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Sample records for survey research methodology

  1. Basic Project Management Methodologies for Survey Researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Robert H.

    To be effective, project management requires a heavy dependence on the document, list, and computational capability of a computerized environment. Now that microcomputers are readily available, only the rediscovery of classic project management methodology is required for improved resource allocation in small research projects. This paper provides…

  2. Methodological Issues in Survey Research: A Historical Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Heer, W.; de Leeuw, E.D.; van der Zouwen, J.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we present a historical overview of social surveys and describe the historical development of scientific survey methodology and survey statistics. The origins of survey research can be traced back to the early 19th century and the first scientiflc survey was conducted in England in

  3. International conference on research methodology for roadside surveys of drinking-driving : alcohol countermeasures workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-09-01

    The basic purpose [of the conference] was to encourage more roadside surveys by furthering the research methodology and recommendations for conducting roadside surveys developed by a special group of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Deve...

  4. Web survey methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Callegaro, Mario; Vehovar, Asja

    2015-01-01

    Web Survey Methodology guides the reader through the past fifteen years of research in web survey methodology. It both provides practical guidance on the latest techniques for collecting valid and reliable data and offers a comprehensive overview of research issues. Core topics from preparation to questionnaire design, recruitment testing to analysis and survey software are all covered in a systematic and insightful way. The reader will be exposed to key concepts and key findings in the literature, covering measurement, non-response, adjustments, paradata, and cost issues. The book also discusses the hottest research topics in survey research today, such as internet panels, virtual interviewing, mobile surveys and the integration with passive measurements, e-social sciences, mixed modes and business intelligence. The book is intended for students, practitioners, and researchers in fields such as survey and market research, psychological research, official statistics and customer satisfaction research.

  5. Survey research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Amy K; Salem, Barbara

    2010-10-01

    Survey research is a unique methodology that can provide insight into individuals' perspectives and experiences and can be collected on a large population-based sample. Specifically, in plastic surgery, survey research can provide patients and providers with accurate and reproducible information to assist with medical decision-making. When using survey methods in research, researchers should develop a conceptual model that explains the relationships of the independent and dependent variables. The items of the survey are of primary importance. Collected data are only useful if they accurately measure the concepts of interest. In addition, administration of the survey must follow basic principles to ensure an adequate response rate and representation of the intended target sample. In this article, the authors review some general concepts important for successful survey research and discuss the many advantages this methodology has for obtaining limitless amounts of valuable information.

  6. Research methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    This book deals with how students should use of research methods in their university projects. It aims at helping students in developing comprehensive research strategies for their projects. It also provides introduction to issues of philosophy of science as applied in the social sciences....... That is it provides them with a fair understanding of the root assumptions that guide researchers in their investigations and how these assumptions inform their theoretical thinking and choice of methods....

  7. Expectations for methodology and translation of animal research: a survey of health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Ari R; Bara, Meredith; Anton, Natalie; Nobis, Nathan

    2015-05-07

    Health care workers (HCW) often perform, promote, and advocate use of public funds for animal research (AR); therefore, an awareness of the empirical costs and benefits of animal research is an important issue for HCW. We aim to determine what health-care-workers consider should be acceptable standards of AR methodology and translation rate to humans. After development and validation, an e-mail survey was sent to all pediatricians and pediatric intensive care unit nurses and respiratory-therapists (RTs) affiliated with a Canadian University. We presented questions about demographics, methodology of AR, and expectations from AR. Responses of pediatricians and nurses/RTs were compared using Chi-square, with P methodological quality, most respondents expect that: AR is done to high quality; costs and difficulty are not acceptable justifications for low quality; findings should be reproducible between laboratories and strains of the same species; and guidelines for AR funded with public money should be consistent with these expectations. Asked about benefits of AR, most thought that there are sometimes/often large benefits to humans from AR, and disagreed that "AR rarely produces benefit to humans." Asked about expectations of translation to humans (of toxicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, and treatment findings), most: expect translation >40% of the time; thought that misleading AR results should occur methodological quality of, and the translation rate to humans of findings from AR. These expectations are higher than the empirical data show having been achieved. Unless these areas of AR significantly improve, HCW support of AR may be tenuous.

  8. Delirium diagnosis methodology used in research: a survey-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Karin J; Nelliot, Archana; Inouye, Sharon K; Ely, E Wesley; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Lee, Hochang Benjamin; Needham, Dale M

    2014-12-01

    To describe methodology used to diagnose delirium in research studies evaluating delirium detection tools. The authors used a survey to address reference rater methodology for delirium diagnosis, including rater characteristics, sources of patient information, and diagnostic process, completed via web or telephone interview according to respondent preference. Participants were authors of 39 studies included in three recent systematic reviews of delirium detection instruments in hospitalized patients. Authors from 85% (N = 33) of the 39 eligible studies responded to the survey. The median number of raters per study was 2.5 (interquartile range: 2-3); 79% were physicians. The raters' median duration of clinical experience with delirium diagnosis was 7 years (interquartile range: 4-10), with 5% having no prior clinical experience. Inter-rater reliability was evaluated in 70% of studies. Cognitive tests and delirium detection tools were used in the delirium reference rating process in 61% (N = 21) and 45% (N = 15) of studies, respectively, with 33% (N = 11) using both and 27% (N = 9) using neither. When patients were too drowsy or declined to participate in delirium evaluation, 70% of studies (N = 23) used all available information for delirium diagnosis, whereas 15% excluded such patients. Significant variability exists in reference standard methods for delirium diagnosis in published research. Increasing standardization by documenting inter-rater reliability, using standardized cognitive and delirium detection tools, incorporating diagnostic expert consensus panels, and using all available information in patients declining or unable to participate with formal testing may help advance delirium research by increasing consistency of case detection and improving generalizability of research results. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. E-survey with researchers, members of ethics committees and sponsors of clinical research in Brazil: an emerging methodology for scientific research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainesi, Sonia Mansoldo; Goldbaum, Moisés

    2012-12-01

    The growth of Internet users enables epidemiological studies to be conducted electronically, representing a promising methodology for data collection. Members of Ethics Committees, Clinical Researchers and Sponsors were interviewed using questionnaires sent over the Internet. Along with the questionnaire, participants received a message explaining the survey and also the informed consent. Returning the questionnaire meant the consent of the participant was given. No incentive was offered; two reminders were sent. The response rate was 21% (124/599), 20% (58/290) and 45% (24/53) respectively for Ethics Committees, Researchers and Sponsors. The percentage of return before the two reminders was about 62%. Reasons for non-response: participant not found, refusal to participate, lack of experience in clinical research or in the therapeutic field. Characteristics of participants: 45% of Ethics Committee participants, 64% of Researchers and 63% of Sponsors were male; mean age (range), respectively: 47 (28-74), 53 (24-72) and 40 (29-65) years. Among Researchers and Sponsors, all respondents had at least a university degree and, in the Ethics Committees group, only two (1.7%) did not have one. Most of the questionnaires in all groups came from the Southeast Region of Brazil, probably reflecting the highest number of clinical trials and research professionals in this region. Despite the potential limitations of a survey done through the Internet, this study led to a response rate similar to what has been observed with other models, efficiency in obtaining responses (speed and quality), convenience for respondents and low cost.

  10. Case Study Research Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Widdowson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Commenting on the lack of case studies published in modern psychotherapy publications, the author reviews the strengths of case study methodology and responds to common criticisms, before providing a summary of types of case studies including clinical, experimental and naturalistic. Suggestions are included for developing systematic case studies and brief descriptions are given of a range of research resources relating to outcome and process measures. Examples of a pragmatic case study design and a hermeneutic single-case efficacy design are given and the paper concludes with some ethical considerations and an exhortation to the TA community to engage more widely in case study research.

  11. Literacy research methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Duke, Nell K

    2012-01-01

    The definitive reference on literacy research methods, this book serves as a key resource for researchers and as a text in graduate-level courses. Distinguished scholars clearly describe established and emerging methodologies, discuss the types of questions and claims for which each is best suited, identify standards of quality, and present exemplary studies that illustrate the approaches at their best. The book demonstrates how each mode of inquiry can yield unique insights into literacy learning and teaching and how the methods can work together to move the field forward.   New to This Editi

  12. Situating methodology within qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer-Kile, Marnie L

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative nurse researchers are required to make deliberate and sometimes complex methodological decisions about their work. Methodology in qualitative research is a comprehensive approach in which theory (ideas) and method (doing) are brought into close alignment. It can be difficult, at times, to understand the concept of methodology. The purpose of this research column is to: (1) define qualitative methodology; (2) illuminate the relationship between epistemology, ontology and methodology; (3) explicate the connection between theory and method in qualitative research design; and 4) highlight relevant examples of methodological decisions made within cardiovascular nursing research. Although there is no "one set way" to do qualitative research, all qualitative researchers should account for the choices they make throughout the research process and articulate their methodological decision-making along the way.

  13. Challenges in dental statistics: survey methodology topics

    OpenAIRE

    Pizzo, Giuseppe; Milani, Silvano; Spada, Elena; Ottolenghi, Livia

    2013-01-01

    This paper gathers some contributions concerning survey methodology in dental research, as discussed during the first Workshop of the SISMEC STATDENT working group on statistical methods and applications in dentistry, held in Ancona on the 28th September 2011.The first contribution deals with the European Global Oral Health Indicators Development (EGOHID) Project which proposed a comprehensive and standardized system of epidemiological tools (questionnaires and clinical forms) for national da...

  14. SNE's methodological basis - web-based software in entrepreneurial surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning

    This overhead based paper gives an introduction to the research methodology applied in the surveys carried out in the SNE-project.......This overhead based paper gives an introduction to the research methodology applied in the surveys carried out in the SNE-project....

  15. Methodology for performing surveys for fixed contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, J.S.; Gardner, D.L.

    1994-10-01

    This report describes a methodology for performing instrument surveys for fixed contamination that can be used to support the release of material from radiological areas, including release to controlled areas and release from radiological control. The methodology, which is based on a fast scan survey and a series of statistical, fixed measurements, meets the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy Radiological Control Manual (RadCon Manual) (DOE 1994) and DOE Order 5400.5 (DOE 1990) for surveys for fixed contamination and requires less time than a conventional scan survey. The confidence interval associated with the new methodology conforms to the draft national standard for surveys. The methodology that is presented applies only to surveys for fixed contamination. Surveys for removable contamination are not discussed, and the new methodology does not affect surveys for removable contamination

  16. (Per)Forming Archival Research Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillet, Lynee Lewis

    2012-01-01

    This article raises multiple issues associated with archival research methodologies and methods. Based on a survey of recent scholarship and interviews with experienced archival researchers, this overview of the current status of archival research both complicates traditional conceptions of archival investigation and encourages scholars to adopt…

  17. Workshops as a Research Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Levinsen, Karin

    2017-01-01

    This paper contributes to knowledge on workshops as a research methodology, and specifically on how such workshops pertain to e-learning. A literature review illustrated that workshops are discussed according to three different perspectives: workshops as a means, workshops as practice, and workshops as a research methodology. Focusing primarily on…

  18. Methodology in Legal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom R. Tyler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent legal scholarship demonstrates increased attention to empirical research in the design and evaluation of law and the policies and practices of legal authorities. The growth of evidence informed law is an exciting development and one that promises to improve the legal system. In this paper I argue for the particular value of drawing not just upon empirical research methods when evaluating existing policies and practices but upon social science theories. Theory based research provides a basis for imagining and testing different models about how the legal system might operate. I support this argument by presenting research on social science frameworks for legal authority which are alternatives to the currently prevalent instrumental model.

  19. Research Methodology in Global Strategy Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuervo-Cazurra, Alvaro; Mudambi, Ram; Pedersen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    We review advances in research methodology used in global strategy research and provide suggestions on how researchers can improve their analyses and arguments. Methodological advances in the extraction of information, such as computer-aided text analysis, and in the analysis of datasets......, such as differences-in-differences and propensity score matching, have helped deal with challenges (e.g., endogeneity and causality) that bedeviled earlier studies and resulted in conflicting findings. These methodological advances need to be considered as tools that complement theoretical arguments and well......-explained logics and mechanisms so that researchers can provide better and more relevant recommendations to managers designing the global strategies of their organizations....

  20. Survey of Dynamic PSA Methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hansul; Kim, Hyeonmin; Heo, Gyunyoung; Kim, Taewan

    2015-01-01

    Event Tree(ET)/Fault Tree(FT) are significant methodology in Probabilistic Safety Assessment(PSA) for Nuclear Power Plants(NPPs). ET/FT methodology has the advantage for users to be able to easily learn and model. It enables better communication between engineers engaged in the same field. However, conventional methodologies are difficult to cope with the dynamic behavior (e.g. operation mode changes or sequence-dependent failure) and integrated situation of mechanical failure and human errors. Meanwhile, new possibilities are coming for the improved PSA by virtue of the dramatic development on digital hardware, software, information technology, and data analysis.. More specifically, the computing environment has been greatly improved with being compared to the past, so we are able to conduct risk analysis with the large amount of data actually available. One method which can take the technological advantages aforementioned should be the dynamic PSA such that conventional ET/FT can have time- and condition-dependent behaviors in accident scenarios. In this paper, we investigated the various enabling techniques for the dynamic PSA. Even though its history and academic achievement was great, it seems less interesting from industrial and regulatory viewpoint. Authors expect this can contribute to better understanding of dynamic PSA in terms of algorithm, practice, and applicability. In paper, the overview for the dynamic PSA was conducted. Most of methodologies share similar concepts. Among them, DDET seems a backbone for most of methodologies since it can be applied to large problems. The common characteristics sharing the concept of DDET are as follows: • Both deterministic and stochastic approaches • Improves the identification of PSA success criteria • Helps to limit detrimental effects of sequence binning (normally adopted in PSA) • Helps to avoid defining non-optimal success criteria that may distort the risk • Framework for comprehensively considering

  1. Survey of Dynamic PSA Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hansul; Kim, Hyeonmin; Heo, Gyunyoung [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Taewan [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Event Tree(ET)/Fault Tree(FT) are significant methodology in Probabilistic Safety Assessment(PSA) for Nuclear Power Plants(NPPs). ET/FT methodology has the advantage for users to be able to easily learn and model. It enables better communication between engineers engaged in the same field. However, conventional methodologies are difficult to cope with the dynamic behavior (e.g. operation mode changes or sequence-dependent failure) and integrated situation of mechanical failure and human errors. Meanwhile, new possibilities are coming for the improved PSA by virtue of the dramatic development on digital hardware, software, information technology, and data analysis.. More specifically, the computing environment has been greatly improved with being compared to the past, so we are able to conduct risk analysis with the large amount of data actually available. One method which can take the technological advantages aforementioned should be the dynamic PSA such that conventional ET/FT can have time- and condition-dependent behaviors in accident scenarios. In this paper, we investigated the various enabling techniques for the dynamic PSA. Even though its history and academic achievement was great, it seems less interesting from industrial and regulatory viewpoint. Authors expect this can contribute to better understanding of dynamic PSA in terms of algorithm, practice, and applicability. In paper, the overview for the dynamic PSA was conducted. Most of methodologies share similar concepts. Among them, DDET seems a backbone for most of methodologies since it can be applied to large problems. The common characteristics sharing the concept of DDET are as follows: • Both deterministic and stochastic approaches • Improves the identification of PSA success criteria • Helps to limit detrimental effects of sequence binning (normally adopted in PSA) • Helps to avoid defining non-optimal success criteria that may distort the risk • Framework for comprehensively considering

  2. Methodological Guidelines for Advertising Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossiter, John R.; Percy, Larry

    2017-01-01

    In this article, highly experienced advertising academics and advertising research consultants John R. Rossiter and Larry Percy present and discuss what they believe to be the seven most important methodological guidelines that need to be implemented to improve the practice of advertising research....... Their focus is on methodology, defined as first choosing a suitable theoretical framework to guide the research study and then identifying the advertising responses that need to be studied. Measurement of those responses is covered elsewhere in this special issue in the article by Bergkvist and Langner. Most...

  3. Reflections on Design Methodology Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    We shall reflect on the results of Design Methodology research and their impact on design practice. In the past 50 years the number of researchers in the field has expanded enormously – as has the number of publications. During the same period design practice and its products have changed...... and produced are also now far more complex and distributed, putting designers under ever increasing pressure. We shall address the question: Are the results of Design Methodology research appropriate and are they delivering the expected results in design practice? In our attempt to answer this question we...

  4. Challenges in dental statistics: survey methodology topics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pizzo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper gathers some contributions concerning survey methodology in dental research, as discussed during the first Workshop of the SISMEC STATDENT working group on statistical methods and applications in dentistry, held in Ancona on the 28th September 2011.The first contribution deals with the European Global Oral Health Indicators Development (EGOHID Project which proposed a comprehensive and standardized system of epidemiological tools (questionnaires and clinical forms for national data collection on oral health in Europe. The second contribution regards the design and conduct of trials to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of toothbrushes and mouthrinses. Finally, a flexible and effective tool used to trace dental age reference charts tailored to Italian children is presented.

  5. Case Study Research Methodology in Nursing Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Diane G

    2015-11-01

    Through data collection methods using a holistic approach that focuses on variables in a natural setting, qualitative research methods seek to understand participants' perceptions and interpretations. Common qualitative research methods include ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, and historic research. Another type of methodology that has a similar qualitative approach is case study research, which seeks to understand a phenomenon or case from multiple perspectives within a given real-world context.

  6. Methodology for astronaut reconditioning research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, David J; Cook, Jonathan A

    2017-01-01

    Space medicine offers some unique challenges, especially in terms of research methodology. A specific challenge for astronaut reconditioning involves identification of what aspects of terrestrial research methodology hold and which require modification. This paper reviews this area and presents appropriate solutions where possible. It is concluded that spaceflight rehabilitation research should remain question/problem driven and is broadly similar to the terrestrial equivalent on small populations, such as rare diseases and various sports. Astronauts and Medical Operations personnel should be involved at all levels to ensure feasibility of research protocols. There is room for creative and hybrid methodology but careful systematic observation is likely to be more achievable and fruitful than complex trial based comparisons. Multi-space agency collaboration will be critical to pool data from small groups of astronauts with the accepted use of standardised outcome measures across all agencies. Systematic reviews will be an essential component. Most limitations relate to the inherent small sample size available for human spaceflight research. Early adoption of a co-operative model for spaceflight rehabilitation research is therefore advised. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Workshops as a Research Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Levinsen, Karin Tweddell

    2017-01-01

    , and workshops as a research methodology. Focusing primarily on the latter, this paper presents five studies on upper secondary and higher education teachers’ professional development and on teaching and learning through video conferencing. Through analysis and discussion of these studies’ findings, we argue......This paper contributes to knowledge on workshops as a research methodology, and specifically on how such workshops pertain to e-learning. A literature review illustrated that workshops are discussed according to three different perspectives: workshops as a means, workshops as practice...... that workshops provide a platform that can aid researchers in identifying and exploring relevant factors in a given domain by providing means for understanding complex work and knowledge processes that are supported by technology (for example, e-learning). The approach supports identifying factors...

  8. Methodological Issues and Practices in Qualitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Jana

    1993-01-01

    Discusses methodological issues concerning qualitative research and describes research practices that qualitative researchers use to address these methodological issues. Topics discussed include the researcher as interpreter, the emergent nature of qualitative research, understanding the experience of others, trustworthiness in qualitative…

  9. Customer satisfaction surveys: Methodological recommendations for financial service providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđić Marko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This methodological article investigates practical challenges that emerge when conducting customer satisfaction surveys (CSS for financial service providers such as banks, insurance or leasing companies, and so forth. It displays methodological recommendations in reference with: (a survey design, (b sampling, (c survey method, (d questionnaire design, and (e data acquisition. Article provides appropriate explanations that usage of: two-stage survey design, SRS method, large samples, and rigorous fieldwork preparation can enhance the overall quality of CSS in financial services. Proposed methodological recommendations can primarily be applied to the primary quantitative marketing research in retail financial services. However, majority of them can be successfully applied when conducting primary quantitative marketing research in corporate financial services as well. .

  10. Research Methodologies in Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzab, Herbert

    . Within the 36 chapters 70 authors bring together a rich selection of theoretical and practical examples of how research methodologies are applied in supply chain management. The book contains papers on theoretical implications as well as papers on a range of key methods, such as modelling, surveys, case...... studies or action research. It will be of great interest to researchers in the area of supply chain management and logistics, but also to neighbouring fields, such as network management or global operations.......While supply chain management has risen to great prominence in recent year, there are hardly related developments in research methodologies. Yet, as supply chains cover more than one company, one central issue is how to collect and analyse data along the whole or relevant part of the supply chain...

  11. Methodological Reflections: Inter- ethnic Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    with both youth and the parental generation with ethnic minority background in Denmark. These reflections include implications and challenges related to researcher’s national, ethnic background and educational, professional position in encounter with   diverse ‘researched persons’ such as youth......This article reflects on the methodological and epistemological aspects of the ethical issues involved in encounters between researcher and research participants with ethnic minority background in contexts with diversity. Specific challenges involved in longitudinal research (10 - 15 years......) are also considered. The issues related to the social relevance of the research deriving from psycho political validity implying consideration of power dynamics in the personal, relational and collective domains are included. The primary basis for these reflections is a follow-up study concerning young...

  12. Feminist Methodologies and Engineering Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddoes, Kacey

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces feminist methodologies in the context of engineering education research. It builds upon other recent methodology articles in engineering education journals and presents feminist research methodologies as a concrete engineering education setting in which to explore the connections between epistemology, methodology and theory.…

  13. Operations management research methodologies using quantitative modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertrand, J.W.M.; Fransoo, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Gives an overview of quantitative model-based research in operations management, focusing on research methodology. Distinguishes between empirical and axiomatic research, and furthermore between descriptive and normative research. Presents guidelines for doing quantitative model-based research in

  14. Environmental sample banking-research and methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    The National Bureau of Standards (NBS), in cooperation with the Environment Protection Agency and the National Science Foundation, is engaged in a research program establishing methodology for environmental sample banking. This program is aimed toward evaluating the feasibility of a National Environment Specimen Bank (NESB). The capability for retrospective chemical analyses to evaluate changes in our environment would provide useful information. Much of this information could not be obtained using data from previously analyzed samples. However, to assure validity for these stored samples, they must be sampled, processed and stored under rigorously evaluated, controlled and documented conditions. The program currently under way in the NBS Analytical Chemistry Division has 3 main components. The first is an extension survey of available literature concerning problems of contamination, losses and storage. The components of interest include trace elements, pesticides, other trace organics (PCBs, plasticizers, etc.), radionuclides and microbiological species. The second component is an experimental evaluation of contamination and losses during sampling and sample handling. Of particular interest here is research into container cleaning methodology for trace elements, with respect to adsorption, desorption, leaching and partial dissolution by various sample matrices. The third component of this program is an evaluation of existing methodology for long-term sample storage

  15. EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth (ENERGY project: Design and methodology of the ENERGY cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Luis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity treatment is by large ineffective long term, and more emphasis on the prevention of excessive weight gain in childhood and adolescence is warranted. To inform energy balance related behaviour (EBRB change interventions, insight in the potential personal, family and school environmental correlates of these behaviours is needed. Studies on such multilevel correlates of EBRB among schoolchildren in Europe are lacking. The ENERGY survey aims to (1 provide up-to-date prevalence rates of measured overweight, obesity, self-reported engagement in EBRBs, and objective accelerometer-based assessment of physical activity and sedentary behaviour and blood-sample biomarkers of metabolic function in countries in different regions of Europe, (2 to identify personal, family and school environmental correlates of these EBRBs. This paper describes the design, methodology and protocol of the survey. Method/Design A school-based cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2010 in seven different European countries; Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, and Spain. The survey included measurements of anthropometrics, child, parent and school-staff questionnaires, and school observations to measure and assess outcomes (i.e. height, weight, and waist circumference, EBRBs and potential personal, family and school environmental correlates of these behaviours including the social-cultural, physical, political, and economic environmental factors. In addition, a selection of countries conducted accelerometer measurements to objectively assess physical activity and sedentary behaviour, and collected blood samples to assess several biomarkers of metabolic function. Discussion The ENERGY survey is a comprehensive cross-sectional study measuring anthropometrics and biomarkers as well as assessing a range of EBRBs and their potential correlates at the personal, family and school level, among 10-12 year old children in seven

  16. Discipline and Methodology in Higher Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tight, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    Higher education research is a multidisciplinary field, engaging researchers from across the academy who make use of a wide range of methodological approaches. This article examines the relation between discipline and methodology in higher education research, analysing a database of 567 articles published in 15 leading higher education journals…

  17. Safety at Work : Research Methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurden, van K. (Karin); Boer, de J. (Johannes); Brinks, G. (Ger); Goering-Zaburnenko, T. (Tatiana); Houten, van Y. (Ynze); Teeuw, W. (Wouter)

    2012-01-01

    In this document, we provide the methodological background for the Safety atWork project. This document combines several project deliverables as defined inthe overall project plan: validation techniques and methods (D5.1.1), performanceindicators for safety at work (D5.1.2), personal protection

  18. Playware ResearchMethodological Considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2014-01-01

    Several sub-disciplines of engineering are driven by the researchers’ aim of providing positive change to the society through their engineering. These researchers are challenged by the traditional research method of experimental research with a waterfall model which demands clearly defined projec...... characterized by rapid prototyping cycles which allow iterative technology specification and development together with people in their real world environment....

  19. Research Methodology: A Practitioner Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sukhpal; Chana, Inderveer; Singh, Maninder

    2015-01-01

    The ultimate goal of scientific research is publication so as to showcase the research outcomes. Scientists, starting as graduate students, are measured primarily not by their dexterity in laboratory manipulations, not by their innate knowledge of either broad or narrow scientific subjects, and certainly not by their wit or charm; they are…

  20. Mixed-Methods Research Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-Method studies have emerged from the paradigm wars between qualitative and quantitative research approaches to become a widely used mode of inquiry. Depending on choices made across four dimensions, mixed-methods can provide an investigator with many design choices which involve a range of sequential and concurrent strategies. Defining…

  1. TESTS AND METHODOLOGIES FOR THE SURVEY OF NARROW SPACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Perfetti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The research illustrated in this article aimed at identifying a good standard methodology to survey very narrow spaces during 3D investigation of Cultural Heritage. It is an important topic in today’s era of BIM modelling applied to Cultural Heritage. Spaces like staircases, corridors and passages are very common in the architectural or archaeological fields, and obtaining a 3D-oriented survey of those areas can be a very complex task when completeness of the model and high precision are requested. Photogrammetry appears to be the most promising solution in terms of versatility and manoeuvrability also considering the quality of the required data. Fisheye lenses were studied and tested in depth because of their significant advantage in the field of view if compared with rectilinear lenses. This advantage alone can be crucial to reduce the total amount of photos and, as a consequence, to obtain manageable data, to simplify the survey phase and to significantly reduce the elaboration time. In order to overcome the main issue that arise when using fisheye lenses, which is the lack of rules that can be employed to design the survey, a general mathematical formulation to precisely estimate the GSD (Ground Sampling Distance for every optical projection is presented here. A complete survey of a real complex case study was performed in order to test and stress the proposed methodology, and to handle a fisheye-based survey from beginning to end: the photogrammetric survey of the Minguzzi Staircase. It is a complex service spiral-staircase located in the Duomo di Milano with a total height of 25 meters and characterized by a narrow walkable space about 70 centimetres wide.

  2. Methodological issues of postoperative cognitive dysfunction research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Kamilia S; Steinmetz, Jacob; Rasmussen, Lars S

    2010-01-01

    to reveal postoperative cognitive decline, and questionnaires are not useful for this purpose. There is a profound lack of consensus regarding the research methodology for detection of cognitive deterioration, especially the diagnostic criteria. Issues, such as baseline performance, learning effects...

  3. Research Methodology in Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ole B

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to highlight pitfalls in research methodology that may explain why studies in recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) often provide very divergent results. It is hoped that insight into this issue may help clinicians decide which published studies are the most valid. It may help...... researchers to eliminate methodological flaws in future studies, which may hopefully come to some kind of agreement about the usefulness of diagnostic tests and treatments in RPL....

  4. International Relations Research Methodology: Realism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Vladimirovich Shabaga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the origins and conceptual analysis capabilities of international relations in the framework of a realistic paradigm. We research political conditions and preconditions of the creation of realism’s theory and axiological features of realism’s practice in international relations. We also analyze the basic concepts and schools of realism: Realpolitik, political realism, neorealism, neoclassical realism. It is shown that based on the balance of power in the Realpolitik Prussian and Austrian cases, this understanding of politics within the systematics of the XIX century; the adaptation of the bourgeois liberal and national ideas to the foreign-policy specifics Germany middle of the XIX century. It is shown that political realism is targeting an international actor on the desire to subjugate the greatest possible political space. In the case of political weakness (absolute or relative political realism indicates a way of adapting to circumstances in order to achieve the most desirable of the possible. The article discusses the concept A. Rochau, H. Morgenthau, H. Kissinger, K. Waltz, showing differences and instrumentality realistic theories and concludes that the main provisions of the concept as a whole.

  5. Challenges and Opportunities for Harmonizing Research Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hees, V. T.; Thaler-Kall, K.; Wolf, K. H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Raw accelerometry is increasingly being used in physical activity research, but diversity in sensor design, attachment and signal processing challenges the comparability of research results. Therefore, efforts are needed to harmonize the methodology. In this article we reflect on how...... increased methodological harmonization may be achieved. Methods: The authors of this work convened for a two-day workshop (March 2014) themed on methodological harmonization of raw accelerometry. The discussions at the workshop were used as a basis for this review. Results: Key stakeholders were identified...... as manufacturers, method developers, method users (application), publishers, and funders. To facilitate methodological harmonization in raw accelerometry the following action points were proposed: i) Manufacturers are encouraged to provide a detailed specification of their sensors, ii) Each fundamental step...

  6. Proceedings of Arcom Doctoral Workshop Research Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Lloyd

    2018-01-01

    Editorial Editorial Welcome to this special doctoral workshop on Research Methodology which forms part of what is now a well-established support mechanism for researchers in the discipline of the Built Environment and more particularly construction management. The ARCOM doctoral series, around now for some seventeen years, has addressed many of the diverse research areas that PhD researchers in the discipline have chosen to focus on in their doctoral journey. This doctoral workshop has as ...

  7. Online Public Access Catalog User Studies: A Review of Research Methodologies, March 1986-November 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Sharon

    1991-01-01

    Review of research methodologies used in studies of online public access catalog (OPAC) users finds that a variety of research methodologies--e.g., surveys, transaction log analysis, interviews--have been used with varying degrees of expertise. It is concluded that poor research methodology resulting from limited training and resources limits the…

  8. Theories, Models and Methodology in Writing Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam, Gert; Bergh, van den Huub; Couzijn, Michel

    1996-01-01

    Theories, Models and Methodology in Writing Research describes the current state of the art in research on written text production. The chapters in the first part offer contributions to the creation of new theories and models for writing processes. The second part examines specific elements of the

  9. Understanding Participatory Action Research: A Qualitative Research Methodology Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Participatory Action Research (PAR) is a qualitative research methodology option that requires further understanding and consideration. PAR is considered democratic, equitable, liberating, and life-enhancing qualitative inquiry that remains distinct from other qualitative methodologies (Kach & Kralik, 2006). Using PAR, qualitative features of an…

  10. Action research methodology in clinical pharmacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sørensen, Ellen Westh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The focus in clinical pharmacy practice is and has for the last 30-35 years been on changing the role of pharmacy staff into service orientation and patient counselling. One way of doing this is by involving staff in change process and as a researcher to take part in the change process...... by establishing partnerships with staff. On the background of the authors' widespread action research (AR)-based experiences, recommendations and comments for how to conduct an AR-study is described, and one of their AR-based studies illustrate the methodology and the research methods used. Methodology AR...... is defined as an approach to research which is based on a problem-solving relationship between researchers and clients, which aims at both solving a problem and at collaboratively generating new knowledge. Research questions relevant in AR-studies are: what was the working process in this change oriented...

  11. Research methodology in recurrent pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Ole B

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this article is to highlight pitfalls in research methodology that may explain why studies in recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) often provide very divergent results. It is hoped that insight into this issue may help clinicians decide which published studies are the most valid. It may help researchers to eliminate methodological flaws in future studies, which may hopefully come to some kind of agreement about the usefulness of diagnostic tests and treatments in RPL. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Methodological issues involved in conducting qualitative research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this article is to describe the methodological issues involved in conducting qualitative research to explore and describe nurses' experience of being directly involved with termination of pregnancies and developing guidelines for support for these nurses. The article points out the sensitivity and responsibility ...

  13. Methodologies and Methods for User Behavioral Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peiling

    1999-01-01

    Discusses methodological issues in empirical studies of information-related behavior in six specific research areas: information needs and uses; information seeking; relevance judgment; online searching (including online public access catalog, online database, and the Web); human-system interactions; and reference transactions. (Contains 191…

  14. [Qualitative research methodology in health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedregal, Paula; Besoain, Carolina; Reinoso, Alejandro; Zubarew, Tamara

    2017-03-01

    Health care research requires different methodological approaches such as qualitative and quantitative analyzes to understand the phenomena under study. Qualitative research is usually the least considered. Central elements of the qualitative method are that the object of study is constituted by perceptions, emotions and beliefs, non-random sampling by purpose, circular process of knowledge construction, and methodological rigor throughout the research process, from quality design to the consistency of results. The objective of this work is to contribute to the methodological knowledge about qualitative research in health services, based on the implementation of the study, “The transition process from pediatric to adult services: perspectives from adolescents with chronic diseases, caregivers and health professionals”. The information gathered through the qualitative methodology facilitated the understanding of critical points, barriers and facilitators of the transition process of adolescents with chronic diseases, considering the perspective of users and the health team. This study allowed the design of a transition services model from pediatric to adult health services based on the needs of adolescents with chronic diseases, their caregivers and the health team.

  15. Methodological challenges in retailer buying behaviour research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tommy Holm; Skytte, Hans

    This paper presents a review of studies on retailer buying behaviour with focus on the methodological issues. It is argued that the researcher of retailer buying behaviour is faced with particular challenges regarding the sample frame, defining th of analysis, potentially small populations and low...... response rates, buying centres and product specific behaviour. At the end, the authors propose a descriptive research design that will try to take account of the mentioned issues....

  16. 2007 Veterans Employability Research Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The 2007 Veterans Employability Research Survey (VERS) was conducted to determine the factors that impact veterans' employability resulting from participation in the...

  17. A survey of decision tree classifier methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavian, S. R.; Landgrebe, David

    1991-01-01

    Decision tree classifiers (DTCs) are used successfully in many diverse areas such as radar signal classification, character recognition, remote sensing, medical diagnosis, expert systems, and speech recognition. Perhaps the most important feature of DTCs is their capability to break down a complex decision-making process into a collection of simpler decisions, thus providing a solution which is often easier to interpret. A survey of current methods is presented for DTC designs and the various existing issues. After considering potential advantages of DTCs over single-state classifiers, subjects of tree structure design, feature selection at each internal node, and decision and search strategies are discussed.

  18. Methodological and Analytical Dilemmas in Autoethnographic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Maydell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an argument on the application of theoretical and methodological frameworks to the study of identity from an autoethnographic perspective. In order to guide the analysis process, the author employed social constructionism as the main theoretical foundation, whereas thematic analysis and positioning theory were deployed as the methodological frameworks. Further, in the process of using ethnographic methods to study the identity of Russian immigrants to New Zealand, the author found herself also needing to use autoethnography to interrogate and understand her own journey. The insider/outsider position of the author who belongs to the same minority group became the most vital tool in her identity construction. In this regard, it is impossible to engage fully with the autoethnographic research practice without understanding the impact of others on identity construction of self, and a strong theoretical and methodological scholarship can provide a valuable foundation for this process.

  19. Researching Lean: Methodological implications of loose definitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brännmark, Mikael; Langstrand, Jostein; Johansson, Stina

    2012-01-01

    practices seem to overlap with other popular management concepts, such as High Performance Work Systems, World Class Manufacturing and Total Quality Management. This confusion, combined with different methodological and theoretical traditions, has led to much debate and contradictory conclusions regarding...... Lean. The purpose of the paper is to illustrate some key methodological issues that need to be considered in future Lean research to allow increased understanding of Lean effects for different stakeholders, primarily meaning the customer, employer and employees. Design/methodology/approach – The paper...... on the case studies, we suggest that future investigations describe the Lean interventions in more detail. General descriptions or analogies, e.g. ‘learning organizations’, presumably increase the present confusion regarding Lean impact on different stakeholders. The case studies also illustrate...

  20. Case Study Methodology and Homelessness Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Pable

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the potential suitability of case study methodology for inquiry with the homeless population. It references a research study that uses case study research method to build theory. This study's topic is the lived experience of destitute individuals who reside in homeless shelters, and explores the homeless shelter built environment's potential influence on resident satisfaction and recovery. Case study methodology may be appropriate because it explores real-life contextual issues that characterize homelessness and can also accommodate the wide range of homeless person demographics that make this group difficult to study in a generalized fashion. Further, case study method accommodates the need within research in this area to understand individualized treatments as a potential solution for homelessness.

  1. Verbal protocols as methodological resources: research evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Baldo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at reflecting on the use of verbal protocols as a methodological resource in qualitative research, more specifically on the aspect regarded as the main limitation of a study about lexical inferencing in L2 (BALDO; VELASQUES, 2010: its subjective trait. The article begins with a brief literature review on protocols, followed by a description of the study in which they were employed as methodological resources. Based on that, protocol subjectivity is illustrated through samples of unparalleled data classification, carried out independently by two researchers. In the final section, the path followed to minimize the problem is presented, intending to contribute to improve efficiency in the use of verbal protocols in future research.

  2. survey research in practical theology and congregational studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    such as the social, political and economic environment that influence society also affect the ... correlation research is part of a quantitative research methodology and could contribute to ... Another type is qualitative survey that focuses on the ...

  3. Case Study Research: Foundations and Methodological Orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Harrison

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last forty years, case study research has undergone substantial methodological development. This evolution has resulted in a pragmatic, flexible research approach, capable of providing comprehensive in-depth understanding of a diverse range of issues across a number of disciplines. Change and progress have stemmed from parallel influences of historical transformations in approaches to research and individual researcher's preferences, perspectives, and interpretations of this design. Researchers who have contributed to the development of case study research come from diverse disciplines with different philosophical perspectives, resulting in a variety of definitions and approaches. For the researcher new to using case study, such variety can create a confusing platform for its application. In this article, we explore the evolution of case study research, discuss methodological variations, and summarize key elements with the aim of providing guidance on the available options for researchers wanting to use case study in their work. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1701195

  4. Urban metabolism: A review of research methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Urban metabolism analysis has become an important tool for the study of urban ecosystems. The problems of large metabolic throughput, low metabolic efficiency, and disordered metabolic processes are a major cause of unhealthy urban systems. In this paper, I summarize the international research on urban metabolism, and describe the progress that has been made in terms of research methodologies. I also review the methods used in accounting for and evaluating material and energy flows in urban metabolic processes, simulation of these flows using a network model, and practical applications of these methods. Based on this review of the literature, I propose directions for future research, and particularly the need to study the urban carbon metabolism because of the modern context of global climate change. Moreover, I recommend more research on the optimal regulation of urban metabolic systems. Highlights: •Urban metabolic processes can be analyzed by regarding cities as superorganisms. •Urban metabolism methods include accounting, assessment, modeling, and regulation. •Research methodologies have improved greatly since this field began in 1965. •Future research should focus on carbon metabolism and optimal regulation. -- The author reviews research progress in the field of urban metabolism, and based on her literature review, proposes directions for future research

  5. Methodological triangulation in work life research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warring, Niels

    Based on examples from two research projects on preschool teachers' work, the paper will discuss potentials and challenges in methodological triangulation in work life research. Analysis of ethnographic and phenomenological inspired observations of everyday life in day care centers formed the basis...... for individual interviews and informal talks with employees. The interviews and conversations were based on a critical hermeneutic approach. The analysis of observations and interviews constituted a knowledge base as the project went in to the last phase: action research workshops. In the workshops findings from...

  6. Research methodological issues in evaluating herbal interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipika Bansal

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Dipika Bansal, Debasish Hota, Amitava ChakrabartiPostgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, IndiaAbstract: Randomized controlled trials provide the best evidence, and is seen as the gold standard for allopathic research. Herbal therapies are not an integral part of conventional care although they are still used by patients in their health care management. These medicines need to be subjected to rigorous research to establish their effectiveness and safety. Clearly defined treatments are required and should be recorded in a manner that enables other suitably trained researchers to reproduce them reliably. Quality control of herbal products is also a prerequisite of credible clinical trials. Methodological strategies for investigating the herbal interventions and the issues regarding appropriate patient selection, randomization and blinding, placebo effects and choice of comparator, occupational standardization and the selection of appropriate study endpoints to prove efficacy are being discussed. This paper will review research options and propose some suggestions for future research design.Keywords: CAM research, herbal therapies, methodology, clinical trial

  7. Methodological issues of postoperative cognitive dysfunction research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Kamilia S; Steinmetz, Jacob; Rasmussen, Lars S

    2010-01-01

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a subtle impairment of memory, concentration, and speed of information processing. It is a frequent complication following surgery and can have a debilitating effect on patients' recovery and future prognosis. Neuropsychological testing is needed...... to reveal postoperative cognitive decline, and questionnaires are not useful for this purpose. There is a profound lack of consensus regarding the research methodology for detection of cognitive deterioration, especially the diagnostic criteria. Issues, such as baseline performance, learning effects...

  8. Towards an Airframe Noise Prediction Methodology: Survey of Current Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farassat, Fereidoun; Casper, Jay H.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a critical survey of the current airframe noise (AFN) prediction methodologies. Four methodologies are recognized. These are the fully analytic method, CFD combined with the acoustic analogy, the semi-empirical method and fully numerical method. It is argued that for the immediate need of the aircraft industry, the semi-empirical method based on recent high quality acoustic database is the best available method. The method based on CFD and the Ffowcs William- Hawkings (FW-H) equation with penetrable data surface (FW-Hpds ) has advanced considerably and much experience has been gained in its use. However, more research is needed in the near future particularly in the area of turbulence simulation. The fully numerical method will take longer to reach maturity. Based on the current trends, it is predicted that this method will eventually develop into the method of choice. Both the turbulence simulation and propagation methods need to develop more for this method to become useful. Nonetheless, the authors propose that the method based on a combination of numerical and analytical techniques, e.g., CFD combined with FW-H equation, should also be worked on. In this effort, the current symbolic algebra software will allow more analytical approaches to be incorporated into AFN prediction methods.

  9. Methodology of Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), Malaysia, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Azahadi; Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli Mohd; Hiong, Tee Guat; Aris, Tahir; Morton, Jeremy; Pujari, Sameer

    Malaysia participated in the second phase of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) in 2011. GATS, a new component of the Global Tobacco Surveillance System, is a nationally representative household survey of adults 15 years old or above. The objectives of GATS Malaysia were to (i) systematically monitor tobacco use among adults and track key indicators of tobacco control and (ii) track the implementation of some of the Framework Convention of Tobacco Control (FCTC)-recommended demand related policies. GATS Malaysia 2011 was a nationwide cross-sectional survey using multistage stratified sampling to select 5112 nationally representative households. One individual aged 15 years or older was randomly chosen from each selected household and interviewed using handheld device. GATS Core Questionnaire with optional questions was pre-tested and uploaded into handheld devices after repeated quality control processes. Data collectors were trained through a centralized training. Manuals and picture book were prepared to aid in the training of data collectors and during data collection. Field-level data were aggregated on a daily basis and analysed twice a week. Quality controls were instituted to ensure collection of high quality data. Sample weighting and analysis were conducted with the assistance of researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA. GATS Malaysia received a total response rate of 85.3% from 5112 adults surveyed. Majority of the respondents were 25-44 years old and Malays. The robust methodology used in the GATS Malaysia provides national estimates for tobacco used classified by socio-demographic characteristics and reliable data on various dimensions of tobacco control.

  10. Well logging instrumental and methodological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrassy, L.; Barath, I.; Dorko, R.

    1983-01-01

    This part of the Annual Report of the Roland Eoetvoes Geophysical Institute (ELGI) of Hungary for 1982, summarizes the well logging instrumental and methodological researches of ELGI. The theoretical neutron diffusion fluxes for black and brown coals of Hungarian mines were calculated. A coal probe was developed and tested in boreholes using computerized data processing and interpretation. An X-ray radiometric method was used for the determination of Cu and Fe contents of minerals. Researches in the field of magnetic susceptibility and induced polarization logging are also summarized. A rapid analyzer for bauxite mining and a photorecorder for petroleum industry were developed by ELGI. (D.Gy.)

  11. Cultivating creativity in methodology and research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Charlotte; Meier, Ninna; Maslo, Elina

    in which ‘accountable’ research methodologies involve adventurousness and an element of uncertainty. Written by scholars from a range of different fields, academic levels and geographic locations, this unique book will offer significant insight to those from a range of academic fields.......This book presents a variety of narratives on key elements of academic work, from data analysis, writing practices and engagement with the field. The authors discuss how elements of academic work and life – usually edited out of traditional research papers – can elicit important analytical insight....... The book reveals how the unplanned, accidental and even obstructive events that often occur in research life, the ‘detours’, can potentially glean important results. The authors introduce the process of ‘writing-sharing-reading-writing’ as a way to expand the playground of research and inspire a culture...

  12. Toward methodological emancipation in applied health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Sally

    2011-04-01

    In this article, I trace the historical groundings of what have become methodological conventions in the use of qualitative approaches to answer questions arising from the applied health disciplines and advocate an alternative logic more strategically grounded in the epistemological orientations of the professional health disciplines. I argue for an increasing emphasis on the modification of conventional qualitative approaches to the particular knowledge demands of the applied practice domain, challenging the merits of what may have become unwarranted attachment to theorizing. Reorienting our methodological toolkits toward the questions arising within an evidence-dominated policy agenda, I encourage my applied health disciplinary colleagues to make themselves useful to that larger project by illuminating that which quantitative research renders invisible, problematizing the assumptions on which it generates conclusions, and filling in the gaps in knowledge needed to make decisions on behalf of people and populations.

  13. Methodological design of the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Romero-Martínez; Teresa Shamah-Levy; Lucia Cuevas-Nasu; Ignacio Méndez Gómez-Humarán; Elsa Berenice Gaona-Pineda; Luz María Gómez-Acosta; Juan Ángel Rivera-Dommarco; Mauricio Hernández-Ávila

    2017-01-01

    Objective. Describe the design methodology of the halfway health and nutrition national survey (Ensanut-MC) 2016. Materials and methods. The Ensanut-MC is a national probabilistic survey whose objective population are the in­habitants of private households in Mexico. The sample size was determined to make inferences on the urban and rural areas in four regions. Describes main design elements: target population, topics of study, sampling procedure, measurement procedure and logistics organizat...

