Sample records for survey questions addressed

  1. Basic Physics Questions Addressed by Astrophysics (United States)

    Mather, John C.


    Dark matter, dark energy, the Big Bang, testing relativity -- all are physics questions accessible to astrophysicists -- but all require new equipment. As Harwit's "Cosmic Discovery" pointed out, almost all great surprises in astronomy came from new equipment or new uses of equipment designed for other purposes, and many of those had military applications. I will outline prospects for new equipment and discuss how that equipment can be developed and built. Bigger and lighter mirrors, wavefront sensing and control, new detector technology, cryogenics -- each has its own social network, its own special possibilities, and its own funding sources outside science. I will discuss some examples drawn from real-life experience with the James Webb Space Telescope, a telescope that was said to have a "giggle factor" when it was proposed in 1995. Now each of the 10 major technologies has been brought to maturity, flight hardware is being built, and launch is planned for 2014. As an instrument builder all my life, I will speculate a little on what may be within our reach over the next few decades.

  2. Science channel: addressing evolutionary questions using whole genome sequencing


    Kentaro K. Shimizu; Akiyama, Reiko; Hatakeyama, Masaomi


    Recently, technical advance in gene analysis opened a new perspective in research on evolution. At the University of Zurich in Switzerland, we visited the Evolutionary Ecological Genomics group and Functional Genomics Center Zurich addressing evolutionary questions using latest technologies.

  3. Secondary Data Analysis: An Important Tool for Addressing Developmental Questions (United States)

    Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Dowsett, Chantelle J.


    Existing data sets can be an efficient, powerful, and readily available resource for addressing questions about developmental science. Many of the available databases contain hundreds of variables of interest to developmental psychologists, track participants longitudinally, and have representative samples. In this article, the authors discuss the…

  4. Addressing Parental Vaccination Questions in the School Setting (United States)

    Luthy, Karlen E.; Burningham, Jana; Eden, Lacey M.; Macintosh, Janelle L. B.; Beckstrand, Renea L.


    School nurses work in a unique environment with key opportunities to address parental concerns and questions regarding their child's health. A common concern for parents during school enrollment is childhood vaccination safety and efficacy. As public health leaders, school nurses are well respected among parents, therefore school nurses are in a…

  5. Secondary Data Analysis: An Important Tool for Addressing Developmental Questions (United States)

    Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Dowsett, Chantelle J.


    Existing data sets can be an efficient, powerful, and readily available resource for addressing questions about developmental science. Many of the available databases contain hundreds of variables of interest to developmental psychologists, track participants longitudinally, and have representative samples. In this article, the authors discuss the…

  6. Dynamic Question Ordering in Online Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Early Kirstin


    Full Text Available Online surveys have the potential to support adaptive questions, where later questions depend on earlier responses. Past work has taken a rule-based approach, uniformly across all respondents. We envision a richer interpretation of adaptive questions, which we call Dynamic Question Ordering (DQO, where question order is personalized. Such an approach could increase engagement, and therefore response rate, as well as imputation quality. We present a DQO framework to improve survey completion and imputation. In the general survey-taking setting, we want to maximize survey completion, and so we focus on ordering questions to engage the respondent and collect hopefully all information, or at least the information that most characterizes the respondent, for accurate imputations. In another scenario, our goal is to provide a personalized prediction. Since it is possible to give reasonable predictions with only a subset of questions, we are not concerned with motivating users to answer all questions. Instead, we want to order questions to get information that reduces prediction uncertainty, while not being too burdensome. We illustrate this framework with two case studies, for the prediction and survey-taking settings. We also discuss DQO for national surveys and consider connections between our statistics-based question-ordering approach and cognitive survey methodology.

  7. Addressing the Question of Homophobia in Jordanian Public Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad El-Sharif


    Full Text Available This article investigates the question of homosexuality, homosexuals, and homophobia in the Jordanian public debate in the aftermath of an LGBTQIA meeting that was held secretly in Amman in May 2015. The main purpose of the article is to demonstrate the constituents and arguments which reproduce the public discourse on anti-homosexuality and anti-homosexuals and homophobia in Jordan. This purpose is reached by analysing 35 journal articles written in Standard Arabic in Jordanian public and open-access media. The analysis involves the qualitative analysis of the argument, processes, and themes used to represent homosexuality and homosexuals by the discourse producers. The analysis reveals that the question of homosexuality and homosexuals in Jordan can be addressed in terms of seven angles: the public anti-homosexuality and anti-homosexuals’ calls, the (Islamic religious argument, protecting and reinforcing law and order, the argument of (homosexually-transmitted diseases, the calls of pro-homosexuality and pro-homosexuals and LGBTQIA’s rights activists, the homosexuals’ own self-representation, and the neutral scientific account and representation.

  8. Preventing and Addressing Challenging Behavior: Common Questions and Practical Strategies (United States)

    Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Corso, Robert M.


    The purpose of this article is to offer preschool teachers strategies for preventing challenging behavior and supporting the development of social skills and emotional competencies. This article is framed in a question and answer format using questions from teachers who the authors have worked with in the past. These questions and strategies are…

  9. Optimizing available network resources to address questions in environmental biogeochemistry (United States)

    Hinckley, Eve-Lyn; Suzanne Andersen,; Baron, Jill S.; Peter Blanken,; Gordon Bonan,; William Bowman,; Sarah Elmendorf,; Fierer, Noah; Andrew Fox,; Keli Goodman,; Katherine Jones,; Danica Lombardozzi,; Claire Lunch,; Jason Neff,; Michael SanClements,; Katherine Suding,; Will Wieder,


    An increasing number of network observatories have been established globally to collect long-term biogeochemical data at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Although many outstanding questions in biogeochemistry would benefit from network science, the ability of the earth- and environmental-sciences community to conduct synthesis studies within and across networks is limited and seldom done satisfactorily. We identify the ideal characteristics of networks, common problems with using data, and key improvements to strengthen intra- and internetwork compatibility. We suggest that targeted improvements to existing networks should include promoting standardization in data collection, developing incentives to promote rapid data release to the public, and increasing the ability of investigators to conduct their own studies across sites. Internetwork efforts should include identifying a standard measurement suite—we propose profiles of plant canopy and soil properties—and an online, searchable data portal that connects network, investigator-led, and citizen-science projects.

  10. Incomplete categorical data design non-randomized response techniques for sensitive questions in surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Guo-Liang


    Respondents to survey questions involving sensitive information, such as sexual behavior, illegal drug usage, tax evasion, and income, may refuse to answer the questions or provide untruthful answers to protect their privacy. This creates a challenge in drawing valid inferences from potentially inaccurate data. Addressing this difficulty, non-randomized response approaches enable sample survey practitioners and applied statisticians to protect the privacy of respondents and properly analyze the gathered data.Incomplete Categorical Data Design: Non-Randomized Response Techniqu

  11. Agree or Disagree? Cognitive Processes in Answering Contrastive Survey Questions (United States)

    Kamoen, Naomi; Holleman, Bregje; Mak, Pim; Sanders, Ted; Van Den Bergh, Huub


    Survey designers have long assumed that respondents who disagree with a negative question ("This policy is bad.": "Yes" or "No"; 2-point scale) will agree with an equivalent positive question ("This policy is good.": "Yes" or "No"; 2-point scale). However, experimental evidence has proven otherwise: Respondents are more likely to disagree with…

  12. Disfluencies and gaze aversion in unreliable responses to survey questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schober, Michael F.; Conrad, Frederick G.; Dijkstra, Wil; Ongena, Yfke P.


    When survey respondents answer survey questions, they can also produce "paradata" (Couper 2000, 2008): behavioral evidence about their response process. The study reported here demonstrates that two kinds of respondent paradata - fluency of speech and gaze direction during answers - identify answers

  13. Questions Addressed to V.V. Putin during an Internet Conference on Careers (United States)

    Agranovich, M.; Zair-Bek, S.; Seliverstova, I.; Shishmakova, E.


    On instructions from the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation, the Federal Institute for the Development of Education prepared an analytical report on the topic "Questions Addressed to Russian President V.V. Putin During an Internet Conference on 6 July 2006 on the Problems of "Career"." That document presents an…

  14. Surveying problem solution with theory and objective type questions

    CERN Document Server

    Chandra, AM


    The book provides a lucid and step-by-step treatment of the various principles and methods for solving problems in land surveying. Each chapter starts with basic concepts and definitions, then solution of typical field problems and ends with objective type questions. The book explains errors in survey measurements and their propagation. Survey measurements are detailed next. These include horizontal and vertical distance, slope, elevation, angle, and direction. Measurement using stadia tacheometry and EDM are then highlighted, followed by various types of levelling problems. Traversing is then explained, followed by a detailed discussion on adjustment of survey observations and then triangulation and trilateration.

  15. Survey design research: a tool for answering nursing research questions. (United States)

    Siedlecki, Sandra L; Butler, Robert S; Burchill, Christian N


    The clinical nurse specialist is in a unique position to identify and study clinical problems in need of answers, but lack of time and resources may discourage nurses from conducting research. However, some research methods can be used by the clinical nurse specialist that are not time-intensive or cost prohibitive. The purpose of this article is to explain the utility of survey methodology for answering a number of nursing research questions. The article covers survey content, reliability and validity issues, sample size considerations, and methods of survey delivery.

  16. A survey on question answering systems with classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Mishra


    Full Text Available Question answering systems (QASs generate answers of questions asked in natural languages. Early QASs were developed for restricted domains and have limited capabilities. Current QASs focus on types of questions generally asked by users, characteristics of data sources consulted, and forms of correct answers generated. Research in the area of QASs began in 1960s and since then, a large number of QASs have been developed. To identify the future scope of research in this area, the need of a comprehensive survey on QASs arises naturally. This paper surveys QASs and classifies them based on different criteria. We identify the current status of the research in the each category of QASs, and suggest future scope of the research.

  17. Addressing challenges to MMPI-2-RF-based testimony: questions and answers. (United States)

    Ben-Porath, Yossef S


    Introduction of a new version of a psychological test brings with it challenges that can be accentuated by the adversarial nature of the legal process. In the case of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF), these challenges can be addressed by becoming familiar with the rationale for and the methods used in revising the inventory, the information contained in the test manuals, and the growing peer-reviewed literature on the test. Potential challenges to MMPI-2-RF-based testimony are identified in this article and discussed in question and answer format. The questions guiding this discussion are based on the Daubert factors, established in 1993 by the US Supreme Court as criteria for gauging the scientific validity of proffered expert testimony. The answers to these questions apply more broadly to testimony in depositions, pre-trial hearings, and at trial. Consideration of the MMPI-2-RF in light of the Daubert factors indicates that the instrument has been subjected to extensive empirical testing and that a substantial peer-reviewed literature is available to guide and support its use. Information about the known and potential rate of error associated with MMPI-2-RF scores is available, and standard procedures for administration, scoring, and interpretation of the inventory are detailed in the test administration manual. Indicators of MMPI-2-RF acceptance can be cited, and criticisms of the MMPI-2-RF can be addressed with information available in the test documents and an extensive, modern, and actively growing peer-reviewed literature.

  18. Addressing Tobacco in Managed Care: Results of the 2002 Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol McPhillips-Tangum


    Full Text Available Introduction In the United States, tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of death and disease. The health and cost consequences of tobacco dependence have made treatment and prevention of tobacco use a key priority among multiple stakeholders, including health plans, insurers, providers, employers, and policymakers. In 2002, the third survey of tobacco control practices and policies in health plans was conducted by America’s Health Insurance Plans’ technical assistance office as part of the Addressing Tobacco in Managed Care (ATMC program. Methods The ATMC survey was conducted in the spring of 2002 via mail, e-mail, and fax. A 19-item survey instrument was developed and pilot-tested. Of the 19 items, 12 were the same as in previous years, four were modified to collect more detailed data on areas of key interest, and three were added to gain information about strategies to promote smoking cessation. The sample for the survey was drawn from the 687 plans listed in the national directory of member and nonmember health plans in America's Health Insurance Plans. Results Of the 246 plans in the sample, 152 plans (62% representing more than 43.5 million health maintenance organization members completed the survey. Results show that health plans are using evidence-based programs and clinical guidelines to address tobacco use. Compared to ATMC survey data collected in 1997 and 2000, the 2002 ATMC survey results indicate that more health plans are providing full coverage for first-line pharmacotherapies and telephone counseling for smoking cessation. Plans have also shown improvement in their ability to identify at least some members who smoke. Similarly, a greater percentage of plans are employing strategies to address smoking cessation during the postpartum period to prevent smoking relapse and during pediatric visits to reduce or eliminate children’s exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Conclusion The results of the 2002 ATMC survey

  19. To Address or Not to Address the Violent Past in the Classroom? That Is the Question in Côte D'ivoire (United States)

    Kuppens, Line; Langer, Arnim


    In the aftermath of violent conflict, divided societies have to answer the important question of whether, when and how to address their country's violent past within their educational system. Whereas some scholars within the field of peace education and transitional justice argue that addressing the violent past in the classroom is important for…

  20. A meta-analysis of personality and workplace safety: addressing unanswered questions. (United States)

    Beus, Jeremy M; Dhanani, Lindsay Y; McCord, Mallory A


    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 100(2) of Journal of Applied Psychology (see record 2015-08139-001). Table 3 contained formatting errors. Minus signs used to indicate negative statistical estimates within the table were inadvertently changed to m-dashes. All versions of this article have been corrected.] The purpose of this meta-analysis was to address unanswered questions regarding the associations between personality and workplace safety by (a) clarifying the magnitude and meaning of these associations with both broad and facet-level personality traits, (b) delineating how personality is associated with workplace safety, and (c) testing the relative importance of personality in comparison to perceptions of the social context of safety (i.e., safety climate) in predicting safety-related behavior. Our results revealed that whereas agreeableness and conscientiousness were negatively associated with unsafe behaviors, extraversion and neuroticism were positively associated with them. Of these traits, agreeableness accounted for the largest proportion of explained variance in safety-related behavior and openness to experience was unrelated. At the facet level, sensation seeking, altruism, anger, and impulsiveness were all meaningfully associated with safety-related behavior, though sensation seeking was the only facet that demonstrated a stronger relationship than its parent trait (i.e., extraversion). In addition, meta-analytic path modeling supported the theoretical expectation that personality's associations with accidents are mediated by safety-related behavior. Finally, although safety climate perceptions accounted for the majority of explained variance in safety-related behavior, personality traits (i.e., agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism) still accounted for a unique and substantive proportion of the explained variance. Taken together, these results substantiate the value of considering personality traits as key

  1. How the question of innovation is addressed by the social sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Corneloup


    Full Text Available Although innovation has today become a topical notion, given its fundamental importance in understanding the economy and the way our society adapts to its development goals, its characteristics and principles nevertheless need to be defined. While the 20th century was marked by important technological, political, economic and cultural changes, the current era seems to be increasingly bent on imposing innovation as a motor for the development of society. It is therefore important to understand how the question of innovation is currently being addressed, and in turn this involves looking at the different ways in which the innovative process is interpreted. Between the notional approach, which often remains vague and somewhat basic, and the theoretical approaches that attempt to present different perspectives for ways of understanding the innovation process, the path of knowledge is very often compartmentalized by the different scientific disciplines. In this paper, we will attempt to show the tensions and combinations that exist between the different approaches adopted by the management sciences, sociology, economics and geography in attempting to understand the innovative process. To do so, we will focus our study on the firm and the territory (as the spatial dimension of innovation, elements that have already been the subject of numerous studies to understand the forces participating in the production of novelty.Si l’innovation est devenue aujourd’hui une notion d’actualité tant elle apparaît comme fondamentale pour penser l’économie et l’adaptation de notre société à son projet de développement, reste à en définir les caractéristiques et les principes. Si le XX° siècle a été marqué par des changements importants sur un plan technologique, politique, économique ou encore culturel, l’époque actuelle semble redoubler d’efforts pour imposer l’innovation comme moteur du développement de la société. Reste alors

  2. Half the earth for people (or more)? Addressing ethical questions in conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopnina, H.N.


    Preserving global biodiversity depends upon designating many more large terrestrial and marine areas as strictly protected areas. Yet recent calls for addressing biodiversity loss by setting aside more protected areas have been metwith hostility fromsomesocial scientists and even someconservation bi

  3. Crafting Instructions Collaboratively: Student Questions and Dual Addressivity in Classroom Task Instructions (United States)

    St. John, Oliver; Cromdal, Jakob


    This study examines classroom task instructions--phases traditionally associated with noninteractional objectives and operations--and reveals their composition as interactionally complex and cocrafted. Analyses of video sequences of task instructional activity from three different secondary school lessons show that student questions routinely…

  4. EFA and the global agenda for education and development: Addressing critical questions and omissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verger, A.; Novelli, M.


    This article raises some critical questions regarding the current global compact on education for development, represented by Education for All (EFA), and analyzes how its form and content are embedded in a neoliberal model of economic development. It also argues that this neoliberal embedding repre

  5. A literature review: What exactly should we preserve? How scholars address this question and where is the gap

    CERN Document Server

    Low, Jyue Tyan


    This review addresses the question of what exactly should we preserve, and how the digital preservation community and scholars address this question. The paper first introduces the much-abused-term "significant properties," before revealing how some scholars are of the opinion that characteristics of digital objects to be preserved (i.e., significant properties) can be identified and should be expressed formally, while others are not of that opinion. The digital preservation community's attempt to expound on the general characteristics of digital objects and significant properties will then be discussed. Finally, the review shows that while there may be ways to identify the technical makeup or general characteristics of a digital object, there is currently no formal and objective methodology to help stakeholders identify and decide what the significant properties of the objects are. This review thus helps open questions and generates a formative recommendation based on expert opinion that expressing an object...

  6. Case Study: Formulating Questions That Address Student Misconceptions in a Case Study (United States)

    Prud'homme-Généreux, Annie


    Misconceptions are sometimes called "alternative conceptions" in acknowledgement of the fact that although these concepts are inaccurate, they are congruent with prior experiences. The idea that misconceptions must be addressed to improve learning is helpful to remember when developing a case study. Students will bring their existing…

  7. Survey research: it's just a few questions, right? (United States)

    Tait, Alan R; Voepel-Lewis, Terri


    While most anesthesiologists and other physician- or nurse-scientists are familiar with traditional descriptive, observational, and interventional study design, survey research has typically remained the preserve of the social scientists. To that end, this article provides a basic overview of the elements of good survey design and offers some rules of thumb to help guide investigators through the survey process.

  8. Pacific Northwest residential energy survey. Volume 3. Question-by-question results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Tabulations are presented of responses to approximately 105 questions. Results are tabulated by 9 geographic regions: the four states of Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington; four climate zones in the region; and a weighted Pacific Northwest total. A description of the tabulated data is given in the Introduction. Tabulated data deal with questions on dwelling characteristics; heating and air-conditioning systems; water heating; appliances; demographic and swelling characteristics; and insulation.

  9. From experience to definition: addressing the question 'what is qualitative research?'. (United States)

    Smythe, Liz; Giddings, Lynne S


    Most health professionals today have heard of 'qualitative research' but many remain confused as to what it is and how to go about doing it. In this paper, two experienced qualitative researchers become engaged in conversation exploring the question 'what is qualitative research?' Lynne Giddings and Liz Smythe are Associate Professors in the Faculty of Health & Environmental Sciences at the Auckland University of Technology. They engage a reader in exploring issues such as: What might draw you to qualitative research? How does qualitative research make a difference to practice? How can reading a qualitative research article inform practice? From a qualitative perspective, what is 'truth'? How many participants? What happens to the data? What about the bias of the researcher? Can qualitative findings be trusted? Stories and exemplars are used to highlight the processes and issues involved in undertaking a qualitative research study.

  10. Questions About Cervical and Breast Cancer Screening Knowledge, Practice, and Outcomes: A Review of Demographic and Health Surveys. (United States)

    Viens, Laura; Perin, Doug; Senkomago, Virginia; Neri, Antonio; Saraiya, Mona


    United Nation's Sustainable Development Goals and the World Health Organization's Global Monitoring Framework support a strong global commitment to reducing the high burden of cervical and breast cancers among low- and middle-income countries. Strategies include vaccination, screening, and early diagnosis. Population-based surveys, such as those conducted by the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Program, can collect the information needed to guide cancer control efforts in a standardized comparable manner. We identified and evaluated the breadth of breast and cervical cancer screening information that was collected by the DHS from 1984 through 2015. Then, we determined if these surveys currently provide the specific and measurable data about both the quantity and quality of cancer screening needed to guide national efforts to reduce the overall effects of cervical and breast cancers. We searched the DHS website to identify surveys conducted between the start of the DHS Program in 1984 and November 2015 that included questions about breast and cervical cancer screening. The relevant questions were extracted from the questionnaire, translated into English, and grouped by themes. Of the 90 countries where DHS surveys have been implemented, cervical cancer screening questions were included in 22 countries (24.4%) and breast cancer screening questions in 18 countries (20.0%). The common themes identified were disease knowledge, screening knowledge, screening practice, and screening outcomes. Most countries with survey questionnaires available for review addressed at least one aspect of screening practice (88.9% of cervical and 87.5% of breast), although few countries queried knowledge and outcomes. Questions that assess varied aspects of breast and cervical cancer screening have been incorporated into relatively few DHS surveys. The themes identified could guide the design of a standard set of questions for use in future population-based surveys and enable evaluation

  11. Surveying Parental Mediation: Connections, Challenges and Questions for Media Literacy (United States)

    Mendoza, Kelly


    This paper examines three strategies of parental mediation--coviewing, restrictive mediation, and active mediation--in order to make connections, challenge, and raise questions for media literacy. Coviewing, whether it is intentional practice, or whether it functions to promote media literacy, is explored. Restrictive mediation, how it connects to…

  12. The Swimming Ammonite: How Computed Tomography can Address Questions of Functional Morphology (United States)

    Lemanis, Robert; Hoffmann, Rene; Zachow, Stefan


    has strong potential to address the controversial life-habits of adult ammonites through the study of the buoyant properties of the phragmocone and the structural properties of the shell. The implications for palaeobiology are clear, however the understanding of ammonite life-habits is also important for utilization as archives for palaeoenvironmetal/geochemical data.

  13. Survey questions about sleep duration: does asking separately about weekdays and weekends matter? (United States)

    Lauderdale, Diane S


    There is no standard way to ask about sleep duration in surveys, and little is known about the comparability of different questions. This article reports on a randomized survey experiment designed to test 1 type of variation: 1 question about usual sleep hours versus 2 questions separately asking about weekday and weekend sleep. Mean sleep duration was significantly shorter (7.03 hr vs. 7.28 hr) for the single question than a weighted average from 2 questions, and race and ethnicity contrasts differed by question format. Correlations between sleep duration and reported sleep need were significantly higher for the 2-question format. These results demonstrate that question wording can affect reported sleep duration in complicated ways, making it difficult to compare studies that use different questions.

  14. 76 FR 54283 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collections: Language Learning Survey Questions (United States)


    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collections: Language Learning Survey Questions ACTION: Notice of request... Information Collection: Language Learning Programs: Pre Program Survey Questions OMB Control Number: None Type... participants in ECA exchange programs that focus on critical language learning instruction. Estimated Number of...

  15. Framing Higher Education: Questions and Responses in the British Social Attitudes Survey, 1983-2010 (United States)

    Mountford-Zimdars, Anna; Jones, Steven; Sullivan, Alice; Heath, Anthony


    This article focuses on questions and attitudes towards higher education in the British Social Attitudes (BSA) survey series. First, we analyse the changing BSA questions (1983-2010) in the context of key policy reports. Our results show that changes in the framing of higher education questions correspond with changes in the macro-discourse of…

  16. The Impact of Question Format, Context, and Content on Survey Answers in Early and Late Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diersch Nadine


    Full Text Available Self-reports in surveys are often influenced by the presented question format and question context. Much less is known about how these effects influence the answers of younger survey respondents. The present study investigated how variations in response format, answer scale frequency, and question order influence self-reports of two age groups: younger (11–13 years old and older (16–18 years old adolescents. In addition, the impact of the respondents’ level of familiarity with the question content was taken into account. Results indicated that younger adolescents are more strongly influenced by the presented question format and context than older adolescents. This, however, was dependent on the particular question content, implying that response effects are more pronounced when questions deal with issues that lie outside of the respondents’ field of experience. Implications of these findings in survey research with younger respondents are discussed.

  17. Framing violence: the effect of survey context and question framing on reported rates of partner violence


    Regan, Katherine V.


    In this dissertation, I investigated two explanations for the variability in levels of partner violence found by large community surveys. In Study 1, I examined the effect of how questions about partner violence are introduced (question framing: conflict, violence-in-relationships, or attacks) on reports of partner violence. Although there was not a reliable effect of question framing, the pattern of findings was consistent across 3 of 4 analyses. Counter to predictions, an attacks question f...

  18. Ergonomics of electronic mail address systems: related literature review and survey of users. (United States)

    Rau, P L; Salvendy, G


    The paper reviews the cognitive ergonomics literature related to electronic mail (e-mail) address design. Based on this information, a survey of 160 users of current e-mail address system was conducted. The aim was to obtain information on likes, dislikes and difficulties associated with e-mail address and to obtain users' suggestions and input for improving the current e-mail address system. The survey results indicated that users want an improved e-mail address system with regard to shorter length, useful information and appropriate presentation of information.

  19. The Use of Mathematical Models of Chlamydia Transmission to Address Public Health Policy Questions: A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Rönn, Minttu M; Wolf, Emory E; Chesson, Harrell; Menzies, Nicolas A; Galer, Kara; Gorwitz, Rachel; Gift, Thomas; Hsu, Katherine; Salomon, Joshua A


    Mathematical models of chlamydia transmission can help inform disease control policy decisions when direct empirical evaluation of alternatives is impractical. We reviewed published chlamydia models to understand the range of approaches used for policy analyses and how the studies have responded to developments in the field. We performed a literature review by searching Medline and Google Scholar (up to October 2015) to identify publications describing dynamic chlamydia transmission models used to address public health policy questions. We extracted information on modeling methodology, interventions, and key findings. We identified 47 publications (including two model comparison studies), which reported collectively on 29 distinct mathematical models. Nine models were individual-based, and 20 were deterministic compartmental models. The earliest studies evaluated the benefits of national-level screening programs and predicted potentially large benefits from increased screening. Subsequent trials and further modeling analyses suggested the impact might have been overestimated. Partner notification has been increasingly evaluated in mathematical modeling, whereas behavioral interventions have received relatively limited attention. Our review provides an overview of chlamydia transmission models and gives a perspective on how mathematical modeling has responded to increasing empirical evidence and addressed policy questions related to prevention of chlamydia infection and sequelae.

  20. On the interpretation of World Values Survey trust question - global expectations vs. local beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, Ritwik

    How should we interpret the World Values Survey (WVS) trust question? We conduct an experiment in India - a low trust country, to correlate the WVS trust question with trust decisions in an incentivized Trust Game. Evidence supports findings from one strand of the fractured literature - the WVS t...

  1. Reincarnation Revisited: Question format and the distribution of belief in reincarnation in survey research


    Siegers, Pascal


    Comparing frequency of belief in reincarnation from different international survey projects (RAMP, EVS, ISSP) reveals differences of about 15 to 20 percent depending on the specific question format. If single binary questions are used, then belief in reincarnation is more often reported than if a forced-choice question is used which offers respondents alternatives to belief in reincarnation (e.g. resurrection). One possible explanation for this result is that respondents confuse reincarnation...

  2. The Influence of Interviewer Presence and Survey Mode on Question Sensitivity : Results From a Fake Good/Fake Bad Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegkamp, Annemiek; Ongena, Yfke; Haan, Marieke


    This paper examines whether interviewer presence and survey mode affect the sensitivity of questions in survey interviews. A comparison is made between web surveys and paper & pencil surveys. A fake good/fake bad experiment was designed to find out which questions of the European Social Survey are s

  3. Public health questions on physical disabilities and musculoskeletal conditions : studies using health surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picavet, H.S.J.


    For population-based information on physical disability and musculoskeletal conditions health surveys are the most important source of information. In this thesis studies are presented on the methods of the health survey and on public health questions concerning physical disabilities and

  4. 78 FR 45910 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Current Population Survey (CPS) Email Address... (United States)


    ... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Current Population Survey (CPS) Email... concerning the November 2013 Email Address Collection Test Supplement. The Census Bureau and the Bureau of.... We foresee that in the future, we could collect email addresses from our respondents. For those that...

  5. Graduate entry nurses' initial perspectives on nursing: Content analysis of open-ended survey questions. (United States)

    McKenna, Lisa; Brooks, Ingrid; Vanderheide, Rebecca


    Graduate entry nursing courses offer individuals with prior degrees the opportunity to gain nursing qualifications and facilitate career change. While it is known that accelerated graduate entry courses are increasingly popular, the perceptions of nursing held by such individuals and the influence this has on those seeking to enter the profession are less clearly understood. To explore graduate entry nursing students' perceptions of nursing on entering their pre-registration course. A descriptive design utilising cross-section survey with two open-ended questions: What do you believe the role of the nurse is? What things have influenced that view? were asked. Demographic data were analysed using descriptive frequencies, while the two open-ended questions were analysed using summative content analysis. One university-based postgraduate graduate entry nursing course in Australia PARTICIPANTS: Eight cohorts (n=286) commencing students with prior degrees other than nursing. The course attracts students from diverse backgrounds. Exposure to nursing and nurses, either as a consumer of health care or other health care role, plays a primary role in influencing career change. However, similar to those found with school leavers, there remains much misinformation about nurses' roles for students in these courses. Most identify the role of caring in nursing. For some, media representations are the only information sources. Graduate entry courses offer opportunities to attract new nurses and contribute to addressing workforce shortages. However, there is still a lack of knowledge of nursing roles among students on entry. More work is required by the profession to ensure nursing is accurately and positively represented to the community. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. To bind or not to bind: addressing the question of object representation in visual short-term memory. (United States)

    Wilson, Kristin E; Adamo, Maha; Barense, Morgan D; Ferber, Susanne


    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is a capacity limited resource, which is consistently estimated to hold about four visual items at a time. There is, however, debate in the literature about what constitutes an "item" and how resources are allocated within VSTM. Some research suggests information is stored in VSTM as discrete objects; however, there is also evidence suggesting that within-object features alter VSTM performance. The present study addresses the question of whether VSTM load effects reflect the number of discrete objects and/or the number of within-object features. An electrophysiological correlate of VSTM--the contralateral delay activity (CDA)--was measured while participants performed a lateralized change-detection task, in which to-be-remembered items varied in the number of features and locations. Each trial contained either a solitary simple feature (shape, color, or orientation) or one of two multifeature arrays: three features presented at three separate locations or three features bound at one location. While presenting multiple features--regardless of whether they are at discrete locations or bound within a single object--resulted in greater CDA amplitude relative to a solitary feature, there was a dissociation in the distribution of activity between the two multifeature conditions, such that the CDA at site P1/P2 was sensitive to the number of discrete objects, while activity at P7/P8 was most enhanced when multiple features were bound in one object. The findings demonstrate the inhomogeneity of the CDA and suggest this electrophysiological marker may reflect both discrete object individuation/separation and flexible feature-feature binding in VSTM.

  7. Can i just check...? Effects of edit check questions on measurement error and survey estimates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugtig, Peter; Jäckle, Annette


    Household income is difficult to measure, since it requires the collection of information about all potential income sources for each member of a household.Weassess the effects of two types of edit check questions on measurement error and survey estimates: within-wave edit checks use responses to

  8. Development of a Community Readiness Survey for Coalitions to Address Prescription Opioid Misuse (United States)

    Trudeau, Kimberlee J.


    A community readiness survey for coalitions to address the growing epidemic of prescription opioid misuse was developed in this four-part study. A total of 70 coalition members participated. 1) We conducted 30-minute phone interviews with coalition members (n = 30) and a literature review to develop an item list. 2) Coalition members rated these…

  9. An Assessment of FY2016 Locally Developed Questions from the DEOMI Organizational Climate Survey: Recommendations and Potential Implications (United States)


    1 An Assessment of FY2016 Locally Developed Questions from the DEOMI Organizational Climate Survey: Recommendations and Potential Implications...Equal Opportunity Management Institute (DEOMI) Organizational Climate Survey (DEOCS). The top 15 questions were ranked across a total of 180,797...Department of Equal Opportunity Management Institute Organizational Climate Survey (DEOCS) for fiscal year 2016 by commanders across the Department

  10. Unanswered clinical questions: a survey of specialists and primary care providers* (United States)

    Gunn, Bridget; Shenoy, Anant M.; Blanchard, Rebecca


    Objective With the myriad of cases presented to clinicians every day at our integrated academic health system, clinical questions are bound to arise. Clinicians need to recognize these knowledge gaps and act on them. However, for many reasons, clinicians might not seek answers to these questions. Our goal was to investigate the rationale and process behind these unanswered clinical questions. Subsequently, we explored the use of biomedical information resources among specialists and primary care providers and identified ways to promote more informed clinical decision making. Methods We conducted a survey to assess how practitioners identify and respond to information gaps, their background knowledge of search tools and strategies, and their usage of and comfort level with technology. Results Most of the 292 respondents encountered clinical questions at least a few times per week. While the vast majority often or always pursued answers, time was the biggest barrier for not following through on questions. Most respondents did not have any formal training in searching databases, were unaware of many digital resources, and indicated a need for resources and services that could be provided at the point of care. Conclusions While the reasons for unanswered clinical questions varied, thoughtful review of the responses suggested that a combination of educational strategies, embedded librarian services, and technology applications could help providers pursue answers to their clinical questions, enhance patient safety, and contribute to patient-based, self-directed learning. PMID:28096740

  11. Who Justifies Questionable Reporting Practices? Answers from a Representative Survey of Journalists in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Baugut


    Full Text Available Based on a secondary analysis of representative survey data of journalists in Germany (n= 1536, this paper draws attention to two variables that are important when it comes to explain whether journalists accept questionable reporting practices, such as paying people to obtain information or using confidential government documents without permission. First, perceived role achievement is important, as journalists who do not feel able to achieve an active role tend to accept questionable reporting practices more often. Second, however, this relationship is only true for journalists having a moderate tendency to the political left. Findings are explained by means of the theory of cognitive dissonance.

  12. Simple neck pain questions used in surveys, evaluated in relation to health outcomes: a cohort study



    Abstract Background The high prevalence of pain reported in many epidemiological studies, and the degree to which this prevalence reflects severe pain is under discussion in the literature. The aim of the present study was to evaluate use of the simple neck pain questions commonly included in large epidemiological survey studies with respect to aspects of health. We investigated if and how an increase in number of days with pain is associated with reduction in health outcomes. Methods A cohor...

  13. The effect of question wording in questionnaire surveys on placebo use in clinical practice. (United States)

    Babel, Przemyslaw


    To identify factors that contribute to the high variability of the rates of use of placebo interventions reported in questionnaire surveys, the author investigated the effect of the explicit use of the word "placebo" in questionnaire surveys on placebo use in clinical practice on the results obtained. 190 primary care physicians in Poland were divided randomly into two groups. The groups received a questionnaire in which either the word placebo or the term "nonspecific methods of treatment" was used. The respondents who were asked explicitly about the use of placebo interventions declared that they never used placebo interventions significantly more often than participants asked about the use of nonspecific treatment methods. Moreover, the former reported significantly rarer use of placebo interventions than the latter. The study demonstrates that differences in the wording of questions in questionnaire surveys on placebo use can create statistically significant differences in results.

  14. Two valuation questions in one survey: Is it a recipe for sequencing and instrument context effects? (United States)

    Giraud, K.L.; Loomis, J.B.; Johnson, R.L.


    Economic theory suggests that willingness to pay for two goods independently offered should remain unchanged when the survey instrument changes slightly. Four survey treatments consisting of comprehensive good and a subset of that good were used. The surveys alternated in the question ordering and in the embedded good which accompanied the comprehensive good. We tested for sequencing and instrument context effects using both a combined and split sample designs. In the combined sample case we found some evidence to sequencing effects in the data containing the first subset good. Likelihood ratio tests indicated that sequencing did not effect scale or location of parameters. In the test for instrument context effects, evidence was found indicating context does effect willingness to pay estimates.

  15. A Survey on the Levels of Questioning of ELT: A Case Study in an Indonesian Tertiary Education (United States)

    Ashadi, Rido Imam; Lubis, Nazriani


    This present study focused on examining the levels of questions in Indonesia tertiary education. A survey research was conducted in one of the private universities in North Sumatra. The English summative assessment in an undergraduate education was used as target of survey. There were a collection of questions that had been administered by four…

  16. 76 FR 39966 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collections: ECA/P/V Youth and Leadership Survey Questions (United States)


    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collections: ECA/P/V Youth and Leadership Survey Questions ACTION: Notice... Information Collection: ECA/P/V Youth and Leadership Programs: Pre Program Survey Questions. OMB Control.... Respondents: Participants in ECA exchange programs that focus on youth and leadership. Specifically...

  17. Can I Just Check...? Effects of Edit Check Questions on Measurement Error and Survey Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lugtig Peter


    Full Text Available Household income is difficult to measure, since it requires the collection of information about all potential income sources for each member of a household.Weassess the effects of two types of edit check questions on measurement error and survey estimates: within-wave edit checks use responses to questions earlier in the same interview to query apparent inconsistencies in responses; dependent interviewing uses responses from prior interviews to query apparent inconsistencies over time.Weuse data from three waves of the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS to assess the effects of edit checks on estimates, and data from an experimental study carried out in the context of the BHPS, where survey responses were linked to individual administrative records, to assess the effects on measurement error. The findings suggest that interviewing methods without edit checks underestimate non-labour household income in the lower tail of the income distribution. The effects on estimates derived from total household income, such as poverty rates or transition rates into and out of poverty, are small.

  18. The '10 Excess' Phenomenon in Responses to Survey Questions on Happiness. (United States)

    Brulé, Gaël; Veenhoven, Ruut


    Happiness in nations is typically measured in surveys using a single question. A common question is: 'all things considered, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days on a scale from 0 to 10?'. The responses typically follow a uni-modal distribution with highest frequencies between 5 and 8. Yet in some nations, the percentage of 10 responses stands out and is higher than the percentage of 9 responses. This is particularly present in Latin America and in the Middle East. In this paper we explore the prevalence of the '10-excess' pattern and check some possible explanations. We conclude that the 10-excess phenomenon is partly due to cultural influence.

  19. Simple neck pain questions used in surveys, evaluated in relation to health outcomes: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimby-Ekman Anna


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high prevalence of pain reported in many epidemiological studies, and the degree to which this prevalence reflects severe pain is under discussion in the literature. The aim of the present study was to evaluate use of the simple neck pain questions commonly included in large epidemiological survey studies with respect to aspects of health. We investigated if and how an increase in number of days with pain is associated with reduction in health outcomes. Methods A cohort of university students (baseline age 19–25 years were recruited in 2002 and followed annually for 4 years. The baseline response rate was 69% which resulted in 1200 respondents (627 women, 573 men. Participants were asked about present and past pain and perceptions of their general health, sleep disturbance, stress and energy levels, and general performance. The data were analyzed using a mixed model for repeated measurements and a random intercept logistic model. Results When reporting present pain, participants also reported lower prevalence of very good health, higher stress and sleep disturbance scores and lower energy score. Among those with current neck pain, additional questions characterizing the pain such as duration (categorized, additional pain sites and decreased general performance were associated with lower probability of very good health and higher amounts of sleep disturbance. Knowing about the presence or not of pain explains more of the variation in health between individuals, than within individuals. Conclusion This study of young university students has demonstrated that simple neck pain survey questions capture features of pain that affect aspects of health such as perceived general health, sleep disturbance, mood in terms of stress and energy. Simple pain questions are more useful for group descriptions than for describing or following pain in an individual.

  20. A question of finding harmony: a grounded theory study of clinical psychologists' experience of addressing spiritual beliefs in therapy. (United States)

    Crossley, Jon P; Salter, Denis P


    In spite of the increasing emphasis upon spirituality in the psychological literature, research continues to highlight concerns that issues relating to spirituality are regularly overlooked within a therapeutic setting. The aim of the current study was to develop an account of the way in which clinical psychologists understand and address spirituality within therapy. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight clinical psychologists. The transcripts were analysed using the qualitative methodology of grounded theory, which also informed the data collection process. Two core categories were developed and termed spirituality as an elusive concept and finding harmony with spiritual beliefs. The diversity of meaning surrounding spirituality and the relative lack of engagement was found to create difficulty for constructing spirituality coherently as a concept. When specifically considering methods for identifying and addressing spiritual beliefs, contrasting approaches were identified. This diversity in understanding and approach has implications for the process and outcome of therapy, which are discussed in detail. Recommendations are suggested for developing spirituality as a more coherent and accessible concept, both within professional dialogue and the therapeutic context.

  1. DNA methylation and triplet repeat stability: New proposals addressing actual questions on the CGG repeat of fragile X syndrome

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    Woehrle, D.; Schwemmle, S.; Steinbach, P. [Univ. of Ulm (Germany)


    Methylation of expanded CGG repeats in the FMR1 gene may well have different consequences. One is that methylation, extending into upstream regulatory elements, could lead to gene inactivation. Another effect of methylation, which we have obtained evidence for, could be stabilization of the repeat sequence and even prevention of premutations from expansion to full mutation. The full mutation of the fragile X syndrome probably occurs in an early transitional stage of embryonic development. The substrate is a maternally inherited premutation. The product usually is a mosaic pattern of full mutations detectable in early fetal life. These full mutation patterns are mitotically stable as, for instance, different somatic tissues of full mutation fetuses show identical mutation patterns. This raised the following questions: What triggers repeat expansion in that particular stage of development and what causes subsequent mitotic stability of expanded repeats? 21 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Using Reinterview and Reconciliation Methods to Design and Evaluate Survey Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy E. Morton


    Full Text Available Conducting reinterviews is an effective method to estimate and reduce response errors in interview surveys. As part of the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000 (SHPPS, RTI used reinterview methods to assist in designing and evaluating survey questions. Reinterviews were conducted in the field test with selected respondents to identify discrepancies between the original interviews and reinterviews. Reconciliation interviews were then conducted to determine the reasons for the discrepancies in terms of comprehension, recall, encoding, response options, or other problems. In this paper, we describe the design of the reinterview and reconciliation study and discuss the implications of using these methods for questionnaire design and evaluation, specifically in comparison to cognitive interviewing.

