received (mean subscale score 2.7, SD 1.2). Regression analyses revealed that among women having VB, interacting with care providers, being able to maintain privacy, and being free from fear of childbirth had a positive influence on overall satisfaction with the childbirth. Among women having CB, earning their own salary and having a positive perception of self-health had associations with overall birth satisfaction. Conclusions: Improving interpersonal interaction with nurse-midwives, and ensuring privacy during childbirth and hospital stay, are recommended first steps to improve women’s childbirth satisfaction, until the supply gap is eliminated. PMID:29087240

  16. Discrepancy between prevalence and perceived effectiveness of treatment methods in myofascial pain syndrome: Results of a cross-sectional, nationwide survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freiberg Florentina

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myofascial pain is a common dysfunction with a lifetime prevalence affecting up to 85% of the general population. Current guidelines for the management of myofascial pain are not available. In this study we investigated how physicians on the basis of prescription behaviour evaluate the effectiveness of treatment options in their management of myofascial pain. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, nationwide survey with a standardized questionnaire among 332 physicians (79.8% male, 25.6% female, 47.5 ± 9.6 years experienced in treating patients with myofascial pain. Recruitment of physicians took place at three German meetings of pain therapists, rheumatologists and orthopaedists, respectively. Physicians estimated the prevalence of myofascial pain amongst patients in their practices, stated what treatments they used routinely and then rated the perceived treatment effectiveness on a six-point scale (with 1 being excellent. Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Results The estimated overall prevalence of active myofascial trigger points is 46.1 ± 27.4%. Frequently prescribed treatments are analgesics, mainly metamizol/paracetamol (91.6%, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs/coxibs (87.0% or weak opioids (81.8%, and physical therapies, mainly manual therapy (81.1%, TENS (72.9% or acupuncture (60.2%. Overall effectiveness ratings for analgesics (2.9 ± 0.7 and physical therapies were moderate (2.5 ± 0.8. Effectiveness ratings of the various treatment options between specialities were widely variant. 54.3% of all physicians characterized the available treatment options as insufficient. Conclusions Myofascial pain was estimated a prevalent condition. Despite a variety of commonly prescribed treatments, the moderate effectiveness ratings and the frequent characterizations of the available treatments as insufficient suggest an urgent need for clinical research to establish evidence-based guidelines for the

  17. Discrepancy between prevalence and perceived effectiveness of treatment methods in myofascial pain syndrome: Results of a cross-sectional, nationwide survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Myofascial pain is a common dysfunction with a lifetime prevalence affecting up to 85% of the general population. Current guidelines for the management of myofascial pain are not available. In this study we investigated how physicians on the basis of prescription behaviour evaluate the effectiveness of treatment options in their management of myofascial pain. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, nationwide survey with a standardized questionnaire among 332 physicians (79.8% male, 25.6% female, 47.5 ± 9.6 years) experienced in treating patients with myofascial pain. Recruitment of physicians took place at three German meetings of pain therapists, rheumatologists and orthopaedists, respectively. Physicians estimated the prevalence of myofascial pain amongst patients in their practices, stated what treatments they used routinely and then rated the perceived treatment effectiveness on a six-point scale (with 1 being excellent). Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Results The estimated overall prevalence of active myofascial trigger points is 46.1 ± 27.4%. Frequently prescribed treatments are analgesics, mainly metamizol/paracetamol (91.6%), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs/coxibs (87.0%) or weak opioids (81.8%), and physical therapies, mainly manual therapy (81.1%), TENS (72.9%) or acupuncture (60.2%). Overall effectiveness ratings for analgesics (2.9 ± 0.7) and physical therapies were moderate (2.5 ± 0.8). Effectiveness ratings of the various treatment options between specialities were widely variant. 54.3% of all physicians characterized the available treatment options as insufficient. Conclusions Myofascial pain was estimated a prevalent condition. Despite a variety of commonly prescribed treatments, the moderate effectiveness ratings and the frequent characterizations of the available treatments as insufficient suggest an urgent need for clinical research to establish evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of myofascial

  18. Behavioral Risk Profile of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Beijing, China: Results from a Cross-sectional Survey with Randomized Response Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Zhu Geng

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Our study employed RRTs in a survey containing questions on sexual behavior among MSM, and the results showed that RRT might be a useful tool to obtain truthful feedback on sensitive information such as sexual behavior from the respondents, especially in traditional Chinese cultural settings.

  19. Factors associated with consistent condom use and STIs among foreign female entertainment workers: results from a cross-sectional survey in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Raymond Boon Tar; Wong, Mee Lian; Cheung, Olive N Y; Tham, Dede Kam Tyng; Tai, Bee Choo; Chan, Roy

    2017-03-01

    We assessed the prevalence of consistent condom use and laboratory-confirmed STIs among foreign female entertainment workers (FEWs) who engaged in paid or casual sex in Singapore and the factors associated with these characteristics. A cross-sectional survey, using time-location sampling, was conducted on 220 FEWs (115 Vietnamese and 105 Thai) in 2015. For multivariable analysis, we used a mixed-effects Poisson regression model with backward stepwise approach to account for clustering by venue and to obtain the adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) of factors associated with consistent condom use and STI positivity, respectively. Consistent condom use with paid or casual partners in the past month was 39.6% and 36.2% for vaginal and oral sex, respectively. The prevalence of STI (cervical chlamydia, cervical gonorrhoea or pharyngeal gonorrhoea) positivity was 13.6%. In multivariable analysis, consistent condom use for both vaginal and oral sex increased with high self-perceived risk of getting STI/HIV (vaginal: aPR 2.09; 95% CI 1.26 to 3.46; oral: aPR 2.41; 95% CI 1.23 to 4.69) and condom negotiation (vaginal: aPR 3.74; 95% CI 2.07 to 6.75; oral: aPR 2.81; 95% CI 1.51 to 5.26). STI positivity decreased with consistent condom use for vaginal sex (aPR 0.22; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.75) and increased with number of sexual partners (aPR 1.43; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.92). In addition to advocating for policy decisions to provide a safer work environment, behavioural interventions on condom negotiation skills and condom use and biomedical interventions on STI/HIV testing and treatment interventions are needed among the FEWs in Singapore. NCT02780986; pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Body weight dissatisfaction by socioeconomic status among obese, preobese and normal weight women and men: results of the cross-sectional KORA Augsburg S4 population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Lengerke Thomas

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body weight dissatisfaction is an important factor in preventing weight gain and promoting weight loss or maintenance. This study focuses on differences in the rates of body weight dissatisfaction among obese, preobese and normal weight women and men by socioeconomic status within a general adult population in Germany. Methods Data were analyzed from 4186 adults aged 25 to 74 who participated in a cross-sectional, representative population-based health survey (KORA S4, 1999–2001, Augsburg region/Germany. Body mass was measured anthropometrically and indexed following international standards. Among the 2123 women participating in the survey, 40.3% had a normal weight, 34.9% were preobese, and 24.8% were obese (compared to 25.9%, 51.4% and 22.6% among men, respectively. Body weight dissatisfaction, educational level, household income and occupational status were assessed by computer-aided personal interviewing. An index for socioeconomic status was calculated and categorized into quintiles. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to test for differences in the odds of body weight dissatisfaction across socioeconomic strata in normal weight, preobese and obese groups. Body mass index, age, family status, place of residence and health behaviors were adjusted for. Results Overall, being dissatisfied with one’s body weight was more prevalent in women (48.3% than in men (33.2%. In the normal weight group, no significant differences in the odds of being dissatisfied were found across socioeconomic groups among women or men. Among preobese men, compared to the lowest socioeconomic stratum, increased odds of being dissatisfied with one’s body weight were associated with the highest socioeconomic index group (OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.4–3.8, middle and high educational level (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1–2.3, and OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.3–3.7, high income (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2–2.7, and middle and high occupational

  1. Association of common mental disorder symptoms with health and healthcare factors among women in rural western India: results of a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Apurv; Fahey, Nisha; Byatt, Nancy; Prabhakaran, Anusha; Moore Simas, Tiffany A; Vankar, Jagdish; Phatak, Ajay; O'Keefe, Eileen; Allison, Jeroan; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar

    2016-07-07

    Information about common mental disorders (CMD) is needed to guide policy and clinical interventions in low-income and middle-income countries. This study's purpose was to characterise the association of CMD symptoms with 3 inter-related health and healthcare factors among women from rural western India based on a representative, cross-sectional survey. Surveys were conducted in the waiting area of various outpatient clinics at a tertiary care hospital and in 16 rural villages in the Anand district of Gujarat, India. 700 Gujarati-speaking women between the ages of 18-45 years who resided in the Anand district of Gujarat, India, were recruited in a quasi-randomised manner. CMD symptoms, ascertained using WHO's Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20), were associated with self-reported (1) number of healthcare visits in the prior year; (2) health status and (3) portion of yearly income expended on healthcare. Data from 658 participants were used in this analysis; 19 surveys were excluded due to incompleteness, 18 surveys were excluded because the participants were visiting hospitalised patients and 5 surveys were classified as outliers. Overall, 155 (22·8%) participants screened positive for CMD symptoms (SRQ-20 score ≥8) with most (81.9%) not previously diagnosed despite contact with healthcare provider in the prior year. On adjusted analyses, screening positive for CMD symptoms was associated with worse category in self-reported health status (cumulative OR=9.39; 95% CI 5·97 to 14·76), higher portion of household income expended on healthcare (cumulative OR=2·31; 95% CL 1·52 to 3.52) and increased healthcare visits in the prior year (incidence rate ratio=1·24; 95% CI 1·07 to 1·44). The high prevalence of potential CMD among women in rural India that is unrecognised and associated with adverse health and financial indicators highlights the individual and public health burden of CMD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  2. [Prevention of sudden infant death as a task of nurses in neonatology – Evaluations and recommendations as a result of a cross-sectional survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Tina; Bensch, Sandra

    2015-06-01

    The sudden infant death is a diagnosis by exclusion and a multifactorial event. Premature infants are at a high risk. They must be especially protected from additional risk factors. Prevention campaigns support the decrease of mortality rate. The study aims to demonstrate various aspects of procedure applied by nurses and within neonatal units in SIDS prevention and counseling. In the nine level 1 perinatal centres of a german federal state, the study aims to examine the neonatological nurse's knowledge of prevention aspects of sudden infant death. The aim is not only to contemplate the individual nurse, but also the institutional framework of the respective clinics is considered. The cross-sectional survey was done with help of a written survey. 165 nurses participated (160 female, four male, one unknown). Premature infants do not consistently get accustomed to the supine position. 33 percent of the nurses evaluate breastfeeding as very important. 74 percent regularly talk to parents about prevention. Half of the nurses do not record the counseling interviews. Although evidence based recommendations to prevent sudden infant death exist they are not executed consequently. The motives for the inadequate implementation should be determined. Trainings should focus on the mediation of protective factors. Nurses should also demonstrate preventive interventions and support parents in putting these actions into practice.

  3. Identifying the symptom and functional domains in patients with fibromyalgia: results of a cross-sectional Internet-based survey in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaffi, Fausto; Mozzani, Flavio; Draghessi, Antonella; Atzeni, Fabiola; Catellani, Rosita; Ciapetti, Alessandro; Di Carlo, Marco; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to investigate the usefulness of using an Internet survey of patients with fibromyalgia in order to obtain information concerning symptoms and functionality and identify clusters of clinical features that can distinguish patient subsets. An Internet website has been used to collect data. Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire Revised version, self-administered Fibromyalgia Activity Score, and Self-Administered Pain Scale were used as questionnaires. Hierarchical agglomerative clustering was applied to the data obtained in order to identify symptoms and functional-based subgroups. Three hundred and fifty-three patients completed the study (85.3% women). The highest scored items were those related to sleep quality, fatigue/energy, pain, stiffness, degree of tenderness, balance problems, and environmental sensitivity. A high proportion of patients reported pain in the neck (81.4%), upper back (70.1%), and lower back (83.2%). A three-cluster solution best fitted the data. The variables were significantly different (P<0.0001) among the three clusters: cluster 1 (117 patients) reflected the lowest average scores across all symptoms, cluster 3 (116 patients) the highest scores, and cluster 2 (120 patients) captured moderate symptom levels, with low depression and anxiety. Three subgroups of fibromyalgia samples in a large cohort of patients have been identified by using an Internet survey. This approach could provide rationale to support the study of individualized clinical evaluation and may be used to identify optimal treatment strategies.

  4. Use of illicit tobacco following introduction of standardised packaging of tobacco products in Australia: results from a national cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scollo, Michelle; Zacher, Meghan; Coomber, Kerri; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-04-01

    To assess whether following standardisation of tobacco packaging in Australia, smokers were, as predicted by the tobacco industry, more likely to use illicit tobacco. National cross-sectional telephone surveys conducted continuously from April 2012 (6 months before implementation of plain packaging (PP)) to March 2014 (15 months after) using responses from current cigarette smokers (n=8679). Changes between pre-PP, the transition to PP and PP phase were examined using logistic regression models. Among those whose factory-made cigarettes were purchased in Australia, compared with pre-PP, there were no significant increases in the PP phase in use of: 'cheap whites' (cigarettes, in this large national survey we found no evidence in Australia of increased use of two categories of manufactured cigarettes likely to be contraband, no increase in purchase from informal sellers and no increased use of unbranded illicit 'chop-chop' tobacco. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Water Quality, Sanitation, and Hygiene Conditions in Schools and Households in Dolakha and Ramechhap Districts, Nepal: Results from A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Akina; Sharma, Subodh; Gerold, Jana; Erismann, Séverine; Sagar, Sanjay; Koju, Rajendra; Schindler, Christian; Odermatt, Peter; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2017-01-18

    This study assessed drinking water quality, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) conditions among 708 schoolchildren and 562 households in Dolakha and Ramechhap districts of Nepal. Cross-sectional surveys were carried out in March and June 2015. A Delagua water quality testing kit was employed on 634 water samples obtained from 16 purposively selected schools, 40 community water sources, and 562 households to examine water quality. A flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to test lead and arsenic content of the same samples. Additionally, a questionnaire survey was conducted to obtain WASH predictors. A total of 75% of school drinking water source samples and 76.9% point-of-use samples (water bottles) at schools, 39.5% water source samples in the community, and 27.4% point-of-use samples at household levels were contaminated with thermo-tolerant coliforms. The values of water samples for pH (6.8-7.6), free and total residual chlorine (0.1-0.5 mg/L), mean lead concentration (0.01 mg/L), and mean arsenic concentration (0.05 mg/L) were within national drinking water quality standards. The presence of domestic animals roaming inside schoolchildren's homes was significantly associated with drinking water contamination (adjusted odds ratio: 1.64; 95% confidence interval: 1.08-2.50; p = 0.02). Our findings call for an improvement of WASH conditions at the unit of school, households, and communities.

  6. The provision of family-centred intensive care bereavement support in Australia and New Zealand: Results of a cross sectional explorative descriptive survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Marion; Coombs, Maureen; Wetzig, Krista

    2017-05-01

    Caring for the bereaved is an intrinsic part of intensive care practice with family bereavement support an important aspect of the nursing role at end of life. However, reporting on provision of intensive care family bereavement support at a national level has not been well reported since an Australian paper published ten years ago. The objective was to investigate provision of family bereavement support in intensive care units (ICU) across New Zealand (NZ) and Australia. A cross-sectional exploratory descriptive web-based survey was used. All ICUs [public/private, neonatal/pediatrics/adults] were included. The survey was distributed to one nursing leader from each identified ICU (n=229; 188 in Australia, 41 in NZ). Internal validity of the survey was established through piloting. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. Ethical approval was received by the ethics committees of two universities. One-hundred and fifty-three (67%) responses were received from across New Zealand and Australia with 69.3% of respondents from the public sector. Whilst respondents reported common bereavement practices to include debriefing for staff after a traumatic death (87.9%), there was greater variation in sending a sympathy card to families (NZ 54.2%, Australia 20.8%). Fifty percent of responding New Zealand units had a bereavement follow-up service compared to 28.3% of Australian unit respondents. Of those with follow-up services, 92.3% of New Zealand units undertook follow-up calls to families compared to 76.5% of Australian units. Bereavement follow-up services were mainly managed by social workers in Australia and nursing staff in New Zealand. This is the first Australia and New Zealand-wide survey on ICU bereavement support services. Whilst key components of family bereavement support remain consistent over the past decade, there were fewer bereavement follow-up services in responding Australian ICUs in 2015. As a quality improvement initiative, support for this

  7. Physicians' attitudes towards office-based delivery of methadone maintenance therapy: results from a cross-sectional survey of Nova Scotia primary-care physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Jessica; Asbridge, Mark; Fraser, John; Kirkland, Susan

    2012-06-13

    Approximately 90,000 Canadians use opioids each year, many of whom experience health and social problems that affect the individual user, families, communities and the health care system. For those who wish to reduce or stop their opioid use, methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) is effective and supporting evidence is well-documented. However, access and availability to MMT is often inconsistent, with greater inequity outside of urban settings. Involving community based primary-care physicians in the delivery of MMT could serve to expand capacity and accessibility of MMT programs. Little is known, however, about the extent to which MMT, particularly office-based delivery, is acceptable to physicians. The aim of this study is to survey physicians about their attitudes towards MMT, particularly office-based delivery, and the perceived barriers and facilitators to MMT delivery. In May 2008, facilitated by the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Nova Scotia, a cross-sectional, e-mail survey of 950 primary-care physicians practicing in Nova Scotia, Canada was administered via the OPINIO on-line survey software, to assess the acceptability of office-based MMT. Logistic regressions, adjusted for physician sociodemographic characteristics, were used to examine the association between physicians' willingness to participate in office-based MMT, and a series of measures capturing physician attitudes and knowledge about treatment approaches, opioid use, and methadone, as well as perceived barriers to MMT. Overall, 19.8% of primary-care physicians responded to the survey, with 56% who indicated that they would be willing to be involved in MMT under current or similar circumstances; however, willingness was associated with numerous attitudinal and systemic factors. The barriers to involvement in MMT that were frequently cited included a lack of training or experience in MMT, lack of support services, and potential challenges of working with an MMT patient population. Study

  8. Cross-sectional relationship of reported fatigue to obesity, diet, and physical activity: results from the third national health and nutrition examination survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Helaine E; Carter, Elizabeth A; Aloia, Mark; Phillips, Barbara

    2006-04-15

    Reported daytime fatigue may be influenced by modifiable risk factors. We hypothesized that daytime fatigue is associated with less-favorable lifestyle factors, including high body mass index, higher intake of dietary fat, and limited physical activity. Cross-sectional analysis. Population-based survey. Participants aged 20 to 59 years in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. None. We examined relationships between responses to the question, "Right now would you say you are feeling energetic, fresh, average, tired or exhausted?" and body mass index, waist circumference, leisure time physical activity, and macronutrient intake. Analyses included only people who reported getting their usual amount of sleep the night before the evaluation and controlled for age, sex, and ethnicity; 5.6%, 14.6%, 58.3%, 19.5%, and 2.0% reported that they felt "energetic," "fresh," "average," "tire d," and "ex hausted" respectively. There was a U-shaped association across the categories of fatigue for physical activity, body mass index, and waist circumference, with the healthiest lifestyle factors being associated with reporting feeling "fresh." Relative to the fresh group, average, tired and exhausted participants were 1.6, 1.9, and 3.8 times more likely to report insufficient physical activity, all statistically different from the fresh group. This pattern was also observed for body mass index and waist circumference and persisted after adjustment for covariates and exclusion of individuals with depression. In adults aged 20 to 59 years in the United States, self-reported fatigue is associated with higher body mass index, higher waist circumference, and a reduced likelihood of getting recommended levels of physical activity.

  9. The magnitude of diabetes and its association with obesity in the slums of Nairobi, Kenya: results from a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oti, Samuel O; van de Vijver, Steven J M; Agyemang, Charles; Kyobutungi, Catherine

    2013-12-01

    To assess the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of diabetes and to examine the relationship of obesity with raised blood glucose in the slums of Nairobi, Kenya. We used data from a cross-sectional population-based survey, conducted in 2008-2009, involving a random sample of 5190 (2794 men and 2396 women) adults aged ≥18 years living in two slums - Korogocho and Viwandani - in Nairobi. The prevalence (weighted by sampling and response rates) of diabetes was 4.8% (95%CI 4.0-5.7) in women and 4.0% (95%CI 3.3-4.7) in men. Less than a quarter of those found to have diabetes were aware of their condition among which just over half of men and three-quarters of women reported being on any treatment in the 12 months preceding the survey. Overall, fewer than 5% of all people with diabetes had their blood sugar under control. Obesity and overweight were significantly associated with increased odds (1.7, 95%CI 1.1-2.6) of raised blood glucose only among women while adjusting for important covariates. The prevalence of diabetes in this impoverished population is moderately high, while the levels of awareness, treatment and control are quite low. In this population, obesity is an important risk factor for raised blood glucose particularly among women. Prevention and control strategies that target modifiable risk factors for diabetes and increase access to treatment and control in such disadvantaged settings are urgently needed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Epidemiology of Diabetic Foot Ulcers and Amputations in Romania: Results of a Cross-Sectional Quality of Life Questionnaire Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondor, Cosmina I; Veresiu, Ioan A; Florea, Bogdan; Vinik, Etta J; Vinik, Aaron I; Gavan, Norina A

    2016-01-01

    This is a post hoc analysis of quality of life in diabetic neuropathy patients in a cross-sectional survey performed in 2012 in Romania, using the Norfolk QOL-DN in which 21,756 patients with self-reported diabetes were enrolled. This current analysis aims to expand research on the diabetic foot and to provide an update on the number of foot ulcers found in Romania. Of the 21,174 patients included in this analysis, 14.85% reported a history of foot ulcers and 3.60% reported an amputation. The percentage of neuropathy patients with foot ulcers increased with age; the lowest percentage was observed in the 20-29-year age group (6.62%) and the highest in the 80-89-year age group (17.68%). The highest number of amputations was reported in the 70-79-year age group (largest group). Compared to patients without foot ulcers, those with foot ulcers had significantly higher scores for total DN and all its subdomains translating to worse QOL (p ulcers and amputations in Romanian diabetic patients. It underscores the need for implementation of effective screening and educational programs.

  11. Barriers to healthy eating by National Health Service (NHS) hospital doctors in the hospital setting: results of a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, James; Johnson, Carol; Wilson, Sue

    2008-08-28

    With high levels of obesity and related illness, improving the health of the nation is a major public health concern. This study aimed to identify factors that prevent healthy eating among doctors, and that are associated with satisfaction with catering services. Cross-sectional survey of 328 NHS doctors working in two NHS Trusts with on-site hospital canteen. Questionnaire to establish perceived barriers to healthy eating, weekly use and satisfaction with the hospital canteen, lifestyle and dietary habits, gender, age, height, weight, job details, and affect. 70% of doctors reported using their hospital canteen each week, with 2 visits per week on average.Canteen opening times, lack of selection and lack of breaks were the most commonly perceived barriers to healthy eating. Availability of healthy options caused the most dissatisfaction. Only 12% felt the NHS was supportive of healthy eating. 74% did not feel their canteen advocated healthy eating. Canteen use is associated with younger age (r = -0.254, p health score (r = 0.123, p = 0.049). Interventions to encourage regular meal breaks, eating breakfast and drinking more water each day need developing. Improved canteen accessibility and availability of healthy options at evenings and weekends may be beneficial.

  12. [Outpatient pediatric urology in France: A still under developed practice. Results of a survey of the French Section of pediatric Urology (SFUP)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rod, J; Marret, J-B; Ravasse, P

    2015-05-01

    Outpatient surgery is a very well adapted practice to the pediatric population. Our goal was to evaluate its actual development in the field of the pediatric urology. A questionnaire was addressed to all the French pediatric surgery centers in which at least one surgeon was member of the French Section of Pediatric Urology. The questionnaire concerned the organization and the outpatient urology procedures performed during the years 2011 and 2012. Thirty of the 34 approached centers returned the questionnaire. The total number of patients concerned in this study was of 33,166. The practices were very variable among centers: the inferior limit of age for anesthesia ranged from 2 to 12 months and type of surgery was also heterogeneous. Foreskin surgery, orchiopexy for undescended testis, inguinal hernia, and endoscopic treatment of vesico-ureteral reflux were the only procedures performed for more than 60% of cases as outpatient surgery. Outpatient surgery is not well developed in hypospadias repair. Only five centers raised 60% of ambulatory procedures for distal cases. No serious complication related to the outpatient approach was reported. This survey demonstrated very heterogeneous practices among French pediatric urologic centers. According to the French guidelines about outpatient pediatric surgery, this type of care could be more developed if anesthesiologists and surgeons accepted to evolve in their practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Educational outcomes associated with childhood obesity in the United States: cross-sectional results from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Felicia R; Singh, Gopal K; Brown, H Shelton; Wilkinson, Anna V

    2015-07-27

    Past research examining the effects of childhood obesity has largely focused on its projected effects into adulthood. However, there is emerging evidence that childhood obesity may have more immediate effects on school-related outcomes. We examine a range of educational attainment indicators to examine the possible pathway between obesity status and academic performance, while investigating the proximal effects of childhood obesity on health and utilization of health services, and whether these variables attenuate the relationship between obesity status and educational outcomes. Data for the current study come from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children’s Health, which details the impacts of childhood obesity on a range of outcomes among a nationally representative sample of children and adolescents aged 10-17 years (N=45,255). Educational outcomes (school absences, school problems, repeating a grade and school engagement) were modeled by logistic regression as a function of BMI, overall health status, health care utilization, and a range of sociodemographic variables. BMI status was significantly associated with all educational outcomes (peducational outcomes. While recognizing that these are cross-sectional data, we suggest that 1) health-related and sociodemographic factors should be a focus point of intervention, and 2) a socio-structural approach including Coordinated School Health intervention is crucial to reducing childhood obesity and improving educational outcomes in this population.

  14. Associations between contractual status, part-time work, and intent to leave among professional caregivers for older people: results of a national cross-sectional survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachi, Yuko; Inoue, Kazuo; Toyokawa, Satoshi

    2010-08-01

    Despite a growing number of studies on leaving the organization or long-term care among professional caregivers for older people, little is known about the impact of types of employment on leaving. To examine the association between the type of employment and intent to leave among Japanese professional caregivers. Secondary analysis of data from the 2006 Working Conditions Survey in Long-term Care, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey done in Japan. 10,107 professional caregivers aged 18 years and older. Predictor of intent to leave was type of employment (full-time permanent, full-time precarious, and part-time precarious). Precarious work was defined as employment that failed to meet the standard of full-time permanent employment, including fixed-term, temporary agency, and part-time work. Covariates included demographics, home or facility care, tenure in the profession, national qualification for caregivers, having other jobs, overtime work, and night shift work. We used multinomial logit models to estimate the strength of the association between the type of employment and intent to leave and to explore the possible mechanisms explaining this association. In the unadjusted model, when compared to part-time precarious workers, full-time permanent workers (OR=2.37; 95% CI=2.06, 2.72) and full-time precarious workers (OR=2.41; 95% CI=2.01, 2.88) were more likely to report intent to leave. After adjustment for covariates, these odds ratios were attenuated, but nevertheless remained significant. Overtime work greatly attenuated these odds ratios in both full-time precarious and full-time permanent workers, and having national qualification for caregivers only did in the case of full-time permanent workers. In contrast to people in other professions, full-time caregivers are more likely to have intent to leave than part-time caregivers. This study highlights the importance of policy strategies for retaining full-time workers by reducing their overtime

  15. Patterns of Use of Peripheral Nerve Blocks and Trigger Point Injections for Pediatric Headache: Results of a Survey of the American Headache Society Pediatric and Adolescent Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szperka, Christina L; Gelfand, Amy A; Hershey, Andrew D

    2016-11-01

    To describe current patterns of use of nerve blocks and trigger point injections for treatment of pediatric headache. Peripheral nerve blocks are often used to treat headaches in adults and children, but the available studies and practice data from adult headache specialists have shown wide variability in diagnostic indications, sites injected, and medication(s) used. The purpose of this study was to describe current practice patterns in the use of nerve blocks and trigger point injections for pediatric headache disorders. A survey was created in REDCap, and sent via email to the 82 members of the Pediatric and Adolescent Section of the American Headache Society in June 2015. The survey queried about current practice and use of nerve blocks, as well as respondents' opinions regarding gaps in the evidence for use of nerve blocks in this patient population. Forty-one complete, five incomplete, and three duplicate responses were submitted (response rate complete 50%). About 78% of the respondents identified their primary specialty as Child Neurology, and 51% were certified in headache medicine. Twenty-six (63%) respondents perform nerve blocks themselves, and seven (17%) refer patients to another provider for nerve blocks. Chronic migraine with status migrainosus was the most common indication for nerve blocks (82%), though occipital neuralgia (79%), status migrainosus (73%), chronic migraine without flare (70%), post-traumatic headache (70%), and new daily persistent headache (67%) were also common indications. The most commonly selected clinically meaningful response for status migrainosus was ≥50% reduction in severity, while for chronic migraine this was a ≥50% decrease in frequency at 4 weeks. Respondents inject the following locations: 100% inject the greater occipital nerve, 69% lesser occipital nerve, 50% supraorbital, 46% trigger point injections, 42% auriculotemporal, and 34% supratrochlear. All respondents used local anesthetic, while 12 (46%) also use

  16. HIV prevalence and related risk behaviours in female seasonal farm workers in Souss Massa Draa, Morocco: results from a cross-sectional survey using cluster-based sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozicevic, Ivana; Guezzar, Fatiha; Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Bennani, Aziza; Handanagic, Senad; Barbaric, Jelena; El Rhilani, Houssine; Alami, Kamal; Khattabi, Hamida; Riedner, Gabriele; Maaroufi, Abderrahmane

    2017-06-08

    To determine prevalence of HIV and HIV-related behaviours in female seasonal farm workers (FSFWs) in two provinces of Souss Massa Draa (SMD) region in Morocco. SMD has a higher burden of HIV compared with other parts of Morocco and is characterised by a substantial aggregation of FSFW. We carried out a cross-sectional HIV biobehavioural survey using cluster-based sampling of farms in the provinces Chtouka Aït Baha and Taroudant Ouled Teïma in 2014. HIV testing was done using the Determine HIV-1/2 rapid test and reactive specimens were tested using ELISA and western blot. Collected data were post hoc weighted for region-based stratification and adjusted for clustering effects using complex survey functions of SPSS (V.21). Among those eligible to participate, the response rate was 92.8%. HIV prevalence was 0.9% (95% CI 0.4% to 2.4%) among 520 recruited participants. A high proportion of respondents (67.7%) had no education. Ever having sex was reported by 79.8% and among these, 12.7% ever exchanged sex for money or goods. Sixty-one per cent reported condom use at most recent commercial vaginal sex in the past 12 months. STI symptom recognition was found to be low because 62.4% and 46.8% of FSFW could not report any STI symptoms in men and women, respectively. Twenty-seven per cent of respondents had an HIV test in the past 12 months. In multivariable analysis, those with primary or higher education (adjusted OR (aOR)=2.38, 95% CI 1.33 to 4.27) and those who participated in an HIV educational session at their workplace (aOR=11.00, 95% CI 3.99 to 30.31) had higher odds of ever been tested for HIV. Although we found a relatively low HIV prevalence among FSFW in SMD, HIV interventions should be intensified, in particular, in a subgroup of women who are involved in sex work. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Prevalence, impact and care of foot problems in people with rheumatoid arthritis: results from a United Kingdom based cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Oonagh; Hewlett, Sarah; Woodburn, James; Pollock, Jon; Kirwan, John

    2017-01-01

    Foot symptoms in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) derive from a combination of inflammation, altered foot mechanics, deformity and secondary skin lesions. Guidelines recommend regular review of patients' feet, but the extent to which the general population of RA patients report foot symptoms and access foot care has not been established. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence, impact and care of foot problems in all patients with RA in one geographical area and identify factors associated with accessing foot care. Cross-sectional survey of a random sample of patients with RA, who resided within a single community-based National Health Service (NHS) podiatry service. The questionnaire collected demographic data (age, gender, local deprivation score), clinical data (disease duration, arthritis medications, disability (Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ)), current foot problems, foot care accessed (podiatry, orthotics and/or orthopaedics) and care received, measures of impact (Foot Impact Scale) and ability to work. Of 1003 total eligible patients in the target population, 739 were posted survey packs. Of these 413 (56%) replied. Responders and non-responders had similar age (63.5 yr. vs.61.5 yr), gender (74.1%F vs. 75.2%F), and highest deprivation category (13.3% vs.15.9%). Of the responders 92.1% reported current foot problems: articular 73.8%, cutaneous lesions 65.4%, structural 57.6%, extra-articular 42.6%. Responders' median (IQR) disease duration 10 (5-20) years, HAQ 1.5 (0.75-2.0), FISIF 10 (6-14) and FISAP 16 (7-23) and 37.8% reported impacts on work. While 69.5% had accessed foot care there were differences in the route of access (by gender and whether independent or NHS provision) and were older (64.9 yr. vs 60.4 yr. p = 0.001), had longer disease duration (12 yr. vs 7 yr. p foot problems were reported by 92.1% of the study sample and substantially impacted on life and work. While overall access to foot care was higher than

  18. How do Swiss general practitioners agree with and report adhering to a top-five list of unnecessary tests and treatments? Results of a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, Kevin; Cornuz, Jacques; Cohidon, Christine; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Senn, Nicolas

    2018-12-01

    In 2014, the 'Smarter Medicine' campaign released a top five list of unnecessary tests and treatments in Swiss primary care, such as imaging for acute low-back pain and long-term prescribing of proton pump inhibitors. Measure general practitioners' (GPs) agreement with the recommendations and self-reported adherence. Cross-sectional, online survey of GPs in the 'Swiss primary care active monitoring' (SPAM) network, which assessed awareness of 'Smarter Medicine' and views on each recommendation. Questions included whether the clinical situation is common, whether the recommendation is followed, whether GPs agree with the recommendation and reasons why the recommendation would not be followed. One-hundred-and-sixty-seven of 277 GPs from the SPAM network participated (60%), of which 104 (62%) knew of 'Smarter Medicine', including 79% in German areas, 49% in French areas and 38% in Italian areas (P < 0.001). Agreement with the five recommendations was high, with scores around nine out of 10. The proportion saying they typically follow each recommendation was 68 to 74%, except not continuing long-term PPI prescriptions without attempting dose reduction, with only 34%. Common reasons for not following the recommendations were patient or other provider requests and situations that might suggest the need for more aggressive care. Two years after the launch of the campaign, awareness and acceptance of 'Smarter Medicine' appear to be high among Swiss GPs. By self-report, the recommendations are adhered to by most of the respondents but there may be room for improvement, especially for long-term PPI prescriptions.

  19. Body weight dissatisfaction by socioeconomic status among obese, preobese and normal weight women and men: results of the cross-sectional KORA Augsburg S4 population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Lengerke, Thomas; Mielck, Andreas

    2012-05-09

    Body weight dissatisfaction is an important factor in preventing weight gain and promoting weight loss or maintenance. This study focuses on differences in the rates of body weight dissatisfaction among obese, preobese and normal weight women and men by socioeconomic status within a general adult population in Germany. Data were analyzed from 4186 adults aged 25 to 74 who participated in a cross-sectional, representative population-based health survey (KORA S4, 1999-2001, Augsburg region/Germany). Body mass was measured anthropometrically and indexed following international standards. Among the 2123 women participating in the survey, 40.3% had a normal weight, 34.9% were preobese, and 24.8% were obese (compared to 25.9%, 51.4% and 22.6% among men, respectively). Body weight dissatisfaction, educational level, household income and occupational status were assessed by computer-aided personal interviewing. An index for socioeconomic status was calculated and categorized into quintiles. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to test for differences in the odds of body weight dissatisfaction across socioeconomic strata in normal weight, preobese and obese groups. Body mass index, age, family status, place of residence and health behaviors were adjusted for. Overall, being dissatisfied with one's body weight was more prevalent in women (48.3%) than in men (33.2%). In the normal weight group, no significant differences in the odds of being dissatisfied were found across socioeconomic groups among women or men. Among preobese men, compared to the lowest socioeconomic stratum, increased odds of being dissatisfied with one's body weight were associated with the highest socioeconomic index group (OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.4-3.8), middle and high educational level (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.3, and OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.3-3.7), high income (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2-2.7), and middle and high occupational status (both OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2-2.6). Among preobese women

  20. Mental health of college students and their non-college-attending peers: results from a large French cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Leray, Emmanuelle; Denis, Laure; Husky, Mathilde; Pitrou, Isabelle; Bodeau-Livinec, Florence

    2016-04-21

    The great majority of mental disorders begin during adolescence or early adulthood, although they are often detected and treated later in life. To compare mental health status of college students and their non-college-attending peers whether working, attending a secondary school, or non-college-attending peers who are neither employed nor students or trainees (NENST) will allow to focus on high risk group. Data were drawn from a large cross-sectional survey conducted by phone in 2005 in four French regions in a randomly selected sample of 22,138 adults. Analyses were restricted to the college-age subsample, defined as those aged 18 to 24 (n = 2424). Sociodemographic, educational, and occupational status were determined. In addition, respondents were administered standardized instruments to assess mental health and well-being (CIDI-SF, SF-36, Sheehan Disability Scale, CAGE), mastery, social support, and isolation. The four occupational groups were compared. All analyses were stratified by gender. Mental health disorders were more prevalent among the NENST group, with significant differences among men for anxiety disorders including phobias, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and panic disorder, impairing at least one role in their daily life. This was also true among women except for panic disorder. The NENST group also reported the lowest level of mastery and social support for both genders and the highest level of social isolation for women only. After adjustment, occupational status remained an independent correlate of PTSD (OR = 2.92 95 % CI = 1.4-6.1), agoraphobia (OR = 1.86 95 % CI 1.07-3.22) and alcohol dependence (OR = 2.1 95 % CI = 1.03-4.16). Compared with their peers at work or in education/training, the prevalence of certain common mental health disorders was higher among college-aged individuals in the NENST group. Efforts should be made to help young adults in the transition between school or academic contexts and joining the workforce. It is also

  1. Social-ecological factors associated with selling sex among men who have sex with men in Jamaica: results from a cross-sectional tablet-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Kenny, Kathleen S; Levermore, Kandasi; Jones, Nicolette; Baral, Stefan D; Wang, Ying; Marshall, Annecka; Newman, Peter A

    2018-01-01

    Globally, men who have sex with men (MSM) experience social marginalization and criminalization that increase HIV vulnerability by constraining access to HIV prevention and care. People who sell sex also experience criminalization, rights violations, and violence, which elevate HIV exposure. MSM who sell sex may experience intersectional stigma and intensified social marginalization, yet have largely been overlooked in epidemiological and social HIV research. In Jamaica, where same sex practices and sex work are criminalized, scant research has investigated sex selling among MSM, including associations with HIV vulnerability. We aimed to examine social ecological factors associated with selling sex among MSM in Jamaica, including exchanging sex for money, shelter, food, transportation, or drugs/alcohol (past 12 months). We conducted a cross-sectional survey with a peer-driven sample of MSM in Kingston, Ocho Rios, and Montego Bay. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate intrapersonal/individual, interpersonal/social, and structural factors associated with selling sex. Among 556 MSM, one-third (n = 182; 32.7%) reported selling sex. In the final multivariable model, correlates of selling sex included: individual/intrapersonal (lower safer sex self-efficacy [AOR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.77, 0.94]), interpersonal/social (concurrent partnerships [AOR: 5.52, 95% CI: 1.56, 19.53], a higher need for social support [AOR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.12], lifetime forced sex [AOR: 2.74, 95% 1.65, 4.55]) and structural-level factors (sexual stigma [AOR: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.15], food insecurity [AOR: 2.38, 95% CI: 1.41, 4.02], housing insecurity [AOR: 1.94, 95% CI: 1.16, 3.26], no regular healthcare provider [AOR: 2.72, 95% CI: 1.60, 4.64]). This study highlights social ecological correlates of selling sex among MSM in Jamaica, in particular elevated stigma and economic insecurity. Findings suggest that MSM in Jamaica who sell sex experience intensified

  2. Awareness and correlates of the role of physical activity in breast cancer prevention among Japanese women: results from an internet-based cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Rina; Shibata, Ai; Ishii, Kaori; Oka, Koichiro

    2014-07-07

    Although considerable evidence has demonstrated that physical activity is associated with breast cancer prevention, few studies have assessed the level of awareness of this association. Awareness is a key first step to successful of behavior change. Increasing awareness may contribute to promote physical activity and prevent breast cancer at the population level. The present study examined the prevalence and correlates of awareness about the role of physical activity in breast cancer prevention among Japanese women. 1,000 Japanese women aged 20-69 years (mean age: 44.3 ± 13.4 years) who responded to an internet-based cross-sectional survey. Awareness of the role of physical activity in breast cancer prevention, knowledge of breast cancer (symptom, risk factor, screening), exposure to information about physical activity and cancer, a self-reported physical activity, and sociodemographic variables (age, marital status, having a child, education level, employment status, and household income) were obtained. Force-entry logistic regression analysis was used. The prevalence of awareness was 31.5% (95% CI: 28.6-34.4). Factors significantly associated with awareness included sociodemographic variables, exposure to information, and knowledge of breast cancer. Being married (AOR, 95% CI: 1.75, 1.05-2.92) was positively related to awareness, while having children (0.65, 0.36-0.86) was negatively related. College graduates or those with higher levels of education (1.50, 1.01-2.22) were significantly more likely to be aware than those who had not graduated high school. Moreover, exposure to information (2.11, 1.51-2.95), and high knowledge of symptoms (2.43, 1.75-3.36) were positively associated with awareness. Finally, low knowledge of risk factors (0.30, 0.22-0.40) was negatively associated with awareness. Japanese women through internet-based study were poorly aware of the role of physical activity in breast cancer prevention. Awareness was especially low among

  3. Prevalence of self-reported tuberculosis, knowledge about tuberculosis transmission and its determinants among adults in India: results from a nation-wide cross-sectional household survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeramareddy Chandrashekhar T

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about symptoms and transmission of tuberculosis determines health seeking behavior and helps in prevention of tuberculosis transmission in the community. Such data is useful for policy makers to formulate information, education and communication strategies for tuberculosis control. Methods A secondary data analysis of India demographic and health survey, 2005/6 was carried out. Questions about self-reported tuberculosis, transmission and curability of tuberculosis were analysed. Correct knowledge (without misconceptions about tuberculosis transmission was used as a dependant variable and the explanatory variables tested were: demographic data, education, wealth quintiles, frequency of exposure to media and the curability of tuberculosis. Determinants of correct knowledge without misconceptions were tested by univariate and multivariate analyses using national weighting factor to adjust for complex sampling design. Results A total of 109,070 households (response rate of 93.5% and 198,718 participants (response rate of 91.6% completed the survey. The samples of men and women interviewed were 74,360 and 124,358 respectively. Prevalence rate of self-reported tuberculosis was 445 per 100,000 usual household residents and 4.60 per 1,000 participants. The number of respondents who had “heard of an illness called tuberculosis” was 177,423 (89.3%. Of these 47,487 (26.8% participants did not know and 55.5% knew about the correct mode of tuberculosis transmission i.e. “Through the air when coughing or sneezing”. The common misconceptions about transmission were “Through food” (32.4%, “Sharing utensils” (18.2%, and “Touching a person with tuberculosis” (12.3%. Only 52,617 (29.7% participants had correct knowledge without misconceptions. Being male (aOR 1.17, 95% CIs 1.14, 1.21, being a Hindu (aOR 1.20, 95% CIs 1.14, 1.26 or Muslim (aOR 1.26, 95% CIs 1.18, 1.34, listening to radio (aOR 1.08, 95% CIs 1.04, 1

  4. Sexual behavior, HIV prevalence and awareness among wives of migrant workers: results from cross-sectional survey in rural North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Ranjan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migration has been linked to the spread of HIV epidemic from the urban areas of western India to the rural areas of north India. Objectives: This is the first population-based study among the wives of migrant workers of Muzaffarpur district in Bihar with objectives to describe their sexual behavior within marriage, estimate the prevalence of HIV, and to know their awareness regarding HIV/AIDS. Methods: A two-stage cluster survey was conducted by randomly selecting 25 eligible wives from each of the 34 selected villages. A total of 850 wives were interviewed and the blood samples were collected for HIV testing. To determine the factors associated with HIV/AIDS-awareness, we calculated adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: 34 (3% of 850 wives reported condom use with their husband. HIV prevalence was 0.59% (95% CI: 0.19-1.37% among the wives of migrant workers. Out of 850 wives, 132 (15.5% had heard about HIV. Condoms use (OR = 3.21, 95% CI: 1.22-7.90 and premarital sex (OR=7.44, 95% CI: 1.6-33.67 were found significantly positively associated with HIV knowledge of wives. HIV awareness of the wives was significantly associated with age-group 15-24 years, literacy status, and possession of television and husbands’ literacy status. The knowledge about HIV among wives had significant positive impact on condoms use and premarital sex. HIV prevalence among the wives of migrant workers was higher than the prevalence among women in the general population. Education was found to be positively associated with awareness about HIV. Conclusions: Effective interventions are needed for increasing awareness of HIV among wives of migrant workers in Bihar.

  5. Medical marijuana laws and adolescent marijuana use in the USA from 1991 to 2014: results from annual, repeated cross-sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasin, Deborah S; Wall, Melanie; Keyes, Katherine M; Cerdá, Magdalena; Schulenberg, John; O'Malley, Patrick M; Galea, Sandro; Pacula, Rosalie; Feng, Tianshu

    2015-07-01

    Adolescent use of marijuana is associated with adverse later effects, so the identification of factors underlying adolescent use is of substantial public health importance. The relationship between US state laws that permit marijuana for medical purposes and adolescent marijuana use has been controversial. Such laws could convey a message about marijuana acceptability that increases its use soon after passage, even if implementation is delayed or the law narrowly restricts its use. We used 24 years of national data from the USA to examine the relationship between state medical marijuana laws and adolescent use of marijuana. Using a multistage, random-sampling design with replacement, the Monitoring the Future study conducts annual national surveys of 8th, 10th, and 12th-grade students (modal ages 13-14, 15-16, and 17-18 years, respectively), in around 400 schools per year. Students complete self-administered questionnaires that include questions on marijuana use. We analysed data from 1 098 270 adolescents surveyed between 1991 and 2014. The primary outcome of this analysis was any marijuana use in the previous 30 days. We used multilevel regression modelling with adolescents nested within states to examine two questions. The first was whether marijuana use was higher overall in states that ever passed a medical marijuana law up to 2014. The second was whether the risk of marijuana use changed after passage of medical marijuana laws. Control covariates included individual, school, and state-level characteristics. Marijuana use was more prevalent in states that passed a medical marijuana law any time up to 2014 than in other states (adjusted prevalence 15·87% vs 13·27%; adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1·27, 95% CI 1·07-1·51; p=0·0057). However, the risk of marijuana use in states before passing medical marijuana laws did not differ significantly from the risk after medical marijuana laws were passed (adjusted prevalence 16·25% vs 15·45%; adjusted OR 0·92, 95

  6. Negative appraisals of insulin therapy are common among adults with Type 2 diabetes using insulin : Results from Diabetes MILES - Australia cross-sectional survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmes-Truscott, E.; Skinner, T.C.; Pouwer, F.; Speight, J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To identify insulin therapy appraisals among adults with Type 2 diabetes using insulin and how negative appraisals relate to clinical, self-care and psychosocial outcomes. Methods Diabetes MILES – Australia 2011 was a national survey of adults with diabetes, focused on behavioural and

  7. Adherence of French GPs to Chronic Neuropathic Pain Clinical Guidelines: Results of a Cross-Sectional, Randomized, “e” Case-Vignette Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Valéria; Attal, Nadine; Vanzo, Bertrand; Vicaut, Eric; Gautier, Jean Michel; Bouhassira, Didier; Lantéri-Minet, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims The French Pain Society published guidelines for neuropathic pain management in 2010. Our aim was to evaluate the compliance of GPs with these guidelines three years later. Methods We used “e” case vignette methodology for this non interventional study. A national panel of randomly selected GPs was included. We used eight “e” case-vignettes relating to chronic pain, differing in terms of the type of pain (neuropathic/non neuropathic), etiology (cancer, postoperative pain, low back pain with or without radicular pain, diabetes) and symptoms. GPs received two randomly selected consecutive “e” case vignettes (with/without neuropathic pain). We analyzed their ability to recognize neuropathic pain and to prescribe appropriate first-line treatment. Results From the 1265 GPs in the database, we recruited 443 (35.0%), 334 of whom logged onto the web site (26.4%) and 319 (25.2%) of whom completed the survey. Among these GPs, 170 (53.3%) were aware of the guidelines, 136 (42.6%) were able to follow them, and 110 (34.5%) used the DN4 diagnostic tool. Sensitivity for neuropathic pain recognition was 87.8% (CI: 84.2%; 91.4%). However, postoperative neuropathic pain was less well diagnosed (77.9%; CI: 69.6%; 86.2%) than diabetic pain (95.2%; CI: 90.0%; 100.0%), cancer pain (90.6%; CI: 83.5%; 97.8%) and typical radicular pain (90.7%; CI: 84.9%; 96.5%). When neuropathic pain was correctly recognized, the likelihood of appropriate first-line treatment prescription was 90.6% (CI: 87.4%; 93.8%). The treatments proposed were pregabaline (71.8%), gabapentine (43.9%), amiptriptylline (23.2%) and duloxetine (18.2%). However, ibuprofen (11%), acetaminophen-codeine (29.5%) and clonazepam (10%) were still prescribed. Conclusions The compliance of GPs with clinical practice guidelines appeared to be satisfactory, but differed between etiologies. PMID:24747826

  8. Adherence of French GPs to chronic neuropathic pain clinical guidelines: results of a cross-sectional, randomized, "e" case-vignette survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Martinez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The French Pain Society published guidelines for neuropathic pain management in 2010. Our aim was to evaluate the compliance of GPs with these guidelines three years later. METHODS: We used "e" case vignette methodology for this non interventional study. A national panel of randomly selected GPs was included. We used eight "e" case-vignettes relating to chronic pain, differing in terms of the type of pain (neuropathic/non neuropathic, etiology (cancer, postoperative pain, low back pain with or without radicular pain, diabetes and symptoms. GPs received two randomly selected consecutive "e" case vignettes (with/without neuropathic pain. We analyzed their ability to recognize neuropathic pain and to prescribe appropriate first-line treatment. RESULTS: From the 1265 GPs in the database, we recruited 443 (35.0%, 334 of whom logged onto the web site (26.4% and 319 (25.2% of whom completed the survey. Among these GPs, 170 (53.3% were aware of the guidelines, 136 (42.6% were able to follow them, and 110 (34.5% used the DN4 diagnostic tool. Sensitivity for neuropathic pain recognition was 87.8% (CI: 84.2%; 91.4%. However, postoperative neuropathic pain was less well diagnosed (77.9%; CI: 69.6%; 86.2% than diabetic pain (95.2%; CI: 90.0%; 100.0%, cancer pain (90.6%; CI: 83.5%; 97.8% and typical radicular pain (90.7%; CI: 84.9%; 96.5%. When neuropathic pain was correctly recognized, the likelihood of appropriate first-line treatment prescription was 90.6% (CI: 87.4%; 93.8%. The treatments proposed were pregabaline (71.8%, gabapentine (43.9%, amiptriptylline (23.2% and duloxetine (18.2%. However, ibuprofen (11%, acetaminophen-codeine (29.5% and clonazepam (10% were still prescribed. CONCLUSIONS: The compliance of GPs with clinical practice guidelines appeared to be satisfactory, but differed between etiologies.

  9. Perceptions about the cause of schizophrenia and the subsequent help seeking behavior in a Pakistani population – results of a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousaf Wajeeha

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a cultural variability around the perception of what causes the syndrome of schizophrenia. Generally patients with schizophrenia are considered dangerous. They are isolated and treatment is delayed. Studies have shown favorable prognosis with good family and social support, early diagnosis and management. Duration of untreated psychosis is a bad prognostic indicator. We aimed to determine the perceptions regarding the etiology of schizophrenia and the subsequent help seeking behavior. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 404 people at the out patient departments of Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi. Data was collected via a self-administered questionnaire. Questions were related to a vignette of a young man displaying schizophrenic behavior. Data was analyzed on SPSS v 14. Results The mean age of the participants was 31.4 years (range = 18–72 and 77% of them were males. The majorities were graduates (61.9% and employed (50%. Only 30% of the participants attributed 'mental illness' as the main cause of psychotic symptoms while a large number thought of 'God's will' (32.3%, 'superstitious ideas' (33.1%, 'loneliness' (24.8% and 'unemployment' (19.3% as the main cause. Mental illness as the single most important cause was reported by only 22%. As far as management is concerned, only 40% reported psychiatric consultation to be the single most important management step. Other responses included spiritual healing (19.5% and Sociachanges (10.6 while 14.8% of respondents said that they would do nothing. Gender, age, family system and education level were significantly associated with the beliefs about the cause of schizophrenia (p Conclusion Despite majority of the study population being well educated, only a few recognized schizophrenia as a mental illness and many held superstitious beliefs. A vast majority of Pakistanis have non-biomedical beliefs about the cause of schizophrenia. Their

  10. "Weariness" and "unpleasantness" reduce adherence to branched-chain amino acid granules among Japanese patients with liver cirrhosis: results of a single-center cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Yuichiro; Furukawa, Naoko; Furukawa, Takeshi; Egashira, Yoshimitsu; Hotokezaka, Hiroshi; Oeda, Satoshi; Iwane, Shinji; Anzai, Keizo

    2017-03-01

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are valuable in the treatment of liver cirrhosis because they increase serum albumin levels. Poor adherence to BCAA may adversely affect prognosis, but little is known about factors predicting adherence. We undertook a survey of patients prescribed BCAA for the treatment of cirrhosis. Pharmacists carried out face-to-face interviews with patients (or their representatives) prescribed any of nine BCAA formulations. Question categories included patient characteristics, prescription of BCAA granules, and perceptions of BCAA administration, including adherence and possible factors that might impact adherence. "Poor adherence" was defined as "not taking the medication appropriately" or "forgetting to take the medication". Overall, 253 patients (or representatives) completed the survey, of whom 135 were men, 114 were women, and 148 were ≥70 years old. Most patients (163) were prescribed BCAA for ≥2 years and were using three packs per day. Thirty-two patients did not take their medication appropriately and 69 sometimes forgot to administer it. Weariness of taking the medication (P BCAA in clinical practice. Poor adherence was associated with weariness with taking medication, and the unpleasantness of the medication itself. Patient education from general practitioners and hepatologists combined with adherence counseling from pharmacists may help improve adherence. © 2016 The Authors. Hepatology Research published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Society of Hepatology.

  11. Factors associated with unintended pregnancy in Brazil: cross-sectional results from the Birth in Brazil National Survey, 2011/2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza Miranda Theme-Filha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unintended pregnancy, a pregnancy that have been either unwanted or mistimed, is a serious public health issue in Brazil. It is reported for more than half of women who gave birth in the country, but the characteristics of women who conceive unintentionally are rarely documented. The aim of this study is to analyse the prevalence and the association between unintended pregnancy and a set of sociodemographic characteristics, individual-level variables and history of obstetric outcomes. Methods Birth in Brazil is a cross-sectional study with countrywide representation that interviewed 23,894 women after birth. The information about intendedness of pregnancy was obtained after birth at the hospital and classified into three categories: intended, mistimed or unwanted. Multinomial regression analysis was used to estimate the associations between intendedness of a pregnancy, and sociodemographic and obstetric variables, calculating odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals. All significant variables in the bivariate analysis were included in the multinomial multivariate model and the final model retaining variables that remained significant at the 5 % level. Results Unintended pregnancy was reported by 55.4 % of postpartum women. The following variables maintained positive and significant statistical associations with mistimed pregnancy: maternal age < 20 years (OR = 1.89, 95 % CI: 1.68–2.14; brown (OR = 1.15, 95 % CI: 1.04–1.27 or yellow skin color (OR = 1.56, 95 % CI: 1.05–2.32; having no partner (OR = 2.32, 95 % CI: 1.99–2.71; having no paid job (OR = 1.15, 95 % CI: 1.04–1.27; alcohol abuse with risk of alcoholism (OR = 1.25, 95 % CI: 1.04–1.50 and having had three or more births (OR = 2.01, 95 % CI: 1.63–2.47. The same factors were associated with unwanted pregnancy, though the strength of the associations was generally stronger. Women with three or more births were 14

  12. Dietary quality indices vary with sociodemographic variables and anthropometric status among Mexican adults: a cross-sectional study. Results from the 2006 National Health and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Xochitl; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Shamah, Teresa; Barquera, Simón; González de Cossio, Teresa

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the dietary quality of Mexican adults' diet, we constructed three dietary quality indices: a cardioprotective index (CPI), a micronutrient adequacy index (MAI) and a dietary diversity index (DDI). Data were derived from the 2006 National Health and Nutrition Survey, which is a national survey representative of the Mexican population with a stratified, multistage, probabilistic sample design. Dietary intake was assessed from an FFQ with 101 different foods and daily nutrient intakes were computed. The CPI evaluated compliance with seven WHO recommendations for the prevention of CVD, the MAI evaluated the intake of six micronutrients based on the estimated average requirements from the US Institute of Medicine and the DDI was constructed based on the consumption of thirty different food groups. Mexico. Mexican adults aged 19-59 years old. We evaluated the diet of 15 675 males and females. Adjusted means and adjusted proportions by age and sex were computed to predict adherence to dietary recommendations. Rural inhabitants, those living in the South and those from the lowest socio-economic status reported a significantly higher CPI (4·5 (se 0·08), 4·3 (se 0·08) and 4·2 (se 0·09), respectively; P < 0·05), but a significantly lower MAI and DDI, compared with urban inhabitants, those from the North and those of upper socio-economic status (P < 0·05). The constructed diet quality indices identify nutrients and foods whose recommended intakes are not adequately consumed by the population. Given the epidemiological and nutritional transition that Mexico is experiencing, the CPI is the most relevant index and its components should be considered in Mexican dietary guidelines as well as in any food and nutrition programmes developed.

  13. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between serum uric acid and metabolic syndrome: Results from Fangchenggang Area Male Health and Examination Survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongni; Zhang, Haiying; Gao, Yong; Lu, Zheng; Yao, Ziting; Jiang, Yonghua; Lin, Xinggu; Wu, Chunlei; Yang, Xiaobo; Tan, Aihua; Mo, Zengnan

    2015-06-15

    It is controversial whether serum uric acid (SUA) is a risk factor for the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The current study was designed to highlight the association of SUA and MetS and its components. Data on 3675 healthy male subjects, aged 17-88 years, were collected for the cross-sectional study. A representative sample of 2575 individuals who did not suffer from MetS at baseline was involved in the cohort study. A cox regression model was applied to evaluate causality for the 2- and 4-year large scale longitudinal study. In the cross-sectional analysis, SUA showed a statistically significant negative correlation with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and a positive correlation with blood pressure (BP), triglycerides (TG), waist circumference (WC), and body mass index (BMI) (all P<0.001). In longitudinal analysis, examining the risk of developing MetS, SUA concentrations (hazard ratios comparing fourth quartile to the first quartile of 1.75; 95% CI, 1.26-2.41) were positively associated with incident MetS after adjusted for age, blood pressure, glucose, TG, HDL-c, smoking, alcohol drinking and education. SUA is positively correlated with the prevalence of MetS. Increased SUA concentration may be an independent risk factor for MetS. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. HIV Testing Among Foreign-Born Men and Women in the United States: Results from a Nationally Representative Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Eduardo; DiNenno, Elizabeth; Oraka, Emeka; Bautista, Gregory; Chavez, Pollyanna

    2017-09-15

    HIV disproportionately affects the foreign-born population in the United States. This analysis describes the prevalence of ever-testing for HIV among foreign-born individuals residing in the United States. Data from a national health survey of the civilian, non-institutionalized population was used to describe prevalence of ever-testing for HIV among foreign-born individuals by birth place. Multivariate logistic-regression procedures were used to determine factors associated with ever-testing for HIV among foreign-born men and women. The prevalence of ever-testing for HIV among foreign-born individuals varied by region of birth ranging from 31 to 67%. Factors related to ever-testing for HIV varied by gender. Efforts need to continue in order to improve HIV testing rates among Asian foreign-born individuals, lower educated foreign-born and foreign-born gay/bisexual men. Health care providers can play an important role by counseling new arrivals regarding the importance of testing for HIV and practicing HIV risk reduction activities.