  14. Muscle dysmorphia: methodological issues, implications for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suffolk, Mark T; Dovey, Terence M; Goodwin, Huw; Meyer, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Muscle dysmorphia is a male-dominated, body image-related psychological condition. Despite continued investigation, contention surrounds the nosological status of this disorder. The aim of this article was to review the literature on muscle dysmorphia to provide a qualitative account of methodological issues that may inhibit our understanding. Key areas relating to non-standardized participant groups, measuring instruments, and terminology were identified as potentially inhibiting symptom coherence and diagnostic reliability. New measuring instruments validated with clinical samples and carefully described participant groups, standardized terminology, and a greater emphasis on prospective longitudinal research with specific sub groups of the weight training community would be of interest to the field.

  15. Sociocultural Meanings of Nanotechnology: Research Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, William Sims

    2004-06-01

    This article identifies six social-science research methodologies that will be useful for charting the sociocultural meaning of nanotechnology: web-based questionnaires, vignette experiments, analysis of web linkages, recommender systems, quantitative content analysis, and qualitative textual analysis. Data from a range of sources are used to illustrate how the methods can delineate the intellectual content and institutional structure of the emerging nanotechnology culture. Such methods will make it possible in future to test hypotheses such as that there are two competing definitions of nanotechnology - the technical-scientific and the science-fiction - that are influencing public perceptions by different routes and in different directions.

  16. Methodology of impact assessment of research projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Cardona, R.; Cobas Aranda, M.

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the management of research projects development it is necessary to have tools to monitor and evaluate progress and the performance of the projects, as well as their results and the impact on society (international agencies of the United Nations and the States 2002 and 2005 Paris Declaration), with the objective of to ensure their contribution to the social and economic development of countries. Many organizations, agencies and Governments apply different methodologies (IDB, World Bank, UNDP, ECLAC, UNESCO; UNICEF, Canada, Japan, other) for these purposes. In the results-based project management system not only paramount is the process or product itself, but also the result or impact of the project (if the program/project produced the effects desired persons, households and institutions and whether those effects are attributable to the intervention of the program / project). The work shows a methodology that allows for a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of impact of research projects and has been result of experience in project management of international collaboration with the International Agency for Atomic Energy (IAEA) and the Cuban Nuclear programme. (author)

  17. Researching Lean: Methodological Implications of Loose Definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Brännmark

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Lean Production (Lean has become a prevailing management concept in Sweden. However, previous research seems to show that the Lean concept and the impact of Lean vary considerably between organizations. This paper illustrates some key methodological issues that need to be considered when researching loosely defined management concepts such as Lean. The paper is based on a review of the literature and five comparative Swedish cases studies. Our study indicates that Lean has changed over time and that operationalization and interpretations of the concept vary considerably. This study concludes that future Lean studies should include a thorough assessment of the Lean interventions, study settings, and in particular non-Lean factors mediating the outcomes of Lean-inspired change programs.

  18. Methodological aspects of shift-work research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsson, Anders

    2004-01-01

    A major issue in shift-work research is to understand the possible ways in which shift work can impact performance and health. Nearly all body functions, from those of the cellular level to those of the entire body, are circadian rhythmic. Disturbances of these rhythms as well as the social consequences of odd work hours are of importance for the health and well-being of shift workers. This article reviews a number of common methodological issues which are of relevance to epidemiological studies in this area of research. It discusses conceptual problems regarding the use of the term "shift work," and it underscores the need to develop models that explain the mechanisms of disease in shift workers.

  19. Introducing an ILS methodology into research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzo, N. de; Borsani, R.C.

    2003-01-01

    Integrated Logistics Support (ILS) is the managerial organisation that co-ordinates the activities of many disciplines to develop the supporting resources (training, staffing, designing aids, equipment removal routes, etc) required by technologically complex systems. The application of an ILS methodology in defence projects is described in several places, but it is infrequently illustrated for other areas; therefore the present paper deals with applying this approach to research reactors under design or already in operation. Although better results are obtained when applied since the very beginning of a project, it can be applied successfully in facilities already in operation to improve their capability in a cost-effective way. In applying this methodology, the key objectives shall be previously identified in order to tailor the whole approach. Generally in high power multipurpose reactors, obtaining maximum profit at the lowest possible cost without reducing the safety levels are key issues, while in others the goal is to minimise drawbacks like spurious shutdowns, low quality experimental results or even to reduce staff dose to ALARA values. These items need to be quantified for establishing a system status base line in order to trace the process evolution. Thereafter, specific logistics analyses should be performed in the different areas composing the system. RAMS (Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Supportability), Manning, Training Needs, Supplying Needs are some examples of these special logistic assessments. The following paragraphs summarise the different areas, encompassed by this ILS methodology. Plant design is influenced focussing the designers? attention on the objectives already identified. Careful design reviews are performed only in an early design stage, being useless a later application. In this paper is presented a methodology including appropriate tools for ensuring the designers abide to ILS issues and key objectives through the

  20. Efficient Computational Research Protocol to Survey Free Energy Surface for Solution Chemical Reaction in the QM/MM Framework: The FEG-ER Methodology and Its Application to Isomerization Reaction of Glycine in Aqueous Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Norio; Kitamura, Yukichi; Nagaoka, Masataka

    2016-03-03

    In solution chemical reaction, we often need to consider a multidimensional free energy (FE) surface (FES) which is analogous to a Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface. To survey the FES, an efficient computational research protocol is proposed within the QM/MM framework; (i) we first obtain some stable states (or transition states) involved by optimizing their structures on the FES, in a stepwise fashion, finally using the free energy gradient (FEG) method, and then (ii) we directly obtain the FE differences among any arbitrary states on the FES, efficiently by employing the QM/MM method with energy representation (ER), i.e., the QM/MM-ER method. To validate the calculation accuracy and efficiency, we applied the above FEG-ER methodology to a typical isomerization reaction of glycine in aqueous solution, and reproduced quite satisfactorily the experimental value of the reaction FE. Further, it was found that the structural relaxation of the solute in the QM/MM force field is not negligible to estimate correctly the FES. We believe that the present research protocol should become prevailing as one computational strategy and will play promising and important roles in solution chemistry toward solution reaction ergodography.

  1. Operations Research Games : A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borm, P.E.M.; Hamers, H.J.M.; Hendrickx, R.L.P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper surveys the research area of cooperative games associated with several types of operations research problems in which various decision makers (players) are involved.Cooperating players not only face a joint optimisation problem in trying, e.g., to minimise total joint costs, but also face

  2. Research design: the methodology for interdisciplinary research framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobi, Hilde; Kampen, Jarl K

    2018-01-01

    Many of today's global scientific challenges require the joint involvement of researchers from different disciplinary backgrounds (social sciences, environmental sciences, climatology, medicine, etc.). Such interdisciplinary research teams face many challenges resulting from differences in training and scientific culture. Interdisciplinary education programs are required to train truly interdisciplinary scientists with respect to the critical factor skills and competences. For that purpose this paper presents the Methodology for Interdisciplinary Research (MIR) framework. The MIR framework was developed to help cross disciplinary borders, especially those between the natural sciences and the social sciences. The framework has been specifically constructed to facilitate the design of interdisciplinary scientific research, and can be applied in an educational program, as a reference for monitoring the phases of interdisciplinary research, and as a tool to design such research in a process approach. It is suitable for research projects of different sizes and levels of complexity, and it allows for a range of methods' combinations (case study, mixed methods, etc.). The different phases of designing interdisciplinary research in the MIR framework are described and illustrated by real-life applications in teaching and research. We further discuss the framework's utility in research design in landscape architecture, mixed methods research, and provide an outlook to the framework's potential in inclusive interdisciplinary research, and last but not least, research integrity.

  3. FY 1998 annual report on the survey and research on methodology for estimating reduced amounts of greenhouse effect gas emissions; Onshitsu koka gas haishutsu sakugenryo santei hoho ni kansuru chosa kenkyu 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Although introduction of Joint Implementation (JI) and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) have been adopted in the COP3, the details of how to set up the baseline for calculating the emission reduction amounts have not been established. This survey/research project has sorted out various concept menus for setting the baseline, verify each menu, and positively propose the methodology in an international arena, in which merits and demerits involved in simplified approaches, which try to simplify the works for setting the baseline, are analyzed, and their effectiveness is investigated. At the same time, both FCCC AIJ and NEDO AIJ projects are analyzed, to understand characteristics of baseline-setting method adopted by each project. There are many project types, to which direct application of any simplified approach is difficult. It is therefore realistic to analyze the situations case by case for the time being, and pursue for possibility of standardization of the baseline-setting methods after sufficient experience and data are accumulated to allow classification of the projects by common features. (NEDO)

  4. Methodological approaches in the research of organizational culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janićijević Nebojša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the thirty-years-long research of organizational culture, two mutually opposed methodological approaches have emerged: objectivistic quantitative and subjectivistic-qualitative. These two approaches are based on opposite ontological and epistemological assumptions: they include different types of research, and use opposite, quantitative vs. qualitative, methods of research. Each of the methodological approaches has its advantages and disadvantages. For this reason a hybrid approach emerges as a legitimate choice in organizational culture research methodology. It combines elements of both subjectivistic and objectivistic methodological approaches, according to the goals, content, and context of the research and preferences of the researcher himself/herself. Since it is possible to combine the two principal methodological approaches in various ways, there are several possible hybrid methodologies in organizational culture research. After the review of objectivistic quantitative and subjectivistic-qualitative methodological approaches, one of possible hybrid approaches in the research of organizational culture is presented in this paper.

  5. Postgraduate Conception of Research Methodology: Implications for Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Ben; Kumar, Vijay; Omar, Noritah

    2018-01-01

    This qualitative inquiry investigates postgraduate students' conceptions of research methodology and how it contributes to their learning. It explores factors likely to motivate student choice of research methodology and challenges in understanding research methods. The research was carried out at research-intensive universities in New Zealand and…

  6. A Methodological Review of Meditation Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John W.; Cohen, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Despite over 50 years of research into the states of consciousness induced by various meditation practices, no clear neurophysiological signatures of these states have been found. Much of this failure can be attributed to the narrow range of variables examined in most meditation studies, with the focus being restricted to a search for correlations between neurophysiological measures and particular practices, without documenting the content and context of these practices. We contend that more meaningful results can be obtained by expanding the methodological paradigm to include multiple domains including: the cultural setting (“the place”), the life situation of the meditator (“the person”), details of the particular meditation practice (‘the practice’), and the state of consciousness of the meditator (“the phenomenology”). Inclusion of variables from all these domains will improve the ability to predict the psychophysiological variables (“the psychophysiology”) associated with specific meditation states and thus explore the mysteries of human consciousness. PMID:25071607

  7. Understanding Sample Surveys: Selective Learning about Social Science Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currin-Percival, Mary; Johnson, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We investigate differences in what students learn about survey methodology in a class on public opinion presented in two critically different ways: with the inclusion or exclusion of an original research project using a random-digit-dial telephone survey. Using a quasi-experimental design and data obtained from pretests and posttests in two public…

  8. Legal Research Methodology and the Dream of Interdisciplinarity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Legal Research Methodology and the Dream of Interdisciplinarity. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... Whilst the natural sciences employ a mostly empiricist methodology and the human ...

  9. Methodology for evaluation of railroad technology research projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    This Project memorandum presents a methodology for evaluating railroad research projects. The methodology includes consideration of industry and societal benefits, with special attention given to technical risks, implementation considerations, and po...

  10. Metodologia qualitativa de pesquisa Qualitative research methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helena T. de Souza Martins

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta reflexões sobre o que significa fazer ciência no âmbito dos métodos e técnicas qualitativos da sociologia. Tem como pressupostos uma compreensão de metodologia como o conhecimento crítico dos caminhos do processo científico, que indaga e questiona acerca de seus limites e possibilidades; e o reconhecimento de que todo conhecimento sociológico tem, como fundamento, um compromisso com valores. A pesquisa qualitativa é definida como aquela que privilegia a análise de microprocessos, através do estudo das ações sociais individuais e grupais, realizando um exame intensivo dos dados, e caracterizada pela heterodoxia no momento da análise. Enfatiza-se a necessidade do exercício da intuição e da imaginação pelo so-ciólogo, num tipo de trabalho artesanal, visto não só como condição para o aprofundamento da análise, mas também - o que é muito importante - para a liberdade do intelectual. Discutem-se as principais críticas feitas à pesquisa qualitativa, em especial as acusações de falta de representatividade e de possibilidades de generalização; de subjetividade, decorrente da proximidade entre pesquisador e pesquisados; e o caráter descritivo e narrativo de seus resultados. Neste contexto, reflete-se sobre os problemas éticos envolvidos nesse tipo de pesquisa, e retoma-se brevemente a história que culminou com o predomínio do enfoque quantitativo, especialmente na sociologia norte-americana do pós-guerra. Em conclusão, o texto propõe que hoje o mais importante é produzir um conhecimento que, além de útil, seja explicitamente orientado por um projeto ético visando a solidariedade, a harmonia e a criatividade.This article presents considerations about what it means to do science within the context of qualitative methods and techniques in sociology. It is founded on the conception of methodology as the critical knowledge of the ways of the scientific process, a knowledge that questions and

  11. Research Methodology in Business: A Starter’s Guide

    OpenAIRE

    Ragab, Mohamed AF; Arisha, Amr

    2018-01-01

    A cardinal requisite of successful research lies in the proper selection of the research methodology applied to achieve research objectives using the available resources. In addition to acquiring sufficient knowledge of their specific research topic, researchers are urged to develop good understanding of alternative research methodologies at their disposal to be able to identify the best-suited methods to address the research question. This, however, often poses a challenge for novice researc...

  12. [Methodological design of the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Martínez, Martín; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucía; Gómez-Humarán, Ignacio Méndez; Gaona-Pineda, Elsa Berenice; Gómez-Acosta, Luz María; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan Ángel; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2017-01-01

    Describe the design methodology of the halfway health and nutrition national survey (Ensanut-MC) 2016. The Ensanut-MC is a national probabilistic survey whose objective population are the inhabitants of private households in Mexico. The sample size was determined to make inferences on the urban and rural areas in four regions. Describes main design elements: target population, topics of study, sampling procedure, measurement procedure and logistics organization. A final sample of 9 479 completed household interviews, and a sample of 16 591 individual interviews. The response rate for households was 77.9%, and the response rate for individuals was 91.9%. The Ensanut-MC probabilistic design allows valid statistical inferences about interest parameters for Mexico´s public health and nutrition, specifically on overweight, obesity and diabetes mellitus. Updated information also supports the monitoring, updating and formulation of new policies and priority programs.

  13. 3-D SURVEY APPLIED TO INDUSTRIAL ARCHAEOLOGY BY TLS METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Monego

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the three-dimensional survey of “Ex Stazione Frigorifera Specializzata”: initially used for agricultural storage, during the years it was allocated to different uses until the complete neglect. The historical relevance and the architectural heritage that this building represents has brought the start of a recent renovation project and functional restoration. In this regard it was necessary a global 3-D survey that was based on the application and integration of different geomatic methodologies (mainly terrestrial laser scanner, classical topography, and GNSS. The acquisitions of point clouds was performed using different laser scanners: with time of flight (TOF and phase shift technologies for the distance measurements. The topographic reference network, needed for scans alignment in the same system, was measured with a total station. For the complete survey of the building, 122 scans were acquired and 346 targets were measured from 79 vertices of the reference network. Moreover, 3 vertices were measured with GNSS methodology in order to georeference the network. For the detail survey of machine room were executed 14 scans with 23 targets. The 3-D global model of the building have less than one centimeter of error in the alignment (for the machine room the error in alignment is not greater than 6 mm and was used to extract products such as longitudinal and transversal sections, plans, architectural perspectives, virtual scans. A complete spatial knowledge of the building is obtained from the processed data, providing basic information for restoration project, structural analysis, industrial and architectural heritage valorization.

  14. Chronopolitics: methodological aspects of public policy research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Zubchyk

    2016-08-01

    Chronopolitics as methodology examines the role of the state in the political structure of the political entity in temporal conditions of political and administrative decisions. These issues have been discussed in the context of Chronopolitical study of historical forms of political organization. The study has proved that Chronopolitics functionally and structurally adds the conceptual and categorical apparatus of political sciences, science and public administration.

  15. Comparative analysis as a basic research orientation: Key methodological problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N P Narbut

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To date, the Sociological Laboratory of the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia has accumulated a vast experience in the field of cross-cultural studies reflected in the publications based on the results of mass surveys conducted in Moscow, Maikop, Beijing, Guangzhou, Prague, Belgrade, and Pristina. However, these publications mainly focus on the comparisons of the empirical data rather than methodological and technical issues, that is why the aim of this article is to identify key problems of the comparative analysis in cross-cultural studies that become evident only if you conduct an empirical research yourself - from the first step of setting the problem and approving it by all the sides (countries involved to the last step of interpreting and comparing the data obtained. The authors are sure that no sociologist would ever doubt the necessity and importance of comparative analysis in the broadest sense of the word, but at the same time very few are ready to discuss its key methodological challenges and prefer to ignore them completely. We summarize problems of the comparative analysis in sociology as follows: (1 applying research techniques to the sample in another country - both in translating and adapting them to different social realities and worldview (in particular, the problematic status of standardization and qualitative approach; (2 choosing “right” respondents to question and relevant cases (cultures to study; (3 designing the research scheme, i.e. justifying the sequence of steps (what should go first - methodology or techniques; (4 accepting the procedures that are correct within one country for cross-cultural work (whether or not that is an appropriate choice.

  16. Airman research questionnaire : methodology and overall results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    A nationwide survey of 19,657 pilots was performed to collect information on their aviation qualifications and experiences, their participation in training activities, their involvement in critical aviation incidents, their personal minimums and usua...

  17. The study of evaluation methodology of the aging and degradation researches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, C. J.; Park, Z. H.; Jeong, I. S.

    2001-01-01

    To judge the usefulness of aging related researches like PLIM (Plant lifetime Management) and aging related degradation, et. al. in PSR(Periodic Safety Review), the evaluation methodology of the R and D have been proposed up to now are reviewed. The infometric methodology is considered to be the optimum method for the evaluation of the nuclear related researches. And finally, to increase the objectiveness and reliability of the infometric methodology in the aging and degradation researches, the indexes of safety, technology and economics are introduced. From this study, the infometric methodology has the advantage of the actual engineering evaluation in the nuclear related researches with other methodologies, but for the further research, the effective construction of DB and survey of various statistics in the technical reports and papers are needed

  18. Decolonizing Methodologies: Research and Indigenous Peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Linda Tuhiwai

    From the vantage point of indigenous peoples, the term "research" is inextricably linked to European imperialism and colonialism. In this book, an indigenous researcher calls for the decolonization of research methods. The first part of the book critically examines the historical and philosophical bases of Western research; Western…

  19. GROUNDED THEORY METHODOLOGY and GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH in TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    ARIK, Ferhat; ARIK, Işıl Avşar

    2016-01-01

    This research discusses the historical development of the Grounded Theory Methodology, which is one of the qualitative research method, its transformation over time and how it is used as a methodology in Turkey. The Grounded Theory which was founded by Strauss and Glaser, is a qualitative methodology based on inductive logic to discover theories in contrast with the deductive understanding which is based on testing an existing theory in sociology. It is possible to examine the Grounded Theory...

  20. Posthumanism as Research Methodology: Inquiry in the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Jasmine B.

    2017-01-01

    The posthuman turn has radically--and rapidly--shifted what is possible in research methodology. In response, my aim in this conceptual paper is to suggest entry points into posthuman educational research methodology. I outline aspects of posthumanism while recognizing its multiplicity: there are many posthumanisms and each offers different…

  1. Data Mining: A Hybrid Methodology for Complex and Dynamic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Susan; Baehr, Craig

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the ways in which data and text mining have potential as research methodologies in composition studies. It introduces data mining in the context of the field of composition studies and discusses ways in which this methodology can complement and extend our existing research practices by blending the best of what…

  2. Qualitative and quantitative research in Sociolinguistics: methodological dadaism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Rodrigues Cardoso

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The confluence between quantitative and qualitative research in Sociolinguistics is a methodological Dadaism? The issue here is not epistemology, because I assume that the Sociolinguistics studies the language linked to social. I want to demonstrate that the methodological approach depends on the research question, ie, the subject about which a thesis is developed.

  3. Problems emerging from practicing research methodologies among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The on-going debates and conflicts between defenders of the quantitative research approach and advocates of the qualitative approach to research tends to leave the post graduate students in a dilemma and disillusioned as to which approach to use in their research process. However, the advent of mixed method as the ...

  4. Who sends the email? Using electronic surveys in violence research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Melissa A; Amar, Angela F; Laughon, Kathryn

    2013-08-01

    Students aged 16-24 years are at greatest risk for interpersonal violence and the resulting short and long-term health consequences. Electronic survey methodology is well suited for research related to interpersonal violence. Yet methodological questions remain about best practices in using electronic surveys. While researchers often indicate that potential participants receive multiple emails as reminders to complete the survey, little mention is made of the sender of the recruitment email. The purpose of this analysis is to describe the response rates from three violence-focused research studies when the recruitment emails are sent from a campus office, researcher or survey sampling firm. Three violence-focused studies were conducted about interpersonal violence among college students in the United States. Seven universities and a survey sampling firm were used to recruit potential participants to complete an electronic survey. The sender of the recruitment emails varied within and across the each of the studies depending on institutional review boards and university protocols. An overall response rate of 30% was noted for the 3 studies. Universities in which researcher-initiated recruitment emails were used had higher response rates compared to universities where campus officials sent the recruitment emails. Researchers found lower response rates to electronic surveys at Historically Black Colleges or Universities and that other methods were needed to improve response rates. The sender of recruitment emails for electronic surveys may be an important factor in response rates for violence-focused research. For researchers identification of best practices for survey methodology is needed to promote accurate disclosure and increase response rates.

  5. Who Sends the Email? Using Electronic Surveys in Violence Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A Sutherland

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Students aged 16–24 years are at greatest risk for interpersonal violence and the resulting short and long-term health consequences. Electronic survey methodology is well suited for research related to interpersonal violence. Yet methodological questions remain about best practices in using electronic surveys. While researchers often indicate that potential participants receive multiple emails as reminders to complete the survey, little mention is made of the sender of the recruitment email. The purpose of this analysis is to describe the response rates from three violence-focused research studies when the recruitment emails are sent from a campus office, researcher or survey sampling firm. Methods: Three violence-focused studies were conducted about interpersonal violence among college students in the United States. Seven universities and a survey sampling firm were used to recruit potential participants to complete an electronic survey. The sender of the recruitment emails varied within and across the each of the studies depending on institutional review boards and university protocols.Results: An overall response rate of 30% was noted for the 3 studies. Universities in which researcher initiated recruitment emails were used had higher response rates compared to universities where campus officials sent the recruitment emails. Researchers found lower response rates to electronic surveys at Historically Black Colleges or Universities and that other methods were needed to improve response rates.Conclusion: The sender of recruitment emails for electronic surveys may be an important factor in response rates for violence-focused research. For researchers identification of best practices for survey methodology is needed to promote accurate disclosure and increase response rates. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(4:363–369.

  6. Methodological design of the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Romero-Martínez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Describe the design methodology of the halfway health and nutrition national survey (Ensanut-MC 2016. Materials and methods. The Ensanut-MC is a national probabilistic survey whose objective population are the in­habitants of private households in Mexico. The sample size was determined to make inferences on the urban and rural areas in four regions. Describes main design elements: target population, topics of study, sampling procedure, measurement procedure and logistics organization. Results. A final sample of 9 479 completed household interviews, and a sample of 16 591 individual interviews. The response rate for households was 77.9%, and the response rate for individuals was 91.9%. Conclusions. The Ensanut-MC probabilistic design allows valid statistical inferences about interest parameters for Mexico´s public health and nutrition, specifically on over­weight, obesity and diabetes mellitus. Updated information also supports the monitoring, updating and formulation of new policies and priority programs.

  7. Methodological Capacity within the Field of "Educational Technology" Research: An Initial Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulfin, Scott; Henderson, Michael; Johnson, Nicola F.; Selwyn, Neil

    2014-01-01

    The academic study of educational technology is often characterised by critics as methodologically limited. In order to test this assumption, the present paper reports on data collected from a survey of 462 "research active" academic researchers working in the broad areas of educational technology and educational media. The paper…

  8. Methodological Challenges for Collaborative Learning Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strijbos, Jan-Willem; Fischer, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Research on collaborative learning, both face-to-face and computer-supported, has thrived in the past 10 years. The studies range from outcome-oriented (individual and group learning) to process-oriented (impact of interaction on learning processes, motivation and organisation of collaboration) to mixed studies. Collaborative learning research is…

  9. Methodology series module 10: Qualitative health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maninder Singh Setia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although quantitative designs are commonly used in clinical research, some studies require qualitative methods. These designs are different from quantitative methods; thus, researchers should be aware of data collection methods and analyses for qualitative research. Qualitative methods are particularly useful to understand patient experiences with the treatment or new methods of management or to explore issues in detail. These methods are useful in social and behavioral research. In qualitative research, often, the main focus is to understand the issue in detail rather than generalizability; thus, the sampling methods commonly used are purposive sampling; quota sampling; and snowball sampling (for hard to reach groups. Data can be collected using in-depth interviews (IDIs or focus group discussions (FGDs. IDI is a one-to-one interview with the participant. FGD is a method of group interview or discussion, in which more than one participant is interviewed at the same time and is usually led by a facilitator. The commonly used methods for data analysis are: thematic analysis; grounded theory analysis; and framework analysis. Qualitative data collection and analysis require special expertise. Hence, if the reader plans to conduct qualitative research, they should team up with a qualitative researcher.

  10. Methodology Series Module 10: Qualitative Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2017-01-01

    Although quantitative designs are commonly used in clinical research, some studies require qualitative methods. These designs are different from quantitative methods; thus, researchers should be aware of data collection methods and analyses for qualitative research. Qualitative methods are particularly useful to understand patient experiences with the treatment or new methods of management or to explore issues in detail. These methods are useful in social and behavioral research. In qualitative research, often, the main focus is to understand the issue in detail rather than generalizability; thus, the sampling methods commonly used are purposive sampling; quota sampling; and snowball sampling (for hard to reach groups). Data can be collected using in-depth interviews (IDIs) or focus group discussions (FGDs). IDI is a one-to-one interview with the participant. FGD is a method of group interview or discussion, in which more than one participant is interviewed at the same time and is usually led by a facilitator. The commonly used methods for data analysis are: thematic analysis; grounded theory analysis; and framework analysis. Qualitative data collection and analysis require special expertise. Hence, if the reader plans to conduct qualitative research, they should team up with a qualitative researcher.

  11. Systematic reviews in pain research: methodology refined

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McQuay, H. J; Kalso, Eija; Moore, R. Andrew

    2008-01-01

    "Presents invited papers from the 6th IASP Research Symposium, Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses in Pain, held in Spain in September 2006, organized by the International Collaboration on Evidence...

  12. Indtroduction To Research Methodologies In Language Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhartoyo Muhartoyo

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian bahasa merupakan bidang yang menarik bagi mahasiswa dan pengajar di Fakultas Sastra. Artikel ini mencoba menggambarkan berbagai metodologi riset dalam bidang bahasa dengan cara yang sederhana. Metodologi riset ini mencakup experimental research, quasi experimental research, etnografi, dan studi kasus. Artikel ini juga membahas konsep metode riset kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Masalah validitas dan keabsahan sebuah laporan riset dibahas secara singkat.

  13. Review of research methodologies for tigers: telemetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Clayton S; Hebblewhite, Mark; Goodrich, John M; Miquelle, Dale G

    2010-12-01

    Over the past half century, wildlife research has relied on technological advances to gain additional insight into the secretive lives of animals. This revolution started in the 1960s with the development of radio telemetry and continues today with the use of Global Positioning System (GPS)-based research techniques. In the present paper we review the history of radio telemetry from its origins with grizzly bears in Yellowstone to its early applications in tiger research and conservation in Asia. We address the different types of data that are available using radio telemetry as opposed to using other research techniques, such as behavioral observations, camera trapping, DNA analysis and scat analysis. In the late 1990s, the rapid development of GPS collar technology revolutionized wildlife research. This new technology has enabled researchers to dramatically improve their ability to gather data on animal movements and ecology. Despite the ecological and conservation benefits of radio telemetry, there have been few telemetry studies of tigers in the wild, and most have been on the Bengal or Amur subspecies. We close with an assessment of the current tiger conservation efforts using GPS technology and discuss how this new information can help to preserve tigers for future generations. © 2010 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  14. Methodological Approaches in the Research of Organizational Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Nebojša Janićijević

    2011-01-01

    In the thirty-years-long research of organizational culture, two mutually opposed methodological approaches have emerged: objectivistic quantitative and subjectivistic-qualitative. These two approaches are based on opposite ontological and epistemological assumptions: they include different types of research, and use opposite, quantitative vs. qualitative, methods of research. Each of the methodological approaches has its advantages and disadvantages. For this reason a hybrid approach e...

  15. Critical methodologies: early childhood research studies in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Rhedding-Jones, Jeanette; Bjelkerud, Agnes Westgaard; Giæver, Katrine; Røkholt, Eline Grelland; Holten, Ingeborg Caroline Sæbøe; Lafton, Tove; Moxnes, Anna Rigmor; Pope, Liv Alice

    2014-01-01

    This is an open access article licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License and originally published in Reconceptualizing Educational Research Methodology (RERM). You can access the article on publisher's website by following this link: https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/rerm This chapter exemplifies seven projects and their related research methodologies. It does so to consider how to construct critical research studies without replicating someone else’s researc...

  16. Priority research directions in the area of qualitative methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Melnikova, Olga; Khoroshilov, Dmitry

    2010-01-01

    The basic directions of modern theoretical and practical research in the area of qualitative methodology in Russia are discussed in the article. The complexity of research is considered from three points of view: the development of methodology of qualitative analysis, qualitative methods, and verbal and nonverbal projective techniques. The authors present an integrative model of the qualitative analysis, the research on specificity of the use of discourse-analysis method and projective techni...

  17. A Metadata based Knowledge Discovery Methodology for Seeding Translational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Cartik R; Payne, Philip R O

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a semantic, metadata based knowledge discovery methodology for identifying teams of researchers from diverse backgrounds who can collaborate on interdisciplinary research projects: projects in areas that have been identified as high-impact areas at The Ohio State University. This methodology involves the semantic annotation of keywords and the postulation of semantic metrics to improve the efficiency of the path exploration algorithm as well as to rank the results. Results indicate that our methodology can discover groups of experts from diverse areas who can collaborate on translational research projects.

  18. Sex Work Research: Methodological and Ethical Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Frances M.

    2005-01-01

    The challenges involved in the design of ethical, nonexploitative research projects with sex workers or any other marginalized population are significant. First, the size and boundaries of the population are unknown, making it extremely difficult to get a representative sample. Second, because membership in hidden populations often involves…

  19. Research methodology in used oil recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    Legislation and activities in the United States on the subject of used oil recycling have increased dramatically in the past several years. However, a substantial portion of both industry and government have some concerns about the lack of scientific and technical research and data on certain aspects of the quality and consistence of recycled petroleum oils, particularly re-refined engine oils. Further, there are some significant environmental concerns about pollution aspects of used oils and their recycling by-products and wastes. Since 1976, the (U.S.) National Bureau of Standards (NBS) has had a legislatively mandated program to''... develop test procedures for the determination of substantial equivalency of re-refined or otherwise processed used oil . . . with new oil for a particular end use'' (42 U.S. Code 6363c). The NBS research includes identification of problem areas in the characterization of used and recycled oils, research into new measurement methods for determination of novel constituents in these materials, and the development and evaluation of appropriate test procedures and standards for recycled oil products. Aspects of this research discussed in this paper include analysis of total elemental content and speciation studies on lead and on the halogens (chlorine and bromine) and hydrocarbon type characterization studies on lubricating oil fractions

  20. [Strengthening the methodology of study designs in scientific researches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ze-qin

    2010-06-01

    Many problems in study designs have affected the validity of scientific researches seriously. We must understand the methodology of research, especially clinical epidemiology and biostatistics, and recognize the urgency in selection and implement of right study design. Thereafter we can promote the research capability and improve the overall quality of scientific researches.

  1. Assessment of change in knowledge about research methods among delegates attending research methodology workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Shrivastava

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: There was increase in knowledge of the delegates after attending research methodology workshops. Participatory research methodology workshops are good methods of imparting knowledge, also the long term effects needs to be evaluated.

  2. Frequent methodological errors in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Aycaguer, L C

    2018-03-07

    Several errors that are frequently present in clinical research are listed, discussed and illustrated. A distinction is made between what can be considered an "error" arising from ignorance or neglect, from what stems from a lack of integrity of researchers, although it is recognized and documented that it is not easy to establish when we are in a case and when in another. The work does not intend to make an exhaustive inventory of such problems, but focuses on those that, while frequent, are usually less evident or less marked in the various lists that have been published with this type of problems. It has been a decision to develop in detail the examples that illustrate the problems identified, instead of making a list of errors accompanied by an epidermal description of their characteristics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  3. Methodology and Ontology in Microbiome Research

    OpenAIRE

    Huss, John

    2014-01-01

    Research on the human microbiome has generated a staggering amount of sequence data, revealing variation in microbial diversity at the community, species (or phylotype), and genomic levels. In order to make this complexity more manageable and easier to interpret, new units—the metagenome, core microbiome, and enterotype—have been introduced in the scientific literature. Here, I argue that analytical tools and exploratory statistical methods, coupled with a translational imperative, are the pr...

  4. ISS Microgravity Research Payload Training Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagheck, Ronald; Geveden, Rex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Microgravity Research Discipline has multiple categories of science payloads that are being planned and currently under development to operate on various ISS on-orbit increments. The current program includes six subdisciplines; Materials Science, Fluids Physics, Combustion Science, Fundamental Physics, Cellular Biology and Macromolecular Biotechnology. All of these experiment payloads will require the astronaut various degrees of crew interaction and science observation. With the current programs planning to build various facility class science racks, the crew will need to be trained on basic core operations as well as science background. In addition, many disciplines will use the Express Rack and the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) to utilize the accommodations provided by these facilities for smaller and less complex type hardware. The Microgravity disciplines will be responsible to have a training program designed to maximize the experiment and hardware throughput as well as being prepared for various contingencies both with anomalies as well as unexpected experiment observations. The crewmembers will need various levels of training from simple tasks as power on and activate to extensive training on hardware mode change out to observing the cell growth of various types of tissue cultures. Sample replacement will be required for furnaces and combustion type modules. The Fundamental Physics program will need crew EVA support to provide module change out of experiment. Training will take place various research centers and hardware development locations. It is expected that onboard training through various methods and video/digital technology as well as limited telecommunication interaction. Since hardware will be designed to operate from a few weeks to multiple research increments, flexibility must be planned in the training approach and procedure skills to optimize the output as well as the equipment maintainability. Early increment lessons learned

  5. MAPLE research reactor safety uncertainty assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sills, H.E.; Duffey, R.B.; Andres, T.H.

    1999-01-01

    The MAPLE (multipurpose Applied Physics Lattice Experiment) reactor is a low pressure, low temperature, open-tank-in pool type research reactor that operates at a power level of 5 to 35 MW. MAPLE is designed for ease of operation, maintenance, and to meet today's most demanding requirements for safety and licensing. The emphasis is on the use of passive safety systems and environmentally qualified components. Key safety features include two independent and diverse shutdown systems, two parallel and independent cooling loops, fail safe operation, and a building design that incorporates the concepts of primary containment supported by secondary confinement

  6. Methodology and Ontology in Microbiome Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, John

    2014-01-01

    Research on the human microbiome has generated a staggering amount of sequence data, revealing variation in microbial diversity at the community, species (or phylotype), and genomic levels. In order to make this complexity more manageable and easier to interpret, new units-the metagenome, core microbiome, and enterotype-have been introduced in the scientific literature. Here, I argue that analytical tools and exploratory statistical methods, coupled with a translational imperative, are the primary drivers of this new ontology. By reducing the dimensionality of variation in the human microbiome, these new units render it more tractable and easier to interpret, and hence serve an important heuristic role. Nonetheless, there are several reasons to be cautious about these new categories prematurely "hardening" into natural units: a lack of constraints on what can be sequenced metagenomically, freedom of choice in taxonomic level in defining a "core microbiome," typological framing of some of the concepts, and possible reification of statistical constructs. Finally, lessons from the Human Genome Project have led to a translational imperative: a drive to derive results from the exploration of microbiome variation that can help to articulate the emerging paradigm of personalized genomic medicine (PGM). There is a tension between the typologizing inherent in much of this research and the personal in PGM.

  7. On-line repository of audiovisual material feminist research methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Prado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes a collection of audiovisual material available in the repository of the Interdisciplinary Seminar of Feminist Research Methodology SIMReF (http://www.simref.net.

  8. Profile of research methodology and statistics training of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the profile of research methodology and ... Method: Respondents for this descriptive study were persons responsible for the ..... universities: all study designs, all sampling techniques, incidence and.

  9. Students' Involvement in Faculty Research: Ethical and Methodological Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda M. Ferguson

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Faculty who engage students as participants in their qualitative research often encounter methodological and ethical problems. Ethical issues arise from the fiduciary relationship between faculty and their students, and violations of that relationship occur when the educator has a dual role as researcher with those students. Methodological issues arise from research designs to address these ethical issues. This conflict is particularly evident in faculty research on pedagogy in their own disciplines, for which students are necessary as participants but are captive in the relationship. In this article, the authors explore the issues of double agency when faculty involve students as participants in their research.

  10. E-survey with researchers, members of ethics committees and sponsors of clinical research in Brazil: an emerging methodology for scientific research Inquérito pela Internet com pesquisadores clínicos, membros de comitês de ética e patrocinadores de pesquisa clínica no Brasil: uma metodologia emergente para pesquisa científica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Mansoldo Dainesi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The growth of Internet users enables epidemiological studies to be conducted electronically, representing a promising methodology for data collection. METHODS: Members of Ethics Committees, Clinical Researchers and Sponsors were interviewed using questionnaires sent over the Internet. Along with the questionnaire, participants received a message explaining the survey and also the informed consent. Returning the questionnaire meant the consent of the participant was given. No incentive was offered; two reminders were sent. RESULTS: The response rate was 21% (124/599, 20% (58/290 and 45% (24/53 respectively for Ethics Committees, Researchers and Sponsors. The percentage of return before the two reminders was about 62%. Reasons for non-response: participant not found, refusal to participate, lack of experience in clinical research or in the therapeutic field. Characteristics of participants: 45% of Ethics Committee participants, 64% of Researchers and 63% of Sponsors were male; mean age (range, respectively: 47 (28-74, 53 (24-72 and 40 (29-65 years. Among Researchers and Sponsors, all respondents had at least a university degree and, in the Ethics Committees group, only two (1.7% did not have one. Most of the questionnaires in all groups came from the Southeast Region of Brazil, probably reflecting the highest number of clinical trials and research professionals in this region. CONCLUSION: Despite the potential limitations of a survey done through the Internet, this study led to a response rate similar to what has been observed with other models, efficiency in obtaining responses (speed and quality, convenience for respondents and low cost.INTRODUÇÃO: O crescimento de usuários da Internet possibilita que estudos epidemiológicos sejam conduzidos eletronicamente, representando uma promissora metodologia para coleta de dados. MÉTODOS: Membros de Comitês de Ética, pesquisadores clínicos e patrocinadores foram entrevistados com

  11. Qualitative case study methodology in nursing research: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Susan; Jack, Susan

    2009-06-01

    This paper is a report of an integrative review conducted to critically analyse the contemporary use of qualitative case study methodology in nursing research. Increasing complexity in health care and increasing use of case study in nursing research support the need for current examination of this methodology. In 2007, a search for case study research (published 2005-2007) indexed in the CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, Sociological Abstracts and SCOPUS databases was conducted. A sample of 42 case study research papers met the inclusion criteria. Whittemore and Knafl's integrative review method guided the analysis. Confusion exists about the name, nature and use of case study. This methodology, including terminology and concepts, is often invisible in qualitative study titles and abstracts. Case study is an exclusive methodology and an adjunct to exploring particular aspects of phenomena under investigation in larger or mixed-methods studies. A high quality of case study exists in nursing research. Judicious selection and diligent application of literature review methods promote the development of nursing science. Case study is becoming entrenched in the nursing research lexicon as a well-accepted methodology for studying phenomena in health and social care, and its growing use warrants continued appraisal to promote nursing knowledge development. Attention to all case study elements, process and publication is important in promoting authenticity, methodological quality and visibility.

  12. Ethical and methodological issues in research with Sami experiencing disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbøe, Line; Hansen, Ketil Lenert; Johnsen, Bjørn-Eirik; Fedreheim, Gunn Elin; Dinesen, Tone; Minde, Gunn-Tove; Rustad, Marit

    2016-01-01

    A study of disability among the indigenous Sami people in Norway presented a number of ethical and methodological challenges rarely addressed in the literature. The main study was designed to examine and understand the everyday life, transitions between life stages and democratic participation of Norwegian Sami people experiencing disability. Hence, the purpose of this article is to increase the understanding of possible ethical and methodological issues in research within this field. The article describes and discusses ethical and methodological issues that arose when conducting our study and identifies some strategies for addressing issues like these. The ethical and methodological issues addressed in the article are based on a qualitative study among indigenous Norwegian Sami people experiencing disability. The data in this study were collected through 31 semi-structured in-depth interviews with altogether 24 Sami people experiencing disability and 13 next of kin of Sami people experiencing disability (8 mothers, 2 fathers, 2 sister and 1 guardian). The researchers identified 4 main areas of ethical and methodological issues. We present these issues chronologically as they emerged in the research process: 1) concept of knowledge when designing the study, 2) gaining access, 3) data collection and 4) analysis and accountability. The knowledge generated from this study has the potential to benefit future health research, specifically of Norwegian Sami people experiencing disability, as well as health research concerning indigenous people in general, providing scientific-based insight into important ethical and methodological issues in research with indigenous people experiencing disability.

  13. Methodological issues in regional impacts research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of the literature concerning regional impacts of climatic change research reveals common elements. Global climatic change scenarios are used to derive regional climate change scenarios, but there is no standard approach for doing so. These scenarios are applied as inputs to impact models that have been used to describe past variations but may not be calibrated for global scenarios. The human element (technology, land use, population density) is generally assumed to remain unchanged. The general process of performing a study on the impacts of projected global warming on the physical and human environments involves three main steps: develop or specify a scenario for global warming for the study area; develop or specify an impact model for the activity in question; and apply the scenario to the impact model. Problems include defining a baseline, resolution of the scenarios, scenario data for regional-scale features, combination of model output with station data, and validation of impact models using archived climate data as inputs. A review of scenario application procedures indicates that four general approaches have been used: the study area baseline is combined with the scenario anomaly of the nearest center of the grid square; the scenario anomaly field is objectively interpreted and combined with the baseline value; the baseline field is objectively interpreted so that data are produced for the same points as the scenario anomaly field; and the baseline and several scenario's anomaly fields are interpolated and combined into one scenario using dynamical/empirical reasoning. 48 refs., 1 fig

  14. Capturing Individual Uptake: Toward a Disruptive Research Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Heather

    2015-01-01

    This article presents and illustrates a qualitative research methodology for studies of uptake. It does so by articulating a theoretical framework for qualitative investigations of uptake and detailing a research study designed to invoke and capture students' uptakes in a first-year writing classroom. The research design sought to make uptake…

  15. Just Research in Contentious Times: Widening the Methodological Imagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    In this intensely powerful and personal new text, Michelle Fine widens the methodological imagination for students, educators, scholars, and researchers interested in crafting research with communities. Fine shares her struggles over the course of 30 years to translate research into policy and practice that can enhance the human condition and…

  16. Integral Methodological Pluralism in Science Education Research: Valuing Multiple Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Nancy T.; Callihan, Laurie P.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the multiple methodologies used in educational research and proposes a model that includes all of them as contributing to understanding educational contexts and research from multiple perspectives. The model, based on integral theory (Wilber in a theory of everything. Shambhala, Boston, 2000) values all forms of research as…

  17. Two Methodological Challenges for Teacher-Researchers: Reflexivity and Trustworthiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xerri, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Teacher research is lauded as a beneficial enterprise both for practitioners and for learners. However, teachers are sometimes accused of not possessing the necessary knowledge and skills to conduct research effectively. This article focuses on the need for teacher-researchers to find means of addressing the methodological challenges of engaging…

  18. Researching Teacher Education for Inclusion: Using a Methodological Memo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kathryn S.; Florian, Lani

    2013-01-01

    This article describes how a methodological memo (MM) was used in a research and development project designed to reform initial teacher education (ITE). A MM was used to explore what often remains an opaque part of the research process--the relationships between theory and practice that underpin many research studies. Yet, without detailed…

  19. Survey Research: Methods, Issues and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Ernest W.; Torrisi-Steele, Geraldine; Wang, Victor C. X.

    2015-01-01

    Survey research is prevalent among many professional fields. Both cost effective and time efficient, this method of research is commonly used for the purposes of gaining insight into the attitudes, thoughts, and opinions of populations. Additionally, because there are several types of survey research designs and data collection instruments, the…

  20. Surveys and questionnaires in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmins, Fiona

    2015-06-17

    Surveys and questionnaires are often used in nursing research to elicit the views of large groups of people to develop the nursing knowledge base. This article provides an overview of survey and questionnaire use in nursing research, clarifies the place of the questionnaire as a data collection tool in quantitative research design and provides information and advice about best practice in the development of quantitative surveys and questionnaires.

  1. How to emerge from the conservatism in clinical research methodology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotecki, Nuria; Penel, Nicolas; Awada, Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    Despite recent changes in clinical research methodology, many challenges remain in drug development methodology. Advances in molecular biology and cancer treatments have changed the clinical research landscape. Thus, we moved from empirical clinical oncology to molecular and immunological therapeutic approaches. Along with this move, adapted dose-limiting toxicities definitions, endpoints, and dose escalation methods have been proposed. Moreover, the classical frontier between phase I, phase II, and phase III has become unclear in particular for immunological approaches. So, investigators are facing major challenges in drug development methodology. We propose to individualize clinical research using innovative approaches to significantly improve patient outcomes and targeting what is considered unmet need. Integrating high level of translational research and performing well designed biomarker studies with great potential for clinical practice are of utmost importance. This could be performed within new models of clinical research networks and by building a strong collaboration between academic, cooperative groups, on-site investigators, and pharma.

  2. Marketing Research Using Online Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landoy A.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, quality criteria for electronic survey design and use based on an investigation of recent electronic survey literature are presented. The results show that a hard-to-reach audience can be reached using the quality criteria that are most important for reaching these types of audiences. It is presented one online questionnaire for the academic staff community at Transilvania university of Brasov, Romania. The Limerik one was tested.

