WorldWideScience

Sample records for survey plots established

  1. China's largest tropical rainforest dynamics plot established in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ A 20-ha Tropical Rainforest Dynamics Plot, located in Xishuangbanna in southwestern Yunnan Province, was recently established by the CAS Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden (XTBG) and the Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve Administration recently.

  2. 2012 Four Square Mile survey plots : Kulm WMD

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Map of survey plots for the annual Four-Square-Mile survey conducted on the Kulm Wetland Management District (WMD) as part of a national effort to annually estimate...

  3. Application of mapped plots for single-owner forest surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. Van Deusen; Francis Roesch

    2009-01-01

    Mapped plots are used for the nation forest inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service. Mapped plots are also useful foro single ownership inventoires. Mapped plots can handle boundary overlap and can aprovide less variable estimates for specified forest conditions. Mapping is a good fit for fixed plot inventories where the fixed area plot is used for both mapping...

  4. Assessment of Established Survey Protocols

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A form and instructions for quickly and briefly assessing a previously (prior to 2013) reviewed or approved survey protocol for use as a National or Regional survey...

  5. 36 CFR 9.42 - Well records and reports, plots and maps, samples, tests and surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Well records and reports, plots and maps, samples, tests and surveys. 9.42 Section 9.42 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... Well records and reports, plots and maps, samples, tests and surveys. Any technical data...

  6. Implementing Project Based Survey Research Skills to Grade Six ELP Students with "The Survey Toolkit" and "TinkerPlots"[R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Thomas, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    "Survey Toolkit Collecting Information, Analyzing Data and Writing Reports" (Walsh, 2009a) is discussed as a survey research curriculum used by the author's sixth grade students. The report describes the implementation of "The Survey Toolkit" curriculum and "TinkerPlots"[R] software to provide instruction to students learning a project based…

  7. Implementing Project Based Survey Research Skills to Grade Six ELP Students with "The Survey Toolkit" and "TinkerPlots"[R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Thomas, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    "Survey Toolkit Collecting Information, Analyzing Data and Writing Reports" (Walsh, 2009a) is discussed as a survey research curriculum used by the author's sixth grade students. The report describes the implementation of "The Survey Toolkit" curriculum and "TinkerPlots"[R] software to provide instruction to students learning a project based…

  8. Revealing plot scale heterogeneity in soil moisture dynamics under contrasting vegetation assemblages using 3D electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Jonathan; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Bradford, John; Soulsby, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Soil moisture is a fundamental component of the water cycle that influences many hydrological processes, such as flooding, solute transport, biogeochemical processes, and land-atmosphere interactions. The relationship between vegetation and soil moisture is complex and reciprocal. Soil moisture may affect vegetation distribution due to its function as the primary source of water, in turn the structure of vegetation canopies regulate water partitioning into interception, throughfall and steam flow. Such spatial differences in inputs, together with complex patterns of water uptake from distributed root networks can create marked heterogeneity in soil moisture dynamics at small scales. Traditional methods of monitoring soil moisture have revolved around limited point measurements, but improved geophysical techniques have facilitated a trend towards more spatially distributed measurements to help understand this heterogeneity. Here, we present a study using 3D ERT surveys in a 3.2km upland catchment in the Scottish Highlands where increasing afforestation (for climate change adaptation, biofuels and conservation) has the potential to increase interception losses and reduce soil moisture storage. The study combined 3D surveys, traditional point measurements and laboratory analysis of soil cores to assess the plot scale soil moisture dynamics in podzolic soils under forest stands of 15m high Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and adjacent non-forest plots dominated by heather (Calluna vulgaris) shrubs (water content in the soils below. These results are important as the point to potential water stresses with planned increased afforestation which may be compounded by climate change projections of decreasing precipitation during the growing season.

  9. Establishing a soil reference system for fertility assessment and monitoring at plot level in the highlands of Mindanao, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe D. Calalang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in the crop production areas of Miarayon Village, along the volcanic footslope of Mt. Kalatungan, Talakag, Bukidnon, Philippines. The elevation range of the longitudinal toposequence is 1,900 to 1,300 m asl. Production areas in the intermediate part of the toposequence (Salsalan are located at about 1,600 to 1,400 m asl and in the lower part (Mambuaw at 1,400 to 1,300 m asl. A total of 24 plots (12 in each location which were planted to potatoes, carrots and corn were investigated. Soils are “Andic” Cambisol in open and convex positions and “Andic” Umbrisol in concave positions and toeslopes. The soil pH values ranged from 5.0-5.9. TOC and TN content were medium to high (4.1-8.9% and 0.30-0.80% respectively with C/N ratios from 8-15. Range values of available Ca, Mg, K and Na were 1.9-11.24, 0.16-2.14 and 0.20-1.13, 0.04-0.13 cmol+kg-1, respectively. Top soil horizon exchangeable Al in Mambuaw was higher than in Salsalan. The differences in TN, C/N ratio and available K levels between the two locations were very highly significant, TOC was highly significant and for soil pH and available Ca and sum of bases, their disparities were significant. Available Mg and Na did not differ between the two sites. Mean potato yield in Salsalan was 8.97 tha-1 more than in Mambuaw. Mean carrot yield in Salsalan was 2.39 tha-1 lesser than in Mambuaw. Mean corn yield in Salsalan was higher than in Mambuaw by 0.29 tha-1 only. Correlations between potato yields with TOC, TN, and available Ca were highly significant while soil pH and K were significant. There was no relationship detected between potato yields and Mg and Na. There was no association detected between carrot yields with topsoil nutrient levels. Correlations were noted in corn yields with available Ca, Mg and K.

  10. Plot 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Inger-Lise; Gjessing, Susanne; Hermansen, Anne-Mette

    Plot 3 er første udgivelse af et alsidigt dansksystem til mellemtrinnet, hvor digitale medier er integreret i den daglige undervisning.......Plot 3 er første udgivelse af et alsidigt dansksystem til mellemtrinnet, hvor digitale medier er integreret i den daglige undervisning....

  11. Plot 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Inger-Lise; Gjessing, Susanne; Hermansen, Anne-Mette

    Plot 3 er første udgivelse af et alsidigt dansksystem til mellemtrinnet, hvor digitale medier er integreret i den daglige undervisning.......Plot 3 er første udgivelse af et alsidigt dansksystem til mellemtrinnet, hvor digitale medier er integreret i den daglige undervisning....

  12. Plot 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Inger-Lise; Hermansen, Anne-Mette; Ferdinand, Trine

    Danskfaglig vejledning informerer om de tanker, der ligger til grund for Plot 4, og beskriver danskfaget ud fra nyere forskning inden for fagets mange delområder. Kapitelvejledning introducerer bogens tekster, forklarer hensigten med kapitlernes opgaver, giver forslag til undervisningen og brugen...

  13. Plot 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Inger-Lise; Hermansen, Anne-Mette; Ferdinand, Trine

    Danskfaglig vejledning informerer om de tanker, der ligger til grund for Plot 5, og beskriver danskfaget ud fra nyere forskning inden for fagets mange delområder. Kapitelvejledning introducerer bogens tekster, forklarer hensigten med kapitlernes opgaver, giver forslag til undervisningen og brugen...

  14. Plotting Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Margaret Ann; Wilkinson, John Provost

    1997-01-01

    Conflict management theory is illustrated in a series of hypothetical scenarios, typical of library situations. Each scenario is discussed in terms of a specific management theory and the theories are transposed into useful management tools by plotting each situation along relevant axes. (Author/AEF)

  15. Plot 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Inger-Lise; Hermansen, Anne-Mette; Ferdinand, Trine

    Danskfaglig vejledning informerer om de tanker, der ligger til grund for Plot 5, og beskriver danskfaget ud fra nyere forskning inden for fagets mange delområder. Kapitelvejledning introducerer bogens tekster, forklarer hensigten med kapitlernes opgaver, giver forslag til undervisningen og brugen...

  16. Circumpolar Arctic vegetation: a hierarchic review and roadmap toward an internationally consistent approach to survey, archive and classify tundra plot data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D. A.; Daniëls, F. J. A.; Alsos, I.; Bhatt, U. S.; Breen, A. L.; Buchhorn, M.; Bültmann, H.; Druckenmiller, L. A.; Edwards, M. E.; Ehrich, D.; Epstein, H. E.; Gould, W. A.; Ims, R. A.; Meltofte, H.; Raynolds, M. K.; Sibik, J.; Talbot, S. S.; Webber, P. J.

    2016-05-01

    Satellite-derived remote-sensing products are providing a modern circumpolar perspective of Arctic vegetation and its changes, but this new view is dependent on a long heritage of ground-based observations in the Arctic. Several products of the Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna are key to our current understanding. We review aspects of the PanArctic Flora, the Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation Map, the Arctic Biodiversity Assessment, and the Arctic Vegetation Archive (AVA) as they relate to efforts to describe and map the vegetation, plant biomass, and biodiversity of the Arctic at circumpolar, regional, landscape and plot scales. Cornerstones for all these tools are ground-based plant-species and plant-community surveys. The AVA is in progress and will store plot-based vegetation observations in a public-accessible database for vegetation classification, modeling, diversity studies, and other applications. We present the current status of the Alaska Arctic Vegetation Archive (AVA-AK), as a regional example for the panarctic archive, and with a roadmap for a coordinated international approach to survey, archive and classify Arctic vegetation. We note the need for more consistent standards of plot-based observations, and make several recommendations to improve the linkage between plot-based observations biodiversity studies and satellite-based observations of Arctic vegetation.

  17. The Plot

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, J. Kent

    1991-01-01

    The following essay on the Popish Plot is chapter nine of my biography of Thomas, 5th Baron, 1st Earl, and 1st Marquess of Wharton; and perhaps it is the only chapter in the history of biography that barely mentions the name of the protagonist. This odd state of affairs arises because neither the political career of Thomas Wharton, who later became de facto prince of the Whigs, nor the English Revolution, which he vigorously supported, can be understood without considerable bac...

  18. Complexity Plots

    KAUST Repository

    Thiyagalingam, Jeyarajan

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a novel visualization technique for assisting the observation and analysis of algorithmic complexity. In comparison with conventional line graphs, this new technique is not sensitive to the units of measurement, allowing multivariate data series of different physical qualities (e.g., time, space and energy) to be juxtaposed together conveniently and consistently. It supports multivariate visualization as well as uncertainty visualization. It enables users to focus on algorithm categorization by complexity classes, while reducing visual impact caused by constants and algorithmic components that are insignificant to complexity analysis. It provides an effective means for observing the algorithmic complexity of programs with a mixture of algorithms and black-box software through visualization. Through two case studies, we demonstrate the effectiveness of complexity plots in complexity analysis in research, education and application. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Forest soil survey and mapping of the nutrient status of the vegetation on Olkiluoto island. Results from the first inventory on the FEH plots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamminen, P.; Aro, A.; Salemaa, M. (Finnish Forest Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland))

    2007-09-15

    The aim of the inventory was to determine the status of the forest soils and to map the current nutrient status of forest vegetation on Olkiluoto Island in order to create a basis for monitoring future changes in the forests and to provide data for a biospheric description of the island. The study was carried out on 94 FEH plots, which were selected from the forest extensive monitoring network (FET plots) on the basis of the forest site type distribution and tree stand characteristics measured on the island during 2002 - 2004. Forest soils on Olkiluoto are very young and typical of soils along the Finnish coast, i.e. stony or shallow soils overlying bedrock, but with more nutrients than the forest soils inland. In addition to nutrients, the heavy metal concentrations are clearly higher on Olkiluoto than the average values for Finnish forest soils. The soil in the alder stands growing along the seashore is different from the other soils on Olkiluoto and the control soils inland. These soils are less acidic and have large reserves of sodium, magnesium and nitrogen. Macronutrient concentrations in vascular plant species were relatively similar to those reported for Southern Finland. However, it is obvious that the accumulation of particulate material on the vegetation, especially on forest floor bryophytes, has increased due to emissions derived from the construction of roads, drilling and rock crushing, as well as the other industrial activities on Olkiluoto Island. Leaf and needle analysis indicated that the tree stands had, in the main, a good nutrient status on Olkiluoto Island. The surveying methods used on Olkiluoto are better suited to detect systematic changes over a larger area or within a group of sample plots than the changes on individual plots. (orig.)

  20. Surveying technologists: a novel method for establishing productivity standards in a clinical haematology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatoi, A; Jaromin, R; Grzybek, D; Nguyen, P L

    1997-01-01

    Personnel costs comprise the largest clinical laboratory expense. Yet standards to judge the productivity of personnel have not been established. A survey of the authors' own personnel was conducted to derive productivity standards in the Clinical Hematology Laboratory at the Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Technologists were asked how many white blood cell differentials they could perform in an eight-hour shift. Differential productivity was tracked before and after the survey. Of the respondents, 100 per cent failed to meet their own expectations of productivity. Nine technologists were tracked both before and after the survey was mailed and manifested a significant increase in productivity. These results suggest that technologists are objective in their assessment of their own productivity, that their opinions might be a resource for establishing productivity standards within the laboratory, and that such surveys may serve as motivational tools to augment productivity.

  1. Unreported workers’ compensation claims to the BLS Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses: Establishment factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Darrin A.; Bonauto, David K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies suggest employers underreport injuries to the Bureau of Labor Statistics Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (SOII); less is known about reporting differences by establishment characteristics. Methods We linked SOII data to Washington State workers’ compensation claims data, using unemployment insurance data to improve linking accuracy. We used multivariable regression models to estimate incidence ratios (IR) of unreported workers’ compensation claims for establishment characteristics. Results An estimated 70% of workers’ compensation claims were reported in SOII. Claims among state and local government establishments were most likely to be reported. Compared to large manufacturing establishments, unreported claims were most common among small educational services establishments (IR = 2.47, 95%CI: 1.52–4.01) and large construction establishments (IR = 2.05, 95%CI: 1.77–2.37). Conclusions Underreporting of workers’ compensation claims to SOII varies by establishment characteristics, obscuring true differences in work injury incidence. Findings may differ from previous research due to differences in study methods. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:274–289, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26792563

  2. Density Distribution Sunflower Plots

    OpenAIRE

    Dupont, William D; W. Dale Plummer Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Density distribution sunflower plots are used to display high-density bivariate data. They are useful for data where a conventional scatter plot is difficult to read due to overstriking of the plot symbol. The x-y plane is subdivided into a lattice of regular hexagonal bins of width w specified by the user. The user also specifies the values of l, d, and k that affect the plot as follows. Individual observations are plotted when there are less than l observations per bin as in a conventio...

  3. Analytic Tools for Evaluating Variability of Standard Errors in Large-Scale Establishment Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho MoonJung

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale establishment surveys often exhibit substantial temporal or cross-sectional variability in their published standard errors. This article uses a framework defined by survey generalized variance functions to develop three sets of analytic tools for the evaluation of these patterns of variability. These tools are for (1 identification of predictor variables that explain some of the observed temporal and cross-sectional variability in published standard errors; (2 evaluation of the proportion of variability attributable to the abovementioned predictors, equation error and estimation error, respectively; and (3 comparison of equation error variances across groups defined by observable predictor variables. The primary ideas are motivated and illustrated by an application to the U.S. Current Employment Statistics program.

  4. GlobPlot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linding, Rune; Russell, Robert B; Neduva, Victor

    2003-01-01

    are important for protein function. We present here a new tool for discovery of such unstructured, or disordered regions within proteins. GlobPlot (http://globplot.embl.de) is a web service that allows the user to plot the tendency within the query protein for order/globularity and disorder. We show examples...... with known proteins where it successfully identifies inter-domain segments containing linear motifs, and also apparently ordered regions that do not contain any recognised domain. GlobPlot may be useful in domain hunting efforts. The plots indicate that instances of known domains may often contain additional...... N- or C-terminal segments that appear ordered. Thus GlobPlot may be of use in the design of constructs corresponding to globular proteins, as needed for many biochemical studies, particularly structural biology. GlobPlot has a pipeline interface--GlobPipe--for the advanced user to do whole proteome...

  5. Difference and ratio plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anders Jørgen; Holmskov, U; Bro, Peter

    1995-01-01

    hitherto unnoted differences between controls and patients with either rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. For this we use simple, but unconventional, graphic representations of the data, based on difference plots and ratio plots. Differences between patients with Burkitt's lymphoma...... and systemic lupus erythematosus from another previously published study (Macanovic, M. and Lachmann, P.J. (1979) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 38, 274) are also represented using ratio plots. Our observations indicate that analysis by regression analysis may often be misleading....

  6. Fuzzy recurrence plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, T. D.

    2016-12-01

    Recurrence plots display binary texture of time series from dynamical systems with single dots and line structures. Using fuzzy recurrence plots, recurrences of the phase-space states can be visualized as grayscale texture, which is more informative for pattern analysis. The proposed method replaces the crucial similarity threshold required by symmetrical recurrence plots with the number of cluster centers, where the estimate of the latter parameter is less critical than the estimate of the former.

  7. Representing uncertainty on model analysis plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Trevor I.

    2016-12-01

    Model analysis provides a mechanism for representing student learning as measured by standard multiple-choice surveys. The model plot contains information regarding both how likely students in a particular class are to choose the correct answer and how likely they are to choose an answer consistent with a well-documented conceptual model. Unfortunately, Bao's original presentation of the model plot did not include a way to represent uncertainty in these measurements. I present details of a method to add error bars to model plots by expanding the work of Sommer and Lindell. I also provide a template for generating model plots with error bars.

  8. 9 CFR 108.3 - Preparation of plot plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparation of plot plans. 108.3... LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 108.3 Preparation of plot plans. Plot plans shall show all of the buildings on a... on the plot plan the use of immediate adjacent properties such as, residential area, pasture,...

  9. Arctic PRISM Shorebird Location and Plot Survey Geodatabase. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Migratory Bird Management (2012).

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — This dataset consists of shorebird surveys conducted as part of the Program for Regional and International Shorebird Monitoring (PRISM). This dataset was derived...

  10. Distributed plot-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte Groth; Bossen, Claus

    2016-01-01

    different socio-technical systems (paper-based and electronic patient records). Drawing on the theory of distributed cognition and narrative theory, primarily inspired by the work done within health care by Cheryl Mattingly, we propose that the creation of overview may be conceptualised as ‘distributed plot......-making’. Distributed cognition focuses on the role of artefacts, humans and their interaction in information processing, while narrative theory focuses on how humans create narratives through the plot construction. Hence, the concept of distributed plot-making highlights the distribution of information processing...... between different social actors and artefacts, as well as the filtering, sorting and ordering of such information into a narrative that is made coherent by a plot. The analysis shows that the characteristics of paper-based and electronic patient records support or obstruct the creation of overview in both...

  11. Multiple plots in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Stefan McKinnon

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter I will investigate how to combine multiple plots into a single. The scenario is a dataset of a series of measurements, on three samples in three situations. There are many ways we can display this, e.g. 3d graphs or faceting. 3d graphs are not good for displaying static data so we...... will not go there. Faceting is strictly speaking for plotting all variable / classes against each other....

  12. Multiple plots in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Stefan McKinnon

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter I will investigate how to combine multiple plots into a single. The scenario is a dataset of a series of measurements, on three samples in three situations. There are many ways we can display this, e.g. 3d graphs or faceting. 3d graphs are not good for displaying static data so we...... will not go there. Faceting is strictly speaking for plotting all variable / classes against each other....

  13. Density Distribution Sunflower Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Dupont

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Density distribution sunflower plots are used to display high-density bivariate data. They are useful for data where a conventional scatter plot is difficult to read due to overstriking of the plot symbol. The x-y plane is subdivided into a lattice of regular hexagonal bins of width w specified by the user. The user also specifies the values of l, d, and k that affect the plot as follows. Individual observations are plotted when there are less than l observations per bin as in a conventional scatter plot. Each bin with from l to d observations contains a light sunflower. Other bins contain a dark sunflower. In a light sunflower each petal represents one observation. In a dark sunflower, each petal represents k observations. (A dark sunflower with p petals represents between /2-pk k and /2+pk k observations. The user can control the sizes and colors of the sunflowers. By selecting appropriate colors and sizes for the light and dark sunflowers, plots can be obtained that give both the overall sense of the data density distribution as well as the number of data points in any given region. The use of this graphic is illustrated with data from the Framingham Heart Study. A documented Stata program, called sunflower, is available to draw these graphs. It can be downloaded from the Statistical Software Components archive at http://ideas.repec.org/c/boc/bocode/s430201.html . (Journal of Statistical Software 2003; 8 (3: 1-5. Posted at http://www.jstatsoft.org/index.php?vol=8 .

  14. NPLOT - NASTRAN PLOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcentire, K.

    1994-01-01

    NPLOT is an interactive computer graphics program for plotting undeformed and deformed NASTRAN finite element models (FEMs). Although there are many commercial codes already available for plotting FEMs, these have limited use due to their cost, speed, and lack of features to view BAR elements. NPLOT was specifically developed to overcome these limitations. On a vector type graphics device the two best ways to show depth are by hidden line plotting or haloed line plotting. A hidden line algorithm generates views of models with all hidden lines removed, and a haloed line algorithm displays views with aft lines broken in order to show depth while keeping the entire model visible. A haloed line algorithm is especially useful for plotting models composed of many line elements and few surface elements. The most important feature of NPLOT is its ability to create both hidden line and haloed line views accurately and much more quickly than with any other existing hidden or haloed line algorithms. NPLOT is also capable of plotting a normal wire frame view to display all lines of a model. NPLOT is able to aid in viewing all elements, but it has special features not generally available for plotting BAR elements. These features include plotting of TRUE LENGTH and NORMALIZED offset vectors and orientation vectors. Standard display operations such as rotation and perspective are possible, but different view planes such as X-Y, Y-Z, and X-Z may also be selected. Another display option is the Z-axis cut which allows a portion of the fore part of the model to be cut away to reveal details of the inside of the model. A zoom function is available to terminals with a locator (graphics cursor, joystick, etc.). The user interface of NPLOT is designed to make the program quick and easy to use. A combination of menus and commands with help menus for detailed information about each command allows experienced users greater speed and efficiency. Once a plot is on the screen the interface

  15. Orbital Plots Using Gnuplot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brian G.

    2000-06-01

    The plotting program Gnuplot is freely available, general purpose, easy to use, and available on a variety of platforms. Complex three-dimensional surfaces, including the familiar angular parts of the hydrogen atom orbitals, are easily represented using Gnuplot. Contour plots allow viewing the radial and angular variation of the probability density in an orbital. Examples are given of how Gnuplot is used in an undergraduate physical chemistry class to view familiar atomic orbitals in new ways or to generate views of orbital functions that the student may have not seen before. Gnuplot may also be easily integrated into the environment of a Web page; an example of this is discussed (and is available at http://onsager.bd.psu.edu/~moore/orbitals_gnuplot). The plotting commands are entered with a form and a CGI script is used to run Gnuplot and display the result back to the browser.

  16. Spatial recurrence plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, D B; Lopes, S R; Viana, R L; Kurths, J

    2006-05-01

    We propose an extension of the recurrence plot concept to perform quantitative analyzes of roughness and disorder of spatial patterns at a fixed time. We introduce spatial recurrence plots (SRPs) as a graphical representation of the pointwise correlation matrix, in terms of a two-dimensional spatial return plot. This technique is applied to the study of complex patterns generated by coupled map lattices, which are characterized by measures of complexity based on SRPs. We show that the complexity measures we propose for SRPs provide a systematic way of investigating the distribution of spatially coherent structures, such as synchronization domains, in lattice profiles. This approach has potential for many more applications, e.g., in surface roughness analyzes.

  17. Factors that may contribute to the establishment of mobile learning in institutions – Results from a Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Olaf Zawacki-Richter; Tom Brown; Rhena Delport

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a survey investigating the role that differences in expectations and perceptions of mobile learning and mobile devices play in establishing mobile learning at an educational institution, Responses from institutions with no institutional plans for mobile learning and others that do plan or currently have developed mobile learning programmes were compared. Various factors that may contribute to the establishment of mobile learning in educational institutions were therefore...

  18. Plot til lyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    Den velfungerende krimi faciliterer denne dobbelte plotlæsning ved at muliggøre en særlig form for legende og udforskende interaktion mellem læser og plot: Ved at lægge spor ud og holde tolkningsmuligheder og løsningsmuligheder åbne får vi mulighed for at påtage os og udføre opklaringsarbejdet side......, der inviterer os med ind i selve handlingens rum og forløb og giver os forskellige handlingsmuligheder i forhold til disse. I bogen omtales denne særlige form for plot for forlystelsesplot med henvisning til forlystelsesparken og den særlige form for interaktiv fortælleform, som vi finder der: en...

  19. corner: Corner plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman-Mackey, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    corner uses matplotlib to visualize multidimensional samples using a scatterplot matrix. In these visualizations, each one- and two-dimensional projection of the sample is plotted to reveal covariances. corner was originally conceived to display the results of Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations and the defaults are chosen with this application in mind but it can be used for displaying many qualitatively different samples. An earlier version of corner was known as triangle.py.

  20. The Half-Half Plot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einmahl, J.H.J.; Gantner, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Half-Half (HH) plot is a new graphical method to investigate qualitatively the shape of a regression curve. The empirical HH-plot counts observations in the lower and upper quarter of a strip that moves horizontally over the scatter plot. The plot displays jumps clearly and reveals further featu

  1. The Half-Half Plot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einmahl, J.H.J.; Gantner, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Half-Half (HH) plot is a new graphical method to investigate qualitatively the shape of a regression curve. The empirical HH-plot counts observations in the lower and upper quarter of a strip that moves horizontally over the scatter plot. The plot displays jumps clearly and reveals further

  2. The Half-Half Plot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einmahl, J.H.J.; Gantner, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Half-Half (HH) plot is a new graphical method to investigate qualitatively the shape of a regression curve. The empirical HH-plot counts observations in the lower and upper quarter of a strip that moves horizontally over the scatter plot. The plot displays jumps clearly and reveals further featu

  3. Survey of the Attitude of Physicians towards Establishing and Maintaining a Peritoneal Dialysis Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souqiyyeh Muhammad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to evaluate the attitude of physicians towards establishing and maintaining a peritoneal dialysis (PD program in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, we sent a questionnaire to 160 physicians; the heads of the 148 active dialysis centers in the KSA and 12 other consultants working in these centers. This covered decision makers in 109 centers (73.6% in the Ministry of Health (MOH, 18 (12.2% in Governmental-non-MOH centers, and 21 (14.2 % in private hospitals that, together, care for a population of more than 7300 patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD and 559 on PD. The study was performed between September and December 2005. A total of 145 of the 160 physicians (90.6% from 141 dialysis centers (95.2% answered the questionnaire. There were 81 respondents (56.3% who believed that follow-up of the PD patients should be available in all the dialysis centers, 80 (55.2% would like to have a PD clinic at their centers, and only 20 (13.8% had PD clinics in their centers. However, 93 (66.4% respondents did not request from the administration of their hospitals to open a PD clinic and 62 (44.6% admitted to having no expertise in managing the patients on PD, while 53 (38.1% claimed that they did not have enough space in their dialysis centers to start a PD program. Regarding training and expertise, 57 (40.7%, 58 (43.3%, 48 (35.6% and 72 (52.9% physicians had training in continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD, intermittent peritoneal dialysis (IPD, automated peritoneal dialysis (APD or continuous cyclic peritoneal dialysis (CCPD, and acute PD, respectively. The comparisons between the health sectors in the KSA showed that MOH had significantly less active PD programs, and this reflected tremendously on the knowledge of the staff. Our survey indicates that the current practices concerning the PD programs in the KSA are modest, and that a new strategy is required to spread this modality of therapy horizontally in all the dialysis centers, and vertically by

  4. Survey of the attitude of physicians towards establishing and maintaining a peritoneal dialysis program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souqiyyeh, Muhammad Ziad; Shaheen, Faissal A M

    2006-09-01

    In an attempt to evaluate the attitude of physicians towards establishing and maintaining a peritoneal dialysis (PD) program in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), we sent a questionnaire to 160 physicians; the heads of the 148 active dialysis centers in the KSA and 12 other consultants working in these centers. This covered decision makers in 109 centers (73.6%) in the Ministry of Health (MOH), 18 (12.2%) in Governmental-non-MOH centers, and 21 (14.2%) in private hospitals that, together, care for a population of more than 7300 patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD) and 559 on PD. The study was performed between September and December 2005. A total of 145 of the 160 physicians (90.6%) from 141 dialysis centers (95.2%) answered the questionnaire. There were 81 respondents (56.3%) who believed that follow-up of the PD patients should be available in all the dialysis centers, 80 (55.2%) would like to have a PD clinic at their centers, and only 20 (13.8%) had PD clinics in their centers. However, 93 (66.4%) respondents did not request from the administration of their hospitals to open a PD clinic and 62 (44.6%) admitted to having no expertise in managing the patients on PD, while 53 (38.1%) claimed that they did not have enough space in their dialysis centers to start a PD program. Regarding training and expertise, 57 (40.7%), 58 (43.3%), 48 (35.6%) and 72 (52.9%) physicians had training in continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD), intermittent peritoneal dialysis (IPD), automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) or continuous cyclic peritoneal dialysis (CCPD), and acute PD, respectively. The comparisons between the health sectors in the KSA showed that MOH had significantly less active PD programs, and this reflected tremendously on the knowledge of the staff. Our survey indicates that the current practices concerning the PD programs in the KSA are modest, and that a new strategy is required to spread this modality of therapy horizontally in all the dialysis centers, and vertically by

  5. matplotlib plotting cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Devert, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    This book follows a cookbook style approach that puts orthogonal and non-redundant recipes in your hands. Rather than rehashing the user manual, the explanations expose the underlying logic behind Matplotlib. If you are an engineer or scientist who wants to create great visualizations with Python, rather than yet another specialized language, this is the book for you. While there are several very competent plotting packages, Matplotlib is ""just"" a Python module. Thus, if you know some Python already, you will feel at home from the first steps on. In case you are an application writer, you wo

  6. Establishing survey validity and reliability for American Indians through "think aloud" and test-retest methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauge, Cindy Horst; Jacobs-Knight, Jacque; Jensen, Jamie L; Burgess, Katherine M; Puumala, Susan E; Wilton, Georgiana; Hanson, Jessica D

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a mixed-methods approach to determine the validity and reliability of measurements used within an alcohol-exposed pregnancy prevention program for American Indian women. To develop validity, content experts provided input into the survey measures, and a "think aloud" methodology was conducted with 23 American Indian women. After revising the measurements based on this input, a test-retest was conducted with 79 American Indian women who were randomized to complete either the original measurements or the new, modified measurements. The test-retest revealed that some of the questions performed better for the modified version, whereas others appeared to be more reliable for the original version. The mixed-methods approach was a useful methodology for gathering feedback on survey measurements from American Indian participants and in indicating specific survey questions that needed to be modified for this population.

  7. Plotting Gothic: A Paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Murray

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paradox of the title is that while most historians of medieval architecture agree that a combination of geometric and arithmetic methods was generally used to lay out a medieval church, there has been little consensus on the specifics of the process in relation to the design of any particular edifice. I begin by identifying four premises which underlie the debate. I then ask whether the new technologies — laser scanning and computer assisted design/drafting applications — can help. A case study uses newly generated point cloud data from a laser scan of the choir of Beauvais Cathedral. Finally, the notion of ‘plotting’ introduces essential sociological, anthropological and rhetorical dimensions. In the spirit of Roland Barthes ('Le plaisir du texte' and Peter Brooks ('Reading for the Plot', we can understand the urgency with which the architectural historian may seek to unscramble the hidden codes of the building as compulsive ‘reading for the plot’.

  8. Establishing Educational Priorities through the Illinois Problems Index. Survey Instruments [and] User's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    The Illinois Problems Index (IPI), a process with supporting survey instruments, enables local school districts to assess and evaluate the adequacy of current programs and services and plan improvements where problems exist. A User's Manual provides a step-by-step "walk through" of the process, while permitting alternative techniques for…

  9. Point-of-care testing in UK primary care : a survey to establish clinical needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, Philip J.; Van den Bruel, Ann; Jones, Caroline H. D.; Pluddemann, Annette; Heneghan, Carl; Thompson, Matthew J.; Price, Christopher P.; Howick, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Background. A number of point-of-care diagnostic tests are commercially available in the UK, however, not much is known regarding GPs’ desire for these tests or the clinical areas of interest. Objective. We sought to establish for which conditions point-of-care tests (POCTs) would be most helpful to

  10. The filmless radiology reading room: a survey of established picture archiving and communication system sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, E; Reiner, B; Abiri, M; Chacko, A; Morin, R; Ro, D W; Spicer, K; Strickland, N; Young, J

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey radiologists experienced in soft-copy diagnosis using computer workstations about their current reading room environment, their impressions of the efficacy of their reading room design, and their recommendations based on their experience for improvement of the soft-copy reading environment. Surveys were obtained from radiologists at seven sites representing three major picture archiving and communication system (PACS) vendors throughout the world that have had extensive experience with soft-copy interpretation of radiology studies. The radiologists filled out a detailed survey, which was designed to assess their current reading room environment and to provide them with the opportunity to make suggestions about improvement of the PACS reading rooms. The survey data were entered into a database and results were correlated with multiple parameters, including experience with PACS, types of modalities interpreted on the system, and number of years of experience in radiology. The factors judged to be most important in promoting radiologist productivity were room lighting, monitor number, and monitor brightness. Almost all of the radiologists indicated that their lighting source was from overhead rather than indirect or portable light sources. Approximately half indicated they had the capability of dimming the brightness of the overhead lighting. Most radiologists indicated that they were able to adjust room temperature but that they did not have individual temperature controls at their workstations. The radiologists indicated that the most troublesome sources of noise included background noise, other radiologists, and clinicians much more than noise from computer monitors, technologists, or patients. Most radiologists did not have chairs that could recline or arm rests. Most did have wheels and the capability to swivel, both of which were judged important. The majority of chairs also had lumbar support, which was also seen to be

  11. Methods of practice and guidelines for using survey-grade global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) to establish vertical datum in the United States Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydlund, Paul H.; Densmore, Brenda K.

    2012-01-01

    flexibility regarding efficiency and quality of data collection. Quality assurance of survey-grade global positioning is often overlooked or not understood and perceived uncertainties can be misleading. GNSS users can benefit from a blueprint of data collection standards used to ensure consistency among USGS mission areas. A classification of GNSS survey qualities provide the user with the ability to choose from the highest quality survey used to establish objective points with low uncertainties, identified as a Level I, to a GNSS survey for general topographic control without quality assurance, identified as a Level IV. A Level I survey is strictly limited to post-processed methods, whereas Level II, Level III, and Level IV surveys integrate variations of a RT approach. Among these classifications, techniques involving blunder checks and redundancy are important, and planning that involves the assessment of the overall satellite configuration, as well as terrestrial and space weather, are necessary to ensure an efficient and quality campaign. Although quality indicators and uncertainties are identified in post-processed methods using CORS, the accuracy of a GNSS survey is most effectively expressed as a comparison to a local benchmark that has a high degree of confidence. Real-time and post-processed methods should incorporate these "trusted" benchmarks as a check during any campaign. Global positioning surveys are expected to change rapidly in the future. The expansion of continuously operating reference stations, combined with newly available satellite signals, and enhancements to the conterminous geoid, are all sufficient indicators for substantial growth in real-time positioning and quality thereof.