  15. Associations between yoga/meditation use, body satisfaction, and weight management methods: Results of a national cross-sectional survey of 8009 Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauche, Romy; Sibbritt, David; Ostermann, Thomas; Fuller, Nicholas R; Adams, Jon; Cramer, Holger

    2017-02-01

    To analyze whether yoga or meditation use is associated with body (dis)satisfaction and weight control methods in Australian women. Women ages 34 to 39 y from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health were surveyed regarding body satisfaction, weight control behaviors, and yoga and meditation practice. Associations of body satisfaction and weight control methods with yoga/meditation practice were analyzed using chi-squared tests and multiple logistic regression modelling. Of the 8009 women, 49% were overweight or obese. Sixty-five percent of women with normal body mass index (BMI) and approximately 95% of women with overweight/obesity wanted to lose weight. At least one in four women with normal BMI was dissatisfied with body weight and shape, as were more than two in three women with overweight/obesity. The most common weight control methods included exercising (82.7%), cutting down meal sizes (76.8%), and cutting down sugars or fats (71.9%). Yoga/meditation was practiced frequently by 688 women (8.6%) and occasionally by 1176 women (14.7%). Yoga/meditation users with normal BMI were less likely dissatisfied with body weight and shape. All yoga/meditation users more likely exercised and followed a low glycemic diet or diet books; and women with obesity occasionally using yoga/meditation also more likely used fasting or smoking to lose weight. Yoga/meditation users with normal BMI appear to be more satisfied with their body weight and shape than non-yoga/meditation users. While women with normal BMI or overweight tend to rely on healthy weight control methods, women with obesity occasional using yoga/meditation may more likely utilize unhealthy weight control methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Anxiety predicts mortality in ICD patients: results from the cross-sectional national CopenHeartICD survey with register follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikkenborg Berg, Selina; Caspar Thygesen, Lau; Hastrup Svendsen, Jesper; Vinggaard Christensen, Anne; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe

    2014-12-01

    Although highly effective in preventing arrhythmic death, patients receiving an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) may still experience psychological difficulties such as anxiety, depression, and reduced quality of life. The objectives of this study were to describe patient-reported outcomes among ICD patients: (1) compared to a matched healthy population, (2) compared by ICD indication, (3) factors predicting patient-reported outcomes, and (4) if patient-reported outcomes predicted mortality. The study was a mailed survey to an unselected group of patients 18+ years old receiving ICD between January 1, 2011 and June 30, 2011 (n = 499). The following instruments were used: SF-36, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HeartQoL, EQ-5D, and the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory. The response rate was 72%. Mean age was 65.5 years and 82% patients were males. Fifty-three percent of patients had primary prevention indication ICD. Compared to an age- and gender-matched population without disease, the ICD population had worse mental health (55.0 vs 51.7 points) and physical health (52.6 vs 41.9 points). Patients with primary prevention indication had lower levels of perceived health, quality of life, and fatigue; for example, physical health 39.8 versus 44.3 points, compared to secondary prevention indication. Anxiety, poor perceived health, fatigue, and low quality of life were all predictors of mortality, anxiety being the strongest with an adjusted odds ratio of 4.17 (1.49; 11.66). Patients with primary prevention ICD had lower levels of perceived health, quality of life, and more fatigue. Anxiety, poor perceived health, fatigue, and low quality of life were all predictors of mortality. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Adherence of French GPs to chronic neuropathic pain clinical guidelines: results of a cross-sectional, randomized, "e" case-vignette survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Valéria; Attal, Nadine; Vanzo, Bertrand; Vicaut, Eric; Gautier, Jean Michel; Bouhassira, Didier; Lantéri-Minet, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The French Pain Society published guidelines for neuropathic pain management in 2010. Our aim was to evaluate the compliance of GPs with these guidelines three years later. We used "e" case vignette methodology for this non interventional study. A national panel of randomly selected GPs was included. We used eight "e" case-vignettes relating to chronic pain, differing in terms of the type of pain (neuropathic/non neuropathic), etiology (cancer, postoperative pain, low back pain with or without radicular pain, diabetes) and symptoms. GPs received two randomly selected consecutive "e" case vignettes (with/without neuropathic pain). We analyzed their ability to recognize neuropathic pain and to prescribe appropriate first-line treatment. From the 1265 GPs in the database, we recruited 443 (35.0%), 334 of whom logged onto the web site (26.4%) and 319 (25.2%) of whom completed the survey. Among these GPs, 170 (53.3%) were aware of the guidelines, 136 (42.6%) were able to follow them, and 110 (34.5%) used the DN4 diagnostic tool. Sensitivity for neuropathic pain recognition was 87.8% (CI: 84.2%; 91.4%). However, postoperative neuropathic pain was less well diagnosed (77.9%; CI: 69.6%; 86.2%) than diabetic pain (95.2%; CI: 90.0%; 100.0%), cancer pain (90.6%; CI: 83.5%; 97.8%) and typical radicular pain (90.7%; CI: 84.9%; 96.5%). When neuropathic pain was correctly recognized, the likelihood of appropriate first-line treatment prescription was 90.6% (CI: 87.4%; 93.8%). The treatments proposed were pregabaline (71.8%), gabapentine (43.9%), amiptriptylline (23.2%) and duloxetine (18.2%). However, ibuprofen (11%), acetaminophen-codeine (29.5%) and clonazepam (10%) were still prescribed. The compliance of GPs with clinical practice guidelines appeared to be satisfactory, but differed between etiologies.

  18. Sexual Behavior, HIV Prevalence and Awareness Among Wives of Migrant Workers: Results from Cross-sectional Survey in Rural North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Alok; Bhatnagar, Tarun; Babu, Giridhara R; Detels, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Migration has been linked to the spread of HIV epidemic from the urban areas of western India to the rural areas of north India. This is the first population-based study among the wives of migrant workers of Muzaffarpur district in Bihar with objectives to describe their sexual behavior within marriage, estimate the prevalence of HIV, and to know their awareness regarding HIV/AIDS. A two-stage cluster survey was conducted by randomly selecting 25 eligible wives from each of the 34 selected villages. A total of 850 wives were interviewed and the blood samples were collected for HIV testing. To determine the factors associated with HIV/AIDS-awareness, we calculated adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using multiple logistic regression analysis. 34 (3%) of 850 wives reported condom use with their husband. HIV prevalence was 0.59% (95% CI: 0.19-1.37%) among the wives of migrant workers. Out of 850 wives, 132 (15.5%) had heard about HIV. Condoms use (OR = 3.21, 95% CI: 1.22-7.90) and premarital sex (OR=7.44, 95% CI: 1.6-33.67) were found significantly positively associated with HIV knowledge of wives. HIV awareness of the wives was significantly associated with age-group 15-24 years, literacy status, and possession of television and husbands' literacy status. The knowledge about HIV among wives had significant positive impact on condoms use and premarital sex. HIV prevalence among the wives of migrant workers was higher than the prevalence among women in the general population. Education was found to be positively associated with awareness about HIV. Effective interventions are needed for increasing awareness of HIV among wives of migrant workers in Bihar.

  19. Is the practice of yoga or meditation associated with a healthy lifestyle? Results of a national cross-sectional survey of 28,695 Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Holger; Sibbritt, David; Park, Crystal L; Adams, Jon; Lauche, Romy

    2017-10-01

    To examine the relationship between yoga/meditation practice and health behavior in Australian women. Women aged 19-25years, 31-36years, and 62-67years from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) were surveyed regarding smoking, alcohol or drug use, physical activity and dietary behavior; and whether they practiced yoga/meditation on a regular basis. Associations of health behaviors with yoga/meditation practice were analyzed using multiple logistic regression modelling. 11,344, 8200, and 9151 women aged 19-25years, 31-36years, and 62-67years, respectively, were included of which 29.0%, 21.7%, and 20.7%, respectively, practiced yoga/meditation. Women practicing yoga/meditation were significantly more likely to report at least moderate physical activity levels (OR=1.50-2.79), to follow a vegetarian (OR=1.67-3.22) or vegan (OR=2.26-3.68) diet, and to report the use of marijuana (OR=1.28-1.89) and illicit drugs in the last 12 months (OR=1.23-1.98). Yoga/meditation practice was associated with higher physical activity levels, a higher likelihood of vegetarian or vegan diet use, and a higher likelihood of drug use. While health professionals should keep the potential vulnerability of yoga/meditation practitioners to drug use in mind, the positive associations of yoga/meditation with a variety of positive health behaviors warrant its consideration in preventive medicine and healthcare. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Psycho-oncology care in rural areas : Results from a cross-sectional survey on the utilisation of community-based psychosocial support services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Markus W; Sklenarova, Halina; Zimmermann-Schlegel, Verena; Herzog, Wolfgang; Hartmann, Mechthild

    2017-11-09

    Clinically relevant distress and unmet psychosocial needs frequently occur in the course of cancer diseases. Particularly for thinly populated rural areas in Germany rates of distressed patients and uptake of community-based psycho-oncology services are unknown. Determination of a) the proportion of cancer patients with psychosocial distress and unmet needs and b) the utilisation of community-based psycho-oncology services in thinly populated rural areas. Prospective cross-sectional study of 229 cancer patients (colon, breast, prostate cancer) living in thinly populated rural areas. Indicators for clinically relevant distress and utilisation of psychosocial services were assessed by applying screening instruments. We conducted descriptive and multivariate analyses. More than one third of all cancer patients (39.3%) in thinly populated areas exhibited clinically relevant distress. However, only 15.6% of distressed patients consulted community-based psycho-oncology services. Most frequently, medical or psychological psychotherapists were contacted. Information deficits of patients and attending physicians alongside dispositional factors emerged as the main reasons for non-utilisation. This study presents first data on psycho-oncology care in rural areas in Germany stratifying the degree of urbanisation in line with the standards of the European Commission. Concerning limitations, we only accounted for structural service coverage, leaving aside other indicators for socio-spatial deprivation.

  1. Infection and co-infection with helminths and Plasmodium among school children in Côte d'Ivoire: results from a National Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B Yapi

    2014-06-01

    than 60% of the school children surveyed were infected with Plasmodium across Côte d'Ivoire, and about one out of six had a helminth-Plasmodium co-infection. Our findings provide a rationale to combine control interventions that simultaneously aim at helminthiases and malaria.

  2. The impact of a large-scale quality improvement programme on work engagement: preliminary results from a national cross-sectional-survey of the 'Productive Ward'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mark; Wells, John S G; Butterworth, Tony

    2014-12-01

    Quality improvement (QI) Programmes, like the Productive Ward: Releasing-time-to-care initiative, aim to 'engage' and 'empower' ward teams to actively participate, innovate and lead quality improvement at the front line. However, little is known about the relationship and impact that QI work has on the 'engagement' of the clinical teams who participate and vice-versa. This paper explores and examines the impact of a large-scale QI programme, the Productive Ward, on the 'work engagement' of the nurses and ward teams involved. Using the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES), we surveyed, measured and analysed work engagement in a representative test group of hospital-based ward teams who had recently commenced the latest phase of the national 'Productive Ward' initiative in Ireland and compared them to a control group of similar size and matched (as far as is possible) on variables such as ward size, employment grade and clinical specialty area. 338 individual datasets were recorded, n=180 (53.6%) from the Productive Ward group, and n=158 (46.4%) from the control group; the overall response rate was 67%, and did not differ significantly between the Productive Ward and control groups. The work engagement mean score (±standard deviation) in the Productive group was 4.33(±0.88), and 4.07(±1.06) in the control group, representing a modest but statistically significant between-group difference (p=0.013, independent samples t-test). Similarly modest differences were observed in all three dimensions of the work engagement construct. Employment grade and the clinical specialty area were also significantly related to the work engagement score (pwork engagement (the vigour, absorption and dedication) of ward-based teams. The use and suitability of the UWES as an appropriate measure of 'engagement' in QI interventions was confirmed. The engagement of nurses and front-line clinical teams is a major component of creating, developing and sustaining a culture of improvement

  3. [Left ventricular hypertrophy in black African subjects with artery hypertension: Results of a cross-sectional survey conducted in semi-rural area in Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaye, A; Dodo, B; Ngaïde, A A; Sy, N F; Babaka, K; Mingou, J S; Faye, M; Niang, K; Sarr, S A; Dioum, M; Bodian, M; Ndiaye, M B; Kane, A D; Ndour-Mbaye, M; Diao, M; Diack, B; Kane, M; Diagne-Sow, D; Thiaw, I; Kane, A

    2017-09-01

    To assess the prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy according to electrocardiographic and echocardiographic criteria among hypertensive patients living in semi-rural Senegalese area. According to the World Health Organization STEPSwise approach, we conducted, in November 2012, a cross-sectional and exhaustive study in the population aged at least 35 years old and living for at least six months in the semi-rural area of Guéoul. We researched electrocardiographic and echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertensive subjects. Data were analyzed with SPSS 18.0 software version. The significance level was agreed for a value of P<0.05. We examined 1411 subjects aged on average of 48.5±12.7 years. In total, 654 subjects were hypertensive and screening of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) was effective in 515 of them. According to Sokolow-Lyon index, 86 subjects (16.7%) presented electrocardiographic LVH, more frequently in men (P=0.002). According to Cornell index and Cornell product, LVH was founded respectively in 66 (12.8%) and 52 subjects (10.1%), more frequently in female (P=0.0001; P=0.004). It was more common in grade 3 of hypertension however criteria. In echocardiography, prevalence of LVH was 2.2% (13 cases) according to the left ventricular mass, 9.3% (48 cases) according to the left ventricular mass indexed to body surface area and 8.2% (42 cases) according to the left ventricular mass indexed to height 2.7 . LVH was significantly correlated with the electrocardiographic LVH according to Sokolow-Lyon index (P<0.0001) and the grade 3 of hypertension (P=0.003). Although rare in hypertensive Senegalese living in semi-rural area, left ventricular hypertrophy is correlated with severity of grade of hypertension. Screening by electrocardiogram will allow better follow-up of these hypertensive subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. High acceptability for cell phone text messages to improve communication of laboratory results with HIV-infected patients in rural Uganda: a cross-sectional survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedner, Mark J; Haberer, Jessica E; Bwana, Mwebesa Bosco; Ware, Norma C; Bangsberg, David R

    2012-06-21

    Patient-provider communication is a major challenge in resource-limited settings with large catchment areas. Though mobile phone usership increased 20-fold in Africa over the past decade, little is known about acceptability of, perceptions about disclosure and confidentiality, and preferences for cell phone communication of health information in the region. We performed structured interviews of fifty patients at the Immune Suppression Syndrome clinic in Mbarara, Uganda to assess four domains of health-related communication: a) cell phone use practices and literacy, b) preferences for laboratory results communication, c) privacy and confidentiality, and d) acceptability of and preferences for text messaging to notify patients of abnormal test results. Participants had a median of 38 years, were 56% female, and were residents of a large catchment area throughout southwestern Uganda. All participants expressed interest in a service to receive information about laboratory results by cell phone text message, stating benefits of increased awareness of their health and decreased transportation costs. Ninety percent reported that they would not be concerned for unintended disclosure. A minority additionally expressed concerns about difficulty interpreting messages, discouragement upon learning bad news, and technical issues. Though all respondents expressed interest in password protection of messages, there was also a strong desire for direct messages to limit misinterpretation of information. Cell phone text messaging for communication of abnormal laboratory results is highly acceptable in this cohort of HIV-infected patients in rural Uganda. The feasibility of text messaging, including an optimal balance between privacy and comprehension, should be further studied.

  5. High acceptability for cell phone text messages to improve communication of laboratory results with HIV-infected patients in rural Uganda: a cross-sectional survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siedner Mark J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient-provider communication is a major challenge in resource-limited settings with large catchment areas. Though mobile phone usership increased 20-fold in Africa over the past decade, little is known about acceptability of, perceptions about disclosure and confidentiality, and preferences for cell phone communication of health information in the region. Methods We performed structured interviews of fifty patients at the Immune Suppression Syndrome clinic in Mbarara, Uganda to assess four domains of health-related communication: a cell phone use practices and literacy, b preferences for laboratory results communication, c privacy and confidentiality, and d acceptability of and preferences for text messaging to notify patients of abnormal test results. Results Participants had a median of 38 years, were 56% female, and were residents of a large catchment area throughout southwestern Uganda. All participants expressed interest in a service to receive information about laboratory results by cell phone text message, stating benefits of increased awareness of their health and decreased transportation costs. Ninety percent reported that they would not be concerned for unintended disclosure. A minority additionally expressed concerns about difficulty interpreting messages, discouragement upon learning bad news, and technical issues. Though all respondents expressed interest in password protection of messages, there was also a strong desire for direct messages to limit misinterpretation of information. Conclusions Cell phone text messaging for communication of abnormal laboratory results is highly acceptable in this cohort of HIV-infected patients in rural Uganda. The feasibility of text messaging, including an optimal balance between privacy and comprehension, should be further studied.

  6. Public Land Survey System - Sections on USDA Forest Service Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This feature class depicts the boundaries of Land Survey features called sections, defined by the Public Lands Survey System Grid. Normally, 36 sections make up a...

  7. HIV/AIDS and the health of older people in the slums of Nairobi, Kenya: results from a cross sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyobutungi, Catherine; Ezeh, Alex C; Zulu, Eliya; Falkingham, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Background The proportion of older people is increasing worldwide. Globally, it is estimated that older people (those 60 years or older) constitute more than 11% of the population. As the HIV/AIDS pandemic rages in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), its impact on older people needs closer attention given the increased economic and social roles older people have taken on as a result of increased mortality among adults in the productive age groups. Few studies have looked at older people and their health in SSA or indeed the impact of HIV/AIDS on their health. This study aims to assess the effect of being directly or indirectly affected by HIV/AIDS on the health of older people in two Nairobi slums. Methods Data were collected from residents of the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance area aged 50 years and above on 1st October 2006. Health status was assessed using the short SAGE (Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health) form and two outcome measures – self-rated health and a composite health score – were generated. To assess HIV/AIDS affected status, respondents were asked: Have you personally been affected by HIV/AIDS? If yes, a follow up question: "How have you been personally affected by HIV/AIDS?" was asked. Ordinallogistic regression was used in models with self-rated health and linear regression in models with the health score. Results About 18% of respondents reported being affected by HIV/AIDS in at least one way, although less than 1% reported being infected with HIV. Nearly 60% of respondents reported being in good health, 27% in fair health and 14% in poor health. The overall mean health score was 70.6 (SD: 13.9) with females reporting worse health outcomes than males. Respondents directly or indirectly affected by HIV/AIDS reported worse health outcomes than those not affected: mean health score: 68.5 and 71.1 respectively (t = 3.21, p = 0.0007), and an adjusted odds ratio of reporting poor health of 1.42 (95%CI: 1.12–1.80). Conclusion Poor

  8. Delay between Onset of Symptoms and Seeking Physician Intervention Increases Risk of Diabetic Foot Complications: Results of a Cross-Sectional Population-Based Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norina A. Gavan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a post hoc analysis of 17,530 questionnaires collected as part of the 2012 screening for neuropathy using Norfolk Quality of Life tool in patients with diabetes in Romania, to assess the impact on foot complications of time between the onset of symptoms of diabetes/its complications and the physician visit. Odds ratios (ORs for self-reporting neuropathy increased from 1.16 (95% CI: 1.07–1.25 in those who sought medical care in 1–6 months from symptoms of diabetes/its complications onset to 2.27 in those who sought medical care >2 years after symptoms onset. The ORs for having a history of foot ulcers were 1.43 (95% CI: 1.26–1.63 in those who sought medical care in 1–6 months and increased to 3.08 (95% CI: 2.59–3.66 in those who sought medical care after >2 years from symptoms of diabetes/its complications onset. The highest ORs for a history of gangrene (2.49 [95% CI: 1.90–3.26] and amputations (2.18 [95% CI: 1.60–2.97] were observed in those who sought medical care after >2 years following symptoms onset. In conclusion, we showed that waiting for >1 month after symptoms onset dramatically increases the risk of diabetic foot complications. These results show the need for accessible educational programs on diabetes and its chronic complications and the need to avoid delays in reporting.

  9. Improved pregnancy outcome in refugees and migrants despite low literacy on the Thai-Burmese border: results of three cross-sectional surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Pree Cecilia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal and infant health has been associated with maternal education level, which is highly associated with literacy. We aimed at estimating literacy rates among reproductive age women attending antenatal clinics in camps for refugees and in migrant clinics in Tak province, north-western Thailand, to determine whether illiteracy had an impact on birth outcomes. Methods Three reading assessments were conducted using an identical method each time, in 1995-97, 2003 and 2008. Midwives chose at random one of four pre-set sentences. Each woman was asked to read aloud and scoring was based on a "pass/fail" system. Pregnancy outcomes were compared with maternal literacy rate. Results Overall, 47% (1149/2424 of women were able to read. A significant improvement was observed among migrant (34% in 2003 vs. 46% in 2008, p = 0.01, but not refugee (47% in 1995-97, 49% in 2003, and 51% in 2008 women. Literate women were significantly more likely to be of non-Karen ethnicity, primigravidae, non-smokers, to remain free from malaria during pregnancy and to deliver in a health clinic. Significant improvements in pregnancy outcome (reductions in premature births, low birth weight newborns and neonatal death between 1995-97 and 2003 were unrelated to literacy. Conclusions Significant reductions in poor pregnancy outcome over time have not been driven by changes in literacy rates, which have remained low. Access to early diagnosis and treatment of malaria in this population, and delivery with skilled birth attendants, despite ongoing low literacy, appears to have played a significant role.

  10. The association between regular yoga and meditation practice and falls and injuries: Results of a national cross-sectional survey among Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Holger; Sibbritt, David; Adams, Jon; Lauche, Romy

    2016-02-01

    Falls are the leading cause of injuries in women across all ages. While yoga has been shown to increase balance, it has also been associated with injuries due to falls during practice. This study aimed to analyse whether regular yoga or meditation practice is associated with the frequency of falls and fall-related injuries in upper middle-aged Australian women. Women aged 59-64 years from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) were queried regarding falls and falls-related injuries; and whether they regularly practiced yoga or meditation. Associations of falls and falls-related injuries with yoga or meditation practice were analysed using chi-squared tests and multiple logistic regression modelling. Of 10,011 women, 4413 (44.1%) had slipped, tripped or stumbled, 2770 (27.7%) had fallen to the ground, 1398 (14.0%) had been injured as a result of falling, and 901 (9.0%) women had sought medical attention for a fall-related injury within the previous 12 months. Yoga or meditation was practiced regularly by 746 (7.5%) women. No associations of falls, fall-related injuries and treatment due to falls-related injury with yoga or meditation practice were found. No association between yoga or meditation practice and falls or fall-related injuries have been found. Further studies are warranted for conclusive judgement of benefits and safety of yoga and meditation in relation to balance, falls and fall-related injuries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. RESULTS FROM A DIAGNOSTIC SURVEY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The disease was absent at altitudes above 1500 m and in drier zones (3-5 wet months per year). Cladosporium freckle was present at all survey sites and also most severe in central Uganda. Key Words: ... the most important foliar disease of bananas. 145 .... greater ability to develop at lower temperatures than that of black ...

  12. Results from an International Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kawase, Kazumi; Carpelan-Holmstrom, Monika; Kwong, Ava; Sanfey, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    Compared with male surgeons, women have less success advancing their careers and are underrepresented in leadership positions in surgery. The purpose of this study is to identify the qualifications necessary to become leaders in surgery and the career barriers faced by women surgeons in various cultural environments. A survey was performed with women surgeons in Japan, USA, Finland, and Hong Kong, China, to assess various barriers faced by women surgeons in the respective countries. To develo...

  13. Literature survey results: Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willson, W.G.; Ness, R.O.; Hendrikson, J.G.; Entzminger, J.A.; Jha, M.; Sinor, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    This report reviews mild gasification processes with respect to processing conditions and configurations. Special emphasis was placed on processes which could be commercialized within five years. Detailed market information was provided by J.E. Sinor concerning markets and economic considerations of the various processing steps. Processing areas studied include coal cleaning; mild gasification; and upgrading of the char, condensables, and hydrocarbon gases. Pros and cons in the different processing areas as well as ''gaps'' in pertinent data were identified and integrated into a detailed process development program. The report begins with a summary of the market assessment and an evaluation of the co-product. The impacts of feed materials and operating parameters--including coal rank, heating rate, pressure, agglomeration, temperature, and feed gas composition--on the co- products and processes were evaluated through a literature survey. Recommendations were made as to the preferred product specifications and operating parameters for a commercial plant. A literature review of mild gasification processes was conducted and evaluated with regard to product specification and operating parameters. Two candidate processes were chosen and discussed in detail with respect to scale-up feasibility. Recommendations were then made to process development needs to further consideration of the two processes. 129 refs., 33 figs., 16 tabs.

  14. Preliminary Results from the FLAMINGOS Extragalactic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, A.; Dey, A.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Jannuzi, B.; Lin, Y.-T.; McKenzie, E.; Mohr, J. J.; Raines, S. N.; Stanford, S. A.; Stern, D.; Brown, M.; Elston, R. J.

    2004-05-01

    We present initial results from the FLAMINGOS Extragalactic Survey, a deep near-infrared imaging survey within the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey regions. This program is designed to study evolution of the galaxy and galaxy cluster populations out to z ˜2. The field locations are selected to provide extensive overlap with observations at other wavelengths, and the target depths of the survey are Ks=20.5 and J=22 (Vega). The final observations for the survey were obtained in May, and final data reduction and quality assessment are nearing completion. During this talk we describe the initial science being done with the data set, highlight upcoming work, and discuss planned coordination with other surveys within the NDWFS region. Specific emphasis will be placed upon identification of galaxy clusters at z>1.

  15. Statistical Literacy and Sample Survey Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlevey, Lynn; Sullivan, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Sample surveys are widely used in the social sciences and business. The news media almost daily quote from them, yet they are widely misused. Using students with prior managerial experience embarking on an MBA course, we show that common sample survey results are misunderstood even by those managers who have previously done a statistics course. In…

  16. Longer exposure to a new refugee food ration is associated with reduced prevalence of small for gestational age: results from 2 cross-sectional surveys on the Thailand-Myanmar border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Verena I; Stuetz, Wolfgang; Lee, Sue J; Sriprawat, Kanlaya; Po, Basi; Hanboonkunupakarn, Borimas; Nosten, François H; McGready, Rose

    2017-06-01

    Background: Despite the high risk of compromised nutrition, evidence of the effect of refugee rations on fetal growth is limited. A new ration containing micronutrient-fortified flour without increased caloric content of the general food basket was introduced to the Maela refugee camp in Thailand, July 2004. Objective: The effect of the length of gestational exposure of the new ration on fetal growth was compared with birth outcomes [small for gestational age (SGA), preterm birth (PTB)]. Design: In an observational study in 987 newborns from 1048 prospectively followed antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees enrolled in 2 cross-sectional surveys, exposure was categorized in 2004 according to gestation at the time of commencing the new ration and in 2006 as comprehensive (preconception and pregnancy). In both surveys, the pregnancy-specific ration and vitamin supplements were routine. Results: In 2004, the proportions of SGA decreased with longer exposure to the new ration: no exposure during pregnancy (27.7%; n = 13 of 47) and exposure in the third (27.6%; n = 37 of 134), second (18.6%; n = 35 of 188), and first (19.4%; n = 6 of 31) trimesters, respectively (adjusted P -trend = 0.046). In 2006, the new ration was available to all women and there was no significant additional impact of the pregnancy-specific ration and vitamin supplements. Between 2004 and 2006, SGA decreased from 28.9% (13 of 45) to 17.3% (69 of 398) (adjusted P = 0.050), a reduction of 40.1% (95% CI: 34.7%, 45.9%); there was also a decrease in the percentage of underweight women on admission to the ANC (38.2%; 95% CI: 31.4%, 45.5%). PTB rates were low and not significantly different with exposure to the new ration. Conclusions: In 2004, the earlier in gestation in which the new ration was available the greater the effect on fetal growth as shown by a reduced prevalence of SGA. In 2006, additional benefits to fetal growth from the pregnancy-specific ration and vitamin supplements beyond those of the

  17. Height inequalities and their change trends in China during 1985–2010: results from 6 cross-sectional surveys on children and adolescents aged 7–18 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Xu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Great health inequalities have been reported in China over the past few years. Height has been used as an important parameter of health and it may also be distributed unequally in different regions. By studying height data of Chinese children and adolescents aged 7 to 18 years, we analyze height inequalities and their change trends during 1985–2010. Methods On the base of data from 6 successive cross-sectional surveys of the Chinese National Survey on Student’s Constitution and Health(CNSSCH conducted in 1985,1991,1995,2000,2005 and 2010, we calculated difference of height for children and adolescents aged 7–18 years in different regions. Coefficients of Variation (CVs of height were computed in urban and rural areas during 1985–2010. Results Great height difference existed between urban and rural, eastern and western, Shanghai and Guizhou children and adolescents aged 7–18 years. The urban-rural difference averagely decreased from 4.24 cm to 2.85 cm for boys and 3.72 cm to 1.31 cm for girls since 1985. Urban-rural difference tend to be more obvious in the poorer provinces, which has short mean statures. From 1985 to 2010, height difference became larger in eastern-western and Shanghai-Guizhou which represented the comparison between the richest and poorest regions. We also found there was a larger height inequality in rural areas compared with that in urban areas, and difference in rural subjects increased greater than their urban peers in eastern-western and Shanghai-Guizhou. Conclusions There were obvious height inequalities in China and the urban-rural difference narrowed, while increasing differences happened between regions with different socioeconomic levels especially in their rural residents. More attention should be paid to these differences and policies and strategies should be developed to reduce inequalities in height.

  18. Statistical literacy and sample survey results

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlevey, Lynn; Sullivan, Charles

    2010-10-01

    Sample surveys are widely used in the social sciences and business. The news media almost daily quote from them, yet they are widely misused. Using students with prior managerial experience embarking on an MBA course, we show that common sample survey results are misunderstood even by those managers who have previously done a statistics course. In general, they fare no better than managers who have never studied statistics. There are implications for teaching, especially in business schools, as well as for consulting.

  19. High levels of lipoprotein(a are associated with a lower prevalence of diabetes with advancing age: Results of a cross-sectional epidemiological survey in Gran Canaria, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boronat Mauro

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent data suggest that concentrations of lipoprotein(a [Lp(a] may be inversely associated with the risk of diabetes. This study analyzed the relationships between Lp(a and both diabetes and insulin resistance in an adult cohort from the island of Gran Canaria, Spain. Methods Lp(a, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and conventional risk factors for diabetes were assessed in a sample of 1,030 adult individuals participating in a cross-sectional population-based epidemiological survey in the city of Telde. Diabetes was defined according to the WHO 1999 criteria, or as a previous diagnosis of diabetes. To identify patients at risk for diabetes, an Lp(a cutoff level of 46 mg/dl was selected previously using classification and regression tree analysis. A multivariate logistic regression model with L2-regularization was used to assess the independent effect of Lp(a on diabetes and its interactions with variables traditionally linked to the disease. Additionally, to investigate the effect of Lp(a on insulin resistance, a parametric model was developed to describe the relationship between age and HOMA-IR values in subjects with levels of Lp(a ≤46 or >46 mg/dl. Results Along with variables known to be associated with diabetes, including age, mean blood pressure, serum triglycerides, and an interaction term between age and low HDL cholesterol, the logistic model identified a significant inverse association for diabetes and the interaction term between age and Lp(a levels >46 mg/dl. According to the proposed parametric model, HOMA-IR was significantly lower in subjects of all ages who had Lp(a levels >46 mg/dl. Conclusions These results suggest that the age-related increase in the probability of having diabetes is significantly lower in subjects with Lp(a levels >46 mg/dl. This could be explained in part by a lower insulin resistance in this subset of the population.

  20. Area-aggregated assessments of perceived environmental attributes may overcome single-source bias in studies of green environments and health: results from a cross-sectional survey in southern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadbro John

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most studies assessing health effects of neighborhood characteristics either use self-reports or objective assessments of the environment, the latter often based on Geographical Information Systems (GIS. While objective measures require detailed landscape data, self-assessments may yield confounded results. In this study we demonstrate how self-assessments of green neighborhood environments aggregated to narrow area units may serve as an appealing compromise between objective measures and individual self-assessments. Methods The study uses cross-sectional data (N = 24,847 from a public health survey conducted in the county of Scania, southern Sweden, in 2008 and validates the Scania Green Score (SGS, a new index comprising five self-reported green neighborhood qualities (Culture, Lush, Serene, Spacious and Wild. The same qualities were also assessed objectively using landscape data and GIS. A multilevel (ecometric model was used to aggregate individual self-reports to assessments of perceived green environmental attributes for areas of 1,000 square meters. We assessed convergent and concurrent validity for self-assessments of the five items separately and for the sum score, individually and area-aggregated. Results Correlations between the index scores based on self-assessments and the corresponding objective assessments were clearly present, indicating convergent validity, but the agreement was low. The correlation was even more evident for the area-aggregated SGS. All three scores (individual SGS, area-aggregated SGS and GIS index score were associated with neighborhood satisfaction, indicating concurrent validity. However, while individual SGS was associated with vitality, this association was not present for aggregated SGS and the GIS-index score, suggesting confounding (single-source bias when individual SGS was used. Conclusions Perceived and objectively assessed qualities of the green neighborhood environment correlate

  1. Availability and quality of anti-malarials among private sector outlets in Myanmar in 2012: results from a large, community-based, cross-sectional survey before a large-scale intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khin, Hnin Su Su; Chen, Ingrid; White, Chris; Sudhinaraset, May; McFarland, Willi; Littrell, Megan; Montagu, Dominic; Aung, Tin

    2015-07-14

    Global malaria control efforts are threatened by the spread and emergence of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites. In 2012, the widespread sale of partial courses of artemisinin-based monotherapy was suspected to take place in the highly accessed, weakly regulated private sector in Myanmar, posing potentially major threats to drug resistance. This study investigated the presence of artemisinin-based monotherapies in the Myanmar private sector, particularly as partial courses of therapy, to inform the targeting of future interventions to stop artemisinin resistance. A large cross-sectional survey comprised of a screening questionnaire was conducted across 26 townships in Myanmar between March and May, 2012. For outlets that stocked anti-malarials at the time of survey, a stock audit was conducted, and for outlets that stocked anti-malarials within 3 months of the survey, a provider survey was conducted. A total of 3,658 outlets were screened, 83% were retailers (pharmacies, itinerant drug vendors and general retailers) and 17% were healthcare providers (private facilities and health workers). Of the 3,658 outlets screened, 1,359 outlets (32%) stocked at least one anti-malarial at the time of study. Oral artemisinin-based monotherapy comprised of 33% of self-reported anti-malarials dispensing volumes found. The vast majority of artemisinin-based monotherapy was sold by retailers, where 63% confirmed that they sold partial courses of therapy by cutting blister packets. Very few retailers (5%) had malaria rapid diagnostic tests available, and quality-assured artemisinin-based combination therapy was virtually nonexistent among retailers. Informal private pharmacies, itinerant drug vendors and general retailers should be targeted for interventions to improve malaria treatment practices in Myanmar, particularly those that threaten the emergence and spread of artemisinin resistance.

  2. Contribution of education level and dairy fat sources to serum cholesterol in Russian and Finnish Karelia: results from four cross-sectional risk factor surveys in 1992–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Food habits vary by socio-economic group and geographic area. Data on socio-economic differences in food habits and in serum total cholesterol concentration from Russia are scarce. Our aim was to examine changes and educational differences in serum total cholesterol and in the consumption of major sources of saturated fat in two geographically neighbouring areas, Russian and Finnish Karelia, and to examine whether the foods associated with serum total cholesterol are different in the two areas. Methods Data from cross-sectional risk factor surveys from years 1992, 1997, 2002 and 2007 in the district of Pitkäranta, the Republic of Karelia, Russia (n = 2672), and North Karelia, Finland (n = 5437), were used. The analyses included two phases. 1) To examine the differences in cholesterol by education, the means and 95% confidence intervals for education groups were calculated for each study year. 2) Multivariate linear regression analysis was employed to examine the role of butter in cooking, butter on bread, fat-containing milk and cheese in explaining serum total cholesterol. In these analyses, the data for all four study years were combined. Results In Pitkäranta, serum total cholesterol fluctuated during the study period (1992–2007), whereas in North Karelia cholesterol levels declined consistently. No apparent differences in cholesterol levels by education were observed in Pitkäranta. In North Karelia, cholesterol was lower among subjects in the highest education tertile compared to the lowest education tertile in 1992 and 2002. In Pitkäranta, consumption of fat-containing milk was most strongly associated with cholesterol (β=0.19, 95% CI 0.10, 0.28) adjusted for sex, age, education and study year. In North Karelia, using butter in cooking (β=0.09, 95% CI 0.04, 0.15) and using butter on bread (β=0.09, 95% CI 0.02, 0.15) had a significant positive association with cholesterol. Conclusions In the two geographically neighbouring areas, the key

  3. Contribution of education level and dairy fat sources to serum cholesterol in Russian and Finnish Karelia: results from four cross-sectional risk factor surveys in 1992–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paalanen Laura

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food habits vary by socio-economic group and geographic area. Data on socio-economic differences in food habits and in serum total cholesterol concentration from Russia are scarce. Our aim was to examine changes and educational differences in serum total cholesterol and in the consumption of major sources of saturated fat in two geographically neighbouring areas, Russian and Finnish Karelia, and to examine whether the foods associated with serum total cholesterol are different in the two areas. Methods Data from cross-sectional risk factor surveys from years 1992, 1997, 2002 and 2007 in the district of Pitkäranta, the Republic of Karelia, Russia (n = 2672, and North Karelia, Finland (n = 5437, were used. The analyses included two phases. 1 To examine the differences in cholesterol by education, the means and 95% confidence intervals for education groups were calculated for each study year. 2 Multivariate linear regression analysis was employed to examine the role of butter in cooking, butter on bread, fat-containing milk and cheese in explaining serum total cholesterol. In these analyses, the data for all four study years were combined. Results In Pitkäranta, serum total cholesterol fluctuated during the study period (1992–2007, whereas in North Karelia cholesterol levels declined consistently. No apparent differences in cholesterol levels by education were observed in Pitkäranta. In North Karelia, cholesterol was lower among subjects in the highest education tertile compared to the lowest education tertile in 1992 and 2002. In Pitkäranta, consumption of fat-containing milk was most strongly associated with cholesterol (β=0.19, 95% CI 0.10, 0.28 adjusted for sex, age, education and study year. In North Karelia, using butter in cooking (β=0.09, 95% CI 0.04, 0.15 and using butter on bread (β=0.09, 95% CI 0.02, 0.15 had a significant positive association with cholesterol. Conclusions In the two geographically

  4. [Association between lower urinary tract symptoms and erectile dysfunction in males aged 50 years and above: results from a multicenter community-based cross-sectional survey (BPC-BPH)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jian; Shao, Qiang; Tian, Ye; Na, Yan-qun; Chen, Shan; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Xiang-hua; Hong, Bao-fa; Sun, Wen-xue; Diao, Ying-zhi

    2011-10-18

    To survey the incidence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and erectile dysfunction (ED) in males aged ≥ 50 years and explore the correlation between LUTS and ED. A cross-sectional study was performed at Beijing communities in 1644 males aged over 50 years. The International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) were recorded. Pearson's χ(2) test and Spearman correlation coefficients were used to analyze the results of IPSS, LUTS and their correlations with ED. The mean age was 64.5 years old (range: 50-93), the mean value of IPSS(9.9 ± 8.2), the prevalence of mild, moderate and severe LUTS 49.2% (809/1644), 36.4% (599/1644) and 14.4% (236/1644) respectively. The mean value of IIEF was (9.4 ± 8.6), the total incidence of ED 90.5% (1487/1644) and the incidence of ED of mild, moderate and severe LUTS 85.7% (694/809), 93.7% (561/599) and 97.9% (231/236) respectively. The total IIEF-5 score was found significantly correlated with the total IPSS score (r = -0.335, P < 0.01), the obstructive symptoms (r = -0.276, P < 0.01)and irritative symptoms (r = -0.326, P < 0.01). The severity of LUTS was correlated with the severity of ED (r = 0.304, P < 0.01). Correlations also existed between age and total IPSS score(r = 0.388, P < 0.01), LUTS severity (r = 0.457, P < 0.01), total IIEF score (r = -0.533, P < 0.01) or ED severity (r = 0.529, P < 0.01). The incidence of LUTS or ED in aging males increases with age. The severity of ED is positively correlated with the severity of LUTS. Irritative and obstructive symptoms influence the occurrence of ED in aging males.

  5. NREL Partnership Survey - FY 2016 Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducts an annual partnership satisfaction survey in which we ask our clients to rate NREL in a number of areas. As a national laboratory, the principal areas we focus on include value, timeliness, quality, price, and capabilities. This fact sheet shows the results of a survey with 300 customers responding to 11 questions using ratings that vary from 'strongly agree' to 'strongly disagree.' In FY 16, 100% of the scores improved or were equal to FY 15 numbers.

  6. Psychiatric problems in children with hemiplegia: cross sectional epidemiological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, R.; Graham, P.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the prevalence and predictors of psychiatric problems in children with hemiplegia. DESIGN--Cross sectional questionnaire survey of an epidemiological sample with individual assessments of a representative subgroup. The questionnaire survey was repeated on school age subjects four years later. SUBJECTS--428 hemiplegic children age 2 1/2-16 years, of whom 149 (aged 6-10 years) were individually assessed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Psychiatric symptom scores and the occurrence of psychiatric disorder. RESULTS--Psychiatric disorders affected 61% (95% confidence interval 53% to 69%) of subjects as judged by individual assessments and 54% (49% to 59%) and 42% (37% to 47%) as judged from parent and teacher questionnaires, respectively. Few affected children had been in contact with child mental health services. The strongest consistent predictor of psychiatric problems was intelligence quotient (IQ), which was highly correlated with an index of neurological severity; age, sex, and laterality of lesion had little or no predictive power. CONCLUSION--Though most hemiplegic children have considerable emotional or behavioural difficulties, these psychological complications commonly go unrecognised or untreated. Comprehensive health provision for children with chronic neurodevelopmental disorders such as hemiplegia should be psychologically as well as physically oriented. PMID:8616413

  7. Caesarean section on request: a survey in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwee, Anneke; Cohlen, Ben J; Kanhai, Humphrey H H; Bruinse, Hein W; Visser, Gerard H A

    2004-04-15

    To determine the opinion of Dutch gynaecologists and registrars on caesarean section (CS) on request. Anonymous postal survey. A structured survey was send to all 900 gynaecologists and registrars in The Netherlands. They were asked to what extent they were willing to accept a request for an elective caesarean section, without evident medical reason. The survey contained eight simulated cases in which the reason for this request differed (obstetrical history and course of the present pregnancy). In two cases, there was no medical indication at all to perform a caesarean section; and in a third case caesarean section was due to excessive maternal weight relatively contraindicated. The response rate was 65%. Willingness to perform an elective caesarean section ranged from 17 to 81% between the cases. Main reasons to perform a caesarean section were: (a). autonomy; (b). an unfavourable course of delivery in the absence of motivation for a natural childbirth; (c). litigation. The main reasons to refuse a request for a caesarean section were: (a). higher maternal morbidity and mortality; (b). no indication for caesarean section. A logistic regression analysis on personal characteristics showed that an experienced doctor is more willing to perform an elective caesarean section then a consultant or registrar with limited experience. The sex of the doctor was of no influence and the same held for the University at which they had been trained. Furthermore, it seems that doctors are more willing to accept the request if it is based upon unfounded, but understandable fear. In The Netherlands, a woman can always find a gynaecologist willing to perform a caesarean section for non medical reasons. This willingness increases with the age of the doctor. There is a need for guidelines when handling these cases.

  8. Height inequalities and their change trends in China during 1985-2010: results from 6 cross-sectional surveys on children and adolescents aged 7-18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong; Hang, Lei

    2017-05-18

    Great health inequalities have been reported in China over the past few years. Height has been used as an important parameter of health and it may also be distributed unequally in different regions. By studying height data of Chinese children and adolescents aged 7 to 18 years, we analyze height inequalities and their change trends during 1985-2010. On the base of data from 6 successive cross-sectional surveys of the Chinese National Survey on Student's Constitution and Health(CNSSCH) conducted in 1985,1991,1995,2000,2005 and 2010, we calculated difference of height for children and adolescents aged 7-18 years in different regions. Coefficients of Variation (CVs) of height were computed in urban and rural areas during 1985-2010. Great height difference existed between urban and rural, eastern and western, Shanghai and Guizhou children and adolescents aged 7-18 years. The urban-rural difference averagely decreased from 4.24 cm to 2.85 cm for boys and 3.72 cm to 1.31 cm for girls since 1985. Urban-rural difference tend to be more obvious in the poorer provinces, which has short mean statures. From 1985 to 2010, height difference became larger in eastern-western and Shanghai-Guizhou which represented the comparison between the richest and poorest regions. We also found there was a larger height inequality in rural areas compared with that in urban areas, and difference in rural subjects increased greater than their urban peers in eastern-western and Shanghai-Guizhou. There were obvious height inequalities in China and the urban-rural difference narrowed, while increasing differences happened between regions with different socioeconomic levels especially in their rural residents. More attention should be paid to these differences and policies and strategies should be developed to reduce inequalities in height.

  9. Results of the staff survey: your priorities

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    This is the first in a series of articles which will give some details about the results of the Staff Association staff survey To know your priorities and the evolution of your concerns over the last decade we study how, in each of our latest three surveys, you chose from a list of 15 items the five most important and classified them by assigning them a priority, from the most important to the fifth most important. The list of fifteen items, and a short description, follows. Career evolution (classification, level of recruitment, advancement, promotion) Salary level Family policy (recognition of partners, allowances, school fees, kindergarten, nursery, crèche, parental leave) Health insurance Non-residence and international indemnity Annual salary adjustment (cost variation index) Contract policy (duration, recruitment, award of IC, conditions of the beginning and ending of the contract) Motivation at work (interest, team, supervision, mobility, reward scheme) Pensions (retirement, disability, o...

  10. Correlates of a lifetime history of sexually transmitted infections among women who have sex with women in Toronto, Canada: results from a cross-sectional internet-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; Navia, Daniela; Loutfy, Mona R

    2015-06-01

    Structural drivers of sexually transmitted infections (STI) among women who have sex with women (WSW) have been underexplored. The study objective was to understand sociodemographic, individual, structural, and sexual health factors associated with a lifetime history of STI among WSW. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2012 to engage a peer-driven recruitment sample of WSW in Toronto, Canada. Data were collected among a convenience sample of 466 WSW using an online structured interview. Approximately one-fifth (n=89, 19.1%) of participants reported an STI diagnosis history. Participants identifying as bisexual were more likely, and lesbians less likely, to report an STI history than those identifying as queer. In multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for sociodemographic variables, STI history was associated with intrapersonal (STI knowledge, HIV/STI risk perceptions), interpersonal (male sex partners in past 3 months, number of lifetime sexual partners) and structural (sexual stigma, history of forced sex, belief healthcare provider (HCP) uncomfortable addressing sexual orientation) factors as well as sexual healthcare uptake (ever had STI/HIV test, STI/Pap test in past 2 years). Gender-non-conforming participants were less likely to report an STI history. This research is among the first to examine intrapersonal, interpersonal and structural factors correlated with an STI history among WSW. Findings highlight the importance of STI prevention strategies for WSW to be tailored to sexual identity, with particular attention to bisexual women's needs. Interventions should connect to sexual healthcare, address sexual stigma and train HCP to better meet the needs of WSW. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. GP registrar well-being: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schattner Peter

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To investigate the major stressors affecting GP registrars, how those at risk can be best identified and the most useful methods of managing or reducing their stress. Design, setting and participants Cross-sectional postal questionnaire of all GP registrars in one large regional training provider's catchment area. Main outcome measures The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS, a specifically developed Registrar Stressor Scale consisting of five subscales of potential stressors, plus closed questions on how to identify and manage stress in GP registrars. Results Survey response rate of 51% (102/199. Rural difficulties followed by achieving a work/life balance were the principal stressors. Ten percent of registrars were mildly or moderately depressed or anxious (DASS and 7% mild to moderately anxious (DASS. Registrars preferred informal means of identifying those under stress (a buddy system and talks with their supervisors; similarly, they preferred to manage stress by discussions with family and friends, debriefing with peers and colleagues, or undertaking sport and leisure activities. Conclusions This study supports research which confirms that poor psychological well-being is an important issue for a significant minority of GP trainees. Regional training providers should ensure that they facilitate formal and informal strategies to identify those at risk and assist them to cope with their stress.

  12. Contribution of education level and dairy fat sources to serum cholesterol in Russian and Finnish Karelia: results from four cross-sectional risk factor surveys in 1992-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paalanen, Laura; Prättälä, Ritva; Laatikainen, Tiina

    2012-10-26

    Food habits vary by socio-economic group and geographic area. Data on socio-economic differences in food habits and in serum total cholesterol concentration from Russia are scarce. Our aim was to examine changes and educational differences in serum total cholesterol and in the consumption of major sources of saturated fat in two geographically neighbouring areas, Russian and Finnish Karelia, and to examine whether the foods associated with serum total cholesterol are different in the two areas. Data from cross-sectional risk factor surveys from years 1992, 1997, 2002 and 2007 in the district of Pitkäranta, the Republic of Karelia, Russia (n = 2672), and North Karelia, Finland (n = 5437), were used. The analyses included two phases. 1) To examine the differences in cholesterol by education, the means and 95% confidence intervals for education groups were calculated for each study year. 2) Multivariate linear regression analysis was employed to examine the role of butter in cooking, butter on bread, fat-containing milk and cheese in explaining serum total cholesterol. In these analyses, the data for all four study years were combined. In Pitkäranta, serum total cholesterol fluctuated during the study period (1992-2007), whereas in North Karelia cholesterol levels declined consistently. No apparent differences in cholesterol levels by education were observed in Pitkäranta. In North Karelia, cholesterol was lower among subjects in the highest education tertile compared to the lowest education tertile in 1992 and 2002. In Pitkäranta, consumption of fat-containing milk was most strongly associated with cholesterol (β=0.19, 95% CI 0.10, 0.28) adjusted for sex, age, education and study year. In North Karelia, using butter in cooking (β=0.09, 95% CI 0.04, 0.15) and using butter on bread (β=0.09, 95% CI 0.02, 0.15) had a significant positive association with cholesterol. In the two geographically neighbouring areas, the key foods influencing serum cholesterol levels

  13. Do low survey response rates bias results? Evidence from Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald R. Rindfuss

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In developed countries, response rates have dropped to such low levels that many in the population field question whether the data can provide unbiased results. Objective: The paper uses three Japanese surveys conducted in the 2000s to ask whether low survey response rates bias results. A secondary objective is to bring results reported in the survey response literature to the attention of the demographic research community. Methods: Using a longitudinal survey as well as paradata from a cross-sectional survey, a variety of statistical techniques (chi square, analysis of variance (ANOVA, logistic regression, ordered probit or ordinary least squares regression (OLS, as appropriate are used to examine response-rate bias. Results: Evidence of response-rate bias is found for the univariate distributions of some demographic characteristics, behaviors, and attitudinal items. But when examining relationships between variables in a multivariate analysis, controlling for a variety of background variables, for most dependent variables we do not find evidence of bias from low response rates. Conclusions: Our results are consistent with results reported in the econometric and survey research literatures. Low response rates need not necessarily lead to biased results. Bias is more likely to be present when examining a simple univariate distribution than when examining the relationship between variables in a multivariate model. Comments: The results have two implications. First, demographers should not presume the presence or absence of low response-rate bias; rather they should test for it in the context of a specific substantive analysis. Second, demographers should lobby data gatherers to collect as much paradata as possible so that rigorous tests for low response-rate bias are possible.

  14. Greek Alcohol Survey: Results and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Wesley; And Others

    Alcohol use among 458 members of Greek fraternities and sororities at the University of North Dakota was surveyed. The survey instrument, which was an adaptation of a questionnaire developed by Michael A. Looney, was directed to frequency of use, amounts consumed, type of beverage, attitudes, and demographic information. It was found that…

  15. Studies in the quality of life of head and neck cancer patients: results of a two-year longitudinal study and a comparative cross-sectional cross-cultural survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Randall P

    2003-07-01

    To examine quality-of-life (QL) changes that occur over time among patients treated for head and neck cancer and to compare QL outcomes in two geographically separate and culturally distinct populations. A prospective, observational longitudinal study was made of QL changes over time in head and neck cancer patients, and a matched-pairs cross-sectional study was conducted for comparison of QL outcomes between groups of head and neck cancer patients from two different sociocultural environments. Patients attending a tertiary head and neck cancer center in Auckland, New Zealand, were interviewed using a validated questionnaire before treatment and at 3, 12, and 24 months after treatment. Changes over time were assessed according to gender, site and stage of primary tumor, and type of treatment received. A second group of patients from Toronto, Ontario, Canada, were matched to the first group for age, gender, site and stage of tumor, and time since treatment and interviewed using the same questionnaire. The group comparison was followed by a matched-pairs analysis for the 12-month follow-up interval. In the longitudinal study, combined modality treatment resulted in greater physical and somatic dysfunction than single modality treatment. Patients learned to cope well with dysfunction and disability and with adjusting their lifestyle so that overall QL was not related to treatment received. Even so, pain scores and measures of psychological distress were related to overall QL. Otherwise there was no consistent correlation between specific symptoms and QL. An illustration of patients' adaptation to dysfunction was evident in scores for perceived difficulty swallowing, which decrease despite the ongoing need for a soft or liquid diet. In the comparative study, significantly different global QL scores were evident in the two clinical groups studied, despite similar social, somatic, and physical functioning. There was also a significant but inconstant difference in

  16. Cross Sectional Survey Of Hiv/Aids High Risk Behaviours Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cross Sectional Survey Of Hiv/Aids High Risk Behaviours Among Commertcial Motorcycle ('Okada\\') Riders In Jos Metropolis, Plateau State. ... Data was generated using semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaire and the results were analyzed using EPI info version 2000 computer software. Results: The study ...

  17. Eating patterns of Turkish adolescents: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Adolescence is a crucial period for development of dietary behaviors that continue into adulthood and influence the risk of chronic diseases later in life. The aim of this study was to determine the eating patterns of adolescents' and their compliance with the Food Guide Pyramid. Methods 625 students, aged between 11-15 years, from an elementary school in Istanbul, Turkey were enrolled in this cross-sectional survey. A questionnaire of eating patterns (QEP) was administered to all participants. QEP is consisted of questions assessing the knowledge and behaviors on healthy eating, factors affecting food choice, physical activity status and demographical variables. Height and weight of all participants were measured. Physical activity status was determined by questioning about participation in regular sport activities, how much time spent watching TV, playing computer games or doing homework. Results The mean age of the participants was 12.15 ± 1.15 and 50.5% were female. According to body mass index (BMI) percentiles, 8.3% (52) were obese and 10.2% were overweight. 51% had breakfast every day and only 1.9% met all the recommendations of the Food Guide Pyramid. Among the participants, 31% have fast food at least once every day and 60.8% skip meals. When participants were asked to rate the factors effecting their food choice according to a 10 point Likert scale, the highest mean scores (high impact on food choice) were for the factors; family, health, body perception, teachers and friends; 7.5 ± 3.1, 7.4 ± 3.1, 6.1 ± 3.2, 4.8 ± 3.3 and 4.2 ± 3.0 respectively. Total mean time spent on all passive activities (TV, computer, reading homework etc) per day was 9.8 ± 4.7 hours. Conclusions In this study we have demonstrated that, adolescents do not have healthy eating patterns. Educational interventions should be planned to decrease the health risks attributable to their eating behaviors. PMID:21167070

  18. Eating patterns of Turkish adolescents: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayran Osman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescence is a crucial period for development of dietary behaviors that continue into adulthood and influence the risk of chronic diseases later in life. The aim of this study was to determine the eating patterns of adolescents' and their compliance with the Food Guide Pyramid. Methods 625 students, aged between 11-15 years, from an elementary school in Istanbul, Turkey were enrolled in this cross-sectional survey. A questionnaire of eating patterns (QEP was administered to all participants. QEP is consisted of questions assessing the knowledge and behaviors on healthy eating, factors affecting food choice, physical activity status and demographical variables. Height and weight of all participants were measured. Physical activity status was determined by questioning about participation in regular sport activities, how much time spent watching TV, playing computer games or doing homework. Results The mean age of the participants was 12.15 ± 1.15 and 50.5% were female. According to body mass index (BMI percentiles, 8.3% (52 were obese and 10.2% were overweight. 51% had breakfast every day and only 1.9% met all the recommendations of the Food Guide Pyramid. Among the participants, 31% have fast food at least once every day and 60.8% skip meals. When participants were asked to rate the factors effecting their food choice according to a 10 point Likert scale, the highest mean scores (high impact on food choice were for the factors; family, health, body perception, teachers and friends; 7.5 ± 3.1, 7.4 ± 3.1, 6.1 ± 3.2, 4.8 ± 3.3 and 4.2 ± 3.0 respectively. Total mean time spent on all passive activities (TV, computer, reading homework etc per day was 9.8 ± 4.7 hours. Conclusions In this study we have demonstrated that, adolescents do not have healthy eating patterns. Educational interventions should be planned to decrease the health risks attributable to their eating behaviors.

  19. Child abuse: Cross-sectional survey of general dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harsimran; Chaudhary, Seema; Choudhary, Nidhi; Manuja, Naveen; Chaitra, T R; Amit, Sinha Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Child abuse continues to be a social menace causing both physical and emotional trauma to benevolent children. Census has shown that nearly 50-75% of child abuse include trauma to mouth, face, and head. Thus, dental professionals are in strategic position to identify physical and emotional manifestations of abuse. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken to assess knowledge and attitude of dental practitioners regarding child abuse and to identify the barriers in reporting the same. With prior consent, a 20-question survey including both multiple choice and dichotomous (Yes/No) questions was mailed to 120 state-registered general dentists, and the data collected were subjected to statistical analysis. Overall response rate to the questionnaires was 97%. Lack of knowledge about dentist's role in reporting child abuse accounted to 55% in the reasons for hesitancy to report. Pearson chi-square test did not show any significant difference between male and female regarding reason for hesitancy to report and legal obligation of dentists. Although respondent dentists were aware of the diagnosis of child abuse, they were hesitant and unaware of the appropriate authority to report. Increased instruction in the areas of recognition and reporting of child abuse and neglect should be emphasized.

  20. Practice Nurse Education Needs Analysis survey results.

    OpenAIRE

    Procter, Susan; Loveday, H; Nakisa, Mel; Nasir, L; Berry, Z; Chaggar, G; Wilson, JA

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the outcomes from a questionnaire completed by practice nurses in the CWHHE CCG collaborative and the outer NWL CCGs. Data from the CWHHE CCGs were collected by Bucks New University. Data from the outer NWL CCGs were collected by the University of West London, using a survey based on that used by Bucks. The Aims of the study were to: • identify the key education priorities for practice nursing across the 8 NW London CCGs; • explore future practice and education requireme...