  3. Language barriers and qualitative nursing research: methodological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, A

    2008-09-01

    This review of the literature synthesizes methodological recommendations for the use of translators and interpreters in cross-language qualitative research. Cross-language qualitative research involves the use of interpreters and translators to mediate a language barrier between researchers and participants. Qualitative nurse researchers successfully address language barriers between themselves and their participants when they systematically plan for how they will use interpreters and translators throughout the research process. Experienced qualitative researchers recognize that translators can generate qualitative data through translation processes and by participating in data analysis. Failure to address language barriers and the methodological challenges they present threatens the credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability of cross-language qualitative nursing research. Through a synthesis of the cross-language qualitative methods literature, this article reviews the basics of language competence, translator and interpreter qualifications, and roles for each kind of qualitative research approach. Methodological and ethical considerations are also provided. By systematically addressing the methodological challenges cross-language research presents, nurse researchers can produce better evidence for nursing practice and policy making when working across different language groups. Findings from qualitative studies will also accurately represent the experiences of the participants without concern that the meaning was lost in translation.

  4. Networks as integrated in research methodologies in PER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    of using networks to create insightful maps of learning discussions. To conclude, I argue that conceptual blending is a powerful framework for constructing "mixed methods" methodologies that may integrate diverse theories and other methodologies with network methodologies.......In recent years a number of researchers within the PER community have started using network analysis as a new methodology to extend our understanding of teaching and learning physics by viewing these as complex systems. In this paper, I give examples of social, cognitive, and action mapping...... networks and how they can be analyzed. In so doing I show how a network can be methodologically described as a set of relations between a set of entities, and how a network can be characterized and analyzed as a mathematical object. Then, as an illustrative example, I discuss a relatively new example...

  5. Applications of mixed-methods methodology in clinical pharmacy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; Closs, S José

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Mixed-methods methodology, as the name suggests refers to mixing of elements of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies in a single study. In the past decade, mixed-methods methodology has gained popularity among healthcare researchers as it promises to bring together the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Methodology A number of mixed-methods designs are available in the literature and the four most commonly used designs in healthcare research are: the convergent parallel design, the embedded design, the exploratory design, and the explanatory design. Each has its own unique advantages, challenges and procedures and selection of a particular design should be guided by the research question. Guidance on designing, conducting and reporting mixed-methods research is available in the literature, so it is advisable to adhere to this to ensure methodological rigour. When to use it is best suited when the research questions require: triangulating findings from different methodologies to explain a single phenomenon; clarifying the results of one method using another method; informing the design of one method based on the findings of another method, development of a scale/questionnaire and answering different research questions within a single study. Two case studies have been presented to illustrate possible applications of mixed-methods methodology. Limitations Possessing the necessary knowledge and skills to undertake qualitative and quantitative data collection, analysis, interpretation and integration remains the biggest challenge for researchers conducting mixed-methods studies. Sequential study designs are often time consuming, being in two (or more) phases whereas concurrent study designs may require more than one data collector to collect both qualitative and quantitative data at the same time.

  6. Fisheye Photogrammetry: Tests and Methodologies for the Survey of Narrow Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, L.; Polari, C.; Fassi, F.

    2017-02-01

    The research illustrated in this article aimed at identifying a good standard methodology to survey very narrow spaces during 3D investigation of Cultural Heritage. It is an important topic in today's era of BIM modelling applied to Cultural Heritage. Spaces like staircases, corridors and passages are very common in the architectural or archaeological fields, and obtaining a 3D-oriented survey of those areas can be a very complex task when completeness of the model and high precision are requested. Photogrammetry appears to be the most promising solution in terms of versatility and manoeuvrability also considering the quality of the required data. Fisheye lenses were studied and tested in depth because of their significant advantage in the field of view if compared with rectilinear lenses. This advantage alone can be crucial to reduce the total amount of photos and, as a consequence, to obtain manageable data, to simplify the survey phase and to significantly reduce the elaboration time. In order to overcome the main issue that arise when using fisheye lenses, which is the lack of rules that can be employed to design the survey, a general mathematical formulation to precisely estimate the GSD (Ground Sampling Distance) for every optical projection is presented here. A complete survey of a real complex case study was performed in order to test and stress the proposed methodology, and to handle a fisheye-based survey from beginning to end: the photogrammetric survey of the Minguzzi Staircase. It is a complex service spiral-staircase located in the Duomo di Milano with a total height of 25 meters and characterized by a narrow walkable space about 70 centimetres wide.

  7. Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

    2011-02-01

    The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

  8. Ayurvedic research and methodology: Present status and future strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Ashutosh; Semwal, Deepak Kumar; Mishra, Satyendra Prasad; Semwal, Ruchi Badoni

    2015-01-01

    Ayurveda is a science of life with a holistic approach to health and personalized medicine. It is one of the oldest medical systems, which comprises thousands of medical concepts and hypothesis. Interestingly, Ayurveda has ability to treat many chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and asthma, which are untreatable in modern medicine. Unfortunately, due to lack of scientific validation in various concepts, this precious gift from our ancestors is trailing. Hence, evidence-based research is highly needed for global recognition and acceptance of Ayurveda, which needs further advancements in the research methodology. The present review highlights various fields of research including literary, fundamental, drug, pharmaceutical, and clinical research in Ayurveda. The review further focuses to improve the research methodology for Ayurveda with main emphasis on the fundamental research. This attempt will certainly encourage young researchers to work on various areas of research for the development and promotion of Ayurveda.

  9. Ayurvedic research and methodology: Present status and future strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Ashutosh; Semwal, Deepak Kumar; Mishra, Satyendra Prasad; Semwal, Ruchi Badoni

    2015-01-01

    Ayurveda is a science of life with a holistic approach to health and personalized medicine. It is one of the oldest medical systems, which comprises thousands of medical concepts and hypothesis. Interestingly, Ayurveda has ability to treat many chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and asthma, which are untreatable in modern medicine. Unfortunately, due to lack of scientific validation in various concepts, this precious gift from our ancestors is trailing. Hence, evidence-based research is highly needed for global recognition and acceptance of Ayurveda, which needs further advancements in the research methodology. The present review highlights various fields of research including literary, fundamental, drug, pharmaceutical, and clinical research in Ayurveda. The review further focuses to improve the research methodology for Ayurveda with main emphasis on the fundamental research. This attempt will certainly encourage young researchers to work on various areas of research for the development and promotion of Ayurveda. PMID:27833362

  10. A review of methodologies used in research on cadastral development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Maria Augusta; Stubkjær, Erik

    2002-01-01

    to the acceptance of research methodologies needed for cadastral development, and thereby enhance theory in the cadastral domain. The paper reviews nine publica-tions on cadastre and identifies the methodologies used. The review focuses on the institutional, social political and economic aspects of cadastral......World-wide, much attention has been given to cadastral development. As a consequence of experiences made during the last decades, several authors have stated the need of research in the domain of cadastre and proposed methodologies to be used. The purpose of this paper is to contribute...... development, rather than on the technical aspects. The main conclusion of this paper is that the methodologies used are largely those of the social sciences. That agrees with the notion that cadastre relates as much to people and institutions, as it relates to land, and that cadastral systems are shaped...

  11. A Methodological Problem Associated with Researching Women Entrepreneurs

    OpenAIRE

    Beatrice E. Avolio

    2011-01-01

    This article highlights one of the most significant methodological problems of researching women entrepreneurs and understanding the female entrepreneurial experience, which is related to the definition of what is a women entrepreneur. The article outlines the state of research on women entrepreneurs, presents the diverse definitions used in research, conceptualizes the different aspects related to the definition of a woman entrepreneur, and proposes future directions for developing research ...

  12. Equipment qualification testing methodology research at Sandia Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeppesen, D.

    1983-01-01

    The Equipment Qualification Research Testing (EQRT) program is an evolutionary outgrowth of the Qualification Testing Evaluation (QTE) program at Sandia. The primary emphasis of the program has been qualification methodology research. The EQRT program offers to the industry a research-oriented perspective on qualification-related component performance, as well as refinements to component testing standards which are based upon actual component testing research

  13. The ECOUTER methodology for stakeholder engagement in translational research

    OpenAIRE

    Murtagh, Madeleine J.; Minion, Joel T.; Turner, Andrew; Wilson, Rebecca C.; Blell, Mwenza; Ochieng, Cynthia; Murtagh, Barnaby; Roberts, Stephanie; Butters, Oliver W.; Burton, Paul R

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Because no single person or group holds knowledge about all aspects of research, mechanisms are needed to support knowledge exchange and engagement. Expertise in the research setting necessarily includes scientific and methodological expertise, but also expertise gained through the experience of participating in research and/or being a recipient of research outcomes (as a patient or member of the public). Engagement i...

  14. Utility of radiotracer methodology in scientific research of industrial relevancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolar, Z.I.

    1990-01-01

    Utilization of radiotracer methodology in industrial research provides substantial scientific rather than directly demonstrable economic benefits. These benefits include better understanding of industrial processes and subsequently the development of new ones. Examples are given of the use of radiotracers in technological studies and the significance of the obtained results is put down. Creative application of radiotracer methodology may contribute to the economic development and technological advancement of all countries including the developing ones. (orig.) [de

  15. Profile of Research Methodology and Statistics Training of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Medical practitioners need to have knowledge of statistics and research principles, especially with the increasing emphasis on evidence-based medicine. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of research methodology and statistics training of undergraduate medical students at South African ...

  16. College Research Methodology Courses: Revisiting General Instructional Goals and Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Simon A.

    2010-01-01

    A number of graduate (masters-level) students from a wide variety of academic disciplines have viewed a required introductory research methodology course negatively. These students often do not retain much of the previously learned material, thus limiting their success of subsequent research and statistics courses. The purpose of this article is…

  17. Practical Aspects of Research Monitoring: Methodological and Functional Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Onosov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the experience of designing, testing and implementing the National system of monitoring the quality of meteorological services in Russia. Within the framework of this project a large-scale research program was carried out aimed to develop the conception, methodology, research tools and design of customer assessment of the Roshydromet services.

  18. Research Methodologies Explored for a Paradigm Shift in University Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, I. M.; Blignaut, R. J.; Stoltz, D.

    2001-01-01

    Innovative teaching methods such as collaborative learning, teamwork, and mind maps were introduced to teach computer science and statistics courses at a South African university. Soft systems methodology was adapted and used to manage the research process of evaluating the effectiveness of the teaching methods. This research method provided proof…

  19. An applied methodology for stakeholder identification in transdisciplinary research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leventon, Julia; Fleskens, Luuk; Claringbould, Heleen; Schwilch, Gudrun; Hessel, Rudi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel methodology for identifying stakeholders for the purpose of engaging with them in transdisciplinary, sustainability research projects. In transdisciplinary research, it is important to identify a range of stakeholders prior to the problem-focussed stages of

  20. Methodological Orientation of Research Articles Appearing in Higher Education Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Sherri E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the methodologies authors in higher education journals used to obtain knowledge in their fields. This study looked at five peer reviewed journals of higher education and analyzed the methods of research employed by the authors to help them answer their respective research questions. The methods of…

  1. A constructivist approach for teaching research methodology in construction management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, Andreas; Doree, Andries G.; Martin, Ludwig

    2010-01-01

    Construction Management (CM) is an acknowledged field of expertise and profession that requires students to research real world problems. To prepare the students for this task, many CM programs contain a Research Methodology (RM) course. However, after taking part in these courses, many students

  2. Methodological decolonization and interculturality. Reflexions from the ethnographic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Puentes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I explain some methodological crosslinks between the decolonial option, subaltern studies and postcolonial studies. In addition, I highlight certains limitations they present in their ethnographic research. Finally, I suggest some guidelines that could help us carry out a research comprising an extended intercultural horizon

  3. Effects of various methodologic strategies: survey response rates among Canadian physicians and physicians-in-training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grava-Gubins, Inese; Scott, Sarah

    2008-10-01

    To increase the overall 2007 response rate of the National Physician Survey (NPS) from the survey's 2004 rate of response with the implementation of various methodologic strategies. Physicians were stratified to receive either a long version (12 pages) or a short version (6 pages) of the survey (38% and 62%, respectively). Mixed modes of contact were used-58% were contacted by e-mail and 42% by regular mail-with multiple modes of contact attempted for nonrespondents. The self-administered, confidential surveys were distributed in either English or French. Medical residents and students received e-mail surveys only and were offered a substantial monetary lottery incentive for completing their surveys. A professional communications firm assisted in marketing the survey and delivered advance notification of its impending distribution. Canada. A total of 62 441 practising physicians, 2627 second-year medical residents, and 9162 medical students in Canada. Of the practising physicians group, 60 811 participants were eligible and 19 239 replied, for an overall 2007 study response rate of 31.64% (compared with 35.85% in 2004). No difference in rate of response was found between the longer and shorter versions of the survey. If contacted by regular mail, the response rate was 34.1%; the e-mail group had a response rate of 29.9%. Medical student and resident response rates were 30.8% and 27.9%, respectively (compared with 31.2% and 35.6% in 2004). Despite shortening the questionnaires, contacting more physicians by e-mail, and enhancing marketing and follow-up, the 2007 NPS response rate for practising physicians did not surpass the 2004 NPS response rate. Offering a monetary lottery incentive to medical residents and students was also unsuccessful in increasing their response rates. The role of surveys in gathering information from physicians and physicians-in-training remains problematic. Researchers need to investigate alternative strategies for achieving higher rates of

  4. Q methodology for post-social-turn research in SLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Irie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Q methodology, an approach to inquiry on the subjective views about a complex phenomenon/issue which has been increasingly employed in a wide range of social science fields has not yet been applied in language learning and teaching research. It is a unique approach that has characteristics of both qualitative and quantitative research methods. The purpose of the present paper is to introduce Q methodology as an alternative approach and demonstrate its potential to respond to the needs of the field that has been expanding in its epistemological diversity since the social turn (Block, 2003; Ortega, 2012. The relevance of the methodology for SLA research will be discussed with a particular focus on the parallels between the development of the methodology in the 1930s and current criticisms towards the traditional cognitive approach in SLA. Using a published study (Irie & Ryan, 2014, the author explains how the focus on the holistic understanding of subjectivity is built into the procedure. Suggestions for possible areas of research and teaching in which Q methodology could be applied are discussed.

  5. Active learning about research methodology in engineering education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    Research methodology and theory of science have become important teaching subjects en engineering education as well as in higher education in general. This is rooted in the transition to a knowledge society. Today, it is argued by many that we are well on the way to an era beyond modernity...... of science if often not favored subjects by engineering students, who tend to find the subjects abstract. Thus, the students are often very engaged in the subjects, nor are textbooks or teaching very engaging. This poster asks how we can promote active learning in research methodology and theory of science...... and the sort of industrial economy that came with it. Whatever else the new era brings – the globalization of risks, environmental problems, new technologies, etc. – knowledge and the ability to seek, produce, apply and transform knowledge is of huge importance. However, research methodology and theory...

  6. Methodology is more than research design and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Robert W

    2005-05-01

    The Society for Computers in Psychology has been at the forefront of disseminating information about advances in computer technology and their applications for psychologists. Although technological advances, as well as clean research designs, are key contributors to progress in psychological research, the justification of methodological rules for interpreting data and making theory choices is at least as important. Historically, methodological beliefs and practices have been justified through intuition and logic, an approach known as foundationism. However, naturalism, a modern approach in the philosophy of science inspired by the work of Thomas S. Kuhn, indicates that all aspects of scientific practice, including its methodology, should be evaluated empirically. This article examines implications of the naturalistic approach for psychological research methods in general and for the current debate that is often framed as one of qualitative versus quantitative methods.

  7. Multiple Methodologies: Using Community-Based Participatory Research and Decolonizing Methodologies in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Brent C.; Odoyo, Kenneth O.

    2018-01-01

    In this project, we examined the development of a sustainable inclusive education system in western Kenya by combining community-based participatory research (CBPR) and decolonizing methodologies. Through three cycles of qualitative interviews with stakeholders in inclusive education, participants explained what they saw as foundational components…

  8. Researching experiences of cancer: the importance of methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entwistle, V; Tritter, J Q; Calnan, M

    2002-09-01

    This paper draws on contributions to and discussions at a recent MRC HSRC-sponsored workshop 'Researching users' experiences of health care: the case of cancer'. We focus on the methodological and ethical challenges that currently face researchers who use self-report methods to investigate experiences of cancer and cancer care. These challenges relate to: the theoretical and conceptual underpinnings of research; participation rates and participant profiles; data collection methods (the retrospective nature of accounts, description and measurement, and data collection as intervention); social desirability considerations; relationship considerations; the experiences of contributing to research; and the synthesis and presentation of findings. We suggest that methodological research to tackle these challenges should be integrated into substantive research projects to promote the development of a strong knowledge base about experiences of cancer and cancer care.

  9. Participant observation, anthropology methodology and design anthropology research inquiry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunn, Wendy; Buch Løgstrup, Louise

    2014-01-01

    of practice. They do so by combining participant observation, anthropology methodology and design anthropology research inquiry engaging with practice based explorations to understand if methods and methodologies, understood as being central to anthropological inquiry, can be taught to interaction design...... engineering students studying in an engineering faculty and engineers working in an energy company. They ask how do you generate anthropological capacities with interaction design engineering students engaged in engineering design processes and employees of an energy company setting out to reframe...... their relation with the private end user? What kind of ways can engaging within collaborative processes of designing offer opportunities for both designing and anthropological research inquiry simultaneously?...

  10. Using electronic surveys in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Diane G

    2014-11-01

    Computer and Internet use in businesses and homes in the United States has dramatically increased since the early 1980s. In 2011, 76% of households reported having a computer, compared with only 8% in 1984 (File, 2013). A similar increase in Internet use has also been seen, with 72% of households reporting access of the Internet in 2011 compared with 18% in 1997 (File, 2013). This emerging trend in technology has prompted use of electronic surveys in the research community as an alternative to previous telephone and postal surveys. Electronic surveys can offer an efficient, cost-effective method for data collection; however, challenges exist. An awareness of the issues and strategies to optimize data collection using web-based surveys is critical when designing research studies. This column will discuss the different types and advantages and disadvantages of using electronic surveys in nursing research, as well as methods to optimize the quality and quantity of survey responses.

  11. Research Methodology in Montanistic Tourism with Respect to the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schejbal Ctirad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Research methodology in montanistic tourism involves the archival research and study of special literature, surface and underground field survey, the analysis of findings of rock fragments, mineral composition, traces of metallurgical processes, fragments of pottery, etc. A separate problem is the study and evaluation of the development of mining and post-mining landscapes, focusing on the entire supply chain of resource industries and their impact on the cultural development of the country.

  12. Comparing econometric and survey-based methodologies in measuring offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refslund, Bjarke

    2016-01-01

    such as the national or regional level. Most macro analyses are based on proxies and trade statistics with limitations. Drawing on unique Danish survey data, this article demonstrates how survey data can provide important insights into the national scale and impacts of offshoring, including changes of employment...

  13. A Theoretical and Methodological Evaluation of Leadership Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashbrook, Velma J.; Lashbrook, William B.

    This paper isolates some of the strengths and weaknesses of leadership research by evaluating it from both a theoretical and methodological perspective. The seven theories or approaches examined are: great man, trait, situational, style, functional, social influence, and interaction positions. General theoretical, conceptual, and measurement…

  14. Methodological Issues in HIV-Related Social Research in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Methodological Issues in HIV/AIDS Social Research in Nigeria ... convaincue au commencement de l'étude qu'une étude sur l'interaction entre le VIH/sida et les questions sensibles comme les ..... One of the vexed issues was the requirement.

  15. Para-Quantitative Methodology: Reclaiming Experimentalism in Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani Varaki, Bakhtiar; Floden, Robert E.; Javidi Kalatehjafarabadi, Tahereh

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the criticisms of current approaches in educational research methodology. It summarizes rationales for mixed methods and argues that the mixing quantitative paradigm and qualitative paradigm is problematic due to practical and philosophical arguments. It is also indicated that the current rise of mixed methods work has…

  16. Digital Video as Research Practice: Methodology for the Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrum, Wesley; Duque, Ricardo; Brown, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    This essay has its origin in a project on the globalization of science that rediscovered the wisdom of past research practices through the technology of the future. The main argument of this essay is that a convergence of digital video technologies with practices of social surveillance portends a methodological shift towards a new variety of…

  17. Narrative inquiry: a relational research methodology for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clandinin, D Jean; Cave, Marie T; Berendonk, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Narrative research, an inclusive term for a range of methodologies, has rapidly become part of medical education scholarship. In this paper we identify narrative inquiry as a particular theoretical and methodological framework within narrative research and outline its characteristics. We briefly summarise how narrative research has been used in studying medical learners' identity making in medical education. We then turn to the uses of narrative inquiry in studying medical learners' professional identity making. With the turn to narrative inquiry, the shift is to thinking with stories instead of about stories. We highlight four challenges in engaging in narrative inquiry in medical education and point toward promising future research and practice possibilities. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  18. A Survey of Cost Estimating Methodologies for Distributed Spacecraft Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Veronica L.; Le Moigne, Jacqueline; de Weck, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Satellite constellations present unique capabilities and opportunities to Earth orbiting and near-Earth scientific and communications missions, but also present new challenges to cost estimators. An effective and adaptive cost model is essential to successful mission design and implementation, and as Distributed Spacecraft Missions (DSM) become more common, cost estimating tools must become more representative of these types of designs. Existing cost models often focus on a single spacecraft and require extensive design knowledge to produce high fidelity estimates. Previous research has examined the limitations of existing cost practices as they pertain to the early stages of mission formulation, for both individual satellites and small satellite constellations. Recommendations have been made for how to improve the cost models for individual satellites one-at-a-time, but much of the complexity in constellation and DSM cost modeling arises from constellation systems level considerations that have not yet been examined. This paper constitutes a survey of the current state-of-theart in cost estimating techniques with recommendations for improvements to increase the fidelity of future constellation cost estimates. To enable our investigation, we have developed a cost estimating tool for constellation missions. The development of this tool has revealed three high-priority shortcomings within existing parametric cost estimating capabilities as they pertain to DSM architectures: design iteration, integration and test, and mission operations. Within this paper we offer illustrative examples of these discrepancies and make preliminary recommendations for addressing them. DSM and satellite constellation missions are shifting the paradigm of space-based remote sensing, showing promise in the realms of Earth science, planetary observation, and various heliophysical applications. To fully reap the benefits of DSM technology, accurate and relevant cost estimating capabilities

  19. Measuring Substance Use and Misuse via Survey Research: Unfinished Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Timothy P

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews unfinished business regarding the assessment of substance use behaviors by using survey research methodologies, a practice that dates back to the earliest years of this journal's publication. Six classes of unfinished business are considered including errors of sampling, coverage, non-response, measurement, processing, and ethics. It may be that there is more now that we do not know than when this work began some 50 years ago.

  20. Using Electronic Mail to Conduct Survey Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thach, Liz

    1995-01-01

    Describes public and private online networks and the characteristics of electronic mail. Reviews the literature on survey research conducted via electronic mail, and examines the issues of design, implementation, and response. A table displays advantages and disadvantages of electronic mail surveys. (AEF)

  1. A methodological review of qualitative case study methodology in midwifery research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchan, Marjorie; Davis, Deborah; Foureur, Maralyn

    2016-10-01

    To explore the use and application of case study research in midwifery. Case study research provides rich data for the analysis of complex issues and interventions in the healthcare disciplines; however, a gap in the midwifery research literature was identified. A methodological review of midwifery case study research using recognized templates, frameworks and reporting guidelines facilitated comprehensive analysis. An electronic database search using the date range January 2005-December 2014: Maternal and Infant Care, CINAHL Plus, Academic Search Complete, Web of Knowledge, SCOPUS, Medline, Health Collection (Informit), Cochrane Library Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, Wiley online and ProQuest Central. Narrative evaluation was undertaken. Clearly worded questions reflected the problem and purpose. The application, strengths and limitations of case study methods were identified through a quality appraisal process. The review identified both case study research's applicability to midwifery and its low uptake, especially in clinical studies. Many papers included the necessary criteria to achieve rigour. The included measures of authenticity and methodology were varied. A high standard of authenticity was observed, suggesting authors considered these elements to be routine inclusions. Technical aspects were lacking in many papers, namely a lack of reflexivity and incomplete transparency of processes. This review raises the profile of case study research in midwifery. Midwives will be encouraged to explore if case study research is suitable for their investigation. The raised profile will demonstrate further applicability; encourage support and wider adoption in the midwifery setting. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Research Methods in Healthcare Epidemiology: Survey and Qualitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdar, Nasia; Abbo, Lilian M; Knobloch, Mary Jo; Seo, Susan K

    2016-11-01

    Surveys are one of the most frequently employed study designs in healthcare epidemiology research. Generally easier to undertake and less costly than many other study designs, surveys can be invaluable to gain insights into opinions and practices in large samples and may be descriptive and/or be used to test associations. In this context, qualitative research methods may complement this study design either at the survey development phase and/or at the interpretation/extension of results stage. This methods article focuses on key considerations for designing and deploying surveys in healthcare epidemiology and antibiotic stewardship, including identification of whether or not de novo survey development is necessary, ways to optimally lay out and display a survey, denominator measurement, discussion of biases to keep in mind particularly in research using surveys, and the role of qualitative research methods to complement surveys. We review examples of surveys in healthcare epidemiology and antimicrobial stewardship and review the pros and cons of methods used. A checklist is provided to help aid design and deployment of surveys in healthcare epidemiology and antimicrobial stewardship. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1-6.

  3. Positive Community Norm Survey 2011 : Methodology and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This survey established a baseline understanding of the positive norms that exist in Idaho, plus reveal the gaps in knowledge and perceived norms with regard to impaired driving. These gaps will indicate the most effective opportunities for future co...

  4. Is It Necessary to Articulate a Research Methodology When Reporting on Theoretical Research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Smith

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors share their insights on whether it is necessary to articulate a research methodology when reporting on theoretical research. Initially the authors, one being a supervisor and the other, a PhD student and a colleague, were confronted with the question during supervision and writing of a thesis on theoretical research. Reflection on the external examiners’ reports about whether a research methodology for theoretical research is necessary prompted the writing of this paper. In order to answer the question, the characteristics of theoretical research are clarified and contrasting views regarding the necessity or not of including a research methodology section in such a thesis, are examined. The paper also highlights the justification for including a research methodology in a thesis that reports on theoretical research, investigates the soundness of such justification and finally draws conclusions on the matter.

  5. Six methodological steps to build medical data warehouses for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szirbik, N B; Pelletier, C; Chaussalet, T

    2006-09-01

    We propose a simple methodology for heterogeneous data collection and central repository-style database design in healthcare. Our method can be used with or without other software development frameworks, and we argue that its application can save a relevant amount of implementation effort. Also, we believe that the method can be used in other fields of research, especially those that have a strong interdisciplinary nature. The idea emerged during a healthcare research project, which consisted among others in grouping information from heterogeneous and distributed information sources. We developed this methodology by the lessons learned when we had to build a data repository, containing information about elderly patients flows in the UK's long-term care system (LTC). We explain thoroughly those aspects that influenced the methodology building. The methodology is defined by six steps, which can be aligned with various iterative development frameworks. We describe here the alignment of our methodology with the RUP (rational unified process) framework. The methodology emphasizes current trends, as early identification of critical requirements, data modelling, close and timely interaction with users and stakeholders, ontology building, quality management, and exception handling. Of a special interest is the ontological engineering aspect, which had the effects with the highest impact after the project. That is, it helped stakeholders to perform better collaborative negotiations that brought better solutions for the overall system investigated. An insight into the problems faced by others helps to lead the negotiators to win-win situations. We consider that this should be the social result of any project that collects data for better decision making that leads finally to enhanced global outcomes.

  6. Vulnerable participants in health research: methodological and ethical challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Kappel, Nanna

    2011-01-01

    , leaving both professionals and researchers in ethical and moral dilemmas. In this article, we specifically focus on the methodological challenges of obtaining informed consent from drug users and terminally ill cancer patients in our PhD research. The question is how to illuminate the needs and problems......Ethical guidelines for conducting research are embedded in the Helsinki Declaration of 1964. We contend that these abstract and intentionally universal guidelines need to be appropriated for social and healthcare research, in which purpose and methods often deviate from medical research....... The guidelines appear to be instrumental and over-simplistic representations of the often ‘messy’ realities surrounding the research process that is often guided by relational and local negotiations of ethical solutions. Vulnerable participants, for instance, challenge both professional and research ethics...

  7. Graduate students' teaching experiences improve their methodological research skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldon, David F; Peugh, James; Timmerman, Briana E; Maher, Michelle A; Hurst, Melissa; Strickland, Denise; Gilmore, Joanna A; Stiegelmeyer, Cindy

    2011-08-19

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) graduate students are often encouraged to maximize their engagement with supervised research and minimize teaching obligations. However, the process of teaching students engaged in inquiry provides practice in the application of important research skills. Using a performance rubric, we compared the quality of methodological skills demonstrated in written research proposals for two groups of early career graduate students (those with both teaching and research responsibilities and those with only research responsibilities) at the beginning and end of an academic year. After statistically controlling for preexisting differences between groups, students who both taught and conducted research demonstrate significantly greater improvement in their abilities to generate testable hypotheses and design valid experiments. These results indicate that teaching experience can contribute substantially to the improvement of essential research skills.

  8. Methodological decisions and the evaluation of possible effects of different family structures on children: The new family structures survey (NFSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumm, Walter R

    2012-11-01

    Every social science researcher must make a number of methodological decisions when planning and implementing research projects. Each such decision carries with it both advantages and limitations. The decisions faced and made by Regnerus (2012) are discussed here in the wider context of social science literature regarding same-sex parenting. Even though the apparent outcomes of Regnerus's study were unpopular, the methodological decisions he made in the design and implementation of the New Family Structures Survey were not uncommon among social scientists, including many progressive, gay and lesbian scholars. These decisions and the research they produced deserve considerable and continued discussion, but criticisms of the underlying ethics and professionalism are misplaced because nearly every methodological decision that was made has ample precedents in research published by many other credible and distinguished scholars. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Researching health inequalities with Community Researchers: practical, methodological and ethical challenges of an 'inclusive' research approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salway, Sarah; Chowbey, Punita; Such, Elizabeth; Ferguson, Beverly

    2015-01-01

    Public health research sometimes uses members of communities as researchers. These are called Community Researchers. The advantage of using Community Researchers is that it enables people who live in communities to participate in research by designing the research, gathering data and being involved in analysis. This 'participatory' approach also has the potential to reach communities that might otherwise not be included in research. There are few studies that report the experiences of Community Researchers who take part in such research. This study helps fill this gap by exploring the issues and challenges faced by Community Researchers involved in a study of health and poverty in ethnically mixed areas of east London, UK. Through the accounts of 12 researchers, the study reveals that being a community 'insider' had advantages: many felt they had been able to gain the trust of respondents and access people for the research that would have otherwise been missed. The role of Community Researcher was, however, difficult to manage with some researchers feeling burdened by their role and the increased knowledge they had about the lives of those in their community. In addition to the personal challenges for the Community Researchers, the findings raise various ethical and methodological issues that need consideration in participatory research. Background Inclusive research approaches are increasingly employed by public health researchers. Recent methodological development includes the engagement of Community Researchers (CRs), who use their knowledge and networks to facilitate research with the community with which they identify. Few studies have explored the experiences of CRs in the research process, an important element of any comprehensive assessment of the pros and cons of such research endeavours. We report here on the experiences of CRs engaged in a study of health inequalities and poverty in ethnically diverse and disadvantaged areas of London, UK. Methods We

  10. Emerging Methodologies in Pediatric Palliative Care Research: Six Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Nelson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Given the broad focus of pediatric palliative care (PPC on the physical, emotional, and spiritual needs of children with potentially life-limiting illnesses and their families, PPC research requires creative methodological approaches. This manuscript, written by experienced PPC researchers, describes issues encountered in our own areas of research and the novel methods we have identified to target them. Specifically, we discuss potential approaches to: assessing symptoms among nonverbal children, evaluating medical interventions, identifying and treating problems related to polypharmacy, addressing missing data in longitudinal studies, evaluating longer-term efficacy of PPC interventions, and monitoring for inequities in PPC service delivery.

  11. Emerging Methodologies in Pediatric Palliative Care Research: Six Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Katherine E.; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Rosenberg, Abby R.; Widger, Kimberley; Faerber, Jennifer A.; Feudtner, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Given the broad focus of pediatric palliative care (PPC) on the physical, emotional, and spiritual needs of children with potentially life-limiting illnesses and their families, PPC research requires creative methodological approaches. This manuscript, written by experienced PPC researchers, describes issues encountered in our own areas of research and the novel methods we have identified to target them. Specifically, we discuss potential approaches to: assessing symptoms among nonverbal children, evaluating medical interventions, identifying and treating problems related to polypharmacy, addressing missing data in longitudinal studies, evaluating longer-term efficacy of PPC interventions, and monitoring for inequities in PPC service delivery. PMID:29495384

  12. A gamma heating calculation methodology for research reactor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.K.; David, J.C.; Carcreff, H.

    2001-01-01

    Gamma heating is an important issue in research reactor operation and fuel safety. Heat deposition in irradiation targets and temperature distribution in irradiation facility should be determined so as to obtain the optimal irradiation conditions. This paper presents a recently developed gamma heating calculation methodology and its application on the research reactors. Based on the TRIPOLI-4 Monte Carlo code under the continuous-energy option, this new calculation methodology was validated against calorimetric measurements realized within a large ex-core irradiation facility of the 70 MWth OSIRIS materials testing reactor (MTR). The contributions from prompt fission neutrons, prompt fission γ-rays, capture γ-rays and inelastic γ-rays to heat deposition were evaluated by a coupled (n, γ) transport calculation. The fission product decay γ-rays were also considered but the activation γ-rays were neglected in this study. (author)

  13. Survey and selection of assessment methodologies for GAVE options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weterings, R.

    1999-05-01

    The Dutch government is interested in the possibilities for a market introduction of new gaseous and liquid energy carriers. To this purpose the GAVE-programme was recently set up. This study is carried out within the framework of the GAVE-programme and aims at the selection of methodologies for assessing the technological, economic, ecological and social perspectives of these new energy options (so-called GAVE-options). Based on the results of these assessments the Dutch ministries of Housing, Planning and Environment (VROM) and Economic Affairs (EZ) will decide at the end of 1999 about starting demonstration projects of promising energy carriers

  14. Methodology of the National School-based Health Survey in Malaysia, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Fadhli; Saari, Riyanti; Naidu, Balkish M; Ahmad, Noor Ani; Omar, Azahadi; Aris, Tahir

    2014-09-01

    The National School-Based Health Survey 2012 was a nationwide school health survey of students in Standard 4 to Form 5 (10-17 years of age), who were schooling in government schools in Malaysia during the period of data collection. The survey comprised 3 subsurveys: the Global School Health Survey (GSHS), the Mental Health Survey, and the National School-Based Nutrition Survey. The aim of the survey was to provide data on the health status of adolescents in Malaysia toward strengthening the adolescent health program in the country. The design of the survey was created to fulfill the requirements of the 3 subsurveys. A 2-stage stratified sampling method was adopted in the sampling. The methods for data collection were via questionnaire and physical examination. The National School-Based Health Survey 2012 adopted an appropriate methodology for a school-based survey to ensure valid and reliable findings. © 2014 APJPH.

  15. Contemporary Research on Parenting: Conceptual, Methodological, and Translational Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Thomas G.; Sleddens, Ester F. C.; Berge, Jerica; Connell, Lauren; Govig, Bert; Hennessy, Erin; Liggett, Leanne; Mallan, Kimberley; Santa Maria, Diane; Odoms-Young, Angela; St. George, Sara M.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers over the last decade have documented the association between general parenting style and numerous factors related to childhood obesity (e.g., children's eating behaviors, physical activity, and weight status). Many recent childhood obesity prevention programs are family focused and designed to modify parenting behaviors thought to contribute to childhood obesity risk. This article presents a brief consideration of conceptual, methodological, and translational issues that can infor...

  16. A survey of big data research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hua; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Wang, Chanpaul Jin; Daneshmand, Mahmoud; Wang, Chonggang; Wang, Honggang

    2015-01-01

    Big data create values for business and research, but pose significant challenges in terms of networking, storage, management, analytics and ethics. Multidisciplinary collaborations from engineers, computer scientists, statisticians and social scientists are needed to tackle, discover and understand big data. This survey presents an overview of big data initiatives, technologies and research in industries and academia, and discusses challenges and potential solutions. PMID:26504265

  17. The ECOUTER methodology for stakeholder engagement in translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtagh, Madeleine J; Minion, Joel T; Turner, Andrew; Wilson, Rebecca C; Blell, Mwenza; Ochieng, Cynthia; Murtagh, Barnaby; Roberts, Stephanie; Butters, Oliver W; Burton, Paul R

    2017-04-04

    Because no single person or group holds knowledge about all aspects of research, mechanisms are needed to support knowledge exchange and engagement. Expertise in the research setting necessarily includes scientific and methodological expertise, but also expertise gained through the experience of participating in research and/or being a recipient of research outcomes (as a patient or member of the public). Engagement is, by its nature, reciprocal and relational: the process of engaging research participants, patients, citizens and others (the many 'publics' of engagement) brings them closer to the research but also brings the research closer to them. When translating research into practice, engaging the public and other stakeholders is explicitly intended to make the outcomes of translation relevant to its constituency of users. In practice, engagement faces numerous challenges and is often time-consuming, expensive and 'thorny' work. We explore the epistemic and ontological considerations and implications of four common critiques of engagement methodologies that contest: representativeness, communication and articulation, impacts and outcome, and democracy. The ECOUTER (Employing COnceptUal schema for policy and Translation Engagement in Research) methodology addresses problems of representation and epistemic foundationalism using a methodology that asks, "How could it be otherwise?" ECOUTER affords the possibility of engagement where spatial and temporal constraints are present, relying on saturation as a method of 'keeping open' the possible considerations that might emerge and including reflexive use of qualitative analytic methods. This paper describes the ECOUTER process, focusing on one worked example and detailing lessons learned from four other pilots. ECOUTER uses mind-mapping techniques to 'open up' engagement, iteratively and organically. ECOUTER aims to balance the breadth, accessibility and user-determination of the scope of engagement. An ECOUTER

  18. A Critique for the Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Naji

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to evaluate of Imre Lakatos' MSRP (Methodology of Scientific Research Programs. Presenting the methodology which is based on Popperian Refutationism, Lakatos intended to overcome Pluralism (, Relativism and Skepticism and distinguishes the best theory (/program in science. The question is that did the lakatos' secondary change in the form and content of MSRP -against some historical facts and criticisms- make some serious deficiencies in his methodology? The answer to this question is positive. One of Lakatos' changes in MSRP is to resort to a new concept of "rationality". Presenting a logical analysis, the paper shows that this change causes MSRP to be unable to distinguish the best program among others. Furthermore he gives a new definition of the term 'methodology'. This definition, in its turn, makes MSRP main task to be inactive.Showing the irreparable harms Lakatos' changes produce in MSRP, the paper shows that these changes not only cannot get rid of the deficiencies therein, but it is also unable to meet lakatos' original purpose for MSRP.

  19. Destination brands and website evaluation: a research methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Fernández-Cavia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The World Wide Web has become the primary instrument used by tourists in order to search for information. As a result, tourism websites pertaining to destinations need to be appealing and must convey their brand image in an appropriate, effective manner. However, there is no methodology in place to assess the quality and communicative effectiveness of destination websites that is scientifically sound and universally accepted. The development of such a methodology is one of the tasks we have proposed within the framework of the research project: “New strategies for advertising and promoting Spanish tourism brands online” (CSO2008-02627, funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation. Method: The project team have developed an interdisciplinary, all-embracing analysis template combining certain automated analyses with other qualitative and quantitative ones. The template comprises a total of 12 subject areas and 154 indicators prepared on the basis of contributions from prominent experts in each of the fields of work. This article sets out the analysis methodology drawn up and possible applications are given. Results: The primary aim of the project is to provide an assessment methodology that would make it possible to optimise destination brand websites, thus providing a tool to support the work of public tourism destination managers.

  20. Research themes, authors and methodologies in the South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moreover, quantitative research methods were the most common, with survey design being most prevalent. It is subsequently recommended that periodic reviews of SAJAE be conducted, as well as comparative reviews with similar journals. A collaborative approach was suggested. Keywords: Content analysis, primary ...

  1. [The grounded theory as a methodological alternative for nursing research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Sérgio Ribeiro; da Nóbrega, Maria Miriam

    2002-01-01

    This study presents a method of interpretative and systematic research with appliance to the development of studies in nursing called "the grounded theory", whose theoretical support is the symbolic interactionism. The purpose of the paper is to describe the grounded theory as an alternative methodology for the construction of knowledge in nursing. The study highlights four topics: the basic principle, the basic concepts, the trajectory of the method and the process of analysis of the data. We conclude that the systematization of data and its interpretation, based on social actors' experience, constitute strong subsidies to generate theories through this research tool.

  2. Assessment of change in knowledge about research methods among delegates attending research methodology workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Manisha; Shah, Nehal; Navaid, Seema

    2018-01-01

    In an era of evidence based medicine research is an essential part of medical profession whether clinical or academic. A research methodology workshop intends to help participants, those who are newer to research field or those who are already doing empirical research. The present study was conducted to assess the changes in knowledge of the participants of a research methodology workshop through a structured questionnaire. With administrative and ethical approval, a four day research methodology workshop was planned. The participants were subjected to a structured questionnaire (pre-test) containing 20 multiple choice questions (Q1-Q 20) related to the topics to be covered in research methodology workshop before the commencement of the workshop and then subjected to similar posttest questionnaire after the completion of workshop. The mean values of pre and post-test scores were calculated and the results were analyzed and compared. Out of the total 153 delegates, 45(29 %) were males and 108 were (71 %) females. 92 (60%) participants consented to fill the pre-test questionnaire and 68 (44%) filled the post-test questionnaire. The mean Pre-test and post-test scores at 95% Confidence Interval were 07.62 (SD ±3.220) and 09.66 (SD ±2.477) respectively. The differences were found to be significant using Paired Sample T test ( P research methodology workshops. Participatory research methodology workshops are good methods of imparting knowledge, also the long term effects needs to be evaluated.

  3. Setting priorities for space research: An experiment in methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    In 1989, the Space Studies Board created the Task Group on Priorities in Space Research to determine whether scientists should take a role in recommending priorities for long-term space research initiatives and, if so, to analyze the priority-setting problem in this context and develop a method by which such priorities could be established. After answering the first question in the affirmative in a previous report, the task group set out to accomplish the second task. The basic assumption in developing a priority-setting process is that a reasoned and structured approach for ordering competing initiatives will yield better results than other ways of proceeding. The task group proceeded from the principle that the central criterion for evaluating a research initiative must be its scientific merit -- the value of the initiative to the proposing discipline and to science generally. The group developed a two-stage methodology for priority setting and constructed a procedure and format to support the methodology. The first of two instruments developed was a standard format for structuring proposals for space research initiatives. The second instrument was a formal, semiquantitative appraisal procedure for evaluating competing proposals. This report makes available complete templates for the methodology, including the advocacy statement and evaluation forms, as well as an 11-step schema for a priority-setting process. From the beginning of its work, the task group was mindful that the issue of priority setting increasingly pervades all of federally supported science and that its work would have implications extending beyond space research. Thus, although the present report makes no recommendations for action by NASA or other government agencies, it provides the results of the task group's work for the use of others who may study priority-setting procedures or take up the challenge of implementing them in the future.

  4. Tutorials on emerging methodologies and applications in operations research

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    Operations Research emerged as a quantitative approach to problem-solving in World War II. Its founders, who were physicists, mathematicians, and engineers, quickly found peace-time uses for this new field. Moreover, we can say that Operations Research (OR) was born in the same incubator as computer science, and through the years, it has spawned many new disciplines, including systems engineering, health care management, and transportation science. Fundamentally, Operations Research crosses discipline domains to seek solutions on a range of problems and benefits diverse disciplines from finance to bioengineering. Many disciplines routinely use OR methods. Many scientific researchers, engineers, and others will find the methodological presentations in this book useful and helpful in their problem-solving efforts. OR’s strengths are modeling, analysis, and algorithm design. It provides a quantitative foundation for a broad spectrum of problems, from economics to medicine, from environmental control to sports,...

  5. A Qualitative Methodology for Minority Language Media Production Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Uribe-Jongbloed PhD

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a methodological construction for research on small groups of minority media producers, especially those who are involved in multilingual settings. The set of qualitative tools are explained and their advantages and disadvantages explored, based on the literature on the subject. Then, the debate is contrasted with the practical experience of its application with minority language producers, indigenous and ethnic radio broadcasters in Colombia and audiovisual producers in Wales. The reflection upon the results leads to a final discussion that brings the adjustments required to increase the advantages and diminish the disadvantages of the proposed combined three-step methodology of an interview to the double (ITTD, a day of participant observation, and a final lengthier semi-structured interview.

  6. Research methodology and epidemiology of relevance in recurrent pregnancy loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ole B; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Kolte, Astrid

    2006-01-01

    With respect to recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), unfortunately there is very little consensus about which investigations are useful for identifying causes and evaluating the prognosis, and also about which treatments are effective. In this review, arguments are given for the claim that this lack...... background for most of the RPL cases and the importance of matching/adjusting for a series of prognostic variables when groups are mutually compared). Furthermore, many studies in RPL contain methodological flaws that are sometimes severe. A series of important epidemiological features of RPL is highlighted...... in the review and the most important methodological pitfalls, many of them specific for RPL research, are discussed. Advice is given about to how to avoid the pitfalls in order that the validity of the studies can improve for the benefit of the patients....

  7. Offsetting deficit conceptualisations: methodological considerations for higher education research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Coleman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the current introspection in the academic development community that critiques the persistent conceptualisations of students as deficient. Deficit discourses are also implicated in many of the student support, curriculum and pedagogic initiatives employed across the higher education sector. The argument developed here, unlike most of the existing debates which focus on pedagogic or institutional initiatives, explores how the research interests and methodological choices of academic developers and researchers could incorporate sensitivity against deficit conceptions and foster more contextualised accounts of students and their learning. This article uses an ethnographic study into the assignment practices of vocational higher education students to show how certain methodological and theoretical choices engender anti-deficit conceptualisations. The study’s analytic framework uses the concepts of literacy practices and knowledge recontextualisation to place analytic attention on both the students’ assignment practices and the influence of curriculum decision making on such practices. The significance of this dual focus is its ability to capture the complexity of students’ meaning-making during assignment production, without remaining silent about the structuring influence of the curriculum. I argue in this paper that the focus on both students and curriculum is able to offer contextualised accounts of students’ interpretations and enacted experiences of their assessment and curriculum environment. Exploring the multidimensional nature of student learning experiences in ways that accommodate the influence of various contextual realities brings researchers and their research agendas closer to offsetting deficit conceptualisation.

