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Sample records for survey probes substance-abuse

  1. A National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment for Juvenile Offenders

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Douglas W.; Dembo, Richard; Henderson, Craig E.

    2007-01-01

    Despite consensus about the value of substance abuse treatment for delinquent youth, information about its prevalence and availability is inadequate and inconsistent. This paper presents findings about treatment and other correctional service provision from a national survey of directors of 141 juvenile institutional and community corrections facilities. Educational/GED programming and drug and alcohol education were the most prevalent types of correctional and substance abuse services. Other...

  2. A national survey of substance abuse treatment for juvenile offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Douglas W; Dembo, Richard; Henderson, Craig E

    2007-04-01

    Despite consensus about the value of substance abuse treatment for delinquent youth, information about its prevalence and availability is inadequate and inconsistent. This article presents findings about treatment and other correctional service provision from a national survey of directors of 141 juvenile institutional and community corrections (CC) facilities. Educational/General Educational Development programming and drug and alcohol education were the most prevalent types of correctional and substance abuse services. Other common services included physical health services and mental health assessment, provided to about 60% of youth across facilities, and mental health counseling, life and communication skills, and anger management, provided to about half of the youth. Substance abuse treatment, as with most other services, were more prevalent in large, state-funded residential facilities (where 66% provided treatment) than in local detention centers (20%) and CC facilities (56%). More detailed data showed that the number of youth attending treatment in all types of facilities on any given day was very low.

  3. Surveying Substance Abuse Frequency in Hospitalized Patients in Psychiatric Ward of Farshchian Hospital in Hamadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghaleiha

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Substance abuse is believed to be one of the greatest social, economical ,and cultural problems all over the world and it is commonly observed among all social classes especially among mental disorder patients. Substance abuse can influence on the receptive-mental states such as mood and on the external visible activities such as behaviors. The aim of this study is to survey the frequency of Substance abuse in hospitalized mental-psychic patients in psychiatric ward of Farshchian hospital in Hamadan. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and retrospective study, available sampling method was used along with examining filed records in which the records of 400 hospitalized patients (293 men and 107 women from September 2000 to 2001 were checked and required data such as demographic information, infliction duration, substance abuse duration, psychiatric diagnosis were extracted and registered. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistical methods.Results: About half of the hospitalized patients in the psychiatric ward had simultaneous substance abuse. Men had substance abuse more than women and the youths aged 20-39 more than the other groups. The study showed that widowing had positive relationship and higher education negative relationship with substance abuse.Conclusion: Mood disorders with 90.53%, schizophrenia with 8.29%, and other diagnostics with 1.18% were observed in persons with substance abuse and these diagnostics in non substance abuse persons were 79.22% ,11.26% and 9.52% respectively.

  4. National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS-2008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) is designed to collect information from all facilities in the United States, both public and...

  5. National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS-2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) is designed to collect information from all facilities in the United States, both public and...

  6. National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS-2003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) is designed to collect information from all facilities in the United States, both public and...

  7. National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS-2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) is designed to collect information from all facilities in the United States, both public and...

  8. National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS-2007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) is designed to collect information from all facilities in the United States, both public and...

  9. National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS-2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) is designed to collect information from all facilities in the United States, both public and...

  10. National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS-1997-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) is designed to collect information from all facilities in the United States, both public and...

  11. National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS-2009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) is designed to collect information from all facilities in the United States, both public and...

  12. National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS-2002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) is designed to collect information from all facilities in the United States, both public and...

  13. National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS-2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) is designed to collect information from all facilities in the United States, both public and...

  14. National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS-2000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) is designed to collect information from all facilities in the United States, both public and...

  15. 1997 through 2010 National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) (formerly titled Uniform Facility Data Set (UFDS)) is designed to collect information from all...

  16. National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS-2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) is designed to collect information from all facilities in the United States, both public and...

  17. National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS-2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) is designed to collect information from all facilities in the United States, both public and...

  18. National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) is designed to collect information from all facilities in the United States, both public and...

  19. National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) is designed to collect information from all facilities in the United States, both public and...

  20. Sexual orientation and substance abuse treatment utilization in the United States: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; West, Brady T; Hughes, Tonda L; Boyd, Carol J

    2013-01-01

    This study examined substance abuse treatment utilization across three dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction, and behavior) in a large national sample of adults in the United States. Prevalence estimates were based on data collected from the 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. The sample consisted of 34,653 adults 20 years and older, and represented a population that was 52% women, 71% White, 12% Hispanic, 11% African American, 4% Asian, and 2% other race/ethnicities. An estimated 2% of the target population self-identified as lesbian, gay or bisexual; 4% reported same-sex sexual behavior, and 6% reported same-sex sexual attraction. Sexual minorities, especially women, had a greater likelihood of lifetime substance use disorders and earlier age of drinking onset. The majority of respondents with substance use disorders were untreated and lifetime substance abuse treatment utilization differed based on sexual orientation. Sexual minorities were found to have more extensive family histories of substance abuse problems. The findings indicate the underutilization of substance abuse treatment among all adults, and highlight some important factors to consider when working with sexual minorities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sexual Orientation and Substance Abuse Treatment Utilization in the United States: Results from a National Survey

    OpenAIRE

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; West, Brady T.; Hughes, Tonda L.; Boyd, Carol J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined substance abuse treatment utilization across three dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction, behavior) in a large national sample of adults in the United States. Prevalence estimates were based on data collected from the 2004–2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. The sample consisted of 34,653 adults aged 20 years and older: 52% women, 71% White, 12% Hispanic, 11% African American, 4% Asian, and 2% other race/ethnicities. Appro...

  2. Substance Abuse Treatment in Adult and Juvenile Correctional Facilities: Findings from the Uniform Facility Data Set 1997 Survey of Correctional Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Mary Ellen, Ed.; Straw, Richard S., Ed.

    This report presents methodology and findings from the Uniform Facility Data Set (UFDS) 1997 Survey of Correctional Facilities, which surveyed about 7,600 adult and juvenile correctional facilities to identify those that provide on-site substance abuse treatment to their inmates or residents. The survey assesses substance abuse treatment provided…

  3. Substance dependence among those without symptoms of substance abuse in the World Mental Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, Luise; Glantz, Meyer D; Kessler, Ronald C; Sampson, Nancy A; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Florescu, Silvia; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Murphy, Sam; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Torres de Galvis, Yolanda; Viana, Maria Carmen; Xavier, Miguel; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2017-02-17

    The World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative uses the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). The first 13 surveys only assessed substance dependence among respondents with a history of substance abuse; later surveys also assessed substance dependence without symptoms of abuse. We compared results across the two sets of surveys to assess implications of the revised logic and develop an imputation model for missing values of lifetime dependence in the earlier surveys. Lifetime dependence without symptoms of abuse was low in the second set of surveys (0.3% alcohol, 0.2% drugs). Regression-based imputation models were built in random half-samples of the new surveys and validated in the other half. There were minimal differences for imputed and actual reported cases in the validation dataset for age, gender and quantity; more mental disorders and days out of role were found in the imputed cases. Concordance between imputed and observed dependence cases in the full sample was high for alcohol [sensitivity 88.0%, specificity 99.8%, total classification accuracy (TCA) 99.5%, area under the curve (AUC) 0.94] and drug dependence (sensitivity 100.0%, specificity 99.8%, TCA 99.8%, AUC 1.00). This provides cross-national evidence of the small degree to which lifetime dependence occurs without symptoms of abuse. Imputation of substance dependence in the earlier WMH surveys improved estimates of dependence.

  4. Induced abortion and anxiety, mood, and substance abuse disorders: isolating the effects of abortion in the national comorbidity survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Priscilla K; Coyle, Catherine T; Shuping, Martha; Rue, Vincent M

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine associations between abortion history and a wide range of anxiety (panic disorder, panic attacks, PTSD, Agoraphobia), mood (bipolar disorder, mania, major depression), and substance abuse disorders (alcohol and drug abuse and dependence) using a nationally representative US sample, the national comorbidity survey. Abortion was found to be related to an increased risk for a variety of mental health problems (panic attacks, panic disorder, agoraphobia, PTSD, bipolar disorder, major depression with and without hierarchy), and substance abuse disorders after statistical controls were instituted for a wide range of personal, situational, and demographic variables. Calculation of population attributable risks indicated that abortion was implicated in between 4.3% and 16.6% of the incidence of these disorders. Future research is needed to identify mediating mechanisms linking abortion to various disorders and to understand individual difference factors associated with vulnerability to developing a particular mental health problem after abortion.

  5. Insights from a national survey into why substance abuse treatment units add prevention and outreach services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemak Christy

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have found that even limited prevention-related interventions can affect health behaviors such as substance use and risky sex. Substance abuse treatment providers are ideal candidates to provide these services, but typically have little or no financial incentive to do so. The purpose of this study was therefore to explore why some substance abuse treatment units have added new prevention and outreach services. Based on an ecological framework of organizational strategy, three categories of predictors were tested: (1 environmental, (2 unit-level, and (3 unit leadership. Results A lagged cross-sectional logistic model of 450 outpatient substance abuse treatment units revealed that local per capita income, mental health center affiliation, and clinical supervisors' graduate degrees were positively associated with likelihood of adding prevention-related education and outreach services. Managed care contracts and methadone treatment were negatively associated with addition of these services. No hospital-affiliated agencies added prevention and outreach services during the study period. Conclusion Findings supported the study's ecological perspective on organizational strategy, with factors at environmental, unit, and unit leadership levels associated with additions of prevention and outreach services. Among the significant predictors, ties to managed care payers and unit leadership graduate education emerge as potential leverage points for public policy. In the current sample, units with managed care contracts were less likely to add prevention and outreach services. This is not surprising, given managed care's emphasis on cost control. However, the association with this payment source suggests that public managed care programs might affects prevention and outreach differently through revised incentives. Specifically, government payers could explicitly compensate substance abuse treatment units in managed care

  6. Insights from a national survey into why substance abuse treatment units add prevention and outreach services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Rebecca; Lemak, Christy Harris; D'Aunno, Thomas A

    2006-08-03

    Previous studies have found that even limited prevention-related interventions can affect health behaviors such as substance use and risky sex. Substance abuse treatment providers are ideal candidates to provide these services, but typically have little or no financial incentive to do so. The purpose of this study was therefore to explore why some substance abuse treatment units have added new prevention and outreach services. Based on an ecological framework of organizational strategy, three categories of predictors were tested: (1) environmental, (2) unit-level, and (3) unit leadership. A lagged cross-sectional logistic model of 450 outpatient substance abuse treatment units revealed that local per capita income, mental health center affiliation, and clinical supervisors' graduate degrees were positively associated with likelihood of adding prevention-related education and outreach services. Managed care contracts and methadone treatment were negatively associated with addition of these services. No hospital-affiliated agencies added prevention and outreach services during the study period. Findings supported the study's ecological perspective on organizational strategy, with factors at environmental, unit, and unit leadership levels associated with additions of prevention and outreach services. Among the significant predictors, ties to managed care payers and unit leadership graduate education emerge as potential leverage points for public policy. In the current sample, units with managed care contracts were less likely to add prevention and outreach services. This is not surprising, given managed care's emphasis on cost control. However, the association with this payment source suggests that public managed care programs might affects prevention and outreach differently through revised incentives. Specifically, government payers could explicitly compensate substance abuse treatment units in managed care contracts for prevention and outreach. The effects of

  7. Incest and substance abuse: implications for treatment professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janikowski, T P; Glover, N M

    1994-01-01

    Seventy-seven volunteer participants enrolled in eight substance abuse treatment facilities were surveyed using the Substance Abuse and Incest Survey. Of the sample, 36 (48%) reported histories of incest. For participants reporting incest, data on substance abuse history, perceptions of the relationship between incest and substance abuse, and opinions regarding incest-related counseling in the context of substance abuse treatment are presented. Recommendations for substance abuse professionals and facilities are made, including intake screening, barriers to treatment, counselor education, and future research.

  8. Substance abuse in early adolescents and HIV preventive behaviors: findings from a school-based cross-sectional survey for the period from 2009 to 2013, Bangkok Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thepthien, B; Altaf, L; Chuchareon, P; Srivanichakron, S

    2016-10-01

    This study is first of its kind in Bangkok, and is a five-year (2009-2013) cross-sectional web-based survey to examine HIV preventive behaviors related to substance abuse among adolescents (N = 16,913). The questionnaire was self-administered. Logistic regression was used to analyze the data. The relationship between different types of substance abuse with risky and preventive behaviors was assessed. Male participants reported more substance abuse as compared to females. The risk behaviors observed among the substance abusers include increased sexual experience, multiple sex partners, no use of condoms, and injection drug use. The preventive behaviors include having a high self-risk assessment, going for HIV testing (highest in methamphetamine users), and screening for sexually transmitted infection. Logistic regression suggests that risky behaviors (e.g., sexual experience, injection drug use) are more common in substance abusers. Adolescents are clearly at a high risk. Behavioral preventive measures are needed to reduce or delay premature substance exposure to prevent a wide range of health problems and risks such as HIV and AIDS, injection drug use and unprotected sex.

  9. Substance Abuse by Anesthesiology Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsky, Irving; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The analysis of 183 responses to a survey of former anesthesiology residents of the Medical College of Wisconsin found that 29 had been self-administered problematic substance abusers during their residencies, 23 had been alcohol dependent, and 6 had been drug dependent. More than 85 percent of respondents considered the drug policy information…

  10. The Investigation of Tramadol Dependence with No History of Substance Abuse: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Spontaneously Reported Cases in Guangzhou City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haoran; Liu, Zhimin

    2013-01-01

    The study was to survey and assess the drug dependence and abuse potential of tramadol with no history of substance abuse. Subjects of tramadol dependence with no prior history of substance abuse were surveyed by interview. Physical dependence of tramadol was assessed using 10 items opiate withdrawal scale (OWS), and psychological dependence was assessed by Addiction Research Center Inventory—Chinese Version (ARCI-CV). Twenty-three male subjects (the median age was 23.4 ± 4.1 years) referred to the addiction unit in Medical Hospital of Guangzhou with tramadol abuse problems were included in this cross-sectional study. The control group included 87 heroin addicts, 60 methamphetamine (MA) abusers, and 50 healthy men. The scores of OWS of tramadol were 0.83–2.30; the mean scores of identifying euphoric effects–MBG, sedative effects–PCAG, and psychotomimetic effects–LSD of ARCI were 8.96 ± 3.08, 6.52 ± 3.25, and 6.65 ± 2.50, respectively, F = 4.927, P tramadol did not differ from those in heroin and MA groups (P > 0.05) but were higher than those in healthy men (P Tramadol with no history of substance abuse has a clear risk of producing high abuse potential under the long-term infrequent abuse and the high doses. PMID:24151592

  11. The Investigation of Tramadol Dependence with No History of Substance Abuse: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Spontaneously Reported Cases in Guangzhou City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoran Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was to survey and assess the drug dependence and abuse potential of tramadol with no history of substance abuse. Subjects of tramadol dependence with no prior history of substance abuse were surveyed by interview. Physical dependence of tramadol was assessed using 10 items opiate withdrawal scale (OWS, and psychological dependence was assessed by Addiction Research Center Inventory—Chinese Version (ARCI-CV. Twenty-three male subjects (the median age was 23.4±4.1 years referred to the addiction unit in Medical Hospital of Guangzhou with tramadol abuse problems were included in this cross-sectional study. The control group included 87 heroin addicts, 60 methamphetamine (MA abusers, and 50 healthy men. The scores of OWS of tramadol were 0.83–2.30; the mean scores of identifying euphoric effects–MBG, sedative effects–PCAG, and psychotomimetic effects–LSD of ARCI were 8.96±3.08, 6.52±3.25, and 6.65±2.50, respectively, F = 4.927, P0.05 but were higher than those in healthy men (P<0.05. Tramadol with no history of substance abuse has a clear risk of producing high abuse potential under the long-term infrequent abuse and the high doses.

  12. Tinnitus, Anxiety, Depression and Substance Abuse in Rock Musicians a Norwegian Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormer, Carl Christian Lein; Sorlie, Tore; Stenklev, Niels Christian

    2017-06-01

    Rock musicians are known to have an increased prevalence of hearing loss and tinnitus. The aims of the present study were to examine the distribution of anxiety and depression symptoms among rock musicians with or without tinnitus and how these mental health indicators and internal locus of control influenced upon their tinnitus symptom concerns and the degree to which the tinnitus affected their lives. The study was a questionnairebased cross-sectional survey of subjects selected from a cohort of rock musicians. We recruited 111 active musicians from the Oslo region, and a control group of 40 non-musicians from the student population at the University of Tromso. Among the rock musicians 19.8% reported permanent tinnitus vs. 0% among the controls. Musicians more often reported anxiety symptoms than controls (35.1% vs. 17.5%), however this prevalence was not different in musicians with and without tinnitus. Tinnitus-affected musicians reported depressive symptoms, significantly more than controls (13.6% vs. 5%). Rock musicians consumed more alcohol than controls, but alcohol consumption was unrelated to severity of tinnitus. Drug abuse was not more prevalent in rock musicians than in controls. Duration of tinnitus, internal locus of control, sleep disturbance and anxiety were significant predictors of how affected and how concerned musicians were about their tinnitus. Rock musicians are at risk for the development of chronic tinnitus, and they have an increased prevalence of anxiety. There is an association between chronic tinnitus and depressive symptoms in rock musicians, but our results are ambiguous. Although rock musicians have a chronic exposure to noise, noise-induced hearing loss is not the sole causative agent for the development of tinnitus.

  13. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

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    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  14. Substance abuse and criminal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, J M; Greenberg, D M; Motayne, G G

    1992-09-01

    As forensic psychiatry develops as a clinical subspecialty, clinical skill in understanding, treating, and predicting violent behavior will become more important. This article addresses the importance of understanding the relationship between substance abuse and violent behavior. This article also discusses morbidity and mortality in substance abuse, the demographics of substance abuse and criminality, and the clinical aspects of the forensic psychiatric evaluation.

  15. Client perceptions of incest and substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janikowski, T P; Bordieri, J E; Glover, N M

    1997-01-01

    Clients receiving substance abuse treatment from 35 treatment facilities throughout the United States were surveyed using the Substance Abuse and Incest Survey-Revised (SAIS-R). A total of 732 participants responded to the survey; 518 (71%) were males, 204 (28%) were females, and 10 (1%) did not indicate gender. Participants had a mean age of 33.8 years, were predominately Caucasian (61.6%), never married (45.2%), were currently unemployed (69.4%), and had completed an average of 11.7 years of education. Of the entire sample, 266 (36.3%) reported having been victims of incest; 151 were males and 113 were females (2 did not indicate gender). The group reporting incest histories had a significantly greater percentage of females that did the group not reporting incest histories (chi 2 = 48.1, p incest histories were asked about their perceptions regarding incest, substance abuse, and counseling. Item responses were examined using descriptive statistics and factor analysis. The factor analysis on SAIS-R perception items identified five factors that accounted for 68.9% of the variance; these factors were Stigma and Resistance to Counseling; Substance Abuse and Incest; Ambivalence; Fear and Anticipation; and Receptivity to Counseling. Results are presented and the implications for substance abuse treatment and counseling are discussed.

  16. Substance Abuse and Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Shannon; Suárez, Liza

    2016-10-01

    There is a strong, bidirectional link between substance abuse and traumatic experiences. Teens with cooccurring substance use disorders (SUDs) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have significant functional and psychosocial impairment. Common neurobiological foundations point to the reinforcing cycle of trauma symptoms, substance withdrawal, and substance use. Treatment of teens with these issues should include a systemic and integrated approach to both the SUD and the PTSD.

  17. SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN INDIA

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    Bano Rubeena

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The epidemic of substance abuse in young generation has assumed alarming dimensions in India. Changing cultural values, increasing economic stress and dwindling supportive bonds are leading to initiation into substance use. Cannabis, heroin, and Indian-produced pharmaceutical drugs are the most frequently abused drugs in India. Drug use, misuse or abuse is also primarily due to the nature of the drug abused, the personality of the individual and the addict’s immediate environment. The processes of industrialization, urbanization and migration have led to loosening of the traditional methods of social control rendering an individual vulnerable to the stresses and strains of modern life.

  18. Substance abuse precedes Internet addiction.

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    Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential risk for internet addiction (PR), and 3.0% were users with high risk for internet addiction (HR). There was a difference in the number of students with alcohol drinking among the GU, PR, and HR groups (20.8% vs 23.1% vs 27.4%). There was a difference in the number of students who smoked among the GS, PR, and HR groups (11.7% vs 13.5% vs 20.4%). There was a difference in the number of students with drug use among the GU, PR, and HR groups (1.7% vs 2.0% vs 6.5%). After adjusting for sex, age, stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation, smoking may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=1.203, p=0.004). In addition, drug use may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=2.591, pinternet addiction have vulnerability for addictive behaviors, co-morbid substance abuse should be evaluated and, if found, treated in adolescents with internet addiction.

  19. Substance abuse counselors' experiences with victims of incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover-Graf, N M; Janikowski, T P

    2001-01-01

    Counselors delivering substance abuse treatment from within 39 treatment facilities throughout the United States were surveyed using the Substance Abuse Counselor Survey on Clients with Incest Histories (SACSCIH). The sample of 114 participants reported upon experiences and perceptions related to their incest-related training, identification of incest victims, prevalence of incest victims on their caseloads, and referral and treatment practices. Additionally, group comparisons provided information on differences based upon participants' gender, educational degree, recovery status, and experience with incest counseling.

  20. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Culture in Elder Abuse Mental capacity, consent, and undue influence The relationship between elder abuse and substance abuse ... older person's financial resources and to wield significant ... financially or, in the case of illegal drug use, less likely to report. ...

  1. Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities Locator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) provides on-line resource for locating drug and alcohol abuse treatment programs. The...

  2. Substance abuse and child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kathryn

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  3. National Survey of American Attitudes on Substance Abuse II: Teens and Their Parents Conducted by Luntz Research Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    Illegal drug use by adolescents is on the rise. This alarming trend was quantified in this national survey of the attitudes of teens and their parents (1,200 teens and 1,166 parents, including 819 sets of teens and parents from the same households) towards cigarettes, alcohol, inhalants, marijuana, LSD, cocaine, heroin, and other illegal drugs.…

  4. Incidence of self-reported brain injury and the relationship with substance abuse: findings from a longitudinal community survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butterworth Peter

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic or serious brain injury (BI has persistent and well documented adverse outcomes, yet 'mild' or 'moderate' BI, which often does not result in hospital treatment, accounts for half the total days of disability attributed to BI. There are currently few data available from community samples on the incidence and correlates of these injuries. Therefore, the study aimed to assess the 1 incidence of self-reported mild (not requiring hospital admission and moderate (admitted to hospital brain injury (BI, 2 causes of injury 3 physical health scores and 4 relationship between BI and problematic alcohol or marijuana use. Methods An Australian community sequential-cohort study (cohorts aged 20-24, 40-44 and 60-64 years at wave one used a survey methodology to assess BI and substance use at baseline and four years later. Results Of the 7485 wave one participants, 89.7% were re-interviewed at wave two. There were 56 mild (230.8/100000 person-years and 44 moderate BI (180.5/100000 person-years reported between waves one and two. Males and those in the 20-24 year cohort had increased risk of BI. Sports injury was the most frequent cause of BI (40/100 with traffic accidents being a greater proportion of moderate (27% than mild (7% BI. Neither alcohol nor marijuana problems at wave one were predictors of BI. BI was not a predictor of developing substance use problems by wave two. Conclusions BI were prevalent in this community sample, though the incidence declined with age. Factors associated with BI in community samples differ from those reported in clinical samples (e.g. typically traumatic brain injury with traffic accidents the predominate cause. Further, detailed evaluation of the health consequences of these injuries is warranted.

  5. The Relationship between Mental Health and Substance Abuse among Adolescents. Analytic Series: A-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragin, Ann; Rasinski, Kenneth A.; Cerbone, Felicia Gray; Johnson, Robert A.

    This report presents an examination of the association between psychological functioning and substance abuse among adolescents aged 12 to 17 using data from the 1994-1996 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA). The survey, conducted annually by Substance Abuse and Mental Services Administration (SAMHSA), provides estimates of the…

  6. Medical Student Views of Substance Abuse Treatment, Policy and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Shantanu; Everett, Worth W.; Sharma, Sonali

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the impact of medical education on students' views of substance abuse treatment, public policy options and training. Method: A longitudinal survey was conducted on a single-class cohort of 101 students in a major American, urban medical school. The survey was administered in the Spring semesters of the first to third…

  7. Perception among medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, regarding alcohol and substance abuse in the community: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Haqwi Ali I

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conducted to examine the perception and views of medical students regarding the extent of alcohol and substance abuse in the community and the possible predisposing factors for this problem. Methods It is a cross-sectional study involving samples from two medical colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The students who decided to participate in the study without the offer of any incentives filled an anonymous, self administered questionnaire which had been designed to meet the purpose of the study. Results Two hundred and fifteen out of three hundred and thirty students (65% response rate participated in this study. About 75% of them believe that alcohol and substance abuse is a common problem in the community. Students' views also correspond with the reported view that the problem is mainly present in young adult males. Married males and senior students perceived the problem as more serious than their other colleagues. Students perceived that alcohol was the most commonly abused drug in the community, followed by amphetamines, heroin, cannabis and cocaine. They believe that influence of friends, life stressors, tobacco smoking and curiosity are the most important predisposing factors for abuse of alcohol and other substances. According to the students' perception, the main beneficial effect of alcohol and substance abuse was stress alleviation. About 3% of the students have also indicated that they may use alcohol or some other substance in the future. Conclusion Despite scarce information on the subject and a strong religious belief in Saudi Arabia against the use of alcohol and other addictive substances, a significant majority of the medical students in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia, perceived that alcohol and substance abuse is a common problem in the community. Some students appear to perceive the seriousness of the problem less than others. Efforts are needed to educate young men and women at an early

  8. Urban Delinquency and Substance Abuse. Initial Findings. Research Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, David; Loeber, Rolf; Thornberry, Terence P.

    In collaborative efforts three research teams have investigated the problems of urban delinquency and substance abuse in longitudinal studies that have gone on since 1986. The Denver Youth Study is a longitudinal survey that involves annual interviews with probability samples of five different birth cohorts and their parents from areas of Denver…

  9. The Substance Abuse Treatment Workforce of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodano, Ruthlyn; Watson, Donnie W.; Rataemane, Solomon; Rataemane, Lusanda; Ntlhe, Nomvuyo; Rawson, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe characteristics of substance abuse treatment counselors in the Republic of South Africa, including demographics, education, training, and job duties. Counselors recruited from 24 treatment centers completed a survey after signing informed consent. Counselors were primarily female (75%), racially diverse…

  10. CHILD WELFARE AGENCY TIES TO PROVIDERS AND SCHOOLS AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT USE BY ADOLESCENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Rebecca; Chuang, Emmeline; Haynes, Lindsey E.; Lee, I-Heng; Bai, Yu

    2010-01-01

    Policy makers and advocates are increasingly encouraging child-serving organizations to work together. The current study examined how child welfare agency ties with substance abuse treatment providers and schools correlated with substance abuse treatment for adolescents receiving child protective services. A sample of adolescents with substance use risk was extracted from a national survey of families engaged with child welfare. Logistic regressions with adjustments for complex survey design used child welfare agency ties to substance abuse treatment providers and schools to predict treatment. As expected, adolescents were more likely to report treatment when child protective services and substance abuse treatment were in the same agency and when child welfare agency directors reported joint planning with schools. However, child welfare agency agreements with substance abuse treatment providers were negatively associated with treatment. This unexpected finding implies that agencies may sometimes cooperate to address problems as well as to improve service utilization. PMID:20870374

  11. [Substance abuse in older adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitar, Raoul; Dürsteler, Kenneth M; Rösner, Susanne; Grosshans, Martin; Herdener, Marcus; Mutschler, Jochen

    2014-09-03

    In respect of demographic change, the number of older patients with substance abuse and addiction is on the raise. In this review we present important clinical and therapeutic aspects of substance abuse and addiction in the elderly and focus on alcohol, benzodiazepines and opioids. Daily and risky alcohol consumption is common among older people. They also have an increased risk getting alcohol-related complications. For early detection, laboratory parameters and questionnaires such as the AUDIT-C are suitable. Therapeutically brief interventions have been proved successful. Also, abuse of benzodiazepines, especially low-dose addiction, is widespread among older persons, although often overlooked, and patients often do not recognize their addiction. The physician has to know the correct indication, adequate dosage and pharmacological interactions. A slow-dose reduction is recommended in case of addiction. Thanks to opioid substitution therapy, patients with an opioidaddiction can reach a higher age. Age influences the effects of the substitute, which may require an adjustment of the dosage. Treatment of elderly patients should be based on their needs and resources and is usually very effective.

  12. Harm Reduction in MSW Substance Abuse Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eversman, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    Professional social work largely has endorsed the empirically supported paradigm of harm reduction in relation to substance abuse issues. Despite literature detailing similarities between social work and harm reduction, little is known about its presence in MSW substance abuse coursework. A purposive sample of 133 social work faculty from…

  13. Cultural Issues in Substance Abuse Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Dharma E.; Ja, Davis; Noboa, Abdin; Perry, Vincent; Robinson, Robert; Rodriguez, Domingo; Stubben, Jerry

    This monograph provides a tool to help providers and other substance abuse treatment professionals gain a greater understanding of the cultural, social, political, and economic forces affecting substance abuse treatment among Hispanic Americans, African Americans, Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, and American Indians/Alaska Natives. An…

  14. The Link: Trauma and Substance Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Dawn Culpepper

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Trauma “is categorized as an overwhelming life-changing experience (and is typically a physical and/or emotional shock to the very fiber of one’s being.”It is a priority that those who experience trauma in their lives seek help from a licensed professional to deal with the emotional damage caused by the trauma(s and to be taught necessary coping skills to prevent them from seeking solace in unhealthy ways like abusing drugs and/or alcohol. Research proposes that all types of trauma and the aftermath that follows will likely impact the “exposed population’s behavioral health, resulting in an increase in mental and substance use disorders, along with a decline in perceived quality of life” [1]. Survey results teach us that more than 70% adolescents receiving treatment for substance abuse across the country have a history of trauma in their lives.

  15. 76 FR 50236 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ...: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, Drug... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance......

  16. 76 FR 36557 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... Abuse and Mental Health Services, Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug Testing... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse......

  17. Drama-based education to motivate participation in substance abuse prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Amura

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The substance abuse prevention goal of the theatre production "TUNNELS" was to provide community education on substance abuse to an audience in Durham, NC and surrounding communities. The education effort intended to increase awareness and understanding of the risk and protective factors associated with alcohol and other drug use, and to promote pro-active behaviors in substance abuse prevention within the adult community. It was hypothesized that community-based education via drama would change attitudes toward alcohol and substance abuse, and increase participation in family and community activities aimed at substance abuse prevention. Methods A focus group comprised of educators, substance abuse researchers and local substance abuse counselors developed "life stories" of users of alcohol and other drugs and a local playwright incorporated these and other experiences into a series of six vignettes. The production was publicized throughout the Durham area, and 700 adults attending the play signed a consent form and completed the pre-play survey. The participant pool was restricted to those adults who completed both the time-1 and time-2 surveys and resided within Durham and surrounding communities. Paired comparisons of mean responses were analyzed using a paired sample two-tailed t-test. A telephone survey three months after the play assessed attitudes toward substance abuse as a disease, and whether the respondents had increased their participation in prevention activities including discussions of the play with others. Results Viewing the play increased the knowledge base of participants regarding substance abuse as a disease, even though the audience demonstrated an appreciation of risk and protective factors prior to attending the performance. In the pre-play survey, participants indicated a strong opinion that parental involvement in teen life was important, and therefore this was not increased as a result of viewing

  18. Variables associated with environmental scanning among clinicians at substance abuse treatment clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Alison L; Arfken, Cynthia L; Marcus W. Dickson; Elizabeth Agius; Mitchelson, Jacqueline K.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction. Environmental scanning, as a component of absorptive capacity, has been shown to be associated with increased use of innovative treatment techniques at substance abuse treatment programmes. As the transfer of innovative, evidence-based treatment techniques from research to practice is gaining attention, we aimed to identify variables associated with higher levels of environmental scanning among substance abuse treatment clinicians. Method. A cross-sectional survey was administ...

  19. Mediation effect of social skills between impulsivity with substance abuse in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Poorkord; Sahar Mirghobad khodarahmi; Malihe yaghoobzadeh; Hasan Rezaee

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine mediation effect of social skills between impulsivity with substance abuse in adolescents. The research sample consists of 616 students of vulnerable high schools in Ardabil City. Together the data of Impulsivity Scale, Matson social skills scale and substance abuse survey were used [Matson, J. L., Rotatori, A. F., & Helsel, W. J. (1983). Development of a rating scale to measure social skills in children: The Matson Evaluation of Social Skills with Youngste...

  20. Substance Abuse Training and Perceived Knowledge: Predictors of Perceived Preparedness to Work in Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bina, Rena; Yum, Joohee; Hall, Diane M. Harnek; Sowbel, Lynda; Mollette, Angela; Jani, Jayshree; Smith-Osborne, Alexa

    2008-01-01

    As frontline mental health care providers, social workers need to be prepared to confront and properly manage substance abuse issues in practice. This study examined predictors of recent master of social work (MSW) graduates' perceptions of preparedness to practice in the area of substance abuse. A cross-sectional design was used, and 232 recent…

  1. Temperament Style and Substance Abuse Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Melinda J.; Galen, Luke W.; DeLuca, John W.

    1998-06-01

    The relationship of temperament to different patterns and types of alcohol abuse has received much attention over the last decade in order to provide clues to matching patients optimally to treatment strategies. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of temperament with a number of relevant substance abuse characteristics in a substance abusing population. One hundred forty-five male veterans were interviewed on their lifetime use of substances and on their psychiatric symptoms, problems associated with use, context, and family history of substance abuse. Subjects filled out the TPQ and the MPQ, which were subjected to factor analysis and revealed four factors: (1) Negative Affectivity/Impulsivity, (2) Positive Affectivity/Sociability, (3) Persistence/Achievement, and (4) Constraint. There was partial support for the hypotheses. Impulsivity was negatively correlated with age of onset and positively correlated with substance-related problems and a family history of substance abuse. Subjects with a history of depression scored significantly lower on the Positive Affectivity/Sociability factor than those who had not experienced a significant depression. Individuals who used alone scored lower on this factor than those who used in social contexts. The temperament factors of Persistence/Achievement and Constraint were, for the most part, unrelated to substance abuse.

  2. An integral approach to substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodia, Diana S; Cano, Carol; Eliason, Michele J

    2005-12-01

    There is a pressing need in the substance abuse field for more comprehensive models of etiology and treatment that address the complex issues of addiction, including the biological, social, cultural, spiritual and developmental needs of individuals and groups. This article presents a theoretical framework for an integral approach to substance abuse that expands on the existing biopsychosocial model. One contribution of the model is an integrated approach to spirituality from a cross-cultural perspective. This integral approach examines substance abuse etiology and treatment from a four-quadrant perspective adapted from the work of Ken Wilber, and incorporates concepts from integrative medicine and transpersonal psychology/psychiatry. Implications of the model are explored.

  3. Childhood Predictors of Adult Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Irma; Chen, Chin-Chih; Reynolds, Arthur J

    2010-08-01

    Identification of the early determinants of substance abuse is a major focus of life course research. In this study, we investigated the child, family, and school-related antecedents of the onset and prevalence of substance abuse by age 26 for a cohort of 1,208 low-income minority children in the Chicago Longitudinal Study. Data onon well-being have been collected prospectively since birth from administrative records, parents, teachers, and children. Results indicated that the prevalence of substance abuse by age 26 was 32 percent (self reports or criminal justice system records) with a median age of first use of 17. Probit regression analysis indicated that substance abuse prevalence was primarily determined by gender (males had a higher rate), trouble making behavior by age 12, school mobility, and previous substance use. Family and peer predictors included involvement in the child welfare system by age 9, parent expectations for school success at age 9, parent substance abuse by children's age 15, and deviant peer affiliation by age 16. Age of first substance use was predicted by gender and race/ethnicity (males and Blacks had earlier incidence), involvement in the child welfare system, and family risk status at age 8. As with prevalence, the pattern of predictors for males was similar to the overall sample but the magnitude of effects was stronger.. The predictors of the timing of substance use dependency were gender, family conflict by age 5, involvement in the child welfare system, social maturity at age 9, adolescent school mobility, and school dropout by age 16. Findings indicate that the promotion of family involvement and positive school and social behavior can reduce the risk of substance abuse.

  4. Integrated Care for Pediatric Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Rebecca P; Hilt, Robert J

    2016-10-01

    Integrated care is a way to improve the prevention, identification, and treatment of mental health difficulties, including substance abuse, in pediatric care. The pediatrician's access, expertise in typical development, focus on prevention, and alignment with patients and families can allow successful screening, early intervention, and referral to treatment. Successful integrated substance abuse care for youth is challenged by current reimbursement systems, information exchange, and provider role adjustment issues, but these are being addressed as comfort with this care form and resources to support its development grow.

  5. Substance Abuse and Prison Recidivism: Themes from Qualitative Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Lindsay A.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative analysis explores the role of substance abuse in reentry from prison to society. Participants who recidivated (N = 20) in an urban prison system identified substance abuse as their primary reason for recidivism. Treatment implications are discussed.

  6. Substance Abuse Taxes the American Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are three times higher than for other workers. Workers in recovery from substance abuse have lower turnover rates and are less likely to miss work days, less likely to be hospitalized and have ... hire qualified workers (93 percent) and the costs of worker's compensation ( ...

  7. Accessing Substance Abuse Prevention Programs for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Jennifer L.; Johnson, Gail E.

    2009-01-01

    Current estimates indicate that over 6 million children live with at least one parent who is a substance abuser or is substance dependent. Children who are exposed to drug and alcohol abuse are at a greater risk of experiencing academic and behavior difficulties. Additionally, several studies have shown that students with emotional and behavioral…

  8. Moving On: Young People and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Kathryn; Chamberlain, Chris

    2009-01-01

    To help explain why some young people move from recreational drug use to substance abuse, twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with young people who had experienced problematic substance use. The data were supplemented by statistical data on 111 young people. The researchers found a variety of "structural" factors that help explain young…

  9. Preventing and Treating Substance Abuse among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Substance misuse is one of the most prevalent causes of adolescent injury and death. Additionally, 5-8% of adolescents in the U.S. qualify for a diagnosis of substance abuse disorder. This article discusses formal prevention and treatment program models, focusing on a continuum of care which extends from prevention to treatment alternatives.…

  10. Addressing Trauma in Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Amanda L.; Prosek, Elizabeth A.; Stamman, Julia; Callahan, Molly M.; Loseu, Sahar; Bevly, Cynthia M.; Cross, Kaitlin; Woehler, Elliott S.; Calzada, Richard-Michael R.; Chadwell, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Trauma is prevalent among clients with substance abuse issues, yet addictions counselors' training in trauma approaches is limited. The purpose of the current article is to provide pertinent information regarding trauma treatment including the use of assessments, empirically supported clinical approaches, self-help groups and the risk of vicarious…

  11. Substance Abuse: The Role of Industrial Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloud, Luther A.; Sexias, Frank A.

    1971-01-01

    This article touches upon industrial medicine's history and its start as primarily one of first aid and its development into a dynamic force for dealing with the entire individual and his wide range of problems. It discusses alcoholism programming and programs which may be developed for other substance abuse. (Author)

  12. Substance Abuse among Native-American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncher, Michael S.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Reviews social epidemiological data on substance abuse among Native American youth and discusses culturally relevant etiological factors. Highlights strategies for identification of high-risk youth, concentrating on theoretical and methodological aspects appropriate for Native American populations. Issues of sensitive technology transfer and…

  13. Preventing Substance Abuse: An Elementary School Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsup, Ben; Boundy, Donna; Brown, Jordan; Reisman, David; Rothbart, Betty

    This booklet is designed to be used by teachers in elementary schools with the Public Broadcasting Systems series "Moyers on Addiction: Close to Home." The series explores the science, treatment, prevention, and politics of addiction. This booklet discusses strategies for preventing substance abuse in elementary school. Also examined are…

  14. 76 FR 20994 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug Testing... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... meeting of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for...

  15. Heart rate variability biofeedback in adolescent substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurstone, Chris; Lajoie, Travis

    2013-01-01

    Strategies are needed to improve adolescent substance abuse treatment outcomes. For example, during outpatient substance abuse treatment, up to 80% of adolescents continue to use.(1),(2) Following residential substance abuse treatment, 88% of adolescents relapse within 6 months.(3.)

  16. Substance Abuse by Youth and Young Adults in Rural America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, David; Gale, John A.; Hartley, David

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Addressing substance abuse in rural America requires extending our understanding beyond urban-rural comparisons to how substance abuse varies across rural communities of different sizes. We address this gap by examining substance abuse prevalence across 4 geographic levels, focusing on youth (age 12-17 years) and young adults (age 18-25…

  17. Occupational turnover intentions among substance abuse counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrauff, Tanja C; Abraham, Amanda J; Bride, Brian E; Roman, Paul M

    2011-01-01

    This study examined predictor, moderator, and mediator variables of occupational turnover intention (OcTI) among substance abuse counselors. Data were obtained via questionnaires from 929 counselors working in 225 private substance abuse treatment (SAT) programs across the United States. Hierarchical multiple regression models were conducted to assess predictor, moderator, and mediator variables of OcTI. OcTI scores were relatively low on a 7-point scale, indicating that very few counselors definitely intended to leave the SAT field. Age, certification, positive perceptions of procedural and distributive justice, and hospital-based status negatively predicted OcTI. Counselors' substance use disorder-impacted history moderated the association between organizational commitment and OcTI. Organizational turnover intention partially mediated the link between organizational commitment and OcTI. Workforce stability might be achieved by promoting perceptions of advantages to working in a particular treatment program, having organizational commitment, showing appreciation for counselors' work, and valuing employees from diverse backgrounds.

  18. Supervisory turnover in outpatient substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Danica K; Broome, Kirk M; Edwards, Jennifer R; Flynn, Patrick M

    2011-01-01

    Staff turnover is a significant issue within substance abuse treatment, with implications for service delivery and organizational health. This study examined factors associated with turnover among supervisors in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Turnover was conceptualized as being an individual response to organizational-level influences, and predictors represent aggregate program measures. Participants included 532 staff (including 467 counselors and 65 clinical/program directors) from 90 programs in four regions of the USA. Using logistic regression, analyses of structural factors indicated that programs affiliated with a parent organization and those providing more counseling hours to clients had higher turnover rates. When measures of job attitudes were included, only parent affiliation and collective appraisal of satisfaction were related to turnover. Subsequent analyses identified a trend toward increased supervisory turnover when satisfaction was low following the departure of a previous supervisor. These findings suggest that organizational-level factors can be influential in supervisory turnover.

  19. Substance abuse on the college campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimsza, Mary Ellen; Moses, Karen S

    2005-02-01

    Substance abuse is a major health and behavioral concern in college students. Alcohol and marijuana are the most commonly abused drugs on college campuses. Others include tobacco, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, gamma-hydroxybutyrate, flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), lysergic acid, ketamine, methamphetamine, phencyclidine, cocaine, and psilocybin mushrooms. This article reviews the use of these drugs by college students. Substance use is a major contributing factor in poor academic performance and failure to successfully complete a college education.

  20. Medical marijuana users in substance abuse treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swartz Ronald

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rise of authorized marijuana use in the U.S. means that many individuals are using cannabis as they concurrently engage in other forms of treatment, such as substance abuse counseling and psychotherapy. Clinical and legal decisions may be influenced by findings that suggest marijuana use during treatment serves as an obstacle to treatment success, compromises treatment integrity, or increases the prevalence or severity of relapse. In this paper, the author reviews the relationship between authorized marijuana use and substance abuse treatment utilizing data from a preliminary pilot study that, for the first time, uses a systematic methodology to collect data examining possible effects on treatment. Methods Data from the California Outcomes Measurement System (CalOMS were compared for medical (authorized marijuana users and non-marijuana users who were admitted to a public substance abuse treatment program in California. Behavioral and social treatment outcomes recorded by clinical staff at discharge and reported to the California Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs were assessed for both groups, which included a sample of 18 reported medical marijuana users. Results While the findings described here are preliminary and very limited due to the small sample size, the study demonstrates that questions about the relationship between medical marijuana use and involvement in drug treatment can be systematically evaluated. In this small sample, cannabis use did not seem to compromise substance abuse treatment amongst the medical marijuana using group, who (based on these preliminary data fared equal to or better than non-medical marijuana users in several important outcome categories (e.g., treatment completion, criminal justice involvement, medical concerns. Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that medical marijuana is consistent with participation in other forms of drug treatment and may not adversely affect

  1. Periodontal Status amongst Substance Abusers in Indian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Shantipriya; Kaul, Sanjay; Agrawal, Chaitali; Prasad, M G S; Agnihotri, Jaya; Bhowmik, Nirjhar; Amudha, D; Kambali, Soumya

    2012-01-01

    Background. In India there have been limited number of studies on periodontal status among drug addicts, and thus this study aims to assess the Oral hygiene and periodontal status in substance abusers and compare it with non-substance abusers. Methods. A comparative study was conducted to assess the periodontal status in substance abusers. Non-substance abusers were procured from the general population of Bangalore. From the control group 250 non-substance abusers were age and sex matched with the study population of substance abusers. The oral hygiene and periodontal condition of all subjects was assessed using Oral hygiene index- simplified (OHI-S), Russell's periodontal indices and Gingival bleeding index. Results. The mean of OHI-S and Periodontal Index (Russell's Index) scores were higher (2.70 and 3.68, resp.) in substance abusers than the control group (2.45 and 2.59, resp.). The mean Gingival bleeding score was lower (9.69) in substance abusers than the control group (22.7) and found to be statistically significant. A positive correlation found between OHI-S and Russell's periodontal index whereas negative correlation was found between OHI-S and Gingival bleeding in substance abusers. Conclusions. Though the oral hygiene was fair, more periodontal destruction and less of gingival bleeding were observed in substance abusers as compared to control group.