  1. Validation of the Fibromyalgia Survey Questionnaire within a cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winfried Häuser

    Full Text Available The Fibromyalgia Survey Questionnaire (FSQ assesses the key symptoms of fibromyalgia syndrome. The FSQ can be administrated in survey research and settings where the use of interviews to evaluate the number of pain sites and extent of somatic symptom intensity and tender point examination would be difficult. We validated the FSQ in a cross-sectional survey with FMS patients. In a cross-sectional survey, participants with physician diagnosis of FMS were recruited by FMS-self help organisations and nine clinical institutions of different levels of care. Participants answered the FSQ (composed by the Widespread Pain Index [WPI] and the Somatic Severity Score [SSS] assessing the Fibromyalgia Survey Diagnostic Criteria (FSDC and the Patient Health Questionnaire PHQ 4. American College of Rheumatology 1990 classification criteria were assessed in a subgroup of participants. 1,651 persons diagnosed with FMS were included into analysis. The acceptance of the FSQ-items ranged between 78.9 to 98.1% completed items. The internal consistency of the items of the SSS ranged between 0.75-0.82. 85.5% of the study participants met the FSDC. The concordance rate of the FSDC and ACR 1990 criteria was 72.7% in a subsample of 128 patients. The Pearson correlation of the SSS with the PHQ 4 depression score was 0.52 (p<0.0001 and with the PHQ anxiety score was 0.51 (p<0.0001 (convergent validity. 64/202 (31.7% of the participants not meeting the FSDC criteria and 152/1283 (11.8% of the participants meeting the FSDC criteria reported an improvement (slightly too very much better in their health status since FMS-diagnosis (Chi(2 = 55, p<0.0001 (discriminant validity. The study demonstrated the feasibility of the FSQ in a cross-sectional survey with FMS-patients. The reliability, convergent and discriminant validity of the FSQ were good. Further validation studies of the FSQ in clinical and general population settings are necessary.

  2. PRES 2013: Results from the Postgraduate Research Experience Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul; Turner, Gosia

    2013-01-01

    This document outlines the results of the "2013 Postgraduate Research Experience Survey" ("PRES"), where 48,401 replies were received from 122 participating institutions. Redeveloped for 2013, our biennial survey is the only national survey to gather insight from postgraduate research students about their learning and…

  3. Medical Radioisotope Data Survey: 2002 Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siciliano, Edward R.

    2004-06-23

    A limited, but accurate amount of detailed information about the radioactive isotopes used in the U.S. for medical procedures was collected from a local hospital and from a recent report on the U.S. Radiopharmaceutical Markets. These data included the total number of procedures, the specific types of procedures, the specific radioisotopes used in these procedures, and the dosage administered per procedure. The information from these sources was compiled, assessed, pruned, and then merged into a single, comprehensive and consistent set of results presented in this report. (PIET-43471-TM-197)

  4. Numerical homogenization: survey, new results, and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Antoine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available These notes give a state of the art of numerical homogenization methods for linear elliptic equations. The guideline of these notes is analysis. Most of the numerical homogenization methods can be seen as (more or less different discretizations of the same family of continuous approximate problems, which H-converges to the homogenized problem. Likewise numerical correctors may also be interpreted as approximations of Tartar’s correctors. Hence the convergence analysis of these methods relies on the H-convergence theory. When one is interested in convergence rates, the story is different. In particular one first needs to make additional structure assumptions on the heterogeneities (say periodicity for instance. In that case, a crucial tool is the spectral interpretation of the corrector equation by Papanicolaou and Varadhan. Spectral analysis does not only allow to obtain convergence rates, but also to devise efficient new approximation methods. For both qualitative and quantitative properties, the development and the analysis of numerical homogenization methods rely on seminal concepts of the homogenization theory. These notes contain some new results. Ces notes de cours dressent un état de l’art des méthodes d’homogénéisation numérique pour les équations elliptiques linéaires. Le fil conducteur choisi est l’analyse. La plupart des méthodes d’homogénéisation numérique s’interprète comme des discrétisations (plus ou moins différentes d’une même famille de problèmes continus approchés qui H-converge vers le problème homogénéisé. De même, le concept de correcteur numérique s’interprète comme une approximation des correcteurs introduits par Tartar. Ainsi l’analyse de convergence repose essentiellement sur la théorie de la H-convergence. Si on s’intéresse aux estimations quantitatives d’erreur, il faut faire des hypothèses supplémentaires de structure sur les hétérogénéités (périodicité par

  5. Off-label use of oncology drugs: national survey results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva González-Haba Peña

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: identify by means of a survey the off-label treatments more often used in the oncohaematology area, as well as to know the established procedures and criteria used to authorise those treatments. Methods: a four-section survey was designed: 1 demographic data and hospital activity, 2 Off-label treatments protocol, 3 Approval criteria and 4 Off-label oncology treatments conducted during the last year. Results: in 42.1% of the hospitals it’s needed an authorisation before dispensing in more tan 80% of the treatments. The most influential factor in the approval-dispensation system is the available evidence. The consent of the hospital management with previous Pharmacy department’s report was the most common authorisation procedure. 55.3% of the hospitals settled specific patient criteria to help the decision-making altogether with the available safety and efficacy data of the drug for the requested indication. In most centers a lower level of evidence is accepted if there are no therapeutic alternatives as well as in tumors of low prevalence. Most of the centers have not clearly established a criterion of effectiveness to consider a benefit as clinically relevant, nor the cost-effectiveness threshold for approving a FFT. Conclusions: there is a great variability in the off-label treatments use and also in the criteria used for its approval.

  6. Eating patterns of Turkish adolescents: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Mehmet; Akan, Hülya; Izbirak, Güldal; Tanriöver, Özlem; Tilev, Sırma Mine; Yildiz, Anil; Tektaş, Simge; Vitrinel, Ayça; Hayran, Osman

    2010-12-19

    Adolescence is a crucial period for development of dietary behaviors that continue into adulthood and influence the risk of chronic diseases later in life. The aim of this study was to determine the eating patterns of adolescents' and their compliance with the Food Guide Pyramid. 625 students, aged between 11-15 years, from an elementary school in Istanbul, Turkey were enrolled in this cross-sectional survey. A questionnaire of eating patterns (QEP) was administered to all participants. QEP is consisted of questions assessing the knowledge and behaviors on healthy eating, factors affecting food choice, physical activity status and demographical variables. Height and weight of all participants were measured. Physical activity status was determined by questioning about participation in regular sport activities, how much time spent watching TV, playing computer games or doing homework. The mean age of the participants was 12.15 ± 1.15 and 50.5% were female. According to body mass index (BMI) percentiles, 8.3% (52) were obese and 10.2% were overweight. 51% had breakfast every day and only 1.9% met all the recommendations of the Food Guide Pyramid. Among the participants, 31% have fast food at least once every day and 60.8% skip meals. When participants were asked to rate the factors effecting their food choice according to a 10 point Likert scale, the highest mean scores (high impact on food choice) were for the factors; family, health, body perception, teachers and friends; 7.5 ± 3.1, 7.4 ± 3.1, 6.1 ± 3.2, 4.8 ± 3.3 and 4.2 ± 3.0 respectively. Total mean time spent on all passive activities (TV, computer, reading homework etc) per day was 9.8 ± 4.7 hours. In this study we have demonstrated that, adolescents do not have healthy eating patterns. Educational interventions should be planned to decrease the health risks attributable to their eating behaviors.

  7. Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture: Benchmarking Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herner, Sheryl J; Rawlings, Julia E; Swartzendruber, Kelly; Delate, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    This study's objective was to assess the patient safety culture in a large, integrated health delivery system's pharmacy department to allow for benchmarking with other health systems. This was a cross-sectional survey conducted in a pharmacy department consisting of staff members who provide dispensing, clinical, and support services within an integrated health delivery system. The U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's 11-composite, validated Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire was transcribed into an online format. All departmental staff members were invited to participate in this anonymous survey. Cronbach α and overall results and contrasts between dispensing and clinical services staff and dispensing pharmacists and technicians/clerks as percentage positive scores (PPSs) are presented. Differences in contrasts were assessed with χ tests of association. Completed questionnaires were received from 598 (69.9%) of 855 employees. Cronbach α ranged from 0.55 to 0.90. Overall, the highest and lowest composite PPSs were for patient counseling (94.5%) and staffing and work pressure (44.7%), respectively. Compared with dispensing service, the clinical service participants had statistically higher PPSs for all composites except patient counseling, communication about mistakes, and staffing and work pressure (all P > 0.05). The technicians/clerks had a statistically higher PPS compared with the pharmacists for communication about mistakes (P = 0.007). All other composites were equivalent between groups. Patient counseling consistently had the highest PPS among composites measured, but opportunities existed for improvement in all aspects measured. Future research should identify and assess interventions targeted to improving the patient safety culture in pharmacy.

  8. Results of a survey on current surgical smoke control practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ben E; Reiman, Robert E

    2008-04-01

    Researchers at Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, conducted a simple, web-based survey of AORN members to evaluate surgical smoke control practices. Survey respondents from various medical specialties and facilities throughout North America indicated their facilities' level of compliance with established surgical smoke control measures. Survey results indicate that many facilities have not implemented best practices for protecting patients and health care workers from surgical smoke hazards, especially smoke created during electrosurgical, electrocautery, and diathermy procedures. (c) AORN, Inc, 2008.

  9. WHO Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health in Latin America: classifying caesarean sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faúndes Anibal

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caesarean section rates continue to increase worldwide with uncertain medical consequences. Auditing and analysing caesarean section rates and other perinatal outcomes in a reliable and continuous manner is critical for understanding reasons caesarean section changes over time. Methods We analyzed data on 97,095 women delivering in 120 facilities in 8 countries, collected as part of the 2004-2005 Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health in Latin America. The objective of this analysis was to test if the "10-group" or "Robson" classification could help identify which groups of women are contributing most to the high caesarean section rates in Latin America, and if it could provide information useful for health care providers in monitoring and planning effective actions to reduce these rates. Results The overall rate of caesarean section was 35.4%. Women with single cephalic pregnancy at term without previous caesarean section who entered into labour spontaneously (groups 1 and 3 represented 60% of the total obstetric population. Although women with a term singleton cephalic pregnancy with a previous caesarean section (group 5 represented only 11.4% of the obstetric population, this group was the largest contributor to the overall caesarean section rate (26.7% of all the caesarean sections. The second and third largest contributors to the overall caesarean section rate were nulliparous women with single cephalic pregnancy at term either in spontaneous labour (group 1 or induced or delivered by caesarean section before labour (group 2, which were responsible for 18.3% and 15.3% of all caesarean deliveries, respectively. Conclusion The 10-group classification could be easily applied to a multicountry dataset without problems of inconsistencies or misclassification. Specific groups of women were clearly identified as the main contributors to the overall caesarean section rate. This classification could help health care

  10. Results Of The Needs Assessment Survey Of Lecturers For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The College of Medicine University of Nigeria as a first step in establishing an Office of Medical Education carried out a survey of the faculty members to determine their need for an office of medical education. This paper analysis the result of the survey. Method: A questionnaire to assess the faculty needs for establishing an ...

  11. Integrated alarm annunciation and entry control systems -- Survey results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clever, J.J.; Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.; Juarros, L.E.; Quintana, G.R.

    1993-10-01

    This report provides the results and analyses of a detailed survey undertaken in Summer 1993 to address integrated intrusion detection alarm annunciation and entry control system issues. This survey was undertaken as a first attempt toward beginning to answer questions about integrated systems and commercial capabilities to meet or partially meet US Department of Energy (DOE) site needs.

  12. National wildlife refuge visitor survey results: 2010/2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Natalie R.; Dietsch, Alia M.; Don Carolos, Andrew W.; Miller, Holly M.; Koontz, Lynne M.; Solomon, Adam N.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) collaborated with the U.S. Geological Survey to conduct a national survey of visitors regarding their experiences on national wildlife refuges. The survey was conducted to better understand visitor needs and experiences and to design programs and facilities that respond to those needs. The survey results will inform Service performance planning, budget, and communications goals. Results will also inform Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCPs), Visitor Services, and Transportation Planning processes. The survey was conducted on 53 refuges across the National Wildlife Refuge System (Refuge System) to better understand visitor needs and experiences and to design programs and facilities that respond to those needs. A total of 14,832 visitors agreed to participate in the survey between July 2010 and November 2011. In all, 10,233 visitors completed the survey for a 71% response rate. This report provides a summary of visitor and trip characteristics; visitor opinions about refuges and their offerings; and visitor opinions about alternative transportation and climate change, two Refuge System topics of interest. The Refuge System, established in 1903 and managed by the Service, is the leading network of protected lands and waters in the world dedicated to the conservation of fish, wildlife and their habitats. There are 556 National Wildlife Refuges and 38 wetland management districts nationwide, encompassing more than 150 million acres. The Refuge System attracts more than 45 million visitors annually, including 25 million people per year to observe and photograph wildlife, over 9 million to hunt and fish, and more than 10 million to participate in educational and interpretation programs. Understanding visitors and characterizing their experiences on national wildlife refuges are critical elements of managing these lands and meeting the goals of the Refuge System. These combined results are based on surveying at 53 participating

  13. Dental fear among transgender individuals - a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heima, Masahiro; Heaton, Lisa J; Ng, Henry H; Roccoforte, Elisabeth C

    2017-09-01

    The aims of this study were to: (1) evaluate the level of dental fear among transgender individuals and (2) investigate specific predictors of dental fear in individuals who identify as transgender. An anonymous survey among transgender adults was conducted using both a web-based and paper survey. The survey included the Dental Fear Survey (DFS), history of hormonal interventions, perceived gender roles, and demographic information. The bivariate analyses did not show a significant difference in DFS between sex assigned at birth (p = 0.628) or among gender identities (p = 0.109). A regression model analysis for the level of DFS by using participants' demographic information as independent variables indicated the fear and experience of discrimination/maltreatment were significant predictors of dental fear; standardized beta coefficients (p-value) were 0.35 (p = 0.017) and 0.28 (p = 0.041), respectively. The fear and experiences of discrimination/maltreatment were significantly positively associated with their level of dental fear. © 2017 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Birth and Emergency Planning: A Cross Sectional Survey of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birth and emergency planning encourages early decision making, helps overcome barriers to skilled maternity care and reduces preventable maternal and newborn deaths. A facility based postnatal survey of 483 childbearing women in Accra, Ghana determined birth and emergency planning steps, awareness of obstetric ...

  15. NABat 2014 survey results : Baca National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is on the 2014 NABat survey results from Baca National Wildlife Refuge. The North American Bat Monitoring Program (NABat) is a national program to...

  16. The Impact of Repeated Lying on Survey Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Chesney

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the effects on results of participants completing a survey more than once, a phenomenon known as farming. Using data from a real social science study as a baseline, three strategies that participants might use to farm are studied by Monte Carlo simulation. Findings show that farming influences survey results and can cause both statistical hypotheses testing Type I (false positive and Type II (false negative errors in unpredictable ways.

  17. Orthopaedic nurses' perception of research utilization - A cross sectional survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2015-01-01

    of acceptance from colleagues and section head nurses and a shortage of time. This study forms a baseline as a part of a larger study and contributes knowledge useful to other orthopaedic departments with an interest in optimizing nursing research to improve orthopaedic nursing care quality....

  18. Factors affecting orthopedic residency selection: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelzow, Jason; Petretta, Robert; Broekhuyse, Henry M

    2017-06-01

    Annually, orthopedic residency programs rank and recruit the best possible candidates. Little evidence exists identifying factors that potential candidates use to select their career paths. Recent literature from nonsurgical programs suggests hospital, social and program-based factors influence program selection. We sought to determine what factors influence the choice of an orthopedic career and a candidate's choice of orthopedic residency program. We surveyed medical student applicants to orthopedic programs and current Canadian orthopedic surgery residents (postgraduate year [PGY] 1-5). The confidential online survey focused on 3 broad categories of program selection: educational, program cohesion and noneducation factors. Questions were graded on a Likert Scale and tailed for mean scores. In total, 139 residents from 11 of 17 Canadian orthopedic programs (49% response rate) and 23 medical student applicants (88% response rate) completed our survey. Orthopedic electives and mandatory rotations were reported by 71% of participants as somewhat or very important to their career choice. Collegiality among residents (4.70 ± 0.6), program being the "right fit" (4.65 ± 0.53) and current resident satisfaction with their chosen program (4.63 ±0.66) were ranked with the highest mean scores on a 5-point Likert scale. There are several modifiable factors that residency programs may use to attract applicants, including early availability of clerkship rotations and a strong mentorship environment emphasizing both resident-resident and resident-staff cohesion. Desirable residency programs should develop early access to surgical and operative skills. These must be balanced with a continued emphasis on top-level orthopedic training.

  19. [Utilization of CAP Survey, Based on Questionnaire Results from Survey Participants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Akiko; Ohno, Hiroie

    2015-08-01

    The survey provided by the College of American Pathologists (CAP) is chosen as one of the proficiency testing programs in Japan, and, recently, the numbers of participating facilities have increased. CAP provides 754 programs, and more than 1,000 tests were provided in 2014. Materials are translated as the "CAP global inter-laboratory comparison program" under the instruction of the Japanese Society of Laboratory Medicine (JSLM) selected from CAP surveys in Japan, and 68 programs and 261 items are provided. The total number of participating facilities was 174. CAP itself and the other services CAP provides are not well-known, while recognition of "the CAP survey as the proficiency test" has increased. The question "What is CAP and the CAP survey" was analyzed as a result of the questionnaire surveys conducted in 2014, and the advantage of the CAP survey and how to utilize it were considered. A questionnaire survey was conducted about the CAP survey for Japanese participants in 2014. Fifty-three questions were asked about their satisfaction level, intended use, and improvement. Eighty replies were analyzed. As a result, most CAP survey participants are satisfied. They intend to mainly use the CAP survey for their quality control. Furthermore, they can continuously monitor their systems throughout all testing phases as the survey has numbers of shipments a year and several specimens per each mailing. This helps in laboratory performance improvement. The Evaluation and Participant Summary (PSR) also effectively improves the laboratories' performance. CAP-accredited laboratories are required to participate in all survey programs concerning the test menu which they provide. Therefore, they have become accustomed to reviewing the evaluation and performing self-evaluation with a high usage rate of the Evaluation and PSR of the CAP survey. The questionnaire proved that performing the CAP survey properly enhanced the laboratories' quality control, and this meets the

  20. 75 FR 33821 - Section 8 Random Digit Dialing Fair Market Rent Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Section 8 Random Digit Dialing Fair Market Rent Surveys AGENCY: Office of the Chief... provides HUD with a fast, inexpensive way to estimate Section 8 Fair Market Rents (FMRs) in areas not... lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Section 8 Random Digit Dialing Fair Market Rent...

  1. Early science results from the Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, E.; Guenther, M. N.

    2017-09-01

    The Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS) is a new wide-field, ground-based exoplanet survey designed to detect Neptunes and super-Earths transiting bright stars, which are amenable to precise radial velocity confirmation and mass determination. NGTS comprises an array of twelve independent robotised 20-cm telescopes located at ESO's Paranal Observatory in Chile, and has been operational since early 2016. While monitoring 10% of the southern sky during it's survey time, the facility achieves sub-mmag photometric precision, which is unprecedented for wide-field ground-based transit surveys. We will introduce NGTS, describe our novel planet detection and vetting pipeline, and present early science results: new confirmed and candidate exoplanets, low-mass eclipsing binaries, variable stars and stellar flares.

  2. Preface: The LAMOST Galactic surveys and early results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Wei; Zhao, Gang; Hou, Jin-Liang

    2015-08-01

    By the time of this writing, the ongoing LAMOST Galactic surveys have collected approximately 4.5 million stellar spectra with signal-to-noise ratios better than 10 per pixel. This special issue is devoted to early results from the surveys, mostly based on the LAMOST Data Release 1 (DR1; Luo et al., this volume) that contains data secured by May 2013, the end of the first year of regular surveys, although a few studies have made use of data collected in the second year of regular surveys. LAMOST DR1 was released to the Chinese astronomical community and international partners in August 2013 and made public to the whole world in March 2015. Here we briefly review the scope and motivation, data reduction and release, as well as early results of the surveys. As the project advances, one can expect that these surveys will yield an exquisite description of the distribution, kinematics and chemistry of Galactic stellar populations, especially those within a few kpc of the Sun, a robust measurement of the local dark matter density, and, consequently, shed light on how our Galaxy, and other galaxies in general, form and evolve.

  3. Speak Up Speak Out Coalition Survey Results | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comprehensive planning is a visionary planning process that integrates community values and land use policy. The Mayor of Duluth, Minnesota, directed the inclusion of two new values into the City’s comprehensive planning process to direct the community’s future, process: health and fairness. In order to understand the meanings of health and fairness that residents of the city hold, the Community Planning Department included questions in a city-wide survey of planning priorities. As a community organization reviewed the survey results that would inform the new directives, they realized that overburdened communities were underrepresented in the survey responses. To address this deficiency, the community organization asked the City of Duluth if they could conduct a survey of the underrepresented voices to ensure their input was included in the process. The Health in All Policies Coalition contacted the USEPA Office of Research and Development in Duluth, MN at the advice of the Planning Department. The support USEPA provided ensured that the Coalition could make recommendations to the City of Duluth based on systematically collected and analyzed data. This presentation will share the results of the survey. This presentation of the Speak Up Speak Out survey data represents support for local decision-making, technical assistance and data analysis. The data were collected and analyzed through advice and consultation with USEPA Office of Research and Development, an

  4. Perceived Injury Risk among Junior Cricketers: A Cross Sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna J. Gamage

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how junior athletes perceive injury risks when participating in sport and the environment they play in is an important component of injury prevention. This study investigates how Sri Lankan junior cricketers (n = 365, aged 11–14 years, boys perceive injury risks associated with playing cricket. The study used a Sri Lankan modification of an Australian junior cricket injury risk perception survey that considered playing cricket versus other sports, different cricket playing positions and roles, and different ground conditions. The risk of playing cricket was considered to be greater than that for cycling, but lower than that for rugby and soccer. Fast-bowlers, batters facing fast-bowlers, fielding close in the field, and wicket-keeping without a helmet were perceived to pose greater risks of injury than other scenarios. Playing on hard, bumpy and/or wet ground conditions were perceived to have a high risk opposed to playing on a grass field. Fielding in the outfield and wicket-keeping to fast-bowlers whilst wearing a helmet were perceived as low risk actions. The risk perceptions of junior cricketers identified in this study, do not necessarily reflect the true injury risk in some instances. This information will inform the development of injury prevention education interventions to address these risk perceptions in junior cricketers.

  5. The German fibromyalgia consumer reports - a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häuser, Winfried; Jung, Eva; Erbslöh-Möller, Brigitte; Gesmann, Mechthild; Kühn-Becker, Hedi; Petermann, Franz; Langhorst, Jost; Thoma, Reinhard; Weiss, Thomas; Wolfe, Frederick; Winkelmann, Andreas

    2012-05-18

    Consumer surveys provide information on effectiveness and side effects of medical interventions in routine clinical care. A report of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) consumers has not been carried out in Europe. The study was carried out from November 2010 to April 2011. Participants diagnosed with FMS rated the effectiveness and side effects of pharmacological and non-pharmacological FMS interventions on a 0 to 10 scale, with 10 being most efficacious (harmful). The questionnaire was distributed by the German League for people with Arthritis and Rheumatism and the German Fibromyalgia Association to their members and to all consecutive FMS patients of nine clinical centers of different levels of care. 1661 questionnaires (95% women, mean age 54 years, mean duration since FMS diagnosis 6.8 years) were analysed. The most frequently used therapies were self-management strategies, prescription pain medication and aerobic exercise. The highest average effectiveness was attributed to whole body and local warmth therapies, thermal bathes, FMS education and resting. The highest average side effects were attributed to strong opioids, local cold therapy, gamma-amino-butyric acid analogues (pregabalin and gabapentin), tramadol and opioid transdermal systems. The German fibromyalgia consumer reports highlight the importance of non-pharmcological therapies in the long-term management of FMS, and challenges the strong recommendations for drug therapies given by FMS-guidelines.

  6. Perceived Injury Risk among Junior Cricketers: A Cross Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, Prasanna J.; Fortington, Lauren V.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how junior athletes perceive injury risks when participating in sport and the environment they play in is an important component of injury prevention. This study investigates how Sri Lankan junior cricketers (n = 365, aged 11–14 years, boys) perceive injury risks associated with playing cricket. The study used a Sri Lankan modification of an Australian junior cricket injury risk perception survey that considered playing cricket versus other sports, different cricket playing positions and roles, and different ground conditions. The risk of playing cricket was considered to be greater than that for cycling, but lower than that for rugby and soccer. Fast-bowlers, batters facing fast-bowlers, fielding close in the field, and wicket-keeping without a helmet were perceived to pose greater risks of injury than other scenarios. Playing on hard, bumpy and/or wet ground conditions were perceived to have a high risk opposed to playing on a grass field. Fielding in the outfield and wicket-keeping to fast-bowlers whilst wearing a helmet were perceived as low risk actions. The risk perceptions of junior cricketers identified in this study, do not necessarily reflect the true injury risk in some instances. This information will inform the development of injury prevention education interventions to address these risk perceptions in junior cricketers. PMID:28829390

  7. Healthcare professionals' readiness for an interprofessional orthogeriatric unit: A cross-sectional survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Charlotte; Nørgaard, Birgitte; Draborg, Eva

    2016-01-01

    an understanding of their motivations and concerns and provides a useful tool in for the planning and implementation of a new interprofessional collaboration model. Our results contribute to the limited body of research into the implementation of interprofessional collaboration models....... conducted a cross-sectional survey to assess readiness for change (N=223 employees) in a hospital on the verge of implementing an interprofessional, co-managed, orthogeriatric unit. Staff members from three departments with tasks related to orthogeriatric patients were invited to answer a web...... have a positive effect on patient-perceived quality (88.5%) and clinical quality (81.4%). Our survey documents that health care professionals are confident that interprofessional collaboration will be promoted by the implementation of orthogeriatric care. Their concerns pertained to different practical...

  8. A survey of lattice results on finite temperature quantum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A survey of lattice results on finite temperature quantum chromodynamics. E LAERMANN. Fakultät für Physik, Universität Bielefeld, D-33615 Bielefeld, Germany. Abstract. The talk summarizes some new results of lattice investigations of QCD at finite temper- ature. The topics discussed cover the flavor dependence of the ...

  9. Bullying in the American Graduate Medical Education System: A National Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To deliver an estimate of bullying among residents and fellows in the United States graduate medical education system and to explore its prevalence within unique subgroups. Design/Setting/Participants A national cross-sectional survey from a sample of residents and fellows who completed an online bullying survey conducted in June 2015. The survey was distributed using a chain sampling method that relied on electronic referrals from 4,055 training programs, with 1,791 residents and fellows completing the survey in its entirety. Survey respondents completed basic demographic and programmatic information plus four general bullying and 20 specific bullying behavior questions. Between-group differences were compared for demographic and programmatic stratifications. Main Outcomes/Measures Self-reported subjected to workplace bullying from peers, attendings, nurses, ancillary staff, or patients in the past 12 months. Results Almost half of the respondents (48%) reported being subjected to bullying although both those subjected and not subjected reported experiencing ≥ 1 bullying behaviors (95% and 39% respectively). Attendings (29%) and nurses (27%) were the most frequently identified source of bullying, followed by patients, peers, consultants and staff. Attempts to belittle and undermine work and unjustified criticism and monitoring of work were the most frequently reported bullying behaviors (44% each), followed by destructive innuendo and sarcasm (37%) and attempts to humiliate (32%). Specific bullying behaviors were more frequently reported by female, non-white, shorter than bullying in the United States graduate medical education programs. Including specific questions on bullying in the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education annual resident/fellow survey, implementation of anti-bullying policies, and a multidisciplinary approach engaging all stakeholders may be of great value to eliminate these pervasive behaviors in the field of

  10. Diversity and Demographics of Zooarchaeologists: Results from a Digital Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne E. Pilaar Birch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 25 years ago, a “Zooarchaeology Practitioner Survey” was distributed via conventional mail to individuals in the USA and Canada and received 122 responses over a period of several months in 1991. Now, a revised “Demographics in Zooarchaeology Survey” provides an update to  those data and assesses the current state of the field. The 2014 survey remained open for 3 months and received 288 responses from practitioners worldwide. Global participation was made possible by hosting the survey online. Key findings of the 1991 survey included disparities in employment rank for women despite similar levels of degree level attainment as men, a point which the 2014 survey sought to investigate. This trend appears to persist for those without the PhD and at the highest levels of income for those holding a PhD. In addition, the recent survey asked participants about their racial or ethnic identity in order to evaluate the demographic diversity of the discipline beyond sex, age, and nationality. Data regarding topical and geographic research area were also collected and reflect a subtle bias towards working with mammals and a focus on research questions grounded in prehistory in Europe and North America, followed by Australia and Southwest Asia. Results are compared with those of the earlier survey and membership information from the International Council for Archaeozoology.

  11. Anemia in pregnancy in Malaysia: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haniff, Jamaiyah; Das, Anita; Onn, Lim Teck; Sun, Chen Won; Nordin, Noraihan Mohd; Rampal, Sanjay; Bahrin, Safiah; Ganeslingam, Muralitharan; Kularatnam, Kumar Iswaran K; Zaher, Zaki Morad Mohamad

    2007-01-01

    Anemia is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency during pregnancy. Except for a study conducted 10 years ago in Kelantan, Malaysia's available statistics are based on isolated small urban maternity hospital studies from the 1980s. There was therefore, a need for a large study at national level to estimate the magnitude of the problem in the country as well as to understand its epidemiology. This multi-center, cross-sectional study was conducted from February to March 2005, to assess the prevalence of anemia. Multistage stratified random sampling technique was used and 59 Ministry of Health (MOH) primary health care clinics were selected. Our final dataset consisted of 1,072 antenatal mothers from 56 clinics. The overall prevalence of anemia in this population was 35 % (SE 0.02) if the cut off level is 11 g/dL and 11 % (SE 0.03) if the cut-off level is 10 g/dL. The majority was of the mild type. The prevalence was higher in the teenage group, Indians followed by Malays and Chinese being the least, grandmultiparas, the third trimester and from urban residence. After multiple linear regression analysis, only gestational age remained significant. These findings are useful for our Maternal Health program planners and implementers to target and evaluate interventions. Work is in progress for outcomes and cost-effectiveness studies to best tackle this problem. In conclusion, the prevalence of anemia is 35% and mostly of the mild type and more prevalent in the Indian and Malays.

  12. The LOFAR Multifrequency Snapshot Sky Survey (MSSS). I. Survey description and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, G. H.; Pizzo, R. F.; Orrú, E.; Breton, R. P.; Carbone, D.; Ferrari, C.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Jurusik, W.; Macario, G.; Mulcahy, D.; Rafferty, D.; Asgekar, A.; Brentjens, M.; Fallows, R. A.; Frieswijk, W.; Toribio, M. C.; Adebahr, B.; Arts, M.; Bell, M. R.; Bonafede, A.; Bray, J.; Broderick, J.; Cantwell, T.; Carroll, P.; Cendes, Y.; Clarke, A. O.; Croston, J.; Daiboo, S.; de Gasperin, F.; Gregson, J.; Harwood, J.; Hassall, T.; Heesen, V.; Horneffer, A.; van der Horst, A. J.; Iacobelli, M.; Jelić, V.; Jones, D.; Kant, D.; Kokotanekov, G.; Martin, P.; McKean, J. P.; Morabito, L. K.; Nikiel-Wroczyński, B.; Offringa, A.; Pandey, V. N.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pietka, M.; Pratley, L.; Riseley, C.; Rowlinson, A.; Sabater, J.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Scheers, L. H. A.; Sendlinger, K.; Shulevski, A.; Sipior, M.; Sobey, C.; Stewart, A. J.; Stroe, A.; Swinbank, J.; Tasse, C.; Trüstedt, J.; Varenius, E.; van Velzen, S.; Vilchez, N.; van Weeren, R. J.; Wijnholds, S.; Williams, W. L.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Nijboer, R.; Wise, M.; Alexov, A.; Anderson, J.; Avruch, I. M.; Beck, R.; Bell, M. E.; van Bemmel, I.; Bentum, M. J.; Bernardi, G.; Best, P.; Breitling, F.; Brouw, W. N.; Brüggen, M.; Butcher, H. R.; Ciardi, B.; Conway, J. E.; de Geus, E.; de Jong, A.; de Vos, M.; Deller, A.; Dettmar, R.-J.; Duscha, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Engels, D.; Falcke, H.; Fender, R.; Garrett, M. A.; Grießmeier, J.; Gunst, A. W.; Hamaker, J. P.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Hoeft, M.; Hörandel, J.; Holties, H. A.; Intema, H.; Jackson, N. J.; Jütte, E.; Karastergiou, A.; Klijn, W. F. A.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Kuper, G.; Law, C.; van Leeuwen, J.; Loose, M.; Maat, P.; Markoff, S.; McFadden, R.; McKay-Bukowski, D.; Mevius, M.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Morganti, R.; Munk, H.; Nelles, A.; Noordam, J. E.; Norden, M. J.; Paas, H.; Polatidis, A. G.; Reich, W.; Renting, A.; Röttgering, H.; Schoenmakers, A.; Schwarz, D.; Sluman, J.; Smirnov, O.; Stappers, B. W.; Steinmetz, M.; Tagger, M.; Tang, Y.; ter Veen, S.; Thoudam, S.; Vermeulen, R.; Vocks, C.; Vogt, C.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Wucknitz, O.; Yatawatta, S.; Zarka, P.

    2015-10-01

    We present the Multifrequency Snapshot Sky Survey (MSSS), the first northern-sky Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) imaging survey. In this introductory paper, we first describe in detail the motivation and design of the survey. Compared to previous radio surveys, MSSS is exceptional due to its intrinsic multifrequency nature providing information about the spectral properties of the detected sources over more than two octaves (from 30 to 160 MHz). The broadband frequency coverage, together with the fast survey speed generated by LOFAR's multibeaming capabilities, make MSSS the first survey of the sort anticipated to be carried out with the forthcoming Square Kilometre Array (SKA). Two of the sixteen frequency bands included in the survey were chosen to exactly overlap the frequency coverage of large-area Very Large Array (VLA) and Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) surveys at 74 MHz and 151 MHz respectively. The survey performance is illustrated within the MSSS Verification Field (MVF), a region of 100 square degrees centered at (α,δ)J2000 = (15h,69°). The MSSS results from the MVF are compared with previous radio survey catalogs. We assess the flux and astrometric uncertainties in the catalog, as well as the completeness and reliability considering our source finding strategy. We determine the 90% completeness levels within the MVF to be 100 mJy at 135 MHz with 108″ resolution, and 550 mJy at 50 MHz with 166″ resolution. Images and catalogs for the full survey, expected to contain 150 000-200 000 sources, will be released to a public web server. We outline the plans for the ongoing production of the final survey products, and the ultimate public release of images and source catalogs.

  13. National wildlife refuge visitor survey 2012--Individual refuge results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietsch, Alia M.; Sexton, Natalie R.; Koontz, Lynne M.; Conk, Shannon J.

    2013-01-01

    The National Wildlife Refuge System (Refuge System), established in 1903 and managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), is the leading network of protected lands and waters in the world dedicated to the conservation of fish, wildlife and their habitats. There are 560 national wildlife refuges and 38 wetland management districts nationwide, encompassing more than 150 million acres. The Refuge System attracts nearly 45 million visitors annually, including 34.8 million people who observe and photograph wildlife, 9.6 million who hunt and fish, and nearly 675,000 teachers and students who use refuges as outdoor classrooms. Understanding visitor perceptions of refuges and characterizing their experiences on refuges are critical elements of managing these lands and meeting the goals of the Refuge System. The Service collaborated with the U.S. Geological Survey to conduct a national survey of visitors regarding their experiences on national wildlife refuges. The purpose of the survey was to better understand visitor experiences and trip characteristics, to gauge visitors’ levels of satisfaction with existing recreational opportunities, and to garner feedback to inform the design of programs and facilities. The survey results will inform performance, planning, budget, and communications goals. Results will also inform Comprehensive Conservation Plans (CCPs), visitor services, and transportation planning processes. This Data Series consists of 25 separate data files. Each file describes the results of the survey for an individual refuge and contains the following information: • Introduction: An overview of the Refuge System and the goals of the national surveying effort. • Methods: The procedures for the national surveying effort, including selecting refuges, developing the survey instrument, contacting visitors, and guidance for interpreting the results.• Refuge Description: A brief description of the refuge location, acreage, purpose, recreational

  14. Public Land Survey (Township, Range, and Section) for northern Arizona, including Grand Canyon National Park.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This ALRIS (Arizona Land Resource Information System) coverage contains Public Land Survey gridding and labels for Townships, Ranges, and Sections for Northern Arizona

  15. Mobile Phone Use Among Medical Residents: A Cross-Sectional Multicenter Survey in Saudi Arabia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jamal, Amr; Temsah, Mohamad-Hani; Khan, Samina A; Al-Eyadhy, Ayman; Koppel, Cristina; Chiang, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    ... mobile phones in academic and clinical practice. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on all 133 residents in 17 different specialties across two large academic hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia...

  16. Psychiatric disorders in a Dutch Health Area: a repeated cross-sectional survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodiamont, P.P.G.; Rijnders, C.A.T.H.; Mulder, J.; Furer, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Decades of psychiatric epidemiology have shown a wide variation in prevalence rates, but a consistent relationship between psychiatric disorder and sociodemographic variables. In this repeated cross-sectional survey, the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and their distribution in the

  17. A cross-sectional baseline survey among academic healthcare

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Motivation to attend EBM training was high among the respondents. Our results highlight the inadequacy of EBM knowledge and training among academics. There is a need to train academics in EBM in order to improve the practice of EBM in teaching. Keywords: Academic, evidence-based medicine, knowledge, attitude, ...

  18. San Francisco Estuary Midwinter Waterfowl Survey: 2012 Survey Results and Trend Analysis (1981-2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides results of the 2012 San Francisco Estuary Midwinter Waterfowl Survey and presents an analysis of trends in waterfowl counts from 1981-2012. The...

  19. A drunk and disorderly country: a nationwide cross-sectional survey of alcohol use and misuse in Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Craig, D. G.; Dakkak, M; Gilmore, I T; Hawkey, C.J.; Rhodes, J M; Sheron, N

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To explore current alcohol drinking patterns, behaviours and attitudes in Great Britain. Design and setting Independent online cross-sectional survey. Patients and interventions Survey of 2221 individuals from a representative panel. Main outcome measures and results Excessive alcohol consumption is a widespread problem across Great Britain. Binge-drinking is common among 18?24 year olds, with 19% reporting drinking 10+ drinks on the same drinking day. ?Pre-loading? with alcohol at...

  20. The Extended Northern ROSAT Galaxy Cluster Survey (NORAS II). I. Survey Construction and First Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Böhringer, Hans; Chon, Gayoung; Trümper, Joachim [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Retzlaff, Jörg [ESO, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Meisenheimer, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Schartel, Norbert [ESAC, Camino Bajo del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, E-28692 Madrid (Spain)

    2017-05-01

    As the largest, clearly defined building blocks of our universe, galaxy clusters are interesting astrophysical laboratories and important probes for cosmology. X-ray surveys for galaxy clusters provide one of the best ways to characterize the population of galaxy clusters. We provide a description of the construction of the NORAS II galaxy cluster survey based on X-ray data from the northern part of the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. NORAS II extends the NORAS survey down to a flux limit of 1.8 × 10{sup −12} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2} (0.1–2.4 keV), increasing the sample size by about a factor of two. The NORAS II cluster survey now reaches the same quality and depth as its counterpart, the southern REFLEX II survey, allowing us to combine the two complementary surveys. The paper provides information on the determination of the cluster X-ray parameters, the identification process of the X-ray sources, the statistics of the survey, and the construction of the survey selection function, which we provide in numerical format. Currently NORAS II contains 860 clusters with a median redshift of z  = 0.102. We provide a number of statistical functions, including the log N –log S and the X-ray luminosity function and compare these to the results from the complementary REFLEX II survey. Using the NORAS II sample to constrain the cosmological parameters, σ {sub 8} and Ω{sub m}, yields results perfectly consistent with those of REFLEX II. Overall, the results show that the two hemisphere samples, NORAS II and REFLEX II, can be combined without problems into an all-sky sample, just excluding the zone of avoidance.

  1. First Results from the Polar Environment and Science (POLES) Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, L.

    2016-12-01

    Despite President Obama's well-publicized excursion to Kotzebue in 2015 - the first presidential visit to the US Arctic - most of the public remains unaware that their country has any inhabited Arctic territory. This striking result emerged from two nationwide surveys in 2016 that assessed public knowledge and perceptions about the changing polar regions. Other questions tested knowledge about polar geography and conditions, sought perceptions on the importance of global impacts such as sea level or extreme weather, and asked for opinions about trusted information sources (scientists, TV news, websites, etc.) and preferred mitigation policies. With an oversampling of Alaska residents, the POLES survey allows comparisons between perceptions of Alaska residents (including rural Alaska) and people from the other 49 states. It also supports analysis of relationships among knowledge, opinions, information sources, and individual respondent characteristics. We take a first look at results, analysis and interpretation of this unique new polar-oriented survey. Image: "Which country has territory with thousands of people living north of the Arctic Circle? US, China, Estonia, Britain, or none of these?" Graph shows results from a July 2016 pretest with 523 interviews; full results from two nationwide surveys, including Alaska/49-state comparisons, will be presented at AGU.

  2. SSL Adoption by Museums: Survey Results, Analysis, and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrin, T. E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Druzik, J. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Miller, N. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-11-01

    DOE Solid-State Lighting GATEWAY report that summarizes the results of a survey of the museum community regarding conversions to SSL in museums. Responses provided real-world insight into how LEDs are being incorporated into museums, and what successes and hurdles have been encountered in the process.

  3. Customer Apathy to Insurance in Nigeria: Survey Results ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results of a recent survey of the Nigerian Insurance Industry reveal the underlying reasons for people's general indifference towards insurance. These include lack of communication by the industry, ignorance about insurance, doubts as to the integrity of insurance practitioners, and inability to afford the premium.

  4. Results of the Georgia STEP Employer Skills Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Rutkowski, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this note is to present the results of the recently completed employer skills survey, and to discuss their policy implications. The analysis finds that there is a skills shortage in Georgia despite high unemployment. It is difficult for employers, especially in the modern sector, to find workers with the required skills. Employers demand not only ‘hard’ technical skills, b...

  5. Verticillium survey results: Is it in red raspberry production fields?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preliminary results of the survey for Verticillium dahliae, the cause of Verticillium wilt, in the Washington Red Raspberry industry were reported at the 2016 Washington Small Fruit Conference. Verticillium was found in many field soils, but was rarely isolated from plants and was just as likely to ...

  6. Orthopaedic nurses' perception of research utilization - A cross sectional survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2015-01-01

    knowledge and practical research competencies among orthopaedic nurses and their interest and motivation to increase these in everyday practice. A newly developed questionnaire was given to a convenience sample of 87 orthopaedic nurses. Forty three orthopaedic nurses (49.4%) completed the questionnaire....... The results indicated that despite the majority of orthopaedic nurses having low self-perceived theoretical knowledge and practical research competencies, their interest and motivation to improve these were high, especially their inner motivation. However, the nurses' inner motivation was inhibited by a lack...

  7. THE TIME DOMAIN SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY: VARIABLE SELECTION AND ANTICIPATED RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morganson, Eric; Green, Paul J. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Anderson, Scott F.; Ruan, John J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Myers, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Eracleous, Michael; Brandt, William Nielsen [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kelly, Brandon [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Badenes, Carlos [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Pittsburgh Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology Center (PITT PACC), University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O’Hara St, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Bañados, Eduardo [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Blanton, Michael R. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Bershady, Matthew A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 N. Charter St., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Borissova, Jura [Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Universidad de Valparaíso, Av. Gran Bretaña 1111, Playa Ancha, Casilla 5030, and Millennium Institute of Astrophysics (MAS), Santiago (Chile); Burgett, William S. [GMTO Corp, Suite 300, 251 S. Lake Ave, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Chambers, Kenneth, E-mail: emorganson@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); and others

    2015-06-20

    We present the selection algorithm and anticipated results for the Time Domain Spectroscopic Survey (TDSS). TDSS is an Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-IV Extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) subproject that will provide initial identification spectra of approximately 220,000 luminosity-variable objects (variable stars and active galactic nuclei across 7500 deg{sup 2} selected from a combination of SDSS and multi-epoch Pan-STARRS1 photometry. TDSS will be the largest spectroscopic survey to explicitly target variable objects, avoiding pre-selection on the basis of colors or detailed modeling of specific variability characteristics. Kernel Density Estimate analysis of our target population performed on SDSS Stripe 82 data suggests our target sample will be 95% pure (meaning 95% of objects we select have genuine luminosity variability of a few magnitudes or more). Our final spectroscopic sample will contain roughly 135,000 quasars and 85,000 stellar variables, approximately 4000 of which will be RR Lyrae stars which may be used as outer Milky Way probes. The variability-selected quasar population has a smoother redshift distribution than a color-selected sample, and variability measurements similar to those we develop here may be used to make more uniform quasar samples in large surveys. The stellar variable targets are distributed fairly uniformly across color space, indicating that TDSS will obtain spectra for a wide variety of stellar variables including pulsating variables, stars with significant chromospheric activity, cataclysmic variables, and eclipsing binaries. TDSS will serve as a pathfinder mission to identify and characterize the multitude of variable objects that will be detected photometrically in even larger variability surveys such as Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  8. The Faint Sky Variability Survey II: Initial Results

    OpenAIRE

    Everett, M. E.; Huber, M.E.; Howell, S. B.

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the first results from the Faint Sky Variability Survey (Groot et al. 2000). The data consist of V-band light curves, BVI colours, astrometry, and morphology information on several hundred thousand point and extended sources in the magnitude range V=17-25. We discuss the first 30 survey fields covering an area of 8.4 square degrees towards moderate and high galactic latitudes. We analyse the quality of and discuss our differential photometry light curves. We employ statistical meth...

  9. Fusion Blanket Coolant Section Criteria, Methodology, and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMuth, J. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Meier, W. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jolodosky, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Frantoni, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reyes, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-02

    The focus of this LDRD was to explore potential Li alloys that would meet the tritium breeding and blanket cooling requirements but with reduced chemical reactivity, while maintaining the other attractive features of pure Li breeder/coolant. In other fusion approaches (magnetic fusion energy or MFE), 17Li- 83Pb alloy is used leveraging Pb’s ability to maintain high TBR while lowering the levels of lithium in the system. Unfortunately this alloy has a number of potential draw-backs. Due to the high Pb content, this alloy suffers from very high average density, low tritium solubility, low system energy, and produces undesirable activation products in particular polonium. The criteria considered in the selection of a tritium breeding alloy are described in the following section.

  10. First results of the indoor natural radiation survey in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochicchio, F.; Campos Venuti, G.; Risica, S. (Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)); Mancioppi, S.; Piermattei, S.; Tommasino, L.; Torri, G. (ENEA, Rome (Italy))

    1992-01-01

    A survey based on a statistically representative sample of 5000 dwellings distributed in 200 administrative districts has been planned in Italy to evaluate exposure indoors. Knowledge of the distribution of radon concentration and gamma absorbed doses in air allows a determination of the average risk to which the population is subjected and of the number of dwellings exceeding a given action level. Radon concentration is monitored for two 6 month periods, while the [gamma] exposure is measured for only one semester. Duplicate radon measurements are performed by using etched track detectors (typically LR-115 II type and CR-39). The survey is carried out at district level by local laboratories, under the coordination of the two central institutions ENEA/DISP and ISS. The overall structure of the survey is described together with the first results obtained. (author).

  11. Alternate Access to Care: A Cross Sectional Survey of Low Acuity Emergency Department Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Jacqueline; Atkinson, Paul; Palmer, Erin; Fraser, Jacqueline; Vaillancourt, Elise; Howlett, Michael; Stoica, George; Powell, Maria

    2017-06-23

    Introduction Patients with low-acuity (Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale level IV and V) complaints use the emergency department (ED) to access care. This has often been attributed to lack of a primary care provider. However, simply being registered with a primary care provider may not prevent low acuity ED presentation. There is some evidence that a lack of timely access to primary care may contribute to low acuity ED presentations. The Wait Time Alliance, a group of Canadian physicians and their respective professional associations, has recently set a benchmark of same day access to family doctors. It is unclear if this benchmark has been achieved in all jurisdictions.  Methods We performed linked cross sectional surveys to quantify the number of people presenting to the ED for nonurgent problems who felt unable to access primary care. Primary care practices were also surveyed to assess access using the metric of time to third next available appointment.  Results In the patient survey, 381 of 580 patients consented to participate. Of the 89 patients who met eligibility criteria, 100% completed the survey. 32 (35.9%) reported that the wait to see their primary care provider was "too long". 45 (50.5%) patients did not contact their primary care provider's office prior to ED presentation. 45 of 72 physician surveys were returned; a response rate of 62.5%. Most (77%) physicians estimated their wait time for a standard appointment to be greater than 48 hours. The mean calculated time to third next available appointment in the region was 6.6 (95% CI 4.6-8.7) days. Conclusions Approximately half of low acuity patients do not attempt to access their primary care provider prior to ED presentation. The benchmark of same day access to primary care has not been achieved in many practices in our region. Further education regarding primary care access would likely be beneficial to both patients and providers.

  12. Radiologists' Usage of Social Media: Results of the RANSOM Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranschaert, Erik R; Van Ooijen, Peter M A; McGinty, Geraldine B; Parizel, Paul M

    2016-08-01

    The growing use of social media is transforming the way health care professionals (HCPs) are communicating. In this changing environment, it could be useful to outline the usage of social media by radiologists in all its facets and on an international level. The main objective of the RANSOM survey was to investigate how radiologists are using social media and what is their attitude towards them. The second goal was to discern differences in tendencies among American and European radiologists. An international survey was launched on SurveyMonkey ( https://www.surveymonkey.com ) asking questions about the platforms they prefer, about the advantages, disadvantages, and risks, and about the main incentives and barriers to use social media. A total of 477 radiologists participated in the survey, of which 277 from Europe and 127 from North America. The results show that 85 % of all survey participants are using social media, mostly for a mixture of private and professional reasons. Facebook is the most popular platform for general purposes, whereas LinkedIn and Twitter are more popular for professional usage. The most important reason for not using social media is an unwillingness to mix private and professional matters. Eighty-two percent of all participants are aware of the educational opportunities offered by social media. The survey results underline the need to increase radiologists' skills in using social media efficiently and safely. There is also a need to create clear guidelines regarding the online and social media presence of radiologists to maximize the potential benefits of engaging with social media.

  13. Cross-sectional survey of kidney function in refinery employees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viau, C.; Bernard, A.; Lauwerys, R.; Buchet, J.P.; Quaeghebeur, L.; Cornu, M.E.; Phillips, S.C.; Mutti, A.; Lucertini, S.; Franchini, I.

    1987-01-01

    We examined sensitive biochemical and immunological markers of kidney function and damage in 53 male oil refinery workers exposed to hydrocarbons and compared their results with those of a control group of 61 age-matched nonexposed males. The mean duration of employment of exposed males was 11 years. The current levels of exposure to a variety of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, as determined by personal monitoring, were well below the current threshold limit values. No difference was found in the urinary tubular parameters beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase, beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-m) and retinol-binding protein. Similar serum beta 2-m levels indicated no impairment of the glomerular filtration rate in the exposed workers. The levels of circulating immune complexes were also identical in both groups. The mean albuminuria was slightly higher (p less than .005) in the exposed group in a quantitative assay but was not dipstick-detectable. The mean urinary excretion of a renal antigen was also higher (p less than .05) in the exposed group and correlated with the excretion of albumin. Finally, slightly higher titers of anti-laminin antibodies were found in five exposed employees, but this was not accompanied by an increased albuminuria. We conclude that chronic low-level hydrocarbon exposure in these refinery workers does not lead to clinically significant renal abnormalities. Nevertheless, some findings are consistent with the possible role of hydrocarbon exposure in the induction of renal disturbances.

  14. Altmetric analysis of 2015 dental literature: a cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahi, J; Iranmanesh, P; Khazaei, S

    2017-05-12

    Introduction To report and analyse Altmetric data of all dental articles and journals in 2015.Methods To identify all 2015 dental articles, PubMed was searched via Altmetric platform using the following query: ("2015/1/1"[PDAT]: "2015/12/31"[PDAT]) AND jsubsetd[text] NOT 2016[PDAT] on November 12, 2016. Altmetric data of all 2015 dental articles and journals were extracted and analysed by Microsoft Office Excel 2016 using descriptive statistics, graphs and trend-line analysis. To find the most important and influential Altmetric factors, multi-layered perceptron artificial neural network was employed using SPSS 22.Results A total of 14,884 dental articles published in 2015 using PubMed database were found, from which 5,153 (34.62%) articles had an Altmetric score. The mean Altmetric score was 2.94 ± 9.2 (95% C.I:2.703.22). Mendeley readers (73.19%), Twitter (21.48%), Facebook walls (3.67%), news outlets (0.69%) and bloggers (0.57%) were the most popular Altmetric data resources. At journal level, 147 dental journals with valid Altmetric data were included in the study. The British Dental Journal had the first rank, followed by Journal of Dental Research, Journal of Clinical Periodontology and Journal of the American Dental Association. Sensitivity analysis showed news outlets, tweeters and scientific bloggers were the most important and influential Altmetric data resources.Discussion In comparison with all science subjects and medical and health sciences, 2015 Altmetric scores in dentistry were very low. Uses of new and emerging scholarly tools such as social media, scientific blogs and post-publication peer-review were not common in the dental science. This negligence may be due to lack of knowledge and attitude. An Altmetric score is dynamic and may fluctuate over time.

  15. A cross-sectional survey of essential surgical capacity in Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkheir, Natalie; Sharma, Akshay; Cherian, Meena; Saleh, Omar Abdelrahman; Everard, Marthe; Popal, Ghulam Rabani; Ibrahim, Abdi Awad

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess life-saving and disability-preventing surgical services (including emergency, trauma, obstetrics, anaesthesia) of health facilities in Somalia and to assist in the planning of strategies for strengthening surgical care systems. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Health facilities in all 3 administrative zones of Somalia; northwest Somalia (NWS), known as Somaliland; northeast Somalia (NES), known as Puntland; and south/central Somalia (SCS). Participants 14 health facilities. Measures The WHO Tool for Situational Analysis to Assess Emergency and Essential Surgical Care was employed to capture a health facility's capacity to deliver surgical and anaesthesia services by investigating four categories of data: infrastructure, human resources, interventions available and equipment. Results The 14 facilities surveyed in Somalia represent 10 of the 18 districts throughout the country. The facilities serve an average patient population of 331 250 people, and 12 of the 14 identify as hospitals. While major surgical procedures were provided at many facilities (caesarean section, laparotomy, appendicectomy, etc), only 22% had fully available oxygen access, 50% fully available electricity and less than 30% had any management guidelines for emergency and surgical care. Furthermore, only 36% were able to provide general anaesthesia inhalation due to lack of skills, supplies and equipment. Basic supplies for airway management and the prevention of infection transmission were severely lacking in most facilities. Conclusions According to the results of the WHO Tool for Situational Analysis to Assess Emergency and Essential Surgical Care survey, there exist significant gaps in the capacity of emergency and essential surgical services in Somalia including inadequacies in essential equipment, service provision and infrastructure. The information provided by the WHO tool can serve as a basis for evidence-based decisions on country-level policy regarding the

  16. Vaccine Education of Medical Students: A Nationwide Cross-sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernéis, Solen; Jacquet, Caroline; Bannay, Aurélie; May, Thierry; Launay, Odile; Verger, Pierre; Pulcini, Céline

    2017-09-01

    Physicians play a primary role in vaccination of the population. Strong initial training of medical students is therefore essential to enable them to fulfill this role. This cross-sectional nationwide online survey conducted between September 2015 and January 2016 obtained 2,118 completed surveys from 6,690 eligible respondents (response rate, 32%) at 27 of 32 medical schools in France regarding their education about vaccination. The data were analyzed in April-June 2016. The survey covered their knowledge, attitudes, practices, and perceptions, and assessed their level of perceived preparedness for their future practice as interns. Around a third of the students (n=708, 34%) felt insufficiently prepared for questions about vaccination, especially for communicating with patients on side effects (n=1,381, 66%) and strategies to respond to vaccine hesitancy (n=1,217, 58%). The mean knowledge score was 26/45 (SD=7.9). Lecture courses, which are the main education method used in French medical schools (1,891/5,660 responses, 33%), were considered effective by only 11% of students (693/6,155 responses), whereas practical training was significantly associated with better perceived preparedness (peducation about vaccination during medical school in France is not optimal. Methods based on practical learning methods (case-based learning, clinical placements, and other hands-on methods) appear to produce the best results and must be favored for improving students' preparedness. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Knowledge and attitude of Indian dentists regarding dental stem cells: A cross-sectional descriptive survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhin Katge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental stem cells derived from tooth structures are adult stem cells that have received attention of researchers over the past decade. Dental stem cells can be used to regenerate dental tissues as well as non dental organs. These dental stem cells are readily accessible as compared to other sources of stem cells and can be obtained and stored for future use through minimally invasive procedures. Research in this field is growing at a fast pace and it is essential that awareness regarding the same should be present amongst professionals. Aim: This study was carried out to assess the knowledge and attitude of Indian dentists regarding dental stem cells. Material and Methods: A cross sectional descriptive, questionnaire based survey based on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP was conducted and a total of 823 dentists from Maharashtra, India participated in the survey. The Pearson's Chi-Square Test and percentages of the total were used for statistical analysis. Results and Conclusion: A total of 823 dentists completed the questionnaire survey; out of which 396 were male and 427 were female. Maximum respondents (53% were dental graduates, followed by post graduates (45% and PhD (1.7%. Data from the study revealed that there is good awareness regarding stem cells in general. However; the awareness, knowledge regarding sources, applications, uses and clinical research guidelines regarding dental stem cells is lacking amongst most dentists. Despite this lack of knowledge, dentists are keen on updating their knowledge regarding dental stem cells.

  18. Factors associated with acceptability of child circumcision in Botswana -- a cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpho Keetile

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safe male child circumcision has been recently adopted as a potential strategy to prevent HIV/AIDS transmission in later life in Botswana. Methods Data used was derived from a cross-sectional survey, the Botswana AIDS Impact Survey (BAIS IV, conducted in 2013. A total sample of 7984 respondents in ages 15–64 years who had successfully completed the individual questionnaire during the survey were selected and included for analysis. Both descriptive and multivariable analyses were used to explore factors associated with acceptability of child circumcision. Data was analysed using SPSS version 22 program. Results Results indicate that about 84 % of participants said they would circumcise their male children aged 18 years and below, while 93 % were aware of the safe male circumcision program. Bivariate analyses results show that acceptability of child circumcision was significantly associated with sex, age, education, religion, residence, HIV status of the parent, fathers circumcision status, father's intention to circumcise and parent's knowledge about the safe male circumcision program. Multivariable analyses results indicate positive association between respondent's HIV positive status (OR, 3.5, Men's circumcision status (OR, 3.7, men's intention to circumcise (OR, 9.3 and acceptability of child circumcision. Conclusion Results of this study indicate some relatively high acceptability levels for child circumcision. Some individual behavioural factors influencing acceptability of child circumcision were also identified. This study provides a proper understanding of factors associated with acceptability of child circumcision which will ultimately enhance the successful roll-out of the school going children circumcision program in Botswana.