  8. Is mindfulness research methodology improving over time? A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon B Goldberg

    Full Text Available Despite an exponential growth in research on mindfulness-based interventions, the body of scientific evidence supporting these treatments has been criticized for being of poor methodological quality.The current systematic review examined the extent to which mindfulness research demonstrated increased rigor over the past 16 years regarding six methodological features that have been highlighted as areas for improvement. These feature included using active control conditions, larger sample sizes, longer follow-up assessment, treatment fidelity assessment, and reporting of instructor training and intent-to-treat (ITT analyses.We searched PubMed, PsychInfo, Scopus, and Web of Science in addition to a publically available repository of mindfulness studies.Randomized clinical trials of mindfulness-based interventions for samples with a clinical disorder or elevated symptoms of a clinical disorder listed on the American Psychological Association's list of disorders with recognized evidence-based treatment.Independent raters screened 9,067 titles and abstracts, with 303 full text reviews. Of these, 171 were included, representing 142 non-overlapping samples.Across the 142 studies published between 2000 and 2016, there was no evidence for increases in any study quality indicator, although changes were generally in the direction of improved quality. When restricting the sample to those conducted in Europe and North America (continents with the longest history of scientific research in this area, an increase in reporting of ITT analyses was found. When excluding an early, high-quality study, improvements were seen in sample size, treatment fidelity assessment, and reporting of ITT analyses.Taken together, the findings suggest modest adoption of the recommendations for methodological improvement voiced repeatedly in the literature. Possible explanations for this and implications for interpreting this body of research and conducting future studies are

  9. CONCERNING CORRELATION BETWEEN METHODOLOGY AND TECHNOLOGY IN PEDAGOGICAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir I. Zagvyazinsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is the continuation of a cycle of the methodological articles, called to help work of young researchers.The general dissatisfaction with quality and results of research work in an education sphere and pedagogics has been largely caused not only insufficient level of methodological culture of competitors of scientific degrees and researchers-experts, but also their inability to choose a work technology of procedure of research that will be adequate to the purposes, problems and a plan of it. The present article is also devoted to this problem.Methods. The methods of the analysis, synthesis, idealisation, generalisation of author’s experience, a concrete definition and modelling are used.Results and scientific novelty. The general technology of scientific search in an education sphere is presented; the technology is developed on the basis of long-term experience of the Tyumen scientific and pedagogical school, and justified in practice. The author doesn’t take into consideration the rigid technology of algorithmic type which is hardly useful in works of creative character; but in the present case – frame technology that defines the expedient organisation, sequence of stages of work and its corresponding maintenance. The following technology components are described: self-determination of the researcher or research group on the basis of creation and the statement of the developed project of all procedures of search; statement of questions on initial allocation of the problem conducting ideas, a plan-way of its realisation; project performance, its ascertaining and a reformative part, research procedures (the basic stage; summarising, generalisation of the research performed, a writing of the text of report documents, preparation of total publications. Examples of typical errors of the young scientists who do not own the technology of scientific activity are given.Practical significance. Proposed recommendations stated

  10. CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH METHODOLOGY DEVELOPMENT IN SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha ANGELOSKA-GALEVSKA

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the text is to point out the developmental tendencies in the research methodology of special education and rehabilitation worldwide and in our country and to emphasize the importance of methodological training of students in special education and rehabilitation at the Faculty of Philosophy in Skopje.The achieved scientific knowledge through research is the fundamental pre-condition for development of special education and rehabilitation theory and practice. The results of the scientific work sometimes cause small, insignificant changes, but, at times, they make radical changes. Thank to the scientific researches and knowledge, certain prejudices were rejected. For example, in the sixth decade of the last century there was a strong prejudice that mentally retarded children should be segregated from the society as aggressive and unfriendly ones or the deaf children should not learn sign language because they would not be motivated to learn lip-reading and would hardly adapt. Piaget and his colleagues from Geneva institute were the pioneers in researching this field and they imposed their belief that handicapped children were not handicapped in each field and they had potentials that could be developed and improved by systematic and organized work. It is important to initiate further researches in the field of special education and rehabilitation, as well as a critical analysis of realized researches. Further development of the scientific research in special education and rehabilitation should be a base for education policy on people with disabilities and development of institutional and non-institutional treatment of this population.

  11. Understanding palliative care on the heart failure care team: an innovative research methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingard, Lorelei A; McDougall, Allan; Schulz, Valerie; Shadd, Joshua; Marshall, Denise; Strachan, Patricia H; Tait, Glendon R; Arnold, J Malcolm; Kimel, Gil

    2013-05-01

    There is a growing call to integrate palliative care for patients with advanced heart failure (HF). However, the knowledge to inform integration efforts comes largely from interview and survey research with individual patients and providers. This work has been critically important in raising awareness of the need for integration, but it is insufficient to inform solutions that must be enacted not by isolated individuals but by complex care teams. Research methods are urgently required to support systematic exploration of the experiences of patients with HF, family caregivers, and health care providers as they interact as a care team. To design a research methodology that can support systematic exploration of the experiences of patients with HF, caregivers, and health care providers as they interact as a care team. This article describes in detail a methodology that we have piloted and are currently using in a multisite study of HF care teams. We describe three aspects of the methodology: the theoretical framework, an innovative sampling strategy, and an iterative system of data collection and analysis that incorporates four data sources and four analytical steps. We anticipate that this innovative methodology will support groundbreaking research in both HF care and other team settings in which palliative integration efforts are emerging for patients with advanced nonmalignant disease. Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Statistical Methodologies to Integrate Experimental and Computational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, P. A.; Johnson, R. T.; Montgomery, D. C.

    2008-01-01

    Development of advanced algorithms for simulating engine flow paths requires the integration of fundamental experiments with the validation of enhanced mathematical models. In this paper, we provide an overview of statistical methods to strategically and efficiently conduct experiments and computational model refinement. Moreover, the integration of experimental and computational research efforts is emphasized. With a statistical engineering perspective, scientific and engineering expertise is combined with statistical sciences to gain deeper insights into experimental phenomenon and code development performance; supporting the overall research objectives. The particular statistical methods discussed are design of experiments, response surface methodology, and uncertainty analysis and planning. Their application is illustrated with a coaxial free jet experiment and a turbulence model refinement investigation. Our goal is to provide an overview, focusing on concepts rather than practice, to demonstrate the benefits of using statistical methods in research and development, thereby encouraging their broader and more systematic application.

  13. Contemporary research on parenting: conceptual, methodological, and translational issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Thomas G; Sleddens, Ester F C; Berge, Jerica; Connell, Lauren; Govig, Bert; Hennessy, Erin; Liggett, Leanne; Mallan, Kimberley; Santa Maria, Diane; Odoms-Young, Angela; St George, Sara M

    2013-08-01

    Researchers over the last decade have documented the association between general parenting style and numerous factors related to childhood obesity (e.g., children's eating behaviors, physical activity, and weight status). Many recent childhood obesity prevention programs are family focused and designed to modify parenting behaviors thought to contribute to childhood obesity risk. This article presents a brief consideration of conceptual, methodological, and translational issues that can inform future research on the role of parenting in childhood obesity. They include: (1) General versus domain specific parenting styles and practices; (2) the role of ethnicity and culture; (3) assessing bidirectional influences; (4) broadening assessments beyond the immediate family; (5) novel approaches to parenting measurement; and (6) designing effective interventions. Numerous directions for future research are offered.

  14. Contemporary Research on Parenting: Conceptual, Methodological, and Translational Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleddens, Ester F. C.; Berge, Jerica; Connell, Lauren; Govig, Bert; Hennessy, Erin; Liggett, Leanne; Mallan, Kimberley; Santa Maria, Diane; Odoms-Young, Angela; St. George, Sara M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Researchers over the last decade have documented the association between general parenting style and numerous factors related to childhood obesity (e.g., children's eating behaviors, physical activity, and weight status). Many recent childhood obesity prevention programs are family focused and designed to modify parenting behaviors thought to contribute to childhood obesity risk. This article presents a brief consideration of conceptual, methodological, and translational issues that can inform future research on the role of parenting in childhood obesity. They include: (1) General versus domain specific parenting styles and practices; (2) the role of ethnicity and culture; (3) assessing bidirectional influences; (4) broadening assessments beyond the immediate family; (5) novel approaches to parenting measurement; and (6) designing effective interventions. Numerous directions for future research are offered. PMID:23944927

  15. The challenges facing ethnographic design research: A proposed methodological solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Hicks, Ben; Culley, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Central to improving and maintaining high levels of performance in emerging ethnographic design research is a fundamental requirement to address some of the problems associated with the subject. In particular seven core issues are identified and include the complexity of test development......, variability of methods, resource intensiveness, subjectivity, comparability, common metrics and industrial acceptance. To address these problems this paper describes a structured methodological approach in which three main areas are proposed, the modularisation of the research process, the standardisation...... of the dataset and the stratification of the research context. The paper then examines the fundamental requirements of this scheme and how these relate to a Design Observatory approach. Following this, the proposed solution is related back to the initial problem set and potential issues are discussed. Finally...

  16. The Methodology of Psychological Research of Ecological Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Shmeleva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the methodological principles of the psychological study of ecological consciousness as one of the urgent interdisciplinary problems of XX–XXI century, caused by the aggravation of global ecological problems and the need for the realization of the “sustainable development”ideas. Ecological consciousness is considered as multilayered, dynamic, reflexive element of human consciousness, incorporating multivariate, holistic aspects of interaction of the human being as the H.S. and the Humanity representative with the environment and the Planet. The possibility of the more active introduction of Russian psychology in the process is argued for in connection with the existing conceptual approaches, which compose the methodological basis for ecological consciousness research. Among these approaches are considered: the principles of holistic study of the human being by B. Ananyev, the methodology of system psychological description by V. Gansen and G. Sukhodolsky, the idea of reflexivity of consciousness by S. Rubinstein, the humanitarian- ecological imperative of the development of consciousness by V. Zinchenko, the theory of relations by V. Myasishev, consideration of ecological consciousness as relation to nature by S. Deryabo and V. Yasvin, theories of consciousness by V. Petrenko, V. Allakhverdov and other Russian psychologists. The value component of ecological consciousness is distinguished as the most significant. The possibility of applying the Values’ theory of the by S. Schwartz for studying the ecological values is discussed along with the prognostic potential of the universalism value.

  17. Intellectual potential of population: theoretical and methodological framework for research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Valentinovna Leonidova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the theoretical and methodological framework for the research into the population’s intellectual potential. The presented materials show that this category is the subject of interdisciplinary studies, including philosophy, psychology, sociology, pedagogics, economics. One of the important conclusions drawn from the analysis of the essence of intellectual potential is the conclusion that the actual level of intelligence is the result of its development. It means that certain efforts on the part of such social institutions like family, education, government, promote not only the formation of smart people, but also the implementation of their potential intellectual capabilities in the production, creation of cultural values, society management, education, etc. when using this approach, the intellect ceases to be just a research object of related disciplines, but it acquires social dimension and becomes a socio-economic category. The basic theories, concepts and approaches, used in its study, were analyzed. The theory of human capital was given a most thorough consideration, because, according to this theory, the income of a person is earned by knowledge, abilities and skills, i.e. the essence of intellectual properties of an individual. The article provides the author’s definition of the intellectual potential of the population, which brings to the fore the following elements necessary for the understanding of this category: relation to socioeconomic development, factors in the formation of the characteristic, including the need for training (reproduction of intelligent people, the psychological aspect (abilities, the carriers of intellectual potential are not ignored, because it is an attribute of the population. The article identifies methodological approaches to the estimation of the population’s intellectual potential, describes the applied procedures and research methods. The authors propose methodological

  18. Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis: An Appropriate Methodology for Educational Research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward John Noon

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Interpretive phenomenological analysis (IPA is a contemporary qualitative methodology, first developed by psychologist Jonathan Smith (1996. Whilst its roots are in psychology, it is increasingly being drawn upon by scholars in the human, social and health sciences (Charlick, Pincombe, McKellar, & Fielder, 2016. Despite this, IPA has received limited attention across educationalist literature. Drawing upon my experiences of using IPA to explore the barriers to the use of humour in the teaching of Childhood Studies (Noon, 2017, this paper will discuss its theoretical orientation, sampling and methods of data collection and analysis, before examining the strengths and weaknesses to IPA’s employment in educational research.

  19. [Research interest by general practitioners: a survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, S; Zoller, M; Steurer, J

    2006-12-06

    For doing research on topics in primary care medicine participation of primary care physicians is necessary. Research in this field of medicine is only marginally established in Switzerland. In a postal survey we evaluate the general attitudes of physicians towards research in the field of primary care. In particular we were interested in their willingness to participate in research projects and the facilitating and impeding factors to take part in such projects. A purpose designed questionnaire was sent by post to 3044 primary care physicians in the central and eastern parts of Switzerland. The return rate was 52%. A majority of 94% of the responding physicians revealed interest in primary care research and 60% of all responders are willing to participate actively in such projects. They are prepared to spend about 15 min a day for data acquisition. Their willingness to participate depends on the conditions that, first, the research topic is relevant for daily practice and, second, boards odder Continuous Medical Education credits for time spent for research. Time constraints, additional administrative work and lack of relevance of research topics to daily practice are the main barriers. This survey demonstrates the general interest of primary care physicians to participate in relevant research projects. Therefore the structure to set up such research should be established.

  20. Decolonising Research and Teaching Methodologies: A "Ninth Moment" Symphony of Artist-Educator-Researcher Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Janice K.; Batorowicz, Beata; Ladislas Derr, Robert; Peters, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    In an era of globalisation, positivist research methodologies and voices are privileged and funded over those of qualitative researchers. This has led to narrowing beliefs about what constitutes knowledge, and about the ways in which knowledge is constructed and evaluated, impacting upon the conduct, funding and reporting of arts research, and…

  1. Is It Necessary to Articulate a Research Methodology When Reporting on Theoretical Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Juliana; Small, Rosalie

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the authors share their insights on whether it is necessary to articulate a research methodology when reporting on theoretical research. Initially the authors, one being a supervisor and the other, a PhD student and a colleague, were confronted with the question during supervision and writing of a thesis on theoretical research.…

  2. Ethical Dilemmas in Qualitative Research Methodology: Researcher's Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngozwana, Nomazulu

    2018-01-01

    This article examines the ethical dilemmas that are specific to qualitative research methodology. These dilemmas concern the issues of withdrawal from the study, anonymity and confidentiality, which are discussed. Each aspect examines how it was dealt with using the researcher's reflections. The research was positioned within an interpretive…

  3. Library Research Support in Queensland: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Joanna; Nolan-Brown, Therese; Loria, Pat; Bradbury, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    University libraries worldwide are reconceptualising the ways in which they support the research agenda in their respective institutions. This paper is based on a survey completed by member libraries of the Queensland University Libraries Office of Cooperation (QULOC), the findings of which may be informative for other university libraries. After…

  4. Methodological Report on the Cross-Country Survey 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jindra, Björn; Marek, Philipp; Gauselmann, Andrea

    economy. Secondly, East Germany received private investment from foreign as well as West German firms. Only the first can be considered as a foreign direct investment (FDI). Finally, there had long been a lack of micro data to adequately analyse the activities of corresponding firms from a production......With the integration of post-communist countries into the European and global economy after 1990, there was strong research interest into the role of multinational enterprises (MNEs) for economic restructuring and technological catching-up. Most of the existing empirical studies on locational...... as well as technological perspective....

  5. Utility Estimation for Pediatric Vesicoureteral Reflux: Methodological Considerations Using an Online Survey Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejwani, Rohit; Wang, Hsin-Hsiao S; Lloyd, Jessica C; Kokorowski, Paul J; Nelson, Caleb P; Routh, Jonathan C

    2017-03-01

    The advent of online task distribution has opened a new avenue for efficiently gathering community perspectives needed for utility estimation. Methodological consensus for estimating pediatric utilities is lacking, with disagreement over whom to sample, what perspective to use (patient vs parent) and whether instrument induced anchoring bias is significant. We evaluated what methodological factors potentially impact utility estimates for vesicoureteral reflux. Cross-sectional surveys using a time trade-off instrument were conducted via the Amazon Mechanical Turk® (https://www.mturk.com) online interface. Respondents were randomized to answer questions from child, parent or dyad perspectives on the utility of a vesicoureteral reflux health state and 1 of 3 "warm-up" scenarios (paralysis, common cold, none) before a vesicoureteral reflux scenario. Utility estimates and potential predictors were fitted to a generalized linear model to determine what factors most impacted utilities. A total of 1,627 responses were obtained. Mean respondent age was 34.9 years. Of the respondents 48% were female, 38% were married and 44% had children. Utility values were uninfluenced by child/personal vesicoureteral reflux/urinary tract infection history, income or race. Utilities were affected by perspective and were higher in the child group (34% lower in parent vs child, p pediatric conditions. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Accounting Research Methodology Textbook Development to Provide College Students in Accounting Subject

    OpenAIRE

    Muchson, Mochamad

    2015-01-01

    Due to the lackness of a research accounting methodology book (accounting research methodology) causing difficulties for college students to understand the steps of research in accounting, so that's the textbook is needed to completing Accounting Research Methodology book that has been exist and aimed to guide students for proposal composing or accounting research report so that it is easier to study by students.This textbook contains of accounting research methodology definition, accounting ...

  7. GPS Technology and Human Psychological Research: A Methodological Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro S. A. Wolf

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal behaviorists have made extensive use of GPS technology since 1991. In contrast, psychological research has made little use of the technology, even though the technology is relatively inexpensive, familiar, and widespread. Hence, its potential for pure and applied psychological research remains untapped. We describe three methods psychologists could apply to individual differences research, clinical research, or spatial use research. In the context of individual differences research, GPS technology permits us to test hypotheses predicting specific relations among patterns of spatial use and individual differences variables. In a clinical context, GPS technology provides outcome measures that may relate to the outcome of interventions designed to treat psychological disorders that, for example, may leave a person homebound (e.g. Agoraphobia, PTSD, TBI. Finally, GPS technology provides natural measures of spatial use. We, for example, used GPS technology to quantify traffic flow and exhibit use at the Arizona Sonora Desert Museum. Interested parties could easily extend this methodology some aspects of urban planning or business usage.DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v1i1.74

  8. The SIMRAND methodology - Simulation of Research and Development Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, R. F., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    In research and development projects, a commonly occurring management decision is concerned with the optimum allocation of resources to achieve the project goals. Because of resource constraints, management has to make a decision regarding the set of proposed systems or tasks which should be undertaken. SIMRAND (Simulation of Research and Development Projects) is a methodology which was developed for aiding management in this decision. Attention is given to a problem description, aspects of model formulation, the reduction phase of the model solution, the simulation phase, and the evaluation phase. The implementation of the considered approach is illustrated with the aid of an example which involves a simplified network of the type used to determine the price of silicon solar cells.

  9. A survey of etiologic hypotheses among testicular cancer researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, A; Trabert, B; Rusner, C; Poole, C; Almstrup, K; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; McGlynn, K A

    2015-01-01

    Basic research results can provide new ideas and hypotheses to be examined in epidemiological studies. We conducted a survey among testicular cancer researchers on hypotheses concerning the etiology of this malignancy. All researchers on the mailing list of Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshops and corresponding authors of PubMed-indexed articles identified by the search term 'testicular cancer' and published within 10 years (in total 2750 recipients) were invited to respond to an e-mail-based survey. Participants of the 8th Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshop in May 2014 were subsequently asked to rate the plausibility of the suggested etiologic hypotheses on a scale of 1 (very implausible) to 10 (very plausible). This report describes the methodology of the survey, the score distributions by individual hypotheses, hypothesis group, and the participants' major research fields, and discuss the hypotheses that scored as most plausible. We also present plans for improving the survey that may be repeated at a next international meeting of experts in testicular cancer. Overall 52 of 99 (53%) registered participants of the 8th Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshop submitted the plausibility rating form. Fourteen of 27 hypotheses were related to exposures during pregnancy. Hypotheses with the highest mean plausibility ratings were either related to pre-natal exposures or exposures that might have an effect during pregnancy and in post-natal life. The results of the survey may be helpful for triggering more specific etiologic hypotheses that include factors related to endocrine disruption, DNA damage, inflammation, and nutrition during pregnancy. The survey results may stimulate a multidisciplinary discussion about new etiologic hypotheses of testicular cancer. Published 2014. This article is a U. S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Children as respondents in survey research: Cognitive development and response quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgers, N.; Leeuw, E.D. de; Hox, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    Although children are no longer a neglected minority in official statistics and surveys, methodological knowledge on how to survey children is still scarce. Researchers have to rely mainly on ad-hoc knowledge from such diverse fields as child psychiatry and educational testing, or extrapolate

  11. Measurement of testosterone in human sexuality research: methodological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Anders, Sari M; Goldey, Katherine L; Bell, Sarah N

    2014-02-01

    Testosterone (T) and other androgens are incorporated into an increasingly wide array of human sexuality research, but there are a number of issues that can affect or confound research outcomes. This review addresses various methodological issues relevant to research design in human studies with T; unaddressed, these issues may introduce unwanted noise, error, or conceptual barriers to interpreting results. Topics covered are (1) social and demographic factors (gender and sex; sexual orientations and sexual diversity; social/familial connections and processes; social location variables), (2) biological rhythms (diurnal variation; seasonality; menstrual cycles; aging and menopause), (3) sample collection, handling, and storage (saliva vs. blood; sialogogues, saliva, and tubes; sampling frequency, timing, and context; shipping samples), (4) health, medical issues, and the body (hormonal contraceptives; medications and nicotine; health conditions and stress; body composition, weight, and exercise), and (5) incorporating multiple hormones. Detailing a comprehensive set of important issues and relevant empirical evidence, this review provides a starting point for best practices in human sexuality research with T and other androgens that may be especially useful for those new to hormone research.

  12. Socially responsible ethnobotanical surveys in the Cape Floristic Region: ethical principles, methodology and quantification of data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Erik Van Wyk

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A broad overview of published and unpublished ethnobotanical surveys in the Cape Floristic Region (the traditional home of the San and Khoi communities shows that the data is incomplete. There is an urgent need to record the rich indigenous knowledge about plants in a systematic and social responsible manner in order to preserve this cultural and scientific heritage for future generations. Improved methods for quantifying data are introduced, with special reference to the simplicity and benefits of the new Matrix Method. This methodology prevents or reduces the number of false negatives, and also ensures the participation of elderly people who might be immobile. It also makes it possible to compare plant uses in different local communities. This method enables the researcher to quantify the knowledge on plant use that was preserved in a community, and to determine the relative importance of a specific plant in a more objective way. Ethical considerations for such ethnobotanical surveys are discussed, through the lens of current ethical codes and international conventions. This is an accessible approach, which can also be used in the life sciences classroom.

  13. METHODOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF RURAL ECONOMY RESEARCH FROM NEORURALISM STANDPOINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Kutsmus

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to summarize the existing theoretical and methodological approaches to understanding the essence of the notion ‘rural economics’ and to reason that multifunctionality is a precondition of stable development. The methodology of research is based on a systematic approach, according to which rural economics is considered to be an open type of social and economic system that transforms exogenous and endogenous potential of rural territories into a certain level of rural development. The methodology of rural economic development is based on the following methodological approaches: economic, ecological, social and institutional, each one of which completes the idea of interdependence of rural economics and its territorial basis, i.e. rural area. The subject of study is a scientific-theoretical and applied principles of rural economy development. The results of the study demonstrate that agro-centric model of rural economics, the development of which focuses on formation and support of goods safety, is being displaced by multifunctional model in conditions of strengthening of human-centric priorities of the social development. Contents of this model lies in the perception of the rural economy as a diversified, multifunctional socio-economic system, whose development aimed at the welfare of the rural population. As the goal of rural economies is ensuring high welfare standards of the rural population, providing interconnection problems in the functioning of the system of rural development policy. It’s proved that the sustainable development of the rural economy it provides for the implementation of the set of economic and socially important function that displays the development of socio-economic system beyond the actual production and contributes to its focus on material and non-material welfare of the rural population. Qualitative changes in the properties of the rural economy aiming at self-development and self

  14. The trials methodological research agenda: results from a priority setting exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Research into the methods used in the design, conduct, analysis, and reporting of clinical trials is essential to ensure that effective methods are available and that clinical decisions made using results from trials are based on the best available evidence, which is reliable and robust. Methods An on-line Delphi survey of 48 UK Clinical Research Collaboration registered Clinical Trials Units (CTUs) was undertaken. During round one, CTU Directors were asked to identify important topics that require methodological research. During round two, their opinion about the level of importance of each topic was recorded, and during round three, they were asked to review the group’s average opinion and revise their previous opinion if appropriate. Direct reminders were sent to maximise the number of responses at each round. Results are summarised using descriptive methods. Results Forty one (85%) CTU Directors responded to at least one round of the Delphi process: 25 (52%) responded in round one, 32 (67%) responded in round two, 24 (50%) responded in round three. There were only 12 (25%) who responded to all three rounds and 18 (38%) who responded to both rounds two and three. Consensus was achieved amongst CTU Directors that the top three priorities for trials methodological research were ‘Research into methods to boost recruitment in trials’ (considered the highest priority), ‘Methods to minimise attrition’ and ‘Choosing appropriate outcomes to measure’. Fifty other topics were included in the list of priorities and consensus was reached that two topics, ‘Radiotherapy study designs’ and ‘Low carbon trials’, were not priorities. Conclusions This priority setting exercise has identified the research topics felt to be most important to the key stakeholder group of Directors of UKCRC registered CTUs. The use of robust methodology to identify these priorities will help ensure that this work informs the trials methodological research agenda, with

  15. Culturally Competent Social Work Research: Methodological Considerations for Research with Language Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Banghwa Lee; Negi, Nalini Junko; Hong, Michin

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growing number of language minorities, foreign-born individuals with limited English proficiency, this population has been largely left out of social work research, often due to methodological challenges involved in conducting research with this population. Whereas the professional standard calls for cultural competence, a discussion…

  16. A Design Science Research Methodology for Expert Systems Development

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    Shah Jahan Miah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of design science research (DSR can have applications for improving expert systems (ES development research. Although significant progress of utilising DSR has been observed in particular information systems design – such as decision support systems (DSS studies – only rare attempts can be found in the ES design literature. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the use of DSR for ES design. First, we explore the ES development literature to reveal the presence of DSR as a research methodology. For this, we select relevant literature criteria and apply a qualitative content analysis in order to generate themes inductively to match the DSR components. Second, utilising the findings of the comparison, we determine a new DSR approach for designing a specific ES that is guided by another result – the findings of a content analysis of examination scripts in Mathematics. The specific ES artefact for a case demonstration is designed for addressing the requirement of a ‘wicked’ problem in that the key purpose is to assist human assessors when evaluating multi-step question (MSQ solutions. It is anticipated that the proposed design knowledge, in terms of both problem class and functions of ES artefacts, will help ES designers and researchers to address similar issues for designing information system solutions.

  17. Prof. Richard Mattessich at 95. His Research Methodology

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    Giuseppe Galassi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is presented as a tribute to prof. Richard Mattessich. It is written “through the eyes” of a researcher who has worked closely with him over a period of 42 years, starting attending his courses of “Income Determination Theory” and “Research Methodology” at the University of British Columbia in 1975. Among his huge scientific research and publications, I intend to underline these three major contributions: (i Accounting metrics and other mathematical instruments which anticipated computer spreadsheet by 30 years; (ii. The preparation of accountants for information economics by means of analytical methods; and (iii The proposition of the “onion model of reality” to distinguish different Kind of reality. Este trabajo se presenta como un tributo al profesor Richard Mattessich. Está escrito “con los ojos” de un investigador que ha trabajado estrechamente con él durante un período de 42 años, comenzando a asistir a sus cursos de " Income Determination Theory" y "Research Methodology" en la Universidad de British Columbia en 1975. Entre su investigación y publicaciones, más importantes pretendo subrayar estas tres contribuciones principales: (i Accounting metrics and other mathematical instruments which anticipated computer spreadsheet by 30 years; (ii The preparation of accountants for information economics by means of analytical methods; y (iii The proposition of the “onion model of reality” to distinguish different Kind of reality.

  18. Caffeine and cognitive performance: persistent methodological challenges in caffeine research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jack E

    2014-09-01

    Human cognitive performance is widely perceived to be enhanced by caffeine at usual dietary doses. However, the evidence for and against this belief continues to be vigorously contested. Controversy has centred on caffeine withdrawal and withdrawal reversal as potential sources of experimental confounding. In response, some researchers have enlisted "caffeine-naïve" experimental participants (persons alleged to consume little or no caffeine) assuming that they are not subject to withdrawal. This mini-review examines relevant research to illustrate general methodological challenges that have been the cause of enduring confusion in caffeine research. At issue are the processes of caffeine withdrawal and withdrawal reversal, the definition of caffeine-naïve, the population representativeness of participants deemed to be caffeine-naïve, and confounding due to caffeine tolerance. Attention to these processes is necessary if premature conclusions are to be avoided, and if caffeine's complex effects and the mechanisms responsible for those effects are to be illuminated. Strategies are described for future caffeine research aimed at minimising confounding from withdrawal and withdrawal reversal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Project-based learning methodology in the area of microbiology applied to undergraduate medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Estibaliz; Sevillano, Elena

    2018-07-01

    In the recent years, there has been a decrease in the number of medical professionals dedicated to a research career. There is evidence that students with a research experience during their training acquire knowledge and skills that increase the probability of getting involved in research more successfully. In the Degree of Medicine (University of the Basque Country) the annual core subject 'Research Project' introduces students to research. The aim of this work was to implement a project-based learning methodology, with the students working on microbiology, and to analyse its result along time. Given an initial scenario, the students had to come up with a research idea related to medical microbiology and to carry out a research project, including writing a funding proposal, developing the experimental assays and analyzing and presenting their results to a congress organized by the University. Summative assessment was performed by both students and teachers. A satisfaction survey was carried out to gather the students' opinion. The overall results regarding to the classroom dynamics, learning results and motivation after the implementation were favourable. Students referred a greater interest about research than they had before. They would choose the project based methodology versus the traditional one.

  20. Priorities for methodological research on patient and public involvement in clinical trials: A modified Delphi process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Anna; Williamson, Paula; Young, Bridget; Bagley, Heather; Gamble, Carrol; Denegri, Simon; Muir, Delia; Simon, Natalie A; Thomas, Stephen; Elliot, Jim T; Bulbeck, Helen; Crocker, Joanna C; Planner, Claire; Vale, Claire; Clarke, Mike; Sprosen, Tim; Woolfall, Kerry

    2017-12-01

    Despite increasing international interest, there is a lack of evidence about the most efficient, effective and acceptable ways to implement patient and public involvement (PPI) in clinical trials. To identify the priorities of UK PPI stakeholders for methodological research to help resolve uncertainties about PPI in clinical trials. A modified Delphi process including a two round online survey and a stakeholder consensus meeting. In total, 237 people registered of whom 219 (92%) completed the first round. One hundred and eighty-seven of 219 (85%) completed the second; 25 stakeholders attended the consensus meeting. Round 1 of the survey comprised 36 topics; 42 topics were considered in round 2 and at the consensus meeting. Approximately 96% of meeting participants rated the top three topics as equally important. These were as follows: developing strong and productive working relationships between researchers and PPI contributors; exploring PPI practices in selecting trial outcomes of importance to patients; and a systematic review of PPI activity to improve the accessibility and usefulness of trial information (eg participant information sheets) for participants. The prioritized methodological research topics indicate important areas of uncertainty about PPI in trials. Addressing these uncertainties will be critical to enhancing PPI. Our findings should be used in the planning and funding of PPI in clinical trials to help focus research efforts and minimize waste. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A Methodological Approach for Researching National Classroom Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Yew Tee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Little continues to be known about what actually happens in classrooms, particularly from a national perspective. Descriptions of classroom practices from a national vantage point can provide a bird's eye view of salient patterns and variations within an education system, especially one as centralised as that of Malaysia. With these descriptions, especially if the primary data consists of video recordings, one can also begin to compare movements in classroom practices across time and space; theorise about the nature of practice within the system as well as inform policy deliberations. This paper examines key methodological decisions of conducting a national study to research classroom educational practice within Malaysia's public school system. The case is made for the use of such studies to gain a bird's eye perspective of classroom practices in a national system as well as to lay the foundations for inter-system comparisons. Potential implications and opportunities of these types of studies are also discussed.

  2. 76 FR 40379 - New Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Study Logistic Formative Research Methodology Studies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ...; Comment Request; Study Logistic Formative Research Methodology Studies for the National Children's Study... Collection Title: Study Logistics Formative Research Methodology Studies for the National Children's Study... national longitudinal study of environmental influences (including physical, chemical, biological, and...

  3. Methodological Issues in Online Qualitative Consumer Behavior Research

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    Žaneta Paunksnienė

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to reveal and discuss the methodological issues related to online qualitative consumer behavior research. A number of methodological issues are examined, related with the online qualitative research on consumer in-store emotional experience implemented by the authors. It is concluded that the Internet is becoming an increasingly attractive environment for consumer behavior research. A large part of scholars use the Internet as a medium for data collection and analysis. At the same time, researchers study the Internet as a source of information about consumer preferences, their virtual communities, prevailing relationships, traditions and attitudes. The Internet is analyzed as a phenomenon in itself, too. In this article, the Internet is analyzed as a tool for communicating with research participants, and collecting, storing and analyzing data. In general, qualitative inquiry is characterized by contextual and naturalistic approach to the study of objects and processes. Therefore, decision to carry out qualitative study in virtual environment must take additional strategic and tactical solutions. Most often, researchers need to decide about the mode of communication that solves time management, spontaneity and security problems. It is also relevant to sampling and its contents. Different solutions from quantitative studies are required in ensuring the ethics and quality of the study. During the analysis of the qualitative data collected through the Internet, mostly in a form of computer communication language (text, specific characteristics, such as backspacing and correction during the communication that impact spontaneity rate, the absence of non-verbal language, etc., are necessary to be taken into accountIt is concluded that all the above-mentioned issues must be addressed individually to the research topic, object, aim, research problem and the specifics of the respondents. When deciding about the method of

  4. Methodological Approach Into Researching Traffic Under Extraordinary Security Circumstances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter-Anthony Ercegovac

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of researching traffic under extraordinaryconditions in order to implement a more efficient and functionaltraffic management strategy under both normal and irregularconditions- as well as the grey zone of when the changefrom normal into extraordinary traffic conditions actually occur-provides the researcher with numerous methodologicalproblems.Starting from the viewpoint that the field of traffic scienceneeds an increase into the capacity of research into traffic underextraordinary conditions we have chosen to define withinthis article a specific methodological approach that undertakesa study into the exposure, menace, threat and risk faced by trafficsystems under extraordinary conditions through utilisingmethods utilised by the military that allow for the possible resolutionof such problems through compatible testing of both simulatedand real life conditions that such systems may face.In searching for possible applicable solutions to such demandingparametres we believe that the use of concrete informationin real time and real space in order to bring about amore efficient functioning of traffic under extraordinary conditionscan be achieved through the use of the analytical capacityof traffic systems information gathering attained through theusage of Uninhabited Flying Vehicles (UFVs in monitoringroad, rail and maritime traffic and transport.

  5. A survey of dynamic methodologies for probabilistic safety assessment of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldemir, Tunc

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Dynamic methodologies for probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) are surveyed. ► These methodologies overcome the limitations of the traditional approach to PSA. ► They are suitable for PSA using a best estimate plus uncertainty approach. ► They are highly computation intensive and produce very large number of scenarios. ► Use of scenario clustering can assist the analysis of the results. -- Abstract: Dynamic methodologies for probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) are defined as those which use a time-dependent phenomenological model of system evolution along with its stochastic behavior to account for possible dependencies between failure events. Over the past 30 years, numerous concerns have been raised in the literature regarding the capability of the traditional static modeling approaches such as the event-tree/fault-tree methodology to adequately account for the impact of process/hardware/software/firmware/human interactions on the stochastic system behavior. A survey of the types of dynamic PSA methodologies proposed to date is presented, as well as a brief summary of an example application for the PSA modeling of a digital feedwater control system of an operating pressurized water reactor. The use of dynamic methodologies for PSA modeling of passive components and phenomenological uncertainties are also discussed.

  6. Musculoskeletal impairment survey in Rwanda: Design of survey tool, survey methodology, and results of the pilot study (a cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simms Victoria

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Musculoskeletal impairment (MSI is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in developing countries. Prevalence studies for MSI in the developing world have used varying methodologies and are seldom directly comparable. This study aimed to develop a new tool to screen for and diagnose MSI and to pilot test the methodology for a national survey in Rwanda. Methods A 7 question screening tool to identify cases of MSI was developed through literature review and discussions with healthcare professionals. To validate the tool, trained rehabilitation technicians screened 93 previously identified gold standard 'cases' and 86 'non cases'. Sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value were calculated. A standardised examination protocol was developed to determine the aetiology and diagnosis of MSI for those who fail the screening test. For the national survey in Rwanda, multistage cluster random sampling, with probability proportional to size procedures will be used for selection of a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of the population. Households to be surveyed will be chosen through compact segment sampling and all individuals within chosen households will be screened. A pilot survey of 680 individuals was conducted using the protocol. Results: The screening tool demonstrated 99% sensitivity and 97% specificity for MSI, and a positive predictive value of 98%. During the pilot study 468 out of 680 eligible subjects (69% were screened. 45 diagnoses were identified in 38 persons who were cases of MSI. The subjects were grouped into categories based on diagnostic subgroups of congenital (1, traumatic (17, infective (2 neurological (6 and other acquired(19. They were also separated into mild (42.1%, moderate (42.1% and severe (15.8% cases, using an operational definition derived from the World Health Organisation's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health

  7. Research Resources Survey: Radiology Junior Faculty Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Votaw, John R

    2015-07-01

    To assess resources available to junior faculty in US academic radiology departments for research mentorship and funding opportunities and to determine if certain resources are more common in successful programs. An anonymous survey covering scientific environment and research mentorship and was sent to vice-chairs of research of radiology departments. Results were evaluated to identify practices of research programs with respect to mentorship, resources, and opportunities. Academy of Radiology Research's 2012 National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants and awards list was used to determine if environment and practices correlate with funding. There was a 51% response rate. A greater fraction of clinical faculty gets promoted from assistant to associate professor than research faculty. Research faculty overall submits more funding applications. Most programs support start-up costs and K-awards. Over half of the departments have a vice-chair for faculty development, and most have formal mentorship programs. Faculty members are expected to teach, engage in service, publish, and apply for and get research funding within 3 years of hire. Top-tier programs as judged by NIH awards have a combination of MDs who devote >50% effort to research and PhD faculty. Key factors holding back both clinical and research junior faculty development were motivation, resources, and time, although programs reported high availability of resources and support at the department level. Better marketing of resources for junior faculty, effort devoted to mentoring clinical faculty in research, and explicit milestones/expectations for achievement could enhance junior faculty success, promote interest in the clinician–scientist career path for radiologists, and lead to greater research success.

  8. Impact of the Surgical Research Methodology Program on surgical residents' research profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhyar, Forough; Amin, Nalin; Dath, Deepak; Bhandari, Mohit; Kelly, Stephan; Kolkin, Ann M; Gill-Pottruff, Catherine; Skot, Martina; Reid, Susan

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate whether implementing the formal Surgical Research Methodology (SRM) Program in the surgical residency curriculum improved research productivity compared with the preceding informal Research Seminar Series (RSS). The SRM Program replaced the RSS in July 2009. In the SRM Program, the curriculum in Year-1 consisted of 12 teaching sessions on the principles of clinical epidemiology and biostatistics, whereas the focus in Year-2 was on the design, conduct, and presentation of a research project. The RSS consisted of 8 research methodology sessions repeated annually for 2 years along with the design, conduct, and presentation of a research project. Research productivity was measured as the number of peer-reviewed publications and the generation of studies with higher levels of evidence. Outcome measures were independently assessed by 2 authors to avoid bias. Student t test and chi-square test were used for the analysis. Frequencies, mean differences with 95% CI, and effect sizes have been reported. In this study, 81 SRM residents were compared with 126 RSS residents. The performance of the SRM residents was superior on all metrics in our evaluation. They were significantly more productive and published more articles than the RSS residents (mean difference = 1.0 [95% CI: 0.5-1.5], p research performance improved 11.0 grades (95% CI: 8.5%-13.5%, p research methodology is crucial to appropriately apply evidence-based findings in clinical practice. The SRM Program has significantly improved the research productivity and performance of the surgical residents from all disciplines. The implementation of a similar research methodology program is highly recommended for the benefit of residents' future careers and ultimately, evidence-based patient care. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Research Network of Tehran Defined Population: Methodology and Establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali-Asghar Kolahi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: We need a defined population for determining prevalence and incidence of diseases, as well as conducting interventional, cohort and longitudinal studies, calculating correct and timely public health indicators, assessing actual health needs of community, performing educational programs and interventions to promote healthy lifestyle, and enhancing quality of primary health services.The objective of this project was to determine a defined population which is representative of Tehran, the Capital of Iran. This article reports the methodology and establishment of the research network of Tehran defined population.Methods: This project started by selecting two urban health centers from each of the five district health centers affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in 2012. Inside each selected urban health center, one defined population research station was established. Two new centers have been added during 2013 and 2014. For the time being, the number of the covered population of the network has reached 40000 individuals. The most important criterion for the defined population has been to be representative of the population of Tehran. For this, we selected two urban health centers from 12 of 22 municipality districts and from each of the five different socioeconomic of Greater Tehran. Merely 80000 individuals in neighborhoods of each defined population research station were considered as control group of the project.Findings: Totally we selected 12 defined population research stations and their under-covered population developed a defined population which is representative of Tehran population.Conclusion: a population lab is ready now in metropolitan of Tehran.

  10. The use and misuse of statistical methodologies in pharmacology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Descriptive, exploratory, and inferential statistics are necessary components of hypothesis-driven biomedical research. Despite the ubiquitous need for these tools, the emphasis on statistical methods in pharmacology has become dominated by inferential methods often chosen more by the availability of user-friendly software than by any understanding of the data set or the critical assumptions of the statistical tests. Such frank misuse of statistical methodology and the quest to reach the mystical αstatistical training. Perhaps more critically, a poor understanding of statistical tools limits the conclusions that may be drawn from a study by divorcing the investigator from their own data. The net result is a decrease in quality and confidence in research findings, fueling recent controversies over the reproducibility of high profile findings and effects that appear to diminish over time. The recent development of "omics" approaches leading to the production of massive higher dimensional data sets has amplified these issues making it clear that new approaches are needed to appropriately and effectively mine this type of data. Unfortunately, statistical education in the field has not kept pace. This commentary provides a foundation for an intuitive understanding of statistics that fosters an exploratory approach and an appreciation for the assumptions of various statistical tests that hopefully will increase the correct use of statistics, the application of exploratory data analysis, and the use of statistical study design, with the goal of increasing reproducibility and confidence in the literature. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Some methodological issues in neuroradiological research in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, T.; Retz, W.; Hofmann, E.; Becker, G.; Teichmann, E.; Gsell, W.

    1995-01-01

    An outline is given of some of the methodological issues discussed in neuroradiological research on psychiatric illnesses. The strengths and shortcomings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in depicting and quantifying brain structures are described. Temporal lobe anatomy and pathology are easily accessible to MRI, whereas limits on anatomical delineation hamper approaches to frontal lobe study. White matter hyperintense lesions are sensitively depicted by MRI, but specificity is limited. The distinction of vascular and primary degenerative dementia is considerably improved by CT and MRI analysis. Computed tomography (CT) and MRI have enhanced the understanding of treatable organic psychiatric disorders, e.g., normal pressure hydrocephalus. Subcortical and white matter pathology has been replicated in CT and MRI studies of late onset psychiatric disorders, clinical overlap with cerebrovascular disease or neuro degeneration may be of import. Trans cranial sonography findings of brainstem structural change specific to unipolar depression may contribute to the understanding of affective psychoses. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and functional MRI are likely to stimulate psychiatric research in the future. (author)

  12. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ON NATURAL NUTRITION OF FRESH-WATER FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Piria

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers the entire review on the research methodology in natural nutrition of fresh-water fish. The data on fresh-water fish nutrition, particularly on fish of lower economic value, is inadequate. Reviewing the literature on assesment of nutritional parameters, the authors obviously use differenet approaches and methods. This paper is about most frequently used parameteres in qualitative and quantitative analysis. The qualitative analysis of food structure is the overall list of determinable taxa (mostlyu species and genera. The quantitative analysis comprises the assessment of particular nutritional categories by nutritional indices and coefficients. Bio-identification and numeric data processing can have numerous drawbacsk such as effect of regurgitation or the degree of digestion of the prey. The analyses of those effects proceed through statistical data processing in order to include spatial distribution of certain prey categories as well. The importance of this data is to determine the nutritional needs of potential species for culture as well as to come up with new insights on a particular aquatic ecosystem.

  13. METHODOLOGY OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT OF REGIONAL NETWORK ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. Botkin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Information practically of all the Russian regions economy branches and development by managing subjects is information − communicative the Internet technologies render huge influence on economic attitudes development in the environment of regional business: there are new forms of interaction of managing subjects and change is information − organizational structures of regional business management. Integrated image of the set forth above innovations is the regional network economy representing the interactive environment in which on high speed and with minimal transaction (R.H.Coase’s costs are performed social economic and commodity monetary attitudes between managing subjects of region with use of Internet global network interactive opportunities. The urgency of the regional network economy phenomenon research, first of all, is caused by necessity of a substantiation of regional network economy methodology development and management mechanisms development by its infrastructure with the purpose of regional business efficiency increase. In our opinion, the decision of these problems will be the defining factor of effective economic development maintenance and russian regions economy growth in the near future.