  12. Aristotle's theory of tragedy plot and comparison with modern plot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋莹

    2008-01-01

    This paper is to study Aristotle's theory of tragedy and his tragedy plot from the Poetics. He says,'tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious,complete,and of adequate magnitude-in language embellished in different ways in different parts-in the form of action,not of narration-through pity and fear effecting the purgation of these emotions. The elements of tragedy are plot,character,thought,diction,melody and spectacle in their order of importance.' However there exist some differences and similarities between his plot in Poetics and modern plot.

  13. Evaluation of the establishment of herd immunity in the population by means of serological surveys and vaccination coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plans-Rubió, Pedro

    2012-02-01

    The necessary herd immunity blocking the transmission of an infectious agent in the population is established when the prevalence of protected individuals is higher than a critical value, called the herd immunity threshold. The establishment of herd immunity in the population can be determined using the vaccination coverage and seroepidemiological surveys. The vaccination coverage associated with herd immunity (V(c)) can be determined from the herd immunity threshold and vaccine effectiveness. This method requires a vaccine-specific effectiveness evaluation, and it can be used only for the herd immunity assessment of vaccinated communities in which the infectious agent is not circulating. The prevalence of positive serological results associated with herd immunity can be determined from the herd immunity threshold, in terms of prevalence of antibodies (p(c)) and serological test performance. The herd immunity is established when the prevalence of antibodies is higher than pc. This method can be used to assess the establishment of herd immunity in different population groups, both when the infectious agent is circulating and when it is not possible to assess vaccine effectiveness. The herd immunity assessment in Catalonia, Spain, showed that the additional vaccination coverage required to establish herd immunity was 3-6% for measles, mump and varicella and 11% poliovirus type III in school children, 17-59% for diphtheria in youth and adults and 25-46% for persussis in school children, youth and adults.

  14. GnuForPlot Graphics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-11-04

    Gnuforplot Graphics is a Fortran90 program designed to generate two and three dimensional plots of data on a personal computer. The program uses calls to the open source code Gnuplot to generate the plots. Two Fortran90 programs have been written to use the Gnuplot graphics capabilities. The first program, named Plotsetup.f90 reads data from output files created by either the Stadium or LeachXS/Orchestra modeling codes and saves the data in arrays for plotting. This program then calls Gnuforplot which takes the data array along with user specified parameters to set plot specifications and issues Gnuplot commands that generate the screen plots. The user can view the plots and optionally save copies in jpeg format.

  15. Establishing Long Term Data Management Research Priorities via a Data Decadal Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A.; Uhlir, P.; Meyer, C. B.; Robinson, E.

    2013-12-01

    competition with other priorities of the research enterprise. This presentation will introduce the Data Decadal Survey, an initial concept created in collaboration between the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) and of the National Research Council's Board on Research Data and Information (BRDI). Consistent with Executive open data policies, the Survey will provide a coordinating platform to address overarching issues and identify research needs and funding priorities in scientific data management and stewardship for the long term. The Survey would address at the broadest level gaps in data management knowledge and practices that hold back scientific progress, and recommend a strategy to address them. The goal is to provide a long term strategic vision that will increase the meaningful availability of higher quality data, create or improve tools, processes, and practices that support accreditation, accountability, traceability, and reproducibility, redirect resources previously required by scientists for data discovery, acquisition, and reformatting to performing actual science, thereby ultimately enhancing scientific knowledge.

  16. Nationwide survey of glandular tissue dose for establishment of breast cancer screening using mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, Tsuguhisa; Matsumoto, Mitsuomi [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. of Health Sciences (Japan); Higashida, Yoshiharu [and others

    1999-06-01

    A nationwide survey was performed in an attempt to investigate the distribution of average glandular doses caused by mammography for breast cancer mass screening, and to utilize the data to determine the national guidance level for mammography. A phantom equivalent to a breast with a compressed thickness of 42 mm, and glass radio-photo luminescence dosimeters were sent to 104 institutions and facilities. The dosimeters were exposed using a method based on the protocols described in the Mammography Quality Control Manual. The returned dosimeters were then analyzed, and the beam qualities and the entrance surface exposure were determined. Using these values, the average glandular doses were estimated with an accuracy of {+-}8%. The doses ranged from 0.5 to 3.7 mGy. The mean dose and the standard deviation were 1.48 mGy and 0.52 mGy, respectively. In 91 facilities, the doses were less than 2 mGy. Regarding the technical factors for facilities which presented doses of 2 mGy or over, it seemed that the doses could be easily reduced to less than 2 mGy if the settings of the auto exposure controller (AEC), anti-scatter grid and/or the film-screen system were optimized. (author)

  17. Study on Surface Plotting Methods in Parts Plotting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhen; ZHAO Fa-dong

    2013-01-01

    According to the factors that confirm the shape of surface, it is classified into two categories:arc surface and curve surface. The method to confirm the category of surfaces and the plotting methods are discussed in this paper, which provide guidance for parts plotting.

  18. International medical students – a survey of perceived challenges and established support services at medical faculties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, D.; Junne, F.; Zipfel, S.; Duelli, R.; Resch, F.; Herzog, W.; Nikendei, C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Medical students with a non-German background face several challenges during their studies. Besides support given by foreign student offices further specific projects for international students have been developed and are offered by medical faculties. However, so far, neither a systematic survey of the faculties’ perceived problems nor of the offered support exists. Method: All study deaneries of medical faculties in Germany were contacted between April and October 2013 and asked for their participation in a telephone interview. Interview partners were asked about 1.) The percentage of non-German students at the medical faculty; 2.) The perceived difficulties and problems of foreign students; 3.) The offers for non-German students; and 4.) The specification of further possibilities of support. Given information was noted, frequencies counted and results interpreted via frequency analysis. Results: Only 39% of the medical faculties could give detailed information about the percentage of non-German students. They reported an average share of 3.9% of students with an EU migration background and 4.9% with a non-EU background. Most frequently cited offers are student conducted tutorials, language courses and tandem-programs. The most frequently reported problem by far is the perceived lack of language skills of foreign students at the beginning of their studies. Suggested solutions are mainly the development of tutorials and the improvement of German medical terminology. Discussion: Offers of support provided by medical faculties for foreign students vary greatly in type and extent. Support offered is seen to be insufficient in coping with the needs of the international students in many cases. Hence, a better coverage of international students as well as further research efforts to the specific needs and the effectiveness of applied interventions seem to be essential. PMID:25699112

  19. International medical students – a survey of perceived challenges and established support services at medical faculties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huhn, D.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medical students with a non-German background face several challenges during their studies. Besides support given by foreign student offices further specific projects for international students have been developed and are offered by medical faculties. However, so far, neither a systematic survey of the faculties’ perceived problems nor of the offered support exists.Method: All study deaneries of medical faculties in Germany were contacted between April and October 2013 and asked for their participation in a telephone interview. Interview partners were asked about 1. The percentage of non-German students at the medical faculty; 2. The perceived difficulties and problems of foreign students; 3. The offers for non-German students; and 4. The specification of further possibilities of support. Given information was noted, frequencies counted and results interpreted via frequency analysis.Results: Only 39% of the medical faculties could give detailed information about the percentage of non-German students. They reported an average share of 3.9% of students with an EU migration background and 4.9% with a non-EU background. Most frequently cited offers are student conducted tutorials, language courses and tandem-programs. The most frequently reported problem by far is the perceived lack of language skills of foreign students at the beginning of their studies. Suggested solutions are mainly the development of tutorials and the improvement of German medical terminology.Discussion: Offers of support provided by medical faculties for foreign students vary greatly in type and extent. Support offered is seen to be insufficient in coping with the needs of the international students in many cases. Hence, a better coverage of international students as well as further research efforts to the specific needs and the effectiveness of applied interventions seem to be essential.

  20. Box-and-Whisker Plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Russell D.

    1985-01-01

    Box-and-whisker plots (which give rapid visualization of batches of data) can be effectively used to present diverse collections of data used in traditional first-year chemistry courses. Construction of box-and-whisker plots and their use with bond energy data and data on heats of formation and solution are discussed. (JN)

  1. S2PLOT: Three-dimensional (3D) Plotting Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, D. G.; Fluke, C. J.; Bourke, P. D.; Parry, O. T.

    2011-03-01

    We present a new, three-dimensional (3D) plotting library with advanced features, and support for standard and enhanced display devices. The library - S2PLOT - is written in C and can be used by C, C++ and FORTRAN programs on GNU/Linux and Apple/OSX systems. S2PLOT draws objects in a 3D (x,y,z) Cartesian space and the user interactively controls how this space is rendered at run time. With a PGPLOT inspired interface, S2PLOT provides astronomers with elegant techniques for displaying and exploring 3D data sets directly from their program code, and the potential to use stereoscopic and dome display devices. The S2PLOT architecture supports dynamic geometry and can be used to plot time-evolving data sets, such as might be produced by simulation codes. In this paper, we introduce S2PLOT to the astronomical community, describe its potential applications, and present some example uses of the library.

  2. PLOT3D user's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  3. A review of Delphi surveys conducted to establish research priorities by specialty nursing organizations from 1985 to 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudy, S F

    1996-01-01

    Many nursing specialty organizations have completed Delphi surveys to establish their research priorities. The Society of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Nurses (SOHN) is currently conducting its own Delphi survey to the same end. This paper reviews the various Delphi methods employed by specialty nursing organizations on their members between 1985 and 1995. The studies reviewed are carefully limited to those commissioned by specialty nursing organizations and exclusive of those conducted by independent researchers who may have utilized specialty organization members. It presents an introduction to and definition of the Delphi methodology, as well as delving into methodologic and practical aspects of implementing a Delphi survey. It adds to the literature some information previously lacking on cost and time lines for studies, and will serve as a useful guide for future specialty nursing organizations who undertake a Delphi study as a novice effort. It intentionally does not recount the research priorities identified because it does not want to influence, in any way, responses of SOHN members involved in the ongoing Round I Delphi.

  4. Trellis plots as visual aids for analyzing split plot experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Menon, Anil

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of split plot experiments can be challenging due to a complicated error structure resulting from restrictions on complete randomization. Similarly, standard visualization methods do not provide the insight practitioners desire to understand the data, think of explanations, generate...... hypotheses, build models, or decide on next steps. This article demonstrates the effective use of trellis plots in the preliminary data analysis for split plot experiments to address this problem. Trellis displays help to visualize multivariate data by allowing for conditioning in a general way. They can...

  5. Attitudes and beliefs on the establishment of a national food safety authority in Cyprus. A population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjigeorgiou, Andreas; Talias, Michael A; Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Philalithis, Anastasios; Psaroulaki, Anna; Gikas, Achilleas; Tselentis, Yiannis

    2014-04-01

    Cyprus does not have a National Food Safety Authority (NFSA), but a multi-level, fragmented system with responsibilities divided among different ministries and governmental agencies, frequently impeding efforts to effectively manage food risks by duplication and overlapping of responsibilities. A population-based survey was carried out to determine the beliefs and attitudes of interested parties concerning the establishment of a NFSA in Cyprus. Information was collected using a random stratified sampling design and a structured questionnaire. A total of 868 questionnaires were collected (704 from regular consumers, 154 from food businesses' representatives, and 10 from public services' directors or acting head officers). About 11% of food businesses' representatives and 45% of consumers reported that they did not know which public authorities are responsible for food control. Moreover, 2 out of 10 (17%) of responders from public agencies, 70% from food businesses and 91% from consumers, although not aware of ongoing efforts to establish a food safety authority in Cyprus (currently under consideration), were supportive of the idea [8 out of 10 (83%) of responders from public services, 93% from food businesses, and 89% of consumers]. Finally, 7 out of 10 (67%) from the public agencies and 84% of representatives from food businesses agreed with the separation of risk assessment from risk management activities. Public opinion in Cyprus as well as public agencies and food businesses' representatives support the establishment of a single independent national food safety authority in Cyprus based on the European paradigm including the division of risk activities.

  6. Action Between Plot and Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Thor

    2007-01-01

    , these narrated actions disrupt the theoretical divisions, on the one hand, between the narrated story and the narrating discourse, and on the other hand, between plot-narratology and discourse-narratology. As narrated actions, they seem to belong to the domain of plot-narratology, but insofar as they serve...... an important visualizing function, these narrated actions have a communicative function and, as such, they can be said to belong to the domain of discourse-narratology. In the first part of the article, I argue that a certain type of plot-narratology, due to its retrospective epistemology and abstract...

  7. Action Between Plot and Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Thor

    2007-01-01

    , these narrated actions disrupt the theoretical divisions, on the one hand, between the narrated story and the narrating discourse, and on the other hand, between plot-narratology and discourse-narratology. As narrated actions, they seem to belong to the domain of plot-narratology, but insofar as they serve...... an important visualizing function, these narrated actions have a communicative function and, as such, they can be said to belong to the domain of discourse-narratology. In the first part of the article, I argue that a certain type of plot-narratology, due to its retrospective epistemology and abstract...

  8. Vegetation-plot data and databases in Europe: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaminée, J.H.J.; Hennekens, S.M.; Chytrý, M.; Rodwell, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    During the last decade many electronic databases of vegetation plots, mainly phytosociological relevés, were established in different European countries. These databases contain information which is extremely valuable for both testing various macroecological hypotheses and for nature conservation

  9. Normal probability plots with confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantarangsi, Wanpen; Liu, Wei; Bretz, Frank; Kiatsupaibul, Seksan; Hayter, Anthony J; Wan, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Normal probability plots are widely used as a statistical tool for assessing whether an observed simple random sample is drawn from a normally distributed population. The users, however, have to judge subjectively, if no objective rule is provided, whether the plotted points fall close to a straight line. In this paper, we focus on how a normal probability plot can be augmented by intervals for all the points so that, if the population distribution is normal, then all the points should fall into the corresponding intervals simultaneously with probability 1-α. These simultaneous 1-α probability intervals provide therefore an objective mean to judge whether the plotted points fall close to the straight line: the plotted points fall close to the straight line if and only if all the points fall into the corresponding intervals. The powers of several normal probability plot based (graphical) tests and the most popular nongraphical Anderson-Darling and Shapiro-Wilk tests are compared by simulation. Based on this comparison, recommendations are given in Section 3 on which graphical tests should be used in what circumstances. An example is provided to illustrate the methods.

  10. Environmental monitoring program for the Ormen Lange Onshore Processing Plant and the Reserve Power Plant at Nyhamna, Gossa. Monitoring of vegetation and soil: re-analyses and establishment of new monitoring plots in 2010.; Miljoeovervaakingsprogram for Ormen Lange landanlegg og Reservegasskraftverk paa Nyhamna, Gossa. Overvaaking av vegetasjon og jord: gjenanalyser og nyetablering av overvaakingsfelter i 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarrestad, P.A.; Bakkestuen, V.; Stabbetorp, O.E.; Myklebost, Heidi

    2011-07-01

    conducted for three distinct habitats: wet oligotrophic heathland, and hummocks and lawns on raised bogs. The site in hummocks was established in 2010, whereas the other sites were re-analyzed with the same methods as in 2008. The parameters are monitored within delimited plots. The vegetation is monitored in permanently marked plots (0.5m x 0.5m), ten for each vegetation type at each site, in total 60 plots. In each plot the abundance of vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens are recorded, as well as the cover of the vegetation layers. Plant growth is measured in each site for 20 individuals of Betula nana, Calluna vulgaris, and Sphagnum capillifolium. Five samples of each of Racomitrium lanuginosum, Sphagnum capillifolium and Cladonia arbuscula from each site are collected and analyzed for plant nutrient content and the heavy metals copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). Ten soil samples are collected from each habitat at each site and analyzed for ph, Kjeldahl nitrogen, exchangeable elements, cation exchange capacity, and base saturation, a total of 30 samples from each site. The heavy metals Cu, Ni, Hg, Pb, and Zn are measured in samples of peat mud, 10 samples from each site. Peat water is analyzed for chemical nutrients and heavy metals, 10 samples from each site. The chemical analyses are conducted at the Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute and NILU. There is still no indication that any pollution has affected the species composition of the vegetation. The vegetation is stable at both sites, both in wet heathland and in lawns on raised bogs. A few species occurring at low frequency in 2008 were not recorded in 2010, and some previously unrecorded species were found. This is normal for re-analyses of vegetation. There were significant differences in plant growth for Betula nana and Calluna vulgaris between the two sites, with highest growth rate at Aukra. This is most likely due to better climatic. (Author)

  11. A Survey of Established Veterinary Clinical Skills Laboratories from Europe and North America: Present Practices and Recent Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilly, Marc; Read, Emma K; Baillie, Sarah

    2017-05-23

    Developing competence in clinical skills is important if graduates are to provide entry-level care but it is dependent on having had sufficient hands-on practice. Clinical skills laboratories provide opportunities for students to learn on simulators and models in a safe environment and to supplement training with animals. Interest in facilities for developing veterinary clinical skills has increased in recent years as many veterinary colleges face challenges in training their students with traditional methods alone. For the present study, we designed a survey to gather information from established veterinary clinical skills laboratories with the aim of assisting others considering opening or expanding their own facility. Data were collated from 16 veterinary colleges in North America and Europe about the uses of their laboratory, the building and associated facilities, and the staffing, budgets, equipment, and supporting learning resources. The findings indicated that having a dedicated veterinary clinical skills laboratory is a relatively new initiative and that colleges have adopted a range of approaches to implementing and running the laboratory, teaching, and assessments. Major strengths were the motivation and positive characteristics of the staff involved, providing open access and supporting self-directed learning. However, respondents widely recognized the increasing demands placed on the facility to provide more space, equipment, and staff. There is no doubt that veterinary clinical skills laboratories are on the increase and provide opportunities to enhance student learning, complement traditional training, and benefit animal welfare.

  12. Attitudes Toward Collaboration Among Practitioners in Newly Established Medical Homes: A Survey of Nurses, General Practitioners, and Specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcusky, Matthew; Ferrari, Luciano; Rossi, Giuseppina; Liu, Mengdan; Hojat, Mohammadreza; Maio, Vittorio

    2016-11-01

    The objective was to evaluate the attitudes toward collaboration of nurses, general practitioners (GPs), and specialists practicing in newly established Medical Homes (MHs) in Parma Local Health Authority (LHA), Emilia-Romagna region, Italy. The 15-item Jefferson Scale of Attitudes Toward Physician-Nurse Collaboration was administered electronically to 172 physicians (66 GPs, 106 specialists) and 113 nurses practicing in 12 MHs. In all, 191 surveys (45 GPs, 59 specialists, 87 nurses) were completed (67% response rate). The mean total score among nurses (51.5, standard deviation [SD] = 3.7) reflected a significantly (P < .01) more positive attitude toward collaboration compared with GPs (47.8, SD = 4.6) and specialists (45.3, SD = 7.7). Discrepancies in attitudes are concerning because conflicting perceptions of professional roles may impede a successful transition to integrated care within MHs in Parma LHA. Internationally, further research into understanding interprofessional relationships within MHs is needed to inform policy and build a necessary culture of team-based care. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Charm Dalitz Plot Analysis Formalism and Results

    CERN Document Server

    Asner, David M

    2004-01-01

    Charm meson decay dynamics have been studied extensively over the last decade. We describe the Dalitz-plot analysis technique which has been applied by many experiments to three-body D0, D+ and Ds decays. We discuss experimental results from Mark II, Mark III, E687, E691, ARGUS, E791, FOCUS, CLEO and BABAR. These studies probe a variety of physics including doubly-Cabibbo suppressed decays, searches for CP violation, the properties of established light mesons and the properties of pipi and Kpi S-wave states.

  14. MatrixPlot: visualizing sequence constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorodkin, Jan; Stærfeldt, Hans Henrik; Lund, Ole

    1999-01-01

    MatrixPlot: visualizing sequence constraints. Sub-title Abstract Summary : MatrixPlot is a program for making high-quality matrix plots, such as mutual information plots of sequence alignments and distance matrices of sequences with known three-dimensional coordinates. The user can add information...... about the sequences (e.g. a sequence logo profile) along the edges of the plot, as well as zoom in on any region in the plot. Availability : MatrixPlot can be obtained on request, and can also be accessed online at http://www. cbs.dtu.dk/services/MatrixPlot. Contact : gorodkin@cbs.dtu.dk...

  15. MatrixPlot: visualizing sequence constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorodkin, Jan; Stærfeldt, Hans Henrik; Lund, Ole

    1999-01-01

    MatrixPlot: visualizing sequence constraints. Sub-title Abstract Summary : MatrixPlot is a program for making high-quality matrix plots, such as mutual information plots of sequence alignments and distance matrices of sequences with known three-dimensional coordinates. The user can add information...... about the sequences (e.g. a sequence logo profile) along the edges of the plot, as well as zoom in on any region in the plot. Availability : MatrixPlot can be obtained on request, and can also be accessed online at http://www. cbs.dtu.dk/services/MatrixPlot. Contact : gorodkin@cbs.dtu.dk...

  16. Report on a survey for new energy vision establishment in Yoshimatsu Township; Yoshimatsumachi chiiki shin energy vision sakutei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This paper reports on a survey for new energy vision establishment in Yoshimatsu Township located in the northern tip of Kagoshima Prefecture. The estimated values for expected usable amounts of the new energies under the vision are solar energy at 3.9 x 10{sup 6} kWh/year, wastes energy at 3349 Gcal/year, small hydraulic power at 0.1 x 10{sup 6} kWh/year, wind power at 14.3 x 10{sup 6} kWh/year, and geothermal energy at 62.25 Gcal/year. The new energies having high possibility for introducing them into the area are solar energy, wind power and small hydraulic power, all being utilized mainly for electric power generation. The specific introduction plan calls for installing wind power plants in the Mizuhara area to expand population exchange and enlighten people on the plan. The same purpose applies to solar energy power plus wind power generation in Ikedaira Park, and the solar energy power generation plan for the highway front. For enhancement, education and enlightenment of the people on welfare, solar energy power plants are intended to be built for the township office building, multi-purpose gymnasium, primary and secondary schools, lunch supply center, and the home of welfare. A micro-hydroelectric power plant is intended to be installed in the Takenaka water purification plant to expand population exchange and enlighten the people on the plan. A solar energy power plant is also planned to be built in front of Yoshimatsu Station (NEDO)

  17. Convergence of Place and Plot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2010-01-01

    efterladt sig en række mærker og spor som kan læses og fortolkes. Blodspor, rester af negle, hår udgør forskellige (DNA)koder som kan dekrypteres og dechifreres på samme måde som krudtslam, skudhuller, fysiske skader er tegn som skal læses og fortolkes. Som sådan rummer stedet et plot (en fortælling) som...

  18. Geoprocessing applied to the phytosociological survey in permanent plots El geo-procesamiento aplicado al levantamiento fito-sociológico en parcelas permanentes Geoprocessamento aplicado ao levantamento fitossociológico em parcelas permanentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gilberto Bertotti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal with this work was to create a georeferenced data bank to follow the phytosociological changes of types of trees along the time and its geographic distribution in the field of study. To the phytosociological survey permanent parcels were plotted in the field of study along the floodplain of the rivers Carro Quebrado and Cascavel, both located in the Campus of the Universidade Estadual do Centro Oeste (UNICENTRO – CEDETEG, in Guarapuava city, Parana state. In each part the attributes analyzed were: sociologic position (SP; class of crown (CC; characteristics of trees (CT; quality conditions of the trunk (QCT; conditions (Cs. These parts were put into spaces with use of the Global Positioning System (GPS and the data were sent to the SPRING software with the intention to build a cadastral data bank to follow and analyze the development of the local vegetation. The creation of this data bank allowed following the development of trees in a time scale, showing the evolution of the part of the forest studied.Este trabajo en su objeto pretende crear un banco de informaciones geo-referenciado para acompañar los cambios fitosociológicos de los indivíduos arbóreos a lo largo del tiempo y su distribuccíon geográfica en el área del estudio. Demarcamos parcelas permanentes a lo largo de la planicie de inundación de los rios “Carro  Quebrado” y Cascavel” que están localizados en el campus de la Universidad Estadual Del Centro Oeste del Estado del Paraná, municipalidad de Guarapuava ( UNICENTRO –CEDETEG.En cada parcela de tierra separada evaluamos distintos atributos: PS: localización sociológica; CC: tipo de copa; CA: características de los árboles; CCT: condiciones de calidad del tronco; Cs: otras condiciones.  Estas parcelas fueron especializadas a partir de la utilización del Sistema de  Pocsicionamiento Global (GPS y todos los datos fuero exportados para el sftware SPRING a fin de construir el banco de informaciones

  19. AUTOMATED TECHNIQUE FOR CREATING LITHOLOGIC LOG PLOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristijan Posavec

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents automated technique for creating lithologic log plots. Technique is based on three computer tools: Microsoft (MS Access program, LogPlot program, and Visual Basic (VB macros for MS Excel. MS Access ensures professional storage of lithologic data which can be in that way easier and faster entered, searched, updated, and also used for different purposes, while LogPlot provides tools for creating lithologic log plots. VB macros enable transfer of lithologic data from MS Access to LogPlot. Data stored in MS Access are exported in ASCII files which are later used by LogPlot for creation of lithologic log plots. Presented concept facilitates creation of lithologic log plots, and automated technique enables processing of a large number of data i.e. creation of lareg number lithologic log plots in a short period of time (the paper is published in Croatian.

  20. Location of sound velocity profiles along with profile plots collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in 2014 along the Delmarva Peninsula, MD and VA (PNG images, CSV text, and Esri point shapefile, Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Delmarva Peninsula is a 220-kilometer-long headland, spit, and barrier island complex that was significantly affected by Hurricane Sandy. A U.S. Geological...

  1. Location of sound velocity profiles along with profile plots collected in 2015 by the U.S. Geological Survey along the Delmarva Peninsula, MD and VA (PNG images, CSV text, ASVP text, and Esri point shapefile, GCS WGS 84).

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Delmarva Peninsula is a 220-kilometer-long headland, spit, and barrier island complex that was significantly affected by Hurricane Sandy in the fall of 2012. The...

  2. Location of sound velocity profiles along with profile plots collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in 2014 along the Delmarva Peninsula, MD and VA (PNG images, CSV text, and Esri point shapefile, Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Delmarva Peninsula is a 220-kilometer-long headland, spit, and barrier island complex that was significantly affected by Hurricane Sandy. A U.S. Geological...

  3. PLOT3D: An Interactive Graphics Code for Three Dimensional Plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-28

    all program parameters PLOTF Plots the function y-f(x.z) according to the specified programs parameters. PLOTS Manipulates data for scaling and angles...of rotation; Calls PLOTF to plot each line PERIM Draws the plane of projection and perimeter around the plotted data PLTIF Puts data information on...PLT3T ADISP Clears alphanumeric display PLOTS Same as in PLT3T segment PLOTF Plots on pen plotter instead of the graphics terminal PERIM Same as in

  4. Mortality factors for dead trees from a subset of plots from the Sierra Nevada Forest Dynamics Plot Network from 1998 to 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset was used to summarize and analyze the mortality factors recorderd on dead trees in the Sierra Nevada Forest Dynamics Plot Network, which is managed by...

  5. Multiple hypothesis clustering in radar plot extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizing, A.G.; Theil, A.; Dorp, Ph. van; Ligthart, L.P.

    1995-01-01

    False plots and plots with inaccurate range and Doppler estimates may severely degrade the performance of tracking algorithms in radar systems. This paper describes how a multiple hypothesis clustering technique can be applied to mitigate the problems involved in plot extraction. The measures of

  6. Multiple hypothesis clustering in radar plot extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizing, A.G.; Theil, A.; Dorp, Ph. van; Ligthart, L.P.

    1995-01-01

    False plots and plots with inaccurate range and Doppler estimates may severely degrade the performance of tracking algorithms in radar systems. This paper describes how a multiple hypothesis clustering technique can be applied to mitigate the problems involved in plot extraction. The measures of con

  7. 70 Years of permanent plot research in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, N.A.C.; Schaminée, J.H.J.; Duuren, van L.

    2002-01-01

    Within the framework of the Dutch `Network Ecological Monitoring¿, a large set of new permanent plots has been established to monitor selected plant communities throughout The Netherlands for studying the effects of environmental changes on species composition of semi-natural communities. This

  8. Waiting for Treatment for Chronic Pain – a Survey of Existing Benchmarks: Toward Establishing Evidence-Based Benchmarks for Medically Acceptable Waiting Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E Lynch

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available As medical costs escalate, health care resources must be prioritized. In this context, there is an increasing need for benchmarks and best practices in wait time management. In December 2005, the Canadian Pain Society struck a Task Force to identify benchmarks for acceptable wait times for treatment of chronic pain. The task force mandate included a systematic review and survey to identify national or international wait time benchmarks for chronic pain, proposed or in use, along with a review of the evidence upon which they are based. An extensive systematic review of the literature and a survey of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapter Presidents and key informants has identified that there are no established benchmarks or guidelines for acceptable wait times for the treatment of chronic pain in use in the world. In countries with generic guidelines or wait time standards that apply to all outpatient clinics, there have been significant challenges faced by pain clinics in meeting the established targets. Important next steps are to ensure appropriate additional research and the establishment of international benchmarks or guidelines for acceptable wait times for the treatment of chronic pain. This will facilitate advocacy for improved access to appropriate care for people suffering from chronic pain around the world.

  9. Scaling wood volume estimates from inventory plots to landscapes with airborne LiDAR in temperate deciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levick, Shaun R; Hessenmöller, Dominik; Schulze, E-Detlef

    2016-12-01

    Monitoring and managing carbon stocks in forested ecosystems requires accurate and repeatable quantification of the spatial distribution of wood volume at landscape to regional scales. Grid-based forest inventory networks have provided valuable records of forest structure and dynamics at individual plot scales, but in isolation they may not represent the carbon dynamics of heterogeneous landscapes encompassing diverse land-management strategies and site conditions. Airborne LiDAR has greatly enhanced forest structural characterisation and, in conjunction with field-based inventories, it provides avenues for monitoring carbon over broader spatial scales. Here we aim to enhance the integration of airborne LiDAR surveying with field-based inventories by exploring the effect of inventory plot size and number on the relationship between field-estimated and LiDAR-predicted wood volume in deciduous broad-leafed forest in central Germany. Estimation of wood volume from airborne LiDAR was most robust (R(2) = 0.92, RMSE = 50.57 m(3) ha(-1) ~14.13 Mg C ha(-1)) when trained and tested with 1 ha experimental plot data (n = 50). Predictions based on a more extensive (n = 1100) plot network with considerably smaller (0.05 ha) plots were inferior (R(2) = 0.68, RMSE = 101.01 ~28.09 Mg C ha(-1)). Differences between the 1 and 0.05 ha volume models from LiDAR were negligible however at the scale of individual land-management units. Sample size permutation tests showed that increasing the number of inventory plots above 350 for the 0.05 ha plots returned no improvement in R(2) and RMSE variability of the LiDAR-predicted wood volume model. Our results from this study confirm the utility of LiDAR for estimating wood volume in deciduous broad-leafed forest, but highlight the challenges associated with field plot size and number in establishing robust relationships between airborne LiDAR and field derived wood volume. We are moving into a forest management era where

  10. Fifth International Symposium on Recurrence Plot

    CERN Document Server

    Riley, Michael; Giuliani, Alessandro; Webber, Charles; Jr, Jr; Translational Recurrences : From Mathematical Theory to Real-World Applications

    2014-01-01

    This book features 13 papers presented at the Fifth International Symposium on Recurrence Plots, held August 2013 in Chicago, IL. It examines recent applications and developments in recurrence plots and recurrence quantifi cation analysis (RQA) with special emphasis on biological and cognitive systems and the analysis of coupled systems using cross-recurrence methods. Readers will discover new applications and insights into a range of systems provided by recurrence plot analysis and new theoretical and mathematical developments in recurrence plots. Recurrence plot based analysis is a powerful tool that operates on real-world complex systems that are nonlinear, non-stationary, noisy, of any statistical distribution, free of any particular model type, and not particularly long. Quantitative analyses promote the detection of system state changes, synchronized dynamical regimes, or classifi cation of system states. Th e book will be of interest to an interdisciplinary audience of recurrence plot users and researc...

  11. National-scale vegetation change across Britain; an analysis of sample-based surveillance data from the Countryside Surveys of 1990 and 1998

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smart, S.M.; Clarke, R.T.; Poll, van de H.M.; Robertson, E.J.; Shield, E.R.; Bunce, R.G.H.; Maskell, L.C.

    2003-01-01

    Patterns of vegetation across Great Britain (GB) between 1990 and 1998 were quantified based on an analysis of plant species data from a total of 9596 fixed plots. Plots were established on a stratified random basis within 501 1 km sample squares located as part of the Countryside Survey of GB. Resu

  12. Faithfulness of Recurrence Plots: A Mathematical Proof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Yoshito; Komuro, Motomasa; Horai, Shunsuke; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    It is practically known that a recurrence plot, a two-dimensional visualization of time series data, can contain almost all information related to the underlying dynamics except for its spatial scale because we can recover a rough shape for the original time series from the recurrence plot even if the original time series is multivariate. We here provide a mathematical proof that the metric defined by a recurrence plot [Hirata et al., 2008] is equivalent to the Euclidean metric under mild conditions.

  13. Adding stress plot function to NASTRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, S.

    1978-01-01

    Stress plot function was developed and added to the NASTRAN level 15.5. Computed stress distribution can be displayed by this function, with vectors showing the principal stresses of the finite elements over the specified portions of the structure. NASTRAN is reviewed in the aspect of plotting capabilities. Stress tensor field is examined in preparation of stress display. Then the stress plot function as added to the NASTRAN is described. A sample plotout by this function is shown.

  14. An Excel macro for generating trilinear plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikaze, Steven G; Crowe, Allan S

    2007-01-01

    This computer note describes a method for creating trilinear plots in Microsoft Excel. Macros have been created in MS Excel's internal language: Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). A simple form has been set up to allow the user to input data from an Excel worksheet. The VBA macro is used to convert the triangular data (which consist of three columns of percentage data) into X-Y data. The macro then generates the axes, labels, and grid for the trilinear plot. The X-Y data are plotted as scatter data in Excel. By providing this macro in Excel, users can create trilinear plots in a quick, inexpensive manner.

  15. Establishment of an International Information Network for International Health Development: a survey of public health administration and management courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, G P

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the content emphasis of courses of public health administration and management (A & M) among member institutions of the Asia-Pacific Academic Consortium for Public Health (APACPH), to determine comparability of curricula across campuses. A survey of course syllabi from APACPH schools was conducted by three separate reviewers to identify topical subject matter presented in general and specialty A & M courses delivered to graduate students at each campus. Based on this review, three synthetic general content A & M courses, and one specialty A & M course (i.e. Hospital Administration) were created as a basis for intercampus cross-institutional comparisons conducted by the author. Despite the number of courses provided by the different APACPH institutions, specific content areas consistently appeared across institutions, suggesting possible foundational A & M content for public health students. In general, there was much better coverage of similar topics at the introductory level of instruction, and much greater consistency was observed across institutions that provided course work addressing the administration of hospitals. Several recommendations are made for further studies of other content areas, and for the development of minimum training content areas as a basis for cross-institutional studies.

