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Sample records for survey response rates

  1. Improving Survey Response Rates in Online Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Jin; Nielsen, Christian Videbæk

    2016-01-01

    Identifying ways to efficiently maximize the response rate to surveys is important to survey-based research. However, evidence on the response rate effect of donation incentives and especially altruistic and egotistic-type text appeal interventions is sparse and ambiguous. By a randomized survey...... experiment among 6,162 members of an online survey panel, this article shows how low-cost incentives and cost-free text appeal interventions may impact the survey response rate in online panels. The experimental treatments comprise (a) a cash prize lottery incentive, (b) two donation incentives equating...... survey response with a monetary donation to a good cause, (c) an egotistic-type text appeal, and (d) an altruistic-type text appeal. Relative to a control group, we find higher response rates among the recipients of the egotistic-type text appeal and the lottery incentive. Donation incentives yield lower...

  2. A Comparison of Response Rate, Response Time, and Costs of Mail and Electronic Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, David M.; Bradshaw, Carol C.

    2002-01-01

    Compared response rates, response time, and costs of mail and electronic surveys using a sample of 377 college faculty members. Mail surveys yielded a higher response rate and a lower rate of undeliverable surveys, but response time was longer and costs were higher than for electronic surveys. (SLD)

  3. Maximising nurses' and midwives' response rates to surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Alannah Louise; Brown, Janie

    2017-12-18

    Low response rates to surveys have been a long-standing issue in research. This includes research involving nurses and midwives. To gain representative samples, appropriate measures to maximise response rates need to be used. To explore ways to maximise response rates from nurses and midwives, using a hospital-wide survey as an example. All nurses and midwives at the study hospital were invited to participate in a survey. To encourage participation and elicit an adequate response rate, several strategies were used. A total of 1,000 surveys were distributed and 319 (32%) were returned. All the required age groups, levels of experience and types of nursing registration were represented in the responses and data saturation was achieved. It is important to pay attention to obtaining a representative sample. Further investigation of response rates to surveys by nurses and midwives is warranted. Strategies to maximise response rates from a target population should be used when conducting surveys. ©2017 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  4. Effects of Personalization and Invitation Email Length on Web-Based Survey Response Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trespalacios, Jesús H.; Perkins, Ross A.

    2016-01-01

    Individual strategies to increase response rate and survey completion have been extensively researched. Recently, efforts have been made to investigate a combination of interventions to yield better response rates for web-based surveys. This study examined the effects of four different survey invitation conditions on response rate. From a large…

  5. Effects of various methodologic strategies: survey response rates among Canadian physicians and physicians-in-training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grava-Gubins, Inese; Scott, Sarah

    2008-10-01

    To increase the overall 2007 response rate of the National Physician Survey (NPS) from the survey's 2004 rate of response with the implementation of various methodologic strategies. Physicians were stratified to receive either a long version (12 pages) or a short version (6 pages) of the survey (38% and 62%, respectively). Mixed modes of contact were used-58% were contacted by e-mail and 42% by regular mail-with multiple modes of contact attempted for nonrespondents. The self-administered, confidential surveys were distributed in either English or French. Medical residents and students received e-mail surveys only and were offered a substantial monetary lottery incentive for completing their surveys. A professional communications firm assisted in marketing the survey and delivered advance notification of its impending distribution. Canada. A total of 62 441 practising physicians, 2627 second-year medical residents, and 9162 medical students in Canada. Of the practising physicians group, 60 811 participants were eligible and 19 239 replied, for an overall 2007 study response rate of 31.64% (compared with 35.85% in 2004). No difference in rate of response was found between the longer and shorter versions of the survey. If contacted by regular mail, the response rate was 34.1%; the e-mail group had a response rate of 29.9%. Medical student and resident response rates were 30.8% and 27.9%, respectively (compared with 31.2% and 35.6% in 2004). Despite shortening the questionnaires, contacting more physicians by e-mail, and enhancing marketing and follow-up, the 2007 NPS response rate for practising physicians did not surpass the 2004 NPS response rate. Offering a monetary lottery incentive to medical residents and students was also unsuccessful in increasing their response rates. The role of surveys in gathering information from physicians and physicians-in-training remains problematic. Researchers need to investigate alternative strategies for achieving higher rates of

  6. The Impact of Lottery Incentives on Student Survey Response Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.

    2003-01-01

    A controlled experiment tested the effects of lottery incentives using a prospective college applicant Web survey, with emails sent to more than 9,000 high school students. Found minimal effect of postpaid incentives for increasing levels of incentive. (EV)

  7. Prenotification, Incentives, and Survey Modality: An Experimental Test of Methods to Increase Survey Response Rates of School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Robin Tepper; Jacob, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Teacher and principal surveys are among the most common data collection techniques employed in education research. Yet there is remarkably little research on survey methods in education, or about the most cost-effective way to raise response rates among teachers and principals. In an effort to explore various methods for increasing survey response…

  8. [Response rates in three opinion surveys performed through online questionnaires in the health setting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerny Perreten, Nicole; Domínguez-Berjón, Ma Felicitas; Astray Mochales, Jenaro; Esteban-Vasallo, María D; Blanco Ancos, Luis Miguel; Lópaz Pérez, Ma Ángeles

    2012-01-01

    The main advantages of online questionnaires are the speed of data collection and cost savings, but response rates are usually low. This study analyzed response rates and associated factors among health professionals in three opinion surveys in the autonomous region of Madrid. The participants, length of the questionnaire and topic differed among the three surveys. The surveys were conducted by using paid Internet software. The institutional e-mail addresses of distinct groups of health professionals were used. Response rates were highest in hospitals (up to 63%) and administrative services and were lowest in primary care (less than 33%). The differences in response rates were analyzed in primary care professionals according to age, sex and professional category and only the association with age was statistically significant. None of the surveys achieved a response rate of 60%. Differences were observed according to workplace, patterns of Internet usage, and interest in the subject. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Getting physicians to open the survey: little evidence that an envelope teaser increases response rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziegenfuss Jeanette Y

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physician surveys are an important tool to assess attitudes, beliefs and self-reported behaviors of this policy relevant group. In order for a physician to respond to a mailed survey, they must first open the envelope. While there is some evidence that package elements can impact physician response rates, the impact of an envelope teaser is unknown. Here we assess this by testing the impact of adding a brightly colored "$25 incentive" sticker to the outside of an envelope on response rates and nonresponse bias in a survey of physicians. Methods In the second mailing of a survey assessing physicians' moral beliefs and views on controversial health care topics, initial nonrespondents were randomly assigned to receive a survey in an envelope with a colored "$25 incentive" sticker (teaser group or an envelope without a sticker (control group. Response rates were compared between the teaser and control groups overall and by age, gender, region of the United States, specialty and years in practice. Nonresponse bias was assessed by comparing the demographic composition of the respondents to the nonrespondents in the experimental and control condition. Results No significant differences in response rates were observed between the experimental and control conditions overall (p = 0.38 or after stratifying by age, gender, region, or practice type. Within the teaser condition, there was some variation in response rate by years since graduation. There was no independent effect of the teaser on response when simultaneously controlling for demographic characteristics (OR = 0.875, p = 0.4112. Conclusions Neither response rates nor nonresponse bias were impacted by the use of an envelope teaser in a survey of physicians in the United States.

  10. A randomised trial and economic evaluation of the effect of response mode on response rate, response bias, and item non-response in a survey of doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witt Julia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surveys of doctors are an important data collection method in health services research. Ways to improve response rates, minimise survey response bias and item non-response, within a given budget, have not previously been addressed in the same study. The aim of this paper is to compare the effects and costs of three different modes of survey administration in a national survey of doctors. Methods A stratified random sample of 4.9% (2,702/54,160 of doctors undertaking clinical practice was drawn from a national directory of all doctors in Australia. Stratification was by four doctor types: general practitioners, specialists, specialists-in-training, and hospital non-specialists, and by six rural/remote categories. A three-arm parallel trial design with equal randomisation across arms was used. Doctors were randomly allocated to: online questionnaire (902; simultaneous mixed mode (a paper questionnaire and login details sent together (900; or, sequential mixed mode (online followed by a paper questionnaire with the reminder (900. Analysis was by intention to treat, as within each primary mode, doctors could choose either paper or online. Primary outcome measures were response rate, survey response bias, item non-response, and cost. Results The online mode had a response rate 12.95%, followed by the simultaneous mixed mode with 19.7%, and the sequential mixed mode with 20.7%. After adjusting for observed differences between the groups, the online mode had a 7 percentage point lower response rate compared to the simultaneous mixed mode, and a 7.7 percentage point lower response rate compared to sequential mixed mode. The difference in response rate between the sequential and simultaneous modes was not statistically significant. Both mixed modes showed evidence of response bias, whilst the characteristics of online respondents were similar to the population. However, the online mode had a higher rate of item non-response compared

  11. The effectiveness of a monetary incentive offer on survey response rates and response completeness in a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shengchao; Alper, Howard E; Nguyen, Angela-Maithy; Brackbill, Robert M; Turner, Lennon; Walker, Deborah J; Maslow, Carey B; Zweig, Kimberly C

    2017-04-26

    Achieving adequate response rates is an ongoing challenge for longitudinal studies. The World Trade Center Health Registry is a longitudinal health study that periodically surveys a cohort of ~71,000 people exposed to the 9/11 terrorist attacks in New York City. Since Wave 1, the Registry has conducted three follow-up surveys (Waves 2-4) every 3-4 years and utilized various strategies to increase survey participation. A promised monetary incentive was offered for the first time to survey non-respondents in the recent Wave 4 survey, conducted 13-14 years after 9/11. We evaluated the effectiveness of a monetary incentive in improving the response rate five months after survey launch, and assessed whether or not response completeness was compromised due to incentive use. The study compared the likelihood of returning a survey for those who received an incentive offer to those who did not, using logistic regression models. Among those who returned surveys, we also examined whether those receiving an incentive notification had higher rate of response completeness than those who did not, using negative binomial regression models and logistic regression models. We found that a $10 monetary incentive offer was effective in increasing Wave 4 response rates. Specifically, the $10 incentive offer was useful in encouraging initially reluctant participants to respond to the survey. The likelihood of returning a survey increased by 30% for those who received an incentive offer (AOR = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.4), and the incentive increased the number of returned surveys by 18%. Moreover, our results did not reveal any significant differences on response completeness between those who received an incentive offer and those who did not. In the face of the growing challenge of maintaining a high response rate for the World Trade Center Health Registry follow-up surveys, this study showed the value of offering a monetary incentive as an additional refusal conversion strategy. Our

  12. Effect of mailed reminders on the response rate in surveys among patients in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wensing, M; Mainz, Jan; Kramme, O

    1999-01-01

    Randomized trials were performed in Denmark and The Netherlands to determine the effect of mailed reminders on the response rate in surveys among patients in general practice. In both countries, general practitioners handed out questionnaires to 200 adult patients who came to visit them. An inter...

  13. Understanding Response Rates to Surveys About Family Members' Psychological Symptoms After Patients' Critical Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ann C; Downey, Lois; Engelberg, Ruth A; Nielsen, Elizabeth; Ciechanowski, Paul; Curtis, J Randall

    2017-07-01

    Achieving adequate response rates from family members of critically ill patients can be challenging, especially when assessing psychological symptoms. To identify factors associated with completion of surveys about psychological symptoms among family members of critically ill patients. Using data from a randomized trial of an intervention to improve communication between clinicians and families of critically ill patients, we examined patient-level and family-level predictors of the return of usable surveys at baseline, three months, and six months (n = 181, 171, and 155, respectively). Family-level predictors included baseline symptoms of psychological distress, decisional independence preference, and attachment style. We hypothesized that family with fewer symptoms of psychological distress, a preference for less decisional independence, and secure attachment style would be more likely to return questionnaires. We identified several predictors of the return of usable questionnaires. Better self-assessed family member health status was associated with a higher likelihood and stronger agreement with a support-seeking attachment style with a lower likelihood, of obtaining usable baseline surveys. At three months, family-level predictors of return of usable surveys included having usable baseline surveys, status as the patient's legal next of kin, and stronger agreement with a secure attachment style. The only predictor of receipt of surveys at six months was the presence of usable surveys at three months. We identified several predictors of the receipt of surveys assessing psychological symptoms in family of critically ill patients, including family member health status and attachment style. Using these characteristics to inform follow-up mailings and reminders may enhance response rates. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Increasing the Response Rate of the Patient Satisfaction Survey of Inpatients at National Naval Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    identify a method to improve the effectiveness of the current survey process to increase the response rate of the patients being sampled. As health care... consumer must have adequate representation to provide meaningful information for decision making by the health care organization. Background of the...the Total Quality Management (TQM) philosophy into the health care industry has increased the importance of listening to the customer (Matthews, 1992

  15. Dropout Rates and Response Times of an Occupation Search Tree in a Web Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijdens Kea

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Occupation is key in socioeconomic research. As in other survey modes, most web surveys use an open-ended question for occupation, though the absence of interviewers elicits unidentifiable or aggregated responses. Unlike other modes, web surveys can use a search tree with an occupation database. They are hardly ever used, but this may change due to technical advancements. This article evaluates a three-step search tree with 1,700 occupational titles, used in the 2010 multilingual WageIndicator web survey for UK, Belgium and Netherlands (22,990 observations. Dropout rates are high; in Step 1 due to unemployed respondents judging the question not to be adequate, and in Step 3 due to search tree item length. Median response times are substantial due to search tree item length, dropout in the next step and invalid occupations ticked. Overall the validity of the occupation data is rather good, 1.7-7.5% of the respondents completing the search tree have ticked an invalid occupation.

  16. Pre-notification letter type and response rate to a postal survey among women who have recently given birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Angela L; Porter, Maree; Williamson, Jennifer L; Patterson, Jillian A; Roberts, Christine L

    2015-12-01

    Surveys are commonly used in health research to assess patient satisfaction with hospital care. Achieving an adequate response rate, in the face of declining trends over time, threatens the quality and reliability of survey results. This paper evaluates a strategy to increase the response rate in a postal satisfaction survey with women who had recently given birth. A sample of 2048 Australian women who had recently given birth at seven maternity units in New South Wales were invited to participate in a postal survey about their recent experiences with maternity care. The study design included a randomised controlled trial that tested two types of pre-notification letter (with or without the option of opting out of the survey). The study also explored the acceptability of a request for consent to link survey data with existing routinely collected health data (omitting the latter data items from the survey reduced survey length and participant burden). This consent was requested of all women. The survey had an overall response rate of 46% (913 completed surveys returned, total sample 1989). Women receiving the pre-notification letter with the option of opting out of the survey were more likely to actively decline to participate than women receiving the letter without this option, although the overall numbers of women declining were small (27 versus 12). Letter type was not significantly associated with the return of a completed survey. Among women who completed the survey, 97% gave consent to link their survey data with existing health data. The two types of pre-notification letters used in our study did not influence the survey response rate. However, seeking consent for record linkage was highly acceptable to women who completed the survey, and represents an important strategy to add to the arsenal for designing and implementing effective surveys. In addition to aspects of survey design, future research should explore how to more effectively influence personal

  17. Prospective evaluation of direct approach with a tablet device as a strategy to enhance survey study participant response rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Melissa J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigators conduct survey studies for a variety of reasons. Poor participant response rates are common, however, and may limit the generalizability and utility of results. The objective of this study was to determine whether direct approach with a tablet device enhances survey study participant response rate and to assess participants’ experiences with this mode of survey administration. Findings An interventional study nested within a single center survey study was conducted at McMaster Children’s Hospital. The primary outcome was the ability to achieve of a survey study response rate of 70% or greater. Eligible participants received 3 email invitations (Week 0, 2, 4 to complete a web-based (Survey Monkey survey. The study protocol included plans for a two-week follow-up phase (Phase 2 where non-responders were approached by a research assistant and invited to complete an iPad-based version of the survey. The Phase 1 response rate was 48.7% (56/115. Phase 2 effectively recruited reluctant responders, increasing the overall response rate to 72.2% (83/115. On a 7-point Likert scale, reluctant responders highly rated their enjoyment (mean 6.0, sd 0.83 [95% CI: 5.7-6.3] and ease of use (mean 6.7, sd 0.47 [95% CI: 6.5-6.9] completing the survey using the iPad. Reasons endorsed for Phase 2 participation included: direct approach (81%, immediate survey access (62%, and the novelty of completing a tablet-based survey (54%. Most reluctant responders (89% indicated that a tablet-based survey is their preferred method of survey completion. Conclusions Use of a tablet-based version of the survey was effective in recruiting reluctant responders and this group reported positive experiences with this mode of survey administration.

  18. The effect of a monetary incentive for administrative assistants on the survey response rate: a randomized controlled trial

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    Arnav Agarwal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is sufficient evidence that monetary incentives are effective in increasing survey response rates in the general population as well as with physicians. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of a monetary incentive intended for administrative assistants on the survey response rate of physicians in leadership positions. Methods This was an ancillary study to a national survey of chairs of academic Departments of Medicine in the United States about measuring faculty productivity. We randomized survey participants to receive or not receive a $5 gift card enclosed in the survey package. The cover letter explained that the gift card was intended for the administrative assistants as a “thank you for their time.” We compared the response rates between the 2 study arms using the Chi-square test. Results Out of 152 participants to whom survey packages were mailed to, a total of 78 responses were received (51 % response rate. The response rates were 59 % in the incentive arm and 46 % in the no incentive arm. The relative effect of the incentive compared to no monetary incentive was borderline statistically significant (relative risk (RR = 1.36, 95 % confidence interval (CI 0.99 to 1.87; p = 0.055. Conclusion Monetary incentives intended for administrative assistants likely increase the response rate of physicians in leadership positions.

  19. The Effects of Two Types of Appeal on Survey Response Rates.

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    Green, Kathy E.; And Others

    The effects of two cover letter manipulations and their interactions with demographic variables on response to the initial mailing of a survey were investigated. The two manipulations, type of appeal and type of respondent group identification, were intended to affect respondents' perceptions of their social responsibility and position. In all,…

  20. Utilizing the Total Design Method in medicine: maximizing response rates in long, non-incentivized, personal questionnaire postal surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazzazi, Fawz; Haggie, Rebecca; Forouhi, Parto; Kazzazi, Nazar; Malata, Charles M

    2018-01-01

    Maximizing response rates in questionnaires can improve their validity and quality by reducing non-response bias. A comprehensive analysis is essential for producing reasonable conclusions in patient-reported outcome research particularly for topics of a sensitive nature. This often makes long (≥7 pages) questionnaires necessary but these have been shown to reduce response rates in mail surveys. Our work adapted the "Total Design Method," initially produced for commercial markets, to raise response rates in a long (total: 11 pages, 116 questions), non-incentivized, very personal postal survey sent to almost 350 women. A total of 346 women who had undergone mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction from 2008-2014 (inclusive) at Addenbrooke's University Hospital were sent our study pack (Breast-Q satisfaction questionnaire and support documents) using our modified "Total Design Method." Participants were sent packs and reminders according to our designed schedule. Of the 346 participants, we received 258 responses, an overall response rate of 74.5% with a useable response rate of 72.3%. One hundred and six responses were received before the week 1 reminder (30.6%), 120 before week 3 (34.6%), 225 before the week 7 reminder (64.6%) and the remainder within 3 weeks of the final pack being sent. The median age of patients that the survey was sent to, and the median age of the respondents, was 54 years. In this study, we have demonstrated the successful implementation of a novel approach to postal surveys. Despite the length of the questionnaire (nine pages, 116 questions) and limitations of expenses to mail a survey to ~350 women, we were able to attain a response rate of 74.6%.

  1. Adding Postal Follow-Up to a Web-Based Survey of Primary Care and Gastroenterology Clinic Physician Chiefs Improved Response Rates but not Response Quality or Representativeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partin, Melissa R; Powell, Adam A; Burgess, Diana J; Haggstrom, David A; Gravely, Amy A; Halek, Krysten; Bangerter, Ann; Shaukat, Aasma; Nelson, David B

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed whether postal follow-up to a web-based physician survey improves response rates, response quality, and representativeness. We recruited primary care and gastroenterology chiefs at 125 Veterans Affairs medical facilities to complete a 10-min web-based survey on colorectal cancer screening and diagnostic practices in 2010. We compared response rates, response errors, and representativeness in the primary care and gastroenterology samples before and after adding postal follow-up. Adding postal follow-up increased response rates by 20-25 percentage points; markedly greater increases than predicted from a third e-mail reminder. In the gastroenterology sample, the mean number of response errors made by web responders (0.25) was significantly smaller than the mean number made by postal responders (2.18), and web responders provided significantly longer responses to open-ended questions. There were no significant differences in these outcomes in the primary care sample. Adequate representativeness was achieved before postal follow-up in both samples, as indicated by the lack of significant differences between web responders and the recruitment population on facility characteristics. We conclude adding postal follow-up to this web-based physician leader survey improved response rates but not response quality or representativeness. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. Effect of questionnaire length, personalisation and reminder type on response rate to a complex postal survey: randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Minimising participant non-response in postal surveys helps to maximise the generalisability of the inferences made from the data collected. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of questionnaire length, personalisation and reminder type on postal survey response rate and quality and to compare the cost-effectiveness of the alternative survey strategies. Methods In a pilot study for a population study of travel behaviour, physical activity and the environment, 1000 participants sampled from the UK edited electoral register were randomly allocated using a 2 × 2 factorial design to receive one of four survey packs: a personally addressed long (24 page) questionnaire pack, a personally addressed short (15 page) questionnaire pack, a non-personally addressed long questionnaire pack or a non-personally addressed short questionnaire pack. Those who did not return a questionnaire were stratified by initial randomisation group and further randomised to receive either a full reminder pack or a reminder postcard. The effects of the survey design factors on response were examined using multivariate logistic regression. Results An overall response rate of 17% was achieved. Participants who received the short version of the questionnaire were more likely to respond (OR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.07). In those participants who received a reminder, personalisation of the survey pack and reminder also increased the odds of response (OR = 1.44, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.95). Item non-response was relatively low, but was significantly higher in the long questionnaire than the short (9.8% vs 5.8%; p = .04). The cost per additional usable questionnaire returned of issuing the reminder packs was £23.1 compared with £11.3 for the reminder postcards. Conclusions In contrast to some previous studies of shorter questionnaires, this trial found that shortening a relatively lengthy questionnaire significantly increased the response. Researchers should consider the trade off

  3. Does an offer for a free on-line continuing medical education (CME) activity increase physician survey response rate? A randomized trial.

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    Viera, Anthony J; Edwards, Teresa

    2012-03-07

    Achieving a high response rate in a physician survey is challenging. Monetary incentives increase response rates but obviously add cost to a survey project. We wondered whether an offer of a free continuing medical education (CME) activity would be effective in improving survey response rate. As part of a survey of a national sample of physicians, we randomized half to an offer for a free on-line CME activity upon completion of a web-based survey and the other half to no such offer. We compared response rates between the groups. A total of 1214 out of 8477 potentially eligible physicians responded to our survey, for an overall response rate of 14.3%. The response rate among the control group (no offer of CME credit) was 16.6%, while among those offered the CME opportunity, the response rate was 12.0% (p offer for a free on-line CME activity did not improve physician survey response rate. On the contrary, the offer for a free CME activity actually appeared to worsen the response rate. © 2011 Viera et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  4. Understanding Low Survey Response Rates Among Young U.S. Military Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    percent) were more likely than their peers to report engaging in unhealthy lifestyles . However, when the researchers compared the results for 100...Active Duty Military Personnel is a recurring survey that assesses the nature, causes, and consequences of lifestyle health, safety, and substance

  5. Improving survey response rates from parents in school-based research using a multi-level approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilpzand, Elizabeth J; Sciberras, Emma; Efron, Daryl; Anderson, Vicki; Nicholson, Jan M

    2015-01-01

    While schools can provide a comprehensive sampling frame for community-based studies of children and their families, recruitment is challenging. Multi-level approaches which engage multiple school stakeholders have been recommended but few studies have documented their effects. This paper compares the impact of a standard versus enhanced engagement approach on multiple indicators of recruitment: parent response rates, response times, reminders required and sample characteristics. Parents and teachers were distributed a brief screening questionnaire as a first step for recruitment to a longitudinal study, with two cohorts recruited in consecutive years (cohort 1 2011, cohort 2 2012). For cohort 2, additional engagement strategies included the use of pre-notification postcards, improved study materials, and recruitment progress graphs provided to school staff. Chi-square and t-tests were used to examine cohort differences. Compared to cohort 1, a higher proportion of cohort 2 parents responded to the survey (76% versus 69%; p value of investing in a relatively simple multi-level strategy to maximise parent response rates, and potentially reduce recruitment time and costs.

  6. A small unconditional non-financial incentive suggests an increase in survey response rates amongst older general practitioners (GPs): a randomised controlled trial study.

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    Pit, Sabrina Winona; Hansen, Vibeke; Ewald, Dan

    2013-07-30

    Few studies have investigated the effect of small unconditional non-monetary incentives on survey response rates amongst GPs or medical practitioners. This study assessed the effectiveness of offering a small unconditional non-financial incentive to increase survey response rates amongst general practitioners within a randomised controlled trial (RCT). An RCT was conducted within a general practice survey that investigated how to prolong working lives amongst ageing GPs in Australia. GPs (n = 125) were randomised to receive an attractive pen or no pen during their first invitation for participation in a survey. GPs could elect to complete the survey online or via mail. Two follow up reminders were sent without a pen to both groups. The main outcome measure was response rates. The response rate for GPs who received a pen was higher in the intervention group (61.9%) compared to the control group (46.8%). This study did not find a statistically significant effect of a small unconditional non-financial incentive (in the form of a pen) on survey response rates amongst GPs (Odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.85 (0.91 to 3.77). No GPs completed the online version. A small unconditional non-financial incentives, in the form of a pen, may improve response rates for GPs.

  7. Comparison of response rates and cost-effectiveness for a community-based survey: postal, internet and telephone modes with generic or personalised recruitment approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Epidemiological research often requires collection of data from a representative sample of the community or recruitment of specific groups through broad community approaches. The population coverage of traditional survey methods such as mail-outs to residential addresses, and telephone contact via public directories or random-digit-dialing is declining and survey response rates are falling. There is a need to explore new sampling frames and consider multiple response modes including those offered by changes in telecommunications and internet technology. Methods We evaluated response rates and cost-effectiveness for three modes of survey administration (postal invitation/postal survey, postal invitation/internet survey and postal invitation/telephone survey) and two styles of contact approach (personalised and generic) in a community survey of greywater use. Potential respondents were contacted only once, with no follow up of non-responders. Results The telephone survey produced the highest adjusted response rate (30.2%), followed by the personalised postal survey (10.5%), generic postal survey (7.5%) and then the internet survey (4.7% for the personalised approach and 2.2% for the generic approach). There were some differences in household characteristics and greywater use rates between respondents to different survey modes, and between respondents to personalised and generic approaches. These may be attributable to the differing levels of motivations needed for a response, and varying levels of interest in the survey topic among greywater users and non-users. The generic postal survey had the lowest costs per valid survey received (Australian $22.93), followed by the personalised postal survey ($24.75). Conclusions Our findings suggest that postal surveys currently remain the most economic option for population-based studies, with similar costs for personalised and generic approaches. Internet surveys may be effective for specialised groups where email

  8. Improving survey response rates from parents in school-based research using a multi-level approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J Schilpzand

    Full Text Available While schools can provide a comprehensive sampling frame for community-based studies of children and their families, recruitment is challenging. Multi-level approaches which engage multiple school stakeholders have been recommended but few studies have documented their effects. This paper compares the impact of a standard versus enhanced engagement approach on multiple indicators of recruitment: parent response rates, response times, reminders required and sample characteristics.Parents and teachers were distributed a brief screening questionnaire as a first step for recruitment to a longitudinal study, with two cohorts recruited in consecutive years (cohort 1 2011, cohort 2 2012. For cohort 2, additional engagement strategies included the use of pre-notification postcards, improved study materials, and recruitment progress graphs provided to school staff. Chi-square and t-tests were used to examine cohort differences.Compared to cohort 1, a higher proportion of cohort 2 parents responded to the survey (76% versus 69%; p < 0.001, consented to participate (71% versus 56%; p < 0.001, agreed to teacher participation (90% versus 82%; p < 0.001 and agreed to follow-up contact (91% versus 80%; p < 0.001. Fewer cohort 2 parents required reminders (52% versus 63%; p < 0.001, and cohort 2 parents responded more promptly than cohort 1 parents (mean difference: 19.4 days, 95% CI: 18.0 to 20.9, p < 0.001.These results illustrate the value of investing in a relatively simple multi-level strategy to maximise parent response rates, and potentially reduce recruitment time and costs.

  9. The Cornella Health Interview Survey Follow-Up (CHIS.FU Study: design, methods, and response rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez Gloria

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this report is to describe the main characteristics of the design, including response rates, of the Cornella Health Interview Survey Follow-up Study. Methods The original cohort consisted of 2,500 subjects (1,263 women and 1,237 men interviewed as part of the 1994 Cornella Health Interview Study. A record linkage to update the address and vital status of the cohort members was carried out using, first a deterministic method, and secondly a probabilistic one, based on each subject's first name and surnames. Subsequently, we attempted to locate the cohort members to conduct the phone follow-up interviews. A pilot study was carried out to test the overall feasibility and to modify some procedures before the field work began. Results After record linkage, 2,468 (98.7% subjects were successfully traced. Of these, 91 (3.6% were deceased, 259 (10.3% had moved to other towns, and 50 (2.0% had neither renewed their last municipal census documents nor declared having moved. After using different strategies to track and to retain cohort members, we traced 92% of the CHIS participants. From them, 1,605 subjects answered the follow-up questionnaire. Conclusion The computerized record linkage maximized the success of the follow-up that was carried out 7 years after the baseline interview. The pilot study was useful to increase the efficiency in tracing and interviewing the respondents.

  10. Effect of prize draw incentive on the response rate to a postal survey of obstetricians and gynaecologists: A randomised controlled trial. [ISRCTN32823119

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark T Justin

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Response rates to postal questionnaires are falling and this threatens the external validity of survey findings. We wanted to establish whether the incentive of being entered into a prize draw to win a personal digital assistant (PDA would increase the response rate for a national survey of consultant obstetricians and gynaecologists. Methods A randomised controlled trial was conducted. This involved sending a postal questionnaire to all Consultant Obstetricians and Gynaecologists in the United Kingdom. Recipients were randomised to receiving a questionnaire offering a prize draw incentive (on response or no such incentive. Results The response rate for recipients offered the prize incentive was 64% (461/716 and 62% (429/694 in the no incentive group (relative rate of response 1.04, 95% CI 0.96 – 1.13 Conclusion The offer of a prize draw incentive to win a PDA did not significantly increase response rates to a national questionnaire survey of consultant obstetricians and gynaecologists.

  11. The dual impact of "appeal" and "researcher credibility" on mail survey response rate in the context of preventive health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angur, M G; Nataraajan, R; Chawla, S K

    1994-01-01

    Health and fitness centers are becoming increasingly aware of their importance in the realm of preventive health care. Many hospitals have begun to open and run fitness centers, a trend that seems very likely to continue. In a competitive environment, every center would desire to obtain maximum valid customer information at minimum cost, and this paper addresses this issue. The authors investigate the confluence of both appeal and researcher credibility on mail questionnaire response rates from a metropolitan membership of a large fitness center. Personal appeal with high researcher credibility was found to generate significantly higher response rate followed by the hybrid appeal with low researcher credibility.

  12. Survey and online discussion groups to develop a patient-rated outcome measure on acceptability of treatment response in vitiligo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Vitiligo is a chronic depigmenting skin disorder which affects around 0.5-1% of the world’s population. The outcome measures used most commonly in trials to judge treatment success focus on repigmentation. Patient-reported outcome measures of treatment success are rarely used, although recommendations have been made for their inclusion in vitiligo trials. This study aimed to evaluate the face validity of a new patient-reported outcome measure of treatment response, for use in future trials and clinical practice. Method An online survey to gather initial views on what constitutes treatment success for people with vitiligo or their parents/carers, followed by online discussion groups with patients to reach consensus on what constitutes treatment success for individuals with vitiligo, and how this can be assessed in the context of trials. Participants were recruited from an existing database of vitiligo patients and through posts on the social network sites Facebook and Twitter. Results A total of 202 survey responses were received, of which 37 were excluded and 165 analysed. Three main themes emerged as important in assessing treatment response: a) the match between vitiligo and normal skin (how well it blends in); b) how noticeable the vitiligo is and c) a reduction in the size of the white patches. The majority of respondents said they would consider 80% or more repigmentation to be a worthwhile treatment response after 9 months of treatment. Three online discussion groups involving 12 participants led to consensus that treatment success is best measured by asking patients how noticeable their vitiligo is after treatment. This was judged to be best answered using a 5-point Likert scale, on which a score of 4 or 5 represents treatment success. Conclusions This study represents the first step in developing a patient reported measure of treatment success in vitiligo trials. Further work is now needed to assess its construct validity and responsiveness to

  13. A randomized trial of the impact of survey design characteristics on response rates among nursing home providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melissa; Rogers, Michelle; Foster, Andrew; Dvorchak, Faye; Saadeh, Frances; Weaver, Jessica; Mor, Vincent

    2011-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to maximize participation of both the Director of Nursing (DoN) and the Administrator (ADMIN) in long-term care facilities. Providers in each of the 224 randomly selected facilities were randomly assigned to 1 of 16 conditions based on the combination of data collection mode (web vs. mail), questionnaire length (short vs. long), and incentive structure. Incentive structures were determined by amount compensated if the individual completed and an additional amount per individual if the pair completed (a) $30 individual/$5 pair/$35 total; (b) $10 individual/$25 pair/$35 total; (c) $30 individual/$20 pair/$50 total; and (d) $10 individual/$40 pair/$50 total. Overall, 47.4% of eligible respondents participated; both respondents participated in 29.3% of facilities. In multivariable analyses, there were no differences in the likelihood of both respondents participating by mode, questionnaire length, or incentive structure. Providing incentives contingent on participation by both providers of a facility was an ineffective strategy for significantly increasing response rates.

  14. Heart rate response to breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Pagh, K; Nielsen, J S

    1987-01-01

    Heart rate responses to stepwise and periodic changes in lung volume were studied in seven young healthy males. Stepwise inspiration and expiration both resulted in an increase in heart rate followed by a rapid decrease in heart rate. The fastest heart rate was reached in 1.6 +/- 0.5 s and in 3.......6 +/- 1.4 s in response to inspiration and expiration, respectively (P less than 0.01). The slowest heart rate was reached in 4.8 +/- 1.0 s and in 7.6 +/- 1.9 s in response to inspiration and expiration, respectively (P less than 0.01). Following this biphasic change the heart rate returned to a steady...... level. The difference between the fastest and the slowest heart rates was significantly larger in response to inspiration (21.7 +/- 7.3 beats per minute) than in response to expiration (12.0 +/- 7.3 beats per minute; P less than 0.01). Periodic changes in lung volume were performed with frequencies from...

  15. A Comparison of Web-Based and Paper-Based Survey Methods: Testing Assumptions of Survey Mode and Response Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlaw, Corey; Brown-Welty, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Web-based surveys have become more prevalent in areas such as evaluation, research, and marketing research to name a few. The proliferation of these online surveys raises the question, how do response rates compare with traditional surveys and at what cost? This research explored response rates and costs for Web-based surveys, paper surveys, and…

  16. Implementation of the forced answering option within online surveys: Do higher item response rates come at the expense of participation and answer quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Décieux Jean Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Online surveys have become a popular method for data gathering for many reasons, including low costs and the ability to collect data rapidly. However, online data collection is often conducted without adequate attention to implementation details. One example is the frequent use of the forced answering option, which forces the respondent to answer each question in order to proceed through the questionnaire. The avoidance of missing data is often the idea behind the use of the forced answering option. However, we suggest that the costs of a reactance effect in terms of quality reduction and unit nonresponse may be high because respondents typically have plausible reasons for not answering questions. The objective of the study reported in this paper was to test the influence of forced answering on dropout rates and data quality. The results show that requiring participants answer every question increases dropout rates and decreases quality of answers. Our findings suggest that the desire for a complete data set has to be balanced against the consequences of reduced data quality.

  17. Impact of participant incentives and direct and snowball sampling on survey response rate in an ethnically diverse community: results from a pilot study of physical activity and the built environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Daniel F; Nie, Jason X; Ardern, Chris I; Radhu, Natasha; Ritvo, Paul

    2013-02-01

    Community-wide efforts to encourage healthy behaviours must respond to the needs of existing neighbourhoods, especially those where low physical activity (PA) is associated with social, economic, and cultural challenges. This study reports on the effect of direct and snowball sampling strategies and financial incentive levels on the response rates of a built environment and PA survey in a predominately urban, low-SES new-immigrant community. Women residing in the Jane-Finch neighbourhood of Toronto, Ontario were selected to participate by quasi-random sampling, yielding a response rate of 41.5%. The survey completion rate per contact attempt increased 2-fold when incentives were increased from $10 to $20 and a further threefold following the increase from $20 to $30. Snowball sampled respondents were older, less likely to have full-time employment, and had lower educational attainment than directly sampled participants. With appropriate incentives, face-to-face contact, and snowball sampling, survey-based research is feasible within a low-SES, high minority population.

  18. 12 CFR 906.5 - Monthly interest rate survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Monthly interest rate survey. 906.5 Section 906... OPERATIONS OPERATIONS Monthly Interest Rate Survey (MIRS) § 906.5 Monthly interest rate survey. The Finance... Board and is used for determining the movement of the interest rate on renegotiable-rate mortgages and...

  19. Northern goshawk broadcast surveys: Hawk response variables and survey cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzanne M. Joy; Richard T. Reynolds; Douglas G. Leslie

    1994-01-01

    We examined responses of Northern Goshawks (Accipter gentilis) to taped broadcast calls of conspecifics in tree-harvest areas and around alternate goshawk nests on Kaibab National Forest, Arizona, in 1991 and 1992. Forest areas totaling 476 km2 were systematically surveyed for goshawks. Ninety responses by adult and juvenile goshawks were elicited...

  20. In Search of Motivation for the Business Survey Response Task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres van Grinsven, Vanessa; Bolko, Irena; Bavdaz, Mojca

    2014-01-01

    Increasing reluctance of businesses to participate in surveys often leads to declining or low response rates, poor data quality and burden complaints, and suggests that a driving force, that is, the motivation for participation and accurate and timely response, is insufficient or lacking.

  1. Effect of survey mode on response patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Illemann; Ekholm, Ola; Glümer, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    .7%). Marital status, ethnic background and highest completed education were associated with non-response in both modes. Furthermore, sex and age were associated with non-response in the self-administered mode. No significant mode effects were observed for indicators related to use of health services......BACKGROUND: While face-to-face interviews are considered the gold standard of survey modes, self-administered questionnaires are often preferred for cost and convenience. This article examines response patterns in two general population health surveys carried out by face-to-face interview and self......-administered questionnaire, respectively. METHOD: Data derives from a health interview survey in the Region of Southern Denmark (face-to-face interview) and The Danish Health and Morbidity Survey 2010 (self-administered questionnaire). Identical questions were used in both surveys. Data on all individuals were obtained from...

  2. Baseline response rates affect resistance to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Toshikazu; Cook, James E; Lattal, Kennon A

    2018-01-01

    The effect of response rates on resistance to change, measured as resistance to extinction, was examined in two experiments. In Experiment 1, responding in transition from a variable-ratio schedule and its yoked-interval counterpart to extinction was compared with pigeons. Following training on a multiple variable-ratio yoked-interval schedule of reinforcement, in which response rates were higher in the former component, reinforcement was removed from both components during a single extended extinction session. Resistance to extinction in the yoked-interval component was always either greater or equal to that in the variable-ratio component. In Experiment 2, resistance to extinction was compared for two groups of rats that exhibited either high or low response rates when maintained on identical variable-interval schedules. Resistance to extinction was greater for the lower-response-rate group. These results suggest that baseline response rate can contribute to resistance to change. Such effects, however, can only be revealed when baseline response rate and reinforcement rate are disentangled (Experiments 1 and 2) from the more usual circumstance where the two covary. Furthermore, they are more cleanly revealed when the programmed contingencies controlling high and low response rates are identical, as in Experiment 2. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  3. Response Strategies and Response Styles in Cross-Cultural Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morren, M.H.; Gelissen, J.P.T.M.; Vermunt, J.K.

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the following research questions: Do respondents participating in cross-cultural surveys differ in their response style when responding to attitude statements? If so, are characteristics of the response process associated with their ethnicity and generation of immigration? To

  4. Non-response in a survey among immigrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Fridberg, Torben; Jakobsen, Vibeke

    The purpose of this paper is to study how various characteristics of respondents and interviewers affect non-response among immigrants. We use a survey conducted among immigrants in Denmark and ethnic Danes. First, we analyse the determinants of overall non-response. Second, we analyse how...... the determinants of contact and of response given contact differ. We find that characteristics of the respondents are important for the response rate – especially they are important for the probability of getting in contact with the respondent. The lower probability of response among immigrants compared to ethnic...

  5. Identifying Careless Responses in Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Adam W.; Craig, S. Bartholomew

    2012-01-01

    When data are collected via anonymous Internet surveys, particularly under conditions of obligatory participation (such as with student samples), data quality can be a concern. However, little guidance exists in the published literature regarding techniques for detecting careless responses. Previously several potential approaches have been…

  6. In Search of Motivation for the Business Survey Response Task

    OpenAIRE

    Torres van Grinsven Vanessa; Bolko Irena; Bavdaž Mojca

    2014-01-01

    Increasing reluctance of businesses to participate in surveys often leads to declining or low response rates, poor data quality and burden complaints, and suggests that a driving force, that is, the motivation for participation and accurate and timely response, is insufficient or lacking. Inspiration for ways to remedy this situation has already been sought in the psychological theory of self-determination; previous research has favored enhancement of intrinsic motivation compared to extrinsi...

  7. Response rate of bricklayers and supervisors on an internet or a paper-and-pencil questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschman, Julitta S.; van der Molen, Henk F.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2012-01-01

    It is unclear whether or not internet surveys yield response rates comparable to paper-and-pencil surveys for specific occupational groups, such as construction workers. The objective of this study was to examine the differences in response rates between a paper-and-pencil questionnaire and an

  8. Assessing Response Bias in a Web Survey at a University Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menachemi, Nir

    2011-01-01

    Online surveys are increasingly common due to the myriad of benefits they offer over traditional survey methods. However, research has shown that response rates to web-based surveys are typically lower than to traditional surveys and can possibly yield biased results. University-based faculty members are a unique cohort that may be ideally suited…

  9. Responsive survey design, demographic data collection, and models of demographic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axinn, William G; Link, Cynthia F; Groves, Robert M

    2011-08-01

    To address declining response rates and rising data-collection costs, survey methodologists have devised new techniques for using process data ("paradata") to address nonresponse by altering the survey design dynamically during data collection. We investigate the substantive consequences of responsive survey design-tools that use paradata to improve the representative qualities of surveys and control costs. By improving representation of reluctant respondents, responsive design can change our understanding of the topic being studied. Using the National Survey of Family Growth Cycle 6, we illustrate how responsive survey design can shape both demographic estimates and models of demographic behaviors based on survey data. By juxtaposing measures from regular and responsive data collection phases, we document how special efforts to interview reluctant respondents may affect demographic estimates. Results demonstrate the potential of responsive survey design to change the quality of demographic research based on survey data.

  10. In Search of Motivation for the Business Survey Response Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres van Grinsven Vanessa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing reluctance of businesses to participate in surveys often leads to declining or low response rates, poor data quality and burden complaints, and suggests that a driving force, that is, the motivation for participation and accurate and timely response, is insufficient or lacking. Inspiration for ways to remedy this situation has already been sought in the psychological theory of self-determination; previous research has favored enhancement of intrinsic motivation compared to extrinsic motivation. Traditionally however, enhancing extrinsic motivation has been pervasive in business surveys. We therefore review this theory in the context of business surveys using empirical data from the Netherlands and Slovenia, and suggest that extrinsic motivation calls for at least as much attention as intrinsic motivation, that other sources of motivation may be relevant besides those stemming from the three fundamental psychological needs (competence, autonomy and relatedness, and that other approaches may have the potential to better explain some aspects of motivation in business surveys (e.g., implicit motives. We conclude with suggestions that survey organizations can consider when attempting to improve business survey response behavior.

  11. Crop yield response to increasing biochar rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The benefit or detriment to crop yield from biochar application varies with biochar type/rate, soil, crop, or climate. The objective of this research was to identify yield response of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), corn (Zea mayes L.), and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to hardwood biochar applied at...

  12. Survey of environmental radiation dose rates in Tokushima prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakama, Minoru; Imura, Hiroyoshi; Akou, Natsuki; Takeuchi, Emi; Morihiro, Yukinori

    2004-01-01

    Survey of environmental radiation dose rates in Tokushima prefecture has been carried out using a portable NaI (Tl) scintillation survey meter and a CsI(Tl) pocket type one. To our knowledge, previous several surveys in Tokushima, for example by Abe et al. (1982) and Yoshino et al. (1991), have remained to report the environmental radiation dose rates merely about the major cities, that is Tokushima City and others along the Pacific. Up to now, there have been few efforts to survey the environmental radiation dose rates about mountain valleys in Tokushima. In this work, it is remarkable that we have for the first time made surveys of environmental radiation dose rates on the 6 routes across the Sanuki mountains and inside the pier of Onaruto Bridge, 'Naruto Uzu-no-michi', in the northern area of Tokushima. In the course of present surveys, the maximum value of the environmental radiation dose rates was 0.117±0.020 μGy/h at Higetouge in Sanuki City, and then it was found that the radiation dose rates across the Sanuki mountains tend to increase slightly with approaching Kagawa area from Tokushima one. Considering geological formation around the northern side of Sanuki mountains, there are mainly geological layers of granodiorite containing in the substantial amount of naturally occurring radionuclides, 40 K, U-series, and Th-series, than other geological rocks and it was found that the terrestrial gamma-rays have effect on the environmental radiation dose rates according to the geological formation. (author)

  13. Response rate and reinforcement rate in Pavlovian conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Justin A; Carpenter, Joanne S

    2011-10-01

    Four experiments used delay conditioning of magazine approach in rats to investigate the relationship between the rate of responding, R, to a conditioned stimulus (CS) and the rate, r, at which the CS is reinforced with the unconditioned stimulus (US). Rats were concurrently trained with four variable-duration CSs with different rs, either as a result of differences in the mean CS-US interval or in the proportion of CS presentations that ended with the US. In each case, R was systematically related to r, and the relationship was very accurately characterized by a hyperbolic function, R = Ar/(r +c). Accordingly, the reciprocal of these two variables-response interval, I (= 1/R), and CS-US interval, i (= 1/r) - were related by a simple affine (straight line) transformation, I = mi+b. This latter relationship shows that each increment in the time that the rats had to wait for food produced a linear increment in the time they waited between magazine entries. We discuss the close agreement between our findings and the Matching Law (Herrnstein, 1970) and consider their implications for both associative theories (e.g., Rescorla & Wagner, 1972) and nonassociative theories (Gallistel & Gibbon, 2000) of conditioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. [Factors affecting the participation rates in epidemiologic surveys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, R Z; Jiao, W; Mu, L G; Chen, K; Li, G; Huang, W; Wang, R X; Tan, S R

    2017-10-10

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the response in health-related epidemiological investigation among Chinese population aged 15 and over. We analyzed the specific causes of non-response, and explored the effective ways to improve the response rate, so as to provide reference for future epidemiological studies of this kind. Methods: Two modes of studies regarding the prevalence of important cardiovascular diseases were used in Chongqing, during the 12(th) Five-Year Plan period in oder to find out the cause related to non-response. Intervention programs were carried out to evaluate the effects. Results: When using the concentrated mode (CM), the completion rate to the questionnaires was only 20.00 % in the pre-investigation, with the response rate as 13.48 % . In the deconcentrated mode (DM), the completion rate was 31.16 % , with the response rate as 25.19 % . After a series of incentives provided to both the respondents and the project-related core staff in the two modes, response rates of the two modes increased to the expected 60 % . Conclusions: CM appeared having advantages on quality control, but was more time consuming, with higher cost, and without effective follow-up measures to improve the response rate. However, DM had the advantages on controlling the cost and could increase the response rate through making advanced appointment with the households but quality control remained difficult. Two key points should be strengthened to improve the response rates, which including: Precisely finding out the research objects and providing incentives to the respondents to attract their interests of participating in the investigation.

  15. Bucket Foundation Response Under Various Displacement Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    in a multi-bucket foundation system. The foundation model is at a scale of approximately 1:20 prototype foundation size. The tests are performed in a pressure tank with the foundation model installed in dense sand. Based on the data, the conclusion is that the bucket foundation design in a storm case should......The present testing program aims at showing the pore pressure response around a bucket foundation skirt as well as the load and displacement change due to ten different displacement rates. Research findings are useful for a numerical model calibration focusing on the design of the upwind foundation...

  16. Emigration Rates From Sample Surveys: An Application to Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willekens, Frans; Zinn, Sabine; Leuchter, Matthias

    2017-12-01

    What is the emigration rate of a country, and how reliable is that figure? Answering these questions is not at all straightforward. Most data on international migration are census data on foreign-born population. These migrant stock data describe the immigrant population in destination countries but offer limited information on the rate at which people leave their country of origin. The emigration rate depends on the number leaving in a given period and the population at risk of leaving, weighted by the duration at risk. Emigration surveys provide a useful data source for estimating emigration rates, provided that the estimation method accounts for sample design. In this study, emigration rates and confidence intervals are estimated from a sample survey of households in the Dakar region in Senegal, which was part of the Migration between Africa and Europe survey. The sample was a stratified two-stage sample with oversampling of households with members abroad or return migrants. A combination of methods of survival analysis (time-to-event data) and replication variance estimation (bootstrapping) yields emigration rates and design-consistent confidence intervals that are representative for the study population.

  17. PowerChoice Residential Customer Response to TOU Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Jane S.; Moezzi, Mithra; Lutzenhiser, Susan; Woods, James; Dethman, Linda; Kunkle, Rick

    2009-10-01

    Research Into Action, Inc. and the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) worked together to conduct research on the behaviors and energy use patterns of SMUD residential customers who voluntarily signed on to a Time-of-Use rate pilot launched under the PowerChoice label. The project was designed to consider the how and why of residential customers ability and willingness to engage in demand reduction behaviors, and to link social and behavioral factors to observed changes in demand. The research drew on a combination of load interval data and three successive surveys of participating households. Two experimental treatments were applied to test the effects of increased information on households ability to respond to the Time-of-Use rates. Survey results indicated that participants understood the purpose of the Time-of-Use rate and undertook substantial appropriate actions to shift load and conserve. Statistical tests revealed minor initial price effects and more marked, but still modest, adjustments to seasonal rate changes. Tests of the two information interventions indicated that neither made much difference to consumption patterns. Despite the lackluster statistical evidence for load shifting, the analysis points to key issues for critical analysis and development of residential Time-of-Use rates, especially pertinent as California sets the stage for demand response in more California residences.

  18. Non-response weighting adjustment approach in survey sampling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hence the discussion is illustrated with real examples from surveys (in particular 2003 KDHS) conducted by Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) - Kenya. Some suggestions are made for improving the quality of non-response weighting. Keywords: Survey non-response; non-response adjustment factors; weighting; sampling ...

  19. Using Norm-Based Appeals to Increase Response Rates in Evaluation Research: A Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Shalini; Stokols, Daniel; Marino, Anne Heberger

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to test the effectiveness of norm-based persuasive messages for increasing response rates in online survey research. Participants in an interdisciplinary conference were asked to complete two successive postconference surveys and randomly assigned to one of two groups at each time point. The experimental group…

  20. Dose-rate dependence of thermoluminescence response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeever, S.W.S.; Chen, R.; Groom, P.J.; Durrani, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    The previously observed dose-rate effect of thermoluminescence in quartz at high dose-rates is given at theoretical formulation. Computer calculations simulating the experimental conditions yield similar results to the experimental ones. (orig.)

  1. A survey of optometry leadership: participation in disaster response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psoter, Walter J; Glotzer, David L; Weiserbs, Kera Fay; Baek, Linda S; Karloopia, Rajiv

    2012-01-01

    A study was completed to assess the academic and state-level professional optometry leadership views regarding optometry professionals as surge responders in the event of a catastrophic event. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a 21-question, self-administered, structured questionnaire. All U.S. optometry school deans and state optometric association presidents were mailed a questionnaire and instructions to return it by mail on completion; 2 repeated mailings were made. Descriptive statistics were produced and differences between deans and association presidents were tested by Fisher exact test. The questionnaire response rate was 50% (25 returned/50 sent) for the state association presidents and 65% (11/17) for the deans. There were no statistically significant differences between the leadership groups for any survey questions. All agreed that optometrists have the skills, are ethically obligated to help, and that optometrists should receive additional training for participation in disaster response. There was general agreement that optometrists should provide first-aid, obtain medical histories, triage, maintain infection control, manage a point of distribution, prescribe medications, and counsel the "worried well." Starting intravenous lines, interpreting radiographs, and suturing were less favorably supported. There was some response variability between the 2 leadership groups regarding potential sources for training. The overall opinion of optometry professional leadership is that with additional training, optometrists can and should provide an important reserve pool of catastrophic event responders. Copyright © 2011 American Optometric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Characteristics of non-response in the Danish Health Interview Surveys, 1987-1994

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøller, Mette; Thoning, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The types and quantity of non-response in surveys influence the extent to which the results may be generalized. This study analysed trends in non-response in the Danish Health Interview Surveys from 1987 to 1994 and used the National Patient Registry to assess whether non-response bia......BACKGROUND: The types and quantity of non-response in surveys influence the extent to which the results may be generalized. This study analysed trends in non-response in the Danish Health Interview Surveys from 1987 to 1994 and used the National Patient Registry to assess whether non...... respondents before data collection but similar during and after data collection. The rate was higher during the whole period among ill or disabled non-respondents. Among people who could not be contacted during the data collection period a higher admission rate was only found immediately before and during...

  3. An examination of responses to surveys among Filipino-Australian migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneze, Della; Everett, Bronwyn; DiGiacomo, Michelle; Davidson, Patricia M; Salamonson, Yenna

    2016-11-18

    Background Surveys are frequently used to collect data. Although paper surveys are commonly used, online surveys are gaining in popularity, with the inclusion of open-ended questions (OEQs) allowing respondents to freely express their views. Little is known about how Filipino-Australian migrants respond to surveys. There is some concern about the usefulness of OEQs administered to culturally and linguistically diverse migrants, who may have limited capacity to articulate their thoughts in writing. Aim To examine the responses of Filipino-Australian migrants to a survey. Discussion A total of 552 respondents were recruited, of whom 428 (78%) completed the questionnaire online. The overall response rate to the OEQs was 69%, with higher completion rates among those given a paper-based questionnaire and those with university educations. Conclusion Filipino migrants with functional English language skills responded well to the online survey. Paper-based administration elicited more OEQ responses, which is attributed to greater interaction between participants and researchers. Those with university educations may have more capacity to express themselves in English and were therefore more likely to complete the OEQs. Implications for practice The high response rate obtained in this study suggests that among Filipino-Australian migrants who rated their English language skills and educational level highly, the translation of OEQs may not be necessary. This has important implications for resources in research. Face-to-face interaction between participants and researchers is an important strategy for increasing the rates of response to OEQs.

  4. Exporter Price Response to Exchange Rate Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosse, Henrik Barslund

    Firms exporting to foreign markets face a particular challenge: to price their exports in a foreign market when the exchange rate changes. This paper takes on pricing- to-market using a unique data set that covers rm level monthly trade at great detail. As opposed to annual trade ows, monthly trade...... theoretical contributions to the litterature on pricing-to-market and exchange rate pass-through....

  5. Heart rate response to hypoxic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Møller, P; Kanstrup, I L

    2001-01-01

    progressively decreased the maximal heart rate from day 1 and onwards; also, hypoxia by itself increased plasma noradrenaline levels after maximal exercise. Domperidone further increased maximal noradrenaline concentrations, but had no effect on maximal heart rate. On each study day at altitude, oxygen......This study examined the effects of dopamine D(2)-receptor blockade on the early decrease in maximal heart rate at high altitude (4559 m). We also attempted to clarify the time-dependent component of this reduction and the extent to which it is reversed by oxygen breathing. Twelve subjects performed...... two consecutive maximal exercise tests, without and with oxygen supplementation respectively, at sea level and after 1, 3 and 5 days at altitude. On each study day, domperidone (30 mg; n=6) or no medication (n=6) was given 1 h before the first exercise session. Compared with sea level, hypoxia...

  6. Predicting survey responses: how and why semantics shape survey statistics on organizational behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Ketil Arnulf

    Full Text Available Some disciplines in the social sciences rely heavily on collecting survey responses to detect empirical relationships among variables. We explored whether these relationships were a priori predictable from the semantic properties of the survey items, using language processing algorithms which are now available as new research methods. Language processing algorithms were used to calculate the semantic similarity among all items in state-of-the-art surveys from Organisational Behaviour research. These surveys covered areas such as transformational leadership, work motivation and work outcomes. This information was used to explain and predict the response patterns from real subjects. Semantic algorithms explained 60-86% of the variance in the response patterns and allowed remarkably precise prediction of survey responses from humans, except in a personality test. Even the relationships between independent and their purported dependent variables were accurately predicted. This raises concern about the empirical nature of data collected through some surveys if results are already given a priori through the way subjects are being asked. Survey response patterns seem heavily determined by semantics. Language algorithms may suggest these prior to administering a survey. This study suggests that semantic algorithms are becoming new tools for the social sciences, opening perspectives on survey responses that prevalent psychometric theory cannot explain.

  7. Effects of Mentioning the Incentive Prize in the Email Subject Line on Survey Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Janke

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This study examined the effects that mentioning the survey incentive prize in the subject line of a reminder email had on the response rate and data quality. To date, manipulation of the subject line, specifically in terms of mentioning the incentive prize, has received limited attention in the survey design literature. Methods – The delivery of the survey invitation is discussed in terms of the timing of the launch and reminder emails. Particular emphasis is given to the design of the email subject line and justification of the format. Weekly response rates from four LibQUAL+TM surveys were compared. In addition, weekly responses for one year were analyzed using SPSS to investigate if there were any between means differences in terms of three elements of data quality. The three elements were: length of time it took to complete the survey, the number of core questions with an N/A response, and the number of illogical responses where minimum scores were higher than desired. Results – The response rates for the second week were grouped together based on the presence or absence of the subject line manipulation. There was a significant difference between these means (4.75%, p 0.033. There was no statistical difference in regards to the measures of data quality as determined by a one-way ANOVA test. Conclusions – Reminding survey participants with an email that mentions the incentive prize in the subject line appears to increase response rates with no deleterious effects on data quality. The results of this investigation are encouraging, and those running the LibQUAL+TM survey in their universities should consider implementing this method to increase response rates. Further research to replicate these findings in other contexts and using an experimental design would be beneficial.

  8. Living with Smartphones: Does Completion Device Affect Survey Responses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Amber D.; Miller, Angie L.

    2015-01-01

    With the growing reliance on tablets and smartphones for internet access, understanding the effects of completion device on online survey responses becomes increasing important. This study uses data from the Strategic National Arts Alumni Project, a multi-institution online alumni survey designed to obtain knowledge of arts education, to explore…

  9. Assessment of health surveys: fitting a multidimensional graded response model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depaoli, Sarah; Tiemensma, Jitske; Felt, John M

    The multidimensional graded response model, an item response theory (IRT) model, can be used to improve the assessment of surveys, even when sample sizes are restricted. Typically, health-based survey development utilizes classical statistical techniques (e.g. reliability and factor analysis). In a review of four prominent journals within the field of Health Psychology, we found that IRT-based models were used in less than 10% of the studies examining scale development or assessment. However, implementing IRT-based methods can provide more details about individual survey items, which is useful when determining the final item content of surveys. An example using a quality of life survey for Cushing's syndrome (CushingQoL) highlights the main components for implementing the multidimensional graded response model. Patients with Cushing's syndrome (n = 397) completed the CushingQoL. Results from the multidimensional graded response model supported a 2-subscale scoring process for the survey. All items were deemed as worthy contributors to the survey. The graded response model can accommodate unidimensional or multidimensional scales, be used with relatively lower sample sizes, and is implemented in free software (example code provided in online Appendix). Use of this model can help to improve the quality of health-based scales being developed within the Health Sciences.

  10. Wenckebach upper rate response in single chamber pacemaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barold, S S

    2000-07-01

    The Medtronic Minix pacemaker during normal function in the VVT mode was found to exhibit a Wenckenbach upper rate response similar to that of dual chamber devices. This behavior occurred only when the upper rate interval was longer than the pacemaker refractory period. In a single chamber device this response may simulate pacemaker malfunction.

  11. Determination for energy response and directionality of neutron survey meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Changmao; Liu Jinhua; Xie Jianlun; Su Jingling

    1992-01-01

    The energy response and directionality of neutron survey meter type MK7 and 2202D are determined. The reactor thermal column beam, reactor filtered beams (6 eV, 24.4 keV and 144 keV), 226 Ra-Be, 241 Am-Be, 252 Cf and its moderated sources are used for the measurement. The results shows: the survey meters are influenced obviously by the direction; the response of middle-energy region is large, the energy response of 2202D is better than MK7

  12. Factors affecting study efficiency and item non-response in health surveys in developing countries: the Jamaica national healthy lifestyle survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Franklyn

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health surveys provide important information on the burden and secular trends of risk factors and disease. Several factors including survey and item non-response can affect data quality. There are few reports on efficiency, validity and the impact of item non-response, from developing countries. This report examines factors associated with item non-response and study efficiency in a national health survey in a developing Caribbean island. Methods A national sample of participants aged 15–74 years was selected in a multi-stage sampling design accounting for 4 health regions and 14 parishes using enumeration districts as primary sampling units. Means and proportions of the variables of interest were compared between various categories. Non-response was defined as failure to provide an analyzable response. Linear and logistic regression models accounting for sample design and post-stratification weighting were used to identify independent correlates of recruitment efficiency and item non-response. Results We recruited 2012 15–74 year-olds (66.2% females at a response rate of 87.6% with significant variation between regions (80.9% to 97.6%; p Conclusion Informative health surveys are possible in developing countries. While survey response rates may be satisfactory, item non-response was high in respect of income and sexual practice. In contrast to developed countries, non-response to questions on income is higher and has different correlates. These findings can inform future surveys.

  13. Improving completion rates in adult education through social responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Mariager-Anderson, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Dropout is a serious problem within education. This article reports on an intervention project, titled “New Roles for the Teacher—Increased Completion Rates Through Social Responsibility,” which sought to reduce nonattendance and dropout rates in the Danish adult educational system by improving...... of reducing drop-out rates. As a consequence, the teachers acted more consistently and purposefully to prevent dropout, and a positive effect of the intervention on drop-out rates was documented....