  2. Qualifications, training, and perceptions of substance abuse counselors who work with victims of incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janikowski, Timothy P; Glover-Graf, Noreen M

    2003-08-01

    The study was an initial investigation into substance abuse counselors' qualifications and their training related to providing counseling for incest. Perceptions regarding the incidence of incest and insights into the difficulties of serving this subpopulation were also gathered. A total of 121 practicing substance abuse counselors, randomly sampled from treatment facilities across the United States, completed the "Substance Abuse Counselor Survey on Clients with Incest Histories" (SACSCIH). Participants estimated that, on average, about 24% of their clients were victims of incest. They also suspected that, on average, an additional 14% of their clients were victims of incest but did not report this information to the treatment staff. Participants revealed how they collected incest-related information and the various challenges they face in treating these clients. Data are analyzed descriptively and recommendations for future research are presented.

  3. Substance abuse prevention infrastructure: a survey-based study of the organizational structure and function of the D.A.R.E. program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merrill Jeffrey C

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The only national drug abuse prevention delivery system that supports the rapid diffusion of new prevention strategies and includes uniform training and credentialing of instructors who are monitored for quality implementation of prevention programming is the Drug Abuse Resistance Education network (D.A.R.E. linking community law enforcement to schools. Analysis of the organizational structure and function of D.A.R.E. provides an understanding of the essential parameters of this successful delivery system that can be used in the development of other types of national infrastructures for community-based prevention services. Information regarding organizational structure and function around funding issues, training, quality control and community relationships was gathered through telephone surveys with 50 state D.A.R.E. coordinators (including two major cities, focus groups with local D.A.R.E. officers and mentors, and interviews with national D.A.R.E. office staff. Results The surveys helped identify several strengths inherent in the D.A.R.E. program necessary for building a prevention infrastructure, including a well-defined organizational focus (D.A.R.E. America, uniform training and means for rapid dissemination (through its organized training structure, continuing education mechanisms (through the state and national conference and website, mechanisms for program monitoring and fidelity of implementation (formal and informal, branding and, for several states, predictable and consistent financing. Weaknesses of the program as currently structured include unstable funding and the failure to incorporate components for the continual upgrading of curricula reflecting research evidence and "principles of prevention". Conclusion The D.A.R.E. organization and service delivery network provides a framework for the rapid dissemination of evidence-based prevention strategies. The major strength of D.A.R.E. is its natural affiliation to

  4. Failure to get into substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Dennis G; Reynolds, Grace L; D'Anna, Laura H; Hosmer, David W; Hardan-Khalil, Kholoud

    2017-02-01

    Among substance abusers in the US, the discrepancy in the number who access substance abuse treatment and the number who need treatment is sizable. This results in a major public health problem of access to treatment. The purpose of this study was to examine characteristics of Persons Who Use Drugs (PWUDs) that either hinder or facilitate access to treatment. 2646 participants were administered the Risk Behavior Assessment (RBA) and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. The RBA included the dependent variable which was responses to the question "During the last year, have you ever tried, but been unable, to get into a drug treatment or detox program?" In multivariate analysis, factors associated with being unable to access treatment included: Previously been in drug treatment (OR=4.51), number of days taken amphetamines in the last 30days (OR=1.18), traded sex for drugs (OR=1.53), homeless (OR=1.73), Nonplanning subscale of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (OR=1.19), age at interview (OR=0.91), and sexual orientation, with bisexual men and women significantly more likely than heterosexuals to have tried but been unable to get into treatment. The answers to the question on "why were you unable to get into treatment" included: No room, waiting list; not enough money, did not qualify, got appointment but no follow through, still using drugs, and went to jail before program start. As expected, findings suggest that limiting organizational and financial obstacles to treatment may go a long way in increasing drug abuse treatment accessibility to individuals in need. Additionally, our study points to the importance of developing approaches for increasing personal planning skills/reducing Nonplanning impulsivity among PWUDs when they are in treatment as a key strategy to ensure access to additional substance abuse treatment in the future.

  5. Randomization in substance abuse clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woolson Robert F

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A well designed randomized clinical trial rates as the highest level of evidence for a particular intervention's efficacy. Randomization, a fundamental feature of clinical trials design, is a process invoking the use of probability to assign treatment interventions to patients. In general, randomization techniques pursue the goal of providing objectivity to the assignment of treatments, while at the same time balancing for treatment assignment totals and covariate distributions. Numerous randomization techniques, each with varying properties of randomness and balance, are suggested in the statistical literature. This paper reviews common randomization techniques often used in substance abuse research and an application from a National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA-funded clinical trial in substance abuse is used to illustrate several choices an investigator faces when designing a clinical trial. Results Comparisons and contrasts of randomization schemes are provided with respect to deterministic and balancing properties. Specifically, Monte Carlo simulation is used to explore the balancing nature of randomization techniques for moderately sized clinical trials. Results demonstrate large treatment imbalance for complete randomization with less imbalance for the urn or adaptive scheme. The urn and adaptive randomization methods display smaller treatment imbalance as demonstrated by the low variability of treatment allocation imbalance. For all randomization schemes, covariate imbalance between treatment arms was small with little variation between adaptive schemes, stratified schemes and unstratified schemes given that sample sizes were moderate to large. Conclusion We develop this paper with the goal of reminding substance abuse researchers of the broad array of randomization options available for clinical trial designs. There may be too quick a tendency for substance abuse researchers to implement the fashionable urn

  6. Organizational Readiness for Change in Correctional and Community Substance Abuse Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Wayne E. K.; Greener, Jack M.; Rowan-Szal, Grace A.; Flynn, Patrick M.

    2012-01-01

    Significant needs exist for increased and better substance abuse treatment services in our nation's prisons. The TCU Organizational Readiness for Change (ORC) survey has been widely used in community-based treatment programs and evidence is accumulating for relationships between readiness for change and implementation of new clinical practices.…

  7. Organizational Readiness for Change in Correctional and Community Substance Abuse Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Wayne E. K.; Greener, Jack M.; Rowan-Szal, Grace A.; Flynn, Patrick M.

    2012-01-01

    Significant needs exist for increased and better substance abuse treatment services in our nation's prisons. The TCU Organizational Readiness for Change (ORC) survey has been widely used in community-based treatment programs and evidence is accumulating for relationships between readiness for change and implementation of new clinical practices.…

  8. The Incidence of Incest Histories among Clients Receiving Substance Abuse Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Noreen M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Volunteer participants (n=77) enrolled in 8 substance abuse treatment facilities were surveyed in order to examine the prevalence and nature of incest contacts among the group. Results indicated that approximately 49 percent of the participants had reported histories of incest. Data are presented under various parameters. Also gives comparisons by…

  9. The Relationship between Parental Substance Abuse and Child Maltreatment: Findings from the Ontario Health Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Christine; MacMillan, Harriet L.; Jamieson, Ellen

    2003-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between reported exposure to child abuse and a history of parental substance abuse (alcohol and drugs) in a community sample in Ontario, Canada. Method: The sample consisted of 8,472 respondents to the Ontario Mental Health Supplement (OHSUP), a comprehensive population survey of mental health. The…

  10. Project Impact: Teaching the Teachers to Intervene in Student Substance Abuse Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantor, Glenda Kaufman; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 528 high school teachers to evaluate adolescent substance-abuse prevention/intervention program. Found that Project Impact was successful in achieving goals; findings suggest greater self-efficacy in trained teachers compared to non-Impact trained teachers. Trained teachers were significantly more likely to have provided drug education to…

  11. Does Typography of Substance Abuse and Dependence Differ as a Function of Exposure to Child Maltreatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Carla Kmett; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Dangelmaier, Ruth E.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the link between child maltreatment, including child sexual assault (CSA) and child physical assault (CPA), and addiction-related symptomatology in a subsample of adolescents from the National Survey of Adolescents, all of whom met DSM-IV criteria for substance abuse or dependence (N = 281). More than 60% of the sample reported a…

  12. Does Typography of Substance Abuse and Dependence Differ as a Function of Exposure to Child Maltreatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Carla Kmett; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Dangelmaier, Ruth E.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the link between child maltreatment, including child sexual assault (CSA) and child physical assault (CPA), and addiction-related symptomatology in a subsample of adolescents from the National Survey of Adolescents, all of whom met DSM-IV criteria for substance abuse or dependence (N = 281). More than 60% of the sample reported a…

  13. American Youths' Access to Substance Abuse Treatment: Does Type of Treatment Facility Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Celia C.; Cheng, Tyrone C.

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the 2007 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, this study examines whether several social exclusion and psychological factors affect adolescents' receipt of substance abuse treatment. Multinomial logistic regression techniques were used to analyze data. The study asked how the specified factors provide pathways to receipt of…

  14. Substance abuse in victims of fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillo, D J; Goode, R

    1996-01-01

    Ethanol or drug use may increase the risk of fire-related injury or death. This study was performed to quantify the role of substance abuse in fatal fires occurring in New Jersey over a 7-year period. Records of all the fatalities of fire reported to the State Medical Examiners Office between 1985 and 1991 were retrospectively examined. Blood assay results for ethanol were positive in 215 of the 727 (29.5%) fatalities of fire tested. For this group, the mean blood-ethanol level was 193.9 mg/dl. Blood or urine assay results for substances of abuse were positive in 78 of the 534 (14.6%) fatalities tested. The most commonly detected illicit substances were cocaine, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and cannabinoids. The test results were positive for both ethanol and drug use in 36 victims. Forty percent of all the fatalities of fire were aged younger than 11 or older than 70. In contradistinction, 75% of drug-positive fatalities of fire and 58% of ethanol-positive fatalities of fire were between the ages of 21 and 50, suggesting that inebriation may impair the ability to escape from fire. Substance abusers in middle life are a previously unrecognized group at higher risk of injury or death in a fire.

  15. 77 FR 43344 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention..., http://nac.samhsa.gov/ , or by contacting Matthew J. Aumen. Committee Name: Substance Abuse and...

  16. 78 FR 37560 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention..., http://nac.samhsa.gov/ , or by contacting Matthew J. Aumen. Committee Name: Substance Abuse and...

  17. Substance Abuse: Implications for Counseling African American Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Jay C.

    1994-01-01

    Examines factors--such as unemployment, economic deprivation, racism, issues pertaining to gender roles--and their contribution to substance abuse in African American men. Specifically reviews the use of alcohol, opiates, crack, and cocaine. Argues that a biopsychosocial model offers the best framework in conceptualizing substance abuse and…

  18. The Marihuana Perception Inventory: The Effects of Substance Abuse Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabany, Steve G.; Plummer, Portia

    1990-01-01

    Studied 617 high school and college students prior to and after substance abuse instruction to determine relationship between perceptions and demographic characteristics, and to learn whether substance abuse instruction was related to changes in student's perception of relationships. Findings from Marihuana Perception Inventory showed five factors…

  19. The Marihuana Perception Inventory: The Effects of Substance Abuse Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabany, Steve G.; Plummer, Portia

    1990-01-01

    Studied 617 high school and college students prior to and after substance abuse instruction to determine relationship between perceptions and demographic characteristics, and to learn whether substance abuse instruction was related to changes in student's perception of relationships. Findings from Marihuana Perception Inventory showed five factors…

  20. Psychological Correlates of Substance Abuse in Non-psychiatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychological Correlates of Substance Abuse in Non-psychiatric and Psychiatric ... An understanding of such relationship could be beneficial in the management of patients with substance abuse. ... http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njpsyc.v8i1.53306.

  1. The Evolution of an Online Substance Abuse Counseling Certificate Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, Mary K.

    2012-01-01

    In the field of rehabilitation services, substance abuse counseling requires unique skills. Post-baccalaureate academic certificate programs offer professionals an opportunity to retool or expand their skills and meet licensure needs in this evolving field. East Carolina University's online Substance Abuse Counseling Certificate Program was…

  2. Gender Differences Regarding Peer Influence and Attitude toward Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienzi, Beth M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    To investigate gender differences in acceptance of substance abuse behavior among adolescents, 968 students were administered a questionnaire to assess their perceptions. Results show that both genders felt that boys would be more approving of teenage substance abuse. Most students were disapproving of a teenager driving after drinking. Other…

  3. 49 CFR 655.52 - Substance abuse professional (SAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substance abuse professional (SAP). 655.52 Section 655.52 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT... OPERATIONS Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 655.52 Substance abuse professional (SAP). The SAP must...

  4. Prevalence and Pedagogy: Understanding Substance Abuse in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salm, Twyla; Sevigny, Phil; Mulholland, Val; Greenberg, Hirsch

    2011-01-01

    This case study examines not only the prevalence of substance abuse in one rural, Canadian high school, but also how teachers understand teaching and learning in relation to substance abuse. Over one third of students reported that they had used marijuana (37%) and alcohol (38%) in the last seven days, a rate considerably higher than typical…

  5. Substance abuse as a precipitant of wife abuse victimizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantor, G K; Straus, M A

    1989-01-01

    This study examines the question of whether drug and alcohol use by victims constitutes a risk factor increasing the chances of their being assaulted by their partners. Data from a subsample of the 1985 National Family Violence Survey consisting of the 2,033 female respondents who were currently married or living in a male-female couple relationship are used as the basis of the analysis. The logistic analysis revealed that, of the ten variables in the model, the most important for distinguishing abused from nonabused women are husband's drug use, a history of paternal violence in womens' family or origin, husband's drunkenness, low income, and wife's drunkenness. Women who abuse alcohol are more likely to be victims of minor marital violence, but female substance abuse of any type is not a significant factor in severe violence.

  6. 78 FR 69702 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) Drug... Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug Testing... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance...

  7. 78 FR 38355 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) Drug..., including specimen characteristics, collection, preparation, and stability; drug analytes, analyte...

  8. Can you vaccinate against substance abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosten, Thomas R; Domingo, Coreen B

    2013-08-01

    Vaccines are being developed against substance abuse and most progress has been made with anti-cocaine, nicotine and opiate vaccines, but new ones are being developed for methamphetamine and may be in humans within 18 - 24 months. These haptenated vaccines share a common problem in that only about one-third of those vaccinated get a sufficiently robust antibody titer to enable them to effectively block drug use. This problem is being addressed with better carrier proteins and new adjuvants beyond alum. This review provides details about these developing vaccines that act through pharmacokinetic rather than pharmacodynamics blockade. Due to this pharmacokinetic mechanism of keeping abused drugs in the bloodstream and not allowing them entry into the brain or other organs, these vaccines have very few side effects compared to other blockers used in addictions treatment.

  9. An holistic approach to substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Kathy T; Reed, Maria R; Malone, Sandra B

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a model outpatient substance abuse treatment program. This program is designed to provide patients with not only traditional modalities of treatment such as individual, group, and family therapy, but also to provide an opportunity for patients to express thoughts and feelings through holistic modalities. These modalities include dance/movement therapy, Tai Chi, art therapy, leisure and recreational skills, spiritual growth and development, cultural awareness and appreciation, vocational services, psychiatric care and physical health. The authors describe features of this program that they believe to be unique and that focus on ways to help patients develop a stronger sense of self-identity, self-esteem and self-confidence.

  10. Problems of substance abuse: exploitation and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, L

    1985-01-01

    The notion of substance abuse is highly problematic. There is considerable disagreement amongst 'experts' as to the relative hazards and addictive properties of both legally and illegally available substances. There are also widely divergent sub-cultural attitudes to the harmfulness or benefit of drug use. One can assume no social consensus as to the nature of the contemporary 'drug problem', nor about the most appropriate means of dealing with it. There is, however, considerable evidence that criminalization of drug use, and harsh penalties against users and suppliers, are ineffective and counter-productive. Other models of control need to be considered, and in particular the merits and de-merits of the medicalization of drug abuse require examination. However, this is only one aspect of the problem. On the other side are the national and international corporations and syndicates, both legitimate and criminal, that earn vast profits from trade in toxic substances. Tobacco is legally available in every country in the world, and the industry is rarely subject to strict control. Thus the issue of substance abuse and control should be seen in a global context, in which account is taken of both legitimate and underworld operations. In attempts to control international trade in toxic substances, the limited success and the problems of already existing legal controls should be acknowledged. Local awareness and regulation of trade in substances is essential, but not sufficient. Amongst other avenues to be explored is the possibility of diverting presently illicitly grown narcotics into indigenous pharmaceutical industries in the Third World. Some problems with this strategy are noted.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Substance abuse in emergency department patients with unexplained syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Zev; Chiu, David Te-Wei; Shapiro, Nathan Ivan; Grossman, Shamai Aron

    2014-04-01

    Current data suggest that up to 60 % of patients presenting to the ED with syncope leave the hospital without a defined etiology. Although a relationship between syncope and substance abuse has been described, no study to date has looked at the relationship between syncope of unknown etiology and substance abuse in patients presenting to the ED. The objective of the study was to determine whether a history of or current substance abuse is associated with an increased incidence of syncope of unknown etiology in ED patients. A prospective, observational, cohort study of consecutive ED patients aged ≥18 who presented with syncope was conducted between 6/03 and 7/06. Patients were queried in the ED and charts reviewed about a history of or current substance abuse. Substance abuse was defined as consumption of >2 alcoholic beverages nightly, repetitive use of any illicit substances, or documentation by the patient's physician of concern regarding suspected substance abuse. Data were analyzed using SAS with Chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests. We enrolled 518 patients who presented to the ED after syncope, 161 of whom did not have an identifiable etiology for their syncopal event. 62 patients had a history of, or current substance abuse. Among patients with a history of, or current substance abuse, 45 % had unexplained syncope, as opposed to 29 % of patients without such a history (p = 0.01). Our results suggest that prior and current substance abuse is associated with increased incidence of syncope of unknown etiology. Patients evaluated in the ED or even hospitalized with syncope of unknown etiology may benefit from substance abuse screening and possibly detoxification referral.

  12. Substance-Abusing Parents in the Criminal Justice System: Does Substance Abuse Treatment Improve Their Children's Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Susan D.; Gleeson, James P.; Waites-Garrett, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    The expansion of the criminal justice system over the last several decades helped to focus attention on children of incarcerated parents, many of whom have parents with substance abuse problems. Since the 1990's, a national grassroots campaign has been underway to make substance abuse treatment an alternative to incarceration for parents who…

  13. Substance abuse-specific knowledge transfer or loss? Treatment program turnover versus professional turnover among substance abuse clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Lillian T; Laschober, Tanja C; Curtis, Sara L

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the extent to which substance abuse (SA) clinician turnover is associated with SA-specific knowledge loss due to change in professions (professional turnover) versus SA-specific knowledge transfer due to movement from one SA clinical setting to another (treatment program turnover). For this study, clinicians had to have voluntarily left their current treatment program. Eligible clinicians completed a quantitative survey while employed and a qualitative post-employment exit interview 1 year later. Compared to those that exited the SA profession (n = 99), clinicians who changed treatment programs (n = 120) had greater SA-specific formal knowledge and were more likely to be personally in recovery. No differences were found between the two groups in terms of SA-specific practical knowledge.

  14. Caseworker-Perceived Caregiver Substance Abuse and Child Protective Services Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Lawrence M.; Slack, Kristen S.; Waldfogel, Jane; Bruch, Sarah K.

    2010-01-01

    We used data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being to examine associations of child protective services (CPS) caseworkers’ perceptions of caregiver substance abuse with their perceptions of the severity of risk and harm a child experienced as a result of alleged maltreatment, as well as with whether a family experienced a range of CPS outcomes. The outcomes included whether the family received services from CPS, was substantiated for maltreatment, experienced child removal, and was subject to a termination of parental rights (TPR) petition. We also compared the magnitude of the association between caseworker-perceived caregiver substance abuse and each outcome to that of the association between other maltreatment-related risk factors and each outcome. Findings suggest that, all else equal, caseworker-perceived caregiver substance abuse is associated with increased caseworker perceptions that children have experienced severe risk and harm, and also with an increased probability of each of the CPS outcomes except TPR. Moreover, these associations are equal in magnitude or larger than those between the other risk factors and the outcomes. Thus, our findings imply that CPS decisions are heavily influenced by caseworker perceptions of caregiver substance abuse, regardless of the presence of other risk factors for child maltreatment. PMID:20460304

  15. Stigma and social support in substance abuse: Implications for mental health and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birtel, Michèle D; Wood, Lisa; Kempa, Nancy J

    2017-02-20

    Individuals with substance abuse may suffer from severe public and internalized stigma. Little is known about how social support can reduce stigma and improve mental health and well-being for them. This research examined how perceived stigma influences individuals in treatment for substance abuse, and whether internalized stigma and shame are mechanisms which link social support with better mental health and well-being. Sixty-four participants in treatment for substance abuse (alcohol, drugs), aged between 18 and 64, completed an online survey measuring perceived stigma, internalized stigma, shame, perceived social support, and mental health and well-being (self-esteem, depression and anxiety, sleep). We found that perceived stigma was associated with lower self-esteem, higher depression and anxiety, and poorer sleep. Furthermore, perceived social support followed the opposite pattern, and was associated with higher self-esteem, lower depression and anxiety, and better sleep. The effects of perceived stigma and of perceived social support on our outcome measures were mediated by internalized stigma and by internalized shame. Helping individuals with substance abuse to utilize their social support may be fruitful for combatting the negative impact of internalized stigma and shame on mental health and well-being.

  16. Early maladaptive schemas of substance abusers and their intimate partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2013-01-01

    The influence of intimate partners in the recovery of substance abuse has been increasingly recognized in the professional literature. Couples-based substance abuse treatment has demonstrated effectiveness in reducing substance abuse and increasing healthy couple functioning. Recently, research has begun to investigate enduring cognitive beliefs that may impact substance abusers and their intimate partners, which could advance our understanding of factors that may impact couple's functioning. The current study examined the early maladaptive schemas and substance use of a sample of adult substance abusers who have sought residential substance abuse treatment and their intimate partners (N = 102). Results demonstrated that the early maladaptive schemas of patients and their intimate partners may be interrelated and that patients scored significantly higher than their partners on 13 of the 18 early maladaptive schemas. Substance use was only associated with a few early maladaptive schemas. These findings highlight the potential importance of assessing early maladaptive schemas in couples where one partner has a substance abuse problem. Implications of these findings for future research are discussed.

  17. Science-based and practice-based innovativeness and performance of substance abuse treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Preethy; Yu, Fang; Apenteng, Bettye

    2014-01-01

    The fields of mental health and substance abuse treatment lag significantly behind other health care organizational fields in the adoption, implementation, and dissemination of evidence-based practices. Innovative organizational practices may be science based or practice based. The implementation of innovative practices requires considerable organizational resources. Whether this organizational investment actually pays off in terms of superior performance is unclear. This issue in the context of substance abuse treatment facilities (SATFs) in the United States is examined in this study. The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of the use of innovative organizational practices, both science based (psychosocial interventions) and practice based, on the organizational performance of SATFs. The study uses cross-sectional data on 13,513 SATFs in the United States, obtained from the National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services 2009 database. Multinomial logistic regression models find a positive association between the use of science-based innovations and practice-based innovations and organizational performance, that is, the provision of comprehensive (core and wraparound) services. SATFs that were located in metropolitan areas, those accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities and Joint Commission, that had a mixed (Substance Abuse and Mental Health) focus or were recipients of earmark funds also had higher organizational performance. The results signify that substance abuse facilities that are high innovators in terms of implementing science based and practice-based innovative practices have higher organizational performance. Organizations that have institutionalized these practices have invested considerable resources in innovation. The shown higher organizational performance provides justification for the organizational investment in innovation.

  18. Substance abusers' personality disorders and staff members' emotional reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thylstrup, Birgitte; Hesse, Morten

    2008-01-01

    workshops completed a self-report inventory of emotional reactions to patients, the Feeling Word Checklist-58, and substance abusers completed a self-report of DSM-IV personality disorder, the DSM-IV and ICD-10 Personality Disorder Questionnaire. Correlational analysis and multiple regression analysis...... impact on emotional reactions. Conclusion The findings confirm clinical experiences that personality disorder features in patients with substance abuse have an impact on staff members reactions to them. These reactions should be considered in supervision of staff, and in treatment models for patients...... with co-morbid personality disorders and substance abuse....

  19. The Comparison of Body Image, Quality of Sleep and Marital Satisfaction among Substance Abuser and Non-substance Abuser Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Behzad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The previous research has demonstrated that addiction treatment services for women need to be based on knowledge of female psychological needs. Therefore, the aim of current study is to compare body image, quality of sleep and marital satisfaction among substance abuser and non-substance abuser women.Materials and Methods: This study is a descriptive comparative research. 200 women including 100 substance abuser women and 100 non-substance abuser women were chosen through convenience method in Arak in 2015. The measuring instruments were Fisher body image scale (1970, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (1989 and Enrich Marital Satisfaction Scale (1989. Data was analyzed utilizing t independent.Results: The results showed that there is the significant difference between marital satisfaction (P=0.001 and quality of sleep (P=0.001 among substance abuser and non-substance abuser women. Additionally, the significant difference was not observed between body image (P= 0.31 among these two groups.Conclusion: These findings emphasized that substance use decreases the quality of sleep and marital satisfaction in women. Hence, it should be considered these factors in process of therapeutic intervention in substance abuser women.

  20. Substance-Abuse and the Native American Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Susanna; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1984-01-01

    Presents an overview of substance abuse, focusing on Native American students. Emphasizes school counselor intervention strategies and the counselor client relationship. Counselors must be aware of their own values and cultural attitudes in dealing with Indian students. (JAC)

  1. Substance Abuse Treatment for Children and Adolescents: Questions to Ask

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families Guide Substance Abuse Treatment For Children And Adolescents: Questions To Ask No. 41; Reviewed July 2013 Many children and adolescents use alcohol and other drugs. Some develop serious ...

  2. 75 FR 28623 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention...

  3. 76 FR 59710 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)...

  4. 78 FR 52779 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)...

  5. 78 FR 45545 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention... participate via webcast, please register at the SAMHSA Committees' Web site, http://nac.samhsa.gov...

  6. 77 FR 1708 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)...

  7. 78 FR 5471 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)...

  8. 75 FR 4577 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention...

  9. 75 FR 11185 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Cancellation of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... cancellation of the March 8, 2010 meeting of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration..., Telephone: 240-276-2600, FAX: 240-276-2610. Toian Vaughn, Committee Management Officer, Substance Abuse...

  10. 29 CFR 825.119 - Leave for treatment of substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leave for treatment of substance abuse. 825.119 Section 825... Leave for treatment of substance abuse. (a) Substance abuse may be a serious health condition if the... substance abuse by a health care provider or by a provider of health care services on referral by a...

  11. 10 CFR 707.5 - Submission, approval, and implementation of a baseline workplace substance abuse program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... workplace substance abuse program. 707.5 Section 707.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE... substance abuse program. (a) Each contractor subject to this part shall develop a written program consistent... employees concerning problems of substance abuse, including illegal drug use, and the availability...

  12. 77 FR 55482 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)...

  13. 42 CFR Appendix to Part 54a - Model Notice of Individuals Receiving Substance Abuse Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., ET SEQ., FOR SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT SERVICES Pt. 54a, App. Appendix to Part 54a—Model Notice of Individuals Receiving Substance Abuse Services Model Notice to Individuals Receiving Substance Abuse Services No provider of substance abuse services receiving Federal funds from the...

  14. 77 FR 45647 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)...

  15. 75 FR 8978 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Cancellation of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice... the February 10, 2010 meeting of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) National Advisory Council. Public notice was given in...

  16. A review of substance abuse research in malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norliza, C; Norni, A; Anandjit, S; Mohd Fazli, M I

    2014-08-01

    This is a review of research done in the area of substance abuse in Malaysia. There were 109 articles related to substance abuse found in a search through a database dedicated to indexing all original data relevant to medicine published in Malaysia between the years 2000-2013. Only 39 articles were reviewed, and case series, case report, reviews and reports were excluded. Research reviewed include the epidemiology of substance abuse, genetics, treatment and its relation to health behaviour, and health management. Studies have shown that more males than females use drugs. There was also a high prevalence of blood-bourne virus diseases and sexually transmitted diseases among drug users. Two studies showed some genetic polymorphism (Cyp 3a4 gene and FAAH Pro129Thr) among heroin and amphetamine users respectively that may contribute to drug dependence. Study on pharmacological treatment for substance abuse were limited to methadone and it was shown to improve the quality of life of heroin dependant patients. Alternative treatments such as acupunture and spiritual approach play a role in the management of substance abuse. Data also showed that treatment centres for substance abuse are lacking facilities for screening, assessment and treatment for medical illness related to substance use, e.g. Hepatitis C and tuberculosis. Studies on the effectiveness of current drug rehabilitation centres were inconclusive.

  17. Predicting Substance Abuse Treatment Completion using a New Scale Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Zemore, Sarah E.; Ajzen, Icek

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether a 9-item scale based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) predicted substance abuse treatment completion. Data were collected at a public, outpatient program among clients initiating treatment (N=200). Baseline surveys included measures of treatment-related attitudes, norms, perceived control, and intention; discharge status was collected from program records. As expected, TPB attitude and control components independently predicted intention (model R-squared=.56), and i...

  18. Alcohol detoxification completion, acceptance of referral to substance abuse treatment, and entry into substance abuse treatment among Alaska Native people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Running Bear, Ursula; Beals, Janette; Novins, Douglas K; Manson, Spero M

    2017-02-01

    Little is known about factors associated with detoxification treatment completion and the transition to substance abuse treatment following detoxification among Alaska Native people. This study examined 3 critical points on the substance abuse continuum of care (alcohol detoxification completion, acceptance of referral to substance abuse treatment, entry into substance abuse treatment following detoxification). The retrospective cohort included 383 adult Alaska Native patients admitted to a tribally owned and managed inpatient detoxification unit. Three multiple logistic regression models estimated the adjusted associations of each outcome separately with demographic/psychosocial characteristics, clinical characteristics, use related behaviors, and health care utilization. Seventy-five percent completed detoxification treatment. Higher global assessment functioning scores, longer lengths of stay, and older ages of first alcohol use were associated with completing detoxification. A secondary drug diagnosis was associated with not completing detoxification. Thirty-six percent accepted a referral to substance abuse treatment following detoxification. Men, those with legal problems, and those with a longer length of stay were more likely to accept a referral to substance abuse treatment. Fifty-eight percent had a confirmed entry into a substance abuse treatment program at discharge. Length of stay was the only variable associated with substance abuse treatment entry. Services like motivational interviewing, counseling, development of therapeutic alliance, monetary incentives, and contingency management are effective in linking patients to services after detoxification. These should be considered, along with the factors associated with each point on the continuum of care when linking patients to follow-up services. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Silhouette of substance abuse amongst an adolescent sample group from urban slums of Guwahati metro, North East India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Katoki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Globally 320 million young people between ages 15-29 years are dying from alcohol related causes. Child line foundation survey report showed that 13.1% of the people involved in drug and substance abuse in India, are adolescents. India’s 1.2 billion populations contain the largest number of street children of the world who are at risk of substance abuse. But there is a gap in reliable data of adolescent substance abuse patterns in Assam as well as in India. Substance abuse pattern in the slums need more research. It was a community based cross sectional study. Study period was three months, from 15th July to 15th October 2012. Six slums of Guwahati city were selected purposively. Both male and female adolescents between the ages of 10-19 years with past or present history of any substance abuse, permanent residents of these slums, with guardian and self-consents given to take part in this study were included in the study. Each study subject was interviewed by personal interview method using a predesigned pretested Performa. Total 60 respondents, 20 from each of the selected slums were interviewed in detail. Male: Female ratio was 4:1, 93.3% were current abusers, maximum (46.7% in the age group of 14-16 years. 58% were students and living with families (93% though 30% of the respondents had single parenting. 25% of the respondents were illiterate and 93.3% were from lower socioeconomic status. 78.3% had history of drug abuse in their families and more than 2/3rd got information about the different substances from their peers and friends. Influence of friends/ peers (80% and enjoyment or curiosity(73.4% were prime reasons of starting the abuse. Majority (95% adolescents obtained abusive substance from their peers /friends. Biddi (85%, gutkha( 88.3%, khaini (51.7% and cheap branded alcohol(50% were predominantly used. Chewing (90% and smoking and inhalation (85% were found to be the dominant routes of abuse. Substance abuse was rampant amongst

  20. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptom clusters predicting substance abuse in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donbaek, Dagmar Feddern; Elklit, Ask; Pedersen, Mads Uffe

    2014-01-01

    . Therefore, we studied this issue in relation to alcohol abuse (AA) and drug abuse (DA) in a probability sample of Danish 15- to 18-year-olds (n=1,988) in the form of an online survey using self-report questionnaires following the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM......The majority of studies exploring the mental health disorders posttraumatic stress disorder and substance use disorders (substance abuse and dependence) have shown high co-morbidity rates in adolescents, indicating a well-established relationship. However, only a few studies have attempted...... disorders in adolescents whilst underpinning the importance of acknowledging the specific functional mechanisms underlying the common co-occurrence of PTSD and substance abuse in adolescence....

  1. Advances in genetic studies of substance abuse in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan SUN; Shiqiu MENG; Jiali LI; Jie SHI; Lin LU

    2013-01-01

    Summary:The importance of genetic factors in substance addiction has long been established. The rationale for this work is that understanding of the function of addiction genes and delineation of the key molecular pathways of these genes would enhance the development of novel therapeutic targets and biomarkers that could be used in the prevention and management of substance abuse. Over the past few years, there has been a substantial increase in the number of genetic studies conducted on addiction in China;these studies have primarily focused on heroin, alcohol, and nicotine dependence. Most studies of candidate genes have concentrated on the dopamine, opioid, and serotonin systems. A number of genes associated with substance abuse in Caucasians are also risk factors in Chinese, but several novel genes and genetic risk factors associated with substance abuse in Chinese subjects have also been identified. This paper reviews the genetic studies of substance abuse performed by Chinese researchers. Genotypes and alleles related to addictive behavior in Chinese individuals are discussed and the contributions of Chinese researchers to the international corpus of knowledge about the genetic understanding of substance abuse are described.

  2. How do nursing students perceive substance abusing nurses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Martha A; Nosek, Laura J

    2014-02-01

    Substance abuse among nurses was recognized by nurse leaders and professional nursing organizations as a growing threat to patient safety and to the health of the abusing nurse more than 30years ago. Although numerous studies on nurse impairment were published in the 1980s and 1990s, there was minimal focus on student nurses' perceptions about impaired nurses and less research has been published more recently, despite a growing rate of substance abuse. A quasi-experimental study to explore the perceptions of student nurses toward nurses who are chemically dependent was conducted using a two-group, pretest-posttest design. The Perception of Nurse Impairment Inventory (PNII) was completed by student nurses at the beginning of their junior course work, prior to formal education about substance abuse. The PNII was repeated after the students received substance abuse education. The PNII was also completed by a control group of sophomore student nurses who did not receive the formal substance abuse education. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to measure the differences between the two groups of students. Students who received the education chose more compassionate responses on the PNII and were more likely to respond that an impaired nurse's supervisor is responsible for supporting and guiding the impaired nurse to access professional care. Discrepancies in study findings about the efficacy of education for effecting positive attitudes of student nurses toward impaired nurses may be related to the length and type of the education.

  3. Community partnership to affect substance abuse among Native American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, John; Liang, Huigang; Riggs, Cheryl; Henson, Jim; Elder, Tribal

    2012-09-01

    Substance abuse is one of the nation's primary health concerns. Native American youth experience higher rates of substance abuse than other youth. There is little empirical evidence that exists concerning the use of culturally-based interventions among Native American adolescents. This study used a community-based participatory research approach to develop and evaluate an innovative school-based cultural intervention targeting substance abuse among a Native American adolescent population. A two-condition quasi-experimental study design was used to compare the Cherokee Talking Circle (CTC) culturally-based intervention condition (n = 92) with the Be A Winner Standard Education (SE) condition (n = 87). Data were collected at pre-intervention, immediate post-intervention, and 90-day post-intervention using the Cherokee Self-Reliance Questionnaire, Global Assessment of Individual Needs - Quick, and Written Stories of Stress measures. Significant improvements were found among all measurement outcomes for the CTC culturally-based intervention. The data provide evidence that a Native American adolescent culturally-based intervention was significantly more effective for the reduction of substance abuse and related problems than a noncultural-based intervention. This study suggests that cultural considerations may enhance the degree to which specific interventions address substance abuse problems among Native American adolescents.

  4. Impact of Substance Abuse on Academic Performance among Adolescent Students of Colleges of Education in Kwara State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanbi, Muritala Ishola; Augustina, Godwin; Theophilus, Anyio Bahago; Muritala, Muhammad; Ajiboye, Ajiboye Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the impact of substance abuse on adolescent on academic performance in colleges of education in Kwara State. The design used for the study was the survey. A sample of 150 adolescent students was randomly selected form selected departments in three colleges of education in the State. A validated instrument, Drug Habit…

  5. Social Support as a Mediator between Internalized Stigma and Coping Behaviors of Individuals with Substance Abuse Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chih-Chin; Robb, Jayci Lynn; Clay, Matthew Christopher; Chronister, Julie Ann

    2013-01-01

    In this study, 51 individuals from online substance abuse support groups were surveyed to investigate the mediating role of social support on the relationship between internalized stigma and coping. Regression and bootstrapping were conducted to perform mediation analysis. Findings suggest that social support mediates the negative impact of…

  6. Variables associated with environmental scanning among clinicians at substance abuse treatment clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison L. Koch

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Environmental scanning, as a component of absorptive capacity, has been shown to be associated with increased use of innovative treatment techniques at substance abuse treatment programmes. As the transfer of innovative, evidence-based treatment techniques from research to practice is gaining attention, we aimed to identify variables associated with higher levels of environmental scanning among substance abuse treatment clinicians. Method. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 162 clinicians at 15 substance abuse treatment clinics in Michigan. Measures: Environmental scanning was measured by frequency of use of the Internet, journals, seminars or conferences, and people at other treatment clinics for new substance abuse treatment information. Clinicians were asked for their perceptions of their clinic’s openness to new treatment techniques and support for acquiring new information, access to and satisfaction with information sources at work, as well as if they feel it is their job to keep up to date with current treatment research. Additional measures included whether they intended to quit their jobs and whether they were emotionally drained from work. Findings: We found positive associations between environmental scanning and perceived clinic support for acquiring new information, perceived clinic openness to new treatment techniques, access to e-mail and Internet at work, and satisfaction with resources. Turnover intention and being emotionally drained were negatively associated with environmental scanning. Conclusion. : Individual and organizational level variables were found to be associated with higher levels of environmental scanning activity. Although the causal directions of these associations are not known, the findings suggest ways to increase environmental scanning among clinicians.

  7. Methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine abuse in substance-abusing adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert J; Goodale, Leslie A; Shay-Fiddler, Michele A; Gloster, Susan P; Chang, Samuel Y

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine misuse and abuse was examined in 450 adolescents referred for substance abuse treatment. Twenty three percent reported nonmedical use of these substances and six percent were diagnosed as methylphenidate or dextroamphetamine abusers. Abuse was more common in individuals who were out of school and had an eating disorder. Methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine abuse appears to be much less common than abuse of most other substances. It does occur, however, and parents and schools need to exert greater control over the dispensing of these medications. Physicians are advised to prescribe non-stimulant medications (eg, bupropion) when treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in substance-abusing individuals.

  8. Culturally competent substance abuse treatment with transgender persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttbrock, Larry A

    2012-01-01

    Transgender individuals are misunderstood and inadequately treated in many conventional substance abuse treatment programs. This article reviews current concepts regarding the definition and diversity of transgenderism and summarizes the existing literature on the prevalence and correlates of substance use in transgendered populations. Examples of culturally competent and gender-sensitive treatment in specialized settings are cited, with a call to extend these initiatives throughout the gamut of service venues that engage transgender individuals. Cultural competence combined with gender sensitivity should improve the effectiveness of substance abuse treatment for transgender individuals and will contribute to the goal of providing effective services in an increasingly diverse society.

  9. Substance Abuse Prevention and Geography. Teacher's Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connecticut Geographic Alliance, Storrs.

    This guide integrates themes of geography with health issues of the 1990s to encourage healthy lifestyles and promote geographic literacy. Designed for use by social studies educators and educators responsible for teaching about substance abuse and related health issues, this guide includes lessons for kindergarten through 12th grade. After an…

  10. 77 FR 60615 - National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... to live in health and happiness. NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of... public health and safety reforms. We have invested in outreach programs that empower young Americans with... dangers of substance abuse. Alongside them, coalitions of teachers, faith-based groups, health...

  11. Medical Marijuana Use among Adolescents in Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Sakai, Joseph T.; Thurstone, Christian; Corley, Robin; Hopfer, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence and frequency of medical marijuana diversion and use among adolescents in substance abuse treatment and to identify factors related to their medical marijuana use. Method: This study calculated the prevalence and frequency of diverted medical marijuana use among adolescents (n = 164), ages 14-18 years (mean age…

  12. Substance Abuse Minimization: Conceptualizing Prevention in Adolescent and Youth Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullotta, Thomas; Adams, Gerald R.

    1982-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the historical and theoretical work on adolescent substance abuse with implications for preventive interventions. The focus is on illustration of the use of four basic prevention tools: education, competency promotion, community mobilization, and natural care giving. (Author)

  13. Hope-Focused Interventions in Substance Abuse Counselling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehn, Corinne; O'Neill, Linda; Sherry, John

    2012-01-01

    Hope is a vital component of psychological healing and plays a critical role in counselling. With despair so prominent for individuals with serious substance abuse problems, the question arises as to how to foster hope in such clients. There are recent suggestions in the general counselling literature that some of the work in counselling involve…

  14. Social Resource Characteristics and Adolescent Substance Abuse Relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vik, Peter W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined social resource network characteristics of adolescent substance abusers (n=19). Perceived similarity to one's social network emerged as important moderator of whether social network provided support to remain abstinent or elevated risk for relapse. Increased perceived support predicted continued posttreatment abstinence when recovering…

  15. Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment: Organizational Change and Quality of Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieckmann, Traci; Fussell, Holly; Doyle, Kevin; Ford, Jay; Riley, Katherine J.; Henderson, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Substance abuse treatment agencies serving youth face unique barriers to providing quality care. Interviews with 17 adolescent programs found that family engagement, community involvement, and gender and diversity issues affected treatment delivery. Programs report organizational change efforts with implications for future process improvement…

  16. 77 FR 33619 - Certification of Substance Abuse Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... the petition for rulemaking (PRM), PRM-26-7, submitted by the American Academy of Health Care... substance abuse expert. The NRC determined that the issues raised in the PRM are appropriate for... Technical Issues rulemaking. DATES: The docket for the petition for rulemaking, PRM-26-7, is closed on...

  17. Assessing Released Inmates for Substance-Abuse-Related Service Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenko, Steven

    2006-01-01

    High rates of substance abuse and recidivism and limited in-prison and postrelease treatment access and transitional planning complicate community reintegration. Moreover, drug-related health and social problems are related to treatment outcomes. In the framework of risk-responsivity theory and structured, integrated reentry models, this article…

  18. Is Substance Abuse an Issue for Creative People?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabee, Bev

    1985-01-01

    The author proposes a model for lessons on substance abuse that gives children alternative ways to satisfy the natural desire for altered states of consciousness. The model incorporates stages of progressive relaxation, visualization/guided fantasy, sensory experiences, information, and experimentation. (CL)

  19. A Model Adolescent Substance-Abuse Treatment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copans, Stuart

    1993-01-01

    Describes two adolescent substance abuse treatment programs in New England psychiatric center: Osgood Three, which is no longer in existence, and Tyler Three, which replaced it and is struggling to grow. Considers transition from Osgood Three to Tyler Three, process of change, and learning what can be preserved from past and what must be…

  20. The relationship between adolescent depressive symptomology and substance abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Blore

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to investigate the phenomena of adolescent depressive symptomology, substance abuse and the relationship between the two phenomena in a South African context. The influence of moderator variables was also examined. Another objective was to determine risk factors for the before mentioned. This was done by using a questionnaire with a sample of 1298 conveniently selected adolescents in a South African high school. It was determined that adolescents become progressively unhappier from 13 to 17 years of age. Girls are more depressed than boys. This research also revealed that adolescent depressive symptomology is significantly and positively correlated with earlier age of onset of substance abuse as well as frequency of usage. There appear to be no gender differences in substance abuse but teenagers from different ethnic and language groups differ in their use of substances. Risk factors for depression and substance abuse included a conflict relationship with parents, the experience of major stressful events, dissatisfaction with school grades and friends’ use of substances.