  16. Box Plots in the Australian Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the definition of "box plot" as used in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" with other definitions used in the education community; describes the difficulties students experience when dealing with box plots; and discusses the elaboration that is necessary to enable teachers to develop the knowledge…

  17. The Heuristic Interpretation of Box Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lem, Stephanie; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Box plots are frequently used, but are often misinterpreted by students. Especially the area of the box in box plots is often misinterpreted as representing number or proportion of observations, while it actually represents their density. In a first study, reaction time evidence was used to test whether heuristic reasoning underlies this…

  18. Reaction Order Ambiguity in Integrated Rate Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Integrated rate plots are frequently used in reaction kinetics to determine orders of reactions. It is often emphasised, when using this methodology in practice, that it is necessary to monitor the reaction to a substantial fraction of completion for these plots to yield unambiguous orders. The present article gives a theoretical and statistical…

  19. Box Plots in the Australian Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the definition of "box plot" as used in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" with other definitions used in the education community; describes the difficulties students experience when dealing with box plots; and discusses the elaboration that is necessary to enable teachers to develop the knowledge necessary to use them…

  20. A Discussion on Mean Excess Plots

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Souvik

    2009-01-01

    A widely used tool in the study of risk, insurance and extreme values is the mean excess plot. One use is for validating a Generalized Pareto model for the excess distribution. This paper investigates some theoretical and practical aspects of the use of the mean excess plot.

  1. 9 CFR 108.7 - Filing of plot plans, blueprints, and legends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... legends. 108.7 Section 108.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS FOR LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 108.7 Filing of plot plans, blueprints, and legends. Three copies of all plot plans, blueprints, and legends, including revisions, shall be submitted to Animal and...

  2. 9 CFR 108.2 - Plot plans, blueprints, and legends required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plot plans, blueprints, and legends... REQUIREMENTS FOR LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 108.2 Plot plans, blueprints, and legends required. Each applicant... area, blueprints for each building used in the preparation of biological products and...

  3. Correlations in Nuclear Arrhenius-Type Plots

    CERN Document Server

    Tsang, M B

    1998-01-01

    Arrhenius-type plots for multifragmentation process, defined as the transverse energy dependence of the single-fragment emission-probability, -ln(p_{b}) vs 1/sqrt(E_{t}), have been studied by examining the relationship of the parameters p_{b} and E_{t} to the intermediate-mass fragment multiplicity . The linearity of these plots reflects the correlation of the fragment multiplicity with the transverse energy. These plots may not provide thermal scaling information about fragment production as previously suggested.

  4. Surveillance of Site A and Plot M report for 2010.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golchert, N. W. (ESQ)

    2011-05-31

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for Calendar Year 2010 are presented. Based on the results of the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site, a determination was made that a surveillance program be established. The characterization study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand-pumped picnic wells. The current surveillance program began in 1980 and consists of sample collection and analysis of surface and subsurface water. The results of the analyses are used to monitor the migration pathway of hydrogen-3 contaminated water from the burial ground (Plot M) to the hand-pumped picnic wells and monitor for the presence of radioactive materials in the environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red Gate Woods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Hydrogen-3 continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site, using the picnic area, or living in the vicinity.

  5. Surveillance of Site A and Plot M, Report for 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golchert, N. W.

    2010-04-21

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for Calendar Year 2009 are presented. Based on the results of the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site, a determination was made that a surveillance program be established. The characterization study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand-pumped picnic wells. The current surveillance program began in 1980 and consists of sample collection and analysis of surface and subsurface water. The results of the analyses are used to monitor the migration pathway of hydrogen-3 contaminated water from the burial ground (Plot M) to the hand-pumped picnic wells and monitor for the presence of radioactive materials in the environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red Gate Woods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Hydrogen-3 continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site, using the picnic area, or living in the vicinity.

  6. Revisiting the Logan plot to account for non-negligible blood volume in brain tissue

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schain, Martin; Fazio, Patrik; Mrzljak, Ladislav; Amini, Nahid; Al-Tawil, Nabil; Fitzer-Attas, Cheryl; Bronzova, Juliana; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Sampaio, Christina; Halldin, Christer; Varrone, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    .... The bias extent depends on the amount of radioactivity in the blood vessels. In this study, we seek to revisit the well-established Logan plot and derive alternative formulations that provide estimation of distribution volume ratios (DVRs...

  7. Split-plot designs for multistage experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Tyssedal, John

    2016-01-01

    at the same time will be more efficient. However, there have been only a few attempts in the literature to provide an adequate and easy-to-use approach for this problem. In this paper, we present a novel methodology for constructing two-level split-plot and multistage experiments. The methodology is based...... be accommodated in each stage. Furthermore, split-plot designs for multistage experiments with good projective properties are also provided....

  8. PRP: a FORTRAN IV interactive plotting program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, A. S.; Linde, J.

    A computer program, PRP, has been designed to plot any arithmetic combination selected from a set of major and trace element data on a y- x graph. y and x are defined and entered as a program string (y, x) which is interpreted sequentially. Operators ( +, -, ∗, /, ( unary) , square root, log 10, In c, antilog 10, exponential, integer, absolute value, (,),,) and integer or real numbers may be included. Axis lengths and scales are determined by the user. Five different plotting symbols are available.

  9. Generalised Recurrence Plot Analysis for Spatial Data

    OpenAIRE

    Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Juergen; Saparin, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Recurrence plot based methods are highly efficient and widely accepted tools for the investigation of time series or one-dimensional data. We present an extension of the recurrence plots and their quantifications in order to study recurrent structures in higher-dimensional spatial data. The capability of this extension is illustrated on prototypical 2D models. Next, the tested and proved approach is applied to assess the bone structure from CT images of human proximal tibia. We find that the ...

  10. Development of TRatioPlot in ROOT

    CERN Document Server

    Gessinger-Befurt, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The ROOT data analysis and visualization framework is a software package which is widely used in physics, especially in high energy physics. A common visualization which has so far been lacking a direct implementation is the ratio plot, as well as a few similar types of plots. The scope and goal of the summer student project at CERN was to implement a class in ROOT itself, that can take care of the most common types of calculations, and produces high quality visuals.

  11. Mongolia - Urban Property Rights Project Special Hashaa Plot Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The impact evaluation study of the MCA-M PRP will be the first fully randomized evaluation of a large-scale land titling program. Randomization will occur at the...

  12. [Eugenics, an element of the literary plots of dystopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Ewa; Musielak, Michał

    2007-01-01

    The work presents the ideas and assumptions of eugenics, a social philosophy established in 1883 by Francis Galton, which affected the social policies of numerous European countries in the first half of the 20th century. The work shows the effect of eugenics on the literary standards of European prose in the previous century. Two outstanding dystopian novels of the 20th century, The Brave New World by Aldous Huxley and 1984 by George Orwell, situate eugenics as a permanent element of the literary plot of dystopia. Apart from the typical features of this type of novel, for example: personal narration with a trace of irony, a totalitarian state and Newspeak, eugenics is an important element of the literary plot with is aim to exclude and marginalise certain social groups. Eugenics is also one of the main social ideas criticised by both the writers.

  13. WEED SURVEYING OF PHACELIA (PHACELIA TANACETIFOLIA L.) AND EVALUATING THE EFFICIENCY OF THE WEED CONTROL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, E; Szabó, R

    2014-01-01

    The experiment was set up in an area of 9 ha that was split into 4 plots: in plot 1 the row spacing was 12 cm and the seeding rate was 10 kg; in plot 2 the row spacing was 24 cm and the seeding rate was 10 kg; in plot 3 the row spacing was 24 cm and the seeding rate was 8 kg; in plot 4 the row spacing was 12 cm and the seeding rate was 8 kg. After the weed surveying, the total weed coverage was established as follows: in plot 1 the total weed coverage was 11.34%, in plot 2 it was 12.3%, in plot 3 it was 18%, and in plot 4 the total weed coverage was 15%. Based on the weed survey, on the test area the following dicotyledon weeds belonging to the T4 Raunkiaer plant life-form category occupied the highest percentage: heal-all, black-bindweed, goosefoot. The proportion of the perennial dicotyledons: field bindweed (G3), tuberous pea (G1), white campion (H3) was negligible. In all four cases the weed control was executed using the same herbicide in the same doses and with regard to the weed species it showed the same level of efficiency. The smaller row spacing and higher seeding rate has a beneficial effect on the weed suppressing capacity of the crop, the crop's weed suppressing capacity is better and the development of the weeds becomes worse.

  14. Surveillance of Site A and Plot M - Report for 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golchert, N. W.; ESH/QA Oversight

    2007-05-07

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for Calendar Year 2006 are presented. Based on the results of the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site, a determination was made that a surveillance program be established. The characterization study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand-pumped picnic wells. The current surveillance program began in 1980 and consists of sample collection and analysis of surface and subsurface water. The results of the analyses are used to (1) monitor the migration pathway of water from the burial ground (PlotM) to the hand pumped picnic wells, (2) establish if buried radionuclides other than hydrogen-3 have migrated, and (3) monitor the presence of radioactive and chemically hazardous materials in the environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red GateWoods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Hydrogen-3 continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site, using the picnic area, or living in the vicinity.

  15. Surveillance of Site A and Plot M, Report for 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golchert, N. W.

    2009-05-07

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for Calendar Year 2008 are presented. Based on the results of the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site, a determination was made that a surveillance program be established. The characterization study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand pumped picnic wells. The current surveillance program began in 1980 and consists of sample collection and analysis of surface and subsurface water. The results of the analyses are used to (1) monitor the migration pathway of hydrogen-3 contaminated water from the burial ground (Plot M) to the hand-pumped picnic wells, (2) establish if other buried radionuclides have migrated, and (3) monitor for the presence of radioactive materials in the environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red Gate Woods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Hydrogen-3 continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site, using the picnic area, or living in the vicinity.

  16. Surveillance of site A and plot M, report for 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golchert, N. W.; ESH/QA Oversight

    2008-03-25

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for Calendar Year 2007 are presented. Based on the results of the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site, a determination was made that a surveillance program be established. The characterization study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand pumped picnic wells. The current surveillance program began in 1980 and consists of sample collection and analysis of surface and subsurface water. The results of the analyses are used to: (1) monitor the migration pathway of water from the burial ground (Plot M) to the hand-pumped picnic wells, (2) establish if other buried radionuclides have migrated, and (3) monitor the presence of radioactive materials in the environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red Gate Woods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Hydrogen-3 continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site, using the picnic area, or living in the vicinity.

  17. Experimental strategies in carrying out VCU for tobacco crop I: plot design and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, F H R B; Ramalho, M A P; Pulcinelli, C E; Bruzi, A T

    2013-09-19

    We aimed to establish standards for tobacco Valor de Cultivo e Uso (VCU) in Brazil. We obtained information regarding the size and design of plots of two varietal groups of tobacco (Virginia and Burley). Ten inbred lines of each varietal group were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The plot contained 42 plants with six rows of seven columns each. For each experiment plant, considering the position of the respective plant in the plot (row and column) as a reference, cured leaf weight (g/plant), total sugar content (%), and total alkaloid content (%) were determined. The maximum curvature of the variations in coefficients was estimated. Trials with the number of plants per plot ranging from 2 to 41 were simulated. The use of a border was not justified because the interactions between inbred lines x position in the plots were never significant, showing that the behavior of the inbred lines coincided with the different positions. The plant performance varied according to the column position in the plot. To lessen the effect of this factor, the use of plots with more than one row is recommended. Experimental precision, evaluated by the CV%, increased with an increase in plot size; nevertheless, the maximum curvature of the variation coefficient method showed no expressive increase in precision if the number of plants was greater than seven. The result in identification of the best inbred line, in terms of the size of each plot, coincided with the maximum curvature method.

  18. 6th International Symposium on Recurrence Plots

    CERN Document Server

    Jr, Jr; Ioana, Cornel; Marwan, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    The chapters in this book originate from the research work and contributions presented at the Sixth International Symposium on Recurrence Plots held in Grenoble, France in June 2015. Scientists from numerous disciplines gathered to exchange knowledge on recent applications and developments in recurrence plots and recurrence quantification analysis. This meeting was remarkable because of the obvious expansion of recurrence strategies (theory) and applications (practice) into ever-broadening fields of science. It discusses real-world systems from various fields, including mathematics, strange attractors, applied physics, physiology, medicine, environmental and earth sciences, as well as psychology and linguistics. Even readers not actively researching any of these particular systems will benefit from discovering how other scientists are finding practical non-linear solutions to specific problems. The book is of interest to an interdisciplinary audience of recurrence plot users and researchers interested in time...

  19. BOREAS TE-23 Map Plot Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Paul M.; Fournier, Robert; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-23 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected map plot data in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on canopy architecture and understory cover at the BOREAS tower flux sites and selected auxiliary sites from May to August 1994. Mapped plots (typical dimensions 50 m x 60 m) were set up and characterized at all BOREAS forested tower flux and selected auxiliary sites. Detailed measurement of the mapped plots included: (1) stand characteristics (location, density, basal area); (2) map locations diameter at breast height (DBH) of all trees; (3) detailed geometric measures of a subset of trees (height, crown dimensions); and (4) understory cover maps. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  20. Establishing the need and identifying goals for a curriculum in medical business ethics: a survey of students and residents at two medical centers in Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Elena M; Bakanas, Erin; Gursahani, Kamal; DuBois, James M

    2014-10-09

    In recent years, issues in medical business ethics (MBE), such as conflicts of interest (COI), Medicare fraud and abuse, and the structure and functioning of reimbursement systems, have received significant attention from the media and professional associations in the United States. As a result of highly publicized instances of financial interests altering physician decision-making, major professional organizations and government bodies have produced reports and guidelines to encourage self-regulation and impose rules to limit physician relationships with for-profit entities. Nevertheless, no published curricula exist in the area of MBE. This study aimed to establish a baseline level of knowledge and the educational goals medical students and residents prioritize in the area of MBE. 732 medical students and 380 residents at two academic medical centers in the state of Missouri, USA, completed a brief survey indicating their awareness of major MBE guidance documents, knowledge of key MBE research, beliefs about the goals of an education in MBE, and the areas of MBE they were most interested in learning more about. Medical students and residents had little awareness of recent and major reports on MBE topics, and had minimal knowledge of basic MBE facts. Residents scored statistically better than medical students in both of these areas. Medical students and residents were in close agreement regarding the goals of an MBE curriculum. Both groups showed significant interest in learning more about MBE topics with an emphasis on background topics such as "the business aspects of medicine" and "health care delivery systems". The content of major reports by professional associations and expert bodies has not trickled down to medical students and residents, yet both groups are interested in learning more about MBE topics. Our survey suggests potentially beneficial ways to frame and embed MBE topics into the larger framework of medical education.

  1. PLOT3D Export Tool for Tecplot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The PLOT3D export tool for Tecplot solves the problem of modified data being impossible to output for use by another computational science solver. The PLOT3D Exporter add-on enables the use of the most commonly available visualization tools to engineers for output of a standard format. The exportation of PLOT3D data from Tecplot has far reaching effects because it allows for grid and solution manipulation within a graphical user interface (GUI) that is easily customized with macro language-based and user-developed GUIs. The add-on also enables the use of Tecplot as an interpolation tool for solution conversion between different grids of different types. This one add-on enhances the functionality of Tecplot so significantly, it offers the ability to incorporate Tecplot into a general suite of tools for computational science applications as a 3D graphics engine for visualization of all data. Within the PLOT3D Export Add-on are several functions that enhance the operations and effectiveness of the add-on. Unlike Tecplot output functions, the PLOT3D Export Add-on enables the use of the zone selection dialog in Tecplot to choose which zones are to be written by offering three distinct options - output of active, inactive, or all zones (grid blocks). As the user modifies the zones to output with the zone selection dialog, the zones to be written are similarly updated. This enables the use of Tecplot to create multiple configurations of a geometry being analyzed. For example, if an aircraft is loaded with multiple deflections of flaps, by activating and deactivating different zones for a specific flap setting, new specific configurations of that aircraft can be easily generated by only writing out specific zones. Thus, if ten flap settings are loaded into Tecplot, the PLOT3D Export software can output ten different configurations, one for each flap setting.

  2. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...... med surveys. Denne bog gennemgår alle surveyarbejdets faser og giver en praktisk indføring i: • design af undersøgelsen og udvælgelse af stikprøver, • formulering af spørgeskemaer samt indsamling og kodning af data, • metoder til at analysere resultaterne...

  3. Generalised recurrence plot analysis for spatial data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marwan, Norbert [Institute of Physics, University of Potsdam, 14415 Potsdam (Germany)]. E-mail: marwan@agnld.uni-potsdam.de; Kurths, Juergen [Institute of Physics, University of Potsdam, 14415 Potsdam (Germany); Saparin, Peter [Department of Biomaterials, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, 14424 Potsdam-Golm (Germany)

    2007-01-08

    Recurrence plot based methods are highly efficient and widely accepted tools for the investigation of time series or one-dimensional data. We present an extension of the recurrence plots and their quantifications in order to study recurrent structures in higher-dimensional spatial data. The capability of this extension is illustrated on prototypical 2D models. Next, the tested and proved approach is applied to assess the bone structure from CT images of human proximal tibia. We find that the spatial structures in trabecular bone become more recurrent during the bone loss in osteoporosis.

  4. Perennial vegetation data from permanent plots on the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Robert H.; Murov, Marilyn B.; Esque, Todd C.; Boyer, Diane E.; DeFalco, Lesley A.; Haines, Dustin F.; Oldershaw, Dominic; Scoles, Sara J.; Thomas, Kathryn A.; Blainey, Joan B.; Medica, Philip A.

    2003-01-01

    Perennial vegetation data from 68 permanent plots on the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, are given for the period of 1963 through 2002. Dr. Janice C. Beatley established the plots in 1962 and then remeasured them periodically from 1963 through 1975. We remeasured 67 of these plots between 2000 and 2003; the remaining plot was destroyed at some time between 1975 and 1993. The plots ranged from 935 to 2,274 m in elevation and are representative of common plant associations of the Mojave Desert, the transition to Great Basin Desert, and pinyon-juniper woodlands. The purpose of this report is to describe the complete set of ecological data that Beatley collected from the Nevada Test Site from 1963 through 1975 and to present the data for perennial vegetation collected from 2000 through 2003.

  5. Survey report on a regional new energy vision establishment project in Shirane Town; Shiranemachi chiiki shin energy vision sakutei nado jigyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Surveys and discussions were given on regional new energy vision establishment in Shirane Town, Yamanashi Prefecture. Shirane Township has taken up environment as one of the important policies in the 'Shirane Heartful Plan', and discussed different projects to introduce new energies along the said vision. The basic policy in the discussions positioned in the new energies to be introduced the solar energy having large available amount as the center, cogeneration for emergency, clean energy fueled automobiles as a means to reduce environmental load, and wind power generation as part of the environmental education courses. The planned introduction projects will include the following applications: traffic road signs powered by solar energy, clean energy fueled automobiles, a solar energy powered hot water supply system at lunch supply centers, solar energy power generation facilities for culture halls and schools, street lights powered by a solar energy and wind power hybrid generation system, solar energy power generation and cogeneration for wide-area disaster prevention facilities, and a solar heat utilization system for flower and fruit farms. (NEDO)

  6. Crop residue decomposition in Minnesota biochar amended plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyers, S. L.; Spokas, K. A.

    2014-02-01

    Impacts of biochar application at laboratory scales are routinely studied, but impacts of biochar application on decomposition of crop residues at field scales have not been widely addressed. The priming or hindrance of crop residue decomposition could have a cascading impact on soil processes, particularly those influencing nutrient availability. Our objectives were to evaluate biochar effects on field decomposition of crop residue, using plots that were amended with biochars made from different feedstocks and pyrolysis platforms prior to the start of this study. Litterbags containing wheat straw material were buried below the soil surface in a continuous-corn cropped field in plots that had received one of seven different biochar amendments or a non-charred wood pellet amendment 2.5 yr prior to start of this study. Litterbags were collected over the course of 14 weeks. Microbial biomass was assessed in treatment plots the previous fall. Though first-order decomposition rate constants were positively correlated to microbial biomass, neither parameter was statistically affected by biochar or wood-pellet treatments. The findings indicated only a residual of potentially positive and negative initial impacts of biochars on residue decomposition, which fit in line with established feedstock and pyrolysis influences. Though no significant impacts were observed with field-weathered biochars, effective soil management may yet have to account for repeat applications of biochar.

  7. A reduced volumetric expansion factor plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    A reduced volumetric expansion factor plot has been constructed for simple fluids which is suitable for engineering computations in heat transfer. Volumetric expansion factors have been found useful in correlating heat transfer data over a wide range of operating conditions including liquids, gases and the near critical region.

  8. Potential applications of prefield land use and canopy cover data: Examples from nonforest and nonsampled forest inventory plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara A. Goeking

    2012-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) prefield workflow involves interpreting aerial imagery to determine whether each plot in a given inventory year may meet FIA’s definition of forest land. The primary purpose of this determination is to minimize inventory costs by avoiding unnecessary ground surveys of plots that are obviously in nonforest areas. Since the...

  9. FLOWCHART; a computer program for plotting flowcharts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Bernice

    1982-01-01

    The computer program FLOWCHART can be used to very quickly and easily produce flowcharts of high quality for publication. FLOWCHART centers each element or block of text that it processes on one of a set of (imaginary) vertical lines. It can enclose a text block in a rectangle, circle or other selected figure. It can draw a 'line connecting the midpoint of any side of any figure with the midpoint of any side of any other figure and insert an arrow pointing in the direction of flow. It can write 'yes' or 'no' next to the line joining two figures. FLOWCHART creates flowcharts using some basic plotting subroutine* which permit plots to be generated interactively and inspected on a Tektronix compatible graphics screen or plotted in a deferred mode on a Houston Instruments 42' pen plotter. The size of the plot, character set and character height in inches are inputs to the program. Plots generated using the pen plotter can be up to 42' high--the larger size plots being directly usable as visual aids in a talk. FLOWCHART centers each block of text on an imaginary column line. (The number of columns and column width are specified as input.) The midpoint of the longest line of text within the block is defined to be the center of the block and is placed on the column line. The spacing of individual words within the block is not altered when the block is positioned. The program writes the first block of text in a designated column and continues placing each subsequent block below the previous block in the same column. A block of text may be placed in a different column by specifying the number of the column and an earlier block of text with which the new block is to be aligned. If block zero is given as the earlier block, the new text is placed in the new column continuing down the page below the previous block. Optionally a column and number of inches from the top of the page may be given for positioning the next block of text. The program will normally draw one of five

  10. PetroPlot: A plotting and data management tool set for Microsoft Excel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yongjun; Langmuir, Charles H.; Asimow, Paul D.

    2003-03-01

    PetroPlot is a 4000-line software code written in Visual Basic for the spreadsheet program Excel that automates plotting and data management tasks for large amount of data. The major plotting functions include: automation of large numbers of multiseries XY plots; normalized diagrams (e.g., spider diagrams); replotting of any complex formatted diagram with multiple series for any other axis parameters; addition of customized labels for individual data points; and labeling flexible log scale axes. Other functions include: assignment of groups for samples based on multiple customized criteria; removal of nonnumeric values; calculation of averages/standard deviations; calculation of correlation matrices; deletion of nonconsecutive rows; and compilation of multiple rows of data for a single sample to single rows appropriate for plotting. A cubic spline function permits curve fitting to complex time series, and comparison of data to the fits. For users of Excel, PetroPlot increases efficiency of data manipulation and visualization by orders of magnitude and allows exploration of large data sets that would not be possible making plots individually. The source codes are open to all users.

  11. Realtime multi-plot graphics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipkowski, Michael S.

    1990-01-01

    The increased complexity of test operations and customer requirements at Langley Research Center's National Transonic Facility (NTF) surpassed the capabilities of the initial realtime graphics system. The analysis of existing hardware and software and the enhancements made to develop a new realtime graphics system are described. The result of this effort is a cost effective system, based on hardware already in place, that support high speed, high resolution, generation and display of multiple realtime plots. The enhanced graphics system (EGS) meets the current and foreseeable future realtime graphics requirements of the NTF. While this system was developed to support wind tunnel operations, the overall design and capability of the system is applicable to other realtime data acquisition systems that have realtime plot requirements.

  12. External Use of TOPCAT's Plotting Library

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, M B

    2014-01-01

    The table analysis application TOPCAT uses a custom Java plotting library for highly configurable high-performance interactive or exported visualisations in two and three dimensions. We present here a variety of ways for end users or application developers to make use of this library outside of the TOPCAT application: via the command-line suite STILTS or its Jython variant JyStilts, via a traditional Java API, or by programmatically assigning values to a set of parameters in java code or using some form of inter-process communication. The library has been built with large datasets in mind; interactive plots scale well up to several million points, and static output to standard graphics formats is possible for unlimited sized input data.

  13. Convex Arrhenius plots and their interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truhlar, Donald G.; Kohen, Amnon

    2001-01-01

    This paper draws attention to selected experiments on enzyme-catalyzed reactions that show convex Arrhenius plots, which are very rare, and points out that Tolman's interpretation of the activation energy places a fundamental model-independent constraint on any detailed explanation of these reactions. The analysis presented here shows that in such systems, the rate coefficient as a function of energy is not just increasing more slowly than expected, it is actually decreasing. This interpretation of the data provides a constraint on proposed microscopic models, i.e., it requires that any successful model of a reaction with a convex Arrhenius plot should be consistent with the microcanonical rate coefficient being a decreasing function of energy. The implications and limitations of this analysis to interpreting enzyme mechanisms are discussed. This model-independent conclusion has broad applicability to all fields of kinetics, and we also draw attention to an analogy with diffusion in metastable fluids and glasses. PMID:11158559

  14. Extended quantification of the generalized recurrence plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Maik; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    The generalized recurrence plot is a modern tool for quantification of complex spatial patterns. Its application spans the analysis of trabecular bone structures, Turing structures, turbulent spatial plankton patterns, and fractals. But, it is also successfully applied to the description of spatio-temporal dynamics and the detection of regime shifts, such as in the complex Ginzburg-Landau- equation. The recurrence plot based determinism is a central measure in this framework quantifying the level of regularities in temporal and spatial structures. We extend this measure for the generalized recurrence plot considering additional operations of symmetry than the simple translation. It is tested not only on two-dimensional regular patterns and noise but also on complex spatial patterns reconstructing the parameter space of the complex Ginzburg-Landau-equation. The extended version of the determinism resulted in values which are consistent to the original recurrence plot approach. Furthermore, the proposed method allows a split of the determinism into parts which based on laminar and non-laminar regions of the two-dimensional pattern of the complex Ginzburg-Landau-equation. A comparison of these parts with a standard method of image classification, the co-occurrence matrix approach, shows differences especially in the description of patterns associated with turbulence. In that case, it seems that the extended version of the determinism allows a distinction of phase turbulence and defect turbulence by means of their spatial patterns. This ability of the proposed method promise new insights in other systems with turbulent dynamics coming from climatology, biology, ecology, and social sciences, for example.

  15. AvoPlot: An extensible scientific plotting tool based on matplotlib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nial Peters

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AvoPlot is a simple-to-use graphical plotting program written in Python and making extensive use of the matplotlib plotting library. It can be found at http://code.google.com/p/avoplot/. In addition to providing a user-friendly interface to the powerful capabilities of the matplotlib library, it also offers users the possibility of extending its functionality by creating plug-ins. These can import specific types of data into the interface and also provide new tools for manipulating them. In this respect, AvoPlot is a convenient platform for researchers to build their own data analysis tools on top of, as well as being a useful standalone program.

  16. Split-Plot Designs with Mirror Image Pairs as Subplots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyssedal, John; Kulahci, Murat; Bisgaard, Soren

    2011-01-01

    In this article we investigate two-level split-plot designs where the sub-plots consist of only two mirror image trials. Assuming third and higher order interactions negligible, we show that these designs divide the estimated effects into two orthogonal sub-spaces, separating sub-plot main effects...... and sub-plot by whole-plot interactions from the rest. Further we show how to construct split-plot designs of projectivity P≥3. We also introduce a new class of split-plot designs with mirror image pairs constructed from non-geometric Plackett–Burman designs. The design properties of such designs are very...

  17. Quilt plots: a simple tool for the visualisation of large epidemiological data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handan Wand

    Full Text Available Graphical representation of data is one of the most easily comprehended forms of explanation. The current study describes a simple visualization tool which may allow greater understanding of medical and epidemiological data.We propose a simple use of an existing tool for visualization of data, known as a ''quilt plot'' (also defined as "heat maps", that provides an alternative to presenting large volumes of data as frequency tables [corrected]. Data from the Australian Needle and Syringe Program survey are used to illustrate "quilt plots".Visualization of large volumes of data using "quilt plots" enhances interpretation of medical and epidemiological data. Such intuitive presentations are particularly useful for the rapid assessment of problems in the data which cannot be readily identified by manual review. We recommend that, where possible, "quilt plots" be used along with traditional quantitative assessments of the data as an explanatory data analysis tool.

  18. Optimal plot design in a multipurpose forest inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena M. Henttonen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: We explore the factors affecting the optimal plot design (size and type as well as the subsample tree selection strategies within a plot and their relative importance in defining the optimal plot design in amultipurpose forest inventory. The factors include time used to lay out the plot and to make the tree measurements within the plot, the between-plot variation of each of the variables of interest in the area, and the measurement and model errors for the different variables. Methods: We simulate different plot types and sizes and subsample tree selection strategies on measuredtest areas from North Lapland. The plot types used are fixed-radius, concentric and relascope plots. Weselect the optimal type and size first at plot level using a cost-plus-loss approach and then at cluster level byminimizing the weighted standard error with fixed budget. Results: As relascope plots are very efficient at the plot level for volume and basal area, and fixed-radius plots for stems per ha, the optimal plot type strongly depends on the relative importance of these variables. The concentric plot seems to be a good compromise between these two in many cases. The subsample tree selection strategy was more important in selecting optimal plot than many other factors. In cluster level, the most important factor is the transfer time between plots. Conclusions: While the optimal radius of plots and other parameters were sensitive to the measurement times and other cost factors, the concentric plot type was optimal in almost all studied cases. Subsample tree measurement strategies need further studies, as they were an important cost factor. However, their importance to the precision was not as clear. Keywords: Sample, Plot, Forest inventory, Measurement, Cost, Loss

  19. Optimal plot design in a multipurpose forest inventory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Helena M Henttonen; Annika Kangas

    2016-01-01

    Background:We explore the factors affecting the optimal plot design (size and type as well as the subsample tree selection strategies within a plot) and their relative importance in defining the optimal plot design in amultipurpose forest inventory. The factors include time used to lay out the plot and to make the tree measurements within the plot, the between-plot variation of each of the variables of interest in the area, and the measurement and model errors for the different variables. Methods:We simulate different plot types and sizes and subsample tree selection strategies on measuredtest areas from North Lapland. The plot types used are fixed-radius, concentric and relascope plots. Weselect the optimal type and size first at plot level using a cost-plus-loss approach and then at cluster level byminimizing the weighted standard error with fixed budget. Results:As relascope plots are very efficient at the plot level for volume and basal area, and fixed-radius plots for stems per ha, the optimal plot type strongly depends on the relative importance of these variables. The concentric plot seems to be a good compromise between these two in many cases. The subsample tree selection strategy was more important in selecting optimal plot than many other factors. In cluster level, the most important factor is the transfer time between plots. Conclusions:While the optimal radius of plots and other parameters were sensitive to the measurement times and other cost factors, the concentric plot type was optimal in almost al studied cases. Subsample tree measurement strategies need further studies, as they were an important cost factor. However, their importance to the precision was not as clear.

  20. Recurrence plots and chaotic motion around Kerr black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Kopáček, Ondřej; Karas, Vladimír; Stuchlík, Zdeněk; 10.1063/1.3506071

    2010-01-01

    We study the motion of charged test particles around a Kerr black hole immersed in the asymptotically uniform magnetic field, concluding that off-equatorial stable orbits are allowed in this system. Being interested in dynamical properties of these astrophysically relevant orbits we employ rather novel approach based on the analysis of recurrences of the system to the vicinity of its previous states. We use recurrence plots (RPs) as a tool to visualize recurrences of the trajectory in the phase space. Construction of RPs is simple and straightforward regardless of the dimension of the phase space, which is a major advantage of this approach when compared to the "traditional" methods of the numerical analysis of dynamical systems (for instance the visual survey of Poincar\\'{e} surfaces of section, evaluation of the Lyapunov spectra etc.). We show that RPs and their quantitative measures (obtained from recurrence quantification analysis -- RQA) are powerful tools to detect dynamical regime of motion (regular vs...

  1. European Vegetation Archive (EVA): an integrated database of European vegetation plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chytrý, M; Hennekens, S M; Jiménez-Alfaro, B

    2015-01-01

    The European Vegetation Archive (EVA) is a centralized database of European vegetation plots developed by the IAVS Working Group European Vegetation Survey. It has been in development since 2012 and first made available for use in research projects in 2014. It stores copies of national and region...

  2. Plot-scale evidence of tundra vegetation change and links to recent summer warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah C. Elmendorf; Gregory H.R. Henry; Robert D. Hollister; Robert G. Bjork; Noemie Boulanger-Lapointe; Elisabeth J. Cooper; Johannes H.C. Cornelissen; Thomas A. Day; Ellen Dorrepaal; Tatiana G. Elumeeva; Mike Gill; William A. Gould; John Harte; David S. Hik; Annika Hofgaard; David R. Johnson; Jill F. Johnstone; Ingijorg Svala Jonsdottir; Janet C. Jorgenson; Kari Klanderud; Julia A. Klein; Saewan Koh; Gaku Kudo; Mark Lara; Esther Levesque; Borgthor Magnusson; Jeremy L. May; Joel A. Mercado; Anders Michelsen; Ulf Molau; Isla H. Myers-Smith; Steven F. Oberbauer; Vladimir G. Onipchenko; Christian Rixen; Niels Martin Schmidt; Gaius R. Shaver; Marko J. Spasojevic; Pora Ellen Porhallsdottir; Anne Tolvanen; Tiffany Troxler; Craig E. Tweedie; Sandra Villareal; Carl-Henrik Wahren; Xanthe Walker; Patrick J. Webber; Jeffrey M. Welker; Sonja Wipf

    2012-01-01

    Temperature is increasing at unprecedented rates across most of the tundra biome1. Remote-sensing data indicate that contemporary climate warming has already resulted in increased productivity over much of the Arctic2,3, but plot-based evidence for vegetation transformation is not widespread. We analysed change in tundra vegetation surveyed between 1980 and 2010 in 158...

  3. Hypothetical Outcome Plots Outperform Error Bars and Violin Plots for Inferences about Reliability of Variable Ordering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Hullman

    Full Text Available Many visual depictions of probability distributions, such as error bars, are difficult for users to accurately interpret. We present and study an alternative representation, Hypothetical Outcome Plots (HOPs, that animates a finite set of individual draws. In contrast to the statistical background required to interpret many static representations of distributions, HOPs require relatively little background knowledge to interpret. Instead, HOPs enables viewers to infer properties of the distribution using mental processes like counting and integration. We conducted an experiment comparing HOPs to error bars and violin plots. With HOPs, people made much more accurate judgments about plots of two and three quantities. Accuracy was similar with all three representations for most questions about distributions of a single quantity.

  4. Hypothetical Outcome Plots Outperform Error Bars and Violin Plots for Inferences about Reliability of Variable Ordering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullman, Jessica; Resnick, Paul; Adar, Eytan

    2015-01-01

    Many visual depictions of probability distributions, such as error bars, are difficult for users to accurately interpret. We present and study an alternative representation, Hypothetical Outcome Plots (HOPs), that animates a finite set of individual draws. In contrast to the statistical background required to interpret many static representations of distributions, HOPs require relatively little background knowledge to interpret. Instead, HOPs enables viewers to infer properties of the distribution using mental processes like counting and integration. We conducted an experiment comparing HOPs to error bars and violin plots. With HOPs, people made much more accurate judgments about plots of two and three quantities. Accuracy was similar with all three representations for most questions about distributions of a single quantity. PMID:26571487

  5. A Plot Story:The Ransom of Red Chief

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Si-yu

    2015-01-01

    The Ransom of Red Chief is a short story written by O · Henry. Some critics regard it as a plot story but some do not. A typical plot story should focus on the plot:using techniques such as flashback or foreshadowing to unfold the plot and containing exposition, complication, climax, resolution, conclusion to rich the plot. The main characters are presented with internal and ex⁃ternal conflicts as well. In this thesis, a detailed analysis will be presented to prove that this story is really a plot story.