  3. An Evaluation of Incentive Experiments in a Two-Phase Address-Based Sample Mail Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daifeng Han


    Full Text Available Address-based sampling (ABS with a two-phase data collection approach has emerged as a promising alternative to random digit dial (RDD surveys for studying specific subpopulations in the United States. In 2011, the National Household Education Surveys Program Field Test used a two-phase ABS design with a postal or mail screener to identify households with eligible children and a mail topical questionnaire administered to parents of sampled children to collect measures of interest. Experiments with prepaid cash incentives and special mail delivery methods were applied in both phases. For the screener, sampled addresses were randomly designated to receive either $2 or $5 in the initial mailing. During the topical phase, incentives (ranging from $0 to $20 and delivery methods (First Class Mail or Priority Mail were assigned randomly but depended on how quickly the household had responded to the screener. The paper first evaluates the effects of incentives on response rates, and then examines incentive levels for attracting the hard-to-reach groups and improving sample composition. The impact of incentive on data collection cost is also examined.

  4. Brief Report: Attitudes about Responding to Survey Questions Concerning Childhood Sexual Abuse by Hispanic Female College Students (United States)

    Ernst, Frederick A.; Salinas, Nancy I.; Perez, Natalie


    In no studies have research participants been asked how they feel about answering questions concerning childhood sexual abuse. We have performed searches from two different search engines again and have found nothing published which specifically addresses this question in the way we have. A questionnaire about childhood sexual abuse was…

  5. Explaining topic prevalence in answers to open-ended survey questions about climate change (United States)

    Tvinnereim, Endre; Fløttum, Kjersti


    Citizens’ opinions are crucial for action on climate change, but are, owing to the complexity of the issue, diverse and potentially unformed. We contribute to the understanding of public views on climate change and to knowledge needed by decision-makers by using a new approach to analyse answers to the open survey question `what comes to mind when you hear the words `climate change’?’. We apply automated text analysis, specifically structural topic modelling, which induces distinct topics based on the relative frequencies of the words used in 2,115 responses. From these data, originating from the new, nationally representative Norwegian Citizen Panel, four distinct topics emerge: Weather/Ice, Future/Impact, Money/Consumption and Attribution. We find that Norwegians emphasize societal aspects of climate change more than do respondents in previous US and UK studies. Furthermore, variables that explain variation in closed questions, such as gender and education, yield different and surprising results when employed to explain variation in what respondents emphasize. Finally, the sharp distinction between scepticism and acceptance of conventional climate science, often seen in previous studies, blurs in many textual responses as scepticism frequently turns into ambivalence.

  6. Fluid management in burn patients: results from a European survey-more questions than answers. (United States)

    Boldt, Joachim; Papsdorf, Michael


    Many strategies were proposed for fluid management in burn patients with different composition containing saline solution, colloids, or plasma. The actual clinical use of volume replacement regimen in burn patients in Europe was analysed by an international survey. A total of 187 questionnaires consisting of 20 multiple-choice questions were sent to 187 burn units listed by the European Burn Association. The response rate was 43%. The answers came from a total of 20 European countries. Volume replacement is mostly exclusively with crystalloids (always: 58%; often: 28%). The majority still use fixed formulae: 12% always use the traditional Baxter formula, in 50% modifications of this formula are used. The most often used colloid is albumin (always: 17%, often: 38%), followed by HES (always: 4%, often: 34%). Gelatins, dextrans, and hypertonic saline are used only very rarely. Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) is given in 12% of the units as the colloid of choice. Albumin was named most often to be able to improve patients' outcome (64%), followed by HES (53%), and the exclusive use of crystalloids (45%). Central venous pressure (CVP) is most often used to monitor volume therapy (35%), followed by the PiCCO-system (23%), and mixed-venous saturation (ScVO2; 10%). It is concluded that the kind of volume therapy differs widely among European burn units. This survey supported that no generally accepted volume replacement strategy in burn patients exists. New results, e.g. importance of goal-directed therapy or data concerning use of albumin in the critically ill, have not yet influenced strategies of volume replacement in the burn patient.

  7. The effect of question order on self-rated general health status in a multilingual survey context. (United States)

    Lee, Sunghee; Grant, David


    Current practices recommend placing a self-rated health question before specific health items in survey questionnaires to minimize potential order effects. Because this recommendation is based on data collected in English, its applicability to other languages is unknown. This study examines whether there is an order effect associated with self-rated health for interviews conducted in English and Spanish languages. An experiment was conducted by using the 2007 California Health Interview Survey, where questions on self-rated health were inserted in 1 of 2 locations: preceding and following question items on specific chronic conditions. Respondents were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 versions of the locations by the split-half method. Although no order effect was present in the English interviews, the authors found a significant and large effect with Spanish interviews: Self-rated health appeared much worse when asked before chronic conditions than when asked after them. This order effect was larger among females than males. Order effects for self-rated health differ by interview language; inferences about the health status of Spanish-speaking populations (and potentially Latinos) depend on question order. If maintaining comparability is important, the authors' finding contradicts current recommendations, as inserting the self-rated health question before specific questions led to larger differences in health status between English and Spanish speakers.

  8. Unanswered clinical questions: a survey of specialists and primary care providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Brassil, MSLS, MAT, AHIP


    Conclusions: While the reasons for unanswered clinical questions varied, thoughtful review of the responses suggested that a combination of educational strategies, embedded librarian services, and technology applications could help providers pursue answers to their clinical questions, enhance patient safety, and contribute to patient-based, self-directed learning.

  9. Making sense of sexual orientation measures: findings from a cognitive processing study with adolescents on health survey questions. (United States)

    Austin, S Bryn; Conron, Kerith; Patel, Aarti; Freedner, Naomi


    To carry out a study using cognitive processing interview methods to explore ways in which adolescents understand sexual orientation questions currently used on epidemiologic surveys. In-depth, individual interviews were conducted to probe cognitive processes involved in answering four self-report survey questions assessing sexual identity, sexual attraction, and sex of sexual partners.A semi-structured interview guide was used to explore variation in question interpretation, information retrieval patterns and problems, item clarity, valence of reactions to items (positive, negative, neutral), respondent burden, and perceived threat associated with the measures. Thirty adolescents aged 15 to 21 of diverse sexual orientations and race/ethnicities participated in the study, including female, male, and transgender youth. A question on sexual attraction was the most consistently understood and thus was easy for nearly all youth to answer. In contrast, a measure of sexual identity with options heterosexual, bisexual, gay/lesbian, and unsure was the most difficult to answer. Most preferred a sexual identity item that also provided the intermediate options mostly heterosexual and mostly homosexual, which many said reflected their experience of feeling between categories. Participants had varying and inconsistent interpretations of sexual behavior terms, such as sex and sexual intercourse, used in assessing the sex of sexual partners. Differences in understanding could affect interpretation of survey data in important ways. Development of valid measures of sexual orientation will be essential to better monitor health disparities.

  10. Surveys on attitudes towards legalisation of euthanasia: importance of question phrasing


    Hagelin, J.; Nilstun, T.; Hau, J; Carlsson, H


    Methods: Results were compared from two different surveys in populations with similar characteristics. The alternatives "positive", "negative", and "don't know" (first questionnaire) were replaced with an explanatory text, "no legal sanction", four types of legal sanctions, and no possibility to answer "don't know" (second questionnaire). Four undergraduate student groups (engineering, law, medicine, and nursing) answered.

  11. Surveys on attitudes towards legalisation of euthanasia: importance of question phrasing (United States)

    Hagelin, J; Nilstun, T; Hau, J; Carlsson, H


    Methods: Results were compared from two different surveys in populations with similar characteristics. The alternatives "positive", "negative", and "don't know" (first questionnaire) were replaced with an explanatory text, "no legal sanction", four types of legal sanctions, and no possibility to answer "don't know" (second questionnaire). Four undergraduate student groups (engineering, law, medicine, and nursing) answered. Results: In the first questionnaire (n = 684) 43% accepted euthanasia (range 28–50%), 14% (8–33%) did not, and 43% (39–59%) answered "don't know". Two per cent of the respondents declined to answer. In comparison with previous surveys on attitudes to euthanasia the proportion of "don't know" was large. The results of the second questionnaire (n = 639), showed that 38% favoured "no legal prosecution" (26–50%). However, 62% (50–74%) opted for different kinds of legal sanctions, and two of four groups expressed significantly different views in the two surveys. A proportion of 10% declined to answer the second questionnaire. Conclusion: An introduction of an explanatory text and a wider range of response alternatives produced differences between the results of the two surveys conducted. PMID:15574435

  12. 'Asking the Right Question'. A Comparison of Two Approaches to Gathering Data on 'Herbals' Use in Survey Based Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S McLay

    Full Text Available Over the last decade academic interest in the prevalence and nature of herbal medicines use by pregnant women has increased significantly. Such data are usually collected by means of an administered questionnaire survey, however a key methodological limitation using this approach is the need to clearly define the scope of 'herbals' to be investigated. The majority of published studies in this area neither define 'herbals' nor provide a detailed checklist naming specific 'herbals' and CAM modalities, which limits inter-study comparison, generalisability and the potential for meta-analyses. The aim of this study was to compare the self-reported use of herbs, herbal medicines and herbal products using two different approaches implemented in succession.Cross-sectional questionnaire surveys of women attending for their mid-trimester scan or attending the postnatal unit following live birth at the Royal Aberdeen Maternity Hospital, North-East Scotland. The questionnaire utilised two approaches to collect data on 'herbals' use, a single closed yes/no answer to the question "have you used herbs, herbal medicines and herbal products in the last three months"; and a request to tick which of a list of 40 'herbals' they had used in the same time period.A total of 889 responses were obtained of which 4.3% (38 answered 'yes' to herbal use via the closed question. However, using the checklist 39% (350 of respondents reported the use of one or more specific 'herbals' (p<0.0001. The 312 respondents who reported 'no' to 'herbals' use via the closed question but "yes" via the checklist consumed a total of 20 different 'herbals' (median 1, interquartile range 1-2, range 1-6.This study demonstrates that the use of a single closed question asking about the use of 'herbals', as frequently reported in published studies, may not yield valid data resulting in a gross underestimation of actual use.

  13. New Survey Questions and Estimators for Network Clustering with Respondent-Driven Sampling Data

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    Verdery, Ashton M; Siripong, Nalyn; Abdesselam, Kahina; Bauldry, Shawn


    Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a popular method for sampling hard-to-survey populations that leverages social network connections through peer recruitment. While RDS is most frequently applied to estimate the prevalence of infections and risk behaviors of interest to public health, like HIV/AIDS or condom use, it is rarely used to draw inferences about the structural properties of social networks among such populations because it does not typically collect the necessary data. Drawing on recent advances in computer science, we introduce a set of data collection instruments and RDS estimators for network clustering, an important topological property that has been linked to a network's potential for diffusion of information, disease, and health behaviors. We use simulations to explore how these estimators, originally developed for random walk samples of computer networks, perform when applied to RDS samples with characteristics encountered in realistic field settings that depart from random walks. In partic...

  14. Anthropological and demographic dimensions of the Kurdish question: Findings from census and survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Zeyneloğlu


    Full Text Available Within this study, demographic and anthropological differences between the Kurdish group and the rest of the Turkish population are presented while existing approaches on the Kurdish question based on economic and political factors are critically evaluated. Using results of the 1945 Census an inventory of all language groups in Turkey is given together with their respective ‘literacy rates’ and ‘prevalence of knowledge of Turkish’, which reveal temporal differences in terms of entrance into the demographic transition and give hints as to why some ethnic groups have adopted the Turkish identity while some other groups have remained outside the ‘Turkish core’. Recent data from the TDHS, on the other hand, is used to analyze ‘fertility’ and ‘prevalence of consanguineous marriages’ among the Kurdish population. While Kurds who use Turkish as either main or second language converge to the rest of the population in terms of both fertility decline and the matrilateral swing among consanguineous marriages, among Kurds who do not speak Turkish at all the mentioned rates increase in the opposite direction. The Turkish and Kurdish family structures are evaluated within the framework of Emmanuel Todd’s family types with special consideration on the effects of consanguineous marriages and the patrilateral inclination among these on the status of women.

  15. Addressing Thermal Model Run Time Concerns of the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope using Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) (United States)

    Peabody, Hume; Guerrero, Sergio; Hawk, John; Rodriguez, Juan; McDonald, Carson; Jackson, Cliff


    The Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope using Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) utilizes an existing 2.4 m diameter Hubble sized telescope donated from elsewhere in the federal government for near-infrared sky surveys and Exoplanet searches to answer crucial questions about the universe and dark energy. The WFIRST design continues to increase in maturity, detail, and complexity with each design cycle leading to a Mission Concept Review and entrance to the Mission Formulation Phase. Each cycle has required a Structural-Thermal-Optical-Performance (STOP) analysis to ensure the design can meet the stringent pointing and stability requirements. As such, the models have also grown in size and complexity leading to increased model run time. This paper addresses efforts to reduce the run time while still maintaining sufficient accuracy for STOP analyses. A technique was developed to identify slews between observing orientations that were sufficiently different to warrant recalculation of the environmental fluxes to reduce the total number of radiation calculation points. The inclusion of a cryocooler fluid loop in the model also forced smaller time-steps than desired, which greatly increases the overall run time. The analysis of this fluid model required mitigation to drive the run time down by solving portions of the model at different time scales. Lastly, investigations were made into the impact of the removal of small radiation couplings on run time and accuracy. Use of these techniques allowed the models to produce meaningful results within reasonable run times to meet project schedule deadlines.

  16. Homogenizing Responses to Different Survey Questions on the Same Topic: Proposal of a Scale Homogenization Method Using a Reference Distribution. (United States)

    de Jonge, Tineke; Veenhoven, Ruut; Arends, Lidia


    Survey data are often used for comparison purposes, such as comparisons across nations or comparisons over time. To be effective, this would require equivalent questions and equivalent responses options to the questions. Yet there is a lot of variation in the response scales used, which, for example, differ in the number of response options used and the labeling of these options. This is the case in happiness research, and as a result most of the research data in this field is incomparable. Several methods have been proposed to transform ratings on verbal response scales to a common numerical scale, typically ranging from 0 to 10. In this paper we give an overview of the progress made in those Scale Homogenization methods over time. We describe two early methods: Linear Stretch and the Semantic Judgement of Fixed Word Value Method. Next we discuss the Semantic Judgement of Word Value in Context Method in more detail. Based on these discussions we propose a new Reference Distribution Method. We apply the Semantic Judgement of Word Value in Context and the Reference Distribution Methods to data on happiness in The Netherlands for the years 1989-2009. We show that the Reference Distribution Method produces comparable time series on different questions and that it allows discontinuities in data to be corrected.

  17. Delphi survey to identify topics to be addressed at the initial follow-up consultation after oesophageal cancer surgery. (United States)

    Jacobs, M; Henselmans, I; Macefield, R C; Blencowe, N S; Smets, E M A; de Haes, J C J M; Sprangers, M A G; Blazeby, J M; van Berge Henegouwen, M I


    There is no consensus among patients and healthcare professionals (HCPs) on the topics that need to be addressed after oesophageal cancer surgery. The aim of this study was to identify these topics, using a two-round Delphi survey. In round 1, patients and HCPs (surgeons, dieticians, nurses) were invited to rate the importance of 49 topics. The proportion of panellists that considered a topic to be of low, moderate or high importance was then calculated for each of these two groups. Based on these proportions and the i.q.r., topics were categorized as: 'consensus to be included', 'consensus to be excluded' and 'no consensus'. Only topics in the first category were included in the second round. In round 2, panellists were provided with individual and group feedback. To be included in the final list, topics had to meet criteria for consensus and stability. There were 108 patients and 77 HCPs in the round 2 analyses. In general, patients and HCPs considered the same topics important. The final list included 23 topics and revealed that it was most important to address: cancer removed/lymph nodes, the new oesophagus, eating and drinking, surgery, alarming new complaints and the recovery period. The study provides surgeons with a list of topics selected by patients and HCPs that may be addressed systematically at the initial follow-up consultation after oesophageal cancer surgery. © 2014 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Internet Research: The Question of Method - A Keynote Address from the YouTube and the 2008 Election Cycle in the United States Conference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, R.


    Digital studies on culture may be distinguished from cultural studies of the digital, at least in terms of method. This lecture takes up the question of the distinctiveness of "digital methods" for researching Internet cultures. It asks, initially, should the methods of study change, however slightl

  19. Using a cognitive architecture for addressing the question of cognitive universals in cross-cultural psychology: The example of awalé



    A central theme in cross-cultural psychology is the extent to which cognitive mechanisms are universal, or, alternatively, are specific to a given culture. We propose a new way to tackle this question: to use the same cognitive architecture, implemented as a computer program, for simulating phenomena in which individuals from different cultures perform a task familiar to their own culture. The CHREST architecture (Gobet et al., 2001; Gobet & Simon, 2000) has simulated a number of empirical ph...

  20. Female Genital Mutilation in Sierra Leone: Forms, Reliability of Reported Status, and Accuracy of Related Demographic and Health Survey Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owolabi Bjälkander


    Full Text Available Objective. To determine forms of female genital mutilation (FGM, assess consistency between self-reported and observed FGM status, and assess the accuracy of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS FGM questions in Sierra Leone. Methods. This cross-sectional study, conducted between October 2010 and April 2012, enrolled 558 females aged 12–47 from eleven antenatal clinics in northeast Sierra Leone. Data on demography, FGM status, and self-reported anatomical descriptions were collected. Genital inspection confirmed the occurrence and extent of cutting. Results. All participants reported FGM status; 4 refused genital inspection. Using the WHO classification of FGM, 31.7% had type Ib; 64.1% type IIb; and 4.2% type IIc. There was a high level of agreement between reported and observed FGM prevalence (81.2% and 81.4%, resp.. There was no correlation between DHS FGM responses and anatomic extent of cutting, as 2.7% reported pricking; 87.1% flesh removal; and 1.1% that genitalia was sewn closed. Conclusion. Types I and II are the main forms of FGM, with labia majora alterations in almost 5% of cases. Self-reports on FGM status could serve as a proxy measurement for FGM prevalence but not for FGM type. The DHS FGM questions are inaccurate for determining cutting extent.

  1. Translating Answers to Open-Ended Survey Questions in Cross-Cultural Research: A Case Study on the Interplay between Translation, Coding, and Analysis (United States)

    Behr, Dorothée


    Open-ended probing questions in cross-cultural surveys help uncover equivalence problems in cross-cultural survey research. For languages that a project team does not understand, probe answers need to be translated into a common project language. This article presents a case study on translating open-ended, that is, narrative answers. It describes…

  2. Why "What Data Are Necessary for This Project?" and Other Basic Questions are Important to Address in Public Health Informatics Practice and Research. (United States)

    Dixon, Brian E; Grannis, Shaun J


    Despite the likelihood of poor quality data flowing from clinical information systems to public health information systems, current policies and practices are pushing for the adoption and use of even greater numbers of electronic data feeds. However, using poor data can lead to poor decision-making outcomes in public health. Therefore public health informatics professionals need to assess, and periodically re-evaluate, the quality of electronic data and their sources. Unfortunately there is currently a paucity of tools and strategies in use across public health agencies. Our Center of Excellence in Public Health Informatics is working to develop and disseminate tools and strategies for supporting on-going assessment of data quality and solutions for overcoming data quality challenges. In this article, we outline the need for better data quality assessment and our approach to the development of new tools and strategies. In other words, public health informatics professionals need to ask questions about the electronic data received by public health agencies, and we hope to create tools and strategies to help informaticians ask questions that will lead to improved population health outcomes.

  3. Addressing Decadal Survey Science through Community Access to Highly Multiplexed Spectroscopy with BigBOSS on the KPNO Mayall Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Pilachowski, Caty; Bailey, Stephen; Barth, Aaron; Beaton, Rachel; Bell, Eric; Bernstein, Rebecca; Bian, Fuyan; Blanton, Michael; Blum, Robert; Bolton, Adam; Bond, Howard; Brodwin, Mark; Bullock, James; Carlin, Jeff; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Cinabro, David; Cooper, Michael; Cota, Jorge L C; Davis, Marc; Dawson, Kyle; Dey, Arjun; Donahue, Megan; Drake, Jeremy; Ellingson, Erica; Faccioli, Lorenzo; Fan, Xiaohui; Ferguson, Harry; Gawiser, Eric; Geha, Marla; Giavalisco, Mauro; Gonzalez, Anthony; Griest, Kim; Grossan, Bruce; Guhathakurta, Raja; Harding, Paul; Heap, Sara R; Ho, Shirley; Howell, Steve; Jannuzi, Buell; Kalirai, Jason; Keeney, Brian; Kewley, Lisa; Kong, Xu; Lampton, Michael; Lin, Wei-Peng; de la Macorra, Axel; Macri, Lucas; Majewski, Steve; Martini, Paul; Massey, Phil; McSwain, Virginia; Miller, Adam A; Minniti, Dante; Modjaz, Maryam; Morrison, Heather; Moustakas, John; Myers, Adam; Najita, Joan; Newman, Jeffrey; Norman, Dara; Olsen, Knut; Pierce, Michael; Pope, Alexandra; Prescott, Moire; Reddy, Naveen; Reil, Kevin; Rest, Armin; Rhode, Katherine; Rockosi, Connie; Rudnick, Greg; Saha, Abhijit; Salzer, John; Sanders, David; Schlegel, David; Sesar, Branimir; Shields, Joseph; Silverman, Jeffrey; Simon, Josh; Stanford, Adam; Stern, Daniel; Storrie-Lombardi, Lisa; Suntzeff, Nicholas; Surace, Jason; Szalay, Alex; Ulmer, Melville; Weiner, Ben; Willman, Beth; Windhorst, Rogier; Wood-Vasey, Michael


    This document summarizes the results of a community-based discussion of the potential science impact of the Mayall+BigBOSS highly multiplexed multi-object spectroscopic capability. The KPNO Mayall 4m telescope equipped with the DOE- and internationally-funded BigBOSS spectrograph offers one of the most cost-efficient ways of accomplishing many of the pressing scientific goals identified for this decade by the "New Worlds, New Horizons" report. The BigBOSS Key Project will place unprecedented constraints on cosmological parameters related to the expansion history of the universe. With the addition of an open (publicly funded) community access component, the scientific impact of BigBOSS can be extended to many important astrophysical questions related to the origin and evolution of galaxies, stars, and the IGM. Massive spectroscopy is the critical missing ingredient in numerous ongoing and planned ground- and space-based surveys, and BigBOSS is unique in its ability to provide this to the US community. BigBOSS ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harnanik Harnanik


    Full Text Available Students need to understand the concepts of Human Resources Management (HRM because it is very useful in the job world. Unfotunately, the fact showed that students were less enhusiastic in teaching and learning process of the subject. The promblem of this research was: 1 did the SQ3R method improve students’ understanding to the concept of HRM? Thus; the objective of the research was: 1 to improve the quality of HRM learning, to improve students’ enthusiasm in learning the subject, to upgrade the lecturer’s skill in developing the learning model media also to improve students’ achievement. It was a class action researchconsisted of three cycles. The result of research showed that the students’ achievement were better on each cycle. The complete learning before applying the SQ3R methode was only 0%. It increased up to 8% after applying the SQ3R methode. Furthermore, the students’ enthusiasm, livelinnes and cooperation (the ranges are among 1-4 were at good category (3.2. Similarly, the result averages of the lecturer’s skill in teaching HRM were 3.2 from the 1st cycle, 2nd cycle, and 3rd cycle by applying the SQ3R method. Based on the results above, it is suggested: 1 for the lecturers of HRM to implement the SQ3R method in teaching the subject since the method can improve students’ ability and understanding. The method gives opportunity for students to do survey, compile questions, read literature, review the concept, and discuss to other students. 2 for other researchers to continue this research on other subjects or other students.

  5. Innovate-Ideagora: Addressing Core Questions (United States)

    Easton, Denise; McCord, Alan


    In this edition of Innovate-Ideagora, Denise Easton and Alan McCord announce the consolidation of Innovate-Live, "Innovate's" venue for author webcasts, with Ideagora; webcasts will now be accessed from Ideagora, and archives will be made available through Ideagora. This change will simplify presentation and merge our multimedia presentations,…

  6. Pooling Time Series Based on Slightly Different Questions About the Same Topic Forty Years of Survey Research on Happiness and Life Satisfaction in The Netherlands. (United States)

    DeJonge, Tineke; Veenhoven, Ruut; Kalmijn, Wim; Arends, Lidia

    Survey research on subjective wellbeing in The Netherlands started in the early 1970s. The time series happiness and life satisfaction that have emerged since then are unfortunately based on slightly different survey items of which one part uses verbal response scales and another part uses numerical response scales. The diversity of the survey items and a number of other measurement issues, such as the effects of changes in survey mode, hamper comparison over time and make it difficult to establish whether life became any better over the last forty years. These problems can be tackled using the recently developed Reference Distribution Method with which responses to equivalent but not identical survey questions can be pooled to obtain long, consistent time series. We applied the Reference Distribution method to pool time series of happiness and life satisfaction. We conclude that in the past 40 years the Dutch have become slightly happier and satisfied with their lives.

  7. Insect Consumption to Address Undernutrition, a National Survey on the Prevalence of Insect Consumption among Adults and Vendors in Laos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Barennes

    Full Text Available Insect consumption (entomophagy is a potentially high nutritious and healthy source of food with high fat, protein, vitamin, fiber and micronutrient content. At least 2 billion people globally eat insects (over 1900 edible species though this habit is regarded negatively by others. There is a limited amount of data on the perception and consumption of insects. We conducted a national cross-sectional survey in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos to assess the prevalence and characteristics of insect consumption among adult lay people and insect vendors.We conducted a multi stage randomized national survey in 1303 households in 96 villages in 16 Lao provinces. Three insect vendors or collectors per village were also included. A standardized pretested questionnaire addressed the following issues: socioeconomic characteristics, type of insects consumed and frequency of consumption, reasons and trends in consumption as well as reports on side effects, over the last 10 years.A total of 1059 adults (Sex ratio F/M: 1.2, 30 ethnic groups, and 256 vendors were enrolled. A total of 1025 (96.8% lay people were currently insect consumers, 135 (13.0% daily or weekly consumers, and 322 (31.1% consumed several times per month. For the majority (575, 55.6% the consumption was infrequent (less than a few times per year and only 22 (2% had never eaten insects. Consumption started in childhood. Insect availability was seasonal (670, 63.2% and respondents would have eaten more insects, if they had been more available (919, 86.7%. Hmong and Leu ethnic groups had significantly lower consumption levels than the general population. Eggs of weaver ants, short-tailed crickets, crickets, grasshoppers, and cicadas were the top 5 insects consumed. Consumption had decreased in the last decade, mostly due to less availability (869; 84.0% and change of life (29; 5.5%. Of 1059, 80 (7.5% reported allergy problems and 106 (10.0% reported some use in traditional medicine. A

  8. Preparing Early Childhood Educators to Address Young Children's Social-Emotional Development and Challenging Behavior: A Survey of Higher Education Programs in Nine States (United States)

    Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Santos, Rosa Milagros; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.


    This article presents results from a survey of faculty members from 2- and 4-year higher education programs in nine states that prepare teachers to work with preschool children. The purpose of the study was to determine how professors address content related to social-emotional development and challenging behaviors, how well prepared they believe…

  9. License Address List (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Address list generated from National Saltwater Angler Registry. Used in conjunction with an address-based sample as per survey design.

  10. [Adolescents ask physicians on the Internet: a one-year survey of adolescents' questions on health issues in an Internet forum]. (United States)

    Hardoff, Daniel; Friedman, Rina; Pilo, Nurit; Friedman, Fernando; Greilsammer, Daniel; Rigler, Shmuel


    During the past decade, the internet has become a major information resource in various domains of life and a communication venue among young people and adolescents who seek health information via the internet. Until now, the contents of Israeli adolescents' questions regarding health issues on internet sites have not been published. (1) A survey of the characteristics of adolescents who seek health information and their questions presented to the Ynet forum "The body during adolescence". In this forum physicians experienced in adolescent medicine respond to these questions and to comments of other forum participants. (2) Presentation of problematic issues in professionals' responses to health questions in the internet. Survey of a representative sample of contacts to the Ynet forum "The body during adolescence" during 2009 gathering information on gender and age of contacting person, parents' contacts, contacts' contents and physicians responses. A total of 412 contacts were surveyed, 210 (51%) females, aged 14-17 years--60%, 10-13 years--17% and 18-21 years 15%. Parents' questions appeared in 39 (9%) of contacts. Of all contacts, 44% related to sexuality issues and 17% related to self image and body composition. The physicians provided complete responses to 60% of the contacts, while in 40% the physician's responses included referral to clinical medical consultation. An internet health forum enables adolescents and parents to ask questions and raise doubts and anxieties regarding various health issues without the fear of being exposed and enables them to express their concerns face-to-face with a healthcare provider Sensitive issues regarding sexuality and self-image, which are not raised frequently during clinical encounters, are expressed and receive professional responses in the forum. Notwithstanding the significance of a rapid professional contribution, physicians responding to contacts in internet forums need to recognize the barrier related to professional

  11. Survey of Memory Address Leakage and Its Defense%内存地址泄漏分析与防御

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅建明; 刘秀文; 汤毅; 李鹏伟


    With memory address leakage , an attacker can bypass ALSR (address space layout randomization) mechanism ,deploy ROP(return‐oriented programming) chains to close the DEP (data execution prevention) ,and divert the program to execute Shellcode .With regard to memory address leakage , this paper gathers the related information of vulnerability instances , presents the classification of vulnerabilities resulting in memory address leakage based on the procedure of memory leakage .The paper analyzes all kinds of illegal operations of pointer or object which cause the operation of cross‐border memory access , as well as side‐channel information leakage .In the meantime ,this paper divids the defense methods of memory address leakage into four categories according to the procedure of memory corruption attacks ,including memory layout randomization , object border protection ,object content protection ,and the critical address information randomization .And these protections make memory layout vague ,memory object unavailable ,memory object unreadable and critical memory address untraceable . Finally , this paper points out that we need to provide support of memory layout randomization , fine‐grained memory address randomization and object content protection in perspective of programming design ,adapting the operating system to establish collaborative defense mechanism in order to build robust defense system in depth .%高级持续性威胁(advanced persistent threat ,APT )攻击通常会利用内存地址泄漏绕过地址空间布局随机化(address space layout randomization ,ASLR)、利用面向返回编程技术(return‐oriented programming ,ROP)绕过数据执行保护(data execution prevention ,DEP)。针对内存地址泄漏漏洞,以漏洞实例为样本,剖析了各种造成越界内存访问的指针或对象的非法操作,以及侧信道信息泄漏漏洞,并基于造成内存泄漏的过程,给

  12. Survey on Protocols addressing Head of Line Blocking Problem in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks using Directional Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Head of Line blocking phenomenon is common in First in First Out (FIFO nature queues. Head of line blocking problem becomes significant in wireless ad hoc networks using directional antennas as it uses FIFO queue which consists of packets intended for different directions. A packet on the top of the queue may block the remaining packets if it finds the medium busy in its intended direction, where as the packets in the queue intended for other directions may find the medium to be idle. Very few of the MAC protocols for ad hoc networks using directional antennas have addressed this problem. In this paper we will exploit the Head of Line Blocking problem and review the protocols that have addressed the head of Line Blocking Problem.

  13. Avaliação psicométrica de três questionários sobre o historial familiar Evaluation of psychometric properties of three questionnaires addressing early experiences in family context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivandro Soares Monteiro


    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A família é a arena primária na qual a criança desenvolve a sua sociabilização. As experiências tidas neste sistema podem constituir um factor protector ou de risco, contribuindo para a sua vulnerabilidade ou resiliência diante de desordens mentais quando adulto. A avaliação da história familiar de experiências emocionais relevantes é problemática, e o uso de instrumentos psicométricos pode auxiliar a superar certas limitações metodológicas. OBJECTIVOS: Desenvolver três subquestionários para avaliação das experiências emocionais decorridas no contexto familiar da infância até a adolescência. Esses instrumentos são adaptações para o português do Family Background Questionnaire (FBQ tratando dos cuidados paliativos e do ambiente familiar e são administrados retrospectivamente a adultos. MÉTODOS: Três versões do FBQ que tratam de (1 cuidados paternos, (2 cuidados maternos e (3 ambiente familiar foram produzidas. Os questionários foram aplicados a 280 participantes. A avaliação das propriedades psicométricas desses questionários teve como base a determinação da consistência interna, análise factorial e correlação de Spearman. RESULTADOS: Os três questionários mostraram-se adequados para avaliação de seus respectivos domínios. CONCLUSÕES: A avaliação objetiva das primeiras experiências emocionais no contexto familiar produz insights importantes para a compreensão do desenvolvimento psicológico, com implicações clínicas e de investigação.BACKGROUND: Family is the primary setting where children develop their social skills. Early experiences may represent protective or risk factors that interact with their vulnerability to or resilience against mental disorders in adulthood. The assessment of the family history of relevant emotional experiences is problematic, and the use of psychometric instruments may help overcome certain methodological limitations. OBJECTIVES: To develop three

  14. Detecting temporal change in freshwater fisheries surveys: statistical power and the important linkages between management questions and monitoring objectives (United States)

    Wagner, Tyler; Irwin, Brian J.; James R. Bence,; Daniel B. Hayes,


    Monitoring to detect temporal trends in biological and habitat indices is a critical component of fisheries management. Thus, it is important that management objectives are linked to monitoring objectives. This linkage requires a definition of what constitutes a management-relevant “temporal trend.” It is also important to develop expectations for the amount of time required to detect a trend (i.e., statistical power) and for choosing an appropriate statistical model for analysis. We provide an overview of temporal trends commonly encountered in fisheries management, review published studies that evaluated statistical power of long-term trend detection, and illustrate dynamic linear models in a Bayesian context, as an additional analytical approach focused on shorter term change. We show that monitoring programs generally have low statistical power for detecting linear temporal trends and argue that often management should be focused on different definitions of trends, some of which can be better addressed by alternative analytical approaches.

  15. Inaugural address (United States)

    Joshi, P. S.


    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  16. Using Short Dietary Questions to Develop Indicators of Dietary Behaviour for Use in Surveys Exploring Attitudinal and/or Behavioural Aspects of Dietary Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Daly


    Full Text Available For countries where nutrition surveys are infrequent, there is a need to have some measure of healthful eating to plan and evaluate interventions. This study shows how it is possible to develop healthful eating indicators based on dietary guidelines from a cross sectional population survey. Adults 18 to 64 years answered questions about the type and amount of foods eaten the previous day, including fruit, vegetables, cereals, dairy, fish or meat and fluids. Scores were based on serves and types of food according to an established method. Factor analysis indicated two factors, confirmed by structural equation modeling: a recommended food healthful eating indicator (RF_HEI and a discretionary food healthful eating indicator (DF_HEI. Both yield mean scores similar to an established dietary index validated against nutrient intake. Significant associations for the RF_HEI were education, income, ability to save, and attitude toward diet; and for the DF_HEI, gender, not living alone, living in a socially disadvantaged area, and attitude toward diet. The results confirm that short dietary questions can be used to develop healthful eating indicators against dietary recommendations. This will enable the exploration of dietary behaviours for “at risk” groups, such as those with excess weight, leading to more relevant interventions for populations.

  17. Questioning Techniques. (United States)

    Patterson, Michelle


    Questions are so much a part of the classroom routine and they should stimulate learning and thinking. Introduces the Questioning and Understanding to Improve Learning and Thinking (QUILT) method which incorporates Bloom's Taxonomy and wait time. (ASK)

  18. Curiosity Questions (United States)

    Nelsen, Jane; DeLorenzo, Chip


    Have you ever found yourself lecturing a child, with the best of intentions, in an attempt to help him or her learn a lesson or process a situation in a manner that you feel will be productive? Curiosity questions, which the authors also call What and How questions, help children process an experience, event, or natural consequence so that they…

  19. A Comparison of the Cheater Detection and the Unrelated Question Models: A Randomized Response Survey on Physical and Cognitive Doping in Recreational Triathletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Schröter

    Full Text Available This study assessed the prevalence of physical and cognitive doping in recreational triathletes with two different randomized response models, that is, the Cheater Detection Model (CDM and the Unrelated Question Model (UQM. Since both models have been employed in assessing doping, the major objective of this study was to investigate whether the estimates of these two models converge.An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to 2,967 athletes at two triathlon events (Frankfurt and Wiesbaden, Germany. Doping behavior was assessed either with the CDM (Frankfurt sample, one Wiesbaden subsample or the UQM (one Wiesbaden subsample. A generalized likelihood-ratio test was employed to check whether the prevalence estimates differed significantly between models. In addition, we compared the prevalence rates of the present survey with those of a previous study on a comparable sample.After exclusion of incomplete questionnaires and outliers, the data of 2,017 athletes entered the final data analysis. Twelve-month prevalence for physical doping ranged from 4% (Wiesbaden, CDM and UQM to 12% (Frankfurt CDM, and for cognitive doping from 1% (Wiesbaden, CDM to 9% (Frankfurt CDM. The generalized likelihood-ratio test indicated no differences in prevalence rates between the two methods. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in prevalences between the present (undertaken in 2014 and the previous survey (undertaken in 2011, although the estimates tended to be smaller in the present survey.The results suggest that the two models can provide converging prevalence estimates. The high rate of cheaters estimated by the CDM, however, suggests that the present results must be seen as a lower bound and that the true prevalence of doping might be considerably higher.

  20. In-Situ Radiological Surveys to Address Nuclear Criticality Safety Requirements During Remediation Activities at the Shallow Land Disposal Area, Armstrong County, Pennsylvania - 12268

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, Phillip; Mihalo, Mark; Eberlin, John; Lambert, Mike [Cabrera Services (United States); Matthews, Brian [Nuclear Safety Associates (United States)


    Cabrera Services Inc. (CABRERA) is the remedial contractor for the Shallow Land Disposal Area (SLDA) Site in Armstrong County Pennsylvania, a United States (US) Army Corps of Engineers - Buffalo District (USACE) contract. The remediation is being completed under the USACE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) which was established to identify, investigate, and clean up or control sites previously used by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and its predecessor, the Manhattan Engineer District (MED). As part of the management of the FUSRAP, the USACE is overseeing investigation and remediation of radiological contamination at the SLDA Site in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), 42 US Code (USC), Section 9601 et. seq, as amended and, the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP), Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Section 300.430(f) (2). The objective of this project is to clean up radioactive waste at SLDA. The radioactive waste contains special nuclear material (SNM), primarily U-235, in 10 burial trenches, Cabrera duties include processing, packaging and transporting the waste to an offsite disposal facility in accordance with the selected remedial alternative as defined in the Final Record of Decision (USACE, 2007). Of particular importance during the remediation is the need to address nuclear criticality safety (NCS) controls for the safe exhumation and management of waste containing fissile materials. The partnership between Cabrera Services, Inc. and Measutronics Corporation led to the development of a valuable survey tool and operating procedure that are essential components of the SLDA Criticality Safety and Material Control and Accountability programs. Using proven existing technologies in the design and manufacture of the Mobile Survey Cart, the continued deployment of the Cart will allow for an efficient and reliable

  1. Welcome Address


    Shantanu Sengupta


    This article is part of the NEDA-PIDS Seminar-Workshop on the Philippine System of National Accounts. It outlines the seminar’s major objectives and the problems and issues that need to be addressed. It argues that coordination among institutions can lead to effective resolution to sensitive issues.

  2. Thousand Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie; Pritchard, Helen


    In this work the network asks “If I wrote you a love letter would you write back?” Like the love letters which appeared mysteriously on the noticeboards of Manchester University’s Computer Department in the 1950s, thousands of texts circulate as computational processes perform the questions...... (perhaps as an expanded Turing test) on its listeners. These questions are extracted in real-time from Twitter with the keyword search of the ‘?’ symbol to create a spatio-temporal experience. The computerized voice the audience hears is a collective one, an entanglement of humans and non...

  3. Critical Questions. (United States)

    Worthy, Jo; Hoffman, James V.


    Offers responses from four readers of this journal, all reading and/or classroom teachers, to a question posed by another teacher: whether children who have had limited literacy experiences should start reading in whole-language readers and/or trade books or whether they should start in controlled-vocabulary preprimers. (SR)

  4. Thousand Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    (perhaps as an expanded Turing test) on its listeners. These questions are extracted in real-time from Twitter with the keyword search of the ‘?’ symbol to create a spatio-temporal experience. The computerized voice the audience hears is a collective one, an entanglement of humans and non...

  5. Addressivity in cogenerative dialogues (United States)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling


    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.

  6. My Questions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    I have many questions.I think hard and cannot find the answers.I wonder what the world is in reality.Is there any answer to the mystery of the world?I ask what it is like to be outside the earth.Are there any people on other planets1?How many planets are there in the universe?I wonder a lot about this and that.

  7. Welcome Address

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@  On behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute, I welcome you to Beijing and to the Third Asian Conference on Food Safety and Nutrition. Many of you will remember the first Asian conference on Food Safety held in Kuala Lumpur in 1990 and the second held in Bangkok in 1994. These meetings have been so successful that ILSI made the commitment to host such a conference periodically in order to provide a forum to share the latest information and to set new goals and priorities.   This year, we have broadened the scope of the agenda to include issues on nutrition. I want to thank all of our co-sponsors and members of the Planning Committee for preparing such a comprehensive and timely program. Some of the issues and challenges facing Asia that will be addressed at this meeting are:

  8. Policies and procedures related to testing for weak D phenotypes and administration of Rh immune globulin: results and recommendations related to supplemental questions in the Comprehensive Transfusion Medicine survey of the College of American Pathologists. (United States)

    Sandler, S Gerald; Roseff, Susan D; Domen, Ronald E; Shaz, Beth; Gottschall, Jerome L


    Advances in RHD genotyping offer an opportunity to update policies and practices for testing weak D phenotypes and administration of Rh immune globulin to postpartum women. To repeat questions from a 1999 College of American Pathologists proficiency test survey, to evaluate current practices for testing for weak D and administration of Rh immune globulin, and to determine whether there is an opportunity to begin integrating RHD genotyping in laboratory practice. The College of American Pathologists Transfusion Medicine Resource Committee sent questions from the 1999 survey to laboratories that participated in the 2012 proficiency test survey. The results of the 2012 survey were compared with those from 1999. Results from published RHD genotyping studies were analyzed to determine if RHD genotyping could improve current policies and practices for serological Rh typing. More than 3100 survey participants responded to the 2012 questions. The most significant finding was a decrease in the number of transfusion services performing a serological weak D test on patients as a strategy to manage those with a weak D as Rh negative (from 58.2% to 19.8%, P Rh positive. Selective integration of RHD genotyping policies and practices could improve the accuracy of Rh typing results, reduce unnecessary administration of Rh immune globulin in women with a weak D, and decrease transfusion of Rh-negative red blood cells in most recipients with a serological weak D phenotype.