  1. Substance Abuse in Rural African-American Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Marvin P.; Williams, Mary M.

    More research into illicit substance abuse in rural African-American communities is needed. The existing literature indicates that patterns of use for licit substances (alcohol and cigarettes) are either similar for rural Blacks and Whites or lower for Blacks. However, the negative health and social consequences of smoking and abusive drinking are…

  2. Characteristics of Transgender Individuals Entering Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Nicholas C.; Sorensen, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the needs or characteristics of transgender individuals in substance abuse treatment settings. Transgender (n=199) and non-transgender (cisgender, n=13440) individuals were compared on psychosocial factors related to treatment, health risk behaviors, medical and mental health status and utilization, and substance use behaviors within a database that documented individuals entering substance abuse treatment in San Francisco, CA from 2007–2009 using logistic and linear regression analyses (run separately by identified gender). Transgender men (assigned birth sex of female) differed from cisgender men across many psychosocial factors, including having more recent employment, less legal system involvement, greater incidence of living with a substance abuser, and greater family conflict, while transgender women (assigned birth sex of male) were less likely to have minor children than cisgender women. Transgender women reported greater needle use and HIV testing rates were greater among transgender women. Transgender men and women reported higher rates of physical health problems, mental health diagnoses, and psychiatric medications but there were no differences in service utilization. There were no differences in substance use behaviors except that transgender women were more likely to endorse primary methamphetamine use. Transgender individuals evidence unique strengths and challenges that could inform targeted services in substance abuse treatment. PMID:24561017

  3. Parental Substance Abuse and the Nature of Child Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famularo, Richard; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Randomly selected juvenile court records (n=190) of cases of child maltreatment found that 67 percent involved parents who were substance abusers. Specific associations were found between (1) alcohol abuse and physical maltreatment, and (2) cocaine abuse and sexual maltreatment. (Author/DB)

  4. Medical Marijuana Use among Adolescents in Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Sakai, Joseph T.; Thurstone, Christian; Corley, Robin; Hopfer, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence and frequency of medical marijuana diversion and use among adolescents in substance abuse treatment and to identify factors related to their medical marijuana use. Method: This study calculated the prevalence and frequency of diverted medical marijuana use among adolescents (n = 164), ages 14-18 years (mean age…

  5. Growth and Empowerment for Indigenous Australians in Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Stacey L.; Crowe, T. P.; Deane, F. P.; Billingham, M.; Bhagerutty, Y.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes psychosocial outcomes of an Indigenous residential substance abuse rehabilitation centre in Australia, examines the sensitivity to change of the new Growth and Empowerment Measure (GEM), and explores the degree to which service users value cultural components of the treatment program. Participants were 57 Indigenous and 46…

  6. The Inspiration of Hope in Substance Abuse Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehn, Corinne; Cutcliffe, John R.

    2012-01-01

    This study used a grounded theory method to explore how counselors inspire hope in clients struggling with substance abuse. Findings from 10 participants revealed that hope inspiration occurred in 3 phases and consisted of several categories of hope-inspiring processes. Implications for counseling practice, counselor education, and research are…

  7. School-Based Interventions for Students with Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrow-Sanchez, Jason J.; Jenson, William R.; Clark, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    Experimentation with substances is typical for many young people, but unfortunately some will go on to develop substance abuse problems that substantially affect their lives. Successfully intervening with students who use or abuse substances is a challenge for school mental health professionals across the nation. There is a need for evidence-based…

  8. Substance Abuse Counselors and Moral Reasoning: Hypothetical and Authentic Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sias, Shari M.

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the assumption that the level of moral reasoning (Defining Issues Test; J. R. Rest, 1986) used in solving hypothetical and authentic dilemmas is similar for substance abuse counselors (N = 188). The statistical analyses used were paired-sample t tests, Pearson product-moment correlation, and simultaneous multiple…

  9. Sexual Objectification and Substance Abuse in Young Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Erika R.; Szymanski, Dawn M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectification Theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997) provides an important perspective for understanding the experiences of women living in a culture that sexualizes and objectifies the female body. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between interpersonal sexual objectification experiences and women's substance abuse in a…

  10. Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment: Organizational Change and Quality of Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieckmann, Traci; Fussell, Holly; Doyle, Kevin; Ford, Jay; Riley, Katherine J.; Henderson, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Substance abuse treatment agencies serving youth face unique barriers to providing quality care. Interviews with 17 adolescent programs found that family engagement, community involvement, and gender and diversity issues affected treatment delivery. Programs report organizational change efforts with implications for future process improvement…

  11. Substance Abuse and Spirituality: A Program for Native American Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Jay; And Others

    1997-01-01

    This report describes an innovative program to prevent substance abuse among Native American students that was implemented at the Institute for American Indian Arts in Santa Fe (New Mexico). The program emphasized traditional values, history, and spirituality to enhance self-esteem. It involved readings, classroom discussions, Native American…

  12. Substance Abuse by Elders and Self-Enhancement Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael N.; Green, Diane

    2009-01-01

    Human service professionals regularly do not recognize the symptoms of substance abuse in older populations and are unlikely to provide intervention. In this study, human service students (N = 242) were given one of three vignettes in which the main character was an 80-year-old man, an 80-year-old woman, or they were asked to imagine themselves at…

  13. Comorbidity of Schizophrenia and Substance Abuse: Implications for Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueser, Kim T.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Reviews substance abuse disorders in schizophrenia patients, including prevalence of comorbid disorders, assessment, hypothesized mechanisms underlying abuse, and clinical effects of abuse on course of illness and cognitive functioning. Outlines principles of treatment for dual-diagnosis schizophrenia patients, noting limitations of existing…

  14. Young Children of Substance Abusers. Prevention Research Update No. 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Gregory; Prendergast, Michael

    1991-01-01

    The stated objectives of this document are: to increase awareness of and clarify the risks facing children of substance abusers (COSAs) through a review of recent empirical research literature; and to examine the prevention and intervention issues involved in providing services to these youth in the schools. The literature review deals mainly with…

  15. Social capital and job satisfaction among substance abuse treatment employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsounis, Andreas; Niakas, Dimitris; Sarafis, Pavlos

    2017-02-15

    Job satisfaction is an important predictor for management and clinical ratios. Although it is accepted that is affected by many aspects, the influence of social capital remains to be determined. The main purpose of the article is to examine the relationship between job satisfaction and individual social capital for employees offering services in the treatment of addiction. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 239 employees from 14 therapeutic programs at KETEA (Therapy Center for Dependent Individuals in Greece) (KETHEA). A revised Greek Version of the Social Capital Questionnaire (SCQ-G) for the individual social capital measurement, and of the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) for the job satisfaction measurement, were used. Individual Social Capital ranged in medium levels. We observed a significant positive association between social capital and its' different aspects and gender, age, place of residence and working experience. Men, older employees, those who lived in smaller places, and those working more years, reached higher levels of individual social capital. Concerning overall job satisfaction most of the participants were ambivalent (61.5%), while 21.8% were satisfied and 16.7% were dissatisfied. Concerning its separate aspects, 77% were least satisfied with pay, 69.9% were least satisfied with advancement opportunities, 60.3% were least satisfied with fringe benefits, 85.8% were most satisfied with the nature of their work, 80.8% with their relationship with colleagues, and 77.8% were satisfied with supervision. Total Job Satisfaction was positively associated with place of residence and monthly salary. A significant positive correlation between social capital and job satisfaction was also observed. Early evidence suggests that social capital is associated with job satisfaction of employees providing services in the treatment of substance abuse. Further research, regarding social capital on job satisfaction, is suggested. We need to design and implement

  16. Substance abuse and first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. The Danish OPUS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia; Thorup, Anne

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate whether integrated treatment (given by OPUS), in comparison with standard treatment, significantly reduced the number of patients with substance abuse and improved clinical and social outcome in the group of substance abusers after 2 years.......To evaluate whether integrated treatment (given by OPUS), in comparison with standard treatment, significantly reduced the number of patients with substance abuse and improved clinical and social outcome in the group of substance abusers after 2 years....

  17. Substance abuse treatment need among older adults in 2020: the impact of the aging baby-boom cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfroerer, Joseph; Penne, Michael; Pemberton, Michael; Folsom, Ralph

    2003-03-01

    There is concern that as the baby boom population ages in the US, there will be a substantial increase in the number of older adults needing treatment for substance abuse problems. To address this concern, projections of future treatment need for older adults (defined as age 50 and older) were made. Using data from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, regression models including predictors of treatment need in 2000 and 2001 were developed. Treatment need was defined as having a DSM-IV alcohol or illicit drug use disorder in the past year. Regression parameters from these models were applied to the projected 2020 population to obtain estimates of the number of older adults needing treatment in 2020. The number of older adults in need of substance abuse treatment is estimated to increase from 1.7 million in 2000 and 2001 to 4.4 million in 2020. This is due to a 50 percent increase in the number of older adults and a 70 percent increase in the rate of treatment need among older adults. The aging baby boom cohort will place increasing demands on the substance abuse treatment system in the next two decades, requiring a shift in focus to address the special needs of an older population of substance abusers. There is also a need to develop improved tools for measuring substance use and abuse among older adults. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

  18. Effectiveness of Emotional Intelligence Group Training on Anger in Adolescents with Substance-Abusing Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojjat, Seyed Kaveh; Rezaei, Mahdi; Namadian, Gholamreza; Hatami, Seyed Esmaeil; Norozi Khalili, Mina

    2017-01-01

    Parental substance abuse is associated with impaired skills and ability to take care of children. Children of substance-abusing parents display higher levels of emotional difficulties. This article shows the effectiveness of emotional intelligence group training on anger in adolescents with substance-abusing fathers. The sample consisted of 60…

  19. Parental Substance Abuse and Child Well-Being: A Consideration of Parents' Gender and Coresidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Cynthia; Berger, Lawrence M.

    2009-01-01

    Parental substance abuse is associated with adverse health and developmental outcomes for children. Existing research, however, has not fully explored the relative magnitude of the associations between maternal, paternal, and both parents' substance abuse and child outcomes, nor has it examined these associations in regard to substance abuse among…

  20. Effectiveness of Emotional Intelligence Group Training on Anger in Adolescents with Substance-Abusing Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojjat, Seyed Kaveh; Rezaei, Mahdi; Namadian, Gholamreza; Hatami, Seyed Esmaeil; Norozi Khalili, Mina

    2017-01-01

    Parental substance abuse is associated with impaired skills and ability to take care of children. Children of substance-abusing parents display higher levels of emotional difficulties. This article shows the effectiveness of emotional intelligence group training on anger in adolescents with substance-abusing fathers. The sample consisted of 60…

  1. HIV Rapid Testing in Substance Abuse Treatment: Implementation Following a Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, L. F.; Korte, J. E.; Holmes, B. E.; Gooden, L.; Matheson, T.; Feaster, D. J.; Leff, J. A.; Wilson, L.; Metsch, L. R.; Schackman, B. R.

    2011-01-01

    The Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration has promoted HIV testing and counseling as an evidence-based practice. Nevertheless, adoption of HIV testing in substance abuse treatment programs has been slow. This article describes the experience of a substance abuse treatment agency where, following participation in a clinical trial,…

  2. Adolescent Substance Abuse: Risk Factors and Prevention Strategies. Maternal & Child Health Technical Information Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Mark J.

    The high prevalence of alcohol and substance abuse by adolescents poses a significant threat to the wellness of youth. Adolescents appear to use drugs for a variety of reasons. In addition to the multiple etiologic and risk factors present for substance abuse, there are many pathways teenagers may follow on their way to substance abuse. The…

  3. 78 FR 37560 - Center for Substance Abuse Treatment; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... Treatment; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT... information below). Committee Name: SAMHSA's Center for Substance Abuse Treatment National Advisory Council...

  4. 78 FR 45544 - Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT) National Advisory Council; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... Treatment (CSAT) National Advisory Council; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is... Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT) National Advisory Council will meet August 14, 2013, 9:00 a.m.--4:30 p.m...: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Treatment National...

  5. Perceived Self-Efficacy of Licensed Counselors to Provide Substance Abuse Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Nichelle; Balkin, Richard S.; Perepiczka, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    This nationwide, quantitative study documented licensed counselors' perceived self-efficacy of adequately providing substance abuse services. Despite their lack of substance abuse training, counselors were highly confident in their ability to provide quality substance abuse services. Counselor training implications are discussed. (Contains 3…

  6. 48 CFR 970.5223-3 - Agreement regarding Workplace Substance Abuse Programs at DOE sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to the policies, criteria, and procedures of 10 CFR part 707, Workplace Substance Abuse Programs at... Workplace Substance Abuse Programs at DOE sites. 970.5223-3 Section 970.5223-3 Federal Acquisition... Agreement regarding Workplace Substance Abuse Programs at DOE sites. As prescribed in 970.2305-4(a),...

  7. 75 FR 44265 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Online Skills Training for PCPs on Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... Training for PCPs on Substance Abuse SUMMARY: Under the provisions of Section 3506(c)(2)A of the Paperwork... Collection: Title: Online Skills Training for PCPs on Substance Abuse. Type of Information Collection Request... Online Skills Training for PCPs on Substance Abuse, via the Web site SBIRTTraining.com , to...

  8. 48 CFR 970.5223-4 - Workplace Substance Abuse Programs at DOE Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 10 CFR part 707, Workplace Substance Abuse Programs at DOE Sites, incorporated herein by reference... 10 CFR part 707 to agree to develop and implement a workplace substance abuse program that complies with the requirements of 10 CFR part 707, Workplace Substance Abuse Programs at DOE Sites, as...

  9. 48 CFR 923.570 - Workplace substance abuse programs at DOE sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Regulations concerning DOE's contractor workplace substance abuse programs are promulgated at 10 CFR part 707... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Workplace substance abuse... Workplace 923.570 Workplace substance abuse programs at DOE sites. (a) The Department of Energy (DOE),...

  10. 78 FR 15961 - Center for Substance Abuse Treatment National Advisory Council; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Treatment National Advisory Council; Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given of the meeting of the Substance Abuse and...

  11. An exploration of violence, mental health and substance abuse in post-conflict Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Branas, Charles C.; Andrew R DiNardo; Puac Polanco, Victor D.; Harvey, Michael J.; Vassy, Jason L; Bream, Kent

    2013-01-01

    Guatemala’s 36-year civil war officially ended in December 1996 after some 200,000 deaths and one million refugees. Despite the ceasefire, Guatemala continues to be a violent country with one of the highest homicide rates in the world. We investigated potential associations between violence, mental health, and substance abuse in post-conflict Guatemala using a community-based survey of 86 respondents living in urban and rural Guatemala. Overall, 17.4% of our respondents had at least one, dire...

  12. Caregiver Substance Abuse and Children's Exposure to Violence in a Nationally Representative Child Welfare Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seay, Kristen D; Kohl, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II (NSCAW II), this article examines the impact of caregiver substance abuse on children's exposure to violence in the home in a nationally representative sample of families involved with child protective services (CPS). Logistic regression analyses indicate an increased risk of witnessing mild and severe violence in the home for children whose primary caregiver was abusing alcohol or drugs. However, analyses did not find statistically significant relationships between child report of direct victimization in the home by mild or severe violence and caregiver alcohol or drug abuse.

  13. Substance abuse prevention in American Indian and Alaska Native communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitbeck, Les B; Walls, Melissa L; Welch, Melissa L

    2012-09-01

    In this article we review three categories of American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN) substance abuse prevention programs: (1) published empirical trials; (2) promising programs published and unpublished that are in the process of development and that have the potential for empirical trials; and (3) examples of innovative grassroots programs that originate at the local level and may have promise for further development. AIAN communities are taking more and more independent control of substance abuse prevention. We point out that European American prevention scientists are largely unaware of the numerous grassroots prevention work going on in AIAN communities and urge a paradigm shift from adapting European American prevention science "best practices" to creating cultural "best practices" by working from inside AIAN communities.

  14. Sleep architecture in infants of substance-abusing mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Hanft, A; Burnham, M; Goodlin-Jones, B; Anders, Thomas F.

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal, year-long study compared sleep-wake state organization in two groups of infants-infants whose mothers abused substances during their pregnancies and nonexposed, typically developing, age-matched comparison infants-to determine whether differences in sleep-wake state organization existed between the two groups. Seventeen infants of mothers who were participating in a parent-infant residential treatment program for substance abuse were enrolled. Their sleep-wake state organiz...

  15. Child Maltreatment and Adult Substance Abuse: The Role of Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Elwyn, Laura; Smith, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a risk factor for substance abuse in adulthood. This study examines whether memory of maltreatment is a necessary link in the path leading from prospectively measured childhood maltreatment to adult substance use problems. Official Child Protective Services reports and adult retrospective recall of childhood maltreatment were used to predict illegal drug use and alcohol problems in adulthood controlling for covariates. Memory was a necessary link in the path between pros...

  16. Alcohol and substance abuse in solid-organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard; Armstrong, Matthew J; Corbett, Chris; Day, Edward J; Neuberger, James M

    2013-12-27

    This review focuses on alcohol and substance abuse in the context of solid-organ transplantation. Alcohol and substance abuse are common and may lead to a need for solid-organ transplantation and may also contribute to significant physical and psychologic problems that impact upon the recipient. Damaging levels of alcohol intake can occur in the absence of dependence. Alcohol or substance abuse after transplantation is associated with poor medication compliance and this may increase risk of graft loss. Intravenous drug use is associated with increased risk of infections (especially secondary to opportunistic organisms-bacterial, viral, protozoal, and others-and such infections may be more severe in the immunosuppressed), but there is only anecdotal evidence that such behavior has a worse outcome in transplant recipients. Whereas previous alcohol excess and drug use in kidney recipients are both associated with a small but statistically significantly increased risk of adverse outcomes (hazard ratio, 1.16-1.56), alcohol use within recommended guidelines after transplantation appears safe and possibly beneficial. Robust data are lacking for other organs, but those available suggest that heart transplantation is safe in individuals with a history of alcohol or substance abuse. Health specialists in drug or alcohol addiction should carefully screen all potential transplant candidates for these conditions, and where there is evidence of dependency or abuse, effective psychologic and physical treatment should be offered. Studies have shown that interventions such as psychologic intervention have improved alcohol behavior in the context of liver transplantation. Although there are no comparable studies with other solid-organ recipients, it is reasonable to expect transferable outcomes.

  17. Mental Health and Substance Abuse Parity in Vermont: Employer Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Margo Rosenbach

    2003-01-01

    Many of the findings from this analysis of employer responses to the parity law run counter to popular perceptions. Even though many employer organizations are wary of mental health and substance abuse parity, most Vermont employers were satisfied with the parity law overall. Employers did not drop coverage or self-insure to avoid the mandate. However, many Vermont employers did not understand the law very well and wanted more information about parity.

  18. Medical marijuana use among adolescents in substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Sakai, Joseph T; Thurstone, Christian; Corley, Robin; Hopfer, Christian

    2012-07-01

    To assess the prevalence and frequency of medical marijuana diversion and use among adolescents in substance abuse treatment and to identify factors related to their medical marijuana use. This study calculated the prevalence and frequency of diverted medical marijuana use among adolescents (n = 164), ages 14-18 years (mean age = 16.09, SD = 1.12), in substance abuse treatment in the Denver metropolitan area. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were completed to determine factors related to adolescents' use of medical marijuana. Approximately 74% of the adolescents had used someone else's medical marijuana, and they reported using diverted medical marijuana a median of 50 times. After adjusting for gender and race/ethnicity, adolescents who used medical marijuana had an earlier age of regular marijuana use, more marijuana abuse and dependence symptoms, and more conduct disorder symptoms compared with those who did not use medical marijuana. Medical marijuana use among adolescent patients in substance abuse treatment is very common, implying substantial diversion from registered users. These results support the need for policy changes that protect against diversion of medical marijuana and reduce adolescent access to diverted medical marijuana. Future studies should examine patterns of medical marijuana diversion and use in general population adolescents. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Restructuring public mental health and substance abuse service systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbole, A; Temkin, T; Cradock, C

    1998-01-01

    The authors originally circulated the concepts in this proposal during May 1995. The purpose was to support an open, public dialogue regarding the restructuring of the mental health and substance abuse services in Illinois in anticipation of Medicaid funding changes. Restructuring mental health and substance abuse service systems should follow certain key principles. These principles are applicable to other states, particularly those large in territory and population. The authors propose the temporary use of multiple managed care companies serving as administrative services only (ASO) organizations, each of whom would have responsibility for a given geographic portion of a state. The role of the ASOs would be to organize providers into networks on a regional basis and transfer managed care expertise in financing and clinical management to the relevant state departments and provider groups. Changes in the service delivery system would be phased in over time with reorganization of key components of the system during each phase. Where the provision of mental health, substance abuse, and social services is split among multiple state agencies, these agencies would be merged to achieve unified funding and administrative efficiency. Patients and advocacy organizations would play a key role in overseeing and shaping system restructuring at all levels, including a governmental board reporting to the governor, overseeing ASO organizations' operations and assuring quality and access at the provider level. The authors propose funding of public behavioral health services through use of a tiered, integrated funding model.

  20. Substance Abuse among High-Risk Sexual Offenders: Do Measures of Lifetime History of Substance Abuse Add to the Prediction of Recidivism over Actuarial Risk Assessment Instruments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looman, Jan; Abracen, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    There has been relatively little research on the degree to which measures of lifetime history of substance abuse add to the prediction of risk based on actuarial measures alone among sexual offenders. This issue is of relevance in that a history of substance abuse is related to relapse to substance using behavior. Furthermore, substance use has…

  1. [Relationships among risk knowledge, attitudes and ability to resist substance abuse in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueh, Ke-Hsin; Ding, Guan-Yu; Yao, Ke-Wu; Huang, Yi-Jien; Hung, Chao-Chia

    2013-02-01

    The Ministries of Justice and Education have implemented adolescent substance abuse prevention programs for many years. Rates of substance abuse among high school students continue to rise in spite of such programs. This study investigates adolescents' substance abuse-related knowledge and attitudes and self-confidence to resist substance use in order to identify predictive factors of poor adolescent resistance to substance use. A cross-sectional study survey gathered data on substance abuse-related knowledge and attitudes and self-confidence to resist substance use from 243 second-year senior high school students studying at two schools in northern Taiwan. Participants were most knowledgeable about tobacco (80.2%), followed by alcohol (72.0%), ecstasy (56.0%), and marijuana (30.0%). Only 19.3% demonstrated an understanding of the harmful effects of using Ketamine. A 10-point Likert scale measured participant substance use attitudes. Alcohol was the substance participants were most willing to use (2.18 ± 3.27), followed by tobacco (0.66 ± 2.19), ecstasy (0.45 ± 1.88), Ketamine (0.43 ± 1.93), and marijuana (0.38 ± 1.83). Participants had higher awareness of the harmful effects of Ketamine (t = -2.37, p = .018), marijuana (t = -2.33, p = .021), and tobacco (t = -2.02, p = .044), with participants reporting greater self-confidence to resist using these three substances. Multiple regression analysis found the three most important factors affecting participant self-confidence to resist substance use to be gender (β= .26, p knowledge about the substance (β= .15, p = .028), and attitude toward substance use (β= -.20, p Level of harmful effects knowledge and attitudes toward use varied among the various substances considered in this paper. Being female, having strong knowledge about the substance, and negative attitude toward substance use correlated with higher levels of self-confidence to resist substance use. Study results will be used in ongoing research

  2. Using the theory of planned behavior to examine residential substance abuse workers intention to use evidence-based practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Peter J; Deane, Frank P; Lovett, Megan J

    2012-09-01

    There is considerable discrepancy between what is considered evidence-based practice (EBP) and what is actually delivered in substance abuse treatment settings. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TpB) is a well-established model that may assist in better understanding clinician's intentions to use EBPs. A total of 106 residential substance abuse workers employed by The Salvation Army participated in the current study. The workers completed an anonymous survey that assessed attitudes toward EBP and examined the constructs within the TpB. A linear regression analysis was used to predict clinicians' intentions to use EBPs. Overall, the model accounted for 41% of the variance in intentions, with attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control all significant predictors. The discussion highlights the potential for social reinforcement in the workplace to promote the implementation of EBPs.

  3. Factors Associated With Use of ASAM Criteria and Service Provision in a National Sample of Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Emmeline; Wells, Rebecca; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Friedmann, Peter D; Lee, I-Heng

    2009-09-01

    Standardized patient placement criteria such as those developed by the American Society of Addiction Medicine are increasingly common in substance abuse treatment, but it is unclear what factors are associated with their use or with treatment units' provision of related services. This study examined these issues in the context of a national survey of outpatient substance abuse treatment units. Regressions using 2005 data revealed that both public and private managed care were associated with a greater likelihood of using American Society of Addiction Medicine criteria to develop client treatment plans. However, only public managed care was associated with a greater likelihood of offering more resource-intensive services. Associations between client population severity and resource-intensive service provision were sparse but positive.

  4. Program directors' views of the effect of managed care on substance abuse programs in Los Angeles county.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeese-Smith, D K

    1998-10-01

    This study sought information about the effect of managed care on substance abuse treatment programs through a survey of program directors. Fifty program directors who supervised a total of 134 substance abuse treatment programs in Los Angeles County completed a survey during the period from January to May 1997 on program changes made in response to managed care, major concerns, the advantages and disadvantages of managed care, and plans for further program changes to succeed in the managed care environment. Program directors reported that the most frequent change made in response to managed care was increased outreach and marketing. Their greatest concern in the managed care environment was being forced to provide the least costly service, rather than the best care for patients. Respondents identified an increased focus on outcomes as an advantage of managed care and restrictions on services due to contractual agreements as a disadvantage. Planned program changes addressed the areas of program structure, types of programs offered, staff composition, revenue generation, referral sources, prevention, outcome measures, relationships with other organizations, and accreditation and certification. Although some substance abuse treatment programs seem to be reducing their scope or preparing to close in response to managed care, others are developing strategies to survive and even thrive in this new economic environment.

  5. Child maltreatment and substance abuse among U.S. Army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Deborah A; Martin, Sandra L; Johnson, Ruby E; Rentz, E Danielle; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Hardison, Jennifer

    2008-08-01

    Although substance abuse has consistently been linked to child maltreatment, no study to date has described the extent of substance abuse among child maltreatment offenders within the military. Analysis of U.S. Army data on all substantiated incidents of parental child maltreatment committed between 2000 and 2004 by active duty soldiers found that 13% of offenders were noted to have been abusing alcohol or illicit drugs at the time of their child maltreatment incident. The odds of substance abuse were increased for offenders who committed child neglect or emotional abuse, but were reduced for child physical abuse. The odds of offender substance abuse nearly tripled in child maltreatment incidents that also involved co-occurring spouse abuse. Findings include a lack of association between offender substance abuse and child maltreatment recurrence, possibly because of the increased likelihood of removal of offenders from the home when either substance abuse or spouse abuse were documented.

  6. The Comparison of Identity Formation Styles in Teenagers with/without Substance Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frarid Ahmadi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this research was the study of the role of identity formation styles on substance abuse behavior of referred people to addiction withdrawal and DIC centers of Tehran city and its comparison with non addicted people. Method: The research design was causal effect research method, which 100 substance abusers compared with 100 non substance abusers. The sampling method was cluster random sampling and both groups were matched in consideration of age. Bersinesky’s identity making questionnaire administered in two samples. Results: The results showed that substance abusers were scored higher on normative and confused/avoidant identity formation also the non substance abusers were scored higher on information identity formation style. Conclusion: With different kind of intervention-training trials the parents and people who are effective on children’s identity formation can be mobilized, in order to prevention of identity formation styles which can planning teenagers’ substance abusing.

  7. Use of evidence-based treatments in substance abuse treatment programs serving American Indian and Alaska Native communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novins, Douglas K; Croy, Calvin D; Moore, Laurie A; Rieckmann, Traci

    2016-04-01

    Research and health surveillance activities continue to document the substantial disparities in the impacts of substance abuse on the health of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) people. While Evidence-Based Treatments (EBTs) hold substantial promise for improving treatment for AI/ANs with substance use problems (as they do for non-AI/ANs), anecdotal reports suggest that their use is limited. In this study, we examine the awareness of, attitudes toward, and use of EBTs in substance abuse treatment programs serving AI/AN communities. Data are drawn from the first national survey of tribal substance abuse treatment programs. Clinicians or clinical administrators from 192 programs completed the survey. Participants were queried about their awareness of, attitudes toward, and use of 9 psychosocial and 3 medication EBTs. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (82.2%), Motivational Interviewing (68.6%), and Relapse Prevention Therapy (66.8%) were the most commonly implemented psychosocial EBTs; medications for psychiatric comorbidity was the most commonly implemented medication treatment (43.2%). Greater EBT knowledge and use were associated with both program (e.g., funding) and staff (e.g., educational attainment) characteristics. Only two of the commonly implemented psychosocial EBTs (Motivational Interviewing and Relapse Prevention Therapy) were endorsed as culturally appropriate by a majority of programs that had implemented them (55.9% and 58.1%, respectively). EBT knowledge and use is higher in substance abuse treatment programs serving AI/AN communities than has been previously estimated. However, many users of these EBTs continue to have concerns about their cultural appropriateness, which likely limits their further dissemination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Children of substance abusers: psychosocial profile of children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Garcia de Grandi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Psychoactive substance abuse problems in the family have an impact on the development of children and adolescents. This risk conditions can harm mental health and hinder healthy development in psychosocial areas. Objectives: This study investigated the psychosocial profile of children and adolescents assisted in a prevention service center for children of substance abusers in a deprived community located in the outskirts of Sao Paulo. Methods: Exploratory and descriptive study, based on cross-sectional methodology and a convenience sample of 791 children and adolescents assisted at the Intervention and Support Center for Children of Substance Abusers - CUIDA between January 2001 and December 2008. The sample was divided into groups according to discharge status: Active, Therapeutic Discharge (TD, Abandonment, Without Information about the Reason for Leaving and With Information about the Length of Treatment (WIRL, Without Information (WI, and Other Reasons for Leaving (OR. Results: In the Active group, 26% of mothers had completed high-school and 11% belonged to the A/B socioeconomic classes. The TD group showed the highest percentages of wage earning parents (52% living together (64%. In the WIRL group, 17% of the mothers were illiterate or had not completed primary education, and 23% of the fathers were unemployed. In the WI group, 22% lived in houses that had been lent to them. Conclusions: Results indicate the impact of addiction and underprivileged conditions (such as housing status, fathers’ level of education, and socioeconomic status on retention in the service and the importance of health prevention and promotion strategies aimed at this population.

  9. Emotion regulation promotes persistence in a residential substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J; Schade, Nick; Matusiewicz, Alexis; Daughters, Stacey B; Lejuez, Carl W

    2015-01-01

    Emotion regulation at treatment entry was evaluated among 115 patients in an inner-city substance use residential facility who either persisted (N = 94) or discontinued treatment (N = 21). Emotion regulation capacity including emotional clarity and the ability to engage in goal-directed behavior despite emotional distress, as well as lower scores on a measure of trait-negative emotionality, were associated with treatment persistence, whereas motivational variables were not. Findings indicate the importance of regulating negative emotions for treatment engagement among substance abusers.

  10. Child Maltreatment and Adult Substance Abuse: The Role of Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwyn, Laura; Smith, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a risk factor for substance abuse in adulthood. This study examines whether memory of maltreatment is a necessary link in the path leading from prospectively measured childhood maltreatment to adult substance use problems. Official Child Protective Services reports and adult retrospective recall of childhood maltreatment were used to predict illegal drug use and alcohol problems in adulthood controlling for covariates. Memory was a necessary link in the path between prospective reports of maltreatment and alcohol problems, and an important link in the path between prospective reports and illegal drug use. Implications for prevention and treatment are discussed.

  11. Addressing substance abuse treatment needs of parents involved with the child welfare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros, Arazais; Kaufman, Joan

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to synthesize available data to help guide policy and programmatic initiatives for families with substance abuse problems who are involved with the child welfare system, and identify gaps in the research base preventing further refinement of practices in this area. To date, Family Treatment Drug Court and newly developed home-based substance abuse treatment interventions appear the most effective at improving substance abuse treatment initiation and completion in child welfare populations. Research is needed to compare the efficacy of these two approaches, and examine cost and child well-being indicators in addition to substance abuse treatment and child welfare outcomes.

  12. Holistic Native network: integrated HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, and mental health services for Native Americans in San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebelkopf, Ethan; Penagos, Maritza

    2005-09-01

    The Holistic Native Network provides a model for integrated HIV/AIDS, substance abuse and mental health services in a cultural context. Funded in 2002 by a grant from the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) Special Projects of National Significance (SPNS) initiative, the Holistic Native Network is a collaboration of the Native American Health Center and Friendship House Association of American Indians, two community-based organizations with facilities in San Francisco and Oakland. Substance abuse and mental health services are integrated into primary HIV/AIDS medical care. San Francisco has the largest population of Native Americans with HIV/AIDS in the country. Since its inception, 45 Native Americans with HIV/AIDS have been enrolled in the Holistic Native Network. These clients were surveyed upon admission and at three months in treatment. The results indicated positive changes in quality of life. The success of this program lies in the way that culture and community is included at every stage of service provision. From outreach to case management to substance abuse and mental health services, the Holistic Native Network meets the spiritual, medical and psychosocial needs of HIV+ Native Americans.

  13. Characteristics of U.S. substance abuse treatment facilities adopting buprenorphine in its initial stage of availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Alison L; Arfken, Cynthia L; Schuster, Charles R

    2006-07-27

    This study examined the adoption of buprenorphine for the treatment of opiate dependence among U.S. substance abuse treatment facilities and their characteristics at the time of the initial availability of the medication. Data come from a 2003 national survey of all substance abuse treatment facilities in the U.S. Out of our sample of 13,060 facilities, 5.5% of facilities reported they offered buprenorphine. Not unexpectedly, the prevalence was higher in certified opioid treatment programs (11.3%) compared to other facilities (4.6%). For opioid treatment programs, offering Naltrexone (OR=8.34, 95% CI=5.53, 12.58) and offering medically supervised withdrawal (OR=2.76, 95% CI=1.38, 5.52) were independent and robust predictors of offering buprenorphine. These same variables were independent predictors for the non-opioid treatment programs as well (Naltrexone, OR=14.32, 95% CI=7.85, 26.10; and medically supervised withdrawal services, OR=4.42, 95% CI=3.01, 6.49). Our results suggest that the adoption of buprenorphine soon after the Food and Drug Administration approved its use for treatment of opioid dependence and the shipping of the medication commenced was associated with facilities already offering pharmacotherapies such as Naltrexone and medically assisted withdrawal. These findings provide baseline data to track the adoption of buprenorphine by substance abuse treatment programs in future years.

  14. Substance-abuse testing in overseas E&P operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chockchai, K.; Cook, A.N.

    1996-12-31

    The Company introduced its Substance Abuse Program in February 1995 to cover all of the workforce including contractors in its operations. This program supports the safety program in terms of loss prevention, accident prevention and employee performance problems which may be related to substance abuse in the workplace. The company has many work locations with distinctly different operational characteristics. It employs over 1,100 employees and 1,100 contractors of which 1,000 personnel are employed on offshore facilities; this requires a major logistics effort. The program is designed to be fair and equitable. The individuals to be tested are selected by a PC driven random number program. The testing program is treated confidentially. The chain of custody is carefully controlled. Disciplinary action complies with Thai labor law. The results of the twelve month program show that a total of 1,083 breath alcohol and 1,200 urine samples were tested for all causes. The results showed that only 0.55% and 1.25% of breath alcohol and urine samples respectively were positive.

  15. Delinquency and association with behavioral disorders and substance abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Manoel Schier Dória

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the incidence and associations of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, conduct disorder (CD, and substance abuse disorder (SAD in adolescents in conflict with the law in a Brazilian cohort. Methods: the Brazilian version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged-Children (K-SADS-PL was administered to 69 adolescent boys who were incarcerated for 45 days in the city of Curitiba, Brazil. Results: mean age was 15.5 years (range, 12-16.9 years and most adolescents originated from disadvantaged social classes (87%. They resided in neighborhoods on the outskirts of the city or towns in the greater metropolitan area. Truancy and low educational achievement were common, with 73.9% not currently attending school and 43.4% not having finished the 5th grade. The great majority lived in single-parent families and many had relatives who themselves had problems with the law. Psychiatric disorders were apparent in 81.1% of the subjects, with the most common disorders being CD (59.4%, SAD (53.6%, and ADHD (43.5%. Both ADHD (p <0.001 and CD (p <0.01 had significant associations with substance abuse. Conclusion: in male adolescents in conflict with the law, ADHD, CD, and SAD were all found to be associated with delinquency.

  16. The Prevalence of Substance Abuse in Students of Hamadan University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Mohamadi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Substance abuse refers to a maladaptive pattern of use of a substance. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of substance abuse in hostel boys in Hamadan medical university, 2008. Materials and Method: This research was a descriptive cross-sectional study. The method of sample was census report study and sample number was 430. The research objective data was gathered thorough questionnaire. Data processing and statistical analysis were performed using SPSS software, version 15.0.Results: Outcome showed that the majority of samples were 20 years old (21.9%, non married (92.8%, the number of family member were six members (21.9%, and they are the first children (85.4%.Also outcome showed that 27% of students did not consume any drug, and majority of light material drug abuse was narcotic (44.77%, cigarette (28.4%, alcohol (20.19% and heavy material was opium (5.25%, hashish (4.1%, ecstasy (1.64% and others (1.13%. Narcotic was in the first rank and cigarette was in the last. Conclusion: The screening of drug abuse and promoting primary prevention programs at the university were recommended

  17. Chaos, creativity, and substance abuse: the nonlinear dynamics of choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zausner, Tobi

    2011-04-01

    Artists create their work in conditions of disequilibrium, states of creative chaos that may appear turbulent but are capable of bringing forth new order. By absorbing information from the environment and discharging it negentropically as new work, artists can be modeled as dissipative systems. A characteristic of chaotic systems is a heightened sensitivity to stimuli, which can generate either positive experiences or negative ones that can lead some artists to substance abuse and misguided searches for a creative chaos. Alcohol and drug use along with inadequately addressed co-occurring emotional disorders interfere with artists' quest for the nonlinearity of creativity. Instead, metaphorically modeled by a limit cycle of addiction and then a spiral to disorder, the joys of a creative chaos become an elusive chimera for them rather than a fulfilling experience. Untreated mental illness and addiction to substances have shortened the lives of artists such as Vincent Van Gogh, Frida Kahlo, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, and Jackson Pollock, all of whom committed suicide. In contrast Edvard Munch and John Callahan, who chose to address their emotional problems and substance abuse, continued to live and remain creative. Choosing to access previously avoided moments of pain can activate the nonlinear power of self-transformation.

  18. Tobacco Use and Substance Abuse in Students of Karaj Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Kourosh; Mohammadpoorasl, Asghar; Esmaeelpour, Razie; Aghazamani, Fatemeh; Rostami, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is clear that tobacco smoking and substance abuse have negative consequences on adolescent and youth's health. Tobacco smoking especially hookah smoking has increased worldwide especially among university students. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of risk-taking behaviors such as cigarette smoking, hookah smoking, alcohol use, and drug abuse and its predictors in students of Karaj universities. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place in Karaj in January and February 2014. The randomly selected sample consisted of 1959 college students. A self-administered questionnaire was used to measure risk-taking behaviors as well as demographic and related risk factors. Logistic regression model was performed in data analysis. Results: The prevalence of cigarette smoking was 9.3%. The prevalence of hookah smoking was 9.3%. 7% of students used illegal drugs and 9.5% of students used alcohol at least once in last 30 days. After adjustment for other factors, being male, living without parents, having smoker friends, and presence any smoker in the family were factors associated with students’ risk-taking behaviors. The results showed the co-occurrence of risk-taking behaviors. Conclusions: The prevalence of tobacco smoking and substance abuse, particular in males, are high. It seems that planning preventive interventions for this part of the population are necessary. This study emphasized the co-occurrence of risky behaviors, so, it is better high-risk behaviors simultaneously targeted at reducing or preventing interventions. PMID:27688869

  19. The impaired anesthesiologist: what you should know about substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Stefan T; Bryson, Ethan O

    2017-02-01

    Despite our considerable experience with the problem of addiction in our specialty, most anesthesia care providers don't know how to identify or help an impaired colleague. The purpose of this article to provide sufficient information on substance use disorder (SUD) to aid in its identification amongst colleagues and to assist in its management. Depending on the region, 10-15% of the general population is prone to developing a SUD and will abuse drugs or alcohol at some point in their life. Physicians and other healthcare professionals are not immune to the disease of addiction and are just as prone to developing SUD as laypersons. Even so, the risk of mortality is significantly increased because of access to potent and highly addictive anesthetic agents with a narrow therapeutic index when self-administered. Also, the number of anesthesia residents who are identified as having SUD is currently increasing. Due to the considerable morbidity and mortality associated with the abuse of anesthetic agents as well as the continuous increase in the rate of substance abuse by anesthesia providers, it is essential for anesthesia care providers to become familiar with the presenting signs and symptoms of substance abuse and impairment.

  20. [Emotional responsiveness of substance abusers under outpatient treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicharro, Juan; Pérez-García, Ana M; Sanjuán, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    The emotions predispose to action providing information from both internal and external environment. There is evidence indicating that the emotional response in drugdependent patients is different from that of the not consuming population. The present work analyzed the emotions of drugdependent under ambulatory treatment (N=57), following the Lang's theory of emotion, considering the dimensions of valence, arousal and dominance or control, across the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), individually applied. The results were contrasted with a control group of not consuming persons (N=44) of similar age, since this variable concerns emotional experience. The influence of sex was also analyzed, considering the possible differences between men and women in emotional experience. The results can be summarized in the following points: (1) There were significant differences between substance abusers and not consumers in the dimension of valence, valuing the consumers the emotional stimuli of the most extreme form (the agreeable ones as better, and the disagreeable ones as worse); (2) there were no differences between both groups in the arousal and dominance dimensions; and (3) women reported more arousal before aversive images, and less before the sexual ones, than males, independently of they were or not substance abusers. Finally, it is suggested the need to deep into the analysis of sex differences and into the images selected, as well as into the usefulness of the emotion centred therapies for the treatment of drugdependency.

  1. [Behavioral disorders and substance abuse in adolescents with mental retardation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachristou, Ec; Anagnostopoulos, Dk

    2014-01-01

    normal intelligence adolescents with behavioral disorders. Risk factors that increase the chances of developing either simple or more complicated types of psychopathology in adolescents with mental retardation have been found to be based on individual, family and social levels. On the other hand, the individual characteristics of adolescents (intellectual level, attention capacity, understandable linguistic expression, overall progress until adolescence), the existence of a supportive family environment and the presence of social support and awareness through the creation of special counseling, education and medical services, are the most important protective factors which contribute to the prevention of several forms of psychopathology in adolescents with mental retardation. For the writing of the literature review, the following electronic databases were used: PubMed, Scopus, Psycinfo, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Google Scholar. The key words used were: Intellectual Disability, Behavioral disorders, Adolescents, Mental Retardation, Learning disabilities, Developmental Disabilities, Disruptive behaviour disorders, Conduct disorder, Substance Abuse, Substance Misuse, Oppositional defiant disorder, Alcohol and illicit drug use, Smoking Use, Young people, Teenagers, Youths.

  2. Lost in transition? Substance abuse and risk of labour market exclusion from youth to adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torild Hammer

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite low levels of youth unemployment in Norway, concerns have been raised about the high numbers of youth in inactivity, receiving health related social security benefits. It is argued that parts of the system of social security may work as welfare traps. OECD recommends welfare policies with the overall aim of fostering youth employability, not benefit dependency. In this article we use a unique combination of register data and survey data from the panel survey “work, lifestyle and health”. This survey follows a representative sample of the cohorts born between 1965 and 1968 from 1985 through follow-ups in 1987, 1989, 1993 and 2003. This allows us to follow individual life trajectories from ages 17-20 to 35-39. The aim of the article is first to study the impact of substance abuse upon risk of receiving social assistance, since previous research has found that receiving social assistance increases the probability of labour market exclusion in adulthood. Second, we analyse the impact of receiving social assistance, to have mental health problems and substance abuse in youth and consequences for labour market integration in adulthood. Analyses reveal that neither cannabis use nor alcohol consumption in youth have a direct effect on the risk of labour market exclusion in adulthood. However, cannabis use increases the probability of receiving social assistance, which in turn increases risk of labour market exclusion in adulthood. Mental health problems in youth increase risk for later labour market exclusion, but these effects are mediated through factors like problem behaviour related to alcohol abuse and the use of illegal drugs other than cannabis. Receiving social assistance in youth has long time effects on the risk of labour market exclusion, especially for individuals from the lower socioeconomic groups.