  14. Using a Realist Research Methodology in Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourie, Megan; Rata, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    The article describes the usefulness of a realist methodology in linking sociological theory to empirically obtained data through the development of a methodological device. Three layers of analysis were integrated: 1. the findings from a case study about Maori language education in New Zealand; 2. the identification and analysis of contradictions…

  15. Political Transformation and Research Methodology in Doctoral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Chaya

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between political change and epistemologies and methodologies employed at doctorate level. It does so by analysing the range of topics, questions and methodologies used by doctoral students at the University of Pretoria's Faculty of Education between 1985 and 2005--a time-frame that covers the decade before and…

  16. Advanced quantitative measurement methodology in physics education research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing

    The ultimate goal of physics education research (PER) is to develop a theoretical framework to understand and improve the learning process. In this journey of discovery, assessment serves as our headlamp and alpenstock. It sometimes detects signals in student mental structures, and sometimes presents the difference between expert understanding and novice understanding. Quantitative assessment is an important area in PER. Developing research-based effective assessment instruments and making meaningful inferences based on these instruments have always been important goals of the PER community. Quantitative studies are often conducted to provide bases for test development and result interpretation. Statistics are frequently used in quantitative studies. The selection of statistical methods and interpretation of the results obtained by these methods shall be connected to the education background. In this connecting process, the issues of educational models are often raised. Many widely used statistical methods do not make assumptions on the mental structure of subjects, nor do they provide explanations tailored to the educational audience. There are also other methods that consider the mental structure and are tailored to provide strong connections between statistics and education. These methods often involve model assumption and parameter estimation, and are complicated mathematically. The dissertation provides a practical view of some advanced quantitative assessment methods. The common feature of these methods is that they all make educational/psychological model assumptions beyond the minimum mathematical model. The purpose of the study is to provide a comparison between these advanced methods and the pure mathematical methods. The comparison is based on the performance of the two types of methods under physics education settings. In particular, the comparison uses both physics content assessments and scientific ability assessments. The dissertation includes three

  17. Cochrane Rehabilitation Methodology Committee: an international survey of priorities for future work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levack, William M; Meyer, Thorsten; Negrini, Stefano; Malmivaara, Antti

    2017-10-01

    Cochrane Rehabilitation aims to improve the application of evidence-based practice in rehabilitation. It also aims to support Cochrane in the production of reliable, clinically meaningful syntheses of evidence related to the practice of rehabilitation, while accommodating the many methodological challenges facing the field. To this end, Cochrane Rehabilitation established a Methodology Committee to examine, explore and find solutions for the methodological challenges related to evidence synthesis and knowledge translation in rehabilitation. We conducted an international online survey via Cochrane Rehabilitation networks to canvass opinions regarding the future work priorities for this committee and to seek information on people's current capabilities to assist with this work. The survey findings indicated strongest interest in work on how reviewers have interpreted and applied Cochrane methods in reviews on rehabilitation topics in the past, and on gathering a collection of existing publications on review methods for undertaking systematic reviews relevant to rehabilitation. Many people are already interested in contributing to the work of the Methodology Committee and there is a large amount of expertise for this work in the extended Cochrane Rehabilitation network already.

  18. Theory and Methodology in Researching Emotions in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2007-01-01

    Differing theoretical approaches to the study of emotions are presented: emotions as private (psychodynamic approaches); emotions as sociocultural phenomena (social constructionist approaches); and a third perspective (interactionist approaches) transcending these two. These approaches have important methodological implications in studying…

  19. Researching virtual worlds methodologies for studying emergent practices

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, Louise

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents a wide range of methodological strategies that are designed to take into account the complex, emergent, and continually shifting character of virtual worlds. It interrogates how virtual worlds emerge as objects of study through the development and application of various methodological strategies. Virtual worlds are not considered objects that exist as entities with fixed attributes independent of our continuous engagement with them and interpretation of them. Instead, they are conceived of as complex ensembles of technology, humans, symbols, discourses, and economic structures, ensembles that emerge in ongoing practices and specific situations. A broad spectrum of perspectives and methodologies is presented: Actor-Network-Theory and post-Actor-Network-Theory, performativity theory, ethnography, discourse analysis, Sense-Making Methodology, visual ethnography, multi-sited ethnography, and Social Network Analysis.

  20. On the use of visual methodologies in educational policy research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    methodological and policy implications that could be applied to a variety of ... approach involves the analysis of images, including the context, content, and .... to govern, modern states have participated in shaping and handling the behaviour of ...

  1. Non-animal methodologies within biomedical research and toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory animal models are limited by scientific constraints on human applicability, and increasing regulatory restrictions, driven by social concerns. Reliance on laboratory animals also incurs marked - and in some cases, prohibitive - logistical challenges, within high-throughput chemical testing programmes, such as those currently underway within Europe and the US. However, a range of non-animal methodologies is available within biomedical research and toxicity testing. These include: mechanisms to enhance the sharing and assessment of existing data prior to conducting further studies, and physicochemical evaluation and computerised modelling, including the use of structure-activity relationships and expert systems. Minimally-sentient animals from lower phylogenetic orders or early developmental vertebral stages may be used, as well as microorganisms and higher plants. A variety of tissue cultures, including immortalised cell lines, embryonic and adult stem cells, and organotypic cultures, are also available. In vitro assays utilising bacterial, yeast, protozoal, mammalian or human cell cultures exist for a wide range of toxic and other endpoints. These may be static or perfused, and may be used individually, or combined within test batteries. Human hepatocyte cultures and metabolic activation systems offer potential assessment of metabolite activity and organ-organ interaction. Microarray technology may allow genetic expression profiling, increasing the speed of toxin detection, well prior to more invasive endpoints. Enhanced human clinical trials utilising micro- dosing, staggered dosing, and more representative study populations and durations, as well as surrogate human tissues, advanced imaging modalities and human epidemiological, sociological and psycho- logical studies, may increase our understanding of illness aetiology and pathogenesis, and facilitate the development of safe and effective pharmacologic interventions. Particularly when human tissues

  2. Innovative Mixed-Methods Research: Moving beyond Design Technicalities to Epistemological and Methodological Realizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riazi, A. Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Mixed-methods research (MMR), as an inter-discourse (quantitative and qualitative) methodology, can provide applied linguistics researchers the opportunity to draw on and integrate the strengths of the two research methodological approaches in favour of making more rigorous inferences about research problems. In this article, the argument is made…

  3. Multilingual Researchers Internationalizing Monolingual English-Only Education through Post-Monolingual Research Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Singh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The argument advanced in this Special Issue of Education Sciences favors democratizing knowledge production and dissemination across the humanities and social sciences through the mainstreaming of multilingual researchers capabilities for theorizing using their full linguistic repertoire. An important contribution of the papers in this Special Issue is the promise that post-monolingual research methodology holds for collaborative projects among multilingual and monolingual researchers that tap into intercultural divergences across languages. Together these papers give warrant to multilingual researchers, including Higher Degree Researchers develop their capabilities for theorizing using their full linguistic repertoire, an educational innovation that could be of immense benefit to scholars working predominantly monolingual universities. Through their thought provoking papers presented in this Special Issue, these researchers invites those working in the education sciences to seriously consider the potential benefits of multiplying the intellectual resources used for theorizing that is possible through activating, mobilizing and deploying researchers’ multilingual resources in knowledge production and dissemination.

  4. Systematically Tabulated Outcomes Research Matrix (STORM): a methodology to generate research hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Joseph G; Oyetunji, Tolulope A; Haut, Elliott R; Cornwell, Edward E; Haider, Adil H

    2014-03-01

    Here we describe the Systematically Tabulated Outcomes Research Matrix (STORM) method to generate research questions from pre-existing databases with the aim of improving patient outcomes. STORM can be applied to a database by tabulating its variables into a matrix of independent variables (y-axis) and dependent variables (x-axis) and then applying each unique pairing of an independent and dependent variable to a patient population to generate potentially meaningful research questions. To demonstrate this methodology and establish proof-of-principle, STORM was applied on a small scale to the National Trauma Data Bank and generated at least seven clinically meaningful research questions. When coupled with rigorous clinical judgment, the STORM approach complements the traditional method of hypothesis formation and can be generalized to outcomes research using registry databases across different medical specialties. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. National and Regional Surveys of Radon Concentration in Dwellings. Review of Methodology and Measurement Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Reliable, comparable and 'fit for purpose' results are essential requirements for any decision based on analytical measurements. For the analyst, the availability of tested and validated sampling and analytical procedures is an extremely important tool for carrying out such measurements. For maximum utility, such procedures should be comprehensive, clearly formulated and readily available to both the analyst and the customer for reference. In the specific case of radon surveys, it is very important to design a survey in such a way as to obtain results that can reasonably be considered representative of a population. Since 2004, the Environment Programme of the IAEA has included activities aimed at the development of a set of procedures for the measurement of radionuclides in terrestrial environmental samples. The development of radon measurement procedures for national and regional surveys started with the collection and review of more than 160 relevant scientific papers. On the basis of this review, this publication summarizes the methodology and the measurement techniques suitable for a population representative national or regional survey on radon concentration in the indoor air of dwellings. The main elements of the survey design are described and discussed, such as the sampling scheme, the protocols, the questionnaire and the data analysis, with particular attention to the potential biases that can affect the representativeness of the results. Moreover, the main measurement techniques suitable for national surveys on indoor radon are reviewed, with particular attention to the elements that can affect the precision and accuracy of the results

  6. National and Regional Surveys of Radon Concentration in Dwellings. Review of Methodology and Measurement Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-12-15

    Reliable, comparable and 'fit for purpose' results are essential requirements for any decision based on analytical measurements. For the analyst, the availability of tested and validated sampling and analytical procedures is an extremely important tool for carrying out such measurements. For maximum utility, such procedures should be comprehensive, clearly formulated and readily available to both the analyst and the customer for reference. In the specific case of radon surveys, it is very important to design a survey in such a way as to obtain results that can reasonably be considered representative of a population. Since 2004, the Environment Programme of the IAEA has included activities aimed at the development of a set of procedures for the measurement of radionuclides in terrestrial environmental samples. The development of radon measurement procedures for national and regional surveys started with the collection and review of more than 160 relevant scientific papers. On the basis of this review, this publication summarizes the methodology and the measurement techniques suitable for a population representative national or regional survey on radon concentration in the indoor air of dwellings. The main elements of the survey design are described and discussed, such as the sampling scheme, the protocols, the questionnaire and the data analysis, with particular attention to the potential biases that can affect the representativeness of the results. Moreover, the main measurement techniques suitable for national surveys on indoor radon are reviewed, with particular attention to the elements that can affect the precision and accuracy of the results.

  7. UAV-Borne photogrammetry: a low cost 3D surveying methodology for cartographic update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroti Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Territorial management requires the most possible up-to-date mapping support of the status quo. Regional scale cartography update cycle is in the medium term (10 to 15 years: therefore, in the intervening time between updates relevant Authorities must provide timely updates for new works or territorial changes. Required surveys can exploit several technologies: ground-based GPS, Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS, traditional topography, or, in the case of wider areas, airborne photogrammetry or laser scanning. In recent years UAV-based photogrammetry is becoming increasingly widespread as a versatile, low-cost surveying system for small to medium areas. This surveying methodology was used to generate, in order, a dense point cloud, a high resolution Digital Surface Model (DSM and an orthophotograph of a newly built marina by the mouth of the Arno river in Pisa, Italy, which is not yet included in cartography. Surveying activities took place while the construction site was in operation. Case study issues surfaced in the course of the survey are presented and discussed, suggesting ‘good practice’ rules which, if followed in the survey planning step, can lessen unwanted effects due to criticalities. Besides, results of quality analysis of orthophotographs generated by UAV-borne images are also presented. Such results are discussed in view of a possible use of orthophotographs in updating medium- to large-scale cartography and checked against existing blueprints.

  8. From Study to Work: Methodological Challenges of a Graduate Destination Survey in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Jacques; Kraak, Andre; Favish, Judy; Fletcher, Lizelle

    2014-01-01

    Current literature proposes several strategies for improving response rates to student evaluation surveys. Graduate destination surveys pose the difficulty of tracing graduates years later when their contact details may have changed. This article discusses the methodology of one such a survey to maximise response rates. Compiling a sample frame…

  9. Post-Monolingual Research Methodology: Multilingual Researchers Democratizing Theorizing and Doctoral Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Singh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the ground-breaking research in the study of languages in doctoral education. It argues for democratizing the production and dissemination of original contributions to knowledge through activating and mobilizing multilingual Higher Degree Researchers’ (HDRs capabilities for theorizing through them using their full linguistic repertoire. This paper contributes to this study’s development of post-monolingual research methodology which provides a theoretic-pedagogical framework for multilingual HDRs (a to use their full linguistic repertoire in their research; (b to develop their capabilities for theorizing and (c to construct potentially valuable theoretical tools using metaphors, images, concepts and modes of critique. This paper is based on a longitudinal program of collaborative research whereby monolingual Anglophone and multilingual HDRs jointly developed their capabilities for theorizing through producing Anglo-Chinese analytical tools, and the associated pedagogies for using their languages in doctoral research. This longitudinal research program has been undertaken in the field of doctoral education to further a defining feature of democracy, namely linguistic diversity. This research has been conducted with the aims of promoting the multilingualism of Australian universities and activating linguistic communities of scholars to use their full linguistic repertoire in their research. The main finding arising from this program of research has been the development of post-monolingual research methodology which (a uses the divergences within and between languages to undertake theorizing and (b in co-existence with the tensions posed by monolingualism, especially the insistence on using extant theories available in only one language. Doctoral pedagogies of intellectual/racial equality provide multilingual HDRs with insights into the debates about the geopolitics governing the use of languages in the production and

  10. Engaging Future Clinical Oncology Researchers: An Initiative to Integrate Teaching of Biostatistics and Research Methodology into Specialty Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, S; Sundaresan, P; Mann, K; Pryor, D; Gebski, V; Shaw, T

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the learner's perspectives on a novel workshop programme designed to improve skills in biostatistics, research methodology and critical appraisal in oncology. Trainees were surveyed anonymously at the completion of each annual workshop from 2012 to 2015. In total, 103 trainees in years 2-4 of training in radiation oncology responded, giving a 94% survey response rate. A 1 day workshop, designed by biostatisticians and radiation oncologist facilitators, is the central component of a programme teaching skills in biostatistics, research methods and critical appraisal. This links short didactic lectures about statistical concepts to interactive trainee discussions around discipline-related publications. The workshop was run in conjunction with the major radiation oncology clinical trials group meeting with alternating programmes (A and B). Most of the participants (44-47/47 for A and 48-55/56 for B), reported that their understanding of one or more individual topics improved as a result of teaching. Refinement of the workshop over time led to a more favourable perception of the 'optimal' balance between didactic/interactive teaching: nine of 27 (33%) 'optimal' responses seen in 2013 compared with 23 of 29 (79%) in 2015 (P research to illuminate key statistical concepts. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Critical Race Design: An Emerging Methodological Approach to Anti-Racist Design and Implementation Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Deena; Kier, Meredith

    2017-01-01

    This article is about introducing Critical Race Design (CRD), a research methodology that centers race and equity at the nucleus of educational opportunities by design. First, the authors define design-based implementation research (DBIR; Penuel, Fishman, Cheng, & Sabelli, 2011) as an equity-oriented education research methodology where…

  12. 75 FR 59720 - Methodology Committee of the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Methodology Committee of the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research... responsibility for appointing not more than 15 members to a Methodology Committee of the Patient- Centered Outcomes Research Institute. In addition, the Directors of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality...

  13. Trends in Methodological Rigor in Intervention Research Published in School Psychology Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Matthew K.; Klingbeil, David A.; Ysseldyke, James E.; Petersen-Brown, Shawna

    2012-01-01

    Methodological rigor in intervention research is important for documenting evidence-based practices and has been a recent focus in legislation, including the No Child Left Behind Act. The current study examined the methodological rigor of intervention research in four school psychology journals since the 1960s. Intervention research has increased…

  14. Improving the Understanding of Research Methodology and Self-Regulated Learning Through Blog Project

    OpenAIRE

    Retnawati, Heri

    2017-01-01

    : This classroom action research seeks to improve self-regulated learning (SRL) and understanding of research methodology at the graduate school. Nineteen graduate school students were involved. Using project-based learning (PjBL), students were assigned to create online blogs as the main project. The blog was intended for representing their understanding of research methodology by writing review of research articles and submitting a research proposal. The classroom action research was based ...

  15. Methodological challenges when doing research that includes ethnic minorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin

    2016-01-01

    minorities are included. Method: A thorough literature search yielded 21 articles obtained from the scientific databases PubMed, Cinahl, Web of Science and PsychInfo. Analysis followed Arksey and O’Malley’s framework for scoping reviews, applying content analysis. Results: The results showed methodological...

  16. On the use of visual methodologies in educational policy research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In so doing, we suggest that the use of visual methodologies can help us to rethink policy, particularly in relation to studying social difference in globalizing ...... Religion, race, rights: Landmarks in the history of modern Anglo-American law. .... Governing the present: Administering economic, social and personal life.

  17. Six methodological steps to build medical data warehouses for research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szirbik, N. B.; Pelletier, C.; Chaussalet, T.; Chaussalet, 27629

    Purpose: We propose a simple methodology for heterogeneous data collection and central repository-style database design in healthcare. Our method can be used with or without other software development frameworks, and we argue that its application can save a relevant amount of implementation effort.

  18. Methodology for the analysis of dietary data from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Jiménez-Aguilar, Alejandra; Shamah-Levy, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    To describe the methodology for the analysis of dietary data from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006) carried out in Mexico. Dietary data from the population who participated in the ENSANUT 2006 were collected through a 7-day food-frequency questionnaire. Energy and nutrient intake of each food consumed and adequacy percentage by day were also estimated. Intakes and adequacy percentages > 5 SDs from the energy and nutrient general distribution and observations with energy adequacy percentages < 25% were excluded from the analysis. Valid dietary data were obtained from 3552 children aged 1 to 4 years, 8716 children aged 5 to 11 years, 8442 adolescents, 15951 adults, and 3357 older adults. It is important to detail the methodology for the analysis of dietary data to standardize data cleaning criteria and to be able to compare the results of different studies.

  19. U.S. Geological Survey Methodology Development for Ecological Carbon Assessment and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Stackpoole, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    Ecological carbon sequestration refers to transfer and storage of atmospheric carbon in vegetation, soils, and aquatic environments to help offset the net increase from carbon emissions. Understanding capacities, associated opportunities, and risks of vegetated ecosystems to sequester carbon provides science information to support formulation of policies governing climate change mitigation, adaptation, and land-management strategies. Section 712 of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 mandates the Department of the Interior to develop a methodology and assess the capacity of our nation's ecosystems for ecological carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas (GHG) flux mitigation. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) LandCarbon Project is responding to the Department of Interior's request to develop a methodology that meets specific EISA requirements.

  20. Augmented Fotonovelas: A Visual Methodology for Community Engaged Research

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo, LeighAnna Grace

    2014-01-01

    Augmented Fotonovelas draw upon the aesthetic of traditional fotonovelas, but incorporate new technologies--such as video interviews, interactive mapping, smart phone technology, and Augmented Reality (AR). Augmented Fotonovelas also make the most of the classic form, utilizing photographs, text, and bubble captions. Through this methodology, new and old come together to produce Augmented Scholarship. I define Augmented Scholarship as knowledge production bridging the gap between communities ...

  1. BUSINESS AND HUMAN CAPITAL IN THE ECONOMIC SYSTEM: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Zikunova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the process of transformation of the role of the human factor in the economic system, it shows the importance of entrepreneurship as an intangible resource of post-industrial development. Resource value of entrepreneurship is characterized on the basis of economic analysis of the functional role of entrepreneurship in the system. Showing methodological approaches to the study of entrepreneurship presented in the works of foreign representatives of business theory

  2. Research methodology workshops evaluation using the Kirkpatrick's model: translating theory into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulghani, Hamza Mohammad; Shaik, Shaffi Ahamed; Khamis, Nehal; Al-Drees, Abdulmajeed Abdulrahman; Irshad, Mohammad; Khalil, Mahmoud Salah; Alhaqwi, Ali Ibrahim; Isnani, Arthur

    2014-04-01

    Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of academic programs can enhance the development, effectiveness, and dissemination of comparative quality reports as well as quality improvement efforts. To evaluate the five research methodology workshops through assessing participants' satisfaction, knowledge and skills gain and impact on practices by the Kirkpatrick's evaluation model. The four level Kirkpatrick's model was applied for the evaluation. Training feedback questionnaires, pre and post tests, learner development plan reports and behavioral surveys were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the workshop programs. Of the 116 participants, 28 (24.1%) liked with appreciation, 62 (53.4%) liked with suggestions and 26 (22.4%) disliked the programs. Pre and post MCQs tests mean scores showed significant improvement of relevant basic knowledge and cognitive skills by 17.67% (p ≤ 0.005). Pre-and-post tests scores on workshops sub-topics also significantly improved for the manuscripts (p ≤ 0.031) and proposal writing (p ≤ 0.834). As for the impact, 56.9% of participants started research, and 6.9% published their studies. The results from participants' performance revealed an overall positive feedback and 79% of participant reported transfer of training skills at their workplace. The course outcomes achievement and suggestions given for improvements offer insight into the program which were encouraging and very useful. Encouraging "research culture" and work-based learning are probably the most powerful determinants for research promotion. These findings therefore encourage faculty development unit to continue its training and development in the research methodology aspects.

  3. Synthesizing exoplanet demographics from radial velocity and microlensing surveys. I. Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clanton, Christian; Gaudi, B. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the order of magnitude difference in the frequency of giant planets orbiting M dwarfs inferred by microlensing and radial velocity (RV) surveys, we present a method for comparing the statistical constraints on exoplanet demographics inferred from these methods. We first derive the mapping from the observable parameters of a microlensing-detected planet to those of an analogous planet orbiting an RV-monitored star. Using this mapping, we predict the distribution of RV observables for the planet population inferred from microlensing surveys, taking care to adopt reasonable priors for, and properly marginalize over, the unknown physical parameters of microlensing-detected systems. Finally, we use simple estimates of the detection limits for a fiducial RV survey to predict the number and properties of analogs of the microlensing planet population such an RV survey should detect. We find that RV and microlensing surveys have some overlap, specifically for super-Jupiter mass planets (m p ≳ 1 M Jup ) with periods between ∼3-10 yr. However, the steeply falling planetary mass function inferred from microlensing implies that, in this region of overlap, RV surveys should infer a much smaller frequency than the overall giant planet frequency (m p ≳ 0.1 M Jup ) inferred by microlensing. Our analysis demonstrates that it is possible to statistically compare and synthesize data sets from multiple exoplanet detection techniques in order to infer exoplanet demographics over wider regions of parameter space than are accessible to individual methods. In a companion paper, we apply our methodology to several representative microlensing and RV surveys to derive the frequency of planets around M dwarfs with orbits of ≲ 30 yr.

  4. Systematic Mapping on Research Methodology in the Field of E-commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    elham asadamraji

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Methodology Researches in the field of e-commerce is related to the science generation practices and to understand the logic of problem solving in this area. In every scientific discipline, this type of research is critical for the scientific community.The aim of this paper was to review articles that have been published in three Journals of Electronic Commerce from 2009 to 2013 using systematic mapping study. As a result of this study, 337 articles were extracted from a total of 422 articles to investigate different dimensions such as type, goal, scope and method of researches along with philosophical paradigm and unit of analysis, in qualitative and quantitative manner. The results showed that quantitative researches based on positivism paradigm with practical purposes on issues dealing with the development of new products and services and survey research methods in the society unit of analysis had the highest frequency. Finally, we also analyzed the relations between some results, using the Clementine software.

  5. Ensuring VGI Credibility in Urban-Community Data Generation: A Methodological Research Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie O'Brien

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we outline the methodological development of current research into urban community formations based on combinations of qualitative (volunteered and quantitative (spatial analytical and geo-statistical data. We outline a research design that addresses problems of data quality relating to credibility in volunteered geographic information (VGI intended for Web-enabled participatory planning. Here we have drawn on a dual notion of credibility in VGI data, and propose a methodological workflow to address its criteria. We propose a ‘super-positional’ model of urban community formations, and report on the combination of quantitative and participatory methods employed to underpin its integration. The objective of this methodological phase of study is to enhance confidence in the quality of data for Web-enabled participatory planning. Our participatory method has been supported by rigorous quantification of area characteristics, including participant communities’ demographic and socio-economic contexts. This participatory method provided participants with a ready and accessible format for observing and mark-making, which allowed the investigators to iterate rapidly a system design based on participants’ responses to the workshop tasks. Participatory workshops have involved secondary school-age children in socio-economically contrasting areas of Liverpool (Merseyside, UK, which offers a test-bed for comparing communities’ formations in comparative contexts, while bringing an under-represented section of the population into a planning domain, whose experience may stem from public and non-motorised transport modalities. Data has been gathered through one-day participatory workshops, featuring questionnaire surveys, local site analysis, perception mapping and brief, textual descriptions. This innovative approach will support Web-based participation among stakeholding planners, who may benefit from well-structured, community

  6. Cooperative Research Pilot Flatfish Survey (Yellowtail)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An industry-based pilot flatfish survey of Georges Bank conducted aboard the F/V Mary K and the F/V Yankee Pride. The surveyed used a two-seam, two-bridle flounder...

  7. A survey of venture capital research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellmann, T.; Puri, M.L.; Da Rin, M.; Constantinides, G.; Harris, M.; Stulz, R.

    2013-01-01

    This survey reviews the growing body of academic work on venture capital. It lays out the major data sources used. It examines the work on venture capital investments in companies, looking at issues of selection, contracting, post-investment services and exits. The survey considers recent work on

  8. A Survey of Venture Capital Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Da Rin, M.; Hellmann, T.; Puri, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    This survey reviews the growing body of academic work on venture capital. It lays out the major data sources used. It examines the work on venture capital investments in companies, looking at issues of selection, contracting, post-investment services and exits. The survey considers recent work on

  9. Measurement of environmental impacts of telework adoption amidst change in complex organizations. AT and T survey methodology and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkyns, Robert; Blazek, Michele; Roitz, Joseph [AT and T, 179 Bothin Road, 94930 Fairfax, CA (United States)

    2002-10-01

    Telecommuting practices and their environmental and organizational performance impacts have stimulated research across academic disciplines. Although telecommuting trends and impact projections are reported, few true longitudinal studies involving large organizations have been conducted. Published studies typically lack the research design elements to control a major confounding variable: rapid and widespread organizational change. Yet social science 'Best Practices' and market research industry quality control procedures exist that can help manage organizational change effects and other common sources of measurement error. In 1992, AT and T established a formal, corporate-wide telecommuting policy. A research and statistical modeling initiative was implemented to measure how flexible work arrangements reduce automotive emissions. Annual employee surveys were begun in 1994. As telecommuting benefits have been increasingly recognized within AT and T, the essential construct has been redefined as 'telework.' The survey's scope has expanded to address broader organization issues and provide guidance to multiple internal constituencies. This paper focuses upon the procedures used to reliably measure the adoption of telework practices and model their environmental impact, and contrasts those procedures with other, less reliable methodologies.

  10. A Decolonizing Methodology for Health Research on Female Genital Cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werunga, Jane; Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Ewashen, Carol

    2016-01-01

    In this article, critical perspectives including postcolonial feminism, African feminism, and intersectionality are presented as having decolonizing methodological potential whereby the Western narrative surrounding the practice of female genital cutting, particularly in the context of migration, is reexamined. In addition, multiple intersecting influences on affected women's realities are accounted for and a critical consciousness that serves to inform praxis, address social determinants of health, and promote health equity is encouraged. The inclusion of an African feminist perspective, a traditionally marginalized critical perspective, serves to further decolonize some long-held erroneous beliefs about the sexuality, subjectivity, and embodiment of the African woman.

  11. Environmental and Sustainability Education Policy Research: A Systematic Review of Methodological and Thematic Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikens, Kathleen; McKenzie, Marcia; Vaughter, Philip

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a systematic literature review of policy research in the area of environmental and sustainability education. We analyzed 215 research articles, spanning four decades and representing 71 countries, and which engaged a range of methodologies. Our analysis combines quantification of geographic and methodological trends with…

  12. A Preliminary Methodology, and a Cautionary Tale, for Determining How Students Seek Research Help Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a pilot study to examine undergraduate students' help-seeking behavior when undertaking library research in online courses. A novel methodology incorporating elements of ethnographic research resulted in a small, but rich and detailed, collection of qualitative data. The data suggest that the methodology has promise for…

  13. Conducting Research with LGB People of Color: Methodological Challenges and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBlaere, Cirleen; Brewster, Melanie E.; Sarkees, Anthony; Moradi, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    Methodological barriers have been highlighted as a primary reason for the limited research with lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people of color. Thus, strategies for anticipating and addressing potential methodological barriers are needed. To address this need, this article discusses potential challenges associated with conducting research with…

  14. Reflections on Conventional and Traditional Methodology in Transnational Community Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farah, Abdulkadir Osman

    2017-01-01

    Cultivating Pathways of Creative Research: New Horizons of Transformative Practice and Collaborative Imagination strives to cultivate new pathways of research and engagement in social sciences and humanities where cultivation is linked to cross-fertilization of creative theorizing...... pathways of creative research. They help us go beyond formalism of method and cultivate new pathways of research in social sciences and humanities, especially in sociology, anthropology, education, art and literature. The volume, second in the trilogy of Creative Research, which follows Pathways...... of Creative Research: Towards a Festival of Dialogues and is followed by Research as Realization: Science, Spirituality and Harmony is not only a pioneering contribution to the world research but also to rethinking and regenerating self, culture, society and the human condition....

  15. The Atlantic rift in Engineering Education Research Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Graaff, Erik

    2015-01-01

    engineering. A revival of engineering education research started in the USA around the turn of the century. Building on the concept of ‘scholarship of teaching’, engineers were challenged to investigate their own role as educators. Since these researchers have their academic background mostly in engineering......In Europe educational research branched off from social sciences during the sixties of the last century. Combining theories and methods from pedagogy, sociology and psychology researchers explored the different fields of education, ranging from kindergarten till higher education including...... and science, they tend to aim for ‘rigorous research’ according to the natural sciences. Worldwide the engineering education community has recognized the need to blend both the social sciences research approach and rigorous research. This paper explores the variation in research methods used by researchers...

  16. Methodological quality and scientific impact of quantitative nursing education research over 18 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucha, Carolyn B; Schneider, Barbara St Pierre; Smyer, Tish; Kowalski, Susan; Stowers, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The methodological quality of nursing education research has not been rigorously studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the methodological quality and scientific impact of nursing education research reports. The methodological quality of 133 quantitative nursing education research articles published between July 2006 and December 2007 was evaluated using the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument (MERSQI).The mean (+/- SD) MERSQI score was 9.8 +/- 2.2. It correlated (p nursing literature and those reported for the medical literature, coupled with the association with citation counts, suggest that the MERSQI is an appropriate instrument to evaluate the quality of nursing education research.

  17. The Possibility of Developing Researches in the Legal Field Making use of the Qualitative Approach Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ferreira Serafim de Oliveira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article, through the deductive research, discusses the possibility to research in the field of legal sciences through the qualitative methodology used in the researches in Human Sciences. The north for this study was given by the qualitative methodology to the exploration of the content of the bibliography interdisciplinary elected in Law and Education areas, considering the object of the study the connection of the objects of the research in these areas. Education, in Human Sciences, uses this approach to investigate facts through documentary or field research and the same methodology can be applied in the Law area.

  18. Bibliographic survey on methodologies for development of health database of the population in case of cancer occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavinato, Christianne C.; Andrade, Delvonei A. de; Sabundjian, Gaiane; Diz, Maria Del Pilar E.

    2014-01-01

    The objective is to make a survey of existing methodologies and for the development of public health database, focusing on health (fatal and nonfatal cancer) of the population surrounding a nuclear facility, for purposes of calculating the environmental cost of the same. From methodologies found to develop this type of database, a methodology will be developed to be applied to the internal public of IPEN/CNEN-SP, Brazil, as a pre-test for the acquisition of health information desired

  19. [Methodologic developmental principles of standardized surveys within the scope of social gerontologic studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansemir, G

    1987-01-01

    The conception and evaluation of standardized oral or written questioning as quantifying instruments of research orientate by the basic premises of Marxist-Leninist theory of recognition and general scientific logic. In the present contribution the socio-gerontological research process is outlined in extracts. By referring to the intrinsic connection between some of its essential components--problem, formation of hypotheses, obtaining indicators/measurement, preliminary examination, evaluation-as well as to typical errors and (fictitious) examples of practical research, this contribution contrasts the natural, apparently uncomplicated course of structured questioning with its qualitative methodological fundamentals and demands.

  20. Situated Research Design and Methodological Choices in Formative Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supovitz, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Design-based implementation research offers the opportunity to rethink the relationships between intervention, research, and situation to better attune research and evaluation to the program development process. Using a heuristic called the intervention development curve, I describe the rough trajectory that programs typically follow as they…

  1. Nationwide survey of radon levels in indoor workplaces in Mexico using Nuclear Track Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, G.; Golzarri, J.I.; Angeles, A.; Griffith, R.V.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the preliminary results of an indoor workplace radon survey conducted during 2006-2007. Monitoring was carried out in 24 of the 32 federal entities of Mexico, incorporating 26 cities and 288 locations. The area monitored was divided into 8 regions for the purposes of the study: Chihuahua (a state with uranium mines), North-Central, South-Central, Southeast, South, Northeast, Northwest, and West. These regions differ in terms of geographic and geological characteristics, climate, altitude, and building materials and architectonic styles. Nuclear Track Methodology (NTM) was employed for the survey, using a passive closed-end cup device with Poly Allyl Diglycol Carbonate (PADC), known by its trade name CR-39 (Lantrack), as detector material. Well-established protocols for making continuous indoor radon measurements were followed, including one-step chemical etching in a 6.25 M KOH solution at 60 ± 1 deg. C with an etching time of 18 h. The track densities were determined with an automatic digital system at the Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (IFUNAM) (Physics Institute of the National Autonomous University of Mexico), and calibrated in facilities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The importance of this survey lies in the fact that it represents the first time a nationwide survey of radon levels in indoor workplaces has been carried out in Mexico. Mean indoor radon levels from continuous measurements taken during and after working hours ranged from 13 Bq m -3 (the lower limit of detection) to 196 Bq m -3 . Analogous official controls or regulations for radon levels in indoor workplaces do not exist in Mexico. The survey described here contributes to knowledge of the natural radiological environment in workplaces, and will aid the relevant authorities in establishing appropriate regulations. The survey was made possible by the efforts of both a private institutions and the Dosimeter Application Project

  2. Global health trials methodological research agenda:results from a priority setting exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Blazeby, Jane; Nasser, Mona; Soares-Weiser, Karla; Sydes, Matthew R.; Zhang, Junhua; Williamson, Paula R

    2018-01-01

    BackgroundMethodological research into the design, conduct, analysis and reporting of trials is essential to optimise the process. UK specialists in the field have established a set of top priorities in aid of this research. These priorities however may not be reflected in the needs of similar research in low to middle income countries (LMICs) with different healthcare provision, resources and research infrastructure. The aim of the study was to identify the top priorities for methodological ...

  3. Methodology for value/impact assessment of nuclear regulatory research programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, D.D.

    1978-12-01

    A methodology for conducting a value/impact assessment of research programs has been developed to provide the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an improved capability for allocating resources for confirmatory research. This report presents a seven-step evaluation process and applies it to selected units of research. The methodology is intended to provide insight into the technical merits of the programs, one dimension of the complex problem of resource allocation for confirmatory research

  4. Systematic investigation of gastrointestinal diseases in China (SILC): validation of survey methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoyan; Wang, Rui; Zhao, Yanfang; Ma, Xiuqiang; Fang, Jiqian; Yan, Hong; Kang, Xiaoping; Yin, Ping; Hao, Yuantao; Li, Qiang; Dent, John; Sung, Joseph; Zou, Duowu; Johansson, Saga; Halling, Katarina; Liu, Wenbin; He, Jia

    2009-11-19

    Symptom-based surveys suggest that the prevalence of gastrointestinal diseases is lower in China than in Western countries. The aim of this study was to validate a methodology for the epidemiological investigation of gastrointestinal symptoms and endoscopic findings in China. A randomized, stratified, multi-stage sampling methodology was used to select 18,000 adults aged 18-80 years from Shanghai, Beijing, Xi'an, Wuhan and Guangzhou. Participants from Shanghai were invited to provide blood samples and undergo upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. All participants completed Chinese versions of the Reflux Disease Questionnaire (RDQ) and the modified Rome II questionnaire; 20% were also invited to complete the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). The psychometric properties of the questionnaires were evaluated statistically. The study was completed by 16,091 individuals (response rate: 89.4%), with 3219 (89.4% of those invited) completing the SF-36 and ESS. All 3153 participants in Shanghai provided blood samples and 1030 (32.7%) underwent endoscopy. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.89, 0.89, 0.80 and 0.91, respectively, for the RDQ, modified Rome II questionnaire, ESS and SF-36, supporting internal consistency. Factor analysis supported construct validity of all questionnaire dimensions except SF-36 psychosocial dimensions. This population-based study has great potential to characterize the relationship between gastrointestinal symptoms and endoscopic findings in China.

  5. A philosophical analysis of the general methodology of qualitative research: a critical rationalist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnick, Abraham

    2014-09-01

    Philosophical discussion of the general methodology of qualitative research, such as that used in some health research, has been inductivist or relativist to date, ignoring critical rationalism as a philosophical approach with which to discuss the general methodology of qualitative research. This paper presents a discussion of the general methodology of qualitative research from a critical rationalist perspective (inspired by Popper), using as an example mental health research. The widespread endorsement of induction in qualitative research is positivist and is suspect, if not false, particularly in relation to the context of justification (or rather theory testing) as compared to the context of discovery (or rather theory generation). Relativism is riddled with philosophical weaknesses and hence it is suspect if not false too. Theory testing is compatible with qualitative research, contrary to much writing about and in qualitative research, as theory testing involves learning from trial and error, which is part of qualitative research, and which may be the form of learning most conducive to generalization. Generalization involves comparison, which is a fundamental methodological requirement of any type of research (qualitative or other); hence the traditional grounding of quantitative and experimental research in generalization. Comparison--rather than generalization--is necessary for, and hence compatible with, qualitative research; hence, the common opposition to generalization in qualitative research is misdirected, disregarding whether this opposition's claims are true or false. In conclusion, qualitative research, similar to quantitative and experimental research, assumes comparison as a general methodological requirement, which is necessary for health research.

  6. Measuring the impact of methodological research: a framework and methods to identify evidence of impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueton, Valerie C; Vale, Claire L; Choodari-Oskooei, Babak; Jinks, Rachel; Tierney, Jayne F

    2014-11-27

    Providing evidence of impact highlights the benefits of medical research to society. Such evidence is increasingly requested by research funders and commonly relies on citation analysis. However, other indicators may be more informative. Although frameworks to demonstrate the impact of clinical research have been reported, no complementary framework exists for methodological research. Therefore, we assessed the impact of methodological research projects conducted or completed between 2009 and 2012 at the UK Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit Hub for Trials Methodology Research Hub, with a view to developing an appropriate framework. Various approaches to the collection of data on research impact were employed. Citation rates were obtained using Web of Science (http://www.webofknowledge.com/) and analyzed descriptively. Semistructured interviews were conducted to obtain information on the rates of different types of research output that indicated impact for each project. Results were then pooled across all projects. Finally, email queries pertaining to methodology projects were collected retrospectively and their content analyzed. Simple citation analysis established the citation rates per year since publication for 74 methodological publications; however, further detailed analysis revealed more about the potential influence of these citations. Interviews that spanned 20 individual research projects demonstrated a variety of types of impact not otherwise collated, for example, applications and further developments of the research; release of software and provision of guidance materials to facilitate uptake; formation of new collaborations and broad dissemination. Finally, 194 email queries relating to 6 methodological projects were received from 170 individuals across 23 countries. They provided further evidence that the methodologies were impacting on research and research practice, both nationally and internationally. We have used the information

  7. Design Process-System and Methodology of Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashier, Fathi

    2017-10-01

    Studies have recognized the failure of the traditional design approach both in practice and in the studio. They showed that design problems today are too complex for the traditional approach to cope with and reflected a new interest in a better quality design services in order to meet the challenges of our time. In the mid-1970s and early 1980s, there has been a significant shift in focus within the field of design research towards the aim of creating a ‘design discipline’. The problem, as will be discussed, is the lack of an integrated theory of design knowledge that can explicitly describe the design process in a coherent way. As a consequence, the traditional approach fails to operate systematically, in a disciplinary manner. Addressing this problem is the primary goal of the research study in the design process currently being conducted in the research-based master studio at Wollega University, Ethiopia. The research study seeks to make a contribution towards a disciplinary approach, through proper understanding the mechanism of knowledge development within design process systems. This is the task of the ‘theory of design knowledge’. In this article the research project is introduced, and a model of the design process-system is developed in the studio as a research plan and a tool of design research at the same time. Based on data drawn from students’ research projects, the theory of design knowledge is developed and empirically verified through the research project.

  8. Methodology of developing a smartphone application for crisis research and its clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Melvyn W B; Ho, Cyrus S H; Fang, Pan; Lu, Yanxia; Ho, Roger C M

    2014-01-01

    Recent advancement in Internet based technologies have resulted in the growth of a sub-specialized field, termed as "Infodemiology" and "Infoveillance". Infoveillence refers to the collation of infodemiology measures for the purpose of surveillance and trending. Previous research has only demonstrated the research potential of Web 2.0 medium in collation of data in crisis situation. The objectives for the current study are to demonstrate the methodology of implementation of a smartphone-based application for dissemination and collation of information during a crisis situation. The Haze Smartphone application was developed using an online application builder and using HTML5 as the core programming language. A five-phase developmental method including a) formulation of user requirements, b) system design, c) system development, d) system evaluation and finally e) system application and implementation were adopted. The smartphone application was deployed during a one-week period via a self-sponsored Facebook post and via direct dissemination of the web-links by emails. A total of 298 respondents took part in the survey within the application. Most of them were between the ages of 20- to 29-years old and had a university education. More individuals preferred the option of accessing and providing feedback to a survey on physical and psychological wellbeing via direct access to a Web-based questionnaire. In addition, the participants reported a mean number of 4.03 physical symptoms (SD 2.6). The total Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) score was 18.47 (SD 11.69), which indicated that the study population did experience psychological stress but not posttraumatic stress disorder. The perceived dangerous Pollutant Standards Index (PSI) level and the number of physical symptoms were associated with higher IES-R Score (Psmartphone application could potentially be used to acquire research data in a crisis situation. However, it is crucial for future research to further

  9. Teaching Research Methodologies to Professionally Oriented Honors Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Julie; Mandel, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The benefits of encouraging undergraduate students to pursue independent research have been well documented (Craney; Guterman; Hathaway et al.; Ishiyama; Kremer and Bringle; Volkwein and Carbone). Introducing students to research processes and protocols is always a challenge, particularly for students enrolled in professionally oriented,…

  10. On Research Methodology in Applied Linguistics in 2002-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynychev, Andrey

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examined the status of data-based research in applied linguistics through an analysis of published research studies in nine peer-reviewed applied linguistics journals ("Applied Language Learning, The Canadian Modern Language Review / La Revue canadienne des langues vivantes, Current Issues in Language Planning, Dialog on Language…

  11. Disciplinarity and Methodology in Intersectionality Theory and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Moin

    2010-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Intersectionality and research in psychology," by E. R. Cole. Cole's article, says the current author, makes a welcome and valuable contribution to the field of psychology. Particularly useful are the three questions that she posed, highlighting how these questions are relevant and pressing for all researchers,…

  12. Decolonizing Interpretive Research: A Critical Bicultural Methodology for Social Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darder, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a discussion of decolonizing interpretive research in a way that gives greater salience to and understanding of the theoretical efforts of critical bicultural education researchers over the years. Grounded in educational principles that have been derived from critical social theory, a decolonizing approach to theory building,…

  13. Incidence and methodology in sexual harassment research in northwest Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, M.C.; Bajema, C.W.

    1999-01-01

    A substantial body of research addressing the issue of sexual harassment in the workplace has been developed over the past decade. In this article, we present the results of our review study of research on sexual harassment in the workplace in 11 Northern and Western European countries and consider

  14. How Sex Education Research Methodologies Frame GLBTIQ Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tiffany

    2013-01-01

    The "bullied" gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, intersex and otherwise Queer (GLBTIQ) student is a fairly recent figure in the sexuality education research literature. GLBTIQ students have previously been problematised by sex education research in a range of different ways and have been the subjects of varying methodological…

  15. Complexity, Methodology and Method: Crafting a Critical Process of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhadeff-Jones, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper defines a theoretical framework aiming to support the actions and reflections of researchers looking for a "method" in order to critically conceive the complexity of a scientific process of research. First, it starts with a brief overview of the core assumptions framing Morin's "paradigm of complexity" and Le…

  16. IRT-type research reactor physical calculation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrera, W.; Castaneda, S.; Garcia, F.; Garcia, L.; Reyes, O.

    1990-01-01

    In the present paper an established physical calculation procedure for the research reactor of the Nuclear Research Center (CIN) is described. The results obtained by the method are compared with the ones reported during the physical start up of a reactor with similar characteristics to the CIN reactor. 11 refs

  17. Using Vignette Methodology to research the process of breach comparatively

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, M.M.; Beyens, K.; Maguire, N.; Laurinavicius, A.; Persson, A.

    2015-01-01

    Comparative research related to any aspect of the process of breach in either the pre-trial, sentencing or release phases is relatively rare. Comparative studies of decision making in the specific context of breach process are particularly lacking. One reason for the dearth of research in this area

  18. Evaluating Rigor in Qualitative Methodology and Research Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Audrey A.; Graue, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Despite previous and successful attempts to outline general criteria for rigor, researchers in special education have debated the application of rigor criteria, the significance or importance of small n research, the purpose of interpretivist approaches, and the generalizability of qualitative empirical results. Adding to these complications, the…

  19. Wetlands Research Program. Wetland Evaluation Technique (WET). Volume 2. Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    to waves taller than I ft? • " Guidelines: 1 "Sufficient" is defined as the height of vegetation or relief multiplied * by length of vegetation or...Sci., Interim Rep. No. 3, Gloucester Point, VA. 52 pp. 203 VI. 4 WET 2.0 Simmons, E. G. 1957. An ecological survey of the Upper Laguna Madre of Texas...A wetland class characterized by vegetation that is 6 m or taller . Fringe Wetland - Fringe wetlands along a channel (i.e.. river, stream, etc.)are

  20. Powder metallurgy in aerospace research: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, H. W.

    1971-01-01

    The various techniques by which powders can be produced, as pure metals or as alloys, are discussed; the methods by which these powders can be formed into the final parts are explained as well as further processing that may be necessary to meet specific requirements. The NASA developments are detailed, and references are provided for those who wish to obtain further information characteristic of any methodology.

  1. Methodological studies for long range environmental gamma rate survey in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Elder M.; Wasserman, Maria Angelica V.; Rochedo, Elaine R. R.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work is to support the establishment of a methodology for gamma radiation survey over large areas in order to estimate public exposure to natural background radiation in Brazil. In a first stage, two different sites close to large water bodies were chosen, Guanabara Bay, RJ and Amazon River close to Santarem, PA. Early results showed similar results for over water surveys despite the type of water body. Dose rates over land are higher than those over water, due to the natural radioactivity on soil, pavements and other building materials. In this study the focus was on variability of measurements performed in the same area and variability for different types of area, including roads and urbanized environments. Several measurements have been performed of several areas, that included roads and towns in Para, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais. Measurements were done by car and on boats, using a AT6101C Scanner - Spectral Radiation Scanner. Differences were detected for different areas, with roads generally presenting lower dose rates than highly urbanized areas. Also, for roads close to granite rocks and mountains, dose rates are higher than those at both coastal areas and inland lowlands. Large towns present large variability, with individual measurements close to average dose rates from anomalous uranium sites. The results will be used to derive a methodology for assessing background radiation exposure for the Brazilian population. It can be concluded that surveys are to be based on population distribution grids rather than on a simple area based grid distribution, due to both the uneven population distribution and the variability on external dose rates throughout the Brazilian territory. (author)

  2. Rethinking Education Research methodologies-Dominance of Western perspectives?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Sing Ong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the different approaches and methods in comparative education research. It begins with a broad overview of the influences of Western philosophies and how Western education researchers approach social situations. Its differences with Chinese philosophies were highlighted with the concept of dao and Confucianism. More than just an epistemological discussion, this paper argues that Western researchers’ biasness towards Asian researchers may be due to their failure or lack of experience in making the connections with Asian social systems. It attempts to provide some plausible explanations of the prevalence of biasness by peer reviewers of Western journals.