  6. LCR_CBM_RipPlots_2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This product is part of the Lower Colorado River Multi-Species Conservation Program (LCR MSCP) described in detail at http://www.usbr.gov/lc/lcrmscp. The shapefile...

  7. Heterogeneous Molecular Catalysis of Electrochemical Reactions: Volcano Plots and Catalytic Tafel Plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costentin, Cyrille; Savéant, Jean-Michel

    2017-06-14

    We analyze here, in the framework of heterogeneous molecular catalysis, the reasons for the occurrence or nonoccurrence of volcanoes upon plotting the kinetics of the catalytic reaction versus the stabilization free energy of the primary intermediate of the catalytic process. As in the case of homogeneous molecular catalysis or catalysis by surface-active metallic sites, a strong motivation of such studies relates to modern energy challenges, particularly those involving small molecules, such as water, hydrogen, oxygen, proton, and carbon dioxide. This motivation is particularly pertinent for what concerns heterogeneous molecular catalysis, since it is commonly preferred to homogeneous molecular catalysis by the same molecules if only for chemical separation purposes and electrolytic cell architecture. As with the two other catalysis modes, the main drawback of the volcano plot approach is the basic assumption that the kinetic responses depend on a single descriptor, viz., the stabilization free energy of the primary intermediate. More comprehensive approaches, investigating the responses to the maximal number of experimental factors, and conveniently expressed as catalytic Tafel plots, should clearly be preferred. This is more so in the case of heterogeneous molecular catalysis in that additional transport factors in the supporting film may additionally affect the current-potential responses. This is attested by the noteworthy presence of maxima in catalytic Tafel plots as well as their dependence upon the cyclic voltammetric scan rate.

  8. Generalized confidence interval plots using commands or dialogs

    OpenAIRE

    Roger Newson

    2005-01-01

    Confidence intervals may be presented as publication-ready tables or as presentation-ready plots. -eclplot- produces plots of estimates and confidence intervals. It inputs a dataset (or resultsset) with one observation per parameter and variables containing estimates, lower and upper confidence limits, and a fourth variable, against which the confidence intervals are plotted. This resultsset can be used for producing both plots and tables, and may be generated using a spreadsheet or using -st...

  9. When does the mean excess plot look linear?

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Souvik

    2010-01-01

    In risk analysis, the mean excess plot is a commonly used exploratory plotting technique for confirming iid data is consistent with a generalized Pareto assumption for the underlying distribution, since in the presence of such a distribution thresholded data have a mean excess plot that is roughly linear. Does any other class of distributions share this linearity of the plot? Under some extra assumptions, we are able to conclude that only the generalized Pareto family has this property.

  10. Appendix B of the Final Report of the Mid-Atlantic Marine Wildlife Surveys, Modeling, and Data. Workshop to Establish Coordination and Communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-07-01

    The Wind Program hosted a two-day workshop on July 24-25, 2012 with scientists and regulators engaged in marine ecological survey, modeling, and database efforts pertaining to the waters of the Mid-Atlantic region. This is the second appendix to the report, the workshop participants.

  11. Appendix D of the Final Report of the Mid-Atlantic Marine Wildlife Surveys, Modeling, and Data. Workshop to Establish Coordination and Communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-07-01

    The Wind Program hosted a two-day workshop on July 24-25, 2012 with scientists and regulators engaged in marine ecological survey, modeling, and database efforts pertaining to the waters of the Mid-Atlantic region. This is the fourth appendix to the report, the presentations from the workshop.

  12. Worm plot to diagnose fit in quantile regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    The worm plot is a series of detrended Q-Q plots, split by covariate levels. The worm plot is a diagnostic tool for visualizing how well a statistical model fits the data, for finding locations at which the fit can be improved, and for comparing the fit of different models. This paper shows how the

  13. Worm plot to diagnose fit in quantile regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    The worm plot is a series of detrended Q-Q plots, split by covariate levels. The worm plot is a diagnostic tool for visualizing how well a statistical model fits the data, for finding locations at which the fit can be improved, and for comparing the fit of different models. This paper shows how

  14. Worm plot to diagnose fit in quantile regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    The worm plot is a series of detrended Q-Q plots, split by covariate levels. The worm plot is a diagnostic tool for visualizing how well a statistical model fits the data, for finding locations at which the fit can be improved, and for comparing the fit of different models. This paper shows how the

  15. Muskox survey, Nunivak Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aerial survey completed July 1958 is presented with results. Muskox were located and plotted on a map. Animals were also classified by Adult bull, calve, cows and...

  16. 9 CFR 108.6 - Revision of plot plans, blueprints, and legends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., and legends. 108.6 Section 108.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... FACILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 108.6 Revision of plot plans, blueprints, and legends..., blueprints, or legends and submit to Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service for review and filing...

  17. Application of GPS and Near-Surface Geophysical Methods to Evaluate Agricultural Test Plot Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field research facility with two pairs of replicated agricultural test plots (four total) was established at a location in northwest Ohio during 2005 for the purpose of studying water table management strategies. Initial efforts at this field research facility were devoted to evaluating difference...

  18. Construction of an experimental plot seeder of wheat planting and compare it by imported one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Eskandari

    2016-09-01

    spinner can be equipped with a 4 or 6 outlet delivery head, depending on row spacing. The planter is fitted with hoe openers. Alternatively, spear-point openers have sometimes been used under conventional tillage systems. Seeding depth control was achieved by an adjustment screw handle. The plot seeder is being moved by a 9.6 kW engine, and has been successfully used in applications. Field experiment established by using 4 plot length (2, 3, 4 and 6 with 4 replication by the constructed plot seeder and imported plot seeder. Crop measurements were planted height, spike m-2, seeds/spike, Thousand kernel weight, Biological and grain yield, harvest index and drill measurements were seeding depth, uniformity of row spacing in action, seed counter performance, power requirement, slippage evenly of rows after planting. Results and Discussion Results showed that there were significant differences between the plant emergences. The emergencies were higher in plots, which planted by the new plot seeder. The differences between seed distribution of openers were insignificant, but the variances of new plot seeder and imported plot seeder were 0.267 and 1.05 respectively. Mean planting depth of plots planted by the Wintersteiger plot seeder was 0.8 cm shallower than the adjusted planting depth while mean planting depth in plots planted by constructing machine had only 0.01 cm variation. Results of variance analysis revealed that effect of treatments on wheat grain yield and yield components was significant. So that, highest grain yield (4216 kgha-1, biological yield (8704 kgha-1, number of spikes per square meter (649spike, obtained from a plot which planted by constructed plot seeder. Increasing yield of treatments which planted by constructed plot seeder might be because of increasing the number of spikes per square meter in those treatments. The mean of spike per square meter in plots of new planter was 691 spikes which were116 spike more than plots planted by imported plot seeder

  19. Construction of an experimental plot seeder of wheat planting and compare it by imported one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Eskandari

    2016-09-01

    spinner can be equipped with a 4 or 6 outlet delivery head, depending on row spacing. The planter is fitted with hoe openers. Alternatively, spear-point openers have sometimes been used under conventional tillage systems. Seeding depth control was achieved by an adjustment screw handle. The plot seeder is being moved by a 9.6 kW engine, and has been successfully used in applications. Field experiment established by using 4 plot length (2, 3, 4 and 6 with 4 replication by the constructed plot seeder and imported plot seeder. Crop measurements were planted height, spike m-2, seeds/spike, Thousand kernel weight, Biological and grain yield, harvest index and drill measurements were seeding depth, uniformity of row spacing in action, seed counter performance, power requirement, slippage evenly of rows after planting. Results and Discussion Results showed that there were significant differences between the plant emergences. The emergencies were higher in plots, which planted by the new plot seeder. The differences between seed distribution of openers were insignificant, but the variances of new plot seeder and imported plot seeder were 0.267 and 1.05 respectively. Mean planting depth of plots planted by the Wintersteiger plot seeder was 0.8 cm shallower than the adjusted planting depth while mean planting depth in plots planted by constructing machine had only 0.01 cm variation. Results of variance analysis revealed that effect of treatments on wheat grain yield and yield components was significant. So that, highest grain yield (4216 kgha-1, biological yield (8704 kgha-1, number of spikes per square meter (649spike, obtained from a plot which planted by constructed plot seeder. Increasing yield of treatments which planted by constructed plot seeder might be because of increasing the number of spikes per square meter in those treatments. The mean of spike per square meter in plots of new planter was 691 spikes which were116 spike more than plots planted by imported plot seeder

  20. Macroecology of Australian Tall Eucalypt Forests: Baseline Data from a Continental-Scale Permanent Plot Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Sam W; Prior, Lynda D; Stephens, Helen C; Bowman, David M J S

    2015-01-01

    Tracking the response of forest ecosystems to climate change demands large (≥1 ha) monitoring plots that are repeatedly measured over long time frames and arranged across macro-ecological gradients. Continental scale networks of permanent forest plots have identified links between climate and carbon fluxes by monitoring trends in tree growth, mortality and recruitment. The relationship between tree growth and climate in Australia has been recently articulated through analysis of data from smaller forest plots, but conclusions were limited by (a) absence of data on recruitment and mortality, (b) exclusion of non-eucalypt species, and (c) lack of knowledge of stand age or disturbance histories. To remedy these gaps we established the Ausplots Forest Monitoring Network: a continental scale network of 48 1 ha permanent plots in highly productive tall eucalypt forests in the mature growth stage. These plots are distributed across cool temperate, Mediterranean, subtropical and tropical climates (mean annual precipitation 850 to 1900 mm per year; mean annual temperature 6 to 21°C). Aboveground carbon stocks (AGC) in these forests are dominated by eucalypts (90% of AGC) whilst non-eucalypts in the understorey dominated species diversity and tree abundance (84% of species; 60% of stems). Aboveground carbon stocks were negatively related to mean annual temperature, with forests at the warm end of the temperature range storing approximately half the amount of carbon as forests at the cool end of the temperature range. This may reflect thermal constraints on tree growth detected through other plot networks and physiological studies. Through common protocols and careful sampling design, the Ausplots Forest Monitoring Network will facilitate the integration of tall eucalypt forests into established global forest monitoring initiatives. In the context of projections of rapidly warming and drying climates in Australia, this plot network will enable detection of links between

  1. Density Distribution Sunflower Plots in Stata Version 8

    OpenAIRE

    Dupont, William D

    2004-01-01

    Density distribution sunflower plots are used to display high-density bivariate data. They are useful for data where a conventional scatter plot is difficult to read due to overstriking of the plot symbol. The x-y plane is subdivided into a lattice of regular hexagonal bins of width w specified by the user. The user also specifies the values of l, d, and k that affect the plot as follows. Individual observations are plotted when there are less than l observations per bin as in a conventional ...

  2. Plotting the Future of the WDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    interferometric and CCD surveys, as well as recent catalogs such as 2MASS SDSS , UCAC, etc. have provided much new data for the WDS, but have also...recent catalogs such as 2MASS, SDSS , UCAC, etc. have provided much new data for the WDS, but have also highlighted limitations to the current format of

  3. A forensic and phylogenetic survey of Caulerpa species (Caulerpales, Chlorophyta) from the Florida coast, local aquarium shops, and e-commerce : Establishing a proactive baseline for early detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, Wytze T.; Olsen, Jeanine L.; Zaleski, Susan Frisch; Murray, Steven N.; Brown, Katherine R.; Walters, Linda J.

    2006-01-01

    Baseline genotypes were established for 256 individuals of Caulerpa collected from 27 field locations in Florida (including the Keys), the Bahamas, US Virgin Islands, and Honduras, nearly doubling the number of available GenBank sequences. On the basis of sequences from the nuclear rDNA-ITS 1+2 and

  4. Development of plotting position for the general extreme value distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sooyoung; Shin, Hongjoon; Joo, Kyoungwon; Heo, Jun-Haeng

    2012-12-01

    SummaryProbability plotting positions are used to graphically display the annual maximum rainfall or flood and to estimate the exceedance probabilities of those values. Therefore, the graphical approach using plotting positions has been applied in many hydrology and water resource engineering fields. The definition of unbiased plotting positions by Cunnane (1978) as the mean of the order statistics from reduced variates has influenced researchers to develop the plotting position of the probability distribution containing shape parameters. In this study, the plotting position formula for the general extreme value (GEV) distribution was derived by using the theoretical reduced variates of the GEV distribution for various sample sizes and shape parameters. To choose an appropriate plotting position formula, we examined eight plotting position formula types containing coefficients of skewness or squared coefficients of skewness in the numerator and/or denominator. In addition, the parameters of the plotting position formula for the GEV distribution were estimated by using a genetic optimization method known as the real-coded genetic algorithm (RGA). The accuracy of the derived plotting position formula for the GEV distribution was examined on the basis of the root mean square errors and relative bias between the theoretical reduced variates and those calculated from the derived and existing plotting position formulas. The derived plotting formula was found to be useful if the range of the shape parameter was within ±0.2.

  5. iCanPlot: visual exploration of high-throughput omics data using interactive Canvas plotting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit U Sinha

    Full Text Available Increasing use of high throughput genomic scale assays requires effective visualization and analysis techniques to facilitate data interpretation. Moreover, existing tools often require programming skills, which discourages bench scientists from examining their own data. We have created iCanPlot, a compelling platform for visual data exploration based on the latest technologies. Using the recently adopted HTML5 Canvas element, we have developed a highly interactive tool to visualize tabular data and identify interesting patterns in an intuitive fashion without the need of any specialized computing skills. A module for geneset overlap analysis has been implemented on the Google App Engine platform: when the user selects a region of interest in the plot, the genes in the region are analyzed on the fly. The visualization and analysis are amalgamated for a seamless experience. Further, users can easily upload their data for analysis--which also makes it simple to share the analysis with collaborators. We illustrate the power of iCanPlot by showing an example of how it can be used to interpret histone modifications in the context of gene expression.

  6. Plant Community Response in Small Plots One Year after Treatment with Triclopyr and Endothall in Noxon Rapids Reservoir, MT, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    aquatic macrophyte community of Onondaga Lake: Field survey and plant growth bioassays of lake sediments. Lake and Reservoir Management 12:73-79...Plant Community Response in Small Plots One Year after Treatment with Triclopyr and Endothall in Noxon Rapids Reservoir , MT, 2011 Ryan M...Plots One Year after Treatment with Triclopyr and Endothall in Noxon Rapids Reservoir , MT, 2011 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  7. 2008CoreSummaryDescriptions: Core summary descriptions created in LogPlot 7 for 20 cores from offshore Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in 2008 (JPEG image format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2008, as a collaborative effort between Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and the U.S. Geological Survey, 20 giant gravity cores were collected from areas...

  8. Tracking Changes in Cardiac Output: Statistical Considerations on the 4-Quadrant Plot and the Polar Plot Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saugel, Bernd; Grothe, Oliver; Wagner, Julia Y

    2015-08-01

    When comparing 2 technologies for measuring hemodynamic parameters with regard to their ability to track changes, 2 graphical tools are omnipresent in the literature: the 4-quadrant plot and the polar plot recently proposed by Critchley et al. The polar plot is thought to be the more advanced statistical tool, but care should be taken when it comes to its interpretation. The polar plot excludes possibly important measurements from the data. The polar plot transforms the data nonlinearily, which may prevent it from being seen clearly. In this article, we compare the 4-quadrant and the polar plot in detail and thoroughly describe advantages and limitations of each. We also discuss pitfalls concerning the methods to prepare the researcher for the sound use of both methods. Finally, we briefly revisit the Bland-Altman plot for the use in this context.

  9. Understanding the impact of the Smoke-Free Ontario Act on hospitality establishments' outdoor environments: a survey of restaurants and bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Elton-Marshall, Tara; Mutti, Seema; Dubray, Jolene; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2010-04-01

    The Smoke-Free Ontario Act (SFOA) came into effect in May 2006 and included restrictions to outdoor hospitality areas by only permitting smoking on a patio if the area had no roof. (1) To assess the impact of the SFOA on the prevalence of smoke-free patios in Ontario and (2) to determine the proportion of venues where structural alterations were made rather than going smoke-free in order to achieve compliance with the SFOA. A telephone survey of 403 hospitality sector operators/owners in four clustered samples of Ontario, Canada. Based on completed surveys, the SFOA resulted in an increase in prevalence of smoke-free patios, from 5% (n=21) to 25% (n=99). Of the patios where smoking was permitted before the SFOA (n=382), 42% (n=161) had physical structures that would make smoking not permissible under the new act. Operators of half of these venues (n=80) made their patios smoke-free, with most indicating they had no choice given the costs or physical limitations to changing their outdoor environment. The other half (n=81) reported making physical changes, including removing roof structures to achieve compliance. The SFOA resulted in greater protection from outdoor secondhand smoke; however, most patios still permitted smoking. Half of the venues that complied with the SFOA by going smoke-free did so involuntarily because of structural and/or financial limitations. The majority of venue operators preferred to permit smoking on their patios, and only made their patios smoke-free when they were required to do so by law.

  10. The plot size effect on soil erosion on rainfed agriculture land under different land uses in eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, A.; Bodí, M. B.; Burguet, M.; Segura, M.; Jovani, C.

    2009-04-01

    Soil erosion at slope scale is dependent on the size of the plot. This is because soil erosion is a scale-dependent process due to the spatial variability in infiltration, the potential for sediment to be captured by vegetation and other roughness components, and the changes in erosion rates and processes with increasing amounts of runoff. The effects of plot size may also vary with land use, as plot size may be less important in areas with a more homogeneous plant cover or bares soils; meanwhile the soil transmission losses will higher on vegetation covered soils and on patchy distributed plants. A series of study plots were established in 2003 at the El Teularet experimental Station in the Sierra de Enguera in eastern Spain. The overall goal is to assess runoff and erosion rates from different land uses at different spatial scales. Thirteen sets of plots have been established, and each set consists of five adjacent plots that vary in size from 1 m2 (1 x 1 m), 2 m2 (1 x 2 m), 4 m2 (1 x 4 m), 16 m2 (2 x 8 m) and 48 m2 (3 m wide x 16 m length). Each set of plots has a different land use, and the land uses being tested in the first year of this study are fallow, ploughed but unplanted, untilled oats and beans, tilled oats and beans, straw mulch, mulched with chipped olive branches, a geotextile developed to control erosion on agricultural fields, scrub oaks (Quercus coccifera), gorse (Ulex parviflorus), and three herbicide treatments—a systemic herbicide, a contact herbicide, and a persistent herbicide. From those plots, three plots were selected to analyse the effect of the size of the plot on the soil erosion assessment. Herbicide (bare), Catch crops (oat) and scrubland were selected to analyze the soil losses during 2004 and 2005. The results shows that sediment delivery is highly dependent on the land use and land management as the scrubland contributed with null sediment yield, meanwhile the herbicide reached the largest soil loss. The soil erosion was higher

  11. Split-plot designs for robotic serial dilution assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzas, Jeffrey S; Wager, Carrie G; Lansky, David M

    2011-12-01

    This article explores effective implementation of split-plot designs in serial dilution bioassay using robots. We show that the shortest path for a robot to fill plate wells for a split-plot design is equivalent to the shortest common supersequence problem in combinatorics. We develop an algorithm for finding the shortest common supersequence, provide an R implementation, and explore the distribution of the number of steps required to implement split-plot designs for bioassay through simulation. We also show how to construct collections of split plots that can be filled in a minimal number of steps, thereby demonstrating that split-plot designs can be implemented with nearly the same effort as strip-plot designs. Finally, we provide guidelines for modeling data that result from these designs.

  12. Cross recurrence plot based synchronization of time series

    OpenAIRE

    N. Marwan; Thiel, M.; Nowaczyk, N. R.

    2002-01-01

    The method of recurrence plots is extended to the cross recurrence plots (CRP) which, among others, enables the study of synchronization or time differences in two time series. This is emphasized in a distorted main diagonal in the cross recurrence plot, the line of synchronization (LOS). A non-parametrical fit of this LOS can be used to rescale the time axis of the two data series (whereby one of them is compressed or stretched) so ...

  13. Recurrence plot statistics and the effect of embedding

    OpenAIRE

    March, T. K.; Chapman, S. C.; Dendy, R.O.

    2005-01-01

    Recurrence plots provide a graphical representation of the recurrent patterns in a timeseries, the quantification of which is a relatively new field. Here we derive analytical expressions which relate the values of key statistics, notably determinism and entropy of line length distribution, to the correlation sum as a function of embedding dimension. These expressions are obtained by deriving the transformation which generates an embedded recurrence plot from an unembedded plot. A single unem...

  14. Phase Plots of Complex Functions: a Journey in Illustration

    CERN Document Server

    Wegert, Elias

    2010-01-01

    We propose to visualize complex (meromorphic) functions $f$ by their phase $P_f:=f/|f|$. Color--coding the points on the unit circle converts the function $P_f$ to an image (the phase plot of $f$), which represents the function directly on its domain. We discuss how special properties of $f$ are reflected by their phase plots and indicate several applications. In particular we reformulate a universality theorem for Riemann's Zeta function in the language of phase plots.

  15. Ultrasonic beam-plotting with very small spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, W H; Swan, H

    1991-12-01

    A method of pulse-echo ultrasonic beam plotting is described. It differs from traditional pulse-echo beam plotting in that the ultrasonic pulses are scattered off a totally isolated sphere rather than a sphere suspended on a wire. The method also allows extremely small spheres to be used thus providing greater resolution. It is demonstrated that pulse-echo beam plotting using spheres of different size produces different iso-echo amplitude curves.

  16. Brains striving for coherence: Long-term cumulative plot formation in the default mode network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylén, K; Christensen, P; Roepstorff, A; Lund, T; Østergaard, S; Donald, M

    2015-11-01

    Many everyday activities, such as engaging in conversation or listening to a story, require us to sustain attention over a prolonged period of time while integrating and synthesizing complex episodic content into a coherent mental model. Humans are remarkably capable of navigating and keeping track of all the parallel social activities of everyday life even when confronted with interruptions or changes in the environment. However, the underlying cognitive and neurocognitive mechanisms of such long-term integration and profiling of information remain a challenge to neuroscience. While brain activity is generally traceable within the short time frame of working memory (milliseconds to seconds), these integrative processes last for minutes, hours or even days. Here we report two experiments on story comprehension. Experiment I establishes a cognitive dissociation between our comprehension of plot and incidental facts in narratives: when episodic material allows for long-term integration in a coherent plot, we recall fewer factual details. However, when plot formation is challenged, we pay more attention to incidental facts. Experiment II investigates the neural underpinnings of plot formation. Results suggest a central role for the brain's default mode network related to comprehension of coherent narratives while incoherent episodes rather activate the frontoparietal control network. Moreover, an analysis of cortical activity as a function of the cumulative integration of narrative material into a coherent story reveals to linear modulations of right hemisphere posterior temporal and parietal regions. Together these findings point to key neural mechanisms involved in the fundamental human capacity for cumulative plot formation.

  17. Coarse-graining time series data: Recurrence plot of recurrence plots and its application for music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukino, Miwa; Hirata, Yoshito; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2016-02-01

    We propose a nonlinear time series method for characterizing two layers of regularity simultaneously. The key of the method is using the recurrence plots hierarchically, which allows us to preserve the underlying regularities behind the original time series. We demonstrate the proposed method with musical data. The proposed method enables us to visualize both the local and the global musical regularities or two different features at the same time. Furthermore, the determinism scores imply that the proposed method may be useful for analyzing emotional response to the music.

  18. Coarse-graining time series data: Recurrence plot of recurrence plots and its application for music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukino, Miwa; Hirata, Yoshito; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2016-02-01

    We propose a nonlinear time series method for characterizing two layers of regularity simultaneously. The key of the method is using the recurrence plots hierarchically, which allows us to preserve the underlying regularities behind the original time series. We demonstrate the proposed method with musical data. The proposed method enables us to visualize both the local and the global musical regularities or two different features at the same time. Furthermore, the determinism scores imply that the proposed method may be useful for analyzing emotional response to the music.

  19. 试论修辞谋划%On Rhetorical Plot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江结宝

    2015-01-01

    Rhetorical plot is the overall design,scheme and specification. It can be divided into macro⁃scopic plot,medium plot and microscopic plot,with different types of general plot and special plot.. Rhetori⁃cal plot is the beginning of rhetorical process running through the whole rhetoric process. Rhetoric should pay attention to research of rhetoric plot. Rhetoric plot is different from rhetorical strategy.%修辞谋划是对修辞行为的整体设计、谋定和规约。修辞谋划可分为宏观谋划、中观谋划和微观谋划三个层次,包括一般谋划和特殊谋划两大类型。修辞谋划是修辞过程的起点,并贯穿整个修辞过程,修辞学应该重视修辞谋划的研究。修辞谋划不同于一般所说的“修辞策略”。

  20. Nationwide survey of glandular tissue doses for the establishment of a breast cancer screening system using mammography. Analysis of technical parameters affecting the glandular tissue dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashida, Yoshiharu [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). School of Health Sciences; Hagiwara, Akira; Asahara, Masaki [and others

    2000-09-01

    The effects of technical parameters, such as screen-film combinations, antiscatter grids, processing conditions and X-ray beam qualities, on the average glandular tissue dose of radiation were analyzed under two exposure conditions: The standard radiographic condition for an RMI 156 phantom at each facility (Standard Radiographic Condition). The radiographic condition needed to obtain a radiographic density of 1.20 to 1.40 with an RMI 156 phantom (Canonical Radiographic Condition). The analysis included 208 dose measurements at 104 facilities. The results showed that the average glandular tissue dose depends strongly on the grid types and screen-film combinations used. There were also significant differences in radiographic density between the Standard Radiographic Condition and the Canonical Radiographic Condition. This analysis of the technical parameters affecting the glandular tissue dose will be useful in establishing a standardized mammographic breast cancer screening system. (author)

  1. Retail Survey of Brazilian Milk and Minas Frescal Cheese and a Contaminated Dairy Plant To Establish Prevalence, Relatedness, and Sources of Listeria monocytogenes Isolates▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, J. Renaldi F.; Santos, Emilia M. P.; Arcuri, Edna F.; Lange, Carla C.; Brito, Maria A. V. P.; Souza, Guilherme N.; Cerqueira, Mônica M. P. O.; Beltran, J. Marcela Soto; Call, Jeffrey E.; Liu, Yanhong; Porto-Fett, Anna C. S.; Luchansky, John B.

    2008-01-01

    A study was designed to recover Listeria monocytogenes from pasteurized milk and Minas frescal cheese (MFC) sampled at retail establishments (REs) and to identify the contamination source(s) of these products in the corresponding dairy processing plant. Fifty milk samples (9 brands) and 55 MFC samples (10 brands) were tested from REs located in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil. All milk samples and 45 samples from 9 of 10 MFC brands tested negative for L. monocytogenes; however, “brand F” of MFC obtained from REs 119 and 159 tested positive. Thus, the farm/plant that produced brand F MFC was sampled; all samples from the milking parlor tested negative for L. monocytogenes, whereas several sites within the processing plant and the MFC samples tested positive. All 344 isolates recovered from retail MFC, plant F MFC, and plant F environmental samples were serotype 1/2a and displayed the same AscI or ApaI fingerprints. Since these results established that the storage coolers served as the contamination source of the MFC, plant F was closed so that corrective renovations could be made. Following renovation, samples from sites that previously tested positive for the pathogen were collected from the processing environment and from MFC on multiple visits; all tested negative for L. monocytogenes. In addition, on subsequent visits to REs 159 and 119, all MFC samples tested negative for the pathogen. Studies are ongoing to quantify the prevalence, levels, and types of L. monocytogenes in MFC and associated processing plants to lessen the likelihood of listeriosis in Brazil. PMID:18502929

  2. Four soil orders on a Vermont mountaintop-one-third of the world`s soil orders in a 2500-square-meter research plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas R. Villars; Scott W. Bailey; Donald S. Ross

    2015-01-01

    As part of the Vermont Long-Term Soil Monitoring Project, five 50 x 50 m plots were established on protected forestland across Vermont. In 2002, ten randomly selected subplots at each monitoring plot were sampled. The 10 pedons sampled at the high-elevation spruce-fir “Forehead” plot on Mount Mansfield were found to include soils of four taxonomic Orders: Entisols,...

  3. Round versus rectangular: Does the plot shape matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iserloh, Thomas; Bäthke, Lars; Ries, Johannes B.

    2016-04-01

    Field rainfall simulators are designed to study soil erosion processes and provide urgently needed data for various geomorphological, hydrological and pedological issues. Due to the different conditions and technologies applied, there are several methodological aspects under review of the scientific community, particularly concerning design, procedures and conditions of measurement for infiltration, runoff and soil erosion. Extensive discussions at the Rainfall Simulator Workshop 2011 in Trier and the Splinter Meeting at EGU 2013 "Rainfall simulation: Big steps forward!" lead to the opinion that the rectangular shape is the more suitable plot shape compared to the round plot. A horizontally edging Gerlach trough is installed for sample collection without forming unnatural necks as is found at round or triangle plots. Since most research groups did and currently do work with round plots at the point scale (<1m²), a precise analysis of the differences between the output of round and square plots are necessary. Our hypotheses are: - Round plot shapes disturb surface runoff, unnatural fluvial dynamics for the given plot size such as pool development especially directly at the plot's outlet occur. - A square plot shape prevent these problems. A first comparison between round and rectangular plots (Iserloh et al., 2015) indicates that the rectangular plot could indeed be the more suitable, but the rather ambiguous results make a more elaborate test setup necessary. The laboratory test setup includes the two plot shapes (round, square), a standardised silty substrate and three inclinations (2°, 6°, 12°). The analysis of the laboratory test provide results on the best performance concerning undisturbed surface runoff and soil/water sampling at the plot's outlet. The analysis of the plot shape concerning its influence on runoff and erosion shows that clear methodological standards are necessary in order to make rainfall simulation experiments comparable. Reference

  4. Dalitz plot analysis of B-→D+π-π-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Tico, J. Garra; Grauges, E.; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Abrams, G. S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I. L.; Ronan, M. T.; Tackmann, K.; Tanabe, T.; Hawkes, C. M.; Soni, N.; Watson, A. T.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Fulsom, B. G.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Barrett, M.; Khan, A.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Bondioli, M.; Curry, S.; Eschrich, I.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Lund, P.; Mandelkern, M.; Martin, E. C.; Stoker, D. P.; Abachi, S.; Buchanan, C.; Atmacan, H.; Gary, J. W.; Liu, F.; Long, O.; Vitug, G. M.; Yasin, Z.; Zhang, L.; Sharma, V.; Campagnari, C.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Mazur, M. A.; Richman, J. D.; Beck, T. W.; Eisner, A. M.; Flacco, C. J.; Heusch, C. A.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Martinez, A. J.; Schalk, T.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Wilson, M. G.; Winstrom, L. O.; Cheng, C. H.; Doll, D. A.; Echenard, B.; Fang, F.; Hitlin, D. G.; Narsky, I.; Piatenko, T.; Porter, F. C.; Andreassen, R.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Mishra, K.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Bloom, P. C.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Hirschauer, J. F.; Nagel, M.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Wagner, S. R.; Ayad, R.; Soffer, A.; Toki, W. H.; Wilson, R. J.; Feltresi, E.; Hauke, A.; Jasper, H.; Karbach, M.; Merkel, J.; Petzold, A.; Spaan, B.; Wacker, K.; Kobel, M. J.; Nogowski, R.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Volk, A.; Bernard, D.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Latour, E.; Verderi, M.; Clark, P. J.; Playfer, S.; Watson, J. E.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cecchi, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Franchini, P.; Luppi, E.; Negrini, M.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; Zallo, A.; Buzzo, A.; Contri, R.; Lo Vetere, M.; Macri, M. M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Santroni, A.; Tosi, S.; Chaisanguanthum, K. S.; Morii, M.; Adametz, A.; Marks, J.; Schenk, S.; Uwer, U.; Klose, V.; Lacker, H. M.; Bard, D. J.; Dauncey, P. D.; Tibbetts, M.; Behera, P. K.; Chai, X.; Charles, M. J.; Mallik, U.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Dong, L.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rubin, A. E.; Gao, Y. Y.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Lae, C. K.; Arnaud, N.; Béquilleux, J.; D'Orazio, A.; Davier, M.; da Costa, J. Firmino; Grosdidier, G.; Le Diberder, F.; Lepeltier, V.; Lutz, A. M.; Pruvot, S.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Serrano, J.; Sordini, V.; Stocchi, A.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Bingham, I.; Burke, J. P.; Chavez, C. A.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; Clarke, C. K.; di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Sigamani, M.; Cowan, G.; Paramesvaran, S.; Wren, A. C.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Alwyn, K. E.; Bailey, D.; Barlow, R. J.; Jackson, G.; Lafferty, G. D.; West, T. J.; Yi, J. I.; Anderson, J.; Chen, C.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Simi, G.; Tuggle, J. M.; Dallapiccola, C.; Li, X.; Salvati, E.; Saremi, S.; Cowan, R.; Dujmic, D.; Fisher, P. H.; Henderson, S. W.; Sciolla, G.; Spitznagel, M.; Taylor, F.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Zhao, M.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Lazzaro, A.; Lombardo, V.; Palombo, F.; Bauer, J. M.; Cremaldi, L.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Summers, D. J.; Zhao, H. W.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; Nicholson, H.; de Nardo, G.; Lista, L.; Monorchio, D.; Onorato, G.; Sciacca, C.; Raven, G.; Snoek, H. L.; Jessop, C. P.; Knoepfel, K. J.; Losecco, J. M.; Wang, W. F.; Corwin, L. A.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Morris, J. P.; Rahimi, A. M.; Regensburger, J. J.; Sekula, S. J.; Wong, Q. K.; Blount, N. L.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Igonkina, O.; Kolb, J. A.; Lu, M.; Rahmat, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Strube, J.; Torrence, E.; Castelli, G.; Gagliardi, N.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Voci, C.; Del Amo Sanchez, P.; Ben-Haim, E.; Briand, H.; Calderini, G.; Chauveau, J.; Hamon, O.; Leruste, Ph.; Ocariz, J.; Perez, A.; Prendki, J.; Sitt, S.; Gladney, L.; Biasini, M.; Manoni, E.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Carpinelli, M.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Marchiori, G.; Morganti, M.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Lu, C.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Telnov, A. V.; Anulli, F.; Baracchini, E.; Cavoto, G.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.

    2009-06-01

    We report on a Dalitz plot analysis of B-→D+π-π- decays, based on a sample of about 383×106 Υ(4S)→B Bmacr decays collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC. We find the total branching fraction of the three-body decay: B(B-→D+π-π-)=(1.08±0.03±0.05)×10-3. We observe the established D2*0 and confirm the existence of D0*0 in their decays to D+π-, where the D2*0 and D0*0 are the 2+ and 0+c umacr P-wave states, respectively. We measure the masses and widths of D2*0 and D0*0 to be: mD2*0=(2460.4±1.2±1.2±1.9)MeV/c2, ΓD2*0=(41.8±2.5±2.1±2.0)MeV, mD0*0=(2297±8±5±19)MeV/c2, and ΓD0*0=(273±12±17±45)MeV. The stated errors reflect the statistical and systematic uncertainties, and the uncertainty related to the assumed composition of signal events and the theoretical model.