  3. 75 FR 82408 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given of the meeting of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention... Department of Defense, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the Federal Drug-Free Workplace...

  4. Building Bright Futures: An Annotated Bibliography on Substance Abuse Prevention for Families with Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshinsky, Carole J.; Goodman, Barbara; Woods, Tryon; Rosensweig, Marjorie A.

    There is growing consensus that when substance abuse prevention efforts reach children at an early age, they hold promise for reducing abuse in later years. This 87-item annotated bibliography on substance abuse prevention, developed by the National Program Office of Free to Grow in collaboration with the National Center for Children in Poverty,…

  5. Temperament Pathways to Childhood Disruptive Behavior and Adolescent Substance Abuse: Testing a Cascade Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Michelle M.; Pierce, Laura; Nigg, Joel T.; Jester, Jennifer M.; Adams, Kenneth; Puttler, Leon I.; Buu, Anne; Fitzgerald, Hiram; Zucker, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Temperament traits may increase risk for developmental psychopathology like Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behaviors during childhood, as well as predisposing to substance abuse during adolescence. In the current study, a cascade model of trait pathways to adolescent substance abuse was examined. Component…

  6. Evaluating and Training Substance Abuse Counselors: A Pilot Study Assessing Standardized Patients as Authentic Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussell, Holly E.; Lewy, Colleen S.; McFarland, Bentson H.

    2009-01-01

    Clinician training and supervision are needed to transfer evidence-based practices to community-based treatment organizations. Standardized patients (SPs) are used for clinician training and evaluating. However, to be effective for substance abuse counselors, SPs must realistically portray substance abuse treatment clients. The current study…

  7. Psychiatric Disabilities and Substance Abuse Disorder: Psychosocial and Vocational Concerns--Implications for Rehabilitation Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Latofia; Templeton, Mary Anne

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the literature on the comorbidity of substance abuse and psychiatric disorder. The paper examines the medical, psychosocial, and vocational rehabilitation concerns associated with substance abuse and psychiatric disorder comorbidity. A greater emphasis is placed on vocational concerns and the role of…

  8. The Development of a Substance Abuse Curriculum in a Master's of Social Work Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Matthew J.; Bill, M. Louise; Slater, Judith R.

    2009-01-01

    Substance abuse has been identified as a significant social problem. Social work is uniquely positioned to affect this problem. Kennesaw State University has established a substance abuse concentration as part of its master's of social work program. The purpose of this article is to describe the development of this curriculum. The curriculum is…

  9. Monitoring and Evaluation of Substance Abuse Services in South Africa: Implications for Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Bronwyn; Burnhams, Nadine Harker; Fakier, Nuraan

    2010-01-01

    Although outcomes monitoring and the collection of other performance data holds benefits for service managers and policy makers, the extent to which these data are collected by South African substance abuse service providers is unknown. To describe (i) the extent to which substance abuse service providers in South Africa monitor and evaluate their…

  10. 45 CFR 96.126 - Capacity of treatment for intravenous substance abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.126 Capacity of treatment... programs that receive funding under the grant and that treat individuals for intravenous substance abuse to... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capacity of treatment for intravenous...

  11. The Formative Years: Pathways to Substance Abuse among Girls and Young Women Ages 8-22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    This report presents a comprehensive analysis of the reasons why girls and young women smoke, drink and use drugs, and what increases or lowers their risk of substance abuse. It demonstrates that certain key risk factors for substance abuse are unique to girls and young women and pose a greater threat to them than to boys and young men. This…

  12. Substance Abuse Treatment Admissions Aged 12 to 14. The TEDS Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report uses data from the Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) for 2008 to provide information on the characteristics of youths aged 12 to 14 admitted to substance abuse treatment. In 2008, approximately 23,770 substance abuse treatment admissions were adolescents aged 12 to 14. The two most frequently reported primary substances of abuse among…

  13. An Integrative Spiritual Development Model of Supervision for Substance Abuse Counselors-in-Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss Ogden, Karen R.; Sias, Shari M.

    2011-01-01

    Substance abuse counselors who address clients' spiritual development may provide more comprehensive counseling. This article presents an integrative supervision model designed to promote the spiritual development of substance abuse counselors-in-training, reviews the model, and discusses the implications for counselor education.

  14. Temperament Pathways to Childhood Disruptive Behavior and Adolescent Substance Abuse: Testing a Cascade Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Michelle M.; Pierce, Laura; Nigg, Joel T.; Jester, Jennifer M.; Adams, Kenneth; Puttler, Leon I.; Buu, Anne; Fitzgerald, Hiram; Zucker, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Temperament traits may increase risk for developmental psychopathology like Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behaviors during childhood, as well as predisposing to substance abuse during adolescence. In the current study, a cascade model of trait pathways to adolescent substance abuse was examined. Component…

  15. 78 FR 53789 - Technology Innovations for Substance Abuse and Mental Health Treatment Conference & Related...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... CONTROL POLICY Technology Innovations for Substance Abuse and Mental Health Treatment Conference & Related... Technology Innovations for Substance Abuse and Mental Health Treatment Conference highlighting promising... prevention, treatment, and recovery for these disorders. The conference will be held on September 16, 2013...

  16. Trajectories of Childhood Aggression and Inattention/Hyperactivity: Differential Effects on Substance Abuse in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jester, Jennifer M.; Nigg, Joel T.; Buu, Anne; Puttler, Leon I.; Glass, Jennifer M.; Heitzeg, Mary M.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    335 children of alcoholic and nonalcoholic fathers were examined to study the relation between childhood behavior trajectories and adolescent substance abuse. Findings suggested that children with both aggression and inattention/hyperactivity were at an increased risk of substance abuse when compared to children with only inattention/hyperactivity…

  17. A Study of Clinical Supervision Techniques and Training in Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Paul L.; Hamm, Terri

    2012-01-01

    Data from 57 clinical supervisors in licensed substance abuse treatment programs indicate that 28% had completed formal graduate course work in clinical supervision and 33% were professionally licensed or certified. Findings raise concerns about the scope and quality of clinical supervision available to substance abuse counselors. (Contains 3…

  18. A Qualitative Study of Recovering and Nonrecovering Substance Abuse Counselors' Belief Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabb, Ann C.; Linton, Jeremy M.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated recovering and nonrecovering substance abuse counselors' beliefs about the etiology and treatment of substance abuse disorders. Qualitative methods were used to investigate these variables. Analysis of the data revealed several key findings with implications for future research. (Contains 1 table.)

  19. Training Needs for Substance Abuse Treatment and Assessment among Rehabilitation Counselors: California State Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Lee Za; Lee, Dal-Yob; Cha, Grace; Arokiasamy, Charles

    2008-01-01

    One hundred rehabilitation counselors in California reported that about 90% of consumers with whom they worked with had substance abuse and cooccurring issues, yet about half rated their graduate training in substance abuse treatment and assessment as poor and their practices as marginally proficient. The correlation analysis revealed that…

  20. School Psychologists' Perceived Competence and Training Needs for Student Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrow-Sanchez, Jason; Call, Megan E.; Adolphson, S. Lillian; Hawken, Leanne S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: School psychologists are some of the most likely personnel to deliver mental health services, including substance abuse, in school settings, but there is limited research on the perceived competence of school psychologists to address student substance abuse concerns. The 3 aims of this study were to determine how school psychologists…

  1. 48 CFR 970.2305 - Workplace substance abuse programs-management and operating contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Workplace substance abuse programs-management and operating contracts. 970.2305 Section 970.2305 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Work Place 970.2305 Workplace substance abuse programs—management and operating contracts....

  2. Using Personal Narratives for Curriculum Development about Substance Abuse and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bial, Martha C.; Gutheil, Irene A.; Hanson, Meredith; White-Ryan, Linda

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a project to sensitize graduate social work students taking courses in substance abuse to the needs of older adults. Graduate social work students at a major urban school of social work in the Northeast were recruited and trained to interview older adults with a history of substance abuse problems regarding their life…

  3. Substance Abuse among Health-Care Professionals in Rutherford and Surrounding Counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Sherri Reid; Heritage, Jeannette G.

    Drug abuse is a serious problem in today's work force. It is found in every occupation, from the entry-level employee to the chief executive officer. Among health care professionals alcohol is the number-one substance abused, prescription drugs are second, and cocaine is third. Substance abuse among health-care professionals in Rutherford,…

  4. Dysthymia among Substance Abusers: An Exploratory Study of Individual and Mental Health Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Naelys; Horton, Eloise G.; McIlveen, John; Weiner, Michael; Nelson, Jenniffer

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the individual characteristics and mental health factors of dysthymic and nondysthymic substance abusers. Out of a total of 1,209 medical records reviewed to select cases of dysthymic and nondysthymic substance abusers attending a community drug treatment program, 183 medical records were selected, 48% of…

  5. 45 CFR 96.46 - Substance abuse prevention and treatment services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... responsible for providing services to Native Americans under the State's Block Grant program. ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substance abuse prevention and treatment services... BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.46 Substance abuse prevention...

  6. American Indian and Alaska Native Substance Abuse: Co-Morbidity and Cultural Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Norma; Nye, Patricia S.

    2001-01-01

    The devastating impact of substance abuse on American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) is reviewed with an emphasis on psychological and physical effects. Co-morbidity of substance abuse, trans-generational trauma, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and depression among AI/ANs is also discussed since each condition may cause, impact, and/or…

  7. Predictors of Relapse for American Indian Women after Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Jenny; Lopez, Darlene

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the predictors of substance use relapse of American Indian (AI) women up to one year following substance abuse treatment. Relapse is defined as any use of alcohol or drugs in the past 30 days at the follow-up points. Data were collected from AI women in a 45-day residential substance abuse treatment…

  8. The Development of a Substance Abuse Treatment Program for Forensic Patients with Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassmire, David M.; Welsh, Robert K.; Clevenger, Jeanne K.

    2007-01-01

    The Substance Abuse and Mental Illness (SAMI) program combines cognitive rehabilitation and dual-diagnosis substance abuse treatment within a stages of change context. This article describes the development, implementation, and preliminary outcome analysis of the SAMI program in a forensic hospital.

  9. 14 CFR 120.113 - Medical Review Officer, Substance Abuse Professional, and Employer Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Professional, and Employer Responsibilities. 120.113 Section 120.113 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Medical Review Officer, Substance Abuse Professional, and Employer Responsibilities. (a) The employer... Medical Review Officer, Substance Abuse Professional, and Employer Responsibilities Regarding 14 CFR part...

  10. Predicting Substance Abuse Treatment Completion using a New Scale Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemore, Sarah E.; Ajzen, Icek

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether a 9-item scale based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) predicted substance abuse treatment completion. Data were collected at a public, outpatient program among clients initiating treatment (N=200). Baseline surveys included measures of treatment-related attitudes, norms, perceived control, and intention; discharge status was collected from program records. As expected, TPB attitude and control components independently predicted intention (model R-squared=.56), and intention was positively associated with treatment completion even including clinical and demographic covariates (model R-squared=.24). TPB components were generally associated with the alternative readiness scales as expected, and the TPB remained predictive at higher levels of coercion. Meanwhile, none of the standard measures of readiness (e.g., the URICA and TREAT) or treatment coercion were positively associated with treatment participation. Results suggest promise for application of the TPB to treatment completion and support use of the intention component as a screener, though some refinements are suggested. PMID:23953167

  11. Predicting substance abuse treatment completion using a new scale based on the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemore, Sarah E; Ajzen, Icek

    2014-02-01

    We examined whether a 9-item scale based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) predicted substance abuse treatment completion. Data were collected at a public, outpatient program among clients initiating treatment (N=200). Baseline surveys included measures of treatment-related attitudes, norms, perceived control, and intention; discharge status was collected from program records. As expected, TPB attitude and control components independently predicted intention (model R-squared=.56), and intention was positively associated with treatment completion even including clinical and demographic covariates (model R-squared=.24). TPB components were generally associated with the alternative readiness scales as expected, and the TPB remained predictive at higher levels of coercion. Meanwhile, none of the standard measures of readiness (e.g., the URICA and TREAT) or treatment coercion were positively associated with treatment participation. Results suggest promise for application of the TPB to treatment completion and support use of the intention component as a screener, though some refinements are suggested. © 2013.

  12. An exploration of violence, mental health and substance abuse in post-conflict Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branas, Charles C; Dinardo, Andrew R; Puac Polanco, Victor D; Harvey, Michael J; Vassy, Jason L; Bream, Kent

    2013-05-01

    Guatemala's 36-year civil war officially ended in December 1996 after some 200,000 deaths and one million refugees. Despite the ceasefire, Guatemala continues to be a violent country with one of the highest homicide rates in the world. We investigated potential associations between violence, mental health, and substance abuse in post-conflict Guatemala using a community-based survey of 86 respondents living in urban and rural Guatemala. Overall, 17.4% of our respondents had at least one, direct violent experience during the civil war. In the post-conflict period, 90.7% of respondents reported being afraid that they might be hurt by violence, 40.7% screened positive for depression, 50.0% screened positive for PTSD, and 23.3% screened positive for alcohol dependence. Potential associations between prior violent experiences during the war and indicators of PTSD and aspects of alcohol dependence were found in regression-adjusted models (p civil war experiences, aspects of PTSD and alcohol dependence in this cohort are remarkable, raising concerns for the health and safety of the largely indigenous populations we studied. Higher than expected rates of depression, PTSD, and substance abuse in our cohort may be related to the ongoing violence, injury and fear that have persisted since the end of the civil war. These, in turn, have implications for the growing medical and surgical resources needed to address the continuing traumatic and post-traumatic complications in the post-conflict era. Limitations of the current study are discussed. These findings are useful in beginning to understand the downstream effects of the Guatemalan civil war, although a much larger, randomly sampled survey is now needed.

  13. Impact of substance abuse treatment on arrests among opiate users in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kevin M; Deck, Dennis; Krupski, Antoinette

    2007-01-01

    Administrative data from Washington State's Division of Alcohol and Substance Abuse drive this three-year prospective study of the impact of substance abuse treatment on arrests among 12,962 opiate users receiving publicly funded substance abuse services. Using survival analysis, the risk of arrest among opiate users who receive substance abuse treatment is compared to those who do not receive treatment. Propensity scores control for client characteristics associated with admission to substance abuse treatment. Overall, a reduction in the risk of arrest was found among subjects in treatment (Hazard Ratio = 0.59-0.78, p < .05) and subjects successfully completing treatment (Hazard Ratio = 0.75, p < .05). Risk of arrest was elevated among those with a negative outcome to treatment (Hazard Ratio = 1.23, p < .05).

  14. Substance abusers' personality disorders and staff members' emotional reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thylstrup, Birgitte; Hesse, Morten

    2008-01-01

    workshops completed a self-report inventory of emotional reactions to patients, the Feeling Word Checklist-58, and substance abusers completed a self-report of DSM-IV personality disorder, the DSM-IV and ICD-10 Personality Disorder Questionnaire. Correlational analysis and multiple regression analysis......Background Previous research has indicated that aggressive behaviour and DSM-IV cluster B personality disorders (PD) may be associated with professionals' emotional reactions to clients, and that cluster C PD may be associated with positive emotional reactions. Methods Staff members recruited from...... was used to assess the associations between personality disorders and emotional reations. Results Cluster B disorder features were associated with feeling distance to patients, and cluster C disorder features were associated with feeling helpful towards patients. Cluster A disorders had no significant...

  15. The ecology of adolescent substance abuse service utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Diana L; Heflinger, Craig Anne; Saunders, Robert C

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents an ecological-community model toward the explanation of variation in patterns of substance abuse (SA) service utilization among adolescents who are enrolled in Tennessee's Medicaid program (TennCare). Guided by a theoretical framework that draws from the social ecology work of Bronfenbrenner and health services utilization models promoted by Aday and Andersen, we apply a social indicators approach toward explaining the impact of community ecology on identification of SA and treatment engagement. Both county-level rates and individual-level treatment utilization are examined and hierarchical linear modeling is incorporated to examine the individual-in-community phenomenon. This study is an expansion of previous service utilization research and suggests that explanations of youth's service utilization must necessarily include not only individual, familial, and service system characteristics, but community factors, as well.

  16. Social Functioning and Self-Esteem of Substance Abuse Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersöğütçü, Filiz; Karakaş, Sibel Asi

    2016-10-01

    This descriptive study was conducted to examine the levels of social functioning and self-esteem in individuals diagnosed with substance abuse. The study was conducted at the AMATEM (Alcohol and Substance Abuse Treatment Center) service of a psychiatry clinic in the Elazığ province in eastern Turkey between September 1, 2014 and February 1, 2015. The population is comprised of 249 patients being treated in this clinic, and the sample included 203 patients who comply with the research criteria and agreed to participate in the study. A Socia-Demographic Questionnaire, Coopersmith Self-esteem Scale (CSI) and Social Functioning Scale (SFS) were used for data collection. Percentages, averages, standard deviations and Pearson's correlation were used for data analysis. This study found that the patients' mean sore on the Self-esteem Scale is 50.97±18.01. Their score on the Social Functioning Scale is 115.76±22.41. A significant correlation between the patients' self-esteem and the age of first substance use was detected (p=0.001). A significant correlation was detected between their social functioning and the duration of their substance use (pself-esteem (pself-esteem and social functioning. A significant positive correlation between social functioning and self-esteem was found. It was also found that the age of first substance use and self-esteem are directly correlated. Counseling to increase patients' levels of self-esteem and improve their social functioning is recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of a q-set for MMPI-2 research with substance abusing populations in the USA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Kevin R; Weed, Nathan C; McCabe, Brian J; Pudumjee, Shehroo B; Williams, John E

    2016-01-01

    ... of integrated interpretations of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2nd Edition (MMPI-2). This study aimed to develop a q-set customized for individuals diagnosed with substance abuse or those within a substance abuse treatment setting...

  18. Social adaptability and substance abuse: Predictors of depression among hemodialysis patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Paulo Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several aspects linked to social are involved in the onset of depressive feelings. We aimed to find out if social adaptability and substance abuse predict depression among end-stage renal disease (ESRD patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD. Methods We included 145 ESRD patients undergoing HD. Social adaptability was estimated by the Social Adaptability Index (SAI. Substance abuse was defined according to SAI. We screened for depression by applying the 20-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. A score ≥ 24 classified the patients as depressed. Comparisons between depressed and non-depressed patients were carried out and logistic regression was performed to test gender, age, total SAI, SAI without the substance abuse item, only the substance abuse score and substance abuse as a categorical variable (yes/no as predictors of depression. Results There were 36 (24.8% depressed patients. There were no differences regarding demographic and laboratory data between the depressed and non-depressed patients. Mean SAI among depressed and non-depressed patients was, respectively, 6.1 ± 1.6 vs. 6.2 ± 1.9 (p=0.901. The percentage of patients with or without substance abuse among depressed patients was, respectively, 13.8% vs. 13.9% (p=1.000. Gender, age, total SAI, SAI without the substance abuse item, only the substance abuse score and substance abuse as a categorical variable did not predict depression. Conclusions Social adaptability and substance abuse did not predict depression in HD patients. We propose that aspects related to socioeconomic status not comprised in SAI items should be ruled out as predictors of depression.

  19. National Survey of American Attitudes on Substance Abuse VI: Teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    This report describes research undertaken to assess the attitudes of teenagers and those who most influence them--their parents, teachers, and school principals. The research attempted to identify factors that could increase or diminish the likelihood teenagers would use cigarettes, alcohol, or illegal drugs. Parents were identified as the key to…

  20. Predicting substance-abuse treatment providers' communication with clients about medication assisted treatment: a test of the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Anthony J; Shafer, Michael S; Marmo, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to determine if the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and theory of planned behavior (TPB) can retrospectively predict whether substance-abuse treatment providers encourage their clients to use medicated-assisted treatment (MAT) as part of their treatment plan. Two-hundred and ten substance-abuse treatment providers completed a survey measuring attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, intentions, and behavior. Results indicate that substance-abuse treatment providers have very positive attitudes, neutral subjective norms, somewhat positive perceived behavioral control, somewhat positive intentions toward recommending MAT as part of their clients' treatment plan, and were somewhat likely to engage in the actual behavior. Further, the data fit both the TRA and TPB, but with the TPB model having better fit and predictive power for this target audience and behavior. The theoretical and practical implications for the developing messages for substance-abuse treatment providers and other health-care professionals who provide treatment to patients with substance use disorders are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 76 FR 1622 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Online Skills Training for PCPs on Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... Training for PCPs on Substance Abuse SUMMARY: Under the provisions of Section 3507(a)(1)(D) of the... research will evaluate the effectiveness of the Online Skills Training for PCPs on Substance Abuse, via the... clinical skills of primary care physicians in the U.S. who treat substance abuse patients. The...

  2. Personality Disorders in Substance Abusers: A Comparison of Patients Treated in a Prison Unit and Patients Treated in Inpatient Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, Ragnar; Hesse, Morten

    2008-01-01

    A large body of literature has shown a high prevalence of personality disorders in substance abusers. We compared a sample of substance abusers treated in a prison setting with substance abusers treated in a non-prison inpatient setting rated with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III. Base-rate scores indicated a prevalence of 95% of…

  3. Sustainability of State-Level Substance Abuse Prevention Infrastructure After the Completion of the SPF SIG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jessica M; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Flewelling, Robert L; Orwin, Robert G; Zhang, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Recent national substance abuse prevention efforts that have been disseminated at the state level have provided fertile ground for addressing the dearth of systematic research on state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure. The Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant Program (SPF SIG), a national public health initiative sponsored by the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and its Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, is one such effort, providing an opportunity to examine state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure across the country. The aims of the SPF SIG initiative include reducing substance abuse and its related problems, as well as enhancing state and local prevention infrastructure and capacity. In this article, we describe the status of state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure and capacity 1 year after the first 26 funded states ended their projects, based on follow-up interviews with state prevention decision-makers. We found that, in five of the six prevention domains we measured, prevention infrastructure capacity increased during the 12-month period after the grants ended. The evidence for further SPF capacity development even after the conclusion of the grants suggests that states recognized the benefits of using the SPF and took deliberate steps to sustain and enhance the integration of this framework into their state prevention systems. In addition, the findings suggest that state agencies and organizations can benefit from time-limited resources aimed at increasing their capacity and that such efforts can have a lasting impact on measures of state prevention system capacity.

  4. Substance abuse, conduct disorder and crime: assessment in a juvenile detention house in Istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copur, Mazlum; Turkcan, Ahmet; Erdogmus, Meral

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the rate of substance abuse in the juvenile detention house and to determine the relationship between crime and substance abuse and conduct disorder. Two hundred and thirty cases in the biggest juvenile detention house in Istanbul, Turkey were assessed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn; DSM-IV) criteria. Law files and data of crime were examined. A total of 80 out of 230 juvenile detainees (34.8%) were found to have substance abuse excluding nicotine and alcohol. The substances abused in preferential order were cannabis (72.5%), volatile substances (21.3% bally and 3.7% thinner; 25%) and sedative hypnotic drugs and biperidents (2.5%). The rate of conduct disorder was 46.3% in substance abusers and 25.3% in the others (odds ratio: 2.536). The rate of substance abuse was 48.5% in the juveniles who had committed multiple crimes and 14.1% in the others (odds ratio: 5.735). The study shows that conduct disorder was very high in juvenile detainees. Conduct disorder was higher in substance-abusing than in non-abusing juvenile detainees. Substance-abusing juvenile detainees were found to have a higher detention rate than non-abusing juvenile detainees. There was a close relation between conduct disorder and substance abuse and multiple crimes. In the light of these results, diagnosis and treatment for conduct disorder in juvenile detainees are of great importance.

  5. Study protocol: a randomized controlled trial of a computer-based depression and substance abuse intervention for people attending residential substance abuse treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Peter J

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large proportion of people attending residential alcohol and other substance abuse treatment have a co-occurring mental illness. Empirical evidence suggests that it is important to treat both the substance abuse problem and co-occurring mental illness concurrently and in an integrated fashion. However, the majority of residential alcohol and other substance abuse services do not address mental illness in a systematic way. It is likely that computer delivered interventions could improve the ability of substance abuse services to address co-occurring mental illness. This protocol describes a study in which we will assess the effectiveness of adding a computer delivered depression and substance abuse intervention for people who are attending residential alcohol and other substance abuse treatment. Methods/Design Participants will be recruited from residential rehabilitation programs operated by the Australian Salvation Army. All participants who satisfy the diagnostic criteria for an alcohol or other substance dependence disorder will be asked to participate in the study. After completion of a baseline assessment, participants will be randomly assigned to either a computer delivered substance abuse and depression intervention (treatment condition or to a computer-delivered typing tutorial (active control condition. All participants will continue to complete The Salvation Army residential program, a predominantly 12-step based treatment facility. Randomisation will be stratified by gender (Male, Female, length of time the participant has been in the program at the commencement of the study (4 weeks or less, 4 weeks or more, and use of anti-depressant medication (currently prescribed medication, not prescribed medication. Participants in both conditions will complete computer sessions twice per week, over a five-week period. Research staff blind to treatment allocation will complete the assessments at baseline, and then 3, 6, 9

  6. Procedural validity of the AUDADIS-5 depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder modules: substance abusers and others in the general population*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasin, Deborah S.; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Stohl, Malka; Greenstein, Eliana; Aivadyan, Christina; Morita, Kara; Saha, Tulshi; Aharonovich, Efrat; Jung, Jeesun; Zhang, Haitao; Nunes, Edward V.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about the procedural validity of lay-administered, fully-structured assessments of depressive, anxiety and post-traumatic stress (PTSD) disorders in the general population as determined by comparison to clinical re-appraisal, and whether this differs between current regular substance abusers and others. We evaluated the procedural validity of the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule, DSM-5 Version (AUDADIS-5) assessment of these disorders through clinician re-interviews. Methods Test-retest design among respondents from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III): (264 current regular substance abusers, 447 others). Clinicians blinded to AUDADIS-5 results administered the semi-structured Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders, DSM-5 version (PRISM-5). AUDADIS-5/PRISM-5 concordance was indicated by kappa (κ) for diagnoses and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for dimensional measures (DSM-5 symptom or criterion counts). Results were compared between current regular substance abusers and others. Results AUDADIS-5 and PRISM-5 concordance for DSM-5 depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and PTSD was generally fair to moderate (κ =0.24–0.59), with concordance on dimensional scales much better (ICC=0.53–0.81). Concordance differed little between regular substance abusers and others. Conclusions AUDADIS-5/PRISM-5 concordance indicated procedural validity for the AUDADIS-5 among substance abusers and others, suggesting that AUDADIS-5 diagnoses of DSM-5 depressive, anxiety and PTSD diagnoses are informative measures in both groups in epidemiologic studies. The stronger concordance on dimensional measures supports the current movement towards dimensional psychopathology measures, suggesting that such measures provide important information for research in the NESARC-III and other datasets, and possibly for clinical purposes as well. PMID

  7. Self-examination therapy as an adjunct treatment for depressive symptoms in substance abusing patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, V; Ward, L C; Bowman, D; Scogin, F

    1996-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of Self-Examination Therapy as an adjunct treatment for depressive symptoms in substance abusing patients, 28 adult male volunteers from a substance abuse unit at a VA Medical Center were randomly assigned to either Self-Examination Therapy or a Current Events comparison group. Analyses indicated that participants in Self-Examination Therapy showed significantly greater improvement in depressive symptoms and overall psychopathology than participants in the Current Events comparison group. These results suggest that Self-Examination Therapy is a viable adjunct treatment for substance abusers, particularly those with depressive symptoms.

  8. Substance Abuse Prevention, Assessment, and Treatment for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aromin, Romulo Alcalde

    2016-12-01

    Knowing how to manage substance abuse in all youth is an important aspect of pediatric care, including providing clinically appropriate anticipatory guidance, monitoring, assessment, and treatment. Although most lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth do not abuse substances, as a group they experience unique challenges in self-identity development that put them at an increased risk for substance abuse. This article addresses prevention and management of substance use in LGBT youth relevant to pediatrics and allied professions as an aspect of their overall health care. It reviews basic information about substance abuse in youth and special considerations for LGBT youth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. “Focus on the young ones”: Discourses on substance abuse and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selseng Lillian Bruland

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS – Previous research has shown that age categories play a vital part in the decision-making processes of counsellors in substance abuse services, yet very little is known about how the meanings of “age” and “substance abuse” are constructed and intertwined. This article aims to provide insights into the dynamic relationship between discourses on age and substance abuse. It explores the narratives of a group of counsellors on age and substance abuse, and looks at the subject positions this intersection produces.

  10. Hispanic Subgroups, Acculturation, and Substance Abuse Treatment Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Karen G; Carmody, Tom; Akhtar, Maleeha; Stebbins, Mary B; Walters, Scott T; Warden, Diane

    2015-12-01

    This study explored Hispanic subgroup differences in substance use treatment outcomes, and the relationship of acculturation characteristics to these outcomes. Data were from a multisite randomized clinical trial of motivational enhancement therapy versus treatment as usual in a sample of Spanish-speaking substance abusers. Participants were Cuban American (n=34), Mexican American (n=209), Puerto Rican (n=78), and other Hispanic American (n=54). Results suggested that Cuban Americans and individuals with more connection to Hispanic culture had lower treatment retention. Hispanics born in the U.S and those who spoke English at home had a lower percentage of days abstinent during weeks 5-16, although Puerto Ricans born in the U.S. and Cuban Americans living more years in the U.S. had a higher percentage of days abstinent in weeks 1-4 and 5-16, respectively. Results may inform future hypothesis-driven studies in larger Hispanic treatment seeking samples of the relationship between acculturation and treatment outcome.

  11. A methodological pilot: parenting among women in substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Linda; Farkas, Kathleen; Niazi, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Mothers who abuse substances are likely to have insecure emotional attachment with their children, placing their children at risk for social-emotional and psychiatric conditions. Sobriety does not inevitably improve parenting. We tested recruitment methods, audiovisual (AV) recording procedures, the protocol for identifying child abuse risk, the coding of mother-child interactions, and retention of the sample for repeated measures as the first phase in examining mother-child relational quality of women in substance abuse treatment. This innovative study involved AV recordings to capture the in-vivo mother-child interactional behaviors that were later coded and analyzed for mean scores on the 64-item Parent-Child Relational Quality Assessment. Repeated measurement was planned during treatment and two months after discharge from treatment. The pilot involved a small sample (n = 11) of mother-child (<6 years) dyads. Highest and lowest ratings of interaction behaviors were identified. Mothers showed less enthusiasm and creativity but matched their child's emotional state. The children showed appropriate motor skill items and attachment behaviors. The dyad coding showed less mutual enjoyment between the mother and child. Eight of the participants could not be located for the second measurement despite multiple contact methods. AV recordings capture rich, descriptive information that can be coded for interactional quality analysis. Repeated measurement with this cohort was not feasible, thus needing to assess for additional/more frequent contacts to maintain the sample.

  12. Characteristics of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals entering substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Bryan N; Cauce, Ana Mari

    2006-03-01

    Previous research has suggested that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals enter treatment for substance abuse with more severe problems than heterosexual individuals. However, methodological difficulties, particularly the difficulty of obtaining a representative sample, have limited the ability to draw conclusions about LGBT individuals who receive services for substance abuse. This study took advantage of a unique opportunity to examine a representative sample of openly LGBT clients receiving publicly funded substance abuse treatment by using data gathered by treatment providers in Washington State. Baseline differences between openly LGBT and heterosexual clients were compared in a variety of domains. Results demonstrated that openly LGBT clients enter treatment with more severe substance abuse problems, greater psychopathology, and greater medical service utilization when compared with heterosexual clients. When the analyses were stratified based on sex, different patterns of substance use and associated psychosocial characteristics emerged for the LGBT clients. Implications for provision of appropriate services and recommendations to treatment agencies are discussed in this article.

  13. Emerging for Recovery: A Descriptive Analysis of Adventure Therapy for Substance Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Michael A.; McPhee, Pamela J.

    1990-01-01

    Examines client characteristics, referral and screening procedures, program characteristics, treatment goals, financial arrangements, and staff characteristics in 50 programs using adventure experiences with substance abuse populations. Notes needs for specific program evaluation research and for the development of prescriptive treatment…

  14. Co-occurring disorders in the adolescent mental health and substance abuse treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Win C; Muck, Randolph D; Muck, Rebekah J; Stephens, Robert L; Sukumar, Bhuvana

    2004-12-01

    This article explores the rates of co-occurring disorders in two large federally-funded programs that target youth. In the mental health treatment system, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Mental Health Services (CMHS) supports the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families Program. SAMHSA's Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT) supports a number of grant programs providing substance abuse treatment for adolescents. The data from these programs underscores the need for the use of systematic, validated, biopsychosocial assessment instruments for all youth entering either the substance abuse or mental health treatment systems. The current evidence base for models of co-occurring treatment for youth is discussed and recommendations made for future activity related to adolescent co-occurring treatment.

  15. Local and National Outcomes from Community Partnerships to Prevent Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Robert K., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    Outcomes evaluation of community partnerships to prevent substance abuse poses many methodological challenges. The nine articles of this special section illustrate the variety of approaches evaluators have taken to studies that are often complicated because of small sample size. (SLD)

  16. Substance Abuse, Published in Not Provided, Indiana State Department of Health.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Substance Abuse dataset as of Not Provided. Data by this publisher are often provided in UTM coordinate system; in a Transverse Mercator projection; The extent...

  17. Pregnant substance-abusing women in involuntary treatment: Attachment experiences with the unborn child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myra Siv Merete

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND – Use of coercion against pregnant women who misuse substances was legalised in Norway in 1996. The background for the law was that substance abuse during pregnancy represents a significant health problem for the child.

  18. Healthy nations: reducing substance abuse in American Indian and Alaska Native communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noe, Tim; Fleming, Candace; Manson, Spero

    2003-01-01

    Since 1993, 14 American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) communities have worked diligently to reduce the harm due to substance abuse in their communities. Funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Healthy Nations Initiative I, these communities implemented creative strategies that span the continuum from community-wide prevention, early identification and treatment to aftercare. Drawing upon the unique strengths of their own cultural traditions to find solutions to local substance abuse problems, these efforts have identified important and useful lessons for not only other AIAN communities, but also for sponsors of substance abuse programming in Indian country and elsewhere. Described here are successful strategies for developing and sustaining substance abuse programs in AIAN communities and an assessment of their impacts and accomplishments.

  19. Finding the "Meaning" of Native American Substance Abuse: Implications for Community Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedigo, Jill

    1983-01-01

    Provides one possible meaning for Native American chemical use by exploring the factors that create its context. Explores the implications that follow for the area of substance abuse prevention. Outlines the appropriate components of a prevention program. (RC)

  20. Prevalence of Substance Abuse among High School Students in 2015-2016 Academic Year in Yazd City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Vakili

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Substance abuse is a common problem and a major public health dilemma with a high incidence of morbidity and mortality. Therefore, due to the increase of drug abuse in recent years, especially among young people and its complications, including loss of life, unwanted pregnancy, suicide commitment, as well as violence and given that our country has a young population, so the present study, aimed to investigate the substance abuse among the students in Yazd, a central city in Iran. Materials and methods: In this cross sectional study 1020 students studying in high school (the first period - the second period were investigated in the 2015-2016 academic year in the city of Yazd. Multi-stage sampling method using cluster and stratified sampling was used. Information were collected through a standardized questionnaire based on World Health Organization method known as Global school-based student health survey (GSHS which was translated to Persian. After completion of the questionnaire by students, the collected data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16 and through statistical tests of significance. Results: The results showed 18.1% of students had at least one history of drug use. 9.5% of students had a history of cannabis use, 12.5% had a history of amphetamines use, 10.8% had a history of taking psychotropic pills, 12.2% had a history of heroin use, 12.9% had a history of opium use, and finally, 9.6% had a history of crack use. There was no significant association between parents education and drug abuse in students. Conclusion: According to high prevalence and diversity of substance abuse among students, recommend educational program in school and parents supervision. Promotion of parents and teachers knowledge about symptoms of abuse is needed. Family support of adolescents is effective for prevention. 

  1. Relationship between Personality Disorders and Relapses among Sample of Substance Abuse Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Osama Hasan Gaber

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between Personality Disorders and Relapses among Sample of 75 Substance Abuse Patients (personality disorder scale (prepared by the researchers) were used Pearson Correlation Coefficient showed that there are statistically significant relationship between Antisocial personality disorder(ASPD), Borderline personality disorder (BPD, Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) and Dependent personality disorder (DPD) and substance abuse relapses (P≤=0.00)...

  2. Temperament Pathways to Childhood Disruptive Behavior and Adolescent Substance Abuse: Testing a Cascade Model

    OpenAIRE

    Martel, Michelle M.; Pierce, Laura; Nigg, Joel T.; Jester, Jennifer M.; Adams, Kenneth; Puttler, Leon I.; Buu, Anne; Fitzgerald, Hiram; Zucker, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Temperament traits may increase risk for developmental psychopathology like Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behaviors during childhood, as well as predisposing to substance abuse during adolescence. In the current study, a cascade model of trait pathways to adolescent substance abuse was examined. Component hypotheses were that (a) maladaptive traits would increase risk for inattention/hyperactivity, (b) inattention/hyperactivity would increase risk for disrupti...

  3. Depression, anxiety, and history of substance abuse among Norwegian inmates in preventive detention: Reasons to worry?

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Inmates on preventive detention are a small and select group sentenced to an indefinite term of imprisonment. Mood disorders and substance abuse are risk factors for inmate violence and recidivism, so the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and substance abuse was examined in this cohort using psychometric tests. Methods Completion of self-report questionnaires was followed by face-to-face clinical interviews with 26 of the 56 male inmates on preventive detention in Norway'...

  4. Pathways to Care: Narratives of American Indian Adolescents Entering Substance Abuse Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Novins, Douglas K.; Spicer, Paul; Fickenscher, Alexandra; Pescosolido, Bernice

    2012-01-01

    Using data from 89 American Indian adolescents and guided by the Network Episode Model, this paper analyses pathways to residential substance abuse treatment and their correlates. These adolescents were recruited at admission to a tribally-operated substance abuse treatment program in the southern United States from October 1998 to May 2001. Results from the qualitative analyses of these adolescent’s pathways to care narratives indicated that 35% ultimately agreed with the decision for their ...

  5. Residential Substance Abuse Treatment for Urban American Indians and Alaska Natives, Part II: Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Bentson H; Walker, Dale; Silk-Walker, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined costs of two residential substance abuse treatment programs designed for urban American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). Costs for one agency were well within national norms, while costs at the other program were less than expected from nationwide data. Economies of scale accounted for much of the difference between observed and expected costs. Culturally specific residential substance abuse treatment services can be provided to urban AI/ANs within budgets typically found at mainstream programs.

  6. The Relationship between Emotion Regulation Strategies and Interpersonal Behavior among Substance Abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Zahed

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Individuals with substance abuse show signs of negative emotion regulation strategies and impaired interpersonal behaviors. The aim of the present research was to determine the relationship between emotion regulation strategies and interpersonal behavior among substance abusers. Method: The research design was a correlation study. The research sample consisted of 100 who were selected of the substance abusers that referred to clinical of addiction withdrawal by random sample method in Ardabil city. To collect the data, Emotion regulation Scale and Interpersonal Reactivity Index were used. Results: The results showed that positive and negative emotion regulation strategies were correlated to interpersonal behavior in substance abusers. The results of multiple regression analysis showed positive and negative emotion regulation strategies explained 16 percent of interpersonal behavior variance. Also the results showed that “putting into perspective“ was found to be the best predictor for interpersonal behavior. Conclusion: These results have important implications in psychopathological of substance abuse. On the basis of these results, clinicians can use emotion regulation strategies in order to cope substance abuse.

  7. Attitude to substance abuse: do personality and socio-demographic factors matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimian Boogar, Isaac; Tabatabaee, Sayed Mosa; Tosi, Jalileh

    2014-09-01

    Substance abuse is a serious global problem that is affected by multiple psychosocial and socio-demographic factors. This study aimed to investigate the leading factors in positive attitude and tendency toward substance abuse in terms of personality, socio-economic, and socio-demographic factors. In a cross-sectional study, 200 college students (105 females and 95 males) residing in Damghan University dormitory in northeast of Iran were recruited by random sampling from March to July 2013. The participants were instructed and asked to complete the NEO FIVE-factor Inventory, the attitude to substance abuse scale, and the demographic questionnaire. Then data were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression employing PASW 18. Being male sex and neuroticism had a significant positive role in predicting positive attitude toward substance abuse in university students. In addition, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness, and socio-economic status had a significant negative role in predicting tendency toward substance abuse (P 0.05). Lower agreeableness, decreased conscientiousness, higher neuroticism, diminished openness, low socio-economic status, and male sex might make university students more inclined to substance abuse. Thus, it is reasonable to show the importance of these factors in tailored prevention programs.

  8. A Tool for Assessing a Community’s Capacity for Substance Abuse Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerla, Rob; Stroup, Donna F.; Azofeifa, Alejandro; High, Patrick M.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence-based programs for prevention and intervention in substance abuse are increasing. Community needs assessments and health rankings provide descriptions of local behavioral health needs but do not provide public health practitioners and policy makers with guidelines on the number of programs, health care practitioners, or interventions needed in the local substance abuse care system. This article presents a new framework for measuring and assessing the substance abuse care system in a community. The assessment can inform resource allocation across the continuum of care to more equitably and efficiently distribute interventions and care. We conducted 2 literature reviews and synthesized our findings to create a community assessment methodology and needs calculator, CAST (calculating for an adequate system tool). We reviewed 212 articles to produce an inventory of community and social correlates of behavioral health, components of a substance abuse care system, and numerical values for guidelines for estimating community needs. CAST produces community-specific assessments of the capacity of the components of a community substance abuse care system. CAST generates recommendations by the application of social and community determinants of health as risk coefficients to each estimate of component need. CAST can assist public health practitioners in evaluation and improvement of the capacity of community-based, substance abuse care systems. By using recommendations for component needs across the continuum of care, community leaders can use CAST to prioritize resource allocation more effectively and efficiently. PMID:27657505

  9. Assessment of Substances Abuse in Burn Patients by Using Drug Abuse Screening Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobra Gaseminegad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increase in the frequency of substance abuse among hospitalized burn injury patients. However, few studies have investigated substance abuse among burn patients. This study was aimed to identify the incidence of substance abuse in burn injury patients using the "Drug Abuse Screening Test" (DAST-20. We determined the validity of DAST-20 in spring 2010. Subsequently, this descriptive study was performed on 203 burn injury patients who fit the study's inclusion criteria. We chose a score of 6 as the cutoff and thus achieved a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 85% for the DAST-20. During the study, we gathered demographic data, burn features and DAST-20 results for all patients. Patients with scores of 6 or more were considered to be substances abusers. A statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS v16 software. According to the DAST-20 results, 33% of the patients were in the user group. The mean score of DAST-20 was significantly higher among users than it was among nonusers (P<0.05. The level of substance abuse was severe in 77% of users. No significant differences were found among the substances, with the exception of alcohol. Substance abuse is an important risk factor for burn patients. In addition, this study showed that DAST-20 is a valid screening measure for studies on burn patients.

  10. Organization and financing of alcohol and substance abuse programs for American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Bentson H; Gabriel, Roy M; Bigelow, Douglas A; Walker, R Dale

    2006-08-01

    Although American Indians and Alaska Natives have high rates of substance abuse, few data about treatment services for this population are available. We used national data from 1997-2002 to describe recent trends in organizational and financial arrangements. Using data from the Indian Health Service (IHS), the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, and the Census Bureau, we estimated the number of American Indians served by substance abuse treatment programs that apparently are unaffiliated with either the IHS or tribal governments. We compared expected and observed IHS expenditures. Half of the American Indians and Alaska Natives treated for substance abuse were served by programs (chiefly in urban areas) apparently unaffiliated with the IHS or tribal governments. IHS substance abuse expenditures were roughly what we expected. Medicaid participation by tribal programs was not universal. Many Native people with substance abuse problems are served by programs unaffiliated with the IHS. Medicaid may be key to expanding needed resources.