  3. Report of radioactivity survey research in fiscal year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    In National Institute of Radiological Sciences, a survey was made on radioactivities in the environment due to the substances released from nuclear installations and radioactive fall-out brought out by nuclear explosion tests since 1959. As the marked progress of non-military utilization of nuclear energy the national concern on environmental radioactivity has been increasing in Japan and thus it has become more and more important to make a survey research of radioactivities, which might affect the environment and human health. In these situations, the institute attempted to make the following six surveys in the fiscal year of 1996; 'a survey on radioactive levels in environment, foods and human bodies', 'survey on the radioactive level in the regions around nuclear installations', 'works in radioactive data center', 'fundamental survey on the evaluation of the results from radioactivity survey', 'workshop for technical experts of environmental radioactivity monitoring' and 'survey research on the measurement and countermeasures for emergency exposure'. (M.N.)

  4. Report of radioactivity survey research in fiscal year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    In National Institute of Radiological Sciences, a survey was made on radioactivities in the environment due to the substances released from nuclear installations and radioactive fall-out brought out by nuclear explosion tests since 1959. As the marked progress of non-military utilization of nuclear energy the national concern on environmental radioactivity has been increasing in Japan and thus it has become more and more important to make a survey research of radioactivities, which might affect the environment and human health. In these situations, the institute attempted to make the following six surveys in the fiscal year of 1997; `a survey on radioactive levels in environment, foods and human bodies`, `survey on the radioactive level in the regions around nuclear installations`, `works in radioactive data center`, `fundamental survey on the evaluation of the results from radioactivity survey`, `workshop for technical experts of environmental radioactivity monitoring` and `survey research on the measurement and countermeasures for emergency exposure`. (J.P.N.)

  5. Mediation analysis in nursing research: a methodological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Ulrich, Connie

    2016-12-01

    Mediation statistical models help clarify the relationship between independent predictor variables and dependent outcomes of interest by assessing the impact of third variables. This type of statistical analysis is applicable for many clinical nursing research questions, yet its use within nursing remains low. Indeed, mediational analyses may help nurse researchers develop more effective and accurate prevention and treatment programs as well as help bridge the gap between scientific knowledge and clinical practice. In addition, this statistical approach allows nurse researchers to ask - and answer - more meaningful and nuanced questions that extend beyond merely determining whether an outcome occurs. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to provide a brief tutorial on the use of mediational analyses in clinical nursing research by briefly introducing the technique and, through selected empirical examples from the nursing literature, demonstrating its applicability in advancing nursing science.

  6. Methodological Issues in Leadership Training Research: In Pursuit of Causality

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Robin; Epitropaki, O; O'Broin, Holly

    2017-01-01

    Leadership training has led to a large amount of research due to the belief that such training can lead to (or more precisely  cause) positive changes in followers’ behavior and work performance. This chapter describes some of the conditions necessary  for research to show a causal relationship between leadership training and outcomes. It then describes different research de‐ signs, employed in leadership training research, and considers the types of problems that can affect inferenc...

  7. Monitoring HIV Testing in the United States: Consequences of Methodology Changes to National Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M Van Handel

    Full Text Available In 2011, the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS, an in-person household interview, revised the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV section of the survey and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS, a telephone-based survey, added cellphone numbers to its sampling frame. We sought to determine how these changes might affect assessment of HIV testing trends.We used linear regression with pairwise contrasts with 2003-2013 data from NHIS and BRFSS to compare percentages of persons aged 18-64 years who reported HIV testing in landline versus cellphone-only households before and after 2011, when NHIS revised its in-person questionnaire and BRFSS added cellphone numbers to its telephone-based sample.In NHIS, the percentage of persons in cellphone-only households increased 13-fold from 2003 to 2013. The percentage ever tested for HIV was 6%-10% higher among persons in cellphone-only than landline households. The percentage ever tested for HIV increased significantly from 40.2% in 2003 to 45.0% in 2010, but was significantly lower in 2011 (40.6% and 2012 (39.7%. In BRFSS, the percentage ever tested decreased significantly from 45.9% in 2003 to 40.2% in 2010, but increased to 42.9% in 2011 and 43.5% in 2013.HIV testing estimates were lower after NHIS questionnaire changes but higher after BRFSS methodology changes. Data before and after 2011 are not comparable, complicating assessment of trends.

  8. Measuring medicine prices in Peru: validation of key aspects of WHO/HAI survey methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Jeanne M; Meza, Edson; Ewen, Margaret; Laing, Richard O; Stephens, Peter; Ross-Degnan, Dennis

    2010-04-01

    To assess the possibility of bias due to the limited target list and geographic sampling of the World Health Organization (WHO)/Health Action International (HAI) Medicine Prices and Availability survey used in more than 70 rapid sample surveys since 2001. A survey was conducted in Peru in 2005 using an expanded sample of medicine outlets, including remote areas. Comprehensive data were gathered on medicines in three therapeutic classes to assess the adequacy of WHO/HAI's target medicines list and the focus on only two product versions. WHO/HAI median retail prices were compared with average wholesale prices from global pharmaceutical sales data supplier IMS Health. No significant differences were found in overall availability or prices of target list medicines by retail location. The comprehensive survey of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, anti-diabetic, and anti-ulcer products revealed that some treatments not on the target list were costlier for patients and more likely to be unavailable, particularly in remote areas. WHO/HAI retail prices and IMS wholesale prices were strongly correlated for higher priced products, and weakly correlated for lower priced products (which had higher estimated retailer markups). The WHO/HAI survey approach strikes an appropriate balance between modest research costs and optimal information for policy. Focusing on commonly used medicines yields sufficient and valid results. Surveyors elsewhere should consider the limits of the survey data as well as any local circumstances, such as scarcity, that may call for extra field efforts.

  9. 2010 Recruiting Benchmarks Survey. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Colleges and Employers (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The National Association of Colleges and Employers conducted its annual survey of employer members from June 15, 2010 to August 15, 2010, to benchmark data relevant to college recruiting. From a base of 861 employers holding organizational membership, there were 268 responses for a response rate of 31 percent. Following are some of the major…

  10. On the Methodology of Research of Sunni-Shiite Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Sergeevna Chikrizova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to methodological aspects of analysis of confrontation between two biggest trends in Islam - Sunnism and Shiism. It’s extremely important to study Sunni-Shiite relations on the modern stage because they reflect geopolitical and geostrategic rivalry in the region and change of interstate alliances’ configuration. After “the Arab spring” in the Middle East some conflicts have flared up (Iraq, Syria, Yemen, and one of the reasons of all the conflicts is a confrontation between Sunnis and Shiites. Moreover, some more hot spots are brewing, in which the representatives of two major trends in Islam will face (Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain. In order to find ways to settle these conflicts we need to learn profoundly the origins, nature and characteristics of Sunni-Shiite relations, and it also determines the relevance of this article’s topic. Using comparative method, historicism, problem-chronological method and quantitative methods of analysis, the author indicates six periods of Sunni-Shiite antagonism, during which the contradictions between two trends had gradually shifted from domestic to international level, and then to global level. Comparing foreign policy practice of Sunni and Shiite states at the present stage, the author proves that nowadays the struggle between Sunnis and Shiites for the implementation of models of the Islamic world’s development takes place. These models are global, they are aimed at the unification of the Islamic world. However they are based on completely different visions of this world’s configuration, particularly in the region of the Middle East.

  11. Ubiquitous Surveys Reveal Shallow Research Designs (Commentary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Charles-Gene

    1990-01-01

    Criticizes the large amount of often irrelevant, poorly designed, and poorly written quantitative journalism research. Notes that journalism education and mass communication education research published in scholarly journals is largely ignored by professional journalists, who find more value in the qualitative research reported in the journalism…

  12. Survey Practices in Dental Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W.; Kuster, Curtis G.

    1983-01-01

    The use of mailed questionnaires in research on dental education is examined, and several factors that researchers should consider when reporting mailed questionnaire research to journal editors are identified. Examples from the "Journal of Dental Education" are used. (Author/MLW)

  13. Children Researching Their Urban Environment: Developing a Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacking, Elisabeth Barratt; Barratt, Robert

    2009-01-01

    "Listening to children: environmental perspectives and the school curriculum" (L2C) was a UK research council project based in schools in a socially and economically deprived urban area in England. It focused on 10/12 year old children's experience of their local community and environment, and how they made sense of this in relation both…

  14. Lost in Translation: Methodological Considerations in Cross-Cultural Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Elizabeth D.

    2007-01-01

    In cross-cultural child development research there is often a need to translate instruments and instructions to languages other than English. Typically, the translation process focuses on ensuring linguistic equivalence. However, establishment of linguistic equivalence through translation techniques is often not sufficient to guard against…

  15. Participant Observation, Anthropology Methodology and Design Anthropology Research Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Wendy; Løgstrup, Louise B.

    2014-01-01

    Within the design studio, and across multiple field sites, the authors compare involvement of research tools and materials during collaborative processes of designing. Their aim is to trace temporal dimensions (shifts/ movements) of where and when learning takes place along different sites of practice. They do so by combining participant…

  16. Research and development in radiotracer methodology and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thereska, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria)

    2001-07-01

    An IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) has promoted further the radiotracer technology, in particular has validated the residence time distribution (RTD) function in investigating many chemical engineering reactors, such as grinding mill and flotation cell, incinerator, crystallizer trickle bed reactor and waste water treatment units. (authors)

  17. Research and development in radiotracer methodology and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thereska, J.

    2001-01-01

    An IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) has promoted further the radiotracer technology, in particular has validated the residence time distribution (RTD) function in investigating many chemical engineering reactors, such as grinding mill and flotation cell, incinerator, crystallizer trickle bed reactor and waste water treatment units. (authors)

  18. 'soft skills' Part I: A qualitative research methodology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Following the introduction of a new, integrated, problem-oriented undergraduate medical curriculum at the University of Pretoria (UP) in 1997, a research project was undertaken to study interpersonal skills, professional attitudes, teamwork, ethics and related topics – which have come to be known collectively ...

  19. Video Game-Based Methodology for Business Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Larry L.; Lawson, Catherine L.

    2010-01-01

    Experimental research in business and economics has exploded in recent years in both laboratory and field settings. The generality of findings from field experiments is limited by the specificity of the experimental environment. Laboratory studies, on the other hand, are criticized for being devoid of the contextual cues that may indicate to…

  20. Teaching Research Methodology and Writing in the Emerald City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larry D.

    The major goal of graduate education in speech communication is to advance knowledge about human communication through research and by training minds. Graduate education differs from undergraduate education because it emphasizes not only what we know, but how we come to know. Often, however, graduate education is just seen as being an extension of…

  1. Qualitative Research Interviews of Children with Communication Disorders: Methodological Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoin, D.; Scelles, R.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the qualitative research interview, an essential tool frequently used in the human and social sciences, conducted with children having communication disorders. Two distinct populations are addressed--children with intellectual disability and deaf children without related disabilities--with the aim of identifying the main…

  2. Doing Animist Research in Academia: A Methodological Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Epistemologies, ontologies, and education based on colonial Eurocentric assumptions have made animism difficult to explicitly explore, acknowledge, and embody in environmental research. Boundaries between humans and the "natural world," including other animals, are continually reproduced through a culture that privileges rationality and the…

  3. Journeying from the philosophical contemplation of constructivism to the methodological pragmatics of health services research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Jane V; King, Lindy

    2002-12-01

    This paper presents our journey through a contemplation of the philosophical origins of constructivism to consider its role as an active methodology in qualitative research. The first part of the paper summarizes the philosophical background of constructivism and the five principles underpinning this paradigm as described through the works of Guba and Lincoln. The philosophical roots of constructivism are then compared with postpositivism, critical realism and participatory inquiry. The paper moves on to consider their common methodological steps, before examining how the constructivist research strategy is being adopted and adapted within the pragmatics of health service research. Recent studies will be drawn upon to illustrate the use of constructivist methodology. Questions are raised about the role of philosophy and the extent to which it should or does underpin or influence qualitative research strategies. We believe that if researchers gain an understanding of both philosophy and methodology a richer and more robust study is likely to result.

  4. Diffraction or Reflection? Sketching the Contours of Two Methodologies in Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozalek, Vivienne; Zembylas, Michalinos

    2017-01-01

    Internationally, an interest is emerging in a growing body of work on what has become known as "diffractive methodologies" drawing attention to ontological aspects of research. Diffractive methodologies have largely been developed in response to a dissatisfaction with practices of "reflexivity", which are seen to be grounded in…

  5. Enacting a Place-Responsive Research Methodology: Walking Interviews with Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Jonathan; Mannion, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Place-based and place-responsive approaches to outdoor learning and education are developing in many countries but there is dearth of theoretically-supported methodologies to take a more explicit account of place in research in these areas. In response, this article outlines one theoretical framing for place-responsive methodologies for…

  6. The Oil Drop Experiment: An Illustration of Scientific Research Methodology and its Implications for Physics Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Maria A.; Niaz, Mansoor

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this study are: (1) evaluation of the methodology used in recent search for particles with fractional electrical charge (quarks) and its implications for understanding the scientific research methodology of Millikan; (2) evaluation of 43 general physics textbooks and 11 laboratory manuals, with respect to the oil drop experiment,…

  7. Diverse Ways to Fore-Ground Methodological Insights about Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Mazzei, Lisa A.; Ceglowski, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Texts and articles that put epistemological theories and methodologies to work in the context of qualitative research can stimulate scholarship in various ways such as through methodological innovations, transferability of theories and methods, interdisciplinarity, and transformative reflections across traditions and frameworks. Such…

  8. Development of residential-conservation-survey methodology for the US Air Force. Interim report. Task two

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrams, D. W.; Hartman, T. L.; Lau, A. S.

    1981-11-13

    A US Air Force (USAF) Residential Energy Conservation Methodology was developed to compare USAF needs and available data to the procedures of the Residential Conservation Service (RCS) program as developed for general use by utility companies serving civilian customers. Attention was given to the data implications related to group housing, climatic data requirements, life-cycle cost analysis, energy saving modifications beyond those covered by RCS, and methods for utilizing existing energy consumption data in approaching the USAF survey program. Detailed information and summaries are given on the five subtasks of the program. Energy conservation alternatives are listed and the basic analysis techniques to be used in evaluating their thermal performane are described. (MCW)

  9. Research methodology the aims, practices and ethics of science

    CERN Document Server

    Pruzan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This book is an in-depth guide to effective scientific research. Ranging from the philosophical to the practical, it explains at the outset what science can – and can’t – achieve, and discusses its relationship to mathematics and laws. The author then pays extensive attention to the scientific method, including experimental design, verification, uncertainty and statistics. A major aim of the book is to help young scientists reflect upon the deeper aims of their work and make the best use of their talents in contributing to progress. To this end, it also includes sections on planning research, on presenting one’s findings in writing, as well as on ethics and the responsibilities of scientists. .

  10. The 2014 Survey on Living with Chronic Diseases in Canada on Mood and Anxiety Disorders: a methodological overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O’Donnell

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a paucity of information about the impact of mood and anxiety disorders on Canadians and the approaches used to manage them. To address this gap, the 2014 Survey on Living with Chronic Diseases in Canada–Mood and Anxiety Disorders Component (SLCDC-MA was developed. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methodology of the 2014 SLCDC-MA and examine the sociodemographic characteristics of the final sample. Methods: The 2014 SLCDC-MA is a cross-sectional follow-up survey that includes Canadians from the 10 provinces aged 18 years and older with mood and/or anxiety disorders diagnosed by a health professional that are expected to last, or have already lasted, six months or more. The survey was developed by the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC through an iterative, consultative process with Statistics Canada and external experts. Statistics Canada performed content testing, designed the sampling frame and strategies and collected and processed the data. PHAC used descriptive analyses to describe the respondents’ sociodemographic characteristics, produced nationally representative estimates using survey weights provided by Statistics Canada, and generated variance estimates using bootstrap methodology. Results: The final 2014 SLCDC-MA sample consists of a total of 3361 respondents (68.9% response rate. Among Canadian adults with mood and/or anxiety disorders, close to two-thirds (64% were female, over half (56% were married/in a common-law relationship and 60% obtained a post-secondary education. Most were young or middle-aged (85%, Canadian born (88%, of non-Aboriginal status (95%, and resided in an urban setting (82%. Household income was fairly evenly distributed between the adequacy quintiles; however, individuals were more likely to report a household income adequacy within the lowest (23% versus highest (17% quintile. Forty-five percent reported having a mood disorder only, 24% an anxiety disorder only and 31

  11. Insider Research on Diversity and Inclusion: Methodological Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsánna E. Horváth

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Workforce diversity management is fast becoming a significant component of in Multinational Corporations because it has outstanding benefits on inclusive workplace climate leading to improved work outcomes. The paper provides a conceptual background of the significance and implications of diversity management and inclusion, followed by a proposed insider research design. An employee perception focused approach is discussed that is believed to best capture the efficiency of diversity management and inclusion. Recommendations complement the conceptual framework and critical analyses.

  12. Genomics Research: World Survey of Public Funding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cook-Deegan Robert M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past two decades, genomics has evolved as a scientific research discipline. Genomics research was fueled initially by government and nonprofit funding sources, later augmented by private research and development (R&D funding. Citizens and taxpayers of many countries have funded much of the research, and have expectations about access to the resulting information and knowledge. While access to knowledge gained from all publicly funded research is desired, access is especially important for fields that have broad social impact and stimulate public dialogue. Genomics is one such field, where public concerns are raised for reasons such as health care and insurance implications, as well as personal and ancestral identification. Thus, genomics has grown rapidly as a field, and attracts considerable interest. Results One way to study the growth of a field of research is to examine its funding. This study focuses on public funding of genomics research, identifying and collecting data from major government and nonprofit organizations around the world, and updating previous estimates of world genomics research funding, including information about geographical origins. We initially identified 89 publicly funded organizations; we requested information about each organization's funding of genomics research. Of these organizations, 48 responded and 34 reported genomics research expenditures (of those that responded but did not supply information, some did not fund such research, others could not quantify it. The figures reported here include all the largest funders and we estimate that we have accounted for most of the genomics research funding from government and nonprofit sources. Conclusion Aggregate spending on genomics research from 34 funding sources averaged around $2.9 billion in 2003 – 2006. The United States spent more than any other country on genomics research, corresponding to 35% of the overall worldwide public

  13. Understanding pathways of exposure using site-specific habits surveys, particularly new pathways and methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grzechnik, M.; McTaggart, K.; Clyne, F.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: UK policy on the control of radiation exposure via routine discharges from nuclear licensed sites has long been based on ICRP recommendations that embody the principles of justification of practices, optimisation of protection, and dose limitation. Radiological protection of the public is based on the concept of a critical group of individuals. This group is defined as those people who, as a result of the area they reside and their habits, receive the highest radiation dose due to the operations of a site. Therefore, if the dose to this critical group is acceptable in relation to relevant dose limits and constraints, then other members of the public will receive lower doses. Thus, the principle of critical groups provides overall protection for the public. Surveys to determine local habits involve an integrated methodology, whereby the potential radioactive exposure pathways from liquid and gaseous discharges and direct radiation from the site are investigated. Surveys to identify these habits must be undertaken rigorously for consistency, and have been known to reveal unexpected pathways of radiation exposure. Pathways typically include consumption of local foodstuffs and external exposure. Furthermore, a number of critical groups ma y be identified within a single survey area if the habits of one group do not adequately describe those of the other inhabitants of the area. Survey preparation involves the initial identification of high producers and consumers of local foods in a geographically defined area surrounding the nuclear facility. Pathways can be broken down into three general groups, which include exposure arising from; 1) Terrestrial (gaseous) discharges surveyed within 5 km of the site 2) Direct radiation surveyed within 1 km of the site 3) Aquatic (liquid) discharges surveyed within local areas affected by the discharges, including seas, rivers and sewage works. The survey fieldwork involves interviewing members of the

  14. [Archaeology and genealogy as methodological options of nursing research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Rosemeiry Capriata de Souza; Ramos, Flavia Regina Souza

    2003-01-01

    This article is based on the historical contextualization about the development of research in nursing, presents the categories/lines of interest that support the human knowledge applied in the Doctorate Thesis in Nursing in Brazil, points out the archeological and genealogical methods proposed by Michel Foucault, and their possibility to make more difficult the day-to-day tasks of the nursing profession Whether in Institutions, Public Policies, Health Reform, and Vocational Training, in the attempt to understand which strategies, challenges, knowledge base, and practices have influenced the building of the subjects.

  15. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY FUNDAMENTALS OF THE UKRAINIAN PROCESSING AND MANUFACTURING ENTERPRISES ECONOMIC POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurii Gudz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to find the most appropriate application ways for simulating of the business activities of the manufacturing and processing agriculture enterprises dealing in the corruptive Ukrainian environment and to overcome the fundamental methodology contradictions to be able to perform more accurate results of the economic potential assessment despite the sophisticated defects inherent in current industry sector. Methodology includes publication research, interviews and practical comparison of the published statistic data and real production volume, returns and other indicators to be able to estimate actual potential of the target enterprises. The paper comes through the classical analytical methods showing their application pros and contras in highly corruptive environment with the strong trend of data falsification. Results of the survey show the basic economic methods applicable for the research activity of processing and manufacturing enterprises operating in the field of agriculture. The authors’ experience picks up the problem of the urgent need of new methodology among vast abstractive researching executed by the majority of the scientists as they have some contradictions when we apply them for the real industry segment or even an enterprise. Corruption affecting the general statistic data misrepresents the facts therefore current (classic methods are not able to show real economic trends in the industrial segment. So the authors persist on the significance of the corruption distortion considering e.g. to identify the actual macro- and microeconomic indicators, indexes and ratios we involve the stage researching system of multidimensional comparative analysis to rank received rating and find appropriate position for enterprise and as we cannot ignore a constantly growing shadow sector of Ukrainian economy we perform economic potential assessment of the target enterprise with the identification of the shadow sector with

  16. 76 FR 23605 - New Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Study Logistic Formative Research Methodology Studies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ...; Comment Request; Study Logistic Formative Research Methodology Studies for the National Children's Study... maximize the efficiency (measured by scientific robustness, participant and infrastructure burden, and cost... assess the feasibility, acceptability, and cost of the recruitment strategy, study procedures, and...

  17. Everyday couples' communication research: Overcoming methodological barriers with technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reblin, Maija; Heyman, Richard E; Ellington, Lee; Baucom, Brian R W; Georgiou, Panayiotis G; Vadaparampil, Susan T

    2018-03-01

    Relationship behaviors contribute to compromised health or resilience. Everyday communication between intimate partners represents the vast majority of their interactions. When intimate partners take on new roles as patients and caregivers, everyday communication takes on a new and important role in managing both the transition and the adaptation to the change in health status. However, everyday communication and its relation to health has been little studied, likely due to barriers in collecting and processing this kind of data. The goal of this paper is to describe deterrents to capturing naturalistic, day-in-the-life communication data and share how technological advances have helped surmount them. We provide examples from a current study and describe how we anticipate technology will further change research capabilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Thought Suppression Research Methods: Paradigms, Theories, Methodological Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niczyporuk Aneta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is hard to provide an unequivocal answer to the question of whether or not thought suppression is effective. Two thought suppression paradigms - the “white bear” paradigm and the think/no-think paradigm - give mixed results. Generally, “white bear” experiments indicate that thought suppression is counterproductive, while experiments in the think/no-think paradigm suggest that it is possible to effectively suppress a thought. There are also alternative methods used to study thought suppression, for instance the directed forgetting paradigm or the Stroop task. In the article, I describe the research methods used to explore thought suppression efficacy. I focus on the “white bear” and the think/no-think paradigms and discuss theories proposed to explain the results obtained. I also consider the internal and external validity of the methods used.

  19. Laboratory experiments in innovation research: A methodological overview and a review of the current literature

    OpenAIRE

    Brüggemann, Julia; Bizer, Kilian

    2016-01-01

    Innovation research has developed a broad set of methodological approaches in recent decades. In this paper, we propose laboratory experiments as a fruitful methodological addition to the existing methods in innovation research. Therefore, we provide an overview of the existing methods, discuss the advantages and limitations of laboratory experiments, and review experimental studies dealing with different fields of innovation policy, namely intellectual property rights, financi...

  20. An Evaluation of Research Ethics in Undergraduate Health Science Research Methodology Programs at a South African University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Tanya; Hoffmann, Willem A; de Roubaix, Malcolm

    2015-10-01

    The amended research ethics policy at a South African University required the ethics review of undergraduate research projects, prompting the need to explore the content and teaching approach of research ethics education in health science undergraduate programs. Two qualitative data collection strategies were used: document analysis (syllabi and study guides) and semi-structured interviews with research methodology coordinators. Five main themes emerged: (a) timing of research ethics courses, (b) research ethics course content, (c) sub-optimal use of creative classroom activities to facilitate research ethics lectures, (d) understanding the need for undergraduate project research ethics review, and (e) research ethics capacity training for research methodology lecturers and undergraduate project supervisors. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. 76 FR 23603 - New Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Environmental Science Formative Research Methodology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ...; Comment Request; Environmental Science Formative Research Methodology Studies for the National Children's... an OMB generic clearance to conduct formative research featuring biospecimen and physical measures... health and disease. Findings from the Study will be made available as the research progresses, making...

  2. The Research and Evaluation of Serious Games: Toward a Comprehensive Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Igor; Bekebrede, Geertje; Harteveld, Casper; Warmelink, Harald; Zhou, Qiqi; van Ruijven, Theo; Lo, Julia; Kortmann, Rens; Wenzler, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    The authors present the methodological background to and underlying research design of an ongoing research project on the scientific evaluation of serious games and/or computer-based simulation games (SGs) for advanced learning. The main research questions are: (1) what are the requirements and design principles for a comprehensive social…

  3. Using Q Methodology in the Literature Review Process: A Mixed Research Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Frels, Rebecca K.

    2015-01-01

    Because of the mixed research-based nature of literature reviews, it is surprising, then, that insufficient information has been provided as to how reviewers can incorporate mixed research approaches into their literature reviews. Thus, in this article, we provide a mixed methods research approach--Q methodology--for analyzing information…

  4. Leveraging the Methodological Affordances of Facebook: Social Networking Strategies in Longitudinal Writing Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Jenna Pack; Kimme Hea, Amy C.

    2016-01-01

    While composition studies researchers have examined the ways social media are impacting our lives inside and outside of the classroom, less attention has been given to the ways in which social media--specifically Social Network Sites (SNSs)--may enhance our own research methods and methodologies by helping to combat research participant attrition…

  5. THE SPECIFIC MARKET RESEARCH METHODOLOGY USED AT GENERAL MOTOR'S EUROPE ,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zima Liliana Adela

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available As difficult as segmenting consumer markets is, it is much simpler and easier than segmenting industrial markets. Often the same industrial products have multiple applications; likewise, several different products can be used in the same application. Customer differ greatly, and it is hard to discern which differences are important and which are trivial for developing a marketing strategy. Making the research at General Motor's Europe I realized that the most industrial marketers use segmentation as a way to explain results rather than as a way to plan. In fact, industrial segmentation can assist companies in several areas like: analysis of the market, selection of key markets and management and marketing. In this study I tried to make a better understanding of the total marketplace, including how and why customers buy and to develop strategies, plans and programs to profitability meet the needs of different market segments and to give the company a distinct competitive advantage. The Marketing Plan is based on an Information System which can be interpretaded in two different ways. In this case its singular form focusing on both formal and informal information system is appropriate. The investigation explains the environment of the European Business Team . The techniques used were: system maps, observations, interviews, questionnaires and company documents. The initial stage of exploring the situation starts usually with a dialog between the potential client - in this particular case the European Business Team – and the analyst. The vague impression is then given that not everything is running as it should be by the client. This was, however, not completely true in my case, as I had to go looking for problems. Preliminary investigations into product communication did show a feeling of unease between the departments. Having expressed the current situation of the European Business Team , I then chose three areas to study further. I had to

  6. Factor Analysis in Assessing the Research Methodology Quality of Systematic Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrada Elena URDA-CÎMPEAN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many high quality systematic reviews available from medical journals, data bases and other electronic sources differ in quality and provide different answers to the same question. The literature recommended the use of a checklist type approach, which exceeds many of the problems associated with measurements. Aim: This study proposes to identify in a checklist type approach the most commonly used factors (from a methodological point of view in assessing the quality of systematic reviews, and then mirror the actual stage of medical writing. We want to analyze the factors’ occurrence and / or their development in the text and in the abstract of systematic reviews published in 2011. Methods: The present study randomly selected only free full text systematic reviews published in 2011, systematic reviews found in Pubmed and in Cochrane Database. The most commonly used factors were identified in PRISMA statement and quality measurement tools. Results: The evaluated systematic reviews mentioned or developed several of the factors studied. Only 78% of the papers surveyed have used the correct IMRAD format and 59% of them have mentioned the sample size used. The correspondence between the content of the paper and its abstract is summarized in the proportion of 54.63% and 51.85% for the two sets of factors, and it can lead to scarce appreciation of the article provided that only abstracts are read. Conclusions: Researchers do not properly take into consideration scientific articles and assessment tools used for quality evaluation. They should place more value over methodological factors which help assess systematic review quality, while journals form the only party who can enforce quality standards in medical writing.

  7. Adaptive Intervention Methodology for Reduction of Respondent Contact Burden in the American Community Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashmead Robert

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The notion of respondent contact burden in sample surveys is defined, and a multi-stage process to develop policies for curtailing nonresponse follow-up is described with the goal of reducing this burden on prospective survey respondents. The method depends on contact history paradata containing information about contact attempts both for respondents and for sampled nonrespondents. By analysis of past data, policies to stop case follow-up based on control variables measured in paradata can be developed by calculating propensities to respond for paradata-defined subgroups of sampled cases. Competing policies can be assessed by comparing outcomes (lost interviews, numbers of contacts, patterns of reluctant participation, or refusal to participate as if these stopping policies had been followed in past data. Finally, embedded survey experiments may be used to assess contact-burden reduction policies when these are implemented in the field. The multi-stage method described here abstracts the stages followed in a series of research studies aimed at reducing contact burden in the Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI and Computer Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI modes of the American Community Survey (ACS, which culminated in implementation of policy changes in the ACS.

  8. Assessing the impact of healthcare research: A systematic review of methodological frameworks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Cruz Rivera

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, researchers need to demonstrate the impact of their research to their sponsors, funders, and fellow academics. However, the most appropriate way of measuring the impact of healthcare research is subject to debate. We aimed to identify the existing methodological frameworks used to measure healthcare research impact and to summarise the common themes and metrics in an impact matrix.Two independent investigators systematically searched the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE, the Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL+, the Health Management Information Consortium, and the Journal of Research Evaluation from inception until May 2017 for publications that presented a methodological framework for research impact. We then summarised the common concepts and themes across methodological frameworks and identified the metrics used to evaluate differing forms of impact. Twenty-four unique methodological frameworks were identified, addressing 5 broad categories of impact: (1 'primary research-related impact', (2 'influence on policy making', (3 'health and health systems impact', (4 'health-related and societal impact', and (5 'broader economic impact'. These categories were subdivided into 16 common impact subgroups. Authors of the included publications proposed 80 different metrics aimed at measuring impact in these areas. The main limitation of the study was the potential exclusion of relevant articles, as a consequence of the poor indexing of the databases searched.The measurement of research impact is an essential exercise to help direct the allocation of limited research resources, to maximise research benefit, and to help minimise research waste. This review provides a collective summary of existing methodological frameworks for research impact, which funders may use to inform the measurement of research impact and researchers may use to inform

  9. Enhancing Field Research Methods with Mobile Survey Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the experience of undergraduate students using mobile devices and a commercial application, iSurvey, to conduct a neighborhood survey. Mobile devices offer benefits for enhancing student learning and engagement. This field exercise created the opportunity for classroom discussions on the practicalities of urban research, the…

  10. Assessment methodology applicable to safe decommissioning of Romanian VVR-S research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baniu, O.; Vladescu, G.; Vidican, D.; Penescu, M.

    2002-01-01

    The paper contains the results of research activity performed by CITON specialists regarding the assessment methodology intended to be applied to safe decommissioning of the research reactors, developed taking into account specific conditions of the Romanian VVR-S Research Reactor. The Romanian VVR-S Research Reactor is an old reactor (1957) and its Decommissioning Plan is under study. The main topics of paper are as follows: Safety approach of nuclear facilities decommissioning. Applicable safety principles; Main steps of the proposed assessment methodology; Generic content of Decommissioning Plan. Main decommissioning activities. Discussion about the proposed Decommissioning Plan for Romanian Research Reactor; Safety risks which may occur during decommissioning activities. Normal decommissioning operations. Fault conditions. Internal and external hazards; Typical development of a scenario. Features, Events and Processes List. Exposure pathways. Calculation methodology. (author)

  11. Siting Study Framework and Survey Methodology for Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Project in Offshore Southeast Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinick, Charles; Riccobono, Antonino, MS; Messing, Charles G., Ph.D.; Walker, Brian K., Ph.D.; Reed, John K., Ph.D.

    2012-02-28

    Dehlsen Associates, LLC was awarded a grant by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Golden Field Office for a project titled 'Siting Study Framework and Survey Methodology for Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Project in Offshore Southeast Florida,' corresponding to DOE Grant Award Number DE-EE0002655 resulting from DOE funding Opportunity Announcement Number DE-FOA-0000069 for Topic Area 2, and it is referred to herein as 'the project.' The purpose of the project was to enhance the certainty of the survey requirements and regulatory review processes for the purpose of reducing the time, efforts, and costs associated with initial siting efforts of marine and hydrokinetic energy conversion facilities that may be proposed in the Atlantic Ocean offshore Southeast Florida. To secure early input from agencies, protocols were developed for collecting baseline geophysical information and benthic habitat data that can be used by project developers and regulators to make decisions early in the process of determining project location (i.e., the siting process) that avoid or minimize adverse impacts to sensitive marine benthic habitat. It is presumed that such an approach will help facilitate the licensing process for hydrokinetic and other ocean renewable energy projects within the study area and will assist in clarifying the baseline environmental data requirements described in the U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement (formerly Minerals Management Service) final regulations on offshore renewable energy (30 Code of Federal Regulations 285, published April 29, 2009). Because projects generally seek to avoid or minimize impacts to sensitive marine habitats, it was not the intent of this project to investigate areas that did not appear suitable for the siting of ocean renewable energy projects. Rather, a two-tiered approach was designed with the first step consisting of gaining overall insight

  12. Retractions in cancer research: a systematic survey

    OpenAIRE

    Bozzo, Anthony; Bali, Kamal; Evaniew, Nathan; Ghert, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Background The annual number of retracted publications in the scientific literature is rapidly increasing. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and reason for retraction of cancer publications and to determine how journals in the cancer field handle retracted articles. Methods We searched three online databases (MEDLINE, Embase, The Cochrane Library) from database inception until 2015 for retracted journal publications related to cancer research. For each article, the re...

  13. A Survey of Campus Coordinators of Undergraduate Research Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Merinda Kaye; Shreeves, Sarah L.; Davis-Kahl, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Interest in supporting undergraduate research programs continues to grow within academic librarianship. This article presents how undergraduate research program coordinators perceive and value library support of their programs. Undergraduate research coordinators from a variety of institutions were surveyed on which elements of libraries and…

  14. Changes in Methodology for Assessing Performance of Research Organisations and Influence of Such Changes on Researchers' Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Marek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Assessing quality of research results on an international scale is a basis for evaluating the level of scientific activities pursued in research organisations. In the past 15 years, significant changes have occurred in the Czech Republic in research management and, in particular, the methodology of assessing research results. The methodology of assessment and its modifications should always be focused on increasing quality of research results; the rules of assessment have their effects on researchers' behaviour. This paper studies a question of whether the changes applied to the methodology of assessing research results in the Czech Republic have supported higher quality research results, i.e., results published in high-quality international journals. The authors have developed their own statistical test to measure significance of such changes, as well as other statistical tests of hypotheses. The main source is represented by the results of assessing public universities in the Czech Republic according to "Methodology for assessing results of research organisations" in 2010 and 2013. Our tests have not proven any statistically significant differences in the numbers of papers published in the journals monitored in the Web of Science and Scopus databases.

  15. Using a statewide survey methodology to prioritize pediatric cardiology core content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Ashley E; Lehto, Elizabeth; Miller, Karen Hughes; Ziegler, Craig; Davis, Erin

    2018-01-01

    Although pediatrician-reported relevance of Canadian cardiology-specific objectives has been studied, similar data are not available for the 2016 American Board of Pediatrics (ABP) cardiology-specific objectives. This study asked Kentucky trainees, pediatricians, and pediatric cardiologists to identify "most important" content within these objectives. This cross-sectional study used an original, online survey instrument based on the 2016 ABP cardiology-specific objectives. We collected quantitative data (numerical indications of importance) and qualitative data (open-ended replies regarding missing content and difficulty in teaching and learning). Respondents indicated the top two choices of most important items within eight content areas. Descriptive statistics (frequencies and percentages) and chi-square analysis were calculated. Content within categories was organized using naturally occurring "clusters" and "gaps" in scores. Common themes among open-ended qualitative responses were identified using Pandit's version of Glaser and Strauss Grounded theory (constant comparison). Of the 136 respondents, 23 (17%) were residents, 15 (11%) fellows, 85 (62%) pediatricians, and 13 (10%) pediatric cardiologists. Of attendings, 80% reported faculty/gratis faculty status. Naturally occurring clusters in respondent-designated importance resulted in ≤3 "most selected" objectives per content area. Objectives in "most selected" content pertained to initial diagnosis (recognition of abnormality/disease) (n = 16), possible emergent/urgent intervention required (n = 14), building a differential (n = 8), and planning a workup (n = 4). Conversely, themes for "least selected" content included comanagement with subspecialist (n = 15), knowledge useful in patient-family communication (n = 9), knowledge that can be referenced (as needed) (n = 7), and longitudinal/follow-up concerns (n = 5). This study demonstrated the utility of an online survey

  16. Management accounting research: uma análise metodológica = Management Accounting Research: a methodological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odair Correa do Nascimento

    2011-08-01

    largest number of publications(29.53%, followed by Australia (12.75% and France (11.41. The methodology used was descriptive (50.63%, and used survey as a procedure, with 37.98%. The data collection technique used was based on documents (40.51%. Of the papers that used quantitative methods (36.71%, descriptive statistics, correlation and hypothesis testing (using quantitative methods were the techniques that occur most frequently.Keywords: Management Accounting. Management Accounting Research. Research Methodology

  17. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: Multi-Probe Methodology and Simulated Likelihood Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, E.; et al.

    2017-06-28

    We present the methodology for and detail the implementation of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) 3x2pt DES Year 1 (Y1) analysis, which combines configuration-space two-point statistics from three different cosmological probes: cosmic shear, galaxy-galaxy lensing, and galaxy clustering, using data from the first year of DES observations. We have developed two independent modeling pipelines and describe the code validation process. We derive expressions for analytical real-space multi-probe covariances, and describe their validation with numerical simulations. We stress-test the inference pipelines in simulated likelihood analyses that vary 6-7 cosmology parameters plus 20 nuisance parameters and precisely resemble the analysis to be presented in the DES 3x2pt analysis paper, using a variety of simulated input data vectors with varying assumptions. We find that any disagreement between pipelines leads to changes in assigned likelihood $\\Delta \\chi^2 \\le 0.045$ with respect to the statistical error of the DES Y1 data vector. We also find that angular binning and survey mask do not impact our analytic covariance at a significant level. We determine lower bounds on scales used for analysis of galaxy clustering (8 Mpc$~h^{-1}$) and galaxy-galaxy lensing (12 Mpc$~h^{-1}$) such that the impact of modeling uncertainties in the non-linear regime is well below statistical errors, and show that our analysis choices are robust against a variety of systematics. These tests demonstrate that we have a robust analysis pipeline that yields unbiased cosmological parameter inferences for the flagship 3x2pt DES Y1 analysis. We emphasize that the level of independent code development and subsequent code comparison as demonstrated in this paper is necessary to produce credible constraints from increasingly complex multi-probe analyses of current data.

  18. Approaches to qualitative research in mathematics education examples of methodology and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Bikner-Ahsbahs, Angelika; Presmeg, Norma

    2014-01-01

    This volume documents a range of qualitative research approaches emerged within mathematics education over the last three decades, whilst at the same time revealing their underlying methodologies. Continuing the discussion as begun in the two 2003 ZDM issues dedicated to qualitative empirical methods, this book presents astate of the art overview on qualitative research in mathematics education and beyond. The structure of the book allows the reader to use it as an actual guide for the selection of an appropriate methodology, on a basis of both theoretical depth and practical implications. The methods and examples illustrate how different methodologies come to life when applied to a specific question in a specific context. Many of the methodologies described are also applicable outside mathematics education, but the examples provided are chosen so as to situate the approach in a mathematical context.

  19. Study of a methodology of identifying important research problems by the PIRT process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takayuki; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Urayama, Ryoichi; Komura, Ichiro; Furukawa, Takashi; Yusa, Noritaka

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new methodology of identifying important research problems to be solved to improve the performance of some specific scientific technologies by the phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) process which has been used as a methodology for demonstrating the validity of the best estimate simulation codes in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) licensing of nuclear power plants. The new methodology makes it possible to identify important factors affecting the performance of the technologies from the viewpoint of the figure of merit and problems associated with them while it keeps the fundamental concepts of the original PIRT process. Also in this paper, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the new methodology by applying it to a task of extracting research problems for improving an inspection accuracy of ultrasonic testing or eddy current testing in the inspection of objects having cracks due to fatigue or stress corrosion cracking. (author)

  20. Collaborative Action Research in the Context of Developmental Work Research: A Methodological Approach for Science Teachers' Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piliouras, Panagiotis; Lathouris, Dimitris; Plakitsi, Katerina; Stylianou, Liana

    2015-01-01

    The paper refers to the theoretical establishment and brief presentation of collaborative action research with the characteristics of "developmental work research" as an effective methodological approach so that science teachers develop themselves professionally. A specific case study is presented, in which we aimed to transform the…

  1. Combining Project-Based Learning and Community-Based Research in a Research Methodology Course: The Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes do Amaral, João Alberto; Lino dos Santos, Rebeca Júlia Rodrigues

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we present our findings regarding the course "Research Methodology," offered to 22 first-year undergraduate students studying Administration at the Federal University of São Paulo, Osasco, Brazil. The course, which combined community-based research and project-based learning, was developed during the second semester of…

  2. Report of radioactivity survey research in fiscal year 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    In the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, as a part of the radioactivity survey and research of Science and Technology Agency, the survey of environmental radioactivity level due to the radioactive fallout accompanying nuclear explosion experiments and the radioactive substances released from nuclear facilities and others and the safety analysis of these have been carried out. The radioactivity and dose survey for environment, foods and human bodies, the survey of the level around nuclear facilities, the business of radioactivity data center, the basic investigation for the evaluation of the results of radioactivity survey, the training of environmental radiation monitoring technicians and the investigation and research of the measurement of emergency radiation exposure and countermeasures were carried out. Those results are summarized. (K.I.)

  3. Mathematics without boundaries surveys in interdisciplinary research

    CERN Document Server

    Rassias, Themistocles

    2014-01-01

    This volume consists of chapters written by eminent scientists and engineers from the international community and presents significant advances in several theories, and applications of an interdisciplinary research. These contributions focus on both old and recent developments of Global Optimization Theory, Convex Analysis, Calculus of Variations, and Discrete Mathematics and Geometry, as well as several applications to a large variety of concrete problems, including  applications of computers  to the study of smoothness and analyticity of functions, applications to epidemiological diffusion, networks, mathematical models of elastic and piezoelectric fields, optimal algorithms, stability of neutral type vector functional differential equations, sampling and rational interpolation for non-band-limited signals, recurrent neural network for convex optimization problems, and experimental design.  The book also contains some review works, which could prove particularly useful for a broader audience of readers i...

  4. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Solar Energy Research Institute, Golden, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-10-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings of the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), conducted December 14 through 18, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. The team includes outside experts supplied by private contractors. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with SERI. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SERI, and interviews with site personnel. 33 refs., 22 figs., 21 tabs.

  5. Phenomenology as a potential methodology for subjective knowing in science education research

    OpenAIRE

    Koopman, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    This paper charts the journey that led to the author's discovery of phenomenology as a potential research methodology in the field of science education, and describes the impact on his own thinking and approach of his encounters with the work of Husserl and Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty and Van Manen. Drawing on this theoretical framework, the author argues that, as a methodology for investigating scientific thinking in relation to life experience, learning and curriculum design, phenomenology not...

  6. Innovation and Integrity in Intervention Research: Conceptual Issues, Methodology, and Knowledge Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Beelmann, Andreas; Noam, Gil G; Sommer, Simon

    2018-04-01

    In this article, we introduce the special issue entitled Innovation and Integrity in Intervention Science. Its focus is on essential problems and prospects for intervention research examining two related topics, i.e., methodological issues and research integrity, and challenges in the transfer of research knowledge into practice and policy. The main aims are to identify how to advance methodology in order to improve research quality, examine scientific integrity in the field of intervention science, and discuss future steps to enhance the transfer of knowledge about evidence-based intervention principles into sustained practice, routine activities, and policy decisions. Themes of the special issue are twofold. The first includes questions about research methodology in intervention science, both in terms of research design and methods, as well as data analyses and the reporting of findings. Second, the issue tackles questions surrounding the types of knowledge translation frameworks that might be beneficial to mobilize the transfer of research-based knowledge into practice and public policies. The issue argues that innovations in methodology and thoughtful approaches to knowledge translation can enable transparency, quality, and sustainability of intervention research.

  7. An Empirical Review of Research Methodologies and Methods in Creativity Studies (2003-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Haiying

    2014-01-01

    Based on the data collected from 5 prestigious creativity journals, research methodologies and methods of 612 empirical studies on creativity, published between 2003 and 2012, were reviewed and compared to those in gifted education. Major findings included: (a) Creativity research was predominantly quantitative and psychometrics and experiment…

  8. Beyond "on" or "with": Questioning Power Dynamics and Knowledge Production in "Child-Oriented" Research Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunleth, Jean

    2011-01-01

    By taking a reflexive approach to research methodology, this article contributes to discussions on power dynamics and knowledge production in the social studies of children. The author describes and analyzes three research methods that she used with children--drawing, child-led tape-recording and focus group discussions. These methods were carried…

  9. The Methodological Underdog: A Review of Quantitative Research in the Key Adult Education Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeren, Ellen

    2018-01-01

    An examination of articles published in leading adult education journals demonstrates that qualitative research dominates. To better understand this situation, a review of journal articles reporting on quantitative research has been undertaken by the author of this article. Differences in methodological strengths and weaknesses between…

  10. Methodological progress and substantial insights in the field of internet research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faulbaum, F.; Matzat, U.; Deutschmann, M.