  19. A cross-sectional survey of essential surgical capacity in Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkheir, Natalie; Sharma, Akshay; Cherian, Meena; Saleh, Omar Abdelrahman; Everard, Marthe; Popal, Ghulam Rabani; Ibrahim, Abdi Awad

    2014-05-07

    To assess life-saving and disability-preventing surgical services (including emergency, trauma, obstetrics, anaesthesia) of health facilities in Somalia and to assist in the planning of strategies for strengthening surgical care systems. Cross-sectional survey. Health facilities in all 3 administrative zones of Somalia; northwest Somalia (NWS), known as Somaliland; northeast Somalia (NES), known as Puntland; and south/central Somalia (SCS). 14 health facilities. The WHO Tool for Situational Analysis to Assess Emergency and Essential Surgical Care was employed to capture a health facility's capacity to deliver surgical and anaesthesia services by investigating four categories of data: infrastructure, human resources, interventions available and equipment. The 14 facilities surveyed in Somalia represent 10 of the 18 districts throughout the country. The facilities serve an average patient population of 331 250 people, and 12 of the 14 identify as hospitals. While major surgical procedures were provided at many facilities (caesarean section, laparotomy, appendicectomy, etc), only 22% had fully available oxygen access, 50% fully available electricity and less than 30% had any management guidelines for emergency and surgical care. Furthermore, only 36% were able to provide general anaesthesia inhalation due to lack of skills, supplies and equipment. Basic supplies for airway management and the prevention of infection transmission were severely lacking in most facilities. According to the results of the WHO Tool for Situational Analysis to Assess Emergency and Essential Surgical Care survey, there exist significant gaps in the capacity of emergency and essential surgical services in Somalia including inadequacies in essential equipment, service provision and infrastructure. The information provided by the WHO tool can serve as a basis for evidence-based decisions on country-level policy regarding the allocation of resources and provision of emergency and essential

  20. Initial results from a ROSAT deep survey in Lynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S. F.; Windhorst, R. A.; Maccacaro, T.; Burstein, D.; Franklin, B. E.; Griffiths, R. E.; Koo, D. C.; Mathis, D. F.; Morgan, W. A.; Neuschaefer, L. W.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary results from a deep (70 ksec) Rosat survey of the high galactic latitude selected area Lynx.3A are presented. Lynx.3A sensitivity was previously studied in both the optical radio, with deep Westerbork surveys and deep multicolor Charge Couple Device (CCD) images form the Palomar 200 inch Four-Shooter. About 70 x-ray sources were detected within the central 40 foot diameter region of the Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC), observed surface densities of approximately 200 x-ray sources/sq deg are suggested, and these x-ray sources alone account for approximately 30 percent of the cosmic x-ray background (0.9 to 2.2 keV). An initial look at the observed x-ray logN - logS curve is presented, but a detailed assessment requires further study. The 4 sigma limit of about 7 times 10 to the minus 15th power erg/s.sq cm (0.5 to 2.0 keV) is considerably deeper then the Einstein deep surveys, and of comparable sensitivity to the deepest current Rosat surveys. Cross correlation with our Four Shooter optical catalogs yields at least one likely optical candidate for nearly all of the Rosat x-ray sources; a number of the likely optical identifications have colors of quasi-stellar objects (and stellar PSF), but in other cases galaxies/groups are also viable candidates.

  1. Telephoning of interim blood culture results: a regional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkar, H M; Breathnach, A S

    2008-10-01

    Most staphylococci grown from blood cultures are contaminants. Since they are microscopically indistinguishable from non-contaminants, considerable time and resources may be spent following up all patients with positive blood cultures before the identification is made the following day. Since there is no formal guidance or standard available in this area, this report surveyed practice in our region. An interview was conducted by telephone, using a standardised questionnaire. Results were analysed using descriptive techniques. The majority of microbiologists did not communicate all presumptive staphylococci but waited for identification in some cases. There is a range of practice in laboratories due to conflicting pressures: limited time, fear of criticism if results are not phoned, fear of causing confusion with provisional information and lack of clarity concerning what is "good practice." This survey concludes that a decision not to telephone every presumptive Staphylococcus in blood cultures on Day 1 is reasonable.

  2. Results of the 2008-09 Campus Travel Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Lovejoy, Kristin; Handy, Susan L.; Contreras, Cliff

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes findings from the 2008-09 UC Davis Campus Travel Survey, administered annually each fall to a stratified random sample of the UC Davis community. It includes estimates of the overall campus mode split, average vehicle occupancy, numbers of vehicles arriving on campus, distances traveled, transit ridership by provider, and carbon emissions associated with campus travel. Additional results include statistics on accidents, bike theft, bikes left on campus overnight, bike t...

  3. correlation of vertical elecric sounding and agnetic survey results in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S'outfiwestern _'/\\/igerin, using 'Vertica[ 'E[ectric Sounding ('i/LLS') anti the most uncommon. Sting-netir .S'urog. 77ie results were correlated to [ocate pfiysica[ features that are potentia[ aqui/ers in l/iL' area. (Ifie Magnetic Surveys were carried out a[ong 8 traverses: tfie South- .'Nort/i, :Mvtfi-Sout/i, anti 'East-'West directions ...

  4. Fertility preservation in paediatric nephrology: results of a physician survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Steven D; Li, Yimei; Meyers, Kevin E C; Caplan, Arthur; Miller, Victoria A; Ginsberg, Jill P

    2014-12-01

    Fertility preservation (FP) is a widespread practice in paediatric oncology when gonadotoxic medications such as cyclophosphamide (CPO) are used. FP practice outside of oncology has not been studied, although nephrologists regularly use CPO. This is the first study to explore FP practice by paediatric nephrologists when CPO is used. Survey study. Descriptive statistics and chi-squared analyses were employed to analyse the data. US paediatric nephrologists were sent a survey via email. The survey queried participants about FP practice behaviours, FP attitudes and barriers to practice. Of 579 nephrologists invited, 32% responded to the survey. CPO was dosed in mg/kg by 23% of physicians, g/m(2) by 40% and both by 37%. About 80% agreed that pubertal females should be offered a fertility referral, while 58% report that they actually refer. Factors negatively associated with referral include lack of training, lack of referral network and adherence to gonadotoxic dose limits. Results were similar for male patients. The survey showed that FP practice in the United States is widespread among nephrologists. Lack of referral networks is a notable barrier for nephrologists. Perceived adherence to dose limits may be problematic given the variable dosing regimens utilised. This is due to the risk of unintended overdose in large adolescents dosed in mg/kg whose cumulative dose exceeds gonadotoxic limits in g/m(2) . This paper has implications for nephrology care providers and other specialists who utilise CPO, generalists who care for these patients and oncologists with extant FP referral networks. © 2014 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  5. The VLA Sky Survey (VLASS): Overview and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Steven T.; VLASS Survey Team, Survey Science Group (SSG)

    2018-01-01

    VLASS team.In this presentation we describe the science goals, survey design, and technical implementation for the VLASS, and highlight results from the Pilot and the first epoch observations taken so far.

  6. Bolivia 1998: results from the Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-01

    This document presents the results of the Bolivia Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), or Encuesta Nacional de Demografia y Salud 1998, conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica, La Paz, Bolivia, within the framework of the DHS Program of Macro International. Data were collected from 12,109 households and complete interviews were conducted with 11,187 women aged 15-49. A male survey was also conducted, which collected data from 3780 men aged 15-64. The information collected include the following: 1) general characteristics of the population, 2) fertility, 3) fertility preferences, 4) current contraceptive use, 5) contraception, 6) marital and contraceptive status, 7) postpartum variables, 8) infant mortality, 9) health: disease prevention and treatment, and 10) nutritional status: anthropometric measures.

  7. Results of Fuelwood Consumption Survey in Kinshasa - Zaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshibangu, KWT.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Truly fuelwood is the principal source indeed even exclusive of energy in all developing countries. Some studies have been made in some towns of these countries in order to know energy consumption. In other countries on the other hand, these studies fail. Statistics that are available in those on fuelwood are the approximated values, often dissimilar and summary curried up with the politic object by the authorities. This is the case of Kinshasa, county town of Zaire. To cover up the deficiency inquiries on real norms of the consumption of fuelwood, we have held a sample survey in households of Kinshasa. Other complementary information that may implicate on the consumption fuelwood have been realized too close to other users of fuelwood. The results of the sample survey make up the backdrop of our work.

  8. Perceived relevance of educative information on public (skin) health: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, Daniela; Cervinka, Renate

    2013-03-01

    Unprotected leisure time exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun or artificial tanning beds is the most important environmental risk factor for melanoma, a malignant skin cancer with increasing incidences over the past decades. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of skin health information provided by several sources and different publishing issues on knowledge, risk perception, and sun protective behavior of sunbathers. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among Austrian residents (n=563) spending leisure time outdoors in August 2010. Print media, television, and family were perceived as the most relevant sources of information on skin health, whereas the source physician was only ranked as fourth important source. Compared to other sources, information provided by doctors positively influenced participants' knowledge on skin risk and sun protective behavior resulting in higher scores in the knowledge test (p=0.009), higher risk perception (pgender differences, internet was more often used by males as health information source, whereas females were more familiar with printed information material in general. The results of this survey put emphasis on the demand for information provided by medical professionals in order to attain effective, long-lasting promotion of photoprotective habits.

  9. Non-governmental organizations assisting victims of crime in Belgrade: Survey results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milivojević Sanja K.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of survey regarding non-governmental organizations assisting victims of crime in Belgrade. The survey was completed at the end of 2002 for purposes of establishing a Victim Support Service in Serbia. In introduction authors give a short review of victim support services development in the World and the region, explaining the need for such service in Serbia, the subject and the aim of the article as well as the purpose of the survey. Second part of the paper contains the sample, methodology and the aim of the interview with NGO representatives. In the third section authors present the analysis of the survey data. Finally, in conclusion authors summarize the data and observed problems, suggestions for possible solution and directions of future development of services and organizations assisting victims of crime in Serbia.

  10. Initial results from an online breast augmentation survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, V Leroy; Watson, Marla E; Boswell, C B; Centeno, Robert F

    2004-01-01

    Data have been lacking to answer many questions raised in the clinical literature and by the US Food and Drug Administration with regard to patient satisfaction with breast implants, informed consent, the impact of augmentation on quality of life, repeat operations, and other issues related to breast augmentation. The authors conducted an online survey of women with and without breast implants to collect data on key issues related to breast augmentation. A survey including 177 questions was posted on the Web site www.implantinfo.com for 6 months, from August 2001 to February 2002. The survey was aimed at women who had undergone augmentation and those who were considering augmentation but had not yet undergone surgery. The raw data were analyzed by Data Harbor (Chicago, IL), an independent data management and technology development company with experience in managing large, complex medical databases. The survey was completed by 4011 women, including 2273 who had received breast implants and 1738 who were considering augmentation. Among the key findings: More than half of the women who had undergone breast augmentation and those who were considering the procedure thought about the decision for at least 3 years before proceeding. Most women who underwent breast augmentation (88%) were satisfied with the results, and 93% said they would recommend the procedure to friends or family members. Nearly all women who received implants thought the surgery improved their overall appearance (92%) and self-confidence (82%) but said it did not result in significant changes in their marriage/dating activities, careers, or social lives. At least 92% said their surgeons had answered their questions and listened to their concerns, and more than 75% said they remembered being informed of the risks of surgery. The percentage of women with breast pain was greater among women with implants than among those without. However, other physical symptoms, such as those associated with

  11. Bullying in middle school: results from a 2008 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergolizzi, Fabianna; Pergolizzi, Joseph; Gan, Zoe; Macario, Samantha; Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Ewin, T J; Gan, Tong J

    2011-01-01

    A survey conducted in 2008 among 346 American middle school students in several cities determined that 82.7% of respondents found bullying to be a problem of some degree, with 46.0% rating it a "medium", "bad", or "very bad" problem. It was found that 89% had witnessed an act of bullying and 49.1% said they had been the victim of a bully. Boys were significantly more likely than girls to say that a victim deserved to be bullied (11.1% vs. 1.3%, p = 0.01), whereas girls were significantly more likely than boys to fail to intervene because they did not know what to do (30.3% for girls vs. 11.1%, p bullied another (46.2% boys, 41.1% girls, p = 0.34); however, girls were significantly more likely than boys to bully by excluding others and gossiping about them than by hitting, teasing, or threatening. Cyberbullying, surveyed as a distinct entity, had affected 31.1% of respondents directly, with similar results from 2006 to 2007 surveys. Of those who found conventional bullying a "bad" or "very bad" problem at their schools, numbers fell from 17.3% in 2006-2007 vs. 11.3% in 2008.

  12. Recent Results of the NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Emily L.; McLean, I. S.; Prato, L.; McGovern, M. R.; Burgasser, A. J.; Kirkpatrick, J.; Kim, S. S.

    2006-12-01

    The NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey (BDSS) began in 1999 with the commissioning of NIRSPEC on Keck II. In the first phase of the survey, J-band spectra of 53 objects covering all spectral types from M6 to T8 were obtained at a resolving power of R 2000 (McLean et al. 2003). This poster presents results from the second phase of the survey, which focused on high-resolution (R 20,000) J-band observations for a sample of 16 very low mass stars and brown dwarfs from M2.5 to T6 (McLean et al. 2006, submitted). By comparing opacity plots and line lists to the high-resolution spectra we identify hundreds of FeH, H2O, and atomic features and analyze how these features change with spectral type. We also begin to explore the apparently complex dependence of spectral features on the metallicity and surface gravity of brown dwarf atmospheres, which is the topic of the current phase of the BDSS. Data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  13. This Month in Astronomical History: Preliminary Survey Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    This Month in Astronomical History is a short (~500 word) column on the AAS website that revisits significant astronomical events or the lives of people who have made a large impact on the field. The monthly column began in July 2016 at the request of the Historical Astronomical Division. Examples of topics that have been covered include Comet Shoemaker-Levy’s collision with Jupiter, the discovery of the moons of Mars, the life of Edwin Hubble, Maria Mitchell’s comet discovery, and the launch of Sputnik II. A survey concerning the column is in progress to ensure the column addresses the interests and needs of a broad readership, including historians, educators, research astronomers, and the general public. Eleven questions focus on the style and content of the column, while eight collect simple demographics. The survey has been available on the AAS website since and was mentioned in several AAS newsletters; however, non-members of AAS were also recruited to include respondents from a variety of backgrounds. Preliminary results of the survey are presented and will be used to hone the style and content of the column to serve the widest possible audience. Responses continue to be collected at: https://goo.gl/forms/Lhwl2aWJl2Vkoo7v1

  14. Coupled Interpretation of Geoelectrical Surveying Results in Environmental Site Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skold, M.; Hubbard, S. S.; Karaoulis, M.; Revil, A.; Spycher, N.; Watson, D. B.; Wu, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Geoelectric methods are sensitive to material properties which can be used to investigate subsurficial processes at contaminated sites. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) measures the electrical resistivity distribution in the ground; the self-potential (SP) method is based on source current densities resulting from ground water flow; and induced polarization (IP) responds to geochemical interactions between mineral surfaces and pore fluids. Ground water flow patterns and contaminant migration may be better understood if the results of these survey methods are interpreted jointly rather than separately. The purpose of this project is to jointly interpret results of geophysical surveying and laboratory characterization of soil and ground water samples to assess ground water flow patterns and contaminant migration at a site within the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Historical disposal of liquid waste containing nitric acid and uranium in unlined ponds has resulted in contamination of soil and ground water. ERT, SP, and IP surveying was performed downgradient of the source area and the geophysical behavior of sediment and ground water samples was investigated in the laboratory. Measured electrical conductivity and self-potential anomalies coincided with elevated nitrate and uranium concentrations indicating preferential flow from the source area. The self-potential response can be related to ground water flow either by calculating the excess of charge in the diffuse layer surrounding mineral surfaces or by the streaming potential coupling coefficient. Geochemical reactions between pore water and minerals and their surfaces were modeled using the contaminant transport software TOUGHREACT. Surface complexation modeling using the Gouy-Chapman diffuse double layer was used to simulate charge density-surface potential relationship. Laboratory measurements of the streaming potential coupling coefficient of sediment samples at various pH and salt concentrations were

  15. Digital database of channel cross-section surveys, Mount St. Helens, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosbrucker, Adam R.; Spicer, Kurt R.; Major, Jon J.; Saunders, Dennis R.; Christianson, Tami S.; Kingsbury, Cole G.

    2015-08-06

    Stream-channel cross-section survey data are a fundamental component to studies of fluvial geomorphology. Such data provide important parameters required by many open-channel flow models, sediment-transport equations, sediment-budget computations, and flood-hazard assessments. At Mount St. Helens, Washington, the long-term response of channels to the May 18, 1980, eruption, which dramatically altered the hydrogeomorphic regime of several drainages, is documented by an exceptional time series of repeat stream-channel cross-section surveys. More than 300 cross sections, most established shortly following the eruption, represent more than 100 kilometers of surveyed topography. Although selected cross sections have been published previously in print form, we present a comprehensive digital database that includes geospatial and tabular data. Furthermore, survey data are referenced to a common geographic projection and to common datums. Database design, maintenance, and data dissemination are accomplished through a geographic information system (GIS) platform, which integrates survey data acquired with theodolite, total station, and global navigation satellite system (GNSS) instrumentation. Users can interactively perform advanced queries and geospatial time-series analysis. An accuracy assessment provides users the ability to quantify uncertainty within these data. At the time of publication, this project is ongoing. Regular database updates are expected; users are advised to confirm they are using the latest version.

  16. Preliminary results of a galactic background survey at 45 MHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitran, M.; May, J.; Aparici, J.

    1981-12-01

    Preliminary results of a survey of the galactic background at 45 MHz recently carried out at the MaipuRadio Astronomy Observatory are shown. The radiotelescope is a transit instrument that consists of a rectangular filled array of 528 dipoles with an angular resolution of 2.1 deg in declination and 4.6 deg in righ ascension. These first observations cover the region of the sky between declinations from -30 deg to -37 deg and they have been obtained with a multiple beam system.

  17. CUSTOMIZATION IN THE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY: SURVEY RESULTS IN SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Reis Graeml

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the advantage of using kanban, postponement, modularization, just-in-time, production sequencing, milk-run and cross-docking by companies that intend to increase their flexibility, agility and reliability in order to support web-based businesses. It presents the results of a survey carried out with more than 600 manufacturing companies in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, and evaluates the changes that are taking place in operations, in order to make companies better suited to provide customized products, which are made to meet the individual requirements of each customer.

  18. Yoga in Australia: Results of a national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Penman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The therapeutic benefits of yoga and meditation are well documented, yet little is known about the practice of yoga in Australia or elsewhere, whether as a physical activity, a form of therapy, a spiritual path or a lifestyle. Materials and Methods: To investigate the practice of yoga in Australia, a national survey of yoga practitioners was conducted utilizing a comprehensive web-based questionnaire. Respondents were self-selecting to participate. A total of 3,892 respondents completed the survey. Sixty overseas respondents and 1265 yoga teachers (to be reported separately were excluded, leaving 2,567 yoga practitioner respondents. Results: The typical yoga survey respondent was a 41-year-old, tertiary educated, employed, health-conscious female (85% women. Asana (postures and vinyasa (sequences of postures represented 61% of the time spent practicing, with the other 39% devoted to the gentler practices of relaxation, pranayama (breathing techniques, meditation and instruction. Respondents commonly started practicing yoga for health and fitness but often continued practicing for stress management. One in five respondents practiced yoga for a specific health or medical reason which was seen to be improved by yoga practice. Of these, more people used yoga for stress management and anxiety than back, neck or shoulder problems, suggesting that mental health may be the primary health-related motivation for practicing yoga. Healthy lifestyle choices were seen to be more prevalent in respondents with more years of practice. Yoga-related injuries occurring under supervision in the previous 12 months were low at 2.4% of respondents. Conclusions: Yoga practice was seen to assist in the management of specific health issues and medical conditions. Regular yoga practice may also exert a healthy lifestyle effect including vegetarianism, non-smoking, reduced alcohol consumption, increased exercise and reduced stress with resulting cost benefits

  19. Filipino therapists' experiences and attitudes of interprofessional education and collaboration: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Michael Palapal

    2017-11-01

    For the past more than 50 years, the World Health Organisation has acknowledged through empirical findings that health workers that learn together work together effectively to provide the best care for their patients. This study aimed to: (1) describe the perceived extent of interprofessional education (IPE) experience among Filipino occupational therapists (OTs), physical therapists (PTs), and speech-language-pathologists (SLPs); (2) identify their attitudes towards interprofessional collaboration (IPC); and (3) compare their attitudes towards IPC according to: prior IPE experience, classification of IPE experience, profession, years of practice, and practice setting. Using a cross-sectional survey design, a two-part questionnaire was sent to Filipino OTs, PTs, and SLPs working in the Philippines via an online survey application. The first part of the survey contained eight items of demographic information and the second part contained the 14-item Attitudes Towards Health Care Teams Scale (ATHCTS). Findings revealed that among the Filipino OT, PT and SLP respondents (n = 189), 70.9% had prior experience on IPE. Moreover, the three most commonly used IPE teaching-learning strategies were case discussion (clinical setting), small group discussion, didactics, and case discussion (community setting), while the use of didactics and case discussion (community setting) yielded more agreeable attitudes towards IPC. Among the 14 items in the ATHCTS, 11 were rated with agreeability and three items with neutrality. For professional variables, only the practice setting variable yielded a statistically significant finding confirming those working in the academia to be more agreeable towards IPC compared to other settings. However, years of practice and professional background variables both yielded no statistically significant difference implying no association between years of practice and attitude towards IPC and a homogenous composition among respondents, respectively

  20. 76 FR 35905 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Section 8 Fair Market Rent Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Section 8 Fair Market Rent Surveys AGENCY: Office of... information: Title of Proposal: Section 8 Random Digit Dialing Fair Market Rent Surveys. OMB Control Number... survey methodologies to collect gross rent data for specific areas in a relatively fast and accurate way...

  1. Socioeconomic disadvantage, social participation and networks and the self-rated health of English men and women with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities: cross sectional survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emerson, Eric; Hatton, Chris

    2008-01-01

    ...: Cross-sectional survey of self-reported health status and indicators of socioeconomic disadvantage and social connectedness in 1273 English adults with mild or moderate intellectual disabilities. Results...

  2. Human papillomavirus vaccination and sexual behaviour: cross-sectional and longitudinal surveys conducted in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Alice S; Marlow, Laura A V; Stephenson, Judith; Wardle, Jane; Waller, Jo

    2012-07-13

    To examine whether HPV vaccination influences sexual behaviour in adolescent girls, either by giving them a 'green light' to have sex, or because perceived protection afforded by the vaccine permits compensatory risky sexual behaviour. Cross-sectional and longitudinal surveys. Seven English schools. Self-reported sexual behaviour. The cross-sectional survey included 1053 girls (mean age 17.1 years) who had (n=433 recruited in March 2010) or had not (n=620 recruited in March 2009) been offered the HPV vaccine. The longitudinal survey included 407 girls (mean age 17.5 years) who had been offered HPV vaccination and had either received at least one dose (n=148) or had not received any doses (n=259). In the cross-sectional survey, the group of girls who had been offered the HPV vaccine were no more likely to be sexually active than the group of girls who had not been offered the HPV vaccine. In the longitudinal survey, the vaccinated group were no more likely to have changed their condom use or increased their total number of sexual partners than the unvaccinated group. Neither being offered the HPV vaccine nor receiving it affected sexual behaviour. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mobile phone use by drivers : 2009 - survey results for England

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Premise/hypothesis : The Department for Transport has commissioned surveys to monitor the levels of mobile phone use by drivers across England since 2002. Methods : Two or three-person teams conducted observational surveys of mobile phone use on repr...

  4. National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey Results: 2010/2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) collaborated with the U.S. Geological Survey to conduct a national survey of visitors regarding their experiences on...

  5. National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey 2012: Individual Refuge Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service collaborated with the U.S. Geological Survey to conduct a national survey of visitors regarding their experiences on National...

  6. Stigma in Canada: Results From a Rapid Response Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Heather; Patten, Scott B; Koller, Michelle; Modgill, Geeta; Liinamaa, Tiina

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Our paper presents findings from the first population survey of stigma in Canada using a new measure of stigma. Empirical objectives are to provide a descriptive profile of Canadian’s expectations that people will devalue and discriminate against someone with depression, and to explore the relation between experiences of being stigmatized in the year prior to the survey among people having been treated for a mental illness with a selected number of sociodemographic and mental health–related variables. Method: Data were collected by Statistics Canada using a rapid response format on a representative sample of Canadians (n = 10 389) during May and June of 2010. Public expectations of stigma and personal experiences of stigma in the subgroup receiving treatment for a mental illness were measured. Results: Over one-half of the sample endorsed 1 or more of the devaluation discrimination items, indicating that they believed Canadians would stigmatize someone with depression. The item most frequently endorsed concerned employers not considering an application from someone who has had depression. Over one-third of people who had received treatment in the year prior to the survey reported discrimination in 1 or more life domains. Experiences of discrimination were strongly associated with perceptions that Canadians would devalue someone with depression, younger age (12 to 15 years), and self-reported poor general mental health. Conclusions: The Mental Health Experiences Module reflects an important partnership between 2 national organizations that will help Canada fulfill its monitoring obligations under the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and provide a legacy to researchers and policy-makers who are interested in monitoring changes in stigma over time. PMID:25565699

  7. Results of the 2006 Sava survey: Aquatic macroinvertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paunović M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some results of the 2006 Sava survey. The investigation was carried out at four locations along 188 km of the Serbian stretch of the Sava River (206 km of the river belongs to Serbia. Among other things (physical and chemical properties of water and sediment, phytoplankton, and phytobenthos, the study included investigation of aquatic macroinvertebrates. Sixty-two taxa were identified in this typical lowland river. Mollusks and oligochaetes were the most diverse groups of macroinvertebrates. Our results support the hypothesis that the Sava River is an important bio-invasion trajectory, a part of the Southern Invasive Corridor of Europe. Five alien macroinvertebrate taxa were identified, some of which (Corbicula fluminea, Branchyura sowerbyi, and Anodonta woodiana were found to be important components of the community.

  8. First Results From The Ultimate Spitzer Phase Curve Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Kevin B.; Bean, Jacob; Deming, Drake; Desert, Jean-Michel; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Kataria, Tiffany; Kempton, Eliza; Lewis, Nikole; Line, Michael R.; Morley, Caroline; Rauscher, Emily; Showman, Adam P.

    2017-10-01

    Exoplanet phase curves provide a wealth of information about exoplanet atmospheres, including longitudinal constraints on atmospheric composition, thermal structure, and energy transport, that continue to open new doors of scientific inquiry and propel future investigations. The measured heat redistribution efficiency (or ability to transport energy from a planet's highly-irradiated dayside to its eternally-dark nightside) shows considerable variation between exoplanets. Theoretical models predict a correlation between heat redistribution efficiency and planet temperature; however, the latest results are inconsistent with current predictions. We will present first results from a 660-hour Spitzer phase curve survey program that is targeting six short-period extrasolar planets. We will compare the measured heat redistribution efficiencies with planet temperature and rotation rate, examine trends in the phase curve peak offset, and discuss cloud coverage constraints. We will conclude with how to move forward with phase curve observations in the era of JWST.

  9. Tuberculosis burden in an urban population: a cross sectional tuberculosis survey from Guinea Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; da Silva, Zacarias J; Ravn, Pernille

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in low income countries. We conducted a cross sectional survey for pulmonary TB and TB symptoms in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, in an urban cohort with known HIV prevalence. TB surveillance in the area is routinely based...

  10. Tuberculosis burden in an urban population: a cross sectional tuberculosis survey from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; da Silva, Zacarias J; Ravn, Pernille

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in low income countries. We conducted a cross sectional survey for pulmonary TB and TB symptoms in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, in an urban cohort with known HIV prevalence. TB surveillance in the area is routinely...

  11. Psychiatric disorders in a Dutch Health Area: a repeated cross-sectional survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodiamont, P.P.G.; Rijnders, C.A.T.; Mulder, J.; Furer, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Decades of psychiatric epidemiology have shown a wide variation in prevalence rates. but a consistent relationship U between psychiatric disorder and sociodemographic variables. In this repeated cross-sectional survey. the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and their distribution in the

  12. A Cross-Sectional Survey Of Mange Mite Infestations In Goats In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sarcoptes var scabiei était le principal agent causal. A cross-sectional survey of mange mite infestation in goats was carried out in Turkana District, North-western Kenya. Sixteen adakars (Animal camps, comprised of groups of pastoralists who migrate together with their animals) each containing 10 – 15 households were ...

  13. Results of the Navy Telework and Technology Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    alternatives that were tested were conjoint analysis studies and surveys by text message. The current survey had two purposes in terms of technology. It...population at the time of the survey. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16. 8 N P R S T Analysis Key • Analyses are presented for each age group...follow-up survey field closed, but included analyses only based on text messages sent and received in first week and a half (prior to June 18, 2008

  14. 1995 Bird survey Foothills parkway section 8B National Park Service, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, M.C.; Giffen, N.R.; Wade, B.A.

    1996-05-01

    The Foothills Parkway Section 8B right-of-way (ROW) is a stretch of land between Pittman Center and Cosby, Tennessee that is approximately 14.2 miles long and 1,000 ft wide, with a considerably wider section on Webb Mountain. A breeding bird survey was conducted at selected sample points along the ROW. The intent of the survey was to identify bird communities, area sensitive species (birds dependent on extensive forest systems for all their needs) and endangered, threatened, federal candidate, and state `in need of management` species now using the ROW. The survey also provides baseline data to assess future habitat impacts as well as cumulative impacts of the project.

  15. A Bathymetric Survey of Lake Toba, Indonesia: Further Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesner, C. A.; Halsor, S. P.; Dolan, M. T.

    2008-12-01

    Lake Toba, the largest caldera lake in the world, formed following a supervolcano eruption 74,000 years ago in northern Sumatra. Explosive eruption of ~2800 km3 of silicic magma from a batholith sized magma body produced a 100 x 30 x 2 km deep caldera. Approximately 2/3 of the caldera floor is now covered by Lake Toba, obscuring volcanic landforms and geologic features critical to understanding the history of the caldera. In September 2005, we initiated a bathymetric survey of Lake Toba using a GPS linked sonar device mounted to a small boat. Traveling at a speed of 3-10 km/h, and using a bottom depth sampling rate of 1 sounding/sec, sonar data was collected along almost 200 km of transect lines. This survey produced lake-bottom profiles with detailed bathymetric expression, indicating that it would be possible to generate a high resolution bathymetric map of Lake Toba with additional surveying. The second phase of our data collection was done in May 2008. Collectively, the survey now consists of about 90 separate transect lines over nearly 600 km of lake bottom. Results from both surveys allow several first order observations concerning caldera formation, resurgent doming, lava dome emplacement, and large scale erosional events as follows. Samosir Island is a partly submerged resurgent dome whose overall size (~60 x 20 km) and shape can now be accurately determined. The dome retains its asymmetrical shape below the water line with gentle westward slopes that merge into the caldera wall. Its steep east face rapidly descends to water depths of >400 m near the eastern caldera margin. The Uluan block appears to be a smaller, symmetrical equivalent of the Samosir dome. However, its extremely steep western face is more similar to the abrupt caldera collapse scar than the east face of Samosir. The deepest parts of the lake are found at the base of the ring fracture fault, approximately 0.5 km from the shoreline, with depths of 500 m recorded along the northeastern ring

  16. Radon in Estonian dwellings - Results from a National Radon Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahapill, Lia; Rulkov, Anne; Rajamaee, Raivo [Estonian Radiation Protection Centre (Kiirguskeskus), Tallinn (Spain); Aakerblom, Gustav [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    A countrywide survey of radon concentrations in Estonian dwellings was carried out during the period 1998-2001. The survey formed a part of the cooperation program on radiation protection between the Estonian Radiation Protection (Kiirguskeskus) Centre and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). The survey included measurements in a number of dwellings representative for Estonia in detached houses and multifamily buildings (only dwellings on the bottom floor were included in the survey). Altogether, radon concentrations were measured in 515 dwellings, a number large enough to be statistically significant. All measurements were made with alphatrack film detectors of the same type that SSI uses in Sweden. The measurements were made during a 2-3 month period during the winter half-year. Two detectors were used in each dwelling. In Estonia there are 0.17 million dwellings in detached houses and 0.45 million in multi apartment buildings. Of the 1.26 million inhabitants in Estonia. 0.36 million live in detached houses and 0.90 million in multi apartment buildings. Most of the latter were built during the Soviet occupation. Of the dwellings in multifamily buildings 30 % are assumed to be situated on the first floor. The mean radon concentration in dwellings in detached hoses, according to the survey results, is 103 Bq/m{sup 3}, in dwellings on the bottom floor in multi apartment buildings it is 78 Bq/m{sup 3}. In 1% of the dwellings the radon concentration exceeded 400 Bq/m{sup 3}. The highest radon concentration found in the study was 1040 Bq/m{sup 3}. Based on the assumption that the average radon concentration in the dwellings in multi-apartment buildings that are not situated on the bottom floor is 30 Bq/m{sup 3}, and that these dwellings constitute 70% of all dwellings in multi apartment buildings, the mean radon concentration in dwellings in multi apartment buildings is calculated to be 44 Bq/m{sup 3}. The mean value for all Estonia dwellings is calculated

  17. Salvia divinorum use and phenomenology: results from an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumnall, H R; Measham, F; Brandt, S D; Cole, J C

    2011-11-01

    Salvia divinorum is a hallucinogenic plant with ethnopharmacological and recreational uses. It differs from classic serotonergic hallucinogens such as LSD and psilocin in both phenomenology and potent agonist activity of the active component salvinorin A at κ-opioid receptors. Awareness of S. divinorum has grown recently, with both an increase in its public representation and concern over its potential harmful effects. This discussion is particularly relevant as S. divinorum is legal to use in many countries and regions and easily available through online retailers. Drawing upon previous investigations of S. divinorum and other hallucinogens, this study surveyed 154 recent users and questioned them on their use behaviours, consequences of use and other attitudinal measures. Although reporting an extensive substance use history, and considering the limitations of online surveys, there was little evidence of dysfunctional S. divinorum use, and few reports of troubling adverse consequences of use. Furthermore, there was no evidence that users exhibited increased schizotypy. Respondents reported that S. divinorum produced mixed hallucinogenic and dissociative effects, which lends support to assertions that it phenomenologically differs from other hallucinogens with primary serotonergic activity. The functions of use changed with greater experiences with the drug, and although many respondents reported use of S. divinorum as an alternative to illegal drugs it, was apparent that legal proscription would be unlikely to dissuade them from use. These results are discussed with reference to psychopharmacologically informed public health responses to substance use.

  18. STARtorialist: Astronomy Fashion & Culture Blog and Reader Survey Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Summer; Rice, Emily L.; Jarreau, Paige B.

    2016-01-01

    STARtorialist (startorialist.com) is a Tumblr-based blog that curates the proliferation of "Astro Fashion" - clothing accessories, decor, and more - with the goal of celebrating the beauty of the universe and highlighting the science behind the astronomical imagery. Since launching in January 2013, we have written over 1000 unique posts about everything from handmade and boutique products to mass-produced commercial items to haute couture seen on fashion runways. Each blog post features images and descriptions of the products with links to the original astronomical images or other relevant science content. We also feature profiles of astronomers, scientists, students, and communicators wearing, making, or decorating with "startorial" items. Our most popular posts accumulate hundreds or thousands of notes (faves or reblogs, in Tumblr parlance), and one post has nearly 150,000 notes. In our second year, we have grown from 1,000 to just shy of 20,000 followers on Tumblr, with an increased audience on Twitter, Instagram, and Facebook as well. We present preliminary results from a reader survey conducted September-October 2015 in collaboration with science communication researcher Dr. Paige Jarreau. The survey provides data on reader habits, motivations, attitudes, and demographics in order to assess how STARtorialist has influenced our readers' views on science, scientists, and the scientific community as a whole.

  19. The Danish airborne gamma-ray surveying results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovgaard, J. [Danish Emergency Management Agency, Birkeroed (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    The Danish Emergency Management Agency (DEMA) in co-operation with the Technical University of Denmark (TUD), Department of Automation, participated in the international exercise RESUME-95 arranged in Finland in August 1995. DEMA performed measurement with their airborne gamma-ray surveying system. Surveys were done in the three areas known as AREA I, II, III. Results from AREA II (3 km x 6 km) show that the apparent {sup 137}Cs deposition assuming a deposition profile equal to the profile in AREA I based on soil samples varies from a few 10th kBqm{sup -2} up to 110 kBqm{sup -2}. However, a detailed analysis using a new method, Noise Adjusted Singular Value Decomposition (NASVD), shows that the true variations probably are smaller and that the observed differences to some extend are due to major variations in the depth distribution of the cesium. For example agricultural areas appears to have cesium much deeper deposit than the undisturbed areas. Another interesting result is that the NASVD analysis shows that the ration of {sup 134}Cs to {sup 137}Cs is fixed and approximately 0.03 (August 1995) a number in good agreement with the expected ratio from the Chernobyl accident. No true real-time software for source detection is yet integrated in the Danish system. Results from AREA III, however, show that the implemented software for rapid post processing of data worked excellent for detection of radioactive sources. Post analysis using NASVD demonstrates that all sources except for a small {sup 137}Cs source can be localized. (au).

  20. Factors associated with herbal use among urban multiethnic primary care patients: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balkrishnan Rajesh

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of herbal supplements in the United States has become increasingly popular. The prevalence of herbal use among primary care patients varies in previous studies; the pattern of herbal use among urban racially/ethnically diverse primary care patients has not been widely studied. The primary objectives of this study were to describe the use of herbs by ethnically diverse primary care patients in a large metropolitan area and to examine factors associated with such use. The secondary objective was to investigate perceptions about and patterns of herbal use. Methods Data for a cross-sectional survey were collected at primary care practices affiliated with the Southern Primary-care Urban Research Network (SPUR-Net in Houston, Texas, from September 2002 to March 2003. To participate in the study, patients had to be at least 18 years of age and visiting one of the SPUR-Net clinics for routine, nonacute care. Survey questions were available in both English and Spanish. Results A total of 322 patients who had complete information on race/ethnicity were included in the analysis. Overall, 36% of the surveyed patients (n = 322 indicated use of herbs, with wide variability among ethnic groups: 50% of Hispanics, 50% of Asians, 41% of Whites, and 22% of African-Americans. Significant factors associated with an individual's herbal use were ethnicity other than African-American, having an immigrant family history, and reporting herbal use by other family members. About 40% of survey respondents believed that taking prescription medications and herbal medicines together was more effective than taking either alone. One-third of herbal users reported using herbs on a daily basis. More Whites (67% disclosed their herbal use to their health-care providers than did African-Americans (45%, Hispanics (31%, or Asians (31%. Conclusions Racial/ethnic differences in herbal use were apparent among this sample of urban multiethnic adult primary care

  1. Factors affecting voluntary HIV counselling and testing among men in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leta Tesfaye H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT is one of the key strategies in the HIV/AIDS prevention and control programmes in Ethiopia. However, utilization of this service among adults is very low. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors associated with VCT utilization among adult men since men are less likely than women to be offered and accept routine HIV testing. Methods The study utilized data from the Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey (EDHS 2005, which is a cross-sectional survey conducted on a nationally representative sample. Using cluster sampling, 6,778 men aged 15–59 years were selected from all the eleven administrative regions in Ethiopia. Logistic regression was used to analyze potential factors associated with VCT utilization. Results Overall, 21.9% of urban men and 2.6% of rural men had ever tested for HIV through VCT and most of them had learned their HIV test result. Having no stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS was found to be strongly and positively associated with VCT utilization in both urban and rural strata. In rural areas HIV test rates were higher among younger men (aged ≤44 years and those of higher socio-economic position (SEP. Among urban men, risky sexual behaviour was positively associated with VCT utilization whereas being Muslim was found to be inversely associated with utilization of VCT. Area of residence as well as SEP strongly affected men’s level of stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Conclusions VCT utilization among men in Ethiopia was low and affected by HIV/AIDS-related stigma and residence. In order to increase VCT acceptability, HIV/AIDS prevention and control programs in the country should focus on reducing HIV/AIDS-related stigma. Targeting rural men with low SEP should be given first priority when designing, expanding, and implementing VCT services in the country.

  2. Canadian Health Measures Survey pre-test: design, methods, results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark; Langlois, Renée; Bryan, Shirley; Esliger, Dale; Patterson, Julienne

    2007-01-01

    The Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) pre-test was conducted to provide information about the challenges and costs associated with administering a physical health measures survey in Canada. To achieve the specific objectives of the pre-test, protocols were developed and tested, and methods for household interviewing and clinic testing were designed and revised. The cost, logistics and suitability of using fixed sites for the CHMS were assessed. Although data collection, transfer and storage procedures are complex, the pre-test experience confirmed Statistics Canada's ability to conduct a direct health measures survey and the willingness of Canadians to participate in such a health survey. Many operational and logistical procedures worked well and, with minor modifications, are being employed in the main survey. Fixed sites were problematic, and survey costs were higher than expected.

  3. Epidemiology of non-fatal injuries among Egyptian children: a community-based cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Halawa, Eman Fawzy; Barakat, Abeer; Rizk, Hoda Ibrahim Ibrahim; Moawad, Eman Mohamed Ibraheim

    2015-01-01

    Background Injuries are a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. We aimed to determine the magnitude and characteristics of child injuries in Egypt and to identify the associated risk factors. Methods A community-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted over 27 Egyptian governorates from June to October, 2011. The target population was 1977 households with children aged 0?18 years who had experienced accidental injuries. Results In the 6-month period before the investi...

  4. The DAFT/FADA Survey status and latest results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guennou, L.

    2011-12-01

    We present here the latest results obtained from the American French collaboration called the Dark energy American French Team/French American DArk energy Team (DAFT/FADA). The goal of the DAFT/FADA collaboration is to carry out a weak lensing tomography survey of z = 0.4-0.9 rich clusters of galaxies. Unlike supernovae or other methods such as cluster of galaxy counts, weak lensing tomography is purely based on geometry and does not depend on knowledge of the physics of the objects used as distance indicators. In addition, the reason for analyzing observations in the direction of clusters is that the shear signal is enhanced by about 10 over the field. Our work will eventually contain results obtained on 91 rich clusters from the HST archive combined with ground based work to obtain photo-zs. This combination of photo-z and weak lensing tomography will enable us to constrain the equation of state of dark energy. We present here the latest results obtained so far in this study.

  5. [A Cross-sectional Study of School dropout in adolescents: National Mental Health Survey Colombia 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Padilla Muñoz, Andrea; Rincón, Carlos Javier

    2016-12-01

    School dropout in adolescents can have negative consequences, not only for the individual and the family, but also for the society. To identify the characteristics associated with the occurrence of this event might contribute to the planning of a prevention strategy. To evaluate the relationship between the individual and home characteristics and school dropout in adolescents from 12 to 17 years old in Colombia. A cross sectional study was conducted from information taken from the results obtained in the 2015 National Mental Health Survey. A study was made of the relationship between the individual and home characteristics and school dropout in adolescents from 12 to 17 years old RESULTS: A higher percentage of school dropouts was found in the older adolescents, females, and those who have children. Among the home characteristics, it was observed that those homes with more than two people, located in rural area, or that are classified as poor, have an increased percentage of school dropout adolescents. Strategies for which the main goal is to prevent school dropout should consider populations with higher prevalence of out-of-school adolescents (female, homes in rural area, or household poverty). Preventive actions of adolescent pregnancy might contribute to reduce the school dropout rate. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Attitudes of Mexican anesthesiologists to indicate preoperative fasting periods: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Mora, Juan; Moyao-García, Diana; Nava-Ocampo, Alejandro A

    2002-05-17

    BACKGROUND: In Mexico, guidelines for fasting periods, or any audits on this topic are unavailable, and therefore the attitudes of anesthesiologists for recommending preoperative fasting periods are unknown. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was a cross-sectional survey of anesthesiologists subscribed to the Annual Updated Course, organized by the Sociedad Mexicana de Anestesiologia in 2000. The response rate was 31.4%. RESULTS: Most respondents were general anesthesiologists, with 5 or more years experience in a clinical post, were working in both public and private hospitals, and were performing anesthetic procedures on both pediatric and adult patients and in both ambulatory and hospitalized patients. Approximately 23% of the respondents considered natural fruit juices to be clear liquids. For a pediatric patient ingesting breast milk 1 h before undergoing a surgical procedure, 45% thought that surgery should be delayed for 3h, followed by those delaying the surgical procedure for 6 to 8 h. Our results show that more than 50% of the anesthesiologists had better defined attitudes for fasting milk and clear liquids in patients of 6 month or under than for older children and adults. However, due to the poor definition or pre-operative fasting, using clear liquids, in all other patient groups, several patients are allowed to go without oral clear liquids administration for prolonged periods. CONCLUSION: Preoperative fasting periods recommended by Mexican anesthesiologists differ from international guidelines.

  7. Job Satisfaction of Nurses in a Regional Hospital in Oman: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Maqbali, Mohammed Abdullah

    2015-09-01

    Job satisfaction has become a critical issue for healthcare organizations, particularly in nursing, because of the shortage of nursing labor, the effect on patient care, and the associated costs. This study explores the factors that influence the level of job satisfaction of nurses working in one regional hospital in Oman. This study aims to measure the job satisfaction of nurses working at a regional hospital in Oman and to determine the factors that most significantly influence this satisfaction. Job satisfaction is measured using the McCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale. In addition, the demographic characteristics of participants (age, gender, level of education, years of experience, marital status, work shift, work unit, and nationality) are obtained to assess potential correlations. A questionnaire survey was used to collect the data, and stratified random sampling was used to recruit potential participants. A cross-sectional survey was used to collect data from 155 participants who worked at one regional hospital in Oman, with survey data analyzed using SPSS version 19. One hundred forty-three valid responses were received (response rate: 92%). The study used descriptive data analysis to address the first research question and used analysis methods such as multiregression analyses, and one-way analysis of variance to identify the relationships between the other variables. The overall mean score for satisfaction was 3.49, indicating that participants had a moderate level of job satisfaction. "Interaction with coworkers" and "extrinsic reward" earned, respectively, the highest and lowest job satisfaction ratings on the subscale of McCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale. The results showed that age, work shift, and nationality each had a statistically significant effect on overall job satisfaction. A multiple regression analysis indicated that 21.8% of the total variance in the dependent variables was explained by being non-Omani in nationality, indicating that

  8. Factors associated with domestic violence: a cross-sectional survey among women in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fageeh, Wafa M K

    2014-02-14

    This study aims to identify the factors associated with domestic violence (DV) among women in Jeddah. Cross-sectional survey. Outpatient departments of three tertiary hospitals in Jeddah. Convenience sample of women, aged 15-70 years, at the outpatient and inpatient clinics. Between 15 December 2011 and 30 May 2012, a psychologist and a professional health assistant explained the purpose of the research to participants, who were then asked to fill a 50-item questionnaire. The questionnaire was created based on questions from three questionnaires: the NorVold Domestic Abuse Questionnaire, the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System and the Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale. The questionnaire was used to assess the association between DV and family status, male partner attitudes, age, educational attainment, employment, financial and socioeconomic status. A total of 2301 women participated in the survey (81% response rate). The mean±SD age of the participants was 34.4±10.9 years. The lifetime prevalence of DV was 34%. Abused women had more children than non-abused women (p=0.001), and their spouses were significantly older than those of non-abused women (pwomen and those with a high educational status were significantly more likely to report abuse (p=0.003 and pwomen were also likely to report that their spouse was a smoker (pwomen reported that their male partners were alcohol users (p=0.001). The results of logistic regression showed that women who were financially dependent had about 1.5-fold odds of being physically abused by a spouse. Many factors are associated with DV against women, thereby highlighting the need to design effective DV prevention programmes.

  9. Error, stress, and teamwork in medicine and aviation: cross sectional surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, J Bryan; Thomas, Eric J; Helmreich, Robert L

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To survey operating theatre and intensive care unit staff about attitudes concerning error, stress, and teamwork and to compare these attitudes with those of airline cockpit crew. Design: Cross sectional surveys. Setting: Urban teaching and non-teaching hospitals in the United States, Israel, Germany, Switzerland, and Italy. Major airlines around the world. Participants: 1033 doctors, nurses, fellows, and residents working in operating theatres and intensive care units and over 30 000 cockpit crew members (captains, first officers, and second officers). Main outcome measures: Perceptions of error, stress, and teamwork. Results: Pilots were least likely to deny the effects of fatigue on performance (26% v 70% of consultant surgeons and 47% of consultant anaesthetists). Most pilots (97%) and intensive care staff (94%) rejected steep hierarchies (in which senior team members are not open to input from junior members), but only 55% of consultant surgeons rejected such hierarchies. High levels of teamwork with consultant surgeons were reported by 73% of surgical residents, 64% of consultant surgeons, 39% of anaesthesia consultants, 28% of surgical nurses, 25% of anaesthetic nurses, and 10% of anaesthetic residents. Only a third of staff reported that errors are handled appropriately at their hospital. A third of intensive care staff did not acknowledge that they make errors. Over half of intensive care staff reported that they find it difficult to discuss mistakes. Conclusions: Medical staff reported that error is important but difficult to discuss and not handled well in their hospital. Barriers to discussing error are more important since medical staff seem to deny the effect of stress and fatigue on performance. Further problems include differing perceptions of teamwork among team members and reluctance of senior theatre staff to accept input from junior members. PMID:10720356

  10. Burnout among anaesthetists in Chinese hospitals: a multicentre, cross-sectional survey in 6 provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Min; Ting, Chen; Pengqian, Fang; Xinqiao, Fu

    2016-06-01

    Anesthesiology has reached a new stage which anaesthesia safety is significantly affected by human factors. The number of Chinese anaesthetists has increased to nearly twice as many as that in 2005. Attributed to traditional concepts, many problems in anesthesiology persist in Chinese hospitals. This study aims to determine the current status of anaesthesia job burnout, including problems related to burnout, as well as the conditions of anaesthesia human resources in Chinese hospitals. A multi-center, cross-sectional survey of 395 anaesthetists from 60 hospitals in 6 provinces was conducted to collect data on the work conditions of anesthesiologists by using questionnaires. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used to measure burnout. Different statistical models were also used to evaluate the data. The number of Chinese anaesthetists has increased to nearly twice as many as that in 2005. According to our field survey of burnout among anaesthetists, only 17 (4.30%) respondents exhibited high levels of burnout. The average scores corresponding to the dimensions of burnout are 14.64 ± 11.40 (emotional exhaustion, EE), 4.22 ± 5.74 (depersonalization, DP), and 33.41 ± 10.05 (personal accomplishment, PA), as determined by MBI. These results indicate the differences in the spatial distribution of anaesthetists. Moreover, 15.3% of the anaesthetists showed high EE, 8.1% exhibited high DP, and 33.6% had low PA. Anxiety and undesirable conditions experienced by professional groups in anaesthesiology need to be addressed. Educational level, an important factor in anaesthesia care, influences not only psychological health of practitioners but patient safety as well. Thus, personnel structure must be optimized to relieve tension in the practice of the profession and reduce burnout among anaesthetists in hospitals in China. Meanwhile, the management must increase its effort toward improving the mental health of practitioners and patient safety in anaesthesia care. © 2016

  11. Pediatrician′s perspectives on dental trauma management: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H P Chanchala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pediatricians play a pivotal role in the provision of primary care following dental trauma, especially for population with limited access to dental care. The criticality of time and knowledge is very important in the success of dental trauma management. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and experience of pediatricians in the primary management of dental trauma. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 261 pediatricians from various regions of India who attended the National Pediatric Conference, Mysore 2015. The survey addressed demographic- and knowledge-related data concerned to dental trauma, experience in treating and witnessing dental trauma, diagnosis, preliminary management, and attitude of the pediatricians toward the same. The collected data were analyzed using the SPSS version 17. Results: Among 261 respondents analyzed, 65.5% of them had encountered dental trauma in their practice. Avulsed tooth can be saved as opined by 67.8% of pediatricians. A higher percentage of the pediatricians, 94.3% knew the significance of time lapse. Saline was preferred medium of transport by 90.8%, followed by ice-cold water (78.2%. A fair awareness of the emergency treatment protocol of the avulsed teeth was observed among 59.8% of the pediatricians. Conclusion: Among pediatricians, the knowledge regarding handling of avulsed tooth, medium of transportation, and significance of time lapse between avulsion and reimplantation were found to be at a good level. The knowledge regarding the type of tooth to be reimplanted, method of cleaning the tooth was lacking.

  12. Guideline use behaviours and needs of primary care practitioners in China: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Linan; Li, Youping; Zhang, Lingli; Liu, Guanjian; Zhang, Yang; Zhen, Shangwei; Li, Honghao; Song, Xue; Duan, Yanjun; Yu, Jiajie; Wang, Xiaodong

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Clinical guidelines have been recognised as an effective way to improve healthcare performance. However, little is known about the uptake and implementation of guidelines by general practitioners in China. The aim of this study was to investigate the guideline use behaviours and needs of practitioners in primary care settings in China. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey from December 2015 to May 2016 that included practitioners at 268 institutions in 15 provinces in China. Questionnaire development was informed by the execution of a literature review and consultation of experts. On-site surveys were implemented using a paper questionnaire to minimise missing responses. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with provider knowledge of and attitudes towards clinical guidelines. Results Of the respondents, 91.7% (1568/1708) were aware of clinical guidelines, but only 11.3% (177/1568) frequently used them. The main mechanism by which primary care practitioners accessed guidelines was public search engines (63.4%; 911/1438), and practitioners seldom reported using biomedical databases. The most frequently identified barriers to guideline use were lack of training (49.9%; 778/1560), lack of access (44.6%; 696/1560) and lack of awareness (38.0%; 592/1560). Less than one-quarter of respondents considered current guidelines ‘entirely appropriate’ for use in primary care (23.5%; 339/1442). Most participants (96.2%; 1509/1568) believed it was necessary to develop primary care guidelines. Provider attitudes towards current guidelines were associated with the location and level of the institution and professional title of the practitioner (pguidelines in primary care, and we identified a gap between the needs of practitioners and availability of clinical guidelines for use in primary care in China. In addition, lacking access to and training in guidelines also prevented primary healthcare practitioners

  13. Career Satisfaction Among Dental Public Health Specialists in India – A Cross-sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Joe; Antony, Bobby

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The satisfaction in career is an important indicator for the growth of the discipline and the profession. An empirical investigation of satisfaction in career and amendments needed in course and profession may help in growth of discipline. Aim To assess career satisfaction among Dental Public Health (DPH) specialists working in India and analyze their perspective on changes required in the profession. Materials and Methods Questionnaire for this cross-sectional survey was adapted from Minnesota Job Satisfaction Survey which included 40 enquiries to understand the reasons for choosing public health dentistry as career, competencies of public health dentists, satisfaction as a public health dentist and changes required in the profession. The questions were both open and closed end type. Updated electronic mail details of all registered public health dentists were collected from the head office of Indian Association of Public Health Dentistry. Each participant was contacted by electronic mail and consent to participate were sought. Reminders were e-mailed thrice during three months. A total of 580 participants were contacted. A total of 183 responses were received, among which 179 consented. Results Nearly half of the respondents felt they are yet to achieve the accomplishment from the present career as public health dentist. Only 46.9% felt that there is advancement in the profession as career. Nearly three-fourth of respondents could not attain recognition as a public health dentist. A 45.8% of respondents were of the opinion that career in public health dentistry would provide them a steady employment and 53.1% of public health dentists would envision as satisfied in their career in next 10 years. Nearly 85% felt public health dentistry training needs a major course correction. Conclusion There has been some reservation or skepticism about the future of the specialty as the jobs are in declining stage. This information provides insight about success

  14. Factors relating to adolescent suicidal behavior: a cross-sectional Malaysian school survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Paul C Y; Lee, Lai Kah; Wong, Kam Cheong; Kaur, Jagmohni

    2005-10-01

    This study was undertaken to examine factors relating to adolescent suicide behavior. This was a cross-sectional school survey of 4,500 adolescent students based on a structured questionnaire. Data were collected using the supervised self-administered questionnaire (modified version of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance in the Malaysian National Language, Bahasa Malaysia). Seven percent (312 of 4,454) of the adolescent students had seriously considered attempting suicide. Among the adolescents, 4.6% had attempted suicide at least once during the 12 months preceding the survey. Female adolescents were more likely to put their suicidal thoughts into suicidal action than were male adolescents. Malay and Indian people are more likely than the Chinese to respond, "Felt sad and hopeless." However, Malay adolescents had the lowest rate of attempted suicide. Based on multiple logistic regression, factors significantly related to urban adolescents' suicide behavior are "Felt sad or hopeless," "Number of days felt unsafe to go to school," "Riding with a driver who had been drinking alcohol," "Physical fight," and "Number of days absent from school." In comparison, factors relating to rural adolescents' suicide behavior are "Felt sad or hopeless," "Physical fight," "Physical fight resulting in injury," and "Drive a vehicle after drinking alcohol." Adolescent suicide behavior should be viewed as a serious problem. Measures can be taken to prevent suicide by looking at the factors significantly linked to suicidal behavior among adolescents. Steps can then be taken to identify adolescents who have serious suicidal ideation so that intervention can be taken to reduce the suicidal rate.

  15. Sleep Duration and Quality in Pregnant Women: A Cross-Sectional Survey in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglong Xu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Good maternal health and fetal development require sufficient and good quality of sleep during pregnancy. This study investigated sleep duration and quality in pregnant women, assessing factors with possibly influence on sleep. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on pregnant women between June and August in 2015 in 16 hospitals in five provinces in China. A total of 2345 pregnant women aged 18 years and older were surveyed. Insufficient sleeping duration was defined as sleeping of less than 7 h per day. Excessive sleep duration was defined as sleeping of more than 9 h per day. Results: A total of 561 (23.9% participants reported insufficient sleeping duration, whereas 485 (20.9% claimed excessive sleep duration. A total of 358 (15.2% of pregnant women reported problems regarding sleep quality. Compared to pregnant women with sufficient sleeping duration, those with insufficient sleeping duration were prone to have poor sleep quality, whereas those with excessive sleeping duration featured low possibility of poor sleep quality. High-risk groups of insufficient sleep duration include women of Han nationality, with siblings, in their first trimester of pregnancy, receiving care in low-capacity/quality hospital settings, and with daily or 1–3 days of secondhand smoke exposure. High-risk groups of excessive sleep duration include women living in rural areas, unemployed, in their third trimester of pregnancy, and receiving care in medium-capacity/quality hospital settings. High-risk groups of poor sleep quality include women of non-Han nationality, low income level, in their third trimester of pregnancy, and with insufficient sleep duration. Conclusions: Insufficient/excessive sleep duration and poor sleep quality commonly occur during pregnancy in China. Findings provide a better understanding of the influencing factors of insufficient/excessive sleep duration and poor quality of sleep. These findings have some implications

  16. Research notes : high-speed rail survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    The survey was conducted from April 2010 to June 2010 using both a print and a web version with identical questions. The print version of the survey was distributed at open house meetings on high-speed rail held in Eugene, Junction City, Albany, Sale...

  17. Survey Results: Idaho Public Library Public Relation Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho State Library, Boise.