  9. Stakeholders' expectations on connectivity research for water and land management addressed by a survey in the collaborative EU-COST Connecteur network (United States)

    Smetanova, Anna; Paton, Eva N.; Keesstra, Saskia


    Transfer of knowledge across the science-society interface is essential for both, ethical and economic reasons, and inevitable for successful climate change adaptation and integrated management of sustainable, resilient landscapes. The transdisciplinary research of connectivity (which is the degree to which a system facilitates the movement of matter and energy through itself. It is an emergent property of the system state, Connecteur web resources,2015) has the potential to supply monitoring, modelling and management tools to land and water managers in order to reach these goals. The research of water and sediment connectivity has received significant and increasing scientific attention across the entire realm of the environmental disciplines, and the COST Action ES 1306 Connecteur facilitates the multi-sectorial collaboration in connectivity research at EU level. In order to appropriately address the transfer of the cutting edge research developments of the Connecteur network, the collaborative research project on stakeholders' perception of connectivity was conducted by the Working Group 5 "Transition of connectivity research towards sustainable land and water management". The questionnaire survey on stakeholder perception was conducted by volunteering scientist involved in the Connecteur network together from 19 European countries. Together 84 stakeholders from all mayor sectors in water and land management were asked about the main challenges of their work, their understanding of connectivity, the desired areas of cooperation with connectivity science, and the best tools for transferring knowledge. The results showed differences between different stakeholders groups in the way they percept and work with connectivity, as well as their requirement of knowledge transfers. While farmers, and (in lower extend) the agricultural administration officers articulated no, or little need for connectivity management, the majority of stakeholders involved in land and water

  10. Presidential address. (United States)

    Vohra, U


    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  11. HPV Vaccine - Questions and Answers (United States)

    ... and Media Resources News Newsletters Events Redirect for HPV Vaccine FAQ Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... to the address below. File Formats Help: How ...

  12. Welcome Address (United States)

    Kiku, H.


    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  13. Opening Address (United States)

    Crovini, L.


    Ladies and Gentlemen To quote Mr Jean Terrien: "Physics must be one step ahead of metrology". A long-serving Director of the BIPM, he said these words when visiting the IMGC in 1970 as a member of the scientific board of our Institute. At that time it was still an open question whether the IMGC should start research work on the absolute measurement of silicon lattice spacing. Mr Terrien underlined the revolutionary character of x-ray interferometry and, eventually, he caused the balance needle to lean towards the ... right direction. Mr Terrien correctly foresaw that, like Michelson's interferometer of 1880, x-ray interferometry could have a prominent place in today's science and technology. And while, in the first case, after more than a century we can see instruments based on electromagnetic wave interaction within every one's reach in laboratories and, sometimes, in workshops, in the second case, twenty-five years since the first development of an x-ray interferometer we can witness its role in nanometrology. Today and tomorrow we meet to discuss how to go beyond the sixth decimal place in the value of the Avogadro constant. We are aware that the quest for this achievement requires the cooperation of scientists with complementary capabilities. I am sure that the present workshop is a very good opportunity to present and discuss results and to improve and extend existing cooperation. The new adjustment of fundamental constants envisaged by the CODATA Task Group is redoubling scientists' efforts to produce competitive values of NA. The results of the measurements of the silicon lattice spacing in terms of an optical wavelength, which were available for the 1986 adjustment, combined with the determination of silicon molar volume, demonstrate how such an NA determination produces a consistent set of other constants and opens the way to a possible redefinition of the kilogram. We shall see in these two days how far we have progressed along this road. For us at the

  14. Question Inventory on Tobacco (QIT) (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1965, 1966, 1970, 1974-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH). Tobacco-Related Survey Questions. The QIT is a...

  15. Question Inventory on Tobacco (QIT) (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1965, 1966, 1970, 1974-2015, 2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH). Survey Questions (Tobacco Use). The QIT is...

  16. A survey of quality and quantity indexes of multiple choice question (MCQ exams of medical residents at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences: 2008-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R pourmirza kalhori


    Full Text Available Introduction: Multiple choice questions (MCQs are widely used to assess medical residents. The study aims to analyse MCQ exams of medical residents administered at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences during 2008-2012. Method: Data of this retrospective study were extracted from 63 MCQ exams including 9600 tests. Quantity related variables included discrimination index, difficulty level, reliability of test index (KR20. Quality related variables included proportion of questions without structural defect and proportion of taxonomy 1, 2 and 3 questions. Data were collected using MCQs from question bank and analyzed by SPSS V.16 software. Results: Over the specified five years, the average difficulty level was %0.62, the average discrimination index was 0.27 and the average of reliability coefficient (KR20 in total exams was 0.88. The average of questions in Taxonomy 1 over the specified years was 33.5% and questions with taxonomy 2 and 3 were66.5%. The average of questions without structural defect was 62.6% which fell in the unacceptable range. A significant difference was observed in reliability coefficient (KR20- (P=0.017, difficulty level (P=0.001, taxonomy 1 (P=0.001 and Taxonomy 2 and 3 (P=0.006. Conclusion: According to findings of this study, taxonomy 2 and 3 were decreased and taxonomy 1 was increased over the specified five years. We recommend the specialist board members and the Deputy for Education of the Ministry of Health to consider the results of this study and react to them by improving MCQ quality of future exams.

  17. Commonly Asked Questions in Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Assael, Marc J


    Have you ever had a question that keeps persisting and for which you cannot find a clear answer? Is the question seemingly so "simple" that the problem is glossed over in most resources, or skipped entirely? CRC Press/Taylor and Francis is pleased to introduce Commonly Asked Questions in Thermodynamics, the first in a new series of books that address the questions that frequently arise in today's major scientific and technical disciplines. Designed for a wide audience, from students and researchers to practicing professionals in related areas, the books are organized in a user friend

  18. Questions about elastic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Engelbrecht, Jüri


    This book addresses the modelling of mechanical waves by asking the right questions about them and trying to find suitable answers. The questions follow the analytical sequence from elementary understandings to complicated cases, following a step-by-step path towards increased knowledge. The focus is on waves in elastic solids, although some examples also concern non-conservative cases for the sake of completeness. Special attention is paid to the understanding of the influence of microstructure, nonlinearity and internal variables in continua. With the help of many mathematical models for describing waves, physical phenomena concerning wave dispersion, nonlinear effects, emergence of solitary waves, scales and hierarchies of waves as well as the governing physical parameters are analysed. Also, the energy balance in waves and non-conservative models with energy influx are discussed. Finally, all answers are interwoven into the canvas of complexity.

  19. Inverting mobile lab spatial data to address atmospherically relevant questions (United States)

    Herndon, S. C.; Yacovitch, T. I.; Roscioli, J. R.; Magoon, G. R.; Floerchinger, C. R.; Knighton, W. B.


    Mobile laboratory data offers unprecedented ground-level temporal and spatial resolution of several kinds of emission plumes. With clusters of dedicated chemical composition instruments at high time resolution and specificity, various compound ratios can be used to distinguish plume origins. When detailed wind measurements are also acquired, it is tempting to couple the composition data into inversion models to deduce source emission strengths. Here, data from the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory, operating in Houston Ship Channel during early 2015 is examined. Emission sources are identified and quantified using atmospheric dispersion simulations using Gaussian models and an advanced SCIPUFF (Second-order Closure Integrated Puff) model. Error in these inversions is estimated using controlled releases of inert tracers over similar terrain and weather conditions. Though the inversion methods will have uncertainty in the estimate of the emission strength, the sources are typically unambiguously identified.

  20. Addressing catch mechanisms in gillnets improves modeling of selectivity and estimates of mortality rates: a case study using survey data on an endangered stock of Arctic char

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, T.; Setzer, M.; Pope, John George;


    Estimation of fish stock size distributions from survey data requires knowledge about gear selectivity. However, selectivity models rest on assumptions that seldom are analyzed. Departures from these can lead to misinterpretations and biased management recommendations. Here, we use survey data...... on great Arctic char (Salvelinus umbla) to analyze how correcting for entanglement of fish and nonisometric growth might improve estimates of selectivity curves, and subsequently estimates of size distribution and age-specific mortality. Initial selectivity curves, using the entire data set, were wide...... and asymmetric, with poor model fits. Removing potentially nonmeshed fish had the greatest positive effect on model fit, resulting in much narrower and less asymmetric selection curves, while attempting to take nonisometric growth into account, by using girth rather than length, improved model fit...

  1. Interpreting Survey Questions About Sexual Aggression in Cross-Cultural Research : A Qualitative Study with Young Adults from Nine European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krahé, Barbara; de Haas, Stans; Vanwesenbeeck, Wilhelmina; Bianchi, Gabriel; Chliaoutakis, Joannes; Fuertes, Antonio; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Hadjigeorgiou, Eleni; Hellemans, Sabine; Kouta, Christiana; Meijnckens, Dwayne; Murauskiene, Liubove; Papadakaki, Maria; Ramiro, Lucia; Reis, Marta; Symons, Katrien; Tomaszewska, Paulina; Vicario-Molina, Isabel; Zygadlo, Andrzej


    Examining equivalence in the interpretation of survey items on sexual assault by participants from different cultures is an important step toward building a valid international knowledge base about the prevalence of sexual aggression among young adults. Referring to the theoretical framework of cont

  2. Questioning Many Mysteries (United States)

    Martin, Sara F.


    The first section of this memoir queries my formative years. Indirectly I address the question, did my childhood and early years make a difference in my choice of career? Why and how did I begin my journey to becoming a scientist? Did I choose the field of solar astronomy or did circumstances dictate it for me? In the second section, I travel through my work environments and experiences, talking about interactions and aspects of being a scientist that do not appear in our research papers. What parts of my research were happenstances and what parts did I plan? What does it feel like to be on scientific quests? Using examples in my journey, I also turn to questions that have intrigued me throughout my sojourn as a solar astronomer. How do scientific discoveries come about? What factors lead to little discoveries? And what factors lead to major exciting discoveries? Are there timely questions we do not think to ask? How can small, seemingly scattered pieces of knowledge suddenly coalesce into a deeper understanding - what is called the "Aha!" experience - the times when our mental light switches on, and with child-like wonder we behold a "big picture"?

  3. Challenges in Cultivating EOSDIS User Survey Participation (United States)

    Boquist, C. L.; Sofinowski, E. J.; Walter, S.


    Since 2004 NASA has surveyed users of its Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) to determine user satisfaction with its services. The surveys have been conducted by CFI Group under contract with the Federal Consulting Group, Executive Agent in government for the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI). The purpose of these annual surveys is to help EOSDIS and the data centers assess current status and improve future services. The survey questions include demographic and experiential questions in addition to the ACSI and EOSDIS specific rating questions. In addition to customer satisfaction, analysis of each year's results has provided insight into the survey process. Although specific questions have been added, modified, or deleted to reflect changes to the EOSDIS system and processes, the model rating questions have remained the same to ensure consistency for evaluating cross year trends. Working with the CFI Group, we have refined the invitation and questions to increase clarity and address the different ways diverse groups of users access services at EOSDIS data centers. We present challenges in preparing a single set of questions that go to users with backgrounds in many Earth science disciplines. These users may have contacted any of the 12 EOSDIS data centers for information or may have accessed data or data products from many kinds of aircraft and satellite instruments. We discuss lessons learned in preparing the invitation and survey questions and the steps taken to make the survey easier to complete and to encourage increased participation.

  4. The Value Question in Metaphysics. (United States)

    Kahane, Guy


    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit-how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes.

  5. A methodology to address mixed AGN and starlight contributions in emission line galaxies found in the RESOLVE survey and ECO catalog (United States)

    Richardson, Chris T.; Kannappan, Sheila; Bittner, Ashley; Isaac, Rohan; RESOLVE


    We present a novel methodology for modeling emission line galaxy samples that span the entire BPT diagram. Our methodology has several advantages over current modeling schemes: the free variables in the model are identical for both AGN and SF galaxies; these free variables are more closely linked to observable galaxy properties; and the ionizing spectra including an AGN and starlight are handled self-consistently rather than empirically. We show that our methodology is capable of fitting the vast majority of SDSS galaxies that fall within the traditional regions of galaxy classification on the BPT diagram. We also present current results for relaxing classification boundaries and extending our galaxies into the dwarf regime, using the REsolved Spectroscopy of a Local VolumE (RESOLVE) survey and the Environmental COntext (ECO) catalog, with special attention to compact blue E/S0s. We compare this methodology to PCA decomposition of the spectra. This work is supported by National Science Foundation awards AST-0955368 and CISE/ACI-1156614.

  6. Addressing the treatment gap and societal impact of epilepsy in Rwanda--Results of a survey conducted in 2005 and subsequent actions. (United States)

    Sebera, Fidèle; Munyandamutsa, Naasson; Teuwen, Dirk E; Ndiaye, Ibrahim Pierre; Diop, Amadou Gallo; Tofighy, Azita; Boon, Paul; Dedeken, Peter


    This study, supported by the Rwandan Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization, was conducted in 2005 to determine the prevalence of epilepsy and its sociocultural perception in Rwanda, as well as epilepsy-related knowledge and practices of health-care professionals (HCPs). A cross-sectional, nationally representative survey was conducted throughout Rwanda by trained investigators. Participants were recruited by random cluster sampling based on the organization of administrative units in the country. Overall, 1137 individuals (62% from rural areas) were interviewed. The prevalence of epilepsy was estimated to be 49 per 1000 people or 41 per 1000 for active epilepsy. Onset of epilepsy before the age of 2years was reported in 32% of the cases. Family history of epilepsy, head trauma, and premature delivery were reported in 53%, 50%, and 68% of the cases, respectively. Most (68%) patients did not receive any medical treatment for epilepsy; 21.5% had received some form of traditional treatment. According to responses from the general population, people with epilepsy should not be entitled to schooling (according to 66%), to work (according to 72%), to the use of public places (according to 69%), or to marriage (according to 66%). Furthermore, 50% believed that epilepsy was untreatable, and 40% thought that it was transmissible. Of the 29 HCPs interviewed, the majority knew the definition of epilepsy and status epilepticus, as well as basic treatment options and side effects. However, 90% believed that treatment was only necessary in the first week after a seizure. Living with epilepsy was associated heavily with stigma, and a significant treatment gap (68%) was identified. Following this study, numerous actions have been taken by the Rwandan government, the Rwandan League Against Epilepsy, and several nongovernmental organizations to increase awareness about epilepsy and to close the treatment gap. An overview of these activities is provided.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...... med surveys. Denne bog gennemgår alle surveyarbejdets faser og giver en praktisk indføring i: • design af undersøgelsen og udvælgelse af stikprøver, • formulering af spørgeskemaer samt indsamling og kodning af data, • metoder til at analysere resultaterne...

  8. "Suntelligence" Survey (United States)

    ... to the American Academy of Dermatology's "Suntelligence" sun-smart survey. Please answer the following questions to measure ... be able to view a ranking of major cities suntelligence based on residents' responses to this survey. ...

  9. Trick questions: cosmopolitan hospitality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Byrne


    Full Text Available Byrne’s paper consists of two parallel texts. The first explores the limits of cosmopolitanism in practice, taking as its subject the Life in the UK Citizenship Test, inaugurated under the Labour Government in 2005. It argues that the test exemplifies the predicament of all attempts at cosmopolitan hospitality as unconditional welcoming, through a discussion of the relation between questioning and welcoming the stranger. Establishing the relationship between cosmopolitanism and hospitality as envisaged in Derrida’s reading of Kant it asks what kind of cosmopolitan hospitality is either possible or desirable by exploring what Derrida calls the ‘perversions’ inherent in the structures of hospitality. It focuses on the concept of the ‘trick questions’ that the state asks the foreigner observed by Derrida in his reading of The Apology of Socrates; questions that seem to invite answers but foreclose the possibilities of a free response. The second text asks how this logic that Derrida identifies can be pushed or coaxed into new ways of addressing the perceived threats of ‘unconditional’ hospitality through a reading of ‘unconditional hospitality’ as queer in the work of Tove Jansson.

  10. Integrated alarm annunciation and entry control systems -- Survey results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clever, J.J.; Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.; Juarros, L.E.; Quintana, G.R.


    This report provides the results and analyses of a detailed survey undertaken in Summer 1993 to address integrated intrusion detection alarm annunciation and entry control system issues. This survey was undertaken as a first attempt toward beginning to answer questions about integrated systems and commercial capabilities to meet or partially meet US Department of Energy (DOE) site needs.

  11. Allocation of expenditures within the household: A new Danish survey*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Browning, Martin

    We report on a new data initiative that is designed to address the question of “who gets what” within the household. The data consists of supplements to the Danish Expenditure Survey (DES) which is a traditional nationally representative, diary based survey of expenditures. We collect supplementa...

  12. Is the Lack of Specific Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer/Questioning (LGBTQ) Health Care Education in Medical School a Cause for Concern? Evidence From a Survey of Knowledge and Practice Among UK Medical Students. (United States)

    Parameshwaran, Vishnu; Cockbain, Beatrice C; Hillyard, Miriam; Price, Jonathan R


    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) people frequently report negative health care encounters. Medical professionals may inadequately manage LGBTQ persons' health if they have not received training in this area. An anonymous survey measuring efficacy in health situations among LGBTQ persons was answered by 166 medical students across all years of a UK university. Results show that 84.9% of participants reported a lack of LGBTQ health care education, with deficits in confidence clarifying unfamiliar sexual and gender terms, deciding the ward in which to nurse transgender patients, finding support resources, and discussing domestic abuse with LGBTQ patients. Most participants reported that they would not clarify gender pronouns or ask about gender or sexual identity in mental health or reproductive health settings. Participants reported infrequently observing doctors making similar inquiries. Participants held positive attitudes toward LGBTQ patients, with attitude scores positively correlating with LGBTQ terminology knowledge scores (rs = 0.5052, p LGBTQ patients.

  13. Allegheny County Address Points (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  14. Allegheny County Address Points (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  15. Phrasal Paraphrase Based Question Reformulation for Archived Question Retrieval. (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Lu, Ke; Ji, Rongrong; Wang, Fanglin; Liu, Ting


    Lexical gap in cQA search, resulted by the variability of languages, has been recognized as an important and widespread phenomenon. To address the problem, this paper presents a question reformulation scheme to enhance the question retrieval model by fully exploring the intelligence of paraphrase in phrase-level. It compensates for the existing paraphrasing research in a suitable granularity, which either falls into fine-grained lexical-level or coarse-grained sentence-level. Given a question in natural language, our scheme first detects the involved key-phrases by jointly integrating the corpus-dependent knowledge and question-aware cues. Next, it automatically extracts the paraphrases for each identified key-phrase utilizing multiple online translation engines, and then selects the most relevant reformulations from a large group of question rewrites, which is formed by full permutation and combination of the generated paraphrases. Extensive evaluations on a real world data set demonstrate that our model is able to characterize the complex questions and achieves promising performance as compared to the state-of-the-art methods.

  16. Phrasal Paraphrase Based Question Reformulation for Archived Question Retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    Full Text Available Lexical gap in cQA search, resulted by the variability of languages, has been recognized as an important and widespread phenomenon. To address the problem, this paper presents a question reformulation scheme to enhance the question retrieval model by fully exploring the intelligence of paraphrase in phrase-level. It compensates for the existing paraphrasing research in a suitable granularity, which either falls into fine-grained lexical-level or coarse-grained sentence-level. Given a question in natural language, our scheme first detects the involved key-phrases by jointly integrating the corpus-dependent knowledge and question-aware cues. Next, it automatically extracts the paraphrases for each identified key-phrase utilizing multiple online translation engines, and then selects the most relevant reformulations from a large group of question rewrites, which is formed by full permutation and combination of the generated paraphrases. Extensive evaluations on a real world data set demonstrate that our model is able to characterize the complex questions and achieves promising performance as compared to the state-of-the-art methods.

  17. Revisiting Routine Questions (United States)

    Hughes, Rebecca; Monaghan, John; Shingadia, Eisha; Vaughan, Stephen


    What is a routine question? The focus of this paper is routine questions and time (in years) since a hitherto routine question was last attempted by the solver. The data comes from undergraduate students' work on solving two calculus questions. The data was selected for reporting purposes because it is well documented and because it threw up…

  18. Question analysis for Indonesian comparative question (United States)

    Saelan, A.; Purwarianti, A.; Widyantoro, D. H.


    Information seeking is one of human needs today. Comparing things using search engine surely take more times than search only one thing. In this paper, we analyzed comparative questions for comparative question answering system. Comparative question is a question that comparing two or more entities. We grouped comparative questions into 5 types: selection between mentioned entities, selection between unmentioned entities, selection between any entity, comparison, and yes or no question. Then we extracted 4 types of information from comparative questions: entity, aspect, comparison, and constraint. We built classifiers for classification task and information extraction task. Features used for classification task are bag of words, whether for information extraction, we used lexical, 2 previous and following words lexical, and previous label as features. We tried 2 scenarios: classification first and extraction first. For classification first, we used classification result as a feature for extraction. Otherwise, for extraction first, we used extraction result as features for classification. We found that the result would be better if we do extraction first before classification. For the extraction task, classification using SMO gave the best result (88.78%), while for classification, it is better to use naïve bayes (82.35%).

  19. Investigating Green: Creating Surveys to Answer Questions (United States)

    Farenga, Stephen; Joyce, Beverly A.; Ness, Daniel


    Being green means different things to different people. Some suggest that being green means saving energy, not wasting paper towels, going solar, harnessing wind, using less fertilizer, or buying products that are organically grown. Given that being green can mean a lot of things, what does "being green" or "going green" mean to both you and your…

  20. Can psychosocial and socio-demographic questions help identify sexual risk among heterosexually-active women of reproductive age? Evidence from Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3). (United States)

    Edelman, Natalie; Cassell, Jackie A; de Visser, Richard; Prah, Philip; Mercer, Catherine H


    Contraceptive advice and supply (CAS) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing are increasingly provided in primary care. Most risk assessment tools are based on sexual risk behaviours and socio-demographics, for use online or in specialist services. Combining socio-demographic and psychosocial questions (e.g. religious belief and formative experience) may generate an acceptable tool for targeting women in primary care who would benefit from intervention. We aimed to identify psychosocial and socio-demographic factors associated with reporting key sexual risk behaviours among women in the British general population. We undertook complex survey analysis of data from 4911 hetero-sexually active women aged 16-44 years, who participated in Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3), a national probability sample survey undertaken 2010-2012. We used multivariable regression to examine associations between the available psychosocial and socio-demographic variables in Natsal-3 and reports of three key sexual behaviours: a) 2+ partners in the last year (2PP); b) non-use of condoms with 2+ partners in the last year (2PPNC); c) non-use of condoms at first sex with most recent sexual partner (FSNC). We adjusted for key socio-demographic factors: age, ethnicity and socio-economic status (measured by housing tenure). Weekly binge drinking (6+ units on one occasion), and first sex before age 16 were each positively associated with all three sexual behaviours after adjustment. Current relationship status, reporting drug use (ever), younger age and living in rented accommodation were also associated with 2+ partners and 2 + partners without condoms after adjustment. Currently being a smoker, older age and respondent ethnicity were associated with FSNC after adjustment for all other variables. Current smoking status, treatment for depression (last year), and living at home with both parents until the age of 14 were each associated with

  1. The question of questions in Malaysian English


    Asniah Alias; Radina Mohamad Deli


    This paper examined the forms that interrogatives and tag questions can take when used by young Malaysian speakers of English language in oral communication. It offers a description of the features for both question forms as produced by the respondents compared to those of Singapore English (SE) and Standard British English (SBE). The influence of domains and the issue of mother tongue interference in relation to the subjects’ usage of such features will also be investigated. Data were obtain...

  2. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, W.D.; Evans, C.J.; Henault-Brunet, V.; Bastian, N.; Beletsky, Y.; Bestenlehner, J.; Brott, I.; Cantiello, M.; Carraro, G.; Clark, J.S.; Crowther, P.A.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S.E.; Doran, E.; Dufton, P.L.; Dunstall, P.; Gieles, M.; Grafener, G.; Herrero, A.; Howarth, I.D.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D.J.; Maiz-Apellaniz, J; Markova, N.; Najarro, P.; Puls, J.; Sana, H.A.A.; Simon-Diaz, S.; Smartt, S.J.; Stroud, V.E.; van Loon, J.T.; Vink, J.S.; Walborn, N.R.


    The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey is an ESO Large Programme that has provided multi-epoch spectroscopy of over 1000 stars in the 30 Doradus region in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Armed with this unique dataset the assembled consortium is now addressing a broad range of fundamental questions in both ste

  3. Teaching Dystopias: The Value of Religious Questioning. (United States)

    Seabury, Marcia Bundy


    Argues that a true general education should encourage the exploration of religious questions. Describes the author's use of works showing dystopian societies based on existing values, such as Huxley's "Brave New World," to encourage students to rethink their assumptions and develop openness toward the questions that religions address. (22…

  4. The Notion of Coercion in Courtroom Questioning. (United States)

    Bulow-Moller, Anne Marie

    To account for coercive force in questions posed by counsel to defendants and witnesses, several levels of speech must be addressed. Forensic linguistics literature discusses the scale of coerciveness as reflected in the syntactic form of the questions. It is argued that this type of analysis fails to account for the inferences made by hearers…

  5. Conscience in Childhood: Old Questions, New Answers (United States)

    Aksan, Nazan; Kochanska, Grazyna


    Although conscience has been the focus of reflection for centuries, fundamental questions regarding its organization have not been fully answered. To address those questions, the authors applied structural equation modeling techniques to longitudinal data comprising multiple behavioral measures of children's conscience, obtained in parallel…

  6. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, C J; Beletsky, Y; Brott, I; Cantiello, M; Clark, J S; Crowther, P A; De Koter, A; de Mink, S; Dufton, P L; Dunstall, P; Gieles, M; Graefener, G; Henault-Brunet, V; Herrero, A; Howarth, I D; Langer, N; Lennon, D J; Apellaniz, J Maiz; Markova, N; Najarro, F; Puls, J; Sana, H; Simon-Diaz, S; Smartt, S J; Stroud, V E; Taylor, W D; Trundle, C; van Loon, J Th; Vink, J S; Walborn, N R


    The Tarantula Survey is an ambitious ESO Large Programme that has obtained multi-epoch spectroscopy of over 1,000 massive stars in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud. Here we introduce the scientific motivations of the survey and give an overview of the observational sample. Ultimately, quantitative analysis of every star, paying particular attention to the effects of rotational mixing and binarity, will be used to address fundamental questions in both stellar and cluster evolution.

  7. Survey Says (United States)

    McCarthy, Susan K.


    Survey Says is a lesson plan designed to teach college students how to access Internet resources for valid data related to the sexual health of young people. Discussion questions based on the most recent available data from two national surveys, the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance-United States, 2003 (CDC, 2004) and the National Survey of…

  8. Classroom Questioning Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      Interaction has been playing a more and more important role in language research since the early 1970s,when the communicative teaching method was widely applied in language teaching. Questioning is the most common classroom interaction. This thesis analyzed the influence on students' immediate oral production by applying different teacher questioning strategies including teacher's question types,teacher question modification and teacher feedback.

  9. Asking Questions in Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted


    Motivation for the activity In academia the most important skill is to ask academically relevant and sound questions. This is not easy and students need to practice asking questions orally and in writing before they write research papers.......Motivation for the activity In academia the most important skill is to ask academically relevant and sound questions. This is not easy and students need to practice asking questions orally and in writing before they write research papers....

  10. Reach Address Database (RAD) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores the reach address of each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams,...

  11. Exam Question Exchange. (United States)

    Alexander, John J., Ed.


    Acceptable answers are provided for two chemistry questions. The first question is related to the prediction of the appearance of non-first-order proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. The second question is related to extraterrestrial kinetic theory of gases. (JN)

  12. Interfacing with questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie


    This article discusses an artistic project entitled If I wrote you a love letter would you write back (and thousands of other questions): a piece of software that utilizes Twitter web API to query questions, drawing unpredictable questions in real-time from the distributed database of Twitter...

  13. Improving Student Question Classification (United States)

    Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.


    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…

  14. The MINDMAP project: mental well-being in urban environments : Design and first results of a survey on healthcare planning policies, strategies and programmes that address mental health promotion and mental disorder prevention for older people in Europe. (United States)

    Neumann, L; Dapp, U; Jacobsen, W; van Lenthe, F; von Renteln-Kruse, W


    The MINDMAP consortium (2016-2019) aims to identify opportunities provided by the urban environment for the promotion of mental well-being and functioning of older people in Europe by bringing together European cities with urban longitudinal ageing studies: GLOBE, HAPIEE, HUNT, LASA, LUCAS, RECORD, Rotterdam Study, Turin Study. A survey on mental healthcare planning policies and programmes dedicated to older persons covering the range from health promotion to need of nursing care was performed for profound data interpretation in Amsterdam, Eindhoven, Hamburg, Helsinki, Kaunas, Krakow, London, Nord-Trøndelag, Paris, Prague, Rotterdam and Turin. To collect detailed information on healthcare planning policies and programmes across these European cities to evaluate variations and to delineate recommendations for sciences, policies and planners using experience from evidence-based practice feedback from the MINDMAP cities. The MINDMAP partners identified experts in the 12 cities with the best background knowledge of the mental health sector. After pretesting, semi-structured telephone interviews (1-2 h) were performed always by the same person. A structured evaluation matrix based on the geriatric functioning continuum and the World Health Organization (WHO) Public Health Framework for Healthy Ageing was applied. A complete survey (12 out of 12) was performed reporting on 41 policies and 280 programmes on the city level. It appeared from extensive analyses that the focus on older citizens, specific target groups, and multidimensional programmes could be intensified. There is a broad variety to cope with the challenges of ageing in health, and to address both physical and mental capacities in older individuals and their dynamic interactions in urban environments.

  15. Question-Asking and Question-Exploring (United States)

    Sands, Lorraine; Carr, Margaret; Lee, Wendy


    The Centre of Innovation Research at Greerton Early Childhood Centre was characterised as a dispositional milieu where working theories were explored through a narrative research methodology. As the research progressed, the teachers at Greerton strengthened the way we were listening to, and watching out for young children's questions to enable…

  16. What questions do patients undergoing lower extremity joint replacement surgery have?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhalla Amandeep


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The value of the Internet to deliver preoperative education would increase if there was variability in questions patients want answered. This study's goal was to have patients consulting an orthopedic surgeon about undergoing either a total hip arthroplasty (THA or a total knee arthroplasty (TKA rate the importance of different questions concerning their care. Methods We assembled questions patients might have about joint replacement surgery by analyzing the literature and querying a pilot group of patients and surgeons. Twenty-nine patients considering undergoing THA and 19 patients considering TKR completed a written survey asking them to rate 30 different questions, with a 5 point Likert scale from 1 (least important – 5 (most important. Results For patients considering THA or TKR, the 4 highest rated questions were: Will the surgery affect my abilities to care for myself?, Am I going to need physical therapy?, How mobile will I be after my surgery?, When will I be able to walk normally again? The mean percentage disagreement was 42% for questions answered by TKR patients and 47% for the THA group. Some patients gave a high rating to questions lowly rated by the rest of the group. Conclusions Although there was enough agreement to define a core set of questions that should be addressed with most patients considering THA or TKA, some of the remaining questions were also highly important to some patients. The Web may offer a flexible medium for accommodating this large variety of information needs.

  17. Barriers to optimal care between physicians and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning adolescent patients. (United States)

    Kitts, Robert Li


    The objective of this article was to identify barriers to optimal care between physicians and LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning) adolescents. To this end, 464 anonymous, self-administered surveys were distributed in 2003 to residents and attending physicians in pediatrics, internal medicine, obstetrics-gynecology, psychiatry, emergency medicine, and family practice at Upstate Medical University. The survey included questions pertaining to practice, knowledge, and attitude pertaining to lesbian, gay, transgender, or questioning (LGBTQ) adolescents. One hundred eight four surveys were returned. The majority of physicians would not regularly discuss sexual orientation, sexual attraction, or gender identity while taking a sexual history from a sexually active adolescent. As well, the majority of physicians would not ask patients about sexual orientation if an adolescent presented with depression, suicidal thoughts, or had attempted suicide. If an adolescent stated that he or she was not sexually active, 41% of physicians reported that they would not ask additional sexual health-related questions. Only 57% agreed to an association between being a LGBTQ adolescent and suicide. The majority of physicians did not believe that they had all the skills they needed to address issues of sexual orientation with adolescents, and that sexual orientation should be addressed more often with these patients and in the course of training. This study concludes that barriers in providing optimal care for LGBTQ adolescents can be found with regard to practice, knowledge, and attitude regardless of medical field and other demographics collected. Opportunities exist to enhance care for LGBTQ adolescents.

  18. Heterogeneous interpretation of “household expenditure” in survey reports : evidence and implications of bias


    Comerford, David; Delaney, Liam


    This paper addresses respondents’ interpretation of the term “household expenditure” when answering survey questions. A sizeable minority of respondents do not attempt to include all transactions made by every household member, interpreting the question as eliciting individual consumption. This biases estimates of expenditure downward. Furthermore, this bias is predicted by respondent characteristics.

  19. IC: Frequently Asked Questions (United States)

    ... IC Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical ... IC Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical ...

  20. Questions and information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lauer, Thomas W; Graesser, Arthur C


    The design and functioning of an information system improve to the extent that the system can handle the questions people ask. Surprisingly, however, researchers in the cognitive, computer, and information sciences have not thoroughly examined the multitude of relationships between information systems and questions -- both question asking and answering. The purpose of this book is to explicitly examine these relationships. Chapter contributors believe that questions play a central role in the analysis, design, and use of different kinds of natural or artificial information systems such as huma

  1. Purchasing Educational Materials--Questions from the Field. (United States)

    Neugebauer, Roger


    Lists 16 questions to address when pondering the purchase of educational materials. Addressed are issues of educational potential, health and safety to children, age flexibility, potential for skill development, structural integrity, and adequate customer service. (SD)


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper addresses problems common in the listening classes, namely, lack of motivation, orientation and sense of achievement and the presence of pressure, fear and frustration. The author examines different factors in the teaching of listening and poses 6 questions that might help teachers to reflect on their teaching. The conclusion is that the aim of listening class is to develop rather than test listening strategies and skills; that students need to be provided with communicative tasks before and while listening; that materials should be realistic, varied and graded ; that listening should be integrated with other skills development; and finally, that learner autonomy provides the ultimate solution to listening problems.

  3. Survey Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cleaned and QCd data for the Fishing Effort Survey. Questions on fishing and other out are asked on weather and outdoor activity, including fishing trips. Used for...

  4. Asking the Right Questions. (United States)

    Galvin, Ruth Mehrtens


    Like good researchers, writers about research need to be able to tell whether scientific findings are valid. Six questions, to be asked of the researcher, can help the writer explain to others. A healthy skepticism is also important; there may be signals that more questions should be asked. (MSE)

  5. Epistemology: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epistemology: 5 Questions is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in epistemology. We hear their views on epistemology with particular emphasis on the intersection between mainstream and formal approaches to the field......; the aim, scope, the future direction of epistemology and how their work fits in these respects...

  6. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  7. Let's Switch Questioning Around (United States)

    Tovani, Cris


    English teacher Cris Tovani knows from her experiences teaching elementary school that students are naturally curious. But, too often, students are so trained to be question answerers that by the time they reach high school, they no longer form questions of their own and instead focus on trying to figure out what answer the teacher wants. Tovani…

  8. Using survey data on inflation expectations in the estimation of learning and rational expectations models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormeño, A.


    Do survey data on inflation expectations contain useful information for estimating macroeconomic models? I address this question by using survey data in the New Keynesian model by Smets and Wouters (2007) to estimate and compare its performance when solved under the assumptions of Rational

  9. What is a Question? (United States)

    Knuth, Kevin H.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)


    A given question can be defined in terms of the set of statements or assertions that answer it. Application of the logic of inference to this set of assertions allows one to derive the logic of inquiry among questions. There are interesting symmetries between the logics of inference and inquiry; where probability describes the degree to which a premise implies an assertion, there exists an analogous quantity that describes the bearing or relevance that a question has on an outstanding issue. These have been extended to suggest that the logic of inquiry results in functional relationships analogous to, although more general than, those found in information theory. Employing lattice theory, I examine in greater detail the structure of the space of assertions and questions demonstrating that the symmetries between the logical relations in each of the spaces derive directly from the lattice structure. Furthermore, I show that while symmetries between the spaces exist, the two lattices are not isomorphic. The lattice of assertions is described by a Boolean lattice 2(sup N) whereas the lattice of real questions is shown to be a sublattice of the free distributive lattice FD(N) = 2(sup 2(sup N)). Thus there does not exist a one-to-one mapping of assertions to questions, there is no reflection symmetry between the two spaces, and questions in general do not possess unique complements. Last, with these lattice structures in mind, I discuss the relationship between probability, relevance and entropy.

  10. Frequently Asked Questions: Hemophilia (United States)

    ... Resource Annual Global Survey Treatment Guidelines Laboratory Manual Hemophilia in Pictures Young Voices Compendium of Assessment Tools Educational Games Video Library Find a Treatment Centre Haemophilia Journal ...

  11. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion (United States)

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  12. Statin intolerance: more questions than answers. (United States)

    Guyton, John R; Campbell, Kristen B; Lakey, Wanda C


    The dramatic effectiveness of statins in improving the course of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease tends to overshadow questions of statin intolerance. Thus after more than 25 years of clinical statin use, intolerance remains a poorly understood, frustrating issue for patients and providers. It has been extraordinarily difficult to define statin intolerance and its implications for clinical practice. Here, we briefly summarize current knowledge and raise questions that need to be addressed.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Under more general form and more general conditions an affirmative answer to Reich's open question is given. The results presented also extend and improve some recent results of Reich, Shioji, Takahashi and Wittmann.

  14. More with thermal energy storage. Report 2. Literature survey. Overview of knowledge and research questions with regard to thermal energy storage. Final report; Meer met bodemenergie. Rapport 2. Literatuuronderzoek. Overzicht van kennis en onderzoeksvragen rondom bodemenergie. Eindrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieten, S.; De Vries, E. [Bioclear, Groningen (Netherlands); Van Baaren, E.; Bakr, M.; Oude Essink, G.; Hartog, N.; Meinderstma, W.; Van Nieuwkerk, E.; Van Oostrom, N.; Woning, M. [Deltares, Delft (Netherlands); Drijver, B.; Krajenbrink, H.; Mathijssen, H.; Wennekes, R. [IF Technology, Arnhem (Netherlands)


    The project More With Thermal Energy Storage (MMB, abbreviated in Dutch) focuses on knowledge gaps and potential opportunities regarding open systems. The main questions to be answered are: (1) What effects (hydrological, thermal, microbiological and chemical) occur in the soil system by application of thermal energy storage; (2) Which technical options are available for a sustainable integration of thermal energy storage in the water and energy chain?; (3) Is it possible to achieve multiple objectives by using smart combinations? The project is organized in different work packages. In work package 2, the effects of individual and collective thermal energy storage storage systems on subsoils and the environment are determined. In work package 3 the opportunities for thermal energy storage and soil remediation are examined, while in work package 4 the focus is on new sustainable combinations of heat and cold storage. Work package 1 is the umbrella part where communication and policy of and participation in MMB are the main subjects. The aim of this literature survey is to search for knowledge that is available worldwide on the effects of heat and cold storage and the possibilities to combine this technology with controlling contaminants in soil and groundwater [Dutch] Het project Meer Met Bodemenergie (MMB) richt zich op het invullen van kennisleemtes en mogelijke kansen ten aanzien van open systemen. De belangrijkste vragen waarop het onderzoeksprogramma MMB antwoord geeft zijn: (1) Welke effecten (hydrologisch, thermisch, microbiologisch en chemisch) treden op in het bodemsysteem bij toepassing van bodemenergie?; (2) Welke technische mogelijkheden zijn er voor het duurzaam inpassen van bodem-energie in de water- en energieketen?; (3) Is het mogelijk om meerdere doelstellingen tegelijk te verwezenlijken door slimme combinaties te maken? Het project is ingericht met verschillende werkpakketten. In werkpakket 2 worden de effecten van individuele en collectieve

  15. Opening Keynote address

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan George


    The paper questions earlier archaeological approaches to conceptualising the past in the Middle East and evaluates the impact of some of these concepts on contemporary thought. The paper highlights the direct relevance of modern archaeological research to understanding and enhancing contemporary...

  16. assessing nutrition intervention programmes that addressed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Apr 2, 2012 ... address short-term hunger and improve active learning capacity of children in ... evaluation report of 2000 recommended that school feeding should ... were, however, anecdotal accounts of improved school attendance and classroom .... question of what type of food is best suited for the supplementation ...

  17. Asking the Right Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Line

    are part of everyday life, children are often the most vulnerable. The project was carried out to shed light on mainly two types of diseases - malaria and diarrheal diseases - that strike children. In practice the academic backgrounds of the researchers played a role in the methodological approach...... to the field. By emphasizing the logos in methodology this paper wishes to underscore that where anthropology sets itself apart from public health is, among other, in the way anthropologists think about method and how this affects fieldwork practices as well as analyses. By tracing two concepts, hygiene......, is the ability to move beyond even the best hidden assumptions and question our own questions, thereby enabling us to ask the right questions....

  18. Finding Question-Answer Pairs from Online Forums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Gao; Wang, Long; Lin, Chin-Yew;


    Online forums contain a huge amount of valuable user generated content. In this paper we address the problem of extracting question-answer pairs from forums. Question-answer pairs extracted from forums can be used to help Question Answering services (e.g. Yahoo! Answers) among other applications....

  19. Finding Question-Answer Pairs from Online Forums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Gao; Wang, Long; Lin, Chin-Yew


    Online forums contain a huge amount of valuable user generated content. In this paper we address the problem of extracting question-answer pairs from forums. Question-answer pairs extracted from forums can be used to help Question Answering services (e.g. Yahoo! Answers) among other applications...

  20. Critical Questions about Early Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education (United States)

    Winer, Abby; Hebbeler, Kathy; Nelson, Robin; Gundler, Darla; Cate, Debbie; Hudson, Laura; Taylor, Cornelia; Peters, Mary Louise


    What is a high-quality statewide data system? One characteristic is that it provides the information needed to address important questions about early intervention and early childhood special education. But what are those questions? What questions should data users, such as program directors, advocates, and policymakers, be asking? The Center for…

  1. Probability of climatic change. Identification of key questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fransen, W. [Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute KNMI, De Bilt (Netherlands)


    Addressing the question what the probability is of an anthropogenically induced change in the climate, leads to a number of other, underlying questions. These questions, which deal with the characteristics of climate, of climatic change, and of probabilistic statements on climatic change, should be addressed first. The long-term objective of the underlying study, i.e. a quantitative assessment of the risks and opportunities of the predicted climatic change, sets the context against which of those questions should be answered. In addition, this context induces extra questions, i.e. about the characteristics of risk.