    2006-01-01

    We are pleased to present the first issue of the International Journal of Internet Science (IJIS). As the mission statement indicates the journal is intended to cover two kinds of related research. On the one hand it presents methodological research that shows how the Internet can be used as a tool

  11. Towards a Critical Health Equity Research Stance: Why Epistemology and Methodology Matter More than Qualitative Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowleg, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Qualitative methods are not intrinsically progressive. Methods are simply tools to conduct research. Epistemology, the justification of knowledge, shapes methodology and methods, and thus is a vital starting point for a critical health equity research stance, regardless of whether the methods are qualitative, quantitative, or mixed. In line with…

  12. Conceptual issues of research methodology for the behavioural, life and social sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mellenbergh, G.J.; Adèr, H.J.; Baird, D.; Berger, M.P.F.; Cornell, J.E.; Hagenaars, J.A.P.; Molenaar, P.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Research methodology (RM) must be clearly separated from substantive fields, such as medicine, psychology, education, sociology and economics, and, on the other side, from the philosophy of science and statistics. RM starts from substantive research problems and uses statistical knowledge, but it

  13. A food quality management research methodology integrating technological and managerial theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, P.A.; Marcelis, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article it is argued how the complexity of food quality management combined with the high requirements on food quality requires a specific research methodology. It is concluded that food quality management research has to deal with two quite different paradigms, the one from technological

  14. Teaching Research Methodology Using a Project-Based Three Course Sequence Critical Reflections on Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braguglia, Kay H.; Jackson, Kanata A.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a reflective analysis of teaching research methodology through a three course sequence using a project-based approach. The authors reflect critically on their experiences in teaching research methods courses in an undergraduate business management program. The introduction of a range of specific techniques including student…

  15. Prejudice and Racism, Year 2008--Still Going Strong: Research on Reducing Prejudice with Recommended Methodological Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsey, Shawn O.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Porter, Jerlym S.

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the origins, mechanisms, and expressions of prejudice. A selective review of research finds strong support for the validity of G. W. Allport's (1954) contact hypothesis conditions in reducing prejudice. Methodological advances in the study of prejudice are reviewed, and implications of research findings for counselors are…

  16. A role-play approach for teaching research methodology in construction management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, Andreas; Doree, Andries G.; Martin, Ludwig; Dainty, A

    2008-01-01

    Assignments of Construction Management (CM) graduate programmes often require students to carry out research on real-world problems. To prepare students for this task, many CM-programmes contain a research methodology course. However, after taking part in these courses, many students still lack the

  17. The methodology of population surveys of headache prevalence, burden and cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stovner, Lars Jacob; Al Jumah, Mohammed; Birbeck, Gretchen L

    2014-01-01

    The global burden of headache is very large, but knowledge of it is far from complete and needs still to be gathered. Published population-based studies have used variable methodology, which has influenced findings and made comparisons difficult. Among the initiatives of the Global Campaign against...... to include experience and competence in headache epidemiology and/or epidemiology in general and drawn from all six WHO world regions. The recommendations presented are for anyone, of whatever background, with interests in designing, performing, understanding or assessing studies that measure or describe...... the burden of headache in populations. While aimed principally at researchers whose main interests are in the field of headache, they should also be useful, at least in parts, to those who are expert in public health or epidemiology and wish to extend their interest into the field of headache disorders. Most...

  18. Assessing importance and satisfaction judgments of intermodal work commuters with electronic survey methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Recent advances in multivariate methodology provide an opportunity to further the assessment of service offerings in public transportation for work commuting. We offer methodologies that are alternative to direct rating scale and have advantages in t...

  19. Getting the picture and changing the picture: visual methodologies and educational research in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mitchell

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available At the risk of seeming to make exaggerated claims for visual methodologies, what I set out to do is lay bare some of the key elements of working with the visual as a set of methodologies and practices. In particular, I address educational research in South Africa at a time when questions of the social responsibility of the academic researcher (including postgraduate students as new researchers, as well as experienced researchers expanding their repertoire of being and doing are critical. In so doing I seek to ensure that the term "visual methodologies" is not simply reduced to one practice or to one set of tools, and, at the same time, to ensure that this set of methodologies and practices is appreciated within its full complexity. I focus on the doing, and, in particular, on the various approaches to doing through drawings, photo-voice, photo-elicitation, researcher as photographer, working with family photos, cinematic texts, video production, material culture, advertising campaigns as nine key areas within visual methodologies.

  20. Alcohol- and Drug-Involved Driving in the United States: Methodology for the 2007 National Roadside Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, John H.; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Voas, Robert B.; Romano, Eduardo; Furr-Holden, C. Debra; Torres, Pedro; Berning, Amy

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the methodology used in the 2007 U.S. National Roadside Survey to estimate the prevalence of alcohol- and drug-impaired driving and alcohol- and drug-involved driving. This study involved randomly stopping drivers at 300 locations across the 48 continental U.S. states at sites selected through a stratified random sampling…

  1. Postgraduate research methodological flaws detected at final examination stage: Who is to blame?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aceme Nyika

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of globalisation, most universities are intensifying efforts to improve their overall performance in order to attract students and enhance chances of securing competitive funding from various sources. As part of these efforts, universities are striving to ensure that their postgraduate programmes meet nationally and internationally acceptable standards. Research projects conducted by students form a critical component of most postgraduate programmes and universities have put in place procedures meant to ensure that postgraduate research meets acceptable minimum standards. The procedures include setting minimum entry educational qualifications, supervision by qualified members of university academic staff, institutional evaluation of research proposals before the proposed research is embarked on, submission of progress reports by postgraduate students during the course of their programmes, and final examination of students theses, dissertations or research reports by internal as well as external examiners. In some instances, the examiners recommend outright rejection of the student's write-up if they consider the methodology used to be inappropriate to answer research questions of the project conducted. The implications of research methodological shortcomings which are identified at the final examination stage, even if the research proposals were evaluated and approved by appropriate university structures before commencement of the research projects, are discussed. As postgraduate programmes are meant to nurture a competent and resourceful workforce and future researchers, universities need to pay attention to the issue of research methodology and internal evaluation systems in order to minimise chances of compromising the quality of their postgraduate degree programmes.

  2. Methodological issues and research recommendations for prognosis after mild traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristman, Vicki L; Borg, Jörgen; Godbolt, Alison K

    2014-01-01

    methodological concerns and knowledge gaps in the literature. Here we report and make recommendations on how to avoid methodological flaws found in prognostic studies of MTBI. Additionally, we discuss issues of MTBI definition and identify topic areas in need of further research to advance the understanding......, Prevention, Management and Rehabilitation Task Force on the prognosis of MTBI. Of 299 relevant studies, 101 were accepted as scientifically admissible. The methodological quality of the research literature on MTBI prognosis has not improved since the 2002 Task Force report. There are still many...... of prognosis after MTBI. Priority research areas include but are not limited to the use of confirmatory designs, studies of measurement validity, focus on the elderly, attention to litigation/compensation issues, the development of validated clinical prediction rules, the use of MTBI populations other than...

  3. Future buildings Forum-2025: Toward a methodology for future buildings research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, R.S.

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore methods that could be used in studying buildings of the future. The methodology that the forum will develop will have a number of likely applications, among them: the development of research agendas for new building energy technologies; the development of information and analytical capabilities usable by other IEA annexes to address their technology assessment needs; and the generation of information that can serve as input to global energy models designed to inform energy policy decisions. This paper is divided into two major sections. The first is an overview of existing methods of futures research. Terms and concepts are explained, providing the basis for the second section. The second section proposes a framework and general methodology for studying future buildings. This preliminary, or strawman, methodology is intended to provoke early thinking and discussions on how the research should be approached. 24 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Assessing the quantified impact of a hybrid POGIL methodology on student averages in a forensic science survey course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Tyna L.

    A causal-comparative/quasi experimental study examined the effect of incorporating a hybrid teaching methodology that blended lecture with Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Lessons (POGILs) on the overall academic achievement of a diverse student body in a large lecture setting. Additional considerations included student gender, ethnicity, declared major (STEM or non-STEM), and SAT scores. An evaluation of the effect that these characteristics had on student achievement due to differentiating import placed on the use of POGILs as a learning tool was included. This study used data obtained from a longitudinal examination of eight years of student data from an introductory forensic science survey course offered in a R1 northeastern university. This study addressed the effectiveness of applying a proscribed active learning methodology, one proposed effective in collegiate education, to a new environment, forensic science. The methodology employed combined fourteen POGILs, created specifically for the chosen course, with didactic lecture during the entire semester of a forensic science survey course. This quasi-experimental design used the manipulation of the independent variable, the use of a hybrid lecture instead of exclusive use of traditional didactic lectures, on the students' academic achievement on exams given during the course. Participants in this study (N=1436) were undergraduate students enrolled in the single semester introductory science course. A longitudinal study that incorporated eight years of data was completed, 4 years pre-intervention (2007-2010) and 4 years post-intervention (2011-2014). The forensic science survey course, taught by only one professor during the eight-year period, was a science discipline that had yet to integrate an active learning educational model. Findings indicate four variables significantly contributed to explaining nearly 28% of the variation seen in the student class averages earned during the eight-year period: the

  5. Application of quality improvement analytic methodology in emergency medicine research: A comparative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Bruce; Filiatrault, Lyne; Abu-Laban, Riyad B

    2018-05-30

    Quality improvement (QI) analytic methodology is rarely encountered in the emergency medicine literature. We sought to comparatively apply QI design and analysis techniques to an existing data set, and discuss these techniques as an alternative to standard research methodology for evaluating a change in a process of care. We used data from a previously published randomized controlled trial on triage-nurse initiated radiography using the Ottawa ankle rules (OAR). QI analytic tools were applied to the data set from this study and evaluated comparatively against the original standard research methodology. The original study concluded that triage nurse-initiated radiographs led to a statistically significant decrease in mean emergency department length of stay. Using QI analytic methodology, we applied control charts and interpreted the results using established methods that preserved the time sequence of the data. This analysis found a compelling signal of a positive treatment effect that would have been identified after the enrolment of 58% of the original study sample, and in the 6th month of this 11-month study. Our comparative analysis demonstrates some of the potential benefits of QI analytic methodology. We found that had this approach been used in the original study, insights regarding the benefits of nurse-initiated radiography using the OAR would have been achieved earlier, and thus potentially at a lower cost. In situations where the overarching aim is to accelerate implementation of practice improvement to benefit future patients, we believe that increased consideration should be given to the use of QI analytic methodology.

  6. Research Use in Education: An Online Survey of School Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysenko, Larysa V.; Abrami, Philip C.; Bernard, Robert M.; Dagenais, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a pan-Canadian online survey study that investigates the extent to which school practitioners (N = 1,153) use research to inform their practice. The self-reports indicate that the majority of the respondents used educational research, yet this engagement was infrequent. Although the respondents shared neutral…

  7. Hydroclimatic variability and predictability: a survey of recent research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Koster

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent research in large-scale hydroclimatic variability is surveyed, focusing on five topics: (i variability in general, (ii droughts, (iii floods, (iv land–atmosphere coupling, and (v hydroclimatic prediction. Each surveyed topic is supplemented by illustrative examples of recent research, as presented at a 2016 symposium honoring the career of Professor Eric Wood. Taken together, the recent literature and the illustrative examples clearly show that current research into hydroclimatic variability is strong, vibrant, and multifaceted.

  8. The methodology of population surveys of headache prevalence, burden and cost: Principles and recommendations from the Global Campaign against Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The global burden of headache is very large, but knowledge of it is far from complete and needs still to be gathered. Published population-based studies have used variable methodology, which has influenced findings and made comparisons difficult. Among the initiatives of the Global Campaign against Headache to improve and standardize methods in use for cross-sectional studies, the most important is the production of consensus-based methodological guidelines. This report describes the development of detailed principles and recommendations. For this purpose we brought together an expert consensus group to include experience and competence in headache epidemiology and/or epidemiology in general and drawn from all six WHO world regions. The recommendations presented are for anyone, of whatever background, with interests in designing, performing, understanding or assessing studies that measure or describe the burden of headache in populations. While aimed principally at researchers whose main interests are in the field of headache, they should also be useful, at least in parts, to those who are expert in public health or epidemiology and wish to extend their interest into the field of headache disorders. Most of all, these recommendations seek to encourage collaborations between specialists in headache disorders and epidemiologists. The focus is on migraine, tension-type headache and medication-overuse headache, but they are not intended to be exclusive to these. The burdens arising from secondary headaches are, in the majority of cases, more correctly attributed to the underlying disorders. Nevertheless, the principles outlined here are relevant for epidemiological studies on secondary headaches, provided that adequate definitions can be not only given but also applied in questionnaires or other survey instruments. PMID:24467862

  9. Developing a methodology to assess the impact of research grant funding: a mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Carter; Sørensen, Mads P; Graversen, Ebbe K; Schneider, Jesper W; Schmidt, Evanthia Kalpazidou; Aagaard, Kaare; Mejlgaard, Niels

    2014-04-01

    This paper discusses the development of a mixed methods approach to analyse research funding. Research policy has taken on an increasingly prominent role in the broader political scene, where research is seen as a critical factor in maintaining and improving growth, welfare and international competitiveness. This has motivated growing emphasis on the impacts of science funding, and how funding can best be designed to promote socio-economic progress. Meeting these demands for impact assessment involves a number of complex issues that are difficult to fully address in a single study or in the design of a single methodology. However, they point to some general principles that can be explored in methodological design. We draw on a recent evaluation of the impacts of research grant funding, discussing both key issues in developing a methodology for the analysis and subsequent results. The case of research grant funding, involving a complex mix of direct and intermediate effects that contribute to the overall impact of funding on research performance, illustrates the value of a mixed methods approach to provide a more robust and complete analysis of policy impacts. Reflections on the strengths and weaknesses of the methodology are used to examine refinements for future work. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of Haddon’s matrix in qualitative research methodology: an experience in burns epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deljavan R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Reza Deljavan,1 Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazarganim,2,3 Nasrin Fouladim,4 Shahnam Arshi,5 Reza Mohammadi61Injury Epidemiology and Prevention Research Center, 2Neuroscience Research Center, Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 3Public Health Department, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; 4Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran; 5Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 6Public Health Department, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, SwedenBackground: Little has been done to investigate the application of injury specific qualitative research methods in the field of burn injuries. The aim of this study was to use an analytical tool (Haddon’s matrix through qualitative research methods to better understand people’s perceptions about burn injuries.Methods: This study applied Haddon’s matrix as a framework and an analytical tool for a qualitative research methodology in burn research. Both child and adult burn injury victims were enrolled into a qualitative study conducted using focus group discussion. Haddon’s matrix was used to develop an interview guide and also through the analysis phase.Results: The main analysis clusters were pre-event level/human (including risky behaviors, belief and cultural factors, and knowledge and education, pre-event level/object, pre-event phase/environment and event and post-event phase (including fire control, emergency scald and burn wound management, traditional remedies, medical consultation, and severity indicators. This research gave rise to results that are possibly useful both for future injury research and for designing burn injury prevention plans.Conclusion: Haddon’s matrix is applicable in a qualitative research methodology both at data collection and data analysis phases. The study using Haddon’s matrix through a qualitative research methodology yielded substantially rich information regarding burn injuries

  11. Methodology in the epidemiological research of respiratory diseases and environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Barquera

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available There are complex and diverse methodological problems involved in the clinical and epidemiological study of respiratory diseases and their etiological factors. The association of urban growth, industrialization and environmental deterioration with respiratory diseases makes it necessary to pay more attention to this research area with a multidisciplinary approach. Appropriate study designs and statistical techniques to analyze and improve our understanding of the pathological events and their causes must be implemented to reduce the growing morbidity and mortality through better preventive actions and health programs. The objective of the article is to review the most common methodological problems in this research area and to present the most available statistical tools used.

  12. Methodology in the epidemiological research of respiratory diseases and environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barquera Simón

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There are complex and diverse methodological problems involved in the clinical and epidemiological study of respiratory diseases and their etiological factors. The association of urban growth, industrialization and environmental deterioration with respiratory diseases makes it necessary to pay more attention to this research area with a multidisciplinary approach. Appropriate study designs and statistical techniques to analyze and improve our understanding of the pathological events and their causes must be implemented to reduce the growing morbidity and mortality through better preventive actions and health programs. The objective of the article is to review the most common methodological problems in this research area and to present the most available statistical tools used.

  13. Can methodological requirements be fulfilled when studying concealed or unethical research objects? The case of astroturfing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie BOULAY

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Scientific soundness is key in the development of research designs. Methodological choices bear the responsibility to demonstrate its obtainment. However, it is challenging to abide by these standards while dealing with hidden, masked or unethical objects. In this article, we share the various strategies employed to aim at a sound scientific process in spite of astroturfing’s characteristics and of the methodological orientations it dictates. Facing the dilemma between the importance of scientific value and the richness of inductive and exploratory approaches, we question the influence of positivist research standards in communication studies. We fear these requirements may limit their development.

  14. Mobile Technology Use by People Experiencing Multiple Sclerosis Fatigue: Survey Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kessel, Kirsten; Babbage, Duncan R; Reay, Nicholas; Miner-Williams, Warren M; Kersten, Paula

    2017-02-28

    Fatigue is one of the most commonly reported symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS). It has a profound impact on all spheres of life, for people with MS and their relatives. It is one of the key precipitants of early retirement. Individual, group, and Internet cognitive behavioral therapy-based approaches to supporting people with MS to manage their fatigue have been shown to be effective. The aim of this project was to (1) survey the types of mobile devices and level of Internet access people with MS use or would consider using for a health intervention and (2) characterize the levels of fatigue severity and their impact experienced by the people in our sample to provide an estimate of fatigue severity of people with MS in New Zealand. The ultimate goal of this work was to support the future development of a mobile intervention for the management of fatigue for people with MS. Survey methodology using an online questionnaire was used to assess people with MS. A total of 51 people with MS participated. The average age was 48.5 years, and the large majority of the sample (77%) was female. Participants reported significant levels of fatigue as measured with the summary score of the Neurological Fatigue Index (mean 31.4 [SD 5.3]). Most (84%) respondents scored on average more than 3 on the fatigue severity questions, reflecting significant fatigue. Mobile phone usage was high with 86% of respondents reporting having a mobile phone; apps were used by 75% of respondents. Most participants (92%) accessed the Internet from home. New Zealand respondents with MS experienced high levels of both fatigue severity and fatigue impact. The majority of participants have a mobile device and access to the Internet. These findings, along with limited access to face-to-face cognitive behavioral therapy-based interventions, create an opportunity to develop a mobile technology platform for delivering a cognitive behavioral therapy-based intervention to decrease the severity and impact of

  15. Disordered Gambling Prevalence: Methodological Innovations in a General Danish Population Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Glenn W; Jessen, Lasse J; Lau, Morten I; Ross, Don

    2018-03-01

    We study Danish adult gambling behavior with an emphasis on discovering patterns relevant to public health forecasting and economic welfare assessment of policy. Methodological innovations include measurement of formative in addition to reflective constructs, estimation of prospective risk for developing gambling disorder rather than risk of being falsely negatively diagnosed, analysis with attention to sample weights and correction for sample selection bias, estimation of the impact of trigger questions on prevalence estimates and sample characteristics, and distinguishing between total and marginal effects of risk-indicating factors. The most significant novelty in our design is that nobody was excluded on the basis of their response to a 'trigger' or 'gateway' question about previous gambling history. Our sample consists of 8405 adult Danes. We administered the Focal Adult Gambling Screen to all subjects and estimate prospective risk for disordered gambling. We find that 87.6% of the population is indicated for no detectable risk, 5.4% is indicated for early risk, 1.7% is indicated for intermediate risk, 2.6% is indicated for advanced risk, and 2.6% is indicated for disordered gambling. Correcting for sample weights and controlling for sample selection has a significant effect on prevalence rates. Although these estimates of the 'at risk' fraction of the population are significantly higher than conventionally reported, we infer a significant decrease in overall prevalence rates of detectable risk with these corrections, since gambling behavior is positively correlated with the decision to participate in gambling surveys. We also find that imposing a threshold gambling history leads to underestimation of the prevalence of gambling problems.

  16. Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey: Methodology and Estimated Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Urinary Arsenic Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin B. Harris

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey (BAsES was designed to evaluate probable arsenic exposures in selected areas of southern Arizona and northern Mexico, two regions with known elevated levels of arsenic in groundwater reserves. This paper describes the methodology of BAsES and the relationship between estimated arsenic intake from beverages and arsenic output in urine. Households from eight communities were selected for their varying groundwater arsenic concentrations in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. Adults responded to questionnaires and provided dietary information. A first morning urine void and water from all household drinking sources were collected. Associations between urinary arsenic concentration (total, organic, inorganic and estimated level of arsenic consumed from water and other beverages were evaluated through crude associations and by random effects models. Median estimated total arsenic intake from beverages among participants from Arizona communities ranged from 1.7 to 14.1 µg/day compared to 0.6 to 3.4 µg/day among those from Mexico communities. In contrast, median urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations were greatest among participants from Hermosillo, Mexico (6.2 µg/L whereas a high of 2.0 µg/L was found among participants from Ajo, Arizona. Estimated arsenic intake from drinking water was associated with urinary total arsenic concentration (p < 0.001, urinary inorganic arsenic concentration (p < 0.001, and urinary sum of species (p < 0.001. Urinary arsenic concentrations increased between 7% and 12% for each one percent increase in arsenic consumed from drinking water. Variability in arsenic intake from beverages and urinary arsenic output yielded counter intuitive results. Estimated intake of arsenic from all beverages was greatest among Arizonans yet participants in Mexico had higher urinary total and inorganic arsenic concentrations. Other contributors to urinary arsenic concentrations should be evaluated.

  17. Researching the impact of oral health on diet and nutritional status: methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Paula; Thomason, Mark; Walls, Angus; Gray-Donald, Katherine; Morais, Jose A; Ghanem, Henry; Wollin, Stephanie; Ellis, Janice; Steele, Jimmy; Lund, James; Feine, Jocelyne

    2009-04-01

    Assessment of the impact of dental function on diet and nutritional status requires robust methodologies and a standardised approach to increase accuracy of results and to facilitate cross study comparisons. The objectives of this paper are: to report the outcomes of a consensus workshop that critically reviewed publications reporting on dietary methodologies in relation to the impact of oral health on nutrition; to highlight future directions for research and; to make recommendations for appropriate use of methodologies for future research. Data relevant to nutrition and dental status published from 1980 to 2005 in English were presented at the consensus workshop for discussion and appraisal. Relevant papers were retrieved through PubMed. Relevant texts were obtained from the library at Newcastle University, UK. A purposive sample of original articles that illustrated the application of a range of nutritional methodologies to the study of oral health impacts was identified. Original flagship texts on nutritional methodologies were reviewed. Numerous studies have shown an association between loss of teeth and inferior diet. Further research is required to elucidate the impact of novel approaches to prosthetic rehabilitation and the impact of contemporaneous dietary and dental intervention on diet, nutritional status, disease progression and quality of life. The recommendation of the consensus workshop was that future studies should adopt a comprehensive approach to the assessment of nutrition that encompasses measurement of diet, body composition, biochemical indices of intake and levels of nutrients, and functional biomarkers of disease.

  18. A PART OF RESEARCH METHODOLOGY COURSE: Introduction to the Research Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim, Nader Ale

    2016-01-01

    Research Tools” can be defined as vehicles that broadly facilitate research and related activities. “Research Tools” enable researchers to collect, organize, analyze, visualize and publicized research  outputs. Dr. Nader has collected over 800 tools that enable students to follow the correct path in research and to ultimately produce high-quality research outputs with more accuracy and efficiency. It is assembled as an interactive Web-based mind map, titled “Research Tools”, which is updated...

  19. Introduction to the “Research Tools” for Research Methodology course

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim, Nader Ale

    2016-01-01

    Research Tools” can be defined as vehicles that broadly facilitate research and related activities. “Research Tools” enable researchers to collect, organize, analyze, visualize and publicized research  outputs. Dr. Nader has collected over 800 tools that enable students to follow the correct path in research and to ultimately produce high-quality research outputs with more accuracy and efficiency. It is assembled as an interactive Web-based mind map, titled “Research Tools”, which is updated...

  20. Designing and conducting survey research a comprehensive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Rea, Louis M

    2014-01-01

    The industry standard guide, updated with new ideas and SPSS analysis techniques Designing and Conducting Survey Research: A Comprehensive Guide Fourth Edition is the industry standard resource that covers all major components of the survey process, updated to include new data analysis techniques and SPSS procedures with sample data sets online. The book offers practical, actionable guidance on constructing the instrument, administrating the process, and analyzing and reporting the results, providing extensive examples and worksheets that demonstrate the appropriate use of survey and data tech

  1. Towards a Critical Health Equity Research Stance: Why Epistemology and Methodology Matter More Than Qualitative Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowleg, Lisa

    2017-10-01

    Qualitative methods are not intrinsically progressive. Methods are simply tools to conduct research. Epistemology, the justification of knowledge, shapes methodology and methods, and thus is a vital starting point for a critical health equity research stance, regardless of whether the methods are qualitative, quantitative, or mixed. In line with this premise, I address four themes in this commentary. First, I criticize the ubiquitous and uncritical use of the term health disparities in U.S. public health. Next, I advocate for the increased use of qualitative methodologies-namely, photovoice and critical ethnography-that, pursuant to critical approaches, prioritize dismantling social-structural inequities as a prerequisite to health equity. Thereafter, I discuss epistemological stance and its influence on all aspects of the research process. Finally, I highlight my critical discourse analysis HIV prevention research based on individual interviews and focus groups with Black men, as an example of a critical health equity research approach.

  2. On the Dichotomy of Qualitative and Quantitative Researches in Contemporary Scientific Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U V Suvakovic

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Argumentation in favor of overcoming the long-ago-established dichotomy of qualitative and quantitative scientific research is presented in the article. Proceeding from the view of materialistic dialecticians that every scientific research must deal with a subject, the author assumes that it is impossible to conduct a quantitative research without first establishing the quality to be studied. This also concerns measuring, which is referred only to quantitative procedures in literature. By way of illustration, the author designs two instruments for measuring the successfulness of political parties - the scale and the quotient of party successfulness. On the other hand, even the qualitative analysis usually involves certain quantifications. The author concludes that to achieve methodological correctness the existing dichotomy of qualitative and quantitative research should be considered as overcome and a typology of scientific research including predominantly qualitative and predominantly quantitative studies, depending on the methodological components prevailing in them, should be used.

  3. A Methodology for Conducting Integrative Mixed Methods Research and Data Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Felipe González; Kellison, Joshua G.; Boyd, Stephen J.; Kopak, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Mixed methods research has gained visibility within the last few years, although limitations persist regarding the scientific caliber of certain mixed methods research designs and methods. The need exists for rigorous mixed methods designs that integrate various data analytic procedures for a seamless transfer of evidence across qualitative and quantitative modalities. Such designs can offer the strength of confirmatory results drawn from quantitative multivariate analyses, along with “deep structure” explanatory descriptions as drawn from qualitative analyses. This article presents evidence generated from over a decade of pilot research in developing an integrative mixed methods methodology. It presents a conceptual framework and methodological and data analytic procedures for conducting mixed methods research studies, and it also presents illustrative examples from the authors' ongoing integrative mixed methods research studies. PMID:22167325

  4. In the middle of the world, aquendar the methodology: notes for queering curriculum research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Ranniery Moreira de Oliveira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how the condition of queer critique not only reflects in the sphere of social exchange, but it can acquire methodological dimensions to the extent that allows reapply to the investigative positions and the paths of curriculum research ironic and jocular style redefinition of the queer insult. The explored argument is that the queer critique allows to question the normative naturalization of research procedures into the curriculum as those contained in the formulas that tend to oppose researcher/researched, realism/fiction, coherence/multiplicity. From the perspective of taking queer as a heterogeneous reading, this text explores how four notes, combinations, wanderings, affectations and fertilizations, translate what happens when queering research methodology. Movements that can be seen as wandering experiments in relation to the paradigm of queer critique in Education and curriculum.

  5. Theory and research in audiology education: understanding and representing complexity through informed methodological decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Stella L

    2013-05-01

    The discipline of audiology has the opportunity to embark on research in education from an informed perspective, learning from professions that began this journey decades ago. The goal of this article is to position our discipline as a new member in the academic field of health professional education (HPE), with much to learn and contribute. In this article, I discuss the need for theory in informing HPE research. I also stress the importance of balancing our research goals by selecting appropriate methodologies for relevant research questions, to ensure that we respect the complexity of social processes inherent in HPE. Examples of relevant research questions are used to illustrate the need to consider alternative methodologies and to rethink the traditional hierarchy of evidence. I also provide an example of the thought processes and decisions that informed the design of an educational research study using a constructivist grounded theory methodology. As audiology enters the scholarly field of HPE, we need to arm ourselves with some of the knowledge and perspective that informs the field. Thus, we need to broaden our conceptions of what we consider to be appropriate styles of academic writing, relevant research questions, and valid evidence. Also, if we are to embark on qualitative inquiry into audiology education (or other audiology topics), we need to ensure that we conduct this research with an adequate understanding of the theories and methodologies informing such approaches. We must strive to conduct high quality, rigorous qualitative research more often than uninformed, generic qualitative research. These goals are imperative to the advancement of the theoretical landscape of audiology education and evolving the place of audiology in the field of HPE. American Academy of Audiology.

  6. [The methodology and sample description of the National Survey on Addiction Problems in Hungary 2015 (NSAPH 2015)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paksi, Borbala; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Magi, Anna; Felvinczi, Katalin

    2017-06-01

    This paper introduces the methods and methodological findings of the National Survey on Addiction Problems in Hungary (NSAPH 2015). Use patterns of smoking, alcohol use and other psychoactive substances were measured as well as that of certain behavioural addictions (problematic gambling - PGSI, DSM-V, eating disorders - SCOFF, problematic internet use - PIUQ, problematic on-line gaming - POGO, problematic social media use - FAS, exercise addictions - EAI-HU, work addiction - BWAS, compulsive buying - CBS). The paper describes the applied measurement techniques, sample selection, recruitment of respondents and the data collection strategy as well. Methodological results of the survey including reliability and validity of the measures are reported. The NSAPH 2015 research was carried out on a nationally representative sample of the Hungarian adult population aged 16-64 yrs (gross sample 2477, net sample 2274 persons) with the age group of 18-34 being overrepresented. Statistical analysis of the weight-distribution suggests that weighting did not create any artificial distortion in the database leaving the representativeness of the sample unaffected. The size of the weighted sample of the 18-64 years old adult population is 1490 persons. The extent of the theoretical margin of error in the weighted sample is ±2,5%, at a reliability level of 95% which is in line with the original data collection plans. Based on the analysis of reliability and the extent of errors beyond sampling within the context of the database we conclude that inconsistencies create relatively minor distortions in cumulative prevalence rates; consequently the database makes possible the reliable estimation of risk factors related to different substance use behaviours. The reliability indexes of measurements used for prevalence estimates of behavioural addictions proved to be appropriate, though the psychometric features in some cases suggest the presence of redundant items. The comparison of

  7. A survey of etiologic hypotheses among testicular cancer researchers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, A; Trabert, B; Rusner, C

    2015-01-01

    Basic research results can provide new ideas and hypotheses to be examined in epidemiological studies. We conducted a survey among testicular cancer researchers on hypotheses concerning the etiology of this malignancy. All researchers on the mailing list of Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshops...... and corresponding authors of PubMed-indexed articles identified by the search term 'testicular cancer' and published within 10 years (in total 2750 recipients) were invited to respond to an e-mail-based survey. Participants of the 8th Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshop in May 2014 were subsequently asked to rate...... that scored as most plausible. We also present plans for improving the survey that may be repeated at a next international meeting of experts in testicular cancer. Overall 52 of 99 (53%) registered participants of the 8th Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshop submitted the plausibility rating form. Fourteen of 27...

  8. Methodological aspects of language processing research with adults and children : Reading research and the Visual World Paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cozijn, Rein

    2012-01-01

    Research on language comprehension has benefited greatly from the use of eye-tracking methodology. However, the technique is not easy to use. In particular, the creation of (auditory and visual) stimuli and the analysis of eye-movement data are difficult and laborious. The presentation will deal

  9. A survey of research programs in radiation protection in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    A survey of research programs in Canada concerned with radiation protection was conducted in 1991-92 by the Joint Subcommittee on Regulatory Research (JSCRR) of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) Advisory Committees on Radiological Protection and on Nuclear Safety. The purpose of this survey was to determine the current state of funding for this type of research in Canada. Funding for health-related radiation research in Canada is critical to establishing and maintaining a supply of trained professionals who can provide competent advice on health-related problems in radiation protection. The present report is an analysis of the information received in this survey. This survey concludes with the recommendation that the organization and definition of subprograms for the AECB Regulatory Research and Support Program should be completed as soon as possible. In this report the JSCRR should assist AECB staff in preparing a report in which priorities for research related to radiation protection are indicated. The sources of information noted at the end of the Discussion section of this report should be considered for this purpose. (author). 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  10. A survey of research programs in radiation protection in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    A survey of research programs in Canada concerned with radiation protection was conducted in 1991-92 by the Joint Subcommittee on Regulatory Research (JSCRR) of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) Advisory Committees on Radiological Protection and on Nuclear Safety. The purpose of this survey was to determine the current state of funding for this type of research in Canada. Funding for health-related radiation research in Canada is critical to establishing and maintaining a supply of trained professionals who can provide competent advice on health-related problems in radiation protection. The present report is an analysis of the information received in this survey. This survey concludes with the recommendation that the organization and definition of subprograms for the AECB Regulatory Research and Support Program should be completed as soon as possible. In this report the JSCRR should assist AECB staff in preparing a report in which priorities for research related to radiation protection are indicated. The sources of information noted at the end of the Discussion section of this report should be considered for this purpose. (author). 15 refs., 3 tabs

  11. Report of radioactivity survey research in fiscal year 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    The National Institute of Radiological Sciences has been surveyed, as part of the radioactivity research project by the Science and Technology Agency, radioactivity levels in the environment and safety analysis for radioactive fallouts associated with nuclear weapons tests since 1959 and effluents from nuclear installations. With a remarkable advent of the peaceful applications of radionuclides, radioactivity in the environment has been becoming a matter of concern for the population in Japan. Radioactivity research is considered to become more important because it may provide clues for the basis of its influences upon the human body and environment. This report gives a survey of the radioactivity research project performed in the fiscal year 1988. The following topics are covered: (1) radioactivity levels and dosimetry in the environment, foods, and human body; (2) radioactivity levels surrounding nuclear installations; (3) services in the Radioactivity Survey Data Center; (4) basic survey of evaluation for the results of radioactivity levels; (5) training of technichians for monitoring environmental radioactivity; and (6) survey research for dosimetry and countermeasures at emergency. (N.K.)

  12. Searching for qualitative research for inclusion in systematic reviews: a structured methodological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Andrew

    2016-05-04

    Qualitative systematic reviews or qualitative evidence syntheses (QES) are increasingly recognised as a way to enhance the value of systematic reviews (SRs) of clinical trials. They can explain the mechanisms by which interventions, evaluated within trials, might achieve their effect. They can investigate differences in effects between different population groups. They can identify which outcomes are most important to patients, carers, health professionals and other stakeholders. QES can explore the impact of acceptance, feasibility, meaningfulness and implementation-related factors within a real world setting and thus contribute to the design and further refinement of future interventions. To produce valid, reliable and meaningful QES requires systematic identification of relevant qualitative evidence. Although the methodologies of QES, including methods for information retrieval, are well-documented, little empirical evidence exists to inform their conduct and reporting. This structured methodological overview examines papers on searching for qualitative research identified from the Cochrane Qualitative and Implementation Methods Group Methodology Register and from citation searches of 15 key papers. A single reviewer reviewed 1299 references. Papers reporting methodological guidance, use of innovative methodologies or empirical studies of retrieval methods were categorised under eight topical headings: overviews and methodological guidance, sampling, sources, structured questions, search procedures, search strategies and filters, supplementary strategies and standards. This structured overview presents a contemporaneous view of information retrieval for qualitative research and identifies a future research agenda. This review concludes that poor empirical evidence underpins current information practice in information retrieval of qualitative research. A trend towards improved transparency of search methods and further evaluation of key search procedures offers

  13. Methodological Reporting in Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Health Services Research Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisdom, Jennifer P; Cavaleri, Mary A; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J; Green, Carla A

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Methodologically sound mixed methods research can improve our understanding of health services by providing a more comprehensive picture of health services than either method can alone. This study describes the frequency of mixed methods in published health services research and compares the presence of methodological components indicative of rigorous approaches across mixed methods, qualitative, and quantitative articles. Data Sources All empirical articles (n = 1,651) published between 2003 and 2007 from four top-ranked health services journals. Study Design All mixed methods articles (n = 47) and random samples of qualitative and quantitative articles were evaluated to identify reporting of key components indicating rigor for each method, based on accepted standards for evaluating the quality of research reports (e.g., use of p-values in quantitative reports, description of context in qualitative reports, and integration in mixed method reports). We used chi-square tests to evaluate differences between article types for each component. Principal Findings Mixed methods articles comprised 2.85 percent (n = 47) of empirical articles, quantitative articles 90.98 percent (n = 1,502), and qualitative articles 6.18 percent (n = 102). There was a statistically significant difference (χ2(1) = 12.20, p = .0005, Cramer's V = 0.09, odds ratio = 1.49 [95% confidence interval = 1,27, 1.74]) in the proportion of quantitative methodological components present in mixed methods compared to quantitative papers (21.94 versus 47.07 percent, respectively) but no statistically significant difference (χ2(1) = 0.02, p = .89, Cramer's V = 0.01) in the proportion of qualitative methodological components in mixed methods compared to qualitative papers (21.34 versus 25.47 percent, respectively). Conclusion Few published health services research articles use mixed methods. The frequency of key methodological components is variable. Suggestions are provided to increase the

  14. Gresham’s Law of Surveys and Quality Standards in Survey Research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčí, Jindřich

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 8, 7-8 (2010), s. 3-6 ISSN 1214-1720 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA09010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : cross-national comparative research * social survey methods Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography http://www.socioweb.cz/upl/editorial/download/181_pdf%202010%2007%2008.pdf

  15. Critical Race Theory-Social Constructivist Bricolage: A Health-Promoting Schools Research Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyika, Lawrence; Murray-Orr, Anne

    2017-01-01

    While the current literature recognises the capacity of diverse methodologies to provide informative understandings of health-promoting schools (HPS), there is a paucity of examples to show how different research strategies can be used. We address this knowledge gap by examining the significance of a critical race theory-social constructivist…

  16. Context Based Inferences in Research Methodology: The Role of Culture in Justifying Knowledge Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Colin W.; Mason, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on work in epistemology and the philosophy of science, this paper seeks to provide very general reasons for why a comparative perspective needs to be applied to the inferential procedures of research methodologies where these concern the issue of justifying knowledge claims. In particular, the paper explores the role of culture on a number…

  17. Qualitative Shadowing as a Research Methodology for Exploring Early Childhood Leadership in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøe, Marit; Hognestad, Karin; Waniganayake, Manjula

    2017-01-01

    This article explores qualitative shadowing as an interpretivist methodology, and explains how two researchers participating simultaneously in data collection using a video recorder, contextual interviews and video-stimulated recall interviews, conducted a qualitative shadowing study at six early childhood centres in Norway. This paper emerged…

  18. Q and you: The application of Q methodology in recreation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney. Ward

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have used various qualitative and quantitative methods to deal with subjectivity in studying people's recreation experiences. Q methodology has been the most effective approach for analyzing both qualitative and quantitative aspects of experience, including attitudes or perceptions. The method is composed of two main components--Q sorting and Q factor...

  19. Snapshots of what, exactly? A comment on methodological experimentation and conceptual foundations in place research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Williams; Michael E. Patterson

    2007-01-01

    Place ideas in natural resource management have grown in recent years. But with that growth have come greater complexity and diversity in thinking and mounting confusion about the ontological and epistemological assumptions underlying any specific investigation. Beckley et al. (2007) contribute to place research by proposing a new methodological approach to analyzing...

  20. "Beyond the commodity metaphor," revisited: Some methodological reflections on place attachment research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Williams

    2014-01-01

    The year 1992 was a watershed for research on place attachment. Not only was the landmark book Place Attachment (Altman & Low, 1992) published, in that same year some colleagues and I published "Beyond the Commodity Metaphor" in the journal Leisure Sciences (Williams et al., 1992). Our paper was not intended as a methodological contribution to place...

  1. Tough Teens: The Methodological Challenges of Interviewing Teenagers as Research Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Raewyn; Beagan, Brenda L.; Ristovski-Slijepcevic, Svetlana; Chapman, Gwen E.

    2008-01-01

    Encouraging a teenager to have a conversation in a semistructured research interview is fraught with difficulties. The authors discuss the methodological challenges encountered when interviewing adolescents of European Canadian, African Canadian, and Punjabi Canadian families who took part in the Family Food Decision-Making Study in two regions of…

  2. A Methodological Review of Structural Equation Modelling in Higher Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Teegan

    2016-01-01

    Despite increases in the number of articles published in higher education journals using structural equation modelling (SEM), research addressing their statistical sufficiency, methodological appropriateness and quantitative rigour is sparse. In response, this article provides a census of all covariance-based SEM articles published up until 2013…

  3. Grounding of Six Sigma s Breakthrough Cookbook: How to research a methodology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, H.; de Mast, J.

    2005-01-01

    The Six Sigma programme has developed into a standard for quality and efficiency improvement in business and industry. This fact makes scientific research into the validity and applicability of this methodology important. This article explores the possibilities of a scientific study of the

  4. To What Extent Does Current Scientific Research and Textbook Content Align? A Methodology and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierema, Andrea M.-K.; Schwartz, Renee S.; Gill, Sharon A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent calls for reform in education recommend science curricula to be based on central ideas instead of a larger number of topics and for alignment between current scientific research and curricula. Because alignment is rarely studied, especially for central ideas, we developed a methodology to discover the extent of alignment between primary…

  5. Coding for Language Complexity: The Interplay among Methodological Commitments, Tools, and Workflow in Writing Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Cheryl

    2018-01-01

    Coding, the analytic task of assigning codes to nonnumeric data, is foundational to writing research. A rich discussion of methodological pluralism has established the foundational importance of systematicity in the task of coding, but less attention has been paid to the equally important commitment to language complexity. Addressing the interplay…

  6. The Meaning of Work among Chinese University Students: Findings from Prototype Research Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sili; Leung, S. Alvin; Li, Xu

    2012-01-01

    This study examined Chinese university students' conceptualization of the meaning of work. One hundred and ninety students (93 male, 97 female) from Beijing, China, participated in the study. Prototype research methodology (J. Li, 2001) was used to explore the meaning of work and the associations among the identified meanings. Cluster analysis was…

  7. Methodological Challenges in Sustainability Science: A Call for Method Plurality, Procedural Rigor and Longitudinal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik von Wehrden

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability science encompasses a unique field that is defined through its purpose, the problem it addresses, and its solution-oriented agenda. However, this orientation creates significant methodological challenges. In this discussion paper, we conceptualize sustainability problems as wicked problems to tease out the key challenges that sustainability science is facing if scientists intend to deliver on its solution-oriented agenda. Building on the available literature, we discuss three aspects that demand increased attention for advancing sustainability science: 1 methods with higher diversity and complementarity are needed to increase the chance of deriving solutions to the unique aspects of wicked problems; for instance, mixed methods approaches are potentially better suited to allow for an approximation of solutions, since they cover wider arrays of knowledge; 2 methodologies capable of dealing with wicked problems demand strict procedural and ethical guidelines, in order to ensure their integration potential; for example, learning from solution implementation in different contexts requires increased comparability between research approaches while carefully addressing issues of legitimacy and credibility; and 3 approaches are needed that allow for longitudinal research, since wicked problems are continuous and solutions can only be diagnosed in retrospect; for example, complex dynamics of wicked problems play out across temporal patterns that are not necessarily aligned with the common timeframe of participatory sustainability research. Taken together, we call for plurality in methodologies, emphasizing procedural rigor and the necessity of continuous research to effectively addressing wicked problems as well as methodological challenges in sustainability science.

  8. [Methodology for clinical research in Orthodontics, the assets of the beOrtho website].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Martial; Thibult, François

    2014-06-01

    The rules applying to the "evidence-based" methodology strongly influenced the clinical research in orthodontics. However, the implementation of clinical studies requires rigour, important statistical and methodological knowledge, as well as a reliable environment in order to compile and store the data obtained from research. We developed the project "beOrtho.com" (based on orthodontic evidence) in order to fill up the gap between our desire to drive clinical research and the necessity of methodological rigour in the exploitation of its results. BeOrtho website was created to answer the issue of sample recruitment, data compilation and storage, while providing help for the methodological design of clinical studies. It allows the development and monitoring of clinical studies, as well as the creation of databases. On the other hand, we designed an evaluation grid for clinical studies which helps developing systematic reviews. In order to illustrate our point, we tested a research protocol evaluating the interest of the mandibular advancement in the framework of Class II treatment. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2014.

  9. Motivating Students for Project-based Learning for Application of Research Methodology Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ranjana; Arya, Raj Kumar; Bansal, Manoj

    2017-12-01

    Project-based learning (PBL) is motivational for students to learn research methodology skills. It is a way to engage and give them ownership over their own learning. The aim of this study is to use PBL for application of research methodology skills for better learning by encouraging an all-inclusive approach in teaching and learning rather than an individualized tailored approach. The present study was carried out for MBBS 6 th - and 7 th -semester students of community medicine. Students and faculties were sensitized about PBL and components of research methodology skills. They worked in small groups. The students were asked to fill the student feedback Questionnaire and the faculty was also asked to fill the faculty feedback Questionnaire. Both the Questionnaires were assessed on a 5 point Likert scale. After submitted projects, document analysis was done. A total of 99 students of the 6 th and 7 th semester were participated in PBL. About 90.91% students agreed that there should be continuation of PBL in subsequent batches. 73.74% felt satisfied and motivated with PBL, whereas 76.77% felt that they would be able to use research methodology in the near future. PBL requires considerable knowledge, effort, persistence, and self-regulation on the part of the students. They need to devise plans, gather information evaluate both the findings, and their approach. Facilitator plays a critical role in helping students in the process by shaping opportunity for learning, guiding students, thinking, and helping them construct new understanding.