    In order to study library public relations practices in Idaho, a survey was mailed to all Idaho public library directors and branch librarians in 1992. The state received 88 responses to the 141 surveys mailed. Seventy-five percent of respondents reported a lack of public relations budget, and in 76 percent of the libraries, one staff member was…

  18. Recessionary Layoffs in Museum Education: Survey Results and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kley, Ron

    2009-01-01

    A recent survey of recession-driven museum staff reductions suggests the possible loss of tens of thousands of museum personnel nationwide and identifies educators as among those most severely impacted. Survey findings are summarized, and the implications for both affected personnel and downsized institutions are considered.

  19. The LOFAR Multifrequency Snapshot Sky Survey (MSSS). I. Survey description and first results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heald, G. H.; Pizzo, R. F.; Orrú, E.; Breton, R. P.; Carbone, D.; Ferrari, C.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Jurusik, W.; Macario, G.; Mulcahy, D.; Rafferty, D.; Asgekar, A.; Brentjens, M.; Fallows, R. A.; Frieswijk, W.; Toribio, M. C.; Adebahr, B.; Arts, M.; Bell, M. R.; Bonafede, A.; Bray, J.; Broderick, J.; Cantwell, T.; Carroll, P.; Cendes, Y.; Clarke, A. O.; Croston, J.; Daiboo, S.; de Gasperin, F.; Gregson, J.; Harwood, J.; Hassall, T.; Heesen, V.; Horneffer, A.; van der Horst, A. J.; Iacobelli, M.; Jelić, V.; Jones, D.; Kant, D.; Kokotanekov, G.; Martin, P.; McKean, J. P.; Morabito, L. K.; Nikiel-Wroczyński, B.; Offringa, A.; Pandey, V. N.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pietka, M.; Pratley, L.; Riseley, C.; Rowlinson, A.; Sabater, J.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Scheers, L. H. A.; Sendlinger, K.; Shulevski, A.; Sipior, M.; Sobey, C.; Stewart, A. J.; Stroe, A.; Swinbank, J.; Tasse, C.; Trüstedt, J.; Varenius, E.; van Velzen, S.; Vilchez, N.; van Weeren, R. J.; Wijnholds, S.; Williams, W. L.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Nijboer, R.; Wise, M.; Alexov, A.; Anderson, J.; Avruch, I. M.; Beck, R.; Bell, M. E.; van Bemmel, I.; Bentum, M. J.; Bernardi, G.; Best, P.; Breitling, F.; Brouw, W. N.; Brüggen, M.; Butcher, H. R.; Ciardi, B.; Conway, J. E.; de Geus, E.; de Jong, A.; de Vos, M.; Deller, A.; Dettmar, R.-J.; Duscha, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Engels, D.; Falcke, H.; Fender, R.; Garrett, M. A.; Grießmeier, J.; Gunst, A. W.; Hamaker, J. P.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Hoeft, M.; Hörandel, J.; Holties, H. A.; Intema, H.; Jackson, N. J.; Jütte, E.; Karastergiou, A.; Klijn, W. F. A.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Kuper, G.; Law, C.; van Leeuwen, J.; Loose, M.; Maat, P.; Markoff, S.; McFadden, R.; McKay-Bukowski, D.; Mevius, M.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Morganti, R.; Munk, H.; Nelles, A.; Noordam, J. E.; Norden, M. J.; Paas, H.; Polatidis, A. G.; Reich, W.; Renting, A.; Röttgering, H.; Schoenmakers, A.; Schwarz, D.; Sluman, J.; Smirnov, O.; Stappers, B. W.; Steinmetz, M.; Tagger, M.; Tang, Y.; ter Veen, S.; Thoudam, S.; Vermeulen, R.; Vocks, C.; Vogt, C.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Wucknitz, O.; Yatawatta, S.; Zarka, P.

    2015-01-01

    We present the Multifrequency Snapshot Sky Survey (MSSS), the first northern-sky Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) imaging survey. In this introductory paper, we first describe in detail the motivation and design of the survey. Compared to previous radio surveys, MSSS is exceptional due to its intrinsic

  20. Switching health insurance plans: results from a health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lako, Christiaan J; Rosenau, Pauline; Daw, Chris

    2011-12-01

    The study is designed to provide an informal summary of what is known about consumer switching of health insurance plans and to contribute to knowledge about what motivates consumers who choose to switch health plans. Do consumers switch plans largely on the basis of critical reflection and assessment of information about the quality, and price? The literature suggests that switching is complicated, not always possible, and often overwhelming to consumers. Price does not always determine choice. Quality is very hard for consumers to understand. Results from a random sample survey (n = 2791) of the Alkmaar region of the Netherlands are reported here. They suggest that rather than embracing the opportunity to be active critical consumers, individuals are more likely to avoid this role by handing this activity off to a group purchasing organization. There is little evidence that consumers switch plans on the basis of critical reflection and assessment of information about quality and price. The new data reported here confirm the importance of a group purchasing organizations. In a free-market-health insurance system confidence in purchasing groups may be more important for health insurance choice than health informatics. This is not what policy makers expected and might result a less efficient health insurance market system.

  1. Cross-sectional prevalence survey of intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization in Canadian military personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is prevalent and is associated with a broad range of adverse consequences. In military organizations, IPV may have special implications, such as the potential of service-related mental disorders to trigger IPV. However, the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) have limited data to guide their prevention and control efforts. Methods Self-reported IPV perpetration, victimization, and their correlates were assessed on a cross-sectional survey of a stratified random sample of currently-serving Canadian Regular Forces personnel (N = 2157). The four primary outcomes were perpetration or victimization of any physical and/or sexual or emotional and/or financial IPV over the lifespan of the current relationship. Results Among the 81% of the population in a current relationship, perpetration of any physical and/or sexual IPV was reported in 9%; victimization was reported in 15%. Any emotional and/or financial abuse was reported by 19% (perpetration) and 22% (victimization). Less physically injurious forms of abuse predominated. Logistic regression modelling showed that relationship dissatisfaction was independently associated with all four outcomes (OR range = 2.3 to 3.7). Probable depression was associated with all outcomes except physical and/or sexual IPV victimization (OR range = 2.5 – 2.7). PTSD symptoms were only associated with physical and/or sexual IPV perpetration (OR = 3.2, CI = 1.4 to 7.9). High-risk drinking was associated with emotional and/or financial abuse. Risk of IPV was lowest in those who had recent deployment experience; remote deployment experience (vs. never having deployed) was an independent risk factor for all IPV outcomes (OR range = 2.0 – 3.4). Conclusions IPV affects an important minority of military families; less severe cases predominate. Mental disorders, high-risk drinking, relationship dissatisfaction, and remote deployment were independently associated with abuse outcomes. The

  2. Positive and negative reasons for sickness presenteeism in Norway and Sweden: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Vegard; Aronsson, Gunnar; Marklund, Staffan

    2014-02-12

    This article investigates various reasons for sickness presenteeism (SP), that is, going to work despite illness. The research questions asked is: What are the main reported reasons for SP in Norway and Sweden? Cross-sectional survey in Norway and Sweden. Use of binomial logistic regression analysis. A random sample of people aged between 20 and 60 years was obtained from complete and updated databases of the Norwegian and Swedish populations. A postal questionnaire was sent to the selected individuals, with response rate 33% (n=2843). 2533 workers responded to questions about SP during the last 12 months. The article informs about the distribution of reasons for SP in Norway and Sweden, selected by the respondents from a closed list. The article also examines which factors influence the most often reported reasons for SP. 56% of the Norwegian and Swedish respondents experienced SP in the previous year. The most frequently reported reasons for SP include not burden colleagues (43%), enjoy work (37%) and feeling indispensable (35%). A lower proportion of Norwegians state that they cannot afford taking sick leave adjusted OR (aOR 0.16 (95% CI 0.10 to 0.22)), while a higher proportion of Norwegians refer to that they enjoy their work (aOR=1.64 (95% CI 1.28 to 2.09)). Women and young workers more often report that they do not want to burden their colleagues. Managers (aOR=2.19 (95% CI 1.67 to 2.86)), highly educated persons and the self-employed more often report that they are indispensable. Positive and negative reasons for SP are reported, and there are significant differences between respondents from the two countries. The response rate is low and results must be interpreted with caution. Cross-sectional study.

  3. Public stigma associated with mental illnesses in Pakistani university students: a cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Waqas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The objectives of the study were to explore the knowledge and attitudes of Pakistani university students toward mental illnesses. People with mental illnesses are challenged not only by their symptoms but also by the prejudices associated with their illness. Acknowledging the stigma of mental illness should be the first essential step toward devising an appropriate treatment plan.Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the University of Punjab, Lahore, CMH Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, and University of Sargodha, Sub-campus Lahore, from February to May 2014. The self-administered questionnaire consisted of three sections: demographics, general knowledge of psychiatric illnesses, and Community Attitudes towards Mental Illnesses (CAMI Scale. The questionnaire was distributed to 650 participants enrolled in different disciplines (Social Sciences, Medicine and Formal Sciences.Results. Response rate was 81% (527/650 respondents. Mean age was 20.98 years. Most of the students (331, 62.8% had an urban background and studied Social Sciences (238, 45.2%. Four hundred and eighteen respondents (79.3% considered religion very important and most respondents considered psychiatrists (334, 63.4% and spiritual leaders (72, 13.7% to be best able to treat mental illnesses. One hundred and sixty nine respondents (32.1% considered black magic to be a cause of mental illness. Only 215 (41% respondents had ever read an article on mental illnesses. Multiple regression analysis revealed study discipline, exposure, perceived causes of mental illnesses and superstitions to be significantly associated with attitudes towards mental illnesses (p < .05.Conclusion. Although low awareness and exposure were found in this sample of Pakistani university students, their attitude towards mental illnesses was generally positive. Most respondents gave supernatural explanations for mental illnesses but only a few believed that spiritual leaders can

  4. Tracheotomy-Related Catastrophic Events: Results of a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Preety; Zhu, Hannah; Shah, Rahul K.; Roberson, David W.; Berry, Jay; Skinner, Margaret L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis To gather qualitative and semiquantitative information about catastrophic complications during and following tracheotomy. Study Design National survey distributed to American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery members via the Academy weekly email newsletter during April and May 2011. Methods A total of 478 respondents provided estimates of the number of four specific tracheotomy-related complications (innominate artery fistula, esophageal fistula, acute tracheotomy occlusion, and obstructing granuloma), all catastrophic events, and events resulting in death or permanent disability encountered during their careers. There were 253 respondents who provided 405 free-text descriptions of specific events. Results The respondents experienced approximately one catastrophic event every 10 years and one event resulting in death or permanent disability every 20 years. More than 90% occurred more than 1 week after surgery. Categories of physicians who experienced more events per year included academic physicians and laryngologists. Pediatric otolaryngologists had twice as many innominate artery fistulas per year of practice as others. Qualitative (free-text) descriptions of the most serious events demonstrated that more of these events involved loss of airway and volume bleeds, usually from innominate or carotid artery erosion. Many of the events due to airway loss involved potentially correctable deficits in family education, nursing care, home care, and other structural factors. Conclusions Even when we allow for selection bias, these data suggest that a substantial number of tracheotomy complications leading to death or permanent disability occur at a national level. The vast majority of events occur more than 1 week after the procedure. Many of the described events were caused by factors that should be amenable to prospective system improvement strategies. PMID:22183626

  5. Career interest and perceptions of nephrology: A repeated cross-sectional survey of internal medicine residents

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, Michael N.; Maynard, Sharon; Porter, Ivan; Kincaid, Hope; Jain, Deepika; Aslam, Nabeel

    2017-01-01

    Background Interest in nephrology careers among internal medicine residents in the United States is declining. Our objective was to assess the impact of the presence of a nephrology fellowship training program on perceptions and career interest in nephrology among internal medicine residents. A secondary objective was to identify commonly endorsed negative perceptions of nephrology among internal medicine residents. Methods This was a repeated cross-sectional survey of internal medicine resid...

  6. The mental health of nurses in acute teaching hospital settings: a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, Lin; Lamont, Scott; Brunero, Scott; Gallagher, Robyn; Duffield, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Background Nursing is an emotionally demanding profession and deficiencies in nurses? mental wellbeing, characterised by low vitality and common mental disorders, have been linked to low productivity, absenteeism and presenteeism. Part of a larger study of nurses? health, the aim of this paper was to describe the mental health status and related characteristics of nurses working in two acute metropolitan teaching hospitals. Methods A cross sectional survey design was used. The Registered and ...

  7. Prescription antibiotics for outpatients in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional health survey conducted in three cities

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Mohitosh; Roy, Debendra Nath; Tajmim, Afsana; Rajib, Sheikh Shahriar; Hossain, Mosharraf; Farzana, Fahamida; Yasmen, Nelufar

    2014-01-01

    Background Antibiotics prescribing by physicians have gained due importance across the globe, mainly because of an increase in antibiotic usage, prevalence of infections and drug resistances. The present study is aimed to evaluate the physicians prescribing pattern of antibiotics, their usages by outpatients and disease conditions for which the antibiotics are prescribed in three cities of Bangladesh. Methods This cross sectional health survey was carried out with a self designed standard que...

  8. How Czech firms deal with operational budgets? – Survey results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Popesko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, academics and practitioners started a deep discussion about the limitations and perspectives of enterprise budgeting systems. Traditional budgets are frequently criticized due to their inflexibility, weak connection to corporate performance and demand on manager’s time. Recently, we have observed more frequent examples of firms which have undertaken budgeting system transformation and the adoption of modern, flexible and performance-based budgets. In this study, we have studied some trends in the budgeting of Czech firms with a focus on the manager´s behaviour. This paper contributes to the existing knowledge in two fields: Firstly, it summarizes the existing state of the art regarding the budgeting transformation; secondly, it presents the survey results focused on the operational budget utilization and its impact on the manager’s behaviour. Overall, the study presents some findings regarding the impact of an operational budget on the manager’s behaviour. We have tested how frequently situations occur, more specifically those frequently discussed in literature, in a given Czech firm´s budgeting practices.

  9. The Chronic Migraineur and Health Services: National Survey Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachholtz, Amy; Malone, Christopher; Bhowmick, Amrita

    2015-11-01

    Chronic migraine is a costly and highly disabling condition that impacts millions of people in the United States. While chronic migraine is hypothesized to result from more infrequent forms of migraine, the precise mechanism by which this develops is still being researched. This study sought to better characterize the treatment patterns, disorder characteristics, and medical and disability profile of the chronic migraine population using the largest dataset of chronic migraineurs ever collected. The survey was started by 8,359 individuals and 4,787 met the inclusion criteria for diagnosed chronic migraine The number of stressful life events participants experienced due to their migraines related to number of therapies tried (pmigraineurs may misattribute aspects of psychiatric or medical comorbidities to their chronic migraines. Further, the sample underutilized mental health services and were unsatisfied with their migraine treatments. Providers to chronic migraineurs should ensure that patients are receiving appropriate mental health care in order to alleviate psychological distress as well as to potentially lessen negative life events previously associated with migraine symptoms.

  10. Recent Results from the Herschel Orion Protostar Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, William J.; Megeath, T.; Ali, B.; Watson, D.; Manoj, P.; Vavrek, R.; Poteet, C.; Tobin, J.; Stanke, T.; Stutz, A.; HOPS Team

    2011-05-01

    The Herschel Orion Protostar Survey (HOPS) is an ongoing 200-hour open-time key project with the Herschel Space Observatory to study protostars in the Orion molecular cloud complex. HOPS is obtaining PACS 70 and 160 micron imaging of 286 Orion protostars and PACS spectroscopy of a subset of 36, sampling the expected peaks of their spectral energy distributions (SEDs). The Herschel data are complemented by Spitzer 3-24 micron photometry and 5-40 micron spectroscopy, high angular resolution near-IR imaging with Hubble and ground-based telescopes, and millimeter observations of the surrounding gas. With these combined data we can determine the fundamental properties (multiplicity, gas infall rate, bolometric luminosity, outflow cavity geometry) of a large sample of protostars in a single cloud complex. With far-IR imaging and 1.6-160 micron SEDs for 171 protostars and 55-200 micron spectroscopy for 10 protostars expected to be in hand by mid-March 2011, we will present a selection of recent results.

  11. Community psychiatry: results of a public opinion survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauber, Christoph; Nordt, Carlos; Haker, Helene; Falcato, Luis; Rössler, Wulf

    2006-05-01

    Mental health authorities must know the public's attitude to community psychiatry when planning community mental health services. However, previous studies have only investigated the impact of demographic variables on the attitude to community psychiatry. To assess the influence of psychological and sociological parameters on the public opinion of community psychiatry in Switzerland. Linear regression analyses of the results of a public opinion survey on a representative population sample in Switzerland (n = 1737). Most respondents have positive attitudes to community psychiatry. In the regression analysis (R2 adjusted = 21.2%), negative emotions towards mentally ill people as depicted in the vignette, great social distance, a positive attitude to restrictions, negative stereotypes, high rigidity and no participation in community activities significantly influenced negative attitudes to community psychiatry. Additionally, other parameters, e.g. contact with mentally ill people and the nationality of the interviewee, have a significant influence. In planning psychiatric community services, general individual traits and emotive issues should be considered because they influence the response towards community psychiatry facilities in the host community.

  12. Management of acute diarrhea in adults in China: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Feng-Qin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the management of acute adult diarrhea in China and assess adherence of clinical practice to national guidelines and 2012 World Gastroenterology Organization guidelines. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out among physicians in 20 hospitals in two different areas of China (Beijing, 10; Shaanxi province, 10. Summary statistics were calculated for the overall study group and for each region. Between-region differences were assessed with χ2 or t-tests. Results Data were collected for 800 patients (≥18 years; mean ± SD age 37.0 ± 16.3 years; 56.4% female. The mean ± SD time between diarrhea onset and visiting a diarrhea clinic was 2.4 ± 1.6 days; this interval was significantly shorter in Beijing than Shaanxi (2.0 ± 1.4 vs 2.8 ± 1.8 days, respectively; p p p p  Conclusions Adherence to both national guidelines and 2012 World Gastroenterology Organization guidelines for the management of acute diarrhea in adult was limited among tertiary hospital physicians. The findings suggest nationwide education and effective health policies are needed to improve medical practice and reduce the unnecessary burden on the healthcare system.

  13. Health-state utilities in a prisoner population: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Michael H

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health-state utilities for prisoners have not been described. Methods We used data from a 1996 cross-sectional survey of Australian prisoners (n = 734. Respondent-level SF-36 data was transformed into utility scores by both the SF-6D and Nichol's method. Socio-demographic and clinical predictors of SF-6D utility were assessed in univariate analyses and a multivariate general linear model. Results The overall mean SF-6D utility was 0.725 (SD 0.119. When subdivided by various medical conditions, prisoner SF-6D utilities ranged from 0.620 for angina to 0.764 for those with none/mild depressive symptoms. Utilities derived by the Nichol's method were higher than SF-6D scores, often by more than 0.1. In multivariate analysis, significant independent predictors of worse utility included female gender, increasing age, increasing number of comorbidities and more severe depressive symptoms. Conclusion The utilities presented may prove useful for future economic and decision models evaluating prison-based health programs.

  14. Socioeconomic status and health communication inequalities in Japan: a nationwide cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki Ishikawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Considerable evidence suggests that communication inequality is one potential mechanism linking social determinants, particularly socioeconomic status, and health inequalities. This study aimed to examine how dimensions of health communication outcomes (health information seeking, self-efficacy, exposure, and trust are patterned by socioeconomic status in Japan. METHODS: Data of a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 2,455 people aged 15-75 years in Japan were used for secondary analysis. Measures included socio-demographic characteristics, subjective health, recent health information seeking, self-efficacy in seeking health information, and exposure to and trust in health information from different media. RESULTS: A total of 1,311 participants completed the questionnaire, giving a response rate of 53.6%. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that education and household income, but not employment, were significantly associated with health information seeking and self-efficacy. Socioeconomic status was not associated with exposure to and trust in health information from mass media, but was significantly associated with health information from healthcare providers and the Internet. CONCLUSION: Health communication outcomes were patterned by socioeconomic status in Japan thus demonstrating the prevalence of health communication inequalities. Providing customized exposure to and enhancing the quality of health information by considering social determinants may contribute to addressing social disparities in health in Japan.

  15. Status of problem based learning in postgraduate anesthesia teaching: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetanjali Chilkoti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anesthesia is a specialized branch of medicine with a very narrow margin of error. Incorporation of problem-based learning (PBL in anesthesia post-graduate (PG teaching enhances the critical thinking and problem-solving skills. It also helps in developing a broader prospective of clinical case scenarios. Case based discussions (CBD are most widely practiced out of all PBL methods in anesthesia PG teaching. Materials and Methods: We conducted an anonymous questionnaire based, cross-sectional survey among 62 anesthesia residents from various medical institutions in a city of Delhi, India. We aimed to assess the current status of PBL by assessing the student satisfaction with CBD in anesthesia PG teaching, educational objectives accomplished with CBD and effectiveness of teaching curriculum in PG teaching with suggested modifications, if any. Result and Conclusion: We observed that CBD is lacking in many important key areas of PBL e.g., formulation of objectives, communication on the content and direction of PBL, facilitation skills, supplementation of inadequacies of CBD. However, CBD seems to be a valid method of PBL in terms of the educational objectives accomplished with it but increased motivation for learning is required. Majority of the students felt that PG teaching curriculum should be centralized, with increased emphasis on open interactive sessions regarding its effectiveness.

  16. Cross-Sectional Survey on Quitting Attempts among Adolescent Smokers in Dharan, Eastern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranil Man Singh Pradhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adolescents frequently attempt smoking cessation but are unable to maintain long term abstinence because they are dependent on nicotine and experience withdrawal symptoms. Objectives. This study aimed to explore the quitting attempts among adolescent smokers in Dharan Municipality of Eastern Nepal. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted using pretested self-administered questionnaire adapted from Global Youth Tobacco Survey to assess current smokers and quitting attempts among 1312 adolescent students in middle (14-15 years and late adolescence (16–19 years. Chi square test was used for association of various factors with quitting attempts. Results. The prevalence of current smoking was 13.7%. Among the current smokers, 66.5% had attempted to quit in the past because they believed smoking was harmful to health (35.5%. The median duration of quitting was 150 days. Nearly 8% of the current smokers were unwilling to quit in the future because they thought it is already a habit (60%. Smokers who are willing to quit smoking in the future were more likely to have made quitting attempts (OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 0.40–4.45. Conclusion. Relapse often occurs even after multiple quitting attempts. Tobacco focused interventions to support abstinence are important during adolescence to prevent habituation.

  17. German medical students´ exposure and attitudes toward pharmaceutical promotion: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahnke, Kristine

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available [english] Objective: Early contact of medical students with pharmaceutical promotion has been shown in many international studies. We assessed the frequency and places of contact of German medical students to pharmaceutical promotion and examined their attitudes toward pharmaceutical promotional activities.Methods: This cross-sectional survey was based on a self-developed questionnaire. It was distributed to all clinical students at the University of Goettingen Medical School in 2010. A 4-point rating scale was used to assess the attitudes toward different statements regarding pharmaceutical promotion.Results: The overall response rate was 55% (702/1287. The proportion of students with direct contact to pharmaceutical sales representatives increased from 21% in the first clinical year up to 77% in the final year. 60% were contacted during their elective clerkship. 80% had accepted promotional gifts. 86% stated their prescribing behavior to be unsusceptible to the influence of accepting promotional gifts. However, 35% of the unsusceptible students assumed doctors to be susceptible. Almost all (90% reported that dealing with pharmaceutical promotion was never addressed during lectures and 65% did not feel well prepared for interactions with the pharmaceutical industry. 19% agreed to prohibit contacts between medical students and the pharmaceutical industry.Conclusions: German medical students get in contact with pharmaceutical promotion early and frequently. There is limited awareness for associated conflicts of interests. Medical schools need to regulate contacts and incorporate the topic in their curriculum to prepare students for interactions with the pharmaceutical industry.

  18. Small cross-sectional survey of composite restoration attributes associated with choices for replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ramos Parpaiola

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to present a small cross-sectional survey of composite restoration clinical attributes associated with choices for replacement. Ninety-four composite fillings selected to be replaced were included in this study. A questionnaire was filled out after each procedure in order to assess the clinical conditions that indicated the restoration replacement (marginal staining, unsatisfactory restoration anatomy, marginal fracture, fractured restoration body, painful symptoms, dental fracture, composite discoloration and/or restoration displacement. These conditions could be combined. The chi-square and Exact Fisher tests were performed to analyze the different variables (p < 0.05. The results showed that composite shade discoloration was the main cause of restoration replacement (63.8%. Marginal staining (50%, unsatisfactory restoration anatomy (50%, marginal fracture (14.9%, painful symptoms (8.5%, fractured restoration body (4.3%, dental fracture (1.1% and total displacement of the restoration (1.1% were conditions that could be associated. The main cause of dental composite restoration replacement was material shade mismatch with the dental structure (anterior teeth or marginal staining and unsatisfactory restoration shape (posterior teeth. Marginal staining and composite shade discoloration contrasting with dental structure were related to the presence of caries.

  19. Enhancing the role of nutrition professionals in weight management: A cross sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N.; Bandara, Sachini; Bennett, Wendy; Cooper, Lisa A.; Gudzune, Kimberly A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective 1) To determine the non-physician health profession perceived as best qualified to provide weight management; 2) To examine nutrition professionals’ current practice characteristics and perceived challenges and solutions for obesity care; and 3) To examine the association between nutrition professionals’ quality of training and self-efficacy in weight management. Design and methods We analyzed a 2014 national cross-sectional online survey of 500 U.S. non-physician health professionals (100 from each: nutrition, nursing, behavioral/mental health, exercise, pharmacy). Results Nutrition professionals most commonly self-identified as the most qualified group to help patients lose weight (92%), sentiments supported by other health professionals (57%). The most often cited challenge was lack of patient adherence (87%). Among nutrition professionals, 77% reported receiving high quality training in weight loss counseling. Nutrition professionals who reported high quality training were significantly more likely to report confidence (95% vs. 48%) and success (74% vs. 50%) in helping obese patients lose weight (pcounseling to obese patients. Yet, nutrition professionals’ receipt of high quality weight management training appears critical to their success in helping patients lose weight. PMID:25445319

  20. Temporomandibular Disorders and Related Factors in a Group of Iranian Adolescents: A Cross-sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Ebrahimi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs are the most common condition affecting the temporomandibular joint and associated structures. The aim of this study was the epidemiologic evaluation of TMDs and related factors in a group of Iranian adolescents. Materials and methods. This descriptive cross-sectional survey included a sample of 800 high school students (400 girls and 400 boys aged 14 to18 years, in Mashhad, Iran, selected using cluster sampling. Examiners completed questionnaires and performed the clinical examinations. Data were analyzed with the Chi-square and Fisher exact tests. Results. The prevalence of TMDs in the studied sample was 34.7%. The most common signs of TMDs were clicking, muscle tenderness and TMJ tenderness. The most prevalent predisposing factors of TMDs were clenching, premature contact in protrusive movement and bruxism. A clear predominance was seen in girls (40.5% compared with boys (29% (P = 0.001. Conclusion. Signs and symptoms of TMDs were prevalent in Iranian adolescents with a clear female predominance

  1. Tobacco marketing and susceptibility to smoking: cross-sectional survey of Polish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruska, Karin; Isensee, Barbara; Florek, Ewa; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2012-01-01

    Susceptibility to smoking has been identified as predictor of smoking onset in adolescence. Aim of the study was to investigate whether receptivity to tobacco marketing, for which a link to adolescent smoking already could be shownin the past, was also associated with susceptibility to smoking. A cross-sectional survey of 1,478 Polish students who reported having never smoked wasconducted. Mean age was 10.1 years and about 53.3% were female. Overall, 84 (5.7%) students were classifiedas susceptible to smoking, and 33 (2.3%) were considered as receptiveto tobacco marketing, operationalised by asking students to name a brand of their favourite cigarette advertisement. Crude logistic regression analyses as well as logistic regression analyses adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, personality characteristics, factors of social influence and smoking-related cognitions revealed a positive association between receptivity to tobacco marketing and susceptibility to smoking (adjusted odds ratio=3.49 [95% confidence interval: 1.28-9.46], p=0.014). In conclusion, this study revealed that receptivityto tobacco marketing increases susceptibility to smoking. Results providesupport for the almost comprehensive ban of tobacco marketing as existing in Poland and recommend its further expansion towards a total ban including e.g. ban of promotion at point of sale.

  2. Job satisfaction and leaving intentions of midwives: analysis of a multinational cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosova, Darja; Gurkova, Elena; Palese, Alvisa; Godeas, Gloria; Ziakova, Katarina; Song, Mi Sook; Lee, Jongwon; Cordeiro, Raul; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi; Babiarczyk, Beata; Fras, Malgorzata; Nedvedova, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between turnover intentions and job satisfaction among hospital midwives from seven countries and to determine how the related variables differ between countries. Studies investigating professional turnover and job satisfaction among midwives are limited in scope. A cross-sectional descriptive survey was used to investigate the intended turnover and job satisfaction relationship among 1190 hospital midwives in European and Asian countries. Data were collected using a set of questionnaires that included questions regarding the leaving intentions of midwives and the McCloskey/Mueller satisfaction scale. Midwives were least satisfied with their extrinsic rewards and professional opportunities and with the balance between family and work. Significant differences were found in all domains of job satisfaction according to midwives' intentions to leave their current workplace in hospital or profession of midwife, and to work abroad. There are some general satisfying and dissatisfying elements for the profession of midwife across different countries. The results highlight the importance of understanding midwives' leaving intentions and related factors across different countries. To prevent midwife turnover, health-care managers should gain greater insight into the early stage of midwives' turnover intention. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. National Geochemical Survey Locations and Results for Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The United States Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with other state and federal agencies, industry, and academia, is conducting a National Geochemical...

  4. A journal cancellation survey and resulting impact on interlibrary loan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob L. Nash, MSLIS, AHIP

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Soliciting user feedback through an electronic survey can assist collections librarians to make electronic journal cancellation decisions during slim budgetary years. This methodology can be adapted and improved upon at other health sciences libraries.

  5. Positive Community Norm Survey 2011 : Methodology and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This survey established a baseline understanding of the positive norms that exist in Idaho, plus reveal the gaps in knowledge and perceived norms with regard to impaired driving. These gaps will indicate the most effective opportunities for future co...

  6. Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge contaminant survey results

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — As part of a baseline contaminant survey of all National Wildlife Refuges (NWR) in Missouri, fish were collected at the Squaw Creek NWR from Davis and Squaw creeks...

  7. Selection of Voice Therapy Methods. Results of an Online Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Iris; Meier, Birte; Nolte, Katharina; Oppermann, Tina; Rogg, Verena; Beushausen, Ulla

    2015-11-01

    Providing an evidence basis for voice therapy in the German-speaking countries faces the challenge that-for historical reasons-a variety of direct voice therapy methods is available. The aim of this study was to clarify which therapy methods are chosen and the underlying principles for this selection. An online survey was implemented to identify to what extent the variety of methods described in theory is also applied in practice. A total of 434 voice therapists in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland were asked, among other things, which methods they prefer. A significant majority of therapists do not apply one specific method but rather work with a unique combination of direct voice therapy methods for individual clients. These results show that the variety of methods described in the literature is also applied in voice therapy practice. The combination of methods becomes apparent during the choice of exercises. The type of voice disorder plays no decisive role in the method selection process, whereas certain patient variables do have an influence on this process. In particular, the patients' movement restrictions, their state of mind or mood on a given day, and aspects of learning theory are taken into account. The results suggest that a patient-oriented selection of appropriate exercises is of primary importance to voice therapists and that they rarely focus on specific direct voice therapy methods. It becomes clear that an evaluation of single methods does not correspond to practical experience, and therefore, an overall evaluation of voice therapy appears to be more useful. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. The 2003 Australian Breast Health Survey: survey design and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favelle Simone

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Breast Health Surveys, conducted by the National Breast Cancer Centre (NBCC in 1996 and 2003, are designed to gain insight into the knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of a nationally representative sample of Australian women on issues relevant to breast cancer. In this article, we focus on major aspects of the design and present results on respondents' knowledge about mammographic screening. Methods The 2003 BHS surveyed English-speaking Australian women aged 30–69 without a history of breast cancer using computer-assisted telephone interviewing. Questions covered the following themes: knowledge and perceptions about incidence, mortality and risk; knowledge and behaviour regarding early detection, symptoms and diagnosis; mammographic screening; treatment; and accessibility and availability of information and services. Respondents were selected using a complex sample design involving stratification. Sample weights against Australian population benchmarks were used in all statistical analyses. Means and proportions for the entire population and by age group and area of residence were calculated. Statistical tests were conducted using a level of significance of 0.01. Results Of the 3,144 respondents who consented to being interviewed, 138 (4.4% had a previous diagnosis of breast cancer and were excluded leaving 3,006 completed interviews eligible for analysis. A majority of respondents (61.1% reported ever having had a mammogram and 29.1% identified mammography as being the best way of finding breast cancer. A majority of women (85.9% had heard of the BreastScreen Australia (BSA program, the national mammographic screening program providing free biennial screening mammograms, with 94.5% believing that BSA attendance was available regardless of the presence or absence of symptoms. There have been substantial gains in women's knowledge about mammographic screening over the seven years between the two surveys. Conclusion The

  9. Melanoma awareness and prevalence of dermoscopic examination among internet users: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazyna Kaminska-Winciorek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Melanoma presents the greater threat to health the later the disease is detected and treated, although treatment results can be improved by the widespread use of dermoscopy. However, scarce data are available concerning the awareness of dermoscopy and the frequency of its performance in the non-patient population. Aim: To assess the awareness of melanoma detection by dermoscopic examination among the audience of a scientific website. Material and methods : Respondents were invited to participate in an online cross-sectional survey. They were asked to complete an online questionnaire designed by the authors. The preliminary analysis of 5,154 collected forms and the exclusion of incomplete forms yielded 4,919 fully completed questionnaires; the resulting database was analyzed statistically using logistic regression with the R software program (95% CI. Results: Less than two-fifths (39.2% of respondents reported ever having sought the advice of a medical professional (dermatologist or other specialist, and 25.4% of the respondents had undergone dermoscopy at least once in their life. Furthermore, approximately one-tenth of respondents (10.7% were not aware of this detection tool. The study respondents gained knowledge about dermoscopic examination from television and magazines. The performance of dermoscopy was more increasingly associated with inhabitants of larger locales, the use of higher-SPF sunscreens, and greater awareness of the relationship between the risk of melanoma and sunburn. Conclusions : Awareness of melanoma and sun care varied within the analyzed population. A subset of individuals at high risk of melanoma was identified. This group included those who engaged in risky sun exposure behaviors and who had never been examined by dermoscopy.

  10. Depression stigma and migration - results of a survey from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, Anna C; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf

    2017-11-29

    There are barely any studies focusing on migration in relation to mental illness stigma. We explore present attitudes regarding depression among migrants (either born in Germany or born abroad) and non-migrants in Germany, drawing upon three components of public stigma: stereotypes, emotional reactions and desire for social distance. Furthermore, differences in self-stigma of depression between the two groups are analyzed. Analyses are based on a representative telephone survey (N = 2013) in Germany. Respondents were presented with a vignette depicting either someone from Turkey or from Germany affected by depression, followed by questions on stereotypes, emotional reactions and desire for social distance. The (anticipated) self-stigma of depression was also assessed. Analyses of variance tested for differences between migrant and non-migrant respondents, stratified by migrant status in the vignette. Regarding the depression vignette depicting a non-migrant, there were only few differences between subgroups. However, when presented with a vignette describing someone from Turkey, respondents with migrant background who were foreign-born expressed greater stigmatizing attitudes, e.g. when it comes to stereotypes or desire for social distance. Furthermore, this subsample displayed higher levels of self-stigma of depression, especially regarding the ascription of own responsibility. The results underline the need to incorporate migration status/ethnicity in stigma research. Differences in attitudes as well as in (anticipated) self-stigma of depression identify foreign-born migrants in Germany as important target groups for tailored anti-stigma interventions, which need to consider diverse cultural backgrounds.

  11. Small Solar System Objects Spectroscopic Survey: First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzaro, D.; Angeli, C. A.; Florczak, M.; Betzler, A.; Barucci, M. A.; Fulchignoni, M.

    1997-07-01

    We began a systematic study of primitive bodies, called S(3OS^2) , Small Solar System Objects Spectroscopic Survey. Among the objects we are studying are: Near-Earth objects, asteroid families, asteroids near resonances, dark objects, Centaurs, objects representing a possible transition comet-asteroid, and asteroids with a very slow or complex rotation. The chemical and mineralogical composition of an asteroid's surface is studied through the analysis of its reflectance spectra in different wavelenghts. Four observation missions were carried out at the European Southern Observatory (La Silla, Chile), when we obtained a mineral characterization of about 300 asteroids. The observations were realized with a 1.52 m telescope with a Boller & Chivens spectrograph and a 2048x2048 CCD. The spectra were obtained in wavelenghts from 3000 to 9200 { Angstroms} and were reduced using the IRAF reduction package with usual techniques like flat-field, He-Ar lamps and solar analogs. Concerning concentrations in the Main Belt due to resonances with Jupiter, we present the initial results of Cybeles, Hildas, Hungarias, NEAs and Phocaea. We observed also, along all its opposition, the Centaur object 2060 Chiron, that displays a small cometary activity represented by variations in its reflectance spectrum. Concerning asteroid families, concentrations we believe are debris of an energetic collision causing the total breakup of the original bodies, we observed members of Adeona, Dora, Eos, Eunomia, Flora, Merxia and Themis. The Main Belt is represented in our sample by Flora, in the most inner region, Eunomia, Adeona, Dora and Merxia in the intermediary region, and Themis and Eos representing the most outer region of the belt. *Based on observations made with the 1.52 m telescope at the European Southern Observatory (La Silla, Chile) under the agreement with the CNPq/Observatorio Nacional (Brazil).

  12. 1997 HIMSS/Hewlett-Packard leadership survey results. Survey results highlight infrastructure--the building block approach to IT strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, J

    1997-04-01

    "Infrastructure" is the buzzword that emerged from the 1997 HIMSS/Hewlett-Packard Leadership Survey. Of the 1,220 survey respondents, 37 percent identified upgrading infrastructure as the most significant IT projects their organizations undertook over the last year. "In the past, organizations were not deliberately against building infrastructure; they just did not know what it takes," says researcher and survey analyst John Pollock, Princeton, N.J. "It is evident now they are looking more at the framework." Increasing pressure to achieve a competitive advantage has led to a real interest in integrating healthcare delivery systems, he explains.

  13. Epidemiology of Hypertension in Serbia: Results of a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Grujić; Nataša, Dragnić; Svetlana, Kvrgić; Sonja, Šušnjević; Jasmina, Grujić; Sonja, Travar

    2012-01-01

    Background We evaluated the prevalence of high blood pressure and the level of awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in a Serbian population. Methods A cross-sectional study of an adult population was carried out across Serbia in 2006. The study involved 14 204 adults aged 20 years or older. Interviews and measurements of blood pressure were performed at participants’ homes. Results Overall, 47% of the Serbian adult population had hypertension: 25.3% had stage 1 hypertension and 18.1% had stage 2 hypertension. Only 58.0% of the hypertensive population were aware that they had the disease, and 60.4% were receiving medical treatment. Among those receiving medical treatment, only 20.9% had a blood pressure within the normal range. One in 10 participants with hypertension were not treated because, among other reasons, they thought treatment was unnecessary (55.3%) or they lacked money for medication (19.3%). Conclusions The prevalence of undiagnosed and untreated hypertension is high in the adult population of Serbia. Further action is required to hasten detection and treatment of high blood pressure. Attention should be directed toward educational programs that improve knowledge, attitudes, and awareness of hypertension among adults. PMID:22374365

  14. Adherence to the oral contraceptive pill: a cross-sectional survey of modifiable behavioural determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molloy Gerard J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor adherence to the oral contraceptive pill (OCP is reported as one of the main causes of unintended pregnancy in women that rely on this form of contraception. This study aims to estimate the associations between a range of well-established modifiable psychological factors and adherence to OCP. Method A cross-sectional survey of 130 female University students currently using OCP (Mean age: 20.46 SD: 3.01, range 17–36 was conducted. An OCP specific Medication Adherence Report Scale was used to assess non-adherence. Psychological predictor measures included necessity and concern beliefs about OCP, intentions, perceived behavioural control (pbc, anticipated regret and action and coping planning. Multiple linear regression was used to analyse the data. Results Fifty-two per cent of participants reported missing their OCP once or more per month and 14% twice or more per month. In bivariate analysis intentions (r = −0.25, perceived behavioural control (r= −0.66, anticipated regret (r=0.20, concerns about OCP (r =0.31, and action (r= −0.25 and coping (r= −0.28 planning were all significantly associated with adherence to OCP in the predicted direction. In a multivariate model almost half (48% of the variation in OCP adherence could be explained. The strongest and only statistically significant predictors in this model were perceived behavioural control (β=−0.62, p Conclusion The present data point to a number of key modifiable psychological determinants of OCP use. Future work will establish whether changing these variables results in better adherence to the OCP.

  15. Attitudes towards mental illness in Malawi: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crabb Jim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stigma and discrimination associated with mental illness are strongly linked to suffering, disability and poverty. In order to protect the rights of those with mental disorders and to sensitively develop services, it is vital to gain a more accurate understanding of the frequency and nature of stigma against people with mental illness. Little research about this issue has been conducted in Sub- Saharan Africa. Our study aimed to describe levels of stigma in Malawi. Methods A cross-sectional survey of patients and carers attending mental health and non-mental health related clinics in a general hospital in Blantyre, Malawi. Participants were interviewed using an adapted version of the questionnaire developed for the “World Psychiatric Association Program to Reduce Stigma and Discrimination Because of Schizophrenia”. Results 210 participants participated in our study. Most attributed mental disorder to alcohol and illicit drug abuse (95.7%. This was closely followed by brain disease (92.8%, spirit possession (82.8% and psychological trauma (76.1%. There were some associations found between demographic variables and single question responses, however no consistent trends were observed in stigmatising beliefs. These results should be interpreted with caution and in the context of existing research. Contrary to the international literature, having direct personal experience of mental illness seemed to have no positive effect on stigmatising beliefs in our sample. Conclusions Our study contributes to an emerging picture that individuals in Sub-Saharan Africa most commonly attribute mental illness to alcohol/ illicit drug use and spirit possession. Our work adds weight to the argument that stigma towards mental illness is an important global health and human rights issue.

  16. Critical care resources in the Solomon Islands: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westcott Mia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are minimal data available on critical care case-mix, care processes and outcomes in lower and middle income countries (LMICs. The objectives of this paper were to gather data in the Solomon Islands in order to gain a better understanding of common presentations of critical illness, available hospital resources, and what resources would be helpful in improving the care of these patients in the future. Methods This study used a mixed methods approach, including a cross sectional survey of respondents' opinions regarding critical care needs, ethnographic information and qualitative data. Results The four most common conditions leading to critical illness in the Solomon Islands are malaria, diseases of the respiratory system including pneumonia and influenza, diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis. Complications of surgery and trauma less frequently result in critical illness. Respondents emphasised the need for basic critical care resources in LMICs, including equipment such as oximeters and oxygen concentrators; greater access to medications and blood products; laboratory services; staff education; and the need for at least one national critical care facility. Conclusions A large degree of critical illness in LMICs is likely due to inadequate resources for primary prevention and healthcare; however, for patients who fall through the net of prevention, there may be simple therapies and context-appropriate resources to mitigate the high burden of morbidity and mortality. Emphasis should be on the development and acquisition of simple and inexpensive tools rather than complicated equipment, to prevent critical care from unduly diverting resources away from other important parts of the health system.

  17. Relationship between commuting and health outcomes in a cross-sectional population survey in southern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansson Erik

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need for a mobile workforce inevitably means that the length of the total work day (working and traveling time will increase, but the health effects of commuting have been surprisingly little studied apart from perceived stress and the benefits of physically active commuting. Methods We used data from two cross-sectional population-based public health surveys performed in 2004 and 2008 in Scania, Sweden (56% response rate. The final study population was 21, 088 persons aged 18-65, working > 30 h/week. Duration (one-way and mode of commuting were reported. The outcomes studied were perceived poor sleep quality, everyday stress, low vitality, mental health, self-reported health, and absence from work due to sickness during the past 12 months. Covariates indicating socioeconomic status and family situation, overtime, job strain and urban/rural residency were included in multivariate analyses. Subjects walking or cycling to work Results Monotonous relations were found between duration of public transport commuting and the health outcomes. For the category commuting > 60 min odds ratios (ORs ranged from 1.2 - 1.6 for the different outcomes. For car commuting, the relationships were concave downward or flat, with increasing subjective health complaints up to 30-60 min (ORs ranging from 1.2 - 1.4, and lower ORs in the > 60 min category. A similar concave downward relationship was observed for sickness absence, regardless of mode of transport. Conclusions The results of this study are concordant with the few earlier studies in the field, in that associations were found between commutation and negative health outcomes. This further demonstrates the need to consider the negative side-effects of commuting when discussing policies aimed at increasing the mobility of the workforce. Studies identifying population groups with increased susceptibility are warranted.

  18. SY 2008-09 Customer Satisfaction Survey Results (Full Report). DoDEA Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Defense Education Activity, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Defense Education Activity (DoDEA) Customer Satisfaction Survey is a biennial survey administered by DoDEA to parents and students to monitor DoDEA's success in meeting students' needs. The survey is administered every other year to sponsors with children in pre-kindergarten--12th grade and to students in grades 4-12. For the…

  19. SY 2010-11 Customer Satisfaction Survey Results (Full Report). DoDEA Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Defense Education Activity, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Department of Defense Education Activity (DoDEA) Customer Satisfaction Survey is a biennial survey administered by DoDEA to parents and students to monitor DoDEA's success in meeting students' needs. The survey is administered every other year to sponsors with children in pre-kindergarten-12th grade and to students in grades 4-12. For the…

  20. Survey results for oblique field magnetic flux leakage survey in comparison to axial field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simek, James [T.D. Williamson, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Pipeline operators worldwide have implemented integrity management programs in an effort to improve operation and maintenance efficiency along with continued safe operation of pipeline systems. Several types of monitoring and data collection activities are incorporated into these programs, with in line inspection (ILI) tools providing data for detection and quantification of features that may impact the integrity of the pipeline system. Magnetic flux leakage (MFL) ILI tools are among the most widely used in pipeline systems. Primarily used for metal loss detection and quantification, these tools are extremely robust, performing successfully in the harsh environments found in operating pipelines, with the majority of MFL tools in service today relying upon axially oriented magnetic fields. For feature classes whose principal axis is aligned parallel to the pipe axis, the use of an axially applied magnetic field may quite often result in decreased performance due to difficulties in detection and sizing. Through the use of fields applied either perpendicular or in an oblique direction to the principal axis, the magnetic leakage levels generated at feature locations are increased, providing usable signal levels. When used concurrently with an axially oriented magnetizer, an obliquely applied magnetic field may provide the ability to detect, quantify, or otherwise aid in discrimination of volumetric versus non-volumetric features. Providing the ability to collect both of these data sets in a single survey would allow operators to minimize the number of surveys required to address all categories of metal loss features that may be present within pipeline systems. This paper will discuss some of the variables that affect detection and sizing of metal loss zones with respect to the applied field direction, including graphs and tables to quantify the effects of angular displacement for specific feature shapes. Several classes of features have been chosen for evaluation

  1. Radiologists' Usage of Social Media : Results of the RANSOM Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranschaert, Erik R.; Van Ooijen, Peter M. A.; McGinty, Geraldine B.; Parizel, Paul M.

    The growing use of social media is transforming the way health care professionals (HCPs) are communicating. In this changing environment, it could be useful to outline the usage of social media by radiologists in all its facets and on an international level. The main objective of the RANSOM survey

  2. Planck intermediate results XXXI. Microwave survey of Galactic supernova remnants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.

    2016-01-01

    The all-sky Planck survey in 9 frequency bands was used to search for emission from all 274 known Galactic supernova remnants. Of these, 16 were detected in at least two Planck frequencies. The radio-through-microwave spectral energy distributions were compiled to determine the mechanism for micr...

  3. Results of the 2010 Survey on Teaching Chemical Reaction Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, David L.; Vigeant, Margot A. S.

    2012-01-01

    A survey of faculty teaching the chemical reaction engineering course or sequence during the 2009-2010 academic year at chemical engineering programs in the United States and Canada reveals change in terms of content, timing, and approaches to teaching. The report consists of two parts: first, a statistical and demographic characterization of the…

  4. Navy Professional Reading Program: Results of the 2007 Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uriell, Zannette A; Johnson, J. S

    2008-01-01

    .... The program includes 60 books across 6 subject areas and 5 career states. Toward the end of the first year of implementation, a survey was conducted to look at reading habits of Navy personnel as well as opinions of the NPRP...

  5. results of a survey by the world association of medical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    interests of medical journal editors around the world. Design. Mail survey of senior editors at 727 .... a given country, and targeted for selection twice as many journals in countries with populations greater than 50 ..... review' - the interpretation of the term was intentionally left to the respondent for the purpose of gaining a ...

  6. Employment discrimination and HIV stigma: survey results from civil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article presents findings from three surveys of people living with HIV (PLHIV) and civil society organisations about the experience of employment discrimination and stigma in the workplace. The work seeks to contribute to efforts by businesses and other organisations to effectively respond to the HIV epidemic within the ...

  7. Main Results of the Azerbaijan STEP Employer Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Rutkowski, Jan J.

    2015-01-01

    This note summarizes the main findings of the STEP Employer Skills Survey carried out in Azerbaijan in 2013. The note argues that there is a skills shortage in Azerbaijan. Azeri employers claim that it is difficult to find workers with required skills. The shortage is particularly pronounced in the case of modern, innovative firms, which tend to required more advanced skills. The education...

  8. National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey Results: 2010/2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — ViSIT is an interactive web tool created by USGS to visualize the data collected as part of the National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  9. 2006 B100 Quality Survey Results: Milestone Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alleman, T. L.; McCormick, R. L.; Deutch, S.

    2007-05-01

    In 2006, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted a nationwide quality survey of pure biodiesel (B100) intended to be used as a blendstock. The study collected random samples throughout the United States and analyzed them for quality against the current and proposed ASTM D6751 fuel quality specifications.

  10. The transformation of South African librarianship: survey results and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research project seeks to investigate the status and role of the South African library profession within the current neo-liberal context, and to explore ways that socially responsible initiatives might provide some support for a more democratic and equitable South African future. The survey questions addressed four major ...

  11. Coppicing potential of Eucalyptus nitens : results from a field survey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to determine factors which could have a positive influence on the coppicing potential of Eucalyptus nitens , a field survey was carried out at Draycott, near Estcourt in the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands. Five measures of the ability to coppice (stump survival, height of coppice, number of dominant shoots, coppicing ...

  12. A journal cancellation survey and resulting impact on interlibrary loan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Jacob L; McElfresh, Karen R

    2016-10-01

    The research describes an extensible method of evaluating and cancelling electronic journals during a budget shortfall and evaluates implications for interlibrary loan (ILL) and user satisfaction. We calculated cost per use for cancellable electronic journal subscriptions (n=533) from the 2013 calendar year and the first half of 2014, cancelling titles with cost per use greater than $20 and less than 100 yearly uses. For remaining titles, we issued an online survey asking respondents to rank the importance of journals to their work. Finally, we gathered ILL requests and COUNTER JR2 turnaway reports for calendar year 2015. Three hundred fifty-four respondents completed the survey. Because of the level of heterogeneity of titles in the survey as well as respondents' backgrounds, most titles were reported to be never used. We developed criteria based on average response across journals to determine which to cancel. Based on this methodology, we cancelled eight journals. Examination of ILL data revealed that none of the cancelled titles were requested with any frequency. Free-text responses indicated, however, that many value free ILL as a suitable substitute for immediate full-text access to biomedical journal literature. Soliciting user feedback through an electronic survey can assist collections librarians to make electronic journal cancellation decisions during slim budgetary years. This methodology can be adapted and improved upon at other health sciences libraries.

  13. Surveys with Athena: results from detailed SIXTE simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzuisi, G.; Comastri, A.; Aird, J.; Brusa, M.; Cappelluti, N.; Gilli, R.; Matute, I.

    2017-10-01

    "Formation and early growth of BH' and "Accretion by supermassive BH through cosmic time' are two of the scientific objectives of the Athena mission. To these and other topics (i.e. first galaxy groups, cold and warm obscuration and feedback signatures in AGN at high z), a large fraction (20-25%) of the Athena Mock Observing Plan is devoted, in the form of a multi-tiered (deep-medium-wide) survey with the WFI. We used the flexible SIXTE simulator to study the impact of different instrumental configurations, in terms of WFI FOV, mirror psf, background levels, on the performance in the three layers of the WFI survey. We mainly focus on the scientific objective that drives the survey configuration: the detection of at least 10 AGN at z=6-8 with Log(LX)=43-43.5 erg/s and 10 at z=8.10 with Log(LX)=44-44.5 erg/s. Implications for other scientific objectives involved in the survey are also discussed.

  14. Why might forest companies certify? Results from a Canadian survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takahashi, T.; Kooten, van G.C.; Vertinsky, I.

    2003-01-01

    During the late 1980s/early 1990s, voluntary forest certification emerged as a new market-based incentive mechanism and had an important influence on the way the world's forests are managed. To understand the mechanism of its diffusion, we employed a survey instrument and probit regression analysis

  15. Bullying in the American Graduate Medical Education System: A National Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadaga, Amar R; Villines, Dana; Krikorian, Armand

    2016-01-01

    To deliver an estimate of bullying among residents and fellows in the United States graduate medical education system and to explore its prevalence within unique subgroups. A national cross-sectional survey from a sample of residents and fellows who completed an online bullying survey conducted in June 2015. The survey was distributed using a chain sampling method that relied on electronic referrals from 4,055 training programs, with 1,791 residents and fellows completing the survey in its entirety. Survey respondents completed basic demographic and programmatic information plus four general bullying and 20 specific bullying behavior questions. Between-group differences were compared for demographic and programmatic stratifications. Self-reported subjected to workplace bullying from peers, attendings, nurses, ancillary staff, or patients in the past 12 months. Almost half of the respondents (48%) reported being subjected to bullying although both those subjected and not subjected reported experiencing ≥ 1 bullying behaviors (95% and 39% respectively). Attendings (29%) and nurses (27%) were the most frequently identified source of bullying, followed by patients, peers, consultants and staff. Attempts to belittle and undermine work and unjustified criticism and monitoring of work were the most frequently reported bullying behaviors (44% each), followed by destructive innuendo and sarcasm (37%) and attempts to humiliate (32%). Specific bullying behaviors were more frequently reported by female, non-white, shorter than bullying in the United States graduate medical education programs. Including specific questions on bullying in the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education annual resident/fellow survey, implementation of anti-bullying policies, and a multidisciplinary approach engaging all stakeholders may be of great value to eliminate these pervasive behaviors in the field of healthcare.

  16. Bullying in the American Graduate Medical Education System: A National Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar R Chadaga

    Full Text Available To deliver an estimate of bullying among residents and fellows in the United States graduate medical education system and to explore its prevalence within unique subgroups.A national cross-sectional survey from a sample of residents and fellows who completed an online bullying survey conducted in June 2015. The survey was distributed using a chain sampling method that relied on electronic referrals from 4,055 training programs, with 1,791 residents and fellows completing the survey in its entirety. Survey respondents completed basic demographic and programmatic information plus four general bullying and 20 specific bullying behavior questions. Between-group differences were compared for demographic and programmatic stratifications.Self-reported subjected to workplace bullying from peers, attendings, nurses, ancillary staff, or patients in the past 12 months.Almost half of the respondents (48% reported being subjected to bullying although both those subjected and not subjected reported experiencing ≥ 1 bullying behaviors (95% and 39% respectively. Attendings (29% and nurses (27% were the most frequently identified source of bullying, followed by patients, peers, consultants and staff. Attempts to belittle and undermine work and unjustified criticism and monitoring of work were the most frequently reported bullying behaviors (44% each, followed by destructive innuendo and sarcasm (37% and attempts to humiliate (32%. Specific bullying behaviors were more frequently reported by female, non-white, shorter than < 5'8 and BMI ≥ 25 individuals.Many trainees report experiencing bullying in the United States graduate medical education programs. Including specific questions on bullying in the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education annual resident/fellow survey, implementation of anti-bullying policies, and a multidisciplinary approach engaging all stakeholders may be of great value to eliminate these pervasive behaviors in the field of

  17. Retirement Confidence Survey 2000 including results from the RCS Minority Survey and the Small Employer Retirement Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, D L; Helman, R; Ostuw, P; Yakoboski, P

    2000-06-01

    The year 2000 represents the 10th anniversary of the Retirement Confidence Survey (RCS), and the third year for the Minority RCS and Small Employer Retirement Survey (SERS). Key RCS findings over the past 10 years include: The fraction of workers saving for retirement has trended upward, and today 80 percent of households report that they have begun to save. The fraction of workers who have attempted to calculate how much they need to save for retirement has risen noticeably over the past several years. Today, 56 percent of households report that they have attempted the calculation. One-half of workers who have attempted such a calculation report that it has changed their behavior, such as saving more and/or changing where they invest their retirement savings. Workers who have done the calculation appear to be in better shape regarding their retirement finances. Worker confidence in the ability of Social Security to maintain benefit levels bottomed out in 1994 and 1995. Workers today are just as confident as they were in 1992, although the majority remain not confident in Social Security. Regarding overall retirement confidence, Hispanic-Americans tend to be the least confident among the surveyed minority groups that they will have enough money to live comfortably throughout their retirement years. Key SERS findings include: While cost and administrative issues do matter to small employers, they are not the primary reasons for low plan sponsorship rates. Employee-related reasons are most often cited as the most important factor for not offering a retirement plan. Business-related reasons, such as profitability, are also a main decision-driver. It is important to note what small employers without plans do not know about plan sponsorship. Small employers that do sponsor a retirement plan report that offering a plan has a positive impact on both their ability to attract and retain quality employees and the attitude and performance of their employees. The survey

  18. Practice patterns of doctors of chiropractic with a pediatric diplomate: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is growing in popularity, especially within the pediatric population. Research on CAM practitioners and their specialties, such as pediatrics, is lacking. Within the chiropractic profession, pediatrics is one of the most recently established post-graduate specialty programs. This paper describes the demographic and practice characteristics of doctors of chiropractic with a pediatric diplomate. Methods 218 chiropractors with a pediatric diplomate were invited to complete our survey using either web-based or mailed paper survey methods. Practitioner demographics, practice characteristics, treatment procedures, referral patterns, and patient characteristics were queried with a survey created with the online survey tool, SurveyMonkey©®. Results A total of 135 chiropractors responded (62.2% response rate); they were predominantly female (74%) and white (93%). Techniques most commonly used were Diversified, Activator ®, and Thompson with the addition of cranial and extremity manipulation to their chiropractic treatments. Adjunctive therapies commonly provided to patients included recommendations for activities of daily living, corrective or therapeutic exercise, ice pack\\cryotherapy, and nutritional counseling. Thirty eight percent of respondents' patients were private pay and 23% had private insurance that was not managed care. Pediatrics represented 31% of the survey respondents' patients. Chiropractors also reported 63% of their work time devoted to direct patient care. Health conditions reportedly treated within the pediatric population included back or neck pain, asthma, birth trauma, colic, constipation, ear infection, head or chest cold, and upper respiratory infections. Referrals made to or from these chiropractors were uncommon. Conclusions This mixed mode survey identified similarities and differences between doctors of chiropractic with a pediatric diplomate to other surveys of doctors of chiropractic

  19. Postpartum nurses' perceptions of barriers to screening for intimate partner violence: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillery Margaret E

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV is a human rights violation that is pervasive worldwide, and is particularly critical for women during the reproductive period. IPV includes physical, sexual and emotional abuse. Nurses on in-patient postpartum units are well-positioned to screen women for IPV, yet low screening rates suggest that barriers to screening exist. The purpose of this study was to (a identify the frequency of screening for IPV, (b the most important barriers to screening, (c the relationship between the barriers to screening and the frequency of screening for types of abuse, and (d to identify other factors that contribute to the frequency of screening for IPV. Methods In 2008, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 96 nurses from postpartum inpatient units in three Canadian urban hospitals. The survey included the Barriers to Abuse Assessment Tool (BAAT, adapted for postpartum nurses (PPN. Ordinary least squares (OLS regression models were used to predict barriers to screening for each type of IPV. Results The frequency of screening varied by the type of abuse with highest screening rates found for physical and emotional abuse. According to the BAAT-PPN, lack of knowledge was the most important barrier to screening. The BAAT-PPN total score was negatively correlated with screening for physical, sexual, and emotional abuse. Using OLS regression models and after controlling for demographic characteristics, the BAAT-PPN explained 14%, 12%, and 11% of the variance in screening for physical, sexual and emotional abuse, respectively. Fluency in the language of the patient was negatively correlated with screening for each type of abuse. When added as Step 3 to OLS regression models, language fluency was associated with an additional decrease in the likelihood of screening for physical (beta coefficient = -.38, P P = .05, and emotional abuse (beta coefficient = -.48, P Conclusions Our findings support an inverse

  20. Assessing the Enhancement of Awareness of Conservation Issues Using Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Survey Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Guy; Fuggle, Richard

    1987-01-01

    Compares the results of two survey designs administered to visitors of three South African nature reserves to ascertain changes in conservation awareness. Explains the method, data collection, questionnaire design, statistical tests, pretests, pilot studies, results, and conclusions of the study. Finds that no statistical differences between…

  1. Contemporary training practices in elite British powerlifters: survey results from an international competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinton, Paul A; Lloyd, Ray; Agouris, Ioannis; Stewart, Arthur

    2009-03-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate current powerlifting training methods in light of anecdotal evidence purporting increased similarity with the explosive training practices of weightlifters. The study also assessed the prevalence of contemporary training practices frequently recommended for powerlifters in the popular literature. A 20-item survey was distributed to 32 elite British powerlifters at an International competition. The subject group included multiple national, international, and commonwealth champions and record holders. Based on 2007 competition results, the average Wilks score of the group was 450.26 +/- 34.7. The response rate for the surveys was 88% (28 of 32). The survey was sectioned into 6 areas of inquiry: a) repetition speed, b) explosive training load, c) resistance materials used, d) adjunct power training methods, e) exercise selection, and f) training organization. The results demonstrate that the majority of powerlifters train with the intention to explosively lift maximal and submaximal loads (79 and 82%, respectively). Results revealed that 39% of the lifters regularly used elastic bands and that 57% incorporated chains in their training. Evidence for convergence of training practices between powerlifters and weightlifters was found when 69% of the subjects reported using the Olympic lifts or their derivatives as part of their powerlifting training. Collectively, the results demonstrate that previous notions of how powerlifters train are outdated. Contemporary powerlifters incorporate a variety of training practices that are focused on developing both explosive and maximal strength.