  2. The Question Concerning Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren


    Martin Heidegger's thought-provoking essay "The Question Concerning Technology" (1977a) placed technology at the heart of philosophy. Heidegger tried to show that the essence of technology provokes humans to think about the world in a very dangerous way. Yet if we follow Heidegger's analysis......, by doing so, we will in the end realize two important things. First, that Heidegger's declaration of the end of philosophy in fact also means the end of anything we can meaningfully call thinking. Second, that Heidegger's own thinking is completely different from his own ideal of thinking. Our question...

  3. The social question revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenneth, Petersson; Olsson, Ulf; Krejsler, John B.


    The focus of this chapter is the re-installation of the social question as a historical practice. The purpose is to investigate how historic figures return and are applied in contemporary political discourses, more precisely in the context of education, education policy and teacher education...... the diversity of relevant populations “without obstacles related to their social and economic background”. In the 19th century the social question was raised in a context of industrialization of societies. It dealt with suggestions about disintegration of predominant social structures and the management...

  4. Questioning Danish Cartoon Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Heidi


    Danes today when it is considered demeaning and racist in most other countries. The conclusion does emphatically not plead in favour of law enforced limitations of the freedom of expression, but does question the prevalent "freedom of ignorance" concerning black identities which means...

  5. Questions English Teachers Ask. (United States)

    Shuman, R. Baird

    This volume is based on the responses of 374 English teachers at the secondary and college levels to a letter asking them to describe the questions that most perplex them professionally. Answers are provided by 88 leaders in English education, including James R. Squire, Walter H. MacGinitie, R. Baird Shuman, Sheila Schwartz, and Ken Macrorie. The…

  6. Game Theory: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent F.

    Game Theory is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in game theory. We hear their views on game theory, its aim, scope, use, the future direction of game theory and how their work fits in these respects....

  7. Question: Who Can Vote? (United States)

    Rodeheaver, Misty D.; Haas, Mary E.


    This year's rollercoaster primary elections and the pending national election, with an anticipated record voter turnout, provide the perfect backdrop for an examination of the questions: (1) Who can vote?; and (2) Who will vote? Historically, the American government refused voting rights to various groups based on race, gender, age, and even…

  8. Future Research Questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walpoth, B.; Daanen, H.A.M.


    Immersion hypothermia in humans is described in about 500 scientific papers during a Pubmed search in medical literature with keywords ‘Immersion’, ‘Hypothermia’ and ‘Human’ as of 2014. Many questions still remain, the most important of which are described in this chapter.

  9. Game Theory: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent F.

    Game Theory is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in game theory. We hear their views on game theory, its aim, scope, use, the future direction of game theory and how their work fits in these respects....

  10. 北京市男男性行为人群多分类敏感问题的调查%Survey and analysis of multiple choices sensitive questions of men who have sex with men in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 高歌; 贺志龙; 陈向宇; 杜俏俏; 阮玉华


    目的 了解北京市男男性行为人群多分类敏感问题的特征.方法 采用二阶段抽样和多分类特征敏感问题的随机应答技术对北京市男男性行为人群多分类敏感问题进行现场调查.结果 北京市男男性行为人群非北京户籍人口占71.57%,30岁以下占58.39%,未婚单身者占82.26%,该人群呈现出高学历高收入的特征,最近一年无商业性性行为的比例为83.29%,有商业性性行为者中费用为每次200~400元及600元以上者占88.9%,性行为的方式主要为肛交,占64.45%(95% C1:56.81%~72.48%).26.94%的人上一年度生殖器检查1~2次,10.97%的人未做检查.结论 北京市男男性行为人群存在潜在流动性大、体检次数少、肛交为主、商业性性行为多发等艾滋病(AIDS)高危行为,应进一步加强对这类人群的健康教育,以遏制AIDS的传播.%Objective To acquire the state of sensitive affairs of men who have sex with men in Beijing. Methods We used multiple choices of sensitive questions model on two-stage sampling to carry a survey on these people. Results We found that 71. 57% of the participants are not local people, 58. 39% of them are under 30 years of age, 82.26% are single, 26.94% carried physical examination on their genital organ once or twice last year and 10. 97% carried none. 83. 29% didn' t have commercial sexual behavior. The anal sex is the mainly way of sexual behavior and its rate is 64.45% and its 95% confidence limit is 56.81% to 72. 48%. Conclusion The MSM in Beijing have several factors of high risk of AIDS infection such as potential movement of population, lack of physical examination, commercial sexual behavior. We should enhance the education on safe sexual behavior towards MSM to prevent AIDS spreading in China.

  11. Addressing mathematics & statistics anxiety


    Kotecha, Meena


    This paper should be of interest to mathematics and statistics educators ranging from pre-university to university education sectors. It will discuss some features of the author’s teaching model developed over her longitudinal study conducted to understand and address mathematics and statistics anxiety, which is one of the main barriers to engaging with these subjects especially in non-specialist undergraduates. It will demonstrate how a range of formative assessments are used to kindle, as w...

  12. Panel Conditioning in Difficult Attitudinal Questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binswanger, J.; Schunk, D.; Toepoel, V.


    We investigate whether survey answers of trained respondents differ systematically from answers of novice respondents. Focusing on difficult attitudinal or preference questions, we find that novice respondents answer “don’t know” significantly more often. Importantly, however, there is no systematic

  13. Public Opinion Poll Question Databases: An Evaluation (United States)

    Woods, Stephen


    This paper evaluates five polling resource: iPOLL, Polling the Nations, Gallup Brain, Public Opinion Poll Question Database, and Polls and Surveys. Content was evaluated on disclosure standards from major polling organizations, scope on a model for public opinion polls, and presentation on a flow chart discussing search limitations and usability.

  14. Les questions de migrations internationales (United States)

    Samman, Mouna Liliane


    International migrations have growing implications for both countries of origin and countries of destination. In the latter, the presence of foreigners and of members of their families today creates problems of integration, causes argument and brings mounting xenophobia. Paralleling political, economic and social measures taken by public authorities to respond to these difficulties, education needs to assist in defusing the resulting social tensions by preparing the minds of learners and helping to develop new attitudes. In particular, when educational programmes address questions of international migration, these should be treated in the framework of historical evolution so that their real significance and their true temporal and spatial dimensions become apparent. It is also important that the growing interdependence between countries should be made plain, that national history should be placed in its international context, and that the true consequences of these developments should be made clear. In this context, learners need to be acquainted with Human Rights, thereby stressing universal moral values and the role of the individual. Lastly, questions relating to international migration are usually presented in the media in a selective and partial manner, and the young people who take in this information often accept the hasty judgments which are made of situations as proven facts. This is why all teaching about international migration needs to be considered or reconsidered in the light of the complementary or competing actions of the media.

  15. Addressing Climate Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ A series of extreme global weather events,like floods in Pakistan and droughts in Russia,should serve as a call to the world to take action against climate change.But worries have been mounting since global climate talks stalled,partly due to rifts between developed and developing countries.What efforts should be made to force progress in the negotiating process? What role has China played in combating climate change? Su Wei,China's chief climate negotiator and Director-General of the Climate Change Department of the National Development and Reform Commission(NDRC),sat down with Beijing Review reporter Hu Yue to answer these questions and more.

  16. The Role Of Gender In Asking Questions At Cool Stars 18 And 19 (United States)

    Schmidt, Sarah J.; Douglas, Stephanie; Gosnell, Natalie M.; Muirhead, Philip S.; Booth, Rachel S.; Davenport, James R. A.; Mace, Gregory N.


    We examine the gender balance of the 18th and 19th meetings of the Cambridge Workshop on Cool Stellar Systems and the Sun (CS18 and CS19). The percent of female attendees at both meetings (31% at CS18 and 37% at CS19) was higher than the percent of women in the American Astronomical Society (25%) and the International Astronomical Union (18%). The representation of women in Cool Stars as SOC members, invited speakers, and contributed speakers was similar to or exceeded the percent of women attending the meetings. We requested that conference attendees assist in a project to collect data on the gender of astronomers asking questions after talks. Using this data, we found that men were over-represented (and women were under-represented) in the question sessions after each talk. Men asked 79% of the questions at CS18 and 75% of the questions at CS19, but were 69% and 63% of the attendees respectively. Contrary to findings from previous conferences, we did not find that the gender balance of questions was strongly affected by the session chair gender, the speaker gender, or the length of the question period. We also found that female and male speakers were asked a comparable number of questions after each talk. The contrast of these results from previous incarnations of the gender questions survey indicate that more data would be useful in understanding the factors that contribute to the gender balance of question askers. We include a preliminary set of recommendations based on this and other work on related topics, but also advocate for additional research on the demographics of conference participants. Additional data on the intersection of gender with race, seniority, sexual orientation, ability and other marginalized identities is necessary to fully address the role of gender in asking questions at conferences.

  17. Regenerative Endodontics: Burning Questions. (United States)

    Smith, Anthony J; Cooper, Paul R


    Pulp regeneration and its clinical translation into regenerative endodontic procedures are receiving increasing research attention, leading to significant growth of the published scientific and clinical literature within these areas. Development of research strategies, which consider patient-, clinician-, and scientist-based outcomes, will allow greater focus on key research questions driving more rapid clinical translation. Three key areas of focus for these research questions should include cells, signaling, and infection/inflammation. A translational pathway is envisaged in which clinical approaches are increasingly refined to provide regenerative endodontic protocols that are based on a robust understanding of the physiological processes and events responsible for the normal secretion, structure, and biological behavior of pulpal tissue. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantum theory from questions

    CERN Document Server

    Hoehn, Philipp A


    We reconstruct the explicit formalism of qubit quantum theory from elementary rules on an observer's information acquisition. Our approach is purely operational: we consider an observer O interrogating a system S with binary questions and define S's state as O's `catalogue of knowledge' about S; no ontic assumptions are necessary. From the rules we derive the state spaces for N qubits and show that (a) they coincide with the set of density matrices over N qubit Hilbert spaces; (b) states evolve unitarily under the group $\\rm{PSU}(2^N)$ according to the von Neumann evolution equation; and (c) the binary questions by means of which O interrogates the systems corresponds to projective measurements on Pauli operators with outcome probabilities given by the Born rule. Besides offering a novel conceptual perspective on qubit quantum theory, the reconstruction also unravels new structural insights. Namely, we show that, in a quadratic information measure, (d) qubits satisfy informational complementarity inequalities...

  19. Faculty Perceptions of Student Credibility Based on Email Addresses (United States)

    Livermore, Jeffrey A.; Wiechowski, Linda S.; Scafe, Marla G.


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate faculty perceptions of student credibility based on email addresses. The survey was conducted at an upper division business school in Michigan where all students have completed at least two years of college courses. The survey results show that a student's selection of an email address does influence the…

  20. Student Perceptions of Peer Credibility Based on Email Addresses (United States)

    Livermore, Jeffrey A.; Scafe, Marla G.; Wiechowski, Linda S.; Maier, David J.


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate students' perceptions of their peer's credibility based on email addresses. The survey was conducted at a community college in Michigan where all students were registered and actively taking at least one course. The survey results show that a student's selection of an email address does influence other…

  1. Student Perceptions of Faculty Credibility Based on Email Addresses (United States)

    Livermore, Jeffrey A.; Scafe, Marla G.; Wiechowski, Linda S.


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate students' perceptions of faculty credibility based on email addresses. The survey was conducted at an upper division business school in Michigan where all students have completed at least two years of college courses. The survey results show that a faculty member's selection of an email address does…

  2. Using Pre-Assessment and In-Class Questions to Change Student Understanding of Molecular Movements † (United States)

    Shi, J.; Knight, Jennifer K.; Chun, Hyonho; Guild, Nancy A.; Martin, Jennifer M.


    Understanding how different types of molecules move through cell membranes is a fundamental part of cell biology. To identify and address student misconceptions surrounding molecular movement through cell membranes, we surveyed student understanding on this topic using pre-class questions, in-class clicker questions, and subsequent exam questions in a large introductory biology course. Common misconceptions identified in student responses to the pre-class assessment questions were used to generate distractors for clicker questions. Two-tier diagnostic clicker questions were used to probe incoming common student misconceptions (first tier) and their reasoning (second tier). Two subsequent lectures with assessment clicker questions were used to help students construct a new framework to understand molecular movement through cell membranes. Comparison of pre-assessment and post-assessment (exam) performance showed dramatic improvement in students’ understanding of molecular movement: student answers to exam questions were 74.6% correct with correct reasoning while only 1.3% of the student answers were correct with correct reasoning on the pre-class assessment. Our results show that students’ conceptual understanding of molecular movement through cell membranes progressively increases through discussions of a series of clicker questions and suggest that this clicker-based teaching strategy was highly effective in correcting common student misconceptions on this topic. PMID:28512521

  3. Questions to Luce Irigaray


    Ince, Kate


    This article traces the "dialogue" between the work of the philosophers Luce Irigaray and Emmanuel Levinas. It attempts to construct a more nuanced discussion than has been given to date of Irigaray's critique of Levinas, particularly as formulated in 'Questions to Emmanuel Levinas' (Irigaray 1991). It suggests that the concepts of the feminine and of voluptuosity articulated by Levinas have more to contribute to Irigaray's project of an ethics of sexual difference than she herself sometimes ...

  4. 501 reading comprehension questions

    CERN Document Server


    This updated edition offers the most extensive and varied practice for all types of questions students might face on standardized and in-class tests. With this guide, students will learn to develop expert reading strategies, understand how to read faster and with greater comprehension, overcome reading anxiety, and increase appreciation of reading for pleasure. This book's step-by-step approach provides graduated coverage that moves from the basics to more advanced reading.

  5. Eight Questions about Corruption


    Jakob Svensson


    This paper will discuss eight frequently asked questions about public corruption: (1) What is corruption? (2) Which countries are the most corrupt? (3) What are the common characteristics of countries with high corruption? (4) What is the magnitude of corruption? (5) Do higher wages for bureaucrats reduce corruption? (6) Can competition reduce corruption? (7) Why have there been so few (recent) successful attempts to fight corruption? (8) Does corruption adversely affect growth?

  6. AACP Strategy for Addressing the Professional Development Needs of Department Chairs (United States)

    Rodriguez, Tobias E.; Weinstein, George; Sorofman, Bernard A.; Bosso, John A.; Kerr, Robert A.; Haden, N. Karl


    Objectives. Characterize the skills and abilities required for department chairs, identify development needs, and then create AACP professional development programs for chairs. Methods. A 30-question electronic survey was sent to AACP member department chairs related to aspects of chairing an academic department. Results. The survey identified development needs in the leadership, management, and personal abilities required for effective performance as department chair. The information was used to prioritize topics for subsequent AACP development programs. Subsequent programs conducted at AACP Interim and Annual Meetings were well attended and generally received favorable reviews from participants. A list of development resources was placed on the AACP website. Conclusions. This ongoing initiative is part of an AACP strategy to identify and address the professional development needs of department chairs. Survey results may also inform faculty members and other academic leaders about the roles and responsibilities of department chairs. PMID:22919099

  7. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus. (United States)

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G


    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  8. Addressing Climate Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A series of extreme global weather events,like floods in Pakistan and droughts in Russia,should serve as a call to the world to take action against climate change.But worries have been mounting since global climate talks stalled,partly due to rifts between developed and developing countries.What efforts should be made to force progress in the negotiating process?What role has China played in combating climate change?Su Wei,China’s chief climate negotiator and Director-General of the Climate Change Department of the National Development and Reform Commission(NDRC),sat down with Beijing Review reporter Hu Yue to answer these questions and more.Edited excerpts follow

  9. The Art of Asking Questions. (United States)

    Sykes, Rosetta A.


    A rationale is given for the use of questioning techniques and strategies in classroom instruction. B. Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives is presented as one framework for questions. Five pitfalls, including avoiding vague questions and personal pronouns, are discussed. (CL)

  10. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling (United States)

    Camerlenghi, A.


    Natural submarine geohazards (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, volcanic island flank collapses) are geological phenomena originating at or below the seafloor leading to a situation of risk for off-shore and on-shore structures and the coastal population. Addressing submarine geohazards means understanding their spatial and temporal variability, the pre-conditioning factors, their triggers, and the physical processes that control their evolution. Such scientific endeavour is nowadays considered by a large sector of the international scientific community as an obligation in order to contribute to the mitigation of the potentially destructive societal effects of submarine geohazards. The study of submarine geohazards requires a multi-disciplinary scientific approach: geohazards must be studied through their geological record; active processes must be monitored; geohazard evolution must be modelled. Ultimately, the information must be used for the assessment of vulnerability, risk analysis, and development of mitigation strategies. In contrast with the terrestrial environment, the oceanic environment is rather hostile to widespread and fast application of high-resolution remote sensing techniques, accessibility for visual inspection, sampling and installation of monitoring stations. Scientific Drilling through the IODP (including the related pre site-survey investigations, sampling, logging and in situ measurements capability, and as a platform for deployment of long term observatories at the surface and down-hole) can be viewed as the centre of gravity of an international, coordinated, multi-disciplinary scientific approach to address submarine geohazards. The IODP Initial Science Plan expiring in 2013 does not address openly geohazards among the program scientific objectives. Hazards are referred to mainly in relation to earthquakes and initiatives towards the understanding of seismogenesis. Notably, the only drilling initiative presently under way is the

  11. Quality of life and discriminating power of two questionnaires in fibromyalgia patients: fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey A qualidade de vida e o poder de discriminação de dois questionários em pacientes com fibromialgia: fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire e Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Assumpção


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia is a painful syndrome characterized by widespread chronic pain and associated symptoms with a negative impact on quality of life. OBJECTIVES: Considering the subjectivity of quality of life measurements, the aim of this study was to verify the discriminating power of two quality of life questionnaires in patients with fibromyalgia: the generic Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36 and the specific Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 participants divided into Fibromyalgia Group (FG and Control Group (CG (n=75 in each group. The participants were evaluated using the SF-36 and the FIQ. The data were analyzed by the Student t-test (α=0.05 and inferential analysis using the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC Curve - sensitivity, specificity and area under the curve (AUC. The significance level was 0.05. RESULTS: The sample was similar for age (CG: 47.8±8.1; FG: 47.0±7.7 years. A significant difference was observed in quality of life assessment in all aspects of both questionnaires (pCONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A fibromialgia é uma síndrome dolorosa caracterizada por dor espalhada e crônica e sintomas associados com um impacto negativo na qualidade de vida. OBJETIVOS: Considerando a subjetividade da mensuração de qualidade de vida, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o poder de discriminação de dois questionários que avaliam a qualidade de vida de pacientes com fibromialgia: o genérico Medical Short Form Healthy Survey (SF-36 e o específico Questionário do Impacto da Fibromialgia (QIF. MÉTODOS: Foi conduzido um estudo transversal com 150 indivíduos, divididos em dois grupos: grupo fibromialgia (FM e grupo controle (GC (n=75 em ambos. Os pacientes foram avaliados pelo SF-36 e pelo QIF. Na análise dos dados, utilizou-se o teste "t de Student" com α=0,05 e a Curva ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristics Curve. RESULTADOS: As amostras

  12. Social Epistemology: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Social Epistemology: 5 Questions is a collection of interviews with some of the world’s most influential scholars working on social epistemology from a range of disciplinary perspectives. We hear their views on social epistemology; its aim, scope, use, broader intellectual environment, future...... direction, and how the work of the interviewees fits in these respects. Interviews with David Bloor, Cristina Bicchieri, Richard Bradley, Lorraine Code, Hans van Ditmarsch, Miranda Fricker, Steve Fuller, Sanford Goldberg, Alvin Goldman, Philip Kitcher, Martin Kusch, Jennifer Lackey, Helen E. Longino, Philip...

  13. The systematic spectral analysis of radio surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Harwood, Jeremy J


    Current and future continuum surveys being undertaken by the new generation of radio telescopes are now poised to address many important science questions, ranging from the earliest galaxies, to the physics of nearby AGN, as well as potentially providing new and unexpected discoveries. However, how to efficiently analyse the large quantities of data collected by these studies in order to maximise their scientific output remains an open question. In these proceedings we present details of the surveys module for the Broadband Radio Astronomy Tools (BRATS) software package which will combine new observations with existing multi-frequency data in order to automatically analyse and select sources based on their spectrum. We show how these methods can been applied to investigate objects observed on a variety of spatial scales, and suggest a pathway for how this can be used in the wider context of surveys and large samples.

  14. From Question Answering to Visual Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McColgin, Dave W.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.


    Research in Question Answering has focused on the quality of information retrieval or extraction using the metrics of precision and recall to judge success; these metrics drive toward finding the specific best answer(s) and are best supportive of a lookup type of search. These do not address the opportunity that users? natural language questions present for exploratory interactions. In this paper, we present an integrated Question Answering environment that combines a visual analytics tool for unstructured text and a state-of-the-art query expansion tool designed to compliment the cognitive processes associated with an information analysts work flow. Analysts are seldom looking for factoid answers to simple questions; their information needs are much more complex in that they may be interested in patterns of answers over time, conflicting information, and even related non-answer data may be critical to learning about a problem or reaching prudent conclusions. In our visual analytics tool, questions result in a comprehensive answer space that allows users to explore the variety within the answers and spot related information in the rest of the data. The exploratory nature of the dialog between the user and this system requires tailored evaluation methods that better address the evolving user goals and counter cognitive biases inherent to exploratory search tasks.

  15. Don't Shy from Retirement Questions. (United States)

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.


    Discusses faculty retirement policy at colleges and universities, particularly findings from a survey by the American Association of University Professors. Explores defined-contribution plans, terminal leaves, phased retirement programs, and prerequisites that can enhance faculty retirements. Also addresses how trustee boards can help with…

  16. The Gentle Art of Questioning: Writing Great Clicker Questions (United States)

    Chasteen, Stephanie


    How does a teacher use questioning effectively? This workshop will focus on writing those questions that engage students, spark their curiosity, help recap material, give you insight into their thinking, or help them learn critical ideas in physics. We will focus on ``peer instruction'' -- a research-tested method of requiring students to discuss challenging questions with one another. We will investigate the surprising power of multiple-choice questions to achieve critical thinking skills. Finally, we will look at writing questions that align with our goals for students, discuss the elements of effective questions, and practice writing questions and work on improving them.

  17. Questions and Questioning Techniques: A View of Indonesian Students’ Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Tri Ragawanti


    Full Text Available This study investigated students’ preference on teacher’s questions and questionings techniques and more importantly on how they could facilitate or impede their learning. The results on teacher’s questioning techniques showed that random nomination was more preferred than pre-arranged format nomination. In addition, techniques of nominating volunteering students and of giving wait-time were disliked by most student-respondents. As for types of question, the yes/no question was favored by most of the respondents. Different from the yes/no question, the number of respondents leaning forward to the analysis question, questions about fact of life, and questions to state opinion did not show a significant difference from the number of those leaning against the same questions.

  18. `Question Moments': A Rolling Programme of Question Opportunities in Classroom Science (United States)

    Pedrosa-de-Jesus, Helena; Leite, Sara; Watts, Mike


    This naturalistic study integrates specific `question moments' into lesson plans to increase pupils' classroom interactions. A range of tools explored students' ideas by providing students with opportunities to ask and write questions. Their oral and written outcomes provide data on individual and group misunderstandings. Changes to the schedule of lessons were introduced to explore these questions and address disparities. Flexible lesson planning over 14 lessons across a 4-week period of high school chemistry accommodated students' contributions and increased student participation, promoted inquiring and individualised teaching, with each teaching strategy feeding forward into the next.

  19. Use of Public Opinion Surveys. (United States)

    Copeland, Susan


    Describes how to design and administer public-opinion surveys. Includes types of surveys, preparing survey questions, drawing and validating a sample, and processing the data. (Contains 16 references.) (PKP)

  20. Unproven (questionable) cancer therapies. (United States)

    Brigden, M L


    More than half of all cancer patients use some form of alternative treatment during the course of their illness. Alternative therapies are often started early in patients' illness, and their use is frequently not acknowledged to health care professionals. Some alternative therapies are harmful, and their promoters may be fraudulent. Persons who try alternative cancer therapies may not be poorly educated but may ultimately abandon conventional treatment. Recent attention has focused on aspects of questionable therapies that make these treatments attractive to patients and that may be perceived as being deficient in the practice of conventional health care professionals. Physicians with patients with cancer should always make sure that unproven therapies are discussed early in the therapeutic relationship. They should also attempt to be aware of alternative therapies that are in vogue in their particular geographic area.

  1. From Questions to Queries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Drlík


    Full Text Available The extension of (Internet databases forceseveryone to become more familiar with techniques of datastorage and retrieval because users’ success often dependson their ability to pose right questions and to be able tointerpret their answers. University programs pay moreattention to developing database programming skills than todata exploitation skills. To educate our students to become“database users”, the authors intensively exploit supportivetools simplifying the production of database elements astables, queries, forms, reports, web pages, and macros.Videosequences demonstrating “standard operations” forcompleting them have been prepared to enhance out-ofclassroomlearning. The use of SQL and other professionaltools is reduced to the cases when the wizards are unable togenerate the intended construct.

  2. The social question revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenneth, Petersson; Olsson, Ulf; Krejsler, John B.


    of social and political unrest, poverty and lack of morality. In the name of European Union social integration is thus organized differently as compared to former times. There are, nevertheless similarities. In both cases educational systems become key arenas for integrating social groups......The focus of this chapter is the re-installation of the social question as a historical practice. The purpose is to investigate how historic figures return and are applied in contemporary political discourses, more precisely in the context of education, education policy and teacher education...... and raising the level of knowledge and competences in society. Higher education, in this case teacher education, is supposed to develop potentials of individuals and maximize “their contribution to a sustainable and democratic knowledge-based society.” Consequently; student cohorts should reflect...

  3. The questions for Machiavelli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakićević Dragan D.


    Full Text Available The main intention of the work that deals with the Nicolo Machiavelli thought is to point out the obvious paradox between the high political goal and the legitimating of all possible means for its realization. Are evil deeds inevitable in the sphere of politics and under what circumstances the immorality contained in political acts could be transformed into common good? The text asks additional questions such as about the accomplishments of ambitious political projects, the relationship among the ideologist and the representative of political power, the transformations of the means into the ends, the use of violence and indoctrination in political acts, revolutionary and evolutionary political methods, etc. The author claims that political technologies recommended by Machiavelli basically haven't diminished, but have taken on more modern and more adequate forms.

  4. The Deflection Question (United States)

    Greenberg, A. H.; Nesvold, E.; van Heerden, E.; Erasmus, N.; Marchis, F.


    On 15 February, 2013, a 15 m diameter asteroid entered the Earth's atmosphere over Russia. The resulting shockwave injured nearly 1500 people, and incurred 33 million (USD) in infrastructure damages. The Chelyabinsk meteor served as a forceful demonstration of the threat posed to Earth by the hundreds of potentially hazardous objects (PHOs) that pass near the Earth every year. Although no objects have yet been discovered on an impact course for Earth, an impact is virtually statistically guaranteed at some point in the future. While many impactor deflection technologies have been proposed, humanity has yet to demonstrate the ability to divert an impactor when one is found. Developing and testing any single proposed technology will require significant research time and funding. This leaves open an obvious question - towards which technologies should funding and research be directed, in order to maximize our preparedness for when an impactor is eventually found? To help answer this question, we have created a detailed framework for analyzing various deflection technologies and their effectiveness. Using an n-body integrator (REBOUND), we have simulated the attempted deflections of a population of Earth-impacting objects with a variety of velocity perturbations (∂Vs), and measured the effects that these perturbations had on impact probability. We then mapped the ∂Vs applied in the orbital simulations to the technologies capable of achieving those perturbations, and analyzed which set of technologies would be most effective at preventing a PHO from impacting the earth. As a final step, we used the results of these simulations to train a machine learning algorithm. This algorithm, combined with a simulated PHO population, can predict which technologies are most likely to be needed. The algorithm can also reveal which impactor observables (mass, spin, orbit, etc.) have the greatest effect on the choice of deflection technology. These results can be used as a tool to

  5. Automatic Chinese Factual Question Generation (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Rus, Vasile; Liu, Li


    Question generation is an emerging research area of artificial intelligence in education. Question authoring tools are important in educational technologies, e.g., intelligent tutoring systems, as well as in dialogue systems. Approaches to generate factual questions, i.e., questions that have concrete answers, mainly make use of the syntactical…

  6. Opportunities and questions for the fundamental biological sciences in space (United States)

    Sharp, Joseph C.; Vernikos, Joan


    With the advent of sophisticated space facilities we discuss the overall nature of some biological questions that can be addressed. We point out the need for broad participation by the biological community, the necessary facilities, and some unique requirements.

  7. Stopping and Questioning Suspected Shoplifters Without Creating Civil Liability (United States)

    Reed, Jack R., Jr.


    Legal problems concerned with shoplifting suspects are addressed, including common law, criminal penalties, and the merchant's liability. Tangential questions and answers are presented along with discussion of pertinent court cases. (LBH)

  8. Address forms in Chinese audit opinions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ziye; Zhao


    Although forms of address are widely used in textual and other types of disclosure,empirical evidence of their effects is rare.China provides a unique setting in which to test the economic consequences of the forms of address used in audit reports.From 2003 to 2011,about 60%of auditors surveyed addressed their clients by their real names in audit opinions,while the others used honorifics.Based on a sample of Chinese audit opinions,I report the following findings.First,the announcement of an audit opinion that uses the client’s real name elicits a greater market response than the announcement of an opinion featuring an honorific form of address.Second,the effects of real-name forms of address are stronger in firms with weak board governance.Third,the association between audit fees and audit risk factors,such as loss-making,is stronger in firms that are addressed by their real names in audit reports.I conclude from these findings that the forms of address used in audit opinions may reveal private information on audit quality.The results of this study are consistent with the power-solidarity effect described by sociolinguists.

  9. Addressing the Issue: Bullying and LGBTQ Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Allen


    Full Text Available Each day, thousands of youth experience bullying and as many of 70% of all youth report having experienced bullying, either directly or indirectly (Cantor, 2005. For Gay, Lesbian, Bi-sexual, Transgender and Questioning (LGBTQ youth, the chances of experiencing bullying are much higher than for youth in the general population (Russell, Horn, Kosciw, & Saewyc, 2010. Although many youth serving organizations have begun to address the issue of bullying with bullying prevention programs, there is a deficit of information and a lack of inclusion of prevention efforts that specifically address LGBTQ youth. This article address the role of youth organizations in creating safe and inclusive environments for all youth, with specific attention paid to resources and strategies for inclusive environments for LGBTQ youth.

  10. Nanodesign: some basic questions

    CERN Document Server

    Schommers, Wolfram


    There is no doubt that nanoscience will be the dominant direction for technology in this century, and that this science will influence our lives to a large extent as well as open completely new perspectives on all scientific and technological disciplines. To be able to produce optimal nanosystems with tailor-made properties, it is necessary to analyze and construct such systems in advance by adequate theoretical and computational methods. Since we work in nanoscience and nanotechnology at the ultimate level, we have to apply the basic laws of physics. What methods and tools are relevant here? The book gives an answer to this question. The background of the theoretical methods and tools is critically discussed, and also the world view on which these physical laws are based. Such a debate is not only of academic interest but is of highly general concern, and this is because we constantly move in nanoscience and nanotechnology between two extreme poles, between infinite life and total destruction . On the one ...

  11. Addressing psychiatric comorbidity. (United States)

    Woody, G E; McLellan, A T; O'Brien, C P; Luborsky, L


    Research studies indicate that addressing psychiatric comorbidity can improve treatment for selected groups of substance-abusing patients. However, the chances for implementing the necessary techniques on a large scale are compromised by the absence of professional input and guidance within programs. This is especially true in public programs, which treat some of the most disadvantaged, disturbed, and socially destructive individuals in the entire mental health system. One starting point for upgrading the level of knowledge and training of staff members who work in this large treatment system could be to develop a better and more authoritative information dissemination network. Such a system exists in medicine; physicians are expected to read appropriate journals and to guide their treatment decisions using the data contained in the journals. Standards of practice and methods for modifying current practice are within the tradition of reading new facts, studying old ones, and comparing treatment outcome under different conditions with what is actually being done. No such general system of information-gathering or -sharing exists, particularly in public treatment programs. One of the most flagrant examples of this "educational shortfall" can be found among those methadone programs that adamantly insist on prescribing no more than 30 to 35 mg/day for all patients, in spite of the overwhelming evidence that these dose levels generally are inadequate. In some cases, program directors are unaware of studies that have shown the relationship between dose and outcome. In other cases, they are aware of the studies but do not modify their practices accordingly. This example of inadequate dosing is offered as an example of one situation that could be improved by adherence to a system of authoritative and systematic information dissemination. Many issues in substance abuse treatment do not lend themselves to information dissemination as readily as that of methadone dosing

  12. Questions and Answers on Autoimmunity and Autoimmune Diseases (United States)

    ... Autoimmune Coalition Your Privacy Get Involved Donate Grassroots Fundraising ? Advocate for Change Take our Survey Information List ... Common Thread Coping Tools InFocus Newsletter Questions & Answers Fundraising Grassroots Fundraising Workplace Giving Special Events AARDA on ...

  13. Questioning Strategies of English Teachers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    AMY.B.M.TSUI thinks that most of the interactive learning starts with the teachers ’questioning. Richard and Lock-art (1994) think that the proper questioning can help the students to acquire the second language. Jin Chuanbao ( 1997) even thinks that the questioning process of the teachers should become the core of the class. Though almost all of the teachers are ques-tioning, they know little about the questioning strategies. In this case, it is urgent to study this subject. The present study reveals some problems of four teachers’questioning strategies in Junior Middle School. I hope some helpful ideas can be found in the thesis.

  14. New Responses to Enduring Questions in Religious and Theological Education (United States)

    Siejk, Cate


    This article offers a response to two provocative questions about the relationship of theology to religious education posed by Norma Thompson in her Presidential address given at the annual meeting of APRRE in 1978. I offer contemporary answers to these questions from the perspective of a theological educator. First, I show how feminist theory and…

  15. A question of authority

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Earl W.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))


    A Question of Authority. This article deals with a certain scenario and several reviewers are to give their opinion. This one is in regards to - Suspending an IACUC approved animal use activity is about the last thing a research institution wants to do. Consider the predicament that the Great Eastern University IACUC faced when Dr. Janet Jenkins, the Attending Veterinarian, suspended all animal use activity on an approved protocol of Dr. Roy Maslo. Jenkins had the IACUCs authority to temporarily suspend a protocol, subject to review by a quorum of the full committee. She alleged that Maslo used mice from his breeding colony, not purchased rats, to begin a new study. Jenkins saw Maslos technicians bringing mouse cages to a procedure room and setting up for a minor survival surgery. She asked them to wait until she clarified things as she felt confident that the protocol called for rats. She called Maslo and asked him if the study had been approved for mice, to which he responded affirmatively. Still not feeling quite assured, she went to her office, reviewed the protocol, and found only rat studies described. She also called the IACUC office to see if there were any approved amendments which she may not have received, and was told that there were none. By the time she returned, one procedure was completed. Understandably upset, she informed the technicians and Maslo that any further activity on the protocol was suspended until the issue was resolved. Jenkins informed the IACUC chairman who in turned called an emergency meeting of the committee.

  16. Address Points, Addressing, Published in 2008, Taylor County. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2008. It is described as 'Addressing'. Data by this publisher are often...

  17. Antibiotic Resistance Questions and Answers (United States)

    ... on the Farm Get Smart About Antibiotics Week Antibiotic Resistance Questions and Answers Language: English (US) Español ( ... Many ear infections Top of Page Questions about Antibiotic Resistance Examples of How Antibiotic Resistance Spreads Click for ...

  18. The Questions of Liberal Education (United States)

    Arcilla, Rene V.


    There is a certain kind of liberal educator who bases his or her practice on a particular attitude toward the "Big Questions." The questions of fundamental literacy in K-12 education, or of expertise in vocational and professional education, may be just as important, but they are seen as quite different in kind. Indeed, the questions of liberal…

  19. The Hermeneutics of Educational Questioning (United States)

    Bingham, Charles


    This article looks at the practice of educational questioning using the philosophical hermeneutics of Hans-Georg Gadamer. It first looks at questions and statements from a hermeneutic perspective, demonstrating some of the differences and similarities between the two. It then details Gadamer's notion of the "true question", asking whether it is…

  20. Disjunctive questions, intonation, and highlighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Roelofsen; S. van Gool


    This paper examines how intonation affects the interpretation of disjunctive questions. The semantic effect of a question is taken to be three-fold. First, it raises an issue. In the tradition of inquisitive semantics, we model this by assuming that a question proposes several possible updates of th

  1. Does Anyone Have Any Questions? (United States)

    Finkelstein, Judith M.; Ritter, Virginia F.

    The purpose of this study was to determine if answering a child's question with a question produces further analytical questioning by the child. A sample of 80 children in nursery-kindergarten, first, second and third grades (ages ranging from 4-9 years) were divided into two groups. An abstract painting by Kandinsky was shown individually to each…

  2. The Hermeneutics of Educational Questioning (United States)

    Bingham, Charles


    This article looks at the practice of educational questioning using the philosophical hermeneutics of Hans-Georg Gadamer. It first looks at questions and statements from a hermeneutic perspective, demonstrating some of the differences and similarities between the two. It then details Gadamer's notion of the "true question", asking whether it is…

  3. Children Who Question Their Heterosexuality (United States)

    Carver, Priscilla R.; Egan, Susan K.; Perry, David G.


    Many gay, lesbian, and bisexual adults report a period of childhood sexual questioning--an uneasy questioning of their heterosexuality brought on by same-sex attractions and motivating same-sex sexual exploration. This article evaluates hypotheses about the correlates, causes, and consequences of childhood sexual questioning. Participants were 182…

  4. Factors Affecting Behaviours that address HIV Risk among Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Affecting Behaviours that address HIV Risk among Nigerian University Students. ... Design: Cross-sectional survey. ... Main outcome measures: Sexual behavior and condom use, knowledge about correct condom use, intention of ...

  5. New Stories and Broken Necks: Incorporating Native American Texts in the American Literature Survey. (United States)

    LaLonde, Chris


    Describes an approach to mainstreaming Native American works into an American literature survey college course using the "Norton Anthology of American Literature." Goals are to situate Native American texts within the canon, accentuate their aesthetic qualities, address the fundamental questions they raise about literature and American…

  6. A Survey Study of Autonomous Learning by Chinese Non-English Major Post-Graduates (United States)

    Xu, Jianping


    This thesis reports a survey study of the autonomous L2 learning by 100 first-year non-English-major Chinese post-graduates via the instruments of a questionnaire and semi-structured interview after the questionnaire. It attends to address the following research question: To what extent do Chinese postgraduate students conduct autonomous L2…

  7. Arts and Techniques of Questioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      Most learners learn English from teachers in classrooms, therefore, classroom instruction is very important. However, teachers’questioning plays a very significant part in classroom teaching. It is not only an important part of classroom interaction but also an effective way of learning second language as wel. On the one hand, it is through question and answer exchange that teachers interactwithstudents.Onthe other hand, it isalsothroughinteractionwiththeirteachersand peers that ESLlearners learn the target language. Teachers’ aims of questioning, question types, teachers’modification of questions, the wait-time, the feedback and the assessment providedby teacherswil affectclassroom interaction.

  8. Is Cyberbullying a Stand Alone Construct? Using Quantitative Analysis to Evaluate a 21st Century Social Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Randa


    Full Text Available Using a subsample of the 2009 National Crime Victimization Survey, School Crime Supplement (NCVS-SCS, the present study explores the nature of the relationship between cyberbullying and traditional bullying victimization among students aged 12–18. One question of particular interest in the recent cyberbullying literature regards the classification of cyberbullying relative to traditional school yard bullying. As is the case in the cyber victimization literature in general, the question has become whether cyberbullying is an extension of traditional bullying or whether it is a unique independent phenomenon. Using the available data we attempt to address this question by exploring cyberbullying victimization as a standalone construct. Results of exploratory factor analyses suggest that cyberbullying victimization is both interlaced with traditional bullying modalities, and experienced as a unique phenomenon. Our results contribute a 21st century texture and dimension to the traditional construct.

  9. Enhancing Curiosity Using Interactive Simulations Combined with Real-Time Formative Assessment Facilitated by Open-Format Questions on Tablet Computers

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalski, F V


    Students' curiosity often seems nearly nonexistent in a lecture setting; we discuss a variety of possible reasons for this, but it is the instructor who typically poses questions while only a few students, usually the better ones, respond. As we have developed and implemented the use of InkSurvey to collect real-time formative assessment, we have discovered that it can serve in an unanticipated role: to promote curiosity in engineering physics undergraduates. Curiosity often motivates creative, innovative people. To encourage such curiosity, we solicit questions submitted real-time via InkSurvey and pen-enabled mobile devices (Tablet PCs) in response to interactive simulations (applets) run either before or in class. This provides students with practice in asking questions, increases metacognition, and serves as a rich springboard from which to introduce content and/or address misconceptions. We describe the procedure for measuring curiosity and results from applying this method in a junior level electromagne...

  10. Can multiple-choice questions simulate free-response questions?

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Shih-Yin


    We discuss a study to evaluate the extent to which free-response questions could be approximated by multiple-choice equivalents. Two carefully designed research-based multiple-choice questions were transformed into a free-response format and administered on the final exam in a calculus-based introductory physics course. The original multiple-choice questions were administered in another similar introductory physics course on final exam. Findings suggest that carefully designed multiple-choice questions can reflect the relative performance of the free-response questions while maintaining the benefits of ease of grading and quantitative analysis, especially if the different choices in the multiple-choice questions are weighted to reflect the different levels of understanding that students display.

  11. Address Points, Lafayette Address Points, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Lafayette County Land Records. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2007. It is described as...