  14. Comparing web and mail responses in a mixed mode survey in college alcohol use research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Diez, Alison; Boyd, Carol J.; Nelson, Toben F.; Weitzman, Elissa R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This exploratory study examined potential mode effects (web versus U.S. mail) in a mixed mode design survey of alcohol use at eight U.S. colleges. Methods Randomly selected students from eight U.S. colleges were invited to participate in a self-administered survey on their alcohol use in the spring of 2002. Data were collected initially by web survey (n =2619) and non-responders to this mode were mailed a hardcopy survey (n =628). Results College students who were male, living on-campus and under 21 years of age were significantly more likely to complete the initial web survey. Multivariate analyses revealed few substantive differences between survey modality and alcohol use measures. Conclusions The findings from this study provide preliminary evidence that web and mail surveys produce comparable estimates of alcohol use in a non-randomized mixed mode design. The results suggest that mixed mode survey designs could be effective at reaching certain college sub-populations and improving overall response rate while maintaining valid measurement of alcohol use. Web surveys are gaining popularity in survey research and more work is needed to examine whether these results can extend to web surveys generally or are specific to mixed mode designs. PMID:16460882

  15. Reducing questionnaire length did not improve physician response rate: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Eva E; van der Heide, Agnes; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D

    2014-04-01

    To examine the effect of reducing questionnaire length on the response rate in a physician survey. A postal four double-page questionnaire on end-of-life decision making was sent to a random sample of 1,100 general practitioners, 400 elderly care physicians, and 500 medical specialists. Another random sample of 500 medical specialists received a shorter questionnaire of two double pages. After 3 months and one reminder, all nonresponding physicians received an even shorter questionnaire of one double page. Total response was 64% (1,456 of 2,269 eligible respondents). Response rate of medical specialists for the four double-page questionnaire was equal to that of the two double-page questionnaire (190 and 191 questionnaires were returned, respectively). The total response rate increased from 53% to 64% after sending a short one double-page questionnaire (1,203-1,456 respondents). The results of our study suggest that reducing the length of a long questionnaire in a physician survey does not necessarily improve response rate. To improve response rate and gather more information, researchers could decide to send a drastically shortened version of the questionnaire to nonresponders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Approximate median regression for complex survey data with skewed response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Raphael André; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Sinha, Debajyoti; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Pan, Yi

    2016-12-01

    The ready availability of public-use data from various large national complex surveys has immense potential for the assessment of population characteristics using regression models. Complex surveys can be used to identify risk factors for important diseases such as cancer. Existing statistical methods based on estimating equations and/or utilizing resampling methods are often not valid with survey data due to complex survey design features. That is, stratification, multistage sampling, and weighting. In this article, we accommodate these design features in the analysis of highly skewed response variables arising from large complex surveys. Specifically, we propose a double-transform-both-sides (DTBS)'based estimating equations approach to estimate the median regression parameters of the highly skewed response; the DTBS approach applies the same Box-Cox type transformation twice to both the outcome and regression function. The usual sandwich variance estimate can be used in our approach, whereas a resampling approach would be needed for a pseudo-likelihood based on minimizing absolute deviations (MAD). Furthermore, the approach is relatively robust to the true underlying distribution, and has much smaller mean square error than a MAD approach. The method is motivated by an analysis of laboratory data on urinary iodine (UI) concentration from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. © 2016, The International Biometric Society.

  17. Survey of productivity rates used for highway construction.

    OpenAIRE

    Harber, Michael A.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis document was issued under the authority of another institution, not NPS. At the time it was written, a copy was added to the NPS Library collection for reasons not now known. It has been included in the digital archive for its historical value to NPS. Not believed to be a CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) title. The purpose of this paper was to report on a survey conducted by the University of Florida for the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT). The survey analyzed the pro...

  18. Corporate Social Responsibility in Engineering Education. A French Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didier, C.; Huet, R.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present and discuss the results of a survey of how corporate social responsibility (CSR) is being discussed and taught in engineering education in France. We shall first describe how those questions have been recently tackled in various programmes of higher education in France. We shall also analyse what faculty members have to…

  19. A questionnaire survey of senior house officers/registrars response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A questionnaire survey of senior house officers/registrars response to their training at University College Hospital, Ibadan. ... A regular conduct of auditing of training programmes is recommended. Keywords: Questionnaire ... spécialistes. Nous proposons l'organisation régulière de la verification de programme de formation.

  20. Rising Mercury, Rising Hostility: How Heat Affects Survey Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alexander H.; Krueger, James S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent social scientific research has examined connections between public opinion and weather conditions. This article contributes to this literature by analyzing the relationship between high temperature and survey response. Because hot temperatures are associated with aggression, irritation, and negativity, such conditions should lead to the…

  1. Improving Completion Rates in Adult Education through Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Mariager-Anderson, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Dropout is a serious problem within education. This article reports on an intervention project, titled "New Roles for the Teacher--Increased Completion Rates Through Social Responsibility," which sought to reduce nonattendance and drop-out rates in the Danish adult educational system by improving teachers' competences. This goal was…

  2. What impact do questionnaire length and monetary incentives have on mailed health psychology survey response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Kathryn A; Gatting, Lauren; Wardle, Jane

    2017-11-01

    Response rates to health-related surveys are declining. This study tested two strategies to improve the response rate to a health psychology survey mailed through English general practices: (1) sending a shortened questionnaire and (2) offering a monetary incentive to return a completed questionnaire. Randomized controlled trial. Adults (n = 4,241) aged 45-59 years, from four General Practices in South-East England, were mailed a survey on attitudes towards bowel cancer screening. Using a 2 × 4 factorial design, participants were randomized to receive a 'short' (four A4 pages) or a 'long' (seven A4 pages) questionnaire, and one of four monetary incentives to return a completed questionnaire - (1) no monetary incentive, (2) £2.50 shop voucher, (3) £5.00 shop voucher, and (4) inclusion in a £250 shop voucher prize draw. Age, gender, and area-level deprivation were obtained from the General Practices. The overall response rate was 41% (n = 1,589). Response to the 'short' questionnaire (42%) was not significantly different from the 'long' questionnaire (40%). The £2.50 incentive (43%) significantly improved response rates in univariate analyses, and remained significant after controlling for age, gender, area-level deprivation, and questionnaire length. The £5.00 (42%) and £250 prize draw (41%) incentives had no significant impact on response rates compared to no incentive (38%). A small monetary incentive (£2.50) may slightly increase response to a mailed health psychology survey. The length of the questionnaire (four pages vs. seven pages) did not influence response. Although frequently used, entry into a prize draw did not increase response. Achieving representative samples remains a challenge for health psychology. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject Response rates to mailed questionnaires continue to decline, threatening the representativeness of data. Prize draw incentives are frequently used but there is little evidence

  3. Survey of breast implant patients: characteristics, depression rate, and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaaji, Amin; Bjertness, Cecilie Bergsmark; Nordahl, Cathrine; Olafsen, Kjell

    2013-02-01

    Quality of life (QOL) among breast augmentation patients is a growing research area, with newly worrisome data on psychological health in this group. The authors investigate characteristics of breast implant patients, including motivations for surgery, depression rate, effect of surgery on daily activity and work activity, and overall psychosocial and cosmetic changes through a self-reported survey. Of 121 consecutive breast augmentation patients treated by the senior author (AK) between 2005 and 2008, a total of 93 patients were reachable via e-mail and were sent a 47-question survey, which they could return anonymously. Answers were processed by QuestBack mail system (QuestBack AS, Oslo, Norway) and sent to the authors as diagrams and figures, rather than as raw data. The response rate for this survey was 67%. Average follow-up was 2.8 years. For 65%, the motivation for surgery was cosmetic; 48% replied it was for emotional reasons (reduced self-esteem), 22% for intimate reasons, and 10% for physical reasons. Before the operation, 6% of respondents reported diagnosed depression. The postoperative changes were equal between improved and worsened depression. In 27%, the operation increased motivation for daily activities; 73% felt like a "whole" person, and 26% experienced improvement in social skills. In terms of the cosmetic result, 93% were satisfied or very satisfied. However, 27% indicated they were unsatisfied or very unsatisfied with skin sensation. Although in some cases depression increased postoperatively, the depression rate in our study was still lower than the published range in the general population in Norway. Breast enlargement increased motivation to perform daily activities in our patients. The procedure improved QOL in both psychosocial and cosmetic aspects. However, the relatively high percentage of patients who experienced reduced breast skin sensitivity postoperatively can represent a challenge for the surgeon. Multicenter/clinic studies are

  4. Biological responses to low dose rate gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magae, Junji; Ogata, Hiromitsu

    2003-01-01

    Linear non-threshold (LNT) theory is a basic theory for radioprotection. While LNT dose not consider irradiation time or dose-rate, biological responses to radiation are complex processes dependent on irradiation time as well as total dose. Moreover, experimental and epidemiological studies that can evaluate LNT at low dose/low dose-rate are not sufficiently accumulated. Here we analyzed quantitative relationship among dose, dose-rate and irradiation time using chromosomal breakage and proliferation inhibition of human cells as indicators of biological responses. We also acquired quantitative data at low doses that can evaluate adaptability of LNT with statistically sufficient accuracy. Our results demonstrate that biological responses at low dose-rate are remarkably affected by exposure time, and they are dependent on dose-rate rather than total dose in long-term irradiation. We also found that change of biological responses at low dose was not linearly correlated to dose. These results suggest that it is necessary for us to create a new model which sufficiently includes dose-rate effect and correctly fits of actual experimental and epidemiological results to evaluate risk of radiation at low dose/low dose-rate. (author)

  5. What Do K-12 Teachers Think about Including Student Surveys in Their Performance Ratings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dretzke, Beverly J.; Sheldon, Timothy D.; Lim, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated K-12 teachers' opinions about the use of student surveys as a component of a teacher evaluation system. Surveys were administered to teachers at the beginning of the school year and again in the spring. Analyses of teachers' responses on the fall survey indicated tentative support for the inclusion of student feedback in…

  6. Growth and development rates have different thermal responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Jack; Hirst, Andrew G; Woodward, Guy

    2011-11-01

    Growth and development rates are fundamental to all living organisms. In a warming world, it is important to determine how these rates will respond to increasing temperatures. It is often assumed that the thermal responses of physiological rates are coupled to metabolic rate and thus have the same temperature dependence. However, the existence of the temperature-size rule suggests that intraspecific growth and development are decoupled. Decoupling of these rates would have important consequences for individual species and ecosystems, yet this has not been tested systematically across a range of species. We conducted an analysis on growth and development rate data compiled from the literature for a well-studied group, marine pelagic copepods, and use an information-theoretic approach to test which equations best describe these rates. Growth and development rates were best characterized by models with significantly different parameters: development has stronger temperature dependence than does growth across all life stages. As such, it is incorrect to assume that these rates have the same temperature dependence. We used the best-fit models for these rates to predict changes in organism mass in response to temperature. These predictions follow a concave relationship, which complicates attempts to model the impacts of increasing global temperatures on species body size.

  7. Mapping neighborhood scale survey responses with uncertainty metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Robert Ehlschlaeger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology of mapping population-centric social, infrastructural, and environmental metrics at neighborhood scale. This methodology extends traditional survey analysis methods to create cartographic products useful in agent-based modeling and geographic information analysis. It utilizes and synthesizes survey microdata, sub-upazila attributes, land use information, and ground truth locations of attributes to create neighborhood scale multi-attribute maps. Monte Carlo methods are employed to combine any number of survey responses to stochastically weight survey cases and to simulate survey cases' locations in a study area. Through such Monte Carlo methods, known errors from each of the input sources can be retained. By keeping individual survey cases as the atomic unit of data representation, this methodology ensures that important covariates are retained and that ecological inference fallacy is eliminated. These techniques are demonstrated with a case study from the Chittagong Division in Bangladesh. The results provide a population-centric understanding of many social, infrastructural, and environmental metrics desired in humanitarian aid and disaster relief planning and operations wherever long term familiarity is lacking. Of critical importance is that the resulting products have easy to use explicit representation of the errors and uncertainties of each of the input sources via the automatically generated summary statistics created at the application's geographic scale.

  8. Estimated rate of agricultural injury: the Korean Farmers’ Occupational Disease and Injury Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Chae, Hyeseon; Min, Kyungdoo; Youn, kanwoo; Park, Jinwoo; Kim, Kyungran; Kim, Hyocher; Lee, Kyungsuk

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study estimated the rate of agricultural injury using a nationwide survey and identified factors associated with these injuries. Methods The first Korean Farmers’ Occupational Disease and Injury Survey (KFODIS) was conducted by the Rural Development Administration in 2009. Data from 9,630 adults were collected through a household survey about agricultural injuries suffered in 2008. We estimated the injury rates among those whose injury required an absence of more than 4 days. ...

  9. A strong response to selection on mass-independent maximal metabolic rate without a correlated response in basal metabolic rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wone, B W M; Madsen, Per; Donovan, E R

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic rates are correlated with many aspects of ecology, but how selection on different aspects of metabolic rates affects their mutual evolution is poorly understood. Using laboratory mice, we artificially selected for high maximal mass-independent metabolic rate (MMR) without direct selection...... on mass-independent basal metabolic rate (BMR). Then we tested for responses to selection in MMR and correlated responses to selection in BMR. In other lines, we antagonistically selected for mice with a combination of high mass-independent MMR and low mass-independent BMR. All selection protocols...... and data analyses included body mass as a covariate, so effects of selection on the metabolic rates are mass adjusted (that is, independent of effects of body mass). The selection lasted eight generations. Compared with controls, MMR was significantly higher (11.2%) in lines selected for increased MMR...

  10. Residential response to voluntary time-of-use electricity rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostafa Baladi, S. [Laurits R. Christensen Associates, Inc. Ames, IA 50011-1070 (United States); Herriges, Joseph A. [Iowa State University, 280D Heady Hall, Department of Economics, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1070 (United States); Sweeney, Thomas J. [MidAmerican Energy, Des Moines, Iowa (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The response of residential households to voluntary Time-of-Use (TOU) electricity rates is estimated using data from a recent experiment at Midwest Power Systems of Iowa. The study`s design allows us to examine both the participation decision and the customer`s load pattern changes once the TOU rate structure was in effect. Substitution elasticities between on-peak and off-peak electricity usage are estimated and compared to those obtained in earlier mandatory programs, indicating whether program volunteers are more responsive to TOU pricing than the typical household. Attitudinal questionnaires allow us to examine the role of usage perceptions in program participation

  11. Pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system in Ireland: methods and response rates

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Keeffe, Linda M.

    2014-06-01

    To describe response rates and characteristics associated with response to the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System study in Ireland (PRAMS Ireland). Using hospital discharge records of live births at a large, urban, obstetric hospital, a sampling frame of approximately 2,400 mother-infant pairs were used to alternately sample 1,200 women. Mothers’ information including name, address, parity, age and infant characteristics such as sex and gestational age at delivery were extracted from records. Modes of contact included an invitation letter with option to opt out of the study, three mail surveys, a reminder letter and text message reminder for remaining non-respondents. Sixty-one per cent of women responded to the PRAMS Ireland survey over a 133 day response period. Women aged <30, single women, multiparous women and women with a preterm delivery were less likely to respond. Women participating in PRAMS Ireland were similar to the national birth profile in 2011 which had a mean age of 32, were 40 % primiparous, 33 % single or never married and had a 28 % caesarean section rate. Survey and protocol changes are required to increase response rates above recommended Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) thresholds of 65 % within the recommended 90 day data collection cycle. Additional efforts such as stratification and over-sampling are required to increase representativeness among hard to reach groups such as younger, single and multiparous women before expanding the project to an ongoing, national surveillance system in Ireland.

  12. Survey of corporate social responsibility practices in Nigerian manufacturing sector

    OpenAIRE

    Akinyomi, Oladele John

    2013-01-01

    Based on stakeholders’ theory, this study examined the practice of corporate social responsibility by manufacturing companies in Nigeria. It employed survey research design to study 15 randomly selected companies in the food and beverages sector. A total of 225 questionnaires were administered to collect data. Data analysis revealed that CSR is a familiar concept in the sector as most of the companies do engage in CSR activities regularly. The major areas of focus of the CSR activities includ...

  13. Heart Rate Variability: Effect of Exercise Intensity on Postexercise Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, David V. B.; Munson, Steven C.; Maldonado-Martin, Sara; De Ste Croix, Mark B. A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of two exercise intensities (moderate and severe) on heart rate variability (HRV) response in 16 runners 1 hr prior to (-1 hr) and at +1 hr, +24 hr, +48 hr, and +72 hr following each exercise session. Time domain indexes and a high frequency component showed a significant decrease…

  14. Surveying and analyzing injection responses for patterns with horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedenczuk, L.; Hoffman, K.

    1998-12-31

    A novel method for visualizing injection responses in patterns that include horizontal and/or vertical wells is described. Understanding fluid communication between the horizontal well and the surrounding injectors is essential to estimating the effectiveness of the waterflood. Armed with the understanding of responses, injection patterns can be optimized, production rates can be increased and more efficient oil recovery can be achieved. In this study the time lags of correlations and a new parameter, the waterflood response type is introduced. The response type is based on the oil and total fluid responses. In addition spider diagrams are introduced to help visualizing the correlations, time lags and response types. Integration of the results with geology, petrophysics and completion techniques can help to find the cause and effect rules in waterflood fields. 6 refs., 10 figs.

  15. Non-Response in Student Surveys: The Role of Demographics, Engagement and Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.

    2005-01-01

    What causes a student to participate in a survey? This paper looks at participation across multiple surveys to understand survey non-response; by using multiple surveys we minimize the impact of survey salience. Students at a selective liberal arts college were administered four different surveys throughout the 2002-2003 academic year, and we use…

  16. Response of six neutron survey meters in mixed fields of fast and thermal neutrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S I; Kim, B H; Chang, I; Lee, J I; Kim, J L; Pradhan, A S

    2013-10-01

    Calibration neutron fields have been developed at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) to study the responses of commonly used neutron survey meters in the presence of fast neutrons of energy around 10 MeV. The neutron fields were produced by using neutrons from the (241)Am-Be sources held in a graphite pile and a DT neutron generator. The spectral details and the ambient dose equivalent rates of the calibration fields were established, and the responses of six neutron survey meters were evaluated. Four single-moderator-based survey meters exhibited an under-responses ranging from ∼9 to 55 %. DINEUTRUN, commonly used in fields around nuclear reactors, exhibited an over-response by a factor of three in the thermal neutron field and an under-response of ∼85 % in the mixed fields. REM-500 (tissue-equivalent proportional counter) exhibited a response close to 1.0 in the fast neutron fields and an under-response of ∼50 % in the thermal neutron field.

  17. Heart Rate Response of Professional Musicians When Playing Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellers, Heather L; Irwin, Conor; Lightfoot, J T

    2015-06-01

    The primary aim was to determine the level of physiological stress evoked while playing music in a standing position as indicated by heart rate (HR) response. A secondary aim was to analyze the effect of music genre (classic rock, western, contemporary Christian, and metal rock) on the relative HR response. Lastly, we considered potential physiological initiators of the music-playing-induced HR response. HR response was monitored in 27 professional musicians (3 women, 24 men) between the ages of 21 and 67 yrs old during rehearsal and public performances. The percent maximal HR (%MHR) evoked was determined by taking a percentage of the age-predicted maximal HR for each musician and comparing the average %MHR in each genre during public and rehearsal events. The role of the potential initiators of these responses (e.g., number of years playing in public, event type, instrument type, tempo, etc.) was determined using multiple regression analyses. The overall average %MHR responses were 52 ± 5% and 59 ± 5% during rehearsal and public performances, respectively, with genre type having a significant effect on the HR response (p=0.01). Body mass index and tempo were each found to be significant contributors to the HR response while playing music (r²=0.506, p=0.001). Playing music professionally evokes considerable increases in HR response, with music genre influencing the level of the physiological response. We concluded that 50% of the HR response while playing music was associated with body mass index, music tempo, and instrument type.

  18. Effect of survey design and catch rate estimation on total catch estimates in Chinook salmon fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Joshua L.; Quist, Michael C.; Schill, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Roving–roving and roving–access creel surveys are the primary techniques used to obtain information on harvest of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in Idaho sport fisheries. Once interviews are conducted using roving–roving or roving–access survey designs, mean catch rate can be estimated with the ratio-of-means (ROM) estimator, the mean-of-ratios (MOR) estimator, or the MOR estimator with exclusion of short-duration (≤0.5 h) trips. Our objective was to examine the relative bias and precision of total catch estimates obtained from use of the two survey designs and three catch rate estimators for Idaho Chinook salmon fisheries. Information on angling populations was obtained by direct visual observation of portions of Chinook salmon fisheries in three Idaho river systems over an 18-d period. Based on data from the angling populations, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to evaluate the properties of the catch rate estimators and survey designs. Among the three estimators, the ROM estimator provided the most accurate and precise estimates of mean catch rate and total catch for both roving–roving and roving–access surveys. On average, the root mean square error of simulated total catch estimates was 1.42 times greater and relative bias was 160.13 times greater for roving–roving surveys than for roving–access surveys. Length-of-stay bias and nonstationary catch rates in roving–roving surveys both appeared to affect catch rate and total catch estimates. Our results suggest that use of the ROM estimator in combination with an estimate of angler effort provided the least biased and most precise estimates of total catch for both survey designs. However, roving–access surveys were more accurate than roving–roving surveys for Chinook salmon fisheries in Idaho.

  19. Rate Dependence of the Compressive Response of Ti Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Petrinic

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Titanium foams of relative density ranging from 0.3 to 0.9 were produced by titanium powder sintering procedures and tested in uniaxial compression at strain rates ranging from 0.01 to 2,000 s−1. The material microstructure was examined by X-ray tomography and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM observations. The foams investigated are strain rate sensitive, with both the yield stress and the strain hardening increasing with applied strain rate, and the strain rate sensitivity is more pronounced in foams of lower relative density. Finite element simulations were conducted modelling explicitly the material’s microstructure at the micron level, via a 3D Voronoi tessellation. Low and high strain rate simulations were conducted in order to predict the material’s compressive response, employing both rate-dependant and rate-independent constitutive models. Results from numerical analyses suggest that the primary source of rate sensitivity is represented by the intrinsic sensitivity of the foam’s parent material.

  20. Response of human fibroblasts to low dose rate gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dritschilo, A.; Brennan, T.; Weichselbaum, R.R.; Mossman, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    Cells from 11 human strains, including fibroblasts from patients with the genetic diseases of ataxia telangiectasia (AT), xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), and Fanconi's anemia (FA), were exposed to γ radiation at high (1.6-2.2 Gy/min) and at low (0.03-0.07 Gy/min) dose rates. Survival curves reveal an increase inthe terminal slope (D 0 ) when cells are irradiated at low dose rates compared to high dose rates. This was true for all cell lines tested, although the AT, FA, and XP cells are reported or postulated to have radiation repair deficiencies. From the response of these cells, it is apparent that radiation sensitivities differ; however, at low dose rate, all tested human cells are able to repair injury

  1. 75 FR 4099 - Maintenance Wage Rate Wage Recommendation and Maintenance Wage Survey; Report of Additional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5376-N-06] Maintenance Wage Rate Wage Recommendation and Maintenance Wage Survey; Report of Additional Classification and Wage Rate AGENCY: Office of... proposal. The information is used by HUD to determine or adopt prevailing wage rates for maintenance...

  2. 75 FR 37457 - Maintenance Wage Rate Wage Recommendation and Maintenance Wage Survey; Report of Additional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5376-N-54] Maintenance Wage Rate Wage Recommendation and Maintenance Wage Survey; Report of Additional Classification and Wage Rate AGENCY: Office of... proposal. The information is used by HUD to determine or adopt prevailing wage rates for maintenance...

  3. Survey of system responsibility in the Nordic countries. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    In September 2004 the Nordic Council of Ministers asked Nordel to perform some tasks and present the results to the Council on 1 March 2005. One of the tasks is to survey how system responsibility is defined and executed in the different Nordic countries. According to the Nordic Council of Ministers, the survey shall illuminate similarities and differences between the countries and assess the reasons for the differences. Nordel is asked to present a joint view system responsibility in the Nordic countries. Among other things, the responsibility for the system operators and the participants in the market shall be defined. The definition shall also include the distribution of costs between costs for network business and costs for business in competition. This shall be done in a way that creates a common platform for the further harmonisation work and continuous positive development of the Nordic electricity market. It is also important to identify the need for changes in e.g. legislation and guidelines in the different countries as a consequence of an implementation of a common definition in the Nordic countries. Areas to be included in the task are among others, balance settlement, security of supply, congestion management and system services. (BA)

  4. Phenobarbital for Neonatal Seizures: Response Rate and Predictors of Refractoriness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnoli, Carlotta; Seri, Stefano; Pavlidis, Elena; Mazzotta, Silvia; Pelosi, Annalisa; Pisani, Francesco

    2016-10-01

    Background Phenobarbital is the first-line choice for neonatal seizures treatment, despite a response rate of approximately 45%. Failure to respond to acute anticonvulsants is associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcome, but knowledge on predictors of refractoriness is limited. Objective To quantify response rate to phenobarbital and to establish variables predictive of its lack of efficacy. Methods We retrospectively evaluated newborns with electrographically confirmed neonatal seizures admitted between January 1999 and December 2012 to the neonatal intensive care unit of Parma University Hospital (Italy), excluding neonates with status epilepticus. Response was categorized as complete (cessation of clinical and electrographic seizures after phenobarbital administration), partial (reduction but not cessation of electrographic seizures with the first bolus, response to the second bolus), or absent (no response after the second bolus). Multivariate analysis was used to identify independent predictors of refractoriness. Results Out of 91 newborns receiving phenobarbital, 57 (62.6%) responded completely, 15 (16.5%) partially, and 19 (20.9%) did not respond. Seizure type (p = 0.02), background electroencephalogram (EEG; p ≤ 0.005), and neurologic examination (p  ≤  0.005) correlated with response to phenobarbital. However, EEG (p  ≤  0.02) and seizure type (p  ≤  0.001) were the only independent predictors. Conclusion Our results suggest a prominent role of neurophysiological variables (background EEG and electrographic-only seizure type) in predicting the absence of response to phenobarbital in high-risk newborns. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Participation and factors associated with late or non-response to an online survey in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerny-Perreten, Nicole; Domínguez-Berjón, Ma Felicitas; Esteban-Vasallo, María D; García-Riolobos, Carmen

    2015-08-01

    Online surveys have several advantages, but a low response rate is common and it is uncertain how results are affected. Response inducement techniques can be used to overcome this problem. The objectives of this study were to describe the percentage of change in the response rate after reminders and to analyse the characteristics associated with non-response and late response based on the survey results, as well as by applying archival and extrapolation techniques. In the Autonomous Community of Madrid, an online questionnaire about cancer prevention was sent to a random sample of primary care health professionals (3586 physicians and nurses). Two reminders were sent later. The percentage of change in response rates after reminders, global and by demographic and health care characteristics of participants; and factors associated with non-response and late response were analysed using response rates and odds ratios (ORs). After the reminders, the response rate increased from 22.6% to 32.9% and to 39.4%. Non-response was associated with age [OR: 3.14; confidence interval (CI) 95%: 2.23-4.42 for aged >60 years], gender and functional area. Further, a higher response rate after reminders was observed in professionals with heavier workloads (OR: 1.46; CI 95%: 1.08-1.97) and in those who stated a lower relevance of cancer prevention in primary care. After electronic reminders, the response rate increased, especially among professionals with the highest workloads and a minor interest in the survey topic. However, possible bias associated with non-response remains and the factors behind this should be examined in future research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. 2010 E-Rate Program and Broadband Usage Survey: Report. DA 10-2414

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Communications Commission, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report presents data from the "2010 E-rate Program and Broadband Usage Survey" commissioned by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and conducted by Harris Interactive, Inc. (Harris), an independent national marketing research firm, between February and April 2010. The primary goal of the survey was to collect data on the current state…

  7. The Influence of Survey Methodology in Estimating Prevalence Rates of Childhood Sexual Abuse Among Navy Recruits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olson, Cheryl B; Stander, Valerie A; Merril, Lex L

    2000-01-01

    ...% of the participants self-defined themselves as abused. Despite these differences in abuse rates, data from the SHIP survey, from SRB operational definitions, and from SRB self-definitions all independently accounted for variability in participants...

  8. Utilização de medicamentos por aposentados brasileiros: 2 - Taxa de resposta e preenchimento de questionário postal em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil Use of medication by Brazilian retirees: 2 - Response rate and item completeness in a postal survey in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Queiroz Ribeiro

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available São descritos a taxa de resposta e o preenchimento de questionários auto-administrados num inquérito postal sobre o perfil de utilização de medicamentos por aposentados e pensionistas do INSS, de 60 anos ou mais de idade no Município de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, em 2003. Os questionários foram enviados duas vezes para os endereços de 800 indivíduos sorteados por amostragem aleatória simples, com base no banco de dados do INSS. A taxa de resposta ao inquérito postal foi de 47,8% e não houve diferença significativa tanto entre participantes e não participantes quanto entre respondentes iniciais e tardios em relação às características selecionadas. Para a maioria das variáveis sócio-demográficas e de saúde, os percentuais de omissão de respostas não ultrapassaram 5%, tanto no total da amostra, quanto em cada um dos subgrupos de respondentes. As informações mais omitidas ocorreram para as variáveis relativas ao uso de medicamentos, com destaque para a não-utilização de medicamentos que deveriam ser usados, a dose e laboratório fabricante do medicamento. Nossos resultados indicam que o detalhamento de aspectos relacionados ao uso de medicamentos deve ser reconsiderado em questionários de autopreenchimento.This paper reports on the response rate and completeness of item response in a self-administered postal survey questionnaire on use of medication by retirees 60 years or older under the Brazilian Social Security System, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, in 2003. Questionnaires were sent in two rounds to 800 postal addresses of subjects selected by simple random sampling. The response rate was 47.8%, and there were no significant differences in the selected characteristics between respondents and non-respondents, or between early and late respondents. For almost all socio-demographic and health variables, item omission was less than or equal to 5% for both the entire sample and early or late responders

  9. Developing and testing the CHORDS: Characteristics of Responsible Drinking Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Adam E; Goodson, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Report on the development and psychometric testing of a theoretically and evidence-grounded instrument, the Characteristics of Responsible Drinking Survey (CHORDS). Instrument subjected to four phases of pretesting (cognitive validity, cognitive and motivational qualities, pilot test, and item evaluation) and a final posttest implementation. Large public university in Texas. Randomly selected convenience sample (n  =  729) of currently enrolled students. This 78-item questionnaire measures individuals' responsible drinking beliefs, motivations, intentions, and behaviors. Cronbach α, split-half reliability, principal components analysis and Spearman ρ were conducted to investigate reliability, stability, and validity. Measures in the CHORDS exhibited high internal consistency reliability and strong correlations of split-half reliability. Factor analyses indicated five distinct scales were present, as proposed in the theoretical model. Subscale composite scores also exhibited a correlation to alcohol consumption behaviors, indicating concurrent validity. The CHORDS represents the first instrument specifically designed to assess responsible drinking beliefs and behaviors. It was found to elicit valid and reliable data among a college student sample. This instrument holds much promise for practitioners who desire to empirically investigate dimensions of responsible drinking.

  10. Multiple Surveys of Students and Survey Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.; Weitzer, William H.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter reviews the literature on survey fatigue and summarizes a research project that indicates that administering multiple surveys in one academic year can significantly suppress response rates in later surveys. (Contains 4 tables.)

  11. Response of Escherichia coli growth rate to osmotic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Enrique; Theriot, Julie A; Huang, Kerwyn Casey

    2014-05-27

    It has long been proposed that turgor pressure plays an essential role during bacterial growth by driving mechanical expansion of the cell wall. This hypothesis is based on analogy to plant cells, for which this mechanism has been established, and on experiments in which the growth rate of bacterial cultures was observed to decrease as the osmolarity of the growth medium was increased. To distinguish the effect of turgor pressure from pressure-independent effects that osmolarity might have on cell growth, we monitored the elongation of single Escherichia coli cells while rapidly changing the osmolarity of their media. By plasmolyzing cells, we found that cell-wall elastic strain did not scale with growth rate, suggesting that pressure does not drive cell-wall expansion. Furthermore, in response to hyper- and hypoosmotic shock, E. coli cells resumed their preshock growth rate and relaxed to their steady-state rate after several minutes, demonstrating that osmolarity modulates growth rate slowly, independently of pressure. Oscillatory hyperosmotic shock revealed that although plasmolysis slowed cell elongation, the cells nevertheless "stored" growth such that once turgor was reestablished the cells elongated to the length that they would have attained had they never been plasmolyzed. Finally, MreB dynamics were unaffected by osmotic shock. These results reveal the simple nature of E. coli cell-wall expansion: that the rate of expansion is determined by the rate of peptidoglycan insertion and insertion is not directly dependent on turgor pressure, but that pressure does play a basic role whereby it enables full extension of recently inserted peptidoglycan.

  12. Rates of interventions in labor and birth across Canada: findings of the Canadian Maternity Experiences Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Beverley; Kaczorowski, Janusz; O'Brien, Beverley; Royle, Cathie

    2012-09-01

    Rates of interventions in labor and birth should be similar across a country if evidence-based practice guidelines are followed. This assumption is tested by comparison of some practices across the 13 provinces and territories of Canada. The objective of this study was to describe the wide provincial and territorial variations in rates of routine interventions and practices during labor and birth as reported by women in the Maternity Experiences Survey of the Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System. A sample of 8,244 eligible women was identified from a randomly selected sample of recently born infants drawn from the May 2006 Canadian Census. The sample was stratified by province and territory. Computer-assisted telephone interviews were conducted with participating birth mothers by Statistics Canada on behalf of the Public Health Agency of Canada. Interviews took an average of 45 minutes and were completed when infants were between 5 and 10 months old (9-14 mo in the territories). Completed responses were obtained from 6,421 women (78%). Provincial and territorial variations in rates of routine intervention used during labor and birth are reported. The percentage range of mothers' experience of induction (range 30.9%), epidural (53.7%), continuous electronic fetal monitoring (37.9%), and medication-free pain management during labor (40.7%) are provided, in addition to the use of episiotomy (14.1%) or "stitches" (48.3%), being in a "flat lying position" (42.2%), and having their legs in stirrups for birth (35.7%). Wide variations in the use of most of the interventions were found, ranging from 14.1 percent to 53.7 percent. Rates of intervention in labor and birth showed considerable variation across Canada, suggesting that usage is not always evidence based but may be influenced by a variety of other factors. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Workplace relationships impact self-rated health: A survey of Swedish municipal health care employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Sophie Schön; Lindström, Petra Nilsson; Pettersson, Pär; Andersson, Ingemar

    2018-05-22

    The impact of positive social relationships on the health of municipal employees in the elder care sector in Sweden needs further examination. To explore the association between health and relationships among elderly care employees using a salutogenic perspective. Survey of all employees (n = 997) in special housing, home care and Disabled Support and Services in a Swedish municipality. The questionnaire, which had a salutogenic perspective, included information on self-rated health from the previously validated SHIS (Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale), psychosocial work environment and experiences, social climate, and health-promoting workplace relationships. The response rate was 69% . Results of a multivariable linear regression model showed four significant predictors of health: general work experiences, colleague belongingness and positive relationships with managers and care recipients. In another model, colleague belongingness was significantly related to satisfaction with care recipients, work, length of employment as well as general work experiences and relationships with managers. Strengthening of positive work relationships, not only between workmates but also with managers and care recipients, seems to be an essential area for employee health promotion. Colleague belongingness may be deepened by development of a positive work climate, including satisfactory work experiences, positive manager relationships and a stable work force.

  14. Heart rate responses to autonomic challenges in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Macey

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is accompanied by structural alterations and dysfunction in central autonomic regulatory regions, which may impair dynamic and static cardiovascular regulation, and contribute to other syndrome pathologies. Characterizing cardiovascular responses to autonomic challenges may provide insights into central nervous system impairments, including contributions by sex, since structural alterations are enhanced in OSA females over males. The objective was to assess heart rate responses in OSA versus healthy control subjects to autonomic challenges, and, separately, characterize female and male patterns. We studied 94 subjects, including 37 newly-diagnosed, untreated OSA patients (6 female, age mean ± std: 52.1 ± 8.1 years; 31 male aged 54.3 ± 8.4 years, and 57 healthy control subjects (20 female, 50.5 ± 8.1 years; 37 male, 45.6 ± 9.2 years. We measured instantaneous heart rate with pulse oximetry during cold pressor, hand grip, and Valsalva maneuver challenges. All challenges elicited significant heart rate differences between OSA and control groups during and after challenges (repeated measures ANOVA, p<0.05. In post-hoc analyses, OSA females showed greater impairments than OSA males, which included: for cold pressor, lower initial increase (OSA vs. control: 9.5 vs. 7.3 bpm in females, 7.6 vs. 3.7 bpm in males, OSA delay to initial peak (2.5 s females/0.9 s males, slower mid-challenge rate-of-increase (OSA vs. control: -0.11 vs. 0.09 bpm/s in females, 0.03 vs. 0.06 bpm/s in males; for hand grip, lower initial peak (OSA vs. control: 2.6 vs. 4.6 bpm in females, 5.3 vs. 6.0 bpm in males; for Valsalva maneuver, lower Valsalva ratio (OSA vs. control: 1.14 vs. 1.30 in females, 1.29 vs. 1.34 in males, and OSA delay during phase II (0.68 s females/1.31 s males. Heart rate responses showed lower amplitude, delayed onset, and slower rate changes in OSA patients over healthy controls, and impairments may be more pronounced in

  15. On the response of rubbers at high strain rates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemczura, Johnathan Greenberg (University of Texas-Austin)

    2010-02-01

    In this report, we examine the propagation of tensile waves of finite deformation in rubbers through experiments and analysis. Attention is focused on the propagation of one-dimensional dispersive and shock waves in strips of latex and nitrile rubber. Tensile wave propagation experiments were conducted at high strain-rates by holding one end fixed and displacing the other end at a constant velocity. A high-speed video camera was used to monitor the motion and to determine the evolution of strain and particle velocity in the rubber strips. Analysis of the response through the theory of finite waves and quantitative matching between the experimental observations and analytical predictions was used to determine an appropriate instantaneous elastic response for the rubbers. This analysis also yields the tensile shock adiabat for rubber. Dispersive waves as well as shock waves are also observed in free-retraction experiments; these are used to quantify hysteretic effects in rubber.

  16. The strange case of online surveys: response issues and respondent characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Jannie Mia; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn; Mehnert, Christina

    This research contributes to existing knowledge about collecting data online by analysing multiple data sets on key criteria including overall representativeness of the samples, response and break-off rates, timeliness of response and reminder effects. Across eight online surveys that initially......-30 years of age), single or in ‘other’ types of family relationships, and belong to a low-income bracket (annual household income ... a reminder 48-72 hours after the initial invitation and closing the survey one to two days later; based on our results this time-wise approach still captures 90% of respondents. This study must be viewed in light of some key limitations. Firstly, we have not considered whether there are differences...

  17. A strong response to selection on mass-independent maximal metabolic rate without a correlated response in basal metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wone, B W M; Madsen, P; Donovan, E R; Labocha, M K; Sears, M W; Downs, C J; Sorensen, D A; Hayes, J P

    2015-04-01

    Metabolic rates are correlated with many aspects of ecology, but how selection on different aspects of metabolic rates affects their mutual evolution is poorly understood. Using laboratory mice, we artificially selected for high maximal mass-independent metabolic rate (MMR) without direct selection on mass-independent basal metabolic rate (BMR). Then we tested for responses to selection in MMR and correlated responses to selection in BMR. In other lines, we antagonistically selected for mice with a combination of high mass-independent MMR and low mass-independent BMR. All selection protocols and data analyses included body mass as a covariate, so effects of selection on the metabolic rates are mass adjusted (that is, independent of effects of body mass). The selection lasted eight generations. Compared with controls, MMR was significantly higher (11.2%) in lines selected for increased MMR, and BMR was slightly, but not significantly, higher (2.5%). Compared with controls, MMR was significantly higher (5.3%) in antagonistically selected lines, and BMR was slightly, but not significantly, lower (4.2%). Analysis of breeding values revealed no positive genetic trend for elevated BMR in high-MMR lines. A weak positive genetic correlation was detected between MMR and BMR. That weak positive genetic correlation supports the aerobic capacity model for the evolution of endothermy in the sense that it fails to falsify a key model assumption. Overall, the results suggest that at least in these mice there is significant capacity for independent evolution of metabolic traits. Whether that is true in the ancestral animals that evolved endothermy remains an important but unanswered question.

  18. Stigma in Canada: Results From a Rapid Response Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Heather; Patten, Scott B; Koller, Michelle; Modgill, Geeta; Liinamaa, Tiina

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Our paper presents findings from the first population survey of stigma in Canada using a new measure of stigma. Empirical objectives are to provide a descriptive profile of Canadian’s expectations that people will devalue and discriminate against someone with depression, and to explore the relation between experiences of being stigmatized in the year prior to the survey among people having been treated for a mental illness with a selected number of sociodemographic and mental health–related variables. Method: Data were collected by Statistics Canada using a rapid response format on a representative sample of Canadians (n = 10 389) during May and June of 2010. Public expectations of stigma and personal experiences of stigma in the subgroup receiving treatment for a mental illness were measured. Results: Over one-half of the sample endorsed 1 or more of the devaluation discrimination items, indicating that they believed Canadians would stigmatize someone with depression. The item most frequently endorsed concerned employers not considering an application from someone who has had depression. Over one-third of people who had received treatment in the year prior to the survey reported discrimination in 1 or more life domains. Experiences of discrimination were strongly associated with perceptions that Canadians would devalue someone with depression, younger age (12 to 15 years), and self-reported poor general mental health. Conclusions: The Mental Health Experiences Module reflects an important partnership between 2 national organizations that will help Canada fulfill its monitoring obligations under the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and provide a legacy to researchers and policy-makers who are interested in monitoring changes in stigma over time. PMID:25565699

  19. The Effect of Heart Rate on the Heart Rate Variability Response to Autonomic Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E Billman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV, the beat-to-beat variation in either heart rate (HR or heart period (R-R interval, has become a popular clinical and investigational tool to quantify cardiac autonomic regulation. However, it is not widely appreciated that, due to the inverse curvilinear relationship between HR and R-R interval, HR per se can profoundly influence HRV. It is, therefore, critical to correct HRV for the prevailing HR particularly, as HR changes in response to autonomic neural activation or inhibition. The present study evaluated the effects of HR on the HRV response to autonomic interventions that either increased (submaximal exercise, n = 25 or baroreceptor reflex activation, n = 20 or reduced (pharmacological blockade: β-adrenergic receptor, muscarinic receptor antagonists alone and in combination, n = 25, or bilateral cervical vagotomy, n = 9 autonomic neural activity in a canine model. Both total (RR interval standard deviation, RRSD and the high frequency variability (HF, 0.2 to 1.04 Hz were determined before and in response to an autonomic intervention. All interventions that reduced or abolished cardiac parasympathetic regulation provoked large reductions in HRV even after HR correction [division by mean RRsec or (mean RRsec2 for RRSD and HF, respectively] while interventions that reduced HR yielded mixed results. β-adrenergic receptor blockade reduced HRV (RRSD but not HF while both RRSD and HF increased in response to increases in arterial blood (baroreceptor reflex activation even after HR correction. These data suggest that the physiological basis for HRV is revealed after correction for prevailing HR and, further, that cardiac parasympathetic activity is responsible for a major portion of the HRV in the dog.

  20. Responses to GM food content in context with food integrity issues: results from Australian population surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Philip; Golley, Sinéad

    2016-01-25

    This study examined community responses to use of genetically modified (GM) content in food in the context of responses to familiar food additives by testing an empirically and theoretically derived model of the predictors of responses to both GM content and food integrity issues generally. A nationwide sample of 849 adults, selected at random from the Australian Electoral Roll, responded to a postal Food and Health Survey. Structural equation modelling analyses confirmed that ratings of general concern about food integrity (related to the presence of preservatives and other additives) strongly predicted negativity towards GM content. Concern about food integrity was, in turn, predicted by environmental concern and health engagement. In addition, both concern about food integrity generally and responses to GM content specifically were weakly predicted by attitudes to benefits of science and an intuitive (i.e., emotionally-based) reasoning style. Data from a follow-up survey conducted under the same conditions (N=1184) revealed that ratings of concern were significantly lower for use of genetic engineering in food than for four other common food integrity issues examined. Whereas the question of community responses to GM is often treated as a special issue, these findings support the conclusion that responses to the concept of GM content in food in Australia are substantially a specific instance of a general sensitivity towards the integrity of the food supply. They indicate that the origins of responses to GM content may be largely indistinguishable from those of general responses to preservatives and other common food additives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Parity Specific Birth Rates for West Germany: An Attempt to Combine Survey Data and Vital Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Kreyenfeld, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we combine vital statistics and survey data to obtain parity specific birth rates for West Germany. Since vital statistics do not provide birth parity information, one is confined to using estimates. The robustness of these estimates is an issue, which is unfortunately only rarely addressed when fertility indicators for (West) Germany are reported. In order to check how reliable our results are, we estimate confidence intervals and compare them to results from survey data and e...

  2. Using two detectors concurrently to monitor ambient dose equivalent rates in vehicle surveys of radiocesium contaminated land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeishi, Minoru; Shibamichi, Masaru; Malins, Alex; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Murakami, Mitsuhiro; Saegusa, Jun; Yoneya, Masayuki

    2017-10-01

    In response to the accident at Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), vehicle-borne monitoring was used to map radiation levels for radiological protection of the public. By convention measurements from vehicle-borne surveys are converted to the ambient dose equivalent rate at 1 m height in the absence of the vehicle. This allows for comparison with results from other types of survey, including surveys with hand-held or airborne instruments. To improve the accuracy of the converted results from vehicle-borne surveys, we investigated combining measurements from two detectors mounted on the vehicle at different heights above the ground. A dual-detector setup was added to a JAEA monitoring car and compared against hand-held survey meter measurements in Fukushima Prefecture. The results obtained by combining measurements from two detectors were within ±20% of the hand-held reference measurements. The mean absolute percentage deviation from the reference measurements was 7.2%. The combined results from the two detectors were more accurate than those from either the roof-mounted detector, or the detector inside the vehicle, taken alone. One issue with vehicle-borne surveys is that ambient dose equivalent rates above roads are not necessarily representative of adjacent areas. This is because radiocesium is often deficient on asphalt surfaces, as it is easily scrubbed off by rain, wind and vehicle tires. To tackle this issue, we investigated mounting heights for vehicle-borne detectors using Monte Carlo gamma-ray simulations. When radiocesium is deficient on a road compared to the adjacent land, mounting detectors high on vehicles yields results closer to the values adjacent to the road. The ratio of ambient dose equivalent rates reported by detectors mounted at different heights in a dual-detector setup indicates whether radiocesium is deficient on the road compared to the adjacent land. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  3. A wide range survey meter for estimating γ- and β-dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A.R.

    1980-09-01

    A survey meter has been developed to measure β-dose rates in the range 0.1 - 100 rad/h (1 mGy/h - 1 Gy/h) and γ-dose rates in the range 1 mrad/h - 100 rad/h (10 μGy/h-1 Gy/h). It also provides an audible warning of high γ-dose rates and an audible and visible warning when a predetermined γ-dose is exceeded. The report describes the design of the survey meter and presents data measured on the performance of an engineering prototype. Factors which affect performance and have been investigated are temperature, battery voltage (and type of battery), GM counter counting loss, direction of incident radiation, and energy of γ-rays. Finally, the application and calibration of the survey meter are discussed. (auth)

  4. Visualization-based analysis of multiple response survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeeva, Anastasiia

    2017-11-01

    During the survey, the respondents are often allowed to tick more than one answer option for a question. Analysis and visualization of such data have difficulties because of the need for processing multiple response variables. With standard representation such as pie and bar charts, information about the association between different answer options is lost. The author proposes a visualization approach for multiple response variables based on Venn diagrams. For a more informative representation with a large number of overlapping groups it is suggested to use similarity and association matrices. Some aggregate indicators of dissimilarity (similarity) are proposed based on the determinant of the similarity matrix and the maximum eigenvalue of association matrix. The application of the proposed approaches is well illustrated by the example of the analysis of advertising sources. Intersection of sets indicates that the same consumer audience is covered by several advertising sources. This information is very important for the allocation of the advertising budget. The differences between target groups in advertising sources are of interest. To identify such differences the hypothesis of homogeneity and independence are tested. Recent approach to the problem are briefly reviewed and compared. An alternative procedure is suggested. It is based on partition of a consumer audience into pairwise disjoint subsets and includes hypothesis testing of the difference between the population proportions. It turned out to be more suitable for the real problem being solved.

  5. The impact of food viscosity on eating rate, subjective appetite, glycemic response and gastric emptying rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhu

    Full Text Available Understanding the impact of rheological properties of food on postprandial appetite and glycemic response helps to design novel functional products. It has been shown that solid foods have a stronger satiating effect than their liquid equivalent. However, whether a subtle change in viscosity of a semi-solid food would have a similar effect on appetite is unknown. Fifteen healthy males participated in the randomized cross-over study. Each participant consumed a 1690 kJ portion of a standard viscosity (SV and a high viscosity (HV semi-solid meal with 1000 mg acetaminophen in two separate sessions. At regular intervals during the three hours following the meal, subjective appetite ratings were measured and blood samples collected. The plasma samples were assayed for insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP, glucose and acetaminophen. After three hours, the participants were provided with an ad libitum pasta meal. Compared with the SV meal, HV was consumed at a slower eating rate (P = 0.020, with postprandial hunger and desire to eat being lower (P = 0.019 and P<0.001 respectively while fullness was higher (P<0.001. In addition, consuming the HV resulted in lower plasma concentration of GIP (P<0.001, higher plasma concentration of glucose (P<0.001 and delayed gastric emptying as revealed by the acetaminophen absorption test (P<0.001. However, there was no effect of food viscosity on insulin or food intake at the subsequent meal. In conclusion, increasing the viscosity of a semi-solid food modulates glycemic response and suppresses postprandial satiety, although the effect may be short-lived. A slower eating rate and a delayed gastric emptying rate can partly explain for the stronger satiating properties of high viscous semi-solid foods.

  6. The Core Collapse Supernova Rate from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Matt; Cinabro, David; Dilday, Ben; Galbany, Lluis; Gupta, Ravi R.; Kessler, R.; Marriner, John; Nichol, Robert C.; Richmond, Michael; Schneider, Donald P.; Sollerman, Jesper

    2014-08-26

    We use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II Supernova Survey (SDSS-II SNS) data to measure the volumetric core collapse supernova (CCSN) rate in the redshift range (0.03 < z < 0.09). Using a sample of 89 CCSN, we find a volume-averaged rate of 1.06 ± 0.19 × 10(–)(4)((h/0.7)(3)/(yr Mpc(3))) at a mean redshift of 0.072 ± 0.009. We measure the CCSN luminosity function from the data and consider the implications on the star formation history.

  7. Heart rate, startle response, and intrusive trauma memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chia-Ying; Marca, Roberto La; Steptoe, Andrew; Brewin, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    The current study adopted the trauma film paradigm to examine potential moderators affecting heart rate (HR) as an indicator of peritraumatic psychological states and as a predictor of intrusive memories. We replicated previous findings that perifilm HR decreases predicted the development of intrusive images and further showed this effect to be specific to images rather than thoughts, and to detail rather than gist recognition memory. Moreover, a group of individuals showing both an atypical sudden reduction in HR after a startle stimulus and higher trait dissociation was identified. Only among these individuals was lower perifilm HR found to indicate higher state dissociation, fear, and anxiety, along with reduced vividness of intrusions. The current findings emphasize how peritraumatic physiological responses relate to emotional reactions and intrusive memory. The moderating role of individual difference in stress defense style was highlighted. PMID:24397333

  8. 2003 Survey of Retired Military: Tabulations of Responses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kroeger; Ceervantes, Flores; Jones; Wilson

    2004-01-01

    .... Survey Content Topics covered in the survey primarily addressed the post-service employment and earnings experiences of military retirees, with emphasis on the effects of combat- related disabilities...

  9. Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR): an item response theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkonis, Paul A; Kim, Yookyung; Yu, Lan; Morse, Jennifer Q

    2014-01-01

    The Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR) include 3 scales for anxious, ambivalent attachment (excessive dependency, interpersonal ambivalence, and compulsive care-giving), 3 for avoidant attachment (rigid self-control, defensive separation, and emotional detachment), and 1 for secure attachment. The scales include items (ranging from 6-16 in their original form) scored by raters using a 3-point format (0 = absent, 1 = present, and 2 = strongly present) and summed to produce a total score. Item response theory (IRT) analyses were conducted with data from 414 participants recruited from psychiatric outpatient, medical, and community settings to identify the most informative items from each scale. The IRT results allowed us to shorten the scales to 5-item versions that are more precise and easier to rate because of their brevity. In general, the effective range of measurement for the scales was 0 to +2 SDs for each of the attachment constructs; that is, from average to high levels of attachment problems. Evidence for convergent and discriminant validity of the scales was investigated by comparing them with the Experiences of Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R) scale and the Kobak Attachment Q-sort. The best consensus among self-reports on the ECR-R, informant ratings on the ECR-R, and expert judgments on the Q-sort and the AAR emerged for anxious, ambivalent attachment. Given the good psychometric characteristics of the scale for secure attachment, however, this measure alone might provide a simple alternative to more elaborate procedures for some measurement purposes. Conversion tables are provided for the 7 scales to facilitate transformation from raw scores to IRT-calibrated (theta) scores.

  10. Utility and Cost-Effectiveness of Motivational Messaging to Increase Survey Response in Physicians: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Randolph C. H.; Mak, Winnie W. S.; Pang, Ingrid H. Y.; Wong, Samuel Y. S.; Tang, Wai Kwong; Lau, Joseph T. F.; Woo, Jean; Lee, Diana T. F.; Cheung, Fanny M.

    2018-01-01

    The present study examined whether, when, and how motivational messaging can boost the response rate of postal surveys for physicians based on Higgin's regulatory focus theory, accounting for its cost-effectiveness. A three-arm, blinded, randomized controlled design was used. A total of 3,270 doctors were randomly selected from the registration…

  11. Alcohol responsiveness in laryngeal dystonia: A survey study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirke, Diana N.; Frucht, Steven J.; Simonyan, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Laryngeal dystonia (LD) is a task-specific focal dystonia of unknown pathophysiology affecting speech production. We examined the demographics of anecdotally reported alcohol use and its effects on LD symptoms using an online survey based on Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap™) and National Spasmodic Dysphonia Association’s patient registry. From 641 participants, 531 were selected for data analysis, and 110 were excluded because of unconfirmed diagnosis. A total of 406 patients (76.5%) had LD and 125 (23.5%) had LD and voice tremor (LD/VT). The consumption of alcohol was reported by 374 LD (92.1%) and 109 LD/VT (87.2%) patients. Improvement of voice symptoms after alcohol ingestion was noted by 227 LD (55.9% of all patients) and 73 LD/VT (58.4%), which paralleled the improvement observed by patient’s family and/or friends in 214 LD (57.2%) and 69 LD/VT (63.3%) patients. The benefits lasted 1–3 hours in both groups with the maximum effect after 2 drinks in LD patients (p = 0.002), whereas LD/VT symptoms improved independent of the consumed amount (p = 0.48). Our data suggest that isolated dystonic symptoms, such as in LD, are responsive to alcohol intake and this responsiveness is not attributed to the presence of VT, which is known to have significant benefits from alcohol ingestion. Alcohol may modulate the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying abnormal neurotransmission of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in dystonia and as such provide new avenues for novel therapeutic options in these patients. PMID:25929664

  12. Designing questionnaires: healthcare survey to compare two different response scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background A widely discussed design issue in patient satisfaction questionnaires is the optimal length and labelling of the answering scale. The aim of the present study was to compare intra-individually the answers on two response scales to five general questions evaluating patients’ perception of hospital care. Methods Between November 2011 and January 2012, all in-hospital patients at a Swiss University Hospital received a patient satisfaction questionnaire on an adjectival scale with three to four labelled categories (LS) and five redundant questions displayed on an 11-point end-anchored numeric scale (NS). The scales were compared concerning ceiling effect, internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha), individual item answers (Spearman’s rank correlation), and concerning overall satisfaction by calculating an overall percentage score (sum of all answers related to the maximum possible sum). Results The response rate was 41% (2957/7158), of which 2400 (81%) completely filled out all questions. Baseline characteristics of the responders and non-responders were similar. Floor and ceiling effect were high on both response scales, but more pronounced on the LS than on the NS. Cronbach’s alpha was higher on the NS than on the LS. There was a strong individual item correlation between both answering scales in questions regarding the intent to return, quality of treatment and the judgement whether the patient was treated with respect and dignity, but a lower correlation concerning satisfactory information transfer by physicians or nurses, where only three categories were available in the LS. The overall percentage score showed a comparable distribution, but with a wider spread of lower satisfaction in the NS. Conclusions Since the longer scale did not substantially reduce the ceiling effect, the type of questions rather than the type of answering scale could be addressed with a focus on specific questions about concrete situations instead of general questions

  13. Evaluating research recruitment strategies to improve response rates amongst South African nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Khamisa

    2014-03-01

    Research purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate three research recruitment methods for their impact on recruitment and participation rates amongst South African nurses. Motivation for the study: A limited number of studies exist that formally evaluates different recruitment strategies to improve participation in research amongst nurses within developing contexts, especially South Africa. Research approach, design and method: Participants were recruited using three different methods. Of the 250 nurses randomly selected and invited to participate in a cross-sectional survey, 201 agreed and 162 (81% returned the questionnaires. Main findings: Nursing management participation in the recruitment and data collection process produces more favourable response rates. Reminders and the use of shorter questionnaires also aid higher response rates. Practical/managerial implications: Reminders as well as face-to-face recruitment strategies (especially by a familiar person successfully improved participation rates amongst South African nurses in this study. Contribution/value-add: This study identifies some strategies that could be used more widely to increase the recruitment and participation of South African nurses in research whilst potentially improving their work situation.

  14. Item Response Theory Analyses of the Parent and Teacher Ratings of the DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rapson

    2008-01-01

    The graded response model (GRM), which is based on item response theory (IRT), was used to evaluate the psychometric properties of the inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms in an ADHD rating scale. To accomplish this, parents and teachers completed the DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale (DARS; Gomez et al., "Journal of Child Psychology and…

  15. Cetacean behavioral responses to noise exposure generated by seismic surveys: how to mitigate better?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Monaco

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cetaceans use sound in many contexts, such as in social interactions, as well as to forage and to react in dangerous situations. Little information exists to describe how they respond physically and behaviorally to intense and long-term noise levels. Effects on cetaceans from seismic survey activities need to be understood in order to determine detailed acoustic exposure guidelines and to apply appropriated mitigation measures. This study examines direct behavioral responses of cetaceans in the southern Mediterranean Sea during seismic surveys with large airgun arrays (volume up to 5200 ci used in the TOMO-ETNA active seismic experiment of summer 2014. Wide Angle Seismic and Multi-Channel Seismic surveys had carried out with refraction and reflection seismic methods, producing about 25,800 air-gun shots. Visual monitoring undertaken in the 26 daylights of seismic exploration adopted the protocol of the Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Data recorded were analyzed to examine effects on cetaceans. Sighting rates, distance and orientation from the airguns were compared for different volume categories of the airgun arrays. Results show that cetaceans can be disturbed by seismic survey activities, especially during particularly events. Here we propose many integrated actions to further mitigate this exposure and implications for management.

  16. Comparison of self-administered survey questionnaire responses collected using mobile apps versus other methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcano Belisario, José S; Jamsek, Jan; Huckvale, Kit; O'Donoghue, John; Morrison, Cecily P; Car, Josip

    2015-07-27

    participants completing health-related self-administered survey questionnaire, both validated and non-validated. We also included data offered by both healthy volunteers and by those with any clinical diagnosis. We included studies that reported any of the following outcomes: data equivalence; data accuracy; data completeness; response rates; differences in the time taken to complete a survey questionnaire; differences in respondent's adherence to the original sampling protocol; and acceptability to respondents of the delivery mode. We included studies that were published in 2007 or after, as devices that became available during this time are compatible with the mobile operating system (OS) framework that focuses on apps. Two review authors independently extracted data from the included studies using a standardised form created for this systematic review in REDCap. They then compared their forms to reach consensus. Through an initial systematic mapping on the included studies, we identified two settings in which survey completion took place: controlled and uncontrolled. These settings differed in terms of (i) the location where surveys were completed, (ii) the frequency and intensity of sampling protocols, and (iii) the level of control over potential confounders (e.g., type of technology, level of help offered to respondents). We conducted a narrative synthesis of the evidence because a meta-analysis was not appropriate due to high levels of clinical and methodological diversity. We reported our findings for each outcome according to the setting in which the studies were conducted. We included 14 studies (15 records) with a total of 2275 participants; although we included only 2272 participants in the final analyses as there were missing data for three participants from one included study.Regarding data equivalence, in both controlled and uncontrolled settings, the included studies found no significant differences in the mean overall scores between apps and other delivery

  17. Measuring the Accuracy of Survey Responses using Administrative Register Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Lassen, David Dreyer; Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows how Danish administrative register data can be combined with survey data at the person level and be used to validate information collected in the survey. Register data are collected by automatic third party reporting and the potential errors associated with the two data sources...

  18. Satisfaction and responsiveness with health-care services in Qatar--evidence from a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Faleh Mohamed Hussain; Nikoloski, Zlatko; Reka, Husein

    2015-11-01

    Satisfaction and responsiveness with health care are some of the main outcome variables of a health system. Although health outcomes have been studied in countries with different levels of economic development, there is limited information on the health provision/satisfaction/responsiveness nexus in countries where rapid transitions from middle to high-income status have occurred. Using a 2012 survey conducted in Qatar (amongst both Qatari and non-Qatari respondents), we analysed satisfaction and responsiveness of health care. The sample consisted of 4083 respondents. We use logit analysis [as well as robustness checks involving ordered logit, ordered probit, ordinary least squares (OLS) and probit analysis] in order to estimate the determinants of satisfaction and responsiveness. Both, satisfaction and responsiveness rates were high. Gender, nationality and, to some extent, income and age were significant sociodemographic determinants of satisfaction, with non-Qataris and females, having higher levels of satisfaction. Cost, previous experience with the same health provider and provision of medical insurance for a particular health provider were the attributes significantly correlated with general satisfaction. The results are consistent when the analysis is applied to the correlates of responsiveness. Sociodemographic factors explain the satisfaction with quality of health care in the state of Qatar (both from the general population point of view and from the patient point of view). Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. "Very Good" Ratings in a Survey of Maternity Care: Kindness and Understanding Matter to Australian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Angela L; Ampt, Amanda J; Roberts, Christine L

    2017-03-01

    Surveys have shown that women are highly satisfied with their maternity care. Their satisfaction has been associated with various demographic, personal, and care factors. Isolating the factors that most matter to women about their care can guide quality improvement efforts. This study aimed to identify the most significant factors associated with high ratings of care by women in the three maternity periods (antenatal, birth, and postnatal). A survey was sent to 2,048 women who gave birth at seven public hospitals in New South Wales, Australia, exploring their expectations of, and experiences with maternity care. Women's overall ratings of care for the antenatal, birth, and postnatal periods were analyzed, and a number of maternal characteristics and care factors examined as potential predictors of "Very good" ratings of care. Among 886 women with a completed survey, 65 percent assigned a "Very good" rating for antenatal care, 74 percent for birth care, 58 percent for postnatal care, and 44 percent for all three periods. One factor was strongly associated with care ratings in all three maternity periods: women who were "always or almost always" treated with kindness and understanding were 1.8-2.8 times more likely to rate their antenatal, birth, and postnatal care as "Very good." A limited number of other factors were significantly associated with high care ratings for one or two of the maternity periods. Women's perceptions about the quality of their interpersonal interactions with health caregivers have a significant bearing on women's views about their maternity care journey. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Lower Rates of Promotion of Generalists in Academic Medicine: A Follow-up to the National Faculty Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazey-Martin, Deborah; Carr, Phyllis L; Terrin, Norma; Breeze, Janis L; Luk, Carolyn; Raj, Anita; Freund, Karen M

    2017-07-01

    Prior cross-sectional research has found that generalists have lower rates of academic advancement than specialists and basic science faculty. Our objective was to examine generalists relative to other medical faculty in advancement and academic productivity. In 2012, we conducted a follow-up survey (n = 607) of 1214 participants in the 1995 National Faculty Survey cohort and supplemented survey responses with publicly available data. Participants were randomly selected faculty from 24 US medical schools, oversampling for generalists, underrepresented minorities, and senior women. The primary outcomes were (1) promotion to full professor and (2) productivity, as indicated by mean number of peer-reviewed publications, and federal grant support in the prior 2 years. When comparing generalists with medical specialists, surgical specialists, and basic scientists on these outcomes, we adjusted for gender, race/ethnicity, effort distribution, parental and marital status, retention in academic career, and years in academia. When modeling promotion to full professor, we also adjusted for publications. In the intervening 17 years, generalists were least likely to have become full professors (53%) compared with medical specialists (67%), surgeons (66%), and basic scientists (78%, p advancement appears to be related to their lower rate of publication.