  5. Automated quantification of the synchrogram by recurrence plot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Chinh Duc; Wilson, Stephen James; Crozier, Stuart

    2012-04-01

    Recently, the concept of phase synchronization of two weakly coupled oscillators has raised a great research interest and has been applied to characterize synchronization phenomenon in physiological data. Phase synchronization of cardiorespiratory coupling is often studied by a synchrogram analysis, a graphical tool investigating the relationship between instantaneous phases of two signals. Although several techniques have been proposed to automatically quantify the synchrogram, most of them require a preselection of a phase-locking ratio by trial and error. One technique does not require this information; however, it is based on the power spectrum of phase's distribution in the synchrogram, which is vulnerable to noise. This study aims to introduce a new technique to automatically quantify the synchrogram by studying its dynamic structure. Our technique exploits recurrence plot analysis, which is a well-established tool for characterizing recurring patterns and nonstationarities in experiments. We applied our technique to detect synchronization in simulated and measured infants' cardiorespiratory data. Our results suggest that the proposed technique is able to systematically detect synchronization in noisy and chaotic data without preselecting the phase-locking ratio. By embedding phase information of the synchrogram into phase space, the phase-locking ratio is automatically unveiled as the number of attractors.

  6. A Guided Inquiry on Hubble Plots and the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forringer, Ted

    2014-01-01

    In our science for non-science majors course "21st Century Physics," we investigate modern "Hubble plots" (plots of velocity versus distance for deep space objects) in order to discuss the Big Bang, dark matter, and dark energy. There are two potential challenges that our students face when encountering these topics for the…

  7. Development of gnuplot plotting package for MAD-X

    CERN Document Server

    Romero Leiro, Freddy Jose

    2015-01-01

    MAD-X is a general purpose software for charged-particle optics design and it needs a visualisation tool to be able to show the data in a more manageable way, this visualisation tools being already in MAD-X are the PLOT and SETPLOT commands. Nonetheless issues like compatibility and the desire of having alternative ways to show the plots in a more portable way have lead to explore the use of open source available software to reproduce the same results. The purpose of this project is to create a package compatible with the MAD-X output format, capable of generating publication quality plots, mainly lattice beamline plots and scatter plots by using the Gnuplot for creating plots. This software must support the same options as the PLOT and SETPLOT commands from MAD-X but additions or improvement over the present version are more than welcome. The main purpose of the program is to pre-process the data in order to be ready for Gnuplot to read it and plot it .This report is mostly a description of the development o...

  8. Conceptual recurrence plots: revealing patterns in human discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Daniel; Smith, Andrew; Wiles, Janet

    2012-06-01

    Human discourse contains a rich mixture of conceptual information. Visualization of the global and local patterns within this data stream is a complex and challenging problem. Recurrence plots are an information visualization technique that can reveal trends and features in complex time series data. The recurrence plot technique works by measuring the similarity of points in a time series to all other points in the same time series and plotting the results in two dimensions. Previous studies have applied recurrence plotting techniques to textual data; however, these approaches plot recurrence using term-based similarity rather than conceptual similarity of the text. We introduce conceptual recurrence plots, which use a model of language to measure similarity between pairs of text utterances, and the similarity of all utterances is measured and displayed. In this paper, we explore how the descriptive power of the recurrence plotting technique can be used to discover patterns of interaction across a series of conversation transcripts. The results suggest that the conceptual recurrence plotting technique is a useful tool for exploring the structure of human discourse.

  9. Recurrence plots from altimetry data of some lakes in Africa

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2014-01-01

    The paper shows recurrence plots obtained from time series of the level variations of four lakes in Africa (Nasser, Tana, Chad and Kainji). The data, coming from remote sensing, are provided by the United States Department of Agriculture. The recurrence plots allow a good visual comparison of the behaviours of local drainage basins.

  10. A Guided Inquiry on Hubble Plots and the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forringer, Ted

    2014-01-01

    In our science for non-science majors course "21st Century Physics," we investigate modern "Hubble plots" (plots of velocity versus distance for deep space objects) in order to discuss the Big Bang, dark matter, and dark energy. There are two potential challenges that our students face when encountering these topics for the…

  11. Instrumentation for full-year plot-scale runoff monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Replicated 0.34 ha cropping systems plots have been in place since 1991 at the USDA-ARS Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed in central Missouri. Recently, instrumentation has been installed at 18 of those plots for continuous runoff water quality and quantity monitoring. That installation require...

  12. Precise FIA plot registration using field and dense LIDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrios Gatziolis

    2009-01-01

    Precise registration of forest inventory and analysis (FIA) plots is a prerequisite for an effective fusion of field data with ancillary spatial information, which is an approach commonly employed in the mapping of various forest parameters. Although the adoption of Global Positioning System technology has improved the precision of plot coordinates obtained during...

  13. Weak limits for exploratory plots in the analysis of extremes

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Bikramjit

    2010-01-01

    Exploratory plotting tools have been devised aplenty in order to diagnose the goodness-of-fit of data sets to a hypothesized distribution. Some of them have found extensive use in diverse areas of finance, telecommunication, environmental science, etc. in order to detect sub-exponential or heavy-tailed behavior in observed data. In this paper we concentrate on two such plotting methodologies: the Quantile-Quantile plots for heavy-tails and the Mean Excess plots. Under the assumption of heavy-tailed behavior of the underlying sample the convergence in probability of these plots to a fixed set in a suitable topology of closed sets of $\\R^2$ has been studied in \\cite{das:resnick:2008} and \\cite{ghosh:resnick:2009}. These results give theoretical justifications for using the plots to test the null hypothesis that the underlying distribution is heavy-tailed by checking if the observed plot is ``close'' to the limit under the null hypothesis. In practice though one set of observations would lead to only one plot of...

  14. Split-plot fractional designs: Is minimum aberration enough?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Ramirez, Jose; Tobias, Randy

    2006-01-01

    Split-plot experiments are commonly used in industry for product and process improvement. Recent articles on designing split-plot experiments concentrate on minimum aberration as the design criterion. Minimum aberration has been criticized as a design criterion for completely randomized fractional...... factorial design and alternative criteria, such as the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions, are suggested (Wu and Hamada (2000)). The need for alternatives to minimum aberration is even more acute for split-plot designs. In a standard split-plot design, there are several types of two...... for completely randomized designs. Consequently, we provide a modified version of the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions design criterion to be used for split-plot designs....

  15. Superplot: Graphical interface for plotting and analyzing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowlie, Andrew; Bardsley, Michael Hugh

    2016-12-01

    Superplot calculates and plots statistical quantities relevant to parameter inference from a "chain" of samples drawn from a parameter space produced by codes such as MultiNest (ascl:1109.006), BAYES-X (ascl:1505.027), and PolyChord (ascl:1502.011). It offers a graphical interface for browsing a chain of many variables quickly and can produce numerous kinds of publication quality plots, including one- and two-dimensional profile likelihood, three-dimensional scatter plots, and confidence intervals and credible regions. Superplot can also save plots in PDF format, create a summary text file, and export a plot as a pickled object for importing and manipulating in a Python interpreter.

  16. Split-plot fractional designs: Is minimum aberration enough?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Ramirez, Jose; Tobias, Randy

    2006-01-01

    Split-plot experiments are commonly used in industry for product and process improvement. Recent articles on designing split-plot experiments concentrate on minimum aberration as the design criterion. Minimum aberration has been criticized as a design criterion for completely randomized fractional...... factorial design and alternative criteria, such as the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions, are suggested (Wu and Hamada (2000)). The need for alternatives to minimum aberration is even more acute for split-plot designs. In a standard split-plot design, there are several types of two...... for completely randomized designs. Consequently, we provide a modified version of the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions design criterion to be used for split-plot designs....

  17. Pajarito Plateau archaeological surveys and excavations. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steen, C R

    1982-04-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory continues its archaeological program of data gathering and salvage excavations. Sites recently added to the archaeological survey are described, as well as the results of five excavations. Among the more interesting and important discoveries are (1) the apparently well-established local use of anhydrous lime, and (2) a late pre-Columbian use of earlier house sites and middens for garden plots. Evidence indicated that the local puebloan population was the result of an expansion of upper Rio Grande peoples, not an influx of migrants.

  18. The USAF Stability and Control Digital DATCOM. Volume III. Plot Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    elements of the 11 IOM common blocks IBODY, IWING, IHT, IVT, IVF , IBW, IBH, IBV, IBWII, IBWV, and IBWHV plus 100 elements of downwash data from IOM common...page coordinates) N - 20 if the buffers are not to be cleared. (2) If IC is negative, a new plot reference point is established (i.e., after moving to...off-line only), create terminal instruction for the operator, and ascertain that the last buffer or partial buffer has been written. Calling

  19. Theory of optimal blocking for fractional factorial split-plot designs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Al Mingyao; HE Shuyuan

    2005-01-01

    The issue of optimal blocking for fractional factorial split-plot (FFSP) designs is considered under the two criteria of minimum aberration and maximum estimation capacity. The criteria of minimum secondary aberration (MSA) and maximum secondary estimation capacity (MSEC) are developed for discriminating among rival nonisomorphic blcoked FFSP designs. A general rule for identifying MSA or MSEC blocked FFSP designs through their blocked consulting designs is established.

  20. VTM plots as evidence of historical change: Goldmine or landmine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2004-01-01

    VTM (Vegetation Type Map) plots comprise a huge data set on vegetation composition for many parts of California collected mostly between 1929 and 1935. Historical changes in vegetation have been inferred by sampling these areas many decades later and evaluating the changes in plant dominance. VTM plots can not be precisely relocated, and it has been assumed that errors resulting from this problem are inconsequential or can be eliminated by comparison with a composite of multiple contemporary plots. This study examines that assumption for southern California shrubland landscapes by comparing the differences in species composition between closely positioned VTM-sized plots. Comparing shrub species density in 400-m² plots separated by 30 m (center to center), I found that all species exhibited considerable differences in density even over this short distance. This patchiness in shrub distribution could lead to major errors in historical reconstructions from VTM plot data. Two methods are proposed for dealing with this problem. One is to collect multiple samples from the vicinity of the VTM plot and use the observed spatial variation to set bounds on the temporal changes required to represent significant historical change. The other is to look at broad landscape changes reflected in the averages observed in a large sampling of sites.

  1. CFD Extraction Tool for TecPlot From DPLR Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, David

    2013-01-01

    This invention is a TecPlot macro of a computer program in the TecPlot programming language that processes data from DPLR solutions in TecPlot format. DPLR (Data-Parallel Line Relaxation) is a NASA computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, and TecPlot is a commercial CFD post-processing tool. The Tec- Plot data is in SI units (same as DPLR output). The invention converts the SI units into British units. The macro modifies the TecPlot data with unit conversions, and adds some extra calculations. After unit conversions, the macro cuts a slice, and adds vectors on the current plot for output format. The macro can also process surface solutions. Existing solutions use manual conversion and superposition. The conversion is complicated because it must be applied to a range of inter-related scalars and vectors to describe a 2D or 3D flow field. It processes the CFD solution to create superposition/comparison of scalars and vectors. The existing manual solution is cumbersome, open to errors, slow, and cannot be inserted into an automated process. This invention is quick and easy to use, and can be inserted into an automated data-processing algorithm.

  2. Evaluation of a Smartphone App for Forest Sample Plot Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikko Vastaranta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated a smartphone app (TRESTIMATM for forest sample plot measurements. The app interprets imagery collected from the sample plots using the camera in the smartphone and then estimates forest inventory attributes, including species-specific basal areas (G as well as the diameter (DgM and height (HgM of basal area median trees. The estimates from the smartphone app were compared to forest inventory attributes derived from tree-wise measurements using calipers and a Vertex height measurement device. The data consist of 2169 measured trees from 25 sample plots (32 m × 32 m, dominated by Scots pine and Norway spruce from southern Finland. The root-mean-square errors (RMSEs in the basal area varied from 19.7% to 29.3% and the biases from 11.4% to 18.4% depending on the number of images per sample plot and image shooting location. DgM measurement bias varied from −1.4% to 3.1% and RMSE from 5.2% to 11.6% depending on the tree species. Respectively, HgM bias varied from 5.0% to 8.3% and RMSE 10.0% to 13.6%. In general, four images captured toward the center of the plot provided more accurate results than four images captured away from the plot center. Increasing the number of captured images per plot to the analyses yielded only marginal improvement to the results.

  3. Using Zoom Technologies to Display HEP Plots and Talks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, G.

    2012-12-01

    Particle physics conferences and experiments generate a huge number of plots and presentations. It is impossible to keep up. A typical conference (like CHEP) will have 100's of plots. A single analysis result from a major experiment will have almost 50 plots. Scanning a conference or sorting out what plots are new is almost a full time job. The advent of multi-core computing and advanced video cards means that we have more processor power available for visualization than any time in the past. This poster describes two related projects that take advantage of this to solve the viewing problem. The first, Collider Plots, has a backend that looks for new plots released by ATLAS, CMS, CDF, and DZERO and organizes them by date, by experiment, and by subgroup for easy viewing and sorting. It maintains links back to associated conference notes and web pages with full result information. The second project, Deep Conference, renders all the slides as a single large zoomable picture. In both cases, much like a web mapping program, details are revealed as you zoom in. In the case of Collider Plots the plots are stacked as histograms to give visual clues for the most recent updates and activity have occurred. Standard plug-in software for a browser allows a user to zoom in on a portion of the conference that looks interesting. As the user zooms further more and more details become visible, allowing the user to make a quick and cheap decision on whether to spend more time on a particular talk or series of plots. Both projects are available at http://deeptalk.phys.washington.edu. The poster discusses the implementation and use as well as cross platform performance and possible future directions.

  4. Analysing spatially extended high-dimensional chaos by recurrence plots

    CERN Document Server

    Marwana, Norbert; Foerster, Saskia

    2014-01-01

    Recurrence plot based measures of complexity are capable tools for characterizing complex dynamics. In this letter we show the potential of selected recurrence plot measures for the investigation of even high-dimensional chaos. We apply this method on spatially extended chaos, such as derived from the Lorenz96 model and show that the recurrence plot based measures can qualitatively characterize typical dynamical properties such as chaotic or periodic dynamics. Moreover, we demonstrate its power by analyzing satellite image time series of vegetation cover with contrasting dynamics as a high-dimensional example from the real world.

  5. Recurrence plot analysis of spatially extended high-dimensional dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwan, Norbert; Foerster, Saskia; Kurths, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Recurrence plot based measures of complexity are capable tools for characterizing complex dynamics. We show the potential of selected recurrence plot measures for the investigation of spatially extended high-dimensional dynamics by applying them to data from the Lorenz96 model. The recurrence plot based measures are able to qualitatively characterize typical dynamical properties such as chaotic or periodic dynamics. Moreover, we demonstrate its power by analyzing satellite image time series of vegetation cover with contrasting dynamics as a spatially extended and potentially high-dimensional example from the real world.

  6. Analysing spatially extended high-dimensional dynamics by recurrence plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwan, Norbert; Foerster, Saskia; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Recurrence plot based measures of complexity are capable tools for characterizing complex dynamics. We show the potential of selected recurrence plot measures for the investigation of even high-dimensional dynamics. We apply this method on spatially extended chaos, such as derived from the Lorenz96 model and show that the recurrence plot based measures can qualitatively characterize typical dynamical properties such as chaotic or periodic dynamics. Moreover, we demonstrate its power by analyzing satellite image time series of vegetation cover with contrasting dynamics as a spatially extended and potentially high-dimensional example from the real world.

  7. An Analysis of Property Rights in Privately Owned Family Plots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MengXiangzhong

    2005-01-01

    In the present Chinese system of rural land ownership, family plots still supplement the collectively-owned rural economy. As they occupy a very small proportion of the total amount of arable land, there has been little study of their economic effects; indeed, they have been totally neglected. In the past, under the planned economy, family plots could provide a diversified source of livelihood for Chinese farmers; at present, they have become a “bottleneck” obstructing the further industrialization of the rural economy. First of all, the ownership system for family plots fragments the system of land ownership, hindering the legal circulation of land-use,

  8. Dalitz plot distributions in presence of triangle singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczepaniak, Adam P., E-mail: aszczepa@indiana.edu [Department of Physics, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Theory Center, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47403 (United States)

    2016-06-10

    We discuss properties of three-particle Dalitz distributions in coupled channel systems in presence of triangle singularities. The single channel case was discussed long ago [1] where it was found that as a consequence of unitarity, effects of a triangle singularity seen in the Dalitz plot are not seen in Dalitz plot projections. In the coupled channel case we find the same is true for the sum of intensities of all interacting channels. Unlike the single channel case, however, triangle singularities do remain visible in Dalitz plot projections of individual channels.

  9. Species richness, abundance and phenology of fungal fruit bodies over 21 years in a Swiss forest plot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straatsma, G.; Ayer, F.; Egli, S.

    2001-01-01

    Fungal fruit bodies were surveyed on a plot area of 1500 m2 from 1975¿99 (excluding 1980¿83) in the fungal reserve La Chaneaz in western Switzerland. Fruit bodies were identified and counted on a weekly basis. Species richness and abundances varied strongly between years. More than 400 species were

  10. Split-plot designs with general minimum lower-order confounding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Split-plot designs have been widely used in industrial experiments.Up to now,most methods for choosing this kind of designs are based on the minimum aberration (MA) criterion.Recently,by introducing a new pattern,called aliased effect-number pattern (AENP),Zhang et al.proposed a general minimum lowerorder confounding (denoted by GMC for short) criterion and established a general minimum confounding (also denoted by GMC for saving notations) theory.It is proved that,the GMC criterion selects optimal designs in a more elaborate manner than the existing ones,and when an experimenter has a prior about the importance ordering of factors in experiments the GMC designs are better than other optimal designs.In this paper we extend the GMC criterion to the split-plot design case and give a GMC-FFSP criterion for ranking split-plot designs.Some comparisons of the new criterion with the MA-MSA-FFSP criterion are given,and the optimal 32-run split-plot designs up to 14 factors under the two criteria are tabulated for comparison and application.

  11. Field Plot Points for Voyageurs National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — A total of 191 vegetation field plot samples were collected at Voyageurs National Park and environs to support vegetation classification development. Teams of...

  12. Casa Grande Ruins National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project - Plot Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This layer contains spatial information for 25 plots sampled during vegetation mapping and classification efforts at Casa Grande Ruins NM, AZ. Data was collected by...

  13. The master plot in the audiovisual narrative. The western case.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Félix GONZÁLEZ SÁNCHEZ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A plot provides us the story that it offers a hyphen and later a film. Plots are limited, however possibilities, argument them that these offer music infinite. At the same time, we can say that all cultures avail themselves of some plots and similar arguments to structure their mythical stories. In addition, United States is the modern nation where better a dialectic relation between the myth and story keeps. At this nation, the significance of the event has been shown and you have gotten free through the myth. We will see through this article how the western is the kind of American cinema what else and better answer for the folkloric traditional story to the cánones, because your plots have been taken directly of the classical legends.

  14. Recurrence plots of sunspots, solar flux and irradiance

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia

    2008-01-01

    The paper shows the recurrence and cross recurrence plots of three time series, concerning data of the solar activity. The data are the sunspot number and the values of solar radio flux at 10.7 cm and of solar total irradiance, which are known as highly correlated. To compare the series, the radio flux and irradiance values are monthly averaged. Recurrence plots display the oscillating behaviour with remarkable features. Moreover, cross recurrence plots help in identifying time lags between the sunspot number maximum and the maximum of radio or irradiance signals, in circumstances where the data values are highly dispersed. Image processing is useful too, in enhancing the monitoring. An interesting behaviour is displayed by cross recurrence plots of irradiance, which are not symmetric with respect to the line of identity.

  15. Field Plot Points for Wupatki National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This spatial dataset in ESRI Coverage format maps field releve plot locations for the vegetation classification and descriptions of the vegetation map at Wupatki...

  16. Analysing spatially extended high-dimensional dynamics by recurrence plots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marwan, Norbert, E-mail: marwan@pik-potsdam.de [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, 14412 Potsdam (Germany); Kurths, Jürgen [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, 14412 Potsdam (Germany); Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Physik (Germany); Nizhny Novgorod State University, Department of Control Theory, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Foerster, Saskia [GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Section 1.4 Remote Sensing, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam (Germany)

    2015-05-08

    Recurrence plot based measures of complexity are capable tools for characterizing complex dynamics. In this letter we show the potential of selected recurrence plot measures for the investigation of even high-dimensional dynamics. We apply this method on spatially extended chaos, such as derived from the Lorenz96 model and show that the recurrence plot based measures can qualitatively characterize typical dynamical properties such as chaotic or periodic dynamics. Moreover, we demonstrate its power by analysing satellite image time series of vegetation cover with contrasting dynamics as a spatially extended and potentially high-dimensional example from the real world. - Highlights: • We use recurrence plots for analysing partially extended dynamics. • We investigate the high-dimensional chaos of the Lorenz96 model. • The approach distinguishes different spatio-temporal dynamics. • We use the method for studying vegetation cover time series.

  17. A framework for plot control in interactive story systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sgouros, N.M.; Papakonstantinou, G.; Tsanakas, P. [National Technical Univ. of Athens, Zographou Campus (Greece)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a framework for plot control in interactive story systems. In this framework, the user takes the place of the main character of the story, the protagonist. The rest of the cast consists of discrete characters, each playing a specific role in the story. A separate module in this system, the plot manager, controls the behavior of the cast and specifies what the protagonist can do. The story plot is dynamically shaped by the interference between cast members and their social interactions. The system accepts as input a story map which provides the main metaphor for organizing the plot and localizes the interaction of the protagonist with the rest of the cast. We are implementing this framework in PEGASUS, an interactive travel story environment for Greek mythology.

  18. Graphical interpretation of confidence curves in rankit plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyltoft Petersen, Per; Blaabjerg, Ole; Andersen, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    A well-known transformation from the bell-shaped Gaussian (normal) curve to a straight line in the rankit plot is investigated, and a tool for evaluation of the distribution of reference groups is presented. It is based on the confidence intervals for percentiles of the calculated Gaussian...... distribution and the percentage of cumulative points exceeding these limits. The process is to rank the reference values and plot the cumulative frequency points in a rankit plot with a logarithmic (In=log(e)) transformed abscissa. If the distribution is close to In-Gaussian the cumulative frequency points...... presentation, however, makes it easy to disclose deviations from In-Gaussianity, and to make other interpretations of the distributions, e.g., comparison to non-Gaussian distributions in the same plot, where the cumulative frequency percentage can be read from the ordinate. A long list of examples of In...

  19. Field Plot Points for Tuzigoot National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation field plots at Tuzigoot NM were visited, described, and documented in a digital database. The database consists of 3 parts - (1)Physical Descriptive Data,...

  20. Plotting partial correlation and regression in ecological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Moya-Laraño

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple regression, the General linear model (GLM and the Generalized linear model (GLZ are widely used in ecology. The widespread use of graphs that include fitted regression lines to document patterns in simple linear regression can be easily extended to these multivariate techniques in plots that show the partial relationship of the dependent variable with each independent variable. However, the latter procedure is not nearly as widely used in ecological studies. In fact, a brief review of the recent ecological literature showed that in ca. 20% of the papers the results of multiple regression are displayed by plotting the dependent variable against the raw values of the independent variable. This latter procedure may be misleading because the value of the partial slope may change in magnitude and even in sign relative to the slope obtained in simple least-squares regression. Plots of partial relationships should be used in these situations. Using numerical simulations and real data we show how displaying plots of partial relationships may also be useful for: 1 visualizing the true scatter of points around the partial regression line, and 2 identifying influential observations and non-linear patterns more efficiently than using plots of residuals vs. fitted values. With the aim to help in the assessment of data quality, we show how partial residual plots (residuals from overall model + predicted values from the explanatory variable vs. the explanatory variable should only be used in restricted situations, and how partial regression plots (residuals of Y on the remaining explanatory variables vs. residuals of the target explanatory variable on the remaining explanatory variables should be the ones displayed in publications because they accurately reflect the scatter of partial correlations. Similarly, these partial plots can be applied to visualize the effect of continuous variables in GLM and GLZ for normal distributions and identity link

  1. The Ramachandran plots of glycine and pre-proline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brasseur Robert

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ramachandran plot is a fundamental tool in the analysis of protein structures. Of the 4 basic types of Ramachandran plots, the interactions that determine the generic and proline Ramachandran plots are well understood. The interactions of the glycine and pre-proline Ramachandran plots are not. Results In glycine, the ψ angle is typically clustered at ψ = 180° and ψ = 0°. We show that these clusters correspond to conformations where either the Ni+1 or O atom is sandwiched between the two Hα atoms of glycine. We show that the shape of the 5 distinct regions of density (the α, αL, βS, βP and βPR regions can be reproduced with electrostatic dipole-dipole interactions. In pre-proline, we analyse the origin of the ζ region of the Ramachandran plot, a region unique to pre-proline. We show that it is stabilized by a COi-1···CδHδi+1 weak hydrogen bond. This is analogous to the COi-1···NHi+1 hydrogen bond that stabilizes the γ region in the generic Ramachandran plot. Conclusion We have identified the specific interactions that affect the backbone of glycine and pre-proline. Knowledge of these interactions will improve current force-fields, and help understand structural motifs containing these residues.

  2. Reviewing ChIPS, The Chandra Imaging and Plotting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.; Burke, D. J.; Evans, I. N.; Evans, J. D.; McLaughlin, W.

    2015-09-01

    The Chandra Imaging and Plotting System (ChIPS) is a 2D plotting system designed to allow users to easily create, manipulate, and produce publication quality visualizations. ChIPS has a simple but very powerful interactive interface that allows users to dynamically modify the contents and layout of their plots quickly and efficiently, with the results of any changes being immediately visible. ChIPS allows users to construct their plots fully interactively, and then save the final plot commands as a Python script. This bypasses the need to iteratively edit and rerun the script when developing the plot. Features such as undo and redo commands allow users to easily step backwards and forwards through previous commands, while the ability so save ChIPS sessions in a platform-independent state file allows the session to be restored at any time, even on another machine. Because ChIPS offers a Python interface, users can analyze their data using the broad array of modules offered in Python, and visualize the information in ChIPS at the same time. In this paper we explore the design decisions behind the development of ChIPS and some of the lessons learned along the way.

  3. Report on surveys in fiscal 2000 on the survey on foundation to establish industrial technology strategy. Survey on hyper-intellectual-IT infrastructure; 2000 nendo sangyo gijutsu senryaku sakutei kiban chosa hokokusho. Kodo chiteki joho gijutsu kiban (Hyper-Intellectual-IT Infrastructure) chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    As a result of rapid proliferation of the Internet and the use of broadband in networks, it is anticipated that design, manufacture, and research will be performed with a large number of simulators and databases dispersed on the networks working in coordination. Therefore, surveys have been carried out on the current status of computer utilizing methods, the current status of data expressing methods, the current status of the network dispersion environment, the current status of simulators, and the current status of the software calculation services. Functions to be possessed by the hypothetical cooperation type research, design and manufacturing environments were extracted, and so were the problems in the current situation. Indicated as the most important assignment were the extraction of the data exchanging common platform and the functions thereof, the extraction of fee charging and security mechanisms, and the problems in the intellectual properties and the protection thereof. Further enumerated as the important assignment were unification and integration of the measures taken by the government, improvement in the basic hardware environment, establishment of the software structuring policies, and listening to opinions from wide areas on software, OS, and data structure. (NEDO)

  4. Tracking Changes in Cardiac Output: Statistical Considerations on the 4-Quadrant Plot and the Polar Plot Methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saugel, Bernd; Grothe, Oliver; Wagner, Julia Y

    2015-01-01

    When comparing 2 technologies for measuring hemodynamic parameters with regard to their ability to track changes, 2 graphical tools are omnipresent in the literaturethe 4-quadrant plot and the polar...

  5. Native plant recovery in study plots after fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) control on Santa Cruz Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Paula; Stanley, Thomas R.; Cowan, Clark; Robertson, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Cruz Island is the largest of the California Channel Islands and supports a diverse and unique flora which includes 9 federally listed species. Sheep, cattle, and pigs, introduced to the island in the mid-1800s, disturbed the soil, browsed native vegetation, and facilitated the spread of exotic invasive plants. Recent removal of introduced herbivores on the island led to the release of invasive fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), which expanded to become the dominant vegetation in some areas and has impeded the recovery of some native plant communities. In 2007, Channel Islands National Park initiated a program to control fennel using triclopyr on the eastern 10% of the island. We established replicate paired plots (seeded and nonseeded) at Scorpion Anchorage and Smugglers Cove, where notably dense fennel infestations (>10% cover) occurred, to evaluate the effectiveness of native seed augmentation following fennel removal. Five years after fennel removal, vegetative cover increased as litter and bare ground cover decreased significantly (P < 0.0001) on both plot types. Vegetation cover of both native and other (nonfennel) exotic species increased at Scorpion Anchorage in both seeded and nonseeded plots. At Smugglers Cove, exotic cover decreased significantly (P = 0.0001) as native cover comprised of Eriogonum arborescensand Leptosyne gigantea increased significantly (P < 0.0001) in seeded plots only. Nonseeded plots at Smugglers Cove were dominated by exotic annual grasses, primarily Avena barbata. The data indicate that seeding with appropriate native seed is a critical step in restoration following fennel control in areas where the native seed bank is depauperate.

  6. Atrial fibrillation detection by heart rate variability in Poincare plot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeon Moongu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atrial fibrillation (AFib is one of the prominent causes of stroke, and its risk increases with age. We need to detect AFib correctly as early as possible to avoid medical disaster because it is likely to proceed into a more serious form in short time. If we can make a portable AFib monitoring system, it will be helpful to many old people because we cannot predict when a patient will have a spasm of AFib. Methods We analyzed heart beat variability from inter-beat intervals obtained by a wavelet-based detector. We made a Poincare plot using the inter-beat intervals. By analyzing the plot, we extracted three feature measures characterizing AFib and non-AFib: the number of clusters, mean stepping increment of inter-beat intervals, and dispersion of the points around a diagonal line in the plot. We divided distribution of the number of clusters into two and calculated mean value of the lower part by k-means clustering method. We classified data whose number of clusters is more than one and less than this mean value as non-AFib data. In the other case, we tried to discriminate AFib from non-AFib using support vector machine with the other feature measures: the mean stepping increment and dispersion of the points in the Poincare plot. Results We found that Poincare plot from non-AFib data showed some pattern, while the plot from AFib data showed irregularly irregular shape. In case of non-AFib data, the definite pattern in the plot manifested itself with some limited number of clusters or closely packed one cluster. In case of AFib data, the number of clusters in the plot was one or too many. We evaluated the accuracy using leave-one-out cross-validation. Mean sensitivity and mean specificity were 91.4% and 92.9% respectively. Conclusions Because pulse beats of ventricles are less likely to be influenced by baseline wandering and noise, we used the inter-beat intervals to diagnose AFib. We visually displayed regularity of the inter

  7. Effects of logging and recruitment on community phylogenetic structure in 32 permanent forest plots of Kampong Thom, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Hironori; Kajisa, Tsuyoshi; Tagane, Shuichiro; Mase, Keiko; Chhang, Phourin; Samreth, Vanna; Ma, Vuthy; Sokh, Heng; Ichihashi, Ryuji; Onoda, Yusuke; Mizoue, Nobuya; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2015-02-19

    Ecological communities including tropical rainforest are rapidly changing under various disturbances caused by increasing human activities. Recently in Cambodia, illegal logging and clear-felling for agriculture have been increasing. Here, we study the effects of logging, mortality and recruitment of plot trees on phylogenetic community structure in 32 plots in Kampong Thom, Cambodia. Each plot was 0.25 ha; 28 plots were established in primary evergreen forests and four were established in secondary dry deciduous forests. Measurements were made in 1998, 2000, 2004 and 2010, and logging, recruitment and mortality of each tree were recorded. We estimated phylogeny using rbcL and matK gene sequences and quantified phylogenetic α and β diversity. Within communities, logging decreased phylogenetic diversity, and increased overall phylogenetic clustering and terminal phylogenetic evenness. Between communities, logging increased phylogenetic similarity between evergreen and deciduous plots. On the other hand, recruitment had opposite effects both within and between communities. The observed patterns can be explained by environmental homogenization under logging. Logging is biased to particular species and larger diameter at breast height, and forest patrol has been effective in decreasing logging.

  8. Split-plot Experiments with Unusual Numbers of Subplot Runs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat

    2007-01-01

    In many experimental situations, it may not be feasible or even possible to run experiments in a completely randomized fashion as usually recommended. Under these circumstances, split-plot experiments in which certain factors are changed less frequently than the others are often used. Most...... of the literature on split-plot designs is based on 2-level factorials. For those designs, the number of subplots is a power of 2. There may however be some situations where for cost purposes or physical constraints, we may need to have unusual number of subplots such as 3, 5, 6, etc. In this article, we explore...... this issue and provide some examples based on the Plackett and Burman designs. Also algorithmically constructed D-optimal split-plot designs are compared to those based on Plackett and Burman designs....

  9. D.3.3 PLOT Persuasive Learning Design Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hansen, Sandra Burri

    2012-01-01

    In this third and final deliverable of WP3: Persuasive Learning Designs, the theoretical cross field between persuasion and learning and the practical analysis of the technological learning tools and products which are currently related to the PLOT project, namely the GLOMaker and the 3ET tool......, are linked together as persuasive learning designs are defined and exemplified through the four e-PLOT cases. Based on the literary study of D.3.1 as well as the subsequent discussions and reflections regarding the theoretical foundation and practical application of persuasive learning technologies......, and in acknowledgement that the results of this deliverable are to be applicable in both WP4 and 5, the persuasive learning designs presented in this report are not summarized as patterns. Instead the definition of persuasive learning designs is presented on more general terms and exemplified in relation to the e-PLOT...

  10. Cross recurrence plot based synchronization of time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Marwan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of recurrence plots is extended to the cross recurrence plots (CRP which, among others, enables the study of synchronization or time differences in two time series. This is emphasized in a distorted main diagonal in the cross recurrence plot, the line of synchronization (LOS. A non-parametrical fit of this LOS can be used to rescale the time axis of the two data series (whereby one of them is compressed or stretched so that they are synchronized. An application of this method to geophysical sediment core data illustrates its suitability for real data. The rock magnetic data of two different sediment cores from the Makarov Basin can be adjusted to each other by using this method, so that they are comparable.

  11. Cross Recurrence Plot Based Synchronization of Time Series

    CERN Document Server

    Marwan, N; Nowaczyk, N R

    2002-01-01

    The method of recurrence plots is extended to the cross recurrence plots (CRP), which among others enables the study of synchronization or time differences in two time series. This is emphasized in a distorted main diagonal in the cross recurrence plot, the line of synchronization (LOS). A non-parametrical fit of this LOS can be used to rescale the time axis of the two data series (whereby one of it is e.g. compressed or stretched) so that they are synchronized. An application of this method to geophysical sediment core data illustrates its suitability for real data. The rock magnetic data of two different sediment cores from the Makarov Basin can be adjusted to each other by using this method, so that they are comparable.