  11. MUCOCILIARY DYSFUNCTION IN HIV AND SMOKED SUBSTANCE ABUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan eChinnapaiyan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Impaired mucociliary clearance (MCC is a hallmark of acquired chronic airway diseases like chronic bronchitis associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and asthma. This manifests as microbial colonization of the lung consequently leading to recurrent respiratory infections. People living with HIV demonstrate increased incidence of these chronic airway diseases. Bacterial pneumonia continues to be an important comorbidity in people living with HIV even though anti-retroviral therapy has succeeded in restoring CD4+ cell counts. People living with HIV demonstrate increased microbial colonization of the lower airways. The microbial flora is similar to that observed in diseases like cystic fibrosis and COPD suggesting that mucociliary dysfunction could be a contributing factor to the increased incidence of chronic airway diseases in people living with HIV. The three principal components of the MCC apparatus are, a mucus layer, ciliary beating and a periciliary airway surface liquid (ASL layer that facilitates ciliary beating. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR plays a pivotal role in regulating the periciliary airway surface liquid. HIV proteins can suppress all the components of the MCC apparatus by increasing mucus secretion and suppressing CFTR function. This can decrease ASL height leading to suppressed ciliary beating. The effects of HIV on MCC are exacerbated when combined with other aggravating factors like smoking or inhaled substance abuse, which by themselves can suppress one or more components of the MCC system. This review discusses the pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to MCC suppression in people living with HIV who also smoke tobacco or abuse illicit drugs.

  12. Hand-held survey probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kevin L [Idaho Falls, ID; Hungate, Kevin E [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-02-23

    A system for providing operational feedback to a user of a detection probe may include an optical sensor to generate data corresponding to a position of the detection probe with respect to a surface; a microprocessor to receive the data; a software medium having code to process the data with the microprocessor and pre-programmed parameters, and making a comparison of the data to the parameters; and an indicator device to indicate results of the comparison. A method of providing operational feedback to a user of a detection probe may include generating output data with an optical sensor corresponding to the relative position with respect to a surface; processing the output data, including comparing the output data to pre-programmed parameters; and indicating results of the comparison.

  13. Does dissatisfaction with psychosocial work climate predict depressive, anxiety and substance abuse disorders? A prospective study of Danish public service employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, H K; Wieclaw, Joanna; Munch-Hansen, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    were divided into three levels, according to the 25-75 percentiles. Data on hospitalisations and outpatient treatments for depressive, anxiety and substance abuse disorders was obtained from the Danish Central Psychiatric Research Register. Hazard ratios and 95 % confidence intervals were computed...... for first onset of studied disorders, starting from the baseline survey at 1.1.2002 through 30.4.2008. Risk estimates were adjusted for sociodemographic variables. RESULTS: A low satisfaction with psychosocial working conditions was associated with an increased risk of any mental health disorder (HRadj 1.......71, 95 % CI 1.04-2.82). The lower the satisfaction level, the higher was the risk of mental health disorders. Moreover, substance abuse disorders were more frequent among men dissatisfied with work climate, HRadj of 3.53, 95 % CI 1.55-8.03. CONCLUSION: Working in a dissatisfying psychosocial environment...

  14. Assessment of Substance Abuse Behaviors in Adolescents’: Integration of Self-Control into Extended Parallel Process Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Witte

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An effective preventive health education program on drug abuse can be delivered by applying behavior change theories in a complementary fashion. Methods: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of integrating self-control into Extended Parallel Process Model in drug substance abuse behaviors. A sample of 189 governmental high school students participated in this survey. Information was collected individually by completing researcher designed questionnaire and a urinary rapid immuno-chromatography test for opium and marijuana. Results: The results of the study show that 6.9% of students used drugs (especially opium and marijuana and also peer pressure was determinant factor for using drugs. Moreover the EPPM theoretical variables of perceived severity and perceived self-efficacy with self-control are predictive factors to behavior intention against substance abuse. In this manner, self-control had a significant effect on protective motivation and perceived efficacy. Low self- control was a predictive factor of drug abuse and low self-control students had drug abuse experience. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that an integration of self-control into EPPM can be effective in expressing and designing primary preventive programs against drug abuse, and assessing abused behavior and deviance behaviors among adolescent population, especially risk seekers

  15. A Comparison of Substance Abuse and Mental Illness in Male Offenders in Jamaica and England and Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CA Sewell

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study sought to determine the prevalence of substance abuse, mental illness, sociodemographics and clinical characteristics of mentally ill offenders. These data were compared to data from the prison population in the United Kingdom. Method: This is a cross-sectional study of male, mentally ill offenders in two prisons in Jamaica, and four prisons in England and Wales. For the Jamaican sample, a psychopathology and forensic survey instrument was developed by the research personnel to extract specific information from the diagnostic interview. Data extraction was done over a one-year period. For the England and Wales sample, the participants were interviewed and assessed using various structured instruments. Results: The results indicate that approximately 18% of persons within the Jamaican prison population under study had a mental illness. Of this number, 57% of these persons had been previously diagnosed with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision (DSM IV-TR Axis 1 disorder. Substance abuse was the most frequently diagnosed DSM-IV Axis I disorder within both populations. The prevalence of mental illness found in the Jamaican prison population was approximately four times greater than the rate in the comparison population of England and Wales. Conclusions: There was an over-representation of mentally ill offenders in the Jamaican prison population. This is most likely linked to the lack of appropriate diversion programmes and a forensic mental hospital in Jamaica.

  16. Substance abuse in pregnant women. Experiences from a special child welfare clinic in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosvold Elin

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance abuse during pregnancy may harm the foetus and can cause neonatal abstinence syndrome. Exposure to alcohol and other substances can influence the child for the rest of its life. A special child welfare clinic was set up in 1994 in Kristiansand, Norway, targeting pregnant women with substance abuse problems in the county of Vest-Agder. Pregnancy is not an indication for opioid replacement therapy in Norway, and one of the clinic's aims was to support the drug dependent women through their pregnancy without any replacements. The object of this paper is to describe concurrent health and social problems, as well as the predictors for stopping drug abuse, in the clinic's user group. Methods Retrospective cohort study. Data was gathered from the medical records of all 102 women seen in the clinic in the period between 1992 and 2002. The study includes 59 out of 60 women that were followed until their children were two years old or placed in alternative care, and a comparison group of twice the size. Both groups were presented with a questionnaire concerning both the pregnancy and health and socio-economic issues. Results Four (4.5 percent of the women that completed their pregnancies did not manage to reduce their substance abuse. All the others reduced their substance abuse considerably. The odds ratio for stopping substance abuse within the first trimester was significantly associated with stopping smoking (O.R. 9.7 or being victims of rape (O.R. 5.3. Conclusion A low cost and low threshold initiative organised as a child welfare clinic may support women with substance abuse problems in their efforts to stop or reduce their substance abuse during pregnancy.

  17. Electronic health records: essential tools in integrating substance abuse treatment with primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark HW

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Betty Tai1, Li-Tzy Wu2, H Westley Clark31Center for Clinical Trials Network, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, MD, 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, 3Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Rockville, MD, USAAbstract: While substance use problems are considered to be common in medical settings, they are not systematically assessed and diagnosed for treatment management. Research data suggest that the majority of individuals with a substance use disorder either do not use treatment or delay treatment-seeking for over a decade. The separation of substance abuse services from mainstream medical care and a lack of preventive services for substance abuse in primary care can contribute to under-detection of substance use problems. When fully enacted in 2014, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act 2010 will address these barriers by supporting preventive services for substance abuse (screening, counseling and integration of substance abuse care with primary care. One key factor that can help to achieve this goal is to incorporate the standardized screeners or common data elements for substance use and related disorders into the electronic health records (EHR system in the health care setting. Incentives for care providers to adopt an EHR system for meaningful use are part of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act 2009. This commentary focuses on recent evidence about routine screening and intervention for alcohol/drug use and related disorders in primary care. Federal efforts in developing common data elements for use as screeners for substance use and related disorders are described. A pressing need for empirical data on screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT for drug-related disorders to inform SBIRT and related EHR efforts is highlighted

  18. A Study of personality profile and criminal behavior in substance abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Aggarwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to study the personality characteristics and criminal behavior in the substance abusers. The role of various sociodemographic variables in substance abusers, which affected their criminal behavior was also studied. Moreover, in the present study, the personality profile of substance users and nonusers was compared using psychoticism, extraversion, and neuroticism (PEN inventory. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 consecutive subjects diagnosed as per International Classification of Diseases-10 criteria for substance abuse, fulfilling the inclusive and exclusive criteria were taken. A well-matched control was also assessed to compare the studied subject using a well-designed semi-structured proforma and PEN inventory. Results: Most of the substance abusers were Hindus, married, belonged to 21-30 age group and urban domicile, and were presently unemployed, educated up to middle class, and belonged to lower socioeconomic status. Family history of substance use was significant in the subjects, and the chief substance of use was opioids. Scores for psychoticism and neuroticism, as well as the criminal behavior was significantly higher in studied subjects. Conclusion: Thus, conclusions drawn were that personality characteristics of the substance abusers differed significantly from the control group and second, the number of variables including occupational status, socioeconomic status, family history of substance use, and type of substance of abuse significantly correlated with the criminal behavior in the substance abusers. Identifying these variables can be the first step in the intervention in substance abusers in order to reduce their future criminal behavior.

  19. Smoking cessation treatment in community-based substance abuse rehabilitation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Malcolm S; Fallon, Bryan; Sonne, Susan; Flammino, Frank; Nunes, Edward V; Jiang, Huiping; Kourniotis, Eva; Lima, Jennifer; Brady, Ron; Burgess, Cynthia; Arfken, Cynthia; Pihlgren, Eric; Giordano, Louis; Starosta, Aron; Robinson, James; Rotrosen, John

    2008-07-01

    Nicotine dependence is highly prevalent among drug- and alcohol-dependent patients. A multisite clinical trial of smoking cessation (SC) treatment was performed at outpatient community-based substance abuse rehabilitation programs affiliated with the National Drug Abuse Treatment, Clinical Trials Network. Cigarette smokers (N=225) from five methadone maintenance programs and two drug and alcohol dependence treatment programs were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive either (1) SC treatment as an adjunct to substance abuse treatment-as-usual (TAU) or (2) substance abuse TAU. Smoking cessation treatment consisted of 1 week of group counseling before the target quit date and 8 weeks of group counseling plus transdermal nicotine patch treatment (21 mg/day for Weeks 1-6 and 14 mg/day for Weeks 7 and 8) after the target quit date. Smoking abstinence rates in SC, 10%-11% during treatment and 5%-6% at the 13- and 26-week follow-up visits, were significantly better than those in TAU during treatment (p< .01). In addition, SC was associated with significantly greater reductions as compared with TAU in cigarettes smoked per day (75% reduction, p< .001), exhaled carbon monoxide levels (p< .001), cigarette craving (p< .05), and nicotine withdrawal (p< .05). Smoking cessation did not differ from TAU on rates of retention in substance abuse treatment, abstinence from primary substance of abuse, and craving for primary substance of abuse. Compliance with SC treatment, moderate at best, was positively associated with smoking abstinence rates. Smoking cessation treatment resulted in significant reductions in daily smoking and modest smoking abstinence rates without having an adverse impact on substance abuse rehabilitation when given concurrently with outpatient substance abuse treatment. Substance abuse treatment programs should not hesitate to implement SC for established patients.

  20. Testing Cermak's hypothesis: is dissociation the mediating variable that links substance abuse in the family of origin with offspring codependency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, D

    2001-01-01

    This is a pilot study of substance abuse in the family of origin and its relation to offspring dissociation and offspring codependency. Cermak contends that substance abuse in the family of origin exposes offspring to trauma, that exposure to trauma in the family of origin engenders offspring dissociation, and that dissociation is the process underlying offspring codependency. Assuming that substance abuse in the family of origin exposes offspring to trauma, this experiment tested the hypothesis that dissociation mediates the relationship between substance abuse in the family of origin and offspring codependency. Although it was found that substance abuse in the family of origin, offspring dissociation, and offspring codependency were associated, no support was found for the prediction that dissociation mediates the relationship between substance abuse in the family of origin and offspring codependency. Replications are called for.

  1. Influence networks among substance abuse treatment clinics: implications for the dissemination of innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kimberly; Quanbeck, Andrew; Maus, Adam; Gustafson, David H; Dearing, James W

    2015-09-01

    Understanding influence networks among substance abuse treatment clinics may speed the diffusion of innovations. The purpose of this study was to describe influence networks in Massachusetts, Michigan, New York, Oregon, and Washington and test two expectations, using social network analysis: (1) Social network measures can identify influential clinics; and (2) Within a network, some weakly connected clinics access out-of-network sources of innovative evidence-based practices and can spread these innovations through the network. A survey of 201 clinics in a parent study on quality improvement provided the data. Network measures and sociograms were obtained from adjacency matrixes created by UCINet. We used regression analysis to determine whether network status relates to clinics' adopting innovations. Findings suggest that influential clinics can be identified and that loosely linked clinics were likely to join the study sooner than more influential clinics but were not more likely to have improved outcomes than other organizations. Findings identify the structure of influence networks for SUD treatment organizations and have mixed results on how those structures impacted diffusion of the intervention under study. Further study is necessary to test whether use of knowledge of the network structure will have an effect on the pace and breadth of dissemination of innovations.

  2. Barriers to accessing substance abuse treatment in Mexico: national comparative analysis by migration status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background We examined Mexican migrants’ perceived barriers to entering substance abuse treatment and potential differences by gender. Methods This study analyzed a subset of household data collected in Mexico in 2011 via the Encuesta Nacional de Adicciones (National Survey of Addictions). A sample of 1,143 individuals who reported using illicit drugs was analyzed using multivariate negative binomial models to determine direct and moderated relationships of gender, migrant status, and drug dependence with perceived barriers to accessing treatment. Results Significant findings included disparities in drug dependence by migrant status. Compared with non-migrant men, women who have traveled to the United States was associated with fewer (1.3) barriers to access treatment. Fewer barriers to access care were associated with individuals residing in other regions of the country, compared to those living in Mexico City. Conclusions Drug dependence, gender, migration status and regional location are factors associated with access to needed treatment. Implications for health care policy to develop treatment services infrastructure and for future research are discussed in the context of ongoing drug policy reform in Mexico. PMID:25074067

  3. Color It Real: A Program to Increase Condom Use and Reduce Substance Abuse and Perceived Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, Tiffany; Trotter, Jennie; Lenoir, Shelia; Walston, Kelvin; Men-Na'a, L'dia; Henry-Akintobi, Tabia; Miller, Assia

    2015-12-22

    Few interventions have targeted perceived stress as a co-occurring construct central to substance use and subsequent HIV/AIDS risk reduction among African American urban young adults. The Color It Real Program was a seven session, weekly administered age-specific and culturally-tailored intervention designed to provide substance abuse and HIV education and reduce perceived stress among African Americans ages 18 to 24 in Atlanta, GA. Effectiveness was assessed through a quasi-experimental study design that consisted of intervention (n = 122) and comparison (n = 70) groups completing a pre- and post-intervention survey. A series of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) tests were used to assess pre- to post-intervention changes between study groups. For intervention participants, perceived stress levels were significantly reduced by the end of the intervention (t(70) = 2.38, p = 0.020), condom use at last sexual encounter significantly increased (F = 4.43, p = 0.0360), intervention participants were significantly less likely to drink five or more alcoholic drinks in one sitting (F = 5.10, p = 0.0245), and to use clean needles when injecting the drug (F = 36.99, p = 0.0001). This study is among the first of its kind to incorporate stress management as an integral approach to HIV/SA prevention. The program has implications for the design of other community-based, holistic approaches to addressing substance use and risky behaviors for young adults.

  4. Color It Real: A Program to Increase Condom Use and Reduce Substance Abuse and Perceived Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany Zellner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Few interventions have targeted perceived stress as a co-occurring construct central to substance use and subsequent HIV/AIDS risk reduction among African American urban young adults. The Color It Real Program was a seven session, weekly administered age-specific and culturally-tailored intervention designed to provide substance abuse and HIV education and reduce perceived stress among African Americans ages 18 to 24 in Atlanta, GA. Effectiveness was assessed through a quasi-experimental study design that consisted of intervention (n = 122 and comparison (n = 70 groups completing a pre- and post-intervention survey. A series of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA tests were used to assess pre- to post-intervention changes between study groups. For intervention participants, perceived stress levels were significantly reduced by the end of the intervention (t(70 = 2.38, p = 0.020, condom use at last sexual encounter significantly increased (F = 4.43, p = 0.0360, intervention participants were significantly less likely to drink five or more alcoholic drinks in one sitting (F = 5.10, p = 0.0245, and to use clean needles when injecting the drug (F = 36.99, p = 0.0001. This study is among the first of its kind to incorporate stress management as an integral approach to HIV/SA prevention. The program has implications for the design of other community-based, holistic approaches to addressing substance use and risky behaviors for young adults.

  5. Organizational consequences of staff turnover in outpatient substance abuse treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Danica K; Becan, Jennifer E; Flynn, Patrick M

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of staff turnover on perceptions of organizational demands and support among staff who remained employed in substance abuse treatment programs. The sample consisted of 353 clinical staff from 63 outpatient agencies. Two scales from the Survey of Organizational Functioning measured work environment demands (stress and inadequate staffing), and 3 measured supportive work relationships (communication, cohesion, and peer collaboration). Results from a series of multilevel models documented that counselors working in programs that had previously experienced high staff turnover perceived higher demands and lower support within their organization, even after controlling for other potentially burdensome factors such as budget, census, and individual measures of workload. Two individual-level variables, caseload and tenure, were important determinants of work environment demands but were not related to supportive work relationships. Findings suggest that staff turnover increases workplace demands, decreases perceptions of support, and underscores the need to reduce stress and minimize subsequent turnover among clinical staff. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Client-Provider relationship in comprehensive substance abuse treatment: differences in residential and nonresidential settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hee-Choon; Marsh, Jeanne C; Cao, Dingcai; Andrews, Christina M

    2011-12-01

    As the substance abuse service system shifts from primarily residential to primarily nonresidential settings, it becomes important to understand how substance abuse treatment processes and outcomes may vary across service setting. Research increasingly indicates that, along with specific treatment and service strategies, client-provider relationship is an important ingredient in effective substance abuse treatment. This study uses a moderator-mediator analysis of a comprehensive service model to examine how the relation between client-provider relationship and substance abuse treatment outcomes may differ in residential and nonresidential settings. The study used data collected for the National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study, a prospective, cohort-based study of U.S. substance abuse treatment programs and their clients, with an analytic sample of 59 publicly funded service delivery units and 3,027 clients. Structural equation modeling is used to assess the structural relations and causal connections between treatment process and treatment outcome variables. Results indicate that for nonresidential settings, a better client-provider relationship is directly related to improved outcomes of treatment duration and reduced posttreatment substance use and is indirectly related to both outcomes through provision of services matched to client needs. In residential settings, the quality of the client-provider relationship is unrelated to process or outcome variables. The findings point to the importance of the client-provider relationship in all settings but particularly in outpatient settings where there are limited physical constraints on the treatment process.

  7. An investigation of scale effects in family substance abuse treatment programs

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    Lee A James

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This short report investigates scale effects in family substance abuse treatment programs. In Massachusetts, the family substance abuse treatment programs were much more costly than other adult residential treatment models. State officials were concerned that the "scale" or size of these programs (averaging just eight families was too small to be economical. Although the sample size (just nine programs was too small to permit reliable inference, the data clearly signalled the importance of "scale effects" in these family substance abuse treatment programs. To further investigate scale effects in family substance abuse treatment programs, data from the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment's (CSAT's Residential Women and Children and Pregnant and Postpartum Women (RWC-PPW Demonstration were re-analyzed, focusing on the relationship between cost per family-day and the estimated average family census. This analysis indicates strong economies of scale up until an average family census of about 14, and less apparent scale effects beyond that point. In consideration of these and other study findings, a multidisciplinary interagency team redesigned the Massachusetts' family treatment program model. The new programs are larger than the former family treatment programs, with each new program having capacity to treat 11 to 15 families depending on family makeup.

  8. Evaluation of a community approach to address substance abuse in Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Michael S; Behringer, Bruce; Bowers, Kristine H; Jessee, Randall E

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a conference based program designed to enable 26 Appalachian teams to create intervention plans to address substance abuse in their communities. In March 2006, 26 Appalachian teams attended a conference to address substance abuse in their region. Teams of four to seven stakeholders generated community plans. The teams were evaluated 8 months later using a framework based on an adaptation of the Health Belief Model. Team leaders participated in structured telephone interviews. Results of this study found that the most common benefit to promulgating plans was community support. The most indicated barrier was time. The majority of teams believed that their community was susceptible to substance abuse problems. The cues that were most responsible for action were public awareness campaigns that emphasized the problems associated with substance abuse. The common denominator for team success was the ability to recruit key stakeholders and the ability to integrate with other organizations. The results of this study suggest that substance abuse is a threat to the health of the region. More effort on the part of communities will be needed to solve this problem. It will not be solved by a single agency, philosophy or program strategy, but must include multiple stakeholder participation.

  9. Employing continuous quality improvement in community-based substance abuse programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinman, Matthew; Hunter, Sarah B; Ebener, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to describe continuous quality improvement (CQI) for substance abuse prevention and treatment programs in a community-based organization setting. CQI (e.g., plan-do-study-act cycles (PDSA)) applied in healthcare and industry was adapted for substance abuse prevention and treatment programs in a community setting. The authors assessed the resources needed, acceptability and CQI feasibility for ten programs by evaluating CQI training workshops with program staff and a series of three qualitative interviews over a nine-month implementation period with program participants. The CQI activities, PDSA cycle progress, effort, enthusiasm, benefits and challenges were examined. Results indicated that CQI was feasible and acceptable for community-based substance abuse prevention and treatment programs; however, some notable resource challenges remain. Future studies should examine CQI impact on service quality and intended program outcomes. The study was conducted on a small number of programs. It did not assess CQI impact on service quality and intended program outcomes. Practical implications- This project shows that it is feasible to adapt CQI techniques and processes for community-based programs substance abuse prevention and treatment programs. These techniques may help community-based program managers to improve service quality and achieve program outcomes. This is one of the first studies to adapt traditional CQI techniques for community-based settings delivering substance abuse prevention and treatment programs.

  10. Mental Health Services and Public Safety: Substance Abuse Outpatient Visits Were Associated with Reduced Crime Rates in a Swedish Cohort

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Durbeej, Natalie; Palmstierna, Tom; Rosendahl, Ingvar; Berman, Anne H; Kristiansson, Marianne; Gumpert, Clara Hellner

    2015-01-01

    .... This cohort study aimed to explore the relationship between participation in substance abuse interventions and general criminal recidivism among offenders with a combination of mental health problems...

  11. Attitudes of undergraduate health science students towards patients with intellectual disability, substance abuse, and acute mental illness: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Malcolm J; Williams, Brett; Brown, Ted; Molloy, Andrew; McKenna, Lisa; Molloy, Elizabeth; Lewis, Belinda

    2010-10-21

    There is a long history of certain medical conditions being associated with stigma, stereotypes, and negative attitudes. Research has shown that such attitudes can have a detrimental effect on patients presenting with stigmatised medical conditions and can even flow on to impact their family. The objective of this study was to measure the attitudes of undergraduate students enrolled in six different health-related courses at Monash University toward patients with intellectual disability, substance abuse, and acute mental illness. A convenience sample of undergraduate students enrolled in six health-related courses in first, second and third years at Monash University were surveyed. The Medical Condition Regard Scale--a valid and reliable, self-report measure of attitudes--was administered to students along with a brief demographic form. Mean scores, t-tests, and ANOVA were used to analyse student attitudes. Ethics approval was granted. 548 students participated. Statistically significant differences were found between the courses (p = 0.05), year of the course (p = 0.09), and gender (p = 0.04) for the medical condition of intellectual disability. There was no statistically significant difference between the courses, year of the course, gender, and age group for substance abuse or acute mental illness conditions. The findings suggest that students in undergraduate health-related courses, as a group, have a strong regard for patients with intellectual disability and some regard for patients with acute mental illness, but not for patients presenting with substance abuse problems.

  12. Attitudes of undergraduate health science students towards patients with intellectual disability, substance abuse, and acute mental illness: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKenna Lisa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a long history of certain medical conditions being associated with stigma, stereotypes, and negative attitudes. Research has shown that such attitudes can have a detrimental effect on patients presenting with stigmatised medical conditions and can even flow on to impact their family. The objective of this study was to measure the attitudes of undergraduate students enrolled in six different health-related courses at Monash University toward patients with intellectual disability, substance abuse, and acute mental illness. Methods A convenience sample of undergraduate students enrolled in six health-related courses in first, second and third years at Monash University were surveyed. The Medical Condition Regard Scale - a valid and reliable, self-report measure of attitudes - was administered to students along with a brief demographic form. Mean scores, t-tests, and ANOVA were used to analyse student attitudes. Ethics approval was granted. Results 548 students participated. Statistically significant differences were found between the courses (p = 0.05, year of the course (p = 0.09, and gender (p = 0.04 for the medical condition of intellectual disability. There was no statistically significant difference between the courses, year of the course, gender, and age group for substance abuse or acute mental illness conditions. Conclusion The findings suggest that students in undergraduate health-related courses, as a group, have a strong regard for patients with intellectual disability and some regard for patients with acute mental illness, but not for patients presenting with substance abuse problems.

  13. Relationship between Personality Disorders and Relapses among Sample of Substance Abuse Patients

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    Osama Hasan Gaber

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the relationship between Personality Disorders and Relapses among Sample of 75 Substance Abuse Patients (personality disorder scale (prepared by the researchers were used Pearson Correlation Coefficient showed that there are statistically significant relationship between Antisocial personality disorder(ASPD, Borderline personality disorder (BPD, Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD and Dependent personality disorder (DPD and substance abuse relapses (P≤=0.00. Also the result showed that there are no statistically significant relationship between Paranoid personality disorder(PDD, Schizoid personality disorder(SPD, Schizotypal personality disorder (STPD, Histrionic personality disorder(HPD, Narsistic personality disorder(NPD and Obsessive-Compulsive personality disorder (OCPD, The Regression and Prediction Coefficient (stepwise was also used and showed that the Dependent personality disorder, Borderline personality disorder and Antisocial personality disorder predicts substance abuse relapses.

  14. The psychedelic 1960s, hippies in their 60s: substance abuse in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Janice

    2010-09-01

    Individuals who attended the famous Woodstock concert--known collectively as hippies--were part of the "counterculture" of the late 1960s and well known for their use of illicit, sometimes psychedelic, drugs. Did they and other former hippies, who are now in their sixties and seventies, continue their substance abuse, and how are they presenting now? This case evaluates a 77-year-old man who was referred to the geriatric assessment clinic for evaluation of worsening cognition. This case illustrates the need to conduct a complete medication history, including substance abuse and dietary supplements, in elderly patients. Consultant pharmacists with knowledge of alcohol and substance abuse and the influence of this abuse on a patient's drug regimen can make improved quality-of-life recommendations for appropriate dosage adjustments as needed.

  15. La mancha negra: substance abuse, violence, and sexual risks among Hispanic males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Ortega, Johis; Vasquez, Elias P; De Santis, Joseph

    2010-02-01

    Hispanics are disproportionately affected by substance abuse, intimate partner violence, and HIV. Although the relationship between these conditions has been documented in the literature, few studies have explored the intersection of these health problems and their culture-related risk factors in an integrative manner. The purpose of this study is to explore the experiences that Hispanic heterosexual males in South Florida have with substance abuse, violence, and risky sexual behaviors. Three focus groups with a total of 25 Hispanic adult men are completed and analyzed using grounded theory. Three core categories emerge from the data. These include la cuna de problemas sociales (the cradle of social problems), ramas de una sola mata (branches from one same tree), and la mancha negra (the black stain). This study suggests that substance abuse, violence, and risky sexual behaviors are linked conditions with common cultural and socioenvironmental risk factors and consequences.

  16. Contingency management treatment in substance abusers with and without legal problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nancy M.; Rash, Carla J.; Easton, Caroline J.

    2013-01-01

    Drug and alcohol abusers frequently have legal difficulties, and the legal system often provides negative reinforcers for substance abuse treatment involvement. In contrast, contingency management (CM) treatments utilize positive reinforcement procedures to improve patient outcomes. This study evaluated whether substance abusing patients with legal problems at treatment entry had differential outcomes in general, and in response to CM, compared to those without legal problems. Data from three randomized CM trials (n = 393) were used in an evaluation of main and interactive effects of legal status and treatment condition, with respect to retention and abstinence. Compared with patients without legal difficulties, those with legal problems remained in treatment for shorter durations and achieved shorter periods of abstinence. CM was positively and significantly associated with longer durations of abstinence, regardless of legal status. Results suggest that substance abusers with legal problems have generally poor outcomes but that CM is effective regardless of patients’ legal status. PMID:21908754

  17. Proposal for a new detection method of substance abuse risk in Croatian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Tatalovic Vorkapic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors of successful substance abuse treatment is the early start of the same treatment. Recent selection method for identification of Croatian adolescents in the substance abuse risk that has been using drug tests from urine samples, has been simple and exact on the one hand, but on the other, has been very rare and usually guided by the pressure of parents or the court. Besides, such method presented the source of legal and ethical questions. So, the proposal of application of standardized psychological tests during systematic medical exams of Croatian adolescents at the age range of 15-22 years could help with the early detection of those adolescents who were in the substance abuse risk or already had the developed addiction problem.

  18. Perception of University Community of Psychoactive Substance Abuse in the University of Antioquia, Medellin, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Posada

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To analyze the perception of the university community of the context and risk factors associated with psychoactive substance abuse. Material and Methods: A historical and hermeneutic approach with qualitative design, and grounded theory as research methodology. Data collection was carried out using semi-structured interviews. A theoretical, convenience sampling was carried out. 18 interviews with the university community and professionals of the Students Welfare Office conducted. Analysis was carried out using coding, categorization, and interpretation. Results: The University is recognized as an institution that offers high quality education and research where individuals develop their views of life, the city, and the university. It is also a place where psychoactive substance abuse is facilitated given its environment, the ideas and lifestyles of its people, the concept of being a university student, and the existence of drug sales. Conclusion: Substance abuse is therefore a phenomenon that should be approached first locally, and then at national and international levels.

  19. Contingency management treatment in substance abusers with and without legal problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nancy M; Rash, Carla J; Easton, Caroline J

    2011-01-01

    Drug and alcohol abusers frequently have legal difficulties, and the legal system often provides negative reinforcement for substance abuse treatment. In contrast, contingency management (CM) treatments utilize positive reinforcement procedures to improve patient outcomes. This study evaluated whether substance-abusing patients with legal problems at treatment entry had differential outcomes, in general and in response to CM, compared with those without legal problems. Data from three randomized CM trials (n = 393) were used in an evaluation of main and interactive effects of legal status and treatment condition, with respect to retention and abstinence. Compared with patients without legal difficulties, those with legal problems remained in treatment for shorter durations and achieved shorter periods of abstinence. CM was positively and significantly associated with longer durations of abstinence, regardless of legal status. Results suggest that substance abusers with legal problems have generally poor outcomes, but that CM is effective regardless of the patient's legal status.

  20. La Mancha Negra: Substance Abuse, Violence, and Sexual Risks Among Hispanic Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Ortega, Johis; Vasquez, Elias P.; De Santis, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Hispanics are disproportionately affected by substance abuse, intimate partner violence, and HIV. Although the relationship between these conditions has been documented in the literature, few studies have explored the intersection of these health problems and their culture-related risk factors in an integrative manner. The purpose of this study is to explore the experiences that Hispanic heterosexual males in South Florida have with substance abuse, violence, and risky sexual behaviors. Three focus groups with a total of 25 Hispanic adult men are completed and analyzed using grounded theory. Three core categories emerge from the data. These include la cuna de problemas sociales (the cradle of social problems), ramas de una sola mata (branches from one same tree), and la mancha negra (the black stain). This study suggests that substance abuse, violence, and risky sexual behaviors are linked conditions with common cultural and socioenvironmental risk factors and consequences. PMID:19915207

  1. Lifetime physical and sexual abuse, substance abuse, depression, and suicide attempts among Native American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Diane K

    2003-01-01

    Although there is preliminary evidence that violence against women and children may be particularly prevalent in some Native American communities, associations between abuse and substance abuse, mental health problems, and suicide attempts have rarely been studied in this population. This study examined lifetime and current physical and sexual abuse among 30 Native American women. Nearly half had experienced physical and/or sexual abuse as children, over half were sexually abused at some time in their lives, and over three-fourths were abused by a partner. All but four women (87%) had experience physical or sexual abuse in their lifetime. Significant relationships were found among childhood abuse, substance abuse, and adult revictimization, and among cumulative lifetime abuse events, substance abuse, and depression. Further research is needed to examine abuse and relationships between abuse and health sequelae in Native American populations. An accelerated public health and community response is needed to address abuse issues in this community.

  2. Manualized treatment for substance abusers with personality disorders: dual focus schema therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, S A

    1998-01-01

    The presence of an untreated personality disorder may be associated with worse compliance and outcome in substance abuse treatment. Therapeutic attention to the symptoms of personality disorder may reduce the severity of substance abuse and other Axis I symptoms which potentially contribute to relapse. A 24-week manual-guided individual cognitive-behavioral therapy approach has been developed that integrates relapse prevention with targeted intervention for early maladaptive schemas (enduring negative beliefs about oneself, others, and events) and coping styles. This Dual Focus Schema Therapy is being compared to 12-Step Drug Counseling for opioid-dependent individuals with personality disorders in an ongoing study funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse. This article reviews Young's (1994) schema-focused theory and approach and summarizes the treatment manual, which integrates relapse prevention for substance abuse.

  3. Internal and external factors in professional burnout of substance abuse counsellors in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Tatalović Vorkapić

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: In this study, burnout and its internal and external factors were investigated among substance abuse counsellors (no. = 68 who worked in centres for Prevention and Substance Abuse Treatment (no. = 18 in Croatia. METHODS: Maslach Burnout Inventory was used which measured three burnout dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment; and questionnaire of internal and external burnout factors. RESULTS: The higher levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and the higher level of personal accomplishment were determined. Factors such as work conditions, emotions about us and work, work organization and certain personality traits showed significant relationship with three burnout dimensions. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, findings implicated a certain specificity of professional burnout in substance abuse counsellors, and the need for specific design of mental health care for them.

  4. Attachment as an organizer of behavior: implications for substance abuse problems and willingness to seek treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troutman Beth

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attachment theory allows specific predictions about the role of attachment representations in organizing behavior. Insecure attachment is hypothesized to predict maladaptive emotional regulation whereas secure attachment is hypothesized to predict adaptive emotional regulation. In this paper, we test specific hypotheses about the role of attachment representations in substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Based on theory, we expect divergence between levels of maladaptive functioning and adaptive methods of regulating negative emotions. Methods Participants for this study consist of a sample of adoptees participating in an ongoing longitudinal adoption study (n = 208. The Semi-Structured Assessment of the Genetics of Alcohol-II 41 was used to determine lifetime substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Attachment representations were derived by the Adult Attachment Interview [AAI; 16]. We constructed a prior contrasts reflecting theoretical predictions for the association between attachment representations, substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Results Logistic regression was used to test our hypotheses. As predicted, individuals classified as dismissing, preoccupied or earned-secure reported the highest rates of substance abuse/dependence. Individuals classified as dismissing reported significantly lower rates of treatment participation despite their high rates of substance abuse/dependence. As expected, the continuous-secure group reported lowest rates of both substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Conclusion The findings from this study identify attachment representations as an influential factor in understanding the divergence between problematic substance use and treatment utilization. The findings further imply that treatment may need to take attachment representations into account to promote successful recovery.

  5. Talking about friends, drugs, and change: meanings of friendship in substance abusers' change talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarpavaara, Harri

    2014-05-01

    This article explores the meanings of substance-abusing clients attach to friendships during motivational treatment sessions in Probation Service. Sessions (98) were videotaped in 12 probation service offices in Finland in 2007 to 2009. By using semiotic framework, this qualitative study examines client's change talk utterance about friendships as a symbolic sign. The findings indicate that the friendships play an important role in the substance-abusing clients' motivation to change and in their treatment outcome. The study suggests that the personal meanings of clients' utterances in motivational treatment sessions could be seen as potential predictors of their future behavior.

  6. Substance abuse and dependence in the hospital workplace: detection and handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossi, J

    1991-01-01

    A hospital can take many avenues in dealing with an employee or professional who is impaired by substance abuse or dependence. The most difficult aspect of dealing with the problem is detection. Fortunately, increasing public awareness and concern regarding workplace substance abuse is forcing legislators to address the issue and expose the problem. The legislative response appears to be geared toward treatment and education rather than punishment, which in the opinion of this author is a desirable approach. The pharmacy department can be a valuable asset to the hospital risk manager in detecting diversion of controlled substances and educating employees as to the clinical signs and symptoms of impairment.

  7. Residential Substance Abuse Treatment for Urban American Indians and Alaska Natives, Part I: Services and Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Bentson H; Walker, Dale; Silk-Walker, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Although residential substance abuse treatment is utilized extensively by urban American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs), there are few detailed descriptions of this care. This study delineated services provided by and interviewed staff working at residential programs designed for chemically dependent urban AI/ANs. Study agencies were compared to national data from residential programs serving general population clients. Study agencies delivered arrays of services substantially broader than those provided by general population programs. As well as culturally specific programs tailored for AI/ANs plus so-called "mainstream" substance abuse treatments, study facilities provided numerous ancillary services, such as care for clients' children.

  8. Substance abuse and mental health issues within Native American grandparenting families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignon, Sylvia I; Holmes, William M

    2013-01-01

    Substance abuse and mental health problems among Native Americans are associated with a variety of general health, social, and economic problems. This current study examined Native American grandparents who are raising their grandchildren and found that a child, parent, or grandparent had an alcohol or drug problem in 36% of families. Substance abuse on the part of a parent was correlated with the reasons grandparents were raising their grandchildren. Native American grandparents raising grandchildren cope with a variety of challenges and receive little state-funded assistance or help from others.

  9. Hispanic women's experiences with substance abuse, intimate partner violence, and risk for HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Vasquez, Elias P; Urrutia, Maria T; Villarruel, Antonia M; Peragallo, Nilda

    2011-01-01

    Hispanic females are disproportionately affected by substance abuse, intimate partner violence, and HIV. Despite these disparities, research describing the cultural and gender-specific experiences of Hispanic women with regard to these conditions is lacking. Transplantadas en otro mundo (Uprooted in another world), El criador de abuso (The breeding ground of abuse), and Rompiendo el silencio (Breaking the silence). This study supports the importance of addressing substance abuse, violence, and risk for HIV in an integrated manner and stresses the importance of addressing associated cultural factors (e.g., acculturation, machismo ) in interventions targeting Hispanics.

  10. Psychological trauma and substance abuse: the need for an integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass-Brailsford, Priscilla; Myrick, Amie C

    2010-10-01

    There is consensus that an integrated approach which addresses the clinical needs of individuals who have histories of substance abuse and psychological trauma concurrently is an acceptable and preferred approach to treatment. Several integrated models have emerged in recent years. In this paper we first define the concepts of substance abuse and psychological trauma, investigate the relationship between both and proceed to discuss why an integrated approach is most compelling. Finally, we review and critically examine the different integrated models that have been developed in terms of efficacy, effectiveness and empirical evidence. The paper concludes with suggestions on how the field can be improved.

  11. Anger Management for Substance Abuse and Mental Health Clients: A Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Manual [and] Participant Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Patrick M.; Shopshire, Michael S.; Durazzo, Timothy C.; Campbell, Torri A.

    This manual and workbook set focuses on anger management. The manual was designed for use by qualified substance abuse and mental health clinicians who work with substance abuse and mental health clients with concurrent anger programs. The manual describes a 12-week cognitive behavioral anger management group treatment. Each of the 12 90-minute…

  12. Integrating Substance Abuse Treatment and Child Welfare Services: Findings from the Illinois Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Waiver Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph P.; Marsh, Jeanne C.; Testa, Mark F.; Louderman, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol and other drug abuse is a major problem for children and families involved with public child welfare. Substance abuse compromises appropriate parenting practices and increases the risk of child maltreatment. A substantial proportion of substantiated child abuse and neglect reports involve parental substance abuse. Once in the system,…

  13. "Understand My Side, My Situation, and My Story": Insights into the Service Needs among Substance-Abusing Homeless Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashora, Pushpanjali; Slesnick, Natasha; Erdem, Gizem

    2012-01-01

    Substance abuse among homeless mothers has negative consequences for both the mother and her child. Few researchers have examined the needs of these mothers in order to effectively intervene in their lives. This study uses a qualitative focus group research method to examine the needs of substance abusing homeless mothers recruited from a homeless…

  14. Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of People with Intellectual Disabilities with and without Substance Abuse Disorders in a Medicaid Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayter, Elspeth Maclean

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the demographic and clinical characteristics of people with intellectual disabilities and substance abuse problems. Drawing on health care billing claims for people with Medicaid coverage aged 12-99 years, the characteristics of people with intellectual disability and a history of substance abuse (N = 9,484) were explored and…

  15. The Association between Foster Care and Substance Abuse Risk Factors and Treatment Outcomes: An Exploratory Secondary Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, Wendy Whiting; Shields, Joseph; Verdieck, Mary Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    The child welfare and substance abuse systems are integrally linked through the children and families they both serve. There is a dearth of knowledge, however, on how children who have experienced foster care fare when they are treated for substance abuse issues as adults. This article presents an exploratory study using the Alcohol and Drug…

  16. 49 CFR 240.119 - Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules compliance. 240.119 Section 240.119 Transportation Other... Process § 240.119 Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules.... (b) Fitness requirement. (1) A person who has an active substance abuse disorder shall not...

  17. The Effect of Substance Abuse Treatment on High Risk Behaviors in the National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study (NTIES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Lawrence; Finkbiner, Richard; Bishop, Sharon

    Substance abusers are at particular risk for becoming infected with, and for spreading, a number of serious communicable diseases. The value of substance abuse treatment in helping to reduce the associated risk behaviors for these diseases is the focus of this technical report. This analysis examines the risk behaviors of injection drug use and…

  18. HIV/AIDS, Substance Abuse, and Hepatitis Prevention Needs of Native Americans Living in Baltimore: In Their Own Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeannette L.; Gryczynski, Jan; Wiechelt, Shelly A.

    2007-01-01

    A needs assessment funded by the Center of Substance Abuse Prevention was conducted in 2005-2006 to determine the HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, and hepatitis prevention needs of Native Americans living in Baltimore, Maryland. We used a community-based participatory approach to gain an in-depth understanding of local Native American health service…

  19. 76 FR 47597 - Indian Alcohol and Substance Abuse Memorandum of Agreement Between U.S. Department of Health and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... NSDUH Report: Substance Use among American Indian or Alaska Native Adults, Rockville, MD. The Department... substance abuse services and programs for American Indian and Alaska Native individuals, families, and... a coordinated effort to combat alcohol and substance abuse among American Indians and Alaska Natives...

  20. Examining Perpetration of Physical Violence by Women: The Influence of Childhood Adversity, Victimization, Mental Illness, Substance Abuse, and Anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Sheryl; Fedock, Gina; Kim, Woo Jong; Bybee, Deborah

    2017-02-01

    Research on women's perpetration of physical violence has focused primarily on partners, often neglecting perpetration against nonpartners. This study proposes a conceptual model with direct and indirect relationships between childhood adversity and different targets of violence (partners and nonpartners), mediated by victimization experiences (by partner and nonpartners), mental illness, substance abuse, and anger. Using survey data from a random sample of incarcerated women (N = 574), structural equation modeling resulted in significant, albeit different, indirect paths from childhood adversity, through victimization, to perpetration of violence against partners (β = .20) and nonpartners (β = .19). The results indicate that prevention of women's violence requires attention to specific forms of victimization, anger expression, and targets of her aggression.

  1. Readiness to adopt a performance measurement system for substance abuse treatment: Findings from the Service Quality Measures initiative

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    B Myers

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. A performance measurement system – the Service Quality Measures (SQM initiative – has been developed to monitor the quality of South Africa (SA’s substance abuse treatment services. Identifying factors associated with readiness to adopt this system may inform strategies to facilitate its robust implementation. Objective. To examine factors associated with readiness to adopt a performance measurement system among SA substance abuse treatment providers. Methods. We surveyed 81 treatment providers from 13 treatment sites in the Western Cape, SA. The survey examined awareness, resources, organisational climate, leadership support and readiness to adopt the SQM system. Regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with readiness to adopt this system. Results. Readiness to adopt the SQM initiative was high (M=5.64, standard deviation 1.63. In bivariate analyses, caseload size (F=3.73 (degrees of freedom (df=3.70, p=0.015, awareness (r=0.78, p<0.0001, leadership support (r=0.70, p<0.0001, resources (r=0.65, p<0.0001, openness to change (r=0.372, p=0.001, and external pressure to change were associated with readiness to adopt the SQM. In multivariate analyses, only awareness of the SQM initiative (B=0.34, standard error (SE 0.08, t=4.4, p<0.0001 and leadership support (B=0.45, SE 0.11, t=4.0, p<0.0001 were significantly associated with readiness to adopt this system. Conclusion. While treatment providers report high levels of readiness to adopt the SQM system, findings show that the likelihood of adoption can be further increased through improved provider awareness and enhanced leadership support for this health innovation.