  1. Preliminary survey of absorbed dose rates in air at Guarapari and Meaipe in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujinami, Naoto; Koga, Taeko; Morishima, Hiroshige

    1999-01-01

    A preliminary survey of the gamma-ray exposure rate was carried out at Guarapari and Meaipe in Brazil in September 1998. In those areas, exposure rates in the streets ranged from 0.1 to 0.4 μGy/h except for a few places such as near the beaches. Exposure rates inside houses were lower than 0.2 μGy/h except for two houses where an exposure rate of 0.4 μGy/h was measured. Our effective dose rate from external terrestrial irradiation was 0.17 μSv/h on the average during the period of our three-day stay in Guarapari (outdoors and indoors). These values are lower than those observed in the 1960s, which were cited in UNSCEAR reports. This fact suggests that the natural radiation environment of Guarapari has varied with urbanization, which brought paved streets, and changes in the structure and building materials of houses. A detailed survey is necessary in order to evaluate the present exposure rates in these areas. (author)

  2. The effect of health, socio-economic position, and mode of data collection on non-response in health interview surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, Ola; Gundgaard, Jens; Rasmussen, Niels K R

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the relationship between potential explanatory factors (socio-economic factors and health) and non-response in two general population health interview surveys (face-to-face and telephone), and to compare the effects of the two interview modes on non-response patterns. METHODS...... in health interview surveys, but the non-response rate is higher in lower socio-economic groups. Analyses of non-response should be performed to understand the implications of survey findings.......: Data derives from The Danish Health Interview Survey 2000 (face-to-face interview) and The Funen County Health Survey 2000/2001 (telephone interview). Data on all invited individuals were obtained from administrative registers and linked to survey data at individual level. Multiple logistic regression...

  3. Rising trends and inequalities in cesarean section rates in Pakistan: Evidence from Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys, 1990-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Sarwat; Bahk, Jinwook; Khang, Young-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Despite global efforts to improve maternal health, many developing countries including Pakistan have failed to achieve the target of a 75% reduction in maternal deaths by 2015. Addressing socioeconomic inequalities in access to emergency obstetric care is crucial for reducing the maternal mortality rate. This study was done to examine the time trends and socioeconomic inequalities in the utilization of cesarean section (C-section) in Pakistan during 1990-2013. We used data from the Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys (PDHS) conducted during 1990 to 2013. All these surveys are nationally representative surveys of ever-married women aged 15-49 years with a sample size of 6611, 10,023, and 13,558 women in 1990-1991, 2006-2007, and 2012-2013, respectively, with an overall response rate of over 90%. The unit of analysis for this study was women with their most recent live birth in the five years preceding the surveys. Bivariate analyses and multivariable logistic regression models were employed to investigate the prevalence of cesarean sections according to selected sociodemographic characteristics of women. C-section rates were found to have increased during this period, with an especially significant rise from 2.7% in 1990-1991 to 15.8% in 2012-2013 with lower utilization among the non-educated women (7.5%), compared with the women with higher education (40.3%). C-section rates ranged from 5.5% in the poorest women to 35.3% in the richest women. Only 11.5% of the rural women had a C-section compared to 25.6% of the urban women. A greater likelihood of having a cesarean section was observed in the richest, highly educated, and urban-living women while there was no significant difference observed in cesarean section rates between the private and public sectors in all three surveys. To improve maternal health, routine monitoring and evaluation of the provision of emergency obstetric services are needed to address the underuse of C-section in poor and rural areas and

  4. Rising trends and inequalities in cesarean section rates in Pakistan: Evidence from Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys, 1990-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwat Mumtaz

    Full Text Available Despite global efforts to improve maternal health, many developing countries including Pakistan have failed to achieve the target of a 75% reduction in maternal deaths by 2015. Addressing socioeconomic inequalities in access to emergency obstetric care is crucial for reducing the maternal mortality rate. This study was done to examine the time trends and socioeconomic inequalities in the utilization of cesarean section (C-section in Pakistan during 1990-2013. We used data from the Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys (PDHS conducted during 1990 to 2013. All these surveys are nationally representative surveys of ever-married women aged 15-49 years with a sample size of 6611, 10,023, and 13,558 women in 1990-1991, 2006-2007, and 2012-2013, respectively, with an overall response rate of over 90%. The unit of analysis for this study was women with their most recent live birth in the five years preceding the surveys. Bivariate analyses and multivariable logistic regression models were employed to investigate the prevalence of cesarean sections according to selected sociodemographic characteristics of women. C-section rates were found to have increased during this period, with an especially significant rise from 2.7% in 1990-1991 to 15.8% in 2012-2013 with lower utilization among the non-educated women (7.5%, compared with the women with higher education (40.3%. C-section rates ranged from 5.5% in the poorest women to 35.3% in the richest women. Only 11.5% of the rural women had a C-section compared to 25.6% of the urban women. A greater likelihood of having a cesarean section was observed in the richest, highly educated, and urban-living women while there was no significant difference observed in cesarean section rates between the private and public sectors in all three surveys. To improve maternal health, routine monitoring and evaluation of the provision of emergency obstetric services are needed to address the underuse of C-section in poor and

  5. Comparison of Self-Reported Telephone Interviewing and Web-Based Survey Responses: Findings From the Second Australian Young and Well National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Tracey A; Burns, Jane M; Hickie, Ian B

    2017-01-01

    Background Web-based self-report surveying has increased in popularity, as it can rapidly yield large samples at a low cost. Despite this increase in popularity, in the area of youth mental health, there is a distinct lack of research comparing the results of Web-based self-report surveys with the more traditional and widely accepted computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI). Objective The Second Australian Young and Well National Survey 2014 sought to compare differences in respondent response patterns using matched items on CATI versus a Web-based self-report survey. The aim of this study was to examine whether responses varied as a result of item sensitivity, that is, the item’s susceptibility to exaggeration on underreporting and to assess whether certain subgroups demonstrated this effect to a greater extent. Methods A subsample of young people aged 16 to 25 years (N=101), recruited through the Second Australian Young and Well National Survey 2014, completed the identical items on two occasions: via CATI and via Web-based self-report survey. Respondents also rated perceived item sensitivity. Results When comparing CATI with the Web-based self-report survey, a Wilcoxon signed-rank analysis showed that respondents answered 14 of the 42 matched items in a significantly different way. Significant variation in responses (CATI vs Web-based) was more frequent if the item was also rated by the respondents as highly sensitive in nature. Specifically, 63% (5/8) of the high sensitivity items, 43% (3/7) of the neutral sensitivity items, and 0% (0/4) of the low sensitivity items were answered in a significantly different manner by respondents when comparing their matched CATI and Web-based question responses. The items that were perceived as highly sensitive by respondents and demonstrated response variability included the following: sexting activities, body image concerns, experience of diagnosis, and suicidal ideation. For high sensitivity items, a regression

  6. Comparison of Self-Reported Telephone Interviewing and Web-Based Survey Responses: Findings From the Second Australian Young and Well National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Alyssa C; Ellis, Louise A; Davenport, Tracey A; Burns, Jane M; Hickie, Ian B

    2017-09-26

    Web-based self-report surveying has increased in popularity, as it can rapidly yield large samples at a low cost. Despite this increase in popularity, in the area of youth mental health, there is a distinct lack of research comparing the results of Web-based self-report surveys with the more traditional and widely accepted computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI). The Second Australian Young and Well National Survey 2014 sought to compare differences in respondent response patterns using matched items on CATI versus a Web-based self-report survey. The aim of this study was to examine whether responses varied as a result of item sensitivity, that is, the item's susceptibility to exaggeration on underreporting and to assess whether certain subgroups demonstrated this effect to a greater extent. A subsample of young people aged 16 to 25 years (N=101), recruited through the Second Australian Young and Well National Survey 2014, completed the identical items on two occasions: via CATI and via Web-based self-report survey. Respondents also rated perceived item sensitivity. When comparing CATI with the Web-based self-report survey, a Wilcoxon signed-rank analysis showed that respondents answered 14 of the 42 matched items in a significantly different way. Significant variation in responses (CATI vs Web-based) was more frequent if the item was also rated by the respondents as highly sensitive in nature. Specifically, 63% (5/8) of the high sensitivity items, 43% (3/7) of the neutral sensitivity items, and 0% (0/4) of the low sensitivity items were answered in a significantly different manner by respondents when comparing their matched CATI and Web-based question responses. The items that were perceived as highly sensitive by respondents and demonstrated response variability included the following: sexting activities, body image concerns, experience of diagnosis, and suicidal ideation. For high sensitivity items, a regression analysis showed respondents who were male

  7. [The impact of a verbal consent form on the participation rate in a telephone survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Christian; Ladouceur, Robert; Fournier, Patricia-Maude; Baillargeon, Lucie

    2009-03-01

    To assess the impact of a consent form on the participation rate in a telephone survey about gambling and money. Four different consent forms were tested. The first consent form globally met the academic ethics committee requirements, while the second and third forms excluded some elements. Finally, the fourth form was similar to the introduction generally used by private survey firms. Even when the consent form required by academic ethics committees was shortened, the private firm introduction led to the best participation rate. However, participants who received the private firm introduction indicated that they wished they had been better informed before the interview started. The discussion highlights the delicate situation of academic research wishing to meet ethics requirements as well as conduct valid and representative research.

  8. Detection rates of geckos in visual surveys: Turning confounding variables into useful knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardner, Bjorn; Rodda, Gordon H.; Yackel Adams, Amy A.; Savidge, Julie A.; Reed, Robert N.

    2016-01-01

    Transect surveys without some means of estimating detection probabilities generate population size indices prone to bias because survey conditions differ in time and space. Knowing what causes such bias can help guide the collection of relevant survey covariates, correct the survey data, anticipate situations where bias might be unacceptably large, and elucidate the ecology of target species. We used negative binomial regression to evaluate confounding variables for gecko (primarily Hemidactylus frenatus and Lepidodactylus lugubris) counts on 220-m-long transects surveyed at night, primarily for snakes, on 9,475 occasions. Searchers differed in gecko detection rates by up to a factor of six. The worst and best headlamps differed by a factor of at least two. Strong winds had a negative effect potentially as large as those of searchers or headlamps. More geckos were seen during wet weather conditions, but the effect size was small. Compared with a detection nadir during waxing gibbous (nearly full) moons above the horizon, we saw 28% more geckos during waning crescent moons below the horizon. A sine function suggested that we saw 24% more geckos at the end of the wet season than at the end of the dry season. Fluctuations on a longer timescale also were verified. Disturbingly, corrected data exhibited strong short-term fluctuations that covariates apparently failed to capture. Although some biases can be addressed with measured covariates, others will be difficult to eliminate as a significant source of error in longterm monitoring programs.

  9. Comparing Sexual Assult Survey Prevalence Rates at Military Service Academies and U.S. Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-15

    and Weitzman, L. (1988). The incidence and dimensions of sexual harassment in academia and the workplace . Journal of Vocational Behavior, 32, 152...nonconforming,” or as something not listed on the survey. This group had high rates of being victims of nonconsensual sexual contact and harassment . However...physical harm or promised rewards, or 4) failure to obtain affirmative consent. The study also collected data on sexual harassment , stalking, and

  10. DOTD customer satisfaction survey frequency responses and cross-tabulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development (DOTD) conducted this customer satisfaction survey to determine levels of satisfaction overall and with select components of the state maintained highway system. An A, B, C, D and F letter ga...

  11. The Type Ia Supernova Rate in Radio and Infrared Galaxies from the CFHT Supernova Legacy Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, M. L.; Pritchet, C. J.; Sullivan, M.; Howell, D. A.; Gwyn, S. D. J.; Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Conley, A.; Fouchez, D.; Guy, J.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I. M.; Pain, R.

    2009-01-01

    We have combined the large SN Ia database of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey and catalogs of galaxies with photometric redshifts, VLA 1.4 GHz radio sources, and Spitzer infrared sources. We present eight SNe Ia in early-type host galaxies which have counterparts in the radio and infrared source catalogs. We find the SN Ia rate in subsets of radio and infrared early-type galaxies is ~1-5 times the rate in all early-type galaxies, and that any enhancement is always

  12. Survey: Did the TFP Growth Rate in Japan Decline in the 1990s?(in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    INUI Tomohiko; KWON Hyeog Ug

    2004-01-01

    This paper surveys the body of research grounded on a basic question "Did the total factor productivity (TFP) growth rate in Japan decline in the 1990s?" In addition, using industry-level data of the Japan Industrial Productivity Database (JIP database) we estimate the mark-ups and the degree of returns to scale and then re-estimate TFP growth rates. Most of studies reviewed in this paper show a decline in TFP growth in the 1990s at the macro-level and the industry-level. There are some studi...

  13. Incidence Rate of Community-Acquired Sepsis Among Hospitalized Acute Medical Patients-A Population-Based Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Daniel Pilsgaard; Laursen, Christian B; Jensen, Thøger Gorm

    2015-01-01

    to the hospital. DESIGN:: Population-based survey. SETTING:: Medical emergency department from September 1, 2010, to August 31, 2011. PATIENTS:: All patients were manually reviewed using a structured protocol in order to identify the presence of infection. Vital signs and laboratory values were collected...... to define the presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and organ dysfunction. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:: Incidence rate of sepsis of any severity. Among 8,358 admissions to the medical emergency department, 1,713 patients presented with an incident admission of sepsis of any severity, median...... on symptoms and clinical findings at arrival, incidence rates of patients admitted to a medical emergency department with sepsis and severe sepsis are more frequent than previously reported based on discharge diagnoses....

  14. Online Physician Reviews Do Not Reflect Patient Satisfaction Survey Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, R Jay; Maurer, Matthew J; Nayar, Veena R; Aase, Lee A; Wald, John T; Kotsenas, Amy L; Timimi, Farris K; Harper, Charles M; Pruthi, Sandhya

    2018-04-01

    Online physician reviews have become increasingly prevalent and are a common means by which patients explore medical options online. Currently, there are no data comparing physicians with negative online reviews and those without negative reviews. We sought to compare industry-vetted patient satisfaction surveys (PSSs), such as Press Ganey (PG) PSSs, between those physicians with negative online reviews and those without negative reviews. Overall, there were 113 unique individuals with negative online reviews from September 1, 2014, to December 31, 2014, with 8 being nonphysicians. We matched 113 physicians in similar departments/divisions. We obtained PG PSS scores of both groups and compared the mean scores of the 2 groups. Press Ganey PSS scores were available for 98 physicians with negative online reviews compared with 82 matched physicians without negative online reviews. The mean raw PG PSS scores were not different between the 2 groups (4.05; 95% CI, 3.99-4.11 vs 4.04; 95% CI, 3.97-4.11; P=.92). We also noted no difference in mean scores on questions related to physician-patient communication and interaction skills between those with poor online reviews and those without (4.38; 95% CI, 4.32-4.43 vs 4.41; 95% CI, 4.35-4.47; P=.42). However, there was a significantly lower non-physician-specific mean in those with negative online reviews (3.91; 95% CI, 3.84-3.97) vs those without negative online reviews (4.01; 95% CI, 3.95-4.09) (P=.02). Here, we provide data indicating that online physician reviews do not correlate to formal institutional PG PSS. Furthermore, physicians with negative online reviews have lower scores on non-physician-specific variables included in the PG PSSs, emphasizing that these discrepancies can negatively affect overall patient experience, online physician reviews, and physician reputation. It is prudent that an improved mechanism for online ratings be implemented to better inform patients about a physician's online reputation. Copyright

  15. Mobile natural gas leak surveys indicate that two utilities have high false negative rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Fischer, J. C.; Brewer, P. E.; Chamberlain, S.; Gaylord, A.; von Fischer, J.

    2016-12-01

    In the distribution systems that carry natural gas to consumers, leaks need to be discovered for safety reasons and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, few utilities have adopted newer laser-based technologies that have greater sensitivity and precision, and instead rely on "industry standard" equipment that is far less sensitive. In partnership with the Environmental Defense Fund and Google, we mapped natural gas leaks in the domains of two anonymous utilities (Utility "A" and "B") using high sensitivity Picarro methane analyzers in Google Street View Cars. Surprisingly, when we shared these results with utilities, their survey crews were unable to find most of the leaks that our survey indicated (84% in A and 80% in B). To investigate this phenomenon, our team visited a subset of the leaks in each utility domain (n=32 in A and n=30 in B), and worked alongside utility surveyors to search the leak indication area, using a Los Gatos Research ultraportable methane analyzer to pinpoint leak locations. We found evidence of natural gas leaks at 69% and 68% of the locations in Utilities A and B respectively where survey crews had found nothing. We describe this as a "false negative" rate for the utility because the utility survey falsely indicated that there was no leak at these locations. Of these false negatives, 7% (n=2 of 32 in A, n=2 of 30 in B) were determined to be Grade 1 leaks requiring immediate repair due to high safety risk. Instrument sensitivity appears to explain some of the false negative rates. In particular, use of some industry standard equipment appears to have created a false sense of confidence among utility surveyors that leaks were not present. However, there was also evidence of communication failures and that surveyors did not use optimal approaches in their search. Based on these findings, we suggest that: 1) mobile deployment of high-precision methane analyzers can help find more natural gas leaks, and 2) use of some hand-held survey

  16. Motivation in Business Survey Response Behavior : Influencing motivation to improve survey outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres van Grinsven, V.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/355608510

    2015-01-01

    In this dissertation we show theoretical and empirical insights into the concept of motivation in the context of the business and organizational survey task. The research has led to a number of recommendations on how to improve organizational survey and communication design to enhance motivation and

  17. Methodological studies for long range environmental gamma rate survey in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Elder M.; Wasserman, Maria Angelica V.; Rochedo, Elaine R. R.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work is to support the establishment of a methodology for gamma radiation survey over large areas in order to estimate public exposure to natural background radiation in Brazil. In a first stage, two different sites close to large water bodies were chosen, Guanabara Bay, RJ and Amazon River close to Santarem, PA. Early results showed similar results for over water surveys despite the type of water body. Dose rates over land are higher than those over water, due to the natural radioactivity on soil, pavements and other building materials. In this study the focus was on variability of measurements performed in the same area and variability for different types of area, including roads and urbanized environments. Several measurements have been performed of several areas, that included roads and towns in Para, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais. Measurements were done by car and on boats, using a AT6101C Scanner - Spectral Radiation Scanner. Differences were detected for different areas, with roads generally presenting lower dose rates than highly urbanized areas. Also, for roads close to granite rocks and mountains, dose rates are higher than those at both coastal areas and inland lowlands. Large towns present large variability, with individual measurements close to average dose rates from anomalous uranium sites. The results will be used to derive a methodology for assessing background radiation exposure for the Brazilian population. It can be concluded that surveys are to be based on population distribution grids rather than on a simple area based grid distribution, due to both the uneven population distribution and the variability on external dose rates throughout the Brazilian territory. (author)

  18. Estimated rate of agricultural injury: the Korean Farmers’ Occupational Disease and Injury Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study estimated the rate of agricultural injury using a nationwide survey and identified factors associated with these injuries. Methods The first Korean Farmers’ Occupational Disease and Injury Survey (KFODIS) was conducted by the Rural Development Administration in 2009. Data from 9,630 adults were collected through a household survey about agricultural injuries suffered in 2008. We estimated the injury rates among those whose injury required an absence of more than 4 days. Logistic regression was performed to identify the relationship between the prevalence of agricultural injuries and the general characteristics of the study population. Results We estimated that 3.2% (±0.00) of Korean farmers suffered agricultural injuries that required an absence of more than 4 days. The injury rates among orchard farmers (5.4 ± 0.00) were higher those of all non-orchard farmers. The odds ratio (OR) for agricultural injuries was significantly lower in females (OR: 0.45, 95% CI = 0.45–0.45) compared to males. However, the odds of injury among farmers aged 50–59 (OR: 1.53, 95% CI = 1.46–1.60), 60–69 (OR: 1.45, 95% CI = 1.39–1.51), and ≥70 (OR: 1.94, 95% CI = 1.86–2.02) were significantly higher compared to those younger than 50. In addition, the total number of years farmed, average number of months per year of farming, and average hours per day of farming were significantly associated with agricultural injuries. Conclusions Agricultural injury rates in this study were higher than rates reported by the existing compensation insurance data. Males and older farmers were at a greater risk of agriculture injuries; therefore, the prevention and management of agricultural injuries in this population is required. PMID:24808945

  19. Estimated rate of agricultural injury: the Korean Farmers' Occupational Disease and Injury Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Hyeseon; Min, Kyungdoo; Youn, Kanwoo; Park, Jinwoo; Kim, Kyungran; Kim, Hyocher; Lee, Kyungsuk

    2014-01-01

    This study estimated the rate of agricultural injury using a nationwide survey and identified factors associated with these injuries. The first Korean Farmers' Occupational Disease and Injury Survey (KFODIS) was conducted by the Rural Development Administration in 2009. Data from 9,630 adults were collected through a household survey about agricultural injuries suffered in 2008. We estimated the injury rates among those whose injury required an absence of more than 4 days. Logistic regression was performed to identify the relationship between the prevalence of agricultural injuries and the general characteristics of the study population. We estimated that 3.2% (±0.00) of Korean farmers suffered agricultural injuries that required an absence of more than 4 days. The injury rates among orchard farmers (5.4 ± 0.00) were higher those of all non-orchard farmers. The odds ratio (OR) for agricultural injuries was significantly lower in females (OR: 0.45, 95% CI = 0.45-0.45) compared to males. However, the odds of injury among farmers aged 50-59 (OR: 1.53, 95% CI = 1.46-1.60), 60-69 (OR: 1.45, 95% CI = 1.39-1.51), and ≥70 (OR: 1.94, 95% CI = 1.86-2.02) were significantly higher compared to those younger than 50. In addition, the total number of years farmed, average number of months per year of farming, and average hours per day of farming were significantly associated with agricultural injuries. Agricultural injury rates in this study were higher than rates reported by the existing compensation insurance data. Males and older farmers were at a greater risk of agriculture injuries; therefore, the prevention and management of agricultural injuries in this population is required.

  20. Response rates to oestrogen treatment in perimenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rejnmark, Lars; Vestergaard, Peter; Tofteng, C.L.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterise women with no response or with a good response to hormone replacement therapy (HRT), evaluated by change in bone mineral density (BMD). Design: Nested case-control study within a comprehensive cohort study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study...

  1. Peanut canopy temperature and NDVI response to varying irrigation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) systems have the potential to conserve water by spatially allocating limited water resources. In this study, peanut was grown under a VRI system to evaluate the impact of differential irrigation rates on peanut yield. Additionally, we evaluated the impact of differenti...

  2. Contraceptive failure rates: new estimates from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, H; Darroch, J E; Haas, T; Ranjit, N

    1999-01-01

    Unintended pregnancy remains a major public health concern in the United States. Information on pregnancy rates among contraceptive users is needed to guide medical professionals' recommendations and individuals' choices of contraceptive methods. Data were taken from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) and the 1994-1995 Abortion Patient Survey (APS). Hazards models were used to estimate method-specific contraceptive failure rates during the first six months and during the first year of contraceptive use for all U.S. women. In addition, rates were corrected to take into account the underreporting of induced abortion in the NSFG. Corrected 12-month failure rates were also estimated for subgroups of women by age, union status, poverty level, race or ethnicity, and religion. When contraceptive methods are ranked by effectiveness over the first 12 months of use (corrected for abortion underreporting), the implant and injectables have the lowest failure rates (2-3%), followed by the pill (8%), the diaphragm and the cervical cap (12%), the male condom (14%), periodic abstinence (21%), withdrawal (24%) and spermicides (26%). In general, failure rates are highest among cohabiting and other unmarried women, among those with an annual family income below 200% of the federal poverty level, among black and Hispanic women, among adolescents and among women in their 20s. For example, adolescent women who are not married but are cohabiting experience a failure rate of about 31% in the first year of contraceptive use, while the 12-month failure rate among married women aged 30 and older is only 7%. Black women have a contraceptive failure rate of about 19%, and this rate does not vary by family income; in contrast, overall 12-month rates are lower among Hispanic women (15%) and white women (10%), but vary by income, with poorer women having substantially greater failure rates than more affluent women. Levels of contraceptive failure vary widely by method, as well as by

  3. Strategies to Maximize Data Collection Response Rates in a Randomized Control Trial Focused on Children with Medical Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Stanley M; Celebrezze, Margaret; Cady, Rhonda; Lunos, Scott; Looman, Wendy S

    2016-04-01

    Obtaining complete and timely subject data is key to the success of clinical trials, particularly for studies requiring data collected from subjects at home or other remote sites. A multifaceted strategy for data collection in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) focused on care coordination for children with medical complexity is described. The influences of data collection mode, incentives, and study group membership on subject response patterns are analyzed. Data collection included monthly healthcare service utilization (HCSU) calendars and annual surveys focused on care coordination outcomes. One hundred sixty-three families were enrolled in the 30-month TeleFamilies RCT. Subjects were 2-15 years of age at enrollment. HCSU data were collected by parent/guardian self-report using mail, e-mail, telephone, or texting. Surveys were collected by mail. Incentives were provided for completed surveys after 8 months to improve collection returns. Outcome measures were the number of HCSU calendars and surveys returned, the return interval, data collection mode, and incentive impact. Return rates of 90% for HCSU calendars and 82% for annual surveys were achieved. Mean return intervals were 72 and 65 days for HCSU and surveys, respectively. Survey response increased from 55% to 95% after introduction of a gift card and added research staff. High return rates for HCSU calendars and health-related surveys are attainable but required a flexible and personnel-intensive approach to collection methods. Family preference for data collection approach should be obtained at enrollment, should be modified as needed, and requires flexible options, training, intensive staff/family interaction, and patience.

  4. UK intussusception audit: A national survey of practice and audit of reduction rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannon, Edward; Williams, Rhianydd; Allan, Rosemary; Okoye, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To define current UK reduction practice and the reductions rates achieved. Materials and methods: Electronic surveys were sent to radiologists at 26 UK centres. This assessed methods of reduction, equipment, personnel, and protocol usage. Standardized audit proforma were also sent to evaluate all reductions performed in 2011. Results: Twenty-two of 26 centres (85%) replied. All used air enema under fluoroscopic guidance. Equipment was not standardized but could be broadly categorized into hand-pumped air-supply systems (seven centres) and pressurized air systems (15 centres). Seventeen centres followed a protocol based on British Society of Paediatric Radiologists (BSPR) guidelines. In 21 of the 22 centres a consultant paediatric radiologist led reductions and only 12 centres reported a surgeon being present. Three hundred and ten cases were reported across 22 centres. Cases per centre ranged from 0–31 (median 14). Reduction rates varied from 38–90% (median 71%). The overall perforation rate was 2.5%. Caseload did not significantly correlate with reduction rate, and there was no significant difference between the two types of equipment used. Median reduction rates were 15% higher in centres with a surgeon present at reduction (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Intussusception care in the UK lacks standardization of equipment and personnel involved. National reduction rates are lower than in current international literature. Improved standardization may lead to an improvement in reduction rates and a surgeon should always be present at reduction

  5. Optimization of detector size and scan rate for beta/gamma material release surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, R.V.

    1993-01-01

    DOE facilities are required to offer for sale to the public items of salvageable value when they are no longer required by the facilities. These items have to be surveyed to ensure radioactive contamination levels do not exceed the values listed in DOE Order 5400.5. Most facilities use portable contamination monitoring.equipment with probe areas between 20 and 100 cm 2 to check for fixed contamination. This procedure is very labor intensive and results in survey costs that often exceed the costs recovered from selling the items. A solution would be to use large area (> 100 cm 2 ) detectors to find and quantify contamination. Large area scintillation detectors that can be used for beta and alpha detection simultaneously are becoming available commercially. Combining these with a rate meter that can differentiate between alpha and beta events can result in a survey that takes considerably less time to do and will save a proportional amount of money in doing so. The use and limitations of this combination of detectors and rate meters will be discussed

  6. 2012 Survey of Active Duty Spouses: Tabulations of Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Survey Reporting Tool. A team consisting of Deepika Batra, Malikah Dorvil, and Amy Campbell, SRA International, Inc., completed quality control for...would you prefer to take a virtual/ telecommuting position or an office/building position outside of your home...224 d. Not being able to stop or control worrying ........................................... 226 56. Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-4

  7. What Factors are Important to Patients when Assessing Treatment Response: An International Cross-sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kobyletzki, Laura B; Thomas, Kim S; Schmitt, Jochen; Chalmers, Joanne R; Deckert, Stefanie; Aoki, Valeria; Weisshaar, Elke; Ojo, Jumoke Ahubelem; Svensson, Åke

    2017-01-04

    This study investigated the perspective of international patients on individual symptoms of atopic dermatitis (eczema) in determining treatment response. A questionnaire was developed to evaluate the importance of symptoms from the patient's perspective. Patients were asked: "How important are these features in deciding whether or not a treatment is working?", and rated symptoms on a 5-point Likert scale. Patients were approached via Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) collaborators and self-selected to take part in the on-line survey. Patients from 34 countries (n = 1,111) completed the survey; of these, 423 (38.3%) were parents of children with eczema. Nine items were rated as being "quite important" or "very important" by more than 80% of the respondents: itch, pain/soreness, skin feels hot or inflamed, bleeding, involvement of visible or sensitive body sites, cracks, sleep difficulties, amount of body affected, and weeping/oozing. These results may be of use in determining the face validity of scales from a cross-cultural patients' perspective.

  8. Two survey meters for measuring low γ-ray dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    Two low-level survey meters have been developed which have numerical displays. The first is of the light-emitting diode (LED) type. The second is a liquid crystal display (LCD). The design of both instruments is described and results of measurements of performance are presented. They measure γ dose rates from background up to 2 mrad/h (20 μGy/h) for γ-rays in the energy range 0.05-1.25 MeV. They can be used at temperatures between -20 deg C and +50 deg C. Statistical accuracy and battery life both depend upon a number of factors and this dependence is shown. A later section describes the intended application of the survey meters. An appendix describes the circuit adjustments which are necessary and when they must be made. (author)

  9. Response of Microbial Soil Carbon Mineralization Rates to Oxygen Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiluweit, M.; Denney, A.; Nico, P. S.; Fendorf, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The rate of soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization is known to be controlled by climatic factors as well as molecular structure, mineral-organic associations, and physical protection. What remains elusive is to what extent oxygen (O2) limitations impact overall rates of microbial SOM mineralization (oxidation) in soils. Even within upland soils that are aerobic in bulk, factors limiting O2 diffusion such as texture and soil moisture can result in an abundance of anaerobic microsites in the interior of soil aggregates. Variation in ensuing anaerobic respiration pathways can further impact SOM mineralization rates. Using a combination of (first) aggregate model systems and (second) manipulations of intact field samples, we show how limitations on diffusion and carbon bioavailability interact to impose anaerobic conditions and associated respiration constraints on SOM mineralization rates. In model aggregates, we examined how particle size (soil texture) and amount of dissolved organic carbon (bioavailable carbon) affect O2 availability and distribution. Monitoring electron acceptor profiles (O2, NO3-, Mn and Fe) and SOM transformations (dissolved, particulate, mineral-associated pools) across the resulting redox gradients, we then determined the distribution of operative microbial metabolisms and their cumulative impact on SOM mineralization rates. Our results show that anaerobic conditions decrease SOM mineralization rates overall, but those are partially offset by the concurrent increases in SOM bioavailability due to transformations of protective mineral phases. In intact soil aggregates collected from soils varying in texture and SOM content, we mapped the spatial distribution of anaerobic microsites. Optode imaging, microsensor profiling and 3D tomography revealed that soil texture regulates overall O2 availability in aggregate interiors, while particulate SOM in biopores appears to control the fine-scale distribution of anaerobic microsites. Collectively, our

  10. Public Awareness and Use of German Physician Ratings Websites: Cross-Sectional Survey of Four North German Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Stuart; Strech, Daniel; Meyer, Andrea; Kahrass, Hannes

    2017-11-09

    Physician rating websites (PRWs) allow patients to rate, comment, and discuss physicians' quality. The ability of PRWs to influence patient decision making and health care quality is dependent, in part, on sufficient awareness and usage of PRWs. However, previous studies have found relatively low levels of awareness and usage of PRWs, which has raised concerns about the representativeness and validity of information on PRWs. The objectives of this study were to examine (1) participants' awareness, use, and contribution of ratings on PRWs and how this compares with other rating websites; (2) factors that predict awareness, use, and contribution of ratings on PRWs; and (3) participants' attitudes toward PRWs in relation to selecting a physician. A mailed cross-sectional survey was sent to a random sample (N=1542) from four North German cities (Nordhorn, Hildesheim, Bremen, and Hamburg) between April and July 2016. Survey questions explored respondents' awareness, use, and contribution of ratings on rating websites for service (physicians, hospitals, and hotels and restaurants) and products (media and technical) in general and the role of PRWs when searching for a new physician. A total of 280 completed surveys were returned (280/1542, 18.16% response rate), with the following findings: (1) Overall, 72.5% (200/276) of respondents were aware of PRWs. Of the respondents who were aware of PRWs, 43.6% (86/197) had used PRWs. Of the respondents who had used PRWs, 23% (19/83) had rated physicians at least once. Awareness, use, and contribution of ratings on PRWs were significantly lower in comparison with all other rating websites, except for hospital rating websites. (2) Except for the impact of responders' gender and marital status on the awareness of PRWs and responders' age on the use of PRWs, no other predictors had a relevant impact. (3) Whereas 31.8% (85/267) of the respondents reported that PRWs were a very important or somewhat important information source when

  11. High rate of burnout among anaesthesiologists in Belgrade teaching hospitals: Results of a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenović, Miodrag; Matejić, Bojana; Vasić, Vladimir; Frost, Elizabeth; Petrović, Nataša; Simić, Dušica

    2016-03-01

    Decisions by anaesthesiologists directly impact the treatment, safety, recovery and quality of life of patients. Physical or mental collapse due to overwork or stress (burnout) in anaesthesiologists may, therefore, be expected to negatively affect patients, departments, healthcare facilities and families. To evaluate the prevalence of burnout among anaesthesiologists in Belgrade public teaching hospitals. A cross-sectional survey. Anaesthesiologists in 10 Belgrade teaching hospitals. Burnout was assessed using Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey. The response rate was 76.2% (205/272) with the majority of respondents women (70.7%). The prevalence of total burnout among anaesthesiologists in Belgrade teaching hospitals was 6.34%. Measured level of burnout as assessed by high emotional exhaustion, high depersonalisation and low personal accomplishment was 52.7, 12.2 and 28.8%, respectively. More than a quarter of the studied population responded in each category with symptoms of moderate burnout. We detected that sex, additional academic education, marital status and working conditions were risk factors for emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. Ageing increased the likelihood of burnout by 21.3% with each additional year. Shorter professional experience and increased educational accomplishment increased the risk of total burnout by 272%. Burnout rates in Belgrade teaching hospitals among anaesthesiologists are higher than in foreign hospitals. Emotional and/or physical breakdowns can have serious effects when these individuals care for patients in extremely stressed situations that may occur perioperatively. Causes for burnout should be examined more closely and means implemented to reverse this process.

  12. The Effect of Police Response Time on Crime Clearance Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanes i Vidal, Jordi; Kirchmaier, Tom

    2018-01-01

    significant effects: in our preferred estimate, a 10% increase in response time leads to a 4.7 percentage points decrease in the likelihood of clearing the crime. We find stronger effects for thefts than for violent offenses, although the effects are large for every type of crime. We find suggestive evidence...

  13. Survey of environmental radiation dose rates in Kyoto and Shiga prefectures, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minamia, Kazuyuki; Shimo, Michikuni; Oka, Mitsuaki; Ejiri, Kazutaka; Sugino, Masato; Minato, Susumu; Hosoda, Masahiro; Yamada, Junya; Fukushi, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    We have measured environmental radiation dose rates in several Prefectures, such as Ai chi Prefecture, Gifu Prefecture, and Mie Prefecture, in central Japan. Recently, we measured the environmental radiation dose rates in Kyoto and Shiga Prefectures that are also located in central Japan with a car-borne survey system. At the time of measurement, Kyoto Prefecture (area: 4,613 km 2 ) had a total of 36 districts, and Shiga Prefecture (area: 3,387 km 2 ) a total of 26. Terrestrial gamma ray dose rates and secondary cosmic ray dose rates were measured by a 2 inches ψ x 2 inches NaI(Tl) scintillation counter and a handy-type altimeter (GPS eTrex Legend by Gamin), respectively. The following factors were taken into consideration the shielding effect of the car body, the effect of the road pavement, radon progeny borne by precipitation, and increases in tunnels and near the walls. Terrestrial gamma ray dose rates in Kyoto and Shiga Prefectures were estimated to be 51.7 ± 6.0 n Gy/h (district average: 52.4 ± 4.7 n Gy/h), 52.2 ± 10.5 n Gy/h (district average: 51.9 ± 8.1 n Gy/h), respectively. Secondary cosmic ray dose rates in Kyoto and Shiga Prefectures were 30.0 ± 0.6 n Gy/h (district average: 29.9 ±0.3 n Gy/h), 30.1 ± 0.3 n Gy/h (district average: 30.0 ± 0.2 n Gy/h), respectively. The environmental radiation dose rates due to the sum dose rates of terrestrial gamma ray and secondary cosmic ray in Kyoto and Shiga Prefectures were 81.7 ± 6.2 n Gy/h (district average: 82.3 ± 4.8 n Gy/h), 82.3 ± 10.6 n Gy/h (district average: 82.0 ± 8.1 n Gy/h), respectively. We confirmed that the environmental radiation dose rates in Kyoto and Shiga Prefectures mainly depended on the change of the terrestrial gamma ray dose rates, since the secondary cosmic ray dose rates had little change. Therefore, radiation dose-rate maps of the terrestrial gamma rays as well as maps of the environmental radiation dose-rate were drawn. (author)

  14. Gonadal hormones and heart rate as an emotional response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Loos, Wolter Statius

    1988-01-01

    Animai experiments may give information on the physiology of hormones under stress conditions. The model for the investigation of acute emotional stress in animals that has been chosen permits the study of heart rate in freely moving laboratory rats as a sensitive psychophysiological parameter, This

  15. The intubating laryngeal mask produces less heart rate response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pc

    We compared heart rate and blood pressure changes to intubation produced by conventional laryngoscopic-guided intubation to those produced by blind intubation through the intubating laryngeal mask (ILM) in normotensive adults with normal airways. Forty paralysed, anaesthetised adults undergoing elective surgery ...

  16. Decreased heart rate variability responses during early postoperative mobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jans, Øivind; Brinth, Louise; Kehlet, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    in relation to postural change. METHODS: A standardized mobilization protocol before, 6 and 24 h after surgery was performed in 23 patients scheduled for elective THA. Beat-to-beat arterial blood pressure was measured by photoplethysmography and HRV was derived from pulse wave interbeat intervals and analysed......BACKGROUND: Intact orthostatic blood pressure regulation is essential for early mobilization after surgery. However, postoperative orthostatic hypotension and intolerance (OI) may delay early ambulation. The mechanisms of postoperative OI include impaired vasopressor responses relating...... and postural responses in arterial pressures decreased compared to preoperative conditions. During standing HF variation increased by 16.7 (95 % CI 8.0-25.0) normalized units (nu) at 6 h and 10.7 (2.0-19.4) nu at 24 h compared to the preoperative evaluation. At 24 h the LF/HF ratio decreased from 1.8 (1...

  17. Results of a survey to determine demographic and business management factors associated with size and growth rate of rural mixed-animal veterinary practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusk, Amy M; White, Brad J; Goehl, Dan R; Dhuyvetter, Kevin C

    2010-12-15

    To determine potential associations between demographic and business management factors and practice size and growth rate in rural mixed-animal veterinary practices. Cross-sectional survey. 54 mixed-animal practitioners. A cross-sectional survey (96 questions) was electronically disseminated. Responses were collected, and outcomes (number of veterinarians [NV], growth in number of veterinarians [NVG], gross practice income [GPI], growth in gross practice income [GPIG], gross practice income per veterinarian [GPIV], and growth in gross practice income per veterinarian [GPIVG]) were calculated. Bivariate analyses were performed and multivariable models created to determine associations between survey responses and outcomes of interest. Survey respondents were from mixed-animal practices, and most (46/54 [85.2%]) practiced in small communities (business manager. Typically, practices had positive mean growth in NVG (4.4%), GPIG (8.5%), and GPIVG (8.1%), but growth rate was highly variable among practices. Factors associated with growth rate included main species interest, frequency for adjusting prices, use of a marketing plan, service fee structure, and sending a client newsletter. Mixed-animal practices had a large range in size and growth rate. Economic indices were impacted by common business management practices.

  18. RESPONSE TO DIFFERENT RATES OF NITROGEN BY FIVE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    150kgN/ha with a mean leaf area of 55.60cm2. A lower rate of 100kgN/ha was however, found to be optimum in. 2012 with an average leaf area of 51.70cm2, when ... Exchange Acidity. 3.32. 3.35. ECEC (cmol/kg). 7.27. 7.34. Number of Tillers per Plant. Nitrogen application significantly enhanced the tillering ability of the ...

  19. Oligodendroglial response to ionizing radiation: Dose and dose-rate response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    An in vitro system using neuroglia from neonatal rat brain was developed to examining the morphologic, immunocytochemical and biochemical response of oligodendroglia to ionizing radiation. Following acute γ-radiation at day-in-culture (DIC) 8, oligodendrocyte counts at DIC 14 were 55% to 65% of control values after 2 Gy, and 29% to 36% after 5 Gy. Counts increased to near-normal levels at DIC 21 in the 2 Gy group and to 75% of normal in the 5 Gy group. Myelin basic protein levels (MBP) at DIC 14 were 60% of control values after 2 Gy, and 40% after 5 Gy. At DIC 21, MBP after 2 Gy was 45% greater than that observed at DIC 14, but MBP, as a fraction of age-matched control values, dropped from 60% to 50%. Following 5 Gy, absolute MBP changed little between DIC 14 and DIC 21, but decreased from 40% to 25% of control cultures. It was concluded that oligodendrocytes in irradiated cultures had significantly lower functional capacity than did unirradiated controls. The response to split-dose irradiation indicated that nearly all sublethal damage in the oligodendrocyte population (and its precursors) was repaired within 3 h to 4 h. At DIC 14, the group irradiated in a single fraction had significantly lower oligodendrocyte counts than any group given split doses; all irradiated cultures had marked depression of MBP synthesis, but to significant differences referable to time interval between doses. At DIC 21, cultures irradiated at intervals of 0 h to 2 h had similar oligodendrocyte counts to one another, but these counts were significantly lower than in cultures irradiated at intervals of 4 h to 6 h; MBP levels remained depressed at DIC 21 for all irradiated cultures. The oligodendrocyte response to dose rate (0.03 to 1.97 Gy/min) was evaluated at DIC 14 and DIC 21. Exposure at 0.03 Gy/min suppressed oligodendrocyte counts at DIC 21 less than did higher dose rates in 5-Gy irradiated cultures

  20. Rate of electronic health record adoption in South Korea: A nation-wide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Gun; Jung, Kyoungwon; Park, Young-Taek; Shin, Dahye; Cho, Soo Yeon; Yoon, Dukyong; Park, Rae Woong

    2017-05-01

    The adoption rate of electronic health record (EHR) systems in South Korea has continuously increased. However, in contrast to the situation in the United States (US), where there has been a national effort to improve and standardize EHR interoperability, no consensus has been established in South Korea. The goal of this study was to determine the current status of EHR adoption in South Korean hospitals compared to that in the US. All general and tertiary teaching hospitals in South Korea were surveyed regarding their EHR status in 2015 with the same questionnaire as used previously. The survey form estimated the level of adoption of EHR systems according to 24 core functions in four categories (clinical documentation, result view, computerized provider order entry, and decision supports). The adoption level was classified into comprehensive and basic EHR systems according to their functionalities. EHRs and computerized physician order entry systems were used in 58.1% and 86.0% of South Korean hospitals, respectively. Decision support systems and problem list documentation were the functions most frequently missing from comprehensive and basic EHR systems. The main barriers cited to adoption of EHR systems were the cost of purchasing (48%) and the ongoing cost of maintenance (11%). The EHR adoption rate in Korean hospitals (37.2%) was higher than that in US hospitals in 2010 (15.1%), but this trend was reversed in 2015 (58.1% vs. 75.2%). The evidence suggests that these trends were influenced by the level of financial and political support provided to US hospitals after the HITECH Act was passed in 2009. The EHR adoption rate in Korea has increased, albeit more slowly than in the US. It is logical to suggest that increased funding and support tied to the HITECH Act in the US partly explains the difference in the adoption rates of EHRs in both countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Exclusive Breastfeeding Rate and Complementary Feeding Indicators in China: A National Representative Survey in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Duan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate infant and young child feeding could reduce morbidity and mortality and could improve cognitive development of children. However, nationwide data on exclusive breastfeeding and complementary feeding status in China are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess current exclusive breastfeeding and complementary feeding status in China. A national representative survey (Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey of children aged under 6 years was done in 2013. Stratified multistage cluster sampling was used to select study participants. World Health Organization (WHO infant and young child feeding indicators were firstly used to assess exclusive breastfeeding and complementary feeding practice nationwide. In total, 14,458 children aged under two years (0 to <730 days were studied from 55 counties in 30 provinces in China. The crude exclusive breastfeeding rate under 6 months was 20.7% (908/4381 and the weighted exclusive breastfeeding rate was 18.6%. The crude prevalence of minimum dietary diversity, minimum meal frequency and minimum acceptable diet were 52.5% (5286/10,071, 69.8% (7027/10,071, and 27.4% (2764/10,071 among children aged 6–23 months, respectively. The weighted rate was 53.7%, 69.1%, and 25.1%, respectively. Residential area, household income and maternal education were positively associated with the three complementary feeding indicators. The exclusive breastfeeding rate under 6 months was low and complementary feeding practice was not optimal in China. Residential area, household income and maternal education might be used to target infants and young children to improve complementary feeding practice.

  2. Designing Pareto-superior demand-response rate options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, I.; Woo, C.K.

    2006-01-01

    We explore three voluntary service options-real-time pricing, time-of-use pricing, and curtailable/interruptible service-that a local distribution company might offer its customers in order to encourage them to alter their electricity usage in response to changes in the electricity-spot-market price. These options are simple and practical, and make minimal information demands. We show that each of the options is Pareto-superior ex ante, in that it benefits both the participants and the company offering it, while not affecting the non-participants. The options are shown to be Pareto-superior ex post as well, except under certain exceptional circumstances. (author)

  3. A survey of attitudes toward responsible pet ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, L A; Rhoades, J D; Hewett, J E; Irvin, J A

    1979-01-01

    The concerns of medical and community officials about responsible pet ownership have increased. Before a practical solution can be found for irresponsible ownership and community health problems associated with pet populations, the public's attitudes on issues related to responsible pet ownership must be determined. Such issues include attitudes on dog and cat overpopulation, potential public health problems associated with pet populations, and methods of controlling pet populations and stray animals. Responses to a questionnaire were used to evaluate the attitudes of 910 pet owners and nonowners toward factors comprising responsible pet ownership. The median age of the respondents was 33 years; 414 (45 percent) were men, and 496 (55 percent) were women. At the time of the study, 18 percent owned a cat and a dog, 35 percent owned only a dog, 11 percent showed only a cat, and 36 percent were nonowners. Not only the sex of the respondent but also the category of pet ownership affected opinions on overpopulation of dogs and cats, nuisance and pollution problems associated with these animals, and methods of controlling pet populations in the community. For example, owners agreed strongly on family planning for pets, but a majority of male owners stated that they would not have their dogs neutered. PMID:572978

  4. GDOT employee survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-04

    The research team worked in collaboration with GDOT to conduct the 2016 GDOT Employee Survey. This research study aimed to increase the response rate and the usefulness of the feedback from the GDOT employee survey to support organizational decisions...

  5. 2012 Survey of Reserve Components Spouses (RCSS): Tabulations of Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    injury/medical problems Child care problems Other family/personal obligation Maternity / paternity leave Labor dispute Weather affected job School...Did you interact with the unit or Service point of contact? ............................. 262  36.  How satisfied are you with the level of assistance...I did not interact with the unit or Service point of contact were tabulated separately, as responses to the constructed question Did you interact

  6. Heart rate responses induced by acoustic tempo and its interaction with basal heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Ken; Ooishi, Yuuki; Kashino, Makio

    2017-03-07

    Many studies have revealed the influences of music on the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Since previous studies focused on the effects of acoustic tempo on the ANS, and humans have their own physiological oscillations such as the heart rate (HR), the effects of acoustic tempo might depend on the HR. Here we show the relationship between HR elevation induced by acoustic tempo and individual basal HR. Since high tempo-induced HR elevation requires fast respiration, which is based on sympatho-respiratory coupling, we controlled the participants' respiration at a faster rate (20 CPM) than usual (15 CPM). We found that sound stimuli with a faster tempo than the individual basal HR increased the HR. However, the HR increased following a gradual increase in the acoustic tempo only when the extent of the gradual increase in tempo was within a specific range (around + 2%/min). The HR did not follow the increase in acoustic tempo when the rate of the increase in the acoustic tempo exceeded 3% per minute. These results suggest that the effect of the sympatho-respiratory coupling underlying the HR elevation caused by a high acoustic tempo depends on the basal HR, and the strength and the temporal dynamics of the tempo.

  7. Factors influencing identification of and response to intimate partner violence: a survey of physicians and nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wathen C Nadine

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence against women (IPV has been identified as a serious public health problem. Although the health care system is an important site for identification and intervention, there have been challenges in determining how health care professionals can best address this issue in practice. We surveyed nurses and physicians in 2004 regarding their attitudes and behaviours with respect to IPV, including whether they routinely inquire about IPV, as well as potentially relevant barriers, facilitators, experiential, and practice-related factors. Methods A modified Dillman Tailored Design approach was used to survey 1000 nurses and 1000 physicians by mail in Ontario, Canada. Respondents were randomly selected from professional directories and represented practice areas pre-identified from the literature as those most likely to care for women at the point of initial IPV disclosure: family practice, obstetrics and gynecology, emergency care, maternal/newborn care, and public health. The survey instrument had a case-based scenario followed by 43 questions asking about behaviours and resources specific to woman abuse. Results In total, 931 questionnaires were returned; 597 by nurses (59.7% response rate and 328 by physicians (32.8% response rate. Overall, 32% of nurses and 42% of physicians reported routinely initiating the topic of IPV in practice. Principal components analysis identified eight constructs related to whether routine inquiry was conducted: preparedness, self-confidence, professional supports, abuse inquiry, practitioner consequences of asking, comfort following disclosure, practitioner lack of control, and practice pressures. Each construct was analyzed according to a number of related issues, including clinician training and experience with woman abuse, area of practice, and type of health care provider. Preparedness emerged as a key construct related to whether respondents routinely initiated the topic of

  8. Effect of radiation doses rate on SOS response induction in irradiated Escherichia coli Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuetara Lugo, Elizabeth B.; Fuentes Lorenzo, Jorge L.; Almeida Varela, Eliseo; Prieto Miranda, Enrique F.; Sanchez Lamar, Angel; Llagostera Casal, Montserrat

    2005-01-01

    The present work is aimed to study the effect of radiation dose rate on the induction of SOS response in Escherichia coli cells. We measured the induction of sul A reporter gene in PQ-37 (SOS Chromotest) cells. Lead devises were built with different diameter and these were used for diminishing the dose rate of PX- -30M irradiator. Our results show that radiation doses rate significantly modifies the induction of SOS response. Induction factor increases proportionally to doses rate in Escherichia coli cells defective to nucleotide excision repair (uvrA), but not in wild type cells. We conclude that the dose rate affects the level of induction of SOS response

  9. 75 FR 49351 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Nonappropriated Fund Wage and Survey Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... Jersey: Atlantic Cape May Ocean Salem Monmouth Survey Area New Jersey: Monmouth Area of Application...: Alabama: Mobile Mississippi: Forest Jackson Lauderdale Survey Area Mississippi: Lauderdale Area of...

  10. EVOLUTION IN THE VOLUMETRIC TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA RATE FROM THE SUPERNOVA LEGACY SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrett, K.; Gonzalez-Gaitan, S.; Carlberg, R. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Sullivan, M.; Hook, I. M. [Department of Physics (Astrophysics), University of Oxford, DWB, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Conley, A. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 593 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0593 (United States); Fouchez, D. [CPPM, CNRS-IN2P3 and University Aix Marseille II, Case 907, 13288 Marseille cedex 9 (France); Ripoche, P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Mail Stop 50-232, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Neill, J. D. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Guy, J.; Hardin, D.; Pain, R.; Regnault, N. [LPNHE, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Universite Paris Diderot Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Balam, D. [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Basa, S. [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, Pole de l' Etoile Site de Chateau-Gombert, 38, rue Frederic Joliot-Curie, 13388 Marseille cedex 13 (France); Howell, D. A. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Dr., Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Palanque-Delabrouille, N. [DSM/IRFU/SPP, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Pritchet, C., E-mail: perrett@astro.utoronto.ca, E-mail: sullivan@astro.ox.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Stn CSC, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada); and others

    2012-08-15

    We present a measurement of the volumetric Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate (SNR{sub Ia}) as a function of redshift for the first four years of data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). This analysis includes 286 spectroscopically confirmed and more than 400 additional photometrically identified SNe Ia within the redshift range 0.1 {<=} z {<=} 1.1. The volumetric SNR{sub Ia} evolution is consistent with a rise to z {approx} 1.0 that follows a power law of the form (1+z){sup {alpha}}, with {alpha} = 2.11 {+-} 0.28. This evolutionary trend in the SNLS rates is slightly shallower than that of the cosmic star formation history (SFH) over the same redshift range. We combine the SNLS rate measurements with those from other surveys that complement the SNLS redshift range, and fit various simple SN Ia delay-time distribution (DTD) models to the combined data. A simple power-law model for the DTD (i.e., {proportional_to}t{sup -{beta}}) yields values from {beta} = 0.98 {+-} 0.05 to {beta} = 1.15 {+-} 0.08 depending on the parameterization of the cosmic SFH. A two-component model, where SNR{sub Ia} is dependent on stellar mass (M{sub stellar}) and star formation rate (SFR) as SNR{sub Ia}(z) = A Multiplication-Sign M{sub stellar}(z) + B Multiplication-Sign SFR(z), yields the coefficients A = (1.9 {+-} 0.1) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -14} SNe yr{sup -1} M{sup -1}{sub Sun} and B = (3.3 {+-} 0.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} SNe yr{sup -1} (M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}){sup -1}. More general two-component models also fit the data well, but single Gaussian or exponential DTDs provide significantly poorer matches. Finally, we split the SNLS sample into two populations by the light-curve width (stretch), and show that the general behavior in the rates of faster-declining SNe Ia (0.8 {<=} s < 1.0) is similar, within our measurement errors, to that of the slower objects (1.0 {<=} s < 1.3) out to z {approx} 0.8.

  11. Asteroid spin-rate studies using large sky-field surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chan-Kao; Lin, Hsing-Wen; Ip, Wing-Huen; Prince, Thomas A.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Levitan, David; Laher, Russ; Surace, Jason

    2017-12-01

    Eight campaigns to survey asteroid rotation periods have been carried out using the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory in the past 3 years. 2780 reliable rotation periods were obtained, from which we identified two new super-fast rotators (SFRs), (335433) 2005 UW163 and (40511) 1999 RE88, and 23 candidate SFRs. Along with other three known super-fast rotators, there are five known SFRs so far. Contrary to the case of rubble-pile asteroids (i.e., bounded aggregations by gravity only), an internal cohesion, ranging from 100 to 1000 Pa, is required to prevent these five SFRs from flying apart because of their super-fast rotations. This cohesion range is comparable with that of lunar regolith. However, some candidates of several kilometers in size require unusually high cohesion (i.e., a few thousands of Pa). Therefore, the confirmation of these kilometer-sized candidates can provide important information about asteroid interior structure. From the rotation periods we collected, we also found that the spin-rate limit of C-type asteroids, which has a lower bulk density, is lower than for S-type asteroids. This result is in agreement with the general picture of rubble-pile asteroids (i.e., lower bulk density, lower spin-rate limit). Moreover, the spin-rate distributions of asteroids of 3 5 rev/day, regardless of the location in the main belt. The YORP effect is indicated to be less efficient in altering asteroid spin rates from our results when compared with the flat distribution found by Pravec et al. (Icarus 197:497-504, 2008. doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2008.05.012). We also found a significant number drop at f = 5 rev/day in the spin-rate distributions of asteroids of D < 3 km.

  12. Association between employment status and self-rated health: Korean working conditions survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kimin; Park, Jae Bum; Lee, Kyung-Jong; Cho, Yoon-Sik

    2016-01-01

    This research was conducted with an aim of determining the association between employment status and self-rated health. Using the data from the Third Korean Working Conditions Survey conducted in 2011, We included data from 34,783 respondents, excluding employers, self-employed workers, unpaid family workers, others. Self-rated health was compared according to employment status and a logistic regression analysis was performed. Among the 34,783 workers, the number of permanent and non-permanent workers was 27,564 (79.2 %) and 7,219 (20.8 %). The risk that the self-rated health of non-permanent workers was poor was 1.20 times higher when both socio-demographic factors, work environment and work hazards were corrected. In this study, perceived health was found to be worse in the non-permanent workers than permanent workers. Additional research should investigate whether other factors mediate the relationship between employment status and perceived health.

  13. Spectroscopic Determination of the Low Redshift Type Ia Supernova Rate from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krughoff, K.Simon; Connolly, Andrew J.; Frieman, Joshua; SubbaRao, Mark; Kilper, Gary; Schneider, Donald P.

    2011-04-10

    Supernova rates are directly coupled to high mass stellar birth and evolution. As such, they are one of the few direct measures of the history of cosmic stellar evolution. In this paper we describe an probabilistic technique for identifying supernovae within spectroscopic samples of galaxies. We present a study of 52 type Ia supernovae ranging in age from -14 days to +40 days extracted from a parent sample of \\simeq 50,000 spectra from the SDSS DR5. We find a Supernova Rate (SNR) of 0.472^{+0.048}_{-0.039}(Systematic)^{+0.081}_{-0.071}(Statistical)SNu at a redshift of = 0.1. This value is higher than other values at low redshift at the 1{\\sigma}, but is consistent at the 3{\\sigma} level. The 52 supernova candidates used in this study comprise the third largest sample of supernovae used in a type Ia rate determination to date. In this paper we demonstrate the potential for the described approach for detecting supernovae in future spectroscopic surveys.

  14. Natural terrestrial radiation exposure in Hong Kong. A survey on environmental gamma absorbed dose rate in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, M.C.; Poon, H.T.; Chan, Y.K.; So, C.K.

    2000-01-01

    Hong Kong is a metropolitan city located on the southern coast of China with a population of some six million. About 90% of the population is concentrated in heavily built-up residential and commercial areas, which accounts for less than 50% of the total area in the territory. Hong Kong Observatory, 134A Nathan Road, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China. In order to understand the spatial variations in the environmental radiation levels in Hong Kong, the Hong Kong Observatory (HKO) in early 1999 conducted a study of the environmental gamma absorbed dose rate in air. The study combined data collected by the HKO radiation monitoring network (RMN) and data from a comprehensive territory-wide radiological survey conducted in January and February 1999. The RMN of ten stations each equipped with a Reuter-Stokes Model RSS-1013 HPIC has been in operation since 1987 to continuously monitor the environmental radiation levels over the territory as part of the emergency monitoring programme for response to nuclear accidents at a nearby nuclear power station. The terrestrial component of the environmental radiation field was estimated by subtracting from the measurements the cosmic contribution, which is determined to be about 39 nGy/h from measurements conducted over two large fresh water reservoirs. The RMN data with the long history was analysed to derive the seasonal variations in the environmental radiation levels. On average the environmental gamma absorbed dose rate in air in January and February is 1.03 times of the annual figure. This seasonal correction was applied to the results of the year 1999 survey. As the radiation field in the heavily built-up areas is enhanced by contribution from buildings, in the territory-wide survey measurements were made both in the open field and built-up areas. The territory of Hong Kong was divided into 42 grid boxes of 5 km x 5 km for open field and 61 grid boxes of 2.5 km x 2.5 km for built-up areas according to the population and land use. A

  15. Self-rated health in Canadian immigrants: analysis of the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh; Lynch, John; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Tousignant, Pierre; Quesnel-Vallee, Amelie

    2011-03-01

    Using a multi-level random effects logistic model, we examine the contribution of source country, individual characteristics and post-migration experiences to the self-rated health (SRH) of 2468 male and 2614 female immigrants from the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (2001-2005). Sex/gender differences were found for all categories of health determinants. Source country characteristics explained away some ethnic differentials in health and had independent negative effects, particularly among women. Thus, women from countries lower on the development index appear at greater risk of poor SRH, and should be at the forefront of public health programmes aimed at new immigrants in Canada. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Conversion factors for estimating release rate of gaseous radioactivity by an aerial survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Kimiaki; Moriuchi, Shigeru

    1988-02-01

    Conversion factors necessary for estimating release rate of gaseous radioactivity by an aerial survey are presented. The conversion factors were determined based on calculation assuming a Gaussian plume model as a function of atmospheric stability, down-wind distance and flight height. First, the conversion factors for plumes emitting mono-energy gamma rays were calculated, then, conversion factors were constructed through convolution for the radionuclides essential in an accident of a nuclear reactor, and for mixtures of these radionuclides considering elapsed time after shutdown. These conversion factors are shown in figures, and also polynomial expressions of the conversion factors as a function of height have been decided with the least-squares method. A user can easily obtain proper conversion factors from data shown here. (author)

  17. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey. Measuring the growth rate of structure around cosmic voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawken, A. J.; Granett, B. R.; Iovino, A.; Guzzo, L.; Peacock, J. A.; de la Torre, S.; Garilli, B.; Bolzonella, M.; Scodeggio, M.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cucciati, O.; Davidzon, I.; Fritz, A.; Franzetti, P.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Arnouts, S.; Bel, J.; Branchini, E.; De Lucia, G.; Ilbert, O.; Moscardini, L.; Percival, W. J.

    2017-11-01

    We aim to develop a novel methodology for measuring thegrowth rate of structure around cosmic voids. We identified voids in the completed VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS), using an algorithm based on searching for empty spheres. We measured the cross-correlation between the centres of voids and the complete galaxy catalogue. The cross-correlation function exhibits a clear anisotropy in both VIPERS fields (W1 and W4), which is characteristic of linear redshift space distortions. By measuring the projected cross-correlation and then de-projecting it we are able to estimate the un-distorted cross-correlation function. We propose that given a sufficiently well-measured cross-correlation function one should be able to measure the linear growth rate of structure by applying a simple linear Gaussian streaming model for the redshift space distortions (RSD). Our study of voids in 306 mock galaxy catalogues mimicking the VIPERS fields suggests that VIPERS is capable of measuring β, the ratio of the linear growth rate to the bias, with an error of around 25%. Applying our method to the VIPERS data, we find a value for the redshift space distortion parameter, β = 0.423-0.108+0.104 which, given the bias of the galaxy population we use, gives a linear growth rate of f σ8 = 0.296-0.078+0.075 at z = 0.727. These results are consistent with values observed in parallel VIPERS analyses that use standard techniques. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal, Chile, using the Very Large Telescope under programs 182.A-0886 and partly 070.A-9007. Also based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in

  18. Diel effects on bottom-trawl survey catch rates of shallow- and deep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fishing in depths shallower than 400 m outside daylight hours should therefore be avoided in order to reduce bias and ensure consistency in abundance estimates from surveys. Keywords: Benguela Current system, consistency of survey indices, efficiency of bottom-trawl surveys, negative binomial GAM, transect survey ...