  12. Experts’ Misinterpretation of Box Plots – a Dual Processing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Lem

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that students often misinterpret the area of the box in box plots as representing the frequency or proportion of observations in that interval, while it actually represents density. This misinterpretation has been shown to be based on the saliency of this area and can be explained by heuristic reasoning as defined by dual process theories. In this study we tested whether expert users of box plots also display this misinterpretation and show signs of the same heuristic reasoning as found in students. Using a reaction time test, we found signs of heuristic reasoning in experts, both with respect to accuracy and reaction times. If even experts have difficulty interpreting box plots, one can question whether these are an appropriate form of representation to use when reporting data and deserve the prominent place they currently have in the statistics curriculum.

  13. Status and trend of tree growth and mortality rate at the CONECOFOR plots, 1997-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Fabbio

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The circumference of trees in the CONECOFOR permanent monitoring plots (PMPs were measured by three surveys carried out in 1997, 2000 and 2005. Plots were arranged into forest types according to tree species, management system and stand structure: beech (Fagus sylvatica L. and spruce (Picea abies K. high forests, aged coppice forests and transitory crops (deciduous, evergreen oaks and beech. Diameter distribution, basal area, basal area increment, tree mortality rate and in-growth were calculated per layer (dominant, intermediate, dominated within each PMP, to point out relative contributions and changes. A range in relative annual growth was detected both within and between types over the monitored period, but an obvious reduction of annual increment was found in two/thirds of plots over 2000-04 as compared to 1997-99. Current mortality, mostly allocated into the dominated and intermediate layers, can be explained as “regular” due to overstocking and high inter-tree competition in almost all of the observed case-studies. Opposite patterns were found to occur as for stand growth vs. mortality rate between coppice forests and the other types owing to the different dynamics of tree competition in progress. Drought 2003 is the likely large-scale factor determining the reduced annual growth course over the second period.

  14. Environmental review for Site A/Plot M, Palos Forest Preserve, Cook County, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biang, R.P.; Yuen, C.R.; Avci, H.I.; Haffenden, R.

    1993-06-01

    This report is an environmental review of two sites known as Site A and Plot M, which are located in the Palos Forest Preserve of the Forest Preserve District of Cook County, approximately 20 mi southwest of downtown Chicago and about 3 mi east of the current site of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). An enlarged map of the area around the sites is shown in a figure. Site A covers about 19 acres, and Plot M covers about 1 acre. This document consists of the following sections: a review of the site history and environment, a description of the conceptual pathway models for both Site A and Plot M and a brief discussion of previous sampling events, a discussion of possible transport pathways, an evaluation of the Phase 2 Work Plan for Site A, a review of the applicable or relevant and appropriate regulations (ARARs), and recommendations for future study. The recommendations are based on an evaluation of previously collected data. Where data were sufficient, a geologic conceptual model was developed. If data were not sufficient to develop a model, recommendations for data collection are made. A new base map was developed for the site by using the base survey conducted in the 1940s, aerial photographs dating back to 1948, and site visits.

  15. Richness and Abundance of Lianas with Different Diameter Classes in Permanent Plots in the Amazon in Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Ferraz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Lianas are an important component of the structure and diversity of tropical forests and the Amazon biome is one of few natural protected areas that still support the highest level of biodiversity in the world. Generally in disturbed forests high densities of lianas are found than mature forests. The aim of this study is to investigate the richness among families and lianas abundance with different diameter classes in permanent plots in the Amazon of Mato Grosso. To the survey were placed 8 plots of 40 x 250 in a forest fragment that has been management for 30 years, where we sampled lianas species with diameter breast height (DBH ≥ 1 cm. There were sampled 3970 stems in the permanent plots, and the two most abundant were 2 and 6 with 594 and 573 individuals respectively. The richest families were Sapindaceae, Dilleniaceae, Menispermaceae and Fabaceae. These results confirm the hypothesis that disturbed areas have more density of lianas with small DBH.

  16. Design criteria and eigensequence plots for satellite computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahba, G.

    1983-01-01

    The use of the degrees of freedom for signal is proposed as a design criteria for comparing different designs for satellite and other measuring systems. It is also proposed that certain eigensequence plots be examined at the design stage along with appropriate estimates of the parameter lambda playing the role of noise to signal ratio. The degrees of freedom for signal and the eigensequence plots may be determined using prior information in the spectral domain which is presently available along with a description of the system, and simulated data for estimating lambda. This work extends the 1972 work of Weinreb and Crosby.

  17. D.3.2 PLOT Persuasive Learning Design Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hansen, Sandra Burri; Schärfe, Henrik; Winther-Nielsen, Nicolai

    2011-01-01

    of the technological learning tools and products which are currently related to the PLOT project, namely the GLOMaker and the 3ET tool, and a selection of GLOs and learning exercises. The primary focus of the analysis is to explore how the theoretical perspectives presented in D.3.1 are represented in these tools......, in particular the notions of persuasive design and constructive alignment. Whilst the report provides a persuasive design perspective on the technologies related to Euro PLOT, it must be stressed that if the document is to function as a basis for further discussion within the consortium, the partners...

  18. [Recurrence plot analysis of HRV for brain ischemia and asphyxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoming; Qiu, Yihong; Zhu, Yisheng

    2008-02-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is the tiny variability existing in the cycles of the heart beats, which reflects the corresponding balance between sympathetic and vagus nerves. Since the nonlinear characteristic of HRV is confirmed, the Recurrence Plot method, a nonlinear dynamic analysis method based on the complexity, could be used to analyze HRV. The results showed the recurrence plot structures and some quantitative indices (L-Mean, L-Entr) during asphyxia insult vary significantly as compared to those in normal conditions, which offer a new method to monitor brain asphyxia injury.

  19. Recurrence plots and recurrence quantification analysis of human motion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josiński, Henryk; Michalczuk, Agnieszka; Świtoński, Adam; Szczesna, Agnieszka; Wojciechowski, Konrad

    2016-06-01

    The authors present exemplary application of recurrence plots, cross recurrence plots and recurrence quantification analysis for the purpose of exploration of experimental time series describing selected aspects of human motion. Time series were extracted from treadmill gait sequences which were recorded in the Human Motion Laboratory (HML) of the Polish-Japanese Academy of Information Technology in Bytom, Poland by means of the Vicon system. Analysis was focused on the time series representing movements of hip, knee, ankle and wrist joints in the sagittal plane.

  20. Vector plotting as an indication of the approach to flutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, E. G.

    1975-01-01

    A binary flexure-torsion analysis was made to check theoretically a method for predicting flutter which depends on plotting vectorially the amplitudes of response relative to the exciting force and extracting the relevant damping rate. The results of this calculation are given in graphs both of the vector plots themselves and of the estimated damping rate against forward speed. The estimated damping rates are compared with calculated values. The method has the advantage that in a flight flutter test damping can be estimated from continuous excitation records: the method is an extension of the Kennedy and Pancu technique used in ground resonance testing.

  1. Facilitated gate setting by sequential dot plot scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Susanne; Müller, Susann

    2015-07-01

    Microbial communities comprising thousands of unknown organisms can be studied flow cytometrically by applying just one fluorescent parameter and using scatter characteristics of cells. Resulting 2D-plots need to represent high numbers of cells to detect the many subcommunities, even rare ones that might be present in the sample. Evaluation of such data can be faulty and subjective due to the low number of parameters available for data discrimination and the high numbers of overlaying events. Here, we describe a procedure that helps to evaluate such data using facilitated gate setting by sequential dot-plot scanning.

  2. On the Nature of Earth-Mars Porkchop Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Ryan C.; Whetsel, Charles W.

    2013-01-01

    Porkchop plots are a quick and convenient tool to help mission designers plan ballistic trajectories between two bodies. Parameter contours give rise to the familiar 'porkchop' shape. Each synodic period the pattern repeats, but not exactly, primarily due to differences in inclination and non-zero eccentricity. In this paper we examine the morphological features of Earth-to-Mars porkchop plots and the orbital characteristics that create them. These results are compared to idealistic and optimized transfers. Conclusions are drawn about 'good' opportunities versus 'bad' opportunities for different mission applications.

  3. Evaluation of a Smartphone App for Forest Sample Plot Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Mikko Vastaranta; Eduardo González Latorre; Ville Luoma; Ninni Saarinen; Markus Holopainen; Juha Hyyppä

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated a smartphone app (TRESTIMA(TM)) for forest sample plot measurements. The app interprets imagery collected from the sample plots using the camera in the smartphone and then estimates forest inventory attributes, including species-specific basal areas (G) as well as the diameter (D-gM) and height (H-gM) of basal area median trees. The estimates from the smartphone app were compared to forest inventory attributes derived from tree-wise measurements using calipers and a Vertex height...

  4. On the Nature of Earth-Mars Porkchop Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Ryan C.; Whetsel, Charles W.

    2013-01-01

    Porkchop plots are a quick and convenient tool to help mission designers plan ballistic trajectories between two bodies. Parameter contours give rise to the familiar 'porkchop' shape. Each synodic period the pattern repeats, but not exactly, primarily due to differences in inclination and non-zero eccentricity. In this paper we examine the morphological features of Earth-to-Mars porkchop plots and the orbital characteristics that create them. These results are compared to idealistic and optimized transfers. Conclusions are drawn about 'good' opportunities versus 'bad' opportunities for different mission applications.

  5. PlotXY: A High Quality Plotting System for the Herschel Interactive Processing Environment (HIPE) and the Astronomical Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panuzzo, P.; Li, J.; Caux, E.

    2012-09-01

    The Herschel Interactive Processing Environment (HIPE) was developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) in collaboration with NASA and the Herschel Instrument Control Centres, to provide the astronomical community a complete environment to process and analyze the data gathered by the Herschel Space Observatory. One of the most important components of HIPE is the plotting system (named PlotXY) that we present here. With PlotXY it is possible to produce easily high quality publication-ready 2D plots. It provides a long list of features, with fully configurable components, and interactive zooming. The entire code of HIPE is written in Java and is open source released under the GNU Lesser General Public License version 3. A new version of PlotXY is being developed to be independent from the HIPE code base; it is available to the software development community for the inclusion in other projects at the URL google.com/p/jplot2d/'>http://code.google.com/p/jplot2d/.

  6. Domestic and foreign trends in the prevalence of heart failure and the necessity of next-generation artificial hearts: a survey by the Working Group on Establishment of Assessment Guidelines for Next-Generation Artificial Heart Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, Eisuke; Nakatani, Takeshi; Imachi, Kou; Umezu, Mitsuo; Kyo, Shun-Ei; Sase, Kazuhiro; Takatani, Setsuo; Matsuda, Hikaru

    2007-01-01

    A series of guidelines for development and assessment of next-generation medical devices has been drafted under an interagency collaborative project by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare and the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. The working group for assessment guidelines of next-generation artificial hearts reviewed the trend in the prevalence of heart failure and examined the potential usefulness of such devices in Japan and in other countries as a fundamental part of the process of establishing appropriate guidelines. At present, more than 23 million people suffer from heart failure in developed countries, including Japan. Although Japan currently has the lowest mortality from heart failure among those countries, the number of patients is gradually increasing as our lifestyle becomes more Westernized; the associated medical expenses are rapidly growing. The number of heart transplantations, however, is limited due to the overwhelming shortage of donor hearts, not only in Japan but worldwide. Meanwhile, clinical studies and surveys have revealed that the major causes of death in patients undergoing long-term use of ventricular assist devices (VADs) were infection, thrombosis, and mechanical failure, all of which are typical of VADs. It is therefore of urgent and universal necessity to develop next-generation artificial hearts that have excellent durability to provide at least 2 years of event-free operation with a superior quality of life and that can be used for destination therapy to save patients with irreversible heart failure. It is also very important to ensure that an environment that facilitates the development, testing, and approval evaluation processes of next-generation artificial hearts be established as soon as possible.

  7. Field Plot and Accuracy Assessment Points for Palo Alto Battlefield National Historical Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Accuracy Assessment, Observation and Plot Points. Plot data were collected from 2000-2003; however, minimal attributes were maintained and a plots database was not...

  8. Field Plot and Accuracy Assessment Points for Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Accuracy Assessment, Observation and Plot Points. Plot points were created from the GPS coordinates recorded at the center of each plot to map their distribution and...

  9. How useful are Green-Ampt parameters derived from small rainfall simulation plots for modelling runoff at different plot lengths?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhans, Christoph; Engels, Lien; Tegenbos, Lize; Govers, Gerard; Diels, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Rainfall simulation on small field plots is an invaluable method to derive effective field parameters for infiltration models such as Green-Ampt. Plot scales of ca. 1m² integrate much of the micro-scale variability and processes, which ring-infiltrometers or soil core measurements cannot capture. However, these parameters have to be used with caution on larger scales, because processes such as run-on infiltration can be considerable. The Green-Ampt parameters suction across the wetting front (psi) and effective hydraulic conductivity (Ke) were estimated from rainfall simulations on two ridged fields in Togo, West Africa. Additionally, rainfall events were recorded, and on plots of 1m width and lengths of 1, 4 and 16m, total runoff volume and sediment concentration were measured. The storm runoff hydrographs of the plots were modelled with Chu's Green-Ampt variable rainfall intensity infiltration model, using the field-average parameters derived from the simulations. Potential effects of runoff lag time were assumed negligible. Calculated total runoff volumes were compared to measured runoff volumes. For the 1m plots, runoff was underestimated, as patches of seal in the furrows produced runoff already at rainfall intensities much lower than the average infiltration capacity. For the longer plots, no run-on infiltration or other scale dependent processes were assumed, so the relative error due to scale effects was proportional to the average difference or runoff depth. In contrast to the 1m plots, runoff was overestimated by a factor of 1.2 and 2 for the 4m and 16m plots, respectively. It appears that the application of the Green-Ampt effective hydraulic conductivity derived from rainfall simulations faces two main problems, which are their dependence on one single rainfall intensity and scale-effects by run-on infiltration. Errors necessarily propagate into the scale dependency of erosion and sediment transport, as these processes are directly dependent on runoff

  10. plotKML: Scientific Visualization of Spatio-Temporal Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Hengl

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available plotKML is an R package that provides methods for writing the most common R spatial classes into KML files. It builds up on the existing XML parsing functionality (XML package, and provides similar plotting functionality as the lattice package. Its main objective is to provide a simple interface to generate KML files with a small number of arguments, and allows users to visually explore spatio-temporal data available in R: points, polygons, gridded maps, trajectory-type data, vertical profiles, ground photographs, time series vector objects or raster images, along with the results of spatial analysis such as geostatistical mapping, spatial simulations of vector and gridded objects, optimized sampling designs, species distribution models and similar. A generic plotKML( function automatically determines the parsing order and visualizes data directly from R; lower level functions can be combined to allow for new user-created visualization templates. In comparison to other packages writing KML, plotKML seems to be more object oriented, it links more closely to the existing R classes for spatio-temporal data (sp, spacetime and raster packages than the alternatives, and provides users with the possibility to create their own templates.

  11. A Conductive Gel for the Plotting of Equipotential Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizalde-Torres, J.; González-Cardel, M.; Vega-Murguía, E. J.; Castillo-González, I.; Rodríguez-Nava, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a conductive gel that can be used to measure the electrical potential differences on its surface, and has enough consistency to plot equipotential lines. It has a gelation time of less than 10 min, and is suitable for implementing learning experiences in a physics teaching laboratory in a 90 min session. To…

  12. Designing fractional factorial split-plot experiments using integer programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capehart, Shay R.; Keha, Ahmet; Kulahci, Murat

    2011-01-01

    factorial (FF) design, with the restricted randomisation structure to account for the whole plots and subplots. We discuss the formulation of FFSP designs using integer programming (IP) to achieve various design criteria. We specifically look at the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions...

  13. D.3.1 PLOT Persuasive Learning Design Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hansen, Sandra Burri; Schärfe, Henrik; Dinesen, Jens Vilhelm

    2011-01-01

    , constructive alignment, and towards a common understanding of the ethical stances we believe should underpin persuasive efforts. In section 4, we present viewpoints on the four cases, central to the PLOT project. This section is the result of a workshop held at the consortium meeting in Aalborg. Finally...

  14. Designing fractional factorial split-plot experiments using integer programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capehart, Shay R.; Keha, Ahmet; Kulahci, Murat

    2011-01-01

    factorial (FF) design, with the restricted randomisation structure to account for the whole plots and subplots. We discuss the formulation of FFSP designs using integer programming (IP) to achieve various design criteria. We specifically look at the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions...

  15. Constructing General Orthogonal Fractional Factorial Split-Plot Designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartono, B.; Goos, P.; Schoen, E.

    2015-01-01

    While the orthogonal design of split-plot fractional factorial experiments has received much attention already, there are still major voids in the literature. First, designs with one or more factors acting at more than two levels have not yet been considered. Second, published work on nonregular fra

  16. Omitted Variable Sensitivity Analysis with the Annotated Love Plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ben B.; Fredrickson, Mark M.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this research is to make sensitivity analysis accessible not only to empirical researchers but also to the various stakeholders for whom educational evaluations are conducted. To do this it derives anchors for the omitted variable (OV)-program participation association intrinsically, using the Love plot to present a wide range of…

  17. A Simple Interactive Software Package for Plotting, Animating, and Calculating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Larry

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a new open source (free) software package that provides a simple, highly interactive interface for carrying out certain mathematical tasks that are commonly encountered in physics. These tasks include plotting and animating functions, solving systems of coupled algebraic equations, and basic calculus (differentiating and integrating…

  18. A New method of preparing iso-hardness plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V.; Patwardhan, A. K.

    1993-02-01

    A new approach has been used for the preparation of iso-hardness plots, which are very useful in the heat treating of metals and alloys. An alloy white iron containing ~6% Mn, ~5% Cr, and ~3% Cu was heat treated at 800,850,900,950,1000, and 1050 °C and soaked for 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 h, respectively, at each of these temperatures followed by air cooling. It was observed that, although the hardness varied linearly with soaking time, its variation with soaking temperature was nonlinear. This can be represented as: H = 98.285e2021.33/T + (0.037 - 0.316 × 10- 4 T) . t where H is Vickers hardness; T is soaking temperature in K; and t is soaking time in seconds. The variation in hardness has been discussed in light of microstructural changes that can take place upon heat treating. A three-dimensional plot of hardness, soaking temperature, and time was prepared based on the above equation. It revealed that the variation in hardness on heat treating can be represented as a surface instead of lines, where the change in the slope of the surface reflects the various transformations occurring in the alloy system. This iso- hardness plot, consisting of contours of constant hardness, has been prepared by projecting the above-mentioned surface on the soaking temperature- time plane. The method of selection of heat treating parameters based on this iso- hardness plot is discussed.

  19. Subclassifying disordered proteins by the CH-CDF plot method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fei; Oldfield, Christopher; Meng, Jingwei; Hsu, Wei-Lun; Xue, Bin; Uversky, Vladimir N; Romero, Pedro; Dunker, A Keith

    2012-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are associated with a wide range of functions. We suggest that sequence-based subtypes, which we call flavors, may provide the basis for different biological functions. The problem is to find a method that separates IDPs into different flavor / function groups. Here we discuss one approach, the (Charge-Hydropathy) versus (Cumulative Distribution Function) plot or CH-CDF plot, which is based the combined use of the CH and CDF disorder predictors. These two predictors are based on significantly different inputs and methods. This CH-CDF plot partitions all proteins into 4 groups: structured, mixed, disordered, and rare. Studies of the Protein Data Bank (PDB) entries and homologous show different structural biases for each group classified by the CH-CDF plot. The mixed class has more order-promoting residues and more ordered regions than the disordered class. To test whether this partition accomplishes any functional separation, we performed gene ontology (GO) term analysis on each class. Some functions are indeed found to be related to subtypes of disorder: the disordered class is highly active in mitosis-related processes among others. Meanwhile, the mixed class is highly associated with signaling pathways, where having both ordered and disordered regions could possibly be important.

  20. Developing Box Plots While Navigating the Maze of Data Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Bruce; Fitzallen, Noleine

    2013-01-01

    The learning sequence described in this article was developed to provide students with a demonstration of the development of box plots from authentic data as an illustration of the advantages gained from using multiple forms of data representation. The sequence follows an authentic process that starts with a problem to which data representations…

  1. Polar plot representation of time-resolved fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichorst, John Paul; Wen Teng, Kai; Clegg, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    Measuring changes in a molecule's fluorescence emission is a common technique to study complex biological systems such as cells and tissues. Although the steady-state fluorescence intensity is frequently used, measuring the average amount of time that a molecule spends in the excited state (the fluorescence lifetime) reveals more detailed information about its local environment. The lifetime is measured in the time domain by detecting directly the decay of fluorescence following excitation by short pulse of light. The lifetime can also be measured in the frequency domain by recording the phase and amplitude of oscillation in the emitted fluorescence of the sample in response to repetitively modulated excitation light. In either the time or frequency domain, the analysis of data to extract lifetimes can be computationally intensive. For example, a variety of iterative fitting algorithms already exist to determine lifetimes from samples that contain multiple fluorescing species. However, recently a method of analysis referred to as the polar plot (or phasor plot) is a graphical tool that projects the time-dependent features of the sample's fluorescence in either the time or frequency domain into the Cartesian plane to characterize the sample's lifetime. The coordinate transformations of the polar plot require only the raw data, and hence, there are no uncertainties from extensive corrections or time-consuming fitting in this analysis. In this chapter, the history and mathematical background of the polar plot will be presented along with examples that highlight how it can be used in both cuvette-based and imaging applications.

  2. Igloo-Plot: a tool for visualization of multidimensional datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntal, Bhusan K; Ghosh, Tarini Shankar; Mande, Sharmila S

    2014-01-01

    Advances in science and technology have resulted in an exponential growth of multivariate (or multi-dimensional) datasets which are being generated from various research areas especially in the domain of biological sciences. Visualization and analysis of such data (with the objective of uncovering the hidden patterns therein) is an important and challenging task. We present a tool, called Igloo-Plot, for efficient visualization of multidimensional datasets. The tool addresses some of the key limitations of contemporary multivariate visualization and analysis tools. The visualization layout, not only facilitates an easy identification of clusters of data-points having similar feature compositions, but also the 'marker features' specific to each of these clusters. The applicability of the various functionalities implemented herein is demonstrated using several well studied multi-dimensional datasets. Igloo-Plot is expected to be a valuable resource for researchers working in multivariate data mining studies. Igloo-Plot is available for download from: http://metagenomics.atc.tcs.com/IglooPlot/.

  3. Box-and-Whisker Plots Applied to Food Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Joao E. V.; Miranda, Ricardo M.; Figueiredo, Antonio F.; Barbosa, Jardel P.; Brasil, Edykarlos M.

    2016-01-01

    Box-and-whisker plots or simply boxplots are powerful graphical representations that give an overview of a data set. In this work five different examples illustrate the applications of boxplots in food chemistry. The examples involve relative sweetness of sugars and sugar alcohols with respect to sucrose, the potassium content of fruits and…

  4. Non-parametric and least squares Langley plot methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. W. Kiedron

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Langley plots are used to calibrate sun radiometers primarily for the measurement of the aerosol component of the atmosphere that attenuates (scatters and absorbs incoming direct solar radiation. In principle, the calibration of a sun radiometer is a straightforward application of the Bouguer–Lambert–Beer law V=V>/i>0e−τ ·m, where a plot of ln (V voltage vs. m air mass yields a straight line with intercept ln (V0. This ln (V0 subsequently can be used to solve for τ for any measurement of V and calculation of m. This calibration works well on some high mountain sites, but the application of the Langley plot calibration technique is more complicated at other, more interesting, locales. This paper is concerned with ferreting out calibrations at difficult sites and examining and comparing a number of conventional and non-conventional methods for obtaining successful Langley plots. The eleven techniques discussed indicate that both least squares and various non-parametric techniques produce satisfactory calibrations with no significant differences among them when the time series of ln (V0's are smoothed and interpolated with median and mean moving window filters.

  5. Box-and-Whisker Plots Applied to Food Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Joao E. V.; Miranda, Ricardo M.; Figueiredo, Antonio F.; Barbosa, Jardel P.; Brasil, Edykarlos M.

    2016-01-01

    Box-and-whisker plots or simply boxplots are powerful graphical representations that give an overview of a data set. In this work five different examples illustrate the applications of boxplots in food chemistry. The examples involve relative sweetness of sugars and sugar alcohols with respect to sucrose, the potassium content of fruits and…

  6. Comparative water balance study of forest and fallow plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Móricz N

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasing pressure on groundwater due to land use change (e.g., afforestation and future climate change will alter the recharge of groundwater aquifers, causing shifts in water table levels and hence influencing the avai­lable groundwater resources. The effect of land use change on groundwater resources has initiated a major scientific debate during the last decades between foresters and experts in water management in Hungary and in several other countries. The aim of this study was to compare water balances of two different vegetation covers, a groundwater dependent oak forest and a nearby fallow area in the Hungarian Lowland. Water balance components for an oak and a fallow plots, exposed to similar weather conditions and with similar soils, were estimated and compared by calibrating the Hydrus 1-D model using mea­sured soil water content and groundwater levels. The difference in the groundwater consumption was analyzed in details during dry and wet growing seasons. Transpiration at the fallow plot was only about two-thirds of that in the oak forest, while groundwater consumption was three times higher in the forest than at the fallow plot throughout the two-year study. During the dry growing season, the proportion of groundwater use from the total transpiration reached up to 90% at the oak plot. According to the model, in the dry growing season in 2007 both vegetation covers relied significantly on groundwater resources, while in 2008 the consumption of groundwater was notably reduced due to the wet weather at both plots.

  7. Aquifer test interpretation using derivative analysis and diagnostic plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Espriú, Antonio; Real-Rangel, Roberto; Cortés-Salazar, Iván; Castro-Herrera, Israel; Luna-Izazaga, Gabriela; Sánchez-León, Emilio

    2017-04-01

    Pumping tests remain a method of choice to deduce fundamental aquifer properties and to assess well condition. In the oil and gas (O&G) industry, well testing has been the core technique in examining reservoir behavior over the last 50 years. The pressure derivative by Bourdet, it is perhaps, the most significant single development in the history of well test analysis. Recently, the so-called diagnostics plots (e.g. drawdown and drawdown derivative in a log-log plot) have been successfully tested in aquifers. However, this procedure is still underutilized by groundwater professionals. This research illustrates the applicability range, advantages and drawbacks (e.g. smoothing procedures) of diagnostic plots using field examples from a wide spectrum of tests (short/long tests, constant/variable flow rates, drawdown/buildup stages, pumping well/observation well) in dissimilar geological conditions. We analyze new and pre-existent aquifer tests in Mexico, USA, Canada, Germany, France and Saudi Arabia. In constant flow rate tests, our results show that derivative analysis is an easy, robust and powerful tool to assess near-borehole damage effects, formation heterogeneity, boundaries, flow regimes, infinite-acting radial stages, i.e., valid Theisian framework, and fracture-driven flow. In step tests, the effectiveness relies on high-frequency drawdown measurements. Moreover, we adapt O&G analytical solutions to cater for the conditions in groundwater systems. In this context, further parameters can be computed analytically from the plots, such as skin factor, head losses, wellbore storage, distance to the boundary, channel-aquifer and/or fracture zone width, among others. Therefore, diagnostic plots should be considered a mandatory tool for pumping tests analysis among hydrogeologists. This project has been supported by DGAPA (UNAM) under the research project PAPIIT IN-112815.

  8. African Americans and the medical establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C

    1999-09-01

    The African American community's response to the AIDS epidemic has reflected the profound mistrust of the medical establishment which many African Americans feel. Among African Americans, the belief that the epidemic originated in a genocidal plot is widespread. It is thought that organized medicine has been significantly involved in this plot. If we look at African Americans' historical relationship to the medical establishment from the era of slavery to the recent past, the suspicious attitudes which make such beliefs possible can be seen as an intelligible response to a new disease which disproportionately affects African Americans. Successful medical and public health responses to the epidemic have depended and will continue to depend upon overcoming the historical legacy of suspicion and gaining the trust of the community.

  9. A tool to determine crown and plot canopy transparency for forest inventory and analysis phase 3 plots using digital photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew F. Winn; Philip A. Araman

    2012-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program collects crown foliage transparency estimates for individual trees on Phase 3 (P3) inventory plots. The FIA crown foliage estimate is obtained from a pair of perpendicular side views of the tree. Researchers with the USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station have developed a computer program that...

  10. A comparison of trenched plot techniques for partitioning soil respiration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Bronson, Dustin; Bladyka, Emma; Gower, Stith T.

    2011-07-16

    Partitioning the soil surface CO{sub 2} flux (R{sub S}) flux is an important step in understanding ecosystem-level carbon cycling, given that R{sub S} is poorly constrained and its source components may have different responses to climate change. Trenched plots are a classic method of separating the R{sub S} source fluxes, but labor-intensive and may cause considerable disturbance to the soil environment. This study tested if various methods of plant suppression in trenched plots affected R{sub S} fluxes, quantified the R{sub S} response to soil temperature and moisture changes, and estimated the heterotrophic contribution to R{sub S}. It was performed in a boreal black spruce (Picea mariana) plantation, using a complete randomized design, during the 2007 growing season (May-November). Trenched plots had significantly lower R{sub S} than control plots, with differences appearing {approx}100 days after trenching; spatial variability doubled after trenching but then declined throughout the experiment. Most trenching treatments had significantly lower (by {approx}0.5 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) R{sub S} than the controls, and there was no significant difference in R{sub S} among the various trenching treatments. Soil temperature at 2 cm explained more R{sub S} variability than did 10-cm temperature or soil moisture. Temperature sensitivity (Q10) declined in the control plots from {approx}2.6 (at 5 C) to {approx}1.6 (at 15 C); trenched plots values were higher, from 3.1 at 5 C to 1.9 at 15 C. We estimated R{sub S} for the study period to be 241 {+-} 40 g C m{sup -2}, with roots contributing 64% of R{sub S} after accounting for fine root decay, and 293 g C m{sup -2} for the entire year. These findings suggest that laborious hand weeding of vegetation may be usefully replaced by other methods, easing future studies of this large and poorly-understood carbon flux.

  11. CADASTRAL CLASSIFICATION OF THE LAND PLOTS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIRICHEK Yu. O.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Work concerns development of national system of classification of the land plots. The developed classification will allow to solve correctly a number of the corresponding cadastral, land management, estimated and other tasks. The analysis of classifications of lands, improvements and real estate in general is made. The created offers concerning creation of a new classification of the land plots in Ukraine. Today the Ukrainian real estate market has no single system that separates the system property groups, classes and types. This significantly complicates the work and can not fully be aware of the specific situation of real estate market. This task is designed to solve classification properties, it is used to transition from a diversity of individual properties to a limited number of classes of evaluation objects. The classification is different functional purpose (use facilities assessment, which determines the difference in value.

  12. Losing the Plot: the Geological Anti-Narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelene Buckland

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Geology has often been treated by literary critics as the producer narratives of earth history which were appropriated or resisted by novelists and poets. This paper will problematise this tradition by considering a widespread problematisation of plot as a mode of rational enquiry in the nineteenth century, and which underpinned much literary and geological discourse. Rooting itself in elite, fashionable literary culture, geology often resisted plot as a means of unravelling and describing earth history. Briefly considering the reading and the writings of geologists including Adam Sedgwick, William Buckland and Charles Lyell, this essay demonstrates that geology is a much different case in 'science and literature' than the evolutionary sciences explored by Gillian Beer and George Levine.

  13. Automated drawing of network plots in network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rücker, Gerta; Schwarzer, Guido

    2016-03-01

    In systematic reviews based on network meta-analysis, the network structure should be visualized. Network plots often have been drawn by hand using generic graphical software. A typical way of drawing networks, also implemented in statistical software for network meta-analysis, is a circular representation, often with many crossing lines. We use methods from graph theory in order to generate network plots in an automated way. We give a number of requirements for graph drawing and present an algorithm that fits prespecified ideal distances between the nodes representing the treatments. The method was implemented in the function netgraph of the R package netmeta and applied to a number of networks from the literature. We show that graph representations with a small number of crossing lines are often preferable to circular representations.

  14. The Chymistry of "The Learned Dr Plot" (1640-96).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Anna Marie

    2014-01-01

    In the seventeenth century, there were developing norms of openness in the presentation of scientific knowledge that were at odds with traditions of secrecy among chymists, particularly practitioners of chrysopoeia, or the transmutation of metals. This chapter analyzes how Dr. Robert Plot, the first professor of chymistry at Oxford, negotiated these boundaries within an institutional context. I first delineate his chymical and experimental practice, which incorporated procedures from medieval alchemical sources, particularly the Lullian corpus, as well as more novel practices from seventeenth-century chymistry. Then, I analyze how personal and institutional ambitions and economic considerations shaped to what extent Plot negotiated the boundaries between secrecy and the public dissemination of chymical knowledge.

  15. [Murderers in white coats--the physicians' plot against Stalin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, B

    1997-12-10

    During the Moscow trials in 1936-38 several doctors were sentenced for participating in the murders of party leaders. As others who were accused, the doctors willingly confessed to crimes they could not possibly have committed. A second doctors' plot took place in the autumn of 1952. This time nine doctors, six of them Jews, were arrested for the attempted murder of political leaders. Only the unexpected death of Josef Stalin prevented a new wave of terror. With the single exception of Genrikh Grigorjevitsj Jagoda (1891-1938), head of the NKVD (KGB's predecessor), all those sentenced under the Moscow process are now rehabilitated. The participants of the second doctors' plot were rehabilitated immediately after Stalin's death.

  16. Review article: The mountain motif in the plot of Matthew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert J. Volschenk

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article reviewed T.L. Donaldson’s book, Jesus on the mountain: A study in Matthean theology, published in 1985 by JSOT Press, Sheffield, and focused on the mountain motif in the structure and plot of the Gospel of Matthew, in addition to the work of Donaldson on the mountain motif as a literary motif and as theological symbol. The mountain is a primary theological setting for Jesus’ ministry and thus is an important setting, serving as one of the literary devices by which Matthew structured and progressed his narrative. The Zion theological and eschatological significance and Second Temple Judaism serve as the historical and theological background for the mountain motif. The last mountain setting (Mt 28:16–20 is the culmination of the three theological themes in the plot of Matthew, namely Christology, ecclesiology and salvation history.

  17. Volcano plots in hydrogen electrocatalysis - uses and abuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaino, Paola; Juarez, Fernanda; Santos, Elizabeth; Schmickler, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Sabatier's principle suggests, that for hydrogen evolution a plot of the rate constant versus the hydrogen adsorption energy should result in a volcano, and several such plots have been presented in the literature. A thorough examination of the data shows, that there is no volcano once the oxide-covered metals are left out. We examine the factors that govern the reaction rate in the light of our own theory and conclude, that Sabatier's principle is only one of several factors that determine the rate. With the exception of nickel and cobalt, the reaction rate does not decrease for highly exothermic hydrogen adsorption as predicted, because the reaction passes through more suitable intermediate states. The case of nickel is given special attention; since it is a 3d metal, its orbitals are compact and the overlap with hydrogen is too low to make it a good catalyst.

  18. Automatic target recognition based on cross-plot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin Kian Loong Wong

    Full Text Available Automatic target recognition that relies on rapid feature extraction of real-time target from photo-realistic imaging will enable efficient identification of target patterns. To achieve this objective, Cross-plots of binary patterns are explored as potential signatures for the observed target by high-speed capture of the crucial spatial features using minimal computational resources. Target recognition was implemented based on the proposed pattern recognition concept and tested rigorously for its precision and recall performance. We conclude that Cross-plotting is able to produce a digital fingerprint of a target that correlates efficiently and effectively to signatures of patterns having its identity in a target repository.