  2. Reinforcement and punishment of substance abuse during ongoing interactions: a conversational test of inconsistent nurturing as control theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Ashley P; Dailey, Rene M; Le Poire, Beth A

    2008-01-01

    This study is the first to examine inconsistent nurturing as control (INC) theory during ongoing interpersonal influence episodes between substance-abusive individuals and their romantic partners. This study sought to determine how nonverbal (i.e., kinesic and vocalic) and verbal reinforcement and punishment of substance-abusive behavior during actual interactions influenced substance-abusive individuals' recidivism and perceptions of non-using partners' persuasive effectiveness. The findings reveal that consistent verbal punishment of substance abuse (e.g., threats, nagging) predicted lower relapse, while verbal reinforcement (e.g., telling the partner they are more fun when they use) predicted higher relapse. With regard to nonverbal communication, vocalic punishment and vocalic reinforcement predicted relapse and persuasive effectiveness. Results suggest the combination of behaviors resemble intermittent reinforcement and punishment and should actually strengthen the substance-abusive behavior the partner is trying to curtail.

  3. Primer for Teachers: Quick and Easy Liver Wellness, Hepatitis B and Substance Abuse Prevention Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Thelma King

    This guide provides information for teachers to use in teaching about liver wellness, hepatitis B, and substance abuse. The guide includes effective motivational techniques to help students understand how valuable their liver is to their health and well being. It also provides basic information to help students avoid liver damaging behaviors, such…

  4. Personality Subtypes, Coping Styles, Symptom Correlates, and Substances of Choice among a Cohort of Substance Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Stuart W.; McCormick, Richard A.

    1998-01-01

    The usefulness of the Five-Factor personality domains of the NEO Personality Inventory (P. Costa and R. McCrae, 1992) in identifying subtypes was studied with 3,256 substance abusers. Three groups, differing in coping style, psychopathological symptoms, and pattern of substance choice, were reliably identified. Implications for use of the measure…

  5. Cost-Effectiveness of Connecticut's In-Prison Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Marilyn; Love, Craig T.; Shepard, Donald S.; Petersen, Cheryl B.; White, Karen L.; Hall, Frank B.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the criminal justice population in the US has grown by over 200%, most of this due to an increase in drug-involved offenders. Although there is good evidence that prison-based substance abuse treatment programs can be effective in reducing rearrest, few cost-effectiveness studies have been conducted. Using data from the…

  6. Improving Service Utilization for Parents with Substance Abuse Problems: Experimenting with Recovery Coaches in Child Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Substance abusers often face substantial systematic and personal barriers to receiving required substance abuse treatment services as well as other services; hence, various linkage mechanisms have been proposed for drug abuse treatment programs to overcome such barriers. Although there is a growing interest in the use of case management with a substance abuse background, its effectiveness in child welfare has yet to be explored. In this study the author attempts to investigate the effectiveness of case management in service utilization by systematically evaluating the five-year Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse (AODA) waiver demonstration project with Recovery Coaches in Illinois. A classic experimental design with a control group was used. Random assignment occurs at the agency level. Parents in the experimental group (N = 1562) received recovery coaches in addition to traditional child welfare services while parents in the control group (N = 598) only received traditional child welfare services. Bivariate and multivariate analyses (Ordinary Last Square regressions) were used. Compared to parents in the control group, parents in the experimental group were more likely to utilize substance abuse treatment. The results suggest that gender, education level, employment status, and the number of service needs were significantly associated with service utilization. Controlling other factors, recovery coaches improved overall service utilization. Because the outcome of child welfare often depends on the improvement of risks or resolution, it is important for parents to utilize the needed services. Future studies need to address what aspects of recovery coaches facilitate the services utilization.

  7. Data Analysis Strategies and Designs for Substance Abuse Research. Research Issues 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentler, Peter M., Ed.; And Others

    This volume contains 10 original papers discussing methodologies applicable to performing psychosocial research on substance abuse, particularly abuse with drugs. Eight data analysis strategies are discussed by the authors: automatic interaction detection, actuarial prediction, cluster and typological analysis, path analysis, factor analysis,…

  8. Disparities in Access to Substance Abuse Treatment among People with Intellectual Disabilities and Serious Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayter, Elspeth M.

    2010-01-01

    People with intellectual disabilities (ID) have experienced increasing levels of community participation since deinstitutionalization. This freedom has facilitated community inclusion, access to alcohol and drugs, and the potential for developing substance abuse (SA) disorders. People with ID, who are known to have high rates of co-occurring…

  9. Social Network Characteristics of Urban Adolescents in Brief Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the social network characteristics of 102 urban adolescents in brief substance abuse treatment are described and analyzed longitudinally to examine risk and protective mechanisms. The treatment intervention had one session devoted to social support and networks. Social networks were conceptualized and measured along two dimensions…

  10. 75 FR 44929 - Request for Information Regarding Workplace Substance Abuse Programs for Department of Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ...-AA41 Request for Information Regarding Workplace Substance Abuse Programs for Department of Energy... information. SUMMARY: The Department of Energy (DOE or the Department) requests information and comments on... certification; and other pertinent subjects. The information received in response to this request will assist...

  11. Maternal and Neonatal Complications of Substance Abuse in Iranian Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Hosseinnezhad-Yazdi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an increased prevalence of maternal substance abuse during pregnancy in younger women in all socioeconomic classes and races. Our aim was to determine the prevalence and correlates of self-reported substance abuse among pregnant women and obstetric complications or neonatal outcomes in Iran. This retrospective cohort study is covering a five year period on medical records of pregnant women attending the maternity unit of four major hospitals (Mahdieh, Taleghani, Imam Hossein and Akbarabadi Hospitals. Women who reported using opium, heroin, crack, cannabis or methamphetamine were compared with women with no reported history of drug abuse for obstetric complications and prenatal morbidity and neonatal mortality. From 100,620 deliveries substance abuse was recorded for 519 women giving a prevalence of 0.5%. Opium was the most prevalent substance abused followed by crack (a mix of heroin and amphetamines. The exposed group had significantly more obstetric complications including preterm low birth weight and postpartum hemorrhage than the non-exposed group. The exposed group had significantly worse prenatal outcomes including more admissions to intensive care unit and higher infant mortality than the non-exposed group. None of the women in the exposed group was on methadone treatment at time of delivery. Risks of maternal and neonatal complications were increased in substance using pregnant women, especially preterm birth and low birth weight. We recommend a multidisciplinary team to provide methadone maintenance therapy for substance using pregnant women and urinary screen of all pregnant women presenting to hospital.

  12. The Exploration of Protective factors on prevention working children’s substance abuse

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    Sima Esmaeili Shamirzadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundChild labor is one of the challenges among most big cities in the world. In recent years, substance abuse among working, and street children has become a common phenomenon. Thus, in the present study, the protective factors affecting the prevention of substance abuse among Iranian working children were identified by using the social-ecological approach.Materials and MethodsThe participants included Seventeen 8-15-year-old children who were the members of Imam Ali and Ilia non-governmental organizations (NGOs. Semi-structured in-depth interview interviews were used for data collection. Purposive sampling began in December 2015 and continued till data saturation in June 2016. Data were analyzed based on qualitative content-oriented analysis.ResultsDifferent protective factors were identified and classified at five levels of the social-ecological model. Four classes (belief, knowledge, attitude, skill at the personal level, two classes (family and relatives at the interpersonal level, two classes (governmental organizations and non-governmental organizations at the organizational level, the class of living environment at the community level , and two classes (supportive policies and restrictive policies at the public policies level were considered.ConclusionThe protective factors affecting the prevention of substance abuse are related to personal, household, social, organizational, and public policy factors. Thus, personal and social empowerment, social participation and capacity building seem necessary to strengthen the protective factors which play a significant role in the prevention of substance abuse among Iranian working children.

  13. Federal Agency Efforts to Advance Media Literacy in Substance Abuse Prevention

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    Levitt, Alan; Denniston, Bob

    2014-01-01

    This article describes and reflects upon efforts to generate greater support for media literacy and critical thinking within the strategies and programs of the Federal government in the early 1990s to about 2005 primarily among agencies with an interest in youth substance abuse prevention. Beginning with their personal reflections on discovering…

  14. Physical Health, Mental Health, and Substance Abuse Problems of Shelter Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Shirley N.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined physical health of 72 users of homeless shelters, comparing shelter users with mental illness or substance abuse problems with those without these problems. Found that alcohol abusers were significantly more likely to have low blood pressure, symptoms of liver disease, and tuberculosis treatment history. Found no health differences for…

  15. Substance Abuse Treatment: Critical Issues and Challenges in the Treatment of Latina Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Hortensia; Nieves, Rita; Johannes, Sergut Wolde; Cabeza, Nirzka M. Labault

    1999-01-01

    Among 66 Latina mothers in a residential substance abuse treatment program, 80% reported childhood experiences of abuse. Compared to other female participants, women abused as children were more likely to be predominantly Spanish speakers, to have health problems, to have had children removed from their custody, and to drop out quickly from…

  16. Developing, Implementing, and Evaluating a Treatment Protocol for Rural Substance Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James J.; Leukefeld, Carl; Godlaski, Theodore; Brown, Cyndy; Garrity, John; Hays, Lon

    2002-01-01

    Evaluation of an innovative substance abuse treatment program designed for rural areas involved 45 clients, 10 clinicians, and 2 program directors from three sites. Most clients felt the program was beneficial, but stressful. Clinicians found the program demanding to learn and adopt. Program directors liked the rural-specific design and the…

  17. Transforming mental health and substance abuse data systems in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Rosanna M; Buck, Jeffrey A; Kassed, Cheryl A; Dilonardo, Joan; Forhan, Carol; Marder, William D; Vandivort-Warren, Rita

    2008-11-01

    State efforts to improve mental health and substance abuse service systems cannot overlook the fragmented data systems that reinforce the historical separateness of systems of care. These separate systems have discrete approaches to treatment, and there are distinct funding streams for state mental health, substance abuse, and Medicaid agencies. Transforming mental health and substance abuse services in the United States depends on resolving issues that underlie separate treatment systems--access barriers, uneven quality, disjointed coordination, and information silos across agencies and providers. This article discusses one aspect of transformation--the need for interoperable information systems. It describes current federal and state initiatives for improving data interoperability and the special issue of confidentiality associated with mental health and substance abuse treatment data. Some achievable steps for states to consider in reforming their behavioral health data systems are outlined. The steps include collecting encounter-level data; using coding that is compliant with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, including national provider identifiers; forging linkages with other state data systems and developing unique client identifiers among systems; investing in flexible and adaptable data systems and business processes; and finding innovative solutions to the difficult confidentiality restrictions on use of behavioral health data. Changing data systems will not in itself transform the delivery of care; however, it will enable agencies to exchange information about shared clients, to understand coordination problems better, and to track successes and failures of policy decisions.

  18. 75 FR 74738 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Online Skills Training for PCPs on Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Online Skills... currently valid OMB control number. Proposed Collection: Title: Online Skills Training for PCPs on Substance... research will evaluate the effectiveness of the Online Skills Training for PCPs on Substance Abuse, via...

  19. Excessive sexual activities among male clients in substance abuse treatment. An interview study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Hansen Punzi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The co-occurrence of substance abuse and excessive sexual activities is acknowledged in research and treatment practice. Men seem particularly at risk for developing excessive sexual activities. Excessive sexual activities complicate substance abuse treatment, and clients with such co-occurring difficulties have considerable treatment needs. It is therefore considered important to investigate how male clients who had enacted excessive sexual activities, perceive their excessive sexual activities, and themselves. Design: Interviews were performed with five male clients in substance abuse treatment, who had enacted excessive sexual activities. The interviews concerned the participants’ perception of themselves and how they came to enact excessive sexual activities. The interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: Two major themes were identified. One theme concerned overwhelming shame and difficulties to discuss sexuality in treatment. The second theme concerned how perceptions about masculinity had influenced sexual activities. Sexuality was described as an absent topic in their previous and ongoing treatment, and the participants described a need to discuss sexuality. Implications: It seems important that future studies investigate how excessive sexual activities might be identified and handled in treatment. It also seems important to investigate how gender-perceptions might influence excessive sexual activities. As a suggestion, practitioners should address sexuality, shame and perceptions about gender during treatment. Keywords: Excessive sexual activities; Interview study; Masculinity; Shame; Substance abuse; Treatment

  20. The Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory-3 and Stages of Change: A Screening Validity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, John M.; Piazza, Nick J.; Salyers, Kathleen; Roseman, Christopher P.

    2012-01-01

    The sensitivity of the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory-3 (SASSI-3) was examined among substance-dependent adults enrolled in a family drug court. The SASSI-3 had a high sensitivity rate with this population, even across varying levels of motivation to change. (Contains 2 tables.)

  1. Markers of Marijuana Use Outcomes within Adolescent Substance Abuse Group Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Brett; Macgowan, Mark J.; Wagner, Eric F.; Amrhein, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Despite their popularity, little is known about what distinguishes effective from ineffective or even iatrogenic adolescent group interventions. Methods: Audio recordings and transcripts from 19, 8-10 session, school-based treatment groups comprised of 108, substance abusing 10- to 19-year olds were analyzed. "Group leader empathy" was…

  2. Addressing Substance Abuse Treatment Needs of Parents Involved with the Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros, Arazais; Kaufman, Joan

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to synthesize available data to help guide policy and programmatic initiatives for families with substance abuse problems who are involved with the child welfare system, and identify gaps in the research base preventing further refinement of practices in this area. To date, Family Treatment Drug Court and newly developed…

  3. No Place To Hide: Substance Abuse in Mid-Size Cities and Rural America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    America's substance abuse epidemic has come to rural America. Adults in small metropolitan and rural areas are just as likely as those in urban America to use and abuse illegal drugs, alcohol, and tobacco. Young teens in small metropolitan and rural areas are more likely to abuse substances than those in large metro areas. Based on a wide variety…

  4. A Rasch Analysis of the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Tara M.; Laux, John M.; Stone, Gregory; Dupuy, Paula; Scott, Holly

    2013-01-01

    Rasch analysis of the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory-3 (SASSI-3; F. G. Miller & Lazowski, 1999) indicated that the SASSI-3 meets fundamental measurement properties; however, the authors of the current study recommend the elimination of nonfunctioning items and the improvement of response options for the face valid scales to increase…

  5. The influence of distance on utilization of outpatient mental health aftercare following inpatient substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Susan K; Phibbs, Ciaran S; Piette, John D

    2003-08-01

    This study examined whether substance abuse patients who live farther from their source of outpatient mental health care were less likely to obtain aftercare following an inpatient treatment episode. For those patients who did receive aftercare, distance was evaluated as a predictor of the volume of care received. A national sample of 33,952 veterans discharged from Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) inpatient substance abuse treatment programs was analyzed using a two-part choice model utilizing logistic and linear regression. Patients living farther from their source of outpatient mental health care were less likely to obtain aftercare following inpatient substance abuse treatment. Patients who traveled 10 miles or less were 2.6 times more likely to obtain aftercare than those who traveled more than 50 miles. Only 40% of patients who lived more than 25 miles from the nearest aftercare facility obtained any aftercare services. Patients who received aftercare services had fewer visits if they lived farther from their source of aftercare. Lack of geographic access (distance) is a barrier to outpatient mental health care following inpatient substance abuse treatment, and influences the volume of care received once the decision to obtain aftercare is made. Aftercare services must be geographically accessible to ensure satisfactory utilization.

  6. Integrated treatment for substance abuse and partner violence (I-StoP): a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraanen, F.L.; Scholing, A.; Hamdoune, M.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Substance use disorders and intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration frequently co-occur, and it has been hypothesized that alcohol use and IPV perpetration are causally related. This led to the development of an Integrated treatment for Substance abuse and Partner violence (I-StoP). This case

  7. Blending Perspectives and Building Common Ground: A Report to Congress on Substance Abuse and Child Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration for Children and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    This report attempts to improve the capacity of teachers, counselors, and other professionals to serve families whose children are at risk due to substance abuse and maltreatment on the part of the caretakers. Any professional coming into contact with these children needs to be aware of the scope of the problem and understand what these children…

  8. Metacognitive interpersonal therapy for co-occurrent avoidant personality disorder and substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimaggio, Giancarlo; D'Urzo, Maddalena; Pasinetti, Manuela; Salvatore, Giampaolo; Lysaker, Paul H; Catania, Dario; Popolo, Raffaele

    2015-02-01

    Many patients with substance abuse problems present with co-occurrent cluster C personality disorders. Focusing on both disorders disrupts the maintenance mechanisms and the vicious cycle between the 2 conditions; however, treatment teams often neglect this issue. In this work, we describe the features of metacognitive interpersonal therapy as applied to a man with avoidant and depressive personality disorders and heroin, cocaine, and alcohol abuse. Psychotherapy proceeded through the following steps: (a) conducting drug therapy to deal with symptoms of abstinence from heroin; (b) forming a therapeutic bond to overcome the patient's severe emotional withdrawal; (c) fostering basic metacognitive capacities such as awareness of emotions and their triggers; (d) sharing formulations of maladaptive interpersonal schemas and descriptions of the associated states of mind; (e) conveying an understanding of the link between interpersonal events (recent ones and traumatic memories) and substance abuse; (f) facilitating the acquisition of critical distance from maladaptive schemas; and (g) promoting the use of adaptive coping skills instead of resorting to substance abuse. Implications for generalizing these procedures to the treatment of other patients with co-occurrent personality disorders and substance abuse are described.

  9. The development of substance-abuse curricular content by five North Carolina schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, W L; Applegate, S N; Stein, R M; Lohr, J A

    1998-10-01

    In 1992, the four medical schools in North Carolina and that state's dental school initiated a four-year project to more thoroughly integrate content about substance abuse into their curricula. The project was based on the premise that medical schools are failing to provide their students with adequate training about substance abuse issues, yet substance abuse is a large and growing source of health problems nationwide. While the authors indicate in broad ways the kinds of curricular content that the project sought, in this article they concentrate on the processes by which key faculty, administrators, and staff members from all the schools worked together in the curriculum development process, with each school tailoring the project's findings to the needs of its own students. Phase I of the project focused on the selection and orientation of the key faculty and members of the working committee at each institution, and garnering institutional support. Phase II focused on the development by key faculty of the project's philosophy, goals, and objectives; conducting needs assessment and curriculum analysis at each school; and identifying the content needed. During Phase III, project participants refined the needed content and integrated it, in individual ways, into each school's curriculum. Some (but not enough) evaluation of these curricular implementations was done. The authors highlight the lessons learned, both positive and negative, in hopes that these will be useful to other educators who wish to design, implement, and institutionalize substance-abuse curricular content.

  10. Markers of Marijuana Use Outcomes within Adolescent Substance Abuse Group Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Brett; Macgowan, Mark J.; Wagner, Eric F.; Amrhein, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Despite their popularity, little is known about what distinguishes effective from ineffective or even iatrogenic adolescent group interventions. Methods: Audio recordings and transcripts from 19, 8-10 session, school-based treatment groups comprised of 108, substance abusing 10- to 19-year olds were analyzed. "Group leader empathy" was…

  11. Families Helping Families: Implementing a Multifamily Therapy Group with Substance-Abusing Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, David W.; Orsbon, Sarah H.

    2002-01-01

    In treating a substance-abusing adolescent, the family is a key target of intervention. Multifamily therapy groups (MFTGs) have been used to involve families in treatment and have been found to be effective with a variety of populations. This article provides a theoretical overview of a MFTG model and describes the implementation of the model with…

  12. Interventions to Address Parenting and Parental Substance Abuse: Conceptual and Methodological Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neger, Emily N.; Prinz, Ronald J.

    2015-01-01

    Parental substance abuse is a serious problem affecting the well-being of children and families. The co-occurrence of parental substance abuse and problematic parenting is recognized as a major public health concern. This review focuses on 21 outcome studies that tested dual treatment of substance abuse and parenting. A summary of theoretical conceptualizations of the connections between substance abuse and parenting provides a backdrop for the review. Outcomes of the dual treatment studies were generally positive with respect to reduction of parental substance use and improvement of parenting. Research in this area varied in methodological rigor and needs to overcome challenges regarding design issues, sampling frame, and complexities inherent in such a high-risk population. This area of work can be strengthened by randomized controlled trials, use of mixed-methods outcome measures, consideration of parent involvement with child protective services, involvement of significant others in treatment, provision of concrete supports for treatment attendance and facilitative public policies. PMID:25939033

  13. How Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment Unit Director Activities May Affect Provision of Community Outreach Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Emmeline; Wells, Rebecca; Alexander, Jeffrey; Green, Sherri

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Community outreach services play an important role in infectious disease prevention and engaging drug users not currently in treatment. However, fewer than half of US substance abuse treatment units provide these services and many have little financial incentive to do so. Unit directors generally have latitude about scope of services,…

  14. Testing a Model of Participant Retention in Longitudinal Substance Abuse Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Devin; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal substance abuse research has often been compromised by high rates of attrition, thought to be the result of the lifestyle that often accompanies addiction. Several studies have used strategies including collection of locator information at the baseline assessment, verification of the information, and interim contacts prior to…

  15. Faculty Attitudes toward Addressing Mental Health Conditions and Substance Abuse among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor-Merrigan, Mary L.

    2013-01-01

    The continued prevalence of mental health conditions and substance abuse among students enrolled in institutions of higher education is a significant and progressing concern, with marked impact on retention, academic success, graduation rate, and alarming personal consequences. Yet, many institutions struggle with successfully addressing these…

  16. Exploring the Relationship between Social Interest, Social Bonding, and Collegiate Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Amanda L.; Cashwell, Craig S.

    2014-01-01

    Substance abuse continues to be prevalent on college campuses. This study explored the relationships between social interest, social bonding, and hazardous drinking and marijuana use among college students. Results indicate that the social bonding elements of religious commitment, respect for authority, and acceptance of conventional beliefs,…

  17. The Economic Cost of Substance Abuse Treatment in the State of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Pierre K.; Beulaygue, Isabelle C.; French, Michael T.; McCollister, Kathryn E.; Popovici, Ioana; Sayed, Bisma A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Public and private stakeholders of substance abuse treatment services require economic cost data to guide program evaluations and funding decisions. Background: Rigorous cost assessments have been conducted for several treatment programs across the United States, but a systematic and comprehensive evaluation of programs in a particular…

  18. How Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment Unit Director Activities May Affect Provision of Community Outreach Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Emmeline; Wells, Rebecca; Alexander, Jeffrey; Green, Sherri

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Community outreach services play an important role in infectious disease prevention and engaging drug users not currently in treatment. However, fewer than half of US substance abuse treatment units provide these services and many have little financial incentive to do so. Unit directors generally have latitude about scope of services,…

  19. Examining Substance Abuse in Truant Youths and Their Caregivers: Implications for Truancy Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Christopher W.; Sutphen, Richard D.; Ely, Gretchen E.

    2012-01-01

    Truancy is associated with an array of negative social consequences, including poor school performance, delinquency, and dropout. Numerous individual, family, school, and community risk factors associated with truancy are also associated with adolescent substance abuse. However, little is known about substance use patterns among court-adjudicated…

  20. The Nature of Victimization among Youths with Hearing Loss in Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Janet C.

    2010-01-01

    The author profiles the prevalence, severity, and characteristics of victimization among a group of youths with hearing loss presenting to substance abuse treatment. Intake data on 111 deaf and hard of hearing youths (42% female) were analyzed and compared with data from a weighted, gender-matched sample of hearing youths. After gender is…

  1. Substance Abuse and Learning Disabilities: Peas in a Pod or Apples and Oranges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    This paper was developed as a result of a 1999 conference on substance abuse and learning disabilities. An introductory chapter urges early identification of learning disabilities and appropriate treatment for both problems when they co-exist. The second chapter discusses the differences between learning disabilities and behavioral disorders, the…

  2. Results from the Pro-QOL-IV for Substance Abuse Counselors Working with Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Elizabeth B.; Sprang, Ginny

    2013-01-01

    This study examines compassion fatigue, burnout and compassion satisfaction in two groups of counselors who specialize in substance dependency treatment in order to identify the unique features of substance abuse service delivery that may be related to professional quality of life. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 20 substance abuse…

  3. National Analysis of Differences among Substance Abuse Treatment Outcomes: College Student and Nonstudent Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahker, Ethan; Acion, Laura; Arndt, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To discover differences between student and nonstudent substance abuse treatment demographics, treatment characteristics, and outcomes. Participants: Conducted February 2014, clients without prior treatment admissions, aged 18-24, not in methadone maintenance therapy, and in nonintensive and ambulatory intensive outpatient treatment…

  4. Statewide Adoption and Initial Implementation of Contingency Management for Substance-Abusing Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henggeler, Scott W.; Chapman, Jason E.; Rowland, Melisa D.; Halliday-Boykins, Colleen A.; Randall, Jeff; Shackelford, Jennifer; Schoenwald, Sonja K.

    2008-01-01

    Four hundred thirty-two public sector therapists attended a workshop in contingency management (CM) and were interviewed monthly for the following 6 months to assess their adoption and initial implementation of CM to treat substance-abusing adolescent clients. Results showed that 58% (n = 131) of the practitioners with at least one…

  5. Criminally violent victimisation in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: the relationship to symptoms and substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Mairead C; Castle, David; McGregor, Kate

    2012-06-18

    Violent victimisation among people with major mental illness is well-documented but the risk factors for criminal violent victimisation are not well understood. We examined the relationship between illness-related variables, indices of substance abuse and previous history of violence in a sample of 23 male criminally violently victimized and 69 non-criminally violently victimized male patients with DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder that were resident in the community and in contact with public mental health services in Victoria Australia. Data on criminal victimisation was acquired from the police database. Demographic, a history of violence or illness-related variables did not distinguish between those had been the victim of a violent crime and those who had not. Our data indicated that drug abuse was a key factor in distinguishing between the groups, but the age of onset of substance abuse was not a significant factor. Scores on measures of drug abuse were modest predictors of criminal victimisation status in our Receiver Operator Characteristic analyses. Overall, our findings suggest that substance abuse (particularly drug abuse) is a key predictor of violent victimisation based on criminal statistics. The latter has implications for mental health professions involved in the care planning and community management of patients with major mental illness and work points to the importance of substance abuse treatment in the prevention of victimisation as well as violence perpetration.

  6. Criminally violent victimisation in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: the relationship to symptoms and substance abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolan Mairead C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violent victimisation among people with major mental illness is well-documented but the risk factors for criminal violent victimisation are not well understood. Methods We examined the relationship between illness-related variables, indices of substance abuse and previous history of violence in a sample of 23 male criminally violently victimized and 69 non-criminally violently victimized male patients with DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder that were resident in the community and in contact with public mental health services in Victoria Australia. Data on criminal victimisation was acquired from the police database. Results Demographic, a history of violence or illness-related variables did not distinguish between those had been the victim of a violent crime and those who had not. Our data indicated that drug abuse was a key factor in distinguishing between the groups, but the age of onset of substance abuse was not a significant factor. Scores on measures of drug abuse were modest predictors of criminal victimisation status in our Receiver Operator Characteristic analyses. Conclusion Overall, our findings suggest that substance abuse (particularly drug abuse is a key predictor of violent victimisation based on criminal statistics. The latter has implications for mental health professions involved in the care planning and community management of patients with major mental illness and work points to the importance of substance abuse treatment in the prevention of victimisation as well as violence perpetration.

  7. Perinatal Support in Substance Abuse: The Requirements of Relationship and Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Stacey R.

    2009-01-01

    Substance abuse creates enormous risks for the developing relationship between mother and infant. Thus, the perinatal period is a critical aspect of addiction treatment. This article highlights the importance of relationships and the reflective supervision that is crucial in the delivery of integrated infant mental health service for pregnant…

  8. Preventing Substance Abuse in American Indian and Alaska Native Youth: Promising Strategies for Healthier Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Elizabeth H.; Cummins, Lillian H.; Marlatt, G. Alan

    2004-01-01

    Substance abuse has had profoundly devastating effects on the health and well-being of American Indians and Alaska Natives. A wide variety of intervention methods has been used to prevent or stem the development of alcohol and drug problems in Indian youth, but there is little empirical research evaluating these efforts. This article is an…

  9. Principles for establishing trust when developing a substance abuse intervention with a Native American community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, John; Riggs, Cheryl; Henson, Jim

    2011-01-01

    This article traces the development of a research project with a Native American community. Four principles were used to guide the development of the "Community Partnership to Affect Cherokee Adolescent Substance Abuse" project using a community-based participatory research approach. The principles suggest that establishing trust is key when developing and conducting research with a Native American community.

  10. Developing Culturally Sensitive HIV/AIDS and Substance Abuse Prevention Curricula for Native American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Julie A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Critical steps in developing these curricula included: selecting integrative theory to address multidimensional antecedents of HIV/AIDS and substance abuse among Native Americans; using ethnography to obtain input from target groups and community members to ensure developmental and cultural sensitivity; and using process and outcome evaluations of…

  11. Native American Indian Adolescents: Response to a Culturally Tailored, School-Based Substance Abuse Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchell, Beverly A.

    2011-01-01

    Native American Indian adolescent substance abuse has been a longstanding health concern. There are few culturally tailored interventions for mild to moderate substance users. The purpose of this study was to measure the response of Native American Indian adolescents from the Plains tribal groups to a school-based culturally tailored substance…

  12. THE EFFECT OF A CULTURALLY TAILORED SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION INTERVENTION WITH PLAINS INDIAN ADOLESCENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchell, Beverly A; Robbins, Leslie K; Lowe, John A; Hoke, Mary M

    2015-01-01

    To examine the effects of incorporating tribal specific cultural beliefs into a tailored substance abuse prevention intervention for at risk rural Oklahoma Native American Indian (NAI) Plains adolescents. The 10 hour Native American Talking Circle Intervention, a school-based, group substance abuse prevention program, was implemented over a 8.5 week period and evaluated using a one group, pretest-posttest design. Measurements were from the Native Self-Reliance Questionnaire and the Substance Problems Scale from Global Appraisal of Individual Needs-Quick (GAIN-Q). One-tailed, paired sample t-tests demonstrated significant increase in self-reliance, from 86.227 to 92.204 (t (43) = -2.580, p = .007) and a decrease in substance abuse/use, from 2.265 to 1.265 (t (33) = 1.844, p = .007). The Native Talking Circle Intervention based on tribal-specific values and beliefs was shown to be effective with substance abuse/use at-risk NAI Plains tribal adolescents.

  13. Hispanic Women’s Experiences With Substance Abuse, Intimate Partner Violence, and Risk for HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Vasquez, Elias P.; Urrutia, Maria T.; Villarruel, Antonia M.; Peragallo, Nilda

    2011-01-01

    Hispanic females are disproportionately affected by substance abuse, intimate partner violence, and HIV. Despite these disparities, research describing the cultural and gender-specific experiences of Hispanic women with regard to these conditions is lacking. The purpose of this study is to describe the experiences that Hispanic community-dwelling women have with regard to substance abuse, violence, and risky sexual behaviors. Eight focus groups with 81 women were conducted. A bilingual, bicultural moderator asked women open-ended questions regarding the experiences that Hispanic women have with these conditions. Focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, verified, and then analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Participants discussed substance abuse, violence, and risky sexual behaviors interchangeably, often identifying common risk factors associated with these. Nevertheless, intimate partner violence was the most salient of conditions discussed. Three major themes emerged from the analysis: Transplantadas en otro mundo (Uprooted in another world), El criador de abuso (The breeding ground of abuse), and Rompiendo el silencio (Breaking the silence). This study supports the importance of addressing substance abuse, violence, and risk for HIV in an integrated manner and stresses the importance of addressing associated cultural factors (e.g., acculturation, machismo) in interventions targeting Hispanics. PMID:21191036

  14. Variables Associated with Environmental Scanning among Clinicians at Substance Abuse Treatment Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Alison L.; Arfken, Cynthia L.; Agius, Elizabeth; Dickson, Marcus W.; Mitchelson, Jacqueline K.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Environmental scanning, as a component of absorptive capacity, has been shown to be associated with increased use of innovative treatment techniques at substance abuse treatment programmes. As the transfer of innovative, evidence-based treatment techniques from research to practice is gaining attention, we aimed to identify variables…

  15. 14 CFR 120.223 - Alcohol misuse information, training, and substance abuse professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alcohol misuse information, training, and substance abuse professionals. 120.223 Section 120.223 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Alcohol Testing Program Requirements § 120.223...

  16. Invisibility, Difference, and Disparity: Alcohol and Substance Abuse on Two-Year College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Colleen; Keeton, André

    2015-01-01

    The impact of alcohol and substance abuse on college students' behavior has become a ripe area of focus and research. However, interest and research has primarily been focused on traditional four- year college students. Thus, the four-year college experience is taken as the default against which two-year colleges are compared. Nearly 12 million…

  17. Treatment Needs and Services for Mothers with a Dual Diagnosis: Substance Abuse and Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Sylvia K.; Schinke, Steven P.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews treatment needs of dual diagnosed, substance abusing and mentally ill mothers. Suggests treatment strategies and programmatic options for serving and meeting needs of these mothers and their children. Devotes particular attention to residential and continuing care services and skills-based interventions for target clients. Concludes with…

  18. Movement disorders in patients with schizophrenia and a history of substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Lars K; Nausheen, Bina; Hart, Deborah; Kingdon, David

    2013-03-01

    The movement disorders acute dystonia, akathisia, Parkinsonian symptoms and tardive dyskinesia [extrapyramidal side effects (EPSs)] are recognized adverse effects of antipsychotic medication. Previous studies have indicated that substance abuse in patients with schizophrenia can worsen EPS. This study therefore investigated the relationship between drug and alcohol use and EPS in a group of patients with schizophrenia. Seventy patients with schizophrenia assessed for drug and alcohol use, global functioning, EPS and suicidality. Chlorpromazine equivalents were correlated to levels of EPS and substance abuse. Current EPS were found in 65% of the sample despite three-quarters of the patients receiving second-generation antipsychotics. An even higher level of patients, 87%, was found to have a history of EPS. A long history of schizophrenia independently predicted presence of any EPS, particularly akathisia, controlling for history of substance abuse which was a non-significant predictor. History or current use of alcohol or drug abuse did not predict EPS, except for alcohol abuse at the time of diagnosis which was associated with current akathisia. Length of illness was correlated with EPS, whereas suicidality was not linked to akathisia. Neither chlorpromazine equivalent antipsychotic dose nor whether the patient received first-generation or second-generation antipsychotic medication was significantly associated with EPS or substance abuse. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. The Effect of MSW Education on Students' Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Substance Abusing Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senreich, Evan; Straussner, Shulamith Lala A.

    2013-01-01

    Entering ("n"?=?475) and graduating ("n"?=?454) students at 3 master's of social work programs in the northeast were compared regarding their knowledge and attitudes concerning working with substance abusing clients. In comparison to entering students, graduating students demonstrated modestly higher levels of knowledge, role…

  20. Perceptions of Organizational Functioning in Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Steven; Louw, Johann; Myers, Bronwyn

    2011-01-01

    Directors' and treatment staff's perceptions of organizational functioning within substance abuse treatment facilities in four provinces in South Africa were examined via the Texas Christian University's Organizational Readiness for Change instrument. Forty-four treatment facilities (out of 89) participated in the study. Results indicated that…

  1. Perceptions of Organizational Functioning in Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Steven; Louw, Johann; Myers, Bronwyn

    2011-01-01

    Directors' and treatment staff's perceptions of organizational functioning within substance abuse treatment facilities in four provinces in South Africa were examined via the Texas Christian University's Organizational Readiness for Change instrument. Forty-four treatment facilities (out of 89) participated in the study. Results indicated that…

  2. Substance abuse interventions for parents involved in the child welfare system: evidence and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterling, Kathy Lemon; Austin, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    As child welfare systems across the country face the problem of parental substance abuse, there is an increasing need to understand the types of treatment approaches that are most effective for substance-abusing parents in the child welfare system-the majority of whom are mothers. This structured review of the literature focuses on evidence related to two areas: (1) individual-level interventions designed to assist mothers and women in addressing their substance abuse problems, and (2) system-level interventions designed to improve collaboration and coordination between the child welfare system and the alcohol and other drug system. Overall, research suggests the following program components may be effective with substance-abusing women with children: (1) Women-centered treatment that involves children, (2) Specialized health and mental health services, (3) Home visitation services, (4) Concrete assistance, (5) Short-term targeted interventions, and (6) Comprehensive programs that integrate many of these components. Research also suggests that promising collaborative models between the child welfare system (CWS) and the alcohol and other drug (AOD) system typically include the following core elements: (1) Out-stationing AOD workers in child welfare offices, (2) Joint case planning, (3) Using official committees to guide collaborative efforts, (4) Training and cross-training, (5) Using protocols for sharing confidential information, and (6) Using dependency drug courts. Although more rigorous research is needed on both individual-level and system-level substance abuse interventions for parents involved in the child welfare system, the integration of individual-level interventions and system-level approaches is a potentially useful practice approach with this vulnerable population.

  3. The Effectiveness of Group Assertiveness Training on Happiness in Rural Adolescent Females With Substance Abusing Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojjat, Seyed Kaveh; Golmakani, Ebrahim; Norozi Khalili, Mina; Shakeri Chenarani, Maryam; Hamidi, Mahin; Akaberi, Arash; Rezaei Ardani, Amir

    2015-06-12

    Parental substance abuse confronts children with a variety of psychological, social, and behavioral problems. Children of substance abusing parents show higher levels of psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression and exert lower levels of communication skills. Weak social skills in this group of adolescents put them at a higher risk for substance abuse. Many studies showed school based interventions such as life skill training can effective on future substance abusing in these high risk adolescences. The participants consisted of 57 middles schools girls, all living in rural areas and having both parents with substance dependency. The participants were randomly assigned to intervention (n=28) and control (n=29) groups. The data were collected before and six weeks after training in both group. The intervention group received eight sessions of group assertiveness training. Participants were compared in terms of changes in scores on the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire and the Gambrills-Richey Assertion Inventory. The total score for happiness change from 43.68 ±17.62 to 51.57 ±16.35 and assertiveness score changed from 110.33±16.05 to 90.40±12.84. There was a significant difference in pretest-posttest change in scores for intervention (7.89±4.13) and control (-2.51±2.64) groups; t (55) =2.15, p = 0.049. These results suggest that intervention really does have an effect on happiness and assertiveness. Determining the effectiveness of these school based interventions on other life aspects such as substance abuse calls for further study on these rural adolescent girls.

  4. Brief screening for co-occurring disorders among women entering substance abuse treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernoff Miriam

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the importance of identifying co-occurring psychiatric disorders in substance abuse treatment programs, there are few appropriate and validated instruments available to substance abuse treatment staff to conduct brief screen for these conditions. This paper describes the development, implementation and validation of a brief screening instrument for mental health diagnoses and trauma among a diverse sample of Black, Hispanic and White women in substance abuse treatment. With input from clinicians and consumers, we adapted longer existing validated instruments into a 14 question screen covering demographics, mental health symptoms and physical and sexual violence exposure. All women entering treatment (methadone, residential and out-patient at five treatment sites were screened at intake (N = 374. Results Eighty nine percent reported a history of interpersonal violence, and 70% reported a history of sexual assault. Eighty-eight percent reported mental health symptoms in the last 30 days. The screening questions administered to 88 female clients were validated against in-depth psychiatric diagnostic assessments by trained mental health clinicians. We estimated measures of predictive validity, including sensitivity, specificity and predictive values positive and negative. Screening items were examined multiple ways to assess utility. The screen is a useful and valid proxy for PTSD but not for other mental illness. Conclusion Substance abuse treatment programs should incorporate violence exposure questions into clinical use as a matter of policy. More work is needed to develop brief screening tools measures for front-line treatment staff to accurately assess other mental health needs of women entering substance abuse treatment

  5. Prior Substance Abuse and Related Treatment History Reported by Recent Victims of Sexual Assault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Heidi S.; Walsh, Kate; Schumacher, Julie A.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Acierno, Ron

    2013-01-01

    To inform intervention approaches, the current study examined prevalence and comorbidity of recent use and history of abuse of alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drugs as well as history of substance treatment among a sample of female victims of sexual assault seeking post-assault medical care. Demographic variables and prior history of assault were also examined to further identify factors relevant to treatment or prevention approaches. Participants were 255 women and adolescent girls seeking post sexual assault medical services who completed an initial follow-up assessment on average within 3 months post-assault. The majority (72.9%) reported recent substance use prior to assault, approximately 40% reported prior substance abuse history, and 12.2% reported prior substance treatment history. Prior history of assault was associated with recent drug use and history of drug abuse as well as substance treatment. Among those with prior histories of substance abuse and assault, assault preceded substance abuse onset in the majority of cases. Almost all those with prior treatment history reported recent drug or alcohol use. A portion of sexual assault survivors seen for acute medical services may benefit from facilitated referral for substance abuse treatment in addition to counseling at the time of screening. Assessment and intervention approaches should target alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use and abuse. Substance use and associated impairment may serve as a rape tactic by perpetrators of assault. Substance use at the time of assault does not imply blame on the part of assault victims. Previous findings indicate that rape poses high risk of PTSD particularly among women with prior history of assault. Screening and intervention related to substance abuse should be done with recognition of the increased vulnerability it may pose with regard to assault and the high risk of PTSD within this population. PMID:23396174

  6. Personality Disorders in Substance Abusers: A Comparison of Patients Treated in a Prison Unit and Patients Treated in Inpatient Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten; Stefánsson, Ragnar

    2008-01-01

    Abstract  A large body of literature has shown a high prevalence of personality disorders in substance abusers. We compared a sample of substance abusers treated in a prison setting with substance abusers treated in a non-prison inpatient setting rated with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory...

  7. Meeting the substance abuse treatment needs of lesbian, bisexual and transgender women: implications from research to practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sally StevensSouthwest Institute for Research on Women (SIROW and Department of Gender and Women’s Studies (GWS, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USAAbstract: Research on the incidence, etiology and substance abuse treatment needs of lesbian, bisexual and transgender (LBT women is limited. Most research indicates higher levels of alcohol and drug abuse among these populations compared to their heterosexual counterparts, with recent research indicating that substance abuse is a particular concern for transgender individuals and an increasing problem among younger LBT individuals. Risk factors and reasons for substance abuse among sexual minority women are similar to those of heterosexual women, yet are substantially complicated by issues of family rejection and lack of social support, stigma and minority stress, as well as abuse and harassment. Historically, substance abuse prevention, early intervention, and clinical treatment programs were designed to meet the needs of the sexual majority population with relatively few programs designed to incorporate the specific needs of sexual minorities. This article reviews findings from previous studies and utilizes new data collected from community-based and residential substance abuse treatment programs to (1 examine issues relevant to LBT women and substance use, and (2 make recommendations for tailoring substance abuse treatment programs to meet the needs of these populations.Keywords: lesbian, bisexual, transgender, substance abuse, family rejection, social support, stigma, minority stress, abuse, harassment

  8. Substance Abuse, This file contains the name, address and limited licensing information for the Substance Abuse facilities in Maryland., Published in 2010, Smaller than 1:100000 scale, Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Substance Abuse dataset, published at Smaller than 1:100000 scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2010. It is described as 'This file...

  9. Identifying the substance abuse treatment needs of caregivers involved with child welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Emmeline; Wells, Rebecca; Bellettiere, John; Cross, Theodore P

    2013-07-01

    Parental substance use significantly increases risk of child maltreatment, but is often under-identified by child protective services. This study examined how agency use of standardized substance use assessments and child welfare investigative caseworker education, experience, and caseload affected caseworkers' identification of parental substance abuse treatment needs. Data are from a national probability sample of permanent, primary caregivers involved with child protective services whose children initially remained at home and whose confidential responses on two validated instruments indicated harmful substance use or dependence. Investigative caseworkers reported use of a formal assessment in over two thirds of cases in which substance use was accurately identified. However, weighted logistic regression indicated that agency provision of standardized assessment instruments was not associated with caseworker identification of caregiver needs. Caseworkers were also less likely to identify substance abuse when their caseloads were high and when caregivers were fathers. Implications for agency practice are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Active-learning Strategies for Legal Topics and Substance Abuse in a Pharmacy Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, John E.; Kelly, William N.; Hill, Angela M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To implement active-learning strategies to engage students in learning, applying, and teaching legal and substance abuse topics. Design. Medication Safety course student groups created films on a National Patient Safety Goal (NPSG) using a movie genre and presented them in film festival format. Pharmacogenomics course student groups taught ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI) topics through presentation of short stories about comic book characters with genetic mutations. Students in the Drugs of Abuse course composed and performed dances depicting the mechanism of action of a drug in an in-class rave dance format. Assessment. Course evaluations revealed student engagement with subject material and enjoyment of the creative applications, critical thinking, and collaborative aspects of the activities. Students performed well on examination questions and graded assignments. Conclusion. These active-learning strategies facilitated students’ abilities to learn, apply, and teach material in medication safety, pharmacogenomics, and substance abuse courses. PMID:28289294

  11. Job frustration in substance abuse counselors working with offenders in prisons versus community settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Elizabeth B; Oser, Carrie B

    2014-06-01

    Substance abuse counselors who work with offenders are facing increasing caseloads, which puts them at higher risk of job frustration. The purpose of this study was to explore differences between substance abuse counselors employed in prison versus community settings in terms of level of organizational support and job frustration. This study also investigated whether organizational support was associated with job frustration after controlling for counselor characteristics and workplace setting. This was accomplished utilizing data that were collected from 267 counselors as part of the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies research cooperative. Results indicated that counselors employed in community settings, as compared with those employed in prisons, are more likely to report higher levels of perceived organizational support. In addition, ordinal logistic regression results reveal that counselors who are non-White and have greater levels of organizational support have less job frustration, after controlling for counselor characteristics and workplace setting. The researches to practice implications are discussed.