  12. Ergonomics guidelines for designing electronic mail addresses. (United States)

    Rau, P L; Salvendy, G


    The aim was to design a human-centred electronic mail (e-mail) address system based on networking technology and cognitive ergonomics. Based on the background literature and the results of users' survey, a conceptual model is developed for designing e-mail addresses. This model consists of e-mail address components of formats, domain length, meaningfulness, orientation and information type pertaining to recall, information association and categorization. Five hypotheses were proposed to test the conceptual model, and four experiments were conducted with 85 participants to test the hypotheses. The dependent variables were performance time, error rate and degree of satisfaction, and the independent variables were components of the e-mail addresses. The main results indicate that for a recall task, significantly lower total performance time (26.2%) and error rate (75%) were found for the hybrid formats (digits and letters) than for the letter format, and up to four characters was the best single domain length. For an information association task, embedding both geographical and organizational information significantly decreased the response time (10.9%) in comparison with only embedding organizational information. For a categorization task, embedding both geographical information and organizational information significantly decreased response time (40.7%) in comparison with only embedding organizational information. This research demonstrates the importance of human-centred design and provides guidelines in effectively designing e-mail addresses.

  13. Surveying Humaness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Randi; Gad, Christopher

    Christopher Gad. Ph.d. Dept. of Information and Media Studies Randi Markussen. Associate Professor, Dept. of Information and Media Studies.   Abstract:   Surveying humanness -politics of care improvement   For various reasons we both were subjected to a specific survey procedure...... and development of a large collection of biological and psychological symptoms and psycho-social problems. However, the surveys say nothing about how the information will be of use to the people who answer the procedure or how this scientific intervention will be put to use more specifically within the public...... be imagined as a positive end, as ‘making explicit’ (in a popular psychological perspective) is considered to be therapeutic and good in itself? We will discuss those questions from a Foucaultian and ANT perspective, where one does not accept that pre-existing subjects are exposed to survey procedures...

  14. Routing Questions to the Right Users in Online Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Yanhong; Cong, Gao; Cui, Bin;


    address the problem of "pushing" the right questions to the right persons, the objective being to obtain quick, high-quality answers, thus improving user satisfaction. We propose a framework for the efficient and effective routing of a given question to the top-k potential experts (users) in a forum......, by utilizing both the content and structures of the forum system. First, we compute the expertise of users according to the content of the forum system--this is to estimate the probability of a user being an expert for a given question based on the previous question answering of the user. Specifically, we...

  15. Questionable research practices among italian research psychologists. (United States)

    Agnoli, Franca; Wicherts, Jelte M; Veldkamp, Coosje L S; Albiero, Paolo; Cubelli, Roberto


    A survey in the United States revealed that an alarmingly large percentage of university psychologists admitted having used questionable research practices that can contaminate the research literature with false positive and biased findings. We conducted a replication of this study among Italian research psychologists to investigate whether these findings generalize to other countries. All the original materials were translated into Italian, and members of the Italian Association of Psychology were invited to participate via an online survey. The percentages of Italian psychologists who admitted to having used ten questionable research practices were similar to the results obtained in the United States although there were small but significant differences in self-admission rates for some QRPs. Nearly all researchers (88%) admitted using at least one of the practices, and researchers generally considered a practice possibly defensible if they admitted using it, but Italian researchers were much less likely than US researchers to consider a practice defensible. Participants' estimates of the percentage of researchers who have used these practices were greater than the self-admission rates, and participants estimated that researchers would be unlikely to admit it. In written responses, participants argued that some of these practices are not questionable and they have used some practices because reviewers and journals demand it. The similarity of results obtained in the United States, this study, and a related study conducted in Germany suggest that adoption of these practices is an international phenomenon and is likely due to systemic features of the international research and publication processes.

  16. Questionable research practices among italian research psychologists (United States)

    Wicherts, Jelte M.; Veldkamp, Coosje L. S.; Albiero, Paolo; Cubelli, Roberto


    A survey in the United States revealed that an alarmingly large percentage of university psychologists admitted having used questionable research practices that can contaminate the research literature with false positive and biased findings. We conducted a replication of this study among Italian research psychologists to investigate whether these findings generalize to other countries. All the original materials were translated into Italian, and members of the Italian Association of Psychology were invited to participate via an online survey. The percentages of Italian psychologists who admitted to having used ten questionable research practices were similar to the results obtained in the United States although there were small but significant differences in self-admission rates for some QRPs. Nearly all researchers (88%) admitted using at least one of the practices, and researchers generally considered a practice possibly defensible if they admitted using it, but Italian researchers were much less likely than US researchers to consider a practice defensible. Participants’ estimates of the percentage of researchers who have used these practices were greater than the self-admission rates, and participants estimated that researchers would be unlikely to admit it. In written responses, participants argued that some of these practices are not questionable and they have used some practices because reviewers and journals demand it. The similarity of results obtained in the United States, this study, and a related study conducted in Germany suggest that adoption of these practices is an international phenomenon and is likely due to systemic features of the international research and publication processes. PMID:28296929

  17. Anonymous-address-resolution model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-jia SONG; Zhen-zhou JI


    Address-resolution protocol (ARP) is an important protocol of data link layers that aims to obtain the corresponding relationship between Internet Protocol (IP) and Media Access Control (MAC) addresses. Traditional ARPs (address-resolution and neighbor-discovery protocols) do not consider the existence of malicious nodes, which reveals destination addresses in the resolution process. Thus, these traditional protocols allow malicious nodes to easily carry out attacks, such as man-in-the-middle attack and denial-of-service attack. To overcome these weaknesses, we propose an anonymous-address-resolution (AS-AR) protocol. AS-AR does not publicize the destination address in the address-resolution process and hides the IP and MAC addresses of the source node. The malicious node cannot obtain the addresses of the destination and the node which initiates the address resolution; thus, it cannot attack. Analyses and experiments show that AS-AR has a higher security level than existing security methods, such as secure-neighbor discovery.

  18. Instance-Based Question Answering (United States)


    included factoid questions grouped around a set of target entities. For example, for the target entity “ Franz Kafka ”, associated questions included: “Where...from Franz Schubert. A year later he did on Dec 5th.”). Depending on the task, an answer extractor may identify very small, factoid candidates which...IWP): Paraphrase Ac- quisition and Applications, 2003. [55] A. Ittycheriah, M. Franz , and S. Roukos. Ibm’s statistical question answering system - trec

  19. And the next question is powerful questions for sticky moments

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Rachel


    A very practical and easy to use book of 3,000+ powerful questions, forming part of every coach''s / manager''s toolkit; it enables you to easily find key questions in some of the most distinctive areas of coaching, such as confidence, communications & leadership.

  20. A derivational rephrasing experiment for question answering

    CERN Document Server

    Jacquemin, Bernard


    In Knowledge Management, variations in information expressions have proven a real challenge. In particular, classical semantic relations (e.g. synonymy) do not connect words with different parts-of-speech. The method proposed tries to address this issue. It consists in building a derivational resource from a morphological derivation tool together with derivational guidelines from a dictionary in order to store only correct derivatives. This resource, combined with a syntactic parser, a semantic disambiguator and some derivational patterns, helps to reformulate an original sentence while keeping the initial meaning in a convincing manner This approach has been evaluated in three different ways: the precision of the derivatives produced from a lemma; its ability to provide well-formed reformulations from an original sentence, preserving the initial meaning; its impact on the results coping with a real issue, ie a question answering task . The evaluation of this approach through a question answering system shows...

  1. Methodological questions in studying consonant acquisition (United States)

    Edwards, Jan; Beckman, Mary E.


    Consonant mastery is one of the most widely used metrics of typical phonological acquisition and of phonological disorder. Two fundamental methodological questions concerning research on consonant acquisition are (1) how to elicit a representative sample of productions and (2) how to analyse this sample once it has been collected. This paper address these two questions by reviewing relevant aspects of experience in evaluating word-initial consonant accuracy from transcriptions of isolated-word productions elicited from 2- and 3-year-olds learning four different first languages representing a telling range of consonant systems (English, Cantonese, Greek, Japanese). It is suggested that both researchers and clinicians should consider a number of different item-related factors, such as phonotactic probability and word length, when constructing word lists to elicit consonant productions from young children. This study also proposes that transcription should be supplemented by acoustic analysis and the perceptual judgements of naïve listeners. PMID:19031192

  2. Are debatable scientific questions debatable? (Invited) (United States)

    Oreskes, N.


    Are debatable scientific questions debatable? In 2000, the physicist-philosopher John Ziman posed this pithy—and crucial—question. He noted that scientists were at a disadvantage in public debate, because the rules of engagement are different in scientific discourse than in public discourse in ways that make it difficult for scientists to ‘win’ public arguments, even when the facts are on their side. In this paper, I revisit Ziman’s arguments in light of the difficulties that climate scientists have had in communicating the reality and gravity of global warming. In addition to the problem posed by Ziman, I also address the role of organized disinformation in further increasing the challenges that climate scientists face.


    The utility of content -addressable memories (CAM’s) within a general purpose computing system is investigated. Word cells within CAM may be...addressed by the character of all or a part of cell contents . Multimembered sets of word cells may be addressed simultaneously. The distributed logical...capabilities of CAM are extended to allow simultaneous transformation of multimembered sets and to allow communication between neighboring word cells. A

  4. Questioning Questions: Elementary Teachers' Adaptations of Investigation Questions Across the Inquiry Continuum (United States)

    Biggers, Mandy


    Questioning is a central practice in science classrooms. However, not every question translates into a "good" science investigation. Questions that drive science investigations can be provided by many sources including the teacher, the curriculum, or the student. The variations in the source of investigation questions were explored in this study. A dataset of 120 elementary science classroom videos and associated lesson plans from 40 elementary teachers (K-5) across 21 elementary school campuses were scored on an instrument measuring the amount of teacher-direction or student-direction of the lessons' investigation questions. Results indicated that the investigation questions were overwhelmingly teacher directed in nature, with no opportunities for students to develop their own questions for investigation. This study has implications for researchers and practitioners alike, calling attention to the teacher-directed nature of investigation questions in existing science curriculum materials, and the need for teacher training in instructional strategies to adapt their existing curriculum materials across the continuum of teacher-directed and student-directed investigation questions. Teachers need strategies for adapting the teacher-directed questions provided in their existing curriculum materials in order to allow students the opportunity to engage in this essential scientific practice.

  5. Reclaiming unused IPv4 addresses

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department


    As many people might know, the number of IPv4 addresses is limited and almost all have been allocated (see here and here for more information).   Although CERN has been allocated some 340,000 addresses, the way these are allocated across the site is not as efficient as we would like. As we face an increasing demand for IPv4 addresses with the growth in virtual machines, the IT Department’s Communication Systems Group will be reorganising address allocation during 2016 to make more efficient use of the IPv4 address ranges that have been allocated to CERN. We aim, wherever possible, to avoid giving out fixed IP addresses, and have all devices connected to the campus network obtain an address dynamically each time they connect. As a first stage, starting in February, IP addresses that have not been used for more than 9 months will be reclaimed. No information about the devices concerned will be deleted from LANDB, but a new IP address will have to be requested if they are ever reconnected to t...

  6. 2015 ASHG Awards and Addresses (United States)


    Each year at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), addresses are given in honor of The Society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these is given below. On the following pages, we have printed the presidential address and the addresses for the William Allan Award, the Curt Stern Award, and the Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award. Webcasts of these addresses, as well as those of many other presentations, can be found at

  7. Constructing a question bank based on script concordance approach as a novel assessment methodology in surgical education. (United States)

    Aldekhayel, Salah A; Alselaim, Nahar A; Magzoub, Mohi Eldin; Al-Qattan, Mohammad M; Al-Namlah, Abdullah M; Tamim, Hani; Al-Khayal, Abdullah; Al-Habdan, Sultan I; Zamakhshary, Mohammed F


    Script Concordance Test (SCT) is a new assessment tool that reliably assesses clinical reasoning skills. Previous descriptions of developing SCT-question banks were merely subjective. This study addresses two gaps in the literature: 1) conducting the first phase of a multistep validation process of SCT in Plastic Surgery, and 2) providing an objective methodology to construct a question bank based on SCT. After developing a test blueprint, 52 test items were written. Five validation questions were developed and a validation survey was established online. Seven reviewers were asked to answer this survey. They were recruited from two countries, Saudi Arabia and Canada, to improve the test's external validity. Their ratings were transformed into percentages. Analysis was performed to compare reviewers' ratings by looking at correlations, ranges, means, medians, and overall scores. Scores of reviewers' ratings were between 76% and 95% (mean 86% ± 5). We found poor correlations between reviewers (Pearson's: +0.38 to -0.22). Ratings of individual validation questions ranged between 0 and 4 (on a scale 1-5). Means and medians of these ranges were computed for each test item (mean: 0.8 to 2.4; median: 1 to 3). A subset of test items comprising 27 items was generated based on a set of inclusion and exclusion criteria. This study proposes an objective methodology for validation of SCT-question bank. Analysis of validation survey is done from all angles, i.e., reviewers, validation questions, and test items. Finally, a subset of test items is generated based on a set of criteria.

  8. Why and how? Addressing to the two most pertinent questions about pharmacovigilance in Ayurveda. (United States)

    Rastogi, Sanjeev


    Pharmacovigilance is the outcome of a natural and implied willingness of a physician to ensure safety to his patient. This is a discipline in medicine which pragmatises the principle of first do no harm towards a wider and systematic application in clinical practice. It is however important to understand that despite of its huge potential in ensuring a safe practice of medicine through knowledge of avoidable causes of adversities, its path has never been easy. Applying principles of pharmacovigilance into the realm of traditional medicine particularly to Ayurveda is even more difficult for the issues of why and how of pharmacovigilance in light of historical practice and anecdotal evidences of safety in Ayurveda. Application of pharmacovigilance in Ayurveda thereby demands a careful and thoughtful observation of its needs and its methods of application in order to to maximize its impacts to ensure the patient safety to every extent possible.

  9. The Energy-GDP Nexus. Addressing an old question with new methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coers, R.J.; Sanders, M.


    This paper reassesses the causal relationship between per capita energy use and gross domestic product, while controlling for capital and labour (productivity) inputs in a panel of 30 OECD countries over the past 40 years. The paper uses panel unit root and cointegration testing and specifies an appropriate vector error correction model to analyse the nexus between income and energy use. In doing so we contribute to an old debate using modern tools that shed a new light. There is some evidence that over the short-run bidirectional causality exists. Our results also show a strong unidirectional causality running from capital formation and GDP to energy usage. In the long run the reverse causality, found in recent work, is lost. We then show that we can reproduce these earlier results in our data if we reproduce a slightly misspecified model for the Engle-Granger two-step procedure used in these earlier papers. Our findings thus imply that results are very sensitive to model misspecification and careful testing of specifications is required. Our results have some strong policy implications. They suggest that policies aimed at reducing energy usage or promoting energy efficiency are not likely to have a detrimental effect on economic growth, except over the very short run.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilis Chouliaras


    Full Text Available The wave of mergers and acquisitions of financial institutions which was observed in the United States and Europe in the 1980s and 1990s seems to have affected the Greek banking market by the end of the 1990s. The result was the emergence of new significant players in the market. Despite the fact that scale economies should lead to the improvement of their efficiency, this fact was not confirmed by empirical research and, moreover in several cases there has been an adverse effect. We are focus on financial statement analysis by examining the profitability and performance ratios. Mergers and acquisitions in the Greek banking system contributed to an increase in profitability of banks but they did not lead to improvement to their efficiency. It is an undeniable fact that the development and expansion of banks had a positive effect on the markets, resulting in the attraction of new capital which improved their capital sufficiency and of course on their extroversion, their internationalization and their successful expansion to other markets-particularly to Balkan countries.

  11. Is exogenous hydrogen sulfide a relevant tool to address physiological questions on hydrogen sulfide? (United States)

    Haouzi, Philippe


    This review challenges the use of solutions of dissolved exogenous H2S in the literature as a tool to determine the potential physiological functions of endogenous H2S as well as its putative therapeutic applications. Our major point of contention is that solutions of dissolved H2S are used in vitro at concentrations, within the high microM range, which are above the concentrations of dissolved H2S found in blood and tissues during lethal H2S exposure in vivo. In addition, since the levels of toxicity are extremely variable among cell types, a property that is seldom acknowledged, the physiological relevance of data obtained after local or in-vitro administrations of H2S at concentrations of few microM is far from certain. Conversely, the rate of disappearance of the dissolved pool of H2S in the body (being trapped or oxidized), which we found to be at least of several micromoles/kg/min, is so rapid in vivo that if relatively low quantities of H2S, i.e. few micromoles for instance, are administered, no change in H2S concentrations in the body is to be expected, unless toxic levels are used. Protocols looking at the effects of compounds slowly releasing H2S must also resolve a similar conundrum, as their effects must be reconciled with the unique ability of the blood and tissues to get rid of H2S and the steepness of the dose-toxic effects relationship. Only by developing a comprehensive framework in which H2S metabolism and toxicity will be used as a rationale to justify any experimental approach will we be able to bring definitive evidence supporting a protective role for exogenous H2S, if any, and its putative function as an endogenous mediator. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Addressing health inequalities by using Structural Funds. A question of opportunities. (United States)

    Neagu, Oana Maria; Michelsen, Kai; Watson, Jonathan; Dowdeswell, Barrie; Brand, Helmut


    Making up a third of the EU budget, Structural and Investment Funds can provide important opportunities for investing in policies that tackle inequalities in health. This article looks back and forward at the 2007-2013 and 2014-2020 financial periods in an attempt to inform the development of health equity as a strand of policy intervention under regional development. It combines evidence from health projects funded through Structural Funds and a document analyses that locates interventions for health equity under the new regulations. The map of opportunities has changed considerably since the last programming period, creating more visibility for vulnerable groups, social determinants of health and health systems sustainability. As the current programming period is progressing, this paper contributes to maximizing this potential but also identifying challenges and implementation gaps for prospective health system engagement in pursuing health equity as part of Structural Funds projects. The austerity measures and their impact on public spending, building political support for investments as well as the difficulties around pursuing health gains as an objective of other policy areas are some of the challenges to overcome. European Structural and Investment Funds could be a window of opportunity that triggers engagement for health equity if sectors adopt a transformative approach and overcome barriers, cooperate for common goals and make better use of the availability of these resources.

  13. Basic Questions on Artin-Tits groups

    CERN Document Server

    Godelle, Eddy


    This paper is a short survey on four basic questions on Artin-Tits groups: the torsion, the center, the word problem, and the cohomology ($K(\\pi,1)$ problem). It is also an opportunity to prove three new results concerning these questions: (1) if all free of infinity Artin-Tits groups are torsion free, then all Artin-Tits groups will be torsion free; (2) If all free of infinity irreducible non-spherical type Artin-Tits groups have a trivial center then all irreducible non-spherical type Artin-Tits groups will have a trivial center; (3) if all free of infinity Artin-Tits groups have solutions to the word problem, then all Artin-Tits groups will have solutions to the word problem. Recall that an Artin-Tits group is free of infinity if its Coxeter graph has no edge labeled by $\\infty$.

  14. The most intriguing question in synesthesia research. (United States)

    Rouw, Romke; Ridderinkhof, K Richard


    This discussion paper forms an insightful addition to the synesthesia literature. Accompanying a steep increase in recent publications on synesthesia, it helps remedy the conspicuous paucity of mechanistic process models explaining the condition. The paper furthermore addresses what is arguably among the most interesting questions: Why do most synesthetes *not* get confused by their additional sensations? This is particularly interesting when phrased in a broader context: What are the mechanisms for deciding which of the sensations we experience reflect something "real" (phenomena in the outside world) and which reflect something that is "not real" (internally generated and private phenomena).

  15. Why worship? Revisiting a fundamental liturgical question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Cilliers


    Full Text Available In this article the fundamental liturgical question as to the motive and intention of worship is addressed within the framework of four related liturgical tensions, namely between being and becoming, between time and space, between awe and expression, and between laughter and lament. In order to do this, some classical voices from the past are listened to, for instance, Schleiermacher, Kierkegaard, Moltmann, Tillich, Otto, Bakhtin and Buber, but more contemporary views are also considered. These four tensions are described in the light of the key terms: ‘already’ and ‘not yet’, and some implications for present-day liturgical practices are drawn.

  16. 2014 Service Academy Gender Relations Survey: Statistical Methodology Report (United States)


    Survey (2014 SAGR) is designed to track sexual assault and sexual harassment issues at the Service Academies. U.S. Code 10, as amended by Section 532...requested that they be included, beginning in 2008, in order to evaluate and improve their programs addressing sexual assault and sexual harassment ...questions on stalking, sexual harassment and its component behaviors, sexist behavior, and prior experiences of unwanted sexual contact. In 2014

  17. Who Knows? Question Format and Political Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robison, Joshua


    Political knowledge is one of the most influential variables in political science. However, scholars still grapple with its theoretical meaning and how to measure it best. I address the deeply contested issue of whether knowledge should be measured with either an open-ended or closed-choice measu......, the results reported here raise important questions about the validity of knowledge indices and also have implications for the general study of political attitudes and behavior.......Political knowledge is one of the most influential variables in political science. However, scholars still grapple with its theoretical meaning and how to measure it best. I address the deeply contested issue of whether knowledge should be measured with either an open-ended or closed-choice measure...

  18. Priming and Context Effects in Citizen Satisfaction Surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortskov, Morten


    Citizen satisfaction surveys are used extensively throughout the public sector to assess the performance of public services and to inform decision-makers. Recent research points to cognitive biases that may occur in citizens’ perceptions of performance of public services, but we know little about...... possible biases in the collection of these data. This shortcoming is addressed by investigating the priming and context effects that can arise from the structure of citizen surveys—for example from the question order in the survey. Two independent experimental studies find that prior positively framed...... questions about police services affect subsequent satisfaction evaluations of other local public services. However, an informational prime about crime and unrelated questions about family-life satisfaction have little effect on the subsequent satisfaction evaluations. The results show that citizen...

  19. Probability and Statistics: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probability and Statistics: 5 Questions is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in probability and statistics. We hear their views on the fields, aims, scopes, the future direction of research and how their work fits...

  20. Questioning the Patient, Questioning Hippocrates: Rufus of Ephesus and the Pursuit of Knowledge. (United States)

    Letts, Melinda


    Rufus of Ephesus' short treatise, Quaestiones Medicinales, the only ancient medical work that takes as its topic the dialogue between doctor and patient, has usually been seen as a procedural practical handbook serving an essentially operational purpose. In this paper I argue that the treatise, with its insistent message that doctors cannot properly understand and treat illnesses unless they supplement their own knowledge by questioning patients, and its remarkable appreciation of the singularity of each patient's experience, shows itself to be no mere handbook but a work addressing the place of questioning in the clinical encounter. I illustrate some of the differences between Rufus' conceptualisation of the relevance and use of questioning and that which can be seen in the theoretical and descriptive writings of Galen and in the Hippocratic corpus, and show how apparent resonances with some of the preoccupations of modern Western healthcare can be used judiciously to elucidate the significance of those differences.

  1. Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen Nepper


    Bidrag til festskrift til Jesper Hoffmeyer i anledning af hans 70 års dag i Don Favineau, Paul Cobley & Kalevi Kull (eds.): "A More Developed Sign. Interpreting the Work of Jesper Hoffmeyer". Antologien udg. som særnummer af Tartu Semiotics Library Nr. 10 og mit bidrag forefindes på p. 217-220....

  2. Sport Management Survey. Employment Perspectives. (United States)

    Quain, Richard J.; Parks, Janet B.


    A survey of sport management positions was designed to determine projected vacancy rates in six sport management career areas. Respondents to the survey were also questioned regarding their awareness of college professional preparation programs. Results are presented. (MT)

  3. Explaining errors in children's questions. (United States)

    Rowland, Caroline F


    The ability to explain the occurrence of errors in children's speech is an essential component of successful theories of language acquisition. The present study tested some generativist and constructivist predictions about error on the questions produced by ten English-learning children between 2 and 5 years of age. The analyses demonstrated that, as predicted by some generativist theories [e.g. Santelmann, L., Berk, S., Austin, J., Somashekar, S. & Lust. B. (2002). Continuity and development in the acquisition of inversion in yes/no questions: dissociating movement and inflection, Journal of Child Language, 29, 813-842], questions with auxiliary DO attracted higher error rates than those with modal auxiliaries. However, in wh-questions, questions with modals and DO attracted equally high error rates, and these findings could not be explained in terms of problems forming questions with why or negated auxiliaries. It was concluded that the data might be better explained in terms of a constructivist account that suggests that entrenched item-based constructions may be protected from error in children's speech, and that errors occur when children resort to other operations to produce questions [e.g. Dabrowska, E. (2000). From formula to schema: the acquisition of English questions. Cognitive Liguistics, 11, 83-102; Rowland, C. F. & Pine, J. M. (2000). Subject-auxiliary inversion errors and wh-question acquisition: What children do know? Journal of Child Language, 27, 157-181; Tomasello, M. (2003). Constructing a language: A usage-based theory of language acquisition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press]. However, further work on constructivist theory development is required to allow researchers to make predictions about the nature of these operations.

  4. Will Genetic Testing for Complex Diseases Increase Motivation to Quit Smoking? Anticipated Reactions in a Survey of Smokers (United States)

    Sanderson, Saskia C.; Wardle, Jane


    The aim of this study was to improve understanding of smokers' potential reactions to genetic testing for smoking-related diseases. One thousand twenty-four respondents completed a postal survey; 186 were smokers. Questions addressed anticipated psychological and behavioral reactions to genetic test results using hypothetical scenarios. Of…

  5. The Employers IV: A Survey of Employers Who Have Hired Career Program Graduates of Montgomery Community College. (United States)

    Gell, Robert L.; Armstrong, David F.

    In a survey of 374 career curriculum graduates of Montgomery Community College in 1976, 280 indicated they were working in jobs related to their college programs. Of these, 225 (80%) gave employer names and addresses and permission to contact them. Questionnaires drew responses of 159 employers to questions about skill levels of students, employee…

  6. Will Genetic Testing for Complex Diseases Increase Motivation to Quit Smoking? Anticipated Reactions in a Survey of Smokers (United States)

    Sanderson, Saskia C.; Wardle, Jane


    The aim of this study was to improve understanding of smokers' potential reactions to genetic testing for smoking-related diseases. One thousand twenty-four respondents completed a postal survey; 186 were smokers. Questions addressed anticipated psychological and behavioral reactions to genetic test results using hypothetical scenarios. Of…

  7. Hypothetical constructs, hypothetical questions, and the expert witness. (United States)

    Brodsky, Stanley L; Titcomb, Caroline; Sams, David M; Dickson, Kara; Benda, Yves


    Professor John Henry Wigmore in 1940 described the hypothetical question as an intolerable obstruction of truth. Since that time, the nature and application of the hypothetical question in the courtroom, as well as responses to this line of questioning during expert testimony, have been sources of controversy. Governed by legal philosophical foundations, the hypothetical construct addresses what there is, in a general sense, and what can or ought to be. Alexy (2004) has described the nature of legal philosophy as the epistemological question of what we can know. This article begins by examining the philosophical underpinnings, legal parameters, and teaching purposes of posing hypothetical queries. A social-psychological backdrop for the use of hypothetical questions is then discussed followed by a broader discussion of the hypothetical question's role in court procedures. This paper identifies hypothetical questions used in court as devices to elicit information, or as predictions that potentially change underlying factual interpretations of evidence. In particular, on cross examination hypothetical questions seek to make opposing experts assume facts that are incongruent with their conclusions or opinions. Sometimes in these situations, experts are led to re-evaluate opinions based on alternative understandings of events and behaviors. Thus, this paper's final aim is to explore a foundational understanding of hypothetical questions asked of expert witnesses with special reference to mental health issues. Options for responding to hypothetical questions on the stand are considered along the dimensions of assertiveness-passivity, compliance-resistance, and possible redefinitions of the hypothetical issues.

  8. Presidential address: Gastrointestinal cancer. Surgical survey of abdominal tragedy. (United States)

    Cohn, I


    The experience with gastrointestinal cancer at a single large hospital has been utilized as a "micro-model" of the experience for the country at large, and the reasons why such a comparison might be possible have been presented. The incidence of various lesions has been discussed in terms of sex, age, and race. The changing incidence of various lesions has been pointed out. Survival results have been determined for total series, for various types of operative procedures, and for various extents of disease. The comparability of survival results from this one institution and those collected from the literature have been discussed. The emergence of newer diagnostic and therapeutic measures has been highlighted. The importance of education of both patients and physicians is emphasized repeatedly by the late stage at which so many of the patients with any gastrointestinal cancer present to and are diagnosed by the physician. The educational task for all of medicine is apparent and must be faced in some effective fashion.

  9. Questions About Venus after Venus Express (United States)

    Limaye, Sanjay


    asymmetry in the haze distribution? (vi) what is the direction of the near surface wind at different locations on the planet? JAXA's Akatsuki orbiter will soon begin collecting unique and valuable observations in April 2016 which will increase our knowledge, but other measurements required to answer these questions require careful and sustained observations within the atmosphere and from surface based stations. Some of these measurements should and can be made by large missions such as Venera-D, Venus Climate Mission or the Venus Flagship Design Reference Mission which have been studied in recent years, but some have not been addressed in such studies. Many new missions to Venus are being developed or conceived and it is important to keep the key questions about Venus in focus.

  10. A Pedagogy to Address Plagiarism. (United States)

    Whitaker, Elaine E.


    Presents strategies and methods by which writing teachers can openly address the potential problem of plagiarism. Details specific methods used by one teacher to train students how to quote and cite materials without plagiarizing. (HB)

  11. Solar physics: Dynamo theory questioned (United States)

    Charbonneau, Paul


    Observations of X-ray emission -- a diagnostic tool for the mechanisms driving stellar magnetic fields -- from four cool stars call into question accepted models of magnetic-field generation in the Sun and stars. See Letter p.526

  12. LGBT Caregiving: Frequently Asked Questions (United States)

    ... FCA - A A + A You are here Home LGBT Caregiving: Frequently Asked Questions Order this publication Printer- ... service or organization is open to working with LGBT families? Kudos to you for managing to “go ...

  13. Frequent Questions About Universal Waste (United States)

    Frequent questions such as Who is affected by the universal waste regulations? What is “mercury-containing equipment”? How are waste batteries managed under universal waste? How are waste pesticides managed under universal waste?

  14. Questions to Ask Your Doctor (United States)

    ... to MBCN Contact Us Questions to ask your doctor Medical appointments can be stressful. To better deal ... for you. If diagnosed by your primary care physician Where do you send your metastatic patients for ...

  15. Questions Students Ask: Beta Decay. (United States)

    Koss, Jordan; Hartt, Kenneth


    Answers a student's question about the emission of a positron from a nucleus. Discusses the problem from the aspects of the uncertainty principle, beta decay, the Fermi Theory, and modern physics. (YP)

  16. Climate Leadership Awards Frequent Questions (United States)

    Provides answers to frequently asked questions regarding the Climate Leadership Awards, sponsored by EPA's Center for Corporate Climate Leadership with co-sponsorship from the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions and The Climate Registry.

  17. Frequently Asked Questions about Pharmacogenomics (United States)

    ... Care Specific Genetic Disorders Frequently Asked Questions About Pharmacogenomics Enlarge What is pharmacogenomics? What might pharmacogenomics mean ... page, you will need Adobe Reader. What is pharmacogenomics? Pharmacogenomics uses information about a person's genetic makeup, ...

  18. Fisheries Disaster Survey, 2000 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Responses to selected questions from the Social and Economic Survey administered in spring and summer 2000 to recipients of the second round (Round II) of financial...

  19. Web surveys' hidden hazards. (United States)

    Morrel-Samuels, Palmer


    The same question posed on the Web and in print can yield very different answers, dramatically distorting survey results and misleading management. But, as psychologist Palmer Morrel-Samuels demonstrates, the problems are readily fixed.

  20. Key Questions in Thoracic Surgery


    Subotic, Dragan R.


    This 1000-page textbook encompasses much more than the title suggests. In fact, the title “Key questions in thoracic surgery and pulmonology” would be more fitting. The specific format of the book, with precise questions and evidence-based, but equally clear answers covering all relevant fields of pulmonology and thoracic surgery, makes this 40-chapter book a “must read” not only for residents, but also for senior pulmonologists and thoracic surgeons.

  1. MedlinePlus Survey Results 2015 (United States)

    ... page: MedlinePlus Survey Results 2015 To use the sharing features on ... government sites in the "Information/News" category. Other survey question responses: What best describes your role in ...

  2. Protein Electrochemistry: Questions and Answers. (United States)

    Fourmond, V; Léger, C

    This chapter presents the fundamentals of electrochemistry in the context of protein electrochemistry. We discuss redox proteins and enzymes that are not photoactive. Of course, the principles described herein also apply to photobioelectrochemistry, as discussed in later chapters of this book. Depending on which experiment is considered, electron transfer between proteins and electrodes can be either direct or mediated, and achieved in a variety of configurations: with the protein and/or the mediator free to diffuse in solution, immobilized in a thick, hydrated film, or adsorbed as a sub-monolayer on the electrode. The experiments can be performed with the goal to study the protein or to use it. Here emphasis is on mechanistic studies, which are easier in the configuration where the protein is adsorbed and electron transfer is direct, but we also explain the interpretation of signals obtained when diffusion processes affect the response.This chapter is organized as a series of responses to questions. Questions 1-5 are related to the basics of electrochemistry: what does "potential" or "current" mean, what does an electrochemical set-up look like? Questions 6-9 are related to the distinction between adsorbed and diffusive redox species. The answers to questions 10-13 explain the interpretation of slow and fast scan voltammetry with redox proteins. Questions 14-19 deal with catalytic electrochemistry, when the protein studied is actually an enzyme. Questions 20, 21 and 22 are general.

  3. [A survey through the sponsoring bodies of the handicapped in the Saône-et-Loire region]. (United States)

    Sanchez, J; Bourderon, P


    How can we identify comprehensively the disabled people in the population? A survey carried out in the French "département" of Saône et Loire addressed the issue by questioning the sponsoring bodies: municipalities, humanitarian associates, institutions caring for the disabled, etc... On the basis of the survey, it was possible to build up a data base from which prospective and/or longitudinal studies could be undertaken.

  4. Impact of product-related environmental regulations in Asia : descriptive statistics from a survey of firms in Penang, Malaysia


    Michida, Etsuyo; Ueki, Yasushi; Nabeshima, Kaoru


    This paper summarizes the main results of a unique firm survey conducted in Penang, Malaysia in 2012 on product-related environmental regulations. The results show that firms receiving foreign-direct investment have adapted well to regulations but faced more rejections. Several research questions are addressed and examined by using the survey data. Major findings are as follows. First, adaptation involves changes in input procurement and market diversification, which potentially changes the s...

  5. Testing New Survey Questions of Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault (United States)


    have a low alpha, even when unidimensional , if there is high random error. Results The detailed results are shown in Appendix A, however, 7.1...McIver, J.P., & Carmines, E.G. (1981). Unidimensional scaling. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Nunnally, J.C., & Bernstein, I.H. (1994). Psychometric theory (3rd

  6. A Critical Question: Can We Trust Smartphone Survey Data? (United States)

    Tuncer, Murat


    The main aim of this study is to determine whether a significant difference exits among data collection with printed materials and with smart phones. The research was conducted with 282 teacher candidates who take pedagogical formation training. Three data collection tools were used throughout the study. As the results of the current research, no…

  7. Semi-automated categorization of open-ended questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schonlau


    Full Text Available Text data from open-ended questions in surveys are difficult to analyze and are frequently ignored. Yet open-ended questions are important because they do not constrain respondents’ answer choices. Where open-ended questions are necessary, sometimes multiple human coders hand-code answers into one of several categories. At the same time, computer scientists have made impressive advances in text mining that may allow automation of such coding. Automated algorithms do not achieve an overall accuracy high enough to entirely replace humans. We categorize open-ended questions soliciting narrative responses using text mining for easy-to-categorize answers and humans for the remainder using expected accuracies to guide the choice of the threshold delineating between “easy” and “hard”. Employing multinomial boosting avoids the common practice of converting machine learning “confidence scores” into pseudo-probabilities. This approach is illustrated with examples from open-ended questions related to respondents’ advice to a patient in a hypothetical dilemma, a follow-up probe related to respondents’ perception of disclosure/privacy risk, and from a question on reasons for quitting smoking from a follow-up survey from the Ontario Smoker’s Helpline. Targeting 80% combined accuracy, we found that 54%-80% of the data could be categorized automatically in research surveys.

  8. Ethical challenges in designing and conducting medicine quality surveys. (United States)

    Tabernero, Patricia; Parker, Michael; Ravinetto, Raffaella; Phanouvong, Souly; Yeung, Shunmay; Kitutu, Freddy E; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Mayxay, Mayfong; Guerin, Philippe J; Newton, Paul N


    In this paper we discuss the main ethical challenges related to the conduct of medicine quality surveys and make suggestions on how to address them. Most evidence-based information regarding medicine quality derives from surveys. However, existing research ethical guidelines do not provide specific guidance for medicine quality surveys. Hence, those conducting surveys are often left wondering how to judge what counts as best practice. A list of the main ethical challenges in the design and conduct of surveys is presented. It is vital that the design and conduct of medicine quality surveys uphold moral and ethical obligations and analyse the ethical implications and consequences of such work. These aspects include the impact on the local availability of and access to medicines; the confidentiality and privacy of the surveyors and the surveyed; questions as to whether outlet staff personnel should be told they are part of a survey; the need of ethical and regulatory approvals; and how the findings should be disseminated. Medicine quality surveys should ideally be conducted in partnership with the relevant national Medicine Regulatory Authorities. An international, but contextually sensitive, model of good ethical practice for such surveys is needed. © 2016 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Addressing Common Student Errors with Classroom Voting in Multivariable Calculus (United States)

    Cline, Kelly; Parker, Mark; Zullo, Holly; Stewart, Ann


    One technique for identifying and addressing common student errors is the method of classroom voting, in which the instructor presents a multiple-choice question to the class, and after a few minutes for consideration and small group discussion, each student votes on the correct answer, often using a hand-held electronic clicker. If a large number…

  10. Addressing Common Student Errors with Classroom Voting in Multivariable Calculus (United States)

    Cline, Kelly; Parker, Mark; Zullo, Holly; Stewart, Ann


    One technique for identifying and addressing common student errors is the method of classroom voting, in which the instructor presents a multiple-choice question to the class, and after a few minutes for consideration and small group discussion, each student votes on the correct answer, often using a hand-held electronic clicker. If a large number…

  11. Foreign language didactics: Identity questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Píšová


    Full Text Available The efforts to emancipate foreign language didactics have been an ongoingand non-linear process launched in our country in the 50s of the previous century.Its key aspects may be presented as foreign language didactics identity questions.These include explicit delineation of the object and methodology of foreign languagedidactics on the basis of developmental analysis, current state of knowledge andtrends/approaches to the discipline. The issues related to the full-fledged scientificstatus of foreign language didactics are discussed both on a domain-general level(questions relevant for the whole field of subject didactics and on a domain-specificlevel (foreign language didactics specific questions.

  12. Surveying Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig


    In relation to surveying education there is one big question to be asked: Is the role of the surveyors changing? In a global perspective the answer will be "Yes". There is a big swing that could be entitled "From Measurement to Management". This does not imply that measurement is no longer a rele...... on an efficient interaction between education, research, and professional practice.......In relation to surveying education there is one big question to be asked: Is the role of the surveyors changing? In a global perspective the answer will be "Yes". There is a big swing that could be entitled "From Measurement to Management". This does not imply that measurement is no longer....... In surveying education there are a range of other challenges to be faced. These relate to the focus on learning to learn; the need for flexible curriculum to deal with constant change; the move towards introducing virtual academy; the demand for creating a quality culture; and the perspective of lifelong...

  13. Addressing Negative Math Attitudes with Service-Learning (United States)

    Henrich, Allison; Sloughter, J. McLean; Anderson, Jeffrey; Bahuaud, Eric


    In this paper, we share the results of our recent study of a quantitative literacy course with a service-learning component. Our study aims to answer the question: How did student attitudes shift as a result of participating in this course? We present and analyze statistics from pre- and post-surveys in five classes (N = 78) taught by two…

  14. Introduction to IP address management

    CERN Document Server

    Rooney, Tim


    "The book begins with a basic overview of IP networking, followed by chapters describing each of the three core IPAM technologies: IPv4 and IPv6 addressing, DHCP, and DNS. The next three chapters describe IPAM management techniques and practice, followed by chapters on IPv4-IPv6 co-existence, security and the IPAM business case"--

  15. Risk communication: how to answer tough patient questions. (United States)

    Wright, R


    Patients are asking: Can I catch AIDS in your office? Should I have my mercury fillings replaced? Are my children in danger from fluoridated water? If X-rays are so safe, why do you leave the room when you take them? Strategies for addressing these and other tough patient questions are discussed.

  16. Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender and Questioning Youth Matter! (United States)

    King, Kathleen A.


    This brief presents general trends in the social and emotional well-being of youth who identify as Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning (GLBTQ), followed by a guide of sexual orientation definitions. Additionally, readers learn a series of steps that schools must address in order to build inclusive, safe, and effective schools for…

  17. La CEQ et la Question Nationale et Linguistique. (United States)

    Centrale de L'Enseignement du Quebec (Canada).

    This report addresses the question of whether Canada is really a bilingual, multicultural nation, or a bilingual, monocultural nation, or a bilingual, bicultural nation. The history of Quebec is outlined and a comparison is made between the ethnic and linguistic composition of Quebec and the rest of Canada, showing that the percentage of people of…

  18. Questions Students Ask: The Red-Eye Effect. (United States)

    Physics Teacher, 1985


    Addresses the question of why a dog's eyes appear red and glow when a flash photograph is taken. Conditions for the red-eye effect, light paths involved, structure of the eye, and typical cameras and lenses are discussed. Also notes differences between the eyes of nocturnal animals and humans. (JN)

  19. Arts and Techniques of Questioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yu


    Most learners learn English from teachers in classroom. Therefore, classroom instruction plays a very important role. Teachers' questioning constitutes a very significant aspect of classroom teaching. It is not only an important part of classroom interaction but an effective way of learning second language as well.

  20. Understanding Bitcoins: Facts and Questions


    Bruno Saboia de Albuquerque; Marcelo de Castro Callado


    The objective of this work is to do a research challenge about the digital currency named Bitcoins, as well as exploit the general concept behind digital currencies and cryptocurrencies, and enumerate some of its current criticism and problems. Such currencies usage and public knowledge is increasing hastily on the last few months, and many questions arise with its popularity.