  19. Dam Breach Release of Non-Cohesive Sediments: Channel Response and Recovery Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, M. J.; Boardman, G.; Banks, W.; Andrews, M.; Conlon, M.; Dillow, J. J. A.; Gellis, A.; Lowe, S.; McClain, S.; Miller, A. J.; Snyder, N. P.; Wilcock, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    Dam removals featuring unchecked releases of non-cohesive sediments are excellent opportunities to learn more about stream channel response to abrupt increases in bed material supply that can occur deliberately or by natural processes like landslides and volcanic eruptions. Understanding channel response to sediment pulses, including response rates, is essential because human uses of river channels and floodplains are impacted by these events as are aquatic habitats. We had the opportunity to study a dam removal site at the Simkins Dam in Maryland, USA, that shares many important geophysical attributes of another well-studied dam removal in the humid northeast United States [Merrimack Village Dam, New Hampshire; Pearson et al., 2011]. The watershed sizes are the same order of magnitude (102 km2), and at both sites relatively low head dams were removed (~ 3-4 m) and ~60,000 m3 of dominantly sand-sized sediments discharged to low-gradient reaches immediately downstream. Analyzing four years of repeat morphometry and bed sediment grain size surveys at the Simkins site on the Patapsco River, as well as continuous discharge and suspended sediment gaging data, we clearly document a two-phase response in the upstream reach as described by Pearson et al. [2011] for their New Hampshire site and noted at other dam removals [e.g., Major et al., 2012]. In the early phase, approximately 50% of the impounded sediment mass was eroded rapidly over a period of about three months when flows were very modest (Figure 1). After incision to base level and channel widening in the former impoundment, a second phase began when further erosion depended on floods large enough to access impounded sediments more distant from the newly-formed channel. We also found important differences in the upstream responses at the Maryland and New Hampshire sites that appear to be related to valley type (non-glaciated versus glaciated, respectively). Response variances immediately downstream between the

  20. The Type Ia Supernova Rate at z~0.5 from the Supernova Legacy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, J. D.; Sullivan, M.; Balam, D.; Pritchet, C. J.; Howell, D. A.; Perrett, K.; Astier, P.; Aubourg, E.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Conley, A.; Fabbro, S.; Fouchez, D.; Guy, J.; Hook, I.; Pain, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Taillet, R.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Arsenijevic, V.; Balland, C.; Baumont, S.; Bronder, J.; Ellis, R. S.; Filiol, M.; Gonçalves, A. C.; Hardin, D.; Kowalski, M.; Lidman, C.; Lusset, V.; Mouchet, M.; Mourao, A.; Perlmutter, S.; Ripoche, P.; Schlegel, D.; Tao, C.

    2006-09-01

    We present a measurement of the distant Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate derived from the first 2 yr of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey. We observed four 1deg×1deg fields with a typical temporal frequency of ~4 observer-frame days over time spans of 158-211 days per season for each field, with breaks during the full Moon. We used 8-10 m class telescopes for spectroscopic follow-up to confirm our candidates and determine their redshifts. Our starting sample consists of 73 spectroscopically verified SNe Ia in the redshift range 0.2=0.47)=[0.42+0.13-0.09(syst.)+/-0.06(stat.)×10-4 yr-1 Mpc3, assuming h=0.7, Ωm=0.3, and a flat cosmology. Using recently published galaxy luminosity functions derived in our redshift range, we derive a SN Ia rate per unit luminosity of rL(=0.47)=0.154+0.048-0.033(syst.)+0.039-0.031(stat.) SN units. Using our rate alone, we place an upper limit on the component of SN Ia production that tracks the cosmic star formation history of 1 SN Ia per 103 Msolar of stars formed. Our rate and other rates from surveys using spectroscopic sample confirmation display only a modest evolution out to z=0.55. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) and CEA/DAPNIA, at CFHT, which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. This work is also based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory using the Very Large Telescope on the Cerro Paranal (ESO Large Program 171.A-0486), and on observations (programs GN-2004A-Q-19, GS-2004A-Q-11, GN-2003B-Q-9, and GS-2003B-Q-8) obtained at the Gemini

  1. Response Rates in Studies of Couples Coping With Cancer : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dagan, Meirav; Hagedoorn, Mariet

    Objective: Recruiting couples for psychological studies can be challenging. This brief report is the first to examine the average couples' response rate and to systematically review the quality of reporting of couples' response rate in studies of couples coping with cancer. Method: A systematic

  2. Applications of the absolute reaction rate theory to biological responses in electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brannen, J.P.; Wayland, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    This paper develops a theoretical foundation for the study of biological responses of electric and magnetic fields. The basis of the development is the absolute reaction rate theory and the effects of fields on reaction rates. A simple application to the response of Bacillus subtilis var niger in a microwave field is made. Potential areas of application are discussed

  3. Self-rated health assessed by web versus mail modes in a mixed mode survey: the digital divide effect and the genuine survey mode effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae-Mahn; Shin, Eunjung; Johnson, Timothy P

    2013-09-01

    To investigate differences in self-rated health (SRH) between web and mail questionnaires in a mixed mode survey and to provide a model that explains those differences. A total of 15,200 mail respondents and 17,829 web respondents from the 2008 US National Health Survey conducted by the Gallup Panel. Respondents were recruited using random digit dialing and assigned to one of the two survey modes (web or mail). Respondents with household Internet connection and frequent Internet usage were invited to complete the survey through the web mode. Respondents who had no Internet connection or who used the Internet infrequently were invited to the mail mode. Thus, respondents with better Internet access used the web mode. Respondents completed a questionnaire that asked about SRH status, objective health conditions, health behaviors, and other socioeconomic variables. Statistical associations were analyzed with ordered Logit and negative binomial models. Web respondents reported better SRH than mail respondents. This difference is in part reflective of variability in objective health status between these two groups, and in part attributable to the effects of survey mode. These results maintained with age controlled. The alignment between survey mode selection, Internet access, and health disparities, as well as genuine survey mode characteristics, leads to web-mail differences in SRH. Unless the digital divide and its influences on survey mode selection are resolved and differential genuine mode effects are fully comprehended, we recommend that both modes be simultaneously used on a complementary basis.

  4. MONTEC, an interactive fortran program to simulate radiation dose and dose-rate responses of populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, K.A.; Szekely, J.G.

    1983-09-01

    The computer program MONTEC was written to simulate the distribution of responses in a population whose members are exposed to multiple radiation doses at variable dose rates. These doses and dose rates are randomly selected from lognormal distributions. The individual radiation responses are calculated from three equations, which include dose and dose-rate terms. Other response-dose/rate relationships or distributions can be incorporated by the user as the need arises. The purpose of this documentation is to provide a complete operating manual for the program. This version is written in FORTRAN-10 for the DEC system PDP-10

  5. Development of a hotspot detector with an acrylic filter and dose rate survey meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki; Yamano, Toshiya; Kobayashi, Yusuke; Hara, Masaki

    2013-01-01

    Fukushima and adjacent regions still have a large number of high dose rate areas called hotspots. It is necessary to know these hotspots for efficient decontamination of radioactive substances such as 137 Cs and for relief of residents coming home. To find the hotspots rapidly, we have to specify the direction of the area where the dose rate is at least 1μSv/h higher than those of surroundings. We have developed a detector that consists of an acrylic filter and three NaI(Tl) scintillation survey meters, and the detector can be expected to indicate the direction of the hotspot in the short time. A basic performance of the detector was examined by using acrylic filters of 10, 15, 20 and 25cm diameter and a tiny sealed 137 Cs source of 3 MBq as the alternative of a hotspot. It demonstrated the possibility of identifying the direction of γ-rays emitted from the source in 90 seconds. (author)

  6. M DWARFS IN SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY STRIPE 82: PHOTOMETRIC LIGHT CURVES AND FLARE RATE ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, Adam F.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Hilton, Eric J.; Becker, Andrew C.; Sesar, Branimir; West, Andrew A.; Bochanski, John J.

    2009-01-01

    We present a flare rate analysis of 50,130 M dwarf light curves in Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82. We identified 271 flares using a customized variability index to search ∼2.5 million photometric observations for flux increases in the u and g bands. Every image of a flaring observation was examined by eye and with a point-spread function-matching and image subtraction tool to guard against false positives. Flaring is found to be strongly correlated with the appearance of Hα in emission in the quiet spectrum. Of the 99 flare stars that have spectra, we classify eight as relatively inactive. The flaring fraction is found to increase strongly in stars with redder colors during quiescence, which can be attributed to the increasing flare visibility and increasing active fraction for redder stars. The flaring fraction is strongly correlated with |Z| distance such that most stars that flare are within 300 pc of the Galactic plane. We derive flare u-band luminosities and find that the most luminous flares occur on the earlier-type m dwarfs. Our best estimate of the lower limit on the flaring rate (averaged over Stripe 82) for flares with Δu ≥ 0.7 mag on stars with u -1 deg -2 but can vary significantly with the line of sight.

  7. Impulse Response of the Exchange Rate Volatility to a Foreign Exchange Intervention Shock

    OpenAIRE

    Hoshikawa, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses Lin's technique (1997) to report on the impulse response function analysis that traces the dynamics of exchange rate volatility from innovations in Japanese foreign exchange intervention. Using a multivariate GARCH model, we employed a volatility impulse response function based on Lin (1997) to detect the impulse response of exchange rate volatility on a one-unit foreign exchange intervention shock. The main findings of t his paper are as follows: (1) a foreign exchange inter...

  8. Perceived discrimination and self-rated health in Europe: evidence from the European Social Survey (2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Alvarez-Galvez

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Studies have shown that perceived discrimination has an impact on our physical and mental health. A relevant part of literature has highlighted the influence of discrimination based on race or ethnicity on mental and physical health outcomes. However, the influence of other types of discrimination on health has been understudied. This study is aimed to explore how different types of discrimination are related to our subjective state of health, and so to compare the intensity of these relationships in the European context. METHODS: We have performed a multilevel ordered analysis on the fifth wave of the European Social Survey (ESS 2010. This dataset has 52,458 units at individual level that are grouped in 26 European countries. In this study, the dependent variable is self-rated health (SRH that is analyzed in relationship to ten explanatory variables of perceived discrimination: color or race, nationality, religion, language, ethnic group, age, gender, sexuality, disability and others. RESULTS: The model identifies statistically significant differences in the effect that diverse types of perceived discrimination can generate on the self-rated health of Europeans. Specifically, this study identifies three well-defined types of perceived discrimination that can be related to poor health outcomes: (1 age discrimination; (2 disability discrimination; and (3 sexuality discrimination. In this sense, the effect on self-rated health of perceived discrimination related to aging and disabilities seems to be more relevant than other types of discrimination in the European context with a longer tradition in literature (e.g. ethnic and/or race-based. CONCLUSION: The present study shows that the relationship between perceived discrimination and health inequities in Europe are not random, but systematically distributed depending on factors such as age, sexuality and disabilities. Therefore the future orientation of EU social policies should aim

  9. Perceived discrimination and self-rated health in Europe: evidence from the European Social Survey (2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Galvez, Javier; Salvador-Carulla, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that perceived discrimination has an impact on our physical and mental health. A relevant part of literature has highlighted the influence of discrimination based on race or ethnicity on mental and physical health outcomes. However, the influence of other types of discrimination on health has been understudied. This study is aimed to explore how different types of discrimination are related to our subjective state of health, and so to compare the intensity of these relationships in the European context. We have performed a multilevel ordered analysis on the fifth wave of the European Social Survey (ESS 2010). This dataset has 52,458 units at individual level that are grouped in 26 European countries. In this study, the dependent variable is self-rated health (SRH) that is analyzed in relationship to ten explanatory variables of perceived discrimination: color or race, nationality, religion, language, ethnic group, age, gender, sexuality, disability and others. The model identifies statistically significant differences in the effect that diverse types of perceived discrimination can generate on the self-rated health of Europeans. Specifically, this study identifies three well-defined types of perceived discrimination that can be related to poor health outcomes: (1) age discrimination; (2) disability discrimination; and (3) sexuality discrimination. In this sense, the effect on self-rated health of perceived discrimination related to aging and disabilities seems to be more relevant than other types of discrimination in the European context with a longer tradition in literature (e.g. ethnic and/or race-based). The present study shows that the relationship between perceived discrimination and health inequities in Europe are not random, but systematically distributed depending on factors such as age, sexuality and disabilities. Therefore the future orientation of EU social policies should aim to reduce the impact of these social determinants on health

  10. Yield responses of sesame ( Sesamium indicum L) to rates of poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yield responses of sesame ( Sesamium indicum L) to rates of poultry manure application and time of planting in a derived savannah ecology of south eastern Nigeria. ... The interaction of time of planting and manure rates showed a trend of increased seed yield as planting was done early with high manure rate, hence, the ...

  11. 75 FR 17316 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Nonappropriated Fund Wage and Survey Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... Lake Survey Area Illinois: Lake Area of Application. Survey area plus: Illinois: Cook Rock Island...) Aguadilla Bayamon Ceiba Isabela Ponce Salinas Toa Baja Vieques U.S. Virgin Islands: St. Croix St. Thomas...

  12. Self-reported responsiveness to direct-to-consumer drug advertising and medication use: results of a national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somes Grant W

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Direct-to-consumer (DTC marketing of pharmaceuticals is controversial, yet effective. Little is known relating patterns of medication use to patient responsiveness to DTC. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of data collected in national telephone survey on knowledge of and attitudes toward DTC advertisements. The survey of 1081 U.S. adults (response rate = 65% was conducted by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Responsiveness to DTC was defined as an affirmative response to the item: "Has an advertisement for a prescription drug ever caused you to ask a doctor about a medical condition or illness of your own that you had not talked to a doctor about before?" Patients reported number of prescription and over-the-counter (OTC medicines taken as well as demographic and personal health information. Results Of 771 respondents who met study criteria, 195 (25% were responsive to DTC. Only 7% respondents taking no prescription were responsive, whereas 45% of respondents taking 5 or more prescription medications were responsive. This trend remained significant (p trend .0009 even when controlling for age, gender, race, educational attainment, income, self-reported health status, and whether respondents "liked" DTC advertising. There was no relationship between the number of OTC medications taken and the propensity to discuss health-related problems in response to DTC advertisements (p = .4. Conclusion There is a strong cross-sectional relationship between the number of prescription, but not OTC, drugs used and responsiveness to DTC advertising. Although this relationship could be explained by physician compliance with patient requests for medications, it is also plausible that DTC advertisements have a particular appeal to patients prone to taking multiple medications. Outpatients motivated to discuss medical conditions based on their exposure to DTC advertising may require a careful medication history to evaluate for

  13. Self-reported responsiveness to direct-to-consumer drug advertising and medication use: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieringer, Nicholas J; Kukkamma, Lisa; Somes, Grant W; Shorr, Ronald I

    2011-09-23

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Direct-to-consumer (DTC) marketing of pharmaceuticals is controversial, yet effective. Little is known relating patterns of medication use to patient responsiveness to DTC. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of data collected in national telephone survey on knowledge of and attitudes toward DTC advertisements. The survey of 1081 U.S. adults (response rate = 65%) was conducted by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Responsiveness to DTC was defined as an affirmative response to the item: "Has an advertisement for a prescription drug ever caused you to ask a doctor about a medical condition or illness of your own that you had not talked to a doctor about before?" Patients reported number of prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) medicines taken as well as demographic and personal health information. RESULTS: Of 771 respondents who met study criteria, 195 (25%) were responsive to DTC. Only 7% respondents taking no prescription were responsive, whereas 45% of respondents taking 5 or more prescription medications were responsive. This trend remained significant (p trend .0009) even when controlling for age, gender, race, educational attainment, income, self-reported health status, and whether respondents "liked" DTC advertising. There was no relationship between the number of OTC medications taken and the propensity to discuss health-related problems in response to DTC advertisements (p = .4). CONCLUSION: There is a strong cross-sectional relationship between the number of prescription, but not OTC, drugs used and responsiveness to DTC advertising. Although this relationship could be explained by physician compliance with patient requests for medications, it is also plausible that DTC advertisements have a particular appeal to patients prone to taking multiple medications. Outpatients motivated to discuss medical conditions based on their exposure to DTC advertising may require a careful medication history to evaluate for therapeutic

  14. Quit and Smoking Reduction Rates in Vape Shop Consumers: A Prospective 12-Month Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Polosa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Here, we present results from a prospective pilot study that was aimed at surveying changes in daily cigarette consumption in smokers making their first purchase at vape shops. Modifications in products purchase were also noted. Design: Participants were instructed how to charge, fill, activate and use their e-cigarettes (e-cigs. Participants were encouraged to use these products in the anticipation of reducing the number of cig/day smoked. Settings: Staff from LIAF contacted 10 vape shops in the province of the city of Catania (Italy that acted as sponsors to the 2013 No Tobacco Day. Participants: 71 adult smokers (≥18 years old making their first purchase at local participating vape shops were asked by professional retail staff to complete a form. Measurements: Their cigarette consumption was followed-up prospectively at 6 and 12 months. Details of products purchase (i.e., e-cigs hardware, e-liquid nicotine strengths and flavours were also noted. Findings: Retention rate was elevated, with 69% of participants attending their final follow-up visit. At 12 month, 40.8% subjects could be classified as quitters, 25.4% as reducers and 33.8% as failures. Switching from standard refillables (initial choice to more advanced devices (MODs was observed in this study (from 8.5% at baseline to 18.4% at 12 month as well as a trend in decreasing thee-liquid nicotine strength, with more participants adopting low nicotine strength (from 49.3% at baseline to 57.1% at 12 month. Conclusions: We have found that smokers purchasing e-cigarettes from vape shops with professional advice and support can achieve high success rates.

  15. Hα star formation rates of z > 1 galaxy clusters in the IRAC shallow cluster survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeimann, Gregory R.; Stanford, S. A.; Brodwin, Mark; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Mancone, Conor; Snyder, Gregory F.; Stern, Daniel; Eisenhardt, Peter; Dey, Arjun; Moustakas, John

    2013-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope near-IR spectroscopy for 18 galaxy clusters at 1.0 Survey. We use Wide Field Camera 3 grism data to spectroscopically identify Hα emitters in both the cores of galaxy clusters as well as in field galaxies. We find a large cluster-to-cluster scatter in the star formation rates within a projected radius of 500 kpc, and many of our clusters (∼60%) have significant levels of star formation within a projected radius of 200 kpc. A stacking analysis reveals that dust reddening in these star-forming galaxies is positively correlated with stellar mass and may be higher in the field than the cluster at a fixed stellar mass. This may indicate a lower amount of gas in star-forming cluster galaxies than in the field population. Also, Hα equivalent widths of star-forming galaxies in the cluster environment are still suppressed below the level of the field. This suppression is most significant for lower mass galaxies (log M * < 10.0 M ☉ ). We therefore conclude that environmental effects are still important at 1.0

  16. Evaluation and Monte Carlo modelling of the response function of the Leake neutron area survey instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagziria, H.; Tanner, R.J.; Bartlett, D.T.; Thomas, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    All available measured data for the response characteristics of the Leake counter have been gathered together. These data, augmented by previously unpublished work, have been compared to Monte Carlo simulations of the instrument's response characteristics in the energy range from thermal to 20 MeV. A response function has been derived, which is recommended as the best currently available for the instrument. Folding this function with workplace energy distributions has enabled an assessment of the impact of this new response function to be made. Similar work, which will be published separately, has been carried out for the NM2 and the Studsvik 2202D neutron area survey instruments

  17. A survey of antiepileptic drug responses identifies drugs with potential efficacy for seizure control in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Karen S; Markham, Leah M; Twede, Hope; Lortz, Amanda; Olson, Lenora M; Sheng, Xiaoming; Weng, Cindy; Wassman, E Robert; Newcomb, Tara; Wassman, E Robert; Carey, John C; Battaglia, Agatino

    2018-04-01

    Seizures are present in over 90% of infants and children with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS). When present, they significantly affect quality of life. The goal of this study was to use caregiver reports to describe the comparative efficacies of commonly used antiepileptic medications in a large population of individuals with WHS. A web-based, confidential caregiver survey was developed to capture seizure semiology and a chronologic record of seizure treatments as well as responses to each treatment. Adverse events for each drug were also cataloged. We received 141 complete survey responses (47% response rate) describing the seizures of individuals ranging in age from 4months to 61years (90 females: 51 males). Using the Early Childhood Epilepsy Severity Scale (E-Chess), WHS-associated seizures are demonstrably severe regardless of deletion size. The best-performing antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) for controlling seizures in this cohort were broad spectrum drugs clobazam, levetiracetam, and lamotrigine; whereas, the three commonly used carboxamide class drugs: carbamazepine, phenytoin, and oxcarbazepine, were reported to have little effect on, or even exacerbate, seizures. The carboxamide class drugs, along with phenobarbital and topiramate, were also associated with the highest rate of intolerance due to cooccurrence of adverse events. Levetiracetam, clobazam, and clonazepam demonstrated higher tolerability and comparatively less severe adverse events (Wilcoxon rank sum comparison between performance of levetiracetam and carboxamide class drugs gives a psyndromes which may have complex seizure etiologies. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Measurement Differences from Rating Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Response to Differentially Distressing Traumatic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhai, Jon D.; Fine, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    The authors explored differences in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as a result of rating symptoms from two separate, differentially distressing traumatic events. In an initial sample of 400 nonclinical participants, the authors inquired through a web survey about previous psychological trauma, instructing participants to nominate…

  19. Growth rate regulated genes and their wide involvement in the Lactococcus lactis stress responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redon Emma

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of transcriptomic tools has allowed exhaustive description of stress responses. These responses always superimpose a general response associated to growth rate decrease and a specific one corresponding to the stress. The exclusive growth rate response can be achieved through chemostat cultivation, enabling all parameters to remain constant except the growth rate. Results We analysed metabolic and transcriptomic responses of Lactococcus lactis in continuous cultures at different growth rates ranging from 0.09 to 0.47 h-1. Growth rate was conditioned by isoleucine supply. Although carbon metabolism was constant and homolactic, a widespread transcriptomic response involving 30% of the genome was observed. The expression of genes encoding physiological functions associated with biogenesis increased with growth rate (transcription, translation, fatty acid and phospholipids metabolism. Many phages, prophages and transposon related genes were down regulated as growth rate increased. The growth rate response was compared to carbon and amino-acid starvation transcriptomic responses, revealing constant and significant involvement of growth rate regulations in these two stressful conditions (overlap 27%. Two regulators potentially involved in the growth rate regulations, llrE and yabB, have been identified. Moreover it was established that genes positively regulated by growth rate are preferentially located in the vicinity of replication origin while those negatively regulated are mainly encountered at the opposite, thus indicating the relationship between genes expression and their location on chromosome. Although stringent response mechanism is considered as the one governing growth deceleration in bacteria, the rigorous comparison of the two transcriptomic responses clearly indicated the mechanisms are distinct. Conclusion This work of integrative biology was performed at the global level using transcriptomic analysis

  20. Response Burden in Official Business Surveys: Measurement and Reduction Practices of National Statistical Institutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bavdaž Mojca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Response burden in business surveys has long been a concern for National Statistical Institutes (NSIs for three types of reasons: political reasons, because response burden is part of the total administrative burden governments impose on businesses; methodological reasons, because an excessive response burden may reduce data quality and increase data-collection costs; and strategic reasons, because it affects relations between the NSIs and the business community. This article investigates NSI practices concerning business response burden measurement and reduction actions based on a survey of 41 NSIs from 39 countries. Most NSIs monitor at least some burden aspects and have implemented some actions to reduce burden, but large differences exist between NSIs’ methodologies for burden measurement and actions taken to reduce burden. Future research should find ways to deal with methodological differences in burden conceptualization, operationalization, and measurement, and provide insights into the effectiveness and efficiency of burden-reduction actions.

  1. Inverse strain rate effect on cyclic stress response in annealed Zircaloy-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudhakar Rao, G.; Verma, Preeti [Center of Advanced Study, Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India); Chakravartty, J.K. [Mechanical Metallurgy Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay 400 085, Mumbai (India); Nudurupati, Saibaba [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad 500 062 (India); Mahobia, G.S.; Santhi Srinivas, N.C. [Center of Advanced Study, Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India); Singh, Vakil, E-mail: vsingh.met@itbhu.ac.in [Center of Advanced Study, Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2015-02-15

    Low cycle fatigue behavior of annealed Zircaloy-2 was investigated at 300 and 400 °C at different strain amplitudes and strain rates of 10{sup −2}, 10{sup −3}, and 10{sup −4} s{sup −1}. Cyclic stress response showed initial hardening with decreasing rate of hardening, followed by linear cyclic hardening and finally secondary hardening with increasing rate of hardening for low strain amplitudes at both the temperatures. The rate as well the degree of linear hardening and secondary hardening decreased with decrease in strain rate at 300 °C, however, there was inverse effect of strain rate on cyclic stress response at 400 °C and cyclic stress was increased with decrease in strain rate. The fatigue life decreased with decrease in strain rate at both the temperatures. The occurrence of linear cyclic hardening, inverse effect of strain rate on cyclic stress response and deterioration in fatigue life with decrease in strain rate may be attributed to dynamic strain aging phenomena resulting from enhanced interaction of dislocations with solutes. Fracture surfaces revealed distinct striations, secondary cracking, and oxidation with decrease in strain rate. Deformation substructure showed parallel dislocation lines and dislocation band structure at 300 °C. Persistent slip band wall structure and development of fine Corduroy structure was observed at 400 °C.

  2. Inverse strain rate effect on cyclic stress response in annealed Zircaloy-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudhakar Rao, G.; Verma, Preeti; Chakravartty, J.K.; Nudurupati, Saibaba; Mahobia, G.S.; Santhi Srinivas, N.C.; Singh, Vakil

    2015-01-01

    Low cycle fatigue behavior of annealed Zircaloy-2 was investigated at 300 and 400 °C at different strain amplitudes and strain rates of 10 −2 , 10 −3 , and 10 −4 s −1 . Cyclic stress response showed initial hardening with decreasing rate of hardening, followed by linear cyclic hardening and finally secondary hardening with increasing rate of hardening for low strain amplitudes at both the temperatures. The rate as well the degree of linear hardening and secondary hardening decreased with decrease in strain rate at 300 °C, however, there was inverse effect of strain rate on cyclic stress response at 400 °C and cyclic stress was increased with decrease in strain rate. The fatigue life decreased with decrease in strain rate at both the temperatures. The occurrence of linear cyclic hardening, inverse effect of strain rate on cyclic stress response and deterioration in fatigue life with decrease in strain rate may be attributed to dynamic strain aging phenomena resulting from enhanced interaction of dislocations with solutes. Fracture surfaces revealed distinct striations, secondary cracking, and oxidation with decrease in strain rate. Deformation substructure showed parallel dislocation lines and dislocation band structure at 300 °C. Persistent slip band wall structure and development of fine Corduroy structure was observed at 400 °C

  3. Understanding barriers to medication adherence in the hypertensive population by evaluating responses to a telephone survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair KV

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Kavita V Nair1, Daniel A Belletti3, Joseph J Doyle3, Richard R Allen4, Robert B McQueen1, Joseph J Saseen1, Joseph Vande Griend1, Jay V Patel5, Angela McQueen2, Saira Jan21School of Pharmacy, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA; 2Horizon Blue Cross Blue Shield of New Jersey, Newark, NJ, USA; 3Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA, 4Peakstat Statistical Services, Evergreen, CO, USA; 5Care Management International, Marlborough, MA, USABackground: Although hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, adherence to hypertensive medications is low. Previous research identifying factors influencing adherence has focused primarily on broad, population-based approaches. Identifying specific barriers for an individual is more useful in designing meaningful targeted interventions. Using customized telephonic outreach, we examined specific patient-reported barriers influencing hypertensive patients' nonadherence to medication in order to identify targeted interventions.Methods: A telephone survey of 8692 nonadherent hypertensive patients was conducted. The patient sample comprised health plan members with at least two prescriptions for antihypertensive medications in 2008. The telephone script was based on the "target" drug associated with greatest nonadherence (medication possession ratio [MPR] <80% during the four-month period preceding the survey.Results: The response rate was 28.2% of the total sample, representing 63.8% of commercial members and 37.2% of Medicare members. Mean age was 63.4 years. Mean MPR was 61.0% for the target drug. Only 58.2% of Medicare respondents and 60.4% of commercial respondents reported "missing a dose of medication". The primary reason given was "forgetfulness" (61.8% Medicare, 60.8% commercial, followed by "being too busy" (2.7% Medicare, 18.5% commercial and "other reasons" (21.9% Medicare, 8.1% commercial including travel, hospitalization/sickness, disruption of daily events

  4. Market response to the public display of energy performance rating at property sales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Michael; Hansen, Anders Rhiger; Kragh, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Energy labels have generally received positive response from consumers and have moved the market for white goods and cars in the direction of more energy-efficient products. On the real estate market, it was expected that an energy label, rating the energy performance of a property based on a nat......Energy labels have generally received positive response from consumers and have moved the market for white goods and cars in the direction of more energy-efficient products. On the real estate market, it was expected that an energy label, rating the energy performance of a property based...... on a national energy performance certificate (EPC) might receive similar response. However, in Denmark no response to the energy performance rating was observed for 15 years. This was a surprise considering that Denmark was the first country to implement an A to G rating of the energy performance of buildings...

  5. Mode of delivery affected questionnaire response rates in a birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Bray, I.; Noble, S.; Robinson, R.; Molloy, L.; Tilling, K.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Cohort studies must collect data from their participants as economically as possible, while maintaining response rates. This randomized controlled trial investigated whether offering a choice of online or paper questionnaires resulted in improved response rates compared with offering online first. Study Design and Setting Eligible participants were young people in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) study (born April 1, 1991, to December 31, 1992, in the Av...

  6. Consumer responses towards home energy financial incentives: A survey-based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Tingting; Bell, Lindsey; Horner, Mark W.; Sulik, John; Zhang Jinfeng

    2012-01-01

    Residential energy-efficient and renewable energy (EERE) products play an important role in energy conservation and carbon emissions reduction. Various financial incentive programs have been developed to promote the adoption of these products. However, their effectiveness in attracting consumers is not very well understood. In this study, we investigated impacts of financial incentives on homeowner's decision making towards six EERE products. Two forms of incentives, tax credits and interest-free loans, were examined through a household mailing survey in Florida, the United States. Results showed that, although half of the respondents were interested in EERE products, the high investment cost was a major concern that hindered their purchase activities. Homeowners were attracted to financial incentives and valued tax credits much higher than interest-free loans. The current federal home energy tax credit levels were found to attract only 2–12 percent of homeowners to buy EERE products. The willingness of participation was especially low for the costly products (such as solar panels). The participation rate was also very low for lower income (i.e., annual household income below $50,000) families living in older residences. This study contributes to the understanding of economic and social aspects of consumer decision making on energy efficiency and alternative energy. - Highlights: ► We investigated consumer responses to energy efficiency incentives. ► These included tax credits and interest-free loans for six types of energy products. ► We found that tax credits are more effective than interest-free loans. ► The current tax credit rates are insufficient for expensive products (e.g., solar panels). ► A higher amount of incentives is required for the lower-income (<$50 K/yr) households.

  7. Survey Satisficing Inflates Stereotypical Responses in Online Experiment: The Case of Immigration Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Asako; Kobayashi, Tetsuro

    2016-01-01

    Though survey satisficing, grudging cognitive efforts required to provide optimal answers in the survey response process, poses a serious threat to the validity of online experiments, a detailed explanation of the mechanism has yet to be established. Focusing on attitudes toward immigrants, we examined the mechanism by which survey satisficing distorts treatment effect estimates in online experiments. We hypothesized that satisficers would display more stereotypical responses than non-satisficers would when presented with stereotype-disconfirming information about an immigrant. Results of two experiments largely supported our hypotheses. Satisficers, whom we identified through an instructional manipulation check (IMC), processed information about immigrants' personality traits congruently with the stereotype activated by information provided about nationality. The significantly shorter vignette reading time of satisficers corroborates their time-efficient impression formation based on stereotyping. However, the shallow information processing of satisficers can be rectified by alerting them to their inattentiveness through use of a repeated IMC. PMID:27803680

  8. Disclosure of Sexual Intercourse by Teenagers: Agreement Between Telephone Survey Responses and Annual Visit Disclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Stewart C.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Pollak, Kathryn I.; Østbye, Truls; Bravender, Terrill; Tulsky, James A.; Dolor, Rowena; Shields, Cleveland G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Physicians can help guide teenagers in their emerging sexuality; however, teens rarely inform physicians about their sexual activity. Methods We audio-recorded annual visits between 365 teenagers and 49 physicians. sexual intercourse. Recordings were coded for teenage disclosures about previous sexual intercourse. We measured agreement between telephone survey responses and annual visit disclosures, and examined factors associated with agreement between the two. Results Fifty-six teenagers (15%) reported previous sexual intercourse in either the telephone survey or to their physician. Among those who reported sexual intercourse, 57% shared this information to both the telephone survey and their physician (κ = .72, confidence interval = 0.63–0.82). Conclusions Although a slight majority of teenagers disclosed their sexual activity to both the telephone survey and their doctor, a significant number disclosed to just one source. PMID:25857726

  9. Preparing for Success: One Institution's Aspirational and Student Focused Response to the National Student Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Abbi; Oxley, Anne; Helm, Paul; Bradley, Sally

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes quality enhancement (QE) focused response to the 2006 National Student Survey (NSS) by a post-1992 Higher Education Institution. Recognising the increasing importance of the NSS to a wide range of stakeholders, the University established a task team to explore, from a QE perspective, why the institution received particular…

  10. The International scale interval study: improving the comparability of responses to survey questions about happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhoven, R.

    2009-01-01

    This study is about survey questions on happiness using verbal response options, such as ‘very happy’ and ‘fairly happy’. The aim is to estimate what degrees of happiness are denoted by such terms in different questions and Languages. These degrees are expressed in numerical values on a 0 to 10

  11. Text analysis of open-ended survey responses : a complementary method to preference mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Kleij, F; Musters, PAD

    The present study illustrates the use of computer-aided text analysis to evaluate the content of open-ended survey responses. During an in-hall test, different varieties of mayonnaise were evaluated by 165 respondents on a 10-point liking scale, with the option to freely comment on these

  12. Skeletal muscle signaling and the heart rate and blood pressure response to exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan P; Svendsen, Jesper H; Ersbøll, Mads

    2013-01-01

    Endurance training lowers heart rate and blood pressure responses to exercise, but the mechanisms and consequences remain unclear. To determine the role of skeletal muscle for the cardioventilatory response to exercise, 8 healthy young men were studied before and after 5 weeks of 1-legged knee-ex...... was ≈ 15 bpm lower during exercise with the trained leg (P...

  13. High-rate operant behavior in two mouse strains: a response-bout analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joshua E; Pesek, Erin F; Newland, M Christopher

    2009-06-01

    Operant behavior sometimes occurs in bouts characterized by an initiation rate, within-bout response rate, and bout length. The generality of this structure was tested using high-rate nose-poking in mice. Reinforcement of short interresponse times produced high response rates while a random-interval schedule held reinforcement rates constant. BALB/c mice produced bouts that were more frequent, longer, and contained a higher within-bout rate of responding (nine nose-pokes/s) than did the C57BL/6 mice (five nose-pokes/s). Adding a running wheel decreased total nose-pokes and bout length, and increased bout-initiation rate. Free-feeding reduced nose-poking by decreasing bout-initiation rate. Photoperiod reversal decreased bout-initiation rate but not total nose-poke rate. Despite strain differences in bout structure, both strains responded similarly to the interventions. The three bout measures were correlated with overall rate but not with each other. Log-survival analyses provided independent descriptors of the structure of high-rate responding in these two strains.

  14. Survey of the gamma dose rate and locations with extremely abnormal radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansoni, B.; Matthes, W.

    1985-01-01

    The goals pursued by the investigation on hand were: (a) to get a survey of natural radioactivity in the Fichtelgebirge; (b) to find and describe locally restricted areas of high natural radioactivity (abnormal radiation, hot spots); this will be a starting point (c) for the assessment of possible increased radiation exposure and of the state of health of a restricted number of persons. Furthermore, there are also (d) underground data for the eventual stipulation of maximum permissible values for natural radioactivity. (e) The situation in the Fichtelgebirge shall be compared with that of the monazite sand-stone areas in India. The highest gamma dose rates measured in locally restricted areas were: (1) granite road pavement: 24 μR/h; (2) granite quarries (35 μR/h); (3) caves below granite rock (40 to 70 μR/h); (4) slag brick pavement on market place and main street of Marktredwitz (53.4 μR/h) (part of which removed already); (5) uranium abnormalities on a farmer's field (80-100 μR/h) (0.6 m below the surface: 1.500 μR/h); this may be considered a uranium deposit with a content in uranium of up to 0.3%; (6) over 100 μR/h in front of an uranium ore mine in the uranium prospection drift (rest of the drift in the granite no more than 29.3+-3.3 μR/h). The resulting maximum conceivable radiation exposure is assessed. The question whether there is a necessity for setting tolerance limit values for natural radioactivity is raised again; the magnitude in comparison with limit values for artificial radioactivity in radioactive controlled areas is pointed out. (orig./HP) [de

  15. The dark energy survey Y1 supernova search: Survey strategy compared to forecasts and the photometric type Is SN volumetric rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, John Arthur

    For 70 years, the physics community operated under the assumption that the expansion of the Universe must be slowing due to gravitational attraction. Then, in 1998, two teams of scientists used Type Ia supernovae to discover that cosmic expansion was actually acceler- ating due to a mysterious "dark energy." As a result, Type Ia supernovae have become the most cosmologically important transient events in the last 20 years, with a large amount of effort going into their discovery as well as understanding their progenitor systems. One such probe for understanding Type Ia supernovae is to use rate measurements to de- termine the time delay between star formation and supernova explosion. For the last 30 years, the discovery of individual Type Ia supernova events has been accelerating. How- ever, those discoveries were happening in time-domain surveys that probed only a portion of the redshift range where expansion was impacted by dark energy. The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is the first project in the "next generation" of time-domain surveys that will discovery thousands of Type Ia supernovae out to a redshift of 1.2 (where dark energy be- comes subdominant) and DES will have better systematic uncertainties over that redshift range than any survey to date. In order to gauge the discovery effectiveness of this survey, we will use the first season's 469 photometrically typed supernovee and compare it with simulations in order to update the full survey Type Ia projections from 3500 to 2250. We will then use 165 of the 469 supernovae out to a redshift of 0.6 to measure the supernovae rate both as a function of comoving volume and of the star formation rate as it evolves with redshift. We find the most statistically significant prompt fraction of any survey to date (with a 3.9? prompt fraction detection). We will also reinforce the already existing tension in the measurement of the delayed fraction between high (z > 1.2) and low red- shift rate measurements, where we find no

  16. Measuring the mental health care system responsiveness: results of an outpatient survey in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setareh eForouzan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAs explained by the World Health Organisation (WHO in 2000, the concept of health system responsiveness is one of the core goals of health systems. Since 2000, further efforts have been made to measure health system responsiveness and the factors affecting responsiveness, yet few studies have applied responsiveness concepts to the evaluation of mental health systems. The present study aims to measure responsiveness and its related domains in the mental health care system of Tehran. Utilising the same method used by the WHO for its responsiveness survey, responsiveness for outpatient mental health care was evaluated using a validated Farsi questionnaire. A sample of 500 public mental health service users in Tehran participated and subsequently completed the questionnaire. On average, 47% of participants reported experiencing poor responsiveness. Among responsiveness domains, confidentiality and dignity were the best performing factors while autonomy, access to care and quality of basic amenities were the worst performing. Respondents who reported their social status as low were more likely to experience poor responsiveness overall. Autonomy, quality of basic amenities and clear communication were responsiveness dimensions that performed poorly but were considered to be important by study participants. In summary, the study suggests that measuring responsiveness could provide guidance for further development of mental health care systems to become more patient orientated and provide patients with more respect.

  17. Effects of corporate social responsibility and governance on its credit ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-young; Kim, JeongYeon

    2014-01-01

    This study reviews the impact of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate governance on its credit rating. The result of regression analysis to credit ratings with relevant primary independent variables shows that both factors have significant effects on it. As we have predicted, the signs of both regression coefficients have a positive sign (+) proving that corporates with excellent CSR and governance index (CGI) scores have higher credit ratings and vice versa. The results show nonfinancial information also may have effects on corporate credit rating. The investment on personal data protection could be an example of CSR/CGI activities which have positive effects on corporate credit ratings.

  18. Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility and Governance on Its Credit Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-young

    2014-01-01

    This study reviews the impact of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate governance on its credit rating. The result of regression analysis to credit ratings with relevant primary independent variables shows that both factors have significant effects on it. As we have predicted, the signs of both regression coefficients have a positive sign (+) proving that corporates with excellent CSR and governance index (CGI) scores have higher credit ratings and vice versa. The results show nonfinancial information also may have effects on corporate credit rating. The investment on personal data protection could be an example of CSR/CGI activities which have positive effects on corporate credit ratings. PMID:25401134

  19. Selective vibration sensing: a new concept for activity-sensing rate-responsive pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, C P; Stott, J R; Toff, W D; Zetlein, M B; Ward, D E; Camm, A J

    1988-09-01

    A clinically available model of an activity-sensing, rate-responsive pacemaker (Activitrax, Medtronic) utilizes body vibration during exercise as an indicator of the need for a rate increase. Although having the advantage of rapid onset of rate response, this system lacks specificity and the rate response does not closely correlate with the level of exertion. In addition, this pacemaker is susceptible to the effects of extraneous vibration. In this study involving 20 normal subjects fitted with an external Activitrax pacemaker, the rate responses to a variety of exercises were studied and were compared with the corresponding sinus rates. The vibration generated at the level of the pacemaker was also measured by accelerometers in three axes. Only a fair correlation (r = 0.51) was achieved between the pacemaker rate and the sinus rate. The total root mean square value of acceleration in either the anteroposterior or the vertical axes was found to have a better correlation (r = 0.8). As the main accelerations during physical activities were in the lower frequency range (0.1-4 Hz), a low-pass filter was used to reduce the influence of extraneous vibration. Selective sensing of the acceleration level may be usefully implemented in an algorithm for activity pacing.

  20. Oligodendroglial response to ionizing radiation: Dose and dose-rate response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, R.P.

    1991-12-01

    An in vitro system using neuroglia from neonatal rat brain was developed to examine the morphologic, immunocytochemical and biochemical response of oligodendroglia to ionizing radiation. Following acute γ-irradiation at day-in-culture (DIC) 8, oligodendrocyte counts at DIC 14 were 55% to 65% of control values after 2 Gy, and 29% to 36% after 5 Gy. Counts increased to near-normal levels at DIC 21 in the 2 Gy group and to 75% of normal in the 5 Gy group. Myelin basic protein levels (MBP) at DIC 14 were 60% of control values after 2 Gy, and 40% after 5 Gy. At DIC 21, MBP after 2 Gy was 45% greater than that observed at DIC 14, but MBP, as a fraction of age-matched control values, dropped from 60% to 50%. Following 5 Gy, absolute MBP changed little between DIC 14 and DIC 21, but decreased from 40% to 25% of control cultures. The response to split-dose irradiation indicated that nearly all sublethal damage in the oligodendrocyte population (and its precursors) was repaired within 3 h to 4 h. A new compartmental cell model for radiation response in vitro of the oligodendrocyte population is proposed and examined in relation to the potential reaction to radiation injury in the brain

  1. Oligodendroglial response to ionizing radiation: Dose and dose-rate response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, Richard P. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1991-12-01

    An in vitro system using neuroglia from neonatal rat brain was developed to examine the morphologic, immunocytochemical and biochemical response of oligodendroglia to ionizing radiation. Following acute γ-irradiation at day-in-culture (DIC) 8, oligodendrocyte counts at DIC 14 were 55% to 65% of control values after 2 Gy, and 29% to 36% after 5 Gy. Counts increased to near-normal levels at DIC 21 in the 2 Gy group and to 75% of normal in the 5 Gy group. Myelin basic protein levels (MBP) at DIC 14 were 60% of control values after 2 Gy, and 40% after 5 Gy. At DIC 21, MBP after 2 Gy was 45% greater than that observed at DIC 14, but MBP, as a fraction of age-matched control values, dropped from 60% to 50%. Following 5 Gy, absolute MBP changed little between DIC 14 and DIC 21, but decreased from 40% to 25% of control cultures. The response to split-dose irradiation indicated that nearly all sublethal damage in the oligodendrocyte population (and its precursors) was repaired within 3 h to 4 h. A new compartmental cell model for radiation response in vitro of the oligodendrocyte population is proposed and examined in relation to the potential reaction to radiation injury in the brain.

  2. Oligodendroglial response to ionizing radiation: Dose and dose-rate response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, R.P.

    1991-12-01

    An in vitro system using neuroglia from neonatal rat brain was developed to examine the morphologic, immunocytochemical and biochemical response of oligodendroglia to ionizing radiation. Following acute {gamma}-irradiation at day-in-culture (DIC) 8, oligodendrocyte counts at DIC 14 were 55% to 65% of control values after 2 Gy, and 29% to 36% after 5 Gy. Counts increased to near-normal levels at DIC 21 in the 2 Gy group and to 75% of normal in the 5 Gy group. Myelin basic protein levels (MBP) at DIC 14 were 60% of control values after 2 Gy, and 40% after 5 Gy. At DIC 21, MBP after 2 Gy was 45% greater than that observed at DIC 14, but MBP, as a fraction of age-matched control values, dropped from 60% to 50%. Following 5 Gy, absolute MBP changed little between DIC 14 and DIC 21, but decreased from 40% to 25% of control cultures. The response to split-dose irradiation indicated that nearly all sublethal damage in the oligodendrocyte population (and its precursors) was repaired within 3 h to 4 h. A new compartmental cell model for radiation response in vitro of the oligodendrocyte population is proposed and examined in relation to the potential reaction to radiation injury in the brain.

  3. [Ventricular tachycardia in a patient with rate-responsive cardiac pacemaker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himbert, C; Lascault, G; Tonet, J; Coutte, R; Busquet, P; Frank, R; Grosgogeat, Y

    1992-11-01

    The authors report a case of syncopal ventricular tachycardia in a patient with a respiratory-dependent rate responsive pacemaker, followed-up for valvular heart disease with severe left ventricular dysfunction and sustained atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. The introduction of low dose betablocker therapy with reinforcement of the treatment of cardiac failure controlled the ventricular arrhythmia, after suppression of the data responsive function had been shown to be ineffective. The authors discuss the role of the rate responsive function in the triggering of the ventricular tachycardias.

  4. Market response to the public display of energy performance rating at property sales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Ole Michael; Hansen, Anders Rhiger; Kragh, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Energy labels have generally received positive response from consumers and have moved the market for white goods and cars in the direction of more energy-efficient products. On the real estate market, it was expected that an energy label, rating the energy performance of a property based on a national energy performance certificate (EPC) might receive similar response. However, in Denmark no response to the energy performance rating was observed for 15 years. This was a surprise considering that Denmark was the first country to implement an A to G rating of the energy performance of buildings. A statistical examination of data on property sales prices and energy performance ratings was carried out. All relevant property transaction data from 2007 till 2012 were examined and they showed that energy performance ratings had an impact on property sales prices. However, before June 2010, the impact was modest, whereas after June 2010 the impact of energy performance ratings on property sales prices increased significantly as a result of an EU requirement to display the energy performance rating in connection with property sales. On this background, it was concluded that a public display of the energy performance rating is fundamental for market response. - Highlights: •Energy performance ratings of buildings have an impact on property sales prices. •A statistical examination shows that since 2010 sales prices reflect energy performance. •Mandatory display of the rating prescribed by EU Directive was decisive. •The positive market response will be an incentive for energy upgrading of the property.

  5. Heart rate variability response to mental arithmetic stress in patients with schizophrenia Autonomic response to stress in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, Mariana N.; Vigo, Daniel E.; Weidema, Hylke; Fahrer, Rodolfo D.; Chu, Elvina M.; De Achaval, Delfina; Nogues, Martin; Leiguarda, Ramon C.; Cardinali, Daniel P.; Guinjoan, Salvador N.

    Background: The vulnerability-stress hypothesis is an established model of schizophrenia symptom formation. We sought to characterise the pattern of the cardiac autonomic response to mental arithmetic stress in patients with stable schizophrenia. Methods: We performed heart rate variability (HRV)

  6. National survey on the natural radioactivity and Rn-222 exhalation rate of building materials in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, P.; van Dijk, W.; van der Graaf, E.R.; de Groot, A.V.

    The present study reports on results of a nationwide survey on the natural radioactivity concentrations and Rn-222 exhalation rates of the prevailing building materials in the Netherlands. In total 100 samples were taken and analyzed for the activity concentrations of Ra-226, Ra-228, Th-228, and

  7. Effect of bottom type on catch rates of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) in surveys with commercial fishing vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Pedersen, Eva Maria; Olesen, Hans Jakob

    2009-01-01

    were substantially higher on gravel or stone bottom and at ship wrecks than on sand bottom. The difference in the catch rates between the two bottom categories at paired stations within a short distance was highly significant for all the three fishing methods. Similarly, average CPUE for most surveys...

  8. A new constitutive model for prediction of impact rates response of polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buckley C.P.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new constitutive model for predicting the impact rates response of polypropylene. Impact rates, as used here, refer to strain rates greater than 1000 1/s. The model is a physically based, three-dimensional constitutive model which incorporates the contributions of the amorphous, crystalline, pseudo-amorphous and entanglement networks to the constitutive response of polypropylene. The model mathematics is based on the well-known Glass-Rubber model originally developed for glassy polymers but the arguments have herein been extended to semi-crystalline polymers. In order to predict the impact rates behaviour of polypropylene, the model exploits the well-known framework of multiple processes yielding of polymers. This work argues that two dominant viscoelastic relaxation processes – the alpha- and beta-processes – can be associated with the yield responses of polypropylene observed at low-rate-dominant and impact-rates dominant loading regimes. Compression test data on polypropylene have been used to validate the model. The study has found that the model predicts quite well the experimentally observed nonlinear rate-dependent impact response of polypropylene.

  9. Effects of partial reinforcement and time between reinforced trials on terminal response rate in pigeon autoshaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Daniel A

    2006-03-01

    Partial reinforcement often leads to asymptotically higher rates of responding and number of trials with a response than does continuous reinforcement in pigeon autoshaping. However, comparisons typically involve a partial reinforcement schedule that differs from the continuous reinforcement schedule in both time between reinforced trials and probability of reinforcement. Two experiments examined the relative contributions of these two manipulations to asymptotic response rate. Results suggest that the greater responding previously seen with partial reinforcement is primarily due to differential probability of reinforcement and not differential time between reinforced trials. Further, once established, differences in responding are resistant to a change in stimulus and contingency. Secondary response theories of autoshaped responding (theories that posit additional response-augmenting or response-attenuating mechanisms specific to partial or continuous reinforcement) cannot fully accommodate the current body of data. It is suggested that researchers who study pigeon autoshaping train animals on a common task prior to training them under different conditions.

  10. Does treadmill running performance, heart rate and breathing rate response during maximal graded exercise improve after volitional respiratory muscle training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, K; Sharma, V K; Subramanian, S K

    2017-05-10

    Maximal physical exertion in sports usually causes fatigue in the exercising muscles, but not in the respiratory muscles due to triggering of the Respiratory muscle metabo-reflex, a sympathetic vasoconstrictor response leading to preferential increment in blood flow to respiratory muscles. 1 We planned to investigate whether a six week yogic pranayama based Volitional Respiratory Muscle Training (VRMT) can improve maximal Graded Exercise Treadmill Test (GXTT) performance in healthy adult recreational sportspersons. Consecutive, consenting healthy adult recreational sportspersons aged 20.56±2.49 years (n=30), volunteered to 'baseline recording' of resting heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), respiratory rate (RR), and Bruce ramp protocol maximal GXTT until volitional exhaustion providing total test time (TTT), derived VO2max, Metabolic Equivalent of Task (METs), HR and BP response during maximal GXTT and drop in recovery HR data. After six weeks of observation, they underwent 'pre-intervention recording' followed by supervised VRMT intervention for 6 weeks (30 minutes a day; 5 days a week) and then 'post-intervention recording'. Repeated measures ANOVA with pairwise t statistical comparison was used to analyse the data. After supervised VRMT, we observed significant decrease in their resting supine RR (prespiratory muscle aerobic capacity, attenuation of respiratory muscle metabo-reflex, increase in cardiac stroke volume and autonomic resetting towards parasympatho-dominance. Yogic Pranayama based VRMT can be used in sports conditioning programme of athletes to further improve their maximal exercise performance, and as part of rehabilitation training during return from injury.

  11. Fair reckoning: a qualitative investigation of responses to an economic health resource allocation survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomini, Mita; Hurley, Jeremiah; DeJean, Deirdre

    2014-04-01

    To investigate how participants in an economic resource allocation survey construct notions of fairness. Qualitative interview study guided by interpretive grounded theory methods. Qualitative interviews were conducted with volunteer university- (n=39) and community-based (n =7) economic survey participants. INTERVENTION OR MAIN VARIABLES STUDIED: We explored how participants constructed meanings to guide or explain fair survey choices, focusing on rationales, imagery and additional desired information not provided in the survey scenarios. Data were transcribed and coded into qualitative categories. Analysis iterated with data collection iterated through three waves of interviews. Participants compared the survey dilemmas to domains outside the health system. Most compared them with other micro-level, inter-personal sharing tasks. Participants raised several fairness-relevant factors beyond need or capacity to benefit. These included age, weight, poverty, access to other options and personal responsibility for illness; illness duration, curability or seriousness; life expectancy; possibilities for sharing; awareness of other's needs; and ability to explain allocations to those affected. They also articulated a fairness principle little considered by equity theories: that everybody must get something and nobody should get nothing. Lay criteria for judging fairness are myriad. Simple scenarios may be used to investigate lay commitments to abstract principles. Although principles are the focus of analysis and inference, participants may solve simplified dilemmas by imputing extraneous features to the problem or applying unanticipated principles. These possibilities should be taken into account in the design of resource allocation surveys eliciting the views of the public. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Mechanism-Based Modeling of Gastric Emptying Rate and Gallbladder Emptying in Response to Caloric Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guiastrennec, B; Sonne, David Peick; Hansen, M

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids released postprandially modify the rate and extent of absorption of lipophilic compounds. The present study aimed to predict gastric emptying (GE) rate and gallbladder emptying (GBE) patterns in response to caloric intake. A mechanism-based model for GE, cholecystokinin plasma concentr......Bile acids released postprandially modify the rate and extent of absorption of lipophilic compounds. The present study aimed to predict gastric emptying (GE) rate and gallbladder emptying (GBE) patterns in response to caloric intake. A mechanism-based model for GE, cholecystokinin plasma...... concentrations, and GBE was developed on data from 33 patients with type 2 diabetes and 33 matched nondiabetic individuals who were administered various test drinks. A feedback action of the caloric content entering the proximal small intestine was identified for the rate of GE. The cholecystokinin...

  13. Question order sensitivity of subjective well-being measures: focus on life satisfaction, self-rated health, and subjective life expectancy in survey instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunghee; McClain, Colleen; Webster, Noah; Han, Saram

    2016-10-01

    This study examines the effect of question context created by order in questionnaires on three subjective well-being measures: life satisfaction, self-rated health, and subjective life expectancy. We conducted two Web survey experiments. The first experiment (n = 648) altered the order of life satisfaction and self-rated health: (1) life satisfaction asked immediately after self-rated health; (2) self-rated health immediately after life satisfaction; and (3) two items placed apart. We examined their correlation coefficient by experimental condition and further examined its interaction with objective health. The second experiment (n = 479) asked life expectancy before and after parental mortality questions. Responses to life expectancy were compared by order using ANOVA, and we examined interaction with parental mortality status using ANCOVA. Additionally, response time and probes were examined. Correlation coefficients between self-rated health and life satisfaction differed significantly by order: 0.313 (life satisfaction first), 0.508 (apart), and 0.643 (self-rated health first). Differences were larger among respondents with chronic conditions. Response times were the shortest when self-rated health was asked first. When life expectancy asked after parental mortality questions, respondents reported considering parents more for answering life expectancy; and respondents with deceased parents reported significantly lower expectancy, but not those whose parents were alive. Question context effects exist. Findings suggest placing life satisfaction and self-rated health apart to avoid artificial attenuation or inflation in their association. Asking about parental mortality prior to life expectancy appears advantageous as this leads respondents to consider parental longevity more, an important factor for true longevity.

  14. Cultural differences in survey responding: Issues and insights in the study of response biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmelmeier, Markus

    2016-12-01

    This paper introduces the special section "Cultural differences in questionnaire responding" and discusses central topics in the research on response biases in cross-cultural survey research. Based on current conceptions of acquiescent, extreme, and socially desirable responding, the author considers current data on the correlated nature of response biases and the conditions under which different response styles they emerge. Based on evidence relating different response styles to the cultural dimension of individualism-collectivism, the paper explores how research presented as part of this special section might help resolves some tensions in this literature. The paper concludes by arguing that response styles should not be treated merely as measurement error, but as cultural behaviors in themselves. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  15. Comparison of Community Response to Road Traffic Noise in Japan and SWEDEN—PART i: Outline of Surveys and DOSE-RESPONSE Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    SATO, T.; YANO, T.; BJÖRKMAN, M.; RYLANDER, R.

    2002-02-01

    To investigate cross-cultural differences in the community response to road traffic noise, social surveys were conducted in Gothenburg, Sweden, and Kumamoto and Sapporo, Japan, using the same questionnaire and noise measurement method. Typical residential areas with detached houses and apartments were selected as the target areas in each city. The questionnaire comprised 40 questions relating to environmental, housing and personal factors. The key questions concerned annoyance caused by road traffic noise. The total numbers of respondents were 1142 in Gothenburg, 837 in Kumamoto and 780 in Sapporo. The response rates were 68·8, 69·3 and 57·5% respectively. After the questionnaires were completed, noise measurements were made in each area. Community responses were compared on the basis of the dose-response relationships. There were no systematic differences between community responses in Sapporo and Kumamoto, which have the same culture. People living in detached houses in Gothenburg were more annoyed by the same road traffic noise than the people living in Japanese cities. There were no systematic differences among the three cities with regard to activity disturbances indoors, but significant disturbance of activities and resting in gardens or on balconies was noted in Gothenburg. The difference in activity disturbance was due to the differences between lifestyles in the two countries. People living in detached houses were more annoyed by the house vibration caused by road traffic than those living in apartments and people were annoyed by the exhaust from road traffic to the same extent as noise.

  16. Chocolate bar as an incentive did not increase response rate among physiotherapists: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahm Kristin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a small incentive, a bar of dark chocolate, on response rate in a study of physiotherapy performance in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Findings Norwegian physiotherapists from private practice were randomised in blocks to an intervention group (n = 1027 receiving a bar of dark chocolate together with a data-collection form, and a control group (n = 1027 that received the data-collection form only. The physiotherapists were asked to prospectively complete the data-collection form by reporting treatments provided to one patient with knee osteoarthritis through 12 treatment sessions. The outcome measure was response rate of completed forms. Out of the 510 physiotherapists that responded, 280 had completed the data-collection form by the end of the study period. There was no difference between the chocolate and no-chocolate group in response rate of those who sent in completed forms. In the chocolate group, 142 (13.8% returned completed forms compared to 138 (13.4% in the control group, ARR = 0.4 (95% CI: -3.44 to 2.6. Conclusion A bar of dark chocolate did not increase response rate in a prospective study of physiotherapy performance. Stronger incentives than chocolate seem to be necessary to increase the response rate among professionals who are asked to report about their practice. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials register: ISRCTN02397855

  17. Radiobiological responses for two cell lines following continuous low dose-rate (CLDR) and pulsed dose rate (PDR) brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanisch, Per Henrik; Furre, Torbjoern; Olsen, Dag Rune; Pettersen, Erik O.

    2007-01-01

    The iso-effective irradiation of continuous low-dose-rate (CLDR) irradiation was compared with that of various schedules of pulsed dose rate (PDR) irradiation for cells of two established human lines, T-47D and NHIK 3025. Complete single-dose response curves were obtained for determination of parameters α and β by fitting of the linear quadratic formula. Sublethal damage repair constants μ and T 1/2 were determined by split-dose recovery experiments. On basis of the acquired parameters of each cell type the relative effectiveness of the two regimens of irradiation (CLDR and PDR) was calculated by use of Fowler's radiobiological model for iso-effect irradiation for repeated fractions of dose delivered at medium dose rates. For both cell types the predicted and observed relative effectiveness was compared at low and high iso-effect levels. The results indicate that the effect of PDR irradiation predicted by Fowler's model is equal to that of CLDR irradiation for both small and large doses with T-47D cells. With NHIK 3025 cells PDR irradiation induces a larger effect than predicted by the model for small doses, while it induces the predicted effect for high doses. The underlying cause of this difference is unclear, but cell-cycle parameters, like G2-accumulation is tested and found to be the same for the two cell lines

  18. Impacts of environmental variability on desiccation rate, plastic responses and population dynamics of Glossina pallidipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleynhans, E; Clusella-Trullas, S; Terblanche, J S

    2014-02-01

    Physiological responses to transient conditions may result in costly responses with little fitness benefits, and therefore, a trade-off must exist between the speed of response and the duration of exposure to new conditions. Here, using the puparia of an important insect disease vector, Glossina pallidipes, we examine this potential trade-off using a novel combination of an experimental approach and a population dynamics model. Specifically, we explore and dissect the interactions between plastic physiological responses, treatment-duration and -intensity using an experimental approach. We then integrate these experimental results from organismal water-balance data and their plastic responses into a population dynamics model to examine the potential relative fitness effects of simulated transient weather conditions on population growth rates. The results show evidence for the predicted trade-off for plasticity of water loss rate (WLR) and the duration of new environmental conditions. When altered environmental conditions lasted for longer durations, physiological responses could match the new environmental conditions, and this resulted in a lower WLR and lower rates of population decline. At shorter time-scales however, a mismatch between acclimation duration and physiological responses was reflected by reduced overall population growth rates. This may indicate a potential fitness cost due to insufficient time for physiological adjustments to take place. The outcomes of this work therefore suggest plastic water balance responses have both costs and benefits, and these depend on the time-scale and magnitude of variation in environmental conditions. These results are significant for understanding the evolution of plastic physiological responses and changes in population abundance in the context of environmental variability. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  19. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE EXCHANGE RATE AND THE INFLATION: EMPIRICAL SURVEY FOR ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina Adriana Handoreanu

    2008-01-01

    The influence on price level of changes in exchange rate comeback in the last period in the attention of economists and policy makers. The price level movement due to the changes in the exchange rate is named exchange rate pass-through and is important for the monetary policy and for the exchange rate choice. A reduced passthrough makes the monetary policy more independent and more easily implementation of inflation targeting. This working paper analyzed this phenomenon through a recursive eq...

  20. Dose/dose-rate responses of shrimp larvae to UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damkaer, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    Previous work indicated dose-rate thresholds in the effects of UV-B on the near-surface larvae of three shrimp species. Additional observations suggest that the total dose response varies with dose-rate. Below 0.002 Wm -2 sub([DNA]) irradiance no significant effect is noted in activity, development, or survival. Beyond that dose-rate threshold, shrimp larvae are significantly affected if the total dose exceeds about 85 Jm -2 sub([DNA]). Predictions cannot be made without both the dose-rate and the dose. These dose/dose-rate thresholds are compared to four-year mean dose/dose-rate solar UV-B irradiances at the experimental site, measured at the surface and calculated for 1 m depth. The probability that the shrimp larvae would receive lethal irradiance is low for the first half of the season of surface occurrence, even with a 44% increase in damaging UV radiation. (orig.)

  1. A review on the strain rate dependency of the dynamic viscoplastic response of FCC metals

    OpenAIRE

    Salvado, F.C.; Teixeira-Dias, Filipe; Walley, S.; Lea, L.J.; Cardoso, J.B.

    2017-01-01

    The response of structures and materials subject to ballistic impacts or blast loads remains a field of intense research. In a blast or impact load a sharp pressure wave travelling at supersonic speed impinges on the structure surface where deformation will develop at very high strain rates and stress waves may form and travel through the continuum solid. Both the dynamic loading and the temperature increase will significantly affect the mechanical and failure response of the material. This r...