  2. Greatest Challenges of Rectal Cancer Survivors: Results of a Population-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Carmit K.; Bulkley, Joanna E.; Altschuler, Andrea; Wendel, Christopher S.; Grant, Marcia; Hornbrook, Mark C.; Sun, Virginia; Krouse, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Eliciting cancer survivors’ priorities is essential to address the specific needs of cancer survivor subgroups. Objective To describe long-term rectal cancer survivors’ greatest challenges related to treatment. Design Observational study with cross-sectional survey. Setting Members of Kaiser Permanente, Northern California and Northwest health plans. Patients A survey was mailed to long-term (≥5 years post diagnosis) rectal cancer survivors who had an anastomosis, temporary ostomy, or permanent ostomy. Main Outcome Measures An open-ended question about the greatest challenge related to cancer surgery. We categorized responses using a grounded theory approach with double coding for reliability. Bonferroni-adjusted X2 values were used to assess differences in the proportions of subgroups who mentioned challenges within each response category. Results The survey completion rate was 61% (577/953); 76% (440/577) of participants responded to the greatest challenge question. Respondents’ greatest challenges were bowel/ostomy management (reported by 44%), negative psychosocial effects (37%), late effects of treatment (21%), comorbidities and aging (13%), postoperative recovery (5%), and negative health care experiences (5%). Survivors with temporary ostomy or anastomosis were more likely than survivors with permanent ostomy to report late effects (postomy to report negative psychosocial impacts (p=0.0001). Conclusions Our results reveal the need for bowel/ostomy management, psychosocial services and surveillance for late effects in survivorship and supportive care services for all rectal cancer survivors, regardless of ostomy status. The perspective of long-term survivors with anastomosis reveals challenges that may not be anticipated during treatment decision-making. Limitations Generalizability is restricted by the lack of ethnically and racially diverse, uninsured (non-Medicare-eligible population), and non-English-speaking participants. Because the

  3. Practice nurses' workload, career intentions and the impact of professional isolation: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watt Graham CM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Practice nurses have a key role within UK general practice, especially since the 2004 GMS contract. This study aimed to describe that role, identify how professionally supported they felt and their career intentions. An additional aim was to explore whether they felt isolated and identify contributory factors. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey in one large urban Scottish Health Board, targeted all practice nurses (n = 329. Domains included demographics, workload, training and professional support. Following univariate descriptive statistics, associations between categorical variables were tested using the chi-square test or chi-square test for trend; associations between dichotomous variables were tested using Fisher's Exact test. Variables significantly associated with isolation were entered into a binary logistic regression model using backwards elimination. Results There were 200 responses (61.0% response rate. Most respondents were aged 40 or over and were practice nurses for a median of 10 years. Commonest clinical activities were coronary heart disease management, cervical cytology, diabetes and the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Although most had a Personal Development Plan and a recent appraisal, 103 (52.3% felt isolated at least sometimes; 30 (15.5% intended leaving practice nursing within 5 years. Isolated nurses worked in practices with smaller list sizes (p = 0.024 and nursing teams (p = 0.003; were less likely to have someone they could discuss a clinical/professional (p = 0.002 or personal (p Conclusions A significant proportion of practice nurses reported feeling isolated, at least some of the time. They were more likely to be in small practices and more likely to be considering leaving practice nursing. Factors contributing to their isolation were generally located within the practice environment. Providing support to these nurses within their practice setting may help

  4. The use of adherence aids by adults with diabetes: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacLean Charles D

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adherence with medication taking is a major barrier to physiologic control in diabetes and many strategies for improving adherence are in use. We sought to describe the use of mnemonic devices and other adherence aids by adults with diabetes and to investigate their association with control of hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Methods Cross sectional survey of diabetic adults randomly selected from Primary Care practices in the Vermont Diabetes Information System. We used linear regression to examine the associations between the use of various aids and physiologic control among subjects who used oral agents for hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension. Results 289 subjects (mean age 65.4 years; 51% female used medications for all three conditions. Adherence aids were reported by 80%. The most popular were day-of-the-week pill boxes (50%, putting the pills in a special place (41%, and associating pill taking with a daily event such as a meal, TV show, or bedtime (11%. After adjusting for age, sex, marital status, income, and education, those who used a special place had better glycemic control (A1C -0.36%; P = .04 and systolic blood pressure (-5.9 mm Hg; P = .05 than those who used no aids. Those who used a daily event had better A1C (-0.56%; P = .01 than patients who used no aids. Conclusion Although adherence aids are in common use among adults with diabetes, there is little evidence that they are efficacious. In this study, we found a few statistically significant associations with adherence aids and better diabetes control. However, these findings could be attributed to multiple comparisons or unmeasured confounders. Until more rigorous evaluations are available, it seems reasonable to recommend keeping medicines in a special place for diabetic adults prescribed multiple medications.

  5. Self-management skills in adolescents with chronic rheumatic disease: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawson Erica F

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For adolescents with a diagnosis of lifelong chronic illness, mastery of self-management skills is a critical component of the transition to adult care. This study aims to examine self-reported medication adherence and self-care skills among adolescents with chronic rheumatic disease. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 52 adolescent patients in the Pediatric Rheumatology Clinic at UCSF. Outcome measures were self-reported medication adherence, medication regimen knowledge and independence in health care tasks. Predictors of self-management included age, disease perception, self-care agency, demographics and self-reported health status. Bivariate associations were assessed using the Student's t-test, Wilcoxon rank sum test and Fisher exact test as appropriate. Independence in self-management tasks were compared between subjects age 13-16 and 17-20 using the chi-squared test. Results Subjects were age 13-20 years (mean 15.9; 79% were female. Diagnoses included juvenile idiopathic arthritis (44%, lupus (35%, and other rheumatic conditions (21%. Mean disease duration was 5.3 years (SD 4.0. Fifty four percent reported perfect adherence to medications, 40% reported 1-2 missed doses per week, and 6% reported missing 3 or more doses. The most common reason for missing medications was forgetfulness. Among health care tasks, there was an age-related increase in ability to fill prescriptions, schedule appointments, arrange transportation, ask questions of doctors, manage insurance, and recognize symptoms of illness. Ability to take medications as directed, keep a calendar of appointments, and maintain a personal medical file did not improve with age. Conclusions This study suggests that adolescents with chronic rheumatic disease may need additional support to achieve independence in self-management.

  6. Social support contributes to resilience among physiotherapy students: a cross sectional survey and focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bíró, Éva; Veres-Balajti, Ilona; Kósa, Karolina

    2016-06-01

    The present study, taking a resource-oriented approach to mental health, aimed at investigating mental resilience and its determinants among undergraduate physiotherapy students using quantitative and qualitative tools. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey supplemented by 2 focus groups. One university in Hungary. 130 physiotherapy students at years 1, 2, and 3. Sense of coherence, a measure of dynamic self-esteem, as well as social support from family and peers were used to assess mental well-being. A screening instrument for psychological morbidity and perceived stress were used as deficiency-oriented approaches. Student opinions were gathered on positive and negative determinants of mental health. Resilience was lower [mean difference 4.8 (95% CI -3.4; 13.1)], and the occurrence of psychological morbidity (32.5% vs. 0%) was higher among female compared to male students. However, the proportion of students fully supported by their peers was higher among females (63% vs. 37.5%). Female students, unlike their male counterparts, experienced higher stress compared to their peers in the general population. Social support declined as students progressed in their studies though this proved to be the most important protective factor for their mental well-being. Results were fed back to the course organizers recommending the implementation of an evidence-based method to improve social support as delineated by the Guide to Community Preventive Services of the US the outcomes of which are to be seen in the future. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Menstrual Disorders from Puberty to Early Adult Age: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupa Hitesh Shah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A female encounters various menstrual disorders from puberty to menopause. We evaluated menstrual disturbances in post-menarche age and young adult age. Aim: To know the prevalence and impact of menstrual abnormalities at early adolescent and young adult age and to evaluate course of disorders identified at early adolescent age. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out through self-administered questionnaire on 367 consented students at Melaka Manipal Medical College at Manipal, during December 2015- April 2016. Data were analysed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 16.0 software. Results: Prevalence and pattern of menstrual disorders at early adolescent and at young adult age were noted. The mean age of menarche was 12.1 ±1.1 years. Menorrhagia was the most frequent (14.7% and 11.7% and polymenorrhea (7.6 % and 6% was least frequent menstrual disorder at adolescent age and young adult age respectively. Resolution of pubertal menstrual disorders was observed in all disorders, but noticed highest in oligomenorrhea (91%, (p-value <0.05. Prevalence of menstrual related disorder like dysmenorrhea was 88.7% at adolescent age and 67.6% at the young adult age. It was statistically significant reduction. Hindrance in academic performance and social behavior was noted more at young adult age, which was in 23.9% and 46.7% respectively (p-value <0.05. Conclusion: The most prevalent menstrual abnormality was menorrhagia at the early adolescent and the young adult age. Associated the most prevalent menstrual related symptoms were dysmenorrhea at early adolescent age, and premenstrual symptom at the young adult age. The study demonstrates the natural course (decreasing prevalence of all menstrual disorders from early adolescent to young adult age.

  8. Limited knowledge of chronic kidney disease among primary care patients – a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chow Wai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kidney disease is the 9th leading cause of death in Singapore. While preventive effects have focused on early detection and education, little is known about the knowledge level of chronic kidney disease (CKD locally. We seek to evaluate the knowledge of CKD among primary care patients. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 1520 patients from 3 primary care centers. Those with existing CKD or on dialysis were excluded. Knowledge was assessed based on 7 questions on CKD in the self-administered questionnaire. One point was given for each correct answer with a maximum of 7 points. Results 1435 completed all 7 questions on CKD. Mean age was 48.9 ±15.0 (SD years. 50.9% were male. 62.3% had a secondary and below education and 52.4% had a monthly household income of ≤ $2000. 43.7% had chronic diseases. Mean score was 3.44 ± 1.53 (out of a maximum of 7. Median score was 4. In multivariate logistic regression, being older {>60 years [Odds Ratio (OR 0.50, 95% Confidence Interval (CI 0.32-0.79]; 40–60 years (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.43,0.89}, less educated [up to primary education (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.22-0.49], having a lower monthly household income [ Conclusion This suggests that CKD education should be targeted at older patients with lower education and lower socioeconomic status.

  9. Post-market clinical research conducted by medical device manufacturers: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross JS

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Joseph S Ross, Katrina L Blount, Jessica D Ritchie, Beth Hodshon, Harlan M Krumholz Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT, USA Background: In the US, once a medical device is made available for use, several requirements have been established by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA to ensure ongoing post-market surveillance of device safety and effectiveness. Our objective was to determine how commonly medical device manufacturers initiate post-market clinical studies or augment FDA post-market surveillance requirements for higher-risk devices that are most often approved via the FDA's pre-market approval (PMA pathway. Methods and results: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 47 manufacturers with operations in California, Minnesota, and Massachusetts who market devices approved via the PMA pathway. Among 22 respondents (response rate =47%, nearly all self-reported conducting post-market clinical research studies, commonly between 1 and 5; only 1 respondent reported never conducting post-market clinical research studies. While manufacturers most often engaged in these studies to satisfy FDA requirements, other reasons were reported, including performance monitoring and surveillance and market acceptance initiatives. Risks of conducting and not conducting post-market clinical research studies were described through open-ended response to questions. Conclusion: Medical device manufacturers commonly initiate post-market clinical studies at the request of the FDA. Clinical data from these studies should be integrated into national post-market surveillance initiatives. Keywords: FDA, PMA pathway, post-market surveillance

  10. Health provider experiences with galactagogues to support breastfeeding: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazzano AN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Alessandra N Bazzano,1 Lisa Littrell,1 Amelia Brandt,1 Shelley Thibeau,2 Kamala Thriemer,3 Katherine P Theall1 1Department of Global Community Health and Behavioral Sciences, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, 2Ochsner Health System, New Orleans, LA, USA; 3MLT EpiConsult, Jingili, NT, Australia Background: Exclusive breastfeeding for infants up to 6 months is widely recommended, yet breastfeeding rates are relatively low in the US. The most common reason women stop breastfeeding early is a perceived insufficiency of milk. Galactagogues are herbal and pharmaceutical products that can help increase milk supply; however, data on their efficacy and safety is limited. Lactation consultants, obstetricians, and other health providers are an important point of contact for breastfeeding women experiencing challenges with lactation. This study explored providers’ perceptions, experiences, and practices in relation to galactagogue recommendation. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a convenience sample of English-speaking health providers in the US who counsel breastfeeding women and their infants. Results: More than 70% of respondents reported to recommend galactagogues. The most frequently recommended galactagogue was fenugreek with respondents indicating that they recommend it either ‘always’ (8.5% or ‘most of the time’ (14.9% and ‘sometimes’ (46.8%. More than 80% of the respondents indicated that galactagogues were useful for their clients and only one-third reported side effects. Reasons for refraining from recommending galactagogues were insufficient evidence of its efficacy and safety. Respondents reported a wide variety of sources of information used for their own education about galactagogues. Discussion: Despite little evidence regarding safety and efficacy, some galactagogues are widely recommended and often perceived to be useful. However, concerns about their efficacy and safety

  11. Relationship between commuting and health outcomes in a cross-sectional population survey in southern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Erik; Mattisson, Kristoffer; Björk, Jonas; Östergren, Per-Olof; Jakobsson, Kristina

    2011-10-31

    The need for a mobile workforce inevitably means that the length of the total work day (working and traveling time) will increase, but the health effects of commuting have been surprisingly little studied apart from perceived stress and the benefits of physically active commuting. We used data from two cross-sectional population-based public health surveys performed in 2004 and 2008 in Scania, Sweden (56% response rate). The final study population was 21, 088 persons aged 18-65, working > 30 h/week. Duration (one-way) and mode of commuting were reported. The outcomes studied were perceived poor sleep quality, everyday stress, low vitality, mental health, self-reported health, and absence from work due to sickness during the past 12 months. Covariates indicating socioeconomic status and family situation, overtime, job strain and urban/rural residency were included in multivariate analyses. Subjects walking or cycling to work 60 min odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 1.2 - 1.6 for the different outcomes. For car commuting, the relationships were concave downward or flat, with increasing subjective health complaints up to 30-60 min (ORs ranging from 1.2 - 1.4), and lower ORs in the > 60 min category. A similar concave downward relationship was observed for sickness absence, regardless of mode of transport. The results of this study are concordant with the few earlier studies in the field, in that associations were found between commutation and negative health outcomes. This further demonstrates the need to consider the negative side-effects of commuting when discussing policies aimed at increasing the mobility of the workforce. Studies identifying population groups with increased susceptibility are warranted.

  12. Attitudes towards mental illness in Malawi: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabb, Jim; Stewart, Robert C; Kokota, Demoubly; Masson, Neil; Chabunya, Sylvester; Krishnadas, Rajeev

    2012-07-23

    Stigma and discrimination associated with mental illness are strongly linked to suffering, disability and poverty. In order to protect the rights of those with mental disorders and to sensitively develop services, it is vital to gain a more accurate understanding of the frequency and nature of stigma against people with mental illness. Little research about this issue has been conducted in Sub- Saharan Africa. Our study aimed to describe levels of stigma in Malawi. A cross-sectional survey of patients and carers attending mental health and non-mental health related clinics in a general hospital in Blantyre, Malawi. Participants were interviewed using an adapted version of the questionnaire developed for the "World Psychiatric Association Program to Reduce Stigma and Discrimination Because of Schizophrenia". 210 participants participated in our study. Most attributed mental disorder to alcohol and illicit drug abuse (95.7%). This was closely followed by brain disease (92.8%), spirit possession (82.8%) and psychological trauma (76.1%). There were some associations found between demographic variables and single question responses, however no consistent trends were observed in stigmatising beliefs. These results should be interpreted with caution and in the context of existing research. Contrary to the international literature, having direct personal experience of mental illness seemed to have no positive effect on stigmatising beliefs in our sample. Our study contributes to an emerging picture that individuals in Sub-Saharan Africa most commonly attribute mental illness to alcohol/ illicit drug use and spirit possession. Our work adds weight to the argument that stigma towards mental illness is an important global health and human rights issue.

  13. Physical Violence against General Practitioners and Nurses in Chinese Township Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Kai; Jiao, Mingli; Ma, Hongkun; Qiao, Hong; Hao, Yanhua; Li, Ye; Gao, Lijun; Sun, Hong; Kang, Zheng; Liang, Libo; Wu, Qunhong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors of physical violence in Chinese township hospitals. A cross-sectional survey was used in a sample of 442 general practitioners and 398 general nurses from 90 township hospitals located in Heilongjiang province, China (response rate = 84.8%). A total of 106 of the 840 (12.6%) respondents reported being physically attacked in their workplace in the previous 12 months. Most perpetrators were the patients' relatives (62.3%), followed by the patient (22.6%); 73.6% of perpetrators were aged between 20 and 40 years. Of the physical violence incidents, about 56.6% (n = 60) resulted in a physical injury, and 45.4% of respondents took two or three days of sick leave. Reporting workplace violence in hospitals to superiors or authorities was low (9.4%). Most respondents (62.8%) did not receive training on how to avoid workplace violence. Logistic regression analyses indicated that general nurses, aged 35 years or younger, and with a higher-level professional title were more likely to experience physical violence. Healthcare workers with direct physical contact (washing, turning, lifting) with patients had a higher risk of physical violence compared to other health care workers. Procedures for reporting workplace violence were a protective factor for physical violence; when in place, reporting after psychological violence (verbal abuse, bullying/mobbing, harassment, and threats) was more protective than waiting until an instance of physical violence (beating, kicking, slapping, stabbing, etc.). Physical violence in Chinese township hospitals is an occupational hazard of rural public health concern. Policies, procedures, and intervention strategies should be undertaken to manage this issue.

  14. Physical Violence against General Practitioners and Nurses in Chinese Township Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Xing

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors of physical violence in Chinese township hospitals.A cross-sectional survey was used in a sample of 442 general practitioners and 398 general nurses from 90 township hospitals located in Heilongjiang province, China (response rate = 84.8%.A total of 106 of the 840 (12.6% respondents reported being physically attacked in their workplace in the previous 12 months. Most perpetrators were the patients' relatives (62.3%, followed by the patient (22.6%; 73.6% of perpetrators were aged between 20 and 40 years. Of the physical violence incidents, about 56.6% (n = 60 resulted in a physical injury, and 45.4% of respondents took two or three days of sick leave. Reporting workplace violence in hospitals to superiors or authorities was low (9.4%. Most respondents (62.8% did not receive training on how to avoid workplace violence. Logistic regression analyses indicated that general nurses, aged 35 years or younger, and with a higher-level professional title were more likely to experience physical violence. Healthcare workers with direct physical contact (washing, turning, lifting with patients had a higher risk of physical violence compared to other health care workers. Procedures for reporting workplace violence were a protective factor for physical violence; when in place, reporting after psychological violence (verbal abuse, bullying/mobbing, harassment, and threats was more protective than waiting until an instance of physical violence (beating, kicking, slapping, stabbing, etc..Physical violence in Chinese township hospitals is an occupational hazard of rural public health concern. Policies, procedures, and intervention strategies should be undertaken to manage this issue.

  15. Road traffic injuries to children during the school commute in Hyderabad, India: cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetali, Shailaja; Edwards, P; Murthy, G V S; Roberts, I

    2016-06-01

    India is motorising rapidly. With increasing motorisation, road traffic injuries are predicted to increase. A third of a billion children travel to school every day in India, but little is known about children's safety during the school commute. We investigated road traffic injury to children during school journeys. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in Hyderabad using a two-stage stratified cluster sampling design. We used school travel questionnaires to record any road injury in the past 12 months that resulted in at least 1 day of school missed or required treatment by a doctor or nurse. We estimated the prevalence of road injury by usual mode of travel and distance to school. The total sample was 5842 children, of whom 5789 (99.1%) children answered the question on road injury. The overall prevalence of self-reported road injury in the last 12 months during school journeys was 17% (95% CI 12.9% to 21.7%). A higher proportion of boys (25%) reported a road injury than girls (11%). There was a strong association between road injury, travel mode and distance to school. Children who cycled to school were more likely to be injured compared with children who walked (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.2 to 2.0). Travel by school bus was safer than walking (OR 0.5; 95% CI 0.3 to 0.9). A sixth of the children reported a road traffic injury in the past 12 months during school journeys in Hyderabad. Injury prevention interventions should focus on making walking and cycling safer for children. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Attitudes and beliefs about chronic pain among nurses- biomedical or behavioral? A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesan Prem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Studies have documented that nurses and other health care professionals are inadequately prepared to care for patients in chronic pain. Several reasons have been identified including inadequacies in nursing education, absence of curriculum content related to pain management, and attitudes and beliefs related to chronic pain. Aims: The objective of this paper was to assess the chronic pain-related attitudes and beliefs among nursing professionals in order to evaluate the biomedical and behavioral dimensions of their perceptions on pain. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional survey of 363 nurses in a multispecialty hospital. Materials and Methods: The study utilized a self-report questionnaire - pain attitudes and beliefs scale (PABS - which had 31 items (statements about pain for each of which the person had to indicate the level at which he or she agreed or disagreed with each statement. Factor 1 score indicated a biomedical dimension while factor 2 score indicated a behavioral dimension to pain. Statistical Analysis Used: Comparisons across individual and professional variables for both dimensions were done using one-way ANOVA and correlations were done using the Karl-Pearson co-efficient using SPSS version 11.5 for Windows. Results: The overall factor 1 score was 52.95 ± 10.23 and factor 2 score was 20.93 ± 4.72 (P = 0.00. The female nurses had a higher behavioral dimension score (21.1 ± 4.81 than their male counterparts (19.55 ± 3.67 which was significant at P< 0.05 level. Conclusions: Nurses had a greater orientation toward the biomedical dimension of chronic pain than the behavioral dimension. This difference was more pronounced in female nurses and those nurses who reported "very good" general health had higher behavioral dimension scores than those who had "good" general health. The study findings have important curricular implications for nurses and practical implications in palliative care.

  17. Study of nurses′ knowledge about palliative care: A quantitative cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesan Prem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Studies have documented that nurses and other health care professionals are inadequately prepared to care for patients in palliative care. Several reasons have been identified including inadequacies in nursing education, absence of curriculum content related to pain management, and knowledge related to pain and palliative care. Aims: The objective of this paper was to assess the knowledge about palliative care amongst nursing professionals using the palliative care knowledge test (PCKT. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional survey of 363 nurses in a multispecialty hospital. Materials and Methods: The study utilized a self-report questionnaire- PCKT developed by Nakazawa et al., which had 20 items (statements about palliative care for each of which the person had to indicate ′correct′, ′incorrect′, or ′unsure.′ The PCKT had 5 subscales (philosophy- 2 items, pain- 6 items, dyspnea- 4 items, psychiatric problems- 4 items, and gastro-intestinal problems- 4 items. Statistical Analysis Used: Comparison across individual and professional variables for both dimensions were done using one-way ANOVA, and correlations were done using Karl-Pearson′s co-efficient using SPSS version 16.0 for Windows. Results: The overall total score of PCKT was 7.16 ± 2.69 (35.8%. The philosophy score was 73 ± .65 (36.5%, pain score was 2.09 ± 1.19 (34.83%, dyspnea score was 1.13 ± .95 (28.25%, psychiatric problems score was 1.83 ± 1.02 (45.75%, and gastro-intestinal problems score was 1.36 ± .97 (34%. (P = .00. The female nurses scored higher than their male counterparts, but the difference was not significant (P > .05. Conclusions: Overall level of knowledge about palliative care was poor, and nurses had a greater knowledge about psychiatric problems and philosophy than the other aspects indicated in PCKT.

  18. Self medication with antibiotics in Yogyakarta City Indonesia: a cross sectional population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widayati Aris

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self medication with antibiotics has become an important factor driving antibiotic resistance. This study investigated the period prevalence, patterns of use, and socio-demographic factors associated with self medication with antibiotics in Yogyakarta City Indonesia. This cross-sectional population-based survey used a pre-tested questionnaire which was self-administered to randomly selected respondents (over 18 years old in Yogyakarta City Indonesia in 2010 (N = 625. Descriptive statistics, chi-square and logistic regression were applied. Results A total of 559 questionnaires were analyzed (response rate = 90%. The period prevalence of self medication with antibiotics during the month prior to the study was 7.3%. Amoxicillin was the most popular (77% antibiotic for self medication besides ampicilline, fradiomisin-gramisidin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin to treat the following symptoms: the common-cold including cough and sore throat, headache, and other minor symptoms; with the length of use was mostly less than five days. Doctors or pharmacists were the most common source of information about antibiotics for self medication (52%. Antibiotics were usually purchased without prescription in pharmacies (64% and the cost of the purchases was commonly less than US $1 (30%. Previous experience was reported to be the main reason for using non-prescribed antibiotics (54%. There were no socio-demographic variables significantly associated with the actual practice of using non-prescribed antibiotics. However, gender, health insurance, and marital status were significantly associated with the intent to self medicate with antibiotics (P Conclusions This study is the first population-based study of self-medication with antibiotics among the Indonesian population. Usage of non-prescribed antibiotics as well as intent of doing so is common across socio-demographic categories. Given the findings, factors influencing people's intentions to

  19. A cross-sectional survey of patients' beliefs about stress and their help-seeking behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febles, Alberto; Ogden, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Background Stress has become an increasingly common presentation in general practice. This may relate to an increase in stress in people's lives or a change in the meaning of stress and its conceptualisation as a legitimate problem for the GP. Aim To explore patients' beliefs about stress, their association with help-seeking behaviour, and to examine differences by ethnic group. Design of study Cross-sectional survey of general practice patients attending to see their GP. Setting An inner-city London practice. Method Consecutive general practice patients completed a questionnaire, which involved rating a series of symptoms for the extent to which they were associated with stress and describing their help-seeking behaviour. In total, 548 patients completed the questionnaire. Most patients described themselves as black Caribbean (n = 163), black African (n = 48), or white British (n = 187). Results The symptoms most frequently associated with stress were sleeping problems, feeling depressed, feeling panicky, having high blood pressure and feeling anxious; feeling ashamed, experiencing indigestion, having diarrhoea, feeling hot or cold, and suffering from constipation were least commonly associated to stress. This model of stress did not vary by ethnic group. Ethnic group differences were found for the association between the model of stress and help-seeking behaviour. Although white British patients consistently reported that the more a symptom was seen as indicative of stress, the more likely they would be to visit the doctor for that symptom, this association was not found for either black Caribbean or black African patients. Conclusions The belief that stress-related symptoms are a legitimate problem for the GP is not universal and varies according to ethnic group. Stress is used by different patients in different ways and offers a variable pathway to the doctor. PMID:15826434

  20. Food consumption patterns in the Waterloo Region, Ontario, Canada: a cross-sectional telephone survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cook Angela

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The demographics and lifestyles of Canadians are changing, thereby influencing food choices and food preparation in the home. Although different dietary practices are associated with increased risk of foodborne illness, our ability to evaluate food consumption trends and assess risks associated with foodborne illness is limited by lack of data on current eating habits and consumer food safety practices. The objective of this study was to describe, for the first time, the food consumption patterns in a Canadian-based population from a food safety perspective, in order to establish baseline data on actual food intake of individuals. Method A cross-sectional telephone survey of 2,332 randomly selected residents of Waterloo Region, Ontario, Canada (C-EnterNet pilot site was conducted between November 2005 and March 2006. Food intake was assessed using a 7-day dietary recall method. Results Certain food items were consumed more than others among the same food groups, and consumption of many food items varied by gender and age. Specific foods considered high-risk for the transmission of certain enteric pathogens were significantly more likely to be consumed by males (i.e. unpasteurized juice, bean sprouts, and undercooked meat and elderly individuals (i.e. undercooked eggs. The majority of households prepared and consumed most meals at home, allocating an average of 44 minutes to prepare a meal. Conclusion Baseline data on actual food intake is useful to public health professionals and food safety risk assessors for developing communication messages to consumers and in foodborne outbreak investigations.

  1. Why medical students choose psychiatry - a 20 country cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Recruitment to psychiatry is insufficient to meet projected mental health service needs world-wide. We report on the career plans of final year medical students from 20 countries, investigating factors identified from the literature which influence psychiatric career choice. Methods Cross sectional electronic or paper survey. Subjects were final year medical students at 46 medical schools in participating countries. We assessed students’ career intentions, motivations, medical school teaching and exposure to psychiatry. We assessed students’ attitudes and personality factors. The main outcome measure was likelihood of specializing in psychiatry. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the joint effect of factors upon the main outcome. Results 2198 of 9135 (24%) of students responded (range 4 to 91%) across the countries. Internationally 4.5% of students definitely considered psychiatry as a career (range 1 to 12%). 19% of students (range 0 to 33%) were “quite likely”, and 25% were “definitely not” considering psychiatry. Female gender, experience of mental/physical illness, media portrayal of doctors, and positive attitudes to psychiatry, but not personality factors, were associated with choosing psychiatry. Quality of psychiatric placement (correlation coefficient = 0.22, p psychiatry clubs), experience of acutely unwell patients and perceived clinical responsibility were all associated with choice of psychiatry. Multilevel logistic regression revealed six factors associated with students choosing psychiatry: importance of own vocation, odds ratio (OR) 3.01, 95% CI 1.61 to 5.91, p psychiatry before medical school, OR 10.8 (5.38 to 21.8, p psychiatry special study module, OR 1.45 (1.05 to 2.01, p = 0.03) or elective OR 4.28 (2.87- 6.38, p psychiatry club, OR 3.25 (2.87 to 6.38, p psychiatry teaching which affect career choice. Addressing these factors may improve recruitment to psychiatry internationally. PMID

  2. Social relationships and HRQL: A cross-sectional survey among older Italian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiani Gianfranco

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to investigate the association between social relationships and Health Related Quality of Life (HRQL among the elderly in Italy. Methods A sample of 33,744 Italian residents, representing the non-institutionalised population aged 60 years and over was extracted from the national ISTAT cross-sectional survey during 1999–2000. HRQL was measured with the SF-12, from which the Physical Component Score (PCS and Mental Component Score (MCS were obtained. Data were subjected to descriptive analysis and multiple logistic regression models with adjustment for the main confounders. Results Our analysis shows a gradient in PCS and MCS among the terziles in seeing/meeting "friends" and "family" and, for PCS, a North-South gradient among the Italian regions. Females, the elderly who reported a lower household income, those who spent less time in recreational and religious activities, who lived too far from their relatives and had few relationships with friends and relatives, were significantly less likely to have an MCS above the median value. For PCS, an increase in HRQL was likely to be associated with a higher educational level, while lower PCS scores were associated with: age 75+, inadequate household income, unmarried status, infrequency of seeing/meeting friends, too high a mean distance from own home to relatives' homes, lack of leisure time spent in recreational activities, living in the Centre-South of Italy, chronic diseases, reduced autonomy, and use of drugs during the previous two days. Significant interactions between suffering from one chronic disease and the use of drugs were also found for both MCS and PCS. Conclusion Some dimensions of social relationships were significantly associated with HRQL. These findings are crucial for devising welfare strategies at both the regional and the European level, i.e. in countries such as Italy where the primacy of family support of the elderly has declined

  3. State income inequality, household income, and maternal mental and physical health: cross sectional national survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Robert S; Wise, Paul H; Kennedy, Bruce P; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2000-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of state income inequality and individual household income with the mental and physical health of women with young children. Design Cross sectional study. Individual level data (outcomes, income, and other sociodemographic covariates) from a 1991 follow up survey of a birth cohort established in 1988. State level income inequality calculated from the income distribution of each state from 1990 US census. Setting United States, 1991. Participants Nationally representative stratified random sample of 8060 women who gave birth in 1988 and were successfully contacted (89%) in 1991. Main outcome measures Depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies depression score >15) and self rated health Results 19% of women reported depressive symptoms, and 7.5% reported fair or poor health. Compared with women in the highest fifth of distribution of household income, women in the lowest fifth were more likely to report depressive symptoms (33% v 9%, P<0.001) and fair or poor health (15% v 2%, P<0.001). Compared with low income women in states with low income inequality, low income women in states with high income inequality had a higher risk of depressive symptoms (odds ratio 1.6, 95% confidence interval 1.0 to 2.6) and fair or poor health (1.8, 0.9 to 3.5). Conclusions High income inequality confers an increased risk of poor mental and physical health, particularly among the poorest women. Both income inequality and household income are important for health in this population. PMID:11090512

  4. Not my choice: results of an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodrick, Alison

    2014-02-01

    A survey into women's experiences of giving birth in the UK published in October 2013, provides a useful insight (Birthrights UK 2013). It is the first of its kind to capture women's views on dignity in childbirth. The survey reflects the importance of place of birth, with women who gave birth in obstetric units reporting much lower levels of satisfaction and a greater lack of control than those giving birth in birth centres or at home. Those who had an instrumental birth reported lower levels of respectful care and a much greater lack of control. The midwifery profession needs to reflect carefully on these findings and ensure the needs of running a busy maternity service efficiently do not take priority over the human rights of women.

  5. MICROBIOLOGICAL SURVEY ON JELLYFISH FOOD PRODUCTS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Guidi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A microbiological survey was performed on ten brined jellyfish products, sampled in Italy from Chinese food markets. In general, the microbiological conditions were good and respected the standards contemplated in the regulations CE 2073/2005 e 1441/2007. The presence of inhibiting substances and the absence of aerobic mesophilic bacteria in two samples suggest a treatment to preserve the product.

  6. A survey of results on mobile phone datasets analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Blondel, Vincent D; Krings, Gautier

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we review some advances made recently in the study of mobile phone datasets. This area of research has emerged a decade ago, with the increasing availability of large-scale anonymized datasets, and has grown into a stand-alone topic. We will survey the contributions made so far on the social networks that can be constructed with such data, the study of personal mobility, geographical partitioning, urban planning, and help towards development as well as security and privacy issues.

  7. Determinants of smoking initiation among women in five European countries: a cross-sectional survey

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Oh, Debora L

    2010-02-17

    Abstract Background The rate of smoking and lung cancer among women is rising in Europe. The primary aim of this study was to determine why women begin smoking in five different European countries at different stages of the tobacco epidemic and to determine if smoking is associated with certain characteristics and\\/or beliefs about smoking. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey on knowledge and beliefs about tobacco was conducted as part of the Women in Europe Against Lung Cancer and Smoking (WELAS) Project. A total of 5 000 adult women from France, Ireland, Italy, Czech Republic, and Sweden were interviewed, with 1 000 from each participating country. All participants were asked questions about demographics, knowledge and beliefs about smoking, and their tobacco use background. Current and former smokers also were asked questions about smoking initiation. Basic statistics on the cross-sectional data was reported with chi-squared and ANOVA p-values. Logistic regression was used to analyze ever versus never smokers. Linear regression analyses were used to analyze age of smoking initiation. Results Being older, being divorced, having friends\\/family who smoke, and having parents who smoke were all significantly associated with ever smoking, though the strength of the associations varied by country. The most frequently reported reason for initiation smoking was friend smoking, with 62.3% of ever smokers reporting friends as one of the reasons why they began smoking. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.2 years and over 80% of participants started smoking by the age of 20. The highest levels of young initiators were in Sweden with 29.3% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 12.0% initiating smoking younger than age 14. The lowest level of young initiators was in the Czech Republic with 13.7% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 1.4% of women initiating smoking younger than age 14. Women who started smoking because their friends smoked or to look

  8. Determinants of smoking initiation among women in five European countries: a cross-sectional survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Oh, Debora L

    2010-02-17

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The rate of smoking and lung cancer among women is rising in Europe. The primary aim of this study was to determine why women begin smoking in five different European countries at different stages of the tobacco epidemic and to determine if smoking is associated with certain characteristics and\\/or beliefs about smoking. METHODS: A cross-sectional telephone survey on knowledge and beliefs about tobacco was conducted as part of the Women in Europe Against Lung Cancer and Smoking (WELAS) Project. A total of 5 000 adult women from France, Ireland, Italy, Czech Republic, and Sweden were interviewed, with 1 000 from each participating country. All participants were asked questions about demographics, knowledge and beliefs about smoking, and their tobacco use background. Current and former smokers also were asked questions about smoking initiation. Basic statistics on the cross-sectional data was reported with chi-squared and ANOVA p-values. Logistic regression was used to analyze ever versus never smokers. Linear regression analyses were used to analyze age of smoking initiation. RESULTS: Being older, being divorced, having friends\\/family who smoke, and having parents who smoke were all significantly associated with ever smoking, though the strength of the associations varied by country. The most frequently reported reason for initiation smoking was friend smoking, with 62.3% of ever smokers reporting friends as one of the reasons why they began smoking. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.2 years and over 80% of participants started smoking by the age of 20. The highest levels of young initiators were in Sweden with 29.3% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 12.0% initiating smoking younger than age 14. The lowest level of young initiators was in the Czech Republic with 13.7% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 1.4% of women initiating smoking younger than age 14. Women who started smoking because their friends smoked or to

  9. Dental public health capacity worldwide: Results of a global survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomazzi, Marta; Wordley, Valerie; Bedi, Raman

    2016-12-01

    The World Federation of Public Health Associations' Oral Health Working Group (WFPHA OHWG) carried out a survey to establish the extent of global dental public health (DPH) capacity. Senior stakeholders in DPH completed 124 surveys, covering 73 countries and all WHO regions. The survey evaluated DPH workforce within the country, funding, education, current services, and integration between public health and DPH in countries across the world. In 62 per cent of countries, DPH is only partially integrated in the public health system, while in 25 per cent of countries it has not yet been formally integrated. DPH programs at Masters level are available in 44 per cent of countries. Over half of countries have 0 to 10 trained DPH professionals. Because both poor oral and general health share several common risk factors, DPH must be integrated into national health systems and budgets, with an emphasis on having trained DPH specialists available in every country to collaborate in healthcare policy and provision.

  10. "Health inequalities in Armenia--analysis of survey results".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonoyan, Tamara; Muradyan, Lusine

    2012-06-13

    Prevailing sociopolitical and economic obstacles have been implicated in the inadequate utilization and delivery of the Armenian health care system. A random survey of 1,000 local residents, from all administrative regions of Armenia, concerned with health care services cost and satisfaction was conducted. Participation in the survey was voluntary and the information was collected using anonymous telephone interviews. The utilization of health care services was low, particularly in rural areas. This under-utilization of services correlated with low income of the population surveyed. The state funded health care services are inadequate to ensure availability of free-of-charge services even to economically disadvantaged groups. Continued reliance on direct out-of pocket and illicit payments, for medical services, are serious issues which plague healthcare, pharmaceutical and medical technology sectors of Armenia. Restructuring of the health care system to implement a cost-effective approach to the prevention and treatment of diseases, especially disproportionately affect the poor, should be undertaken. Public payments, increasing the amount of subsidies for poor and lower income groups through a compulsory health insurance system should be evaluated and included as appropriate in this health system redesign. Current medical services reimbursement practices undermine the principle of equity in financing and access. Measures designed to improve healthcare access and affordability for poor and disadvantaged households should be enacted.

  11. New Results from the AO327 Drift Pulsar Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneva, Julia S.; Stovall, K.; McLaughlin, M.; Bates, S.; Freire, P.; Martinez, J.; Jenet, F.; Bagchi, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Arecibo 327 MHz drift pulsar survey (AO327) has operated since 2010 and aims to cover the entire Arecibo sky (declinations of -1 to 38 degrees). We present details on the progress of the survey and a new set of discoveries over the past year. Phase 1 of AO327 targets declinations of -1 to 28 degrees and is 55% complete; Phase 2 will target declinations of 28 to 38 degrees. The survey is expected to be completed in 2017. Out of a total of 28 new pulsars, 12 were found in 2013, including three millisecond pulsars. PSR J2234+06 has a rotation period of 3.58 ms and is in a 32-day orbit in a binary system with a white dwarf companion. This pulsar is bright and a very stable rotator, making it suitable for inclusion in Pulsar Timing Arrays. The orbit of J2234+06 has an eccentricity of 0.13, which cannot be accounted for by stellar evolution but may be explained by an origin in a subsequently disrupted hierarchical triple, or by an exchange interaction. PSR J0509+08 has a period of 4.06 ms and is in a 4.9-day binary system with a white dwarf companion. This pulsar is also a candidate for inclusion in PTAs.

  12. Frequency and Perceptions of Herbal Medicine use Among Hmong Americans: a Cross Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lor, Kajua B; Moua, Sakura; Ip, Eric J

    2016-04-01

    To determine the frequency and perceptions of herbal medicine use among Hmong Americans. Cross-sectional telephone survey. Sacramento, California Hmong community. Out of 118 subjects reached, 77 (65.3 %) reported lifetime use of herbal medicines. A majority of respondents agreed that herbal medicines were able to treat the body as a whole. Respondents felt that a leaflet of information indicating uses/side effects would be important to include for herbal medicines. Herbal medicine use was commonly reported among Hmong Americans. Thus, health care providers should be encouraged to discuss these alternative medicines with their Hmong American patients.

  13. A Danish survey of spinal cord stimulation baseline data: First results from a national neuromodulation database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Kaare; Scherer, Christian; Rosenlund, Christina

    A Danish survey of spinal cord stimulation baseline data: First results from a national neuromodulation database......A Danish survey of spinal cord stimulation baseline data: First results from a national neuromodulation database...

  14. Health survey of radiation workers. Results of questionnaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morikawa, Kaoru [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Medical School; Aoyama, Takashi; Kawagoe, Yasumitsu; Sunayashiki, Tadashi; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Nishitani, Motohiro; Yoshinaga, Nobuharu

    1998-11-01

    The Japanese Society of Radiological Technology asked radiation workers about the radiation doses and the state of their health as well as family. The reports by the Health and Welfare Ministry were referenced to compare radiation workers with others. The questionnaire was sent to about 4,000 members, and returned from 2,479. The survey showed that 684 persons (27.6%) felt health anxiety, 455 persons (18.4%) had medical check for recent one year, and 1,645 persons (66.4%) had anamnesis. Radiation doses for one year and cumulated doses varied according to engaging duration. (K.H.)

  15. Acquisition Information Management system telecommunication site survey results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hake, K.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Key, B.G. [COR, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1993-09-01

    The Army acquisition community currently uses a dedicated, point-to-point secure computer network for the Army Material Plan Modernization (AMPMOD). It must transition to the DOD supplied Defense Secure Network 1 (DSNET1). This is one of the first networks of this size to begin the transition. The type and amount of computing resources available at individual sites may or may not meet the new network requirements. This task surveys these existing telecommunications resources available in the Army acquisition community. It documents existing communication equipment, computer hardware, associated software, and recommends appropriate changes.

  16. First results from Faint Infrared Grism Survey (FIGS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tilvi, V.; Pirzkal, N.; Malhotra, S.

    2016-01-01

    in the Faint Infrared Grism Survey (FIGS). These spectra, taken with G102 grism on Hubble Space Telescope (HST), show a significant emission line detection (6{\\sigma}) in multiple observational position angles (PA), with total integrated Ly{\\alpha} line flux of 1.06+/- 0.12 e10-17erg s-1cm-2. The line flux...... is nearly a factor of four higher than the previous MOSFIRE spectroscopic observations of faint Ly{\\alpha} emission at {\\lambda} = 1.0347{\\mu}m, yielding z = 7.5078+/- 0.0004. This is consistent with other recent observations implying that ground-based near-infrared spectroscopy underestimates total...

  17. Overview of cycling injuries: results of a cycling club survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decalzi, Javier F; Narvy, Steven J; Vangsness, C Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Participation in competitive bicycling has increased substantially over the past decade, and bicycle injuries have increased accordingly. Cycling has been reported in several studies to have higher rates of injury than other sports and recreational activities; accordingly, riders must be cognizant of the potential for injury and protect themselves appropriately. The purpose of the current study was to survey an established competitive Los Angeles-based road cycling team to determine the epidemiology of and circumstances for traumatic cycling injuries. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Report - Results of survey on child care needs - 2017

    CERN Document Server

    Guinot, Genevieve; Weymaere, Emeline; Trilhe, Philippe; Palluel, Stephanie; Mangiorou, Maria-Anna; Mondlane, Bruna; CERN. Geneva. HR Department

    2017-01-01

    In June 2016, a working group reporting to the Director for Finance and Human Resources was established to study the sustainability of CERN nursery and school services. Among actions taken by the working group, a survey was carried out to achieve a better understanding of the needs of CERN families for child care and educational structures, to identify which services are in highest demand (e.g. crèche or early years, primary schooling) and to understand the expectations and preferences of CERN families regarding these services.

  19. Clinical Relevance of Sleep Duration: Results from a Cross-Sectional Analysis Using NHANES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, M. Soledad; Stang, Paul; Blacketer, Clair; Kent, Justine M.; Wittenberg, Gayle M.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess the clinical relevance of sleep duration, hours slept were compared by health status, presence of insomnia, and presence of depression, and the association of sleep duration with BMI and cardiovascular risk was quantified. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of subjects in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys using adjusted linear and logistic regressions. Results: A total of 22,281 adults were included, 37% slept ≤ 6 hours, 36% were obese, and 45% reported cardiovascular conditions. Mean sleep duration was 6.87 hours. Better health was associated with more hours of sleep. Subjects with poor health reported sleeping 46 min, (95% CI −56.85 to −35.67) less than subjects with excellent health. Individuals with depression (vs. not depressed) reported 40 min less sleep, (95% CI −47.14 to −32.85). Individuals with insomnia (vs. without insomnia) reported 39 min less sleep, (95% CI −56.24 to −22.45). Duration of sleep was inversely related to BMI; for every additional hour of sleep, there was a decrease of 0.18 kg/m2 in BMI, (95% CI −0.30 to −0.06). The odds of reporting cardiovascular problems were 6.0% lower for every hour of sleep (odds ratio = 0.94, 95% CI [0.91 to 0.97]). Compared with subjects who slept ≤ 6 h, subjects who slept more had lower odds of reporting cardiovascular problems, with the exception of subjects ≥ 55 years old who slept ≥ 9 hours. Conclusions: Long sleep duration is associated with better health. The fewer the hours of sleep, the greater the BMI and reported cardiovascular disease. A difference of 30 minutes of sleep is associated with substantive impact on clinical well-being. Citation: Cepeda MS, Stang P, Blacketer C, Kent JM, Wittenberg GM. Clinical relevance of sleep duration: results from a cross-sectional analysis using NHANES. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(6):813–819. PMID:26951419

  20. Pediatric dentists' job satisfaction: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Lyndsay F; Buehler, Amy M; Boynton, James R; Majewski, Robert F; Inglehart, Marita R

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine pediatric dentists' level of job satisfaction and to explore which factors (demographic and practice/work/patient characteristics) are related to their satisfaction. Data were collected with mailed surveys from 385 and with web-based surveys from 966 pediatric dentists in the United States. Professional satisfaction was measured with the Professional Satisfaction Scale and the Dentists' Satisfaction Scale. Most respondents would choose dentistry (89 percent) and pediatric dentistry (92 percent) again and would recommend dentistry (85 percent) and pediatric dentistry (83 percent) to their child as a career. Male respondents were more satisfied with income, personal and professional time, staff, and practice management aspects, and female respondents were more satisfied with patient relations. The older the dentists were, the more satisfied they were. Respondents in academia were less stressed and less satisfied with their income than respondents in nonacademic settings. The more time spent in the operatory and the less administrative work, the more satisfied the respondents were. The fewer patients from a lower socioeconomic background they treated, the more satisfied they were. Overall, pediatric dentists have a high level of job satisfaction. Demographic factors and practice/work/patient characteristic are related to job satisfaction.

  1. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: Weak Lensing Shape Catalogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuntz, J.; et al.

    2017-08-04

    We present two galaxy shape catalogues from the Dark Energy Survey Year 1 data set, covering 1500 square degrees with a median redshift of $0.59$. The catalogues cover two main fields: Stripe 82, and an area overlapping the South Pole Telescope survey region. We describe our data analysis process and in particular our shape measurement using two independent shear measurement pipelines, METACALIBRATION and IM3SHAPE. The METACALIBRATION catalogue uses a Gaussian model with an innovative internal calibration scheme, and was applied to $riz$-bands, yielding 34.8M objects. The IM3SHAPE catalogue uses a maximum-likelihood bulge/disc model calibrated using simulations, and was applied to $r$-band data, yielding 21.9M objects. Both catalogues pass a suite of null tests that demonstrate their fitness for use in weak lensing science. We estimate the 1$\\sigma$ uncertainties in multiplicative shear calibration to be $0.013$ and $0.025$ for the METACALIBRATION and IM3SHAPE catalogues, respectively.

  2. RESULTS OF THE MEGAVERTEBRATE ANALGESIA SURVEY: ELEPHANTS AND RHINO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottwitz, Jack; Boothe, Matthew; Harmon, Roy; Citino, Scott B; Zuba, Jeffery R; Boothe, Dawn M

    2016-03-01

    An online survey utilizing Survey Monkey linked through the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians listserve examined current practices in megavertebrate analgesia. Data collected included drugs administered, dosing regimens, ease of administration, efficacy, and adverse events. Fifty-nine facilities (38 housing elephants, 33 housing rhinoceroses) responded. All facilities administered nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), with phenylbutazone (0.25-10 mg/kg) and flunixin meglumine (0.2-4 mg/kg) being most common. Efficacy was reported as "good" to "excellent" for these medications. Opioids were administered to elephants (11 of 38) and rhinoceroses (7 of 33), with tramadol (0.5-3.0 mg/kg) and butorphanol (0.05-1.0 mg/kg) being most common. Tramadol efficacy scores were highly variable in both elephants and rhinoceroses. While drug choices were similar among institutions, substantial variability in dosing regimens and reported efficacy between and within facilities indicates the need for pharmacokinetic studies and standardized methods of analyzing response to treatment to establish dosing regimens and clinical trials to establish efficacy and safety.

  3. Nanosafety practices: results from a national survey at research facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Soler, Beatriz María; López-Alonso, Mónica; Martínez-Aires, María Dolores

    2017-05-01

    The exposure to engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is a new emerging risk at work due to an increase in the number of workers potentially exposed to them and the current lack of data on their health and safety risks. This paper reports the findings of a survey designed to study the safety practices employed by workers in Spanish research facilities performing tasks involving the use of ENMs at research level. A questionnaire pretested and validated by an expert panel was sent by e-mail to the target audience. The 425 surveys completed show that most of the respondents handled up to 5 different ENMs, in suspension, in small amounts during short periods of exposure. The implementation of common hygienic practices, such as the use of protection for hands and the implementation of fume hoods, is widely indicated. The selection of the preventive and protective measures does not depend on the characteristics of ENMs handled. Also, the risks posed by ENMs are widely ignored. Besides the performance of risk assessment, hygienic monitoring and the conducting of a specific health surveillance are practically non-existent although some accidents relating to ENMs were identified. In conclusion, workers' exposure to ENMs seems to be low. Even though the best practices and preventive and protective measures reported were employed, most of the respondents could not be correctly protected. Moreover, workers do not associate the measures implemented with the nanorisks. Finally, there is a lack of proactive action underway to protect the workers, and concerns about safety are weakly evidenced.

  4. Civilian First Responder Decontamination Equipment Characteristics Survey Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    question is too broad. On my widescreen, I still could not see all of the ten options top to bottom and had to scroll . You should have considered...freefall and or dumped at sea type conditions 96 Sub-Appendix D: Section 8, Question 2 Human Factors: Should signage be required? "Yes" Comments: 1...very large die outs to decontaminate the buildings and personnel that cleaned or removed the dead poultry carcasses. We have a small portable 9000 ft

  5. Estimation of age-specific incidence rates from cross-sectional survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Jason; Stewart, Walter F

    2010-02-28

    Age-specific disease incidence rates are typically estimated from longitudinal data, where disease-free subjects are followed over time and incident cases are observed. However, longitudinal studies have substantial cost and time requirements, not to mention other challenges such as loss to follow up. Alternatively, cross-sectional data can be used to estimate age-specific incidence rates in a more timely and cost-effective manner. Such studies rely on self-report of onset age. Self-reported onset age is subject to measurement error and bias. In this paper, we use a Bayesian bivariate smoothing approach to estimate age-specific incidence rates from cross-sectional survey data. Rates are modeled as a smooth function of age and lag (difference between age and onset age), with larger values of lag effectively down weighted, as they are assumed to be less reliable. We conduct an extensive simulation study to investigate the extent to which measurement error and bias in the reported onset age affects inference using the proposed methods. We use data from a national headache survey to estimate age- and gender-specific migraine incidence rates. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Sleep Bruxism-Tooth Grinding Prevalence, Characteristics and Familial Aggregation: A Large Cross-Sectional Survey and Polysomnographic Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Samar; Carra, Maria Clotilde; Huynh, Nelly; Montplaisir, Jacques; Lavigne, Gilles J.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep bruxism (SB) is characterized by tooth grinding and jaw clenching during sleep. Familial factors may contribute to the occurrence of SB. This study aims are: (1) revisit the prevalence and characteristics of SB in a large cross-sectional survey and assess familial aggregation of SB, (2) assess comorbidity such as insomnia and pain, (3) compare survey data in a subset of subjects diagnosed using polysomnography research criteria. Methods: A sample of 6,357 individuals from the general population in Quebec, Canada, undertook an online survey to assess the prevalence of SB, comorbidities, and familial aggregation. Data on familial aggregation were compared to 111 SB subjects diagnosed using polysomnography. Results: Regularly occurring SB was reported by 8.6% of the general population, decreases with age, without any gender difference. SB awareness is concomitant with complaints of difficulties maintaining sleep in 47.6% of the cases. A third of SB positive probands reported pain. A 2.5 risk ratio of having a first-degree family member with SB was found in SB positive probands. The risk of reporting SB in first-degree family ranges from 1.4 to 2.9 with increasing severity of reported SB. Polysomnographic data shows that 37% of SB subjects had at least one first-degree relative with reported SB with a relative risk ratio of 4.625. Conclusions: Our results support the heritability of SB-tooth grinding and that sleep quality and pain are concomitant in a significant number of SB subjects. Citation: Khoury S, Carra MC, Huynh N, Montplaisir J, Lavigne GJ. Sleep bruxism-tooth grinding prevalence, characteristics and familial aggregation: a large cross-sectional survey and polysomnographic validation. SLEEP 2016;39(11):2049–2056. PMID:27568807

  7. Knowledge and attitude of Indian dentists regarding dental stem cells: A cross-sectional descriptive survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katge, Farhin; Shetty, Ashveeta J; Rusawat, Bhavesh; Vamsi, K C

    2017-01-01

    Dental stem cells derived from tooth structures are adult stem cells that have received attention of researchers over the past decade. Dental stem cells can be used to regenerate dental tissues as well as non dental organs. These dental stem cells are readily accessible as compared to other sources of stem cells and can be obtained and stored for future use through minimally invasive procedures. Research in this field is growing at a fast pace and it is essential that awareness regarding the same should be present amongst professionals. This study was carried out to assess the knowledge and attitude of Indian dentists regarding dental stem cells. A cross sectional descriptive, questionnaire based survey based on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) was conducted and a total of 823 dentists from Maharashtra, India participated in the survey. The Pearson's Chi-Square Test and percentages of the total were used for statistical analysis. A total of 823 dentists completed the questionnaire survey; out of which 396 were male and 427 were female. Maximum respondents (53%) were dental graduates, followed by post graduates (45%) and PhD (1.7%). Data from the study revealed that there is good awareness regarding stem cells in general. However; the awareness, knowledge regarding sources, applications, uses and clinical research guidelines regarding dental stem cells is lacking amongst most dentists. Despite this lack of knowledge, dentists are keen on updating their knowledge regarding dental stem cells.