  1. Questioning Mechanisms During Complex Learning (United States)


    is probably a general phenomenon in this culture that tutors are reluctant to give negative feedback on students’ errors and poor answers. Instead of...1991). Questioning in classrooms: A sociolinguistic perspective. Review of £’fiu!r’aiona1 R.ear.h, L, 157-178. Carroll, J. M., Mack, R. L., Lewis, C

  2. Understanding Bitcoins: Facts and Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Saboia de Albuquerque


    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to do a research challenge about the digital currency named Bitcoins, as well as exploit the general concept behind digital currencies and cryptocurrencies, and enumerate some of its current criticism and problems. Such currencies usage and public knowledge is increasing hastily on the last few months, and many questions arise with its popularity.

  3. Multi-Factor Duplicate Question Detection in Stack Overflow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芸; David Lo; 夏鑫; 孙建伶


    Stack Overflow is a popular on-line question and answer site for software developers to share their experience and expertise. Among the numerous questions posted in Stack Overflow, two or more of them may express the same point and thus are duplicates of one another. Duplicate questions make Stack Overflow site maintenance harder, waste resources that could have been used to answer other questions, and cause developers to unnecessarily wait for answers that are already available. To reduce the problem of duplicate questions, Stack Overflow allows questions to be manually marked as duplicates of others. Since there are thousands of questions submitted to Stack Overflow every day, manually identifying duplicate questions is a di昋cult work. Thus, there is a need for an automated approach that can help in detecting these duplicate questions. To address the above-mentioned need, in this paper, we propose an automated approach named DUPPREDICTOR that takes a new question as input and detects potential duplicates of this question by considering multiple factors. DUPPREDICTOR extracts the title and description of a question and also tags that are attached to the question. These pieces of information (title, description, and a few tags) are mandatory information that a user needs to input when posting a question. DUPPREDICTOR then computes the latent topics of each question by using a topic model. Next, for each pair of questions, it computes four similarity scores by comparing their titles, descriptions, latent topics, and tags. These four similarity scores are finally combined together to result in a new similarity score that comprehensively considers the multiple factors. To examine the benefit of DUPPREDICTOR, we perform an experiment on a Stack Overflow dataset which contains a total of more than two million questions. The result shows that DUPPREDICTOR can achieve a recall-rate@20 score of 63.8%. We compare our approach with the standard search engine of Stack

  4. Addressing the academic gap between 4- and 6-year pharmacy programs in South Korea. (United States)

    Yoo, Sujin; Song, Seungyeon; Lee, Sangmi; Kwon, Kwangil; Kim, Eunyoung


    To address the academic gap (or lack of adequate training and programs) between 4- and 6-year pharmacy programs and suggest methods for reducing this gap and to evaluate pharmacists' perceptions of preceptorship. We surveyed a convenience sample of 200 community pharmacists who graduated from a 4-year program who were participating in a continuing education program for clinical pharmacy as organized by the Daejeon branch of the Korea Pharmaceutical Association in 2011. Twenty-one questions were asked about the academic gap, needs for an education program, preceptorship, and medication therapy management services. International precedents were examined through a literature review to glean ideas of how to bridge the academic gap between the 4- and 6-year programs. In total, 132 pharmacists answered the survey (return rate=66.0%). The survey findings included problems caused by the academic gap, high need for an adequate education program, low acceptability of preceptorship, and the possibility of medication therapy management services. US-based, non-traditional PharmD programs and new curriculum-support training in Japan provided examples of how the academic gap has been successfully bridged. Nationwide efforts and government support are urgently required to close the academic gap, and experiential education should be included in transitional programs for 4-year pharmacy program pharmacists.

  5. The Half-Pin and the Pin Tract: A Survey of the Limb Lengthening and Reconstruction Society (United States)


    report no actual or potential conflict of interest in relation to this article. AJO DO NOT COPY Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188...dealing with half-pin scars? 9. Do you remove frames in the operating room or clinic? AJO DO NOT COPY E70    The American Journal of question soliciting comments and tips/tricks not addressed in the 9-question survey (Table I). AJO DO NOT COPY A Survey of the Limb

  6. Competitors' Perceptions of Questions in Individual Events Rounds. (United States)

    Mills, Daniel; Pettus, Ann Burnett

    A study investigated student competitors' opinions of the practice of judges asking questions of competitors at the conclusion of speeches in the individual events competiton at forensic tournaments. Surveys were completed by 52 final round student competitors at a large midwestern university individual events invitational tournament. Results…

  7. The question "Are We Alone?" in different cultures


    Schneider, Jean


    A survey of the worldwide litterature reveals that the question "Are We Alone in the Universe?" has been formulated only in the western litterature. Here I try to understand why it is so. To investigate this problem it is first necessary to clarify what western culture means.

  8. Geocoding Patient Addresses for Biosurveillance


    Olson, Karen L; Kenneth D Mandl


    New biosurveillance information systems are being developed to detect clusters of disease using temporal and spatial characteristics. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) can use patient addresses stored in hospital information systems to assign latitude and longitude coordinates, enabling the detection of spatial clusters. However, inaccuracy can be introduced during the geocoding process and this could have a profound adverse effect on detection sensitivity. In an analysis of three years ...

  9. Karl Mannheim’s Jewish Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kettler


    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore Karl Mannheim’s puzzling failure (or refusal to address himself in any way to questions arising out of the position of Jews in Germany, either before or after the advent of Nazi rule—and this, notwithstanding the fact, first, that his own ethnic identification as a Jew was never in question and that he shared vivid experiences of anti-Semitism, and consequent exile from both Hungary and Germany, and, second, that his entire sociological method rested upon using one’s own most problematic social location—as woman, say, or youth, or intellectual—as the starting point for a reflexive investigation. It was precisely Mannheim’s convictions about the integral bond between thought grounded in reflexivity and a mission to engage in a transformative work of Bildung that made it effectively impossible for him to formulate his inquiries in terms of his way of being Jewish. It is through his explorations of the rise and fall of the intellectual as socio-cultural formation that Mannheim investigates his relations to his Jewish origins and confronts the disaster of 1933. The key to our puzzle is to be found in the theory of assimilation put forward in the dissertation of his student, Jacob Katz.

  10. Two Questions about Data-Oriented Parsing

    CERN Document Server

    Bod, R


    In this paper I present ongoing work on the data-oriented parsing (DOP) model. In previous work, DOP was tested on a cleaned-up set of analyzed part-of-speech strings from the Penn Treebank, achieving excellent test results. This left, however, two important questions unanswered: (1) how does DOP perform if tested on unedited data, and (2) how can DOP be used for parsing word strings that contain unknown words? This paper addresses these questions. We show that parse results on unedited data are worse than on cleaned-up data, although very competitive if compared to other models. As to the parsing of word strings, we show that the hardness of the problem does not so much depend on unknown words, but on previously unseen lexical categories of known words. We give a novel method for parsing these words by estimating the probabilities of unknown subtrees. The method is of general interest since it shows that good performance can be obtained without the use of a part-of-speech tagger. To the best of our knowledge...

  11. Atomic clusters with addressable complexity (United States)

    Wales, David J.


    A general formulation for constructing addressable atomic clusters is introduced, based on one or more reference structures. By modifying the well depths in a given interatomic potential in favour of nearest-neighbour interactions that are defined in the reference(s), the potential energy landscape can be biased to make a particular permutational isomer the global minimum. The magnitude of the bias changes the resulting potential energy landscape systematically, providing a framework to produce clusters that should self-organise efficiently into the target structure. These features are illustrated for small systems, where all the relevant local minima and transition states can be identified, and for the low-energy regions of the landscape for larger clusters. For a 55-particle cluster, it is possible to design a target structure from a transition state of the original potential and to retain this structure in a doubly addressable landscape. Disconnectivity graphs based on local minima that have no direct connections to a lower minimum provide a helpful way to visualise the larger databases. These minima correspond to the termini of monotonic sequences, which always proceed downhill in terms of potential energy, and we identify them as a class of biminimum. Multiple copies of the target cluster are treated by adding a repulsive term between particles with the same address to maintain distinguishable targets upon aggregation. By tuning the magnitude of this term, it is possible to create assemblies of the target cluster corresponding to a variety of structures, including rings and chains.

  12. An Application of Entropy in Survey Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgül Vupa


    Full Text Available This study demonstrates an application of entropy for information theory in the field of survey scale. Based on computer anxiety scale we obtain that the desired information may be achieved with fewer questions. In particular, one question is insufficient and two questions are necessary for a survey subscale.

  13. A system dynamic model for analyzing online question & answer markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaz Amani


    Full Text Available During the past two decades, there have been growing interests on developing websites to build a link between various groups of people to share their knowledge such as Google service. This kind of activity helps fast and reliable distribution of knowledge since someone disseminates a question and various people attempt to provide some responses. This paper presents a system dynamic method for investigating the relationships between various components of a benchmark site. The proposed study develops closed loop dynamic among various components of the survey and provides some necessary actions for development of such systems. The results of our survey have indicated that the new forum could end up having significant number of unanswered questions. Therefore, researchers who work for this forum are suggested to increase their skills and their response rates to reduce the rate of unanswered questions.

  14. Using Student Surveys to Monitor Teacher Effectiveness: Q&A with Dr. Ronald Ferguson. REL Mid-Atlantic Teacher Effectiveness Webinar Series (United States)

    Regional Educational Laboratory Mid-Atlantic, 2013


    In this webinar, Dr. Ronald Ferguson, creator of the Tripod Project and Senior Lecturer at Harvard University Graduate School of Education, discussed the use of student surveys as an approach to measuring teacher effectiveness. This Q&A addressed the questions participants had for Dr. Ferguson following the webinar. The webinar recording and…

  15. Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Trajectories in Child Sexual Abuse Victims: An Analysis of Sex Differences Using the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (United States)

    Maikovich, Andrea Kohn; Koenen, Karestan C.; Jaffee, Sara R.


    Very few studies have prospectively examined sex differences in posttraumatic stress symptoms and symptom trajectories in youth victimized by childhood sexual abuse. This study addresses that question in a relatively large sample of children, drawn from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, who were between the ages of 8-16 years…

  16. Interviewer Effects on a Network-Size Filter Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josten Michael


    Full Text Available There is evidence that survey interviewers may be tempted to manipulate answers to filter questions in a way that minimizes the number of follow-up questions. This becomes relevant when ego-centered network data are collected. The reported network size has a huge impact on interview duration if multiple questions on each alter are triggered. We analyze interviewer effects on a network-size question in the mixed-mode survey “Panel Study ‘Labour Market and Social Security’” (PASS, where interviewers could skip up to 15 follow-up questions by generating small networks. Applying multilevel models, we find almost no interviewer effects in CATI mode, where interviewers are paid by the hour and frequently supervised. In CAPI, however, where interviewers are paid by case and no close supervision is possible, we find strong interviewer effects on network size. As the area-specific network size is known from telephone mode, where allocation to interviewers is random, interviewer and area effects can be separated. Furthermore, a difference-in-difference analysis reveals the negative effect of introducing the follow-up questions in Wave 3 on CAPI network size. Attempting to explain interviewer effects we neither find significant main effects of experience within a wave, nor significantly different slopes between interviewers.

  17. On a question of Gross (United States)

    Banerjee, Abhijit


    Using the notion of weighted sharing of sets we prove two uniqueness theorems which improve the results proved by Fang and Qiu [H. Qiu, M. Fang, A unicity theorem for meromorphic functions, Bull. Malaysian Math. Sci. Soc. 25 (2002) 31-38], Lahiri and Banerjee [I. Lahiri, A. Banerjee, Uniqueness of meromorphic functions with deficient poles, Kyungpook Math. J. 44 (2004) 575-584] and Yi and Lin [H.X. Yi, W.C. Lin, Uniqueness theorems concerning a question of Gross, Proc. Japan Acad. Ser. A 80 (2004) 136-140] and thus provide an answer to the question of Gross [F. Gross, Factorization of meromorphic functions and some open problems, in: Proc. Conf. Univ. Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 1976, in: Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 599, Springer, Berlin, 1977, pp. 51-69], under a weaker hypothesis.

  18. Correlating student knowledge and confidence using a graded knowledge survey to assess student learning in a general microbiology classroom. (United States)

    Favazzo, Lacey; Willford, John D; Watson, Rachel M


    Knowledge surveys are a type of confidence survey in which students rate their confidence in their ability to answer questions rather than answering the questions. These surveys have been discussed as a tool to evaluate student in-class or curriculum-wide learning. However, disagreement exists as to whether confidence is actually an accurate measure of knowledge. With the concomitant goals of assessing content-based learning objectives and addressing this disagreement, we present herein a pretest/posttest knowledge survey study that demonstrates a significant difference correctness on graded test questions at different levels of reported confidence in a multi-semester timeframe. Questions were organized into Bloom's taxonomy, allowing for the data collected to further provide statistical analyses on strengths and deficits in various levels of Bloom's reasoning with regard to mean correctness. Collectively, students showed increasing confidence and correctness in all levels of thought but struggled with synthesis-level questions. However, when students were only asked to rate confidence and not answer the accompanying test questions, they reported significantly higher confidence than the control group which was asked to do both. This indicates that when students do not attempt to answer questions, they have significantly greater confidence in their ability to answer those questions. Additionally, when students rate only confidence without answering the question, resolution across Bloom's levels of reasoning is lost. Based upon our findings, knowledge surveys can be an effective tool for assessment of both breadth and depth of knowledge, but may require students to answer questions in addition to rating confidence to provide the most accurate data.

  19. Foreign language didactics: Identity questions


    Michaela Píšová


    The efforts to emancipate foreign language didactics have been an ongoingand non-linear process launched in our country in the 50s of the previous century.Its key aspects may be presented as foreign language didactics identity questions.These include explicit delineation of the object and methodology of foreign languagedidactics on the basis of developmental analysis, current state of knowledge andtrends/approaches to the discipline. The issues related to the full-fledged scientificstatus of ...

  20. Some open questions in hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Dyndal, Mateusz


    When speaking of unsolved problems in physics, this is surprising at first glance to discuss the case of fluid mechanics. However, there are many deep open questions that come with the theory of fluid mechanics. In this paper, we discuss some of them that we classify in two categories, the long term behavior of solutions of equations of hydrodynamics and the definition of initial (boundary) conditions. The first set of questions come with the non-relativistic theory based on the Navier-Stokes equations. Starting from smooth initial conditions, the purpose is to understand if solutions of Navier-Stokes equations remain smooth with the time evolution. Existence for just a finite time would imply the evolution of finite time singularities, which would have a major influence on the development of turbulent phenomena. The second set of questions come with the relativistic theory of hydrodynamics. There is an accumulating evidence that this theory may be relevant for the description of the medium created in high en...

  1. Conducting systematic reviews of intervention questions I: Writing the review protocol, formulating the question and searching the literature. (United States)

    O'Connor, A M; Anderson, K M; Goodell, C K; Sargeant, J M


    This article is the fourth of six articles addressing systematic reviews in animal agriculture and veterinary medicine. Previous articles in the series have introduced systematic reviews, discussed study designs and hierarchies of evidence, and provided details on conducting randomized controlled trials, a common design for use in systematic reviews. This article describes development of a review protocol and the first two steps in a systematic review: formulating a review question, and searching the literature for relevant research. The emphasis is on systematic reviews of questions related to interventions. The review protocol is developed prior to conducting the review and specifies the plan for the conduct of the review, identifies the roles and responsibilities of the review team and provides structured definitions related to the review question. For intervention questions, the review question should be defined by the PICO components: population, intervention, comparison and outcome(s). The literature search is designed to identify all potentially relevant original research that may address the question. Search terms related to some or all of the PICO components are entered into literature databases, and searches for unpublished literature also are conducted. All steps of the literature search are documented to provide transparent reporting of the process. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Questions as a tool to design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aurisicchio, Marco; Ahmed, Saeema; Wallace, Ken


    This paper describes an interpretation of design activity through investigating design questions. From a number of previous studies two types of question have been identified: 1) reasoning questions; and 2) strategic questions. Strategic questions are part of an experienced designers approach to ...

  3. Soft Physics and Intermittency Open Question(s) in Krakow

    CERN Document Server

    Peschanski, R


    This contribution contains a summary of the Krakow meeting on Soft Physics and Fluctuations. It emphasizes both the experimental and the theoretical investigations on correlations/fluctuations and intermittency in multi-particle processes and discusses of the present status of this concept. A clarification of the main open questions in this field of research is now within reach, thanks to the studies presented at the meeting. Summary Talk of the Krakow Workshop on Multiparticle Physics, May, 4-7, 1993. E-mail contact:

  4. Assessing what to address in science communication (United States)

    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Bostrom, Ann


    As members of a democratic society, individuals face complex decisions about whether to support climate change mitigation, vaccinations, genetically modified food, nanotechnology, geoengineering, and so on. To inform people’s decisions and public debate, scientific experts at government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and other organizations aim to provide understandable and scientifically accurate communication materials. Such communications aim to improve people’s understanding of the decision-relevant issues, and if needed, promote behavior change. Unfortunately, existing communications sometimes fail when scientific experts lack information about what people need to know to make more informed decisions or what wording people use to describe relevant concepts. We provide an introduction for scientific experts about how to use mental models research with intended audience members to inform their communication efforts. Specifically, we describe how to conduct interviews to characterize people’s decision-relevant beliefs or mental models of the topic under consideration, identify gaps and misconceptions in their knowledge, and reveal their preferred wording. We also describe methods for designing follow-up surveys with larger samples to examine the prevalence of beliefs as well as the relationships of beliefs with behaviors. Finally, we discuss how findings from these interviews and surveys can be used to design communications that effectively address gaps and misconceptions in people’s mental models in wording that they understand. We present applications to different scientific domains, showing that this approach leads to communications that improve recipients’ understanding and ability to make informed decisions. PMID:23942122

  5. [Foundational questions in the beginning of clinical psychology]. (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Glauco


    This work proposes an initial survey on the origins of American clinical psychology between the nineteenth and twentieth century, against a backdrop of historiographical interpretation that hypothesizes a "plurality of matrices" of clinical psychology, linked to different theoretical perspectives and different socio-cultural contexts. Particular attention is focused upon the main foundational issues of the discipline, drawing from some of the writings of Lightner Witmer, to whom we owe the founding of the first "clinical psychology" for subjects in childhood characterized by "retardation or physical defects interfering with school progress"; and of a lesser-known scholar, John E.W. Wallin. Both authors, indeed, worry themselves anxious to define clinical psychology, differentiating it from other medical and psychological branches; to establish which is the field of competence of the clinical psychologist; and to outline their training and specify the aims and contents of their intervention. Attention is then addressed to the relationship psychologists-psychiatrists at the time of its emergence, making specific reference to a document of the New York Psychiatrical Society--which represents one of the first attempts to exclude clinical psychologists from the field of mental health--and reporting also on the response to this position signed by Shepherd Franz. After an allusion to the Italian situation from the 1950s to today, the article concludes by emphasizing that at least some of the basic questions that clinical psychology had to deal with at its birth are still present, though filtered through the intense debate that has taken place over the years, and consequently supporting the importance of a historical component in the training of contemporary clinical psychologists.

  6. Nanoscale content-addressable memory (United States)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)


    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  7. Addressing inequities in healthy eating. (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Ford, Laura; O'Rourke, Kerryn


    What, when, where and how much people eat is influenced by a complex mix of factors at societal, community and individual levels. These influences operate both directly through the food system and indirectly through political, economic, social and cultural pathways that cause social stratification and influence the quality of conditions in which people live their lives. These factors are the social determinants of inequities in healthy eating. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence base for addressing these determinants and for the promotion of equity in healthy eating.

  8. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman


    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  9. God in Question: Questioning as a Prerequisite for Theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kočí


    Full Text Available There are questions that are so important that it is a pity to spoil them with answers. No doubt, the question of God is one of them. Contrary to many presuppositions, theology is not capable of providing us with the final answers in this respect. On the contrary, theology professed as fides quaerens intellectum is an ongoing struggle with questions. Modernity interrupted this paradigm of theological questioning. Theology was withdrawn from the realm of understanding and shifted to the realm of explanation. Modernity brought the univocalization of God. Nonetheless, the attempts to tackle the question of God lead to hegemonic narratives about God. Such narratives are rightly criticized in a postmodern context for their totalizing pretensions. The problem of postmodern criticism is its one-sided emphasis on the apophatic dimension of theological discourse. I propose that theology can go a step further beyond postmodernity. In order to do so, I deal with the Czech philosopher Jan Patočka, who provides an opportunity to rethink God from the perspective of questioning in a new way. Patočka’s insistence on problematicity is the main reading key of his work. In this line of though, I interpret Patočka’s student Tomáš Halík and his thesis about the necessity to take the metaphor of an unknown God into account. I argue that theology must avoid the temptation to remove God from the question and make a well-known God of him. The time has come for theologians to turn their answers back into questions and dwell with them. Bůh jako otázka: Tázání jako předpoklad teologie Některé otázky jsou tak důležité, že je škoda kazit je odpověďmi. Není pochyb, že otázka po Bohu je jednou z nich. Navzdory mnoha předpokladům, ani teologie není schopna poskytnout v tomto ohledu konečné odpovědi. Teologie pojatá jako fides quaerens intellectum je nepřetržitý nekončící zápas s otázkami. Moderna narušila toto paradigma teologick

  10. Questions concerning the nuclear wastes; Les dechets nucleaires en questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daures, Pierre [ed.] [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)


    At present, 75% of the electricity in France is of nuclear origin. Most of French people approve this mode of energy production and agree upon the continuation of the electronuclear sector exploitation. However, as any industry, the nuclear industry produces wastes which constitute a keen preoccupation of the public opinion. The nuclear program, even at its very inception, has provided the appropriate mastering of radioactive wastes by reducing their volume, by conditioning, reprocessing and storing, expressing continually its carefulness for population protection as well as for environment defence against the radiological effects. Pursuing its policy of transparency the EDF demonstrated openness and understanding towards questions raised by anyone. This brochure gives answers to the following 17 questions: -what the nuclear wastes are, which is their origin? - what is their amount? - are the nuclear waste dangerous? - how to treat the nuclear wastes? - are the radioactive waste storage sure? - is the nuclear waste transportation sure? - are these solutions sure? - why searches for long-lived radioactive wastes? - what is transmutation? - shall we bequeath to the next generations our nuclear wastes? - are there particular problems in nuclear power plant decommissioning? - what the wastes issued from decommissioning become? - are the costs of reprocessing and decommissioning taken into account in the price of the kWh? - were the nuclear wastes taken into account since the nuclear program inception? - who manages the nuclear wastes? - why France accepted the reprocessing of nuclear wastes produced in foreign countries? - is there an international policy for nuclear wastes?.

  11. A Reflection on Teacher Questioning Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasih Elisabeth Roostini


    Full Text Available Abstract This small-scale research is expected to serve as a reflective means for teachers so that they can explore their questioning types in their own classroom. It analyzed questioning types used by three teachers of general English classes. The questioning types were classified based on three dimensions—purpose, form, and function. The purpose-based questioning types, based on Long and Sato’s findings (1983, were classified into two: referential and display. The form-based questioning types, based on the classification of question types by Celce-Murcia and Larsen-Freeman (1999 and Biber et al. (1999, were classified into four major types: yes/no-questions, wh-questions, tag questions, and alternative questions. The function-based questioning types, based on Long and Sato’s findings (1983, were classified into three sub-types: comprehension checks, confirmation checks, and clarification requests.           The data, obtained from three recorded class meetings, were transcribed and analyzed to see what questioning types each teacher employed and to obtain the number and percentage distribution of questioning types each teacher used. The results showed that referential questions were more frequently used than display questions at higher levels. There were a substantial number of incomplete questions, a form-based questioning type that did not belong to the classification of form-based questioning types employed in this study. The predominant use of incomplete questions in a communicative classroom should be reviewed as this questioning type required accuracy, rather than promoting language practice. The third type, the function-based questioning types, did not occur frequently at all the three stages. This study suggests that teachers use incomplete questions less frequently and try to use other form-based questioning types. It also encourages teachers to reflect on their own teaching and pursue their professional development.

  12. Sociodemographic differences in dietary habits described by food frequency questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dynesen, Anja Weirsøe; Haraldsdottír, Johanna; Holm, Lotte;


    be a valuable supplement to traditional quantitative dietary surveys in monitoring sociodemographic changes in eating patterns. The results also underline the influence of sociodemographic status on dietary habits. SPONSORSHIP: The Danish Nutrition Council funded the study.......OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether a modest number of food frequency questions are sufficient to describe sociodemographic differences in dietary habits, and to identify sociodemographic characteristics of subjects adhering to food-based dietary guidelines operationalised in a "healthy-diet index...... frequency questions, a question on type of fat spreads used on bread, questions on seven sociodemographic variables. RESULTS: The summary of the healthy-diet index showed that the subjects who adhered to food-based dietary guidelines (top quintile) compared to those who did not (bottom quintile) were most...

  13. Ten questions about systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K


    In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...... to understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as 'systems biology' by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many...

  14. Geothermal industry employment: Survey results & analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Geothermal Energy Association (GEA) is ofteh asked about the socioeconomic and employment impact of the industry. Since available literature dealing with employment involved in the geothermal sector appeared relatively outdated, unduly focused on certain activities of the industry (e.g. operation and maintenance of geothermal power plants) or poorly reliable, GEA, in consultation with the DOE, decided to conduct a new employment survey to provide better answers to these questions. The main objective of this survey is to assess and characterize the current workforce involved in geothermal activities in the US. Several initiatives have therefore been undertaken to reach as many organizations involved in geothermal activities as possible and assess their current workforce. The first section of this document describes the methodology used to contact the companies involved in the geothermal sector. The second section presents the survey results and analyzes them. This analysis includes two major parts. The first part analyzes the survey responses, presents employment numbers that were captured and describes the major characteristics of the industry that have been identified. The second part of the analysis estimates the number of workers involved in companies that are active in the geothermal business but did not respond to the survey or could not be reached. Preliminary conclusions and the study limits and restrictions are then presented. The third section addresses the potential employment impact related to manufacturing and construction of new geothermal power facilities. Indirect and induced economic impacts related with such investment are also investigated.

  15. No question about exciting questions in cell biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas D Pollard


    Full Text Available Although we have a good grasp of many important processes in cell biology, including knowledge of many molecules involved and how they interact with each other, we still do not understand most of the dynamical features that are the essence of living systems. Fortunately, we now have the ability to dissect biological systems in enough detail to understand their dynamics, including the use of mathematical models to account for past observations and predict future experiments. This deep level of mechanistic understanding should be our goal—not simply to satisfy our scientific curiosity, but also to understand the causes of disease well enough to predict risks, make early diagnoses, and treat effectively. Many big questions remain to be answered before we reach this goal of understanding cellular dynamics.

  16. No question about exciting questions in cell biology. (United States)

    Pollard, Thomas D


    Although we have a good grasp of many important processes in cell biology, including knowledge of many molecules involved and how they interact with each other, we still do not understand most of the dynamical features that are the essence of living systems. Fortunately, we now have the ability to dissect biological systems in enough detail to understand their dynamics, including the use of mathematical models to account for past observations and predict future experiments. This deep level of mechanistic understanding should be our goal—not simply to satisfy our scientific curiosity, but also to understand the causes of disease well enough to predict risks, make early diagnoses, and treat effectively. Many big questions remain to be answered before we reach this goal of understanding cellular dynamics.

  17. Using Electronic Surveys: Advice from Survey Professionals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Shannon


    Full Text Available The study reports the perceptions and recommendations of sixty-two experienced survey..researchers from the American Educational Research Association regarding the use of..electronic surveys. The most positive aspects cited for the use of electronic surveys were..reduction of costs (i.e., postage, phone charges, the use of electronic mail for pre-notification or..follow-up purposes, and the compatibility of data with existing software programs. These..professionals expressed limitations in using electronic surveys pertaining to the limited..sampling frame as well as issues of confidentiality, privacy, and the credibility of the sample...They advised that electronic surveys designed with the varied technological background and..capabilities of the respondent in mind, follow sound principles of survey construction, and be..administered to pre-notified, targeted populations with published email addresses.

  18. Pisa Question and Reasoning Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersoy Esen


    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to determine the level of the reasoning skills of the secondary school students. This research has been conducted during the academic year of 2015-2016 with the participation of 51 students in total, from a province in the Black Sea region of Turkey by using random sampling method. Case study method has been used in this study, since it explains an existing situation. In this study, content analysis from the qualitative research methods was carried out. In order to ensure the validity of the scope, agreement percentage formula was used and expert opinions were sought.The problem named Holiday from the Chapter 1 of the normal units in Problem Solving Questions from PISA (Program for International Student Assessments [35] are used as the data collection tool for the study. The problem named Holiday consists of two questions. Applied problems were evaluated according to the mathematical reasoning stages of TIMSS (2003. The findings suggest that the students use proportional reasoning while solving the problems and use the geometric shapes to facilitate the solution of the problem. When they come across problems related to each other, it is observed that they create connections between the problems based on the results of the previous problem. In conclusion, the students perform crosscheck to ensure that their solutions to the problems are accurate.

  19. Are Quantum Theory Questions Epistemic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Yaccuzzi Polisena


    Full Text Available How to displace-move quantum theory [Ǭ] questions-problems to philosophy? Seeing the collapse of our society’s cultural-intellectual-morals, the philosophy of the 21st century has to contribute to the formation of new principles-formalisms: the big task of the contemporary philosophy ©] is to innovate, to transform the building of the knowledge! Which is the role of the contemporary philosopher? (Noam Chomsky. Building science so that it is more human, out of the scientific mercantilism so that it does not continue transgressing that which is most precious: the thought-life. The ideas that I propose demand a deep cultural-epistemiologicscientific-philosophical-ethical rethinking that goes from quantum entities up to life in society. The starting idea is «the quantum [Ǭ], the paradigm of the contemporary science ©]» (Bernard D’Espagnat. I propose to displace-move questions of the quantum theory [Ǭ]: spin, measure, layering to the field of philosophy (φ to build generic symbols. Can the contemporary episteme model the collapse of the ? For a philosopher, can understanding the importance and the behaviour of the spin bring something new to philosophy ? Can information of the states of the spin be used to observe in a holographic way the pattern energy-information contained in the quantum entities? Is quantum [Ǭ] physics mechanical?

  20. Evaluative Conditioning: The "How" Question. (United States)

    Jones, Christopher R; Olson, Michael A; Fazio, Russell H


    Evaluative conditioning (EC) refers to attitude formation or change toward an object due to that object's mere co-occurrence with another valenced object or objects. This chapter focuses on the "how" question, that is, the question of what cognitive processes intervene between mere co-occurrence and attitude formation or change. Though EC has typically been thought of as occurring through a single, albeit contentious, mechanism, we begin by pointing out that both the heterogeneity of EC methodologies and the abundance of inconsistent results suggest that multiple processes with different characteristics can produce EC. We describe how the earliest posited process of EC, Pavlovian conditioning or signal learning, is a valid mechanism of EC that appears to have operated in some experiments but is unlikely to have operated in others and also cannot account for various EC findings. We describe other mechanisms of EC, when they can be expected to occur, and what characteristics they have. We particularly focus our attention on a process model of EC we have recently introduced, the implicit misattribution model. Finally, we describe the implications of a multi-process view of EC, which we argue can help resolve theoretical controversies and further the application of EC as a practical intervention for influencing attitudes in various domains.

  1. Building Footprints - Montana Structures/Addresses Framework (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Montana Structures/Addresses Framework is a statewide spatial database of structure and address points in the State of Montana. The Montana Structures/Addresses...

  2. Discharge measurement in tidally affected channels during a hydrographic estuarine survey of Sabine Lake, Texas (United States)

    Dunn, David D.; Solis, R.S.; Ockerman, D.J.


    A hydrographic survey of Sabine Lake, a broad, shallow estuary lying on the Texas-Louisiana border, was conducted in June 1996 to help address questions relating to potential environmental effects of future water demands in Texas. The use of a variety of new instruments in this study is one means by which automation is improving efficiency and effectiveness of these efforts by increasing the quality and quantity of data collected.

  3. Addressing the Language Description Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ali Bolgiin


    Full Text Available Well-described language features are key to successful teaching and learning, especially for achieving advanced levels of proficiency. Other measures, such as simply increasing the number of reading and listening passages in a language program alone are not enough to bring the student to a higher level in a given skill. In fact, even being present in the target culture does not suffice. Angelelli and Degueldre (2002 argue that at advanced levels, even spending time in a country where the language is spoken is not necessarily sufficient for learners: "They do not need just exposure; they need answers to questions and explanations that they can rarely get by simply being immersed in a language/ culture." Less commonly taught languages (LCTLs lack descriptions that have such answers and explanations (cf. Fotos, 2002. It is argued in this paper that corpuslinguistic analyses help to provide actual usage-based, rather than intuition-based, descriptions and explanations of language features. Such approach is illustrated through English and Turkish examples.

  4. Address Points, All Address Points Within Walworth County, Published in 2000, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Walworth County. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2000. It is described as 'All...

  5. Appearance questions can be misleading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikkel; Markman, Ellen M.


    Preschoolers' success on the appearance-reality task is a milestone in theory-of-mind development. On the standard task children see a deceptive object, such as a sponge that looks like a rock, and are asked, "What is this really?" and "What does this look like?" Children below 4 1/2 years of age...... fail saying that the object not only is a sponge but also looks like a sponge. We propose that young children's difficulty stems from ambiguity in the meaning of "looks like." This locution can refer to outward appearance ("Peter looks like Paul") but in fact often refers to likely reality ("That looks...... like Jim"). We propose that "looks like" is taken to refer to likely reality unless the reality is already part of the common ground of the conversation. Because this joint knowledge is unclear to young children on the appearance-reality task, they mistakenly think the appearance question is about...

  6. Questions and Answers about BSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B. Skillicorn


    Full Text Available Bulk Synchronous Parallelism (BSP is a parallel programming model that abstracts from low-level program structures in favour of supersteps. A superstep consists of a set of independent local computations, followed by a global communication phase and a barrier synchronisation. Structuring programs in this way enables their costs to be accurately determined from a few simple architectural parameters, namely the permeability of the communication network to uniformly-random traffic and the time to synchronise. Although permutation routing and barrier synch ronisations are widely regarded as inherently expensive, this is not the case. As a result, the structure imposed by BSP does not reduce performance, while bringing considerable benefits for application building. This paper answers the most common questions we are asked about BSP and justifies its claim to be a major step forward in parallel programming.

  7. Questioning Strategy in English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Learner autonomy has been a hot issue discussed by educators in recent years.Because it is believed that the ulti-mate goal of educating is to help students learn autonomously and actively not only in school but also,after graduation,for their whole life.Many people misunderstand the meaning of learner autonomy as learners learn something totally independent from teacher or learn after class.This is not the truth;teacher is indispensible to promote learner autonomy.Therefore,English teacher bears a great respon-sibility of fostering and promoting learner autonomy in the classroom.Questioning is the most frequently used and easiest method in the various teaching methods.

  8. Questions That Engage Students in Mathematical Thinking. (United States)

    Ilaria, Daniel R.

    Teacher questions are an important part of a student-inquiry classroom. This research examines two different student-centered settings to determine the teacher questions that engaged students in mathematical thinking. It reports on questions asked in both a research setting and a high school classroom. Discursive and retracing questions are…

  9. On Effective Questioning in English Classes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Teachers' questioning has traditionally been viewed as an important constituent of teacher talk and the core of effective teaching in classroom context.Questioning is the basic means used by teachers to challenge students to think,appraise teaching results and help students to realize their desired goals,thus,playing a key role in the second language acquisition.This paper will first introduce the definition and types of teachers'questioning and the criteria for effective questioning.It will also give some practical suggestions for practice effective questioning,focusing on good questions,wait-time,feedback and allocation of questions.

  10. Socrates' questions: a focus for nursing. (United States)

    Bunkers, Sandra S


    This column focuses on the philosophical dialogue originated by Socrates. Six questions that Socrates would ask the ancient Greeks are explored in discussing a book written by Phillips entitled Six Questions of Socrates. These questions were: What is virtue? What is moderation? What is justice? What is good? What is courage? What is piety? A human becoming perspective is used as a lens to view the discussion on these questions and the question is posed, "What would it be like to frame discussions on health and quality of life around Socrates' questions?" Parse's teaching-learning processes are presented as a means of creating an environment where dialogue on these questions can occur.

  11. Addressing neurological disorders with neuromodulation. (United States)

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R


    Neurological disorders are becoming increasingly common in developed countries as a result of the aging population. In spite of medications, these disorders can result in progressive loss of function as well as chronic physical, cognitive, and emotional disability that ultimately places enormous emotional and economic on the patient, caretakers, and the society in general. Neuromodulation is emerging as a therapeutic option in these patients. Neuromodulation is a field, which involves implantable devices that allow for the reversible adjustable application of electrical, chemical, or biological agents to the central or peripheral nervous system with the objective of altering its functioning with the objective of achieving a therapeutic or clinically beneficial effect. It is a rapidly evolving field that brings together many different specialties in the fields of medicine, materials science, computer science and technology, biomedical, and neural engineering as well as the surgical or interventional specialties. It has multiple current and emerging indications, and an enormous potential for growth. The main challenges before it are in the need for effective collaboration between engineers, basic scientists, and clinicians to develop innovations that address specific problems resulting in new devices and clinical applications.

  12. OPENING ADDRESS: Heterostructures in Semiconductors (United States)

    Grimmeiss, Hermann G.


    perspectives for future applications. We are most grateful that you agreed with the special format of the symposium which clearly does not follow conven- tional conferences. Allow me to call your special attention once again to two main differences: The presentations are not review papers praising already achieved break-throughs but introductions to a list of open questions and issues for which our understanding is still unsatisfactory. To give such presentations requires courage and scientific integrity. I would like to thank all speakers now already for their willingness to cope with such a difficult task. We have allocated at least 50 minutes for discussion after each presentation not only for discussing the paper as such but, if possible, to find answers to the open questions. If one or several participants in the audience during the discussion think they can contribute to improving our understanding of heterostructures, they are invited to write their ideas up and, if the referees agree, we are more than happy to publish these ideas in the proceedings. We admit that the program is rather demanding. For that reason, we plan to have a break on Thursday afternoon by first going to Denmark and touring the Hamlet castle of Kronborg. We then sail back to Sweden and will be hosted by the Krapperup castle where we will have a candle-light dinner and thereafter a baroque music concert featuring the Concerto Copenhagen. All participants, observers, and accompanying spouses are invited and we hope you will all enjoy the excur- sion. The local organising committee acknowledges with pleasure the financial and all other support received from the Nobel Foundation and the Nobel Institute of Physics as well as the initial initiative taken by the chairman of the Nobel Com- mittee for Physics, Prof. Nordling, who was the first to suggest this Nobel Symposium on "Heterostructures in Semicon- ductors". Special thanks also to the members of the program committee who have been of inestimable

  13. The Spitzer-South Pole Telescope Deep Field: Survey Design and IRAC Catalogs

    CERN Document Server

    Ashby, M L N; Brodwin, M; Gonzalez, A H; Martinez, J; Bartlett, J G; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Crawford, T M; Dey, A; Dressler, A; Eisenhardt, P R M; Galametz, A; Jannuzi, B T; Marrone, D P; Mei, S; Muzzin, A; Pacaud, F; Pierre, M; Stern, D; Vieira, J D


    The Spitzer-South Pole Telescope Deep Field (SSDF) is a wide-area survey using Spitzer's Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) to cover 94 square degrees of extragalactic sky, making it the largest IRAC survey completed to date outside the Milky Way midplane. The SSDF is centered at 23:30,-55:00, in a region that combines observations spanning a broad wavelength range from numerous facilities. These include millimeter imaging from the South Pole Telescope, far-infrared observations from Herschel/SPIRE, X-ray observations from the XMM XXL survey, near-infrared observations from the VISTA Hemisphere Survey, and radio-wavelength imaging from the Australia Telescope Compact Array, in a panchromatic project designed to address major outstanding questions surrounding galaxy clusters and the baryon budget. Here we describe the Spitzer/IRAC observations of the SSDF, including the survey design, observations, processing, source extraction, and publicly available data products. In particular, we present two band-merged catalogs...

  14. Understanding of Statistical Terms Routinely Used in Presentations: A Survey among Residents who participate at a Summer School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmina-Ioana BONDOR


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of our study was to investigate the understanding of statistical terms commonly used in lectures presented at summer schools for residents and young specialists. Material and Method: A survey was distributed to all the participants at the “Diabetic neuropathy from theory to practice” Summer School, 2014. The program was addressed to residents or young specialists in diabetes, neurology, surgery, and orthopedic from Romania. The survey consists of 6 multiple-choice questions and the first four questions evaluate the understanding of statistical terms. Results: There were 51 (42.5% participants who completed the questionnaires. From 204 total questions 81 (39.7% had correct answers. At the question 1, where relative risk was evaluated, only 3 (5.9% respondents answered correctly while at the question 2 (number need to treat about 78.4% (40 of answers were correct. At the question 3 (sensitivity, 22 (43.1% respondents answer correct while at the question 4 (Receiver Operating Characteristic curves only 16 (31.4% respondents provided a correct answer. The overall mean score of correct answers was 1.56±0.91. Conclusion: Our study showed that young specialists who participated to the survey were not familiarized with simple statistical terms commonly used in presentations.

  15. Address burnout with a caring, nurturing environment. (United States)


    With their hectic schedules and demanding work responsibilities, emergency physicians are particularly vulnerable to symptoms of burnout. One study showed that more than half of emergency providers reported at least one symptom of burnout when they were asked to fill out a survey tool used to measure burnout--more than any other type of provider. It's a concern because physicians experiencing burnout may be less attentive to their patients, and some ultimately choose to leave medicine because they are no longer satisfied with their work. However, there are steps health systems and administrators can take to help physicians who are struggling, and prevent isolated problems from escalating into larger issues. When a national sample of more than 7,200 physicians agreed to take the Maslach Burnout Inventory, a survey tool used to measure burnout, nearly half (45.8%) reported at least one symptom of burnout, and 65% of the emergency providers reported symptoms of burnout. Burnout is not just fatigue. It involves disappointment in a relationship or relationships, and lack of satisfaction or fulfillment with work, according to experts. Symptoms may include moodiness, irritability, sarcasm, and may result in performance issues as well. Further, there may be physical changes such as weight loss or changes in appetite. To prevent or address burnout, experts advise health systems to nurture a caring, collaborative environment, and to make sure that providers have mentors or resources to reach out to if they are experiencing any work-related problems. They also advise administrators to make sure that burnout is a safe topic of conversation.

  16. 75 FR 47856 - Draft Emergency Action Level Frequently Asked Questions; Request for Comment (United States)


    .... Address questions about NRC dockets to Carol Gallagher 301-492-3668; e-mail . Mail comments to: Michael T. Lesar, Chief, Rulemaking and Directives Branch (RDB), Division of...