  2. A study of the responses of neutron dose equivalent survey meters with computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, D.E.; Beer, G.P. de

    1983-01-01

    The ANISN and DOT discrete-ordinates radiation transport codes for one and two dimensions have been proved as effective and simple techniques to study the response of dose equivalent neutron detectors. Comparisons between results of an experimental calibration of the Harwell 95/0075 survey meter and calculated results rendered satisfactory agreement, considering the different techniques and sources of error involved. Possible improvements in the methods and designs and causes of error are discussed. (author)

  3. What makes a place special? Interpretation of written survey responses in natural resource planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert W. Schroeder

    2000-01-01

    In an open-ended, written survey, I asked residents and visitors of the Black River area in northern Michigan to identify and describe places that were special to them. I conducted a thematic interpretation of the responses, using a set of indexing and cross-referencing marcos that I wrote in Word Perfect 5.1. The themes that emerged included the natural beauty ofthe...

  4. Importance of heart rate during exercise for response to cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maass, Alexander H; Buck, Sandra; Nieuwland, Wybe; Brügemann, Johan; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Van Gelder, Isabelle C

    2009-07-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an established therapy for patients with severe heart failure and mechanical dyssynchrony. Response is only achieved in 60-70% of patients. To study exercise-related factors predicting response to CRT. We retrospectively examined consecutive patients in whom a CRT device was implanted. All underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing prior to implantation and after 6 months. The occurrence of chronotropic incompetence and heart rates exceeding the upper rate of the device, thereby compromising biventricular stimulation, was studied. Response was defined as a decrease in LVESV of 10% or more after 6 months. We included 144 patients. After 6 months 86 (60%) patients were responders. Peak VO2 significantly increased in responders. Chronotropic incompetence was more frequently seen in nonresponders (21 [36%] vs 9 [10%], P = 0.03), mostly in patients in SR. At moderate exercise, defined as 25% of the maximal exercise tolerance, that is, comparable to daily life exercise, nonresponders more frequently went above the upper rate of the device (13 [22%] vs 2 [3%], P exercise (OR 15.8 [3.3-76.5], P = 0.001) and nonischemic cardiomyopathy (OR 2.4 [1.0-5.7], P = 0.04) as predictive for response. Heart rate exceeding the upper rate during moderate exercise is an independent predictor for nonresponse to CRT in patients with AF, whereas chronotropic incompetence is a predictor for patients in SR.

  5. Response rates in studies of couples coping with cancer: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagan, Meirav; Hagedoorn, Mariët

    2014-08-01

    Recruiting couples for psychological studies can be challenging. This brief report is the first to examine the average couples' response rate and to systematically review the quality of reporting of couples' response rate in studies of couples coping with cancer. A systematic review (1980-2011) was conducted, including 83 studies meeting the inclusion criteria of being published in peer-reviewed journals, describing quantitative findings using a cross-sectional or longitudinal design. Overall reporting was unsatisfactory in more than half of the included studies. As a consequence, the couples' response rate (CRR; all analyzed couples divided by the number of eligible partnered patients/couples approached) could be calculated for only 33 samples. This CRR varied considerably across studies from 25% to 90% (CRRM = 58%, SD = 17%). The rates reported in the articles (M = 65%) were often higher than the average CRR (CRRM = 57%) of these samples. This systematic review revealed incomplete reporting of response rate. Therefore, it cannot be firmly concluded that the average CRR reported is representative for all studies on couples coping with cancer. Finally, the figures presented, which are often more favorable than the CRR, may create the impression that the sample is more representative of the target population than it actually is. This has consequences for implementing the findings of such studies into practice. The results are critically discussed, and recommendations for improvement are provided.

  6. Abnormal heart rate recovery and deficient chronotropic response after submaximal exercise in young Marfan syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Paulo; Carvalho, Antônio C; Perez, Ana Beatriz A; Medeiros, Wladimir M

    2016-10-01

    Marfan syndrome patients present important cardiac structural changes, ventricular dysfunction, and electrocardiographic changes. An abnormal heart rate response during or after exercise is an independent predictor of mortality and autonomic dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to compare heart rate recovery and chronotropic response obtained by cardiac reserve in patients with Marfan syndrome subjected to submaximal exercise. A total of 12 patients on β-blocker therapy and 13 off β-blocker therapy were compared with 12 healthy controls. They were subjected to submaximal exercise with lactate measurements. The heart rate recovery was obtained in the first minute of recovery and corrected for cardiac reserve and peak lactate concentration. Peak heart rate (141±16 versus 155±17 versus 174±8 bpm; p=0.001), heart rate reserve (58.7±9.4 versus 67.6±14.3 versus 82.6±4.8 bpm; p=0.001), heart rate recovery (22±6 versus 22±8 versus 34±9 bpm; p=0.001), and heart rate recovery/lactate (3±1 versus 3±1 versus 5±1 bpm/mmol/L; p=0.003) were different between Marfan groups and controls, respectively. All the patients with Marfan syndrome had heart rate recovery values below the mean observed in the control group. The absolute values of heart rate recovery were strongly correlated with the heart rate reserve (r=0.76; p=0.001). Marfan syndrome patients have reduced heart rate recovery and chronotropic deficit after submaximal exercise, and the chronotropic deficit is a strong determinant of heart rate recovery. These changes are suggestive of autonomic dysfunction.

  7. Survey research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Amy K; Salem, Barbara

    2010-10-01

    Survey research is a unique methodology that can provide insight into individuals' perspectives and experiences and can be collected on a large population-based sample. Specifically, in plastic surgery, survey research can provide patients and providers with accurate and reproducible information to assist with medical decision-making. When using survey methods in research, researchers should develop a conceptual model that explains the relationships of the independent and dependent variables. The items of the survey are of primary importance. Collected data are only useful if they accurately measure the concepts of interest. In addition, administration of the survey must follow basic principles to ensure an adequate response rate and representation of the intended target sample. In this article, the authors review some general concepts important for successful survey research and discuss the many advantages this methodology has for obtaining limitless amounts of valuable information.

  8. Responses to language barriers in consultations with refugees and asylum seekers: a telephone survey of Irish general practitioners.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    MacFarlane, Anne

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Refugees and asylum seekers experience language barriers in general practice. Qualitative studies have found that responses to language barriers in general practice are ad hoc with use of both professional interpreters and informal interpreters (patients\\' relatives or friends). However, the scale of the issues involved is unknown. This study quantifies the need for language assistance in general practice consultations and examines the experience of, and satisfaction with, methods of language assistance utilized. METHODS: Data were collected by telephone survey with general practitioners in a regional health authority in Ireland between July-August 2004. Each respondent was asked a series of questions about consulting with refugees and asylum seekers, the need for language assistance and the kind of language assistance used. RESULTS: There was a 70% (n = 56\\/80) response rate to the telephone survey. The majority of respondents (77%) said that they had experienced consultations with refugees and asylum seekers in which language assistance was required. Despite this, general practitioners in the majority of cases managed without an interpreter or used informal methods of interpretation. In fact, when given a choice general practitioners would more often choose informal over professional methods of interpretation despite the fact that confidentiality was a significant concern. CONCLUSION: The need for language assistance in consultations with refugees and asylum seekers in Irish general practice is high. General practitioners rely on informal responses. It is necessary to improve knowledge about the organisational contexts that shape general practitioners responses. We also recommend dialogue between general practitioners, patients and interpreters about the relative merits of informal and professional methods of interpretation so that general practitioners\\' choices are responsive to the needs of patients with limited English.

  9. Determining Possible Professionals and Respective Roles and Responsibilities for a Model Comprehensive Elder Abuse Intervention: A Delphi Consensus Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Du Mont

    Full Text Available We have undertaken a multi-phase, multi-method program of research to develop, implement, and evaluate a comprehensive hospital-based nurse examiner elder abuse intervention that addresses the complex functional, social, forensic, and medical needs of older women and men. In this study, we determined the importance of possible participating professionals and respective roles and responsibilities within the intervention.Using a modified Delphi methodology, recommended professionals and their associated roles and responsibilities were generated from a systematic scoping review of relevant scholarly and grey literatures. These items were reviewed, new items added for review, and rated/re-rated for their importance to the intervention on a 5-point Likert scale by an expert panel during a one day in-person meeting. Items that did not achieve consensus were subsequently re-rated in an online survey.Those items that achieved a mean Likert rating of 4+ (rated important to very important, and an interquartile range<1 in the first or second round, and/or for which 80% of ratings were 4+ in the second round were retained for the model elder abuse intervention.Twenty-two of 31 recommended professionals and 192 of 229 recommended roles and responsibilities rated were retained for our model elder abuse intervention. Retained professionals were: public guardian and trustee (mean rating = 4.88, geriatrician (4.87, police officer (4.87, GEM (geriatric emergency management nurse (4.80, GEM social worker (4.78, community health worker (4.76, social worker/counsellor (4.74, family physician in community (4.71, paramedic (4.65, financial worker (4.59, lawyer (4.59, pharmacist (4.59, emergency physician (4.57, geriatric psychiatrist (4.33, occupational therapist (4.29, family physician in hospital (4.28, Crown prosecutor (4.24, neuropsychologist (4.24, bioethicist (4.18, caregiver advocate (4.18, victim support worker (4.18, and respite care worker (4.12.A large and

  10. Characteristics and verification of a car-borne survey system for dose rates in air: KURAMA-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, S.; Yoshida, T.; Tsutsumi, M.; Saito, K.

    2015-01-01

    The car-borne survey system KURAMA-II, developed by the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, has been used for air dose rate mapping after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. KURAMA-II consists of a CsI(Tl) scintillation detector, a GPS device, and a control device for data processing. The dose rates monitored by KURAMA-II are based on the G(E) function (spectrum-dose conversion operator), which can precisely calculate dose rates from measured pulse-height distribution even if the energy spectrum changes significantly. The characteristics of KURAMA-II have been investigated with particular consideration to the reliability of the calculated G(E) function, dose rate dependence, statistical fluctuation, angular dependence, and energy dependence. The results indicate that 100 units of KURAMA-II systems have acceptable quality for mass monitoring of dose rates in the environment. - Highlights: • KURAMA-II is a car-borne survey system developed by Kyoto University. • A spectrum-dose conversion operator for KURAMA-II was calculated and examined. • We examined the radiation characteristics of KURAMA-II such as energy dependence. • KURAMA-II has acceptable quality for environmental mass dose rate monitoring

  11. Effects of different types of progress indicators on drop-out rates in web surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matzat, U.; Snijders, C.C.P.; Horst, van der W.

    2009-01-01

    The present study analyzes whether and how different types of progress indicators affect the tendency of respondents to continue filling out a web survey, focusing on whether the progress indicators’ effects depend on the position of the respondent in the questionnaire. Using a sample of 2460

  12. Investigation into the phenomenon of reduced household travel survey derived trip generation rates in Gauteng Province

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nkosi, M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gauteng Province has carried out two household travel surveys (HTS) – the first was carried out in 2000 and the recent one was completed in 2014. HTSs are the mainstay of transport planning and modelling, being used by the province to update...

  13. Female song rates in response to simulated intruder are positively related to reproductive success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristal E Cain

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bird song is well studied in males as a sexually selected behavior. However, although song is also common among females, it is infrequently examined and poorly understood. Research suggests that song is often used as a resource defense behavior and is important in female-female competition for limited resources, e.g. mates and territories. If so, song should be positively related to fitness and related to other resource defense behaviors, but this possibility has rarely been explored. Here we examine fitness estimates in relation to spontaneous song rates and song rates in response to a simulated intruder (playback, in the superb fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus, a cooperatively breeding songbird. We also determine how song rates relate to other territorial defense behaviors. Song rate in response to playback, but not spontaneous song rate, was positively related to nest success and the number of fledglings produced by successful females. Further, response song rate was also correlated with other territorial defense behaviors (latency to respond and flights. This evidence supports the hypothesis that female song may be used in the context of female-female competition to improve access to limited reproductive resources, and suggests that song may provide direct fitness benefits.

  14. Internal Medicine Residents' Perceived Responsibility for Patients at Hospital Discharge: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Eric; Stickrath, Chad; McNulty, Monica C; Calderon, Aaron J; Chapman, Elizabeth; Gonzalo, Jed D; Kuperman, Ethan F; Lopez, Max; Smith, Christopher J; Sweigart, Joseph R; Theobald, Cecelia N; Burke, Robert E

    2016-12-01

    Medical residents are routinely entrusted with transitions of care, yet little is known about the duration or content of their perceived responsibility for patients they discharge from the hospital. To examine the duration and content of internal medicine residents' perceived responsibility for patients they discharge from the hospital. The secondary objective was to determine whether specific individual experiences and characteristics correlate with perceived responsibility. Multi-site, cross-sectional 24-question survey delivered via email or paper-based form. Internal medicine residents (post-graduate years 1-3) at nine university and community-based internal medicine training programs in the United States. Perceived responsibility for patients after discharge as measured by a previously developed single-item tool for duration of responsibility and novel domain-specific questions assessing attitudes towards specific transition of care behaviors. Of 817 residents surveyed, 469 responded (57.4 %). One quarter of residents (26.1 %) indicated that their responsibility for patients ended at discharge, while 19.3 % reported perceived responsibility extending beyond 2 weeks. Perceived duration of responsibility did not correlate with level of training (P = 0.57), program type (P = 0.28), career path (P = 0.12), or presence of burnout (P = 0.59). The majority of residents indicated they were responsible for six of eight transitional care tasks (85.1-99.3 % strongly agree or agree). Approximately half of residents (57 %) indicated that it was their responsibility to directly contact patients' primary care providers at discharge. and 21.6 % indicated that it was their responsibility to ensure that patients attended their follow-up appointments. Internal medicine residents demonstrate variability in perceived duration of responsibility for recently discharged patients. Neither the duration nor the content of residents' perceived responsibility was

  15. Thermally induced pressure locking of gate valves: A survey of valve bonnet pressurization rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezekoye, L.I.; Moore, W.E.

    1996-01-01

    Closed, water filled gate valves run the risk of becoming pressurized due to heat input from the environment or from adjacent connected piping. Thermal pressurization of gate valve bonnets may lead to the valves failing to open on demand and can even induce structural failure of valves. This paper presents an analytical prediction of the pressurization rate of a closed pressure vessel subject to uniform heating which may be considered as an upper bound to the pressurization rate that may occur in the field. Then actual valve experiences described in the literature are reviewed to determine the expected pressurization rate in existing hardware designs. A statistical approach is applied to reconcile the differing pressurization rates reported in the literature and determine a rate that can be applied in valve evaluations. The limitations of the reconciled rate are discussed

  16. Dose Response Model of Biological Reaction to Low Dose Rate Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magae, J.; Furikawa, C.; Hoshi, Y.; Kawakami, Y.; Ogata, H.

    2004-01-01

    It is necessary to use reproducible and stable indicators to evaluate biological responses to long term irradiation at low dose-rate. They should be simple and quantitative enough to produce the results statistically accurate, because we have to analyze the subtle changes of biological responses around background level at low dose. For these purposes we chose micronucleus formation of U2OS, a human osteosarcoma cell line, as indicators of biological responses. Cells were exposed to gamma ray in irradiation rom bearing 50,000 Ci 60Co. After irradiation, they were cultured for 24 h in the presence of cytochalasin B to block cytokinesis, and cytoplasm and nucleus were stained with DAPI and prospidium iodide, respectively. the number of binuclear cells bearing micronuclei was counted under a fluorescence microscope. Dose rate in the irradiation room was measured with PLD. Dose response of PLD is linear between 1 mGy to 10 Gy, and standard deviation of triplicate count was several percent of mean value. We fitted statistically dose response curves to the data, and they were plotted on the coordinate of linearly scale response and dose. The results followed to the straight line passing through the origin of the coordinate axes between 0.1-5 Gy, and dose and does rate effectiveness factor (DDREF) was less than 2 when cells were irradiated for 1-10 min. Difference of the percent binuclear cells bearing micronucleus between irradiated cells and control cells was not statistically significant at the dose above 0.1 Gy when 5,000 binuclear cells were analyzed. In contrast, dose response curves never followed LNT, when cells were irradiated for 7 to 124 days. Difference of the percent binuclear cells bearing micronucleus between irradiated cells and control cells was not statistically significant at the dose below 6 Gy, when cells were continuously irradiated for 124 days. These results suggest that dose response curve of biological reaction is remarkably affected by exposure

  17. Radiographic and metabolic response rates following image-guided stereotactic radiotherapy for lung tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, Nasiruddin; Grills, Inga S.; Wong, Ching-Yee Oliver; Galerani, Ana Paula; Chao, Kenneth; Welsh, Robert; Chmielewski, Gary; Yan Di; Kestin, Larry L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate radiographic and metabolic response after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for early lung tumors. Materials and methods: Thirty-nine tumors were treated prospectively with SBRT (dose = 48-60 Gy, 4-5 Fx). Thirty-six cases were primary NSCLC (T1N0 = 67%; T2N0 = 25%); three cases were solitary metastases. Patients were followed using CT and PET at 6, 16, and 52 weeks post-SBRT, with CT follow-up thereafter. RECIST and EORTC criteria were used to evaluate CT and PET responses. Results: At median follow-up of 9 months (0.4-26), RECIST complete response (CR), partial response (PR), and stable disease (SD) rates were 3%, 43%, 54% at 6 weeks; 15%, 38%, 46% at 16 weeks; 27%, 64%, 9% at 52 weeks. Mean baseline tumor volume was reduced by 46%, 70%, 87%, and 96%, respectively at 6, 16, 52, and 72 weeks. Mean baseline maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) was 8.3 (1.1-20.3) and reduced to 3.4, 3.0, and 3.7 at 6, 16, and 52 weeks after SBRT. EORTC metabolic CR/PR, SD, and progressive disease rates were 67%, 22%, 11% at 6 weeks; 86%, 10%, 3% at 16 weeks; 95%, 5%, 0% at 52 weeks. Conclusions: SBRT yields excellent RECIST and EORTC based response. Metabolic response is rapid however radiographic response occurs even after 1-year post treatment.

  18. No Correlation Between Press Ganey Survey Responses and Outcomes in Post-Total Hip Arthroplasty Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chughtai, Morad; Gwam, Chukwuweike U; Khlopas, Anton; Sodhi, Nipun; Delanois, Ronald E; Spindler, Kurt P; Mont, Michael A

    2018-03-01

    In the era of the online orthopedic market, patients tend to equate publicly available online satisfaction surveys with what they presume their ultimate surgical outcome will be. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess whether there is a correlation between Press Ganey (PG) scores and (1) Hip Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index and Harris Hip Score; (2) Short Form-12 and Short Form-36 scores; (3) University of California Los Angeles and Visual Analog Scale scores assessed at a mean of 3 years (range, 1 to 6 years) after surgery. In addition, we assessed whether (4) these correlations persist in patients who were evaluated under 2 years and 3 or more years after surgery. Six-hundred ninety-two patients from November 2009 to January 2015 were identified from our institutional PG database. One-hundred ninety (27%) responded to the survey. One-hundred forty-nine (78%) patients were given the total hip arthroplasty assessment tools at a minimum of 2-year follow-up, and 33 patients (17%) completed their survey before 2 years after surgery. We assessed whether overall hospital rating scores correlated with the above assessment tools. Pearson correlation analysis revealed no correlation between the PG survey score and the assessment tools. HHS had the highest correlation coefficient (r = .120; P = .316); however, this was not significant. After removing the patients who had their follow-up survey administered under 2 years after surgery (33 patients), there was still no statistically significant correlation between the above-mentioned outcome scores and PG overall hospital rating (P > .05). No statistically significant relationship was found between commonly used total hip arthroplasty assessment tools and the PG overall hospital rating. Based on these results, PG surveys may not be a suitable implementation of the Center for Medicare and Medicaid services. A set of measures that can be widely collected and reported by hospitals for

  19. Distribution of gamma-ray dose rate in Fukushima prefecture by a car-borne survey method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, Shinji; Momoshima, Noriyuki; Maekawa, Akihiro; Ichikawa, Ryohei; Kawamura, Hidehisa

    2013-01-01

    The Tohoku Pacific Earthquake and Tsunami on March 11, 2011, caused severe damage to the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP. This was followed by a nuclear accident at an unprecedented scale, and huge amounts of radioactive material were released into the environment. The distributions of the gamma-ray dose rate in Fukushima prefecture were measured using a NaI(Tl) scintillation survey meter as part of a car-borne survey method on April 18-21, June 20-22, October 18-21, 2011, and on April 9-11 and July 30 - August 1, 2012. The dose rate near TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP and at Iitate-mura, Fukushima-city was high (1 to >30 μSv/h). (author)

  20. Pairing call-response surveys and distance sampling for a mammalian carnivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Sara J. K.; Frair, Jacqueline L.; Underwood, Harold B.; Gibbs, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Density estimates accounting for differential animal detectability are difficult to acquire for wide-ranging and elusive species such as mammalian carnivores. Pairing distance sampling with call-response surveys may provide an efficient means of tracking changes in populations of coyotes (Canis latrans), a species of particular interest in the eastern United States. Blind field trials in rural New York State indicated 119-m linear error for triangulated coyote calls, and a 1.8-km distance threshold for call detectability, which was sufficient to estimate a detection function with precision using distance sampling. We conducted statewide road-based surveys with sampling locations spaced ≥6 km apart from June to August 2010. Each detected call (be it a single or group) counted as a single object, representing 1 territorial pair, because of uncertainty in the number of vocalizing animals. From 524 survey points and 75 detections, we estimated the probability of detecting a calling coyote to be 0.17 ± 0.02 SE, yielding a detection-corrected index of 0.75 pairs/10 km2 (95% CI: 0.52–1.1, 18.5% CV) for a minimum of 8,133 pairs across rural New York State. Importantly, we consider this an index rather than true estimate of abundance given the unknown probability of coyote availability for detection during our surveys. Even so, pairing distance sampling with call-response surveys provided a novel, efficient, and noninvasive means of monitoring populations of wide-ranging and elusive, albeit reliably vocal, mammalian carnivores. Our approach offers an effective new means of tracking species like coyotes, one that is readily extendable to other species and geographic extents, provided key assumptions of distance sampling are met.

  1. Determining Possible Professionals and Respective Roles and Responsibilities for a Model Comprehensive Elder Abuse Intervention: A Delphi Consensus Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Mont, Janice; Kosa, Daisy; Macdonald, Sheila; Elliot, Shannon; Yaffe, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Objective We have undertaken a multi-phase, multi-method program of research to develop, implement, and evaluate a comprehensive hospital-based nurse examiner elder abuse intervention that addresses the complex functional, social, forensic, and medical needs of older women and men. In this study, we determined the importance of possible participating professionals and respective roles and responsibilities within the intervention. Methods Using a modified Delphi methodology, recommended professionals and their associated roles and responsibilities were generated from a systematic scoping review of relevant scholarly and grey literatures. These items were reviewed, new items added for review, and rated/re-rated for their importance to the intervention on a 5-point Likert scale by an expert panel during a one day in-person meeting. Items that did not achieve consensus were subsequently re-rated in an online survey. Analysis Those items that achieved a mean Likert rating of 4+ (rated important to very important), and an interquartile rangeelder abuse intervention. Results Twenty-two of 31 recommended professionals and 192 of 229 recommended roles and responsibilities rated were retained for our model elder abuse intervention. Retained professionals were: public guardian and trustee (mean rating = 4.88), geriatrician (4.87), police officer (4.87), GEM (geriatric emergency management) nurse (4.80), GEM social worker (4.78), community health worker (4.76), social worker/counsellor (4.74), family physician in community (4.71), paramedic (4.65), financial worker (4.59), lawyer (4.59), pharmacist (4.59), emergency physician (4.57), geriatric psychiatrist (4.33), occupational therapist (4.29), family physician in hospital (4.28), Crown prosecutor (4.24), neuropsychologist (4.24), bioethicist (4.18), caregiver advocate (4.18), victim support worker (4.18), and respite care worker (4.12). Conclusion A large and diverse group of multidisciplinary, intersectoral collaborators was

  2. A longitudinal study in youth of heart rate variability at rest and in response to stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Zhibin; Snieder, Harold; Su, Shaoyong; Ding, Xiuhua; Thayer, Julian F.; Treiber, Frank A.; Wang, Xiaoling

    Background: Few longitudinal studies have examined ethnic and sex differences, predictors and tracking stabilities of heart rate variability (HRV) at rest and in response to stress in youths and young adults. Methods: Two evaluations were performed approximately 1.5 years apart on 399 youths and

  3. Attenuated heart rate response is associated with hypocretin deficiency in patients with narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Gertrud Laura; Knudsen, Stine; Petersen, Eva Rosa; Kempfner, Jacob; Gammeltoft, Steen; Sorensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Jennum, Poul

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that hypocretin-1 may influence the cerebral control of the cardiovascular system. We analyzed whether hypocretin-1 deficiency in narcolepsy patients may result in a reduced heart rate response. We analyzed the heart rate response during various sleep stages from a 1-night polysomnography in patients with narcolepsy and healthy controls. The narcolepsy group was subdivided by the presence of +/- cataplexy and +/- hypocretin-1 deficiency. Sleep laboratory studies conducted from 2001-2011. In total 67 narcolepsy patients and 22 control subjects were included in the study. Cataplexy was present in 46 patients and hypocretin-1 deficiency in 38 patients. None. All patients with narcolepsy had a significantly reduced heart rate response associated with arousals and leg movements (P hypocretin-1 deficiency and cataplexy groups compared with patients with normal hypocretin-1 levels (P hypocretin-1 deficiency significantly predicted the heart rate response associated with arousals in both REM and non-REM in a multivariate linear regression. Our results show that autonomic dysfunction is part of the narcoleptic phenotype, and that hypocretin-1 deficiency is the primary predictor of this dysfunction. This finding suggests that the hypocretin system participates in the modulation of cardiovascular function at rest.

  4. Regional changes over time in initial virologic response rates to combination antiretroviral therapy across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bannister, Wendy P; Kirk, Ole; Gatell, Jose M

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Changes in virologic response to initial combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) over calendar time may indicate improvements in cART or emergence of primary resistance. Regional variations may identify differences in available antiretroviral drugs or patient management. METHODS: Vi...... rates Udgivelsesdato: 2006/6...

  5. Avoidance of Timeout from Response-Independent Food: Effects of Delivery Rate and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Joseph V.; Baron, Alan

    2008-01-01

    In three experiments, a rat's lever presses could postpone timeouts from food pellets delivered on response-independent schedules. In Experiment 1, the pellets were delivered at variable-time (VT) rates ranging from VT 0.5 to VT 8 min. Experiment 2 replicated the VT 1 min and VT 8 min conditions of Experiment 1 with new subjects. Finally, subjects…

  6. Intake rates and the functional response in shorebirds (Charadriiformes) eating macro-invertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goss-Custard, John D.; West, Andrew D.; Yates, Michael G.; Caldow, Richard W. G.; Stillman, Richard A.; Bardsley, Louise; Castilla, Juan; Castro, Macarena; Dierschke, Volker; Durell, Sarah E. A. Le V. Dit; Eichhorn, Goetz; Ens, Bruno J.; Exo, Klaus-Michael; Udayangani-Fernando, P. U.; Ferns, Peter N.; Hockey, Philip A. R.; Gill, Jennifer A.; Johnstone, Ian; Kalejta-Summers, Bozena; Masero, Jose A.; Moreira, Francisco; Nagarajan, Rajarathina Velu; Owens, Ian P. F.; Pacheco, Cristian; Perez-Hurtado, Alejandro; Rogers, Danny; Scheiffarth, Gregor; Sitters, Humphrey; Sutherland, William J.; Triplet, Patrick; Worrall, Dave H.; Zharikov, Yuri; Zwarts, Leo; Pettifor, Richard A.

    2006-01-01

    As field determinations take much effort, it would be useful to be able to predict easily the coefficients describing the functional response of free-living predators, the function relating food intake rate to the abundance of food organisms in the environment. As a means easily to parameterise an

  7. The response rate in postal epidemiological studies in the context of national cultural behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelova, Radostina A.; Naydenov, Kiril; Hägerhed-Engman, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of national cultural differences on the response rate, obtained in questionnaire based epidemiological studies on allergy and asthma, performed in Sweden (DBH) and Bulgaria (ALLHOME). The two studies used one and the same methodology, but the ob...

  8. Effects of Frustration on the Response Rate of Skid Row Alcoholics on a Performance Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzelli, James F.; Reinke-Scorzelli, Mary

    1976-01-01

    Determines the changes that may occur in the response rates of 14 skid row alcoholics on a performance task after the introduction of a frustration operation. Results suggest a possible relationship between low frustration tolerance and the method by which these individuals tend to motivate themselves. (Author)

  9. Extra Credit Micro-Incentives and Response Rates for Online Course Evaluations: Two Quasi-Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrom, Eric D.; Hardin, Erin E.; Shaffer, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    To extend prior findings on the motivational value of tiny, nonfinancial incentives, we conducted two quasi-experiments on the relationship of extra credit micro-incentives (ECMIs, worth =1% of course grade) and response rates for online course evaluations. Study 1 involved two advanced undergraduate psychology courses taught by the same…

  10. Communication about future policy rates in theory and practice : a survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moessner, R.; Jansen, David-Jan; de Haan, Jakob

    We discuss the theoretical rationale for central bank communication about future policy rates, either as part of inflation targeting or in the form of forward guidance. We also summarize both actual central bank communication about future policy rates and empirical evidence on the effectiveness of

  11. International interest rate convergence: a survey of the issues and evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Pigott

    1993-01-01

    World financial markets have become substantially integrated over the last two decades. Contrary to widespread expectations, however, this integration has not led to any greater convergence of interest rates across countries. This article examines why convergence has not occurred and more generally what financial integration does—and does not—mean for international interest rate relations.

  12. Mental health first aid responses of the public: results from an Australian national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitchener Betty A

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of mental disorders is so high that members of the public will commonly have contact with someone affected. How they respond to that person (the mental health first aid response may affect outcomes. However, there is no information on what members of the public might do in such circumstances. Methods In a national survey of 3998 Australian adults, respondents were presented with one of four case vignettes and asked what they would do if that person was someone they had known for a long time and cared about. There were four types of vignette: depression, depression with suicidal thoughts, early schizophrenia, and chronic schizophrenia. Verbatim responses to the open-ended question were coded into categories. Results The most common responses to all vignettes were to encourage professional help-seeking and to listen to and support the person. However, a significant minority did not give these responses. Much less common responses were to assess the problem or risk of harm, to give or seek information, to encourage self-help, or to support the family. Few respondents mentioned contacting a professional on the person's behalf or accompanying them to a professional. First aid responses were generally more appropriate in women, those with less stigmatizing attitudes, and those who correctly identified the disorder in the vignette. Conclusions There is room for improving the range of mental health first aid responses in the community. Lack of knowledge of mental disorders and stigmatizing attitudes are important barriers to effective first aid.

  13. Slew-rate dependence of tracer magnetization response in magnetic particle imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Saqlain A.; Ferguson, R. M.; Krishnan, K. M.

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a new biomedical imaging technique that produces real-time, high-resolution tomographic images of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle tracers. Currently, 25 kHz and 20 mT/μ0 excitation fields are common in MPI, but lower field amplitudes may be necessary for patient safety in future designs. Here, we address fundamental questions about MPI tracer magnetization dynamics and predict tracer performance in future scanners that employ new combinations of excitation field amplitude (Ho) and frequency (ω). Using an optimized, monodisperse MPI tracer, we studied how several combinations of drive field frequencies and amplitudes affect the tracer's response, using Magnetic Particle Spectrometry and AC hysteresis, for drive field conditions at 15.5, 26, and 40.2 kHz, with field amplitudes ranging from 7 to 52 mT/μ0. For both fluid and immobilized nanoparticle samples, we determined that magnetic response was dominated by Néel reversal. Furthermore, we observed that the peak slew-rate (ωHo) determined the tracer magnetic response. Smaller amplitudes provided correspondingly smaller field of view, sometimes resulting in excitation of minor hysteresis loops. Changing the drive field conditions but keeping the peak slew-rate constant kept the tracer response almost the same. Higher peak slew-rates led to reduced maximum signal intensity and greater coercivity in the tracer response. Our experimental results were in reasonable agreement with Stoner-Wohlfarth model based theories.

  14. The heart rate response to nintendo wii boxing in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Pamela R; Poloni, Joseph; Thornton, Andrew; Lynskey, James V

    2012-06-01

    To determine if 30 minutes of Nintendo Wii Sports boxing provides cardiorespiratory benefits and contributes to the daily exercise recommendations for healthy young adults. Twenty healthy 23- to 27-year-olds participated in two sessions to measure maximum heart rate (HR(max)) via a treadmill test and heart rate (HR) response to 30 minutes of Wii Sports boxing. Heart rate in beats per minute (bpm) was measured continuously, and exercise intensity during each minute of play was stratified as a percentage of HR(max). Mixed designs analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson product moment correlations were used to analyze the data. Mean (SD) HR response to boxing was 143 (15) bpm or 77.5% (10.0%) of HR(max). The mean HR response for experienced participants was significantly lower than inexperienced participants, P = .007. The ANOVA revealed a significant interaction between experience and time spent at various intensities, P = .009. Experienced participants spent more time in light to vigorous intensities, inexperienced participants in moderate to very hard intensities. Fitness was not correlated with mean HR response to boxing, P = .49. Thirty minutes of Nintendo Wii Sports boxing provides a moderate to vigorous aerobic response in healthy young adults and can contribute to daily recommendations for physical activity.

  15. Framing violence: the effect of survey context and question framing on reported rates of partner violence

    OpenAIRE

    Regan, Katherine V.

    2008-01-01

    In this dissertation, I investigated two explanations for the variability in levels of partner violence found by large community surveys. In Study 1, I examined the effect of how questions about partner violence are introduced (question framing: conflict, violence-in-relationships, or attacks) on reports of partner violence. Although there was not a reliable effect of question framing, the pattern of findings was consistent across 3 of 4 analyses. Counter to predictions, an attacks question f...

  16. Survey of state and tribal emergency response capabilities for radiological transportation incidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilardo, F J; Mitter, E L; Palmer, J A; Briggs, H C; Fesenmaier, J [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (USA). School of Public and Environmental Affairs

    1990-05-01

    This publication is the final report of a project to survey the fifty states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and selected Indian Tribal jurisdictions to ascertain their emergency-preparedness planning and capabilities for responding to transportation incidents involving radioactive materials. The survey was conducted to provide the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and other federal agencies with information concerning the current level of emergency-response preparedness of the states and selected tribes and an assessment of the changes that have occurred since 1980. There have been no major changes in the states' emergency-response planning strategies and field tactics. The changes noted included an increased availability of dedicated emergency-response vehicles, wider availability of specialized radiation-detection instruments, and higher proportions of police and fire personnel with training in the handling of suspected radiation threats. Most Indian tribes have no capability to evaluate suspected radiation threats and have no formal relations with emergency-response personnel in adjacent states. For the nation as a whole, the incidence of suspected radiation threats declined substantially from 1980 to 1988. 58 tabs.

  17. Strontium-89 in palliative treatment of widespread painful bone metastases: Response rate and duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, Peiman; Ghadiri, Farhad

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Intravenous injection of Strontium-89 (Sr-89) is an accepted palliative treatment for bone metastases. We evaluated the pain relief achieved with this radiopharmaceutical in patients with widespread painful bone metastases from prostate and breast cancers. Pain intensity on a 9-grade scale and use of narcotics was recorded before and after Sr-89 injection, and the ensuing palliative effect was divided into complete, partial and no response. The duration of response was also recorded. Thirty-five patients with widespread painful bone metastases were treated with Sr-89, of whom 22 had prostate and 13 breast cancers. Mean follow-up was 227 days, during which death was recorded for 32 patients. Fourteen patients (40%) had a complete response, 9 (26%) partial and 12 (34%) no response. In the 23 responding patients, mean duration of response was 6 months. In 17 patients the response was present until death. There was no significant relationship between pain response and patients' age or type of primary cancer. No side effects were recorded other than mild and temporary drop in white blood cell and platelet counts. Three patients with a complete response had a second injection of Sr-89 after progression of pain. One of these patients had a second partial response; the other 2 did not show a response to the second injection. The use of Sr-89 for treatment of widespread painful bone metastases from prostate and breast cancers in our department showed a 66% rate of response and a mean response duration of 6 months, with no significant side effects. (author)

  18. What's missing in missing data? Omissions in survey responses among parents of children with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Abby R; Dussel, Veronica; Orellana, Liliana; Kang, Tammy; Geyer, J Russel; Feudtner, Chris; Wolfe, Joanne

    2014-08-01

    Missing data is a common phenomenon with survey-based research; patterns of missing data may elucidate why participants decline to answer certain questions. To describe patterns of missing data in the Pediatric Quality of Life and Evaluation of Symptoms Technology (PediQUEST) study, and highlight challenges in asking sensitive research questions. Cross-sectional, survey-based study embedded within a randomized controlled trial. Three large children's hospitals: Dana-Farber/Boston Children's Cancer and Blood Disorders Center (DF/BCCDC); Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP); and Seattle Children's Hospital (SCH). At the time of their child's enrollment, parents completed the Survey about Caring for Children with Cancer (SCCC), including demographics, perceptions of prognosis, treatment goals, quality of life, and psychological distress. Eighty-six of 104 parents completed surveys (83% response). The proportion of missing data varied by question type. While 14 parents (16%) left demographic fields blank, over half (n=48; 56%) declined to answer at least one question about their child's prognosis, especially life expectancy. The presence of missing data was unrelated to the child's diagnosis, time from progression, time to death, or parent distress (p>0.3 for each). Written explanations in survey margins suggested that addressing a child's life expectancy is particularly challenging for parents. Parents of children with cancer commonly refrain from answering questions about their child's prognosis, however, they may be more likely to address general cure likelihood than explicit life expectancy. Understanding acceptability of sensitive questions in survey-based research will foster higher quality palliative care research.

  19. Modelling of tomato stem diameter growth rate based on physiological responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L.; Tan, J.; Lv, T.

    2017-01-01

    The stem diameter is an important parameter describing the growth of tomato plant during vegetative growth stage. A stem diameter growth model was developed to predict the response of plant growth under different conditions. By analyzing the diurnal variations of stem diameter in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), it was found that the stem diameter measured at 3:00 am was the representative value as the daily basis of tomato stem diameter. Based on the responses of growth rate in stem diameter to light and temperature, a linear regression relationship was applied to establish the stem diameter growth rate prediction model for the vegetative growth stage in tomato and which was further validated by experiment. The root mean square error (RMSE) and relative error (RE) were used to test the correlation between measured and modeled stem diameter variations. Results showed that the model can be used in prediction for stem diameter growth rate at vegetative growth stage in tomato. (author)

  20. Attenuated heart rate response in REM sleep behavior disorder and Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Gertrud Laura; Kempfner, Jacob; Zoetmulder, Marielle

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether patients with Parkinson's disease with and without rapid‐eye‐movement sleep behavior disorder and patients with idiopathic rapid‐eye‐movement sleep behavior disorder have an attenuated heart rate response to arousals or to leg movements during...... sleep compared with healthy controls. Fourteen and 16 Parkinson's patients with and without rapid‐eye‐movement sleep behavior disorder, respectively, 11 idiopathic rapid‐eye‐movement sleep behavior disorder patients, and 17 control subjects underwent 1 night of polysomnography. The heart rate response...... associated with arousal or leg movement from all sleep stages was analyzed from 10 heartbeats before the onset of the sleep event to 15 heartbeats following onset of the sleep event. The heart rate reponse to arousals was significantly lower in both parkinsonian groups compared with the control group...

  1. Increasing the response rate of text messaging data collection: a delayed randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Wang, Wei; Wu, Qiong; van Velthoven, Michelle Helena; Chen, Li; Du, Xiaozhen; Zhang, Yanfeng; Rudan, Igor; Car, Josip

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the effectiveness of multiple interventions on increasing the response rate of text messaging for longitudinal data collection. Methods Our cohort included 283 caregivers of children aged 6–12 months who were participating in an anemia program in rural China. Using text messages to collect data on anemia medication adherence, we conducted a delayed randomized controlled trial to test multiple interventions (an additional four reminders; a ¥5.0 (US$0.79) credit reward for replying; and a feedback text message). After a 6-week pilot study with week 7 as the baseline measurement, we randomly allocated all participants into two groups: group 1 (n = 142) and group 2 (n = 141). During weeks 8–11, we introduced the interventions to group 1, and in weeks 12–15 the intervention was introduced to both groups. We compared the response rates between groups and explored factors affecting the response rate. Results During weeks 8–11, the response rates in group 1 increased and were significantly higher than in group 2 (p0.05) and slightly decreased in group 1. Younger participants or participants who had children with lower hemoglobin concentration were more likely to reply (p = 0.02). Sending four reminders on the second day contributed to only 286 (11.7%) extra text messages. Discussion Our study showed that multiple interventions were effective in increasing response rate of text messaging data collection in rural China. Conclusions Larger multi-site studies are needed to find the most effective way of using these interventions to allow usage of text messaging data collection for health research. PMID:25332355

  2. The Influence of the Design of Web Survey Questionnaires on the Quality of Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Ganassali

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available he first objective of this article is to propose a conceptual framework of the effects of on-line questionnaire design on the quality of collected responses. Secondly, we present the results of an experiment where different protocols have been tested and compared in a randomised design using the basis of several quality indexes. Starting from some previous categorizations, and from the main factors identified in the literature, we first propose an initial global framework of the questionnaire and question characteristics in a web survey, divided into five groups of factors. Our framework was built to follow the response process successive stages of the contact between the respondent and the questionnaire itself. Then, because it has been studied in the survey methodology literature in a very restricted way, the concept of `response quality' is discussed and extended with some more `qualitative' criteria that could be helpful for researchers and practitioners, in order to obtain a deeper assessment of the survey output. As an experiment, on the basis of the factors chosen as major characteristics of the questionnaire design, eight versions of a questionnaire related to young people's consumption patterns were created. The links to these on-line questionnaires were sent in November 2005 to a target of 10,000 young people. The article finally presents the results of our study and discusses the conclusions. Very interesting results come to light; especially regarding the influence of length, interaction and question wording dimensions on response quality. We discuss the effects of Web-questionnaire design characteristics on the quality of data.

  3. [On the front line: survey on shared responsibility. General practitioners and schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stip, Emmanuel; Boyer, Richard; Sepehry, Amir Ali; Rodriguez, Jean Pierre; Umbricht, Daniel; Tempier, Adrien; Simon, Andor E

    2007-01-01

    General practitioners (GP) play a preponderant role in the treatment of patients suffering of schizophrenia. Discovering the number of patients with schizophrenia who are treated by GPs ; the needs and attitudes of GPs, their knowledge concerning diagnosis, and the treatment they provide. A postal survey was conducted with Quebec GPs who were randomly chosen. A total of 1003 GPs have participated in the survey. Among them, a small percentage have to treat an early onset schizophrenia and the GPs have expressed their wish to be more informed on the accessibility of specialized services. Results pertaining to questions on diagnoses and knowledge on treatments are inconsistent. The majority of GPs treat the first psychotic episodes with antipsychotic medication. Only a third of GPs surveyed propose maintaining the treatment after a first psychotic episode, in accordance with international recommendations and the recent Canadian guidelines on practices that recommends at least 6 to 12 months of treatment after a partial or complete clinical response. Time given by male GPs to a first contact varies between 10 and 20 minutes, while 80 % of female GPs spend at least 20 minutes. The adverse effects of antipsychotic medication that raise most concern is weight gain before neurological signs. some of this survey's data should be considered by various professional and governmental associations, in order to improve the place of GPs in a health plan destined to treat schizophrenia.

  4. Harmonizing Measures of Cognitive Performance Across International Surveys of Aging Using Item Response Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kitty S; Gross, Alden L; Pezzin, Liliana E; Brandt, Jason; Kasper, Judith D

    2015-12-01

    To harmonize measures of cognitive performance using item response theory (IRT) across two international aging studies. Data for persons ≥65 years from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS, N = 9,471) and the English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA, N = 5,444). Cognitive performance measures varied (HRS fielded 25, ELSA 13); 9 were in common. Measurement precision was examined for IRT scores based on (a) common items, (b) common items adjusted for differential item functioning (DIF), and (c) DIF-adjusted all items. Three common items (day of date, immediate word recall, and delayed word recall) demonstrated DIF by survey. Adding survey-specific items improved precision but mainly for HRS respondents at lower cognitive levels. IRT offers a feasible strategy for harmonizing cognitive performance measures across other surveys and for other multi-item constructs of interest in studies of aging. Practical implications depend on sample distribution and the difficulty mix of in-common and survey-specific items. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Type-Ia supernova rates to redshift 2.4 from clash: The cluster lensing and supernova survey with Hubble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graur, O.; Rodney, S. A.; Riess, A. G.; Medezinski, E.; Maoz, D.; Jha, S. W.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; McCully, C.; Patel, B.; Postman, M.; Dahlen, T.; Strolger, L.-G.; Coe, D.; Bradley, L.; Koekemoer, A.; Benítez, N.; Molino, A.; Jouvel, S.; Nonino, M.; Balestra, I.

    2014-01-01

    We present the supernova (SN) sample and Type-Ia SN (SN Ia) rates from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). Using the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Wide Field Camera 3 on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we have imaged 25 galaxy-cluster fields and parallel fields of non-cluster galaxies. We report a sample of 27 SNe discovered in the parallel fields. Of these SNe, ∼13 are classified as SN Ia candidates, including four SN Ia candidates at redshifts z > 1.2. We measure volumetric SN Ia rates to redshift 1.8 and add the first upper limit on the SN Ia rate in the range 1.8 < z < 2.4. The results are consistent with the rates measured by the HST/GOODS and Subaru Deep Field SN surveys. We model these results together with previous measurements at z < 1 from the literature. The best-fitting SN Ia delay-time distribution (DTD; the distribution of times that elapse between a short burst of star formation and subsequent SN Ia explosions) is a power law with an index of −1.00 −0.06(0.10) +0.06(0.09) (statistical) −0.08 +0.12 (systematic), where the statistical uncertainty is a result of the 68% and 95% (in parentheses) statistical uncertainties reported for the various SN Ia rates (from this work and from the literature), and the systematic uncertainty reflects the range of possible cosmic star-formation histories. We also test DTD models produced by an assortment of published binary population synthesis (BPS) simulations. The shapes of all BPS double-degenerate DTDs are consistent with the volumetric SN Ia measurements, when the DTD models are scaled up by factors of 3-9. In contrast, all BPS single-degenerate DTDs are ruled out by the measurements at >99% significance level.

  6. Type-Ia Supernova Rates to Redshift 2.4 from Clash: The Cluster Lensing and Supernova Survey with Hubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graur, O.; Rodney, S. A.; Maoz, D.; Riess, A. G.; Jha, S. W.; Postman, M.; Dahlen, T.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; McCully, C.; Patel, B.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present the supernova (SN) sample and Type-Ia SN (SN Ia) rates from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). Using the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Wide Field Camera 3 on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we have imaged 25 galaxy-cluster fields and parallel fields of non-cluster galaxies. We report a sample of 27 SNe discovered in the parallel fields. Of these SNe, approximately 13 are classified as SN Ia candidates, including four SN Ia candidates at redshifts z greater than 1.2.We measure volumetric SN Ia rates to redshift 1.8 and add the first upper limit on the SN Ia rate in the range z greater than 1.8 and less than 2.4. The results are consistent with the rates measured by the HST/ GOODS and Subaru Deep Field SN surveys.We model these results together with previous measurements at z less than 1 from the literature. The best-fitting SN Ia delay-time distribution (DTD; the distribution of times that elapse between a short burst of star formation and subsequent SN Ia explosions) is a power law with an index of 1.00 (+0.06(0.09))/(-0.06(0.10)) (statistical) (+0.12/-0.08) (systematic), where the statistical uncertainty is a result of the 68% and 95% (in parentheses) statistical uncertainties reported for the various SN Ia rates (from this work and from the literature), and the systematic uncertainty reflects the range of possible cosmic star-formation histories. We also test DTD models produced by an assortment of published binary population synthesis (BPS) simulations. The shapes of all BPS double-degenerate DTDs are consistent with the volumetric SN Ia measurements, when the DTD models are scaled up by factors of 3-9. In contrast, all BPS single-degenerate DTDs are ruled out by the measurements at greater than 99% significance level.

  7. High rate response of ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concretes under direct tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Ngoc Thanh [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-Dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Tran, Tuan Kiet [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-Dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Civil Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology and Education, 01 Vo Van Ngan, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Kim, Dong Joo, E-mail: djkim75@sejong.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-Dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    The tensile response of ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concretes (UHPFRCs) at high strain rates (5–24 s{sup −} {sup 1}) was investigated. Three types of steel fibers, including twisted, long and short smooth steel fibers, were added by 1.5% volume content in an ultra high performance concrete (UHPC) with a compressive strength of 180 MPa. Two different cross sections, 25 × 25 and 25 × 50 mm{sup 2}, of tensile specimens were used to investigate the effect of the cross section area on the measured tensile response of UHPFRCs. Although all the three fibers generated strain hardening behavior even at high strain rates, long smooth fibers produced the highest tensile resistance at high rates whereas twisted fiber did at static rate. The breakages of twisted fibers were observed from the specimens tested at high strain rates unlike smooth steel fibers. The tensile behavior of UHPFRCs at high strain rates was clearly influenced by the specimen size, especially in post-cracking strength.

  8. Transcriptional responses to glucose at different glycolytic rates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, Karin; Ståhlberg, Anders; Hohmann, Stefan; Gustafsson, Lena

    2004-12-01

    The addition of glucose to Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells causes reprogramming of gene expression. Glucose is sensed by membrane receptors as well as (so far elusive) intracellular sensing mechanisms. The availability of four yeast strains that display different hexose uptake capacities allowed us to study glucose-induced effects at different glycolytic rates. Rapid glucose responses were observed in all strains able to take up glucose, consistent with intracellular sensing. The degree of long-term responses, however, clearly correlated with the glycolytic rate: glucose-stimulated expression of genes encoding enzymes of the lower part of glycolysis showed an almost linear correlation with the glycolytic rate, while expression levels of genes encoding gluconeogenic enzymes and invertase (SUC2) showed an inverse correlation. Glucose control of SUC2 expression is mediated by the Snf1-Mig1 pathway. Mig1 dephosphorylation upon glucose addition is known to lead to repression of target genes. Mig1 was initially dephosphorylated upon glucose addition in all strains able to take up glucose, but remained dephosphorylated only at high glycolytic rates. Remarkably, transient Mig1-dephosphorylation was accompanied by the repression of SUC2 expression at high glycolytic rates, but stimulated SUC2 expression at low glycolytic rates. This suggests that Mig1-mediated repression can be overruled by factors mediating induction via a low glucose signal. At low and moderate glycolytic rates, Mig1 was partly dephosphorylated both in the presence of phosphorylated, active Snf1, and unphosphorylated, inactive Snf1, indicating that Mig1 was actively phosphorylated and dephosphorylated simultaneously, suggesting independent control of both processes. Taken together, it appears that glucose addition affects the expression of SUC2 as well as Mig1 activity by both Snf1-dependent and -independent mechanisms that can now be dissected and resolved as early and late/sustained responses.

  9. Gift card incentives and non-response bias in a survey of vaccine providers: the role of geographic and demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Otterloo, Joshua; Richards, Jennifer L; Seib, Katherine; Weiss, Paul; Omer, Saad B

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of non-response bias in a 2010 postal survey assessing experiences with H1N1 influenza vaccine administration among a diverse sample of providers (N = 765) in Washington state. Though we garnered a high response rate (80.9%) by using evidence-based survey design elements, including intensive follow-up and a gift card incentive from Target, non-response bias could exist if there were differences between respondents and non-respondents. We investigated differences between the two groups for seven variables: road distance to the nearest Target store, practice type, previous administration of vaccines, region, urbanicity, size of practice, and Vaccines for Children (VFC) program enrollment. We also examined the effect of non-response bias on survey estimates. Statistically significant differences between respondents and non-respondents were found for four variables: miles to the nearest Target store, type of medical practice, whether the practice routinely administered additional vaccines besides H1N1, and urbanicity. Practices were more likely to respond if they were from a small town or rural area (OR = 7.68, 95% CI = 1.44-40.88), were a non-traditional vaccine provider type (OR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.06-4.08) or a pediatric provider type (OR = 4.03, 95% CI = 1.36-11.96), or administered additional vaccines besides H1N1 (OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.03-3.15). Of particular interest, for each ten mile increase in road distance from the nearest Target store, the likelihood of provider response decreased (OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.60-0.89). Of those variables associated with response, only small town or rural practice location was associated with a survey estimate of interest, suggesting that non-response bias had a minimal effect on survey estimates. These findings show that gift card incentives alongside survey design elements and follow-up can achieve high response rates. However, there is evidence that

  10. A controlled trial of envelope colour for increasing response rates in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Natasha; Hewitt, Catherine E; Torgerson, David J

    2011-06-01

    Postal questionnaires are widely used in health research to provide measurable outcomes in areas such as quality of life. Participants who fail to return postal questionnaires can introduce non-response bias. Previous studies within populations over the age of 65 years have shown that response rates amongst older people can be 60% or less. The current study sought to investigate whether envelope colour affected response rates in a study about the effectiveness of screening older women for osteoporosis. A total of 2803 eligible female participants aged between 70 and 85 were sent an invitation pack from their GP practice. The invitation was either in a brown or white envelope and contained a matching pre-paid reply envelope. A study questionnaire was also sent out in brown or white envelopes 1 week after consenting to participate in the trial. The overall response rate was 78%. There was little evidence of an effect of envelope colour on response to the invitation to participate in the trial (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.87-1.24). Similarly, there was no influence of envelope colour on the number of participants returning their questionnaires (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.60-1.63). There was weak evidence of an effect of envelope colour on the response rates of the consent process (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.74-1.00). When we updated a recent meta-analysis with the results of this study, there was a non-statistically- significant trend for greater response rates with brown envelopes compared with white envelopes (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.86-1.64, I2=92%). However, the results where influenced by one study and when this study was excluded the pooled estimate was 0.98 (95% CI 0.89-1.08, I2=0%). This study found no evidence to suggest envelope colour has an effect on response to participate in a trial or questionnaire returns. There is weak evidence to suggest envelope colour may affect consent into a trial.

  11. Increasing sync rate of pulse-coupled oscillators via phase response function design: theory and application to wireless networks

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yongqiang; Nunez, Felipe; Doyle III, Francis J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the synchronization rate of weakly connected pulse-coupled oscillators (PCOs). We prove that besides coupling strength, the phase response function is also a determinant of synchronization rate. Inspired by the result, we propose to increase the synchronization rate of PCOs by designing the phase response function. This has important significance in PCO-based clock synchronization of wireless networks. By designing the phase response function, synchronization rate is incr...

  12. Social responsibility of the hospitals in Isfahan city, Iran: Results from a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyvanara, Mahmoud; Sajadi, Haniye Sadat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Changes in modern societies develop the perception that the external environment is essential in organization’s practices, especially in the way they deal with aspects such as human rights, community needs, market demands and environmental interests. These issues are usually under the umbrella of the concept of social responsibility. Given the importance of this concept in the context of health care delivery, suggesting a new paradigm in hospital governance, the aim of this study was to measure the social responsibility in hospitals. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was employed to collect data from a sample of 946 hospital staff of Isfahan city. Data was obtained by structured and valid self-administrated questionnaire and analyzed by descriptive and analytic statistics using SPSS. Results: The mean score of hospitals’ social responsibility was 3.0 compared with the justified range from 1.0 to 5.0. Results showed that there was a significant relationship between social responsibility score and hospitals’ ownership (public or private). Also, there was no significant relationship between social responsibility and type of hospital specialty. Conclusion: It is recommended that hospital managers develop and apply appropriate policies and strategies to improve their hospitals’ social responsibility level, especially through concentrating on their staff’s working environment. PMID:26340391

  13. Social responsibility of the hospitals in Isfahan city, Iran: Results from a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyvanara, Mahmoud; Sajadi, Haniye Sadat

    2015-02-12

    Changes in modern societies develop the perception that the external environment is essential in organization's practices, especially in the way they deal with aspects such as human rights, community needs, market demands and environmental interests. These issues are usually under the umbrella of the concept of social responsibility. Given the importance of this concept in the context of health care delivery, suggesting a new paradigm in hospital governance, the aim of this study was to measure the social responsibility in hospitals. A cross-sectional survey was employed to collect data from a sample of 946 hospital staff of Isfahan city. Data was obtained by structured and valid self-administrated questionnaire and analyzed by descriptive and analytic statistics using SPSS. The mean score of hospitals' social responsibility was 3.0 compared with the justified range from 1.0 to 5.0. Results showed that there was a significant relationship between social responsibility score and hospitals' ownership (public or private). Also, there was no significant relationship between social responsibility and type of hospital specialty. It is recommended that hospital managers develop and apply appropriate policies and strategies to improve their hospitals' social responsibility level, especially through concentrating on their staff's working environment. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  14. Use of structured personality survey techniques to indicate operator response to stressful situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waller, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Under given circumstances, a person will tend to operate in one of four dominant orientations: (1) to perform tasks; (2) to achieve consensus; (3) to achieve understanding, or (4) to maintain structure. Historically, personality survey techniques, such as the Myers-Briggs type indicator, have been used to determine these tendencies. While these techniques can accurately reflect a person's orientation under normal social situations, under different sets of conditions, the same person may exhibit other tendencies, displaying a similar or entirely different orientation. While most do not exhibit extreme tendencies or changes of orientation, the shift in personality from normal to stressful conditions can be rather dramatic, depending on the individual. Structured personality survey techniques have been used to indicate operator response to stressful situations. These techniques have been extended to indicate the balance between orientations that the control room team has through the various levels of cognizance

  15. An Empirical Limit on the Kilonova Rate from the DLT40 One Day Cadence Supernova Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng; Valenti, Stefano; Cappellaro, Enrico; Sand, David J.; Tartaglia, Leonardo; Corsi, Alessandra; Reichart, Daniel E.; Haislip, Joshua; Kouprianov, Vladimir

    2017-12-01

    Binary neutron star mergers are important in understanding stellar evolution, the chemical enrichment of the universe via the r-process, the physics of short gamma-ray bursts, gravitational waves, and pulsars. The rates at which these coalescences happen is uncertain, but it can be constrained in different ways. One of those is to search for the optical transients produced at the moment of the merging, called a kilonova, in ongoing supernova (SN) searches. However, until now, only theoretical models for a kilonova light curve were available to estimate their rates. The recent kilonova discovery of AT 2017gfo/DLT17ck gives us the opportunity to constrain the rate of kilonovae using the light curve of a real event. We constrain the rate of binary neutron star mergers using the DLT40 Supernova search and the native AT 2017gfo/DLT17ck light curve obtained with the same telescope and software system. Excluding AT 2017gfo/DLT17ck due to visibility issues, which was only discovered thanks to the aLIGO/aVirgo trigger, no other similar transients were detected during the 13 months of daily cadence observations of ∼2200 nearby (<40 Mpc) galaxies. We find that the rate of BNS mergers is lower than 0.47–0.55 kilonovae per 100 years per 1010 {L}{Bȯ } (depending on the adopted extinction distribution). In volume, this translates to < 0.99× {10}-4{}-0.15+0.19, {{Mpc}}-3 {{yr}}-1 (SNe Ia–like extinction distribution), consistent with previous BNS coalescence rates. Based on our rate limit, and the sensitivity of aLIGO/aVirgo during O2, it is very unlikely that kilonova events are lurking in old pointed galaxy SN search data sets.

  16. The negativity bias predicts response rate to Behavioral Activation for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Jackie K; Hoxha, Denada; Hunnicutt-Ferguson, Kallio; Norris, Catherine J; Rosebrock, Laina; Sankin, Lindsey; Cacioppo, John

    2016-09-01

    This treatment study investigated the extent to which asymmetric dimensions of affective responding, specifically the positivity offset and the negativity bias, at pretreatment altered the rate of response to Behavioral Activation treatment for depression. Forty-one depressed participants were enrolled into 16 weekly sessions of BA. An additional 36 lifetime healthy participants were evaluated prospectively for 16 weeks to compare affective responding between healthy and remitted patients at post-treatment. All participants were assessed at Weeks 0, 8 and 16 using repeated measures, involving a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders, questionnaires, and a computerized task designed to measure affective responses to unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant images. The negativity bias at pre-treatment predicted the rate of response to BA, while the positivity offset did not. Only one treatment condition was used in this study and untreated depressed participants were not enrolled, limiting our ability to compare the effect of BA. Baseline negativity bias may serve as a signal for patients to engage in and benefit from the goal-directed BA strategies, thereby accelerating rate of response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationship of dose rate and total dose to responses of continuously irradiated beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, T.E.; Norris, W.P.; Tolle, D.V.; Seed, T.M.; Poole, C.M.; Lombard, L.S.; Doyle, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    Young-adult beagles were exposed continuously (22 hours/day) to 60 Co γ rays in a specially constructed facility. The exposure rates were either 5, 10, 17, or 35 R/day, and the exposures were terminated at either 600, 1400, 2000, or 4000 R. A total of 354 dogs were irradiated; 221 are still alive as long-term survivors, some after more than 2000 days. The data on survival of these dogs, coupled with data from similar preliminary experiments, allow an estimate of the LD 50 for γ-ray exposures given at a number of exposure rates. They also allow comparison of the relative importance of dose rate and total dose, and the interaction of these two variables, in the early and late effects after protracted irradiation. The LD 50 for the beagle increases from 258 rad delivered at 15 R/minute to approximately 3000 rad at 10 R/day. Over this entire range, the LD 50 is dependent upon hematopoietic damage. At 5 R/day and less, no meaningful LD 50 can be determined; there is nearly normal continued hematopoietic function, survival is prolonged, and the dogs manifest varied individual responses in other organ systems. Although the experiment is not complete, interim data allow several important conclusions. Terminated exposures, while not as effective as radiation continued until death, can produce myelogenous leukemia at the same exposure rate, 10 R/day. More importantly, at the same total accumulated dose, lower exposure rates are more damaging than higher rates on the basis of the rate and degree of hematological recovery that occurs after termination of irradiation. Thus, the rate of hematologic depression, the nadir of the depression, and the rate of recovery are dependent upon exposure rate; the latter is inversely related and the former two are directly related to exposure rate

  18. Relationship of dose rate and total dose to responses of continuously irradiated beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, T.E.; Norris, W.P.; Tolle, D.V.; Seed, T.M.; Poole, C.M.; Lombard, L.S.; Doyle, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    Young-adult beagles were exposed continuously (22 hours/day) to 60 Co gamma rays in a specially constructed facility. The exposure rates were 5, 19, 17 or 35 R/day, and the exposures were terminated at 600, 1400, 2000 or 4000 R. A total of 354 dogs were irradiated; 221 are still alive as long-term survivors, some after more than 2000 days. The data on survival of these dogs, coupled with data from similar preliminary experiments, allow an estimate of the LD 50 for gamma-ray exposures given at a number of exposure rates. They also allow comparison of the relativeimportance of dose rate and total dose, and the interaction of these two variables, in the early and late effects after protracted irradiation. The LD 50 for the beagle increases from 344 R (258 rads) delivered at 15 R/minute to approximately 4000 R (approximately 3000 rads) at 10 R/day. Over this entire range, the LD 50 is dependent upon haematopoietic damage. At 5 R/day and less, no definitive LD 50 can be determined; there is nearly normal continued haematopoietic function, survival is prolonged, and the dogs manifest varied individual responses in the organ systems. Although the experiment is not complete, interim data allow serveral important conclusions. Terminated exposures, while not as effective as irradiation continued until death, can produce myelogenous leukaemia at the same exposure rate, 10 R/day. More importantly, at the same total accumulated dose, lower exposure rates appear more damaging than higher rates on the basis of the rate and degree of haematological recovery that occurs after termination of irradiation. Thus, the rate of haematologic depression, the nadir of the depression and the rate of recovery are dependent upon exposure rate; the latter is inversely related and the first two are directly related to exposure rate. ( author)

  19. Questionnaire survey of current status and reserve for breast cancer screening in Mie prefecture. Achievement of a 50% participation rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Shigeki; Tanaka, Yukio; Matsuo, Michiko

    2012-01-01

    Mie Medical Network of Breast Cancer Screening, a NPO, was assigned the task of breast cancer screening in Mie prefecture in April, 2010. For breast cancer screening in Mie prefecture in 2009, a questionnaire survey was performed toward both consigner and consignee. Consigners were local public offices managing breast cancer screening for local inhabitants, and consignees were facilities offering breast cancer screening. The number of breast cancer screening was investigated toward all 29 of consigners in Mie prefecture. The questionnaire survey was conducted toward all 52 of the facilities possessing mammography systems (breast cancer screening being performed at 48 of them) in Mie prefecture in 2009. We investigated the predictive additional number of breast cancer screening and also investigated the requisite number of staff to achieve the predictive maximum number of breast cancer screening. As a result, the total number of breast cancer screenings was 93,525, and the participation rate was 27.5% which was calculated by reduction of continuator in Mie prefecture in 2009. The continuator accounted for over 30% of all breast cancer screenings. The predictive additional number was 126,950, this indicates that a possible participation rate of 75.2% after 2011. To achieve this high participation rate, active support is essential for short-handed facilities, and about 20% increase of medical staff is necessary. To achieve a participation rate of over 50% as a goal, new screenees should be recruited and breast cancer screening of every other year should be enlightened. (author)

  20. Reductions in Children's Vicariously Learnt Avoidance and Heart Rate Responses Using Positive Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Gemma; Field, Andy P; Askew, Chris

    2016-03-23

    Recent research has indicated that vicarious learning can lead to increases in children's fear beliefs and avoidance preferences for stimuli and that these fear responses can subsequently be reversed using positive modeling (counterconditioning). The current study investigated children's vicariously acquired avoidance behavior, physiological responses (heart rate), and attentional bias for stimuli and whether these could also be reduced via counterconditioning. Ninety-six (49 boys, 47 girls) 7- to 11-year-olds received vicarious fear learning for novel stimuli and were then randomly assigned to a counterconditioning, extinction, or control group. Fear beliefs and avoidance preferences were measured pre- and post-learning, whereas avoidance behavior, heart rate, and attentional bias were all measured post-learning. Control group children showed increases in fear beliefs and avoidance preferences for animals seen in vicarious fear learning trials. In addition, significantly greater avoidance behavior, heart rate responding, and attentional bias were observed for these animals compared to a control animal. In contrast, vicariously acquired avoidance preferences of children in the counterconditioning group were significantly reduced post-positive modeling, and these children also did not show the heightened heart rate responding to fear-paired animals. Children in the extinction group demonstrated comparable responses to the control group; thus the extinction procedure showed no effect on any fear measures. The findings suggest that counterconditioning with positive modelling can be used as an effective early intervention to reduce the behavioral and physiological effects of vicarious fear learning in childhood.