  10. Methodological Issues and Practical Strategies in Research on Child Maltreatment Victims' Abilities and Experiences as Witnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Yoojin; Goodman, Gail S.; Bederian-Gardner, Daniel; Lindsay, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Scientific studies of child maltreatment victims' memory abilities and court experiences have important legal, psychological, and clinical implications. However, state-of-the-art research on child witnesses is often hindered by methodological challenges. In this paper, we address specific problems investigators may encounter when attempting such…

  11. Issues in Learning About and Teaching Qualitative Research Methods and Methodology in the Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Breuer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available For many qualitative researchers in the social sciences, learning about and teaching qualitative research methods and methodology raises a number of questions. This topic was the focus of a symposium held during the Second Berlin Summer School for Qualitative Research Methods in July 2006. In this contribution, some of the issues discussed during the symposium are taken up and extended, and some basic dimensions underlying these issues are summarized. How qualitative research methods and methodology are taught is closely linked to the ways in which qualitative researchers in the social sciences conceptualize themselves and their discipline. In the following, we distinguish between a paradigmatic and a pragmatic view. From a pragmatic point of view, qualitative research methods are considered research strategies or techniques and can be taught in the sense of recipes with specific steps to be carried out. According to a paradigmatic point of view (strongly inspired by constructivism, qualitative research methods and methodology are conceptualized as a craft to be practiced together by a "master" and an "apprentice." Moreover, the teaching of qualitative research methods also depends heavily on the institutional standing of qualitative compared to quantitative research method. Based on these considerations, five basic dimensions of learning about and teaching qualitative research methods are suggested: ways of teaching (ranging from the presentation of textbook knowledge to cognitive apprenticeship and instructors' experience with these; institutional contexts, including their development and the teaching of qualitative research methods in other than university contexts; the "fit" between personality and method, including relevant personal skills and talents; and, as a special type of instructional context that increasingly has gained importance, distance learning and its implications for learning about and teaching qualitative research methods

  12. Challenges and Opportunities for Harmonizing Research Methodology: Raw Accelerometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hees, Vincent T; Thaler-Kall, Kathrin; Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik; Brønd, Jan C; Bonomi, Alberto; Schulze, Mareike; Vigl, Matthäus; Morseth, Bente; Hopstock, Laila Arnesdatter; Gorzelniak, Lukas; Schulz, Holger; Brage, Søren; Horsch, Alexander

    2016-12-07

    Raw accelerometry is increasingly being used in physical activity research, but diversity in sensor design, attachment and signal processing challenges the comparability of research results. Therefore, efforts are needed to harmonize the methodology. In this article we reflect on how increased methodological harmonization may be achieved. The authors of this work convened for a two-day workshop (March 2014) themed on methodological harmonization of raw accelerometry. The discussions at the workshop were used as a basis for this review. Key stakeholders were identified as manufacturers, method developers, method users (application), publishers, and funders. To facilitate methodological harmonization in raw accelerometry the following action points were proposed: i) Manufacturers are encouraged to provide a detailed specification of their sensors, ii) Each fundamental step of algorithms for processing raw accelerometer data should be documented, and ideally also motivated, to facilitate interpretation and discussion, iii) Algorithm developers and method users should be open about uncertainties in the description of data and the uncertainty of the inference itself, iv) All new algorithms which are pitched as "ready for implementation" should be shared with the community to facilitate replication and ongoing evaluation by independent groups, and v) A dynamic interaction between method stakeholders should be encouraged to facilitate a well-informed harmonization process. The workshop led to the identification of a number of opportunities for harmonizing methodological practice. The discussion as well as the practical checklists proposed in this review should provide guidance for stakeholders on how to contribute to increased harmonization.

  13. Optic Disc and Optic Cup Segmentation Methodologies for Glaucoma Image Detection: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazroa, Ahmed; Burman, Ritambhar; Raahemifar, Kaamran; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is the second leading cause of loss of vision in the world. Examining the head of optic nerve (cup-to-disc ratio) is very important for diagnosing glaucoma and for patient monitoring after diagnosis. Images of optic disc and optic cup are acquired by fundus camera as well as Optical Coherence Tomography. The optic disc and optic cup segmentation techniques are used to isolate the relevant parts of the retinal image and to calculate the cup-to-disc ratio. The main objective of this paper is to review segmentation methodologies and techniques for the disc and cup boundaries which are utilized to calculate the disc and cup geometrical parameters automatically and accurately to help the professionals in the glaucoma to have a wide view and more details about the optic nerve head structure using retinal fundus images. We provide a brief description of each technique, highlighting its classification and performance metrics. The current and future research directions are summarized and discussed. PMID:26688751

  14. Optic Disc and Optic Cup Segmentation Methodologies for Glaucoma Image Detection: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Almazroa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is the second leading cause of loss of vision in the world. Examining the head of optic nerve (cup-to-disc ratio is very important for diagnosing glaucoma and for patient monitoring after diagnosis. Images of optic disc and optic cup are acquired by fundus camera as well as Optical Coherence Tomography. The optic disc and optic cup segmentation techniques are used to isolate the relevant parts of the retinal image and to calculate the cup-to-disc ratio. The main objective of this paper is to review segmentation methodologies and techniques for the disc and cup boundaries which are utilized to calculate the disc and cup geometrical parameters automatically and accurately to help the professionals in the glaucoma to have a wide view and more details about the optic nerve head structure using retinal fundus images. We provide a brief description of each technique, highlighting its classification and performance metrics. The current and future research directions are summarized and discussed.

  15. Methodological quality of quantitative lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender nursing research from 2000 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael; Smyer, Tish; Yucha, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the methodological quality of quantitative lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender nursing research from 2000 to 2010. Using a key word search in Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, 188 studies were identified and 40 met the criteria, which included descriptive, experimental, quasi-experimental, or observational (case control, cohort, and cross-sectional) design. The methodological quality of these studies was similar to that reported for medical and nursing educational research. The foci of these lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender studies were biased toward human immunodeficiency virus, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and sexually transmitted diseases, and 58.5% of the funded research was related to human immunodeficiency virus or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. To provide evidence-based health care to these populations, an understanding of the current state of research is crucial.

  16. Mode Equivalence of Health Indicators Between Data Collection Modes and Mixed-Mode Survey Designs in Population-Based Health Interview Surveys for Children and Adolescents: Methodological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauz, Elvira; Hoffmann, Robert; Houben, Robin; Krause, Laura; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Gößwald, Antje

    2018-03-05

    The implementation of an Internet option in an existing public health interview survey using a mixed-mode design is attractive because of lower costs and faster data availability. Additionally, mixed-mode surveys can increase response rates and improve sample composition. However, mixed-mode designs can increase the risk of measurement error (mode effects). This study aimed to determine whether the prevalence rates or mean values of self- and parent-reported health indicators for children and adolescents aged 0-17 years differ between self-administered paper-based questionnaires (SAQ-paper) and self-administered Web-based questionnaires (SAQ-Web), as well as between a single-mode control group and different mixed-mode groups. Data were collected for a methodological pilot of the third wave of the "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents". Questionnaires were completed by parents or adolescents. A population-based sample of 11,140 children and adolescents aged 0-17 years was randomly allocated to 4 survey designs-a single-mode control group with paper-and-pencil questionnaires only (n=970 parents, n=343 adolescents)-and 3 mixed-mode designs, all of which offered Web-based questionnaire options. In the concurrent mixed-mode design, both questionnaires were offered at the same time (n=946 parents, n=290 adolescents); in the sequential mixed-mode design, the SAQ-Web was sent first, followed by the paper questionnaire along with a reminder (n=854 parents, n=269 adolescents); and in the preselect mixed-mode design, both options were offered and the respondents were asked to request the desired type of questionnaire (n=698 parents, n=292 adolescents). In total, 3468 questionnaires of parents of children aged 0-17 years (SAQ-Web: n=708; SAQ-paper: n=2760) and 1194 questionnaires of adolescents aged 11-17 years (SAQ-Web: n=299; SAQ-paper: n=895) were analyzed. Sociodemographic characteristics and a broad range of health indicators for

  17. Methodology of gender research and local development concepts: report on workshop, 11-12 November 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Klein-Hessling, Ruth

    2000-01-01

    Der Workshop "Methodology of Gender Research and Local Development Concepts" wurde aus Anlass eines Besuches zweier Angehöriger der 'Ahfad University of Women' Omdurmman, Sudan von der 'Gender Division of the Sociology of Development Research Centre' an der Universität Bielefeld organisiert und von ungefähr 30 Teilnehmern besucht. Erfahrungen von empirischen Feldforschungsarbeiten aus dem Sudan, Kenia, Ruanda, Westafrika und Südasien bildeten den Ausgangspunkt für Diskussionen über methodolo...

  18. Baseline Study Methodology for Future Phases of Research on Nuclear Power Plant Control Room Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Blanc, Katya Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bower, Gordon Ross [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hill, Rachael Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spielman, Zachary Alexander [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rice, Brandon Charles [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-07-01

    In order to provide a basis for industry adoption of advanced technologies, the Control Room Upgrades Benefits Research Project will investigate the benefits of including advanced technologies as part of control room modernization This report describes the background, methodology, and research plan for the first in a series of full-scale studies to test the effects of advanced technology in NPP control rooms. This study will test the effect of Advanced Overview Displays in the partner Utility’s control room simulator

  19. Analysis Planning Methodology: For Thesis, Joint Applied Project, & MBA Research Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Naegle, Brad R.

    2010-01-01

    Acquisition Research Handbook Series Purpose: This guide provides the graduate student researcher—you—with techniques and advice on creating an effective analysis plan, and it provides methods for focusing the data-collection effort based on that analysis plan. As a side benefit, this analysis planning methodology will help you to properly scope the research effort and will provide you with insight for changes in that effort. The information presented herein was supported b...

  20. A methodological survey identified eight proposed frameworks for the adaptation of health related guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darzi, Andrea; Abou-Jaoude, Elias A; Agarwal, Arnav; Lakis, Chantal; Wiercioch, Wojtek; Santesso, Nancy; Brax, Hneine; El-Jardali, Fadi; Schünemann, Holger J; Akl, Elie A

    2017-06-01

    Our objective was to identify and describe published frameworks for adaptation of clinical, public health, and health services guidelines. We included reports describing methods of adaptation of guidelines in sufficient detail to allow its reproducibility. We searched Medline and EMBASE databases. We also searched personal files, as well manuals and handbooks of organizations and professional societies that proposed methods of adaptation and adoption of guidelines. We followed standard systematic review methodology. Our search captured 12,021 citations, out of which we identified eight proposed methods of guidelines adaptation: ADAPTE, Adapted ADAPTE, Alberta Ambassador Program adaptation phase, GRADE-ADOLOPMENT, MAGIC, RAPADAPTE, Royal College of Nursing (RCN), and Systematic Guideline Review (SGR). The ADAPTE framework consists of a 24-step process to adapt guidelines to a local context taking into consideration the needs, priorities, legislation, policies, and resources. The Alexandria Center for Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines updated one of ADAPTE's tools, modified three tools, and added three new ones. In addition, they proposed optionally using three other tools. The Alberta Ambassador Program adaptation phase consists of 11 steps and focused on adapting good-quality guidelines for nonspecific low back pain into local context. GRADE-ADOLOPMENT is an eight-step process based on the GRADE Working Group's Evidence to Decision frameworks and applied in 22 guidelines in the context of national guideline development program. The MAGIC research program developed a five-step adaptation process, informed by ADAPTE and the GRADE approach in the context of adapting thrombosis guidelines. The RAPADAPTE framework consists of 12 steps based on ADAPTE and using synthesized evidence databases, retrospectively derived from the experience of producing a high-quality guideline for the treatment of breast cancer with limited resources in Costa Rica. The RCN outlines

  1. Using social media for health research: Methodological and ethical considerations for recruitment and intervention delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arigo, Danielle; Pagoto, Sherry; Carter-Harris, Lisa; Lillie, Sarah E; Nebeker, Camille

    2018-01-01

    As the popularity and diversity of social media platforms increases so does their utility for health research. Using social media for recruitment into clinical studies and/or delivering health behavior interventions may increase reach to a broader audience. However, evidence supporting the efficacy of these approaches is limited, and key questions remain with respect to optimal benchmarks, intervention development and methodology, participant engagement, informed consent, privacy, and data management. Little methodological guidance is available to researchers interested in using social media for health research. In this Tutorial, we summarize the content of the 2017 Society for Behavioral Medicine Pre-Conference Course entitled 'Using Social Media for Research,' at which the authors presented their experiences with methodological and ethical issues relating to social media-enabled research recruitment and intervention delivery. We identify common pitfalls and provide recommendations for recruitment and intervention via social media. We also discuss the ethical and responsible conduct of research using social media for each of these purposes.

  2. A problem-based approach to teaching research methodology to medical graduates in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Jalalian Hosseini

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Physicians are reticent to participate in research projects for avariety of reasons. Facilitating the active involvement ofdoctors in research projects is a high priority for the IranianBlood Transfusion Organization (IBTO. A one-month trainingcourse on research methodology was conducted for a groupof physicians in Mashhad, in northeast Iran. The participantswere divided in ten groups. They prepared a researchproposal under the guidance of a workshop leader. Thequality of the research proposals, which were prepared by allparticipants, went beyond our expectations. All of theresearch proposals were relevant to blood safety. In this briefreport we describe our approach.

  3. Can citizen science produce good science? Testing the OPAL Air Survey methodology, using lichens as indicators of nitrogenous pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tregidgo, Daniel J; West, Sarah E; Ashmore, Mike R

    2013-11-01

    Citizen science is having increasing influence on environmental monitoring as its advantages are becoming recognised. However methodologies are often simplified to make them accessible to citizen scientists. We tested whether a recent citizen science survey (the OPAL Air Survey) could detect trends in lichen community composition over transects away from roads. We hypothesised that the abundance of nitrophilic lichens would decrease with distance from the road, while that of nitrophobic lichens would increase. The hypothesised changes were detected along strong pollution gradients, but not where the road source was relatively weak, or background pollution relatively high. We conclude that the simplified OPAL methodology can detect large contrasts in nitrogenous pollution, but it may not be able to detect more subtle changes in pollution exposure. Similar studies are needed in conjunction with the ever-growing body of citizen science work to ensure that the limitations of these methods are fully understood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Methodologic and ethical ramifications of sex and gender differences in public health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Kitty; Rieder, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Experience and investigative studies have shown that inequalities still exist between the sexes as well as in how public health policies and strategies approach the needs of the sexes. Sufficient attention has not been given to gender in public health research. Gender-based differences and similarities need to be promoted, and more structured guidelines are needed to build gender into public health research models. The aim of this review was to investigate and discuss public health research and to answer several related questions on gender biases, ethics and methodologies, and the establishment of guidelines. Using the search terms public health research and gender , or ethics , gender , and public health, a literature search was conducted predominately with, but not limited to, the PubMed database. English- or German-language articles were identified that examined the current status of gender in public health research as well as any relevant ethical guidelines. A review of the current literature showed that much work has been undertaken to promote the inclusion of gender in health research. However, deficiencies in the extent of gender-oriented research have been found in a number of key areas, including ethics committees and public health research methodology. Women were found to be underrepresented in ethics committees, which lack clear guidance, particularly in the European Union, to ensure the inclusion of gender issues in public health research. Data are often not sex disaggregated, and information on gender and social circumstances are frequently lacking. Furthermore, some methodologies, such as those used in the field of occupational health, underestimate men's or women's burden of disease. Recommendations include establishing guidelines for researchers on how to incorporate gender in health research, ensuring that the composition of ethics committees is more representative of society, and recommending that data collection systems or bodies ensure that data

  5. African primary care research: performing surveys using questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Indiran; Mabuza, Langalibalele H; Ogunbanjo, Gboyega A; Mash, Bob

    2014-04-25

    The aim of this article is to provide practical guidance on conducting surveys and the use of questionnaires for postgraduate students at a Masters level who are undertaking primary care research. The article is intended to assist with writing the methods section of the research proposal and thinking through the relevant issues that apply to sample size calculation, sampling strategy, design of a questionnaire and administration of a questionnaire. The articleis part of a larger series on primary care research, with other articles in the series focusing on the structure of the research proposal and the literature review, as well as quantitative data analysis.

  6. Can citizen science produce good science? Testing the OPAL Air Survey methodology, using lichens as indicators of nitrogenous pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tregidgo, Daniel J.; West, Sarah E.; Ashmore, Mike R.

    2013-01-01

    Citizen science is having increasing influence on environmental monitoring as its advantages are becoming recognised. However methodologies are often simplified to make them accessible to citizen scientists. We tested whether a recent citizen science survey (the OPAL Air Survey) could detect trends in lichen community composition over transects away from roads. We hypothesised that the abundance of nitrophilic lichens would decrease with distance from the road, while that of nitrophobic lichens would increase. The hypothesised changes were detected along strong pollution gradients, but not where the road source was relatively weak, or background pollution relatively high. We conclude that the simplified OPAL methodology can detect large contrasts in nitrogenous pollution, but it may not be able to detect more subtle changes in pollution exposure. Similar studies are needed in conjunction with the ever-growing body of citizen science work to ensure that the limitations of these methods are fully understood. -- Highlights: •We investigated the validity of a simplified citizen science methodology. •Lichen abundance data were used to indicate nitrogenous air pollution. •Significant changes were detected beside busy roads with low background pollution. •The methodology detected major, but not subtle, contrasts in pollution. •Sensitivity of citizen science methods to environmental change must be evaluated. -- A simplified lichen biomonitoring method used for citizen science can detect the impact of nitrogenous air pollution from local roads

  7. African Primary Care Research: Performing surveys using questionnaires

    OpenAIRE

    Govender, Indiran; Mabuza, Langalibalele H.; Ogunbanjo, Gboyega A.; Mash, Bob

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide practical guidance on conducting surveys and the use of questionnaires for postgraduate students at a Masters level who are undertaking primary care research. The article is intended to assist with writing the methods section of the research proposal and thinking through the relevant issues that apply to sample size calculation, sampling strategy, design of a questionnaire and administration of a questionnaire. The articleis part of a larger series on pri...

  8. Practicalities of health survey fieldwork research in a resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cite as: Abimanyi-Ochom J. Practicalities of health survey field work research in a resource limited setting: challenges and ... vided only ART while TASO provided social support in ..... first aid box in case of any minor accident but was limited.

  9. Mathematicians' Views on Current Publishing Issues: A Survey of Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Kristine K.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports research mathematicians' attitudes about and activity in specific scholarly communication areas, as captured in a 2010 survey of more than 600 randomly-selected mathematicians worldwide. Key findings include: (1) Most mathematicians have papers in the arXiv, but posting to their own web pages remains more common; (2) A third…

  10. Researching local sports initiatives for young migrants from a political perspective: methodological and practical challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi García-Arjona

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The processes of incorporation of young migrants have been studied using a range of new approaches. Among them, sports and physical activity have been claimed as a space for social and cultural integration. To date, most research has been based mainly on ethnographic and grassroots perspectives to better understand the experiences of sports practices of migrants and their families. However, fewer contributions have focused on the political discourse on sports as a field of integration. This article explores methodological challenges arosen when choosing sports policies as a field of study. The main methodological challenges considered include the contested conceptualizations of the target population in sports initiatives and the development of comparative selection criteria for different levels of institutional participants. An indepth analysis of these methodological issues can help to reflect on the ideological constructs of sports as a field of integration and highlight the contribution of the political sociological perspective to existing migration studies.

  11. The Researching on Evaluation of Automatic Voltage Control Based on Improved Zoning Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-jun, ZHU; Ang, FU; Guang-de, DONG; Rui-miao, WANG; De-fen, ZHU

    2018-03-01

    According to the present serious phenomenon of increasing size and structure of power system, hierarchically structured automatic voltage control(AVC) has been the researching spot. In the paper, the reduced control model is built and the adaptive reduced control model is researched to improve the voltage control effect. The theories of HCSD, HCVS, SKC and FCM are introduced and the effect on coordinated voltage regulation caused by different zoning methodologies is also researched. The generic framework for evaluating performance of coordinated voltage regulation is built. Finally, the IEEE-96 stsyem is used to divide the network. The 2383-bus Polish system is built to verify that the selection of a zoning methodology affects not only the coordinated voltage regulation operation, but also its robustness to erroneous data and proposes a comprehensive generic framework for evaluating its performance. The New England 39-bus network is used to verify the adaptive reduced control models’ performance.

  12. Designing and Implementing INTREPID, an Intensive Program in Translational Research Methodologies for New Investigators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aphinyanaphongs, Yindalon; Shao, Yongzhao; Micoli, Keith J.; Fang, Yixin; Goldberg, Judith D.; Galeano, Claudia R.; Stangel, Jessica H.; Chavis‐Keeling, Deborah; Hochman, Judith S.; Cronstein, Bruce N.; Pillinger, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Senior housestaff and junior faculty are often expected to perform clinical research, yet may not always have the requisite knowledge and skills to do so successfully. Formal degree programs provide such knowledge, but require a significant commitment of time and money. Short‐term training programs (days to weeks) provide alternative ways to accrue essential information and acquire fundamental methodological skills. Unfortunately, published information about short‐term programs is sparse. To encourage discussion and exchange of ideas regarding such programs, we here share our experience developing and implementing INtensive Training in Research Statistics, Ethics, and Protocol Informatics and Design (INTREPID), a 24‐day immersion training program in clinical research methodologies. Designing, planning, and offering INTREPID was feasible, and required significant faculty commitment, support personnel and infrastructure, as well as committed trainees. PMID:25066862

  13. A dynamic systems engineering methodology research study. Phase 2: Evaluating methodologies, tools, and techniques for applicability to NASA's systems projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Arthur S.; Gill, Tepper L.; Maclin, Arlene P.

    1989-01-01

    A study of NASA's Systems Management Policy (SMP) concluded that the primary methodology being used by the Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate and its subordinate, the Networks Division, is very effective. Still some unmet needs were identified. This study involved evaluating methodologies, tools, and techniques with the potential for resolving the previously identified deficiencies. Six preselected methodologies being used by other organizations with similar development problems were studied. The study revealed a wide range of significant differences in structure. Each system had some strengths but none will satisfy all of the needs of the Networks Division. Areas for improvement of the methodology being used by the Networks Division are listed with recommendations for specific action.

  14. Creating Innovative Research Designs: The 10-Year Methodological Think Tank Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katerndahl, David; Crabtree, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE Addressing important but complex research questions often necessitates the creation of innovative mixed methods designs. This report describes an approach to developing research designs for studying important but methodologically challenging research questions. METHODS The Methodological Think Tank has been held annually in conjunction with the Primary Care Research Methods and Statistics Conference in San Antonio since 1994. A group of 3 to 4 methodologists with expertise balanced between quantitative and qualitative backgrounds is invited by the think tank coordinators to serve on a 2-day think tank to discuss a research question selected from those submitted in response to a call for proposals. During the first half-day, these experts explore the content area with the investigator, often challenging beliefs and assumptions. During the second half-day, the think tank participants systematically prune potential approaches until a desirable research method is identified. RESULTS To date, the most recent 7 think tanks have produced fundable research designs, with 1 being funded by a K award and 4 by R01 grants. All participating investigators attributed much of their success to think tank participation. Lessons learned include (1) the importance of careful selection of participating methodologists, (2) all think tank communities of inquiry must go through 4 stages of development from pseudocommunity to community, and (3) the critical importance of listening by the investigator. CONCLUSION Researchers and academic departments could use this process locally to develop innovative research designs. PMID:17003146

  15. What Synthesis Methodology Should I Use? A Review and Analysis of Approaches to Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick-Makaroff, Kara; MacDonald, Marjorie; Plummer, Marilyn; Burgess, Judy; Neander, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Background When we began this process, we were doctoral students and a faculty member in a research methods course. As students, we were facing a review of the literature for our dissertations. We encountered several different ways of conducting a review but were unable to locate any resources that synthesized all of the various synthesis methodologies. Our purpose is to present a comprehensive overview and assessment of the main approaches to research synthesis. We use ‘research synthesis’ as a broad overarching term to describe various approaches to combining, integrating, and synthesizing research findings. Methods We conducted an integrative review of the literature to explore the historical, contextual, and evolving nature of research synthesis. We searched five databases, reviewed websites of key organizations, hand-searched several journals, and examined relevant texts from the reference lists of the documents we had already obtained. Results We identified four broad categories of research synthesis methodology including conventional, quantitative, qualitative, and emerging syntheses. Each of the broad categories was compared to the others on the following: key characteristics, purpose, method, product, context, underlying assumptions, unit of analysis, strengths and limitations, and when to use each approach. Conclusions The current state of research synthesis reflects significant advancements in emerging synthesis studies that integrate diverse data types and sources. New approaches to research synthesis provide a much broader range of review alternatives available to health and social science students and researchers. PMID:29546155

  16. What Synthesis Methodology Should I Use? A Review and Analysis of Approaches to Research Synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara Schick-Makaroff

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: When we began this process, we were doctoral students and a faculty member in a research methods course. As students, we were facing a review of the literature for our dissertations. We encountered several different ways of conducting a review but were unable to locate any resources that synthesized all of the various synthesis methodologies. Our purpose is to present a comprehensive overview and assessment of the main approaches to research synthesis. We use ‘research synthesis’ as a broad overarching term to describe various approaches to combining, integrating, and synthesizing research findings. Methods: We conducted an integrative review of the literature to explore the historical, contextual, and evolving nature of research synthesis. We searched five databases, reviewed websites of key organizations, hand-searched several journals, and examined relevant texts from the reference lists of the documents we had already obtained. Results: We identified four broad categories of research synthesis methodology including conventional, quantitative, qualitative, and emerging syntheses. Each of the broad categories was compared to the others on the following: key characteristics, purpose, method, product, context, underlying assumptions, unit of analysis, strengths and limitations, and when to use each approach. Conclusions: The current state of research synthesis reflects significant advancements in emerging synthesis studies that integrate diverse data types and sources. New approaches to research synthesis provide a much broader range of review alternatives available to health and social science students and researchers.

  17. What Synthesis Methodology Should I Use? A Review and Analysis of Approaches to Research Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick-Makaroff, Kara; MacDonald, Marjorie; Plummer, Marilyn; Burgess, Judy; Neander, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    When we began this process, we were doctoral students and a faculty member in a research methods course. As students, we were facing a review of the literature for our dissertations. We encountered several different ways of conducting a review but were unable to locate any resources that synthesized all of the various synthesis methodologies. Our purpose is to present a comprehensive overview and assessment of the main approaches to research synthesis. We use 'research synthesis' as a broad overarching term to describe various approaches to combining, integrating, and synthesizing research findings. We conducted an integrative review of the literature to explore the historical, contextual, and evolving nature of research synthesis. We searched five databases, reviewed websites of key organizations, hand-searched several journals, and examined relevant texts from the reference lists of the documents we had already obtained. We identified four broad categories of research synthesis methodology including conventional, quantitative, qualitative, and emerging syntheses. Each of the broad categories was compared to the others on the following: key characteristics, purpose, method, product, context, underlying assumptions, unit of analysis, strengths and limitations, and when to use each approach. The current state of research synthesis reflects significant advancements in emerging synthesis studies that integrate diverse data types and sources. New approaches to research synthesis provide a much broader range of review alternatives available to health and social science students and researchers.

  18. The Photogrammetric Survey Methodologies Applied to Low Cost 3d Virtual Exploration in Multidisciplinary Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palestini, C.; Basso, A.

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, an increase in international investment in hardware and software technology to support programs that adopt algorithms for photomodeling or data management from laser scanners significantly reduced the costs of operations in support of Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality, designed to generate real-time explorable digital environments integrated to virtual stereoscopic headset. The research analyzes transversal methodologies related to the acquisition of these technologies in order to intervene directly on the phenomenon of acquiring the current VR tools within a specific workflow, in light of any issues related to the intensive use of such devices , outlining a quick overview of the possible "virtual migration" phenomenon, assuming a possible integration with the new internet hyper-speed systems, capable of triggering a massive cyberspace colonization process that paradoxically would also affect the everyday life and more in general, on human space perception. The contribution aims at analyzing the application systems used for low cost 3d photogrammetry by means of a precise pipeline, clarifying how a 3d model is generated, automatically retopologized, textured by color painting or photo-cloning techniques, and optimized for parametric insertion on virtual exploration platforms. Workflow analysis will follow some case studies related to photomodeling, digital retopology and "virtual 3d transfer" of some small archaeological artifacts and an architectural compartment corresponding to the pronaus of Aurum, a building designed in the 1940s by Michelucci. All operations will be conducted on cheap or free licensed software that today offer almost the same performance as their paid counterparts, progressively improving in the data processing speed and management.

  19. Considerations for The Instruction Of Research Methodologies In Graduate-Level Distance Education Degree Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cleveland-INNERS

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Considerations for The Instruction Of Research Methodologies In Graduate-Level Distance Education Degree Programs Tom JONES, Ph.D. Associate Professor Centre for Distance Education Athabasca University, CANADA M. Cleveland-INNERS, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Centre for Distance Education Athabasca University, CANADA ABSTRACT The growth of basic and applied research activity in distance education requires redirection on several fronts, including the instruction of research methods in the education of graduate students. The majority of graduate students in distance education are practitioners whose goals range from carrying out original research to acquiring the concepts and skills necessary to become a practitioner. We argue that the best foundation for achieving both of those goals in distance education is developed by means of an understanding and internalization of sound research design methodologies, primarily acquired by formal instruction, and that an emphasis on research in graduate programs in distance education will encourage theory development. This paper presents the rationale for a general curricular model that attempts to address the sets of research competencies for graduate students in graduate-level distance education programs while at the same time moving students toward an appreciation and understanding of the epistemological foundations for social science research.

  20. Gotta survey somebody : Methodological challenges in population studies of older people

    OpenAIRE

    Kelfve, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Conducting representative surveys of older people is challenging. This thesis aims to analyze a) the characteristics of individuals at risk of being underrepresented in surveys of older people, b) the systematic errors likely to occur as a result of these selections, and c) whether these systematic errors can be minimized by weighting adjustments.   In Study I, we investigated a) who would be missing from a survey that excluded those living in institutions and that did not use indirect interv...

  1. Conducting research among smuggled migrants in the Netherlands and Austria: methodological reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Bilger

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative research among smuggled migrants raises methodological as well as ethical questions. In this article the implications of field work among this specific group of people are thoroughly discussed. Also migrants who have been smuggled have a past, a travel experience and some have a confrontation with immigration officers which can have a concrete impact on the story provided to the researcher and as such on the data collection. Besides, once the story is told, the researcher is responsable for how best to deal with this often secret information.

  2. Research to reduce the suicide rate among older adults: methodology roadblocks and promising paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szanto, Katalin; Lenze, Eric J; Waern, Margda; Duberstein, Paul; Bruce, Martha L; Epstein-Lubow, Gary; Conwell, Yeates

    2013-06-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health and the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention have requested input into the development of a national suicide research agenda. In response, a working group of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry has prepared recommendations to ensure that the suicide prevention dialogue includes older adults, a large and fast-growing population at high risk of suicide. In this Open Forum, the working group describes three methodology roadblocks to research into suicide prevention among elderly persons and three paradigms that might provide directions for future research into suicide prevention strategies for older adults.

  3. Proceedings of the specialist research meeting on scientific and engineering researches of unstable nuclei and on their nuclear methodology (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawade, K.; Taniguchi, A.; Yamada, S.

    1998-01-01

    New research fields with the use of radioactive ion beams are now rapidly developing by virtue of recent progress in radioactive beam accelerators. The scientific and engineering researches on unstable nuclei far from stability are getting particular interests aiming at the full use of their radiation. In the circumstance many laboratories report utilizations and researches of the RI beam, the Tohoku University's renewal plan of the cyclotron and the short-lived nuclear beam facility at KEK have started. To discuss these new subjects on the scientific and engineering researches of unstable nuclei and on their nuclear methodology, the third specialist meeting was held at the KUR on February 16 and 17, 1998. Several noticeable and wide scope works on the method of RI-beam generation and on the new development of nuclear methodology have been reported, such as fundamental researches with laser, new isotope searchings and researches of nuclear structures with ISOL, in-beam nuclear spectroscopies through the deep-inelastic collision. In this meeting, especially, fundamental support-researches are reported, which are precise measurements of absolute disintegration rates, a gamma peak analysis method, evaluations of fundamental nuclear data, measurements of beta detector response functions for reducing Q values and precise measurement of high energy gamma intensities up to 11 MeV. The 14 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  4. Concept mapping methodology and community-engaged research: A perfect pairing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Lisa M; Jones, Jennifer R; Booth, Emily; Burke, Jessica G

    2017-02-01

    Concept mapping methodology as refined by Trochim et al. is uniquely suited to engage communities in all aspects of research from project set-up to data collection to interpreting results to dissemination of results, and an increasing number of research studies have utilized the methodology for exploring complex health issues in communities. In the current manuscript, we present the results of a literature search of peer-reviewed articles in health-related research where concept mapping was used in collaboration with the community. A total of 103 articles met the inclusion criteria. We first address how community engagement was defined in the articles and then focus on the articles describing high community engagement and the associated community outcomes/benefits and methodological challenges. A majority (61%; n=63) of the articles were classified as low to moderate community engagement and participation while 38% (n=39) of the articles were classified as high community engagement and participation. The results of this literature review enhance our understanding of how concept mapping can be used in direct collaboration with communities and highlights the many potential benefits for both researchers and communities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Body-Map Storytelling as a Health Research Methodology: Blurred Lines Creating Clear Pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Gastaldo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we review the literature on body-mapping (BM as an approach to health research in order to systematize recent advancements and to contribute to its development. We conducted a critical narrative synthesis of the literature published until September 2016 guided by two questions: 1. How has BM been utilized in health research? 2. How does BM advance a decolonization agenda? Twenty-seven studies in English, Spanish, and Portuguese were analyzed. Most of them were published between 2011 and 2016 and were conducted in South Africa, Canada, Australia, Brazil, Chile, and USA. They narrate stories of marginalized groups and commonly focus on the social determinants of health. Data generation, analysis, and knowledge mobilization strategies differ considerably. Recent developments show that body-mapping is a visual, narrative, and participatory methodology that has several names and is used unevenly by health researchers. Despite its diversity, core methodological elements reveal that participants are considered knowledgeable, reflexive individuals who can better articulate their complex life journeys when painting and drawing their bodies and social circumstances. The decolonization of health research occurs when these unlikely protagonists tell their stories producing counter-hegemonic discourses to exclusionary capitalist, patriarchal and colonialist rationalities. We call this methodology body-map storytelling.

  6. Rock-Mechanics Research. A Survey of United States Research to 1965, with a Partial Survey of Canadian Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    The results of a survey, conducted by the Committee on Rock Mechanics, to determine the status of training and research in rock mechanics in presented in this publication. In 1964 and 1965 information was gathered by questionnaires sent to industries, selected federal agencies, and universities in both the United States and Canada. Results are…

  7. Comparative effectiveness research for the clinician researcher: a framework for making a methodological design choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cylie M; Skinner, Elizabeth H; James, Alicia M; Cook, Jill L; McPhail, Steven M; Haines, Terry P

    2016-08-17

    Comparative effectiveness research compares two active forms of treatment or usual care in comparison with usual care with an additional intervention element. These types of study are commonly conducted following a placebo or no active treatment trial. Research designs with a placebo or non-active treatment arm can be challenging for the clinician researcher when conducted within the healthcare environment with patients attending for treatment.A framework for conducting comparative effectiveness research is needed, particularly for interventions for which there are no strong regulatory requirements that must be met prior to their introduction into usual care. We argue for a broader use of comparative effectiveness research to achieve translatable real-world clinical research. These types of research design also affect the rapid uptake of evidence-based clinical practice within the healthcare setting.This framework includes questions to guide the clinician researcher into the most appropriate trial design to measure treatment effect. These questions include consideration given to current treatment provision during usual care, known treatment effectiveness, side effects of treatments, economic impact, and the setting in which the research is being undertaken.

  8. Methodological reporting in qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods health services research articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisdom, Jennifer P; Cavaleri, Mary A; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J; Green, Carla A

    2012-04-01

    Methodologically sound mixed methods research can improve our understanding of health services by providing a more comprehensive picture of health services than either method can alone. This study describes the frequency of mixed methods in published health services research and compares the presence of methodological components indicative of rigorous approaches across mixed methods, qualitative, and quantitative articles. All empirical articles (n = 1,651) published between 2003 and 2007 from four top-ranked health services journals. All mixed methods articles (n = 47) and random samples of qualitative and quantitative articles were evaluated to identify reporting of key components indicating rigor for each method, based on accepted standards for evaluating the quality of research reports (e.g., use of p-values in quantitative reports, description of context in qualitative reports, and integration in mixed method reports). We used chi-square tests to evaluate differences between article types for each component. Mixed methods articles comprised 2.85 percent (n = 47) of empirical articles, quantitative articles 90.98 percent (n = 1,502), and qualitative articles 6.18 percent (n = 102). There was a statistically significant difference (χ(2) (1) = 12.20, p = .0005, Cramer's V = 0.09, odds ratio = 1.49 [95% confidence interval = 1,27, 1.74]) in the proportion of quantitative methodological components present in mixed methods compared to quantitative papers (21.94 versus 47.07 percent, respectively) but no statistically significant difference (χ(2) (1) = 0.02, p = .89, Cramer's V = 0.01) in the proportion of qualitative methodological components in mixed methods compared to qualitative papers (21.34 versus 25.47 percent, respectively). Few published health services research articles use mixed methods. The frequency of key methodological components is variable. Suggestions are provided to increase the transparency of mixed methods studies and

  9. Patient-centered outcomes research in radiology: trends in funding and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christoph I; Jarvik, Jeffrey G

    2014-09-01

    The creation of the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Trust Fund and the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) through the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 presents new opportunities for funding patient-centered comparative effectiveness research (CER) in radiology. We provide an overview of the evolution of federal funding and priorities for CER with a focus on radiology-related priority topics over the last two decades, and discuss the funding processes and methodological standards outlined by PCORI. We introduce key paradigm shifts in research methodology that will be required on the part of radiology health services researchers to obtain competitive federal grant funding in patient-centered outcomes research. These paradigm shifts include direct engagement of patients and other stakeholders at every stage of the research process, from initial conception to dissemination of results. We will also discuss the increasing use of mixed methods and novel trial designs. One of these trial designs, the pragmatic trial, has the potential to be readily applied to evaluating the effectiveness of diagnostic imaging procedures and imaging-based interventions among diverse patient populations in real-world settings. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. CHAracteristics of research studies that iNfluence practice: a GEneral survey of Canadian orthopaedic Surgeons (CHANGES): a pilot survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sa, Darren; Thornley, Patrick; Evaniew, Nathan; Madden, Kim; Bhandari, Mohit; Ghert, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    by investigator reputation and perceived journal quality. At present, continued emphasis on the generation of large, methodologically sound clinical trials remains paramount to translating research findings to clinical practice changes. Specific to this pilot survey, strategies to solicit more widespread responses will be pursued.

  11. INTEGRATED SURVEY FOR ARCHITECTURAL RESTORATION: A METHODOLOGICAL COMPARISON OF TWO CASE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bianchi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary survey campaign is essential in projects of restoration, urban renewal, rebuilding or promotion of architectural heritage. Today several survey techniques allow full 3D object restitution and modelling that provides a richer description than simple 2D representations. However, the amount of data to collect increases dramatically and a trade-off between efficiency and productivity from one side and assuring accuracy and completeness of the results on the other must be found. Depending on the extent and the complexity of the task, a single technique or a combination of several ones might be employed. Especially when documentation at different scales and with different levels of detail are foreseen, the latter will likely be necessary. The paper describes two architectural surveys in Italy: the old village of Navelli (AQ, affected by the earthquake in 2009, and the two most relevant remains in Codiponte (MS, damaged by the earthquake in 2013, both in the context of a project of restoration and conservation. In both sites, a 3D survey was necessary to represent effectively the objects. An integrated survey campaign was performed in both cases, which consists of a GPS network as support for georeferencing, an aerial survey and a field survey made by laser scanner and close range photogrammetry. The two case studies, thanks to their peculiarities, can be taken as exemplar to wonder if the integration of different surveying techniques is today still mandatory or, considering the technical advances of each technology, it is in fact just optional.

  12. Demonstrating the Potential for Web-Based Survey Methodology with a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertler, Craig

    2002-01-01

    Describes personal experience with using the Internet to administer a teacher-motivation and job-satisfaction survey to elementary and secondary teachers. Concludes that advantages of Web-base surveys, such as cost savings and efficiency of data collection, outweigh disadvantages, such as the limitations of listservs. (Contains 10 references.)…

  13. Post-Monolingual Research Methodology: Multilingual Researchers Democratizing Theorizing and Doctoral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the ground-breaking research in the study of languages in doctoral education. It argues for democratizing the production and dissemination of original contributions to knowledge through activating and mobilizing multilingual Higher Degree Researchers' (HDRs) capabilities for theorizing through them using their full linguistic…

  14. Kids, Adolescents, and Young Adults Cancer Study-A Methodological Approach in Cancer Epidemiology Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, N. L.; Maurer, E.; Largent, J.; Kent, E.; Sender, E.; Culver, H. A.; Morris, R. A.; Sender, E.

    2009-01-01

    Advances have been made in treatment and outcomes for pediatric cancer. However adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer have not experienced similar relative improvements. We undertook a study to develop the methodology necessary for epidemiologic cancer research in these age groups. Our goal was to create the Kids, Adolescents, and Young Adults Cancer (KAYAC) project to create a resource to address research questions relevant to this population. We used a combination of clinic and population-based ascertainment to enroll 111 cases aged 0-39 for this methodology development study. The largest groups of cancer types enrolled include: breast cancer, leukemia, lymphoma, and melanoma. The overall participation rate is 69.8% and varies by age and tumor type. The study included patients, mothers, and fathers. The methods used to establish this resource are described, and the values of the resource in studies of childhood and young adult cancer are outlined.

  15. Report on a survey in fiscal 1999. Survey on research exchange possibility; 1999 nendo kenkyu koryu kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This survey deals with research institutions of governmental organizations, universities, and business entities for the purpose of discussing the possibility of research exchange standing on a long-term point of view to serve for solving global environment problems, and the way the exchange should be. The research exchange shall cover the areas of trends in research and development of global environment related technologies, themes for the research and development, institutions for the research and development, and exchange of researchers and information with these research organizations. In fiscal 1999, three survey missions were dispatched to cover the following three areas: (1) surveys on research possibility of catalyst development by means of combinatorial chemistry, (2) surveys on research exchange possibility for thermo-chemical solar hybrid fuel production technologies, and (3) surveys on research exchange possibility for structuring function improving technologies of the 21st century type. Each survey mission has visited research institutions of the world to survey the trends in researches related to global environment, and the possibility of exchanging researches with RITE. The visits presented the following conclusions and findings: (1) the research on the combinatorial chemistry in the U.S.A. is still in the initial stage; (2) important findings were obtained when surveys were made on methane reformation utilizing solar heat, and coal gasification technologies in Europe; and (3) surveys were made on pioneering researches on plant molecule physiology in Europe. (NEDO)

  16. Methodology for thermal-hydraulics analysis of pool type MTR fuel research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbehaun, Pedro Ernesto

    2000-01-01

    This work presents a methodology developed for thermal-hydraulic analysis of pool type MTR fuel research reactors. For this methodology a computational program, FLOW, and a model, MTRCR-IEAR1 were developed. FLOW calculates the cooling flow distribution in the fuel elements, control elements, irradiators, and through the channels formed among the fuel elements and among the irradiators and reflectors. This computer program was validated against experimental data for the IEA-R1 research reactor core at IPEN-CNEN/SP. MTRCR-IEAR1 is a model based on the commercial program Engineering Equation Solver (EES). Besides the thermal-hydraulic analyses of the core in steady state accomplished by traditional computational programs like COBRA-3C/RERTR and PARET, this model allows to analyze parallel channels with different cooling flow and/or geometry. Uncertainty factors of the variables from neutronic and thermalhydraulic calculation and also from the fabrication of the fuel element are introduced in the model. For steady state analyses MTRCR-IEAR1 showed good agreement with the results of COBRA-3C/RERTR and PARET. The developed methodology was used for the calculation of the cooling flow distribution and the thermal-hydraulic analysis of a typical configuration of the IEA-R1 research reactor core. (author)

  17. Examining a Social-Participatory Youth Co-Researcher Methodology: A Cross-Case Analysis Extending Possibilities of Literacy and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Vaughn W. M.; Marciano, Joanne E.

    2015-01-01

    At a time when youth are increasingly negotiating new media literacy practices across multiple contexts, literacy researchers are compelled to take notice and reconsider methodologies that centre the researcher, to purposefully engage youth's knowledge, identities and new media literacies as research methodologies. To that end, the authors…

  18. [Review of the gender research in cross-cultural psychology since 1990: conceptual definitions and methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Atsuko

    2004-06-01

    A review of the cross-cultural research on gender in psychology since 1990 reveals (1) conceptual confusion of the definitions of sex, gender, man, and woman; (2) diversification, refinement, reification, and a problem-solving orientation in the research topics; and (3) the possibility of the elucidation of the psychological sex-difference mechanism in relation to the biological sex differences. A comparison of 1990 and 2000 cross-cultural psychological articles published in "Sex Roles" found that overall, the research is Western-centered and some methodological problems remain to be solved concerning the measures and the sampling. These findings lead to the following suggestions for cross-cultural research on gender to resolve the problems and contribute to the development of psychology in general: (1) use of an operational definition for conceptual equivalence; (2) conducting more etic-approach research; (3) avoiding ethnocentric or androcentric research attitudes; (4) use of a theoretical framework; (5) strict examination of methodologies; and (6) examination of the specific context of participants in terms of cultural diversity, dynamics of husband-wife relationships, and relationships with husbands and fathers.

  19. Discourse analysis: A useful methodology for health-care system researches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdannik, Ahmadreza; Yousefy, Alireza; Mohammadi, Sepideh

    2017-01-01

    Discourse analysis (DA) is an interdisciplinary field of inquiry and becoming an increasingly popular research strategy for researchers in various disciplines which has been little employed by health-care researchers. The methodology involves a focus on the sociocultural and political context in which text and talk occur. DA adds a linguistic approach to an understanding of the relationship between language and ideology, exploring the way in which theories of reality and relations of power are encoded in such aspects as the syntax, style, and rhetorical devices used in texts. DA is a useful and productive qualitative methodology but has been underutilized within health-care system research. Without a clear understanding of discourse theory and DA it is difficult to comprehend important research findings and impossible to use DA as a research strategy. To redress this deficiency, in this article, represents an introduction to concepts of discourse and DA, DA history, Philosophical background, DA types and analysis strategy. Finally, we discuss how affect to the ideological dimension of such phenomena discourse in health-care system, health beliefs and intra-disciplinary relationship in health-care system.

  20. The European Social Survey and European research policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kropp, Kristoffer

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the history of the European Social Survey (ESS) and its relationship to changes in European research policy, using Bourdieu’s field-analytical approach. It argues that the success of the ESS relied on three interwoven processes that we can understand theoretically in terms...... of the establishment of homological structures and the formation of conjunctural alliances between the field of European social-scientific research and the field of European policy. The three interwoven processes that I depict are: first, the production of a European field of social research, connected to both...... European and national scientific institutions; second, the establishment of European Union (EU) institutions and organisations that were able to identify and link up with social researchers; and third, the formation of conjunctural alliances between the two fields (social science and EU research policy...