  19. Extended Recurrence Plot Analysis and its Application to ERP Data

    CERN Document Server

    Marwan, N; Marwan, Norbert; Meinke, Anja

    2004-01-01

    We present new measures of complexity and their application to event related potential data. The new measures base on structures of recurrence plots and makes the identification of chaos-chaos transitions possible. The application of these measures to data from single-trials of the Oddball experiment can identify laminar states therein. This offers a new way of analyzing event-related activity on a single-trial basis.

  20. Dispatching policy for manufacturing jobs and time-delay plots

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, the concepts of chaos and non-linear dynamics are briefly introduced and the tools used in the characterization of a chaotic or non-linear system are discussed for studying the performance of dispatching policies in manufacturing systems. The scheduling of a simple manufacturing system with the help of common assignment rules has been simulated first. The results are studied and analysed with the help of time-delay plots. Some conclusions are drawn and, base...

  1. Method for detecting software anomalies based on recurrence plot analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Michał Mosdorf

    2012-01-01

    Presented paper evaluates method for detecting software anomalies based on recurrence plot analysis of trace log generated by software execution. Described method for detecting software anomalies is based on windowed recurrence quantification analysis for selected measures (e.g. Recurrence rate - RR or Determinism - DET). Initial results show that proposed method is useful in detecting silent software anomalies that do not result in typical crashes (e.g. exceptions).

  2. Method for detecting software anomalies based on recurrence plot analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Mosdorf

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Presented paper evaluates method for detecting software anomalies based on recurrence plot analysis of trace log generated by software execution. Described method for detecting software anomalies is based on windowed recurrence quantification analysis for selected measures (e.g. Recurrence rate - RR or Determinism - DET. Initial results show that proposed method is useful in detecting silent software anomalies that do not result in typical crashes (e.g. exceptions.

  3. Graphical interpretation of confidence curves in rankit plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyltoft Petersen, Per; Blaabjerg, Ole; Andersen, Marianne; Jørgensen, Lone G M; Schousboe, Karoline; Jensen, Esther

    2004-01-01

    A well-known transformation from the bell-shaped Gaussian (normal) curve to a straight line in the rankit plot is investigated, and a tool for evaluation of the distribution of reference groups is presented. It is based on the confidence intervals for percentiles of the calculated Gaussian distribution and the percentage of cumulative points exceeding these limits. The process is to rank the reference values and plot the cumulative frequency points in a rankit plot with a logarithmic (In=log(e)) transformed abscissa. If the distribution is close to In-Gaussian the cumulative frequency points will fit to the straight line describing the calculated In-Gaussian distribution. The quality of the fit is evaluated by adding confidence intervals (CI) to each point on the line and calculating the percentage of points outside the hyperbola-like CI-curves. The assumption was that the 95% confidence curves for percentiles would show 5% of points outside these limits. However, computer simulations disclosed that approximate 10% of the series would have 5% or more points outside the limits. This is a conservative validation, which is more demanding than the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The graphical presentation, however, makes it easy to disclose deviations from In-Gaussianity, and to make other interpretations of the distributions, e.g., comparison to non-Gaussian distributions in the same plot, where the cumulative frequency percentage can be read from the ordinate. A long list of examples of In-Gaussian distributions of subgroups of reference values from healthy individuals is presented. In addition, distributions of values from well-defined diseased individuals may show up as In-Gaussian. It is evident from the examples that the rankit transformation and simple graphical evaluation for non-Gaussianity is a useful tool for the description of sub-groups.

  4. A MATLAB Function for Plotting Phase Planes Interactively

    OpenAIRE

    Forsman, Krister

    1992-01-01

    A MATLAB-function serving as a sort of graphical interface to the MATLAB ODE-solver ode45 is presented. The main use of it is to facilitate phase plane analysis of nonlinear 2-D systems via simulation. The numerical integration of the system is mouse-operated via the ginput-function. After each choice of initial value a simulation is made and plotted in the phase plane.

  5. How to Create and Manipulate Radar Range-Doppler Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    set of wave fronts with constant wavelength, direction, and relative phase. Electromagnetic waves produced by radar transmitters and lasers are... radars . The Matlab function fft orders its DFT amplitudes in a way that renders negative frequencies positive and greater than the Nyquist frequency. I...UNCLASSIFIED How to Create and Manipulate Radar Range–Doppler Plots Don Koks Cyber & Electronic Warfare Division Defence Science and Technology

  6. The value of building plots in Italy - pdf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Rosato

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests some analysis on dynamics of building plots value in Italy. This is an important subject, since the study of changes in plots value in space and time enables the evaluation of urban rent, which is essential for a fair and effective planning. The analysis confirm past hypothesis which are well known to real estate market operators. The first resulting fact is that the changes in building plots value are concurrent to those in real estate value and the increase occurring in the last years is in relative terms higher than the past one. This seems to confirm that, during real estate market expansion, most of the increase of buildings’ value is attributable to the land rent. The second observation is about value dynamics over time: it has been observed that, during an expansion in demand, the value significantly increases in central areas, much more than in peripheral ones; this means that absolute rent arising from shortage in urban areas is higher than the differential rent created through urban expansion in peripheral areas. Finally, it was highlighted that the factors affecting the value in building areas play different roles, depending on their location relative to the urban centre, identifying differently structured market segments.

  7. Looking at large data sets using binned data plots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, D.B.

    1990-04-01

    This report addresses the monumental challenge of developing exploratory analysis methods for large data sets. The goals of the report are to increase awareness of large data sets problems and to contribute simple graphical methods that address some of the problems. The graphical methods focus on two- and three-dimensional data and common task such as finding outliers and tail structure, assessing central structure and comparing central structures. The methods handle large sample size problems through binning, incorporate information from statistical models and adapt image processing algorithms. Examples demonstrate the application of methods to a variety of publicly available large data sets. The most novel application addresses the too many plots to examine'' problem by using cognostics, computer guiding diagnostics, to prioritize plots. The particular application prioritizes views of computational fluid dynamics solution sets on the fly. That is, as each time step of a solution set is generated on a parallel processor the cognostics algorithms assess virtual plots based on the previous time step. Work in such areas is in its infancy and the examples suggest numerous challenges that remain. 35 refs., 15 figs.

  8. R语言在橡胶林动态监测地形图绘制方面的应用%Application of R Language in Drawing Topographic Map of Dynamic Monitoring Plot in Rubber Plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰国玉; 陈伟; 王继坤; 吴志祥; 谢贵水

    2013-01-01

    In order to monitor biodiversity of rubber forest, a dynamic plot with an area of 1 hm2 of rubber forest was established by Rubber Research Institute of CATAS in Danzhou, Hainan in 2012. The construction technology and field protocol followed those applied in the establishment of the 50 hm2 plot in the tropical forest of Barro Colorado Island in Panama, developed by Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in 1980. Due to its free, open source, powerful statistical analysis and perfect mapping function, R software was used by foreign scholars in the analyzing the complicated data of ecology. However, R software is not been well understand and used by most domestic scholars. In view of this, this article briefly introduced some application examples of R software in drawing contour map and three-dimensional map based on the field survey data of a 1 hm2 dynamic monitoring plot of rubber forest in Danzhou. And we hope this paper could help beginners for R software.%为开展橡胶林生物多样性动态监测,2012年由中国热带农业科学院橡胶研究所在海南儋州试验场四队橡胶林中建立了1 hm2动态监测样地.基于海南儋州1 hm2橡胶林动态监测样地的高程数据,介绍了R软件等高线图、三维立体图等方面的应用,希望对R软件的初学者有所帮助.

  9. Plot-scale testing and sensitivity analysis of Be7 based soil erosion conversion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Alex; Abdelli, Wahid; Barri, Bashar Al; Iurian, Andra; Gaspar, Leticia; Mabit, Lionel; Millward, Geoff; Ryken, Nick; Blake, Will

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 2 decades, a growing number of studies have recognised the potential for short-lived cosmogenic Be-7 (half-life 53 days) to be used as a tracer to evaluate soil erosion from short-term inter-rill erosion to hillslope sediment budgets. While conversion modelling approaches are now established for event-scale and extended-time-series applications, there is a lack of validation and sensitivity analysis to underpin confidence in their use across a full range of agro-climatic zones. This contribution aims to close this gap in the context of the maritime temperate climate of southwest UK. Two plots of 4 x 35 m were ploughed and tilled at the beginning of winter 2013/2014 in southwest UK to create (1) a bare, sloped soil surface and (2) a bare flat reference site. The bounded lower edge of the plot fed into a collection bin for overland flow and associated sediment. The tilled surface had a low bulk density and high permeability at the start of the experiment (ksat > 100 mm/hr). Hence, despite high rainfall in December (200 mm), notable overland flow was observed only after intense rain storms during late 2013 and early January 2014 when the soil profile was saturated i.e. driven by Saturation Overland Flow (SOF). At the time of SOF initiation, ca. 70% of the final Be-7 inventory had been delivered to the site. Subsequent to a series SOF events across a 1 month period, the plot soil surface was intensively sampled to quantify Be-7 inventory patterns and develop a tracer budget. Captured eroded sediment was dried, weighed and analysed for Be-7. All samples were analysed for particle size by laser granulometry. Be-7 inventory data were converted to soil erosion estimates using (1) standard profile distribution model, (2) the extended time series distribution model and (3) a new 'antecedent rainfall' extended time series model to account for lack of soil erosion prior to soil saturation. Results were scaled up to deliver a plot-scale sediment budget to include

  10. SOFEPL: A Plotting Postprocessor for ’SOFE’ User’s Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    area General KPLUSDWork List of plots using Area IPLUSD current run KT (created in PLTNED) PLOT IPlot 1 IA(KLPTP+ 2-1) A AData Area PLOT 2Plot 2 IA...reasons: computer turn-around times for big runs are prohibitively long; a short preliminary evalu- ation of performance is needed before a lot of

  11. ResidPlots-2: Computer Software for IRT Graphical Residual Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Tie; Han, Kyung T.; Hambleton, Ronald K.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the ResidPlots-2, a computer software that provides a powerful tool for IRT graphical residual analyses. ResidPlots-2 consists of two components: a component for computing residual statistics and another component for communicating with users and for plotting the residual graphs. The features of the ResidPlots-2 software are…

  12. Plot and Personification in “Tehran-e- Makhuf“

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pashaei

    Full Text Available Story is one of the important and influential literary genres that deserves to research on its structure and content .By study and analysis of a story, the reader could comprehend the textual messages and change his attitude toward life and different issues .After defining of the social novel, the author tries to analyze plot and personification in novel of “Tehran-e- Makhuf” and respond to the questions on the method employed for plot and personification and analyze it from plot and its components such as conflict, suspension and resolution and compare the differences and similarities between old tales and modern novels.The plot of “Tehran-e- Makhuf” is not so complex due to its subject and content and natural order of events dominates on artificial discipline and it lacks open plot. Of main elements of plot, conflict is more outstanding here. This novel is full of emotional and moral conflicts and there is no similarity with historical novels that describe good and bad conflicts. Cause and effect relationship is main element of plot that shadows on the story events .In “Tehrna-e- Makhuf”, the author tries to violate the principles and cause to imbalance in natural events sequences with discomposing rational and experiential relationship and take action toward artificiality and unnatural suspension. In creating suspension by emphasis on incidences in some extremist cases, Kazemi tries to found the story based on the considerable sequence of events and this conduct reduces quality of the story significantly and leads to imbalance in rational and acceptable discipline.Kazemi employs direct or reporting personification mostly. This novel lacks diversity in personage considerably .All characters speak in similar style and there is no particular speech style. The personification of Kazemi in “Tehran-e-Makhuf” is continuous and interdependent in style of old tales and novel in European account. In some cases, he approaches to story

  13. PET kinetic analysis --pitfalls and a solution for the Logan plot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuichi; Naganawa, Mika; Shidahara, Miho; Ikoma, Yoko; Watabe, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    The Logan plot is a widely used algorithm for the quantitative analysis of neuroreceptors using PET because it is easy to use and simple to implement. The Logan plot is also suitable for receptor imaging because its algorithm is fast. However, use of the Logan plot, and interpretation of the formed receptor images should be regarded with caution, because noise in PET data causes bias in the Logan plot estimates. In this paper, we describe the basic concept of the Logan plot in detail and introduce three algorithms for the Logan plot. By comparing these algorithms, we demonstrate the pitfalls of the Logan plot and discuss the solution.

  14. Visualisation of gene expression data - the GE-biplot, the Chip-plot and the Gene-plot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittelkow, Yvonne E; Wilson, Susan R

    2003-01-01

    Visualisation methods for exploring microarray data are particularly important for gaining insight into data from gene expression experiments, such as those concerned with the development of an understanding of gene function and interactions. Further, good visualisation techniques are useful for outlier detection in microarray data and for aiding biological interpretation of results, as well as for presentation of overall summaries of the data. The biplot is particularly useful for the display of microarray data as both the genes and the chips can be simultaneously plotted. In this paper we describe several ordination techniques suitable for exploring microarray data, and we call these the GE-biplot, the Chip-plot and the Gene-plot. The general method is first evaluated on synthetic data simulated in accord with current biological interpretation of microarray data. Then it is applied to two well-known data sets, namely the colon data of Alon et al. (1999) and the leukaemia data of Golub et al. (1999). The usefulness of the approach for interpreting and comparing different analyses of the same data is demonstrated.

  15. Establishment probability in newly founded populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusset Markus

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishment success in newly founded populations relies on reaching the established phase, which is defined by characteristic fluctuations of the population’s state variables. Stochastic population models can be used to quantify the establishment probability of newly founded populations; however, so far no simple but robust method for doing so existed. To determine a critical initial number of individuals that need to be released to reach the established phase, we used a novel application of the “Wissel plot”, where –ln(1 – P0(t is plotted against time t. This plot is based on the equation P0t=1–c1e–ω1t, which relates the probability of extinction by time t, P0(t, to two constants: c1 describes the probability of a newly founded population to reach the established phase, whereas ω1 describes the population’s probability of extinction per short time interval once established. Results For illustration, we applied the method to a previously developed stochastic population model of the endangered African wild dog (Lycaon pictus. A newly founded population reaches the established phase if the intercept of the (extrapolated linear parts of the “Wissel plot” with the y-axis, which is –ln(c1, is negative. For wild dogs in our model, this is the case if a critical initial number of four packs, consisting of eight individuals each, are released. Conclusions The method we present to quantify the establishment probability of newly founded populations is generic and inferences thus are transferable to other systems across the field of conservation biology. In contrast to other methods, our approach disaggregates the components of a population’s viability by distinguishing establishment from persistence.

  16. Efficiency of incomplete split-plot designs – a compromise between traditional split-plot designs and randomised complete block design

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Kristian; Bigongiali, Federica; Østergård, Hanne

    2008-01-01

    The paper shows, how incomplete split-plot designs can be constructed from -designs and how they can be analysed. The incomplete split-plot design can be regarded as both a practical and statistical compromise between traditional split-plot design and randomised complete block design. The efficiency of the design is compared to traditional split-plot design and randomised complete block design using data from 5 trials carried out using incomplete split-plot designs in Denmark through 2004-20...

  17. The fire effect on Cerrado: Analysis of the erosive process associated with native vegetation by the use of experimental plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Yasmmin; Rodrigues, Sílvio

    2015-04-01

    In Brazil vast areas of vegetation are devastated each year by the use of fire that recorded more than 200,000 hotspots annually. In this context, the state of Minas Gerais appears first in the number of fires and burned areas due to its long stretch of reforested area in an environment where a prolonged dry season contributes to the occurrence and spread of fire in the Cerrado vegetation. This research consists of a comparative study through the controlled application of fire under different conditions of natural vegetation of the focusing on the change in rates of runoff, sediment production and vegetation density in order to evaluate the influence of burning related to soil erosion. The area of study is located in Uberlândia at an altitude of 850 meters above sea level and in the respective geographic coordinates 18°56'56"S and 48°12'21"W that composes the watershed of Glória stream. The climate is characterized by dry winters and rainy summer. On this area five experimental plots was established from the specific characteristic of its vegetation cover, slope and drainage, thus differentiated: well drained soil with the presence of a dense grass (plot A), well drained soil with the presence of shrub and grasses (plot B), poorly drained with a non-dense grass (plot C), well drained soil with grass (plot D), and well drained with grasses and tree cover(plot E). The plots have 1m2 that is connected with a trough collector that concentrate the water flow generated by runoff with a 30 liter gallon that was weekly measured. The data relating to runoff and sediment yield were obtained from the collection of water derived from water stored in gallons, in which first was homogenized, measured quantity and collected 1 liter of water to be filtrated in the laboratory. The analysis method of vegetation density was performed based on the methodology proposed by Pinese Junior, Cruz and Rodrigues (2008), using the software ENVI 4.3 to interpret and quantify the image

  18. Farmers' awareness on landslide susceptibility on their plots: a first step towards household resilience in the Rwenzori region, Western Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Kewan; Jacobs, Lies; Maes, Jan; Kervyn, Matthieu; Vranken, Liesbet

    2016-04-01

    In the mountainous area of the Rwenzori region, western Uganda, landslides frequently destroy houses and plots of farmers living and cultivating on unstable slopes. The impact of these landslides on the local livelihoods depends on the exposure and the resilience of the households. Both the exposure and the resilience can be modified to a certain extent with specific measures, e.g. planting slope stabilizing trees of paying for (informal) insurance. The adoption of such measures and the willingness to accept measures imposed by local governments crucially depends on the local awareness of landslide risk. The aim of this research is to estimate awareness on landslide susceptibility, as a proxy for landslide risk, among household heads in a landslide prone area in the Rwenzori region, Western Uganda. The objective is to compare household and plot characteristics between aware and unaware households. This will allow us to identify those households which are less aware of landslide susceptibility and therefore most likely to be less resilient when exposed to landslide risk. We use data from a susceptibility map constructed in 2016 and a structured household survey conducted in the Rwenzori region in 2015. The susceptibility map is based on a SRTM 30m DEM and validated with field observations, while the household survey includes the answers of more than 450 households that have been asked to evaluate the landslide susceptibility on their plots. Simple probit models at plot level are used to compare the estimated landslide susceptibility with the modelled susceptibility. We use this comparison to identify the household characteristics of those households that do not correctly estimate the landslide susceptibility on their plots. We will exploit the fact that landslide susceptibility is very space specific and that households can therefore have plots in both susceptible and unsusceptible areas. The research is currently ongoing, but we hypothesize that younger farmers

  19. Koyukuk NWR tundra/trumpeter swan survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A tundra/trumpeter swan survey was conducted on the Koyukuk National Wildlife Refuge from 14 August to 23 August 1984. Twenty-four six mile square plots were...

  20. Eklutna River at Glenn Highway Bridge, Alaska Cross-Section Survey, 2016 and 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset consists of survey data, plots, photos, and a photo index from a cross section survey of the Eklutna River at the Glenn Highway bridge in Alaska. The...

  1. Plant species richness enhances nitrogen retention in green roof plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine; Schweinhart, Shelbye; Buffam, Ishi

    2016-10-01

    Vegetated (green) roofs have become common in many cities and are projected to continue to increase in coverage, but little is known about the ecological properties of these engineered ecosystems. In this study, we tested the biodiversity-ecosystem function hypothesis using commercially available green roof trays as replicated plots with varying levels of plant species richness (0, 1, 3, or 6 common green roof species per plot, using plants with different functional characteristics). We estimated accumulated plant biomass near the peak of the first full growing season (July 2013) and measured runoff volume after nearly every rain event from September 2012 to September 2013 (33 events) and runoff fluxes of inorganic nutrients ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate from a subset of 10 events. We found that (1) total plant biomass increased with increasing species richness, (2) green roof plots were effective at reducing storm runoff, with vegetation increasing water retention more than soil-like substrate alone, but there was no significant effect of plant species identity or richness on runoff volume, (3) green roof substrate was a significant source of phosphate, regardless of presence/absence of plants, and (4) dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN = nitrate + ammonium) runoff fluxes were different among plant species and decreased significantly with increasing plant species richness. The variation in N retention was positively related to variation in plant biomass. Notably, the increased biomass and N retention with species richness in this engineered ecosystem are similar to patterns observed in published studies from grasslands and other well-studied ecosystems. We suggest that more diverse plantings on vegetated roofs may enhance the retention capacity for reactive nitrogen. This is of importance for the sustained health of vegetated roof ecosystems, which over time often experience nitrogen limitation, and is also relevant for water quality in receiving waters

  2. Crown condition assessment at the CONECOFOR Permanent Monitoring Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo NIBBI

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A detailed crown condition assessment is currently being carried out at the CONECOFOR (CONtrollo ECOsistemi FORestali, Control of Forest Ecosystems plots. The assessment began in 1996, and during the first two years (1996 and 1997 an assessment form based on previous regional experience was used; in 1998 the new official EU form was adopted. The resulting loss of comparability means that only a few indices can be used in the temporal series 1996-1999. Much effort was devoted to Quality Assurance (QA procedures. The QA program is structured as follows: (i specific field manuals have been adopted and are continuously updated; (ii a national training and intercalibration course (NT&IC is undertaken yearly before beginning the assessment campaign;( iii field checks are carried out yearly on a large number of plots. The results of the QA program have shown that for several indices the quality objectives were not reached, but the quality of the data is improving with time. To express the change in crown conditions in each area, a complex index (CCI = Crown Condition Index was adopted. This index is the result of the sum of the relativized values of all the common indices used during the four years. The following parameters were used: transparency, ramification type, leaf colour alteration extension, leaf damage extension, alteration of leaf distension extension. The range within which the CCI fluctuates was evaluated taking into account all the observations carried out at a given plot throughout the years. The number of cases over a given threshold (outliers was calculated for each year. The threshold for outliers was calculated as the median value plus 2 times the range of the interquartile value. All individual cases exceeding this value are considered outliers. The results are presented for all the areas in which the data set is complete for the four years. The yearly fluctuations are discussed and related to possible causes.

  3. Driver for solar cell i-v characteristic plots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, G.B.

    1980-01-15

    A bipolar voltage ramp generator applies a linear voltage through a resistor to a solar cell for plotting its current versus voltage (I-v) characteristic between short circuit and open circuit conditions, with automatic stops at the end points. The resistor serves the multiple purpose of providing a current sensing resistor, setting the full-scale current value, and providing a load line with a slope approximately equal to one, such that it will pass through the origin and the approximate center of the i-v curve with about equal distance from that center to each of the end points.

  4. The Alienated Plot in The End of the Road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽娜

    2014-01-01

    The End of the Road is John Barth’s second novel, and it is the first novel that brought abortion to the focus of public attention, which proves to be a huge success. This paper intends to study the alienation in The End of the Road based on the alienation as a literary style and the alienation embodied in the literary context. Through the analysis of the alienated plot, the pa-per aims to emphasize the internal cause for the end of the different character ’s road.

  5. Hydrology of small field plots used to study phosphorus runoff under simulated rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, M S; Kleinman, P J A; Sharpley, A N; Buob, T; Gburek, W J

    2007-01-01

    Use of small plots and rainfall simulators to extrapolate trends in runoff water quality requires careful consideration of hydrologic process represented under such conditions. A modified version of the National Phosphorus Runoff Project (NPRP) protocol was used to assess the hydrology of paired 1 x 2 m plots established on two soils with contrasting hydrologic properties (somewhat poorly drained vs. well drained). Rain simulations (60 mm h(-1)) were conducted to generate 30 min of runoff. For the somewhat poorly drained soil, simulations were conducted in October and May to contrast dry conditions typically targeted by NPRP protocols with wet conditions generally associated with natural runoff. For the well-drained soil, only dry conditions (October) were evaluated. Under dry antecedent moisture conditions, an average of 64 mm of rainfall was applied to the somewhat poorly drained soil to generate 30 min of runoff, as opposed to 96 mm to the well-drained soil. At an extreme, differences in rainfall were equivalent to a 50-yr rainfall-return period. An absence of detectable spatial trends in surface soil moisture suggests uniformity of runoff processes within the plots. No differences in applied rainfall were evident between wet and dry antecedent conditions for the somewhat poorly drained soil. However, significant differences in runoff generation processes were observed in dissolved P concentrations between wet and dry conditions. As natural runoff from the somewhat poorly drained soil is largely under wet antecedent conditions, this study highlights the need for care in interpreting findings from generalized protocols that favor infiltration-excess runoff mechanisms.

  6. Establishment Report for Permanent Vegetation Monitoring Plots Inside and Outside Deer Exclosures in Canaan Valley, Tucker County, West Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Two deer exclosures were built in Canaan Valley, Tucker County, WV in the fall of 2001 to protect young balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and to study and demonstrate the...

  7. Establishment and Sampling of Permanent Vegetation Monitoring Plots in Herbaceous Communities at Big Muddy National Fish and Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2002 and 2003, as part of an effort to characterize bird habitat, vegetation at Big Muddy National Fish and Wildlife Refuge was sampled in three very coarse...

  8. Establishing a Eucalyptus energy plantation on the central coast of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman H. Pillsbury; Nelson L. Ayers

    1983-01-01

    A 17.5-acre non-irrigated biomass energy plantation has been established near San Luis Obispo. This joint California Polytechnic State University - California Department of Forestry project is measuring plot growth response of seven eucalyptus species for three spacing trials and for the effect of fertilization. All study plots are replicated. Site preparation strategy...

  9. [Heart rate variability study based on a novel RdR RR Intervals Scatter Plot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongwei; Lu, Xiuyun; Wang, Chunfang; Hua, Youyuan; Tian, Jiajia; Liu, Shihai

    2014-08-01

    On the basis of Poincare scatter plot and first order difference scatter plot, a novel heart rate variability (HRV) analysis method based on scatter plots of RR intervals and first order difference of RR intervals (namely, RdR) was proposed. The abscissa of the RdR scatter plot, the x-axis, is RR intervals and the ordinate, y-axis, is the difference between successive RR intervals. The RdR scatter plot includes the information of RR intervals and the difference between successive RR intervals, which captures more HRV information. By RdR scatter plot analysis of some records of MIT-BIH arrhythmias database, we found that the scatter plot of uncoupled premature ventricular contraction (PVC), coupled ventricular bigeminy and ventricular trigeminy PVC had specific graphic characteristics. The RdR scatter plot method has higher detecting performance than the Poincare scatter plot method, and simpler and more intuitive than the first order difference method.

  10. Forest soil microbial communities: Using metagenomic approaches to survey permanent plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy L. Ross-Davis; Jane E. Stewart; John W. Hanna; John D. Shaw; Andrew T. Hudak; Theresa B. Jain; Robert J. Denner; Russell T. Graham; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Joanne M. Tirocke; Mee-Sook Kim; Ned B. Klopfenstein

    2014-01-01

    Forest soil ecosystems include some of the most complex microbial communities on Earth (Fierer et al. 2012). These assemblages of archaea, bacteria, fungi, and protists play essential roles in biogeochemical cycles (van der Heijden et al. 2008) and account for considerable terrestrial biomass (Nielsen et al. 2011). Yet, determining the microbial composition of forest...

  11. Julia Butler Hansen NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Vegetation Changes: White-tail Slough Photo Plots

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2013 a setback levee was constructed on the JBH Mainland. In 2014 the main levee was breached, and water flowed into a 70-acre section of land that had been...

  12. Computational Drafting of Plot Structures for Russian Folk Tales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervás, Pablo

    The plots of stories are known to follow general patterns in terms of their overall structure. This was the basic tenet of structuralist approaches to narratology. Vladimir Propp proposed a procedure for the generation of new tales based on his semi-formal description of the structure of Russian folk tales. This is one of the first existing instances of a creative process described procedurally. The present paper revisits Propp's morphology to build a system that generates instances of Russian folk tales. Propp's view of the folk tale as a rigid sequence of character functions is employed as a plot driver, and some issues that Propp declared relevant but did not explore in detail-such as long-range dependencies between functions or the importance of endings-are given computational shape in the context of a broader architecture that captures all the aspects discussed by Propp. A set of simple evaluation metrics for the resulting outputs is defined inspired on Propp's formalism. The potential of the resulting system for providing a creative story generation system is discussed, and possible lines of future work are discussed.

  13. Recurrence plot for parameters analysing of internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexa, O.; Ilie, C. O.; Marinescu, M.; Vilau, R.; Grosu, D.

    2015-11-01

    In many technical disciplines modem data analysis techniques has been successfully applied to understand the complexity of the system. The growing volume of theoretical knowledge about systems dynamic's offered researchers the opportunity to look for non-linear dynamics in data whose evolution linear models are unable to explain in a satisfactory manner. One approach in this respect is Recurrence Analysis - RA which is a graphical method designed to locate hidden recurring patterns, nonstationarity and structural changes. RA approach arose in natural sciences like physics and biology but quickly was adopted in economics and engineering. Meanwhile. The fast development of computer resources has provided powerful tools to perform this new and complex model. One free software which was used to perform our analysis is Visual Recurrence Analysis - VRA developed by Eugene Kononov. As is presented in this paper, the recurrence plot investigation for the analyzing of the internal combustion engine shows some of the RPA capabilities in this domain. We chose two specific engine parameters measured in two different tests to perform the RPA. These parameters are injection impulse width and engine angular speed and the tests are I11n and I51n. There were computed graphs for each of them. Graphs were analyzed and compared to obtain a conclusion. This work is an incipient research, being one of the first attempts of using recurrence plot for analyzing automotive dynamics. It opens a wide field of action for future research programs.

  14. Dark-lines in bifurcation plots of nonlinear dynamic systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Zhi-Ying; Shen Yun-Wen; Liu Meng-Jun

    2005-01-01

    Based on the regressive character of chaotic motion in nonlinear dynamic systems, a numerical regression algorithm is developed, which can be used to research the dark-lines passing through chaotic regions in bifurcation plots. The dark-lines of the parabolic mapping are obtained by using the numerical regression algorithm, and compared with those that are accurately acquired through dark-line equations. Thus the validity of this algorithm is proved. Furthermore,for the Brussel oscillation system and the piecewise linear dynamic system of a gear pair, the dark-lines are researched by using the regression algorithm. By researching the dark-lines in the bifurcation plots of nonlinear dynamic systems,the periodic windows embedded in chaotic regions can be ascertained by tangential points of dark-lines, and the turning points of chaotic attractors can be also obtained by intersected points. The results show that this algorithm is helpful to analyse dynamic behaviour of systems and control chaotic motion.

  15. Soil Carbon Accumulation and CO2 Flux in Experimental Restoration Plots, Southern Iceland: Comparing Soil Treatment Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence H. Tanner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental plots were established on severely eroded land surfaces in Iceland in 1999 to study the rates and limits of soil carbon sequestration during restoration and succession. The carbon content in the upper 10 cm of soils increased substantially during the initial eight years in all plots for which the treatments included both fertilizer and seeding with grasses, concomitant with the increase in vegetative cover. In the following five years, however, the soil carbon accumulation rates declined to negligible for most treatments and the carbon content in soils mainly remained relatively constant. We suggest that burial of vegetated surfaces by aeolian drift and nutrient limitation inhibited productivity and carbon sequestration in most plots. Only plots seeded with lupine demonstrated continued long-term soil carbon accumulation and soil CO2 flux rates significantly higher than background levels. This demonstrates that lupine was the sole treatment that resulted in vegetation capable of sustained growth independent of nutrient availability and resistant to disruption by aeolian processes.

  16. Assessment of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Imagery for Quantitative Monitoring of Wheat Crop in Small Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Baret

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines how light Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV can be used in remote sensing for precision farming. It focuses on the combination of simple digital photographic cameras with spectral filters, designed to provide multispectral images in the visible and near-infrared domains. In 2005, these instruments were fitted to powered glider and parachute, and flown at six dates staggered over the crop season. We monitored ten varieties of wheat, grown in trial micro-plots in the South-West of France. For each date, we acquired multiple views in four spectral bands corresponding to blue, green, red, and near-infrared. We then performed accurate corrections of image vignetting, geometric distortions, and radiometric bidirectional effects. Afterwards, we derived for each experimental micro-plot several vegetation indexes relevant for vegetation analyses. Finally, we sought relationships between these indexes and field-measured biophysical parameters, both generic and date-specific. Therefore, we established a robust and stable generic relationship between, in one hand, leaf area index and NDVI and, in the other hand, nitrogen uptake and GNDVI. Due to a high amount of noise in the data, it was not possible to obtain a more accurate model for each date independently. A validation protocol showed that we could expect a precision level of 15% in the biophysical parameters estimation while using these relationships.

  17. Modified Whittaker plots as an assessment and monitoring tool for vegetation in a lowland tropical rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Patrick; Comiskey, James; Alonso, Alfonso; Dallmeier, Francisco; Nuñez, Percy; Beltran, Hamilton; Baldeon, Severo; Nauray, William; de la Colina, Rafael; Acurio, Lucero; Udvardy, Shana

    2002-05-01

    Resource exploitation in lowland tropical forests is increasing and causing loss of biodiversity. Effective evaluation and management of the impacts of development on tropical forests requires appropriate assessment and monitoring tools. We propose the use of 0.1-ha multi-scale, modified Whittaker plots (MWPs) to assess and monitor vegetation in lowland tropical rainforests. We established MWPs at 4 sites to: (1) describe and compare composition and structure of the sites using MWPs, (2) compare these results to those of 1-ha permanent vegetation plots (BDPs), and (3) evaluate the ability of MWPs to detect changes in populations (statistical power). We recorded more than 400 species at each site. Species composition among the sites was distinctive, while mean abundance and basal area was similar. Comparisons between MWPs and BDPs show that they record similar species composition and abundance and that both perform equally well at detecting rare species. However, MWPs tend to record more species, and power analysis studies show that MWPs were more effective at detecting changes in the mean number of species of trees > or = 10 cm in diameter at breast height (dbh) and in herbaceous plants. Ten MWPs were sufficient to detect a change of 11% in the mean number of herb species, and they were able to detect a 14% change in the mean number of species of trees > or =10 cm dbh. The value of MWPs for assessment and monitoring is discussed, along with recommendations for improving the sampling design to increase power.

  18. Information extraction from FN plots of tungsten microemitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mussa, Khalil O. [Department of Physics, Mu' tah University, Al-Karak (Jordan); Mousa, Marwan S., E-mail: mmousa@mutah.edu.jo [Department of Physics, Mu' tah University, Al-Karak (Jordan); Fischer, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.fischer@physik.tu-chemnitz.de [Institut für Physik, Technische Universität Chemnitz, Chemnitz (Germany)

    2013-09-15

    Tungsten based microemitter tips have been prepared both clean and coated with dielectric materials. For clean tungsten tips, apex radii have been varied ranging from 25 to 500 nm. These tips were manufactured by electrochemical etching a 0.1 mm diameter high purity (99.95%) tungsten wire at the meniscus of two molar NaOH solution. Composite micro-emitters considered here are consisting of a tungsten core coated with different dielectric materials—such as magnesium oxide (MgO), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), tetracyanoethylene (TCNE), and zinc oxide (ZnO). It is worthwhile noting here, that the rather unconventional NaOH coating has shown several interesting properties. Various properties of these emitters were measured including current–voltage (IV) characteristics and the physical shape of the tips. A conventional field emission microscope (FEM) with a tip (cathode)–screen (anode) separation standardized at 10 mm was used to electrically characterize the electron emitters. The system was evacuated down to a base pressure of ∼10{sup −8}mbar when baked at up to ∼180°C overnight. This allowed measurements of typical field electron emission (FE) characteristics, namely the IV characteristics and the emission images on a conductive phosphorus screen (the anode). Mechanical characterization has been performed through a FEI scanning electron microscope (SEM). Within this work, the mentioned experimental results are connected to the theory for analyzing Fowler–Nordheim (FN) plots. We compared and evaluated the data extracted from clean tungsten tips of different radii and determined deviations between the results of different extraction methods applied. In particular, we derived the apex radii of several clean and coated tungsten tips by both SEM imaging and analyzing FN plots. The aim of this analysis is to support the ongoing discussion on recently developed improvements of the theory for analyzing FN plots related to metal field electron emitters, which in

  19. Minimum secondary aberration fractional factorial split-plot designs in terms of consulting designs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Al; Mingyao; ZHANG; Runchu

    2006-01-01

    It is very powerful for constructing nearly saturated factorial designs to characterize fractional factorial (FF) designs through their consulting designs when the consulting designs are small. Mukerjee and Fang employed the projective geometry theory to find the secondary wordlength pattern of a regular symmetrical fractional factorial split-plot (FFSP) design in terms of its complementary subset, but not in a unified form. In this paper, based on the connection between factorial design theory and coding theory, we obtain some general and unified combinatorial identities that relate the secondary wordlength pattern of a regular symmetrical or mixed-level FFSP design to that of its consulting design. According to these identities, we further establish some general and unified rules for identifying minimum secondary aberration, symmetrical or mixed-level, FFSP designs through their consulting designs.