  1. Heart rate responses provide an objective evaluation of human disturbance stimuli in breeding birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenberg, Ursula; Mattern, Thomas; Seddon, Philip J

    2013-01-01

    Intuition is a poor guide for evaluating the effects of human disturbance on wildlife. Using the endangered Yellow-eyed penguin, Megadyptes antipodes, as an example, we show that heart rate responses provide an objective tool to evaluate human disturbance stimuli and encourage the wider use of this simple and low-impact approach. Yellow-eyed penguins are a flagship species for New Zealand's wildlife tourism; however, unregulated visitor access has recently been associated with reduced breeding success and lower first year survival. We measured heart rate responses of Yellow-eyed penguins via artificial eggs to evaluate a range of human stimuli regularly occurring at their breeding sites. We found the duration of a stimulus to be the most important factor, with elevated heart rate being sustained while a person remained within sight. Human activity was the next important component; a simulated wildlife photographer, crawling slowly around during his stay, elicited a significantly higher heart rate response than an entirely motionless human spending the same time at the same distance. Stimuli we subjectively might perceive as low impact, such as the careful approach of a 'wildlife photographer', resulted in a stronger response than a routine nest-check that involved lifting a bird up to view nest contents. A single, slow-moving human spending 20 min within 2 m from the nest may provoke a response comparable to that of 10 min handling a bird for logger deployment. To reduce cumulative impact of disturbance, any human presence in the proximity of Yellow-eyed penguins needs to be kept at a minimum. Our results highlight the need for objective quantification of the effects of human disturbance in order to provide a sound basis for guidelines to manage human activity around breeding birds.

  2. Survey of methods for the rating of psychiatric impairment in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, George

    2004-05-01

    One of the enduring clinical issues in the assessment of plaintiffs in personal injury and workers' compensation claims, as well as applicants for social security and disablement benefits, is that of the evaluation of impairment and work incapacity. Many writers on this topic confuse the concepts of impairment and disability, and similar confusion is reflected in a number of the rating methods that purport to evaluate impairment but in reality assess disability. In Australia there are 20 distinct statutory schemes for workers' compensation, motor accident compensation, and social security and other benefits, which utilise a variety of methods for the rating of psychiatric impairment. Recent legislative changes designed to restrict access to personal injury compensation at common law, which in two Australian State jurisdictions require the use of impairment rating scales, also specify the rating methods to be used in the assessment of psychiatric impairment. This article discusses the concepts of impairment and disability as defined by the World Health Organisation, and reviews the various methods for the rating of psychiatric impairment that are specified by statute in the federal and State jurisdictions in Australia.

  3. Pretreatment Growth Rate Predicts Radiation Response in Vestibular Schwannomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Nina N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Harvard Medical School, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Niemierko, Andrzej [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Larvie, Mykol [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Curtin, Hugh [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Loeffler, Jay S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); McKenna, Michael J. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Otolaryngology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Shih, Helen A., E-mail: hshih@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: Vestibular schwannomas (VS) are often followed without initial therapeutic intervention because many tumors do not grow and radiation therapy is associated with potential adverse effects. In an effort to determine whether maximizing initial surveillance predicts for later treatment response, the predictive value of preirradiation growth rate of VS on response to radiation therapy was assessed. Methods and Materials: Sixty-four patients with 65 VS were treated with single-fraction stereotactic radiation surgery or fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy. Pre- and postirradiation linear expansion rates were estimated using volumetric measurements on sequential magnetic resonance images (MRIs). In addition, postirradiation tumor volume change was classified as demonstrating shrinkage (ratio of volume on last follow-up MRI to MRI immediately preceding irradiation <80%), stability (ratio 80%-120%), or expansion (ratio >120%). The median pre- and postirradiation follow-up was 20.0 and 27.5 months, respectively. Seven tumors from neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients were excluded from statistical analyses. Results: In the 58 non-NF2 patients, there was a trend of correlation between pre- and postirradiation volume change rates (slope on linear regression, 0.29; P=.06). Tumors demonstrating postirradiation expansion had a median preirradiation growth rate of 89%/year, and those without postirradiation expansion had a median preirradiation growth rate of 41%/year (P=.02). As the preirradiation growth rate increased, the probability of postirradiation expansion also increased. Overall, 24.1% of tumors were stable, 53.4% experienced shrinkage, and 22.5% experienced expansion. Predictors of no postirradiation tumor expansion included no prior surgery (P=.01) and slower tumor growth rate (P=.02). The control of tumors in NF2 patients was only 43%. Conclusions: Radiation therapy is an effective treatment for VS, but tumors that grow quickly preirradiation may be

  4. Pretreatment Growth Rate Predicts Radiation Response in Vestibular Schwannomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Nina N.; Niemierko, Andrzej; Larvie, Mykol; Curtin, Hugh; Loeffler, Jay S.; McKenna, Michael J.; Shih, Helen A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Vestibular schwannomas (VS) are often followed without initial therapeutic intervention because many tumors do not grow and radiation therapy is associated with potential adverse effects. In an effort to determine whether maximizing initial surveillance predicts for later treatment response, the predictive value of preirradiation growth rate of VS on response to radiation therapy was assessed. Methods and Materials: Sixty-four patients with 65 VS were treated with single-fraction stereotactic radiation surgery or fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy. Pre- and postirradiation linear expansion rates were estimated using volumetric measurements on sequential magnetic resonance images (MRIs). In addition, postirradiation tumor volume change was classified as demonstrating shrinkage (ratio of volume on last follow-up MRI to MRI immediately preceding irradiation <80%), stability (ratio 80%-120%), or expansion (ratio >120%). The median pre- and postirradiation follow-up was 20.0 and 27.5 months, respectively. Seven tumors from neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients were excluded from statistical analyses. Results: In the 58 non-NF2 patients, there was a trend of correlation between pre- and postirradiation volume change rates (slope on linear regression, 0.29; P=.06). Tumors demonstrating postirradiation expansion had a median preirradiation growth rate of 89%/year, and those without postirradiation expansion had a median preirradiation growth rate of 41%/year (P=.02). As the preirradiation growth rate increased, the probability of postirradiation expansion also increased. Overall, 24.1% of tumors were stable, 53.4% experienced shrinkage, and 22.5% experienced expansion. Predictors of no postirradiation tumor expansion included no prior surgery (P=.01) and slower tumor growth rate (P=.02). The control of tumors in NF2 patients was only 43%. Conclusions: Radiation therapy is an effective treatment for VS, but tumors that grow quickly preirradiation may be

  5. Response rate of fibrosarcoma cells to cytotoxic drugs on the expression level correlates to the therapeutic response rate of fibrosarcomas and is mediated by regulation of apoptotic pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnhardt, Marcus; Mueller, Oliver; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Kuhnen, Cornelius; Homann, Heinz Herbert; Daigeler, Adrien; Steinau, Hans Ulrich; Roehrs, Sonja; Schnoor, Laura; Steinstraesser, Lars

    2005-01-01

    Because of the high resistance rate of fibrosarcomas against cytotoxic agents clinical chemotherapy of these tumors is not established. A better understanding of the diverse modes of tumor cell death following cytotoxic therapies will provide a molecular basis for new chemotherapeutic strategies. In this study we elucidated the response of a fibrosarcoma cell line to clinically used cytostatic agents on the level of gene expression. HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells were exposed to the chemotherapeutic agents doxorubicin, actinomycin D or vincristine. Total RNA was isolated and the gene expression patterns were analyzed by microarray analysis. Expression levels for 46 selected candidate genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. The analysis of the microarray data resulted in 3.309 (actinomycin D), 1.019 (doxorubicin) and 134 (vincristine) probesets that showed significant expression changes. For the RNA synthesis blocker actinomycin D, 99.4% of all differentially expressed probesets were under-represented. In comparison, probesets down-regulated by doxorubicin comprised only 37.4% of all genes effected by this agent. Closer analysis of the differentially regulated genes revealed that doxorubicin induced cell death of HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells mainly by regulating the abundance of factors mediating the mitochondrial (intrinsic) apoptosis pathway. Furthermore doxorubicin influences other pathways and crosstalk to other pathways (including to the death receptor pathway) at multiple levels. We found increased levels of cytochrome c, APAF-1 and members of the STAT-family (STAT1, STAT3), while Bcl-2 expression was decreased. Caspase-1, -3, -6, -8, and -9 were increased indicating that these proteases are key factors in the execution of doxorubicin mediated apoptosis. This study demonstrates that chemotherapy regulates the expression of apoptosis-related factors in fibrosarcoma cells. The number and the specific pattern of the genes depend on the used cytotoxic drug

  6. Domestic work and self-rated health among women and men aged 25-64 years: results from a population-based survey in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molarius, Anu; Granström, Fredrik; Lindén-Boström, Margareta; Elo, Sirkka

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the association between domestic work and self-rated health among women and men in the general population. The study is based on women (N = 12,910) and men (N = 9784) aged 25-64 years, who responded to a survey questionnaire in 2008 (response rate 56%). Logistic regression models were used to assess the association adjusting for age, educational level, employment status, family status and longstanding illness. Population attributable risks (PAR) were calculated to assess the contribution of domestic work to the prevalence of suboptimal self-rated health. More women (29%) than men (12%) spent more than 20 hours per week in domestic work. Women also experienced domestic work more often as burdensome. Disability pensioners and single mothers reported highest levels of burdensome domestic work. There was a strong independent association between burdensome domestic work and suboptimal self-rated health both in women and men. The PAR for burdensome domestic work was 21% in women and 12% in men and comparable to other major risk factors. The results suggest that domestic work should not be omitted when considering factors that affect self-rated health in the general population.

  7. A regulated response to impaired respiration slows behavioral rates and increases lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cristina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available When mitochondrial respiration or ubiquinone production is inhibited in Caenorhabditis elegans, behavioral rates are slowed and lifespan is extended. Here, we show that these perturbations increase the expression of cell-protective and metabolic genes and the abundance of mitochondrial DNA. This response is similar to the response triggered by inhibiting respiration in yeast and mammalian cells, termed the "retrograde response". As in yeast, genes switched on in C. elegans mitochondrial mutants extend lifespan, suggesting an underlying evolutionary conservation of mechanism. Inhibition of fstr-1, a potential signaling gene that is up-regulated in clk-1 (ubiquinone-defective mutants, and its close homolog fstr-2 prevents the expression of many retrograde-response genes and accelerates clk-1 behavioral and aging rates. Thus, clk-1 mutants live in "slow motion" because of a fstr-1/2-dependent pathway that responds to ubiquinone. Loss of fstr-1/2 does not suppress the phenotypes of all long-lived mitochondrial mutants. Thus, although different mitochondrial perturbations activate similar transcriptional and physiological responses, they do so in different ways.

  8. Reshaping of bulbar odor response by nasal flow rate in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Courtiol

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of respiratory dynamics on odor response has been poorly studied at the olfactory bulb level. However, it has been shown that sniffing in the behaving rodent is highly dynamic and varies both in frequency and flow rate. Bulbar odor response could vary with these sniffing parameter variations. Consequently, it is necessary to understand how nasal airflow can modify and shape odor response at the olfactory bulb level.To assess this question, we used a double cannulation and simulated nasal airflow protocol on anesthetized rats to uncouple nasal airflow from animal respiration. Both mitral/tufted cell extracellular unit activity and local field potentials (LFPs were recorded. We found that airflow changes in the normal range were sufficient to substantially reorganize the response of the olfactory bulb. In particular, cellular odor-evoked activities, LFP oscillations and spike phase-locking to LFPs were strongly modified by nasal flow rate.Our results indicate the importance of reconsidering the notion of odor coding as odor response at the bulbar level is ceaselessly modified by respiratory dynamics.

  9. Breaking through the glass ceiling: a survey of promotion rates of graduates of a primary care Faculty Development Fellowship Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mindy A; Barry, Henry C; Dunn, Ruth Ann; Keefe, Carole; Weismantel, David

    2006-01-01

    Academic promotion has been difficult for women and faculty of minority race. We investigated whether completion of a faculty development fellowship would equalize promotion rates of female and minority graduates to those of male and white graduates. All graduates of the Michigan State University Primary Care Faculty Development Fellowship Program from 1989-1998 were sent a survey in 1999, which included questions about academic status and appointment. We compared application and follow-up survey data by gender and race/ethnicity. Telephone calls were made to nonrespondents. A total of 175 (88%) graduating fellows responded to the follow-up survey. Information on academic rank at entry and follow-up was obtained from 28 of 48 fellows with missing information on promotion. Male and female graduates achieved similar academic promotion at follow-up, but there was a trend toward lower promotion rates for minority faculty graduates compared to white graduates. In the multivariate analysis, however, only age, years in rank, initial rank, and type of appointment (academic versus clinical) were significant factors for promotion. Academic advancement is multifactorial and appears most related to time in rank, stage of life, and career choice. Faculty development programs may be most useful in providing skill development and career counseling.

  10. China’s Foreign Trade: The Response to Changing the Exchange Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izotov D. A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on official data of Chinese and international statistics assessment is given of the impact of the yuan revaluation on the parameters of China’s foreign trade by country (including in terms of crisis tendencies in the global economy. A regression analysis made it possible to obtain quantitative assessments of the responses of China’s foreign trade parameters by country, depending on different yuan revaluation (10% and 50% to the U.S. dollar. It is found that the yuan revaluation leads to reduction in the growth rates of both China’s exports and imports, with the responses by countries being different

  11. Characteristics of highly rated leadership in nursing homes using item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, Annica; Sjögren, Karin; Lindkvist, Marie; Lövheim, Hugo; Edvardsson, David

    2017-12-01

    To identify characteristics of highly rated leadership in nursing homes. An ageing population entails fundamental social, economic and organizational challenges for future aged care. Knowledge is limited of both specific leadership behaviours and organizational and managerial characteristics which have an impact on the leadership of contemporary nursing home care. Cross-sectional. From 290 municipalities, 60 were randomly selected and 35 agreed to participate, providing a sample of 3605 direct-care staff employed in 169 Swedish nursing homes. The staff assessed their managers' (n = 191) leadership behaviours using the Leadership Behaviour Questionnaire. Data were collected from November 2013 - September 2014, and the study was completed in November 2016. A two-parameter item response theory approach and regression analyses were used to identify specific characteristics of highly rated leadership. Five specific behaviours of highly rated nursing home leadership were identified; that the manager: experiments with new ideas; controls work closely; relies on subordinates; coaches and gives direct feedback; and handles conflicts constructively. The regression analyses revealed that managers with social work backgrounds and privately run homes were significantly associated with higher leadership ratings. This study highlights the five most important leadership behaviours that characterize those nursing home managers rated highest in terms of leadership. Managers in privately run nursing homes and managers with social work backgrounds were associated with higher leadership ratings. Further work is needed to explore these behaviours and factors predictive of higher leadership ratings. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Patient responses to research recruitment and follow-up surveys: findings from a diverse multicultural health care setting in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Khidir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health care researchers working in the Arabian Gulf need information on how to optimize recruitment and retention of study participants in extremely culturally diverse settings. Implemented in Doha, Qatar in 2012 with 4 language groups, namely Arabic, English, Hindi, and Urdu, this research documents persons’ responses to recruitment, consent, follow-up, and reminder procedures during psychometric testing of the Multicultural Assessment Instrument (MAI, a novel self- or interviewer-administered survey. Methods Bilingual research assistants recruited adults in outpatient clinics by approaching persons in particular who appeared to be from a target language group. Participants completed the MAI, a second acculturation instrument used for content-validity assessment, and a demographics questionnaire. Participants were asked to take the MAI again in 2–3 weeks, in person or by post, to assess test-retest reliability. Recruitment data were analyzed by using nonparametric statistics. Results Of 1503 persons approached during recruitment, 400 enrolled (27 %—100 per language group. The enrollment rates in the language groups were: Arabic-32 %; English-33 %; Hindi-18 %; Urdu-30 %. The groups varied somewhat in their preferences regarding consent procedure, follow-up survey administration, contact mode for follow-up reminders, and disclosure of personal mailing address (for postal follow-up. Over all, telephone was the preferred medium for follow-up reminders. Of 64 persons who accepted a research assistant’s invitation for in-person follow-up, 40 participants completed the interview (follow-up rate, 63 %; among 126 persons in the postal group with a deliverable address, 29 participants mailed back a completed follow-up survey (response rate, 23 %. Conclusions Researchers in the Arabian Gulf face challenges to successfully identify, enroll, and retain eligible study participants. Although bilingual assistants

  13. Heart rate response to a climber’s fall in sport climbing

    OpenAIRE

    Chaloupsky, David

    2015-01-01

    The research deals with response of heart rate to a climber’s simulated fall in a leading position when indoor climbing. Heart rate of climbers was recorded during ascents of an overhanging route in the leading position, to the given point high above the ground, followed by falling into the last protection. The length of the free fall was defined by the place of the last belay anchor, which was at the height of climber’s ankles. The length of the fall was about two meters of free fall plus th...

  14. High rates of child hypertension associated with obesity: a community survey in China, India and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Pamela A; Anthony, Denis; Fenton, Brenda; Matthews, David R; Stevens, Denise E

    2014-02-01

    Hypertension is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and epidemiological evidence suggests that it is increasing in parallel with obesity in children and adolescents in low- and middle-income countries. To identify and determine the relationship between overweight, obesity and hypertension in a community sample of school children. Anthropometric data were collected from 12,730 school children aged 12-18 years in China, India and Mexico as part of the Community Interventions for Health programme, an international study evaluating community interventions to reduce non-communicable disease by addressing the three main risk factors of tobacco use, unhealthy diets and physical inactivity. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of body mass index and gender and hypertension. Prevalence rates of hypertension were 5.2% in China, 10.1% in India and 14.1% in Mexico, and pre-hypertension rates in China, India and Mexico were 13.4%, 9.4% and 11.2%, respectively. Overweight and obesity prevalence rates varied by country and were 16.6% in China, 4.1% in India and 37.1% in Mexico. In all countries there was a significant association between overweight and obesity and rates of hypertension. Overweight children were 1.7-2.3 times more likely to be hypertensive and obese children 3.5-5.5 more likely to show hypertension than those of normal weight. Rates of hypertension and overweight and obesity are high in school children in China, India and Mexico, and increased bodyweight is a significant risk factor for hypertension.

  15. Perceived discrimination and self-rated health in South Korea: a nationally representative survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Sup Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is mounting evidence that discriminatory experiences can harm health. However, previous research has mainly focused on the health effects of racial discrimination in U.S. or European countries although there is pervasive discrimination by gender, age, education and other factors in Asian countries. METHODS: We analyzed the data from the 7th wave of Korean Labor and Income Panel Study to investigate the association between perceived discriminatory experience and poor self-rated health in South Korea. Perceived discriminatory experiences were measured in eight situations through a modified Experience of Discrimination questionnaire. In each of eight situations, the lifetime prevalence of perceived discriminatory experience was compared between men and women and the main causes of those experiences were identified separately by gender. After adjusting for potential confounders, we examined the association between perceived discriminatory experience and poor self-rated health in each of eight social situations and also checked the association using the number of situations of perceived discriminatory experiences. RESULTS: For both men and women, education level and age were the main sources of work-related perceived discriminatory experiences. Gender was one of the main causes among women across eight situations and more than 90% of women reported their gender as a main cause of discriminatory experience in getting higher education and at home. Discriminatory experiences in four situations were positively associated with poor self-rated health. The odds ratio for poor self-rated health for those exposed to one, two, three or four or more social situations of perceived discrimination were respectively 1.06 (95% CI : 0.87-1.29, 1.15 (95% CI : 0.96-1.55, 1.59 (95% CI : 1.19-2.14, and 1.78 (95% CI :1.26-2.51. CONCLUSION: There is consistent association between perceived discriminatory experience and poor self-rated health across eight

  16. Rated casemix of general practitioner referrals to practice counsellors and clinical psychologists: a retrospective survey of a year's caseload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cape, J; Parham, A

    2001-06-01

    Although evidence-based guidelines are beginning to be produced as to which psychological therapies might be appropriate for which patients, little is known about how general medical practitioners (GPs) in practice distribute referrals between different psychological therapy services. In a retrospective survey, 19 practice counsellors and 10 clinical psychologists from the same geographical area rated a year's caseload of GP referrals using identical data collection methods. Rated casemix was found to be broadly similar, although practice counsellors rated relationship and bereavement problems as more common in their caseloads (totalling 986 patients), and clinical psychologists rated panic disorder, phobias, and obsessive-compulsive problems as more common in their caseloads (totalling 320 patients). Depression and anxiety reactions were the most common problems rated in both groups, but the clinical psychologist cases of depression were rated as more severe and complex. Where differences were found, they may have reflected the different ways that counsellors and clinical psychologists conceptualize cases rather than actual differences in casemix. The results are discussed in relation to evidence-based guideline recommendations about cases appropriate to be seen by practice counsellors and by clinical psychologists in primary and secondary care, and the need to adapt such guidance to local services and skills of practitioners.

  17. Attenuated Heart Rate Response is Associated with Hypocretin Deficiency in Patients with Narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Knudsen, Stine; Petersen, Eva Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Our results show that autonomic dysfunction is part of the narcoleptic phenotype, and that hypocretin-1 deficiency is the primary predictor of this dysfunction. This finding suggests that the hypocretin system participates in the modulation of cardiovascular function at rest. CITATION: Sorensen GL......; Knudsen S; Petersen ER; Kempfner J; Gammeltoft S; Sorensen HBD; Jennum P. Attenuated heart rate response is associated with hypocretin deficiency in patients with narcolepsy. SLEEP 2013;36(1):91-98....

  18. The Response of Deferred Executive Compensation to Changes in Tax Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Aspen Gorry; Kevin A. Hassett; R. Glenn Hubbard; Aparna Mathur

    2015-01-01

    Given the increasing use of stock options in executive compensation, we examine how taxes influence the choice of compensation and document that income deferral is an important margin of adjustment in response to tax rate changes. To account for this option in the empirical analysis, we explore deferral by estimating how executives’ choice of compensation between current and deferred income depends on changes in tax policy. Our empirical results suggest a significant impact of taxes on the co...

  19. Swiss national community survey on functioning after spinal cord injury : Protocol, characteristics of participants and determinants of non-response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhof, Martin W G; Fekete, Christine; Chamberlain, Jonviea D; Post, Marcel W M; Gemperli, Armin

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To detail the protocol, recruitment, study population, response, and data quality of the first population-based community survey of the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury (SwiSCI) Cohort Study. DESIGN: The survey consisted of 3 successive modules administered between September 2011 and March 2013.

  20. Swiss national community survey on functioning after spinal cord injury : Protocol, characteristics of participants and determinants of non-response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhof, Martin W. G.; Fekete, Christine; Chamberlain, Jonviea D.; Post, Marcel W. M.; Gemperli, Armin

    Objective: To detail the protocol, recruitment, study population, response, and data quality of the first population-based community survey of the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury (SwiSCI) Cohort Study. Design: The survey consisted of 3 successive modules administered between September 2011 and March 2013.

  1. Predictors of abnormal heart rate response to dipyridamole in patients undergoing myocardial perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Souza Leao Lima, R.; Machado, L.; Azevedo, A.B.; De Lorenzo, A.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify predictors of abnormal HR response to dipyridamole (DIP) in patients undergoing myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS). Patients with a reduced heart rate (HR) response to DIP have higher cardiac mortality, but the mechanism is unknown. We studied 432 patients who underwent dual-isotope gated MPS. DIP (0.56 mg/kg) was infused over 4 min, and Tc-99m tetrofosmin was injected 3 min after the end of the infusion. MPS was semiquantitatively interpreted. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and volumes were automatically calculated. The population was categorized into quartiles according to HR ratio, and characteristics in each quartile were compared. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of abnormal HR response, using the lowest quartile as the independent variable. Patients with abnormal HR response were more frequently without chest pain, with a history of chronic renal failure and taking digoxin. Baseline HR was higher and had fewer symptoms during stress. The stress and rest perfusion defects were greater, but reversibility was not; in addition, LVEF was lower. Multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the independent predictors of abnormal HR response were baseline HR and low LVEF. LV dysfunction is an independent predictor of abnormal HR response to DIP, and the association between low LVEF and low HR ratio may explain the link between abnormal HR ratio and increased mortality. (author)

  2. Improving response rates using a monetary incentive for patient completion of questionnaires: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orchard Jo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor response rates to postal questionnaires can introduce bias and reduce the statistical power of a study. To improve response rates in our trial in primary care we tested the effect of introducing an unconditional direct payment of £5 for the completion of postal questionnaires. Methods We recruited patients in general practice with knee problems from sites across the United Kingdom. An evidence-based strategy was used to follow-up patients at twelve months with postal questionnaires. This included an unconditional direct payment of £5 to patients for the completion and return of questionnaires. The first 105 patients did not receive the £5 incentive, but the subsequent 442 patients did. We used logistic regression to analyse the effect of introducing a monetary incentive to increase the response to postal questionnaires. Results The response rate following reminders for the historical controls was 78.1% (82 of 105 compared with 88.0% (389 of 442 for those patients who received the £5 payment (diff = 9.9%, 95% CI 2.3% to 19.1%. Direct payments significantly increased the odds of response (adjusted odds ratio = 2.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 4.0, P = 0.009 with only 12 of 442 patients declining the payment. The incentive did not save costs to the trial – the extra cost per additional respondent was almost £50. Conclusion The direct payment of £5 significantly increased the completion of postal questionnaires at negligible increase in cost for an adequately powered study.

  3. Improving response rates using a monetary incentive for patient completion of questionnaires: an observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brealey, Stephen D; Atwell, Christine; Bryan, Stirling; Coulton, Simon; Cox, Helen; Cross, Ben; Fylan, Fiona; Garratt, Andrew; Gilbert, Fiona J; Gillan, Maureen GC; Hendry, Maggie; Hood, Kerenza; Houston, Helen; King, David; Morton, Veronica; Orchard, Jo; Robling, Michael; Russell, Ian T; Torgerson, David; Wadsworth, Valerie; Wilkinson, Clare

    2007-01-01

    Background Poor response rates to postal questionnaires can introduce bias and reduce the statistical power of a study. To improve response rates in our trial in primary care we tested the effect of introducing an unconditional direct payment of £5 for the completion of postal questionnaires. Methods We recruited patients in general practice with knee problems from sites across the United Kingdom. An evidence-based strategy was used to follow-up patients at twelve months with postal questionnaires. This included an unconditional direct payment of £5 to patients for the completion and return of questionnaires. The first 105 patients did not receive the £5 incentive, but the subsequent 442 patients did. We used logistic regression to analyse the effect of introducing a monetary incentive to increase the response to postal questionnaires. Results The response rate following reminders for the historical controls was 78.1% (82 of 105) compared with 88.0% (389 of 442) for those patients who received the £5 payment (diff = 9.9%, 95% CI 2.3% to 19.1%). Direct payments significantly increased the odds of response (adjusted odds ratio = 2.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 4.0, P = 0.009) with only 12 of 442 patients declining the payment. The incentive did not save costs to the trial – the extra cost per additional respondent was almost £50. Conclusion The direct payment of £5 significantly increased the completion of postal questionnaires at negligible increase in cost for an adequately powered study. PMID:17326837

  4. Supervisors' perspective on medical thesis projects and dropout rates: survey among thesis supervisors at a large German university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Elif; Richter, Felicitas; Valchanova, Ralitsa; Dewey, Marc

    2016-10-14

    To identify underlying causes for failure of medical thesis projects and the constantly high drop-out rate in Germany from the supervisors' perspective and to compare the results with the students' perspective. Cross-sectional survey. Online questionnaire for survey of medical thesis supervisors among the staff of Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany. Published, earlier longitudinal survey among students for comparison. 1069 thesis supervisors participated. Data are presented using descriptive statistics, and the χ 2 test served to compare the results among supervisors with the earlier data from the longitudinal survey of doctoral students. Not applicable. This survey is an observational study. Of 3653 potential participants, 1069 (29.3%) supervising 3744 doctoral candidates participated in the study. Supervisors considered themselves to be highly motivated and to offer adequate supervision. On the other hand, 87% stated that they did not feel well prepared for thesis supervision. Supervisors gave lack of timeliness of doctoral students and personal differences (p=0.024 and p=0.001) as the main reasons for terminating thesis projects. Doctoral students predominantly mentioned methodological problems and difficult subjects as critical issues (p=0.001 and pthesis supervisors and medical students feel ill prepared for their roles in the process of a medical dissertation. Contradictory reasons for terminating medical thesis projects based on supervisors' and students' self-assessment suggest a lack of communication and true scientific collaboration between supervisors and doctoral students as the major underlying issue that requires resolution. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Derivation of pulse height to exposure rate conversion functions for aerial radiological surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artuso, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    A method is described for deriving conversion functions that can be used to convert pulse height spectra taken at altitude to the exposure rate at the 1-m level. An integral equation is set up which involves the integration of a calculated pulse height spectrum multiplied by an unknown conversion function and then set equal to the exposure rate at ground level. This equation is then solved for the conversion function by assuming as a solution a three-term polynomial. Conversion functions have been derived for various source distributions, including surface, uniform, and exponentially distributed sources. These conversion functions are independent of source energy, which means that a conversion can be made without any knowledge of the isotopic content of the source. In the case of a uniform distribution, these conversion functions provide conversions that agree to within 10% with ground truth measurements

  6. A survey in Portuguese X-ray fluoroscopy equipment: dose rates and image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Nuno G.; Cunha, Gilda R.; Coutinho, Guilherme M.; Trindade, Hugo R.; Carvoeiras, Pedro P.

    2015-01-01

    X-ray fluoroscopy is essential in both diagnosis and medical intervention, although it may contribute to significant radiation doses to patients that have to be optimised and justified. Therefore, it is crucial to the patient to be exposed to the lowest achievable dose without compromising the image quality. The purpose of this study was to perform an analysis of the quality control measurements, particularly dose rates, contrast and spatial resolution of Portuguese fluoroscopy equipment and also to provide a contribution to the establishment of reference levels for the equipment performance parameters. Measurements carried out between 2007 and 2013 on 143 fluoroscopy equipment distributed by 34 nationwide health units were analysed. The measurements suggest that image quality and dose rates of Portuguese equipment are congruent with other studies, and in general, they are as per the Portuguese law. However, there is still a possibility of improvements intending optimisation at a national level. (authors)

  7. Car-borne survey of natural background gamma dose rate in Canakkale region (Turkey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turhan, S.; Arikan, I. H.; Oquz, F.; Aezdemir, T.; Yuecel, B.; Varinlioqlu, A.; Koese, A.

    2012-01-01

    Natural background gamma radiation was measured along roads in the environs of Canakkale region by using a car-borne spectrometer system with a plastic gamma radiation detector. In addition, activity concentrations of 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in soil samples from the Canakkale region were determined by using a gamma spectrometer with an HPGe detector. A total of 92 856 data of the background gamma dose rate were collected for the Canakkale region. The background gamma dose rate of the Canakkale region was mapped using ArcGIS software, applying the geostatistical inverse distance-weighted method. The average and population-weighted average of the gamma dose are 55.4 and 40.6 nGy h -1 , respectively. The corresponding average annual effective dose to the public ranged from 26.6 to 96.8 μSv. (authors)

  8. Age- and gender-specific estimates of partnership formation and dissolution rates in the Seattle sex survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Sara J; Hughes, James P; Foxman, Betsy; Aral, Sevgi O; Holmes, King K; White, Peter J; Golden, Matthew R

    2010-04-01

    Partnership formation and dissolution rates are primary determinants of sexually transmitted infection (STI) transmission dynamics. The authors used data on persons' lifetime sexual experiences from a 2003-2004 random digit dialing survey of Seattle residents aged 18-39 years (N=1,194) to estimate age- and gender-specific partnership formation and dissolution rates. Partnership start and end dates were used to estimate participants' ages at the start of each partnership and partnership durations, and partnerships not enumerated in the survey were imputed. Partnership formation peaked at age 19 at 0.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.76-1.04) partnerships per year and decreased to 0.1 to 0.2 after age 30 for women and peaked at age 20 at 1.4 (95% CI: 1.08-1.64) and declined to 0.5 after age 30 for men. Nearly one fourth (23.7%) of partnerships ended within 1 week and more than one half (51.2%) ended within 12 weeks. Most (63.5%) individuals 30 to 39 years of age had not formed a new sexual partnership in the past 3 years. A large proportion of the heterosexual population is no longer at substantial STI risk by their early 30s, but similar analyses among high-risk populations may give insight into reasons for the profound disparities in STI rates across populations. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Attachment Status Affects Heart Rate Responses to Experimental Ostracism in Inpatients with Depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannika De Rubeis

    Full Text Available Depression is assumed to be both a risk factor for rejection and a result of it, and as such constitutes an important factor in rejection research. Attachment theory has been applied to understand psychological disorders, such as depression, and can explain individual differences in responses to rejection. Research on autonomic nervous system activity to rejection experiences has been contradictory, with opposing strings of argumentation (activating vs. numbing. We investigated autonomic nervous system-mediated peripheral physiological responses (heart rate to experimentally manipulated ostracism (Cyberball in 97 depressed patients with organized (n = 52 and disorganized attachment status (n = 45. Controlling for baseline mean heart rate levels, depressed patients with disorganized attachment status responded to ostracism with significantly higher increases in heart rate than depressed patients with organized attachment status (p = .029; ηp2 = .051. These results suggest that attachment status may be a useful indicator of autonomic responses to perceived social threat, which in turn may affect the therapeutic process and the patient-therapist relationship.

  10. Mode of delivery affected questionnaire response rates in a birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Isabelle; Noble, Sian; Robinson, Ross; Molloy, Lynn; Tilling, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Cohort studies must collect data from their participants as economically as possible, while maintaining response rates. This randomized controlled trial investigated whether offering a choice of online or paper questionnaires resulted in improved response rates compared with offering online first. Eligible participants were young people in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) study (born April 1, 1991, to December 31, 1992, in the Avon area). After exclusions, 8,795 participants were randomized. The "online first" group were invited to complete the questionnaire online. The "choice" group were also sent a paper questionnaire and offered a choice of completion method. The trial was embedded within routine data collection. The main outcome measure was the number of questionnaires returned. Data on costs were also collected. Those in the "online first" arm of the trial were less likely to return a questionnaire [adjusted odds ratio: 0.90; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.82, 0.99]. The "choice" arm was more expensive (mean difference per participant £0.71; 95% CI: £0.65, £0.76). It cost an extra £47 to have one extra person to complete the questionnaire in the "choice" arm. Offering a choice of completion methods (paper or online) for questionnaires in ALSPAC increased response rates but was more expensive than offering online first. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparing Response Times and Error Rates in a Simultaneous Masking Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Hermens

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In simultaneous masking, performance on a foveally presented target is impaired by one or more flanking elements. Previous studies have demonstrated strong effects of the grouping of the target and the flankers on the strength of masking (e.g., Malania, Herzog & Westheimer, 2007. These studies have predominantly examined performance by measuring offset discrimination thresholds as a measure of performance, and it is therefore unclear whether other measures of performance provide similar outcomes. A recent study, which examined the role of grouping on error rates and response times in a speeded vernier offset discrimination task, similar to that used by Malania et al. (2007, suggested a possible dissociation between the two measures, with error rates mimicking threshold performance, but response times showing differential results (Panis & Hermens, 2014. We here report the outcomes of three experiments examining this possible dissociation, and demonstrate an overall similar pattern of results for error rates and response times across a broad range of mask layouts. Moreover, the pattern of results in our experiments strongly correlates with threshold performance reported earlier (Malania et al., 2007. Our results suggest that outcomes in a simultaneous masking paradigm do not critically depend on the outcome measure used, and therefore provide evidence for a common underlying mechanism.

  12. The rate dependent response of a bistable chain at finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benichou, Itamar; Zhang, Yaojun; Dudko, Olga K.; Givli, Sefi

    2016-10-01

    We study the rate dependent response of a bistable chain subjected to thermal fluctuations. The study is motivated by the fact that the behavior of this model system is prototypical to a wide range of nonlinear processes in materials physics, biology and chemistry. To account for the stochastic nature of the system response, we formulate a set of governing equations for the evolution of the probability density of meta-stable configurations. Based on this approach, we calculate the behavior for a wide range of parametric values, such as rate, temperature, overall stiffness, and number of elements in the chain. Our results suggest that fundamental characteristics of the response, such as average transition stress and hysteresis, can be captured by a simple law which folds the influence of all these factors into a single non-dimensional quantity. We also show that the applicability of analytical results previously obtained for single-well systems can be extended to systems having multiple wells by proper definition of rate and of the transition stress.

  13. Reactive Molecular Dynamics Simulations to Understand Mechanical Response of Thaumasite under Temperature and Strain Rate Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajilar, Shahin; Shafei, Behrouz; Cheng, Tao; Jaramillo-Botero, Andres

    2017-06-22

    Understanding the structural, thermal, and mechanical properties of thaumasite is of great interest to the cement industry, mainly because it is the phase responsible for the aging and deterioration of civil infrastructures made of cementitious materials attacked by external sources of sulfate. Despite the importance, effects of temperature and strain rate on the mechanical response of thaumasite had remained unexplored prior to the current study, in which the mechanical properties of thaumasite are fully characterized using the reactive molecular dynamics (RMD) method. With employing a first-principles based reactive force field, the RMD simulations enable the description of bond dissociation and formation under realistic conditions. From the stress-strain curves of thaumasite generated in the x, y, and z directions, the tensile strength, Young's modulus, and fracture strain are determined for the three orthogonal directions. During the course of each simulation, the chemical bonds undergoing tensile deformations are monitored to reveal the bonds responsible for the mechanical strength of thaumasite. The temperature increase is found to accelerate the bond breaking rate and consequently the degradation of mechanical properties of thaumasite, while the strain rate only leads to a slight enhancement of them for the ranges considered in this study.

  14. Conventional to Cloud: Detailed survey and comparative study of multimedia streaming rate Adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Selvaraj Kesavan; Jayakumar J

    2014-01-01

    Infotainment and telecommunication industry is fast evolving towards personalized network connectivity and newer applications services ranging from music playback to ever changing telephony applications. Streaming is the key services which enables the users to view real time multimedia content on-the-go anywhere and everywhere. In streaming, quality of service is a major concern in the increasing network traffic and high user demand. Rate adaptation is crucial process to dynamically evaluate,...

  15. Wetland survey of selected areas in the K-24 Site Area of responsibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosensteel, B.A.; Awl, D.J. [JAYCOR, Environmental Division, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-07-01

    In accordance with DOE Regulations for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetlands Environmental Review Requirements, wetland surveys were conducted in selected areas within the K-25 Area of Responsibility during the summer of 1994. These areas are Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, the K-770 OU, Duct Island Peninsula, the Powerhouse area, and the K-25 South Corner. Previously surveyed areas included in this report are the main plant area of the K-25 Site, the K-901 OU, the AVLIS site, and the K-25 South Site. Wetland determinations were based on the USACE methodology. Forty-four separate wetland areas, ranging in size from 0.13 to 4.23 ha, were identified. Wetlands were identified in all of the areas surveyed with the exception of the interior of the Duct Island Peninsula and the main plant area of the K-25 Site. Wetlands perform functions such as floodflow alteration, sediment stabilization, sediment and toxicant retention, nutrient transformation, production export, and support of aquatic species and wildlife diversity and abundance. The forested, scrub-shrub, and emergent wetlands identified in the K-25 area perform some or all of these functions to varying degrees.

  16. Wetland survey of selected areas in the K-24 Site Area of responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosensteel, B.A.; Awl, D.J.

    1995-07-01

    In accordance with DOE Regulations for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetlands Environmental Review Requirements, wetland surveys were conducted in selected areas within the K-25 Area of Responsibility during the summer of 1994. These areas are Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, the K-770 OU, Duct Island Peninsula, the Powerhouse area, and the K-25 South Corner. Previously surveyed areas included in this report are the main plant area of the K-25 Site, the K-901 OU, the AVLIS site, and the K-25 South Site. Wetland determinations were based on the USACE methodology. Forty-four separate wetland areas, ranging in size from 0.13 to 4.23 ha, were identified. Wetlands were identified in all of the areas surveyed with the exception of the interior of the Duct Island Peninsula and the main plant area of the K-25 Site. Wetlands perform functions such as floodflow alteration, sediment stabilization, sediment and toxicant retention, nutrient transformation, production export, and support of aquatic species and wildlife diversity and abundance. The forested, scrub-shrub, and emergent wetlands identified in the K-25 area perform some or all of these functions to varying degrees

  17. Heart rate response to fear conditioning and virtual reality in subthreshold PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Michael J; Costanzo, Michelle E; Jovanovic, Tanja; Leaman, Suzanne; Taylor, Patricia; Norrholm, Seth D; Rizzo, Albert A

    2013-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a significant health concern for U.S. military service members (SMs) returning from Afghanistan and Iraq. Early intervention to prevent chronic disability requires greater understanding of subthreshold PTSD symptoms, which are associated with impaired physical health, mental health, and risk for delayed onset PTSD. We report a comparison of physiologic responses for recently deployed SMs with high and low subthreshold PTSD symptoms, respectively, to a fear conditioning task and novel virtual reality paradigm (Virtual Iraq). The high symptom group demonstrated elevated heart rate (HR) response during fear conditioning. Virtual reality sequences evoked significant HR responses which predicted variance of the PTSD Checklist-Military Version self-report. Our results support the value of physiologic assessment during fear conditioning and combat-related virtual reality exposure as complementary tools in detecting subthreshold PTSD symptoms in Veterans.

  18. Response Load Extrapolation for Wind Turbines during Operation Based on Average Conditional Exceedance Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Naess, Arvid; Saha, Nilanjan

    2011-01-01

    to cases where the Gumbel distribution is the appropriate asymptotic extreme value distribution. However, two extra parameters are introduced by which a more general and flexible class of extreme value distributions is obtained with the Gumbel distribution as a subclass. The general method is implemented...... within a hierarchical model where the variables that influence the loading are divided into ergodic variables and time-invariant non-ergodic variables. The presented method for statistical response load extrapolation was compared with the existing methods based on peak extrapolation for the blade out......The paper explores a recently developed method for statistical response load (load effect) extrapolation for application to extreme response of wind turbines during operation. The extrapolation method is based on average conditional exceedance rates and is in the present implementation restricted...

  19. Health system responsiveness and chronic disease care - What is the role of disease management programs? An analysis based on cross-sectional survey and administrative claims data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röttger, Julia; Blümel, Miriam; Linder, Roland; Busse, Reinhard

    2017-07-01

    Health system responsiveness is an important aspect of health systems performance. The concept of responsiveness relates to the interpersonal and contextual aspects of health care. While disease management programs (DMPs) aim to improve the quality of health care (e.g. by improving the coordination of care), it has not been analyzed yet whether these programs improve the perceived health system responsiveness. Our study aims to close this gap by analyzing the differences in the perceived health system responsiveness between DMP-participants and non-participants. We used linked survey- and administrative claims data from 7037 patients with coronary heart disease in Germany. Of those, 5082 were enrolled and 1955 were not enrolled in the DMP. Responsiveness was assessed with an adapted version of the WHO responsiveness questionnaire in a postal survey in 2013. The survey covered 9 dimensions of responsiveness and included 17 items for each, GP and specialist care. Each item had five answer categories (very good - very bad). We handled missing values in the covariates by multiple imputation and applied propensity score matching (PSM) to control for differences between the two groups (DMP/non-DMP). We used Wilcoxon-signed-rank and McNemar test to analyze differences regarding the reported responsiveness. The PSM led to a matched and well balanced sample of 1921 pairs. Overall, DMP-participants rated the responsiveness of care more positive. The main difference was found for the coordination of care at the GP, with 62.0% of 1703 non-participants reporting a "good" or "very good" experience, compared to 69.1% of 1703 participants (p < 0.001). The results of our study indicate an overall high responsiveness for CHD-care, as well for DMP-participants as for non-participants. Yet, the results also clearly indicate that there is still a need to improve the coordination of care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Responsibility for managing musculoskeletal disorders--a cross-sectional postal survey of attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Maria E H; Nordholm, Lena A

    2008-08-05

    Musculoskeletal disorders are a major burden on individuals, health systems and social care systems and rehabilitation efforts in these disorders are considerable. Self-care is often considered a cost effective treatment alternative owing to limited health care resources. But what are the expectations and attitudes in this question in the general population? The purpose of this study was to describe general attitudes to responsibility for the management of musculoskeletal disorders and to explore associations between attitudes and background variables. A cross-sectional, postal questionnaire survey was carried out with a random sample of a general adult Swedish population of 1770 persons. Sixty-one percent (n = 1082) responded to the questionnaire and was included for the description of general attitudes towards responsibility for the management of musculoskeletal disorders. For the further analyses of associations to background variables 683-693 individuals could be included. Attitudes were measured by the "Attitudes regarding Responsibility for Musculoskeletal disorders" (ARM) instrument, where responsibility is attributed on four dimensions; to myself, as being out of my hands, to employers or to (medical) professionals. Multiple logistic regression was used to explore associations between attitudes to musculoskeletal disorders and the background variables age, sex, education, physical activity, presence of musculoskeletal disorders, sick leave and whether the person had visited a care provider. A majority of participants had internal views, i.e. showed an attitude of taking personal responsibility for musculoskeletal disorders, and did not place responsibility for the management out of their own hands or to employers. However, attributing shared responsibility between self and medical professionals was also found. The main associations found between attitude towards responsibility for musculoskeletal disorders and investigated background variables were that

  1. Responsibility for managing musculoskeletal disorders – A cross-sectional postal survey of attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson Maria EH

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Musculoskeletal disorders are a major burden on individuals, health systems and social care systems and rehabilitation efforts in these disorders are considerable. Self-care is often considered a cost effective treatment alternative owing to limited health care resources. But what are the expectations and attitudes in this question in the general population? The purpose of this study was to describe general attitudes to responsibility for the management of musculoskeletal disorders and to explore associations between attitudes and background variables. Methods A cross-sectional, postal questionnaire survey was carried out with a random sample of a general adult Swedish population of 1770 persons. Sixty-one percent (n = 1082 responded to the questionnaire and was included for the description of general attitudes towards responsibility for the management of musculoskeletal disorders. For the further analyses of associations to background variables 683–693 individuals could be included. Attitudes were measured by the "Attitudes regarding Responsibility for Musculoskeletal disorders" (ARM instrument, where responsibility is attributed on four dimensions; to myself, as being out of my hands, to employers or to (medical professionals. Multiple logistic regression was used to explore associations between attitudes to musculoskeletal disorders and the background variables age, sex, education, physical activity, presence of musculoskeletal disorders, sick leave and whether the person had visited a care provider. Results A majority of participants had internal views, i.e. showed an attitude of taking personal responsibility for musculoskeletal disorders, and did not place responsibility for the management out of their own hands or to employers. However, attributing shared responsibility between self and medical professionals was also found. The main associations found between attitude towards responsibility for musculoskeletal

  2. Advanced neuroblastoma: improved response rate using a multiagent regimen (OPEC) including sequential cisplatin and VM-26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafford, E A; Rogers, D W; Pritchard, J

    1984-07-01

    Forty-two children, all over one year of age, were given vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and sequentially timed cisplatin and VM-26 (OPEC) or OPEC and doxorubicin (OPEC-D) as initial treatment for newly diagnosed stage III or IV neuroblastoma. Good partial response was achieved in 31 patients (74%) overall and in 28 (78%) of 36 patients whose treatment adhered to the chemotherapy protocol, compared with a 65% response rate achieved in a previous series of children treated with pulsed cyclophosphamide and vincristine with or without doxorubicin. Only six patients, including two of the six children whose treatment did not adhere to protocol, failed to respond, but there were five early deaths from treatment-related complications. Tumor response to OPEC, which was the less toxic of the two regimens, was at least as good as tumor response to OPEC-D. Cisplatin-induced morbidity was clinically significant in only one patient and was avoided in others by careful monitoring of glomerular filtration rate and hearing. Other centers should test the efficacy of OPEC or equivalent regimens in the treatment of advanced neuroblastoma.

  3. Dose/dose-rate responses of shrimp larvae to UV-B radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damkaer, D.M.; Dey, D.B.; Heron, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    Previous work indicated dose-rate thresholds in the effects of UV-B on the near-surface larvae of three shrimp species. Additional observations suggest that the total dose response varies with dose-rate. Below 0.002 Wm/sup -2/sub((DNA)) irradiance no significant effect is noted in activity, development, or survival. Beyond that dose-rate threshold, shrimp larvae are significantly affected if the total dose exceeds about 85 Jm/sup -2/sub((DNA)). Predictions cannot be made without both the dose-rate and the dose. These dose/dose-rate thresholds are compared to four-year mean dose/dose-rate solar UV-B irradiances at the experimental site, measured at the surface and calculated for 1 m depth. The probability that the shrimp larvae would receive lethal irradiance is low for the first half of the season of surface occurrence, even with a 44% increase in damaging UV radiation.

  4. Determining dose rate with a semiconductor detector - Monte Carlo calculations of the detector response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordenfors, C

    1999-02-01

    To determine dose rate in a gamma radiation field, based on measurements with a semiconductor detector, it is necessary to know how the detector effects the field. This work aims to describe this effect with Monte Carlo simulations and calculations, that is to identify the detector response function. This is done for a germanium gamma detector. The detector is normally used in the in-situ measurements that is carried out regularly at the department. After the response function is determined it is used to reconstruct a spectrum from an in-situ measurement, a so called unfolding. This is done to be able to calculate fluence rate and dose rate directly from a measured (and unfolded) spectrum. The Monte Carlo code used in this work is EGS4 developed mainly at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. It is a widely used code package to simulate particle transport. The results of this work indicates that the method could be used as-is since the accuracy of this method compares to other methods already in use to measure dose rate. Bearing in mind that this method provides the nuclide specific dose it is useful, in radiation protection, since knowing what the relations between different nuclides are and how they change is very important when estimating the risks

  5. A study on measurement on artificial radiation dose rate using the response matrix method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidachi, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Yoichi; Konno, Tatsuya

    2004-01-01

    We examined accuracy and stability of estimated artificial dose contribution which is distinguished from natural background gamma-ray dose rate using Response Matrix method. Irradiation experiments using artificial gamma-ray sources indicated that there was a linear relationship between observed dose rate and estimated artificial dose contribution, when irradiated artificial gamma-ray dose rate was higher than about 2 nGy/h. Statistical and time-series analyses of long term data made it clear that estimated artificial contribution showed almost constant values under no artificial influence from the nuclear power plants. However, variations of estimated artificial dose contribution were infrequently observed due to of rainfall, detector maintenance operation and occurrence of calibration error. Some considerations on the factors to these variations were made. (author)

  6. A survey of the reaction rate constants for the thermal dissociation and recombination of nitrogen and oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marraffa, Lionel; Dulikravich, George S.; Keeney, Timothy C.; Deiwert, George S.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of the present report is to survey the various values of forward and backward reaction rate constants used by investigators in the field of high-temperature (T greater than 2000 K) gas reactions involving nitrogen and oxygen only. The objective is to find those values that correlate well so that they can be used for the studies of hypersonic flow and supersonic combustion with reasonable confidence. Relatively good agreement among these various values is observed for temperatures lower than 10,000 K.

  7. The failing measurement of attitudes: How semantic determinants of individual survey responses come to replace measures of attitude strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnulf, Jan Ketil; Larsen, Kai Rune; Martinsen, Øyvind Lund; Egeland, Thore

    2018-01-12

    The traditional understanding of data from Likert scales is that the quantifications involved result from measures of attitude strength. Applying a recently proposed semantic theory of survey response, we claim that survey responses tap two different sources: a mixture of attitudes plus the semantic structure of the survey. Exploring the degree to which individual responses are influenced by semantics, we hypothesized that in many cases, information about attitude strength is actually filtered out as noise in the commonly used correlation matrix. We developed a procedure to separate the semantic influence from attitude strength in individual response patterns, and compared these results to, respectively, the observed sample correlation matrices and the semantic similarity structures arising from text analysis algorithms. This was done with four datasets, comprising a total of 7,787 subjects and 27,461,502 observed item pair responses. As we argued, attitude strength seemed to account for much information about the individual respondents. However, this information did not seem to carry over into the observed sample correlation matrices, which instead converged around the semantic structures offered by the survey items. This is potentially disturbing for the traditional understanding of what survey data represent. We argue that this approach contributes to a better understanding of the cognitive processes involved in survey responses. In turn, this could help us make better use of the data that such methods provide.

  8. Attention to eye contact in the West and East: autonomic responses and evaluative ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akechi, Hironori; Senju, Atsushi; Uibo, Helen; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Hietanen, Jari K

    2013-01-01

    Eye contact has a fundamental role in human social interaction. The special appearance of the human eye (i.e., white sclera contrasted with a coloured iris) implies the importance of detecting another person's face through eye contact. Empirical studies have demonstrated that faces making eye contact are detected quickly and processed preferentially (i.e., the eye contact effect). Such sensitivity to eye contact seems to be innate and universal among humans; however, several studies suggest that cultural norms affect eye contact behaviours. For example, Japanese individuals exhibit less eye contact than do individuals from Western European or North American cultures. However, how culture modulates eye contact behaviour is unclear. The present study investigated cultural differences in autonomic correlates of attentional orienting (i.e., heart rate) and looking time. Additionally, we examined evaluative ratings of eye contact with another real person, displaying an emotionally neutral expression, between participants from Western European (Finnish) and East Asian (Japanese) cultures. Our results showed that eye contact elicited stronger heart rate deceleration responses (i.e., attentional orienting), shorter looking times, and higher ratings of subjective feelings of arousal as compared to averted gaze in both cultures. Instead, cultural differences in the eye contact effect were observed in various evaluative responses regarding the stimulus faces (e.g., facial emotion, approachability etc.). The rating results suggest that individuals from an East Asian culture perceive another's face as being angrier, unapproachable, and unpleasant when making eye contact as compared to individuals from a Western European culture. The rating results also revealed that gaze direction (direct vs. averted) could influence perceptions about another person's facial affect and disposition. These results suggest that cultural differences in eye contact behaviour emerge from differential

  9. Attention to eye contact in the West and East: autonomic responses and evaluative ratings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Akechi

    Full Text Available Eye contact has a fundamental role in human social interaction. The special appearance of the human eye (i.e., white sclera contrasted with a coloured iris implies the importance of detecting another person's face through eye contact. Empirical studies have demonstrated that faces making eye contact are detected quickly and processed preferentially (i.e., the eye contact effect. Such sensitivity to eye contact seems to be innate and universal among humans; however, several studies suggest that cultural norms affect eye contact behaviours. For example, Japanese individuals exhibit less eye contact than do individuals from Western European or North American cultures. However, how culture modulates eye contact behaviour is unclear. The present study investigated cultural differences in autonomic correlates of attentional orienting (i.e., heart rate and looking time. Additionally, we examined evaluative ratings of eye contact with another real person, displaying an emotionally neutral expression, between participants from Western European (Finnish and East Asian (Japanese cultures. Our results showed that eye contact elicited stronger heart rate deceleration responses (i.e., attentional orienting, shorter looking times, and higher ratings of subjective feelings of arousal as compared to averted gaze in both cultures. Instead, cultural differences in the eye contact effect were observed in various evaluative responses regarding the stimulus faces (e.g., facial emotion, approachability etc.. The rating results suggest that individuals from an East Asian culture perceive another's face as being angrier, unapproachable, and unpleasant when making eye contact as compared to individuals from a Western European culture. The rating results also revealed that gaze direction (direct vs. averted could influence perceptions about another person's facial affect and disposition. These results suggest that cultural differences in eye contact behaviour emerge from

  10. Application of airborne gamma spectrometric survey data to estimating terrestrial gamma-ray dose rates: An example in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Revzan, K.L.; Smith, A.R.

    1992-01-01

    The authors examine the applicability of radioelement data from the National Aerial Radiometric Reconnaissance (NARR) to estimate terrestrial gamma-ray absorbed dose rates, by comparing dose rates calculated from aeroradiometric surveys of U, Th, and K concentrations in 1 x 2 degree quadrangles with dose rates calculated from a radiogeologic data base and the distribution of lithologies in California. Gamma-ray dose rates increase generally from north to south following lithological trends. Low values of 25--30 nG/h occur in the northernmost quadrangles where low-radioactivity basaltic and ultramafic rocks predominate. Dose rates then increase southward due to the preponderance of clastic sediments and basic volcanics of the Franciscan Formation and Sierran metamorphics in north central and central California, and to increasing exposure southward of the Sierra Nevada batholith, Tertiary marine sedimentary rocks, intermediate to acidic volcanics, and granitic rocks of the Coast Ranges. High values, to 100 nGy/h occur in southeastern California, due primarily to the presence of high-radioactivity Precambrian and pre Cenozoic metamorphic rocks. Lithologic-based estimates of mean dose rates in the quadrangles generally match those from aeroradiometric data, with statewide means of 63 and 60 nGy/h, respectively. These are intermediate between a population-weighted global average of 51 nGy/h and a weighted continental average of 70 nGy/h, based on the global distribution of rock types. The concurrence of lithologically- and aeroradiometrically- determined dose rates in California, with its varied geology and topography encompassing settings representative of the continents, indicates that the NARR data are applicable to estimates of terrestrial absorbed dose rates from natural gamma emitters

  11. THE EXTENDED HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SUPERNOVA SURVEY: THE RATE OF CORE COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE TO z {approx} 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlen, Tomas; Riess, Adam G. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Strolger, Louis-Gregory [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States); Mattila, Seppo; Kankare, Erkki [Tuorla Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, Vaeisaelaentie 20, FI-21500 Piikkioe (Finland); Mobasher, Bahram, E-mail: dahlen@stsci.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2012-09-20

    We use a sample of 45 core collapse supernovae detected with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope to derive the core collapse supernova rate in the redshift range 0.1 < z < 1.3. In redshift bins centered on (z) = 0.39, (z) = 0.73, and (z) = 1.11, we find rates of 3.00{sup +1.28}{sub -0.94} {sup +1.04}{sub -0.57}, 7.39{sup +1.86}{sub -1.52} {sup +3.20}{sub -1.60}, and 9.57{sup +3.76}{sub -2.80} {sup +4.96}{sub -2.80}, respectively, given in units of yr{sup -1} Mpc{sup -3} 10{sup -4} h {sup 3}{sub 70}. The rates have been corrected for host galaxy extinction, including supernovae missed in highly dust-enshrouded environments in infrared bright galaxies. The first errors are statistical while the second ones are the estimated systematic errors. We perform a detailed discussion of possible sources of systematic errors and note that these start to dominate over statistical errors at z > 0.5, emphasizing the need to better control the systematic effects. For example, a better understanding of the amount of dust extinction in the host galaxies and knowledge of the supernova luminosity function, in particular the fraction of faint M {approx}> -15 supernovae, is needed to better constrain the rates. When comparing our results with the core collapse supernova rate based on the star formation rate, we find a good agreement, consistent with the supernova rate following the star formation rate, as expected.

  12. Cross-sectional Survey of Long-Term Care Facilities in the Rockaway Peninsula: Preparedness and Response During Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lynn; Tedeschi, Christopher; Subaiya, Saleena

    2018-04-01

    Few studies have described the challenges experienced by long-term care facilities (LTCFs) following Hurricane Sandy. This study examined LTCF preparedness and experiences during and after the storm. A cross-sectional survey was conducted 2 years after Hurricane Sandy to assess LTCF demographics, preparation, and post-storm resources. Surveys were conducted at LTCFs located on the Rockaway Peninsula of New York City. All LTCFs located in a heavily affected area were approached. Of 29 facilities, 1 had closed, 5 did not respond, 9 declined to participate, and 14 participated, yielding a response rate of 50% for open facilities. Twenty-one percent of the facilities had preparations specifically for hurricanes. More than 70% of the facilities had lost electricity, heat, and telephone service, and one-half had evacuated. Twenty-one percent of the facilities reported not receiving any assistance and over one-half reported that relief resources did not meet their needs. Many LTCFs lacked plans specific to such a large-scale event. Since nearly all of the LTCFs in the region were affected, preexisting transportation and housing plans may have been inadequate. Future preparation could include hazard-specific planning and reliance on resources from a wider geographic area. Access to electricity emerged as a top priority. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:194-200).

  13. Survey Response Styles, Acculturation, and Culture Among a Sample of Mexican American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rachel E; Resnicow, Ken; Couper, Mick P

    2011-10-01

    A number of studies have investigated use of extreme (ERS) and acquiescent (ARS) response styles across cultural groups. However, due to within-group heterogeneity, it is important to also examine use of response styles, acculturation, and endorsement of cultural variables at the individual level. This study explores relationships between acculturation, six Mexican cultural factors, ERS, and ARS among a sample of 288 Mexican American telephone survey respondents. Three aspects of acculturation were assessed: Spanish use, the importance of preserving Mexican culture, and interaction with Mexican Americans versus Anglos. These variables were hypothesized to positively associate with ERS and ARS. Participants with higher Spanish use did utilize more ERS and ARS; however, value for preserving Mexican culture and interaction with Mexican Americans were not associated with response style use. In analyses of cultural factors, endorsement of familismo and simpatia were related to more frequent ERS and ARS, machismo was associated with lower ERS among men, and la mujer was related to higher ERS among women. Caballerismo was marginally associated with utilization of ERS among men. No association was found between la mujer abnegada and ERS among women. Relationships between male gender roles and ARS were nonsignificant. Relationships between female gender roles and ARS were mixed but trended in the positive direction. Overall, these findings suggest that Mexican American respondents vary in their use of response styles by acculturation and cultural factors. This usage may be specifically influenced by participants' valuing of and engagement with constructs directly associated with social behavior.