  17. The XMM/Megacam-VST/VIRMOS Large Scale Structure Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Pierre, M


    The objective of the XMM-LSS Survey is to map the large scale structure of the universe, as highlighted by clusters and groups of galaxies, out to a redshift of about 1, over a single 8x8 sq.deg. area. For the first time, this will reveal the topology of the distribution of the deep potential wells and provide statistical measurements at truly cosmological distances. In addition, clusters identified via their X-ray properties will form the basis for the first uniformly-selected, multi-wavelength survey of the evolution of clusters and individual cluster galaxies as a function of redshift. The survey will also address the very important question of the QSO distribution within the cosmic web.

  18. Telephone surveying for drug abuse: methodological issues and an application. (United States)

    Frank, B


    In light of New York State's experience, it is probable that future household drug use surveys will use telephone administration. Drug use questions are not as sensitive as had been thought, and are easily administered by telephone. In addition, the lower costs, the computer-assisted capabilities, and the saving in time are some of the advantages in comparison to face-to-face surveying. In order to address the nontelephone segments of the household population--despite their declining proportion--and to improve response rates, mixed-mode interviewing may have to be considered. Given a better understanding of telephone-associated behavior and the increasing popularity of technological advances, such as the portability and mobility of phones, telephone surveying may become even more attractive in the future.

  19. Core questions in domestication research. (United States)

    Zeder, Melinda A


    The domestication of plants and animals is a key transition in human history, and its profound and continuing impacts are the focus of a broad range of transdisciplinary research spanning the physical, biological, and social sciences. Three central aspects of domestication that cut across and unify this diverse array of research perspectives are addressed here. Domestication is defined as a distinctive coevolutionary, mutualistic relationship between domesticator and domesticate and distinguished from related but ultimately different processes of resource management and agriculture. The relative utility of genetic, phenotypic, plastic, and contextual markers of evolving domesticatory relationships is discussed. Causal factors are considered, and two leading explanatory frameworks for initial domestication of plants and animals, one grounded in optimal foraging theory and the other in niche-construction theory, are compared.

  20. Topicalization and the question of lexical passives in Chinese


    LaPolla, Randy J.


    This paper is one argument for a theory of grammatical relations in Chinese in which there are no grammatical relations beyond semantic roles, and no lexical relation-changing rules. As the passive rule is one of the most common relation changing rules cross-linguistically, in this paper I will address the question of whether or not Mandarin Chinese has lexical passives, that is, passives defined as in Relational Grammar (see for example Perlmutter and Postal 1977) and the early Lexical Funct...

  1. The Hyperloop as a Source of Interesting Estimation Questions (United States)

    Allain, Rhett


    The Hyperloop is a conceptual high speed transportation system proposed by Elon Musk. The basic idea uses passenger capsules inside a reduced pressure tube. Even though the actual physics of dynamic air flow in a confined space can be complicated, there are a multitude estimation problems that can be addressed. These back-of-the-envelope questions can be approximated by physicists of all levels as well as the general public and serve as a great example of the fundamental aspects of physics.

  2. Help for AIDS Education: Using Technology to Address a Critical Need. (United States)

    Bloom, Edward


    Discusses the questions of if, what, when, and how to teach about acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Describes a pilot project in AIDS education conducted in Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada), which used interactive video as the method of addressing those questions. Warns of several issues that need to be considered in such a program.…

  3. [Quinze questions importantes à se poser en oncologie en 2015]. (United States)

    Blay, Jean-Yves; Tredan, Olivier; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Rivoire, Michel; Mehlen, Patrick; Puisieux, Alain; Bachelot, Thomas


    Cancers can now be classified by multidimensional criteria including tumour site, histology, primary - "driver" - molecular alterations, secondary molecular alterations, characteristics of the immune stroma, and genetic profile of the patient. The development of tools for the characterisation of the cancers, as well as novel molecular and immune therapeutics are evolving at an unprecedented pace. In 2012, a list of future challenges was identified at the occasion of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 50(th) anniversary. Three years after, it is interesting to look back at the questions addressed then and to assess the progress of these questions. We propose here a novel set questions which have emerged from the recent publications in this area.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Brenifier


    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to disclose the possible philosophicalconversation with the child.Methods. The author uses general scientific research methods, including observation and interviews, philosophical analysis.Results and scientific novelty. The author reveals the essence of philosophical conversations with the child, calls the main reasons for the extinction of the children’s curiosity, illustrating examples of incorrect behavior of adults to communicate with children. It is recommended how to be responsible for children’s issues. The article discusses the main reasons for the extinction of the children’s curiosity by illustrating examples of an erroneous behaviour of adults in dealing with children. It is shown that if the teacher does not find a systematic way to engage children in the essential discussion, the children most likely will not learn how to contemplate seriously. The author gives detailed guidance how to answer children’s questions.Practical significance. The article may be of interest to parents, teachers, experts in the field of psychology of creativity, post-graduates and organizers of independent activity of students of higher education institutions.

  5. Frequently Asked Questions: The Higgs!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin


    Why have we tried so hard to find the Higgs particle? How does the Higgs mechanism work? What is the difference in physics between strong evidence and a discovery? Why do physicists speak in terms of "sigmas"? Find out here!   Why have we tried so hard to find the Higgs particle? Because it could be the answer to the question: how does Nature decide whether or not to assign mass to particles? All the fundamental particles making up matter – the electron, the quarks, etc. – have masses. Moreover, quantum physics requires that forces are also carried by particles. The W and Z particles that carry the weak force responsible for radioactivity must also have masses, whereas the photon, the carrier of the electromagnetic force, has no mass at all. This is the root of the “Higgs problem”: how to give masses to the fundamental particles and break the symmetry between the massive W and Z and the massless photon? Just assigning masses by hand...

  6. Verum focus and polar questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Giurgea


    Full Text Available We argue that some word order phenomena in Romanian and Sardinian are the result of a checking operation in the left periphery involving verum focus (i.e. focus on the polarity component of the sentence. In particular, this operation accounts for some word order patterns found in polar questions. In Romanian, polarity fronting is realized as head-movement of (V+T to a higher peripheral head which bears a Focus-probe. This licenses VS orders for predications in which VS is not allowed as a neutral order (i-level predicates, iteratives, generics. In Sardinian, an entire phrase headed by the lexical predicate (verbal non-finite form or non-verbal predicate is fronted before the auxiliary. We argue that this order is obtained by two movement operations, head-raising of Aux to Foc and movement of the predicate phrase to SpecFoc. We also present the semantics of polarity focus, distinguishing several types of focus (informational, emphatic, contrastive.

  7. Verum focus and polar questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Giurgea


    Full Text Available We argue that some word order phenomena in Romanian and Sardinian are the result of a checkingoperation in the left periphery involving verum focus (i.e. focus on the polarity component of the sentence.In particular, this operation accounts for some word order patterns found in polar questions. In Romanian,polarity fronting is realized as head-movement of (V+T to a higher peripheral head which bears a Focusprobe.This licenses VS orders for predications in which VS is not allowed as a neutral order (i-levelpredicates, iteratives, generics. In Sardinian, an entire phrase headed by the lexical predicate (verbal nonfiniteform or non-verbal predicate is fronted before the auxiliary. We argue that this order is obtained bytwo movement operations, head-raising of Aux to Foc and movement of the predicate phrase to SpecFoc. Wealso present the semantics of polarity focus, distinguishing several types of focus (informational, emphatic,contrastive.

  8. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities (United States)

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi


    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  9. FVQA: Fact-based Visual Question Answering. (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Wu, Qi; Shen, Chunhua; Dick, Anthony; Hengel, Anton van den


    Visual Question Answering (VQA) has attracted much attention in both computer vision and natural language processing communities, not least because it offers insight into the relationships between two important sources of information. Current datasets, and the models built upon them, have focused on questions which are answerable by direct analysis of the question and image alone. The set of such questions that require no external information to answer is interesting, but very limited. It excludes questions which require common sense, or basic factual knowledge to answer, for example. Here we introduce FVQA (Fact-based VQA), a VQA dataset which requires, and supports, much deeper reasoning. FVQA primarily contains questions that require external information to answer. We thus extend a conventional visual question answering dataset, which contains image-question-answer triplets, through additional image-question-answer-supporting fact tuples. Each supporting-fact is represented as a structural triplet, such as .

  10. Measuring vaccine hesitancy: The development of a survey tool. (United States)

    Larson, Heidi J; Jarrett, Caitlin; Schulz, William S; Chaudhuri, Mohuya; Zhou, Yuqing; Dube, Eve; Schuster, Melanie; MacDonald, Noni E; Wilson, Rose


    In March 2012, the SAGE Working Group on Vaccine Hesitancy was convened to define the term "vaccine hesitancy", as well as to map the determinants of vaccine hesitancy and develop tools to measure and address the nature and scale of hesitancy in settings where it is becoming more evident. The definition of vaccine hesitancy and a matrix of determinants guided the development of a survey tool to assess the nature and scale of hesitancy issues. Additionally, vaccine hesitancy questions were piloted in the annual WHO-UNICEF joint reporting form, completed by National Immunization Managers globally. The objective of characterizing the nature and scale of vaccine hesitancy issues is to better inform the development of appropriate strategies and policies to address the concerns expressed, and to sustain confidence in vaccination. The Working Group developed a matrix of the determinants of vaccine hesitancy informed by a systematic review of peer reviewed and grey literature, and by the expertise of the working group. The matrix mapped the key factors influencing the decision to accept, delay or reject some or all vaccines under three categories: contextual, individual and group, and vaccine-specific. These categories framed the menu of survey questions presented in this paper to help diagnose and address vaccine hesitancy.

  11. Addressing a radiation safety sentinel event alert: one state's experience. (United States)

    Temme, James B; Lane, Thomas; Rutar, Frank; McGowan, Ann


    The Joint Commission issued a Sentinel Event Alert in August 2011 to address the radiation risks related to diagnostic medical imaging. The University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC) and Nebraska Coalition for Patient Safety (NCPS) sent a survey to Nebraska hospital radiology departments in May 2012 to solicit responses regarding radiation safety management practices. Survey results demonstrate that Nebraska hospitals perform well in many radiation safety efforts, but lack in others, as well as the need for additional research to track or compare progress. Nebraska's experience can serve as a model for other states to perform similar radiation safety management research.

  12. Observe-reflect-act: The cycle of reflective practice on questioning in STEM education (United States)

    Ginley, Erica

    Countless studies have been conducted on questioning techniques in education. However, little research has been focused on the use of reflective practice in relation to teachers' questioning techniques in STEM: Science, Technology, Engineering and Math education. Within this action research study of my own teaching, six lessons were taught, observed, and reflected upon. The main focus was on whether and how reflective practice influences questioning. Through the analysis of video footage, conversation transcriptions, reflective journal entries, pre-service teacher survey, and student work, the importance of different questioning techniques became apparent. They demonstrated that reflective practice has an impact on improving questioning skills and, thus, better engaging students in the learning process.

  13. New Hybrid Algorithm for Question Answering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaspreet Kaur


    Full Text Available With technical advancement, Question Answering has emerged as the main area for the researchers. User is provided with specific answers instead of large number of documents or passages in question answering. Question answering proposes the solution to acquire efficient and exact answers to user question asked in natural language rather than language query. The major goal of this paper is to develop a hybrid algorithm for question answering. For this task different question answering systems for different languages were studied. After deep study, we are able to develop an algorithm that comprises the best features from excellent systems. An algorithm developed by us performs well.

  14. Questions Often Asked about Special Education Services = Preguntas sobre los servicios de educacion especial. (United States)

    Kupper, Lisa, Ed.

    This guide, available in both English and Spanish, answers questions often asked by parents about special education services. Questions and answers address the following topics: where to begin if a parent believes a child needs special education services, services available to very young children, the evaluation process, the Individualized…

  15. What Is Life? An Activity to Convey the Complexities of This Simple Question (United States)

    Prud'homme-Genereux, Annie


    "What is life?" This deceptively simple question lies at the heart of biology. In this activity, students work in groups to come up with their own definition using a set of prompting cards that differs for each team. In doing so, students gain an appreciation of the complexities of addressing this question. The activity takes approximately 60-90…

  16. Environment based innovation: policy questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Rui Silva


    Full Text Available Natural resources and physical cultural resources, referred to in this paper as “Environmental Resources”, can be important assets for regional competitiveness and innovation. In recent years, these types of assets have been increasingly taken into consideration in the design and implementation of regional development strategies, as a consequence of their potential role as a source of differentiation and of new competitive advantages. However, in contrast to environmental policies, which usually focus on the protection of the environment, innovation policies and their instruments are largely shaped by, and geared towards, knowledge-based innovation.In this paper, we discuss the role played by environmental resources in the context of regional innovation policies. We begin by discussing the relationship between environmental resources and regional development, and by emphasizing some contrasting views with regard to the function of environmental resources in regional development. Then, we address the relationship between regional competitive advantages and innovation strategies. The specific issues and problems that arise whenever the aim is to attain competitive advantages through the valorisation of environmental resources constitute the core of section III. In that section, we highlight the specific characteristics of environmental resources and we discuss the applicability of the “natural resource curse” argument to the dynamics based on the valorisation of environmental resources. The reasons that justify public interventionas well as the difficulties concerning the adequate level of intervention (local / regional / national are also examined. The paper ends with some conclusions and policy implications.

  17. Questions That This Monograph Raises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available What is the ideal combination of increased investment in biomedical research by sponsors with least conflict of interest in researchers?What should interested parties do to refurbish pharma's image?Is a voluntary moratorium on pharma spending practically possible?How to resolve the basic schism between profit driven industry and welfare driven profession of medicine?How can CPGs be salvaged from ulterior influence?Can guidelines on guidelines help?Is cost-effectiveness of CPGs a practical solution?Is it possible to grade therapies as Most, Moderate and Least Cost Effective?How can Disease specific Foundations be salvaged from sponsor's influence?How can Journals ensure scientific integrity of conflicted authors and nullify untoward influence of sponsors?Are reports like the Task Force on individual and institutional conflicts of interest of the AAMC followed more in their breach?Are the revised ICMJE guidelines adequate to stub conflicted research?Editorials make pious announcements. Do they really influence what researchers do?How do we protect the interests of human research subjects?Do Best Practice Guidelines and Good Publication Practices really help?Marketability is the name of the game, not usefulness. How do we ensure the latter, even as the former is forwarded?How can we ensure effective traditional therapies remain in use even as new ones are forwarded?How do we ensure non-pharmacological therapies are also forwarded?How can the legitimate thrust of biological psychiatry be encouraged while also forwarding non-pharmacological approaches in psychiatry?What can be done so pharma just cannot consider questionable means as an attractive alternative?How do we expedite scientific self-correction while causing least harm to patients and research subjects?

  18. A Technique Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hakan Türkçapar


    Full Text Available “Socratic Method” is a way of teaching philosophical thinking and knowledge by asking questions which was used by antique period greek philosopher Socrates. Socrates was teaching knowledge to his followers by asking questions and the conversation between them was named “Socratic Dialogues”. In this meaning, no novel knowledge is taught to the individual but only what is formerly known is reminded and rediscovered. The form of socratic questioning which is used during the process of cognitive behavioral therapy is known as Guided Discovery. In this method it is aimed to make the client notice the piece of knowledge which he could notice but is not aware with a series of questions. Socratic method or guided discovery consists of several steps which are: Identifying the problem by listening to the client and making reflections, finding alternatives by examining and evaluating, reidentification by using the newly found information and questioning the old distorted belief and reaching to a conclusion and applying it. Question types used during these procedures are, questions for gaining information, questions revealing the meanings, questions revealing the beliefs, questions about behaviours during the similar past experiences, analyse questions and analytic synthesis questions. In order to make the patient feel understood it is important to be empathetic and summarising the problem during the interview. In this text, steps of Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery will be reviewed with sample dialogues after each step

  19. Introduction strategies raise key questions. (United States)

    Finger, W R; Keller, S


    Key issues that must be considered before a new contraceptive is introduced center on the need for a trained provider to begin or terminate the method, its side effects, duration of use, method's ability to meet users' needs and preferences, and extra training or staff requirements. Logistics and economic issues to consider are identifying a dependable way of effectively supplying commodities, planning extra services needed for the method, and cost of providing the method. Each contraceptive method presents a different side effect pattern and burdens the service delivery setting differently. The strategy developed to introduce or expand the 3-month injectable Depo-Provera (DMPA) can be used for any method. It includes a needs assessment and addresses regulatory issues, service delivery policies and procedures, information and training, evaluation, and other concerns. Viet Nam's needs assessment showed that Norplant should not be introduced until the service delivery system becomes stronger. Any needs assessment for expansion of contraceptive services should cover sexually transmitted disease/HIV issues. A World Health Organization strategy helps officials identify the best method mix for local situations. Introductory strategies must aim to improve the quality of family planning programs and expand choices. Many begin by examining existing data and conducting interviews with policymakers, users, providers, and women's health advocates. Introductory programs for Norplant focus on provider training, adequate counseling and informed consent for users, and ready access to removal. They need a well-prepared service delivery infrastructure. The first phase of the DMPA introductory strategy for the Philippines comprised a social marketing campaign and DMPA introduction at public clinics in 10 pilot areas with strong service delivery. Successful AIDS prevention programs show that people tend to use barrier methods when they are available. USAID is currently studying

  20. Computational strategies to address chromatin structure problems (United States)

    Perišić, Ognjen; Schlick, Tamar


    While the genetic information is contained in double helical DNA, gene expression is a complex multilevel process that involves various functional units, from nucleosomes to fully formed chromatin fibers accompanied by a host of various chromatin binding enzymes. The chromatin fiber is a polymer composed of histone protein complexes upon which DNA wraps, like yarn upon many spools. The nature of chromatin structure has been an open question since the beginning of modern molecular biology. Many experiments have shown that the chromatin fiber is a highly dynamic entity with pronounced structural diversity that includes properties of idealized zig-zag and solenoid models, as well as other motifs. This diversity can produce a high packing ratio and thus inhibit access to a majority of the wound DNA. Despite much research, chromatin’s dynamic structure has not yet been fully described. Long stretches of chromatin fibers exhibit puzzling dynamic behavior that requires interpretation in the light of gene expression patterns in various tissue and organisms. The properties of chromatin fiber can be investigated with experimental techniques, like in vitro biochemistry, in vivo imagining, and high-throughput chromosome capture technology. Those techniques provide useful insights into the fiber’s structure and dynamics, but they are limited in resolution and scope, especially regarding compact fibers and chromosomes in the cellular milieu. Complementary but specialized modeling techniques are needed to handle large floppy polymers such as the chromatin fiber. In this review, we discuss current approaches in the chromatin structure field with an emphasis on modeling, such as molecular dynamics and coarse-grained computational approaches. Combinations of these computational techniques complement experiments and address many relevant biological problems, as we will illustrate with special focus on epigenetic modulation of chromatin structure.

  1. Frequently Asked Questions about Bunion Surgery (United States)

    ... A | Print | Share Frequently Asked Questions About Bunion Surgery Here are some frequently asked questions (FAQs) and ... best for you. 5. How can I avoid surgery? Sometimes observation of the bunion is all that ...

  2. Analysis of Questions Teachers ask About Teaching Modern Mathematics in the Elementary School (United States)

    Green, Robert W.


    Teachers were surveyed concerning their major questions about modern mathematics curricula. Their questions were classified as concerned with reasons certain topics are included (12 per cent), how to teach particular topics (21 per cent) or miscellaneous. Nine recommendations are made. (SD)

  3. Question Order Affects the Measurement of Bullying Victimization among Middle School Students (United States)

    Huang, Francis L.; Cornell, Dewey G.


    Bullying among youth is recognized as a serious student problem, especially in middle school. The most common approach to measuring bullying is through student self-report surveys that ask questions about different types of bullying victimization. Although prior studies have shown that question-order effects may influence participant responses, no…

  4. Question Order Affects the Measurement of Bullying Victimization among Middle School Students (United States)

    Huang, Francis L.; Cornell, Dewey G.


    Bullying among youth is recognized as a serious student problem, especially in middle school. The most common approach to measuring bullying is through student self-report surveys that ask questions about different types of bullying victimization. Although prior studies have shown that question-order effects may influence participant responses, no…

  5. Methods for Evaluating Respondent Attrition in Web-Based Surveys. (United States)

    Hochheimer, Camille J; Sabo, Roy T; Krist, Alex H; Day, Teresa; Cyrus, John; Woolf, Steven H


    Electronic surveys are convenient, cost effective, and increasingly popular tools for collecting information. While the online platform allows researchers to recruit and enroll more participants, there is an increased risk of participant dropout in Web-based research. Often, these dropout trends are simply reported, adjusted for, or ignored altogether. To propose a conceptual framework that analyzes respondent attrition and demonstrates the utility of these methods with existing survey data. First, we suggest visualization of attrition trends using bar charts and survival curves. Next, we propose a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) to detect or confirm significant attrition points. Finally, we suggest applications of existing statistical methods to investigate the effect of internal survey characteristics and patient characteristics on dropout. In order to apply this framework, we conducted a case study; a seventeen-item Informed Decision-Making (IDM) module addressing how and why patients make decisions about cancer screening. Using the framework, we were able to find significant attrition points at Questions 4, 6, 7, and 9, and were also able to identify participant responses and characteristics associated with dropout at these points and overall. When these methods were applied to survey data, significant attrition trends were revealed, both visually and empirically, that can inspire researchers to investigate the factors associated with survey dropout, address whether survey completion is associated with health outcomes, and compare attrition patterns between groups. The framework can be used to extract information beyond simple responses, can be useful during survey development, and can help determine the external validity of survey results.

  6. Approaches to Exploring Category Information for Question Retrieval in Community Question-Answer Archives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Cui, Bin


    of CQA services, question retrieval in a CQA archive aims to retrieve historical question-answer pairs that are relevant to a query question. This article presents several new approaches to exploiting the category information of questions for improving the performance of question retrieval...

  7. What is an address in South Africa?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Coetzee, S


    Full Text Available numbers inside the security estate and therefore these addresses are not necessarily part of the municipal address database. If a person inside such a security estate wants to open a financial account, how can one verify that their address is valid? A... African addresses’, subsequently given the designation SANS 1883. The aim of the standard is not to devise a new system of addressing or to build a national address database, but rather to enable interoperability in address data sets and geographical...

  8. Molyneux's Question: A Window on Crossmodal Interplay in Blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Occelli


    Full Text Available In 1688, the Irish scientist William Molyneux sent a letter to the philosopher John Locke in which he asked whether a man who had been born blind and whose experience of the world was based on senses other than vision, would be able to distinguish and name a globe and a cube by sight alone, once he had been enabled to see. This issue immediately raised considerable interest amongst philosophers, who, for centuries, have continued to speculate about how this issue might be resolved. More recently, the possibility of corrective surgery for people born with congenital cataracts, has offered a valuable opportunity to explore this topic experimentally. A discussion of how Molyneux’s question has been addressed over the centuries, allows us to investigate a number of intellectual challenges, involving a variety of fields, ranging from philosophy, psychology and the cognitive sciences, to neuroscience. For instance, Molyenux’s question raises the question of whether sensory experience is specific to each sensory modality, or rather supramodal, and if a transfer of knowledge across modalities can be established. Molyneux’s question is also relevant to the discussion of whether, how and to what extent a concept of space can be developed by blind people. More generally, it concerns the idea of how conceptual knowledge is acquired and processed when vision is lacking. The present paper aims to provide an overview of all the issues raised by Molyenux’s question.

  9. Questioning as Thinking: A Metacognitive Framework (United States)

    Wilson, Nance S.; Smetana, Linda


    The purpose of this article is to present Questioning as Thinking (QAT), a metacognitive framework that helps teachers and students focus on performance. QAT combines components of three widely-used strategies: Think-Alouds, Question Answer Relationships (QAR), and Self-Questioning. Together, these three strategies give students and teachers the…

  10. IMS Learning Design Frequently Asked Questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tattersall, Colin; Manderveld, Jocelyn; Hummel, Hans; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob; De Vries, Fred


    This list of frequently asked questions was composed on the basis of questions asked of the Educational Technology Expertise Centrum. The questions addessed are: Where can I find the IMS Learning Design Specification? What is meant by the phrase “Learning Design”? What is the IMS LD Specification ab

  11. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants. (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  12. Questions That Science Teachers Find Difficult (II). (United States)

    Goodwin, Alan


    Presents some questions that science teachers find difficult. Focuses on three further questions relating to "simple" everyday situations that are normally explained in terms of the kinetic theory of matter. Identifies looking at the difference between chemical and physical changes as the most problematic question. (Author/YDS)

  13. Teaching Students to Form Effective Questions (United States)

    Stafford, Tish


    The ability to question lies at the heart of human curiosity and is a necessary component of cognition. The author stresses that forming questions is essential to human thought and communication. As such, forming questions is a foundational process that cuts across curricular areas and is embedded in content standards across the nation, including…

  14. Question Answering for Dutch: Simple does it

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.H.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; van der Vet, P.E.; Huibers, Theo W.C.


    When people pose questions in natural language to search for information on the web, the role of question answering (QA) systems becomes important. In this paper the QAsystem simpleQA, capable of answering Dutch questions on which the answer is a person or a location, is described. The system's

  15. Answering Wh- Questions About Sentences and Text. (United States)

    Singer, Murray


    Describes a study designed to identify the mental operations that contribute to people's ability to answer wh- questions, that is, questions which request information that plays a particular role in relation to some action or event. Wh- questions are signaled by interrogative pronouns and adverbs like who, what, when, and where. (SED)

  16. Twenty Questions Games Always End With Yes

    CERN Document Server

    Gill, John T


    Huffman coding is often presented as the optimal solution to Twenty Questions. However, a caveat is that Twenty Questions games always end with a reply of "Yes," whereas Huffman codewords need not obey this constraint. We bring resolution to this issue, and prove that the average number of questions still lies between H(X) and H(X)+1.

  17. Teaching Culture: Questioning Perspectives on Our Practices (United States)

    Met, Myriam


    Despite years of training, teaching experience, reading professional literature, attending conferences, and learning from expert colleagues, when it comes to the teaching of culture, the author wishes she knew more answers to many critical questions. Her questions are framed by the basic questions that all curricula seek to answer: WHAT is the…

  18. Questions That Science Teachers Find Difficult (II). (United States)

    Goodwin, Alan


    Presents some questions that science teachers find difficult. Focuses on three further questions relating to "simple" everyday situations that are normally explained in terms of the kinetic theory of matter. Identifies looking at the difference between chemical and physical changes as the most problematic question. (Author/YDS)

  19. Metacognitive Analysis of Pre-Service Teachers of Chemistry in Posting Questions (United States)

    Santoso, T.; Yuanita, L.


    Questions addressed to something can induce metacognitive function to monitor a person’s thinking process. This study aims to describe the structure of the level of student questions based on thinking level and chemistry understanding level and describe how students use their metacognitive knowledge in asking. This research is a case study in chemistry learning, followed by 87 students. Results of the analysis revealed that the structure of thinking level of student question consists of knowledge question, understanding and application question, and high thinking question; the structure of chemistry understanding levels of student questions are a symbol, macro, macro-micro, macro-process, micro-process, and the macro-micro-process. The level Questioning skill of students to scientific articles more qualified than the level questioning skills of students to the teaching materials. The analysis result of six student interviews, a student question demonstrate the metacognitive processes with categories: (1) low-level metacognitive process, which is compiled based on questions focusing on a particular phrase or change the words; (2) intermediate level metacognitive process, submission of questions requires knowledge and understanding, and (3) high-level metacognitive process, the student questions posed based on identifying the central topic or abstraction essence of scientific articles.

  20. Automatic Question Answering from Web Documents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin; HU Dawei; LI Huan; HAO Tianyong; CHEN Enhong; LIU Wenyin


    A passage retrieval strategy for web-based question answering (QA) systems is proposed in our QA system. It firstly analyzes the question based on semantic patterns to obtain its syntactic and semantic information and then form initial queries. The queries are used to retrieve documents from the World Wide Web (WWW) using the Google search engine. The queries are then rewritten to form queries for passage retrieval in order to improve the precision. The relations between keywords in the question are employed in our query rewrite method. The experimental result on the question set of the TREC-2003 passage task shows that our system performs well for factoid questions.

  1. Art of Question in English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    A language is the tool of human communication. English teaching is really not a way to input or output information-it is not an one-way transmission of information. Students must personally think, speak and write what they are taught. That is the practical features of English teaching. Questioning is one of important methods which embody this feature completely. Teachers apply asking questions to enlighten and stimulate students in order to perfect this vital importance. Students who are in middle schools are asked questions but do not give answers. Except for learners' own quality and degree of difficulty of questions, it is connected with teachers' quality of asking questions.

  2. Address Points, Published in 2005, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Sauk County. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2005. Data by this publisher...

  3. Address Points, Published in 1992, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Walker County Government. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 1992. Data by this publisher...

  4. Have the Answers to Common Legal Questions Concerning Nutrition Support Changed Over the Past Decade? 10 Questions for 10 Years. (United States)

    Barrocas, Albert; Cohen, Michael L


    Clinical nutrition specialists (CNSs) are often confronted with technological, ethical, and legal questions, that is, what can be done technologically, what should be done ethically, and what must be done legally, which conflict at times. The conflict represents a "troubling trichotomy" as discussed in the lead article of this issue of Nutrition in Clinical Practice (NCP). During Clinical Nutrition Week in 2006, a symposium covering these 3 topics was presented, and later that year, an article covering the same topic was published in NCP In this article, we revisit several legal questions/issues that were raised 10 years ago and discuss current answers and approaches. Some of the answers remain unchanged. Other answers have been modified by additional legislation, court decisions, or regulations. In addition, new questions/issues have arisen. Some of the most common questions regarding nutrition support involve the following: liability, informed consent, medical decisional incapacity vs legal competence, advance directive specificity, surrogate decision making, physician orders for life-sustaining treatment and electronic medical orders for life-sustaining treatment, legal definition of death, patient vs family decision making, the noncompliant patient, and elder abuse obligations. In the current healthcare environment, these questions and issues are best addressed via a transdisciplinary team that focuses on function rather than form. The CNS can play a pivotal role in dealing with these challenges by applying the acronym ACT: being Accountable and Communicating with all stakeholders while actively participating as an integral part of the transdisciplinary Team.

  5. 77 FR 48429 - Commission Address Change (United States)


    ... HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION 29 CFR Parts 2700, 2701, 2702, 2704, 2705, 2706 Commission Address Change AGENCY... to inform the public of the address change. DATES: This final rule will take effect on August 27... because the amendments are of a minor and administrative nature dealing with only a change in address....

  6. Unanswered Questions in Contemporary Heart Failure. (United States)

    Gilstrap, Lauren G; Snipelisky, David; AbouEzzeddine, Omar; Vader, Justin; Cooper, Lauren; Kelley, Jacob; Perez, Antonio; Varian, Kenneth; Lala, Anuradha; Shah, Monica; Stevenson, Lynne W


    The epidemiology of heart failure (HF) is changing. This study aimed to describe questions that arise during the routine care of HF patients that are unanswered by the current literature and describe how the type and focus of these questions has changed over time. Investigators from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored Heart Failure Apprentice Network collected and categorized questions from 5 academic hospitals over 12 months. A total of 174 unanswered questions were collected and analyzed. Compared with 2004, there were more unanswered questions about "whether" to use therapies and fewer about "how" to use therapies. There were fewer questions about what therapeutic targets, therapy adjustment, and combination therapies. There were more questions about whether or how to stop therapies and how to add therapies back. Newly prominent topics, not observed in 2004, including novel therapeutics, refractory ventricular tachycardia, right heart failure, and nutrition/frailty, accounted for 24% of questions. Compared with 2004, there are fewer unanswered questions about how to use, adjust, and combine therapies. There were more unanswered questions about whether and how to stop therapies. Almost 25% of unanswered questions dealt with topics indicative of more advanced disease which were not observed in 2004. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Programmatic methods for addressing contaminated volume uncertainties.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Accurate estimates of the volumes of contaminated soils or sediments are critical to effective program planning and to successfully designing and implementing remedial actions. Unfortunately, data available to support the preremedial design are often sparse and insufficient for accurately estimating contaminated soil volumes, resulting in significant uncertainty associated with these volume estimates. The uncertainty in the soil volume estimates significantly contributes to the uncertainty in the overall project cost estimates, especially since excavation and off-site disposal are the primary cost items in soil remedial action projects. The Army Corps of Engineers Buffalo District's experience has been that historical contaminated soil volume estimates developed under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) often underestimated the actual volume of subsurface contaminated soils requiring excavation during the course of a remedial activity. In response, the Buffalo District has adopted a variety of programmatic methods for addressing contaminated volume uncertainties. These include developing final status survey protocols prior to remedial design, explicitly estimating the uncertainty associated with volume estimates, investing in predesign data collection to reduce volume uncertainties, and incorporating dynamic work strategies and real-time analytics in predesign characterization and remediation activities. This paper describes some of these experiences in greater detail, drawing from the knowledge gained at Ashland1, Ashland2, Linde, and Rattlesnake Creek. In the case of Rattlesnake Creek, these approaches provided the Buffalo District with an accurate predesign contaminated volume estimate and resulted in one of the first successful FUSRAP fixed-price remediation contracts for the Buffalo District.

  8. A survey of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service employees regarding constraints to connecting children with nature-Summary report to respondents (United States)

    Ratz, Joan M.; Schuster, Rudy M.


    This report provides a summary of responses to the questions included on a survey of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service employees regarding constraints to connecting children with nature. The survey was sponsored by the Division of Education Outreach at the National Conservation Training Center and conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. The data collection process started on February 25, 2010 and ended on March 9, 2010. The dataset includes the responses from 320 individuals from all regions in the Service. The adjusted response rate for the survey was 55 percent. In this report, we provide the summary results for the survey questions in the order in which the questions were asked. The questions addressed the following topics: relevance of certain outcomes to the aspect of the Service's mission that relates to connecting people with nature, perceived success at connecting children with nature, the extent to which ten constraints present problems in connecting children with nature, and attitudes about the importance of connecting children with nature. The text of comments provided by respondents to open-ended questions is provided. In-depth analyses will be reported in the completion report for this project.

  9. Speak Up Speak Out Coalition Survey Results | Science ... (United States)

    Comprehensive planning is a visionary planning process that integrates community values and land use policy. The Mayor of Duluth, Minnesota, directed the inclusion of two new values into the City’s comprehensive planning process to direct the community’s future, process: health and fairness. In order to understand the meanings of health and fairness that residents of the city hold, the Community Planning Department included questions in a city-wide survey of planning priorities. As a community organization reviewed the survey results that would inform the new directives, they realized that overburdened communities were underrepresented in the survey responses. To address this deficiency, the community organization asked the City of Duluth if they could conduct a survey of the underrepresented voices to ensure their input was included in the process. The Health in All Policies Coalition contacted the USEPA Office of Research and Development in Duluth, MN at the advice of the Planning Department. The support USEPA provided ensured that the Coalition could make recommendations to the City of Duluth based on systematically collected and analyzed data. This presentation will share the results of the survey. This presentation of the Speak Up Speak Out survey data represents support for local decision-making, technical assistance and data analysis. The data were collected and analyzed through advice and consultation with USEPA Office of Research and Development, an

  10. An analysis of strategies used by chemistry instructors to address student alternate conceptions in chemical equilibrium (United States)

    Piquette, Jeff Stephen

    This study explored general-chemistry instructors' awareness of and ability to identify common student alternate conceptions in chemical equilibrium. Instructor strategies directed at remediation of student alternate conceptions were also investigated and compared to successful, literature-based conceptual change methods. Fifty-two general chemistry instructor volunteers from 50 U.S. colleges and universities completed an interactive web-based survey that gathered their responses to open-ended questions, a rating scale, classroom scenarios, and a demographic form. The three scenarios asked respondents to evaluate hypothetical student exam answers, justify their evaluations, and report how they would assist students to better understand ideas about which they held alternate conceptions. Survey respondents who provided responses or remediation strategies that needed further clarification were sampled (n = 6); each amplified their views in an individual, researcher-led semi-structured phone interview. All survey responses and interview transcriptions were independently analyzed by three raters who followed Patton's (1990) guidelines for qualitative data analysis. Data analysis established that all 52 instructors of chemistry were able to report and identify common student alternate conceptions in chemical equilibrium. Those instructor-reported alternate conceptions were congruent with previously identified alternate conceptions (misconceptions) found in published literature, thus providing validation support for the earlier compilations. This study revealed that chemistry instructors employ a variety of strategies in efforts to address and remediate alternate conceptions. However, those strategies rarely include all four conditions outlined by Posner, Strike, Hewson, and Gertzog (1982) needed to stimulate conceptual change in students. Instructors are thus encouraged to become familiar with successful conceptual change strategies, using such methods as appropriate in

  11. Examining Student Attitudes in Introductory Physics via the Math Attitude and Expectations Survey (MAX) (United States)

    Hemingway, Deborah; Eichenlaub, Mark; Losert, Wolfgang; Redish, Edward F.


    Student often face difficulties with using math in science, and this exploratory project seeks to address the underlying mechanisms that lead to these difficulties. This mixed-methods project includes the creation of two novel assessment surveys, the Mathematical Epistemic Games Survey (MEGS) and the Math Attitude and Expectations Survey (MAX). The MAX, a 30-question Likert-scale survey, focuses on the attitudes towards using mathematics of the students in a reformed introductory physics course for the life sciences (IPLS) which is part of the National Experiment in Undergraduate Education (NEXUS/Physics) developed at the University of Maryland (UMD). Preliminary results from the MAX are discussed with specific attention given to students' attitudes towards math and physics, opinions about interdisciplinarity, and the usefulness of physics in academic settings as well as in professional biological research and modern medicine settings.

  12. 150 Student Questions on Solar Physics (United States)

    Lopez, R. E.; Gross, N. A.; Knipp, D. J.


    The Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling (CISM) holds a two-week Space Weather Summer School for introductory graduate students and space weather professionals to gain a system level understanding of the space environment and the effects of space weather. A typical day in the summer school consists of three morning lectures followed by an afternoon lab session. After the morning lectures, the participants are each asked to submit a question about the mornings topics on a question card. The lecturers then take the time to answer these questions prior to afternoon sessions. In the last 5 years over 1000 such question cards have been collected and cataloged. Despite detailed lectures by experts similar questions appear every year. We have analyzed over 150 questions related to the introductory lectures on solar physics and solar activity. Questions content was categorized using the AGU Index, and question sophistication was categorized using Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Specific analysis results along with lists of questions will be presented. We hope that these results can be used to improve the lecture and classroom content and allow students to move beyond low level education objectives and ask more sophisticated questions.

  13. Questions for assessing higher-order cognitive skills: it's not just Bloom's. (United States)

    Lemons, Paula P; Lemons, J Derrick


    We present an exploratory study of biologists' ideas about higher-order cognition questions. We documented the conversations of biologists who were writing and reviewing a set of higher-order cognition questions. Using a qualitative approach, we identified the themes of these conversations. Biologists in our study used Bloom's Taxonomy to logically analyze questions. However, biologists were also concerned with question difficulty, the length of time required for students to address questions, and students' experience with questions. Finally, some biologists demonstrated an assumption that questions should have one correct answer, not multiple reasonable solutions; this assumption undermined their comfort with some higher-order cognition questions. We generated a framework for further research that provides an interpretation of participants' ideas about higher-order questions and a model of the relationships among these ideas. Two hypotheses emerge from this framework. First, we propose that biologists look for ways to measure difficulty when writing higher-order questions. Second, we propose that biologists' assumptions about the role of questions in student learning strongly influence the types of higher-order questions they write.

  14. Medical Students’ Perceptions of E-assessment: Multiple Choice Questions used as a Tool of Assessment for Preclinical Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani Ranganath


    Full Text Available Background: Assessments and examinations judge the learning capabilities and test the knowledge and skills that students have acquired during their academic courses. The general paper-pen exams are now slowly being replaced by online testing system. This online assessment is now widely used in medical colleges in western countries and is slowly being introduced in Middle East countries as well. The objectives of the present study were to assess medical student’s perceptions on multiple choice questions (MCQs based E-assessment and to analyze the strength and weakness of the online assessment method. Methods: The study was done on 280 year 2, 3, and 5 students of Oman Medical College (OMC. A 23-item questionnaire that addressed different variables associated with attitudes, perceptions, user comfort factors and type of questions used for assessment about using online examinations was employed. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software. Results: We included 125 (44.6% students from 2nd year, 110 (39.3% from 3rd year, and 45(16.1% students from 5th year. The survey looked upon the four main domains about the use of online exams using multiple choice questions (MCQs: 1. Affective factors, 2. Validity factors, 3. Practicality, and 4. Reliability and Security. Most medical students were comfortable with the online assessment mode. They perceived that the use of MCQs was sufficient to test knowledge during their course. A major theme of concern was technical problems and security issues. Conclusion: Our survey indicated that most students preferred MCQs based E-assessment. However it is evident that the exam system needs to be improved in areas of preparation of well-constructed MCQs, its reliability and validity, practical and technical problems and also regarding the security of the exam system to prepare medical students global competent.

  15. Forms of Address as Cross-Cultural Code-Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsnes, Bjarne


    Dissonance for (young) Danes since V isinterpreted as an overt manifestation of power distance in a society which considers itself asegalitarian. Ways to cope with such cognitive dissonance in foreign language teaching arediscussed. Furthermore, the article addresses the broader question of when cultural......, in Denmark they use T. Based on the observation that Danish studentsare very reluctant (and sometimes even opposed) to use V in the classroom in Denmark, thisarticle proposes to consider the use of V and T as a case of Cross-Cultural Code-Switching. Itis hypothesized that V causes Cultural Cognitive...