  8. Witnessing intimate partner violence and child maltreatment in Ugandan children: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, Karen M; Knight, Louise; Child, Jennifer C; Kyegombe, Nambusi; Hossain, Mazeda; Lees, Shelley; Watts, Charlotte; Naker, Dipak

    2017-02-28

    Existing evidence, mainly from high-income countries, shows children who witness intimate partner violence (IPV) at home are more likely to experience other forms of violence, but very little evidence is available from lower income countries. In this paper we aim to explore whether Ugandan children who witness IPV at home are also more likely to experience other forms of maltreatment, factors associated with witnessing and experiencing violence, and whether any increased risk comes from parents, or others outside the home. A representative cross-sectional survey of primary schools. 3427 non-boarding primary school students, aged about 11-14 years. Luwero District, Uganda, 2012. Exposure to child maltreatment was measured using the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect Child Abuse Screening Tool-Child Institutional, and 2 questions measured witnessing IPV. 26% of children reported witnessing IPV, but nearly all of these children had also experienced violence themselves. Only 0.6% of boys and 1.6% of girls had witnessed partner violence and not experienced violence. Increased risk of violence was from parents and also from other perpetrators besides parents. Both girls and boys who witnessed and experienced violence had between 1.66 (95% CI 0.96 to 2.87) and 4.50 (95% CI 1.78 to 11.33) times the odds of reporting mental health difficulties, and 3.23 (95% CI 1.99 to 5.24) and 8.12 (95% CI 5.15 to 12.80) times the odds of using physical or sexual violence themselves. In this sample, witnessing IPV almost never occurred in isolation-almost all children who witnessed partner violence also experienced violence themselves. Our results imply that children in Uganda who are exposed to multiple forms of violence may benefit from intervention to mitigate mental health consequences and reduce use of violence. IPV prevention interventions should be considered to reduce child maltreatment. Large numbers of children also experience maltreatment in

  9. Occupational therapy in primary care: Results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Catherine A; Leclair, Leanne L; Wener, Pamela F; Hand, Carri L; Letts, Lori J

    2016-04-12

    To support integration of occupational therapy in primary care and research in this area, it is critical to document examples of occupational therapy in primary care. This study describes occupational therapy roles and models of practice used in primary care. An electronic survey was sent to occupational therapists across Canada. Participants were identified using purposive and snowball sampling strategies. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Respondents (n = 52) were almost exclusively working on interprofessional teams. Intervention was provided most frequently to individual clients, and services were provided both within the home/community and in the clinic. Occupational therapists offered a range of health promotion and prevention services, predominantly to adults and older adults. A number of supports and barriers to the integration of occupational therapy were identified. A growing number of occupational therapists are working in primary care providing a broad range of services across the life span. © CAOT 2016.

  10. Survey Results on Fashion Consumption and Sustainability among Young Swedes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Netter, Sarah; Bjartmarz, Thordis

    Sustainable choices and behaviours are becoming ever more important in our daily lives in all consumption domains. This report focuses specifically on the consumption of textile fashion of young Swedish consumers. The purpose of this report is twofold: a) To describe current fashion consumption...... of young consumers and sustainability related attitudes and knowledge and b) to compare attitudes, knowledge and behaviour between consumers with different levels of awareness and commitment towards sustainability. The survey was conducted among 1,175 young Swedish consumers (aged 16-30) in 2012....... The average age of respondents is 23.5 years, with 48.7% females and 51.3% males. The report focuses on three consumption phases: purchase (including pre-purchase), use & maintenance and discarding....

  11. Results of a tuberculin skin testing survey in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafizi, Hasan; Aliko, Anila; Sharra, Elda; Fico, Albana; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Castiglia, Paolo; Sotgiu, Giovanni

    2014-03-13

    Tuberculosis affected about 8.5 million patients in 2011. Numerous efforts are needed to reduce the pool of individuals with latent TB infection (LTBI). The aim of the study was to describe a tuberculin skin testing (TST) survey carried out in Albania to estimate the LTBI burden; furthermore, knowledge of TB was evaluated through an ad hoc questionnaire. A TST survey was performed in three geographical districts of Albania: Tirana-Kamez, Vlora, and Dibra. Cluster sampling was carried out of young Albanian students. In addition, the same students were given a questionnaire to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and any misconceptions about TB. The mean (standard deviation) age of the individuals, according to their educational level, was the following: grade five, 11.03 (0.18) years; grade six, 12.02 (0.17) years; and grade seven, 13.02 (0.16) years. The TST induration size was read in 4,648 students. About 5.0% showed a reaction >5 mm, with a significant variability in the districts selected (12.1% in the district of Dibra). An induration diameter >15 mm was found mainly in those areas with high TB incidence (i.e., Tirana-Kamez and Dibra). About 13% of the students had no knowledge of TB. LTBI prevalent cases are estimated to be low in Albania, although there are areas where the TB management should be improved to reduce the probability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission. The level of knowledge about TB disease is inadequate and new public health strategies should be implemented, focusing on educational TV programs.

  12. Results of the American Academy of Neurology resident survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, W D; Nolte, C M; Matthews, B R; Coleman, M; Corboy, J R

    2011-03-29

    To assess the effect of neurology residency education as trainees advance into independent practice, the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) elected to survey all graduating neurology residents at time of graduation and in 3-year cycles thereafter. A 22-question survey was sent to all neurology residents completing residency training in the United States in 2007. Of 523 eligible residents, 285 (54.5%) responded. Of these, 92% reported good to excellent quality teaching of basic neurology from their faculty; however, 47% noted less than ideal training in basic neuroscience. Two-thirds indicated that the Residency In-service Training Examination was used only as a self-assessment tool, but reports of misuse were made by some residents. After residency, 78% entered fellowships (with 61% choosing a fellowship based on interactions with a mentor at their institution), whereas 20% entered practice directly. After adjustment for the proportion of residents who worked before the duty hour rules were implemented and after their implementation, more than half reported improvement in quality of life (87%), education (60%), and patient care (62%). The majority of international medical graduates reported wanting to stay in the United States to practice rather than return to their country of residence. Neurology residents are generally satisfied with training, and most entered a fellowship. Duty hour implementation may have improved resident quality of life, but reciprocal concerns were raised about impact on patient care and education. Despite the majority of international trainees wishing to stay in the United States, stricter immigration laws may limit their entry into the future neurology workforce.

  13. Recent Modification of RMA Model and Simulation Results of Pumping at Section 12 : 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A technical memorandum discussing the recent modification of the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) model and the simulation results of pumping at Section 12. The document...

  14. Nationwide cross-sectional survey of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Sudan: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungman Cha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STHs are target neglected tropical diseases (NTDs of preventive chemotherapy, but the control and elimination of these diseases have been impeded due to resource constraints. Few reports have described study protocol to draw on when conducting a nationwide survey. We present a detailed methodological description of the integrated mapping of schistosomiasis and STHs on the basis of our experiences, hoping that this protocol can be applied to future surveys in similar settings. In addition to determining the ecological zones requiring mass drug administration interventions, we aim to provide precise estimates of the prevalence of these diseases. Methods A school–based cross-sectional design will be applied for the nationwide survey across Sudan. The survey is designed to cover all districts in every state. We have divided each district into 3 different ecological zones depending on proximity to bodies of water. We will employ a probability-proportional-to-size sampling method for schools and systematic sampling for student selection to provide adequate data regarding the prevalence for schistosomiasis and STHs in Sudan at the state level. A total of 108,660 students will be selected from 1811 schools across Sudan. After the survey is completed, 391 ecological zones will be mapped out. To carry out the survey, 655 staff members were recruited. The feces and urine samples are microscopically examined by the Kato-Katz method and the sediment smears for helminth eggs respectively. For quality control, a minimum of 10% of the slides will be rechecked by the federal supervisors in each state and also 5% of the smears are validated again within one day by independent supervisors. Discussion This nationwide mapping is expected to generate important epidemiological information and indicators about schistosomiasis and STHs that will be useful for monitoring and evaluating the control

  15. Perfil dos idosos residentes em dois municípios pobres das regiões Norte e Nordeste do Brasil: resultados de estudo transversal de base populacional Profile of the elderly population in two poor municipalities in North and Northeast Brazil: the results of a cross-sectional population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraci A Cesar

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Determinar o perfil de pessoas com 60 anos ou mais de idade residentes em dois municípios pobres nas regiões Norte e Nordeste do Brasil em 2005. Por meio de delineamento transversal e amostragem sistemática, aplicou-se a idosos questionário padronizado domiciliar buscando informações sobre suas características demográficas, nível sócio-econômico, condição de habitação e saneamento, realização de atividades físicas, estado vacinal, problemas de saúde e consumo de medicamentos. Dentre os 1.013 idosos identificados, 528 residiam no Município de Caracol, Piauí, e 487 em Garrafão do Norte, Pará. Cinqüenta e seis por cento possuíam entre 60 e 69 anos de idade, 10% viviam sozinhos, 69% não eram alfabetizados, 8% tinham renda familiar inferior a 1 salário mínimo; em somente 24% dos seus domicílios havia sanitário com descarga e 60% possuíam rádio, televisão e geladeira; 88% referiram pelo menos uma doença crônica, 47% tinham de comprar todos os medicamentos consumidos, 84% foram vacinados contra influenza e pelo menos 90% disseram-se capazes de realizar atividades da vida diária. Entre os idosos estudados, as condições de moradia mostraram-se inadequadas, o acesso a bens e serviços insuficiente e elevado padrão de morbidade.This study aimed to determine the profile of the elderly population (> 60 years in two poor municipalities in North and Northeast Brazil in 2005. Using a cross-sectional survey with a systematic sample, previously trained interviewers applied a standard household questionnaire on demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, household conditions, physical activity, immunization status, health problems, and expenditures on medicines. Of the total sample (n = 1,013, 528 lived in Caracol, Piauí State, and 478 in Garrafão do Norte, Pará State. 56% were 60-69 years old, 10% lived alone, 69% were illiterate, 8% had a family income less than the minimum wage, 24% of the households had a flush

  16. Perfil de idosos admitidos em unidades de terapia intensiva gerais em Rio Grande, RS: resultados de um estudo de demanda Profile of the elderly admitted into general intensive care units in Rio Grande, Southern Brazil: results of a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo C. Schein

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo conhecer o perfil do paciente com 60 anos ou mais de idade internado nas duas unidades de terapia intensiva (UTI do município de Rio Grande, RS. Utilizando-se de delineamento transversal, entre abril/2007 e março/2008, entrevistadores previamente treinados aplicaram questionário padrão investigando sobre suas características demográficas, socioeconômicas e ambientais, utilização prévia de serviços de saúde e condições clínicas, que em 90% dos casos foram respondidos por familiares. Os 213 idosos hospitalizados neste período provinham, em sua maioria, do próprio município, eram casados, tinham mais de 70 anos, cinco anos de escolaridade, dois ou mais salários mínimos de renda familiar mensal, viviam em casa própria com outras duas pessoas e não possuíam plano de saúde; 88% foram à consulta médica nos últimos seis meses e 56% foram hospitalizados nos últimos 12 meses; metade deles chegaram à UTI inconscientes, por problemas clínicos oriundos da enfermaria do próprio hospital, onde 147 foram submetidos a ventilação mecânica, e 45% do grupo total evoluiu para óbito, em média, no oitavo dia. Estes dados mostram que é possível identificar idosos com maior potencial de internação em UTI também a partir de suas condições socioeconômicas e ambientais.This study aimed at assessing the profile of patients aged > 60 years admitted into intensive care units (ICU in the city of Rio Grande, Southern Brazil. A cross-sectional survey was carried out between April/2007 and March/2008 in two hospitals. Family members answered a standardized questionnaire that collected data on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, household conditions, use of healthcare services and current clinical conditions. Among the 213 elderly people included in the study, about 90% came from Rio Grande, were married, aged 70 years or more, had at least five years of schooling, earned two or more minimum wages

  17. Adaptive geostatistical sampling enables efficient identification of malaria hotspots in repeated cross-sectional surveys in rural Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alinune N Kabaghe

    Full Text Available In the context of malaria elimination, interventions will need to target high burden areas to further reduce transmission. Current tools to monitor and report disease burden lack the capacity to continuously detect fine-scale spatial and temporal variations of disease distribution exhibited by malaria. These tools use random sampling techniques that are inefficient for capturing underlying heterogeneity while health facility data in resource-limited settings are inaccurate. Continuous community surveys of malaria burden provide real-time results of local spatio-temporal variation. Adaptive geostatistical design (AGD improves prediction of outcome of interest compared to current random sampling techniques. We present findings of continuous malaria prevalence surveys using an adaptive sampling design.We conducted repeated cross sectional surveys guided by an adaptive sampling design to monitor the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and anaemia in children below five years old in the communities living around Majete Wildlife Reserve in Chikwawa district, Southern Malawi. AGD sampling uses previously collected data to sample new locations of high prediction variance or, where prediction exceeds a set threshold. We fitted a geostatistical model to predict malaria prevalence in the area.We conducted five rounds of sampling, and tested 876 children aged 6-59 months from 1377 households over a 12-month period. Malaria prevalence prediction maps showed spatial heterogeneity and presence of hotspots-where predicted malaria prevalence was above 30%; predictors of malaria included age, socio-economic status and ownership of insecticide-treated mosquito nets.Continuous malaria prevalence surveys using adaptive sampling increased malaria prevalence prediction accuracy. Results from the surveys were readily available after data collection. The tool can assist local managers to target malaria control interventions in areas with the greatest health impact and is

  18. CONFIRMATORY SURVEY REPORT FOR THE SECTION 4 AREA AT THE RIO ALGOM AMBROSIA LAKE FACILITY NEW MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.C. Adams

    2010-02-12

    The objectives of the confirmatory survey were to verify that remedial actions were effective in meeting established release criteria and that documentation accurately and adequately described the final radiological conditions of the RAM Ambrosia Lake, Section 4 Areas.

  19. European survey of chronic pain patients: results for Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Schwefe, G H H

    2011-11-01

    This ongoing pan-European patient survey is being conducted to explore how chronic pain patients perceive their condition and the coping strategies they use to help deal with the pain. Participating doctors - general practitioners (GPs), pain specialists and orthopaedists - selected patients suffering from chronic pain who routinely visited their practices. Doctors provided details of individual pain diagnoses and treatment which were entered into a questionnaire. Each patient then answered additional questions about pain experience, pain therapy, possible areas for improvement and any coping strategies used. Completed questionnaires were sent to a healthcare-focused global consultancy for analysis and evaluation. The most common diagnosis was chronic back pain, in 61% of the 6435 patients. Using a five-point verbal rating scale (VRS), 70% of participants rated the intensity of their pain as moderate or severe. Approximately half were receiving monotherapy. The more intense the pain was, the higher the percentage of patients receiving combination therapy. The most frequently used combinations were NSAIDs/non-opioids with weak or strong opioids. Approximately two out of three patients received non-pharmacological treatment in addition to their pain medication. Almost all the patients (90%) perceived their pain intensity to be higher than it should be under successful pain management, and 30% were dissatisfied with their current treatment. Insufficient pain relief was the reason in most cases, but 29% of dissatisfied responders cited the side effects of medication. About half the patients identified a medium to high need for improvement in their ability to work, sleep and carry out general activities. For each specialisation, the more severe the pain, the fewer patients who were satisfied with their current pain treatment. More patients with severe and extreme pain were satisfied with treatment by a pain specialist than with a GP or orthopaedist. For all three

  20. Asthma management among allergists in Italy: results from a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnoni, M S; Caminati, M; Canonica, G W; Arpinelli, F; Rizzi, A; Senna, G

    2017-01-01

    In Europe more than 50% of asthmatic treated patients have not well-controlled asthma. Asthma affects about 2.5 million of patients in Italy. The present survey aims at investigating how Italian allergists approach asthmatic patients, in order to highlight pitfalls and unmet needs concerning real-life asthma management. An anonymous 16 item web questionnaire was available (April-October 2015) to all allergists who visited the web site of SIAAIC (Società Italiana di Allergologia, Asma Immunologia Clinica). Those who wished to give their contribution had the opportunity to answer about epidemiology, risk factors, treatment approaches, and adherence to therapy. One hundred and seventy four allergists answered the survey. 54% of them reported up to 10 patient visits per week and 35.3% between 10 and 30. The most frequent reasons of follow up visits are routine check-up (56.5% of allergists), and worsening of symptoms (41% of allergists). Nocturnal apnoeas, gastro-esophageal reflux and obesity are the most important comorbidities/risk factors of poorly controlled asthma. Bronchial hyper-responsiveness, increased NO levels and reduced exercise tolerance are the most important indicators of asthma severity. Concerning therapy, ICS combined with LABA is the treatment of choice suitable for the majority of patients. A rapid onset of action and a flexible ICS dosage are indicated as the optimal characteristics for achieving the therapeutic goals. Poor adherence to therapy is an important reason for symptom worsening for the majority of allergists. Complex dosage regimens and economic aspects are considered the most important factors impacting on adherence. Allergists are involved in the management of asthma, regularly seeing their patients. Co-morbidities are frequent in asthmatic patients and may impact negatively on disease control, thus identifying patients who need a more careful and strict monitoring. Airway hyper-responsiveness to methacholine challenge test and

  1. Results of a baghouse operation and maintenance survey on industry and utility coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, J.; Kreidenweis, S.; Theodore, L.

    1982-06-01

    This paper presents results of a baghouse operation and maintenance survey on industry and utility coal-fired boilers. The survey consisted of a comprehensive questionnaire suitable to statistical interpretation and computer analysis.

  2. Characteristics of Social Network Gamers: Results of an Online Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisel, Olga; Panneck, Patricia; Stickel, Anna; Schneider, Michael; Müller, Christian A

    2015-01-01

    Current research on Internet addiction (IA) reported moderate to high prevalence rates of IA and comorbid psychiatric symptoms in users of social networking sites (SNS) and online role-playing games. The aim of this study was to characterize adult users of an Internet multiplayer strategy game within a SNS. Therefore, we conducted an exploratory study using an online survey to assess sociodemographic variables, psychopathology, and the rate of IA in a sample of adult social network gamers by Young's Internet Addiction Test (IAT), the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-26), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R), and the WHO Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF). All participants were listed gamers of "Combat Zone" in the SNS "Facebook." In this sample, 16.2% of the participants were categorized as subjects with IA and 19.5% fulfilled the criteria for alexithymia. Comparing study participants with and without IA, the IA group had significantly more subjects with alexithymia, reported more depressive symptoms, and showed poorer quality of life. These findings suggest that social network gaming might also be associated with maladaptive patterns of Internet use. Furthermore, a relationship between IA, alexithymia, and depressive symptoms was found that needs to be elucidated by future studies.

  3. [Stalking of psychiatrists and psychotherapists : Results of an online survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praus, P; Riedel-Heller, S; Dressing, H

    2018-01-01

    Currently, there are clear indications that due to their exposed occupational position psychiatrists and psychotherapists are at a higher risk than the general public to become the victim of stalking by patients. This study investigated the frequency of stalking and its psychosocial impact among psychiatrists and psychotherapists in the Federal Republic of Germany. Analysis of an online survey among members of the German Association for Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics (DGPPN) from 23 September 2015 until 22 October 2015. Of the respondents 26.5% reported having been the victim of stalking. In more than a third of the reported cases the stalking was described as severely or very severely debilitating. The majority of the perpetrators suffered from psychotic or personality disorders. Male victims were significantly more frequently stalked by a female perpetrator. Approximately 1 in 10 stalking victims continued the treatment of the perpetrator. The majority of the stalking victims did not obtain substantial support from their employer. The phenomenon of stalking within therapeutic relationships needs to be incorporated into the medical and psychotherapeutic professional training, e. g. by implementing specialized training courses and the systematic integration of this topic into clinical supervision. The institutional dealing with stalking by patients needs to optimized, e. g. by promptly transferring treatment of patients who stalk to other professionals and, where required, providing assistance in reporting stalking incidents to the police.

  4. Transitions in Pediatric Gastroenterology: Results of a National Provider Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensen, Rachel; McKenzie, Rebecca B; Fernandes, Susan M; Fishman, Laurie N

    2016-11-01

    Transition and transfer to adult-oriented health care is an important yet challenging task for adolescents and young adults with chronic medical conditions. Transition practices vary widely, but a paucity of data makes determination of best practices difficult. We described North American pediatric gastroenterologists' preferences and present transition practice patterns and explored whether experience affected providers' perspectives. An online survey was distributed via e-mail to members of the North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition. Participation was voluntary and answers were anonymous. Quantitative and qualitative analysis was performed. Almost three quarters of the 175 respondents describe providing transition or self-care management education, but only 23% use structured readiness assessments. Most respondents (88%) report having age cutoffs above which they no longer accept new referrals, with the most common age being 18 years (57%). One third report the ability to provide age-appropriate care to patients older than 21 years. Only 6% indicate that their practice or institution should provide care for individuals older than 25 years. Many (63%) indicate that their practice or institution has a policy regarding age of transfer, but most (79%) are flexible. Provider preferences for triggers to transfer to adult care diverge widely between age, milestones, and comorbidities. Overall, parent (81%) and patient (74%) attachment to pediatric health care providers are cited as the most common barriers to transition. Preferences and practices surrounding transition preparation and transfer to adult care vary widely, reflecting continued uncertainty regarding optimal transition strategies.

  5. Survey on In-vehicle Technology Use: Results and Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj K. Kamalanathsharma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of advanced technology in automobiles has increased dramatically in the past couple of years. Driver-assisting gadgets such as navigation systems, advanced cruise control, collision avoidance systems, and other safety systems have moved down the ladder from luxury to more basic vehicles. Concurrently, auto manufacturers are also designing and testing driving algorithms that can assist with basic driving tasks, many of which are being continuously scrutinized by traffic safety agencies to ensure that these systems do not pose a safety hazard. The research presented in this paper brings a third perspective to in-vehicle technology by conducting a two-stage survey to collect public opinion on advanced in-vehicle technology. Approximately 64 percent of the respondents used a smartphone application to assist with their travel. The top-used applications were navigation and real-time traffic information systems. Among those who used smartphones during their commutes, the top-used applications were navigation and entertainment.

  6. Predicting medical professionals' intention to allow family presence during resuscitation: A cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Meng-Kuan; Aritejo, Bayu Aji; Tang, Jing-Shia; Chen, Chien-Liang; Chuang, Chia-Chang

    2017-05-01

    Family presence during resuscitation is an emerging trend, yet it remains controversial, even in countries with relatively high acceptance of family presence during resuscitation among medical professionals. Family presence during resuscitation is not common in many countries, and medical professionals in these regions are unfamiliar with family presence during resuscitation. Therefore, this study predicted the medical professionals' intention to allow family presence during resuscitation by applying the theory of planned behaviour. A cross-sectional survey. A single medical centre in southern Taiwan. Medical staffs including physicians and nurses in a single medical centre (n=714). A questionnaire was constructed to measure the theory of planned behaviour constructs of attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, and behavioural intentions as well as the awareness of family presence during resuscitation and demographics. In total, 950 questionnaires were distributed to doctors and nurses in a medical centre. Among the 714 valid questionnaires, only 11 participants were aware of any association in Taiwan that promotes family presence during resuscitation; 94.7% replied that they were unsure (30.4%) or that their unit did not have a family presence during resuscitation policy (74.8%). Regression analysis was performed to predict medical professionals' intention to allow family presence during resuscitation. The results indicated that only positive attitudes and subjective norms regarding family presence during resuscitation and clinical tenure could predict the intention to allow family presence during resuscitation. Because Family presence during resuscitation practice is not common in Taiwan and only 26.19% of the participants agreed to both items measuring the intention to allow family presence during resuscitation, we recommend the implementation of a family presence during resuscitation education program that will enhance the positive beliefs

  7. Climate change and health in Bangladesh: a baseline cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Iqbal Kabir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bangladesh is facing the unavoidable challenge of adaptation to climate change. However, very little is known in relation to climate change and health. This article provides information on potential climate change impact on health, magnitude of climate-sensitive diseases, and baseline scenarios of health systems to climate variability and change. Design: A cross-sectional study using multistage cluster sampling framework was conducted in 2012 among 6,720 households of 224 rural villages in seven vulnerable districts of Bangladesh. Information was obtained from head of the households using a pretested, interviewer-administered, structured questionnaire. A total of 6,720 individuals participated in the study with written, informed consent. Results: The majority of the respondents were from the low-income vulnerable group (60% farmers or day labourers with an average of 30 years’ stay in their locality. Most of them (96% had faced extreme weather events, 45% of people had become homeless and displaced for a mean duration of 38 days in the past 10 years. Almost all of the respondents (97.8% believe that health care expenditure increased after the extreme weather events. Mean annual total health care expenditure was 6,555 Bangladeshi Taka (BDT (1 USD=77 BDT in 2015 and exclusively out of pocket of the respondents. Incidence of dengue was 1.29 (95% CI 0.65–2.56 and malaria 13.86 (95% CI 6.00–32.01 per 1,000 adult population for 12 months preceding the data collection. Incidence of diarrhoea and pneumonia among under-five children of the households for the preceding month was 10.3% (95% CI 9.16–11.66 and 7.3% (95% CI 6.35–8.46, respectively. Conclusions: The findings of this survey indicate that climate change has a potential adverse impact on human health in Bangladesh. The magnitude of malaria, dengue, childhood diarrhoea, and pneumonia was high among the vulnerable communities. Community-based adaptation strategy for health

  8. Responsibility for managing musculoskeletal disorders – A cross-sectional postal survey of attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson Maria EH

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Musculoskeletal disorders are a major burden on individuals, health systems and social care systems and rehabilitation efforts in these disorders are considerable. Self-care is often considered a cost effective treatment alternative owing to limited health care resources. But what are the expectations and attitudes in this question in the general population? The purpose of this study was to describe general attitudes to responsibility for the management of musculoskeletal disorders and to explore associations between attitudes and background variables. Methods A cross-sectional, postal questionnaire survey was carried out with a random sample of a general adult Swedish population of 1770 persons. Sixty-one percent (n = 1082 responded to the questionnaire and was included for the description of general attitudes towards responsibility for the management of musculoskeletal disorders. For the further analyses of associations to background variables 683–693 individuals could be included. Attitudes were measured by the "Attitudes regarding Responsibility for Musculoskeletal disorders" (ARM instrument, where responsibility is attributed on four dimensions; to myself, as being out of my hands, to employers or to (medical professionals. Multiple logistic regression was used to explore associations between attitudes to musculoskeletal disorders and the background variables age, sex, education, physical activity, presence of musculoskeletal disorders, sick leave and whether the person had visited a care provider. Results A majority of participants had internal views, i.e. showed an attitude of taking personal responsibility for musculoskeletal disorders, and did not place responsibility for the management out of their own hands or to employers. However, attributing shared responsibility between self and medical professionals was also found. The main associations found between attitude towards responsibility for musculoskeletal

  9. Prevalence and Perceptions of Musculoskeletal Disorders Among Hospital Nurses in Pakistan: A Cross-sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attique, Rayan; Asmaa, Yumna

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Nursing is a professionally demanding job, and nurses are prone to develop musculoskeletal disorders. However, no data is available regarding its prevalence among Pakistani nurses. This study was conducted to document the pattern of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs) in Pakistani nurses and their perceptions about contributing factors and management of WRMDs. Methods A questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted in six hospitals in Lahore and Rawalpindi, which were selected using a convenient sampling technique. A four-part questionnaire comprised of demographic data, experience of musculoskeletal disorders, and perception of management and contributing factors of WRMDs was distributed among 150 nurses. One hundred and seventeen nurses returned completed forms. Data was analyzed using SPSS Statistics v20 (IBM, Armonk, New York, USA). Ethics review committee approval was obtained by CMH Lahore Medical College and the Institute of Dentistry, and informed consent was obtained. Results The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders over a 12-month period was 31.6%, with the most common site being the low back (32%) followed by the shoulder (20%), upper back, and knees (10%). Among those affected, 60.6% sought professional help. Married nurses were more prone to WRMDs (p=0.0001). Regarding management, most (94%) agreed that rest is required to get better, neglecting problems of this kind can cause permanent health problems (89.7%), and physical activity should be avoided (38.7%). Working in the same positions for long periods (93.1%), attending an excessive number of patients in one day (81.2%), and working in awkward and cramped positions (78.6%) were the most commonly perceived risk factors for WRMDs. Conclusion About one-third of Pakistani nurses in this cohort reported work-related musculoskeletal disorders with the low back most commonly affected. There is a need to increase awareness regarding ergonomics and posture

  10. Electronic-cigarette use among young people in Wales: evidence from two cross-sectional surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Graham; Hewitt, Gillian; Evans, John; Littlecott, Hannah J; Holliday, Jo; Ahmed, Nilufar; Moore, Laurence; Murphy, Simon; Fletcher, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the prevalence of electronic(e)-cigarette use, prevalence of e-cigarette and tobacco use by age, and associations of e-cigarette use with sociodemographic characteristics, tobacco and cannabis use among young people in Wales. Design Data from two nationally-representative cross-sectional surveys undertaken in 2013–2014. Logistic regression analyses, adjusting for school-level clustering, examined sociodemographic characteristics of e-cigarette use, and associations between e-cigarette use and smoking. Setting Primary and secondary schools in Wales. Participants Primary-school children aged 10–11 (n=1601) and secondary-school students aged 11–16 (n=9055). Results Primary-school children were more likely to have used e-cigarettes (5.8%) than tobacco (1.6%). Ever use of e-cigarettes remained more prevalent than ever use of tobacco until age 14–15. Overall, 12.3% of secondary-school students (aged 11–16) reported ever using e-cigarettes, with no differences according to gender, ethnicity or family affluence. The percentage of ‘never smokers’ reporting having used e-cigarettes was 5.3% at age 10–11 to 8.0% at age 15–16. The proportion of children who had ever used an e-cigarette and reported currently smoking increased from 6.9% among 10–11 year olds to 39.2% in 15–16 year olds. Only 1.5% (n=125) of 11–16 year-olds, including 0.3% of never smokers, reported regular e-cigarette use (use at least once a month). Current weekly smokers were 100 times more likely than non-smokers to report regular e-cigarette use (relative risk ratio (RRR=121.15; 95% CI 57.56 to 254.97). Regular e-cigarette use was also more likely among those who had smoked cannabis (RRR 53.03; 95% CI 38.87 to 80.65). Conclusions Many young people (including never-smokers) have tried e-cigarettes. However, regular use is less common, and is associated with tobacco cigarette use. Longitudinal research is needed to understand age-related trajectories of e

  11. Physical activity and associated factors from a cross-sectional survey among adults in northern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice John

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insufficient physical activity (PA is a major contributing factor in the growing problem of non-communicable diseases (NCDs in urban and rural Sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to determine PA and associated factors among adults in Northern Tanzania. Methods We analyzed secondary data from a cross-sectional serological survey nested within the Magu health and demographic sentinel surveillance population in Magu District Northwestern Tanzania. All resident adults aged 15 years and older were invited to participate in the study, and physical activity data were analyzed for 5663 participants. Data were analyzed using Stata version 13.0. We used logistic regression to obtain odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI for risk factors associated with differences in PA. Results In this mainly rural population, 96% reported sufficient PA, with a higher proportion in males (97.3% compared to females (94.8%. In males the odds of sufficient PA were lower in rural areas compared to urban areas (OR = 0.19; P < 0.001; 95% CI = 0.08–0.42, while in females the odds of sufficient PA were higher in rural areas compared to urban areas (OR = 2.27; P < 0.001; 95%CI = 1.59–3.24. Leisure-related activity was low compared to work-related and transport-related activity. Farmers had a higher odds of sufficient PA than those in professional jobs in both males (OR = 9.75; P < 0.001; 95% CI = 3.68–5.82 and females (OR = 2.83; P = 0.021; 95% CI = 1.17–6.86. Conclusion The prevalence of PA in this population was high. However, there is need for PA programs to maintain the high level of compliance during and following the transition to a more urban-based culture.

  12. Antibiotic use in dentistry: A cross-sectional survey from a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaramakrishnan Gowri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antimicrobial resistance is a well-known entity and the most common factor leading to this is the irrational use of antibiotics. Several studies from the West have substantiated the irrational use of antibiotics in dentistry. Aims: The aim was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP of antimicrobial drug use among dental fraternity in a tertiary care teaching dental college and hospital. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional survey of various dental fraternities using a structured validated questionnaire. The study was initiated following approval from Institutional Ethics Committee and interns, junior residents and faculty members of various departments in dentistry were enrolled after obtaining written informed consent. A structured validated questionnaire was developed to assess the above-mentioned objectives. Statistical analysis: Descriptive statistics was used for representing each category of response and kappa statistics were used to assess the reliability in the initial cohort. Chi-square test for independence was used to evaluate the difference in proportion between different professional cadres. Results: A total of 120 participants were recruited out of which 81.6% (98/120 of the participants accepted their frequent antibiotic usage. The most common dental indication of antibiotics among dentists was post dental extraction, attributing to 30.8% (37/120, followed by dental abscess 21.6% (26/120 and 60% (72/120 prescribed antibiotics after most minor surgical procedures. Surprisingly, 37.5% (45/120 of the participants opined that they use antibiotics against viral infection. Regarding the spectrum of antibiotic usage, 74.1% (89/120 preferred broad spectrum instead of narrow spectrum 25.8% (31/120. The commonly prescribed antibiotics were amoxicillin 71.7% (86/120, metronidazole 33.3% (40/120, amoxicillin with clavulanic acid 26.6% (32/120. A total of (43/120 35.8% opted generic name for mentioning the

  13. Experience of Lyme disease and preferences for precautions: a cross-sectional survey of UK patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Afrodita; Barnett, Julie; Uzzell, David; Vasileiou, Konstantina; O'Connell, Susan

    2013-05-16

    Lyme disease (LD) is a tick-borne zoonosis currently affecting approximately 1000 people annually in the UK (confirmed through serological diagnosis) although it is estimated that the real figures may be as high as 3000 cases. It is important to know what factors may predict correct appraisal of LD symptoms and how the experience of LD might predict preferences for future precautionary actions. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with early LD patients via the Lyme Borreliosis Unit at the Health Protection Agency. One hundred and thirty participants completed measures of awareness of having been bitten by ticks, knowledge of ticks and LD, interpretation of LD symptoms, suspicions of having LD prior to seeing the General Practitioner (GP), and preferences for precautionary actions during future countryside visits. Chi-square tests and logistic regression were used to identify key predictors of awareness of having been bitten by ticks and of having LD. t-tests assessed differences between groups of participants on suspicions of having LD and preferences for future precautions. Pearson correlations examined relationships between measures of preferences for precautions and frequency of countryside use, knowledge of ticks and LD, and intentions to avoid the countryside in the future. 73.8% of participants (n = 96) reported a skin rash as the reason for seeking medical help, and 44.1% (n = 64) suspected they had LD before seeing the GP. Participants reporting a direct event in realizing they had been bitten by ticks (seeing a tick on skin or seeing a skin rash and linking it to tick bites) were more likely to suspect they had LD before seeing the doctor. Participants distinguished between taking precautions against tick bites during vs. after countryside visits, largely preferring the latter. Also, the more frequently participants visited the countryside, the less likely they were to endorse during-visit precautions. The results suggest that the risk of LD is

  14. Doctors' use of electronic medical records systems in hospitals: cross sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lærum, Hallvard; Ellingsen, Gunnar; Faxvaag, Arild

    2001-01-01

    Objectives To compare the use of three electronic medical records systems by doctors in Norwegian hospitals for general clinical tasks. Design Cross sectional questionnaire survey. Semistructured telephone interviews with key staff in information technology in each hospital for details of local implementation of the systems. Setting 32 hospital units in 19 Norwegian hospitals with electronic medical records systems. Participants 227 (72%) of 314 hospital doctors responded, equally distributed between the three electronic medical records systems. Main outcome measures Proportion of respondents who used the electronic system, calculated for each of 23 tasks; difference in proportions of users of different systems when functionality of systems was similar. Results Most tasks listed in the questionnaire (15/23) were generally covered with implemented functions in the electronic medical records systems. However, the systems were used for only 2-7 of the tasks, mainly associated with reading patient data. Respondents showed significant differences in frequency of use of the different systems for four tasks for which the systems offered equivalent functionality. The respondents scored highly in computer literacy (72.2/100), and computer use showed no correlation with respondents' age, sex, or work position. User satisfaction scores were generally positive (67.2/100), with some difference between the systems. Conclusions Doctors used electronic medical records systems for far fewer tasks than the systems supported. What is already known on this topicElectronic information systems in health care have not undergone systematic evaluation, and few comparisons between electronic medical records systems have been madeGiven the information intensive nature of clinical work, electronic medical records systems should be of help to doctors for most clinical tasksWhat this study addsDoctors in Norwegian hospitals reported a low level of use of all electronic medical records systems

  15. Mental health literacy in korean older adults: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y S; Lee, H Y; Lee, M H; Simms, T; Park, B H

    2017-09-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Mental health literacy is a fairly new concept, first introduced in 1997. It refers to what people know and believe about mental health disorders. People's knowledge and beliefs help them to recognize, manage and prevent mental disorders. Generally, older adults have lower health literacy compared to young and middle-aged adults. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This is the first study on the mental health literacy of Korean older adults. This study looks beyond peoples' ability to recognize mental health disorders and their opinions about them. It identifies factors that are associated with mental health literacy (level of education and social support, the number of people in one's social circles and how individuals rate their health). WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Older adults might get more out of mental health literacy programmes in group or social settings. Programmes that use older adult peer educators/supporters, such as the "older people's champions" of the Healthy Passport programme in England, might make the programmes more effective. Mental health campaigns, such as Australia's beyondblue, might increase mental health literacy of older adults. Introduction Korea is experiencing rapid population ageing, spurring an increased need for mental health services for the elderly. Approximately one-third of Korean older adults experience depressive symptoms, and Korea has the highest elder suicide rate among 34 developed nations. Mental health literacy is an important component of promoting mental health, yet studies on the concept have been conducted in few countries. Aim This study examines the level of mental health literacy among Korean older adults and identifies factors associated with their mental health literacy. Method A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 596 community-dwelling Korean adults aged 65 and older. Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use framed the study. Results Overall

  16. Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene in Schools in Low Socio-Economic Regions in Nicaragua: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Jordanova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH in schools contributes to better health and educational outcomes among school-aged children. In 2012, UNICEF Nicaragua and partners conducted a cross-sectional survey of WaSH in 526 schools in 12 low socio-economic status municipalities in Nicaragua. The survey gathered information on: school characteristics; teacher and community participation; water and sanitation infrastructure; and hygiene education and habits. Survey results were analyzed for associations between variables. WaSH coverage was significantly higher in urban than rural areas. Presence of drinking water infrastructure (43% was lower than sanitation infrastructure (64%. Eighty-one percent of schools had no hand washing stations and 74% of schools lacked soap. Sanitation facilities were not in use at 28% of schools with sanitation infrastructure and 26% of schools with water infrastructure had non-functional systems. Only 8% of schools had budgets to purchase toilet-cleaning supplies and 75% obtained supplies from students’ families. This study generates transferable WaSH sector learnings and new insights from monitoring data. Results can be used by donors, service providers, and policy makers to better target resources in Nicaraguan schools.

  17. Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene in Schools in Low Socio-Economic Regions in Nicaragua: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanova, Tania; Cronk, Ryan; Obando, Wanda; Medina, Octavio Zeledon; Kinoshita, Rinko; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) in schools contributes to better health and educational outcomes among school-aged children. In 2012, UNICEF Nicaragua and partners conducted a cross-sectional survey of WaSH in 526 schools in 12 low socio-economic status municipalities in Nicaragua. The survey gathered information on: school characteristics; teacher and community participation; water and sanitation infrastructure; and hygiene education and habits. Survey results were analyzed for associations between variables. WaSH coverage was significantly higher in urban than rural areas. Presence of drinking water infrastructure (43%) was lower than sanitation infrastructure (64%). Eighty-one percent of schools had no hand washing stations and 74% of schools lacked soap. Sanitation facilities were not in use at 28% of schools with sanitation infrastructure and 26% of schools with water infrastructure had non-functional systems. Only 8% of schools had budgets to purchase toilet-cleaning supplies and 75% obtained supplies from students’ families. This study generates transferable WaSH sector learnings and new insights from monitoring data. Results can be used by donors, service providers, and policy makers to better target resources in Nicaraguan schools. PMID:26035665

  18. Water, sanitation, and hygiene in schools in low socio-economic regions in Nicaragua: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanova, Tania; Cronk, Ryan; Obando, Wanda; Medina, Octavio Zeledon; Kinoshita, Rinko; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-05-29

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) in schools contributes to better health and educational outcomes among school-aged children. In 2012, UNICEF Nicaragua and partners conducted a cross-sectional survey of WaSH in 526 schools in 12 low socio-economic status municipalities in Nicaragua. The survey gathered information on: school characteristics; teacher and community participation; water and sanitation infrastructure; and hygiene education and habits. Survey results were analyzed for associations between variables. WaSH coverage was significantly higher in urban than rural areas. Presence of drinking water infrastructure (43%) was lower than sanitation infrastructure (64%). Eighty-one percent of schools had no hand washing stations and 74% of schools lacked soap. Sanitation facilities were not in use at 28% of schools with sanitation infrastructure and 26% of schools with water infrastructure had non-functional systems. Only 8% of schools had budgets to purchase toilet-cleaning supplies and 75% obtained supplies from students' families. This study generates transferable WaSH sector learnings and new insights from monitoring data. Results can be used by donors, service providers, and policy makers to better target resources in Nicaraguan schools.

  19. Firearm Acquisition Without Background Checks: Results of a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew; Hepburn, Lisa; Azrael, Deborah

    2017-02-21

    In 1994, 40% of U.S. gun owners who had recently acquired a firearm did so without a background check. No contemporary estimates exist. To estimate the proportion of current U.S. gun owners who acquired their most recent firearm without a background check, by time since and manner of acquisition, for the nation as a whole and separately in states with and without legislation regulating private sales. Probability-based online survey. United States, 2015. 1613 adult gun owners. Current gun owners were asked where and when they acquired their last firearm; if they purchased the firearm; and whether, as part of that acquisition, they had a background check (or were asked to show a firearm license or permit). 22% (95% CI, 16% to 27%) of gun owners who reported obtaining their most recent firearm within the previous 2 years reported doing so without a background check. For firearms purchased privately within the previous 2 years (that is, other than from a store or pawnshop, including sales between individuals in person, online, or at gun shows), 50% (CI, 35% to 65%) were obtained without a background check. This percentage was 26% (CI, 5% to 47%) for owners residing in states regulating private firearm sales and 57% (CI, 40% to 75%) for those living in states without regulations on private firearm sales. Potential inaccuracies due to recall and social desirability bias. 22% of current U.S. gun owners who acquired a firearm within the past 2 years did so without a background check. Although this represents a smaller proportion of gun owners obtaining firearms without background checks than in the past, millions of U.S. adults continue to acquire guns without background checks, especially in states that do not regulate private firearm sales. Fund for a Safer Future and the Joyce Foundation.

  20. A nationwide population-based cross-sectional survey of health-related quality of life in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms in Denmark (MPNhealthSurvey: survey design and characteristics of respondents and nonrespondents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brochmann N

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nana Brochmann,1 Esben Meulengracht Flachs,2 Anne Illemann Christensen,3 Christen Lykkegaard Andersen,1 Knud Juel,3 Hans Carl Hasselbalch,1 Ann-Dorthe Zwisler4 1Department of Hematology, Zealand University Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Roskilde, 2Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Bispebjerg University Hospital, Copenhagen, 3National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Copenhagen, 4Danish Knowledge Centre for Rehabilitation and Palliative Care, University of Southern Denmark and Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark Objective: The Department of Hematology, Zealand University Hospital, Denmark, and the National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, created the first nationwide, population-based, and the most comprehensive cross-sectional health-related quality of life (HRQoL survey of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs. In Denmark, all MPN patients are treated in public hospitals and treatments received are free of charge for these patients. Therefore, MPN patients receive the best available treatment to the extent of its suitability for them and if they wish to receive the treatment. The aims of this article are to describe the survey design and the characteristics of respondents and nonrespondents. Material and methods: Individuals with MPN diagnoses registered in the Danish National Patient Register (NPR were invited to participate. The registers of the Danish Civil Registration System and Statistics Denmark provided information regarding demographics. The survey contained 120 questions: validated patient-reported outcome (PRO questionnaires and additional questions addressing lifestyle. Results: A total of 4,704 individuals were registered with MPN diagnoses in the NPR of whom 4,236 were eligible for participation and 2,613 (62% responded. Overall, the respondents covered the broad spectrum of MPN patients, but patients 70–79 years old, living with

  1. The Forest Service Safety Survey: results from an employee-wide safety attitude survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanessa R. Lane; Ken Cordell; Stanley J. Zarnoch; Gary T. Green; Neelam Poudyal; Susan Fox

    2014-01-01

    The Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture launched a Safety Journey in 2011 aimed at elevating safety consciousness and practice in the Agency. All employees were required to attend an engagement session during the year to introduce them to the Safety Journey. In September, a survey was launched to help Forest Service leadership better understand employee...

  2. Assistência à gestação e ao parto: resultados de dois estudos transversais em áreas pobres das regiões Norte e Nordeste do Brasil Health care during pregnancy and childbirth: results of two cross-sectional surveys in poor areas of North and Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aurora D. Chrestani

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Em 2002 e 2005 realizou-se inquérito transversal em áreas pobres das regiões Norte e Nordeste do Brasil visando avaliar a assistência à gestação e ao parto entre mães de menores de cinco anos. Foram estudadas 1.528 e 1.529 crianças em 2002 e 2005, respectivamente. Neste período, a escolaridade média das mães aumentou em 1,5 anos, a renda familiar em R$ 100,00 e o fornecimento de água tratada passou de 23% para 41%; a realização de seis ou mais consultas de pré-natal aumentou de 42% para 52% e a imunização contra tétano neonatal de 54% para 77%; a avaliação da altura uterina de 54% para 77% enquanto a realização de teste para HIV e sífilis duplicou, passando de cerca de 8% para aproximadamente 16% e de ultra-sonografia de 44% para 64%. No entanto, a realização de exames ginecológicos caiu de 41% para 31% e as orientações sobre amamentação de 66% para 55%. Apesar de melhorias expressivas na maioria dos indicadores estudados, verifica-se que ainda estão abaixo das regiões mais desenvolvidas do país. Esforços devem ser feitos visando reduzir estes diferenciais.In 2002 and 2005, two surveys were conducted in poor areas of North and Northeast Brazil to evaluate prenatal care received by mothers of children under five years old. The study covered 1,528 and 1,529 children in 2002 and 2005, respectively. In this three-year period, maternal schooling and monthly family income increased by 1.5 years and US$ 50.00, respectively, availability of safe drinking water increased from 23% to 41%, the proportion of pregnant woman with six or more prenatal visits increased from 42% to 52%, and immunization against neonatal tetanus increased from 54% to 77%. Coverage of uterine height evaluation increased from 54% to 77%. Testing for HIV and syphilis virtually doubled, from 8% to 16%. Meanwhile, gynecological examinations dropped from 41% to 31% and counseling for breastfeeding decreased from 66% to 55%. Despite improvements, the

  3. Triatoma dimidiata infestation in Chagas disease endemic regions of Guatemala: comparison of random and targeted cross-sectional surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond J King

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Guatemala is presently engaged in the Central America Initiative to interrupt Chagas disease transmission by reducing intradomiciliary prevalence of Triatoma dimidiata, using targeted cross-sectional surveys to direct control measures to villages exceeding the 5% control threshold. The use of targeted surveys to guide disease control programs has not been evaluated. Here, we compare the findings from the targeted surveys to concurrent random cross-sectional surveys in two primary foci of Chagas disease transmission in central and southeastern Guatemala. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Survey prevalences of T. dimidiata intradomiciliary infestation by village and region were compared. Univariate logistic regression was used to assess the use of risk factors to target surveys and to evaluate indicators associated with village level intradomiciliary prevalences >5% by survey and region. Multivariate logistic regression models were developed to assess the ability of random and targeted surveys to target villages with intradomiciliary prevalence exceeding the control threshold within each region. Regional prevalences did not vary by survey; however, village prevalences were significantly greater in random surveys in central (13.0% versus 8.7% and southeastern (22.7% versus 6.9% Guatemala. The number of significant risk factors detected did not vary by survey in central Guatemala but differed considerably in the southeast with a greater number of significant risk factors in the random survey (e.g. land surface temperature, relative humidity, cropland, grassland, tile flooring, and stick and mud and palm and straw walls. Differences in the direction of risk factor associations were observed between regions in both survey types. The overall discriminative capacity was significantly greater in the random surveys in central and southeastern Guatemala, with an area under the receiver-operator curve (AUC of 0.84 in the random surveys and

  4. A Cross-Sectional Survey on Reasons for Initial Placement and Replacement of Single Crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzgur, Recep; Uzgur, Zeynep; Colak, Hakan; Ercan, Ertugrul; Dalli, Mehmet; Özcan, Mutlu

    2017-03-01

    This cross-sectional survey investigated the reasons for placement and replacement of single crowns, the type of materials selected for initial placement and evaluated their longevity. Information was collected over 19 months period using a questionnaire focusing on the principal reasons for the placement and replacement of crowns, selected material type and the age of the crowns at the time of replacement. A total of 842 single crowns were evaluated in 476 patients. Of the 842 crowns, 472 (56%) were initial placements and 370 (44%) replacements. The main reason for placement of first single crowns was related to endodontic problems (26.5%). Metal-ceramic was indicated significantly more frequent (88.9%; p⟨0.01) than other materials for the placement and replacement of single crowns. The median age of the replaced crowns was 6 years. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  5. Ethical dilemmas among dental professionals in Davangere city- a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyanka, S G; Singla, Hitashi; Lawrence, Denzy; Veeresh, D J

    2016-01-01

    To determine the ethical problems faced by dental practitioners, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in Bapuji Dental College and Hospital, College of Dental Sciences and private dental clinics in the city of Davangere. A questionnaire with close-ended questions on eight scenarios was administered to the 135 study participants. In the case of scenario 1, 81.4% of the participants said that the doctor had violated the principle of truthfulness. As for scenario 2, less than 50% of the participants replied that the doctor had breached ethical principles. In case scenario 3, 93% felt that the doctor should have taken the physician's opinion before extracting a tooth. Most dental practitioners faced ethical dilemmas because of the lack of awareness, and there is a need to introduce certain programmes to promote knowledge of ethics.

  6. An international cross-sectional survey of antimicrobial stewardship programmes in hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, P; Pulcini, C.; Levy Hara, G.; West, R M; Gould, I. M.; Harbarth, S.; Nathwani, D.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To report the extent and components of global efforts in antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) in hospitals. Methods An Internet-based survey comprising 43 questions was disseminated worldwide in 2012. Results Responses were received from 660 hospitals in 67 countries: Africa, 44; Asia, 50; Europe, 361; North America, 72; Oceania, 30; and South and Central America, 103. National AMS standards existed in 52% of countries, 4% were planning them and 58% had an AMS programme. The main barrie...

  7. LHC and Tevatron results on the $t\\bar{t}$ differential cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00213443; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    This note describes a review of the most recent $t\\bar{t}$ differential cross sections measurement per- formed by LHC and Tevatron experiments. I will describe the measurements of fiducial and full phase-space differential cross sections based on events with exactly two, one or zero charged leptons in the final state. These results are compared to predictions made with next-to-leading order or next-to-next-to leading order numerical calculations.

  8. Current management of open fractures: results from an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümbel, Denis; Matthes, Gerrit; Napp, Matthias; Lange, Jörn; Hinz, Peter; Spitzmüller, Romy; Ekkernkamp, Axel

    2016-12-01

    Open fractures are orthopaedic emergencies that carry a high risk for infection, non-union and soft tissue complications. Evidence-based treatment is impeded by the lack of high-quality evidence-based studies. The aim of this investigation was to elucidate the current practice of open fracture management in Germany and to determine major differences in treatment. Surgeons were asked to complete an online questionnaire consisting of 45 items developed by an expert consensus. The first part covered questions on general principles of open fracture management. The second part included questions on soft tissue management, the preferred method of initial surgical stabilisation, microbiological testing, employment of pulsatile lavage and local antibiotics, antibiotic regimen, second-look operations, and blood testing. Of 653 respondents, 364 (65 %) completed the first part and 314 (48 %) completed the second part of the online survey. 55 % answered that a standard operating procedure for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with open fractures exists in their hospital. Only 25 % leave pre-hospitalisation applied dressings intact until arrival of the patient in the operating room, and 40 % make this decision depending on information provided by pre-hospitalisation emergency personnel. 84 % participants exclude the use of antibiotic-coated implants in the treatment of open fractures. The favoured stabilisation method in Gustilo type I fractures is definitive internal osteosynthesis and primary wound closure for 61 % of respondents. In Gustilo type II (74 %) and type III fractures (93 %), temporary external fixation is preferred. High-pressure pulsatile lavage is used by 22 % responding surgeons in Gustilo type I fractures, 53 % for type II fractures and 67 % for type III fractures. Open fracture management differs considerably among surgeons in Germany. Further studies are needed to deliver high-quality evidence concerning primary fracture stabilisation, soft

  9. Medical barriers to emergency contraception: a cross-sectional survey of doctors in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M E; Dixit, Anvita; Bhatnagar, Isha; Brady, Martha

    2014-05-01

    Some medical doctors in India have publicly expressed opposition to making emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) easily accessible, even though ECPs are included in the method mix of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare program and as an over-the-counter (OTC) product. Such opposition affects access to ECPs by influencing policy, procurement, and distribution, besides stigmatizing the ECP user. This study was conducted to assess ECP knowledge, attitudes, and practices of doctors in North India. A cross-sectional survey of 83 doctors who provide ECPs, randomly selected from 3 cities in the state of Uttar Pradesh, was conducted in 2011. The quantitative data were complemented by 19 in-depth interviews with purposively selected senior gynecologists and other opinion leaders. All surveyed physicians cited the correct dose and regimen for ECPs. However, the large majority of those surveyed believed that ECPs work by preventing implantation. (The best evidence currently indicates that ECPs do not work by preventing implantation.) Most doctors also believed incorrectly that ECPs have several contraindications and side effects. They also had strong reservations against OTC provision of ECPs by pharmacists and community health workers (CHWs) and negative attitudes toward ECP users, which serve as serious medical barriers to mainstreaming use of ECPs. Physicians and their professional associations exert a strong influence on the operationalization of national contraceptive policies. Evidence-based advocacy and educational campaigns targeting doctors are needed to address and resolve their reservations about ECPs, particularly about its provision as an OTC product and its distribution by CHWs. Partnerships with medical associations can help reduce doctors' negative attitudes and create a conducive environment for influencing clinical practices. Such changes are needed to increase the availability and use of ECPs as part of a package of a full range of contraceptive method

  10. A national, cross-sectional survey of children's hospital-based safety resource centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendi, Sadiqa; Zonfrillo, Mark R; Seaver Hill, Karen; Arbogast, Kristy B; Gittelman, Michael A

    2014-03-25

    To describe the location, staffing, clientele, safety product disbursement patterns, education provided and sustainability of safety resource centres (SRCs) in US children's hospitals. A cross-sectional survey was distributed to children's hospital-based SRC directors. Survey categories included: funding sources, customer base, items sold, items given free of charge, education provided and directors' needs. 32/38 (84.2%) SRC sites (affiliated with 30 hospitals) completed the survey. SRCs were in many hospital locations including lobby (28.1%), family resource centres (12.5%), gift shop/retail space (18.8%), mobile units (18.8%) and patient clinics (12.5%). 19% of respondents reported that their SRC was financially self-sustainable. Sales to patients predominated (mean of 44%); however, hospital employees made up a mean of 20% (range 0-60%) of sales. 78.1% of SRCs had products for children with special healthcare needs. Documentation kept at SRC sites included items purchased (96.9%), items given free of charge (65.6%) and customer demographics (50%). 56.3% of SRCs provided formal injury prevention education classes. The SRCs' directors' most important needs were finances (46.9%), staffing (50%) and space (46.9%). All of the directors were 'somewhat interested' or 'very interested' in each of the following: creation of a common SRC listserv, national SRC data bank and multisite SRC research platform. SRCs are located in many US children's hospitals, and can be characterised as heterogeneous in location, products sold, data kept and ability to be financially sustained. Further research is needed to determine best practices for SRCs to maximise their impact on injury prevention.

  11. Chinese Anesthesiologists Have High Burnout and Low Job Satisfaction: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hange; Zuo, Mingzhang; Gelb, Adrian W; Zhang, Biao; Zhao, Xiaohui; Yao, Dongdong; Xia, Di; Huang, Yuguang

    2018-01-05

    The Chinese health care system must meet the needs of 19% of the world's population. Despite recent economic growth, health care resources are unevenly distributed. This creates the potential for job stress and burnout. We therefore conducted a survey among anesthesiologists in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region focusing on job satisfaction and burnout to determine the incidence and associated factors. A large cross-sectional study was performed in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region of China. The anonymous questionnaire was designed to collect and analyze the following information: (1) demographic characteristics and employer information; (2) job satisfaction assessed by Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire; (3) burnout assessed by Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Service Survey; and (4) sleep pattern and physician-patient communication. Surveys were completed and returned from 211 hospitals (response rate 74%) and 2873 anesthesiologists (response rate 70%) during the period of June to August 2015. The overall job satisfaction score of Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire was 65.3 ± 11.5. Among the participants, 69% (95% confidence interval [CI], 67%-71%) met the criteria for burnout. The prevalence of high emotional exhaustion, high depersonalization, and low personal accomplishment was 57% (95% CI, 55%-59%), 49% (95% CI, 47%-51%), and 57% (95% CI, 55%-58%), respectively. Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, we found that age, hospital category, working hours per week, caseload per day, frequency of perceived challenging cases, income, and sleep quality were independent variables associated with burnout. Anesthesiologists with a high level of depersonalization tended to engage in shorter preoperative conversations with patients, provide less information about pain or the procedure, and to have less empathy with them. The anesthesiologists in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region of China expressed a below-average level of job satisfaction, and suffered a

  12. Information-Seeking Behaviors of Medical Students: A Cross-Sectional Web-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Carroll, Aoife Marie; Westby, Erin Patricia; Dooley, Joseph; Gordon, Kevin E

    2015-06-29

    Medical students face an information-rich environment in which retrieval and appraisal strategies are increasingly important. To describe medical students' current pattern of health information resource use and characterize their experience of instruction on information search and appraisal. We conducted a cross-sectional web-based survey of students registered in the four-year MD Program at Dalhousie University (Halifax, Nova Scotia, and Saint John, New Brunswick, sites), Canada. We collected self-reported data on information-seeking behavior, instruction, and evaluation of resources in the context of their medical education. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Surveys were returned by 213 of 462 eligible students (46.1%). Most respondents (165/204, 80.9%) recalled receiving formal instruction regarding information searches, but this seldom included nontraditional tools such as Google (23/107, 11.1%), Wikipedia, or social media. In their daily practice, however, they reported heavy use of these tools, as well as EBM summaries. Accessibility, understandability, and overall usefulness were common features of highly used resources. Students identified challenges managing information and/or resource overload and source accessibility. Medical students receive instruction primarily on searching and assessing primary medical literature. In their daily practice, however, they rely heavily on nontraditional tools as well as EBM summaries. Attention to appropriate use and appraisal of nontraditional sources might enhance the current EBM curriculum.

  13. Retention of indigenous nursing students in New Zealand: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Denise; McKinney, Caroline; Rapata-Hanning, Mereana

    2011-01-01

    Internationally the recruitment and retention of Indigenous and minority peoples into nursing is a persistent challenge, despite their participation being essential in reducing health disparities and improving health service quality for Indigenous and minority users. We aimed to identify Māori (Indigenous to New Zealand) nursing students' experiences of undertaking a nursing degree program. A non-experimental cross-sectional survey was undertaken with undergraduate nursing students identifying as Māori. The surveys were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. One hundred and eight students responded, with a career, stable income, and desire to make a difference in Māori health outcomes motivating most to embark on a nursing program. They reported numerous obstacles that compromised their academic advancement. However, affirming students' identities; providing academic support; accessing Indigenous role models, mentors and relevant clinical experiences; and, having supportive teaching and learning environments and the inclusion of Indigenous content in curricula; were identified as strategies that promoted retention in nursing programs.