  14. Survey of public knowledge and responses to educational slogans regarding cold-water immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Gordon G; Pretorius, Thea

    2008-01-01

    Cold water temperature is a significant factor in North American drownings. These deaths are usually attributed to hypothermia. Survey questions were administered to 661 attendees of cold-stress seminars-including medical, rescue, law enforcement and lay attendees-to determine general knowledge of the effects of ice water immersion and responses to 2 public service educational slogans. Five questions were posed at the beginning of seminars to 8 groups (ranging in size from 46 to 195) during a 2-year period. Pi(2) analyses were used to determine if responses within any occupational category differed from the group responses. A high portion of respondents greatly underestimated the time to become hypothermic in ice water (correct answer >30 minutes; 84% stated 15 minutes or less) and the time until cooling was life threatening (correct answer >60 minutes; 85% stated 30 minutes or less). There were no occupational differences in these responses. Most of the respondents identified a correct cause of death during cold stress (81% stated cardiac arrest, hypothermia, or drowning). Although both educational slogans had some advantages, between 40% (Slogan #1) to 50% (Slogan #2) of respondents did not respond correctly. The majority of respondents underestimated the time available for survival during ice water immersion. It is important to educate the public accurately to decrease the probability of panic under these circumstances. More work is required to develop effective educational slogans that provide proper information and actions for victims of cold-water immersion.

  15. THE TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA RATE IN RADIO AND INFRARED GALAXIES FROM THE CANADA-FRANCE-HAWAII TELESCOPE SUPERNOVA LEGACY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, M. L.; Pritchet, C. J.; Balam, D.; Fabbro, S.; Sullivan, M.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. A.; Gwyn, S. D. J.; Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Guy, J.; Hardin, D.; Pain, R.; Regnault, N.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Perrett, K.; Conley, A.; Fouchez, D.; Rich, J.

    2010-01-01

    We have combined the large SN Ia database of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey and catalogs of galaxies with photometric redshifts, Very Large Array 1.4 GHz radio sources, and Spitzer infrared sources. We present eight SNe Ia in early-type host galaxies which have counterparts in the radio and infrared source catalogs. We find the SN Ia rate in subsets of radio and infrared early-type galaxies is ∼1-5 times the rate in all early-type galaxies, and that any enhancement is always ∼<2σ. Rates in these subsets are consistent with predictions of the two-component 'A+B' SN Ia rate model. Since infrared properties of radio SN Ia hosts indicate dust-obscured star formation, we incorporate infrared star formation rates into the 'A+B' model. We also show the properties of SNe Ia in radio and infrared galaxies suggest the hosts contain dust and support a continuum of delay time distributions (DTDs) for SNe Ia, although other DTDs cannot be ruled out based on our data.

  16. Response rates in case-control studies of cancer by era of fieldwork and by characteristics of study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengting; Richardson, Lesley; Campbell, Sally; Pintos, Javier; Siemiatycki, Jack

    2018-04-09

    The purpose of this study was to describe time trends in response rates in case-control studies of cancer and identify study design factors that influence response rate. We reviewed 370 case-control studies of cancer published in 12 journals during indicator years in each of the last four decades. We estimated time trends of response rates and reasons for nonresponse in each of the following types of study subjects: cases, medical source controls, and population controls. We also estimated response rates according to characteristics of study context. Median response rates among cases and population controls were between 75% and 80% in the 1970s. Between 1971 and 2010, study response rates declined by 0.31% per year for cases and 0.78% for population controls. Only a minority of studies reported reasons for nonparticipation; subject refusal was the most common reported reason. Studies conducted in North America had lower median response rates than studies conducted in Europe. In-person and telephone interviews elicited higher response rates than mail questionnaires. Response rates from case-control studies of cancer have declined, and this could threaten the validity of results derived from these studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of low dose rate on metabolomic response to radiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goudarzi, Maryam; Mak, Tytus D.; Chen, Congju; Smilenov, Lubomir B.; Brenner, David J.; Fornace, Albert J.

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomics has been shown to have utility in assessing responses to exposure by ionizing radiation (IR) in easily accessible biofluids such as urine. Most studies to date from our laboratory and others have employed γ-irradiation at relatively high dose rates (HDR), but many environmental exposure scenarios will probably be at relatively low dose rates (LDR). There are well-documented differences in the biologic responses to LDR compared to HDR, so an important question is to assess LDR effects at the metabolomics level. Our study took advantage of a modern mass spectrometry approach in exploring the effects of dose rate on the urinary excretion levels of metabolites 2 days after IR in mice. A wide variety of statistical tools were employed to further focus on metabolites, which showed responses to LDR IR exposure (0.00309 Gy/min) distinguishable from those of HDR. From a total of 709 detected spectral features, more than 100 were determined to be statistically significant when comparing urine from mice irradiated with 1.1 or 4.45 Gy to that of sham-irradiated mice 2 days post-exposure. The results of this study show that LDR and HDR exposures perturb many of the same pathways such as TCA cycle and fatty acid metabolism, which also have been implicated in our previous IR studies. However, it is important to note that dose rate did affect the levels of particular metabolites. Differences in urinary excretion levels of such metabolites could potentially be used to assess an individual's exposure in a radiobiological event and thus would have utility for both triage and injury assessment. (orig.)

  18. A survey of rate and causes of deformity in boys and girls youngsters in Lorestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mostafa Bahrami

    2007-01-01

    Materials and methods: The statistical community of the research included all the youngsters in Lorestan Province. The subjects in this study were 400 boys and 450 girls (11-15 years old that collected randomly. Data collection was done by questionnaires and physical examination (posture screen, tape-measure, Scales and…. The results were analyzed by SPSS software Results: In general, the results of this study indicated that abnormal posture in male was 57.67% and in female was 68.89%. additionally, there was a significant relationship between the level of kyphosis and lordosis and sleep habit, between shoulder dropping and briefcase carriage, between Bow leg and sitting between Hallux Valgus and high heel shoes of subjects ( P<0.05 . Conclusion: Considering the generated results, the level and rate of deformity among youngsters is very high. So, it seems that there is a need to plan an especial program by managers to reduce the burden of this abnormality.

  19. THE DETECTION RATE OF EARLY UV EMISSION FROM SUPERNOVAE: A DEDICATED GALEX/PTF SURVEY AND CALIBRATED THEORETICAL ESTIMATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganot, Noam; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Ofek, Eran O.; Sagiv, Ilan; Waxman, Eli; Lapid, Ofer [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Physics, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Kasliwal, Mansi M. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ben-Ami, Sagi [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Chelouche, Doron; Rafter, Stephen [Physics Department, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, 31905 Haifa (Israel); Behar, Ehud; Laor, Ari [Physics Department, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, 32000 Haifa (Israel); Poznanski, Dovi; Nakar, Ehud; Maoz, Dan [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Trakhtenbrot, Benny [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27 Zurich 8093 (Switzerland); Neill, James D.; Barlow, Thomas A.; Martin, Christofer D., E-mail: noam.ganot@gmail.com [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 278-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Collaboration: ULTRASAT Science Team; WTTH consortium; GALEX Science Team; Palomar Transient Factory; and others

    2016-03-20

    The radius and surface composition of an exploding massive star, as well as the explosion energy per unit mass, can be measured using early UV observations of core-collapse supernovae (SNe). We present the first results from a simultaneous GALEX/PTF search for early ultraviolet (UV) emission from SNe. Six SNe II and one Type II superluminous SN (SLSN-II) are clearly detected in the GALEX near-UV (NUV) data. We compare our detection rate with theoretical estimates based on early, shock-cooling UV light curves calculated from models that fit existing Swift and GALEX observations well, combined with volumetric SN rates. We find that our observations are in good agreement with calculated rates assuming that red supergiants (RSGs) explode with fiducial radii of 500 R{sub ⊙}, explosion energies of 10{sup 51} erg, and ejecta masses of 10 M{sub ⊙}. Exploding blue supergiants and Wolf–Rayet stars are poorly constrained. We describe how such observations can be used to derive the progenitor radius, surface composition, and explosion energy per unit mass of such SN events, and we demonstrate why UV observations are critical for such measurements. We use the fiducial RSG parameters to estimate the detection rate of SNe during the shock-cooling phase (<1 day after explosion) for several ground-based surveys (PTF, ZTF, and LSST). We show that the proposed wide-field UV explorer ULTRASAT mission is expected to find >85 SNe per year (∼0.5 SN per deg{sup 2}), independent of host galaxy extinction, down to an NUV detection limit of 21.5 mag AB. Our pilot GALEX/PTF project thus convincingly demonstrates that a dedicated, systematic SN survey at the NUV band is a compelling method to study how massive stars end their life.

  20. Web-Face-to-Face Mixed-Mode Design in a Longitudinal Survey: Effects on Participation Rates, Sample Composition, and Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianchi Annamaria

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sequential mixed-mode designs are increasingly considered as an alternative to interviewer-administered data collection, allowing researchers to take advantage of the benefits of each mode. We assess the effects of the introduction of a sequential web-face-to-face mixed-mode design over three waves of a longitudinal survey in which members were previously interviewed face-to-face. Findings are reported from a large-scale randomised experiment carried out on the UK Household Longitudinal Study. No differences are found between the mixed-mode design and face-to-face design in terms of cumulative response rates and only minimal differences in terms of sample composition. On the other hand, potential cost savings are evident.

  1. A field survey of the partially edentate elderly: Investigation of factors related to the usage rate of removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, S; Matsuda, K; Ikebe, K; Enoki, K; Hatta, K; Fujiwara, K; Maeda, Y

    2015-11-01

    Although the shortened dental arch (SDA) concept has been known to all over the world, acceptance of the SDA concept as an oral health standard can be questionable from the patients' point of view, even if it is biologically reasonable. Furthermore, because the health insurance system covers removable partial dentures (RPDs) for all citizens in Japan, SDA patients seem to prefer to receive prosthetic treatment to replace the missing teeth. However, there were few field surveys to investigate the usage rate of RPDs in Japan. The purpose of this study was to determine the usage rate of RPDs in older Japanese subjects and to investigate the factors related to the usage of RPDs. Partially edentate participants (n = 390) were included in this study. Oral examinations were conducted to record several indices. The Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to evaluate the relationship between the number of missing teeth and the usage rate of RPDs. Chi-squared tests and logistic regression analysis were conducted to evaluate the factors related to the usage rate of RPDs. Usage of RPDs had a significantly positive association with the number of missing distal extension teeth and bilaterally missing teeth. The usage rate of RPDs increased as the number of missing distal extension teeth increased (P for trend < 0·001). The conclusion of this study was that participants with missing distal extension teeth had higher usage rates of RPDs than other participants, and the usage rate increased as the number of missing distal extension teeth increased. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. National survey on the natural radioactivity and 222Rn exhalation rate of building materials in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, P; van Dijk, W; van der Graaf, E R; de Groot, T J H

    2006-09-01

    The present study reports on results of a nation-wide survey on the natural radioactivity concentrations and Rn exhalation rates of the prevailing building materials in the Netherlands. In total 100 samples were taken and analyzed for the activity concentrations of Ra, Ra, Th, and K and for their Rn exhalation rate. The sampled materials consisted of gypsum products, aerated concrete, sand-lime and clay bricks, mortars and concrete, representing about 95% of the stony building materials used in the construction of Dutch homes. The laboratory analyses were performed according to two well-documented standard procedures, the interlaboratory reproducibility of which is found to be within 5% on average. The highest radionuclide concentrations were found in a porous inner wall brick to which fly ash was added. The second highest were clay bricks with average Ra and Ra levels around 40 Bq kg. Concrete and mortar show the highest exhalation rates with a fairly broad range of 1 to 13 microBq (kg s). Low natural radioactivity levels are associated with either natural gypsum (products) or gypsum from flue gas desulphurization units, and low exhalation rates with clay bricks. To evaluate the radiological impact the radioactivity concentrations in each sample were combined into a so-called dose factor, representing the absorbed dose rate in a room with a floor, walls and ceiling of 20 cm of the material in question. For that purpose, calculations with the computer codes MCNP, Marmer and MicroShield on the specific absorbed dose rates were incorporated in the paper. The results of these codes corresponded within 6% and average values were calculated at 0.90, 1.10, and 0.080 nGy h per Bq kg for the U series, the Th series, and K, respectively. Model calculations on the external dose rate, based on the incidence of the various building materials in 1,336 living rooms, are in accordance with measured data.

  3. Radiation response of industrial materials: Dose-rate and morphology implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berejka, Anthony J.

    2007-01-01

    Industrial uses of ionizing radiation mostly rely upon high current, high dose-rate (100 kGy/s) electron beam (EB) accelerators. To a lesser extent, industry uses low dose-rate (2.8 x 10 -3 kGy/s) radioactive Cobalt-60 as a gamma source, generally for some rather specific purposes, as medical device sterilization and the treatment of food and foodstuffs. There are nearly nine times as many (∼1400) high current EB units in commercial operation than gamma sources (∼160). However, gamma sources can be easily scaled-down so that much research on materials effects is conducted using gamma radiation. Likewise, laboratories are more likely to have very low beam current and consequently low dose-rate accelerators such as Van de Graaff generators and linear accelerators. With the advent of very high current EB accelerators, X-ray processing has become an industrially viable option. With X-rays from high power sources, dose-rates can be modulated based upon accelerator power and the attenuation of the X-ray by the distance of the material from the X-ray target. Dose and dose-rate dependence has been found to be of consequence in several commercial applications which can employ the use of ionizing radiation. The combination of dose and dose-rate dependence of the polymerization and crosslinking of wood impregnants and of fiber composite matrix materials can yield more economically viable results which have promising commercial potential. Monomer and oligomer structure also play an important role in attaining these desirable results. The influence of morphology is shown on the radiation response of olefin polymers, such as ethylene, propylene and isobutylene polymers and their copolymers. Both controlled morphology and controlled dose-rate have commercial consequences. These are also impacted both by the adroit selection of materials and through the possible use of X-ray processing

  4. Surveying the rate of tissue expander complications among reconstructive patients in Hazrat Fatima hospital between 1389-1391

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirasadola Khajerahimi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tissue expansion is a common reconstructive surgery especially in burned patients. This study has been designed to evaluate the rate of complications of this method in Hazrat Fatima Hospital between 1389-1391. Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional and retrospective study, 150 patients' records have been studied between 1389-1391 years, frequency rate and types of complications related to tissue expander have been surveyed in these patients. Results: Complications have been observed in about 7% of the patients included in this study. Exposure of tissue expander was the most common complication (81.8%. Other complications which are resulted from this issue are capsular contracture and infection. Age was the only factor which had significant relation with increasing complication among the other surveyed factors including age, sex, indication of operation, wound location and duration of anaesthesia.(p=0.033 Conclusion: The incidence of complication in patients that required tissue expander was not high and it was less than 10%. It should be noted that patient selection should be carefully in paediatric group and also strict observance of surgical principles is necessary to avoid complication.

  5. THE ALFALFA H α SURVEY. I. PROJECT DESCRIPTION AND THE LOCAL STAR FORMATION RATE DENSITY FROM THE FALL SAMPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sistine, Angela Van; Salzer, John J.; Janowiecki, Steven; Sugden, Arthur; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Jaskot, Anne E.; Wilcots, Eric M.

    2016-01-01

    The ALFALFA H α survey utilizes a large sample of H i-selected galaxies from the ALFALFA survey to study star formation (SF) in the local universe. ALFALFA H α contains 1555 galaxies with distances between ∼20 and ∼100 Mpc. We have obtained continuum-subtracted narrowband H α images and broadband R images for each galaxy, creating one of the largest homogeneous sets of H α images ever assembled. Our procedures were designed to minimize the uncertainties related to the calculation of the local SF rate density (SFRD). The galaxy sample we constructed is as close to volume-limited as possible, is a robust statistical sample, and spans a wide range of galaxy environments. In this paper, we discuss the properties of our Fall sample of 565 galaxies, our procedure for deriving individual galaxy SF rates, and our method for calculating the local SFRD. We present a preliminary value of log(SFRD[ M ⊙ yr −1 Mpc −3 ]) = −1.747 ± 0.018 (random) ±0.05 (systematic) based on the 565 galaxies in our Fall sub-sample. Compared to the weighted average of SFRD values around z ≈ 2, our local value indicates a drop in the global SFRD of a factor of 10.2 over that lookback time.

  6. THE ALFALFA H α SURVEY. I. PROJECT DESCRIPTION AND THE LOCAL STAR FORMATION RATE DENSITY FROM THE FALL SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sistine, Angela Van [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Salzer, John J.; Janowiecki, Steven [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Sugden, Arthur [Department of Endocrinology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P. [Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Jaskot, Anne E. [Department of Astronomy, Smith College, Northampton, MA 01063 (United States); Wilcots, Eric M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2016-06-10

    The ALFALFA H α survey utilizes a large sample of H i-selected galaxies from the ALFALFA survey to study star formation (SF) in the local universe. ALFALFA H α contains 1555 galaxies with distances between ∼20 and ∼100 Mpc. We have obtained continuum-subtracted narrowband H α images and broadband R images for each galaxy, creating one of the largest homogeneous sets of H α images ever assembled. Our procedures were designed to minimize the uncertainties related to the calculation of the local SF rate density (SFRD). The galaxy sample we constructed is as close to volume-limited as possible, is a robust statistical sample, and spans a wide range of galaxy environments. In this paper, we discuss the properties of our Fall sample of 565 galaxies, our procedure for deriving individual galaxy SF rates, and our method for calculating the local SFRD. We present a preliminary value of log(SFRD[ M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} Mpc{sup −3}]) = −1.747 ± 0.018 (random) ±0.05 (systematic) based on the 565 galaxies in our Fall sub-sample. Compared to the weighted average of SFRD values around z ≈ 2, our local value indicates a drop in the global SFRD of a factor of 10.2 over that lookback time.

  7. Improving Rice Modeling Success Rate with Ternary Non-structural Fertilizer Response Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Zhang, Mingqing; Chen, Fang; Yao, Baoquan

    2018-06-13

    Fertilizer response modelling is an important technical approach to realize metrological fertilization on rice. With the goal of solving the problems of a low success rate of a ternary quadratic polynomial model (TPFM) and to expand the model's applicability, this paper established a ternary non-structural fertilizer response model (TNFM) based on the experimental results from N, P and K fertilized rice fields. Our research results showed that the TNFM significantly improved the modelling success rate by addressing problems arising from setting the bias and multicollinearity in a TPFM. The results from 88 rice field trials in China indicated that the proportion of typical TNFMs that satisfy the general fertilizer response law of plant nutrition was 40.9%, while the analogous proportion of TPFMs was only 26.1%. The recommended fertilization showed a significant positive linear correlation between the two models, and the parameters N 0 , P 0 and K 0 that estimated the value of soil supplying nutrient equivalents can be used as better indicators of yield potential in plots where no N or P or K fertilizer was applied. The theoretical analysis showed that the new model has a higher fitting accuracy and a wider application range.

  8. Effects of autogenic training on stress response and heart rate variability in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seung-Joo; Kim, Chunmi

    2014-12-01

    This study was undertaken to confirm the effects of autogenic training (AT) on stress response and heart rate variability in nursing school students experiencing stress related to clinical training. The study was carried out from September 2012 to April 2013 in a quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group using a pretest-posttest design. The participants were 40 nursing students in their third year at either of two nursing colleges. All consented to participate. Nineteen nursing students at one college were assigned to the experimental group and underwent the 8-week AT program, and the other 21 were assigned to the control group and did not undergo any training. Stress response was assessed by questionnaire and HRV was measured three times, that is, before the program, at the end of the program, and 6 months after the end of the AT program. A significant time/group interaction was found for stress response (F = 4.68, p = .012), a subjective indicator. However, no significant interaction was found for the objective indicators of heart rate variability, normalized low frequency (F = 2.59, p = .090), normalized high frequency (F = 2.59, p = .090), or low frequency to high frequency ratio (F = 1.38, p = .257). The results suggest that AT provides an acceptable approach to stress reduction in nursing students. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Evoked response of heart rate variability using short-duration white noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Guo-She; Chen, Mei-Ling; Wang, Gin-You

    2010-06-24

    To investigate and to establish a model for evaluation of the instant cardiovascular responses to the noises of low-to-moderate intensity, sixteen healthy subjects were enrolled. The white noises were binaurally presented with a supra-aural earphone. The test intensities of noises were no noise, 50, 60, 70 and 80 dBA. Each noise was continued for 5 min and the electrocardiogram was simultaneously recorded. The cardiac autonomic responses were evaluated using power spectral analysis of the R-R contour obtained from digital signal processing of the ECG tracings. The result showed that the mean heart rate and mean blood pressure did not change significantly with the noises. However, the low-frequency power (LF) which represents cardiac autonomic modulations and the ratio (LHR) of LF to high-frequency power (HF) which reflects cardiac sympathetic modulations were significantly greater in the noise intensity of 50, 60, 70 and 80dBA (pnoise intensity (rho=0.90, pwhite noises can be detected using power spectral analysis of heart rate variability and the evoked responses may provide a sensitive way to evaluate the instant effect of noise to humans.

  10. Neural correlates of fear-induced sympathetic response associated with the peripheral temperature change rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Kazufumi; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Koike, Takahiko; Yamazaki, Mika; Sudo, Nobuyuki; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-07-01

    Activation of the sympathetic nervous system is essential for coping with environmental stressors such as fearful stimuli. Recent human imaging studies demonstrated that activity in some cortical regions, such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and anterior insula cortex (aIC), is related to sympathetic activity. However, little is known about the functional brain connectivity related to sympathetic response to fearful stimuli. The participants were 32 healthy, right-handed volunteers. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine brain activity when watching horror and control movies. Fingertip temperature was taken during the scanning as a measure of sympathetic response. The movies were watched a second time, and the degree of fear (9-point Likert-type scale) was evaluated every three seconds. The brain activity of the ACC, bilateral aIC, and bilateral anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC) was correlated with the change rate of fingertip temperature, with or without fearful stimuli. Functional connectivity analysis revealed significantly greater positive functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ACC and between the amygdala and the aIC when watching the horror movie than when watching the control movie. Whole-brain psycho-physiological interaction (PPI) analysis revealed that the functional connectivity between the left amygdala and the ACC was modulated according to the fear rating. Our results indicate that the increased functional connectivity between the left amygdala and the ACC represents a sympathetic response to fearful stimuli. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Response of mouse lung to irradiation at different dose-rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    Groups of LAF1 mice were given thoracic irradiation using 60 Co γ-rays at dose-rates of 0.05 Gy/min (LDR) or 1.1 Gy/min (HDR) and the death of the animals was monitored as a function of time. It was found that the time pattern of animal deaths was similar for the two different dose-rates. Dose response curves for animals dying at various times up to 500 days after irradiation were calculated and the LD 50 values determined. The curves for the LD 50 values, plotted as a function of the time at analysis for treatment at HDR or LDR, were essentially parallel to each other but separated by a factor (LDR/HDR) of about 1.8. This indicates that the sparing effect of LDR treatment is the same for deaths occurring during the early pneumonitis phase or during the late fibrotic phase of lung damage. The available information on the response of patients to whole thoracic irradiation, given for either palliation or piror to bone marrow transplantation, suggests that for similar dose-rates to those studied here the ratio (LDR/HDR) is only 1.2 to 1.3. This difference between the animal and human data may reflect the modifying effect of the large doses of cytotoxic drugs used in combination with the irradiation of bone marrow transplant patients

  12. HEART RATE AND BLOOD LACTATE RESPONSES TO CHANGQUAN AND DAOSHU FORMS OF MODERN WUSHU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerri Luiz Ribeiro

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of specific training designed to enhance physiological aspects of performance relies heavily on the availability of accurate and validity physiological data. In the combat sport of Wushu, katas are used to develop aerobic fitness. It is arguably important to assess and monitor heart rate (HR and lactate (La responses when designing effective training programs. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate heart rate and lactate responses to forms execution among Wushu combatants. Male elite modern Wushu athletes (n = 4 from a South Brazilian regional team participated in the study. Athletes were aged 22.5 ± 2.08 years old and had at least eight years of Wushu experience. Athletes carried out the Changquan and Daoshu forms in random order, HR and La were measured pre- and post-exercise. Results indicate that HR was 176 ± 3 and 176 ± 2 bpm and La was 4.38 ± 1.3 and 5.15 ± 1.07 mmol·l-1 for Changquan and Daoshu forms, respectively. There were no significantly differences in HR and La between the two forms. HR values represent 89.2 ± 1.1 and 89.1 ± 1.8% of age-predicted maximal heart rate and lactate was near of 4 mmol·l-1 point. In conclusion, training programs to Wushu combatants could target the range of physiological values cited above with no differences between two forms

  13. Explaining Cross-State Differences in Elderly Suicide Rates and Identifying State-Level Public Policy Responses that Reduce Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles-Sims, Jean; Lockhart, Charles

    2006-01-01

    Elderly Americans commit suicide at higher rates than other age groups. We contend that macro- and micro-social variables contribute distinct aspects to explanations of this tragic loss: the former focus on circumstances that affect overall rates, the latter reveal why certain individuals succumb to suicide. Our analysis focuses on the…

  14. A Comparative Survey of Methods for Remote Heart Rate Detection From Frontal Face Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Remotely measuring physiological activity can provide substantial benefits for both the medical and the affective computing applications. Recent research has proposed different methodologies for the unobtrusive detection of heart rate (HR using human face recordings. These methods are based on subtle color changes or motions of the face due to cardiovascular activities, which are invisible to human eyes but can be captured by digital cameras. Several approaches have been proposed such as signal processing and machine learning. However, these methods are compared with different datasets, and there is consequently no consensus on method performance. In this article, we describe and evaluate several methods defined in literature, from 2008 until present day, for the remote detection of HR using human face recordings. The general HR processing pipeline is divided into three stages: face video processing, face blood volume pulse (BVP signal extraction, and HR computation. Approaches presented in the paper are classified and grouped according to each stage. At each stage, algorithms are analyzed and compared based on their performance using the public database MAHNOB-HCI. Results found in this article are limited on MAHNOB-HCI dataset. Results show that extracted face skin area contains more BVP information. Blind source separation and peak detection methods are more robust with head motions for estimating HR.

  15. Star formation rates in isolated galaxies selected from the Two-Micron All-Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, O.; Karachentseva, V.; Karachentsev, I.

    2015-08-01

    We have considered the star formation properties of 1616 isolated galaxies from the 2MASS XSC (Extended Source Catalog) selected sample (2MIG) with the far-ultraviolet GALEX magnitudes. This sample was then compared with corresponding properties of isolated galaxies from the Local Orphan Galaxies (LOG) catalogue and paired galaxies. We found that different selection algorithms define different populations of isolated galaxies. The population of the LOG catalogue, selected from non-clustered galaxies in the Local Supercluster volume, mostly consists of low-mass spiral and late-type galaxies. The specific star formation rate (SSFR) upper limit in isolated and paired galaxies does not exceed the value of ˜dex(-9.4). This is probably common for galaxies of differing activity and environment (at least at z processes is the galaxy mass. However, the environmental influence is notable: paired massive galaxies with logM* > 11.5 have higher (S)SFR than isolated galaxies. Our results suggest that the environment helps to trigger the star formation in the highest mass galaxies. We found that the fraction of AGN in the paired sample is only a little higher than in our isolated galaxy sample. We assume that AGN phenomenon is probably defined by secular galaxy evolution.

  16. Improving health promotion through central rating of interventions: the need for Responsive Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Maarten Olivier; Bal, Roland; Roelofs, Caspar David; Schuit, Albertine Jantine

    2017-11-23

    beneficial, the evidence based-inspired ERS approach is too limited to guide both intervention development and the improvement of health promotion in practice. To better contribute to improving health promotion, a more reflexive and responsive guidance approach is required, namely one which stimulates the improvement of different intervention aspects, provides targeted recommendations to practitioners and provides feedback to those who develop and rate interventions.

  17. Numerical modelling of landscape and sediment flux response to precipitation rate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, John J.; Whittaker, Alexander C.; Zakari, Mustapha; Campforts, Benjamin

    2018-02-01

    Laboratory-scale experiments of erosion have demonstrated that landscapes have a natural (or intrinsic) response time to a change in precipitation rate. In the last few decades there has been growth in the development of numerical models that attempt to capture landscape evolution over long timescales. However, there is still an uncertainty regarding the validity of the basic assumptions of mass transport that are made in deriving these models. In this contribution we therefore return to a principal assumption of sediment transport within the mass balance for surface processes; we explore the sensitivity of the classic end-member landscape evolution models and the sediment fluxes they produce to a change in precipitation rates. One end-member model takes the mathematical form of a kinetic wave equation and is known as the stream power model, in which sediment is assumed to be transported immediately out of the model domain. The second end-member model is the transport model and it takes the form of a diffusion equation, assuming that the sediment flux is a function of the water flux and slope. We find that both of these end-member models have a response time that has a proportionality to the precipitation rate that follows a negative power law. However, for the stream power model the exponent on the water flux term must be less than one, and for the transport model the exponent must be greater than one, in order to match the observed concavity of natural systems. This difference in exponent means that the transport model generally responds more rapidly to an increase in precipitation rates, on the order of 105 years for post-perturbation sediment fluxes to return to within 50 % of their initial values, for theoretical landscapes with a scale of 100×100 km. Additionally from the same starting conditions, the amplitude of the sediment flux perturbation in the transport model is greater, with much larger sensitivity to catchment size. An important finding is that

  18. Numerical modelling of landscape and sediment flux response to precipitation rate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Armitage

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory-scale experiments of erosion have demonstrated that landscapes have a natural (or intrinsic response time to a change in precipitation rate. In the last few decades there has been growth in the development of numerical models that attempt to capture landscape evolution over long timescales. However, there is still an uncertainty regarding the validity of the basic assumptions of mass transport that are made in deriving these models. In this contribution we therefore return to a principal assumption of sediment transport within the mass balance for surface processes; we explore the sensitivity of the classic end-member landscape evolution models and the sediment fluxes they produce to a change in precipitation rates. One end-member model takes the mathematical form of a kinetic wave equation and is known as the stream power model, in which sediment is assumed to be transported immediately out of the model domain. The second end-member model is the transport model and it takes the form of a diffusion equation, assuming that the sediment flux is a function of the water flux and slope. We find that both of these end-member models have a response time that has a proportionality to the precipitation rate that follows a negative power law. However, for the stream power model the exponent on the water flux term must be less than one, and for the transport model the exponent must be greater than one, in order to match the observed concavity of natural systems. This difference in exponent means that the transport model generally responds more rapidly to an increase in precipitation rates, on the order of 105 years for post-perturbation sediment fluxes to return to within 50 % of their initial values, for theoretical landscapes with a scale of 100×100 km. Additionally from the same starting conditions, the amplitude of the sediment flux perturbation in the transport model is greater, with much larger sensitivity to catchment size. An

  19. A survey of utility experience with real time pricing: implications for policymakers seeking price responsive demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbose, Galen; Goldman, Charles; Neenan, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    Economists and policy makers frequently propose real time pricing (RTP) as a strategy for facilitating price responsive demand, thereby improving the performance of electricity markets and regional networks. While theoretically appealing, many practical and empirical issues related to RTP remain unresolved or poorly understood. Over the past two decades, more than 70 utilities in the U.S. have offered voluntary RTP tariffs, on either a pilot or permanent basis. However, most have operated in relative obscurity, and little information has made its way into the public domain. To address this gap, we conducted a conducted a comprehensive review of voluntary RTP programs in the U.S. by surveying 43 U.S. utilities and reviewing regulatory documents, tariffs, program evaluations, and other publicly available sources. Based on this review of RTP program experience, we identify key trends related to utilities' motivations and goals for implementing RTP, evolution of RTP tariff design, program participation, participant price response, and program outlook. Experience with voluntary RTP programs has been mixed. Several utilities have demonstrated that voluntary RTP programs are capable of generating significant load reductions. However, most programs have attracted relatively few participants and therefore have generated quite limited load reductions. About 2700 non-residential customers were enrolled in RTP programs in 2003, representing more than 11 000 MW of load. We then draw from these findings to identify implications for policy makers and regulators that are currently considering RTP as a strategy for facilitating price responsive demand

  20. A survey of pandemic influenza preparedness and response capabilities in Chicago area hospital security departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmerly, David P

    2009-01-01

    This article is a summary based on a December 2007 paper prepared by the author in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a master's degree in business and organizational security management at Webster University. The project described was intended to assess Chicago-area healthcare organization security departments' preparedness and response capabilities for a potential influenza pandemic. While the author says healthcare organizations are learning from the pandemics of the past, little research has been conducted on the requirements necessary within hospital security departments. The article explores staffing, planning, preparation and response capabilities within a healthcare security context to determine existing resources available to the healthcare security community. Eleven completed surveys were received from hospital security managers throughout the geographical Chicago area. They reveal that hospital security managers are conscious of the risks of a pandemic influenza outbreak. Yet, it was found that several gaps existed within hospital security department staffing and response capabilities, as hospital security departments may not have the available resources necessary to adequately maintain their operations during a pandemic incident.

  1. Measurement of air dose rates over a wide area around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant through a series of car-borne surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, Masaki; Nakahara, Yukio; Tsuda, Shuichi; Yoshida, Tadayoshi; Matsuda, Norihiro; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Mikami, Satoshi; Kinouchi, Nobuyuki; Sato, Tetsuro; Tanigaki, Minoru; Takamiya, Koichi; Sato, Nobuhiro; Okumura, Ryo; Uchihori, Yukio; Saito, Kimiaki

    2015-01-01

    A series of car-borne surveys using the Kyoto University RAdiation MApping (KURAMA) and KURAMA-II survey systems has been conducted over a wide area in eastern Japan since June 2011 to evaluate the distribution of air dose rates around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant and to evaluate the time-dependent trend of decrease in air dose rates. An automated data processing system for the KURAMA-II system was established, which enabled rapid analysis of large amounts of data obtained using about 100 KURAMA-II units. The initial data used for evaluating the migration status of radioactive cesium were obtained in the first survey, followed by other car-borne surveys conducted over more extensive and wider measurement ranges. By comparing the measured air dose rates obtained in each survey (until December 2012), the decreasing trend of air dose rates measured through car-borne surveys was found to be more pronounced than those expected on the basis of the physical decay of radioactive cesium and of the air dose rates measured using NaI (Tl) survey meters in the areas surrounding the roadways. In addition, it was found that the extent of decrease in air dose rates depended on land use, wherein it decreased faster for land used as building sites than for forested areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Survey on th incidence of homeless pulmonary tuberculosis infection rate through chest x-ray examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Young; Shin, Sung Rae [Dept. of Nursing, Sahmyook University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Young Hwan [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hwan Yeal [Dept. of Medical Business Administration, U1 University, Yeongdong (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    This study, Seoul City shelter, you are trying to seek medical cooperation and cure rate increase proposal Yu fndings’s current situation and tuberculosis of homeless tuberculosis. Inspector, and has a total 591 people is targeted to implement an interview after acquiring utilization agreement in studies conducted chest X-ray photography. Of the interview questions, three or more protons, it is determined that the TB symptomatic conducted sputum examination, chest X-ray examination confrms the physician radiology, when sputum examination primarily chromatic fndings the double implemented and conducted by requesting the ship inspection also said inspection sputum acid-fast bacteria if it is true one, respectively. confrmed case result of checking whether there is a difference due to risk factors (Jb) at the chi square black, it was found that there is no statistically significant difference at 95% confidence level. (χ{sup 2}=0.276, p>0.05), suspected case (Ac, Ae) results of examining whether there is a difference due to risk factors in chi square black, that there is a statistically significant difference at 99% confidence level is I found (χ{sup 2}=9.414, p<0.01). The nature of the homeless tuberculosis screening and directed to the distance homeless specifc location are likely to evaluate the actual incidence low and aggressive or management needs, the rationale is allowed insufficient reality is. Through this research, future, for tuberculosis high risk tuberculosis patient, such as homeless to expand the tuberculosis screening of infectious tuberculosis patients in private medical institutions, and one-stop service that chest X-ray examination and sputum examination is carried out at the same time introduced immediately to prevent the inspection and examination, cure, and should establish a foundation that can be up to post administration.

  3. Survey on th incidence of homeless pulmonary tuberculosis infection rate through chest x-ray examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Young; Shin, Sung Rae; Ryu, Young Hwan; Lim, Hwan Yeal

    2017-01-01

    This study, Seoul City shelter, you are trying to seek medical cooperation and cure rate increase proposal Yu fndings’s current situation and tuberculosis of homeless tuberculosis. Inspector, and has a total 591 people is targeted to implement an interview after acquiring utilization agreement in studies conducted chest X-ray photography. Of the interview questions, three or more protons, it is determined that the TB symptomatic conducted sputum examination, chest X-ray examination confrms the physician radiology, when sputum examination primarily chromatic fndings the double implemented and conducted by requesting the ship inspection also said inspection sputum acid-fast bacteria if it is true one, respectively. confrmed case result of checking whether there is a difference due to risk factors (Jb) at the chi square black, it was found that there is no statistically significant difference at 95% confidence level. (χ 2 =0.276, p>0.05), suspected case (Ac, Ae) results of examining whether there is a difference due to risk factors in chi square black, that there is a statistically significant difference at 99% confidence level is I found (χ 2 =9.414, p<0.01). The nature of the homeless tuberculosis screening and directed to the distance homeless specifc location are likely to evaluate the actual incidence low and aggressive or management needs, the rationale is allowed insufficient reality is. Through this research, future, for tuberculosis high risk tuberculosis patient, such as homeless to expand the tuberculosis screening of infectious tuberculosis patients in private medical institutions, and one-stop service that chest X-ray examination and sputum examination is carried out at the same time introduced immediately to prevent the inspection and examination, cure, and should establish a foundation that can be up to post administration

  4. The reliability and validity of the rating scale of criminal responsibility for mentally disordered offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weixiong; Zhang, Qingting; Huang, Fuyin; Guan, Wei; Tang, Tao; Liu, Chao

    2014-03-01

    In China, the criminal responsibility of the mentally disordered offenders is divided into three levels, there are the whole responsibility, diminished responsibility and irresponsibility. According to the Criminal Law, "If a mental disordered patient causes harmful consequences at a time when he is unable to recognize or control his own conduct, upon verification and confirmation through legal procedure, he shall not bear criminal responsibility." That means there are two standards of assessing criminal responsibility, namely volitional and cognitive capacity. It is as equal as the Mc'Naughton Rule and the Irresistible Impulse Test. But for a long time, the criminal responsibility was assessed mainly by experience because of lacking of standardized assessment instrument. Recently, we have developed "the rating scale of criminal responsibility for mentally disordered offenders (RSCRs)". The scale includes eighteen items, namely criminal motivation, aura before offense, inducement of crime, time and place and object and tool selectivity of crime, emotion during the crime, shirking responsibility after offense, concealing the truth during inquest, camouflage, understanding the nature of the offense, estimating the consequence of the offense, impairment of life ability, impairment of learning or work, impairment of insight, impairment of reality testing, and impairment of self-control. This scale can be applicable for all cases and easy to use. This scale had been tried out in several forensic psychiatry institutes, the Cronbach α of the scale is 0.93, and all items have high correlation with the total score of the scale (r=0.50-0.89). Two factors were extracted by the factorial analysis, and the cumulative squared loading was 68.62%. The scores of the three levels were 9.66 ± 5.11, 26.54 ± 5.21 and 40.08 ± 7.90 respectively and highly significant differences were observed among groups. By establishing discrimination analysis among three levels, classification

  5. The mortality and response rate after FLANG regimen in patients with refractory/relapsed acute leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vali A Mehrzad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oncologists today are greatly concerned about the treatment of relapsed/refractory acute leukemia. FLANG regimen, combination of novantron, cytarabine, fludarabine, and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, has been used in treatment of refractory/relapsed acute leukemia since 1990s. The present study has evaluated mortality and response rate of this regimen. Materials and Methods: In this study, 25 patients with refractory/relapsed acute leukemia aged 15-55 years underwent FLANG regimen at Seyed-Al-Shohada Hospital, Isfahan, Iran during 2008-2009. One month later, bone marrow samples were taken to evaluate the responsiveness to treatment. Participants were followed for a year. The data was analyzed by student-t and chi-square tests, logistic, and Cox regression analysis, and Kaplan-Meier curves in SPSS 19. Results: Out of the 25 patients, 8 patients (32% had acute lymphoblastic leukemia (5 refractory and 3 relapsed cases and 17 subjects had acute myeloid leukemia (7 refractory and 10 relapsed cases. According to the bone marrow biopsies taken one month after FLANG regimen, 10 patients (40% had responded to treatment. Five patients of the 10 responders underwent successful bone marrow transplantation (BMT. On the other hand, 13 patients (52%, who had not entered the CR period, died during the follow-up. Logistic regression analysis did not reveal any significant associations between disease type and responsiveness to treatment. Conclusion: This study indicated higher rates of unresponsiveness to treatment while its mortality rate was comparable with other studies. Overall, according to limitations for BMT (as the only chance for cure in Iran, it seems that FLANG therapy is an acceptable choice for these patients.

  6. Abscisic acid and transpiration rate are involved in the response to boron toxicity in Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho-Rivero, Miguel Ángel; Camacho-Cristóbal, Juan José; Herrera-Rodríguez, María Begoña; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; González-Fontes, Agustín

    2017-05-01

    Boron (B) is an essential microelement for vascular plant development, but its toxicity is a major problem affecting crop yields in arid and semi-arid areas of the world. In the literature, several genes involved in abscisic acid (ABA) signalling and responses are upregulated in Arabidopsis roots after treatment with excess B. It is known that the AtNCED3 gene, which encodes a crucial enzyme for ABA biosynthesis, plays a key role in the plant response to drought stress. In this study, root AtNCED3 expression and shoot ABA content were rapidly increased in wild-type plants upon B-toxicity treatment. The Arabidopsis ABA-deficient nced3-2 mutant had higher transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and accumulated more B in their shoots than wild-type plants, facts that were associated with the lower levels of ABA in this mutant. However, in wild-type plants, B toxicity caused a significant reduction in stomatal conductance, resulting in a decreased transpiration rate. This response could be a mechanism to limit the transport of excess B from the roots to the leaves under B toxicity. In agreement with the higher transpiration rate of the nced3-2 mutant, this genotype showed an increased leaf B concentration and damage upon exposure to 5 mM B. Under B toxicity, ABA application decreased B accumulation in wild-type and nced3-2 plants. In summary, this work shows that excess B applied to the roots leads to rapid changes in AtNCED3 expression and gas exchange parameters that would contribute to restrain the B entry into the leaves, this effect being mediated by ABA. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  7. Dependence of alanine gel dosimeter response as a function of photon clinical beams dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Cleber Feijo; Campos, Leticia Lucente

    2013-01-01

    Gel dosimetry is a new area developed by Gore, it is ery useful for application in radiotherapy because using NMR imaging as evaluation technique is possible to evaluate three dimensional absorbed dose distribution. The measure technique is based on difference of ferrous (Fe 2+ ) and ferric (Fe 3+ ) ) ions concentration that can be measured also by spectrophotometry technique. The Alanine gel dosimeter was developed at IPEN. The alanine is an amino acid and tissue equivalent material that presents significant improvement on previous alanine dosimetry systems. The addition of Alanine increases the production of ferric ions in the solution. This work aims to study the dose rate dependence of photon clinical beams radiation on the alanine gel dosimeter optical response, as well as the response repeatability and gel production reproducibility, since this property is very important for characterization and standardization of any dosimeter. (author)

  8. Heart rate response to post-learning stress predicts memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larra, Mauro F; Schulz, André; Schilling, Thomas M; Ferreira de Sá, Diana S; Best, Daniel; Kozik, Bartlomiej; Schächinger, Hartmut

    2014-03-01

    Stressful experiences are often well remembered, an effect that has been explained by beta-adrenergic influences on memory consolidation. Here, we studied the impact of stress induced heart rate (HR) responses on memory consolidation in a post-learning stress paradigm. 206 male and female participants saw 52 happy and angry faces immediately before being exposed to the Cold Pressor Test or a non-stressful control procedure. Memory for the faces and their respective expression was tested twice, after 30 min and on the next day. High HR responders (in comparison to low HR responders as well as to the non-stressful control group) showed enhanced recognition memory one day after learning. Our results show that beta-adrenergic activation elicited shortly after learning enhances memory consolidation and that the stress induced HR response is a predictor for this effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Electronic Health Record Data Versus the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES): A Comparison of Overweight and Obesity Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Luke M; Shan, Ying; Voils, Corrine I; Kloke, John; Hanrahan, Lawrence P

    2017-06-01

    Estimating population-level obesity rates is important for informing policy and targeting treatment. The current gold standard for obesity measurement in the United States-the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)-samples health system-level measurement. To assess the feasibility of using body mass index (BMI) data from the electronic health record (EHR) to assess rates of overweight and obesity and compare these rates to national NHANES estimates. Using outpatient data from 42 clinics, we studied 388,762 patients in a large health system with at least 1 primary care visit in 2011-2012. We compared crude and adjusted overweight and obesity rates by age category and ethnicity (white, black, Hispanic, Other) between EHR and NHANES participants. Adjusted overweight (BMI≥25) and obesity rates were calculated by a 2-step process. Step 1 accounted for missing BMI data using inverse probability weighting, whereas step 2 included a poststratification correction to adjust the EHR population to a nationally representative sample. Adjusted rates of obesity (BMI≥30) for EHR patients were 37.3% [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 37.1-37.5] compared with 35.1% (95% CI, 32.3-38.1) for NHANES patients. Among the 16 different obesity class, ethnicity, and sex strata that were compared between EHR and NHANES patients, 14 (87.5%) contained similar obesity estimates (ie, overlapping 95% CIs). EHRs may be an ideal tool for identifying and targeting patients with obesity for implementation of public health and/or individual level interventions.

  10. An exploration of heart rate response to differing music rhythm and tempos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ariany G; Guida, Heraldo L; Antônio, Ana Márcia Dos S; Marcomini, Renata S; Fontes, Anne M G G; Carlos de Abreu, Luiz; Roque, Adriano L; Silva, Sidney B; Raimundo, Rodrigo D; Ferreira, Celso; Valenti, Vitor E

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate acute cardiac response and heart rate variability (HRV) when listening to differing forms of music. Eleven healthy men aged between 18 and 25 years old were included in the study. HRV was recorded at rest for ten minutes with no music, then were asked to listen to classical baroque or heavy metal music for a period of 20 min. It was noted that heart rate variability did not affect HRV indices for time and frequency. In conclusion, music with different tempos does not influence cardiac autonomic regulation in men. However more studies are suggested to explore this topic in greater detail. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Early and late rate of force development: differential adaptive responses to resistance training?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L L; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Zebis, M K

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potentially opposing influence of qualitative and quantitative muscular adaptations in response to high-intensity resistance training on contractile rate of force development (RFD) in the early (200 ms) of rising muscle force. Fifteen healthy young......-intensity resistance training due to differential influences of qualitative and quantitative muscular adaptations on early and later phases of rising muscle force....... males participated in a 14-week resistance training intervention for the lower body and 10 matched subjects participated as controls. Maximal muscle strength (MVC) and RFD were measured during maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the quadriceps femoris muscle. Muscle biopsies were obtained from...

  12. Temperature response of denitrification rate and greenhouse gas production in agricultural river marginal wetland soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnett, S A F; Blackwell, M S A; Leah, R; Cook, V; O'Connor, M; Maltby, E

    2013-05-01

    Soils are predicted to exhibit significant feedback to global warming via the temperature response of greenhouse gas (GHG) production. However, the temperature response of hydromorphic wetland soils is complicated by confounding factors such as oxygen (O2 ), nitrate (NO3-) and soil carbon (C). We examined the effect of a temperature gradient (2-25 °C) on denitrification rates and net nitrous oxide (N2 O), methane (CH4 ) production and heterotrophic respiration in mineral (Eutric cambisol and Fluvisol) and organic (Histosol) soil types in a river marginal landscape of the Tamar catchment, Devon, UK, under non-flooded and flooded with enriched NO3- conditions. It was hypothesized that the temperature response is dependent on interactions with NO3--enriched flooding, and the physicochemical conditions of these soil types. Denitrification rate (mean, 746 ± 97.3 μg m(-2)  h(-1) ), net N2 O production (mean, 180 ± 26.6 μg m(-2)  h(-1) ) and net CH4 production (mean, 1065 ± 183 μg m(-2)  h(-1) ) were highest in the organic Histosol, with higher organic matter, ammonium and moisture, and lower NO3- concentrations. Heterotrophic respiration (mean, 127 ± 4.6 mg m(-2)  h(-1) ) was not significantly different between soil types and dominated total GHG (CO2 eq) production in all soil types. Generally, the temperature responses of denitrification rate and net N2 O production were exponential, whilst net CH4 production was unresponsive, possibly due to substrate limitation, and heterotrophic respiration was exponential but limited in summer at higher temperatures. Flooding with NO3- increased denitrification rate, net N2 O production and heterotrophic respiration, but a reduction in net CH4 production suggests inhibition of methanogenesis by NO3- or N2 O produced from denitrification. Implications for management and policy are that warming and flood events may promote microbial interactions in soil between distinct microbial communities and increase

  13. Seismicity rate surge on faults after shut-in: poroelastic response to fluid injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, K. W.; Yoon, H.; Martinez, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Subsurface energy activities such as geological CO2 storage and wastewater injection require injecting large amounts of fluid into the subsurface, which will alter the states of pore pressure and stress in the storage formation. One of the main issues for injection-induced seismicity is the post shut-in increases in the seismicity rate, often observed in the fluid-injection operation sites. The rate surge can be driven by the following mechanisms: (1) pore-pressure propagation into distant faults after shut-in and (2) poroelastic stressing caused by well operations, depending on fault geometry, hydraulic and mechanical properties of the formation, and injection history. We simulate the aerial view of the target reservoir intersected by strike-slip faults, in which injection-induced pressure buildup encounters the faults directly. We examine the poroelastic response of the faults to fluid injection and perform a series of sensitivity tests considering: (1) permeability of the fault zone, (2) locations and the number of faults with respect to the injection point, and (3) well operations with varying the injection rate. Our analysis of the Coulomb stress change suggests that the sealing fault confines pressure diffusion which stabilizes or weakens the nearby conductive fault depending on the injection location. We perform the sensitivity test by changing injection scenarios (time-dependent rates), while keeping the total amount of injected fluids. Sensitivity analysis shows that gradual reduction of the injection rate minimizes the Coulomb stress change and the least seismicity rates are predicted. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA-0003525.

  14. Talimogene Laherparepvec Improves Durable Response Rate in Patients With Advanced Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andtbacka, Robert H I; Kaufman, Howard L; Collichio, Frances; Amatruda, Thomas; Senzer, Neil; Chesney, Jason; Delman, Keith A; Spitler, Lynn E; Puzanov, Igor; Agarwala, Sanjiv S; Milhem, Mohammed; Cranmer, Lee; Curti, Brendan; Lewis, Karl; Ross, Merrick; Guthrie, Troy; Linette, Gerald P; Daniels, Gregory A; Harrington, Kevin; Middleton, Mark R; Miller, Wilson H; Zager, Jonathan S; Ye, Yining; Yao, Bin; Li, Ai; Doleman, Susan; VanderWalde, Ari; Gansert, Jennifer; Coffin, Robert S

    2015-09-01

    Talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC) is a herpes simplex virus type 1-derived oncolytic immunotherapy designed to selectively replicate within tumors and produce granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to enhance systemic antitumor immune responses. T-VEC was compared with GM-CSF in patients with unresected stage IIIB to IV melanoma in a randomized open-label phase III trial. Patients with injectable melanoma that was not surgically resectable were randomly assigned at a two-to-one ratio to intralesional T-VEC or subcutaneous GM-CSF. The primary end point was durable response rate (DRR; objective response lasting continuously ≥ 6 months) per independent assessment. Key secondary end points included overall survival (OS) and overall response rate. Among 436 patients randomly assigned, DRR was significantly higher with T-VEC (16.3%; 95% CI, 12.1% to 20.5%) than GM-CSF (2.1%; 95% CI, 0% to 4.5%]; odds ratio, 8.9; P < .001). Overall response rate was also higher in the T-VEC arm (26.4%; 95% CI, 21.4% to 31.5% v 5.7%; 95% CI, 1.9% to 9.5%). Median OS was 23.3 months (95% CI, 19.5 to 29.6 months) with T-VEC and 18.9 months (95% CI, 16.0 to 23.7 months) with GM-CSF (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.62 to 1.00; P = .051). T-VEC efficacy was most pronounced in patients with stage IIIB, IIIC, or IVM1a disease and in patients with treatment-naive disease. The most common adverse events (AEs) with T-VEC were fatigue, chills, and pyrexia. The only grade 3 or 4 AE occurring in ≥ 2% of T-VEC-treated patients was cellulitis (2.1%). No fatal treatment-related AEs occurred. T-VEC is the first oncolytic immunotherapy to demonstrate therapeutic benefit against melanoma in a phase III clinical trial. T-VEC was well tolerated and resulted in a higher DRR (P < .001) and longer median OS (P = .051), particularly in untreated patients or those with stage IIIB, IIIC, or IVM1a disease. T-VEC represents a novel potential therapy for patients with metastatic melanoma. © 2015 by

  15. Public cardiopulmonary resuscitation training rates and awareness of hands-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a cross-sectional survey of Victorians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Janet E; Smith, Karen; Case, Rosalind; Cartledge, Susie; Straney, Lahn; Finn, Judith

    2017-04-01

    To provide contemporary Australian data on the public's training in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and awareness of hands-only CPR. A cross-sectional telephone survey in April 2016 of adult residents of the Australian state of Victoria was conducted. Primary outcomes were rates of CPR training and awareness of hands-only CPR. Of the 404 adults surveyed (mean age 55 ± 17 years, 59% female, 73% metropolitan residents), 274 (68%) had undergone CPR training. Only 50% (n = 201) had heard of hands-only CPR, with most citing first-aid courses (41%) and media (36%) as sources of information. Of those who had undergone training, the majority had received training more than 5 years previously (52%) and only 28% had received training or refreshed training in the past 12 months. Most received training in a formal first-aid class (43%), and received training as a requirement for work (67%). The most common reasons for not having training were: they had never thought about it (59%), did not have time (25%) and did not know where to learn (15%). Compared to standard CPR, a greater proportion of respondents were willing to provide hands-only CPR for strangers (67% vs 86%, P CPR training rates and awareness of hands-only CPR. Further promotion of hands-only CPR and self-instruction (e.g. DVD kits or online) may see further improvements in CPR training and bystander CPR rates. © 2017 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  16. Reduced firing rates of high threshold motor units in response to eccentric overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balshaw, Tom G; Pahar, Madhu; Chesham, Ross; Macgregor, Lewis J; Hunter, Angus M

    2017-01-01

    Acute responses of motor units were investigated during submaximal voluntary isometric tasks following eccentric overload (EO) and constant load (CL) knee extension resistance exercise. Ten healthy resistance-trained participants performed four experimental test sessions separated by 5 days over a 20 day period. Two sessions involved constant load and the other two used eccentric overload. EO and CL used both sessions for different target knee eccentric extension phases; one at 2 sec and the other at 4 sec. Maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) and isometric trapezoid efforts for 10 sec at 70% MVC were completed before and after each intervention and decomposed electromyography was used to measure motor unit firing rate. The firing rate of later recruited, high-threshold motor units declined following the 2-sec EO but was maintained following 2sec CL (P motor units were maintained for both loading types following 4-sec extension phases. MVC and rate of force development where maintained following both EO and CL and 2 and 4 sec phases. This study demonstrates a slower firing rate of high-threshold motor units following fast eccentric overload while MVC was maintained. This suggests that there was a neuromuscular stimulus without cost to the force-generating capacity of the knee extensors. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  17. Radiation-induced attenuation in polarization maintaining fibers: low dose rate response, stress, and materials effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gingerich, M.E.; Friebele, E.J.; Hickey, S.J.; Brambani, L.A.; Onstott, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The loss induced in polarization-maintaining (PM) fibers by low dose rate <0.01 Gy/h, where 1 Gy = 100 rads(Si) radiation exposure has been found to vary from <0.4 to ∼6 dB/km-10 Gy, depending on the wavelength of measurement and the fiber. Correlations have been established between low dose rate response and the ''permanent'' induced loss determined by fitting the recovery of the induced loss following high dose rate exposure to nth-order kinetics. Using this technique, both 0.85- and 1.3-μm PM fibers have been found which show virtually no permanent incremental loss and would therefore appear to be resistant to low dose rate radiation environments. The asymmetric stress inherent in PM fibers has been shown to reduce the permanent induced loss, while the recovery of the radiation-induced attenuation was found to be enhanced in fibers with Ge-F-doped silica clads

  18. γ irradiation with different dose rates induces different DNA damage responses in Petunia x hybrida cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donà, Mattia; Ventura, Lorenzo; Macovei, Anca; Confalonieri, Massimo; Savio, Monica; Giovannini, Annalisa; Carbonera, Daniela; Balestrazzi, Alma

    2013-05-15

    In plants, there is evidence that different dose rate exposures to gamma (γ) rays can cause different biological effects. The dynamics of DNA damage accumulation and molecular mechanisms that regulate recovery from radiation injury as a function of dose rate are poorly explored. To highlight dose-rate dependent differences in DNA damage, single cell gel electrophoresis was carried out on regenerating Petunia x hybrida leaf discs exposed to LDR (total dose 50 Gy, delivered at 0.33 Gy min(-1)) and HDR (total doses 50 and 100 Gy, delivered at 5.15 Gy min(-1)) γ-ray in the 0-24h time period after treatments. Significant fluctuations of double strand breaks and different repair capacities were observed between treatments in the 0-4h time period following irradiation. Dose-rate-dependent changes in the expression of the PhMT2 and PhAPX genes encoding a type 2 metallothionein and the cytosolic isoform of ascorbate peroxidase, respectively, were detected by Quantitative RealTime-Polymerase Chain Reaction. The PhMT2 and PhAPX genes were significantly up-regulated (3.0- and 0.7-fold) in response to HDR. The results are discussed in light of the potential practical applications of LDR-based treatments in mutation breeding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Pre-irradiation at a low dose-rate blunted p53 response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, A.; Ohnishi, K.; Asakawa, I.; Tamamoto, T.; Yasumoto, J.; Yuki, K.; Ohnishi, T.; Tachibana, A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: We have studied whether the p53-centered signal transduction pathway induced by acute radiation is interfered with chronic pre-irradiation at a low dose-rate in human cultured cells and whole body of mice. In squamous cell carcinoma cells, we found that a challenge irradiation with X-ray immediately after chronic irradiation resulted in lower levels of p53 than those observed after the challenge irradiation alone. In addition, the induction of p53-centered apoptosis and the accumulation of its related proteins after the challenge irradiation were strongly correlated with the above-mentioned phenomena. In mouse spleen, the induction of apoptosis and the accumulation of p53 and Bax were observed dose-dependently at 12 h after a challenge irradiation. In contrast, we found significant suppression of them induced by challenge irradiation at a high dose-rate when mice were pre-irradiated with chronic irradiation at a low dose-rate. These findings suggest that chronic pre-irradiation suppressed the p53 function through radiation-induced p53-dependent signal transduction processes. There are numerous papers about p53 functions in apoptosis, radiosensitivity, genomic instability and cancer incidence in cultured cells or animals. According to our data and other findings, since p53 can prevent carcinogenesis, pre-irradiation at a low dose-rate might enhance the predisposition to cancer. Therefore, it is possible that different maximal permissible dose equivalents for the public populations are appropriate. Furthermore, concerning health of human beings, studies of the adaptive responses to radiation are quite important, because the radiation response strongly depends on experience of prior exposure to radiation

  20. Dynamic Response of AA2519 Aluminum Alloy under High Strain Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olasumboye, Adewale Taiwo

    Like others in the AA2000 series, AA2519 is a heat-treatable Al-Cu alloy. Its excellent ballistic properties and stress corrosion cracking resistance, combined with other properties, qualify it as a prime candidate for armored vehicle and aircraft applications. However, available data on its high strain-rate response remains limited. In this study, AA2519 aluminum alloy was investigated in three different temper conditions: T4, T6, and T8, to determine the effects of heat treatment on the microstructure and dynamic deformation behavior of the material at high strain rates ranging within 1000 ≤ epsilon ≤ 4000 s-1. Split Hopkinson pressure bar integrated with digital image correlation system was used for mechanical response characterization. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to assess the microstructure of the material after following standard metallographic specimen preparation techniques. Results showed heterogeneous deformation in the three temper conditions. It was observed that dynamic behavior in each condition was dependent on strength properties due to the aging type controlling the strengthening precipitates produced and initial microstructure. At 1500 s -1, AA2519-T6 exhibited peak dynamic yield strength and flow stress of 509 and 667 MPa respectively, which are comparable with what were observed in T8 condition at higher rate of 3500 s-1 but AA2519-T4 showed the least strength and flow stress properties. Early stress collapse, dynamic strain aging, and higher susceptibility to shear band formation and fracture were observed in the T6 condition within the selected range of high strain rates. The alloy's general mode of damage evolution was by dispersoid particle nucleation, shearing and cracking.