  16. Multi Sensor Approach to Address Sustainable Development (United States)

    Habib, Shahid


    The main objectives of Earth Science research are many folds: to understand how does this planet operates, can we model her operation and eventually develop the capability to predict such changes. However, the underlying goals of this work are to eventually serve the humanity in providing societal benefits. This requires continuous, and detailed observations from many sources in situ, airborne and space. By and large, the space observations are the way to comprehend the global phenomena across continental boundaries and provide credible boundary conditions for the mesoscale studies. This requires a multiple sensors, look angles and measurements over the same spot in accurately solving many problems that may be related to air quality, multi hazard disasters, public health, hydrology and more. Therefore, there are many ways to address these issues and develop joint implementation, data sharing and operating strategies for the benefit of the world community. This is because for large geographical areas or regions and a diverse population, some sound observations, scientific facts and analytical models must support the decision making. This is crucial for the sustainability of vital resources of the world and at the same time to protect the inhabitants, endangered species and the ecology. Needless to say, there is no single sensor, which can answer all such questions effectively. Due to multi sensor approach, it puts a tremendous burden on any single implementing entity in terms of information, knowledge, budget, technology readiness and computational power. And, more importantly, the health of planet Earth and its ability to sustain life is not governed by a single country, but in reality, is everyone's business on this planet. Therefore, with this notion, it is becoming an impractical problem by any single organization/country to bear this colossal responsibility. So far, each developed country within their means has proceeded along satisfactorily in implementing

  17. Multi Sensor Approach to Address Sustainable Development (United States)

    Habib, Shahid


    The main objectives of Earth Science research are many folds: to understand how does this planet operates, can we model her operation and eventually develop the capability to predict such changes. However, the underlying goals of this work are to eventually serve the humanity in providing societal benefits. This requires continuous, and detailed observations from many sources in situ, airborne and space. By and large, the space observations are the way to comprehend the global phenomena across continental boundaries and provide credible boundary conditions for the mesoscale studies. This requires a multiple sensors, look angles and measurements over the same spot in accurately solving many problems that may be related to air quality, multi hazard disasters, public health, hydrology and more. Therefore, there are many ways to address these issues and develop joint implementation, data sharing and operating strategies for the benefit of the world community. This is because for large geographical areas or regions and a diverse population, some sound observations, scientific facts and analytical models must support the decision making. This is crucial for the sustainability of vital resources of the world and at the same time to protect the inhabitants, endangered species and the ecology. Needless to say, there is no single sensor, which can answer all such questions effectively. Due to multi sensor approach, it puts a tremendous burden on any single implementing entity in terms of information, knowledge, budget, technology readiness and computational power. And, more importantly, the health of planet Earth and its ability to sustain life is not governed by a single country, but in reality, is everyone's business on this planet. Therefore, with this notion, it is becoming an impractical problem by any single organization/country to bear this colossal responsibility. So far, each developed country within their means has proceeded along satisfactorily in implementing

  18. The capability of national education systems to address ethnic diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charl C. Wolhuter


    Full Text Available Modern societies have become much more complex in recent decades, also in terms of ethnic identities and differences. The question arose whether education systems were capable of addressing the needs of ethnic and other minorities in countries across the globe. After examining a cross-section of education systems (in Australia, Canada, China, Israel, Malaysia, Rwanda, Russia and South Africa with the aid of a set of specially developed criteria, it was concluded that these systems seemed to comply with the criteria in various ways, albeit in different measures and in several configurations. It is recommended that policy makers apply such criteria for enhancing the capability of an education system to address the needs of ethnic minorities and to meet the demands of increased social complexity.

  19. Barriers to the Use of Evidence-Supported Programs to Address School Violence (United States)

    Cawood, Natalie Diane


    Researchers have argued that there is a research-practice gap in the delivery of prevention and mental health services in the school setting. This national survey addresses that gap by identifying the barriers confronted by school social workers in implementing evidence-supported programs to address interpersonal violence in the school context. A…

  20. Question Classification Taxonomies as Guides to Formulating Questions for Use in Chemistry Classrooms (United States)

    Festo, Kayima


    Teacher questions play an important role in facilitating classroom discourse. Using appropriate question types and proper questioning techniques help to create reflective-active learners. Teacher questions can elicit students' explanations, elaboration of their ideas and thinking, and they can be used to disclose students' misconceptions. Despite…

  1. Structured Attentions for Visual Question Answering


    Zhu, Chen; Zhao, Yanpeng; Huang, Shuaiyi; Tu, Kewei; Ma, Yi


    Visual attention, which assigns weights to image regions according to their relevance to a question, is considered as an indispensable part by most Visual Question Answering models. Although the questions may involve complex relations among multiple regions, few attention models can effectively encode such cross-region relations. In this paper, we demonstrate the importance of encoding such relations by showing the limited effective receptive field of ResNet on two datasets, and propose to mo...

  2. On the intonation of German intonation questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrone, Caterina; Niebuhr, Oliver


    German questions and statements are distinguished not only by lexical and syntactic but also by intonational means. This study revisits, for Northern Standard German, how questions are signalled intonationally in utterances that have neither lexical nor syntactic cues. Starting from natural...... productions of such 'intonation questions', two perception experiments were run. Experiment 1 is based on a gating paradigm, which was applied to naturally produced questions and statements. Experiment 11 includes two indirect-identification tasks. Resynthesized stimuli were judged in relation to two context...

  3. Methodological questions for the post-2015 development agenda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo Bonan


    Full Text Available In 2015, the Millennium Development Goals are due to end. Academics, practitioners and the general public are eager to see which development agenda will take their place and a variety of different organizations are currently elaborating proposals for the next “round” of goals and targets. Instead of investigating possible topics of the upcoming agenda, we focus on methodological questions that – according to our view – will play a major role in the definition and implementation of future development goals. We focus on the elaboration of some key questions that should be addressed in the realm of poverty and inequality measurement, the definition of targets, the ability to consider complexity and evidence-based policy making.

  4. Some additional bioethical questions related to hepatitis B antigen. (United States)

    McCullough, L B


    Dr. Baruch S. Blumberg has recently raised important questions concerning the bioethics of prevention and cure of hepatitis. This paper extends his inquiry with a view toward examining the full range of the complexity of such issues as the restriction of the use of blood infected with hepatitis B antigen, the screening and possible isolation of health care personnel found to be carriers, and the like. It pointed out that for issues like these, there is not only a conflict between personal liberties and the public interest but also a potential conflict of individual rights, a theme not treated fully by Blumberg. The complex issues that emerge when these two themes are considered together are examined in light of the work of the contemporary American philosopher, John Rawls. His theory permits one to consider these two ethical themes together in analyzing moral problems. In this light, a new strategy is proposed for addressing bioethical questions concerning hepatitis B antigen.

  5. Ten questions concerning green buildings and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinemann, Anne; Wargocki, Pawel; Rismanchi, Behzad


    This paper investigates the concern that green buildings may promote energy efficiency and other aspects of sustainability, but not necessarily the health and well-being of occupants through better indoor air quality (IAQ). We ask ten questions to explore IAQ challenges for green buildings as well...... as opportunities to improve IAQ within green buildings and their programs. Our focus is on IAQ, while recognizing that many factors influence human health and the healthfulness of a building. We begin with an overview of green buildings, IAQ, and whether and how green building certifications address IAQ. Next, we...... questions, that can help green buildings to more effectively promote IAQ. This article supports a growing recognition of the importance of IAQ in green buildings, and the opportunities for improvements. As the World Green Building Council [95] and others have emphasized, people are the most valuable asset...

  6. Physics Survey Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    An overview of a series of assignments of the branches of physics carried out by the Board on Physics and Astronomy of the National Research Council. It identifies further theories in physics and makes recommendations on preventive priorities. The Board on Physics and Astronomy (BPA) has conducted a new decadal survey of physics entitled ''Physics in a New Era''. The survey includes assessments of the main branches of physics as well as certain selected emerging areas. The various elements of the survey were prepared by separately-appointed National Research Council (NRC) committees. The BPA formed the Physics Survey Overview Committee (PSOVC) to complete the survey by preparing an overview of the field of physics to summarize and synthesize the results of the various assessments and to address cross-cutting issues that concern physics as a whole.

  7. The WEAVE disk dynamics survey (United States)

    Famaey, B.; Antoja, T.; Romero-Gomez, M.; Siebert, A.; Babusiaux, C.; Di Matteo, P.; Figueras, F.; Fragkoudi, F.; Garzon-Lopez, F.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, C.; Martinez-Valpuesta, I.; Monari, G.; Mor-Crespo, R.; Hill, V.


    WEAVE is the next-generation wide-field survey facility for the William Herschel Telescope. It consists of a multi-object fibre spectrograph with a 2°-diameter field of view that can obtain ˜ 1000 spectra simultaneously. The "WEAVE Galactic Archaeology survey" is the survey focused on the Milky Way, as a complement to the Gaia space mission, and will start operating in early 2018. This survey is subdivided in four sub-surveys, among which the "WEAVE disk dynamics survey". This survey plans to measure the radial velocities (and abundances as far as possible) of ˜ 10^6 stars with magnitude 15speed? -, as well as (iii) about their influence on secular processes such as stellar radial migration are essential elements for a better understanding of the chemo-dynamical evolution of our Galaxy, and of galaxies in general. This survey is designed to answer these questions.

  8. A JVLA 10~degree^2 deep survey

    CERN Document Server

    Jarvis, Matt J; Bruggen, Marcus; Ferrari, Chiara; Heywood, Ian; Hardcastle, Martin; Murphy, Eric; Taylor, Russ; Smirnov, Oleg; Simpson, Chris; Smolcic, Vernesa; Stil, Jeroen; van der Heyden, Kurt


    (Abridged)One of the fundamental challenges for astrophysics in the 21st century is finding a way to untangle the physical processes that govern galaxy formation and evolution. Given the importance and scope of this problem, the multi-wavelength astronomical community has used the past decade to build up a wealth of information over specific extragalactic deep fields to address key questions in galaxy formation and evolution. These fields generally cover at least 10square degrees to facilitate the investigation of the rarest, typically most massive, galaxies and AGN. Furthermore, such areal coverage allows the environments to be fully accounted for, thereby linking the single halo to the two-halo terms in the halo occupation distribution. Surveys at radio wavelengths have begun to lag behind those at other wavelengths, especially in this medium-deep survey tier. However, the survey speed offered by the JVLA means that we can now reach a point where we can begin to obtain commensurate data at radio wavelengths...

  9. Cervical Ripening in The Netherlands: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claartje M. A. Huisman


    Full Text Available Objective. We aim to investigate methods and use of cervical ripening in women without and with a prior cesarean delivery in The Netherlands. Methods. In 2010, we conducted a postal survey in all Dutch hospitals with a labor ward. One gynecologist per hospital was addressed and was asked to respond on behalf of the staff. The questionnaire contained 31 questions concerning cervical ripening and induction of labor. We compared this survey to a similar Dutch survey conducted in 2006. Results. Response rate was 78% (70/92 hospitals. In women without a prior cesarean and in need of cervical ripening, all hospitals (100% applied prostaglandins (either E1 or E2. In women with a prior cesarean, 21.4% of the hospitals performed an elective cesarean section if delivery was indicated (26.0% in 2006. In case of cervical ripening, 72.7% used mechanical methods (49.1% in 2006, 20.0% used prostaglandins (40.4% in 2006, 3.6% used a combination of prostaglandins and mechanical methods, and 3.6% used membrane-sweeping or oxytocin. Conclusions. In 2010, in The Netherlands, prostaglandins and Foley catheters were the preferred methods for cervical ripening in women without and with a prior cesarean, respectively. Use of mechanical methods in women with a prior cesarean has increased rapidly between 2006 and 2010, corresponding with decreasing use of prostaglandins and elective repeat cesarean sections.

  10. Reasons for discrepancy between incidence and prevalence of epilepsy in lower income countries: Epilepsia's survey results. (United States)

    Mathern, Gary W; Beninsig, Laurie; Nehlig, Astrid


    From July to August 2014, Epilepsia conducted an online survey seeking opinions that explained the discrepancy between the incidence and prevalence of epilepsy in lower income countries. Data on cumulative incidence suggest a higher rate of active epilepsy than reported in lifetime prevalence surveys. This study reports the findings of that poll addressing the proposal in our Controversy in Epilepsy series that it could be from increased death rates. The survey consisted of a question addressing possible reasons to explain the discrepancy between the incidence and prevalence of epilepsy. Another four questions addressed demographic information. There were 34 responders who completed the survey. Half (50%) of the responders felt that the discrepancy between cumulative incidence and lifetime prevalence was due to lack of uniform definitions and misclassification of patients in study design, 23.5% said the discrepancy was due to a higher mortality from diseases and conditions such as trauma and infections associated with epilepsy, 23.5% indicated that the stigma of epilepsy prevented people from acknowledging their disease in prevalence surveys, and 2.9% felt it was from poor access to qualified medical personal and utilization of medical treatments that increased death rates directly related to epilepsy. Within the limitations of sample size, the results of this survey support that the discrepancy between the incidence and prevalence of epilepsy in lower income regions of the world is due to problems in acquiring the data and stigma rather than higher mortality from diseases associated with epilepsy and repeated seizures. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

  11. Addressing the spin question in gravitational-wave searches: Waveform templates for inspiralling compact binaries with nonprecessing spins

    CERN Document Server

    Ajith, P


    This paper presents a post-Newtonian (PN) template family of gravitational waveforms from inspiralling compact binaries with non-precessing spins, where the spin effects are described by a single "reduced-spin" parameter. This template family, which reparametrizes all the spin-dependent PN terms in terms of the leading-order (1.5PN) spin-orbit coupling term in an approximate way, has very high overlaps (fitting factor > 0.99) with non-precessing binaries with arbitrary mass ratios and spins. We also show that this template family is "effectual" towards a significant fraction of generic spinning binaries in the comparable-mass regime (m_2/m_1 < 10), providing an attractive and feasible way of searching for gravitational waves (GWs) from spinning low-mass binaries. We also show that the secular (non-oscillatory) spin-dependent effects in the phase evolution (which are taken into account by the non-precessing templates) are more important than the oscillatory effects of precession in the comparable-mass (m_1 ...

  12. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function. (United States)

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou


    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the "Hash_64" field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution.

  13. IP Address Management Principles and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Rooney, Timothy


    This book will be the first covering the subject of IP address management (IPAM). The practice of IPAM includes the application of network management disciplines to IP address space and associated network services, namely DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) and DNS (Domain Name System). The consequence of inaccurately configuring DHCP is that end users may not be able to obtain IP addresses to access the network. Without proper DNS configuration, usability of the network will greatly suffer as the name-to-address lookup process may fail. Imagine having to navigate to a website or send a

  14. Environmental Radiation Effects: A Need to Question Old Paradigms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, T.G.; Bedford, J.; Ulsh, B.; Whicker, F. Ward


    A historical perspective is given of the current paradigm that does not explicitly protect the environment from radiation, but instead, relies on the concept that if dose limits are set to protect humans then the environment is automatically protected as well. We summarize recent international questioning of this paradigm and briefly present three different frameworks for protecting biota that are being considered by the U.S. DOE, the Canadian government and the International Commission on Radiological Protection. We emphasize that an enhanced collaboration is required between what has traditionally been separated disciplines of radiation biology and radiation ecology if we are going to properly address the current environmental radiation problems. We then summarize results generated from an EMSP grant that allowed us to develop a Low Dose Irradiation Facility that specifically addresses effects of low-level, chronic irradiation on multiple levels of biological organization.

  15. SPOKES: an End-to-End Simulation Facility for Spectroscopic Cosmological Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Nord, B; Refregier, A; Gamper, La; Gamper, Lu; Hambrecht, B; Chang, C; Forero-Romero, J E; Serrano, S; Cunha, C; Coles, O; Nicola, A; Busha, M; Bauer, A; Saunders, W; Jouvel, S; Kirk, D; Wechsler, R


    The nature of dark matter, dark energy and large-scale gravity pose some of the most pressing questions in cosmology today. These fundamental questions require highly precise measurements, and a number of wide-field spectroscopic survey instruments are being designed to meet this requirement. A key component in these experiments is the development of a simulation tool to forecast science performance, define requirement flow-downs, optimize implementation, demonstrate feasibility, and prepare for exploitation. We present SPOKES (SPectrOscopic KEn Simulation), an end-to-end simulation facility for spectroscopic cosmological surveys designed to address this challenge. SPOKES is based on an integrated infrastructure, modular function organization, coherent data handling and fast data access. These key features allow reproducibility of pipeline runs, enable ease of use and provide flexibility to update functions within the pipeline. The cyclic nature of the pipeline offers the possibility to make the science outpu...

  16. A survey of pediatric hematology/oncology specialists regarding management of central line associated venous thrombosis. (United States)

    Witmer, Char M; Sauck, Emily; Raffini, Leslie J


    Central venous catheters (CVCs) account for the largest proportion of thrombotic events in pediatric patients. Questions remain regarding adequate treatment and prevention methods. We surveyed pediatric hematology/oncology specialists, using hypothetical cases to assess management strategies for acute CVC thrombosis and secondary prevention. Survey respondents varied in the use of the thrombophilia evaluation (33.3%, 41/123) and duration of treatment (6 weeks: 54.1%, 66/122). Secondary CVC prophylaxis was utilized by 36.6% (45/123) of respondents and by 24.4% (30/123) but only if there was a documented thrombophilia. This heterogeneity highlights the need for clinical studies to address these important clinical questions.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, Lorena Faith [ORNL; Cooper, Christy [U.S. Department of Energy; Schmoyer, Richard L [ORNL


    This compendium updates a 2003 literature review of surveys of knowledge and opinions of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. Its purpose is to ensure that results of comparable surveys are considered in surveys conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Over twice as many studies related to the DOE survey have been published since 2003 than prior to that date. The fact that there have been significantly more studies implies that there have been further demonstration projects and/or increased interest in hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. The primary findings of these 15 new surveys, all of which were conducted in Europe (E) or North America (NA), to the DOE surveys are as follows: 1.Respondents who are more educated are more accepting of hydrogen technologies (NA). 2.Respondents who are more knowledgeable about hydrogen and/or fuel cells are more accepting of hydrogen technologies (E, NA). 3.When asked about issues of trust, respondents generally expressed distrust of the government or political parties but trusted scientists and environmental protection organizations (E). 4.Technical knowledge about hydrogen and fuel cell technologies is low (E, NA). 5.Respondents may express opinions about a technology even when they are lacking in knowledge of that technology (E). 6.Women and men have different priorities when deciding on an automobile purchase (E). 7.Public acceptance to hydrogen is vulnerable to perceptions of decreased safety (E, NA). 8.Public acceptance to hydrogen is vulnerable to perceptions of increased cost (E, NA). The DOE surveys are similar to surveys that examine technical knowledge of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, although the technical questions are certainly different. The DOE surveys are also similar to the opinion surveys in that they address many of the same issues, such as safety, sources of energy information, or trust. There are many differences between the surveys reviewed in this compendium and the DOE surveys. The

  18. Children's questions: a mechanism for cognitive development. (United States)

    Chouinard, Michael M


    Preschoolers' questions may play an important role in cognitive development. When children encounter a problem with their current knowledge state (a gap in their knowledge, some ambiguity they do not know how to resolve, some inconsistency they have detected), asking a question allows them to get targeted information exactly when they need it. This information is available to them when they are particularly receptive to it, and because it comes as the result of their own disequilibrium, it may have depth of processing benefits. In that questions allow children to get information they need to move their knowledge structures closer to adult-like states, the ability to ask questions to gather needed information constitutes an efficient mechanism for cognitive development (referred to in this paper as the Information Requesting Mechanism [IRM]; this term is used because it includes question-asking and other information recruiting behaviors such as gestures, expressions, and vocalizations). However, the role of children's questions in their cognitive development has been largely overlooked. If questions are a force in cognitive development, the following must be true: (1) children must actually ask questions that gather information; (2) children must receive informative answers to their questions if they are able to be of use to cognitive development; (3) children must be motivated to get the information they request, rather than asking questions for other purposes such as attention; (4) the questions children ask must be relevant and of potential use to their cognitive development; (5) we must see evidence that children's questions help them in some way-that is, that they can ask questions for a purpose, and use the information they receive purposefully to successfully achieve some change of knowledge state. This monograph reports data on these points. Study 1 analyzed questions taken from four children's transcripts in the CHILDES database (age 1;2-5;1). This

  19. Questions and dependency in intuitionistic logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciardelli, Ivano; Iemhoff, Rosalie; Yang, Fan


    In recent years, the logic of questions and dependencies has been investigated in the closely related frameworks of inquisitive logic and dependence logic. These investigations have assumed classical logic as the background logic of statements, and added formulas expressing questions and

  20. "Wh"-Questions in the English Language (United States)

    Mowarin, Macaulay


    This paper analyzes "wh"-questions in the English Language based mainly on Chomsky's Minimalist Programme of transformational grammar as the theoretical model. The four main objectives of this paper are as follows: first, it undertakes a cross linguistic typological analysis of "wh"-questions and it then discusses the derivation of…

  1. Fixed-Response Questions with a Difference. (United States)

    Johnstone, Alex H.; Ambusaidi, Abdullah


    Offers three types of fixed-response questions that are designed to overcome drawbacks appearing in the conventional forms of fixed-response questions such as not allowing the examiner to investigate reasoning, background, or prevent guessing. (Contains 14 references.) (Author/YDS)

  2. Questioning Techniques: A Study of Instructional Practice (United States)

    Hill, Joan Buchanan


    This study took place in an independent all girls' school which serves over six hundred students in grades pre-kindergarten through twelve. This study seeks to answer the question: To what extent do teachers use questions to encourage deeper thinking and fuller responses. Through a review of literature, observations, interviews and analysis,…

  3. Question Answering with Joost at CLEF 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, G.; Kloosterman, G.; Mur, J.; van Noord, G.J.M.; van der Plas, M.L.E.; Tiedemann, J.; Peters, C.; Jijkoun, V.; Mandl, T.; Müller, H.; Oard, D.W.; Penas, A.; Petras, V.; Santos, D.


    We describe our system for the monolingual Dutch and multilingual English to Dutch QA tasks. We describe the preprocessing of Wikipedia, inclusion of query expansion in IR, anaphora resolution in follow-up questions, and a question classification module for the multilingual task. Our best runs achie

  4. Semantic Question Generation Using Artificial Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim E. Fattoh


    Full Text Available This research proposes an automatic question generation model for evaluating the understanding of semantic attributes in a sentence. The Semantic Role Labeling and Named Entity Recognition are used as a preprocessing step to convert the input sentence into a semantic pattern. The Artificial Immune System is used to build a classifier that will be able to classify the patterns according to the question type in the training phase. The question types considered here are the set of WH-questions like who, when, where, why, and how. A pattern matching phase is applied for selecting the best matching question pattern for the test sentence. The proposed model is tested against a set of sentences obtained from many sources such as the TREC 2007 dataset for question answering, Wikipedia articles, and English book of grade II preparatory. The experimental results of the proposed model are promising in determining the question type with classification accuracy reaching 95%, and 87% in generating the new question patterns.

  5. A Hybrid Approach to Clinical Question Answering (United States)


    paraphrasing and textual entailment) for better clinical reasoning and question answering. References O. Bodenreider. 2008. Biomedical Ontologies in...this track was to retrieve relevant biomedical articles to answer generic clini- cal questions about medical case reports. As part of our maiden...techniques to improve patient care through provid- ing pertinent biomedical information related to med- ical case reports. The primary motivation for

  6. "Wh"-Questions in the English Language (United States)

    Mowarin, Macaulay


    This paper analyzes "wh"-questions in the English Language based mainly on Chomsky's Minimalist Programme of transformational grammar as the theoretical model. The four main objectives of this paper are as follows: first, it undertakes a cross linguistic typological analysis of "wh"-questions and it then discusses the derivation of…

  7. Mental Models of Research: Generating Authentic Questions (United States)

    Donham, Jean; Heinrich, Jill A.; Bostwick, Kerry A.


    In this paper, we question how we might disrupt positivist research paradigms that preclude students from engaging and experiencing ownership in the research process. We question what we, as professors, could do to facilitate the transition from traditional research reporting to a disposition of inquiry that allows for ambiguity and discovery in…

  8. Fixed-Response Questions with a Difference. (United States)

    Johnstone, Alex H.; Ambusaidi, Abdullah


    Offers three types of fixed-response questions that are designed to overcome drawbacks appearing in the conventional forms of fixed-response questions such as not allowing the examiner to investigate reasoning, background, or prevent guessing. (Contains 14 references.) (Author/YDS)

  9. A Comparison of Web-Based and Paper-Based Survey Methods: Testing Assumptions of Survey Mode and Response Cost (United States)

    Greenlaw, Corey; Brown-Welty, Sharon


    Web-based surveys have become more prevalent in areas such as evaluation, research, and marketing research to name a few. The proliferation of these online surveys raises the question, how do response rates compare with traditional surveys and at what cost? This research explored response rates and costs for Web-based surveys, paper surveys, and…

  10. A Comparison of Web-Based and Paper-Based Survey Methods: Testing Assumptions of Survey Mode and Response Cost (United States)

    Greenlaw, Corey; Brown-Welty, Sharon


    Web-based surveys have become more prevalent in areas such as evaluation, research, and marketing research to name a few. The proliferation of these online surveys raises the question, how do response rates compare with traditional surveys and at what cost? This research explored response rates and costs for Web-based surveys, paper surveys, and…

  11. A New Method of Chinese Address Extraction Based on Address Tree Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KANG Mengjun


    Full Text Available Address is a spatial location encoding method of individual geographical area. In China, address planning is relatively backward due to the rapid development of the city, resulting in the presence of large number of non-standard address. The space constrain relationship of standard address model is analyzed in this paper and a new method of standard address extraction based on the tree model is proposed, which regards topological relationship as consistent criteria of space constraints. With this method, standard address can be extracted and errors can be excluded from non-standard address. Results indicate that higher math rate can be obtained with this method.

  12. The six most essential questions in psychiatric diagnosis: a pluralogue. Part 4: general conclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips James


    Full Text Available Abstract In the conclusion to this multi-part article I first review the discussions carried out around the six essential questions in psychiatric diagnosis – the position taken by Allen Frances on each question, the commentaries on the respective question along with Frances’ responses to the commentaries, and my own view of the multiple discussions. In this review I emphasize that the core question is the first – what is the nature of psychiatric illness – and that in some manner all further questions follow from the first. Following this review I attempt to move the discussion forward, addressing the first question from the perspectives of natural kind analysis and complexity analysis. This reflection leads toward a view of psychiatric disorders – and future nosologies – as far more complex and uncertain than we have imagined.

  13. Alternative Physics Examination Questions: Identification and Explanation of Different Discriminating Powers (United States)

    Forster, Patricia A.


    The issue of unfairness arises in high-stakes public examinations when students choose questions from alternatives that are offered and marks on the alternatives turn out to be discrepant. This paper addresses and defines unfairness and discrepancy in the context of alternative questions in Physics Tertiary Entrance Examinations (TEE) in Western Australia. As well, I present an analysis of question characteristics that explain observed marks-differences. The characteristics mainly relate to the construction of the text of questions, the detail on diagrams, and requirements for calculation. The list of characteristics could inform the setting of compulsory as well as alternative examination questions. The paper includes a brief exploration of results by gender on the alternative Physics TEE questions.

  14. Open questions in surface topography measurement: a roadmap (United States)

    Leach, Richard; Evans, Christopher; He, Liangyu; Davies, Angela; Duparré, Angela; Henning, Andrew; Jones, Christopher W.; O'Connor, Daniel


    Control of surface topography has always been of vital importance for manufacturing and many other engineering and scientific disciplines. However, despite over one hundred years of quantitative surface topography measurement, there are still many open questions. At the top of the list of questions is ‘Are we getting the right answer?’ This begs the obvious question ‘How would we know?’ There are many other questions relating to applications, the appropriateness of a technique for a given scenario, or the relationship between a particular analysis and the function of the surface. In this first ‘open questions’ article we have gathered together some experts in surface topography measurement and asked them to address timely, unresolved questions about the subject. We hope that their responses will go some way to answer these questions, address areas where further research is required, and look at the future of the subject. The first section ‘Spatial content characterization for precision surfaces’ addresses the need to characterise the spatial content of precision surfaces. Whilst we have been manufacturing optics for centuries, there still isn’t a consensus on how to specify the surface for manufacture. The most common three methods for spatial characterisation are reviewed and compared, and the need for further work on quantifying measurement uncertainties is highlighted. The article is focussed on optical surfaces, but the ideas are more pervasive. Different communities refer to ‘figure, mid-spatial frequencies, and finish’ and ‘form, waviness, and roughness’, but the mathematics are identical. The second section ‘Light scattering methods’ is focussed on light scattering techniques; an important topic with in-line metrology becoming essential in many manufacturing scenarios. The potential of scattering methods has long been recognized; in the ‘smooth surface limit’ functionally significant relationships can be derived from first

  15. Image compression using address-vector quantization (United States)

    Nasrabadi, Nasser M.; Feng, Yushu


    A novel vector quantization scheme, the address-vector quantizer (A-VQ), is proposed which exploits the interblock correlation by encoding a group of blocks together using an address-codebook (AC). The AC is a set of address-codevectors (ACVs), each representing a combination of addresses or indices. Each element of the ACV is an address of an entry in the LBG-codebook, representing a vector-quantized block. The AC consists of an active (addressable) region and an inactive (nonaddressable) region. During encoding the ACVs in the AC are reordered adaptively to bring the most probable ACVs into the active region. When encoding an ACV, the active region is checked, and if such an address combination exists, its index is transmitted to the receiver. Otherwise, the address of each block is transmitted individually. The SNR of the images encoded by the A-VQ method is the same as that of a memoryless vector quantizer, but the bit rate is by a factor of approximately two.

  16. A Novel Approach for TNA Address Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaodong Wang; Yaohui Jin; Weishen Hu; Shenli Zhu


    We present a new scheme to allocate/de- allocate Transport Network Assigned (TNA) address using Link ManagementProtocol (LMP) and to register/resolution these addresses using Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) forAutomatically Switched Optical Network (ASON).

  17. State of industry, environment, human resources addressed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yergin, D.; Brookes, W.; DeArment, R.


    The article is based on three addresses to the AMC Coal Convention '91. Yergin examines the impact of the Gulf crisis on the world energy market. Brookes is sceptical about the 'green industry' and calls for better scientific evidence. DeArment addresses the MSAA's Job Safety Analysis program and other health and safety matters.

  18. Forms of Address in Chilean Spanish (United States)

    Bishop, Kelley; Michnowicz, Jim


    The present investigation examines possible social and linguistic factors that influence forms of address used in Chilean Spanish with various interlocutors. A characteristic of the Spanish of Chile is the use of a variety of forms of address for the second person singular, "tu", "vos", and "usted", with corresponding…

  19. Public Address Systems. Specifications - Installation - Operation. (United States)

    Palmer, Fred M.

    Provisions for public address in new construction of campus buildings (specifications, installations, and operation of public address systems), are discussed in non-technical terms. Consideration is given to microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers and the placement and operation of various different combinations. (FS)

  20. Long-Term Research in Ecology and Evolution (LTREE): 2015 survey data. (United States)

    Bradford, Mark A; Leiserowitz, Anthony; Feinberg, Geoffrey; Rosenthal, Seth A; Lau, Jennifer A


    To systematically assess views on contributions and future activities for long-term research in ecology and evolution (LTREE), we conducted and here provide data responses and associated metadata for a survey of ecological and evolutionary scientists. The survey objectives were to: 1) Identify and prioritize research questions that are important to address through long-term, ecological field experiments; and 2) Understand the role that these experiments might play in generating and applying ecological and evolutionary knowledge. The survey was developed adhering to the standards of the American Association for Public Opinion Research. It was administered online using Qualtrics Survey Software. Survey creation was a multi-step process, with questions and format developed and then revised with, for example, input from an external advisory committee comprising senior and junior ecological and evolutionary researchers. The final questionnaire was released to ~100 colleagues to ensure functionality and then fielded two days later (January 7(th) 2015). Two professional societies distributed it to their membership, including the Ecological Society of America, and it was posted to three list serves. The questionnaire was available through February 8(th) 2015 and completed by 1,179 respondents. The distribution approach targeted practicing ecologists and evolutionary biologists in the U.S. Quantitative (both ordinal and categorical) closed-ended questions used a pre-defined set of response categories, facilitating direct comparison across all respondents. Qualitative, open-ended questions, provided respondents the opportunity to develop their own answers. We employed quantitative questions to score views on the extent to which long-term experimental research has contributed to understanding in ecology and evolutionary biology; its role compared to other approaches (e.g. short-term experiments); justifications for and caveats to long-term experiments; and the relative

  1. A Life in the Universe Survey (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.; Hubble-Zdanowski, Jennifer


    The "Life in the Universe Survey" is a twelve-question assessment instrument. Largely based on the factors of the Drake equation, it is designed to survey students' initial estimates of its factors and to gauge how estimates change with instruction. The survey was used in sections of a seminar course focusing specifically on life in the universe…

  2. A Life in the Universe Survey (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.; Hubble-Zdanowski, Jennifer


    The "Life in the Universe Survey" is a twelve-question assessment instrument. Largely based on the factors of the Drake equation, it is designed to survey students' initial estimates of its factors and to gauge how estimates change with instruction. The survey was used in sections of a seminar course focusing specifically on life in the universe…

  3. Plan for addressing issues relating to oil shale plant siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noridin, J. S.; Donovan, R.; Trudell, L.; Dean, J.; Blevins, A.; Harrington, L. W.; James, R.; Berdan, G.


    The Western Research Institute plan for addressing oil shale plant siting methodology calls for identifying the available resources such as oil shale, water, topography and transportation, and human resources. Restrictions on development are addressed: land ownership, land use, water rights, environment, socioeconomics, culture, health and safety, and other institutional restrictions. Descriptions of the technologies for development of oil shale resources are included. The impacts of oil shale development on the environment, socioeconomic structure, water availability, and other conditions are discussed. Finally, the Western Research Institute plan proposes to integrate these topics to develop a flow chart for oil shale plant siting. Western Research Institute has (1) identified relative topics for shale oil plant siting, (2) surveyed both published and unpublished information, and (3) identified data gaps and research needs. 910 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  4. True or false: is that the question?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abaúnza Chagín, María Claudia


    Full Text Available Objectives: Standard tests designed for medical students frequently include objective True/ False (T/F questions, in which there are only two possible answers that can be successfully reached at random. The purpose of this work was to demonstrate that asking for support of the answers diminishes the number of randomly correct ones, so improving the ability of questions to verify learnings. Methods: 8.188 T/F questions whose answers had to be supported; they were applied in 28 written tests of Pathology, at the undergraduate medical program (La Sabana University, Chía, Colombia. Answers were classified as correct or incorrect, and their support, as correct, partially correct and incorrect. In order to analyze the data, the kappa agreement coefficient between T/F questions and T/F questions with support was calculated, as well as per term and per test. Results: Out of 8.188 T/F questions, 6.112 (74.6% were correctly answered as true or false, 3.655 (44.6% had a correct support, and 2.336 (28.5% were not correctly supported, exhibiting a global agreement index of 0.378 and low agreement indexes per term. Conclusion: T/F questions could be accompanied by support of the answers in order to reduce the probability of randomly correct ones, to enhance the development of superior cognitive processes, and communicative essential competences.

  5. Emerging trends in peer review - a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard eWalker


    Full Text Available Classical peer review has been subject to intense criticism for slowing down the publication process, bias against specific categories of paper and author, unreliability, inability to detect errors and fraud, unethical practices, and the lack of recognition for unpaid reviewers. This paper surveys innovative forms of peer review that attempt to address these issues. Based on an initial literature review, we construct a sample of 81 channels of scientific communication covering all forms of review identified by the survey and analyze the review mechanisms used by each channel. We identify two major trends: the rapidly expanding role of pre-print servers (e.g. ArXiv that dispense with traditional peer review altogether and the growth of non-selective review, focusing on papers’ scientific quality rather than their perceived importance and novelty. Other potentially important developments include forms of open review, which remove reviewer anonymity and interactive review, as well as new mechanisms for post-publication review and out-of-channel reader commentary, especially critical commentary targeting high profile papers. One of the strongest findings of the survey is the persistence of major differences between the peer review processes used by different disciplines. None of these differences is likely to disappear in the foreseeable future. The most likely scenario for the coming years is thus continued diversification, in which different review mechanisms serve different author and reader needs. Relatively little is known about the impact of these innovations on the problems they address. These are important questions for future quantitative research.

  6. Modes of address: translation strategies or the black hole Modes of address: translation strategies or the black hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Anne Odber de Baubeta


    Full Text Available The title of this paper is perhaps deceptively succint: although it indicates the object of study it does not immediately suggest the transdisciplinary nature of its subject matter. Any consideration of the problems posed and the lexical or syntactical options available when one sets out to translate forms of address from one language to another must necessarily involve some awareness not only of issues of translation theory, but also of a series of questions usually discussed under the rubrics of sociolinguistics, pragmatics and discourse analysis. The title of this paper is perhaps deceptively succint: although it indicates the object of study it does not immediately suggest the transdisciplinary nature of its subject matter. Any consideration of the problems posed and the lexical or syntactical options available when one sets out to translate forms of address from one language to another must necessarily involve some awareness not only of issues of translation theory, but also of a series of questions usually discussed under the rubrics of sociolinguistics, pragmatics and discourse analysis.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Gunawan


    Full Text Available Question answering system is a system that allows user to state his or her information need in the form of natural language question, and return short text excerpts or even phrases as an answer. The availability of a wide and various information source and improvements in the techniques of natural language processing, information extraction (wrapper, and information retrieval give a big effect on the development of question answering system, from just answering questions in a specific domain by consulting to structured information source such as database, and like in this research, answering any questions based on information stored in an unstructured text collection. A general architecture of question answering system based on text consists of six processing stages, i.e. question analysis, document collection preprocessing, candidate document selection, candidate document analysis, answer extraction, and response generation. Application of question answering system like AnswerBus, Mulder, and Webclopedia that are developed with its own characteristics has similar processing steps as in the general architecture. Answers returned by a question answering system need to be evaluated for performance measure. This research completed with a simple question answering system application using english Bible in World English Bible (WEB version as the source of information to answer some questions. Because specific domain is selected: Bible, questions that can be posed by user could ask about information in the Bible itself only. Question is also limited to three types of answers that can be supported by the application: person (who, location (where, and date (when. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Question answering system (QA system adalah sistem yang mengijinkan user menyatakan kebutuhan informasinya dalam bentuk natural language question (pertanyaan dalam bahasa alami, dan mengembalikan kutipan teks singkat atau bahkan frase sebagai jawaban. Ketersediaan

  8. Local address and emergency contact details

    CERN Multimedia


    The HR Department would like to remind members of the personnel that they are responsible for ensuring that their personal data concerning local address and preferred emergency contact details remains valid and up-to-date.   Both are easily accessible via the links below: Local address:   Emergency contacts:   Please take a few minutes to check your details and modify if necessary. Thank you in advance. HR Department Head Office

  9. Frequently Asked Questions on Potassium Iodide (KI) (United States)

    ... Bioterrorism and Drug Preparedness Frequently Asked Questions on Potassium Iodide (KI) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Drug Administration (FDA) issued a final Guidance on Potassium Iodide as a Thyroid Blocking Agent in Radiation Emergencies) ( ...

  10. 101 questions on corals: Towards awareness

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.; Wafar, S.

    to nature and man-made changes, in every stakeholder, from local population through tourists to managers. This book serves such a purpose by answering most of the questions we ask everyday about corals and reefs....

  11. Questions and Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic (United States)

    ... Home Food Resources for You Consumers Questions & Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... MMA), may also be a health concern. Are apple and other fruit juices safe to drink? The ...

  12. Frequently Asked Questions about Digital Mammography (United States)

    ... Consumer Information (MQSA) Frequently Asked Questions About Digital Mammography Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... mammography exams, such as DBT? What is digital mammography? Full field digital mammography (FFDM, also known simply ...

  13. Frequently Asked Questions about Genetic Testing (United States)

    ... Care Specific Genetic Disorders Frequently Asked Questions About Genetic Testing What is genetic testing? What can I learn ... find more information about genetic testing? What is genetic testing? Genetic testing uses laboratory methods to look at ...

  14. Frequently Asked Questions about Genetic Counseling (United States)

    ... on this page Frequently Asked Questions About Genetic Counseling What are genetic professionals and what do they ... genetics nurses. Top of page What is genetic counseling and evaluation? Genetic professionals work as members of ...

  15. FAQ: General Questions about West Nile Virus (United States)

    ... Public Service Videos General Questions About West Nile Virus Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... West Nile virus cases? What is West Nile virus? West Nile virus is an arthropod-borne virus ( ...

  16. A Sociolinguistic Survey of the Address Forms for Young Female Customers:A Case Study in Guangdong Dianbai Min Dialect%青年女性顾客称谓语的社会语言学调查--广东电白闽方言的个案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    广东电白闽方言区对青年女性顾客的通用称谓语是“靓妹”“靓姐”,极少使用“美女”称呼。根据电白闽方言区青年女性顾客的称谓语的使用频率来分析其原因,发现交际双方的爱美心理、称谓语本身的语音条件、商业交际场所的不同、发话者性别和年龄的差异、地方民俗文化色彩等因素对青年女性顾客的称谓语的选用有很大的影响和制约。%The common address forms for young female customers in Guangdong Dianbai Min Dialect area are “li-angmei” and “liangjie”, while “meinu” is rarely used.We analyze the reasons according to the Frequency of ad-dress forms for young female customers in Guangdong Dianbai Min Dialect area , and found that the factors influence and restrict the selection of address forms for young female customers are the love for beauty of the communicative parties, the voice conditions of the address forms , the difference of business communication places , the gender and age differences of the speakers and local folk culture.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Tag questions are a distinctive feature in spokenEnglish,but seldom used by the non-native speakers.Studies show that tags are employed by native speakersmainly to express their interactive and interpersonalmeaning.In this paper,the writer explores the natureof tag questions,mainly their interactive and inter-personal functions in daily coversation.Suggestionsare made with regard to the teaching of tags in theclassroom.

  18. Open-ended visual question answering


    Masuda Mora, Issey


    Wearable cameras generate a large amount of photos which are, in many cases, useless or redundant. On the other hand, these devices are provide an excellent opportunity to create automatic questions and answers for reminiscence therapy. This is a follow up of the BSc thesis developed by Ricard Mestre during Fall 2014, and MSc thesis developed by Aniol Lidon. This thesis studies methods to solve Visual Question-Answering (VQA) tasks with a Deep Learning framework. As a preliminary step, we ...



    Nelu DORLE


    Making a good sales approach depends largely on the strategy established by a salesperson, depending on the type of customer, the circumstances, and his/her psycho-linguistic availability. The sales strategies based on the science of reasoning, on the oratory and persuasive ability include skills related to communication, on which one of the most important is the development and asking of questions. The science related to the salesperson’s ability to handles questions in a sales interview giv...

  20. Four Principles for Selecting HCI Research Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil

    In this position paper, I present and explain the position that what we should study in HCI depends on the objective of the research and its political, social, cultural, technological, and historical context. I outline four principles for selecting research questions and give a personal account...... of how I have selected research questions using these four principles. The aim with the paper is to generate discussion and advance the understanding of what to study in HCI....