  14. User fee exemptions and equity in access to caesarean sections: an analysis of patient survey data in Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Khoury Marianne

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Little rigorous evidence exists on how health service utilization varies across socioeconomic groups after a user fee exemption policy has been implemented, and the evidence that does exist is mixed. In this paper, we estimate the distribution of caesarean section deliveries across socioeconomic groups following Mali’s implementation of a fee exemption policy for caesareans in 2005. Methods We conducted a patient survey in 2010 to collect socioeconomic data from 2,477 women who had caesareans in a representative sample of 25 facilities across all regions of Mali. We used these data along with data from the most recent Demographic and Health Survey to construct a wealth index and classify women into population-based wealth groupings. We compared the wealth distribution of women delivering via caesarean section to that of a nationally representative sample of women giving birth. Results We found that wealthier women make up a disproportionate share of those having free caesareans, five years after implementation of the fee exemption policy. Women in the richest two quintiles accounted for 58 percent of all caesareans, while women in the poorest two quintiles accounted for 27 percent of all caesareans. Fewer women in the poorest two-fifths of the population are receiving caesareans than what we would expect given their share in the population of women giving birth. Conclusions While fee exemptions remove important financial barriers to accessing priority maternal health services, they are insufficient to ensure equal access among wealth groups.

  15. A cross-sectional internet-based patient survey of the management strategies for gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jasvinder A; Shah, Nipam; Edwards, N Lawrence

    2016-03-01

    Almost half of the patients with gout are not prescribed urate-lowering therapy (ULT) by their health care provider and >50 % use complementary and alternative therapies. Diet modification is popular among gout patients due to known associations of certain foods with gout flares. The interplay of the use of dietary supplements, diet modification, and ULT adherence in gout patients is not known. Despite the recent interest in diet and supplements, there are limited data on their use. Our objective was to assess ULT use and adherence and patient preference for non-pharmacological interventions by patients with gout, using a cross-sectional survey. People who self-reported physician-diagnosed gout during their visit to a gout website ( http://gouteducation.org ) were invited to participate in a brief anonymous cross-sectional Internet survey between 08/11/2014 to 04/14/2015 about the management of their gout. The survey queried ULT prescription, ULT adherence, the use of non-pharmacological interventions (cherry extract, diet modification) and the likelihood of making a lifelong diet modification for gout management. A total of 499 respondents with a mean age 56.3 years were included; 74% were males and 74% were White. Of these, 57% (285/499) participants were prescribed a ULT for gout, of whom 88% (251/285) were currently taking ULT. Of those using ULT, 78% (97/251) reported ULT adherence >80%. Gender, race, and age were not significantly associated with the likelihood of receiving a ULT prescription or ULT adherence >80%. Fifty-six percent of patients with gout preferred ULT as a lifelong treatment for gout, 24% preferred cherry extract and 16% preferred diet modification (4% preferred none). Men had significantly lower odds of preferring ULT as the lifelong treatment choice for gout vs. other choices (p = 0.03). We found that 38.3% participants were highly motivated to make a lifelong dietary modification to improve their gout (score of 9-10 on a 0

  16. The JCMT Plane Survey: early results from the ℓ = 30° field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moore, T. J. T.; Plume, R.; Thompson, M. A.; Parsons, H.; Urquhart, J. S.; Eden, D. J.; Dempsey, J. T.; Morgan, L. K.; Thomas, H. S.; Buckle, J.; Brunt, C. M.; Butner, H.; Carretero, D.; Chrysostomou, A.; deVilliers, H. M.; Fich, M.; Hoare, M. G.; Manser, G.; Mottram, J. C.; Natario, C.; Olguin, F.; Peretto, N.; Polychroni, D.; Redman, R. O.; Rigby, A. J.; Salji, C.; Summers, L. J.; Berry, D.; Currie, M. J.; Jenness, T.; Pestalozzi, M.; Traficante, A.; Bastien, P.; diFrancesco, J.; Davis, C. J.; Evans, A.; Friberg, P.; Fuller, G. A.; Gibb, A. G.; Gibson, S.; Hill, T.; Johnstone, D.; Joncas, G.; Longmore, S. N.; Lumsden, S. L.; Martin, P. G.; Lu'o'ng, Q. Nguyê˜n.; Pineda, J. E.; Purcell, C.; Richer, J. S.; Schieven, G. H.; Shipman, R.; Spaans, M.; Taylor, A. R.; Viti, S.; Weferling, B.; White, G. J.; Zhu, M.

    2015-01-01

    We present early results from the JCMT (James Clerk Maxwell Telescope) Plane Survey (JPS), which has surveyed the northern inner Galactic plane between longitudes ℓ = 7° and ℓ = 63° in the 850-μm continuum with SCUBA-2 (Submm Common-User Bolometer Array 2), as part of the JCMT Legacy Survey

  17. The green bank northern celestial cap pulsar survey. I. Survey description, data analysis, and initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, K.; Dartez, L. P.; Ford, A. J.; Garcia, A.; Hinojosa, J.; Jenet, F. A.; Leake, S. [Center for Advanced Radio Astronomy, University of Texas at Brownsville, One West University Boulevard, Brownsville, TX 78520 (United States); Lynch, R. S.; Archibald, A. M.; Karako-Argaman, C.; Kaspi, V. M. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Ransom, S. M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22901 (United States); Banaszak, S.; Biwer, C. M.; Day, D.; Flanigan, J.; Kaplan, D. L. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Boyles, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States); Hessels, J. W. T.; Kondratiev, V. I., E-mail: stovall.kevin@gmail.com [ASTRON, the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); and others

    2014-08-10

    We describe an ongoing search for pulsars and dispersed pulses of radio emission, such as those from rotating radio transients (RRATs) and fast radio bursts, at 350 MHz using the Green Bank Telescope. With the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument, we record 100 MHz of bandwidth divided into 4096 channels every 81.92 μs. This survey will cover the entire sky visible to the Green Bank Telescope (δ > –40°, or 82% of the sky) and outside of the Galactic Plane will be sensitive enough to detect slow pulsars and low dispersion measure (<30 pc cm{sup –3}) millisecond pulsars (MSPs) with a 0.08 duty cycle down to 1.1 mJy. For pulsars with a spectral index of –1.6, we will be 2.5 times more sensitive than previous and ongoing surveys over much of our survey region. Here we describe the survey, the data analysis pipeline, initial discovery parameters for 62 pulsars, and timing solutions for 5 new pulsars. PSR J0214+5222 is an MSP in a long-period (512 days) orbit and has an optical counterpart identified in archival data. PSR J0636+5129 is an MSP in a very short-period (96 minutes) orbit with a very low mass companion (8 M{sub J}). PSR J0645+5158 is an isolated MSP with a timing residual RMS of 500 ns and has been added to pulsar timing array experiments. PSR J1434+7257 is an isolated, intermediate-period pulsar that has been partially recycled. PSR J1816+4510 is an eclipsing MSP in a short-period orbit (8.7 hr) and may have recently completed its spin-up phase.

  18. The Green Bank Northern Celestial Cap Pulsar Survey. I. Survey Description, Data Analysis, and Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall, K.; Lynch, R. S.; Ransom, S. M.; Archibald, A. M.; Banaszak, S.; Biwer, C. M.; Boyles, J.; Dartez, L. P.; Day, D.; Ford, A. J.; Flanigan, J.; Garcia, A.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Hinojosa, J.; Jenet, F. A.; Kaplan, D. L.; Karako-Argaman, C.; Kaspi, V. M.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Leake, S.; Lorimer, D. R.; Lunsford, G.; Martinez, J. G.; Mata, A.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Roberts, M. S. E.; Rohr, M. D.; Siemens, X.; Stairs, I. H.; van Leeuwen, J.; Walker, A. N.; Wells, B. L.

    2014-08-01

    We describe an ongoing search for pulsars and dispersed pulses of radio emission, such as those from rotating radio transients (RRATs) and fast radio bursts, at 350 MHz using the Green Bank Telescope. With the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument, we record 100 MHz of bandwidth divided into 4096 channels every 81.92 μs. This survey will cover the entire sky visible to the Green Bank Telescope (δ > -40°, or 82% of the sky) and outside of the Galactic Plane will be sensitive enough to detect slow pulsars and low dispersion measure (pulsars (MSPs) with a 0.08 duty cycle down to 1.1 mJy. For pulsars with a spectral index of -1.6, we will be 2.5 times more sensitive than previous and ongoing surveys over much of our survey region. Here we describe the survey, the data analysis pipeline, initial discovery parameters for 62 pulsars, and timing solutions for 5 new pulsars. PSR J0214+5222 is an MSP in a long-period (512 days) orbit and has an optical counterpart identified in archival data. PSR J0636+5129 is an MSP in a very short-period (96 minutes) orbit with a very low mass companion (8 M J). PSR J0645+5158 is an isolated MSP with a timing residual RMS of 500 ns and has been added to pulsar timing array experiments. PSR J1434+7257 is an isolated, intermediate-period pulsar that has been partially recycled. PSR J1816+4510 is an eclipsing MSP in a short-period orbit (8.7 hr) and may have recently completed its spin-up phase.

  19. Cyclists and traffic sounds : the results of an internet survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelling-Konczak, A. Hagenzieker, M.P. & Wee, G.P. van

    2014-01-01

    Many cyclists, especially youngsters, listen to music and talk on their mobile phones while cycling. As a result, auditory traffic information that can be used by cyclists to make safe decisions is less available. Also the growing number of quiet (electric) vehicles on the road makes use of auditory

  20. Psychological consequences of aggression in pre-hospital emergency care: cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaldo-De-Quirós, Mónica; Piccini, Ana T; Gómez, M Mar; Cerdeira, Jose C

    2015-01-01

    Pre-hospital emergency care is a particularly vulnerable setting for workplace violence. However, there is no literature available to date on the psychological consequences of violence in pre-hospital emergency care. To evaluate the psychological consequences of exposure to workplace violence from patients and those accompanying them in pre-hospital emergency care. A retrospective cross-sectional study. 70 pre-hospital emergency care services located in Madrid region. A randomized sample of 441 health care workers (135 physicians, 127 nurses and 179 emergency care assistants). Data were collected from February to May 2012. The survey was divided into four sections: demographic/professional information, level of burnout determined by Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), mental health status using General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and frequency and type of violent behaviour experienced by staff members. The health care professionals who had been exposed to physical and verbal violence presented a significantly higher percentage of anxiety, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and burnout syndrome compared with those who had not been subjected to any aggression. Frequency of verbal violence (more than five times) was related to emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Type of violence (i.e. physical aggression) is especially related to high anxiety levels and frequency of verbal aggression is associated with burnout (emotional exhaustion and depersonalization). Psychological counselling should be made available to professional staff who have been subjected to physical aggression or frequent verbal violence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nine-year comparison of presentation and management of acute coronary syndromes in Ireland: a national cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley Emer

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shorter time to treatment is associated with lower mortality in acute coronary syndromes (ACS. A previous (1994 survey showed substantial delays for acute myocardial infarction (AMI in Ireland. The present study compared current practice with 1994 and surveyed acute coronary syndromes as a more complete contemporary evaluation of critical cardiac care than assessing AMI alone. Methods Following ethics committee approval, all centres (N = 39 admitting acute cardiac patients to intensive/coronary care unit provided information on 1365 episodes. A cross-sectional survey design was employed. Results Since 1994, median hospital arrival to thrombolysis time was reduced by 41% (76 to 45 minutes. Thrombolysis was delivered more often in the emergency department in 2003 (48% vs 2%. Thrombolysis when delivered in the emergency department was achieved faster than thrombolysis delivered in intensive/coronary care (35 mins v 60 mins; z = 5.62, p Conclusions Substantial improvements in time to thrombolysis have occurred since 1994, probably relating to treatment provision in emergency departments. Patient delay pre-hospital is still the principal impediment to effective treatment of ACS. A recent change of definition of AMI may have precluded an exact comparison between 1994 and 2003 data.

  2. Sleep Bruxism-Tooth Grinding Prevalence, Characteristics and Familial Aggregation: A Large Cross-Sectional Survey and Polysomnographic Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Samar; Carra, Maria Clotilde; Huynh, Nelly; Montplaisir, Jacques; Lavigne, Gilles J

    2016-11-01

    Sleep bruxism (SB) is characterized by tooth grinding and jaw clenching during sleep. Familial factors may contribute to the occurrence of SB. This study aims are: (1) revisit the prevalence and characteristics of SB in a large cross-sectional survey and assess familial aggregation of SB, (2) assess comorbidity such as insomnia and pain, (3) compare survey data in a subset of subjects diagnosed using polysomnography research criteria. A sample of 6,357 individuals from the general population in Quebec, Canada, undertook an online survey to assess the prevalence of SB, comorbidities, and familial aggregation. Data on familial aggregation were compared to 111 SB subjects diagnosed using polysomnography. Regularly occurring SB was reported by 8.6% of the general population, decreases with age, without any gender difference. SB awareness is concomitant with complaints of difficulties maintaining sleep in 47.6% of the cases. A third of SB positive probands reported pain. A 2.5 risk ratio of having a first-degree family member with SB was found in SB positive probands. The risk of reporting SB in first-degree family ranges from 1.4 to 2.9 with increasing severity of reported SB. Polysomnographic data shows that 37% of SB subjects had at least one first-degree relative with reported SB with a relative risk ratio of 4.625. Our results support the heritability of SB-tooth grinding and that sleep quality and pain are concomitant in a significant number of SB subjects.

  3. Frequency and circumstances of falls for people with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: A cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdharry, Gita M; Reilly-O'Donnell, Louise; Grant, Robert; Reilly, Mary M

    2017-12-28

    People with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease may be at risk of falls due to distal muscle weakness and sensory impairment. We aimed to understand the frequency of falls in a cohort, where they occurred, injury and to what people attributed the possible cause. A cross-sectional survey design was used. It was sent by post to ascertain the frequency of falls and near falls, plus the circumstances of the last three falls events they could recall. The survey was administered to 252 people with CMT who were patients at a specialist neuromuscular centre. People were approached who had a clinical diagnosis by a neuromuscular specialist neurologist. Not applicable. The Falls Event Questionnaire. Responses were received from 107 people with CMT. Falls and near falls were reported by 86% of survey respondents. The majority of falls occurred at home, and muscular weakness appeared to be blamed the most, with participants describing tripping due to foot drop or joints giving way. A similar pattern was observed for near falls, but they tended to be more frequent. Moderate and major injuries were relatively rare, with the majority of falls resulting in scrapes and bruises or the faller feeling shaken by the experience. The impact of falls is far reaching, in terms of injury risk and the consequences of the fear of falling. Interventions to improve balance and reduce falls are an important rehabilitation focus for people with CMT. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Training practitioners in preparing systematic reviews: a cross-sectional survey of participants in the Australasian Cochrane Centre training program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silagy Chris

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although systematic reviews of health care interventions are an invaluable tool for health care providers and researchers, many potential authors never publish reviews. This study attempts to determine why some people with interest in performing systematic reviews do not subsequently publish a review; and what steps could possibly increase review completion. Methods Cross-sectional survey by email and facsimile of the 179 participants in Australasian Cochrane Centre training events between 1998 and 2000. Results Ninety-two participants responded to the survey (51 percent. Response rate of deliverable surveys was 82 percent (92/112. The remainder of the participants had invalid or no contact information on file. More than 75 percent of respondents felt that the current workshops met their needs for training. The most critical barriers to completion of a Cochrane review were: lack of time (80 percent, lack of financial support (36 percent, methodological problems (23 percent and problems with group dynamics (10 percent. Conclusions Strategies to protect reviewer time and increase the efficiency of the review process may increase the numbers of trained reviewers completing a systematic review.

  5. Effect of geophone mounting method on results of seismic surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czech, E.; Kornowski, J.; Pilecki, Z.; Sokolowski, H.; Wasko, A. (Kopalnia Marcel (Poland))

    1990-05-01

    Presents results of seismo-acoustic tests performed in the Marcel mine with the use of geophones installed in sprag probes, shield-sprag pipes on resin-grouted bolts. It was found that wall-spragged probes are the best method for installing geophones provided that hole depth is over 1 m. Geophones installed on bolts outside holes have the disadvantage of recording noise from the environment. The quality of recording was evaluated by comparing the signals obtained with signals gained from accelerometers, taking into consideration that geophones sense velocity while accelerometers sense acceleration. The recommendation is made that geophone installation quality be evaluated on the basis of the width of the frequency spectrum recorded. Spectrograms of the pulses recorded and their spectra (up to 7.5 kH) are presented. Geophones installed in shield-sprag pipes in shallow (80 cm) holes gave poor results. 1 ref.

  6. The latest results on top quark pair cross-section measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Yamauchi, Katsuya; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The latest results on top quark pair production cross-section measurement in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 7\\ TeV$ and $\\sqrt{s} = 8\\ TeV$ with the ATLAS detector are reported. The inclusive cross-section was measured with 4% of uncertainty using di-lepton e-mu events. The measurement of the differential cross-section as functions of various observables such as transverse momentum and rapidity of the top quark and invariant mass of the pseudo-top-quark pair system including the results in boosted topologies are also reported. These results are compared with the various generators such as Powheg, Alpgen and MC@NLO and the various PDF sets.

  7. EQ-5D-5L in the General German Population: Comparison and Evaluation of Three Yearly Cross-Section Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel B. Huber

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Health-related quality of life (HRQoL is a key measure for evaluating health status in populations. Using the recent EQ-5D-5L for measurement, this study analyzed quality of life results and their stability over consecutive population surveys. Three cross-section surveys for representative samples of the general German population from 2012, 2013, and 2014 were evaluated using the EQ-5D-5L descriptive system and valuation by the Visual Analog Scale (VAS. Aggregated sample size reached 6074. The dimension with the highest prevalence of problems was pain/discomfort (31.7%. Compared with 2012 (59.3%, the percentage of participants in the best health state increased slightly in 2013 (63.4% and 2014 (62%. Over the 3-year period, diabetes and heart disease had the strongest negative influence on mean VAS result. The number of reported chronic diseases cumulatively reduced mean VAS. Extreme problems in one or more dimensions were stated by only 0.1%–0.2% of patients. Of the potential 247 health states with a problem score ≥20, only six were observed in the aggregated sample. HRQoL results were fairly stable over the 3 years, but the share of the population with no problems was not. Results from the aggregated sample may serve as updated reference values for the general German population.

  8. Contributions to a shallow aquifer study by reprocessed seismic sections from petroleum exploration surveys, eastern Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, D.

    1994-01-01

    The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Drilling Company of Abu Dhabi, is conducting a 4-year study of the fresh and slightly saline groundwater resources of the eastern Abu Dhabi Emirate. Most of this water occurs in a shallow aquifer, generally less than 150 m deep, in the Al Ain area. A critical part of the Al Ain area coincides with a former petroleum concession area where about 2780 km of vibroseis data were collected along 94 seismic lines during 1981-1983. Field methods, acquistion parameters, and section processing were originally designed to enhance reflections expected at depths ranging from 5000 to 6000 m, and subsurface features directly associated with the shallow aquifer system were deleted from the original seismic sections. The original field tapes from the vibroseis survey were reprocessed in an attempt to extract shallow subsurface information (depths less than 550 m) for investigating the shallow aquifer. A unique sequence of reproccessing parameters was established after reviewing the results from many experimental tests. Many enhancements to the resolution of shallow seismic reflections resulted from: (1) application of a 20-Hz, low-cut filter; (2) recomputation of static corrections to a datum nearer the land surface; (3) intensive velocity analyses; and (4) near-trace muting analyses. The number, resolution, and lateral continuity of shallow reflections were greatly enhanced on the reprocessed sections, as was the delineation of shallow, major faults. Reflections on a synthetic seismogram, created from a borehole drilled to a depth of 786 m on seismic line IQS-11, matcheddprecisely with shallow reflections on the reprocessed section. The 33 reprocessed sections were instrumental in preparing a map showing the major structural features that affect the shallow aquifer system. Analysis of the map provides a better understanding of the effect of these shallow features on the regional occurrence, movement, and quality of

  9. Clinical management of gastric cancer: results of a multicentre survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Feng

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The National Comprehensive Cancer Network clinical practice guidelines in oncology-gastric cancer guidelines have been widely used to provide appropriate recommendations for the treatment of patients with gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to examine the adherence of surgical oncologists, medical oncologists, and radiation oncologists' to the recommended guidelines. Methods A questionnaire asking the treatment options for gastric cancer cases was sent to 394 Chinese oncology specialists, including surgical oncologists, medical oncologists, and radiation oncologists working in hospitals joined in The Western Cooperative Gastrointestinal Oncology Group of China. The questionnaire involved a series of clinical scenarios regarding the interpretation of surgery, neoadjuvant, adjuvant, and advanced treatment planning of gastric cancer. Results Analysis of 358 respondents (91% showed variations between each specialization and from the recommended guidelines in the management approaches to specific clinical scenarios. The majority of specialists admitted that less than 50% of patients received multidisciplinary evaluation before treatment. The participants gave different responses to questions involving adjuvant, neoadjuvant, and advanced settings, compared to the recommended guidelines. Conclusions These results highlight the heterogeneity of the treatment of gastric cancer. Surgical oncologists, medical oncologists, and radiation oncologists are not adhering to the recommended guidelines.

  10. Universality of Wigner random matrices: a survey of recent results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdos, Laszlo [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich (Germany)

    2011-06-30

    This is a study of the universality of spectral statistics for large random matrices. Considered are NxN symmetric, Hermitian, or quaternion self-dual random matrices with independent identically distributed entries (Wigner matrices), where the probability distribution of each matrix element is given by a measure {nu} with zero expectation and with subexponential decay. The main result is that the correlation functions of the local eigenvalue statistics in the bulk of the spectrum coincide with those of the Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble (GOE), the Gaussian Unitary Ensemble (GUE), and the Gaussian Symplectic Ensemble (GSE), respectively, in the limit as N {yields} {infinity}. This approach is based on a study of the Dyson Brownian motion via a related new dynamics, the local relaxation flow. As a main input, it is established that the density of the eigenvalues converges to the Wigner semicircle law, and this holds even down to the smallest possible scale. Moreover, it is shown that the eigenvectors are completely delocalized. These results hold even without the condition that the matrix elements are identically distributed: only independence is used. In fact, for the matrix elements of the Green function strong estimates are given that imply that the local statistics of any two ensembles in the bulk are identical if the first four moments of the matrix elements match. Universality at the spectral edges requires matching only two moments. A Wigner-type estimate is also proved, and it is shown that the eigenvalues repel each other on arbitrarily small scales. Bibliography: 108 titles.

  11. Updating Finite Element Model of a Wind Turbine Blade Section Using Experimental Modal Analysis Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luczak, Marcin; Manzato, Simone; Peeters, Bart

    2014-01-01

    is to validate finite element model of the modified wind turbine blade section mounted in the flexible support structure accordingly to the experimental results. Bend-twist coupling was implemented by adding angled unidirectional layers on the suction and pressure side of the blade. Dynamic test and simulations...... were performed on a section of a full scale wind turbine blade provided by Vestas Wind Systems A/S. The numerical results are compared to the experimental measurements and the discrepancies are assessed by natural frequency difference and modal assurance criterion. Based on sensitivity analysis, set...

  12. Elimination of Iodine Deficiency in Georgia: Results of National Survey in 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sehniashvily

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In Georgia a law was passed in 2005 that banned the import and sale of non-iodized salt. To measure the impact of this legislation, a national survey was conducted in November 2005. A cross-sectional school-based 30 cluster survey of children aged 6—12 years measured urinary iodine excretion (UIE and the iodine content of household salt. Approximately 30 children from each school were requested to provide a urine sample and bring a household salt sample to school. Urine samples were sent for laboratory analysis to Brussels University (Belgium, and salt samples were analyzed onsite using rapid kits. Only 40 (4.4% of 900 urinary samples analyzed had a low UIE (below 100 @мg/L; the median UIE was 320.7 @мg/L. Of 957 salt samples analyzed with rapid salt testing kits, 867 (95.9% were adequately iodized (>15 mg/kg, and only 39 (4.1% had no iodine. Iodization of salt was validated in 136 random samples using iodometric titration; 128 (94.1% were adequately iodized. These results indicate dramatic improvements both in the prevalence of low UIE among Georgian children (80% in 1998 and in the percentage of Georgian households using salt with adequate iodine (8% in 1999 and 67% in 2003. These results show that, Georgia has achieved universal salt iodization (USI and now meets the primary WHO, UNICEF and ICCIDD criteria for elimination of iodine deficiency.

  13. The causes of bullying: results from the National Survey of School Health (PeNSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderlei Abadio de Oliveira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify the characteristics and reasons reported by Brazilian students for school bullying. Method: this cross-sectional study uses data from an epidemiological survey (National Survey of School Health conducted in 2012. A total of 109,104 9th grade students from private and public schools participated. Data were collected through a self-applied questionnaire and the analysis was performed using SPSS, version 20, Complex Samples Module. Results: the prevalence of bullying was 7.2%, most frequently affecting Afro-descendant or indigenous younger boys, whose mothers were characterized by low levels of education. In regard to the reasons/causes of bullying, 51.2% did not specify; the second highest frequency of victimization was related to body appearance (18.6%; followed by facial appearance (16.2%; race/color (6.8%; sexual orientation 2.9%; religion 2.5%; and region of origin 1.7%. The results are similar to those found in other sociocultural contexts. Conclusion: the problem belongs to the health field because it gathers aspects that determine the students' health-disease-care continuum.

  14. Information and decision-making needs among people with affective disorders - results of an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebherz, Sarah; Tlach, Lisa; Härter, Martin; Dirmaier, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Patient decision aids are one possibility for enabling and encouraging patients to participate in medical decisions. This paper aims to describe patients' information and decision-making needs as a prerequisite for the development of high-quality, web-based patient decision aids for affective disorders. We conducted an online cross-sectional survey by using a self-administered questionnaire including items on Internet use, online health information needs, role in decision making, and important treatment decisions, performing descriptive and comparative statistical analyses. A total of 210 people with bipolar disorder/mania as well as 112 people with unipolar depression participated in the survey. Both groups specified general information search as their most relevant information need and decisions on treatment setting (inpatient or outpatient) as well as decisions on pharmacological treatment as the most difficult treatment decisions. For participants with unipolar depression, decisions concerning psychotherapeutic treatment were also especially difficult. Most participants of both groups preferred shared decisions but experienced less shared decisions than desired. Our results show the importance of information for patients with affective disorders, with a focus on pharmacological treatment and on the different treatment settings, and highlight patients' requirements to be involved in the decision-making process. Since our sample reported a chronic course of disease, we do not know if our results are applicable for newly diagnosed patients. Further studies should consider how the reported needs could be addressed in health care practice.

  15. Macro- and micro-level predictors of age categorization: results from the European Social Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalon, Liat; Doron, Israel; Bodner, Ehud; Inbar, Noit

    2014-03-01

    This study evaluated macro- and micro-level variables associated with individuals' perception of the ending of youth, the beginning of old age, and the length of the middle age period. The European Social Survey is a biennial multi-country, cross-sectional survey. Our analysis is based on the fourth wave, which included a rotating module on ageism. The source sample consisted of 28 countries and a total of 54,988 respondents. Whereas macro-level variability accounted for 14 % of the variance associated with the perception of the ending of youth, only 5.7 % of the variance associated with the perception of the beginning of old age was accounted for by macro-level variability. Almost 10 % of the variance associated with the perception of the middle age period was associated with macro-level variability. Different patterns of macro- and micro-level correlates emerged for the ending of youth, beginning of old age, and the period of middle age. Overall, results demonstrate that individual differences in the perception of the ending of youth, the beginning of old age, and the length of the middle age period are more pronounced than contextual differences. Results also suggest that individuals' mental maps regarding the timing of these events are not necessarily concordant.

  16. Worldwide survey of the results of treating gestational trophoblastic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohorn, Ernest I

    2014-01-01

    To determine factors influencing outcome for patients with gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) from throughout the world. Physicians known to treat GTD were sent a questionnaire. There were 32 responses from 17 countries, totaling 26,153 patients. Of 14,093 patients with complete mole 20.6% developed trophoblastic neoplasia, and 5.7% died. There were 10,230 patients with partial mole, of whom 6.5% received therapy for neoplasia. There were 548 patients with post-term pregnancy choriocarcinoma, of whom 13.4% died. Of 137 patients with placental site trophoblastic tumor 16.1% died. The remaining 1,165 patients did not fit into a designated diagnostic category. The mortality rate for 2,818 patients with GTD primarily treated at a trophoblast center was 2.1%, as compared with 8% among 1,854 patients referred after failure of primary treatment (p trophoblastic disease have better results and survival.

  17. The Green Bank Northern Celestial Cap Pulsar Survey - I: Survey Description, Data Analysis, and Initial Results

    OpenAIRE

    Stovall, K.; Lynch, R. S.; Ransom, S. M.; Archibald, A. M.; Banaszak, S.; Biwer, C. M.; Boyles, J.; Dartez, L. P.; Day, D.; Ford, A. J.; Flanigan, J.; Garcia, A.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Hinojosa, J.; Jenet, F. A.

    2014-01-01

    We describe an ongoing search for pulsars and dispersed pulses of radio emission, such as those from rotating radio transients (RRATs) and fast radio bursts (FRBs), at 350 MHz using the Green Bank Telescope. With the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument, we record 100 MHz of bandwidth divided into 4,096 channels every 81.92 $\\mu s$. This survey will cover the entire sky visible to the Green Bank Telescope ($\\delta > -40^\\circ$, or 82% of the sky) and outside of the Galactic Plane ...

  18. Microsystems in medicine - results of an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schostek, S; Fischer, H; Kalanovic, D; Schurr, M O

    2005-01-01

    The utilization of microsystems technology (MST) in medical applications is instrumental in opening up new market segments, in the creation of novel, more effective diagnosis and therapy options in medicine, as well as in the further development of MST. However, the players in the healthcare industry are faced with technical and non-technical difficulties. The present study analyzes this emerging field from the viewpoint of medicine, market, and MST. It identifies applications of medical devices with microsystems components and analyzes their potentials in great detail. Thus, especially the creation of new market segments is expected from a broad use of MST in medicine. Furthermore, problems and conditions during the entry of microsystems into medical products are illuminated, in particular considering the specific market features of the healthcare industry. The high expenditure necessary for establishing this technology in healthcare industry is the most significant obstacle, since this market is dominated by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). But there are non-technical difficulties as well. This article presents selected results of the study, which was carried out in the scope of the EU project netMED (virtual institute on micromechatronics for biomedical industry).

  19. Impact of the Medical Faculty on Study Success in Freiburg: Results from Graduate Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biller, Silke

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Using the data from graduate surveys, this study aims to analyze which factors related to teaching and learning at the Freiburg Faculty of Medicine can influence study success.Background: Study success and the factors influencing it have long been the subject of investigation, with study success being measured in terms of easily quantifiable indicators (final grades, student satisfaction, etc.. In recent years, it has also frequently been assessed in terms of graduate competency levels. Graduate surveys are considered suitable instruments for measuring these dimensions of study success.Method: Data from three Freiburg graduate surveys conducted one and a half years after graduation were drawn upon for the analysis.Study success was operationalized using four indicators: results on the written section of the M2 exam, self-assessment of medical expertise and scientific expertise, and student satisfaction. Using multiple regression analyses, the predictive power was calculated for selected variables, also measured by the graduate surveys, for the different study success indicators.Results: It was possible to identify models that contribute slightly or moderately to the prediction of study success. The score earned on the university entrance qualification demonstrated itself to be the strongest predictor for forecasting the M2 written exam: R is between 0.08 and 0.22 for the three surveys. Different variables specific to degree program structure and teaching are helpful for predicting medical expertise (R=0.04-0.32 and student satisfaction (R=0.12-0.35. The two variables, and , show themselves to be significant, sample-invariant predictors (β-weight=0.21-0.58, β-weight=0.27-0.56. For scientific expertise, no sample-independent predictors could be determined.Conclusion: Factors describing teaching hardly provide any assistance when predicting the written M2 exam score, which makes sense to the extent that teaching goes far beyond the heavily

  20. Pharmacists' roles in oncology pharmacy services: Results of a global survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holle, Lisa M; Harris, Christy S; Chan, Alexandre; Fahrenbruch, Rebecca J; Labdi, Bonnie A; Mohs, Jocelyn E; Norris, Leann B; Perkins, Janelle; Vela, Cory M

    2017-04-01

    Background Oncology pharmacists are capable of providing medication therapy management (MTM) because of their level of training, practice experiences, and responsibilities. Very little data exist about their current practice, including changing roles in the multidisciplinary team, overall impact, and effects in the education of patients and healthcare professionals. Methods A 70-item survey about oncology pharmacists' activities in oral chemotherapy programs, MTM, and collaborative practice agreements (CPAs) was deployed using a web survey tool (Qualtrics, Provo, UT, USA), targeting pharmacist members of American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) Hematology/Oncology Practice and Research Network (PRN). The objective of this study was to determine oncology pharmacists' activities in areas of oral chemotherapy programs, MTM, and CPAs. A cross-sectional survey was distributed to the ACCP Hematology/Oncology PRN membership. Investigational Review Board approval was obtained. Results Of the 795 members who were sent the survey, 81 members (10%) responded; 33 respondents (47%) are involved with an oral chemotherapy program; with 42% measuring outcomes of programs. Only six pharmacists (19%) have published or presented their data. A total of 28 (35%) respondents provide MTM services, with almost half (43%) of these MTM services being dictated by CPAs. A small fraction of these pharmacists (21.4%) reported conducting quality assurance evaluations of their MTM services and three pharmacists (10.7%) reported publishing their results. Those pharmacists practicing under CPAs ( n = 28) were surveyed as to activities included in their CPA. The most common activities included adjusting medication, ordering, interpreting, and monitoring lab tests, developing therapeutic plans and educating patients. Reimbursement for providing these services was uncommon: MTM (4%), oral chemotherapy program (6%), and CPA services (11%). Reported obstacles to reimbursement included lack of

  1. Impact of the Medical Faculty on Study Success in Freiburg: Results from Graduate Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biller, Silke; Boeker, Martin; Fabry, Götz; Giesler, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Using the data from graduate surveys, this study aims to analyze which factors related to teaching and learning at the Freiburg Faculty of Medicine can influence study success. Background: Study success and the factors influencing it have long been the subject of investigation, with study success being measured in terms of easily quantifiable indicators (final grades, student satisfaction, etc.). In recent years, it has also frequently been assessed in terms of graduate competency levels. Graduate surveys are considered suitable instruments for measuring these dimensions of study success. Method: Data from three Freiburg graduate surveys conducted one and a half years after graduation were drawn upon for the analysis. Study success was operationalized using four indicators: results on the written section of the M2 exam, self-assessment of medical expertise and scientific expertise, and student satisfaction. Using multiple regression analyses, the predictive power was calculated for selected variables, also measured by the graduate surveys, for the different study success indicators. Results: It was possible to identify models that contribute slightly or moderately to the prediction of study success. The score earned on the university entrance qualification demonstrated itself to be the strongest predictor for forecasting the M2 written exam: R2 is between 0.08 and 0.22 for the three surveys. Different variables specific to degree program structure and teaching are helpful for predicting medical expertise (R2=0.04-0.32) and student satisfaction (R2=0.12-0.35). The two variables, structure and curricular sequencing of the degree program and combination of theory and practice, show themselves to be significant, sample-invariant predictors (β-weightStructure=0.21-0.58, β-weightCombination=0.27-0.56). For scientific expertise, no sample-independent predictors could be determined. Conclusion: Factors describing teaching hardly provide any assistance when

  2. The Frontier Fields: Survey Design and Initial Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotz, J. M.; Koekemoer, A.; Grogin, N.; Mack, J.; Anderson, J.; Avila, R.; Barker, E. A.; Borncamp, D.; Durbin, M.; Gunning, H.; Hilbert, B.; Jenkner, H.; Khandrika, H.; Levay, Z.; Lucas, R. A.; MacKenty, J.; Ogaz, S. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Coe, D.; Capak, P.; Brammer, G., E-mail: lotz@stsci.edu [European Space Agency/Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 Sam Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2017-03-01

    What are the faintest distant galaxies we can see with the Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ) now, before the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope ? This is the challenge taken up by the Frontier Fields, a Director’s discretionary time campaign with HST and the Spitzer Space Telescope to see deeper into the universe than ever before. The Frontier Fields combines the power of HST and Spitzer with the natural gravitational telescopes of massive high-magnification clusters of galaxies to produce the deepest observations of clusters and their lensed galaxies ever obtained. Six clusters—Abell 2744, MACSJ0416.1-2403, MACSJ0717.5+3745, MACSJ1149.5+2223, Abell S1063, and Abell 370—have been targeted by the HST ACS/WFC and WFC3/IR cameras with coordinated parallel fields for over 840 HST orbits. The parallel fields are the second-deepest observations thus far by HST with 5 σ point-source depths of ∼29th ABmag. Galaxies behind the clusters experience typical magnification factors of a few, with small regions magnified by factors of 10–100. Therefore, the Frontier Field cluster HST images achieve intrinsic depths of ∼30–33 mag over very small volumes. Spitzer has obtained over 1000 hr of Director’s discretionary imaging of the Frontier Field cluster and parallels in IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 μ m bands to 5 σ point-source depths of ∼26.5, 26.0 ABmag. We demonstrate the exceptional sensitivity of the HST Frontier Field images to faint high-redshift galaxies, and review the initial results related to the primary science goals.

  3. The Frontier Fields: Survey Design and Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, J. M.; Koekemoer, A.; Coe, D.; Grogin, N.; Capak, P.; Mack, J.; Anderson, J.; Avila, R.; Barker, E. A.; Borncamp, D.; Brammer, G.; Durbin, M.; Gunning, H.; Hilbert, B.; Jenkner, H.; Khandrika, H.; Levay, Z.; Lucas, R. A.; MacKenty, J.; Ogaz, S.; Porterfield, B.; Reid, N.; Robberto, M.; Royle, P.; Smith, L. J.; Storrie-Lombardi, L. J.; Sunnquist, B.; Surace, J.; Taylor, D. C.; Williams, R.; Bullock, J.; Dickinson, M.; Finkelstein, S.; Natarajan, P.; Richard, J.; Robertson, B.; Tumlinson, J.; Zitrin, A.; Flanagan, K.; Sembach, K.; Soifer, B. T.; Mountain, M.

    2017-03-01

    What are the faintest distant galaxies we can see with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) now, before the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope? This is the challenge taken up by the Frontier Fields, a Director’s discretionary time campaign with HST and the Spitzer Space Telescope to see deeper into the universe than ever before. The Frontier Fields combines the power of HST and Spitzer with the natural gravitational telescopes of massive high-magnification clusters of galaxies to produce the deepest observations of clusters and their lensed galaxies ever obtained. Six clusters—Abell 2744, MACSJ0416.1-2403, MACSJ0717.5+3745, MACSJ1149.5+2223, Abell S1063, and Abell 370—have been targeted by the HST ACS/WFC and WFC3/IR cameras with coordinated parallel fields for over 840 HST orbits. The parallel fields are the second-deepest observations thus far by HST with 5σ point-source depths of ˜29th ABmag. Galaxies behind the clusters experience typical magnification factors of a few, with small regions magnified by factors of 10-100. Therefore, the Frontier Field cluster HST images achieve intrinsic depths of ˜30-33 mag over very small volumes. Spitzer has obtained over 1000 hr of Director’s discretionary imaging of the Frontier Field cluster and parallels in IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 μm bands to 5σ point-source depths of ˜26.5, 26.0 ABmag. We demonstrate the exceptional sensitivity of the HST Frontier Field images to faint high-redshift galaxies, and review the initial results related to the primary science goals.

  4. Insomnia and the Performance of US Workers: Results from the America Insomnia Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Berglund, Patricia A.; Coulouvrat, Catherine; Hajak, Goeran; Roth, Thomas; Shahly, Victoria; Shillington, Alicia C.; Stephenson, Judith J.; Walsh, James K.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and associations of broadly defined (i.e., meeting full ICD-10, DSM-IV, or RDC/ICSD-2 inclusion criteria) insomnia with work performance net of comorbid conditions in the America Insomnia Survey (AIS). Design/Setting: Cross-sectional telephone survey. Participants: National sample of 7,428 employed health plan subscribers (ages 18+). Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Broadly defined insomnia was assessed with the Brief Insomnia Questionnaire (BIQ). Work absenteeism and presenteeism (low on-the-job work performance defined in the metric of lost workday equivalents) were assessed with the WHO Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ). Regression analysis examined associations between insomnia and HPQ scores controlling 26 comorbid conditions based on self-report and medical/pharmacy claims records. The estimated prevalence of insomnia was 23.2%. Insomnia was significantly associated with lost work performance due to presenteeism (χ21 = 39.5, P presenteeism equivalent to 11.3 days of lost work performance. This estimate decreased to 7.8 days when controls were introduced for comorbid conditions. The individual-level human capital value of this net estimate was $2,280. If we provisionally assume these estimates generalize to the total US workforce, they are equivalent to annualized population-level estimates of 252.7 days and $63.2 billion. Conclusions: Insomnia is associated with substantial workplace costs. Although experimental studies suggest some of these costs could be recovered with insomnia disease management programs, effectiveness trials are needed to obtain precise estimates of return-on-investment of such interventions from the employer perspective. Citation: Kessler RC; Berglund PA; Coulouvrat C; Hajak G; Roth T; Shahly V; Shillington AC; Stephenson JJ; Walsh JK. Insomnia and the performance of US workers: results from the America Insomnia Survey.SLEEP 2011;34(9):1161-1171. PMID:21886353

  5. The determinants of induced abortion among women in Ukraine, results of 2007 survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranovska, Anastasia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. In Ukraine, an estimated 8.5 million induced abortions have been performed during the years of independence. To examine the reproductive health of Ukrainians, the National Health Survey was conducted in 2007 as a nationally representative cross-sectional survey involving 6841 women and 3178 men aged 15-49. Based on the survey data we aimed to identify the determinants of induced abortion. METHODS. The sample for analysis included 4953 women that have ever been pregnant. As an outcome measure we took induced abortion as the result of the last pregnancy versus all other pregnancy outcomes (live births, miscarriages, and stillbirths. Independent variables included age at the time of pregnancy, region, type of place of residence, religion, time since the end of pregnancy, age at first intercourse, whether first intercourse was at first marriage, and number of previous pregnancies. The first step of the analysis was conducted using the bivariate analysis (crosstabulation and chi-square test. The multivariate analysis was done using the binary logistic regression (backward conditional methods. RESULTS. In multivariate analysis, only five variables were associated at the 0.05 level: region, type of place of residence, religion, age at the time of pregnancy, and number of previous pregnancies. Women from the Western regions and those who live in large cities were less likely to have an induced abortion at the last pregnancy. With the increasing of age and number of previous pregnancies the risk of having an induced abortion at the last pregnancy increases as well. CONCLUSIONS. Women of older age groups, who already have children, those living in smaller settlements and in non-Western regions, are at increased risk of induced abortion. These groups are to be considered while developing programs to facilitate access to effective contraception.

  6. Mobile Phone Use Among Medical Residents: A Cross-Sectional Multicenter Survey in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temsah, Mohamad-Hani; Khan, Samina A; Al-Eyadhy, Ayman; Chiang, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    Background Mobile phones have great potential for medical education, as they allow health care providers and students to access resources efficiently at the precise time at the point-of-care to help in informed decision making. Objective The objective of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of mobile phone usage among medical residents and to explore their attitudes, perceptions, and the challenges they experience when using mobile phones in academic and clinical practice. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted on all 133 residents in 17 different specialties across two large academic hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The Web-based validated questionnaire measured mobile phone platform preferences, and their uses in general and medical practice. The perception of confidentiality and safety impact of using mobile phones for communication and accessing patient’s data was also explored, alongside challenges of use and how residents learn to use their mobile phone. Results With a response rate of 101/133 (75.9%) and mean age of 27.8 (SD 3.0) years, we found that 100/101 (99.0%) of participants were mobile phone users with mean duration of use of 5.12 (SD 2.4) years, and a range from 1 to 12 years. There was no significant difference in use between male and female respondents. A negative linear correlation was found between age and use duration (P=.004). The most common operating system used by participants was the iOS platform (55/101, 54.5%), with English the most commonly used language to operate residents’ mobile phones (96/100, 96.0%) despite their native language being Arabic. For communication outside medical practice, chatting applications such as WhatsApp matched phone calls as most commonly used tools (each 88/101, 87.1%). These were also the primary tools for medical communication, but used at a lower rate (each 65/101, 64.4%). In medical practice, drug (83/101, 82.2%) and medical (80/101, 79.2%) references and medical calculation

  7. Exoplanets -New Results from Space and Ground-based Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udry, Stephane

    ). TandEM: Titan and Enceladus mission. Experimenta( Astron-omy, 23, 893-946. 3. Coustenis, A., Hirtzig, M., 2009. Cassini-Huygens results on Titan's surface. Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics 9, 249-268. 4. Coustenis et al., 2010, Titan trace gaseous composition from CIRS at the end of the Cassini-Huygens prime mission Icarus, in press. 5. Flasar, F. M., et al., 2005. Titan's atmospheric temperatures, winds, and composition. Science, 308, 975-978. 6. Fulchignoni, M., et al, 2005. In situ measurements of the physical characteristics of Titan's environment. Nature, 438, 785-791, doi:10.1038/nature04126. 7. Lebreton, J-P., Coustenis, A., et al., 2009. Results from the Huygens probe on Titan. Astron. Astrophys. Rev. 17, 149-179. 8. Tomasko, M. G., et al., 2005. Rain, winds and haze during the Huygens probe's descent to Titan's surface. Nature, 438, 765-778, doi: 10. 1038/nature04126.

  8. The prevalence of common skin infections in four districts in Timor-Leste: a cross sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Skin infections are a common public health problem in developing countries; however, they are rarely managed using a population based approach. Recent data on the burden of skin infections in Timor-Leste are limited. Our survey appears to be the only widespread survey conducted in more than 30 years and was designed to determine the baseline prevalence of some common skin infections in Timor-Leste. Methods We conducted a cross sectional survey in 14 sites including community health clinics, schools and hospitals within four different geographical regions. Participants were examined for five conditions (scabies, pyoderma, fungal infections, leprosy and yaws) by a multidisciplinary team. Analyses were conducted using EpiInfo version 6.04d. Results We examined the skin of 1535 participants aged between four months and 97 years. The majority of participants were male, aged between 11 and 20 years and had at least one condition of interest (56.0%, 56.0%, and 63.1%, respectively). Fungal infections were the most common presentation (39.0%) and males were more commonly affected than females (42.3% vs 34.0%, respectively, pvalue < 0.0001). Among those people with more than one condition the two most common co-infections were scabies with either pyoderma or a fungal infection (38.0% and 32.0%, respectively). The survey identified 29 previously undiagnosed cases of leprosy and six cases of yaws. Conclusions Our findings indicate the need for a comprehensive programme to address these conditions. There are successful disease control programmes in place within the country and it is hoped a healthy skin programme could be integrated into an established disease control programme in order to maximise health benefits and resources. PMID:20219136

  9. Inpatient occupational therapists hand-splinting practice for clients with stroke: A cross-sectional survey from Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cormican Adrienne

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hand splinting after stroke is a common practice despite inadequate evidence. This warrants a better understanding of the therapists′ splinting practice, to develop clinically meaningful treatment options. Aims: The study examined the nature and prevalence of the factors associated with therapists′ hand splinting practice and their perceived splinting efficacy. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional national survey of hand-splinting practice among inpatient occupational therapists (OTs in Ireland. Materials and Methods: Sixty-two therapists participated in this national survey.Statistical analysis used: A number of factors were analyzed to explore their relationship with therapists′ perception of splint efficacy using Spearman′s rank order correlation. Results: 53(85.5% out of 62 survey respondents prescribed splints to their clients at the time of taking the survey. To reduce spasticity, to correct contractures and thus increase range of motion (ROM were the commonly used splinting goals. These were the goals that were significantly associated with the therapists′ splinting efficacy too. Conclusions: Hand-splint prescription following stroke was found to be a common practice among OTs who perceive splints to be quite effective. A custom-made, volar forearm-based wrist-hand splint is the preferred splint among therapists to achieve a number of clinical aims such as improving ROM, stretching soft tissue contractures and reducing spasticity in the upper extremity. A wide variety of splinting regimens is currently practiced, reflecting the lack of a universally accepted and comprehensive practice guideline to regulate therapy. Methodologically valid clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of therapist-preferred splints in achieving their favored outcomes are needed. Development of common, universally accepted therapeutic guidelines based on comprehensive scientific review of such studies is thus needed.

  10. Impact of conflict on medical education: a cross-sectional survey of students and institutions in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett-Vanes, Ashton; Hassounah, Sondus; Shawki, Marwan; Ismail, Omar Abdulkadir; Fung, Chi; Kedia, Tara; Rawaf, Salman; Majeed, Azeem

    2016-02-16

    This study surveyed all Iraqi medical schools and a cross-section of Iraqi medical students regarding their institutional and student experiences of medical education amidst ongoing conflict. The objective was to better understand the current resources and challenges facing medical schools, and the impacts of conflict on the training landscape and student experience, to provide evidence for further research and policy development. Deans of all Iraqi medical schools registered in the World Directory of Medical Schools were invited to participate in a survey electronically. Medical students from three Iraqi medical schools were invited to participate in a survey electronically. Primary: Student enrolment and graduation statistics; human resources of medical schools; dean perspectives on impact of conflict. Secondary: Medical student perspectives on quality of teaching, welfare and future career intentions. Of 24 medical schools listed in the World Directory of Medical Schools, 15 replied to an initial email sent to confirm their contact details, and 8 medical schools responded to our survey, giving a response rate from contactable medical schools of 53% and overall of 33%. Five (63%) medical schools reported medical student educational attainment being impaired or significantly impaired; 4 (50%) felt the quality of training medical schools could offer had been impaired or significantly impaired due to conflict. A total of 197 medical students responded, 62% of whom felt their safety had been threatened due to violent insecurity. The majority (56%) of medical students intended to leave Iraq after graduating. Medical schools are facing challenges in staff recruitment and adequate resource provision; the majority believe quality of training has suffered as a result. Medical students are experiencing added psychological stress and lower quality of teaching; the majority intend to leave Iraq after graduation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission

  11. GPs' mental wellbeing and psychological resources: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Marylou Anna; Cardwell, Chris; Donnelly, Michael

    2017-08-01

    The negative impact of work has been the traditional focus of GP surveys. We know little about GP positive mental health and psychological resources. To profile and contextualise GP positive mental health and personal psychological resources. Cross-sectional survey of GPs working in Northern Ireland (NI). A questionnaire comprising the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS) and measures of resilience, optimism, self-efficacy, and hope, and sociodemographic information was posted to 400 GPs randomly selected from a publicly available GP register. The response rate was 55% (n = 221 out of 400). Mean value for GP wellbeing (WEMWBS) was 50.2 (standard deviation [SD] 8) compared to UK vets 48.8 (SD 9), UK teachers 47.2 (SD 9), and the population of NI 50.8 (SD 9). After adjustment for confounding, mean WEMWBS was 2.4 units (95% CI = 0.02 to 4.7) higher in female GPs than males (P = 0.05), and 4.0 units (95% CI = 0.8 to 7.3) higher in GPs ≥55 years than GPs ≤44 years (P = 0.02). Optimism was 1.1 units higher in female GPs than male GPs (95% CI = 0.1 to 2.0), and 1.56 units higher in GPs ≥55 years (95% CI = 0.2 to 2.9) than in those ≤44 years. Hope was 3 units higher in GPs ≥55 years (95% CI = 0.4 to 5.7) than in those aged 45-54 years. Correlation between WEMWBS and psychological resources was highest with hope (r = 0.65, P GPs have levels of positive mental health that are comparable to the local population and better than other occupational groups, such as vets and teachers. Male and younger GPs may have most to gain from wellbeing interventions. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  12. Career Satisfaction Among Dental Public Health Specialists in India - A Cross-sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janakiram, Chandrashekar; Joseph, Joe; Antony, Bobby

    2017-01-01

    The satisfaction in career is an important indicator for the growth of the discipline and the profession. An empirical investigation of satisfaction in career and amendments needed in course and profession may help in growth of discipline. To assess career satisfaction among Dental Public Health (DPH) specialists working in India and analyze their perspective on changes required in the profession. Questionnaire for this cross-sectional survey was adapted from Minnesota Job Satisfaction Survey which included 40 enquiries to understand the reasons for choosing public health dentistry as career, competencies of public health dentists, satisfaction as a public health dentist and changes required in the profession. The questions were both open and closed end type. Updated electronic mail details of all registered public health dentists were collected from the head office of Indian Association of Public Health Dentistry. Each participant was contacted by electronic mail and consent to participate were sought. Reminders were e-mailed thrice during three months. A total of 580 participants were contacted. A total of 183 responses were received, among which 179 consented. Nearly half of the respondents felt they are yet to achieve the accomplishment from the present career as public health dentist. Only 46.9% felt that there is advancement in the profession as career. Nearly three-fourth of respondents could not attain recognition as a public health dentist. A 45.8% of respondents were of the opinion that career in public health dentistry would provide them a steady employment and 53.1% of public health dentists would envision as satisfied in their career in next 10 years. Nearly 85% felt public health dentistry training needs a major course correction. There has been some reservation or skepticism about the future of the specialty as the jobs are in declining stage. This information provides insight about success and failures of public health dentistry as profession which

  13. Self-Care in Palliative Care Nursing and Medical Professionals: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jason; Wand, Timothy; Fraser, Jennifer A

    2017-06-01

    Self-care is an important consideration for palliative care professionals. To date, few details have been recorded about the nature or uptake of self-care practices in the palliative care workforce. As part of a broader mixed methods study, this article reports findings from a national survey of nurses and doctors. The objective of this study was to examine perceptions, education, and practices relating to self-care among palliative care nursing and medical professionals. A cross-sectional survey using REDCap software was conducted between April and May 2015. Perceived importance of self-care, self-care education and planning, and self-care strategies most utilized were explored. Descriptive statistics were calculated and content analysis used to identify domains of self-care. Three hundred seventy-two palliative care nursing and medical professionals practicing in Australia. Most respondents regarded self-care as very important (86%). Some rarely practised self-care and less than half (39%) had received training in self-care. Physical self-care strategies were most commonly reported, followed closely by social self-care and inner self-care. Self-care plans had been used by a small proportion of respondents (6%) and over two-thirds (70%) would consider using self-care plans if training could be provided. Self-care is practised across multiple health related domains, with physical self-care strategies used most frequently. Australian palliative care nurses and doctors recognize the importance of self-care practice, but further education and training are needed to increase their understanding of, and consistency in, using effective self-care strategies. These findings carry implications for professional practice and future research.

  14. Career interest and perceptions of nephrology: A repeated cross-sectional survey of internal medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Michael N; Maynard, Sharon; Porter, Ivan; Kincaid, Hope; Jain, Deepika; Aslam, Nabeel

    2017-01-01

    Interest in nephrology careers among internal medicine residents in the United States is declining. Our objective was to assess the impact of the presence of a nephrology fellowship training program on perceptions and career interest in nephrology among internal medicine residents. A secondary objective was to identify commonly endorsed negative perceptions of nephrology among internal medicine residents. This was a repeated cross-sectional survey of internal medicine residents before (Group 1) and 3 years after (Group 2) the establishment of nephrology fellowship programs at two institutions. The primary outcome was the percentage of residents indicating nephrology as a career interest in Group 1 vs. Group 2. Secondary outcomes included the frequency that residents agreed with negative statements about nephrology. 131 (80.9%) of 162 residents completed the survey. 19 (14.8%) residents indicated interest in a nephrology career, with 8 (6.3%) indicating nephrology as their first choice. There was no difference in career interest in nephrology between residents who were exposed to nephrology fellows during residency training (Group 2) and residents who were not (Group 1). The most commonly endorsed negative perceptions of nephrology were: nephrology fellows have long hours/burdensome call (36 [28.1%] of residents agreed or strongly agreed), practicing nephrologists must take frequent/difficult call (35 [27.6%] agreed or strongly agreed), and nephrology has few opportunities for procedures (35 [27.3%] agreed or strongly agreed). More residents in Group 2 agreed that nephrology is poorly paid (8.9% in Group 1 vs. 20.8% in Group 2, P = 0.04), whereas more residents in Group 1 agreed that nephrologists must take frequent/difficult call (40.0% in Group 1 vs. 18.1% in Group 2, P = 0.02). The initiation of a nephrology fellowship program was not associated with an increase in internal medicine residents' interest in nephrology careers. Residents endorsed several negative

  15. Cumulative risks and cessation of exclusive breast feeding: Australian cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayton, Jennifer; van der Mei, Ingrid; Wills, Karen; Hansen, Emily; Nelson, Mark

    2015-09-01

    To estimate the prevalence of cessation of exclusive breast feeding at each month up to 6 months and document key factors and cumulative risks associated with exclusive breastfeeding cessation for children aged from 0 to 6 months. Secondary analysis using a national representative sample of 22 202 mother and infant pairs derived from the 2010 Australian Institute of Health and Welfare cross-sectional survey, the Australian Infant Feeding Survey. Among breastfed infants, 49% had ceased exclusive breast feeding before they had reached 2 months of age. In the final Cox proportional hazards model, cessation of exclusive breast feeding was most strongly associated with partners preferring bottle feeding (HR 1.86, 95% CI 1.69 to 20.6) or having no preference (HR 1.37, 95% CI 1.33 to 1.42), regular dummy use (HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.31 to 1.39) and maternal obesity (HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.35). Living within the most disadvantaged areas of Australia (quintile 1) was not strongly associated with cessation (HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.14) compared with least disadvantaged areas. Having three risk factors significantly increased the risk of cessation by 31% (HR 1.31, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.6). The prevalence of early cessation of exclusive breast feeding is alarmingly high with 50% of infants no longer exclusively breast fed by age 2 months. Given that not one factor is associated with cessation of exclusive breast feeding, the greatest public health impact is likely to be achieved when multiple risk factors are modified or prevented. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Prevalence and characteristics of tremor in the NARCOMS multiple sclerosis registry: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, John R; Salter, Amber R; Walker, Harrison; Amara, Amy; Meador, William; Cutter, Gary R

    2015-01-08

    (1)To describe the prevalence and severity of tremor in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) registered within a large North American MS registry; (2) to provide detailed descriptions on the characteristics and severity of tremor in a subset of registrants and (3) to compare several measures of tremor severity for strength of agreement. The North American Research Committee on MS (NARCOMS) registry. Registrants of NARCOMS reporting mild or greater tremor severity. We determined the cross-sectional prevalence of tremor in the NARCOMS registry over three semiannual updates between fall 2010 and fall 2011. A subset of registrants (n=552) completed a supplemental survey providing detailed descriptions of their tremor. Outcomes included descriptive characteristics of their tremors and correlations between outcome measures to determine the strength of agreement in assessing tremor severity. The estimated prevalence of tremor in NARCOMS ranged from 45% to 46.8%, with severe tremor affecting 5.5-5.9% of respondents. In the subset completing the supplemental survey, mild tremor severity was associated with younger age of MS diagnosis and tremor onset than those with moderate or severe tremor. However, tremor severity did not differ by duration of disease or tremor. Respondents provided descriptions of tremor symptoms on the Clinical Ataxia Rating Scale, which had a moderate to good (ρ=0.595) correlation with the Tremor Related Activities of Daily Living (TRADL) scale. Objectively scored Archimedes' spirals had a weaker (ρ=0.358) correlation with the TRADL. Rates of unemployment, disability and symptomatic medication use increased with tremor severity, but were high even among those with mild tremor. Tremor is common among NARCOMS registrants and severely disabling for some. Both ADL-based and symptom-descriptive measures of tremor severity can be used to stratify patients. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted

  17. Premarital sexual intercourse among adolescents in Malaysia: a cross-sectional Malaysian school survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L K; Chen, P C Y; Lee, K K; Kaur, J

    2006-06-01

    Sexual intercourse among Malaysian adolescents is a major concern, esp