  1. Effects of the leakage magnetic field from an analog meter on the response of scintillation survey meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Hisao; Norimura, Toshiyuki; Katase, Akira

    2003-01-01

    Effects of the weak leakage magnetic field are studied on the response of two kinds of scintillation survey meters: an ordinary type for γ-rays and that optimized for the detection of low-energy photons from 125 I. In the presence of the magnetic field, the response of the optimized survey meter decreases to the photons from 125 I, and increases considerably to the background radiations. On the other hand, the response of the ordinary survey meter decreases slightly to both the γ-rays from 131 I and the background radiations. From analysis of the pulse-height spectra for the radiations, such variations of the response are ascribed to the reduction of the amplification factor of photomultiplier tubes by the magnetic field. (author)

  2. Population-specific responses in physiological rates of Emiliania huxleyi to a broad CO2 range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Although coccolithophore physiological responses to CO2-induced changes in seawater carbonate chemistry have been widely studied in the past, there is limited knowledge on the variability of physiological responses between populations from different areas. In the present study, we investigated the specific responses of growth, particulate organic (POC and inorganic carbon (PIC production rates of three populations of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi from three regions in the North Atlantic Ocean (Azores: six strains, Canary Islands: five strains, and Norwegian coast near Bergen: six strains to a CO2 partial pressure (pCO2 range from 120 to 2630 µatm. Physiological rates of each population and individual strain increased with rising pCO2 levels, reached a maximum and declined thereafter. Optimal pCO2 for growth, POC production rates, and tolerance to low pH (i.e., high proton concentration was significantly higher in an E. huxleyi population isolated from the Norwegian coast than in those isolated near the Azores and Canary Islands. This may be due to the large environmental variability including large pCO2 and pH fluctuations in coastal waters off Bergen compared to the rather stable oceanic conditions at the other two sites. Maximum growth and POC production rates of the Azores and Bergen populations were similar and significantly higher than that of the Canary Islands population. This pattern could be driven by temperature–CO2 interactions where the chosen incubation temperature (16 °C was slightly below what strains isolated near the Canary Islands normally experience. Our results indicate adaptation of E. huxleyi to their local environmental conditions and the existence of distinct E. huxleyi populations. Within each population, different growth, POC, and PIC production rates at different pCO2 levels indicated strain-specific phenotypic plasticity. Accounting for this variability is important to understand how or whether E

  3. A comparative analysis of signal processing methods for motion-based rate responsive pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhut, S E; Shreve, E A; Lau, C P

    1996-08-01

    Pacemakers that augment heart rate (HR) by sensing body motion have been the most frequently prescribed rate responsive pacemakers. Many comparisons between motion-based rate responsive pacemaker models have been published. However, conclusions regarding specific signal processing methods used for rate response (e.g., filters and algorithms) can be affected by device-specific features. To objectively compare commonly used motion sensing filters and algorithms, acceleration and ECG signals were recorded from 16 normal subjects performing exercise and daily living activities. Acceleration signals were filtered (1-4 or 15-Hz band-pass), then processed using threshold crossing (TC) or integration (IN) algorithms creating four filter/algorithm combinations. Data were converted to an acceleration indicated rate and compared to intrinsic HR using root mean square difference (RMSd) and signed RMSd. Overall, the filters and algorithms performed similarly for most activities. The only differences between filters were for walking at an increasing grade (1-4 Hz superior to 15-Hz) and for rocking in a chair (15-Hz superior to 1-4 Hz). The only differences between algorithms were for bicycling (TC superior to IN), walking at an increasing grade (IN superior to TC), and holding a drill (IN superior to TC). Performance of the four filter/algorithm combinations was also similar over most activities. The 1-4/IN (filter [Hz]/algorithm) combination performed best for walking at a grade, while the 15/TC combination was best for bicycling. However, the 15/TC combination tended to be most sensitive to higher frequency artifact, such as automobile driving, downstairs walking, and hand drilling. Chair rocking artifact was highest for 1-4/IN. The RMSd for bicycling and upstairs walking were large for all combinations, reflecting the nonphysiological nature of the sensor. The 1-4/TC combination demonstrated the least intersubject variability, was the only filter/algorithm combination

  4. Measurement of air dose rates over a wide area around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant through a series of car-borne surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andoh, Masaki; Nakahara, Yukio; Tsuda, Shuichi; Yoshida, Tadayoshi; Matsuda, Norihiro; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Mikami, Satoshi; Kinouchi, Nobuyuki; Sato, Tetsuro; Tanigaki, Minoru; Takamiya, Koichi; Sato, Nobuhiro; Okumura, Ryo; Uchihori, Yukio; Saito, Kimiaki

    2015-01-01

    A series of car-borne surveys using the Kyoto University RAdiation MApping (KURAMA) and KURAMA-II survey systems has been conducted over a wide area in eastern Japan since June 2011 to evaluate the distribution of air dose rates around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant and to evaluate the time-dependent trend of decrease in air dose rates. An automated data processing system for the KURAMA-II system was established, which enabled rapid analysis of large amounts of data obtained using about 100 KURAMA-II units. The initial data used for evaluating the migration status of radioactive cesium were obtained in the first survey, followed by other car-borne surveys conducted over more extensive and wider measurement ranges. By comparing the measured air dose rates obtained in each survey (until December 2012), the decreasing trend of air dose rates measured through car-borne surveys was found to be more pronounced than those expected on the basis of the physical decay of radioactive cesium and of the air dose rates measured using NaI (Tl) survey meters in the areas surrounding the roadways. In addition, it was found that the extent of decrease in air dose rates depended on land use, wherein it decreased faster for land used as building sites than for forested areas. - Highlights: • Air dose rates distribution maps were constructed by Car-borne surveys. • KURAMA and KURAMA-II systems have been used for the measurement since 2011. • An automated data processing system for the KURAMA-II system was established. • Decreasing of the dose rates was more pronounced than those of the physical decay. • The dose rates decreased faster for building sites than for forested areas

  5. Socially responsible ethnobotanical surveys in the Cape Floristic Region: ethical principles, methodology and quantification of data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Erik Van Wyk

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A broad overview of published and unpublished ethnobotanical surveys in the Cape Floristic Region (the traditional home of the San and Khoi communities shows that the data is incomplete. There is an urgent need to record the rich indigenous knowledge about plants in a systematic and social responsible manner in order to preserve this cultural and scientific heritage for future generations. Improved methods for quantifying data are introduced, with special reference to the simplicity and benefits of the new Matrix Method. This methodology prevents or reduces the number of false negatives, and also ensures the participation of elderly people who might be immobile. It also makes it possible to compare plant uses in different local communities. This method enables the researcher to quantify the knowledge on plant use that was preserved in a community, and to determine the relative importance of a specific plant in a more objective way. Ethical considerations for such ethnobotanical surveys are discussed, through the lens of current ethical codes and international conventions. This is an accessible approach, which can also be used in the life sciences classroom.

  6. Interactive Fuzzy Goal Programming approach in multi-response stratified sample surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Neha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we applied an Interactive Fuzzy Goal Programming (IFGP approach with linear, exponential and hyperbolic membership functions, which focuses on maximizing the minimum membership values to determine the preferred compromise solution for the multi-response stratified surveys problem, formulated as a Multi- Objective Non Linear Programming Problem (MONLPP, and by linearizing the nonlinear objective functions at their individual optimum solution, the problem is approximated to an Integer Linear Programming Problem (ILPP. A numerical example based on real data is given, and comparison with some existing allocations viz. Cochran’s compromise allocation, Chatterjee’s compromise allocation and Khowaja’s compromise allocation is made to demonstrate the utility of the approach.

  7. Efficient Consumer Response (ECR: a survey of the Australian grocery industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Swatman

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Efficient consumer response (ECR is a U.S. supply chain management strategy which attempts to address the inefficiencies which have led to excessive inventory and unnecessary costs at all levels within the grocery industry supply chain. This paper discusses the traditional grocery store format, the supermarket, and the ways in which inefficient business practices developed in the U.S. grocery supply chain; and discusses the major business activities needed for successful implementation of ECR. The paper then presents a brief summary of the results of a survey of ECR knowledge and usage within the Australian grocery industry, which is the initial phase of a long term research project whose main purpose is to evaluate ECR as it applies to that industry.

  8. Water, sanitation, and hygiene access in southern Syria: analysis of survey data and recommendations for response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikder, Mustafa; Daraz, Umar; Lantagne, Daniele; Saltori, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are immediate priorities for human survival and dignity in emergencies. In 2010, > 90% of Syrians had access to improved drinking water. In 2011, armed conflict began and currently 12 million people need WASH services. We analyzed data collected in southern Syria to identify effective WASH response activities for this context. Cross-sectional household surveys were conducted in 2016 and 2017 in 17 sub-districts of two governorates in opposition controlled southern Syria. During the survey, household water was tested for free chlorine residual (FCR). Descriptive statistics were calculated, and mixed effect logistic regressions were completed to determine associations between demographic and WASH variables with outcomes of FCR > 0.1 mg/L in household water and reported diarrhea in children market-available hygiene items were unaffordable. FCR > 0.1 mg/L increased from 4.1% to 27.9% over this time, with Water Safety Plan (WSP) programming strongly associated with FCR (mOR: 24.16; 95% CI: 5.93-98.5). The proportion of households with childhood diarrhea declined from 32.8% to 20.4% over this time; sanitation and hygiene access were protective against childhood diarrhea. The private sector has effectively replaced decaying infrastructure in Syria, although at high cost and uncertain quality. Allowing market forces to manage WASH services and quantity, and targeting emergency response activities on increasing affordability with well-targeted subsidies and improving water quality and regulation via WSPs can be an effective, scalable, and cost-effective strategy to guarantee water and sanitation access in protracted emergencies with local markets.

  9. A Measurement of the Rate of Type Ia Supernovae in Galaxy Clusters from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilday, Benjamin; /Rutgers U., Piscataway /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Bassett, Bruce; /Cape Town U., Dept. Math. /South African Astron. Observ.; Becker, Andrew; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Bender, Ralf; /Munich, Tech. U. /Munich U. Observ.; Castander, Francisco; /Barcelona, IEEC; Cinabro, David; /Wayne State U.; Frieman, Joshua A.; /Chicago U. /Fermilab; Galbany, Lluis; /Barcelona, IFAE; Garnavich, Peter; /Notre Dame U.; Goobar, Ariel; /Stockholm U., OKC /Stockholm U.; Hopp, Ulrich; /Munich, Tech. U. /Munich U. Observ. /Tokyo U.

    2010-03-01

    We present measurements of the Type Ia supernova (SN) rate in galaxy clusters based on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. The cluster SN Ia rate is determined from 9 SN events in a set of 71 C4 clusters at z {le} 0.17 and 27 SN events in 492 maxBCG clusters at 0.1 {le} z {le} 0.3. We find values for the cluster SN Ia rate of (0.37{sub -0.12-0.01}{sup +0.17+0.01}) SNur h{sup 2} and (0.55{sub -0.11-0.01}{sup +0.13+0.02}) SNur h{sup 2} (SNux = 10{sup -12}L{sub x{circle_dot}}{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively, where the quoted errors are statistical and systematic, respectively. The SN rate for early-type galaxies is found to be (0.31{sub -0.12-0.01}{sup +0.18+0.01}) SNur h{sup 2} and (0.49{sub -0.11-0.01}{sup +0.15+0.02}) SNur h{sup 2} in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The SN rate for the brightest cluster galaxies (BCG) is found to be (2.04{sub -1.11-0.04}{sup +1.99+0.07}) SNur h{sup 2} and (0.36{sub -0.30-0.01}{sup +0.84+0.01}) SNur h{sup 2} in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The ratio of the SN Ia rate in cluster early-type galaxies to that of the SN Ia rate in field early-type galaxies is 1.94{sub -0.91-0.015}{sup +1.31+0.043} and 3.02{sub -1.03-0.048}{sup +1.31+0.062}, for C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The SN rate in galaxy clusters as a function of redshift, which probes the late time SN Ia delay distribution, shows only weak dependence on redshift. Combining our current measurements with previous measurements, we fit the cluster SN Ia rate data to a linear function of redshift, and find r{sub L} = [(0.49{sub -0.14}{sup +0.15}) + (0.91{sub -0.81}{sup +0.85}) x z] SNuB h{sup 2}. A comparison of the radial distribution of SNe in cluster to field early-type galaxies shows possible evidence for an enhancement of the SN rate in the cores of cluster early-type galaxies. With an observation of at most 3 hostless, intra-cluster SNe Ia, we estimate the fraction of cluster SNe that are

  10. A MEASUREMENT OF THE RATE OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE IN GALAXY CLUSTERS FROM THE SDSS-II SUPERNOVA SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilday, Benjamin; Jha, Saurabh W.; Bassett, Bruce; Becker, Andrew; Bender, Ralf; Hopp, Ulrich; Castander, Francisco; Cinabro, David; Frieman, Joshua A.; Galbany, LluIs; Miquel, Ramon; Garnavich, Peter; Goobar, Ariel; Ihara, Yutaka; Kessler, Richard; Lampeitl, Hubert; Nichol, Robert C.; Marriner, John; Molla, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    We present measurements of the Type Ia supernova (SN) rate in galaxy clusters based on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. The cluster SN Ia rate is determined from 9 SN events in a set of 71 C4 clusters at z ≤ 0.17 and 27 SN events in 492 maxBCG clusters at 0.1 ≤ z ≤ 0.3. We find values for the cluster SN Ia rate of (0.37 +0.17+0.01 -0.12-0.01 ) SNur h 2 and (0.55 +0.13+0.02 -0.11-0.01 ) SNur h 2 (SNux = 10 -12 L -1 xsun yr -1 ) in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively, where the quoted errors are statistical and systematic, respectively. The SN rate for early-type galaxies is found to be (0.31 +0.18+0.01 -0.12-0.01 ) SNur h 2 and (0.49 +0.15+0.02 -0.11-0.01 ) SNur h 2 in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The SN rate for the brightest cluster galaxies (BCG) is found to be (2.04 +1.99+0.07 -1.11-0.04 ) SNur h 2 and (0.36 +0.84+0.01 -0.30-0.01 ) SNur h 2 in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The ratio of the SN Ia rate in cluster early-type galaxies to that of the SN Ia rate in field early-type galaxies is 1.94 +1.31+0.043 -0.91-0.015 and 3.02 +1.31+0.062 -1.03-0.048 , for C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The SN rate in galaxy clusters as a function of redshift, which probes the late time SN Ia delay distribution, shows only weak dependence on redshift. Combining our current measurements with previous measurements, we fit the cluster SN Ia rate data to a linear function of redshift, and find r L = [(0.49 +0.15 -0.14 )+(0.91 +0.85 -0.81 ) x z] SNuB h 2 . A comparison of the radial distribution of SNe in cluster to field early-type galaxies shows possible evidence for an enhancement of the SN rate in the cores of cluster early-type galaxies. With an observation of at most three hostless, intra-cluster SNe Ia, we estimate the fraction of cluster SNe that are hostless to be (9.4 +8.3 -5.1 )%.

  11. Autonomic responses to heat pain: Heart rate, skin conductance, and their relation to verbal ratings and stimulus intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loggia, Marco L; Juneau, Mylène; Bushnell, M Catherine

    2011-03-01

    In human pain experiments, as well as in clinical settings, subjects are often asked to assess pain using scales (eg, numeric rating scales). Although most subjects have little difficulty in using these tools, some lack the necessary basic cognitive or motor skills (eg, paralyzed patients). Thus, the identification of appropriate nonverbal measures of pain has significant clinical relevance. In this study, we assessed heart rate (HR), skin conductance (SC), and verbal ratings in 39 healthy male subjects during the application of twelve 6-s heat stimuli of different intensities on the subjects' left forearm. Both HR and SC increased with more intense painful stimulation. However, HR but not SC, significantly correlated with pain ratings at the group level, suggesting that HR may be a better predictor of between-subject differences in pain than is SC. Conversely, changes in SC better predicted variations in ratings within a given individual, suggesting that it is more sensitive to relative changes in perception. The differences in findings derived from between- and within-subject analyses may result from greater within-subject variability in HR. We conclude that at least for male subjects, HR provides a better predictor of pain perception than SC, but that data should be averaged over several stimulus presentations to achieve consistent results. Nevertheless, variability among studies, and the indication that gender of both the subject and experimenter could influence autonomic results, lead us to advise caution in using autonomic or any other surrogate measures to infer pain in individuals who cannot adequately report their perception. Skin conductance is more sensitive to detect within-subject perceptual changes, but heart rate appears to better predict pain ratings at the group level. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Increasing sync rate of pulse-coupled oscillators via phase response function design: theory and application to wireless networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongqiang; Núñez, Felipe; Doyle, Francis J

    2012-07-25

    This paper addresses the synchronization rate of weakly connected pulse-coupled oscillators (PCOs). We prove that besides coupling strength, the phase response function is also a determinant of synchronization rate. Inspired by the result, we propose to increase the synchronization rate of PCOs by designing the phase response function. This has important significance in PCO-based clock synchronization of wireless networks. By designing the phase response function, synchronization rate is increased even under a fixed transmission power. Given that energy consumption in synchronization is determined by the product of synchronization time and transformation power, the new strategy reduces energy consumption in clock synchronization. QualNet experiments confirm the theoretical results.

  13. Evaluation of treatment response in depression studies using a Bayesian parametric cure rate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santen, Gijs; Danhof, Meindert; Della Pasqua, Oscar

    2008-10-01

    Efficacy trials with antidepressant drugs often fail to show significant treatment effect even though efficacious treatments are investigated. This failure can, amongst other factors, be attributed to the lack of sensitivity of the statistical method as well as of the endpoints to pharmacological activity. For regulatory purposes the most widely used efficacy endpoint is still the mean change in HAM-D score at the end of the study, despite evidence from literature showing that the HAM-D scale might not be a sensitive tool to assess drug effect and that changes from baseline at the end of treatment may not reflect the extent of response. In the current study, we evaluate the prospect of applying a Bayesian parametric cure rate model (CRM) to analyse antidepressant effect in efficacy trials with paroxetine. The model is based on a survival approach, which allows for a fraction of surviving patients indefinitely after completion of treatment. Data was extracted from GlaxoSmithKline's clinical databases. Response was defined as a 50% change from baseline HAM-D at any assessment time after start of therapy. Survival times were described by a log-normal distribution and drug effect was parameterised as a covariate on the fraction of non-responders. The model was able to fit the data from different studies accurately and results show that response to treatment does not lag for two weeks, as is mythically believed. In conclusion, we demonstrate how parameterisation of a survival model can be used to characterise treatment response in depression trials. The method contrasts with the long-established snapshot on changes from baseline, as it incorporates the time course of response throughout treatment.

  14. Cortical Network Models of Firing Rates in the Resting and Active States Predict BOLD Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell R Bennett

    Full Text Available Measurements of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD signals have produced some surprising observations. One is that their amplitude is proportional to the entire activity in a region of interest and not just the fluctuations in this activity. Another is that during sleep and anesthesia the average BOLD correlations between regions of interest decline as the activity declines. Mechanistic explanations of these phenomena are described here using a cortical network model consisting of modules with excitatory and inhibitory neurons, taken as regions of cortical interest, each receiving excitatory inputs from outside the network, taken as subcortical driving inputs in addition to extrinsic (intermodular connections, such as provided by associational fibers. The model shows that the standard deviation of the firing rate is proportional to the mean frequency of the firing when the extrinsic connections are decreased, so that the mean BOLD signal is proportional to both as is observed experimentally. The model also shows that if these extrinsic connections are decreased or the frequency of firing reaching the network from the subcortical driving inputs is decreased, or both decline, there is a decrease in the mean firing rate in the modules accompanied by decreases in the mean BOLD correlations between the modules, consistent with the observed changes during NREM sleep and under anesthesia. Finally, the model explains why a transient increase in the BOLD signal in a cortical area, due to a transient subcortical input, gives rises to responses throughout the cortex as observed, with these responses mediated by the extrinsic (intermodular connections.

  15. Chronic intermittent hypoxia-hypercapnia blunts heart rate responses and alters neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyavanapalli, Jhansi; Jameson, Heather; Dergacheva, Olga; Jain, Vivek; Alhusayyen, Mona; Mendelowitz, David

    2014-07-01

    Patients with obstructive sleep apnoea experience chronic intermittent hypoxia-hypercapnia (CIHH) during sleep that elicit sympathetic overactivity and diminished parasympathetic activity to the heart, leading to hypertension and depressed baroreflex sensitivity. The parasympathetic control of heart rate arises from pre-motor cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs) located in nucleus ambiguus (NA) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNX). The mechanisms underlying diminished vagal control of heart rate were investigated by studying the changes in blood pressure, heart rate, and neurotransmission to CVNs evoked by acute hypoxia-hypercapnia (H-H) and CIHH. In vivo telemetry recordings of blood pressure and heart rate were obtained in adult rats during 4 weeks of CIHH exposure. Retrogradely labelled CVNs were identified in an in vitro brainstem slice preparation obtained from adult rats exposed either to air or CIHH for 4 weeks. Postsynaptic inhibitory or excitatory currents were recorded using whole cell voltage clamp techniques. Rats exposed to CIHH had increases in blood pressure, leading to hypertension, and blunted heart rate responses to acute H-H. CIHH induced an increase in GABAergic and glycinergic neurotransmission to CVNs in NA and DMNX, respectively; and a reduction in glutamatergic neurotransmission to CVNs in both nuclei. CIHH blunted the bradycardia evoked by acute H-H and abolished the acute H-H evoked inhibition of GABAergic transmission while enhancing glycinergic neurotransmission to CVNs in NA. These changes with CIHH inhibit CVNs and vagal outflow to the heart, both in acute and chronic exposures to H-H, resulting in diminished levels of cardioprotective parasympathetic activity to the heart as seen in OSA patients. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  16. Rate of rise in diastolic blood pressure influences vascular sympathetic response to mental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, Khadigeh; Macefield, Vaughan G; Hissen, Sarah L; Joyner, Michael J; Taylor, Chloe E

    2016-12-15

    Research indicates that individuals may experience a rise (positive responders) or fall (negative responders) in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during mental stress. In this study, we examined the early blood pressure responses (including the peak, time of peak and rate of rise in blood pressure) to mental stress in positive and negative responders. Negative MSNA responders to mental stress exhibit a more rapid rise in diastolic pressure at the onset of the stressor, suggesting a baroreflex-mediated suppression of MSNA. In positive responders there is a more sluggish rise in blood pressure during mental stress, which appears to be MSNA-driven. This study suggests that whether MSNA has a role in the pressor response is dependent upon the reactivity of blood pressure early in the task. Research indicates that individuals may experience a rise (positive responders) or fall (negative responders) in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during mental stress. The aim was to examine the early blood pressure response to stress in positive and negative responders and thus its influence on the direction of change in MSNA. Blood pressure and MSNA were recorded continuously in 21 healthy young males during 2 min mental stressors (mental arithmetic, Stroop test) and physical stressors (cold pressor, handgrip exercise, post-exercise ischaemia). Participants were classified as negative or positive responders according to the direction of the mean change in MSNA during the stressor tasks. The peak changes, time of peak and rate of changes in blood pressure were compared between groups. During mental arithmetic negative responders experienced a significantly greater rate of rise in diastolic blood pressure in the first minute of the task (1.3 ± 0.5 mmHg s -1 ) compared with positive responders (0.4 ± 0.1 mmHg s -1 ; P = 0.03). Similar results were found for the Stroop test. Physical tasks elicited robust parallel increases in blood pressure and MSNA across

  17. Heart-Rate Recovery After Warm-up in Swimming: A Useful Predictor of Training Heart-Rate Response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzevles, Sander P M; de Haan, Arnold; Beek, Peter J; Daanen, Hein A M; Truijens, Martin J

    2017-07-01

    For training to be optimal, daily training load has to be adapted to the momentary status of the individual athlete, which is often difficult to establish. Therefore, the current study investigated the predictive value of heart-rate recovery (HRR) during a standardized warm-up for training load. Training load was quantified by the variation in heart rate during standardized training in competitive swimmers. Eight female and 5 male Dutch national-level swimmers participated in the study. They all performed 3 sessions consisting of a 300-m warm-up test and a 10 × 100-m training protocol. Both protocols were swum in front crawl at individually standardized velocities derived from an incremental step test. Velocity was related to 75% and 85% heart-rate reserve (% HR res ) for the warm-up and training, respectively. Relative HRR during the first 60 s after the warm-up (HR Rw-up ) and differences between the actual and intended heart rate for the warm-up and the training (ΔHR w-up and ΔHR tr ) were determined. No significant relationship between HRR w-up and ΔHR tr was found (F 1,37 = 2.96, P = .09, R 2 = .07, SEE = 4.65). There was considerable daily variation in ΔHR tr at a given swimming velocity (73-93% HR res ). ΔHR w-up and ΔHR tr were clearly related (F 1,37 = 74.31, P warm-up does not predict heart rate during a directly subsequent and standardized training session. Instead, heart rate during the warm-up protocol seems a promising alternative for coaches to make daily individual-specific adjustments to training programs.

  18. System analysis of the dynamic response of the coronary circulation to a sudden change in heart rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankelman, J.; Stassen, H. G.; Spaan, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    In this study the response of driving pressure/flow ration on an abrupt change in heart rate was analysed. The difference between the response obtained with constant pressure and constant flow perfusion was also studied. The responses show a fast initial reversed phase followed by a slow phase

  19. Response surface modelling of tool electrode wear rate and material removal rate in micro electrical discharge machining of Inconel 718

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puthumana, Govindan

    2017-01-01

    conductivity and high strength causing it extremely difficult tomachine. Micro-Electrical Discharge Machining (Micro-EDM) is a non-conventional method that has a potential toovercome these restrictions for machining of Inconel 718. Response Surface Method (RSM) was used for modelling thetool Electrode Wear...

  20. Heart Rate Variability Responses of Individuals With and Without Saline-Induced Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vena, Daniel; Bradley, T Douglas; Millar, Philip J; Floras, John S; Rubianto, Jonathan; Gavrilovic, Bojan; Perger, Elisa; Yadollahi, Azadeh

    2018-03-30

    Postoperative development of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been attributed to the fluid overloaded state of patients during the postoperative period. In this context, alterations in cardiac autonomic regulation caused by OSA may explain the increased postoperative risk for adverse cardiovascular events. This study tests the hypothesis that individuals with fluid overload-induced OSA will experience autonomic dysregulation, compared to those without fluid overload-induced OSA. Twenty-one normotensive, nonobese (mean body mass index 24.5 kg/m2) males (mean age 37 years) underwent a sleep study. Participants were randomly assigned to infusion with saline during sleep either at the minimum rate (control) or as a bolus of 22 mL/kg body weight (intervention). Participants were blinded to the intervention and crossed over to the other study arm after 1 week. Measures of heart rate variability were calculated from electrocardiography recordings presaline and postsaline infusion in the intervention arm. Heart rate variability measures computed were: standard deviation of the RR interval; root mean square of successive differences; low-frequency, high-frequency, and total power; and the ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency power. Although presaline infusion values were similar, postsaline infusion values of the standard deviation of the RR interval and high-frequency power were lower in the group whose apnea-hypopnea index increased in response to saline infusion, compared to the group whose apnea-hypopnea index did not increase in response to saline infusion ( P variability, consistent with vagal withdrawal. Future work should explore autonomic dysregulation in the postoperative period and its association with adverse events. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Sleep Medicine. All rights reserved.

  1. Prophylactic platelets in dengue: survey responses highlight lack of an evidence base.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Whitehorn

    Full Text Available Dengue is the most important arboviral infection of humans. Thrombocytopenia is frequently observed in the course of infection and haemorrhage may occur in severe disease. The degree of thrombocytopenia correlates with the severity of infection, and may contribute to the risk of haemorrhage. As a result of this prophylactic platelet transfusions are sometimes advocated for the prevention of haemorrhage. There is currently no evidence to support this practice, and platelet transfusions are costly and sometimes harmful. We conducted a global survey to assess the different approaches to the use of platelets in dengue. Respondents were all physicians involved with the treatment of patients with dengue. Respondents were asked that their answers reflected what they would do if they were the treating physician. We received responses from 306 physicians from 20 different countries. The heterogeneity of the responses highlights the variation in clinical practice and lack of an evidence base in this area and underscores the importance of prospective clinical trials to address this key question in the clinical management of patients with dengue.

  2. Stratigraphic response of salt marshes to slow rates of sea-level change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, J.; Bell, T.

    2006-12-01

    Conventional models of salt-marsh development show an idealized spatial relationship between salt-marsh floral and foraminiferal zones, where the landward margin of the marsh gradually migrates inland in response to sea-level rise. This model predicts that transgression will result in persistent and possibly expanded salt marshes at the surface, depending on a variety of factors including sediment supply, hydrologic conditions, tidal range, and rate of sea-level rise. However, in areas with abundant sediment supply and slow rates of sea- level rise, the extent of back-barrier salt marshes may decline over time as the barrier-spits mature. Sea level around the northeast coast of Newfoundland is rising at a very slow rate during the late Holocene (flora. These transitions are interpreted to reflect the progradation of the spit, decreased tidal exchange in the back-barrier, and increased influence of freshwater streams discharging into the back-barrier setting. Decreased marine influence on the back-barrier environment leads to a floral and faunal shift associated with a regressive stratigraphy in an area experiencing sea-level rise. For studies of Holocene sea-level change requiring salt-marsh stratigraphic records, it is necessary to account for changing micro-environments to locate sites appropriate for study; salt marshes may play an important role in defining the record, but may not exist at the surface to guide investigation.

  3. Comparison of energy expenditure and heart rate responses between three commercial group fitness classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, James B; Mullen, Nicholas J; Whyte, Douglas G; Cannon, Jack

    2017-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the energy expenditure and heart rate responses between three commercial group fitness classes (group resistance exercise [PUMP]; indoor stationary cycling [RIDE]; and step aerobics [STEP]). One-Way Repeated Measures incorporating a Latin Square Design for class randomisation. Ten participants (5 males and 5 females) completed each group fitness class in random order with energy expenditure and heart rate determined using an Actiheart monitor. STEP and RIDE produced significantly (pheart rates (HR avg ) (85.8±5.1% and 86.4±4.3% of HR max , respectively) compared to PUMP (73.7±7% of HR max ). HR peak was also significantly (pexpenditure (TEE), both absolute and relative, were significantly (pexpenditure was highly comparable between RIDE and STEP, which suggests these group fitness classes are more effective for developing cardiovascular fitness and assisting with weight management compared with group resistance exercise classes when performed on a regular basis. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Response to the 2009-H1N1 influenza pandemic in the Mekong Basin: surveys of country health leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dausey David J

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soon after the 2009-H1N1 virus emerged as the first influenza pandemic in 41 years, countries had an early opportunity to test their preparedness plans, protocols and procedures, including their cooperation with other countries in responding to the global pandemic threat. The Mekong Basin Disease Surveillance cooperation (MBDS comprises six countries - Cambodia, China (Yunnan and Guangxi Provinces, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam - that formally organized themselves in 2001 to cooperate in disease surveillance and control. The pandemic presented an opportunity to assess their responses in light of their individual and joint planning. We conducted two surveys of the MBDS leadership from each country, early during the pandemic and shortly after it ended. Results On average, participants rated their country's pandemic response performance as good in both 2009 and 2010. Post-pandemic (2010, perceived performance quality was best for facility-based interventions (overall mean of 4.2 on a scale from 1 = poor to 5 = excellent, followed by surveillance and information sharing (4.1, risk communications (3.9 and disease prevention and control in communities (3.7. Performance was consistently rated as good or excellent for use of hotlines for case reporting (2010 mean of 4.4 and of selected facility-based interventions (each with a 2010 mean of 4.4: using hospital admission criteria, preparing or using isolation areas, using PPE for healthcare workers and using antiviral drugs for treatment. In at least half the countries, the post-pandemic ratings were lower than initial 2009 assessments for performance related to surveillance, facility-based interventions and risk communications. Conclusions MBDS health leaders perceived their pandemic responses effective in areas previously considered problematic. Most felt that MBDS cooperation helped drive and thus added value to their efforts. Surveillance capacity

  5. Mathematical model for evaluation of dose-rate effect on biological responses to low dose γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, H.; Kawakami, Y.; Magae, J.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: To evaluate quantitative dose-response relationship on the biological response to radiation, it is necessary to consider a model including cumulative dose, dose-rate and irradiation time. In this study, we measured micronucleus formation and [ 3 H] thymidine uptake in human cells as indices of biological response to gamma radiation, and analyzed mathematically and statistically the data for quantitative evaluation of radiation risk at low dose/low dose-rate. Effective dose (ED x ) was mathematically estimated by fitting a general function of logistic model to the dose-response relationship. Assuming that biological response depends on not only cumulative dose but also dose-rate and irradiation time, a multiple logistic function was applied to express the relationship of the three variables. Moreover, to estimate the effect of radiation at very low dose, we proposed a modified exponential model. From the results of fitting curves to the inhibition of [ 3 H] thymidine uptake and micronucleus formation, it was obvious that ED 50 in proportion of inhibition of [ 3 H] thymidine uptake increased with longer irradiation time. As for the micronuclei, ED 30 also increased with longer irradiation times. These results suggest that the biological response depends on not only total dose but also irradiation time. The estimated response surface using the three variables showed that the biological response declined sharply when the dose-rate was less than 0.01 Gy/h. These results suggest that the response does not depend on total cumulative dose at very low dose-rates. Further, to investigate the effect of dose-rate within a wider range, we analyzed the relationship between ED x and dose-rate. Fitted curves indicated that ED x increased sharply when dose-rate was less than 10 -2 Gy/h. The increase of ED x signifies the decline of the response or the risk and suggests that the risk approaches to 0 at infinitely low dose-rate

  6. Effect of dietary restriction on immune response of laboratory mice divergently selected for basal metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Książek, Aneta; Konarzewski, Marek

    2012-01-01

    To study whether dietary restriction (DR; 70% of ad lib. feeding)-elicited immunosuppression results from the trade-off between the costs of mounting an immune response and the metabolic costs of maintenance, we subjected mice from two divergent lines selected for high basal metabolic rate (H-BMR) and low BMR (L-BMR) to 4 wk of DR and then challenged them with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) antigen. Those line types differ genetically with respect to BMR and to the mass of metabolically expensive internal organs, which are larger in H-BMR mice. In mice of both line types, DR resulted in a significant reduction of body mass, an immune response, and the downsizing of spleen, lymph nodes, thymus, heart, and kidneys but not small intestines. DR resulted in a greater reduction of the spleen and lymph nodes in mice of the H-BMR line type, whereas the thymus was more affected in L-BMR line type. In contrast, immunization resulted in an increase of liver mass in DR mice of both line types. A comparison of the results of current and earlier studies on the same mouse line types suggests that metabolic trade-offs involving the costs of an immune response are more apparent when animals are forced to increase energy demands (e.g., by cold exposure) compared to when energy demands are decreased through DR. Our findings also suggest that divelrgent selection on BMR resulted in between-line-type differences in T-cell- and B-cell-mediated types of an immune response. More generally, our results indicate that production of a wide repertoire of antibodies is not correlated with high BMR.

  7. A survey of rate of victimization and attitudes towards physical violence among school-aged children in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveci, S E; Acik, Y; Ayar, A

    2008-01-01

    Violence of any type is a serious issue in the lives of many children from all racial, cultural and economic backgrounds, and is a topic of enormous societal concern in any society. The purpose of this study was to examine the rate of exposure to violence as victims, and attitudes towards physical violence among school-aged children in eastern Turkey. All the basic education schools in Elazig, a typical eastern Anatolian city, were included. A total of 3725 fifth and sixth graders were asked to answer survey questions about the rate of physical violence exposure in their everyday lives and whether they thought the violence was an 'acceptable' behaviour. The mean age of participants was 12.8 years with 46.8% boys and 53.2% girls, and their socio-economic status ranged from low-income to upper middle class. Seventy-four per cent of school-aged children reported exposure to at least one case of physical violence in their lives, and 43.4% reported experiencing physical violence within previous 12 months. Higher rates of exposure to physical violence were reported by boys than girls (P = 0.0001). Of the victims, 33.8% regarded physical violence as an acceptable or inevitable way of solution or responding to life events. Results from the self-report of the receiving end of violent behaviours indicate that physical violent victimization is at an alarmingly high rate among children of eastern Turkey, and a significant per cent of these victims approves violence as a way of solution.

  8. THE Hα LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AND STAR FORMATION RATE VOLUME DENSITY AT z = 0.8 FROM THE NEWFIRM Hα SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ly Chun; Lee, Janice C.; Momcheva, Ivelina; Dale, Daniel A.; Staudaher, Shawn; Moore, Carolynn A.; Salim, Samir; Finn, Rose

    2011-01-01

    We present new measurements of the Hα luminosity function (LF) and star formation rate (SFR) volume density for galaxies at z ∼ 0.8. Our analysis is based on 1.18 μm narrowband data from the NEWFIRM Hα (NewHα) Survey, a comprehensive program designed to capture deep samples of intermediate redshift emission-line galaxies using narrowband imaging in the near-infrared. The combination of depth (∼1.9 x 10 -17 erg s -1 cm -2 in Hα at 3σ) and areal coverage (0.82 deg 2 ) of the 1.18 μm observations complements other recent Hα studies at similar redshifts, and enables us to minimize the impact of cosmic variance and place robust constraints on the shape of the LF. The present sample contains 818 NB118 excess objects, 394 of which are selected as Hα emitters. Optical spectroscopy has been obtained for 62% of the NB118 excess objects. Empirical optical broadband color classification is used to sort the remainder of the sample. A comparison of the LFs constructed for the four individual fields covered by the observations reveals significant cosmic variance, emphasizing that multiple, widely separated observations are required for such analyses. The dust-corrected LF is well described by a Schechter function with L * = 10 43.00±0.52 erg s -1 , Φ * = 10 -3.20±0.54 Mpc -3 , and α = -1.6 ± 0.19. We compare our Hα LF and SFR density to those at z ∼ 3.4 , which we attribute to significant L * evolution. Our Hα SFR density of 10 -1.00±0.18 M sun yr -1 Mpc -3 is consistent with UV and [O II] measurements at z ∼ 1. We discuss how these results compare to other Hα surveys at z ∼ 0.8, and find that the different methods used to determine survey completeness can lead to inconsistent results. This suggests that future surveys probing fainter luminosities are needed, and more rigorous methods of estimating the completeness should be adopted as standard procedure (for example, with simulations which try to simultaneously reproduce the observed Hα LF and

  9. Heart rate and lactate response of junior handball players (Under 18 during competitive match play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subir Gupta

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study highlights the heart rate (HR and blood lactate (La response of junior handball players of two positions – wings and backs, during competitive matches. Methods: Heart rate and blood lactate of twelve handball players – 6 Backs (B and 6 Wingers (W] – were recorded in quarter- and semifinal matches of the tournament. HR was recorded continuously by heart rate telemeter whereas La was measured at rest, after warm up and immediately after the end of first- and second halves of the matches. Results: Average HR and Maximum Heart Rate Reserve (MHRR of the players were similar in each half of play. No significant difference (p<0.05 in average HR and MHRR were observed between B (169±17.5 beats/min and 74.3±9.4% and W (169.5±16.3 beats/min and 74.1±8.5%. W and B played about 1/5th of their playing time above the Anerobic Threshold level. Average HR of the players in each 5 min of play could vary significantly but no such difference per 15 min of play was found. Lactate of W and B after the first half of play were 7.4±1.6 and 7.2±1.5 mM and after the end of the matches were 7.9±0.4 and 7.6±1.4 mM respectively. No significant difference in La was found between W and B. Conclusion: (a Handball play is a high intensity game, (b the workload does not vary between W and B, (c the intensity of play could vary in every 5 min of play but there is no difference in average intensity for each 15 min, and (d handball is played aerobically for majority of the time.

  10. The therapeutic effect of clinical trials: understanding placebo response rates in clinical trials – A secondary analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walach Harald

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose Placebo response rates in clinical trials vary considerably and are observed frequently. For new drugs it can be difficult to prove effectiveness superior to placebo. It is unclear what contributes to improvement in the placebo groups. We wanted to clarify, what elements of clinical trials determine placebo variability. Methods We analysed a representative sample of 141 published long-term trials (randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled; duration > 12 weeks to find out what study characteristics predict placebo response rates in various diseases. Correlational and regression analyses with study characteristics and placebo response rates were carried out. Results We found a high and significant correlation between placebo and treatment response rate across diseases (r = .78; p Conclusion Medication response rates and placebo response rates in clinical trials are highly correlated. Trial characteristics can explain some portion of the variance in placebo healing rates in RCTs. Placebo response in trials is only partially due to methodological artefacts and only partially dependent on the diagnoses treated.

  11. The effect of sampling rate and anti-aliasing filters on high-frequency response spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boore, David M.; Goulet, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The most commonly used intensity measure in ground-motion prediction equations is the pseudo-absolute response spectral acceleration (PSA), for response periods from 0.01 to 10 s (or frequencies from 0.1 to 100 Hz). PSAs are often derived from recorded ground motions, and these motions are usually filtered to remove high and low frequencies before the PSAs are computed. In this article we are only concerned with the removal of high frequencies. In modern digital recordings, this filtering corresponds at least to an anti-aliasing filter applied before conversion to digital values. Additional high-cut filtering is sometimes applied both to digital and to analog records to reduce high-frequency noise. Potential errors on the short-period (high-frequency) response spectral values are expected if the true ground motion has significant energy at frequencies above that of the anti-aliasing filter. This is especially important for areas where the instrumental sample rate and the associated anti-aliasing filter corner frequency (above which significant energy in the time series is removed) are low relative to the frequencies contained in the true ground motions. A ground-motion simulation study was conducted to investigate these effects and to develop guidance for defining the usable bandwidth for high-frequency PSA. The primary conclusion is that if the ratio of the maximum Fourier acceleration spectrum (FAS) to the FAS at a frequency fsaa corresponding to the start of the anti-aliasing filter is more than about 10, then PSA for frequencies above fsaa should be little affected by the recording process, because the ground-motion frequencies that control the response spectra will be less than fsaa . A second topic of this article concerns the resampling of the digital acceleration time series to a higher sample rate often used in the computation of short-period PSA. We confirm previous findings that sinc-function interpolation is preferred to the standard practice of using

  12. Doping in Two Elite Athletics Competitions Assessed by Randomized-Response Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Rolf; Pope, Harrison G; Cléret, Léa; Petróczi, Andrea; Nepusz, Tamás; Schaffer, Jay; Kanayama, Gen; Comstock, R Dawn; Simon, Perikles

    2018-01-01

    Doping in sports compromises fair play and endangers health. To deter doping among elite athletes, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) oversees testing of several hundred thousand athletic blood and urine samples annually, of which 1-2% test positive. Measures using the Athlete Biological Passport suggest a higher mean prevalence of about 14% positive tests. Biological testing, however, likely fails to detect many cutting-edge doping techniques, and thus the true prevalence of doping remains unknown. We surveyed 2167 athletes at two sporting events: the 13th International Association of Athletics Federations Word Championships in Athletics (WCA) in Daegu, South Korea in August 2011 and the 12th Quadrennial Pan-Arab Games (PAG) in Doha, Qatar in December 2011. To estimate the prevalence of doping, we utilized a "randomized response technique," which guarantees anonymity for individuals when answering a sensitive question. We also administered a control question at PAG assessing past-year use of supplements. The estimated prevalence of past-year doping was 43.6% (95% confidence interval 39.4-47.9) at WCA and 57.1% (52.4-61.8) at PAG. The estimated prevalence of past-year supplement use at PAG was 70.1% (65.6-74.7%). Sensitivity analyses, assessing the robustness of these estimates under numerous hypothetical scenarios of intentional or unintentional noncompliance by respondents, suggested that we were unlikely to have overestimated the true prevalence of doping. Doping appears remarkably widespread among elite athletes, and remains largely unchecked despite current biological testing. The survey technique presented here will allow future investigators to generate continued reference estimates of the prevalence of doping.

  13. Civic Participation and Self-rated Health: A Cross-national Multi-level Analysis Using the World Value Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saerom Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Civic participation, that which directly influences important decisions in our personal lives, is considered necessary for developing a society. We hypothesized that civic participation might be related to self-rated health status. Methods: We constructed a multi-level analysis using data from the World Value Survey (44 countries, n=50 859. Results: People who participated in voting and voluntary social activities tended to report better subjective health than those who did not vote or participate in social activities, after controlling for socio-demographic factors at the individual level. A negative association with unconventional political activity and subjective health was found, but this effect disappeared in a subset analysis of only the 18 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD countries. Moreover, social participation and unconventional political participation had a statistically significant contextual association with subjective health status, but this relationship was not consistent throughout the analysis. In the analysis of the 44 countries, social participation was of borderline significance, while in the subset analysis of the OECD countries unconventional political participation was a stronger determinant of subjective health. The democratic index was a significant factor in determining self-rated health in both analyses, while public health expenditure was a significant factor in only the subset analysis. Conclusions: Despite the uncertainty of its mechanism, civic participation might be a significant determinant of the health status of a country.

  14. Dose-rate and humidity effects upon the gamma-radiation response of nylon-based radiachromic film dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehringer, P.; Eschweiler, H.; Proksch, E.

    1979-10-01

    At dose-rates typical for 60 Co gamma irradiation sources, the radiation response of hexahydroxyethyl pararosaniline cyanide/ 50μm nylon radiachromic films is dependent upon dose-rate as well as upon the moisture content of the films, or the relative humidity of the surrounding atmosphere, respectively. Under equilibrium moisture conditions, the response measured at 606 nm 24 hours after end of irradiation shows its highest dose-rate dependence at about 32 % r.h. A decrease in dose-rate from 2.8 to 0.039 Gy.s -1 results in a decrease in response by 17%. At higher humidities, the sensitivity of the film as well as the rate dependence decreases and at 86% r.h. no discernible dose-rate effect could be found. At lower humidities than 32% a flat maximum in response follows. At nominal 0% r.h. a second absorption band at 412 nm appears which is converted completely to an additional 606 nm absorption by exposure to a humid atmosphere. After that procedure the resultant response is somewhat lower than but shows almost the same dose-rate dependence as at 32% r.h. or else to eliminate the dose-rate effect by an extrapolation procedure based on the fact that the rate dependence vanishes at zero dose. (author)

  15. "The stone which the builders rejected...": Delay of reinforcement and response rate on fixed-interval and related schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearden, J H; Lejeune, Helga

    2006-02-28

    The article deals with response rates (mainly running and peak or terminal rates) on simple and on some mixed-FI schedules and explores the idea that these rates are determined by the average delay of reinforcement for responses occurring during the response periods that the schedules generate. The effects of reinforcement delay are assumed to be mediated by a hyperbolic delay of reinforcement gradient. The account predicts that (a) running rates on simple FI schedules should increase with increasing rate of reinforcement, in a manner close to that required by Herrnstein's equation, (b) improving temporal control during acquisition should be associated with increasing running rates, (c) two-valued mixed-FI schedules with equiprobable components should produce complex results, with peak rates sometimes being higher on the longer component schedule, and (d) that effects of reinforcement probability on mixed-FI should affect the response rate at the time of the shorter component only. All these predictions were confirmed by data, although effects in some experiments remain outside the scope of the model. In general, delay of reinforcement as a determinant of response rate on FI and related schedules (rather than temporal control on such schedules) seems a useful starting point for a more thorough analysis of some neglected questions about performance on FI and related schedules.

  16. Low Complexity Encoder of High Rate Irregular QC-LDPC Codes for Partial Response Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMTAWIL, V.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available High rate irregular QC-LDPC codes based on circulant permutation matrices, for efficient encoder implementation, are proposed in this article. The structure of the code is an approximate lower triangular matrix. In addition, we present two novel efficient encoding techniques for generating redundant bits. The complexity of the encoder implementation depends on the number of parity bits of the code for the one-stage encoding and the length of the code for the two-stage encoding. The advantage of both encoding techniques is that few XOR-gates are used in the encoder implementation. Simulation results on partial response channels also show that the BER performance of the proposed code has gain over other QC-LDPC codes.

  17. Heart rate response during sleep in elderly patients after fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Lene; Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Kehlet, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    in the patients' home preoperatively, during hospitalization on the first postoperative night, and on the fourth postoperative night at home. HRR was reduced (P REM stage 2 sleep on the first postoperative night, and was still reduced on the fourth postoperative night compared...... to preoperative level (P = 0.01). HRR during arousal from REM sleep was not different between the preoperative and fourth postoperative night (P = 0.92), while this could not be determined on the first postoperative night where REM sleep disappeared. The reduced HRR during sleep arousal after major arthroplasty......Variability in heart rate response (HRR) can be used as a measure for autonomic nervous system function, which may influence sleep disturbances and the recovery phase after major surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate autonomic function by assessment of HRR during sleep arousals...

  18. High Strain Rate Response of 7055 Aluminum Alloy Subject to Square-spot Laser Shock Peening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rujian; Zhu, Ying; Li, Liuhe; Guo, Wei; Peng, Peng

    2017-12-01

    The influences of laser pulse energy and impact time on high strain rate response of 7055 aluminum alloy subject to square-spot laser shock peening (SLSP) were investigate. Microstructural evolution was characterized by OM, SEM and TEM. Microhardness distribution and in-depth residual stress in 15 J with one and two impacts and 25 J with one and two impacts were analyzed. Results show that the original rolling structures were significantly refined due to laser shock induced recrystallization. High density of microdefects was generated, such as dislocation tangles, dislocation wall and stacking faults. Subgrains and nanograins were induced in the surface layer, resulting in grain refinement in the near surface layer after SLSP. Compressive residual stresses with maximum value of more than -200 MPa and affected depths of more than 1 mm can be generated after SLSP. Impact time has more effectiveness than laser pulse energy in increasing the magnitude of residual stress and achieving thicker hardening layer.

  19. Use of SMS-Based Surveys in the Rapid Response to the Ebola Outbreak in Liberia: Opening Community Dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Amanda; Figueroa, Maria Elena; Storey, J Douglas

    2017-01-01

    During an emerging health crisis like the 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa, communicating with communities to learn from them and to provide timely information can be a challenge. Insight into community thinking, however, is crucial for developing appropriate communication content and strategies and for monitoring the progress of the emergency response. In November 2014, the Health Communication Capacity Collaborative partnered with GeoPoll to implement a Short Message Service (SMS)-based survey that could create a link with affected communities and help guide the communication response to Ebola. The ideation metatheory of communication and behavior change guided the design of the survey questionnaire, which produced critical insights into trusted sources of information, knowledge of transmission modes, and perceived risks-all factors relevant to the design of an effective communication response that further catalyzed ongoing community actions. The use of GeoPoll's infrastructure for data collection proved a crucial source of almost-real-time data. It allowed for rapid data collection and processing under chaotic field conditions. Though not a replacement for standard survey methodologies, SMS surveys can provide quick answers within a larger research process to decide on immediate steps for communication strategies when the demand for speedy emergency response is high. They can also help frame additional research as the response evolves and overall monitor the pulse of the situation at any point in time.

  20. Quantitative analysis of biological responses to low dose-rate γ-radiation, including dose, irradiation time, and dose-rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magae, J.; Furukawa, C.; Kawakami, Y.; Hoshi, Y.; Ogata, H.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Because biological responses to radiation are complex processes dependent on irradiation time as well as total dose, it is necessary to include dose, dose-rate and irradiation time simultaneously to predict the risk of low dose-rate irradiation. In this study, we analyzed quantitative relationship among dose, irradiation time and dose-rate, using chromosomal breakage and proliferation inhibition of human cells. For evaluation of chromosome breakage we assessed micronuclei induced by radiation. U2OS cells, a human osteosarcoma cell line, were exposed to gamma-ray in irradiation room bearing 50,000 Ci 60 Co. After the irradiation, they were cultured for 24 h in the presence of cytochalasin B to block cytokinesis, cytoplasm and nucleus were stained with DAPI and propidium iodide, and the number of binuclear cells bearing micronuclei was determined by fluorescent microscopy. For proliferation inhibition, cells were cultured for 48 h after the irradiation and [3H] thymidine was pulsed for 4 h before harvesting. Dose-rate in the irradiation room was measured with photoluminescence dosimeter. While irradiation time less than 24 h did not affect dose-response curves for both biological responses, they were remarkably attenuated as exposure time increased to more than 7 days. These biological responses were dependent on dose-rate rather than dose when cells were irradiated for 30 days. Moreover, percentage of micronucleus-forming cells cultured continuously for more than 60 days at the constant dose-rate, was gradually decreased in spite of the total dose accumulation. These results suggest that biological responses at low dose-rate, are remarkably affected by exposure time, that they are dependent on dose-rate rather than total dose in the case of long-term irradiation, and that cells are getting resistant to radiation after the continuous irradiation for 2 months. It is necessary to include effect of irradiation time and dose-rate sufficiently to evaluate risk

  1. Physiological demands of women's rugby union: time-motion analysis and heart rate response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virr, Jody Lynn; Game, Alex; Bell, Gordon John; Syrotuik, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the physical demands of women's rugby union match play using time-motion analysis and heart rate (HR) response. Thirty-eight premier club level female rugby players, ages 18-34 years were videotaped and HRs monitored for a full match. Performances were coded into 12 different movement categories: 5 speeds of locomotion (standing, walking, jogging, striding, sprinting), 4 forms of intensive non-running exertion (ruck/maul/tackle, pack down, scrum, lift) and 3 discrete activities (kick, jump, open field tackle). The main results revealed that backs spend significantly more time sprinting and walking whereas forwards spend more time in intensive non-running exertion and jogging. Forwards also had a significantly higher total work frequency compared to the backs, but a higher total rest frequency compared to the backs. In terms of HR responses, forwards displayed higher mean HRs throughout the match and more time above 80% of their maximum HR than backs. In summary, women's rugby union is characterised by intermittent bursts of high-intensity activity, where forwards and backs have similar anaerobic energy demands, but different specific match demands.

  2. A novel multi-responsive polyampholyte composite hydrogel with excellent mechanical strength and rapid shrinking rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kun; Tan, Ying; Chen, Qiang; An, Huiyong; Li, Wenbo; Dong, Lisong; Wang, Pixin

    2010-05-15

    Series of hydrophilic core-shell microgels with cross-linked poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) as core and poly(vinyl amine) (PVAm) as shell are synthesized via surfactant-free emulsion polymerization. Then, the microgels are treated with a small amount of potassium persulfate (KPS) to generate free radicals on the amine nitrogens of PVAm, which subsequently initiate the graft copolymerization of acrylic acid (AA), acryloyloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (DAC), and acrylamide (AAm) onto microgels to prepare multi-responsive composite hydrogels. The composite hydrogels consist of cross-linked ungrafted polyampholyte chains as the first network and microgels with grafted polyampholyte chains as graft point and second network and show surprising mechanical strength and rapid response rate. The investigation shows the compress strength of composite hydrogels is up to 17-30 MPa, which is 60-100 times higher than that of the hydrogel matrix. The composite hydrogel shows reversible switch of transmittance when traveling the lowest critical temperature (LCST) of microgels. When the composite hydrogel swollen in pH 2.86 solution at ambient condition is immersed into the pH 7.00 solution at 45 °C, a rapid dynamic shrinking can be observed. And the character time (τ) of shrinking dynamic of composite hydrogel is 251.9 min, which is less than that of hydrogel matrix (τ=2273.7 min). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cineradiographic Analysis of Mouse Postural Response to Alteration of Gravity and Jerk (Gravity Deceleration Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuya Hasegawa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to maintain the body relative to the external environment is important for adaptation to altered gravity. However, the physiological limits for adaptation or the disruption of body orientation are not known. In this study, we analyzed postural changes in mice upon exposure to various low gravities. Male C57BL6/J mice (n = 6 were exposed to various gravity-deceleration conditions by customized parabolic flight-maneuvers targeting the partial-gravity levels of 0.60, 0.30, 0.15 and μ g (<0.001 g. Video recordings of postural responses were analyzed frame-by-frame by high-definition cineradiography and with exact instantaneous values of gravity and jerk. As a result, the coordinated extension of the neck, spine and hindlimbs was observed during the initial phase of gravity deceleration. Joint angles widened to 120%–200% of the reference g level, and the magnitude of the thoracic-curvature stretching was correlated with gravity and jerk, i.e., the gravity deceleration rate. A certain range of jerk facilitated mouse skeletal stretching efficiently, and a jerk of −0.3~−0.4 j (g/s induced the maximum extension of the thoracic-curvature. The postural response of animals to low gravity may undergo differential regulation by gravity and jerk.

  4. Modeling Long Term Corn Yield Response to Nitrogen Rate and Crop Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Alejandra Puntel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Improved prediction of optimal N fertilizer rates for corn (Zea mays L. can reduce N losses and increase profits. We tested the ability of the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM to simulate corn and soybean (Glycine max L. yields, the economic optimum N rate (EONR using a 16-year field-experiment dataset from central Iowa, USA that included two crop sequences (continuous corn and soybean-corn and five N fertilizer rates (0, 67, 134, 201, and 268 kg N ha-1 applied to corn. Our objectives were to: a quantify model prediction accuracy before and after calibration, and report calibration steps; b compare crop model-based techniques in estimating optimal N rate for corn; and c utilize the calibrated model to explain factors causing year to year variability in yield and optimal N. Results indicated that the model simultaneously simulated well long-term crop yields response to N (relative root mean square error, RRMSE of 19.6% before and 12.3% after calibration, which provided strong evidence that important soil and crop processes were accounted for in the model. The prediction of EONR was more complex and had greater uncertainty than the prediction of crop yield (RRMSE of 44.5% before and 36.6% after calibration. For long-term site mean EONR predictions, both calibrated and uncalibrated versions can be used as the 16-yr mean differences in EONR’s were within the historical N rate error range (40 to 50 kg N ha-1. However, for accurate year-by-year simulation of EONR the calibrated version should be used. Model analysis revealed that higher EONR values in years with above normal spring precipitation were caused by an exponential increase in N loss (denitrification and leaching with precipitation. We concluded that long term experimental data were valuable in testing and refining APSIM predictions. The model can be used as a tool to assist N management guidelines in the US Midwest and we identified five avenues on how the model can add

  5. Modeling Long-Term Corn Yield Response to Nitrogen Rate and Crop Rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puntel, Laila A; Sawyer, John E; Barker, Daniel W; Dietzel, Ranae; Poffenbarger, Hanna; Castellano, Michael J; Moore, Kenneth J; Thorburn, Peter; Archontoulis, Sotirios V

    2016-01-01

    Improved prediction of optimal N fertilizer rates for corn ( Zea mays L. ) can reduce N losses and increase profits. We tested the ability of the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) to simulate corn and soybean ( Glycine max L. ) yields, the economic optimum N rate (EONR) using a 16-year field-experiment dataset from central Iowa, USA that included two crop sequences (continuous corn and soybean-corn) and five N fertilizer rates (0, 67, 134, 201, and 268 kg N ha -1 ) applied to corn. Our objectives were to: (a) quantify model prediction accuracy before and after calibration, and report calibration steps; (b) compare crop model-based techniques in estimating optimal N rate for corn; and (c) utilize the calibrated model to explain factors causing year to year variability in yield and optimal N. Results indicated that the model simulated well long-term crop yields response to N (relative root mean square error, RRMSE of 19.6% before and 12.3% after calibration), which provided strong evidence that important soil and crop processes were accounted for in the model. The prediction of EONR was more complex and had greater uncertainty than the prediction of crop yield (RRMSE of 44.5% before and 36.6% after calibration). For long-term site mean EONR predictions, both calibrated and uncalibrated versions can be used as the 16-year mean differences in EONR's were within the historical N rate error range (40-50 kg N ha -1 ). However, for accurate year-by-year simulation of EONR the calibrated version should be used. Model analysis revealed that higher EONR values in years with above normal spring precipitation were caused by an exponential increase in N loss (denitrification and leaching) with precipitation. We concluded that long-term experimental data were valuable in testing and refining APSIM predictions. The model can be used as a tool to assist N management guidelines in the US Midwest and we identified five avenues on how the model can add value toward

  6. Oxygen consumption and heart rate responses to isolated ballet exercise sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Krause, Josianne; Dos Santos Cunha, Giovani; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Follmer, Bruno; Krause, Mauricio; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Ballet stage performances are associated with higher cardiorespiratory demand than rehearsals and classes. Hence, new interest is emerging to create periodized training that enhances dancers' fitness while minimizing delayed exercise-induced fatigue and possible injuries. Finding out in what zones of intensity dancers work during different ballet movements may support the use of supplemental training adjusted to the needs of the individual dancer. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to describe dancers' oxygen consumption (VO2) and heart rate (HR) responses during the performance of nine isolated ballet exercise sets, as correlated with their first and second ventilatory thresholds (VT1 and VT2). Twelve female ballet dancers volunteered for the study. Their maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), VT1, and VT2 were determined by use of an incremental treadmill test. Nine sets of ballet movements were assessed: pliés, tendus, jetés, rond de jambes, fondus, grand adage (adage), grand battements, temps levés, and sautés. The sets were randomly executed and separated by 5 minute rest periods. ANOVA for repeated measurements followed by the Bonferroni Post-hoc test were applied (p ballet sets. This stratification followed closely, but not exactly, the variation in HR. For example, rond de jambes (156.8 ± 19 b·min(-1)) did not show any significant difference from all the other ballet sets, nor VT1 or VT2. It is concluded that the workloads of isolated ballet sets, based on VO2 responses, vary between low and moderate aerobic intensity in relation to dancers' VT1 and VT2. However, ballet set workloads may be higher when based on HR responses, due to the intermittent and isometric components of dance.

  7. Heart rate and lactate responses to taekwondo fight in elite women performers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cardinale

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine heart rate (HR and blood lactate (LA concentration before, during and after a competitive Tae kwon do (TKD fight performed by elite women performers. Specifically, we were interested to see weather HR and LA responses to competitive fight were greater than to TKD or karate exercises published in scientific literature. Seven international-standard women TKD fighters participated in the study. HR was recorded continuously throughout the fight using Polar Vantage telemetric HR monitors. LA samples were taken before and 3 min after the fight and analysed using an Accusport portable lactate analyzer. At the beginning of the fight, HR significantly increased (p<0.01 from pre-fight values of 91.6±9.9 beats min-1 to 144.1±13.6 beats min-1. During the whole fight the HRmean was 186.6±2.5 beats min-1 and remained significantly elevated (p<0.01 at 3 min into recovery. HR values expressed as a percentage of HRmax averaged during the whole fight at 91.7±2.6% respectively. LA concentration significantly increased (p<0.01 3 min after the fight and averaged 82% of LApeak values measured after the VO2max test. Results of the present study indicate that physiological demands of competitive TKD fight in women, measured by HR and LA responses, are considerably higher than the physiological demands of TKD or karate training exercises. The observed HR and LA responses suggest to us that conditioning for TKD should generally emphasise high-intensity anaerobic exercise.

  8. Assessing response to therapy in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension: a consensus survey of Canadian pulmonary hypertension physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrie, Adrienne E; Ostrow, David N; Levy, Robert D; Swiston, John R

    2011-01-01

    Many treatment options are now available for patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). Data regarding the optimal combination of therapies are lacking, as is consensus on how to assess response to therapy and when to change therapeutic regimens. To gather the opinions of Canadian pulmonary hypertension (PH) experts regarding standard practice in the care of IPAH patients after therapy is initiated. Canadian PH physicians were surveyed using short questionnaires to assess their opinions and practices in the care of IPAH patients. A Delphi forecasting approach was used to gain consensus among Canadian physicians on the most important clinical parameters to consider when assessing patients after the initiation of therapy. Twenty-six of 37 Canadian PH experts who were invited to participate completed the study. All endorsed the use of combination therapy for IPAH patients despite the lack of universal provincial coverage for this approach. By consensus, WHO functional class, 6 min walk distance and hospitalization for right heart failure were the most important clinical parameters. The most highly rated physical examination parameters were jugular venous pressure, peripheral edema, the presence of ascites and body weight. The overall approach to care of IPAH patients is similar across PH centres in Canada. A limited number of clinical and physical examination parameters were considered to be most important to reassess patients after therapy is initiated. These parameters, along with definition of threshold values, will facilitate the development of standard practice guidelines for IPAH patients in Canada.

  9. Do corresponding authors take responsibility for their work? A covert survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunis, Teun; Nota, Sjoerd P F T; Schwab, Joseph H

    2015-02-01

    Publication of a manuscript does not end an author's responsibilities. Reasons to contact an author after publication include clarification, access to raw data, and collaboration. However, legitimate questions have been raised regarding whether these responsibilities generally are being met by corresponding authors of biomedical publications. This study aims to establish (1) what proportion of corresponding authors accept the responsibility of correspondence; (2) identify characteristics of responders; and (3) assess email address decay with time. We hypothesize that the response rate is unrelated to journal impact factor. We contacted 450 corresponding authors throughout various fields of biomedical research regarding the availability of additional data from their study, under the pretense of needing these data for a related review article. Authors were randomly selected from 45 journals whose impact factors ranged from 52 to 0; the source articles were published between May 2003 and May 2013. The proportion of corresponding authors who replied, along with author characteristics were recorded, as was the proportion of emails that were returned for inactive addresses; 446 authors were available for final analysis. Fifty-three percent (190/357) of the authors with working email addresses responded to our request. Clinical researchers were more likely to reply than basic/translational scientists (51% [114/225] versus 34% [76/221]; pcommunication after research publication are: (1) listing more than one email address per corresponding author, eg, an institutional and personal address; (2) specifying all authors' email addresses; (3) when an author leaves an institution, send an automated reply offering alternative ways to get in touch; and (4) linking published manuscripts to research platforms.

  10. Particularized trust, generalized trust, and immigrant self-rated health: cross-national analysis of World Values Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H H-S

    2018-05-01

    This research examined the associations between two types of trust, generalized and particularized, and self-rated health among immigrants. Data were drawn from the World Values Survey (WVS6), the latest wave of cross-sectional surveys based on face-to-face interviews. The immigrant subsample analyzed herein contains 3108 foreign-born individuals clustered from 51 countries. Given the hierarchically nested data, two-level logistic regressions models were estimated using HLM (Hierarchical Linear Modeling) 7.1. At the individual level, net of socio-economic and demographic factors (age, gender, marital status, education, income, neighborhood security, and subjective well-being), particularized trust was positively related to physical health (odds ratio [OR] = 1.11, P < .001). Generalized trust, however, was not a significant predictor. At the country level, based on alternative models, the aggregate measure of particularized trust was negatively associated with subjective health. The odds of being healthy were on average about 30% lower. The interdisciplinary literature on social determinants of health has largely focused on the salubrious impact of trust and other forms of social capital on physical well-being. Many previous studies based on general, not immigrant, populations also did not differentiate between generalized and particularized types of trust. Results from this study suggest that this conceptual distinction is critical in understanding how and to what extent the two are differentially related to immigrant well-being across multiple levels of analysis. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey: constraining the evolution of Newton's constant using the growth rate of structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesseris, Savvas; Blake, Chris; Davis, Tamara; Parkinson, David

    2011-01-01

    We constrain the evolution of Newton's constant using the growth rate of large-scale structure measured by the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey in the redshift