  12. Depression, Abuse, Relationship Power and Condom Use by Pregnant and Postpartum Women with Substance Abuse History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dévieux, Jessy G; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Beck-Sagué, Consuelo; Attonito, Jennifer M; Saxena, Anshul; Stein, Judith A

    2016-02-01

    Substance-abusing pregnant and postpartum women are less likely to maintain consistent condom use and drug and alcohol abstinence, which is particularly concerning in high HIV-prevalence areas. Data from 224 pregnant and postpartum women in substance abuse treatment were analyzed to examine effects of history of substance use, child abuse, and mental health problems on current substance use and condom-use barriers. Mediators were depression, relationship power and social support. Most participants (72.9 %) evidenced current depression. Less social support (-0.17, p relationship power (-0.48, p relationship power (0.15, p relationship power limit highest-risk women's ability to negotiate condom use and abstain from substance use, increasing their risk of acute HIV infection and vertical transmission.

  13. Diversion from jail of detainees with substance abuse: the interaction with dual diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, R A; Rosenheck, R A; Baranosky, M V; Buchanan, J; Zonana, H

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to determine if a jail diversion program reduced days of incarceration over the year following arrest in a sample of detainees with substance abuse disorders who had been arrested for a minor (misdemeanor) crime (n = 252) compared to a group (n = 95) who were not diverted. Particular attention was paid to comparing those singly diagnosed to those dually diagnosed. Analyses indicated that 1) detainees with substance abuse alone were less likely to be diverted than those with a dual diagnosis; 2) jail diversion reduced incarceration time during the next year; and 3) the effect of diversion differed depending upon the level of criminal charge. Diversion significantly reduced jail time only among those who were arrested for the more serious of the minor offenses that are associated with longer jail sentences.

  14. Perceived competency and resolution of homelessness among women with substance abuse problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finfgeld-Connett, Deborah; Bloom, Tina L; Johnson, E Diane

    2012-03-01

    Using a metasynthesis approach, our aim was to articulate new insights relating to the most efficient and effective means of helping homeless women with substance abuse problems to enhance their well-being and become more stably housed. Distorted perceptions of competency, which are shaped by dysfunctional relationships and mental health problems, make it challenging for women with substance abuse problems to resolve homelessness. Women with particularly low or high levels of perceived competency tend to grapple with challenges related to structure and control, trust, and hopelessness. Therapeutic strategies for approaching these women include careful assessment, caring, personalized structure and control, development of interpersonal trust, instillation of hope, and the targeted use of psychotherapeutic agents and counseling. Framing care for homeless women within the context of perceived competency offers a new way of understanding their plight and shaping interventions to more expeditiously move them toward healthy and stable lives.

  15. Hope and recovery from substance abuse for female drug offenders in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Fang Mei; Guo, Gwo Jen

    2012-12-01

    This study was designed to fulfill a twofold purpose. First, based on the hope theory framework and previous research, a 16-session hope-based substance abuse treatment program to help female drug abusers achieve a better recovery was developed. Second, ANCOVA was used to test the effectiveness of this treatment model. The participants were 40 female drug offenders who were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups. The 20 experimental group participants received 16 sessions of hope-based substance abuse treatment whereas the 20 control group members were put on the waiting list for another term of treatment. The results indicated that the members of the two groups had significant differences in their posttest scores for recovery goal setting and pursuing, pathway controlling, adequate energy, knowledge of the changing process, ability to cope, adequate cognition, emotion regulation, and self-esteem.

  16. Advancing American Indian and Alaska Native substance abuse research: current science and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etz, Kathleen E; Arroyo, Judith A; Crump, Aria D; Rosa, Carmen L; Scott, Marcia S

    2012-09-01

    American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) have disproportionately high rates of substance abuse yet there is little empirical research addressing this significant public health problem. This paper is an introduction to a special issue that includes cutting edge science in this research area. We identify several areas that require consideration in this field and indicate how the papers in the special issue address these gaps. These overarching areas of need, which should be considered in any substantive research, include attention to heterogeneity within the population, research that has tangible health benefits, continued work on research methods and strategies, increased focus on strength based and community oriented approaches, and the need for strong research partnerships. The special issue marks a major step forward for AI/AN substance abuse research. However, articles also highlight where more work is need to improve public health in AI/AN communities by addressing identified gap areas.

  17. American indians/alaska natives and substance abuse treatment outcomes: positive signs and continuing challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Daniel L; Spear, Suzanne; Marinelli-Casey, Patricia; Rawson, Richard; Li, Libo; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2011-01-01

    Limited information is known with regard to substance abuse treatment outcomes among AI/ANs. Data retrieved from the Treatment System Impact (TSI) project and Methamphetamine Treatment Project (MTP) were used to compare treatment measures between a sample of AI/ANs and a matched comparison group. Our results revealed no significant differences between AI/ANs and the matched comparison group in treatment outcomes at 12-months post-treatment based on legal, employment, medical, and psychiatric measures. AI/ANs also received more family-related services (29.9% vs. 17.1%) and abuse-related services (21.3% vs. 7.6%). Addressing barriers to receiving substance abuse treatment and enhancing screening methods for AI/ANs are suggested.

  18. Active-learning Strategies for Legal Topics and Substance Abuse in a Pharmacy Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhardt, Sarah J; Clark, John E; Kelly, William N; Hill, Angela M

    2017-02-25

    Objective. To implement active-learning strategies to engage students in learning, applying, and teaching legal and substance abuse topics. Design. Medication Safety course student groups created films on a National Patient Safety Goal (NPSG) using a movie genre and presented them in film festival format. Pharmacogenomics course student groups taught ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI) topics through presentation of short stories about comic book characters with genetic mutations. Students in the Drugs of Abuse course composed and performed dances depicting the mechanism of action of a drug in an in-class rave dance format. Assessment. Course evaluations revealed student engagement with subject material and enjoyment of the creative applications, critical thinking, and collaborative aspects of the activities. Students performed well on examination questions and graded assignments. Conclusion. These active-learning strategies facilitated students' abilities to learn, apply, and teach material in medication safety, pharmacogenomics, and substance abuse courses.

  19. Substance abuse treatment in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts: gaps, consequences and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brolin, Mary F; Horgan, Constance; Amaro, Hortensia; Doonan, Michael

    2005-11-17

    This issue brief outlines five strategies for improving the quality of treatment in Massachusetts: (1) Engaging detoxification clients in a broader continuum of treatment, (2) Improving retention in treatment, (3) Providing client/family-centered services, (4) Increasing the use of evidence-based treatment approaches, and (5) Supporting recovery to address the chronic nature of substance use disorders. These strategies are essential to maximizing the impact of our substance abuse dollars. We need to do it right and then expand access to treatment more broadly and fill the treatment gap. Although not the focus of this report we need to think harder about upfront prevention and efforts to encourage more people to seek care. Part of the public strategy also requires better coordination between BSAS, MassHealth, provider organizations, and other state agencies, including criminal justice and mental health agencies. Through these efforts we can reduce the costs and consequences of substance abuse and build a healthier, more productive community.

  20. Substance Abuse Treatment in Persons with HIV/AIDS: Challenges in Managing Triple Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Durvasula, Ramani; Miller, Theodore R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the current literature addressing substance abuse treatment in persons living with HIV/AIDS. Clinical management of HIV must account for the “triple diagnosis” of HIV, psychiatric diagnosis, and substance use disorders and requires integrated treatment services that focus beyond just mitigation of substance use and psychiatric and medical symptoms but also address other health behaviors. Because clinical management of HIV/AIDS has shifted significantly with the...

  1. Predictors of Physical Altercation among Adolescents in Residential Substance Abuse Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Crawley, Rachel D.; Becan, Jennifer Edwards; Knight, Danica Kalling; Joe, George W.; Flynn, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that basic social information-processing components represented by family conflict, peer aggression, and pro-aggression cognitive scripts are related to aggression and social problems among adolescents in substance abuse treatment. The sample consisted of 547 adolescents in two community-based residential facilities. Correlation results indicated that more peer aggression is related to more pro-aggression scripts; scripts, peer aggression, and family conflict ...

  2. The role of culture in substance abuse treatment programs for American Indian and Alaska Native communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legha, Rupinder Kaur; Novins, Douglas

    2012-07-01

    Culture figures prominently in discussions regarding the etiology of alcohol and substance abuse in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities, and a substantial body of literature suggests that it is critical to developing meaningful treatment interventions. However, no study has characterized how programs integrate culture into their services. Furthermore, reports regarding the associated challenges are limited. Twenty key informant interviews with administrators and 15 focus groups with clinicians were conducted in 18 alcohol and substance abuse treatment programs serving AI/AN communities. Transcripts were coded to identify relevant themes. Substance abuse treatment programs for AI/AN communities are integrating culture into their services in two discrete ways: by implementing specific cultural practices and by adapting Western treatment models. More important, however, are the fundamental principles that shape these programs and their interactions with the people and communities they serve. These foundational beliefs and values, defined in this study as the core cultural constructs that validate and incorporate AI/AN experience and world view, include an emphasis on community and family, meaningful relationships with and respect for clients, a homelike atmosphere within the program setting, and an “open door” policy for clients. The primary challenges for integrating these cultural practices include AI/AN communities' cultural diversity and limited socioeconomic resources to design and implement these practices. The prominence of foundational beliefs and values is striking and suggests a broader definition of culture when designing services. This definition of foundational beliefs and values should help other diverse communities culturally adapt their substance abuse interventions in more meaningful ways.

  3. Depression, anxiety, and history of substance abuse among Norwegian inmates in preventive detention: Reasons to worry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Værøy Henning

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inmates on preventive detention are a small and select group sentenced to an indefinite term of imprisonment. Mood disorders and substance abuse are risk factors for inmate violence and recidivism, so the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and substance abuse was examined in this cohort using psychometric tests. Methods Completion of self-report questionnaires was followed by face-to-face clinical interviews with 26 of the 56 male inmates on preventive detention in Norway's Ila Prison. Substance abuse histories and information about the type of psychiatric treatment received were compiled. To assess anxiety and depression, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, the Clinical Anxiety Scale (CAS, and the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS were used. Results Scores on the MADRS revealed that 46.1% of inmates had symptoms of mild depression. The HADS depression subscale showed that 19.2% scored above the cut-off for depression (κ = 0.57. The CAS anxiety score was above the cut-off for 30.7% of the subjects, while 34.6% also scored above the cut-off on the HADS anxiety subscale (κ = 0.61. Almost 70% of all these inmates, and more than 80% of those convicted of sex crimes, had a history of alcohol and/or drug abuse. Conclusions Mild anxiety and depression was found frequently among inmates on preventive detention. Likewise, the majority of the inmates had a history of alcohol and drug abuse. Mood disorders and substance abuse may enhance recidivism, so rehabilitation programs should be tailored to address these problems.

  4. Effects of type of exercise on depression in recovering substance abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, J A; Palmer, L K; Michiels, K; Thigpen, B

    1995-04-01

    This experiment investigated the effects of three types of structured exercise (aerobics, bodybuilding, and circuit training) on depressive symptoms of 45 clients undergoing a 4-wk., inpatient rehabilitation program for substance abuse. Pre- and posttest measures included the Center of Epidemiological Studies--Depression, resting pulse rate, blood pressure, maximum strength on incline bench press, and estimates of aerobic fitness and body fat. The bodybuilding program produced a significant decrease in depressive symptoms. Physiological and psychological explanations are discussed.

  5. Lifetime Pattern of Substance Abuse, Parental Support, Religiosity, and Locus of Control in Adolescent and Young Male Users

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A Farhadinasab; H Allahverdipour; S Bashirian; H Mahjoub

    2008-01-01

    "nBackground: In the current study, pattern of substance abuse among adolescence and early adulthood that have experienced one or more substances was assessed, and also parental support, religiosity, and locus...

  6. The relationship between traumatic childhood experiences and proclivities towards substance abuse, self-esteem and coping strategies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Psk. Timur TOKER; Ahmet TIRYAKI; Gamze ÖZÇÜRÜMEZ; Baykal ISKENDER

    2011-01-01

      The aim of this study was to compare people with substance use disorder with healthy controls in terms of childhood abuse, proclivity towards substance abuse, coping skills and self-esteem as well...

  7. The Moderating Effect of Substance Abuse Service Accessibility on the Relationship between Child Maltreatment and Neighborhood Alcohol Availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Cory M

    2013-12-01

    This study investigates how the relationship between dense concentrations of alcohol retailers and high rates of child maltreatment may be moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. Using a cross-sectional design, the study utilized data from Bergen County, New Jersey on child maltreatment reports, alcohol-selling retailers, substance abuse service facilities, and the United States Census. Findings indicate child maltreatment rates were higher in neighborhoods with lower socioeconomic status and those with greater alcohol outlet density. Neighborhoods with easily accessed substance abuse service facilities had lower rates of child maltreatment. Additionally, the relationship between child maltreatment and alcohol outlet density was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. The study findings highlight the relevance of making primary prevention approaches readily available and using multi-sector collaboration to reduce child maltreatment.

  8. The Prediction of Tendency to Substance Abuse on the Basis of Self Esteem and Components of Emotional Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    farzad nasiry

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of present study was the prediction of tendency to substance abuse on the basis of self esteem and components of emotional intelligence. Method: In this descriptive-correlational Study our sample included 153 students of Azad university of qorveh which selected by simple random sampling. APS, Rosenberg’s self esteem scale and Bradberry’s emotional intelligence questionnaires administered among selected sample. Results: Research findings represented that there are negative significant correlation between tendency to substance abuse and self esteem, also between tendency to substance abuse and self management and relationship management. Conclusion: Results of this study are showing the predictor role of self esteem, self-management and relationship management in tendency to substance abuse.

  9. Substance Abuse, Published in 2001, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Bulloch County Board of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Substance Abuse dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2001. Data by this publisher...

  10. Early Maladaptive Schemas among Young Adult Male Substance Abusers: A Comparison with a Non-Clinical Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Stuart, Gregory L.; Anderson, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Early maladaptive schemas are rigidly held cognitive and behavioral patterns that guide how individuals encode and respond to stimuli in their environments (Young, 1994). Research has examined the early maladaptive schemas of substance abusers, as schemas are believed to underlie, perpetuate, and maintain problematic substance use. To date, research has not examined whether young adult male substance abuse treatment seekers (ages 18 to 25) report greater early maladaptive schema endorsement than a non-clinical comparison group. The current study extended the research on substance use and schemas by comparing the early maladaptive schemas of young adult male residential substance abuse patients (n = 101) and a group of non-clinical male college students (n = 175). Results demonstrated that the substance abuse group scored higher than the non-clinical comparison group on 9 of the 18 early maladaptive schemas. Implications of these findings for future research and substance use treatment programs are discussed. PMID:23312769

  11. Awakening: 'Spontaneous recovery’ from substance abuse among Aboriginal peoples in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elder Campbell Papequash

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of research on spontaneous recovery (SR from substance abuse in general, and specific to Aboriginal peoples. There is also limited understanding of the healing process associated with SR. In this study, SR was examined among a group of Aboriginal peoples in Canada. Employing a decolonizing methodology, thematic analysis of traditional talking circle narratives identified an association between a traumatic life event and an ‘awakening.’ This ‘awakening’ was embedded in primary (i.e., consider impact on personal well-being and secondary (i.e., implement alternative coping mechanism cognitive appraisal processes and intrinsic and extrinsic motivation rooted in increased traditional Aboriginal cultural awareness and understanding. This contributed to both abstinence (i.e., recovery and sustained well-being (i.e.,continued abstinence. Three key interrelated ‘themes’ specific to the role of culture in SR and recovery maintenance were identified: Aboriginal identity, cultural practices, and traditional values. These findings,combined with the limited literature, were developed into a prospective model of SR from substance abuse inAboriginal peoples. This model highlights the potential need for substance abuse treatment and intervention policy to consider culture as a determinant of health and well-being.

  12. Validity of the substance abuse scales of the MMPI-2 in a college student sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanum, S; McGrew, J; Ehrmann, L

    1994-06-01

    This study assessed the validity of three Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-based (MMPI-2; Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989) substance abuse scales. The scales were the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale-Revised (MAC-R; Butcher et al., 1989) and the recently developed Addiction Acknowledgment Scale and Addiction Potential Scale (AAS & APS; Weed, Butcher, McKenna, & Ben-Porath, 1992). Study participants were 308 male and female college students who completed the MMPI-2 and the substance use disorder modules of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. The MAC-R and the APS had a nonsignificant-to-weak relationship with substance dependence as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed., rev. [DSM-III-R]; American Psychiatric Association, 1980). The AAS had a moderate ability to identify the 33 study participants who met DSM-III-R criteria for a substance use disorder, primarily alcoholism. Broadening the definition of substance abuse to a continuum of alcohol/drug problems did not alter the character of findings. These results highlight the relative superiority of direct (AAS) versus subtle (APS, MAC-R) scales to detect substance dependence and support studies that question the overall utility of traditional MMPI scales to identify substance abuse.

  13. A blended infant massage--parenting enhancement program for recovering substance-abusing mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Luz S; Porter, Brian O

    2004-01-01

    Interventions that build upon the natural components of early mother-infant interactions are critical to reversing the sequelae of maternal substance abuse and breaking the cycle of addiction. This paper proposes a theoretical model that blends infant massage (IM) into a planned parenting enhancement program (PEP) to promote improved health outcomes in recovering substance- abusing mothers (SAMs) and their babies. With 4.6 million women of child-bearing age regularly using cocaine in the United States and 750,000 drug-exposed births annually, maternal substance abuse highlights the multigenerational impact of drug use in high-risk populations and its risks to our children. The proposed IMPEP model provides a means to assist recovering SAMs in making cognitive-behavioral changes through new knowledge about parenting and parenting skills, with a special focus on infant stimulation via massage. The goal is to enable recovering SAMs to become confident and responsive mothers, empowering them to become effective parents. Pilot data suggest the Infant Massage Parenting Enhancement Program (IMPEP) is effective for both mother and infant, and merits a controlled systematic study.

  14. Racial discrimination, gender discrimination, and substance abuse among Latina/os nationwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otiniano Verissimo, Angie Denisse; Gee, Gilbert C; Ford, Chandra L; Iguchi, Martin Y

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between discrimination and substance abuse among Latina/os, and further examines whether this relationship differs by gender and type of discrimination. Analyses focus on the Latina/o respondents (n = 1,039 men; n = 1,273 women) from the National Latino and Asian American Study carried out from 2002-2003. Outcomes were alcohol abuse and drug abuse measured using DSM-IV definitions and criteria. Additional covariates included immigrant characteristics and demographics. Analyses were completed using gender-stratified multinomial logistic regression. Men reported more discrimination (39.6% vs. 30.3%) and had higher prevalence of alcohol abuse (16.5% vs. 4.5%) and drug abuse (9.5% vs. 2.3%) than women. Discrimination was significantly associated with increased risk of alcohol abuse for women and increased risk of drug abuse for men. Men and women also varied in the types of discrimination (e.g., racial vs. gender) reported, and in the associations between these types of discrimination and substance abuse. These data indicate that discrimination is associated with different substance abuse outcomes between genders. Future research should consider the mechanisms that explain these differences.

  15. Anthropological perspectives on money management: considerations for the design and implementation of interventions for substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter-Song, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    There remains a long-standing argument regarding the need for money management strategies to control poor spending habits among people with substance use disorders. The objective was to review issues relevant to the design and implementation of money-management-based interventions for substance abuse. Using a comparative, cross-cultural framework of anthropology, this manuscript examines three challenges for the design and implementation of money management interventions for substance abuse: (i) clients may not trust mental health centers to manage their money, (ii) clients may have different economic perspectives from clinicians and researchers, and (iii) clients may obtain substances through informal networks of exchange. This article clarifies the inherently complex symbolic and social dimensions of money and addiction and illustrates the need for researchers and clinicians to be mindful of the cultural assumptions that underlie money management interventions for substance abuse. Using an anthropological approach toward understanding the issues surrounding money management for individuals struggling with addiction and mental illness has the potential to strengthen the design and implementation of money-management-based interventions in a manner that is acceptable and meaningful for this target population.

  16. Comparing Reasons for Quitting Substance Abuse with the Constructs of Behavioral Models: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Tavakoli Ghouchani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The world population has reached over seven billion people. Of these, 230 million individuals abuse substances. Therefore, substance abuse prevention and treatment programs have received increasing attention during the past two decades. Understanding people’s motivations for quitting drug abuse is essential to the success of treatment. This study hence sought to identify major motivations for quitting and to compare them with the constructs of health education models. Materials and Methods: In the present study, qualitative content analysis was used to determine the main motivations for quitting substance abuse. Overall, 22 patients, physicians, and psychotherapists were selected from several addiction treatment clinics in Bojnord (Iran during 2014. Purposeful sampling method was applied and continued until data saturation was achieved. Data were collected through semi-structured, face-to-face interviews and field notes. All interviews were recorded and transcribed. Results: Content analysis revealed 33 sub-categories and nine categories including economic problems, drug-related concerns, individual problems, family and social problems, family expectations, attention to social status, beliefs about drug addiction, and valuing the quitting behavior. Accordingly, four themes, i.e. perceived threat, perceived barriers, attitude toward the behavior, and subjective norms, were extracted. Conclusion: Reasons for quitting substance abuse match the constructs of different behavioral models (e.g. the health belief model and the theory of planned behavior.

  17. Comparison of patterns of substance abuse disorders in urban and rural population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morad Rasouli-Azad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies of the prevalence of substance abuse in rural and urban population in different countries revealed variable results regarding to the study method, study population, age group and measuring tools. The purpose of this research is to compare the patterns of substance abuse disorders in urban and rural population in Mashhad.Materials and Method: Two groups consecutively admitted patients who referred to substance treatment clinics of Mashhad, were selected (110 urban and 100 rural patients. Samples were evaluated with structured demographic questionnaire and Structured Clinical Interview (SCID for DSM-IV. Data were analyzed by χ2 and independent t-test.Results: This study showed statistically significant differences between two groups in marital status, education level, monthly income and job. Also the samples were differed in substance type, history of injection and quit, abuse of nicotine, cannabis and alcohol in long life. Conclusion: Rural and urban societies have differences in patterns of substance abuse that can be originated from social-context differences

  18. Assessing state substance abuse prevention infrastructure through the lens of CSAP's Strategic Prevention Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Douglas; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Flewelling, Robert; Orwin, Robert G; Buchanan, Rebecca

    2012-02-01

    Although the organizational structures and operating procedures of state substance abuse prevention systems vary substantially across states, there is scant empirical research regarding approaches for rigorous assessment of system attributes and which attributes are most conducive to overall effectiveness. As one component of the national cross-site evaluation of the SPF State Incentive Grant Program (SPF SIG), an instrument was developed to assess state substance abuse prevention system infrastructure in order to measure infrastructure change and examine the role of state infrastructure in achieving prevention-related outcomes. In this paper we describe the development of this instrument and summarize findings from its baseline administration. As expected, states and territories were found to vary substantially with respect seven key characteristics, or domains, of state prevention infrastructure. Across the six domains that were assessed using numeric ratings, states scored highest on data systems and lowest on strategic planning. Positive intercorrelations were observed among these domains, indicating that states with high capacity on one domain generally have relatively high capacity on other domains as well. The findings also suggest that state prevention infrastructure development is linked to both funding from state government and the presence of a state interagency coordinating body with decision-making authority. The methodology and baseline findings presented will be used to inform the ongoing national cross-site evaluation of the SPF SIG and may provide useful information to guide further research on state substance abuse prevention infrastructure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comorbidity of bipolar disorder with substance abuse: selection of prioritized genes for translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isokpehi, Raphael D; Lewis, Sharon A; Oyeleye, Tolulola O; Ayensu, Wellington K; Gerald, Tonya M

    2009-03-01

    Bipolar disorder is a highly heritable mental illness. The global burden of bipolar disorder is complicated by its comorbidity with substance abuse. Several genome-wide linkage/association studies on bipolar disorder as well as substance abuse have focused on the identification and/or prioritization of candidate disease genes. A useful step for translational research of these identified/prioritized genes is to identify sets of genes that have particular kinds of publicly available data. Therefore, we have leveraged the availability of links to related resources in the Entrez Gene database to develop a web-based resource for selecting genes based on presence or absence in particular biological data resources. The utility of our approach is demonstrated using a set of 3,399 genes from multiple eukaryotes that have been studied in the context of bipolar disorder and/or substance abuse. A web resource to automate the selection of genes that contain certain database links is available at http://compbio.jsums.edu/bpd.

  20. Significant Others in Substance Abusers' Change Talk During Motivational Interviewing Sessions in the Finnish Probation Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarpavaara Harri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AIMS - This article explores the meanings substance-abusing clients attach to family and friendships during motivational interviewing (MI sessions in Probation Service. DATA - The analyses are based on videotaped and transcribed data consisting of 82 MI sessions. This database involves the first two counseling sessions of 41 client-counselor pairs. Sessions were videotaped in 12 Probation Service offices in Finland between 2007 and 2009. METHODS - The analysis relies on coding of client's change talk utterances and qualitative semiotic framework. RESULTS - The meanings of the significant others were diverse from the point of view of the client's motivation: family appeared as a support for change, an aspiration, a sufferer, or an obstacle to change; and friendship appeared as an obstacle to change, a surmounted obstacle, a cause to change, or a support to change. CONCLUSIONS - Significant others and their quality are important and diverse factors that promote or hinder change in substance abuser' change talk. Thus, it is suggested that the meaning of significant others should not be overlooked in MI and other substance abuse treatment.

  1. Parent-adolescent report correspondence on adolescent substance abuse among teens in residential rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillicuddy, Neil B; Eliseo-Arras, Rebecca K

    2012-04-01

    Research on the correspondence between adolescent and parent reports of adolescent substance abuse has typically been conducted on adolescent outpatient treatment samples, or on non-treatment samples. In the current study, fifty adolescents receiving residential substance abuse treatment, and their parents were assessed separately regarding the teen's substance use (e.g., cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, other illicit drugs) during the 90 days preceding adolescent treatment entry. Correspondence between reporters was for the most part fair to excellent, with observed discrepancies generally due to parents providing lower estimates of use than did adolescents. Multiple regression analysis revealed that higher discrepancy between reporters occurred when the parent was younger, when the parent encountered fewer problems due to the teen's substance use, when the adolescent attended more probation or parole meetings, the fewer the number of days the adolescent was incarcerated, and the fewer days the adolescent lived at home prior to treatment. Results from exploratory analyses suggest that parents and adolescents are more discrepant when the assessment occurs later in the adolescent's treatment program. Overall, results suggest that in the absence of a cooperative teen, parental report of the adolescent's previous substance use could serve as a good proxy among families in which the adolescent is entering residential substance abuse treatment.

  2. HIV Risk Behavior Among Methamphetamine Users Entering Substance Abuse Treatment in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Christina S; Lion, Ryan R; Cordero, Daniella M; Watt, Melissa H; Joska, John A; Gouse, Hetta; Burnhams, Warren

    2016-10-01

    South Africa is experiencing a growing methamphetamine problem, and there is concern that methamphetamine use may accelerate HIV transmission. There has been little research on the HIV prevention needs of methamphetamine users receiving substance abuse treatment in South Africa. This study assessed the prevalence and correlates of HIV risk behaviors among 269 methamphetamine users entering substance abuse treatment in two clinics in Cape Town. The prevalence of sexual risk behaviors was high among sexually active participants: 34 % multiple partners, 26 % unprotected intercourse with a casual partner, and 24 % sex trading for money/methamphetamine. The strongest predictor of all sexual risk behaviors was concurrent other drug use. Over half had not been HIV tested in the past year, and 25 % had never been tested, although attitudes toward HIV testing were overwhelmingly positive. This population of primarily heterosexual, non-injecting methamphetamine users is a high-risk group in need of targeted HIV prevention interventions. Substance abuse treatment is an ideal setting in which to reach methamphetamine users for HIV services.

  3. [An analysis of Spanish scientific productivity in substance abuse according to disciplinary collaboration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Alcaide, Gregorio; Bolaños Pizarro, Maxima; Navarro Molina, Carolina; de Granda Orive, Jose Ignacio; Aleixandre Benavent, Rafael; Valderrama Zurian, Juan Carlos

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of productivity and disciplinary collaboration patterns for Spanish published scientific research in the field of Substance Abuse (2001-2005). From institutional affiliations we identified and quantified disciplinary participation in papers indexed in the IME/Indice Medico Español, ISOC/Indice Español de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades, SCI-Expanded/Science Citation Index-Expanded and SSCI/Social Sciences Citation Index databases. A total of 31 disciplines and specialities were identified in ISOC, with 8.6% of documents in collaboration between them; 55 medical specialities were identified in IME, with 10.89% of documents in collaboration between them; and 62 specialities were identified in SCI-Expanded, with 41.68% of documents in collaboration between them. a) Substance Abuse, Psychology, Psychiatry, Epidemiology-Preventive Medicine and Public Health and Pharmacology are the disciplines and specialities that present the highest productivity. To these can be added, in papers published in foreign journals, specialities such as Biochemistry-Molecular Biology, Neurology and Neuroscience; b) Papers published in Spanish journals indexed in SCI-Expanded and in papers published in foreign journals present much higher collaboration indexes between disciplines and specialities; c) The main collaborations between specialities are those between Substance Abuse, Psychiatry and Psychology. To these can be added, in the case of journals indexed in SCI-Expanded, those between these specialities and Pharmacology, Neurology and Neuroscience.

  4. A LONGITUDINAL EXAMINATION OF TODDLERS’ BEHAVIORAL CUES AS A FUNCTION OF SUBSTANCE-ABUSING MOTHERS’ DISENGAGEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Hannah F.; Borelli, Jessica L.; Decoste, Cindy; Suchman, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    As a group, substance-abusing parents are at risk for maladaptive parenting. The association between substance abuse and parenting may result, in part, from parents’ emotional disengagement from the parent–child relationship, which makes perceiving and responding to children’s cues more challenging. In this study, we examined whether substance-abusing mothers’ levels of disengagement from their relationship with their children (ages 2–44 months), operationalized in two different ways using parenting narratives (representational and linguistic disengagement), prospectively predicted children’s engagement and disengagement cues during a structured mother–child interaction. Within a sample of 29 mothers, we tested the hypotheses that greater maternal disengagement at Time 1 would predict a decrease in children’s engagement and an increase in children’s disengagement at Time 2. Results indicated that representational disengagement predicted a decrease in children’s engagement cues whereas linguistic disengagement predicted an increase in children’s disengagement cues. Results provide partial support for a reciprocal, iterative process in which mothers and children mutually adjust their emotional and behavioral disengagement with one another. PMID:26938485

  5. Making It Work Without a Family Drug Court: Connecticut's Approach to Parental Substance Abuse in the Child Welfare System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungemack, Jane; Giovannucci, Marilou; Moy, Samuel; Ohrenberger, Karen; Dematteo, Thomas; Smith, Staceyann

    2015-01-01

    Parental substance abuse presents, complex challenges for the child welfare system and courts. This article describes the State of Connecticut's experience implementing the Recovery Specialist Voluntary Program (RSVP), a recovery support program designed to confront the problem of parental substance abuse within the child welfare system without, a family drug court. The state-level collaboration efforts, system changes, factors affecting development and implementation of RSVP, program participants, and preliminary outcomes are described.

  6. The Moderating Effect of Substance Abuse Service Accessibility on the Relationship between Child Maltreatment and Neighborhood Alcohol Availability

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Cory M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how the relationship between dense concentrations of alcohol retailers and high rates of child maltreatment may be moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. Using a cross-sectional design, the study utilized data from Bergen County, New Jersey on child maltreatment reports, alcohol-selling retailers, substance abuse service facilities, and the United States Census. Findings indicate child maltreatment rates were higher in neighborhoods with lower...

  7. Integrating substance abuse care with community diabetes care: implications for research and clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghitza UE

    2013-01-01

    preventive services and evidence-based treatments for substance use disorders with diabetes care in community-based medical settings. These laws also offer emerging areas for research.Keywords: addiction, illicit drug use, substance use disorder, substance abuse treatment, alcohol use, diabetes care, primary care, screening, brief intervention

  8. Mental Health Services and Public Safety: Substance Abuse Outpatient Visits Were Associated with Reduced Crime Rates in a Swedish Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Durbeej

    Full Text Available Substance abuse is related to offending and substance abuse treatment has been associated with reductions in criminal behavior. This cohort study aimed to explore the relationship between participation in substance abuse interventions and general criminal recidivism among offenders with a combination of mental health problems and substance use problems. In total, 150 Swedish offenders with self-reported mental health and substance use problems were followed for approximately three years with regard to participation in substance abuse interventions and criminal recidivism. Participants with at least three planned visits to specialized outpatient substance abuse clinics had a substantially reduced risk of reoffending as compared to those with fewer than three such visits (HR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.29-0.77. For those with at least three planned visits, general criminal recidivism was reduced by 75% during periods of participation in outpatient visits, as compared to periods of non-participation (HR = 0.25, 95% CI 0.11-0.60. For offenders with mental health problems and substance use problems, outpatient substance abuse interventions could be regarded as important from a clinical risk management perspective, and be encouraged.

  9. Delineating selection and mediation effects among childhood personality and environmental risk factors in the development of adolescent substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Brian M; Johnson, Wendy; Durbin, C Emily; Blonigen, Daniel M; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing the large, longitudinal Minnesota Twin Family Study (N = 2510; 96 % European American ancestry), we examined the influence of several person-environment transactions on adolescent substance abuse. We focused on the two childhood personality traits found to be most predictive of substance abuse in this sample-socialization (willingness to follow rules and endorse conventional values) and boldness (social engagement and assurance, stress resilience, thrill seeking)-and the environmental variables of antisocial and prosocial peers, academic engagement, parent-child relationship quality, and stressful life events. Path analysis revealed that low socialization had a selection effect for each environmental risk factor, that is, socialization at age 11 predicted environmental risk at age 14, after controlling for the stability of the environmental variables from ages 11 to 14. Antisocial peers and academic engagement at age 14 then mediated some of the risk of low socialization on substance abuse at age 17, but the majority of risk for substance abuse was accounted for by the stability of socialization from age 11 to 14. Boldness at age 11 also increased risk for substance abuse, but did so primarily via a direct effect. The findings help to parse the nature of person-environment transactions across multiple personality traits and contextual risk factors that contribute to adolescent substance abuse.

  10. Mental Health Services and Public Safety: Substance Abuse Outpatient Visits Were Associated with Reduced Crime Rates in a Swedish Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbeej, Natalie; Palmstierna, Tom; Rosendahl, Ingvar; Berman, Anne H; Kristiansson, Marianne; Gumpert, Clara Hellner

    2015-01-01

    Substance abuse is related to offending and substance abuse treatment has been associated with reductions in criminal behavior. This cohort study aimed to explore the relationship between participation in substance abuse interventions and general criminal recidivism among offenders with a combination of mental health problems and substance use problems. In total, 150 Swedish offenders with self-reported mental health and substance use problems were followed for approximately three years with regard to participation in substance abuse interventions and criminal recidivism. Participants with at least three planned visits to specialized outpatient substance abuse clinics had a substantially reduced risk of reoffending as compared to those with fewer than three such visits (HR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.29-0.77). For those with at least three planned visits, general criminal recidivism was reduced by 75% during periods of participation in outpatient visits, as compared to periods of non-participation (HR = 0.25, 95% CI 0.11-0.60). For offenders with mental health problems and substance use problems, outpatient substance abuse interventions could be regarded as important from a clinical risk management perspective, and be encouraged.

  11. Implementation of a Smoking Cessation Treatment Study at Substance Abuse Rehabilitation Programs: Smoking Behavior and Treatment Feasibility Across Varied Community-based Outpatient Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Malcolm S; Fallon, Bryan; Sonne, Susan; Nunes, Edward V; Lima, Jennifer; Jiang, Huiping; Tyson, Clare; Hiott, Robert; Arfken, Cynthia; Bohs, Rhonda; Orr, Deborah; Muir, Joan; Pihlgren, Eric; Loree, Amy; Fuller, Brett E; Giordano, Louis; Robinson, James; Rotrosen, John

    2007-09-01

    Cigarette smoking is widely prevalent among individuals in treatment for drug or alcohol dependence; however, the treatment of nicotine addiction in this population has numerous obstacles at both programmatic and patient levels. Despite these difficulties, recent studies have demonstrated moderate success in implementing smoking cessation treatment in drug rehabilitation programs. The National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network sponsored a smoking cessation study in 13 community-based outpatient substance abuse rehabilitation programs across the country. The study evaluated the effectiveness of smoking cessation treatment provided as an adjunct to substance abuse treatment-as-usual. This report summarizes the practical and clinical experiences encountered at each of the study sites with regard to implementing the smoking cessation treatment intervention. Smoking behavior of the treatment clientele was assessed by anonymous survey at each site. In addition, sites were systematically characterized by using program review and assessment tools completed by the respective staff and program directors at the site. Survey and recruitment data indicated that cigarette smoking is more prevalent and that smoking cessation treatment is more feasible, in methadone maintenance treatment programs. Other factors associated with smoking behavior and with the recruitment of drug- and alcohol-dependent individuals into the smoking cessation treatment study are described.

  12. Problem Gambling Among Ontario Students: Associations with Substance Abuse, Mental Health Problems, Suicide Attempts, and Delinquent Behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Steven; Turner, Nigel E; Ballon, Bruce; Paglia-Boak, Angela; Murray, Robert; Adlaf, Edward M; Ilie, Gabriela; den Dunnen, Wendy; Mann, Robert E

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes gambling problems among Ontario students in 2009 and examines the relationship between gambling problems and substance use problems, mental health problem indicators, and delinquent behaviors. Data were derived from the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey of Ontario students in grades 7-12. Gambling problems were measured as 2 or more of 6 indicators of problem gambling. In total 2.8% of the students surveyed endorsed two or more of the problem gambling items. The odds of problem gamblers reporting mental distress was 4.2 times higher than the rest of the sample and the odds of problem gamblers reporting a suicide attempt were 17.8 times greater than the rest of the sample. In addition compared to the rest of the students, delinquent behaviors were also more common among problem gamblers, including theft (OR = 14.5), selling marijuana (OR = 19.6), gang fights (OR = 11.3) and carrying a handgun (OR = 11.2). In a multivariate analysis, substance-use problems, mental health problems, and the participation in a variety of delinquent behaviors remained significantly associated with youth problem gambling behavior. Students who report problem gambling behaviors show increased substance abuse, mental health, and delinquency/criminal problems that are similar to those seen among adult problem gamblers. The association between these problems suggests that these problems could be addressed in a unified manner.

  13. ASAM Patient Placement Criteria treatment levels: do they correspond to care actually received by homeless substance abusing adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Thomas P; Freyder, Paul J; Gibbon, Jeanette L; Hanusa, Barbara J; Seltzer, Debora; Fine, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    We report findings from a community-based two-city survey of homeless adults comparing the level of substance abuse treatment assigned to them using the ASAM Patient Placement Criteria with care actually received during the previous 12 months. Overall 531 adults were surveyed with 382 meeting DSM-IIIR criteria of being in need of treatment or having a demand for treatment. Of those with a treatment need, 1.5% met criteria for outpatient care, 40.3% intensive outpatient/partial hospitalization care, 29.8% medically monitored care and 28.8% managed care levels. In contrast, of those receiving treatment (50.5%, 162 persons), almost all care received by this cohort was either inpatient or residential based (83.6%). Unsheltered homeless persons and those without insurance were significantly more likely to report not receiving needed treatment. Lack of treatment availability or capacity, expense, and changing one's mind while on a wait list were the most commonly cited reasons for no treatment.

  14. Just say know: an examination of substance use disorders among older adults in gerontological and substance abuse journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Daniel; Engel, Rafael J; Hunsaker, Amanda E; Engel, Yael; Detlefsen, Ellen Gay; Reynolds, Charles F

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which studies of alcohol abuse, illicit drug use, and prescription drug abuse among older adults appear in the leading gerontological and substance abuse journals. The authors reviewed articles published in the 10 social science gerontological journals and the 10 social science substance abuse journals with the highest 5-year impact factors in PubMed from 2000 to 2010. Articles were selected that presented original research on alcohol, substance, or prescription abuse with older adults aged 50 and older; and were identified through aging and substance abuse-related Medical Subject Headings and word searches of titles and abstracts (N = 634). Full text of each article was reviewed by the authors, and consensus determined inclusion in the final sample. Of the 19,953 articles published respectively in the top 10 gerontological and substance abuse journals, 181 articles met the inclusion criteria of reporting findings related to substance use disorders among older adults. Specifically, 0.9% (102 of 11,700) of articles from the top 10 gerontology journals and 1.0% (79 of 8,253) of articles from the top 10 substance abuse journals met the criteria. Most published articles addressed alcohol misuse/abuse or polysubstance abuse with few articles addressing illicit drug use or the misuse of prescription medications. Less than 1% of articles published in the 10 gerontology journals and the 10 substance abuse journals with the highest 5-year impact scores addressed substance abuse in older adults. Practitioners treating health and/or mental health problems are at a disadvantage in accurately identifying and treating these conditions in older adult populations without a proper understanding of the role of comorbid substance use disorders.

  15. Typologies of prescription opioid use in a large sample of adults assessed for substance abuse treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traci C Green

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As a population, non-medical prescription opioid users are not well-defined. We aimed to derive and describe typologies of prescription opioid use and nonmedical use using latent class analysis in an adult population being assessed for substance abuse treatment. METHODS: Latent class analysis was applied to data from 26,314 unique respondents, aged 18-70, self-reporting past month use of a prescription opioid out of a total of 138,928 cases (18.9% collected by the Addiction Severity Index-Multimedia Version (ASI-MV®, a national database for near real-time prescription opioid abuse surveillance. Data were obtained from November 2005 through December 2009. Substance abuse treatment, criminal justice, and public assistance programs in the United States submitted data to the ASI-MV database (n = 538. Six indicators of the latent classes derived from responses to the ASI-MV, a version of the ASI modified to collect prescription opioid abuse and chronic pain experience. The latent class analysis included respondent home ZIP code random effects to account for nesting of respondents within ZIP code. RESULTS: A four-class adjusted latent class model fit best and defined clinically interpretable and relevant subgroups: Use as prescribed, Prescribed misusers, Medically healthy abusers, and Illicit users. Classes varied on key variables, including race/ethnicity, gender, concurrent substance abuse, duration of prescription opioid abuse, mental health problems, and ASI composite scores. Three of the four classes (81% of respondents exhibited high potential risk for fatal opioid overdose; 18.4% exhibited risk factors for blood-borne infections. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple and distinct profiles of prescription opioid use were detected, suggesting a range of use typologies at differing risk for adverse events. Results may help clinicians and policy makers better focus overdose and blood-borne infection prevention efforts and intervention strategies

  16. Patient attitudes towards change in adapted motivational interviewing for substance abuse: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wells SA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Samantha Ashley Wells,1,2 Tanya Smyth,1,2 Thomas G Brown1,2,31Department of Psychiatry, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Montréal, Québec, Canada; 2Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada; 3Foster Addiction Rehabilitation Centre, St. Philippe de Laprairie, Québec, CanadaAbstract: Adapted motivational interviewing (AMI represents a category of effective, directive and client-centered psychosocial treatments for substance abuse. In AMI, patients’ attitudes towards change are considered critical elements for treatment outcome as well as therapeutic targets for alteration. Despite being a major focus in AMI, the role of attitudes towards change in AMI’s action has yet to be systematically reviewed in substance abuse research. A search of PsycINFO, PUBMED/MEDLINE, and Science Direct databases and a manual search of related article reference lists identified 416 published randomized controlled trials that evaluated AMI’s impact on the reduction of alcohol and drug use. Of those, 54 met the initial inclusion criterion by evaluating AMI’s impact on attitudes towards change and/or testing hypotheses about attitudes towards change as moderators or mediators of outcome. Finally, 19 studies met the methodological quality inclusion criterion based upon a Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale score ≥7. Despite the conceptual importance of attitudes towards change in AMI, the empirical support for their role in AMI is inconclusive. Future research is warranted to investigate both the contextual factors (ie, population studied as well as deployment characteristics of AMI (ie, counselor characteristics likely responsible for equivocal findings.Keywords: motivational interviewing, substance abuse, systematic review, readiness to change, self-efficacy

  17. The Feasibility and Acceptability of “Arise”: An Online Substance Abuse Relapse Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Chelsea M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and acceptability of a novel online adolescent substance abuse relapse prevention tool, “Arise” (3C Institute, Cary, NC). The program uses an innovative platform including interactive instructional segments and skill-building games to help adolescents learn and practice coping skills training strategies. Materials and Methods: We conducted a pilot test with nine adolescents in substance abuse treatment (44 percent female) and a feasibility test with treatment providers (n=8; 50 percent female). Adolescents interacted with the program via a secure Web site for approximately 30 minutes for each of two instructional units. Treatment providers reviewed the same material at their own pace. All participants completed a questionnaire with items assessing usability, acceptability, understanding, and subjective experience of the program. Results: Regarding feasibility, recruitment of this population within the study constraints proved challenging, but participant retention in the trial was high (no attrition). Adolescents and treatment providers completed the program with no reported problems, and overall we were able to collect data as planned. Regarding acceptability, the program received strong ratings from both adolescents and providers, who found the prototype informative, engaging, and appealing. Both groups strongly recommended continuing development. Conclusions: We were able to deliver the intervention as intended, and acceptability ratings were high, demonstrating the feasibility and acceptability of online delivery of engaging interactive interventions. This study contributes to our understanding of how interactive technologies, including games, can be used to modify behavior in substance abuse treatment and other health areas. PMID:26181807

  18. The Life Skills Training and Preventive behaviors of Substances Abuse among University Students: a Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Moshki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Nowaday, substance abuse is one of the bitterest social damages. In the recent years, substance abuse has increased among students of schools and universities, therefore special attention it requires. This study aimed to study the effect of life skills training on the promotion of the preventive behaviors of Gonabad University medical school students’ abuse of substances. Materials & Methods: During the experimental research and field trail, 60 students were Selected through a quota random sampling method and were randomly assigned to the two case and control groups. A Questionnaire that involved demographic factors and Preventive behaviors, whichwere caused as the result of drug abuse, was used for data collection. The questionnaire’s reliability and validity was assessed before and after educational intervention, and as a follow-up, 4 years after educational intervention. The Data was analyzed using T-Test and Chi-square. Results: Comparison of the mean of the scores in scale Preventive behaviors caused by drug abuse in post-test of two case and control groups had a significant difference (p<0/01 that remained stable 4 years after the end of the intervention. There was a significant difference between some of the demographic factors and Preventive behaviors that had been caused by drug abuse (p<0/01. Conclusion: Life skills training are effective in strengthening Preventive behaviors of substance abuse in university students. Therefore, life skills training programs should be integrated into university courses in order to comprehensively and consistently the effect of drug abuse on the educational level of students

  19. Substance Abuse Disorders in the Parents of ADHD Children, and Parents of Normal Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Alipour

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare the attention-deficit/ hyperactivity, and substance abuse disorders background in the parents of children with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and the parents of normal children. The available sampling method was used to choose 400 parents of children (200 parents of children with ADHD and 200 parents of normal children, the ages of children were 6-18 years old. The data were collected through the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS for parents and the Kiddy Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL, Connors Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS for adult ADHD. The results were analyzed by using SPSS-17 software, based on two-variable Chi-Square and t-tests.and P value in all disorders were equals to P<0.05. The results indicated that substance abuse in parents of children with ADHD is 21% more prevalent, and parents of children with ADHD compared to parents of normal children have 2% ADHD, 9% attention deficit disorder, and 1% hyperactivity disorder more in their background. Therefore, we conclude that there exists a significant difference between the above mentioned disorders in the parents of children with ADHD, and parents of normal children. The high prevalence rate of disorders and background of ADHD in families of individuals with ADHD shows the probability of effect of inheritance in the disorder. Also, it shows that parents of children with ADHD have more substance abuse and history of ADHD in their background.

  20. Batter up! Relapse prevention for homeless veteran substance abusers via softball team participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burling, T A; Seidner, A L; Robbins-Sisco, D; Krinsky, A; Hanser, S B

    1992-01-01

    Thirty-four veterans of a residential rehabilitation program for homelessness and substance abuse participated on a community-based softball team. Compared to nonparticipants, participants stayed in treatment longer and were more likely to complete all aspects of the program (inpatient and outpatient). They also were more likely to be abstinent from drugs/alcohol, employed, and housed 3 months postdischarge. Participation appeared to enhance outcomes by providing in vivo opportunities for practicing coping skills and developing supportive relationships. A softball program may be a viable adjunct treatment in which formally taught cognitive-behavioral skills can be applied in a natural, but semistructured setting.

  1. Accessing substance abuse treatment: issues for parents involved with child welfare services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockhill, Anna; Green, Beth L; Newton-Curtis, Linda

    2008-01-01

    The complex issues associated with barriers to treatment entry for parents who are involved with child welfare has not been well explored. Accessing timely treatment is now critical for these parents since the introduction of the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997, limiting the time until a permanency decision is made. Using a longitudinal, qualitative approach, substance-abusing parents from 15 families, their relevant family members, and service providers were interviewed approximately every 3 months over an 18-month period. The experiences of these parents add to our knowledge of the unique barriers this population faces, and expands our understanding of the mechanisms by which certain barriers may delay treatment.

  2. Violence exposure as a predictor of internalizing and externalizing problems among children of substance abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners-Burrow, Nicola; McKelvey, Lorraine; Kyzer, Angela; Swindle, Taren; Cheerla, Rajalakshmi; Kraleti, Shashank

    2013-01-01

    We explore the associations between exposure to conflict and crime in the home and community, and child anxiety and self-control problems among 60 children whose mothers were in treatment for substance abuse problems. Experiences with violence and crime were widespread, with many children exposed to multiple incidents. Approximately one-third (35.5%) of children exhibited clinically elevated anxiety. Controlling for other potential predictors, both children's exposure to violence and the number of years the mother had been using substances predicted higher anxiety in children, while only exposure to violence predicted problems in self-control. Results highlight the importance of screening for violence exposure.

  3. Arousability and Dispositional optimism in cyclists with a disability in the context of substance abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Nosková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focuses at aspects of resistance to psychical stress in cyclists with a disability in the context of substance abuse stimulant effect. The first part includes knowledge about cycling of handicapped and the effect of stimulants at the sports achievement. The article also describes selected constructs of resistance to the psychical stress, like dispositional optimism. The empirical part includes descriptive data from respondents from sports environment. The data on the level of arousability and dispositional optimism are interpreted in the context of substance use by respondents to effect sports achievement. The data are compared with the data of cyclists without handicap.

  4. Engaging stakeholders in review and recommendations for models of outcome monitoring for substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Brian; Martin, Garth; Corea, Larry; Rotondi, Nooshin Khobzi

    2012-10-01

    We present an example of a collaborative process designed to review models of outcome monitoring for substance abuse services, with a view to assessing the feasibility of different approaches in Ontario, Canada. A conceptual framework that describes the parameters of an outcome monitoring system and four models of outcome monitoring were identified. Consultations were held with stakeholders (managers, directors, researchers, clinicians, and governmental representatives) about the types of information they would like to obtain from an outcome monitoring system. Our process is useful as a model for collaborative research with respect to performance measurement. The study's implications and limitations are noted.

  5. Substance abuse treatment services for pregnant women: psychosocial and behavioral approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Nancy A; Duffy, Megan; McCaul, Mary E

    2014-06-01

    Women who use tobacco, alcohol and drugs during pregnancy are at increased risk of maternal and fetal morbidity. Universal screening using empirically validated approaches can improve identification of substance-using pregnant women and facilitate comprehensive assessment of treatment needs. There is strong evidence for effectiveness of psychosocial and behavioral substance abuse treatments across a range of intensities and levels of care. In addition to addressing substance use, services for co-occurring psychiatric disorders, trauma exposure, and prenatal care are important components of coordinated systems of care. More research on and greater access to evidence-based interventions is needed for this underserved population.

  6. Compulsury intervension towards adult substance abusers and mentally disabled people in scandinavian social law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilssen, Even

    as the basic principle in social law. This does not mean, however, that the use of coercive measures is removed from social law. In this paper our focus is on two social groups who historically have been the target of comprehensive compulsory interventions – adult substance abusers and mentally disabled people...... the allocation of welfare resources on the other. The Welfare State may be described both as a project of liberty based on solidarity and justice, and as a powerful state apparatus controlling the lives of the citizens according to its own judgements, thus limiting the opportunities of individual freedom...

  7. Beyond substance abuse: stress, burnout, and depression as causes of physician impairment and disruptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen D; Goske, Marilyn J; Johnson, Craig M

    2009-07-01

    Disruptive physician behavior may diminish productivity, lead to medical errors, and compromise patient safety. The purpose of this paper is to review how common psychological conditions such as depression, stress, and burnout may drive disruptive behavior in the workplace and result in impaired patterns of professional conduct similar to what is seen with substance abuse. Problems related to these psychological morbidities may be more effectively managed with improved understanding of the conditions and behaviors, their associated risk factors, and the barriers that exist to reporting them. Further research and educational programs are warranted to address how these conditions might affect radiology.

  8. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Behavioral Health Disaster Response App.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Jamie; Felder, Stephanie S; Robinson, Maryann E

    2015-10-01

    The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) in the Department of Health and Human Services offers extensive disaster behavior health resources to assist disaster survivors in preparing for, responding to, and recovering from natural and manmade disasters. One of SAMHSA's most innovative resources is the SAMHSA Behavioral Health Disaster Response App (SAMHSA Disaster App). The SAMHSA Disaster App prepares behavioral health responders for any type of traumatic event by allowing them to access disaster-related materials and other key resources right on their phone, at the touch of a button. The SAMHSA Disaster App is available on iPhone, Android, and BlackBerry devices.

  9. Future funding for mental health and substance abuse: increasing burdens for the public sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levit, Katharine R; Kassed, Cheryl A; Coffey, Rosanna M; Mark, Tami L; Stranges, Elizabeth M; Buck, Jeffrey A; Vandivort-Warren, Rita

    2008-01-01

    Spending on mental health (MH) and substance abuse (SA) treatment is expected to double between 2003 and 2014, to $239 billion, and is anticipated to continue falling as a share of all health spending. By 2014, our projections of SA spending show increasing responsibility for state and local governments (45 percent); deteriorating shares financed by private insurance (7 percent); and 42 percent of SA spending going to specialty SA centers. For MH, Medicaid is forecasted to fund an increasingly larger share of treatment costs (27 percent), and prescription medications are expected to capture 30 percent of MH spending by 2014.

  10. Prevalence of substance abuse among regular degree health science students in Sheba University College in Mekelle Town, Tigray - Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esietu Gebregazabher Hagos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Substance abuse (SA refers to the harmful or hazardous use of psychoactive substances, including alcohol and illicit drugs. The most common substances which are usually abused are alcohol and tobacco. Herein, we assessed the prevalence of SA among regular degree health science students of the Sheba University College (SUC. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 1076 SUC students using self-administered structured questionnaire. The simple sampling technique was used to select students. Descriptive statistics, bivariate, and multivariate analysis were done. Results: The overall prevalence of “ever used substance” for at least one was 45.5%. The most commonly used drugs in descending order were alcohol (25.1%, cigarette (11.4%, and khat (9.2%. Male participants, urban setting, peer pressure, personal pleasure, and academic dissatisfaction and pocket money were highly associated with SA. Conclusion: This study showed a lower magnitude (45.6% ever use and 21% still using of SA among students' compared to other studies. Even if a considerable decrease in SA among study subjects, the creation of awareness and health education should be continued to fully combat the problem of abuse.

  11. Tuberculosis screening in a novel substance abuse treatment center in Malaysia: implications for a comprehensive approach for integrated care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Darraji, Haider Abdulrazzaq Abed; Wong, Kee Cheong; Yeow, David Gan Eng; Fu, Jeannia Jiani; Loeliger, Kelsey; Paiji, Christopher; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L

    2014-02-01

    People who use drugs (PWUD) represent a key high risk group for tuberculosis (TB). The prevalence of both latent TB infection (LTBI) and active disease in drug treatment centers in Malaysia is unknown. A cross-sectional convenience survey was conducted to assess the prevalence and correlates of LTBI among attendees at a recently created voluntary drug treatment center using a standardized questionnaire and tuberculin skin testing (TST). Participants (N=196) were mostly men (95%), under 40 (median age=36 years) and reported heroin use immediately before treatment entry (75%). Positive TST prevalence was 86.7%. Nine (4.6%) participants were HIV-infected. Previous arrest/incarcerations (AOR=1.1 for every entry, p<0.05) and not being HIV-infected (AOR=6.04, p=0.03) were significantly associated with TST positivity. There is an urgent need to establish TB screening and treatment programs in substance abuse treatment centers and to tailor service delivery to the complex treatment needs of patients with multiple medical and psychiatric co-morbidities.

  12. Neuropsychological screening of children of substance-abusing women attending a Special Child Welfare Clinic in Norway

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    Skogmo Idar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to alcohol and illicit substances during pregnancy can have an impact on the child for the rest of his/her life. A Special Child Welfare Clinic (SCWC in Norway provides care for pregnant women with substance abuse problems. Treatment and support are provided without replacement therapy. Methods We performed a neuropsychological screening of 40 children aged four to 11 years whose mothers had attended the SCWC during pregnancy, and of a comparison group of 80 children of women without substance abuse problems. The children were presented with tests chosen from Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, third version (WISC-III, Nepsy, Halstead-Reitan and Raven's Progressive Matrices, Coloured Version. The tests were grouped into five main domains; (1 learning and memory, (2 visual scanning, planning and attention, (3 executive function, (4 visuo-motor speed and dexterity and (5 general intellectual ability Results No children in the study had test results in the clinical range in any domain. Bivariate analyses revealed that children of short-term substance-abusing mothers (who stopped substance abuse within the first trimester had significantly lower test scores than the comparison group in three out of five domains (domain 2,3,4. Children of long-term substance abusers (who maintained moderate substance abuse throughout pregnancy had significantly lower test results than the comparison group in one domain of the test results (domain 1. All but one child in the long-term group were or had been in foster homes. Most children in the short-term group stayed with their mothers. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that foster care minimum 50% of life time was associated with better scores on domains (1 learning and memory, (2 visual scanning, planning and attention, and (3 executive functions, while no significant associations with test scores was found for substance abuse and birth before 38 weeks of gestation

  13. Screening for Common Mental Disorders and Substance Abuse among Temporary Hired Cleaners in Egyptian Governmental Hospitals, Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RA Abbas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Informal employment is common in developing countries, including Egypt. This type of employment may have significant consequences on mental health. Objectives: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of common mental disorders and substance abuse among temporary hired hospital cleaners. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 242 adult temporary cleaners and 209 permanent cleaners working in 4 governmental hospitals in Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate, Egypt. All participants were invited to complete a structured questionnaire through a semi-structured interview which included the self-reporting questionnaire 20 items (SRQ-20 and the work stress scale. Assessment of drug use included urine-based screening tests for common substances abused. Results: The prevalence of job stress, common mental disorders and substance abuse, particularly tramadol and cannabis (Bango, was significantly higher in the studied temporary cleaners compared to permanent cleaners. Risk factors associated with increased susceptibility of the temporary cleaners to common mental disorders were family history of substance abuse, high crowding index, history of physical illness, low educational level, and smoking; while being unmarried, male sex, family history of mental disorder, age ≥40 years, smoking, and length of service ≥8 years, were associated with substance abuse among the same group. Conclusion: Temporary hired hospital cleaners suffered from impaired mental health more than permanent cleaners. Therefore, expanding the coverage of current laws and occupational safety and health standards to cover workers in the informal sector especially in developing countries is recommended.

  14. Evaluation of lung epithelial permeability in the volatile substance abuse using Tc-99m DTPA aerosol scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayir, Derya; Demirel, Koray; Korkmaz, Meliha; Koca, Gokhan

    2011-10-01

    Chronic inhalant use is associated with significant toxic effects, including neurological, renal, hepatic, and pulmonary damage. However, there is a paucity of reports regarding respiratory complications in inhalant abusers. The aim of this study was to evaluate pulmonary epithelial permeability in the volatile substance abuse (VSA) using Tc-99m DTPA aerosol scintigraphy. This study included 18 patients with volatile substance abuse and 18 volunteer controls. All of patients and controls were smokers. Tc-99m DTPA aerosol scintigraphy was performed in all cases. Time-activity curves from each lung were generated and clearance half-time (T(1/2)) of Tc-99m DTPA were calculated. T(1/2) of whole lung was calculated as a mean of the T(1/2) of left and right lung. The T(1/2) values of Tc-99m DTPA clearance in the substance abusers were significantly decreased as compared to the control group with respective mean values of 28.86 ± 8.44, and 62.14 ± 26.12 min (p = 0.001). It was seen Tc-99m DTPA clearance from lung was faster as the duration of substance abuse was increased. Tc-99m DTPA pulmonary clearance is markedly accelerated in the volatile substance abuse. This suggests that inhalant abuse of substance may produce abnormalities in pulmonary alveolo-capillary membrane function.

  15. John Henryism Active Coping as a Cultural Correlate of Substance Abuse Treatment Participation Among African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Knighton, Joi-Sheree'; Allen, Kristin; Fisher, Sycarah; Crowell, Candice; Mahaffey, Carlos; Leukefeld, Carl; Oser, Carrie

    2016-04-01

    The rates of illicit drug use among African American women are increasing, yet African American women are least likely to participate in treatment for substance use disorders when compared to women of other racial groups. The current study examined family history of substance use, perceived family support, and John Henryism Active Coping (JHAC) as correlates to seeking treatment for substance abuse. The underlying theoretical frame of JHAC (James et al., 1983) suggests that despite limited resources and psychosocial stressors, African Americans believe that hard work and self-determination are necessary to cope with adversities. The current study is a secondary data analyses of 206 drug-using African American women (N=104 urban community women with no criminal justice involvement and N=102 women living in the community on supervised probation) from urban cities in a southern state. It was expected that African American women with a family history of substance abuse, higher levels of perceived family support, and more active coping skills would be more likely to have participated in substance abuse treatment. Step-wise logistic regression results reveal that women on probation, had children, and had a family history of substance abuse were significantly more likely to report participating in substance abuse treatment. Perceived family support and active coping were significant negative correlates of participating in treatment. Implication of results suggests coping with psychosocial stressors using a self-determined and persistent coping strategy may be problematic for drug-using women with limited resources.

  16. Substance abuse In Middle Eastern adolescents living in two different countries: spiritual, cultural, family and personal factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Lina Kurdahi; Taha, Asma; Dee, Vivien

    2014-08-01

    It is estimated that the percentage of students using illicit substances by sixth grade has tripled over the last decade not only in developed countries but in developing countries as well probably due to the transition to a more Western society. Although much has been done to understand the mechanisms underlying substance abuse, few studies have been conducted with minority ethnic and religious groups such as Middle Eastern Youth. The primary goal of this study was to determine whether there are differences in factors contributing to substance abuse in adolescents from Lebanon versus the U.S.A. and to decipher the role of spirituality, religion, and culture among other factors that may influence substance abuse. A correlational cross-sectional design was used with adolescents living in two different countries: Los Angeles, California and Beirut, Lebanon. Muslim adolescents had significantly less rates of alcohol and substance use than Christians in both Lebanon and Los Angeles. More years lived in the U.S.A. increases the likelihood of abuse for both Muslims and Christians. Attachment to God and family was negatively associated with substance abuse. These results among others facilitate a better understanding of the influence of culture, religion, family and personal factors on substance abuse. Culturally sensitive interventions could benefit from the findings of this pilot study.

  17. Immediate drop-out rate in adolescent substance abusers: an out-patient chart review from North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Sidharth; Gupta, Rajiv; Rathee, Sunila; Rawat, Vinay

    2016-07-21

    Although a number of management strategies are available for adolescent substance abusers, the outcomes are limited due to high drop out. The factors related to drop out in adolescent substance users, especially in low and middle income countries (LAMIC) have been sparsely studied. To study the personal, family and clinical variables related to immediate drop out in adolescent substance abusers. A retrospective outpatient chart review was carried out for adolescent substance abusers aged 12-19 years from January 2012 to December 2014. Of the 89 patients, 57 (64%) dropped out immediately. The majority of adolescent substance users were >17 years (85%), having some education (90%), belonging to a joint family (76%), having good family support (66%). Drop out was higher in those with later onset and less duration of substance abuse (3.42 vs. 2.36, p=0.014), not currently employed/attending school (OR=2.65, 95% CI=1.04-6.70), not having a psychiatric comorbidity, using a single substance and abusing cannabis. Factors like school drop out, background, family type and support and the relationship to the accompanying person were not associated with immediate drop out. Later onset, lesser duration of substance use, not currently employed/attending school, absence of psychiatric illness and using cannabis were associated with drop out from outpatient treatment. These factors must be thoroughly addressed in substance abuse interventions.

  18. Benefits and costs of substance abuse treatment programs for state prison inmates: results from a lifetime simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkin, Gary A; Cowell, Alexander J; Hicks, Katherine A; Mills, Michael J; Belenko, Steven; Dunlap, Laura J; Houser, Kimberly A; Keyes, Vince

    2012-06-01

    Reflecting drug use patterns and criminal justice policies throughout the 1990s and 2000s, prisons hold a disproportionate number of society's drug abusers. Approximately 50% of state prisoners meet the criteria for a diagnosis of drug abuse or dependence, but only 10% receive medically based drug treatment. Because of the link between substance abuse and crime, treating substance abusing and dependent state prisoners while incarcerated has the potential to yield substantial economic benefits. In this paper, we simulate the lifetime costs and benefits of improving prison-based substance abuse treatment and post-release aftercare for a cohort of state prisoners. Our model captures the dynamics of substance abuse as a chronic disease; estimates the benefits of substance abuse treatment over individuals' lifetimes; and tracks the costs of crime and criminal justice costs related to policing, adjudication, and incarceration. We estimate net societal benefits and cost savings to the criminal justice system of the current treatment system and five policy scenarios. We find that four of the five policy scenarios provide positive net societal benefits and cost savings to the criminal justice system relative to the current treatment system. Our study demonstrates the societal gains to improving the drug treatment system for state prisoners.

  19. A framework for conducting a national study of substance abuse treatment programs serving American Indian and Alaska native communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novins, Douglas K; Moore, Laurie A; Beals, Janette; Aarons, Gregory A; Rieckmann, Traci; Kaufman, Carol E

    2012-09-01

    Because of their broad geographic distribution, diverse ownership and operation, and funding instability, it is a challenge to develop a framework for studying substance abuse treatment programs serving American Indian and Alaska Native communities at a national level. This is further complicated by the historic reluctance of American Indian and Alaska Native communities to participate in research. We developed a framework for studying these substance abuse treatment programs (n ≈ 293) at a national level as part of a study of attitudes toward, and use of, evidence-based treatments among substance abuse treatment programs serving AI/AN communities with the goal of assuring participation of a broad array of programs and the communities that they serve. Because of the complexities of identifying specific substance abuse treatment programs, the sampling framework divides these programs into strata based on the American Indian and Alaska Native communities that they serve: (1) the 20 largest tribes (by population); (2) urban AI/AN clinics; (3) Alaska Native Health Corporations; (4) other Tribes; and (5) other regional programs unaffiliated with a specific AI/AN community. In addition, the recruitment framework was designed to be sensitive to likely concerns about participating in research. This systematic approach for studying substance abuse and other clinical programs serving AI/AN communities assures the participation of diverse AI/AN programs and communities and may be useful in designing similar national studies.

  20. Knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of adolescents in relation to STIs, pregnancy, contraceptive utilization and substance abuse in the Mhlakulo region, Eastern Cape : original research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mona, K; Mbulawa, N; Mohlajoa, N.A; Bhat, V.G; Libazi, S; Ramnaran, B; Maholwana, Y; Marafungana, N; Bana, A; Godlwana, X; Nondula, N.N; Mofuka, J; Qubekile, Y; Mbonisweni, A.M

    2010-01-01

    ...) and in economically poor, rural populations. This study aimed to assess the youthsâ?? knowledge, attitudes and behaviours regarding STIs, teenage pregnancy, contraception and substance abuse. Methodology...

  1. Knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of adolescents in relation to STIs, pregnancy, contraceptive utilization and substance abuse in the Mhlakulo region, Eastern Cape

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bana, A; Bhat, VG; Godlwana, X; Libazi, S; Maholwana, Y; Marafungana, N; Mona, K; Mbonisweni, AM; Mbulawa, N; Mofuka, J; Mohlajoa, NA; Nondula, NN; Qubekile, Y; Ramnaran, B

    2010-01-01

    ...) and in economically poor, rural populations. This study aimed to assess the youths' knowledge, attitudes and behaviours regarding STIs, teenage pregnancy, contraception and substance abuse. Methodology...

  2. Mental health, health, and substance abuse service needs for the Native American Rehabilitation Association Northwest (NARA NW) in the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crofoot, Thomas L; Harris, Naomi; Plumb, Mary Anne; Smith, Keri Slingerland; Gault, Jaime; Brooks, Gloria; Hungry, Lisa; Geary, Artice; Holland, Irene

    2008-01-01

    ... Rehabilitation Association Northwest revealed high levels of co-occurring conditions for American Indian and Alaska Native clients, often combining chronic health problems, substance abuse histories...

  3. Level of analysis issues in assessing treatment beliefs in substance abuse clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchelson, Jacqueline K.; Dickson, Marcus W.; Arfken, Cynthia L.; Agius, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The current study applies the growing literature in the organizational sciences regarding levels of analysis issues to the analysis of substance abuse treatment beliefs. Research on clinicians' beliefs in substance abuse treatment is often based on the assumption that the beliefs are sufficiently shared by clinicians within a clinic and sufficiently vary across clinics that they can be treated as a group-level phenomenon. Further, efforts to introduce new innovations are often focused at the group or clinic level without testing this assumption, which can lead to failure to adopt or to successfully implement the innovation. We tested the assumption of sharedness by examining if there was sufficient agreement about treatment beliefs within clinics, within groups of clinics or within groups of clinicians to justify treating these aggregations as meaningful groups. Using three statistical approaches to examining level of analysis (Within and Between Analysis (WABA I), Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC(1)), and rwg), we found that variability in treatment beliefs largely occurred at the individual rather than at the tested aggregate levels of analysis. These findings serve as an example of the importance of testing the assumption of shared perceptions in future research. PMID:17570604

  4. Barriers to Implementing Individualized Substance Abuse Treatment: Qualitative Findings from the CASPAR Replication Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mericle, Amy A; Casaletto, Kathryn; Knoblach, Dan; Brooks, Adam C; Carise, Deni

    2010-10-01

    Problem-to-services matching is critical to patient-centered care. Further, the extent to which substance abuse treatment is individualized to meet specific client needs is a key predictor of success and represents "best practice" in substance abuse treatment. The CASPAR Resource Guide, an electronic database of local free and low-cost services, is an evidence-based tool designed to help counselors easily and quickly provide offsite referrals to services not available in most community treatment programs to increase problem-to-service matching. This paper examines system-level barriers to using the CASPAR Resource Guide among 30 counselors and 21 site directors across 16 sites in two different studies. Results from qualitative implementation analyses found that key program components needed to support the implementation of this evidence-based practice (e.g., individualized treatment planning, individual treatment sessions, and individual counselor supervision) were lacking, which jeopardized successful adoption of the CASPAR research interventions and prompted a redesign of the studies in order to enhance each program's ability to support individualized care.

  5. Acute Pseudohepatitis in a Chronic Substance Abuser Secondary to Occult Seat Belt Injury

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    Eric CS Lam

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Causes of a massive elevation in serum aminotransferases (aspartate aminotransferase [AST] and alanine aminotransferase [ALT] in the substance-abusing patient include viral hepatitis and drug hepatotoxicity. A patient chronically addicted to injection heroin and cocaine presented to the emergency room in a confused state and was admitted to a medical ward with an AST of 4120 U/L, ALT 3820 U/L and right upper quadrant discomfort. Investigations for viral and hepatotoxic causes for the liver dysfunction revealed only hepatitis C seropositivity. A computed tomogram of the abdomen, however, revealed a significant contusion to the right lobe of the liver consistent with traumatic injury. A motor vehicle accident, in which the patient was wearing a seat belt, and which had occurred a few days before admission and had been thought to be minor, was the cause of the liver dysfunction. Significant blunt abdominal traumatic injuries are usually managed exclusively by surgical trauma units. This case underlines the need for medical specialists to be aware of hepatic contusion injuries and to have a high index of suspicion when investigating unexplained hepatocellular dysfunction in chronic substance abusers who have been in motor vehicle accidents.

  6. Resiliency experiences of the youth against substance abuse: A qualitative study

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    Salah Adin Karimi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many researches have been done on the addiction process, but few studies have examined the process of resiliency against addiction. This study was aimed to identify the facilitating and inhibiting factors in the young people’s resiliency process by analyzing their living experiences. Methodology: This qualitative study was based on grounded theory with Strauss and Corbin’s approach. The data underwent open, axial and selective coding. The study focused on Darvaze Ghar neighborhood of Tehran. Data were collected through open unstructured interviews and focus group discussion. In total, 21 interviews were conducted with 12 respondents and a focus group discussion was held with 7 participants. Lincoln and Guba (1985 scales were used to ensure the trustworthiness of the study. Results: The obtained codes were classified into 19 categories, including personal characteristics, family support, culture, spirituality, spiritual beliefs, environment, and social interventions. According to their nature, these categories were facilitating or inhibiting the process of resiliency against substance abuse. Conclusion: The youth with more religious beliefs, awareness, self-confidence, optimism and hatred towards drugs are more resilient against substance abuse. Moreover, the families with a higher sense of responsibility trust and monitor their children’s activities, talk to them about different issues and provide them with good trainings from the very childhood; therefore their children will be more resilient against addiction.

  7. NADA Ear Acupuncture: An Adjunctive Therapy to Improve and Maintain Positive Outcomes in Substance Abuse Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Kenneth; Olshan-Perlmutter, Michelle; Marx, Jonathan; Martini, Janet F; Cairns, Simon B

    2017-06-16

    The National Acupuncture Detoxification Association protocol (NADA) is an adjunctive therapy using 1 to 5 invariant ear acupuncture/acupressure points. This is a randomized prospective study to determine if NADA plus traditional treatment enhance outcomes: quality of life, depression, anxiety and abstinence from substance abuse. There were 100 patients enrolled in the Keystone Substance Abuse Services-Winthrop University Department of Sociology and Anthropology NADA study. All patients completed Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES) prior to starting the program and at program completion. Patients self-reported alcohol, tobacco, and drug use prior to starting the program at program completion and at 3 and 6 month follow- up. Patient characteristics are predictive of completion versus non-completion when race, criminal history and initial drug test is considered. Those identified as nonwhite, (p NADA group. Also, among patients with criminal history a higher percentage failed to complete the program in the control group (p NADA positively associated with Q-LES score (p NADA group reported less tobacco use at 6 months (p < 0.05).

  8. Substance Abuse during Adulthood Subsequent to the Experience of Physical Abuse and Psychological Distress during Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Longman-Mills

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study investigated if there was a significant relationship between physical abuse during childhood and experiencing psychological distress and substance abuse among university students. Methods: This cross-sectional study utilized a questionnaire to collect retrospective data from 382 university students (103 males and 279 females about their substance use patterns, level of psychological distress and their exposure to physical abuse. The data were then analysed using bivariate statistics. Results: Most (61.8% participants met the criteria for being physically abused, however, only 27.2% recognized the experience as abuse. Another 38.9% of the students reported moderate to severe psychological distress. There was a significant relationship between being physically abused and experiencing higher levels of psychological distress (p < 0.001. Cannabis was the most frequently utilized illicit drug (10.3% while alcohol was the most frequently utilized licit drug (37.4%. Drug abuse was found to be significantly associated with being physically abused during childhood (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Even though the results obtained are not generalizable, this study has provided important preliminary information, that experiencing physical abuse increases the likelihood of having higher levels of psychological distress and becoming a substance abuser during adulthood; thereby identifying an overlooked area to target anti-drug use interventions.

  9. Intervention for homeless, substance abusing mothers: findings from a non-randomized pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesnick, Natasha; Erdem, Gizem

    2012-01-01

    Little empirically-based information is available regarding how best to intervene with substance-abusing homeless mothers. This study pilot-tested a comprehensive intervention with 15 homeless women and their 2- to 6-year-old children, recruited from a local family shelter. All participants were offered integrated intervention with three major components. The first component was housing which included 3 months of rental and utility assistance, and these services were not contingent upon women's abstinence from drugs or alcohol. The second and third components included 6 months of case management services and an evidence-based substance abuse treatment (Community Reinforcement Approach; CRA). Analysis revealed that women showed reductions in substance use (F(2,22) = 3.63; p homelessness (F(2,24) = 25.31; p intervention is a promising approach to meet the multiple needs of this vulnerable population. These positive outcomes support the need for future research to replicate the findings with a larger sample using a randomized design.

  10. Substance abuse treatment in persons with HIV/AIDS: challenges in managing triple diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durvasula, Ramani; Miller, Theodore R

    2014-01-01

    Clinical management of HIV must account for the "triple diagnosis" of HIV, psychiatric diagnosis, and substance use disorders and requires integrated treatment services that focus beyond just mitigation of substance use and psychiatric and medical symptoms but also address other health behaviors. Because clinical management of HIV/AIDS has shifted significantly with the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) in the mid 1990s, a literature review focusing on literature published since 2000, and using relevant key words was conducted using a wide range of literature search databases. This literature review was complemented by studies to expand on specific treatment modalities for which there was a dearth of literature addressing HIV infected cohorts and to provide discussion of issues around substance abuse treatment as an HIV prevention tool. Existing models of substance abuse treatment including cognitive behavioral therapy and motivational interviewing have proven to be useful for enhancing adherence and reducing substance use in outpatient populations, while methadone maintenance and directly observed treatment have been useful with specific subgroups of users. Contextualization of services heightens the likelihood of successful outcomes and relapse prevention.

  11. Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Substance Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jag H. Khalsa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There are an estimated 200 million users of an illicit drug in the world today. In addition, an estimated 40 million people are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and an estimated 180 million people are infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV. Both the use of an illicit drug and the co-occurrence of infections are associated with a multitude of medical and health consequences including hormonal and metabolic disorders. Thus, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA, a part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH hosted a workshop on hormonal and metabolic disorders of HIV among substance abusers. A number of clinicians and scientists participated and discussed a wide range of issues concerning hormones, nutrition and metabolic complications in HIV and substance abuse. Their observations and the recommendations they made for future research are presented in these proceedings. The readers are encouraged to contact the NIH staff (JK, FV for technical guidance and programmatic priorities on the subject and directly contact the individual authors for collaborations.

  12. A rationale and model for addressing tobacco dependence in substance abuse treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richter Kimber P

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Most persons in drug treatment smoke cigarettes. Until drug treatment facilities systematically treat their patients' tobacco use, millions will flow through the drug treatment system, overcome their primary drug of abuse, but die prematurely from tobacco-related illnesses. This paper reviews the literature on the health benefits of quitting smoking for drug treatment patients, whether smoking causes relapse to other drug or alcohol abuse, the treatment of tobacco dependence, and good and bad times for quitting smoking among drug treatment patients. It also presents a conceptual model and recommendations for treating tobacco in substance abuse treatment, and provides references to internet and paper-copy tools and information for treating tobacco dependence. At present, research on tobacco treatment in drug treatment is in its infancy. Although few drug treatment programs currently offer formal services, many more will likely begin to treat nicotine dependence as external forces and patient demand for these services increases. In the absence of clear guidelines and attention to quality of care, drug treatment programs may adopt smoking cessation services based on cost, convenience, or selection criteria other than efficacy. Because research in this field is relatively new, substance abuse treatment professionals should adhere to the standards of care for the general population, but be prepared to update their practices with emerging interventions that have proven to be effective for patients in drug treatment.

  13. The costs of crime and the benefits of substance abuse treatment for pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, M; Argeriou, M; McCarty, D; Callahan, J J; Shepard, D S; Williams, C N

    2000-12-01

    Although many pregnant, drug-dependent women report extensive criminal justice involvement, few studies have examined reductions in crime as an outcome of substance abuse treatment programs for pregnant women. This is unfortunate, because maternal criminal involvement can have serious health and cost implications for the unborn child, the mother and society. Using the Addiction Severity Index, differences in pre- and posttreatment criminal involvement were measured for a sample of 439 pregnant women who entered publicly funded treatment programs in Massachusetts between 1992 and 1997. Accepted cost of illness methods were supplemented with information from the Bureau of Justice Statistics to estimate the costs and benefits of five treatment modalities: detoxification only (used as a minimal treatment comparison group), methadone only, residential only, outpatient only, and residential/outpatient combined. Projected to a year, the net benefits (avoided costs of crime net of treatment costs) ranged from US$32,772 for residential only to US$3,072 for detoxification. Although all five modalities paid for themselves by reducing criminal activities, multivariate regressions controlling for baseline differences between the groups showed that reductions in crime and related costs were significantly greater for women in the two residential programs. The study provides economic justification for the continuation and possible expansion of residential substance abuse treatment programs for criminally involved pregnant women.

  14. American Indian culture as substance abuse treatment: pursuing evidence for a local intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gone, Joseph P; Looking, Patrick E Calf

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary tribal commitments to traditional cultural reclamation and revitalization find continued expression by recent generational cohorts of American Indians who, when it comes to matters of recovery, healing, and wellness in the context of substance abuse, routinely assert that "our culture is our treatment." And yet, empirical investigations of this culture-as-treatment hypothesis--namely, that a (post)colonial return to indigenous cultural orientations and practices is sufficient for effecting abstinence and recovery from substance use disorders for many American Indians--have yet to appear in the scientific literature. Preliminary activities of a research partnership dedicated to the empirical exploration of this hypothesis for reducing Native American substance use disorders are summarized. Specifically, collaboration between a university-based research psychologist and a reservation-based substance abuse treatment program staff has thus far resulted in a detailed blueprint for a radically alternative, culturally-grounded intervention developed for reservation residents. This proposed alternative intervention--a seasonal cultural immersion camp designed to approximate the day-to-day experiences of prereservation ancestors--was designed for eventual implementation and evaluation with adult clients referred for residential treatment on the Blackfeet Indian reservation. It is anticipated that the proposed intervention will eventually afford empirical evaluation of the culture-as-treatment hypothesis.

  15. Level of analysis issues in assessing treatment beliefs in substance abuse clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchelson, Jacqueline K; Dickson, Marcus W; Arfken, Cynthia L; Agius, Elizabeth

    2007-12-01

    The current study applies the growing literature in the organizational sciences regarding levels of analysis issues to the analysis of substance abuse treatment beliefs. Research on clinicians' beliefs in substance abuse treatment is often based on the assumption that the beliefs are sufficiently shared by clinicians within a clinic and sufficiently vary across clinics that they can be treated as a group-level phenomenon. Further, efforts to introduce new innovations are often focused at the group or clinic level without testing this assumption, which can lead to failure to adopt or to successfully implement the innovation. We tested the assumption of sharedness by examining if there was sufficient agreement about treatment beliefs within clinics, within groups of clinics or within groups of clinicians to justify treating these aggregations as meaningful groups. Using three statistical approaches to examining level of analysis (Within and Between Analysis (WABA I), Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC(1)), and r(wg)), we found that variability in treatment beliefs largely occurred at the individual rather than at the tested aggregate levels of analysis. These findings serve as an example of the importance of testing the assumption of shared perceptions in future research.

  16. Health issues in the Arab American community. Arab Americans in publicly financed substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Koch, Alison L

    2007-01-01

    To determine the characteristics of Arab Americans receiving treatment and to compare them with individuals of other ethnic groups. We used admission data (FY2005) for Michigan publicly funded substance abuse treatment (N=69,989). Arab American ethnicity (n=224 or 0.3% of admissions) was defined by codes for race, ethnicities or primary language of Arabic (n=21). Other ethnicities examined were American Indian, Hispanic, African American, and White. The number of Arab American admissions was lower than expected for the population (RR=0.25). Admissions were concentrated (81%) in metropolitan Detroit as is the community (82%, RR=.99), unlike other ethnicities. Primary drugs of abuse were alcohol (34.8%), marijuana (17.9%), heroin (17.4%) and crack cocaine (15.6%). Mean duration of use (11.2 yrs) was significantly lower than for other ethnicities. Arab American admissions were predominately male (76.3%), unemployed (62.1%) and with criminal justice involvement (58%), similar to other ethnicities. Using administrative database has its limits and may misclassify ethnicities. Based upon the available data, it appears that Arab Americans accounted for a small percentage of admissions to publicly funded substance abuse treatment in Michigan. Most of the admissions listed English as the primary language, raising concern that language may be a barrier to entry. Admission profiles were generally similar across ethnicities, except that Arab Americans were entering treatment after shorter duration of use. These data can inform development of treatment programs and outreach efforts.

  17. A multiple case study comparison of normal private preparatory school and substance abusing/mood disordered adolescents and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, L S; Hedgespeth, J

    1995-01-01

    This multiple case study of ten families of normal private preparatory school adolescents and five families of substance abusing/mood disordered adolescents was an effort to identify factors that may suggest a relationship between the abuse of substances in adolescents who also have mood disorders and the following family factors: parental marital discord, degree of family satisfaction, and family problem-solving styles. The fifteen families completed four assessment instruments and participated in a videotaped problem-solving exercise. The results of this study showed that all members of the substance abusing/mood disordered adolescents' families rated themselves as dysfunctional in all major areas of family life. In contrast, the normal private preparatory school families reported satisfaction with most areas of family functioning. Communication styles also differed considerably between the two small groups of families. These results appear to support the importance of family evaluation and treatment when addressing the issue of adolescent substance abusers with mood disorders.

  18. Mother-Child Interaction and Early Language Skills in Children Born to Mothers with Substance Abuse and Psychiatric Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J Haabrekke, Kristin; Siqveland, Torill; Smith, Lars; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Walhovd, Kristine B; Moe, Vibeke

    2015-10-01

    This prospective, longitudinal study with data collected at four time points investigated how maternal psychiatric symptoms, substance abuse and maternal intrusiveness in interaction were related to early child language skills. Three groups of mothers were recruited during pregnancy: One from residential treatment institutions for substance abuse (n = 18), one from psychiatric outpatient treatment (n = 22) and one from well-baby clinics (n = 30). Maternal substance abuse and anti-social and borderline personality traits were assessed during pregnancy, postpartum depression at 3 months, maternal intrusiveness in interaction at 12 months, and child language skills at 2 years. Results showed that the mothers in the substance abuse group had the lowest level of education, they were younger and they were more likely to be single mothers than the mothers in the two other groups. There was a significant difference in expressive language between children born to mothers with substance abuse problems and those born to comparison mothers, however not when controlling for maternal age, education and single parenthood. No group differences in receptive language skills were detected. Results further showed that maternal intrusiveness observed in mother-child interaction at 12 months was significantly related to child expressive language at 2 years, also when controlling for socio-demographic risk factors. This suggests that in addition to addressing substance abuse and psychiatric problems, there is a need for applying treatment models promoting sensitive caregiving, in order to enhance child expressive language skills.

  19. The Virgin of Guadalupe as an ancillary modality for treating Hispanic substance abusers: Juramentos in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado, Mary; Lieberman, Louis

    2011-12-01

    During a 6-month research study of substance abuse outreach and retention methods in Mexico, the authors learned about the common practice of a self-control mechanism to abstain from substance abuse: Juramentos. Juramentos are pledges usually made to the Virgin of Guadalupe in the presence of a Catholic priest. The Jurado promises not to drink during a specified period of time. The authors discuss the dynamics of Juramentos and present data from an exploratory study indicating that Juramentos are being used among Mexican migrants in Florida and may provide a culturally sensitive adjunct for treatment of Mexican and other Hispanic clients in the United States.

  20. Introduction to the special issue on organizational dynamics within substance abuse treatment: a complex human activity system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Patrick M; Knight, Danica K; Godley, Mark D; Knudsen, Hannah K

    2012-03-01

    Substance abuse treatment programs represent complex human activity systems in which multiple actors, including clients, counselors, and managers, are nested. Furthermore, treatment programs are nested within the broader environmental context of resource allocation and regulatory enforcement. This special issue of the Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment presents 12 empirical papers that address organizational dynamics within specialty treatment programs. In this introduction to the special issue, the guest editors describe a conceptual framework of organizational dynamics, offer an overview of the articles within this issue, and discuss future prospects for research.