  20. Field Plot Points for Acadia National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has produced a vegetation spatial database coverage (vegetation map) for the Acadia...

  1. Dalitz plot analysis of the D+ -> K- pi+ pi+ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Bonvicini, G; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Naik, P; Briere, R A; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Mohapatra, D; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Mehrabyan, S; Lowrey, N; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A G; Ecklund, K M; Love, W; Savinov, V; López, A; Mehrabyan, S; Méndez, H; Ramírez, J; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Sanghi, B; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Horwitz, N; Khalil, S; Li, J; Menaa, N; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Sia, R; Sultana, N; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, L M

    2007-01-01

    We present a Dalitz plot analysis of the decay D+ -> K- pi+ pi+ based on 281 pb-1 of e+e- collision data produced at the psi(3770) by CESR and observed with the CLEO-c detector. We select 67086 candidate events with a small, ~1.1%, background for this analysis. When using a simple isobar model our results are consistent with the previous measurements done by E791. Since our sample is considerably larger we can explore alternative models. We find better agreement with data when we include an isospin-two pi+pi+ S-wave contribution. We apply a quasi model-independent partial wave analysis and measure the amplitude and phase of the K pi and pi+pi+ S waves in the range of invariant masses from the threshold to the maximum in this decay.

  2. Dalitz Plot Analysis of Ds+->pi+pi-pi+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; /Bergen U.; Abrams, G.S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Cahn, R.N.; Jacobsen, R.G.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DSM, DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2009-01-26

    A Dalitz plot analysis of {approx} 13, 000 D{sub s}{sup +} decays to {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} has been performed. A 384 fb{sup -1} data sample, recorded by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} storage ring running at center of mass energies near 10.6 GeV, is used. Amplitudes and phases of the intermediate resonances which contribute to this final state are measured. A high precision measurement of the ratio: {Beta}(D{sub s}{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})/{Beta}(D{sub s}{sup +} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}) = 0.199 {+-} 0.004 {+-} 0.006 is performed. Using a model independent partial wave analysis the amplitude and phase of the S-wave have been measured.

  3. Dalitz plot analysis of Ds+→π+π-π+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Abrams, G. S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I. L.; Ronan, M. T.; Tackmann, K.; Tanabe, T.; Hawkes, C. M.; Soni, N.; Watson, A. T.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Fulsom, B. G.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Barrett, M.; Khan, A.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Bondioli, M.; Curry, S.; Eschrich, I.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Lund, P.; Mandelkern, M.; Martin, E. C.; Stoker, D. P.; Abachi, S.; Buchanan, C.; Atmacan, H.; Gary, J. W.; Liu, F.; Long, O.; Vitug, G. M.; Yasin, Z.; Zhang, L.; Sharma, V.; Campagnari, C.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Mazur, M. A.; Richman, J. D.; Beck, T. W.; Eisner, A. M.; Flacco, C. J.; Heusch, C. A.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Martinez, A. J.; Schalk, T.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Wilson, M. G.; Winstrom, L. O.; Cheng, C. H.; Doll, D. A.; Echenard, B.; Fang, F.; Hitlin, D. G.; Narsky, I.; Piatenko, T.; Porter, F. C.; Andreassen, R.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Mishra, K.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Bloom, P. C.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Hirschauer, J. F.; Nagel, M.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Wagner, S. R.; Ayad, R.; Soffer, A.; Toki, W. H.; Wilson, R. J.; Feltresi, E.; Hauke, A.; Jasper, H.; Karbach, M.; Merkel, J.; Petzold, A.; Spaan, B.; Wacker, K.; Kobel, M. J.; Nogowski, R.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Volk, A.; Bernard, D.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Latour, E.; Verderi, M.; Clark, P. J.; Playfer, S.; Watson, J. E.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cecchi, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Franchini, P.; Luppi, E.; Negrini, M.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; Zallo, A.; Buzzo, A.; Contri, R.; Lo Vetere, M.; Macri, M. M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Santroni, A.; Tosi, S.; Chaisanguanthum, K. S.; Morii, M.; Adametz, A.; Marks, J.; Schenk, S.; Uwer, U.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Klose, V.; Lacker, H. M.; Bard, D. J.; Dauncey, P. D.; Tibbetts, M.; Behera, P. K.; Chai, X.; Charles, M. J.; Mallik, U.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Dong, L.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rubin, A. E.; Gao, Y. Y.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Lae, C. K.; Arnaud, N.; Béquilleux, J.; D'Orazio, A.; Davier, M.; Firmino da Costa, J.; Grosdidier, G.; Le Diberder, F.; Lepeltier, V.; Lutz, A. M.; Pruvot, S.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Serrano, J.; Sordini, V.; Stocchi, A.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Bingham, I.; Burke, J. P.; Chavez, C. A.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; Clarke, C. K.; di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Sigamani, M.; Cowan, G.; Paramesvaran, S.; Wren, A. C.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Alwyn, K. E.; Bailey, D.; Barlow, R. J.; Jackson, G.; Lafferty, G. D.; West, T. J.; Yi, J. I.; Anderson, J.; Chen, C.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Simi, G.; Tuggle, J. M.; Dallapiccola, C.; Li, X.; Salvati, E.; Saremi, S.; Cowan, R.; Dujmic, D.; Fisher, P. H.; Henderson, S. W.; Sciolla, G.; Spitznagel, M.; Taylor, F.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Zhao, M.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Lazzaro, A.; Lombardo, V.; Palombo, F.; Bauer, J. M.; Cremaldi, L.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Summers, D. J.; Zhao, H. W.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; Nicholson, H.; de Nardo, G.; Lista, L.; Monorchio, D.; Onorato, G.; Sciacca, C.; Raven, G.; Snoek, H. L.; Jessop, C. P.; Knoepfel, K. J.; Losecco, J. M.; Wang, W. F.; Corwin, L. A.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Morris, J. P.; Rahimi, A. M.; Regensburger, J. J.; Sekula, S. J.; Wong, Q. K.; Blount, N. L.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Igonkina, O.; Kolb, J. A.; Lu, M.; Rahmat, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Strube, J.; Torrence, E.; Castelli, G.; Gagliardi, N.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Voci, C.; Del Amo Sanchez, P.; Ben-Haim, E.; Briand, H.; Calderini, G.; Chauveau, J.; Hamon, O.; Leruste, Ph.; Ocariz, J.; Perez, A.; Prendki, J.; Sitt, S.; Gladney, L.; Biasini, M.; Manoni, E.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Carpinelli, M.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Marchiori, G.; Morganti, M.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Lu, C.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Telnov, A. V.; Anulli, F.; Baracchini, E.; Cavoto, G.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.

    2009-02-01

    A Dalitz plot analysis of approximately 13 000 Ds+ decays to π+π-π+ has been performed. The analysis uses a 384fb-1 data sample recorded by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e+e- storage ring running at center of mass energies near 10.6 GeV. Amplitudes and phases of the intermediate resonances which contribute to this final state are measured. A high precision measurement of the ratio of branching fractions is performed: B(Ds+→π+π-π+)/B(Ds+→K+K-π+)=0.199±0.004±0.009. Using a model-independent partial wave analysis, the amplitude and phase of the S wave have been measured.

  4. Multiscale recurrence quantification analysis of order recurrence plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengjia; Shang, Pengjian; Lin, Aijing

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method of multiscale recurrence quantification analysis (MSRQA) to analyze the structure of order recurrence plots. The MSRQA is based on order patterns over a range of time scales. Compared with conventional recurrence quantification analysis (RQA), the MSRQA can show richer and more recognizable information on the local characteristics of diverse systems which successfully describes their recurrence properties. Both synthetic series and stock market indexes exhibit their properties of recurrence at large time scales that quite differ from those at a single time scale. Some systems present more accurate recurrence patterns under large time scales. It demonstrates that the new approach is effective for distinguishing three similar stock market systems and showing some inherent differences.

  5. Recurrence plots of discrete-time Gaussian stochastic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdani, Sofiane; Bouchara, Frédéric; Lagarde, Julien; Lesne, Annick

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of recurrence plots (RPs) of data generated by discrete-time stationary Gaussian random processes. We analytically derive the theoretical values of the probabilities of occurrence of recurrence points and consecutive recurrence points forming diagonals in the RP, with an embedding dimension equal to 1. These results allow us to obtain theoretical values of three measures: (i) the recurrence rate (REC) (ii) the percent determinism (DET) and (iii) RP-based estimation of the ε-entropy κ(ε) in the sense of correlation entropy. We apply these results to two Gaussian processes, namely first order autoregressive processes and fractional Gaussian noise. For these processes, we simulate a number of realizations and compare the RP-based estimations of the three selected measures to their theoretical values. These comparisons provide useful information on the quality of the estimations, such as the minimum required data length and threshold radius used to construct the RP.

  6. B^0 --> K^+ \\pi^- \\pi^0 Dalitz Plot Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Abrams, G S; Adye, T; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Albert, J; Aleksan, Roy; Allison, J; Allmendinger, T; Altenburg, D; Andreotti, M; Angelini, C; Anulli, F; Aston, D; Azzolini, V; Baak, M; Back, J J; Bailey, S; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Band, H R; Banerjee, Sw; Barate, R; Bard, D J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Barrett, M; Bartoldus, R; Batignani, G; Bauer, J M; Beck, T W; Behera, P K; Bellini, F; Benayoun, M; Berger, N; Bernard, D; Berryhill, J W; Best, D; Bettarini, S; Bettoni, D; Bevan, A J; Bhimji, W; Bianchi, F; Biasini, M; Blanc, F; Blaylock, G; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Bloom, P; Bóna, M; Bondioli, M; Bonneaud, G R; Borgland, A W; Bosisio, L; Boutigny, D; Bowerman, D A; Boyarski, A M; Boyd, J T; Bozzi, C; Brandenburg, G; Brandt, T; Brau, J E; Breon, A B; Briand, H; Brochard, F; Brose, J; Brown, C L; Brown, C M; Brown, D; Brown, D N; Bruinsma, M; Brunet, S; Bucci, F; Buchanan, C; Buchmüller, O L; Bugg, W; Bulten, H; Burchat, Patricia R; Button-Shafer, J; Buzzo, A; Côté, D; Cahn, R N; Calabrese, R; Calcaterra, A; Calderini, G; Campagnari, C; Capra, R; Carpinelli, M; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; Cavoto, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Chao, M; Charles, E; Charles, M J; Chauveau, J; Chavez, C A; Chen, A; Chen, E; Chen, J C; Chen, S; Cheng, B; Cheng, C H; Chevalier, N; Christ, S; Cibinetto, G; Clark, P J; Claus, R; Cochran, J; Colecchia, F; Coleman, J P; Contri, R; Convery, M R; Cormack, C M; Cossutti, F; Cottingham, W N; Couderc, F; Covarelli, R; Cowan, G; Cowan, R; Crawley, H B; Cremaldi, L M; Cristinziani, M; Crosetti, G; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Dahmes, B; Dallapiccola, C; Danielson, N; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Dauncey, P D; David, P; Davier, M; Davis, C L; Day, C T; De Groot, N; De Nardo, Gallieno; Del Buono, L; Della Ricca, G; Di Lodovico, F; Dickopp, M; Dittongo, S; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dorigo, A; Druzhinin, V P; Dubitzky, R S; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Dvoretskii, A; Eckmann, R; Edwards, A J; Egede, U; Eichenbaum, A M; Eigen, G; Eisner, A M; Elmer, P; Elsen, E E; Emery, S; Ernst, J A; Eschenburg, V; Eschrich, I; Fabozzi, F; Faccini, R; Fan, S; Farbin, A; Feltresi, E; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Field, R C; Finocchiaro, G; Flack, R L; Flächer, H U; Flood, K T; Ford, K E; Ford, W T; Forster, I J; Forti, F; Fortin, D; Foulkes, S D; Franek, B J; Frey, R; Fritsch, M; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gaidot, A; Gaillard, J M; Gaillard, J R; Galeazzi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Gamet, R; Gan, K K; Ganzhur, S F; Gary, J W; Gaspero, M; Gatto, C; Geddes, N I; Gill, M S; Giorgi, M A; Giraud, P F; Giroux, X; Gladney, L; Glanzman, T; Godang, R; Goetzen, K; Golubev, V B; Gopal, G P; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M; Grancagnolo, S; Green, M G; Greene, M G; Grenier, G J; Grenier, P; Gritsan, A V; Grosdidier, G; Groysman, Y; Guo, Q H; Hadavand, H K; Hadig, T; Haire, M; Halyo, V; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Hamon, O; Harrison, P F; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hart, P A; Hartfiel, B L; Harton, J L; Hast, C; Hauke, A; Hawkes, C M; Hearty, C; Held, T; Hertzbach, S S; Heusch, C A; Hicheur, A; Hill, E J; Hitlin, D G; Höcker, A; Hodgkinson, M C; Hollar, J J; Honscheid, K; Hrynóva, T; Hufnagel, D; Hulsbergen, W D; Hutchcroft, D E; Igonkina, O; Innes, W R; Ivanchenko, V N; Izen, J M; Jackson, P D; Jackson, P S; Jacobsen, R G; Jawahery, A; Jayatilleke, S M; Jessop, C P; John, M J J; Johnson, J R; Judd, D; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kagan, H; Karyotakis, Yu; Kass, R; Kelly, M P; Kelsey, M H; Kerth, L T; Khan, A; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kirkby, D; Kitayama, I; Knecht, N S; Koch, H; Kocian, M L; Kofler, R; Kolomensky, Yu G; Koptchev, V B; Kovalskyi, D; Kowalewski, R V; Kozanecki, Witold; Kravchenko, E A; Krishnamurthy, M; Kroeger, R; Kroseberg, J; Kukartsev, G; Kutter, P E; Kyberd, P; Lacker, H M; Lae, C K; Lafferty, G D; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lange, D J; Langenegger, U; Lankford, A J; Laplace, S; Latham, T E; Lau, Y P; Lavin, D; Lazzaro, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lees, J P; Legendre, M; Leith, D W G S; Lepeltier, V; Leruste, P; Lewandowski, B; Li Gioi, L; Li, H; Libby, J; Lillard, V; Lista, L; Liu, R; LoSecco, J M; Lo Vetere, M; Lockman, W S; Lombardo, V; London, G W; Long, O; Lou, X C; Lu, A; Lü, C; Luitz, S; Luppi, E; Lusiani, A; Lüth, V; Lutz, A M; Lynch, G; Lynch, H L; Lyon, A J; MacFarlane, D B; Macri, M; Malcles, J; Mallik, U; Mancinelli, G; Mandelkern, M A; Manfredi, P F; Mangeol, D J J; Marchiori, G; Margoni, M; Marsiske, H; Martínez-Vidal, F; Mattison, T S; Mayer, B; Mazur, M A; Mazzoni, M A; McKenna, J A; McMahon, T R; Meadows, B T; Messner, R; Meyer, T I; Meyer, W T; Miftakov, V; Mihályi, A; Mir, L M; Mohanty, G B; Mohapatra, A K; Mommsen, R K; Monge, M R; Monorchio, D; Moore, T B; Morandin, M; Morgan, S E; Morganti, M; Morganti, S; Morii, M; Morton, G W; Muheim, F; Müller, D R; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Narsky, I; Nash, J A; Nauenberg, U; Neal, H; Negrini, M; Neri, N; Nesom, G; Nicholson, H; Nikolich, M B; Nogowski, R; O'Grady, C P; Ocariz, J; Oddone, P J; Ofte, I; Olaiya, E O; Olivas, A; Olsen, J; Onuchin, A P; Orimoto, T J; Otto, S; Ozcan, V E; Paar, H P; Paick, K; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Pan, Y; Panetta, J; Panvini, R S; Paoloni, E; Paolucci, P; Parry, R J; Passaggio, S; Patel, P M; Patrignani, C; Patteri, P; Payne, D J; Pelizaeus, M; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Peruzzi, I M; Petersen, B A; Petersen, T C; Petrak, S; Petzold, A; Piatenko, T; Piccolo, D; Piccolo, M; Piemontese, L; Pierini, M; Pioppi, M; Piredda, G; Pivk, M; Plaszczynski, S; Playfer, S; Pompili, A; Poropat, P; Porter, F C; Posocco, M; Potter, C T; Prell, S; Prepost, R; Pripstein, M; Pulliam, T; Purohit, M V; Qi, N D; Rahatlou, S; Rahimi, A M; Rama, M; Rankin, P; Ratcliff, B N; Raven, G; Re, V; Reidy, J; Ricciardi, S; Richman, J D; Ritchie, J L; Rizzo, G; Roat, C; Roberts, D A; Robertson, S H; Robutti, E; Roe, N A; Röthel, W; Ronan, Michael T; Roney, J M; Rong, G; Roodman, A; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rotondo, M; Rubin, A E; Ryd, A; Saeed, M A; Safai-Tehrani, F; Saleem, M; Salnikov, A A; Salvatore, F; Samuel, A; Sanders, D A; Sandrelli, F; Santroni, A; Saremi, S; Sarti, A; Satpathy, A; Schalk, T; Schindler, R H; Schott, G; Schrenk, S; Schubert, J; Schubert, Klaus R; Schumm, B A; Schune, M H; Schwiening, J; Schwierz, R; Schwitters, R F; Sciacca, C; Sciolla, G; Seiden, A; Sekula, S J; Serednyakov, S I; Sharma, V; Shelkov, V G; Shen, B C; Simani, M C; Simi, G; Simonetto, F; Sinev, N B; Skovpen, Yu I; Sloane, R J; Smith, A J S; Smith, J G; Snoek, H L; Snyder, A; Sobie, R J; Soffer, A; Soha, A; Sokoloff, M D; Solodov, E P; Spaan, B; Spanier, S M; Spradlin, P; Stängle, H; Steinke, M; Stelzer, J; Stoker, D P; Stroili, R; Strom, D; Stugu, B; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Summers, D J; Sundermann, J E; T'Jampens, S; Tan, P; Tantot, L; Taras, P; Taylor, F; Taylor, G P; Telnov, A V; Teodorescu, L; Ter-Antonian, R; Therin, G; Thiebaux, C; Thiessen, D; Tiozzo, G; Tisserand, V; Toki, W H; Torrence, E; Tosi, S; Touramanis, C; Treadwell, E; Vasileiadis, G; Vasseur, G; Vavra, J; Verderi, M; Verkerke, W; Vitale, L; Voci, C; Voena, C; Vuagnin, G; Wagner, G; Wagner, S R; Wagoner, D E; Waldi, R; Walsh, J; Wang, K; Wang, P; Wappler, F R; Watson, A T; Weaver, M; Weidemann, A W; Weinstein, A J R; Wenzel, W A; Wilden, L; Williams, D C; Williams, J C; Willocq, S; Wilson, F F; Wilson, J R; Wilson, M G; Wilson, R J; Winter, M A; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Won, E; Wong, Q K; Wormser, G; Wright, D H; Wright, D M; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Xie, Y; Yamamoto, R K; Yang, S; Yarritu, A K; Ye, S; Yéche, C; Yi, J; Young, C C; Yu, Z; Yumiceva, F X; Yushkov, A N; Zallo, A; Zeng, Q; Zghiche, A; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, H W; Zhu, Y S; Zito, M; De Sangro, R; Del Re, D; La Vaissière, C de

    2004-01-01

    We present preliminary results on the Dalitz plot analysis of $B^0 \\to K^+ \\pi^- \\pi^0$ decays. The data sample comprises 213 million $\\Upsilon(4S) \\to B {\\bar B}$ decays collected with the BaBar detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy $B$ Factory at SLAC. We report measurements of the inclusive branching fraction, quasi-two-body fractions and CP-violating charge asymmetries for intermediate states including $K^*(892)^+ \\pi^-$ and $\\rho(770)^- K^+$. Observations of $B^0$ decays to the $K\\pi$ $S$-wave intermediate states, $K_0^*(1430)^+ \\pi^-$ and $K_0^*(1430)^0 \\pi^0$, are reported. Evidence of the decay $B^0 \\to K^*(892)^0 \\pi^0$ is seen. We set upper limits at 90% confidence level on branching fractions of the nonresonant and other less significant intermediate states.

  7. Dalitz Plot Analysis of Ds to K+K-pi+

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, R E

    2009-01-01

    We perform a Dalitz plot analysis of the decay Ds to K+K-pi+ with the CLEO-c data set of 586/pb of e+e- collisions accumulated at sqrt(s) = 4.17 GeV. This corresponds to about 0.57 million D_s+D_s(*)- pairs from which we select 14400 candidates with a background of roughly 15%. In contrast to previous measurements we find good agreement with our data only by including an additional f_0(1370)pi+ contribution. We measure the magnitude, phase, and fit fraction of K*(892) K+, phi(1020)pi+, K0*(1430)K+, f_0(980)pi+, f_0(1710)pi+, and f_0(1370)pi+ contributions and limit the possible contributions of other KK and Kpi resonances that could appear in this decay.

  8. Finding the plot in South African reading education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Rule

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that we have lost the plot in South African reading education. To find it, we need to move beyond the predominant mode of reading as oral performance, where the emphasis is on accuracy and pronunciation, to reading as comprehension of meaning in text. While reading research in South Africa has been conducted mainly in school contexts, this case study is of a school and Adult Basic Education and Training Centre in a rural KwaZulu-Natal community near Pietermaritzburg. It found that an oratorical approach to reading dominated in both settings. It suggests that developing the way in which teachers understand the teaching of reading and transforming the teaching practices of those who teach as they were taught in the education system of the apartheid era are key to improving the teaching of reading.

  9. Parallel coordinate plots of maize traits under different magnesium applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan Bocianowski; Piotr Szulc; Kamila Nowosad

    2015-01-01

    The paral el coordinate plot is proposed as an efifcient tool for visualization of 13 traits of“stay-green”maize (Zea mays L.) cultivar exposed to different methods of magnesium application. The ifeld experiment was conducted in the Department of Agronomy, PoznańUniversity of Life Sciences, on the ifelds of the Department of Teaching and Experimental Station in Swadzim in 2006–2008. Experiment was conducted as a single-factor experiment with seven applications of magnesium in a randomized complete block design with four replicates. The highest mean values of grain yield and 1 000-grain weight were obtained after application of variant T3 of magnesium (10 kg MgO ha–1 soil) in the al three years of study.

  10. Remeasurement of permanent vegetation plots in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee, USA, and the implications of climatic changes on vegetation. Environmental Sciences Division publication No. 1111

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becking, R. W.; Olson, J. S.

    1978-03-01

    This report summarizes field work over two summers (1976 and 1977) to relocate, monument and reinventory permanent vegetation plots in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. These plots were first established by the senior author and R.H. Whittaker in 1959-62. The inventory results are discussed in terms of vegetation changes in high-altitudinal forest ecosystems, in particular the spruce-fir forests, and the factors, climate shift and biotic and abiotic agents, bringing about vegetation change. A second aspect of the report summarizes experience and offers recommendations for establishment of permanent vegetation plots for the purpose of providing a monitoring tool with which to measure long-term ecological change.

  11. Plant mycorrhizal traits and carbon fates from plot to globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudzilovskaia, N.; Cornelissen, H. H. C.

    2016-12-01

    Evidence is accumulating that plant traits related to mycorrhizal symbiosis, i.e. mycorrhizal type and the degree of plant root colonization by mycorrhizal fungi have important consequences for carbon pools and allocation in plants and soil. How plant and soil carbon pools vary among vegetation dominated by plants of different mycorrhizal types is a new and exciting research challenge. Absence of global databases on abundance of mycorrhizal fungi in soil and plant roots retards research aimed to understand involvement of mycorrhizas into soil carbon transformation processes. Using own data and published studies we have assembled currently world-largest database of plant species-per-site degrees root colonization by two most common types of mycorrhizal fungi, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and ectomycorrhizal (EM). The database features records for plant root colonization degrees by AM and EM (above 8000 records in total). Using this database, we demonstrate that the degree of mycorrhizal fungal colonization has globally consistent patterns across plant species. This suggests that the level of plant species-specific root colonization can be used as a plant trait. I will discuss how combining plot-level field data, literature data and mycorrhizal infection trait data may help us to quantify the carbon consequences of relative dominance by arbuscular versus ectomycorrhizal symbiosis in vegetation from plot to global scale. To exemplify this method, I will present an assessment of the impacts of EM shrub encroachment on carbon stocks in sub-arctic tundra, and show how the plant trait data (root, leaf, stem and mycorrhizal colonization traits) could predict (1) impacts of AM and EM vegetation on soil carbon budget and (2) changes in soil carbon budget due to increase of EM plants in an AM-dominated ecosystem and visa versa. This approach may help to predict how global change-mediated vegetation shifts, via mycorrhizal carbon pools and dynamics, may affect terrestric and

  12. Field Plot and Accuracy Assessment Points for Bent's Old Fort National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Accuracy Assessment, Observation and Plot Points. Plots within the park were identified and sampled in the summer of 2005. In the summer of 2006, randomly selected...

  13. Field Plot and Accuracy Assessment Points for Padre Island National Seashore Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Accuracy Assessment, Observation and Plot Points. Currently there are NO DATA in this feature class. As of December 2009, a plots database has not been developed and...

  14. Field Plot and Observation Points for Natural Bridges National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This point file displays the 97 field plot and observation points visited in 2003 & 2004 as part of the vegetation mapping project. Sample plots were located...

  15. Field Plot Points Modified for Fort Necessity National Battlefield Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Locations of vegetation classification sampling plots at Fort Necessity National Battlefield. In this data set, the X, Y coordinates for three plots have been...

  16. Field Plot and Observation Points for Dinosaur National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This point file displays the 727 vegetation plots and 217 observation points visited in 2002, 2003 and 2004 as part of the vegetation mapping project. Plots and...

  17. Use of a mesoplot rainfall simulator to characterize the hydrological behaviour of runoff plots under two different soil management techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Roberto; Giráldez, Juan V.; Gómez, Jose A.

    2010-05-01

    This communication describes a mobile rainfall simulator for mesoplot studies, the calibration tests required for its development, and its performance for evaluating runoff and sediment losses in an experiment on an olive grove under two different soil management methods. The rainfall simulator is based on commercial sprinkles overlapping an effective area for rainfall simulation experiments of 8 x 18 m. It uses a portable power generator, water pumps and five water tanks (of 3000 l each). It is inspired in the design of Sumner et al. 1996. The whole equipment fits into a 700 kg trailer and can be served by a team of three people. In areas without water supply water can be transported in trucks or tractors and stored into the tanks. The calibration tests indicated that the rainfall simulator can provide rainfall intensities from 15 to 35 mm h-1, depending on the number of nozzles used and the water pressure. Calibration tests indicated that it provided acceptable uniformity, an average value of the Christiansen Coefficient of Uniformity (Christiansen, 1942) of 85%, when used under wind velocities below 1 m second-1. Above this wind velocity the rainfall simulator should be used in combination with wind screens. This is not always a feasible option, as in the experiments performed in rainfall orchards where the sprinklers had to be located 3 m high to be above the olive tree canopies. In an olive orchards located in Pedrera, Southern Spain, two runoff plots under different soil management methods were selected for testing the rainfall simulator in the field. The two soil management methods evaluated were conventional tillage and a cover crop of ray grass sown in fall and chemically killed with herbicides in late March. These plots had been established five years before the rainfall simulation experiment. Three rainfall simulations were made on each of the two runoff plots. The rainfall intensity used was always 33 m h-1, and lasted 60, 60 and 45 minutes for the

  18. Recovery based on plot experiments is a poor predictor of landscape-level population impacts of agricultural pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Christopher John; Kjaer, Lene Jung; Hommen, Udo; Høye, Toke Thomas; Preuss, Thomas G; Sibly, Richard M; van Vliet, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Current European Union regulatory risk assessment allows application of pesticides provided that recovery of nontarget arthropods in-crop occurs within a year. Despite the long-established theory of source-sink dynamics, risk assessment ignores depletion of surrounding populations and typical field trials are restricted to plot-scale experiments. In the present study, the authors used agent-based modeling of 2 contrasting invertebrates, a spider and a beetle, to assess how the area of pesticide application and environmental half-life affect the assessment of recovery at the plot scale and impact the population at the landscape scale. Small-scale plot experiments were simulated for pesticides with different application rates and environmental half-lives. The same pesticides were then evaluated at the landscape scale (10 km × 10 km) assuming continuous year-on-year usage. The authors' results show that recovery time estimated from plot experiments is a poor indicator of long-term population impact at the landscape level and that the spatial scale of pesticide application strongly determines population-level impact. This raises serious doubts as to the utility of plot-recovery experiments in pesticide regulatory risk assessment for population-level protection. Predictions from the model are supported by empirical evidence from a series of studies carried out in the decade starting in 1988. The issues raised then can now be addressed using simulation. Prediction of impacts at landscape scales should be more widely used in assessing the risks posed by environmental stressors.

  19. 2016 Inspection and Annual Site Status Report for the Site A/Plot M, Illinois, Decommissioned Reactor Site July 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murl, Jeffrey [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Miller, Michele [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The Site A/Plot M, Illinois, Decommissioned Reactor Site was inspected on May 17, 2016. The site, located within Cook County forest preserve that is open to the public, was found to be in good condition with one exception. Erosion on top of the grass-covered mound at Plot M continues to be a concern as presented in previous inspections. Ruts form in the soil on top of Plot M as a result of bike traffic using the open field as a pass thru between established bike trails within the forest preserve. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) who is contracted directly from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has filled in the ruts with top soil and reseeding remains an ongoing process. Reseeded areas from 2015 are progressing nicely. No cause for a follow-up inspection was identified. In 2015, ANL plugged and abandoned 8 of 25 monitoring wells (BH41, BH51, BH52, BH54, DH9, DH10, DH13, and DH17). The 17 groundwater monitoring wells remaining at the site were inspected to confirm that they were locked and in good condition. Preliminary environmental monitoring results for 2015 are provided in a draft report titled Surveillance of Site A and Plot M, Report for 2015, prepared by ANL. The report also contains results of an independent analysis conducted by the Illinois Emergency Management Agency on some of the samples collected by ANL in 2015. The draft report states that the results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the impact of radioactivity at Site A/Plot M is very low and does not endanger the health of those living in the area or visiting the site. The ANL monitoring report will be made available to the public on the DOE Office of Legacy Management public website when it is issued as final. A new county forest preserve campsite opened in 2015 at Bull Frog Lake, which is east of Plot M. Hiking trails connect Bull Frog Lake with Site A/Plot M. The site might receive more traffic from forest preserve visitors now that this new campsite is opened.

  20. Maintaining a permanent plot data base for growth and yield research: Solutions to some recurring problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Byrne

    1993-01-01

    Methods for solving some recurring problems of maintaining a permanent plot data base for growth and yield reseuch are described. These methods include documenting data from diverse sampling designs, changing sampling designs, changing field procedures, and coordinating activities in the plots with the land management agency. Managing a permanent plot data base (...

  1. A K-sample Homogeneity Test based on the Quantification of the p-p Plot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hinloopen (Jeroen); R. Wagenvoort (Rien); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a quantification of the p-p plot that assigns equal weight to all distances between the respective distributions: the surface between the p-p plot and the diagonal. This surface is labelled the Harmonic Weighted Mass (HWM) index. We introduce the diagonal-deviation (d-d) plot

  2. A K-sample Homogeneity Test based on the Quantification of the p-p Plot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinloopen, Jeroen; Wagenvoort, Rien; Marrewijk, van Charles

    2008-01-01

    We propose a quantification of the p-p plot that assigns equal weight to all distances between the respective distributions: the surface between the p-p plot and the diagonal. This surface is labelled the Harmonic Weighted Mass (HWM) index. We introduce the diagonal-deviation (d-d) plot that allows

  3. The influence of fipronil on Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) feeding beyond treated plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Shelton

    2013-01-01

    A small-plot field trial was conducted to examine the area of influence of fipronil at incremental distances away from treated plots on the Harrison Experimental Forest near Saucier, MS. Small treated (water and fipronil) plots were surrounded by untreated wooden boards in an eight-point radial pattern, and examined for evidence of termite feeding every 60 d for 1 yr...

  4. Classification of calorimetric titration plots for alkyltrimethylammonium and alkylpyridinium cationic surfactants in aqueous solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijma, K; Engberts, J.B.F.N.; Blandamer, M.J; Cullis, P.M.; Last, P.M.; Irlam, K.D.; Soldi, L.G.

    1997-01-01

    Calorimetric titration plots for deaggregation of micelles formed by alkylpyridinium and alkyltrimethylammonium surfactants are classified into three types, A, B and C, depending on the shape of the plot of the enthalpy of dilution as a function of surfactant concentration. For Type A plots the reco

  5. Fitting Data to Model: Structural Equation Modeling Diagnosis Using Two Scatter Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ke-Hai; Hayashi, Kentaro

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces two simple scatter plots for model diagnosis in structural equation modeling. One plot contrasts a residual-based M-distance of the structural model with the M-distance for the factor score. It contains information on outliers, good leverage observations, bad leverage observations, and normal cases. The other plot contrasts…

  6. Classification of calorimetric titration plots for alkyltrimethylammonium and alkylpyridinium cationic surfactants in aqueous solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijma, K; Engberts, J.B.F.N.; Blandamer, M.J; Cullis, P.M.; Last, P.M.; Irlam, K.D.; Soldi, L.G.

    1997-01-01

    Calorimetric titration plots for deaggregation of micelles formed by alkylpyridinium and alkyltrimethylammonium surfactants are classified into three types, A, B and C, depending on the shape of the plot of the enthalpy of dilution as a function of surfactant concentration. For Type A plots the

  7. A K-sample Homogeneity Test based on the Quantification of the p-p Plot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hinloopen (Jeroen); R. Wagenvoort (Rien); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a quantification of the p-p plot that assigns equal weight to all distances between the respective distributions: the surface between the p-p plot and the diagonal. This surface is labelled the Harmonic Weighted Mass (HWM) index. We introduce the diagonal-deviation (d-d) plot

  8. A K-sample Homogeneity Test based on the Quantification of the p-p Plot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinloopen, Jeroen; Wagenvoort, Rien; Marrewijk, van Charles

    2008-01-01

    We propose a quantification of the p-p plot that assigns equal weight to all distances between the respective distributions: the surface between the p-p plot and the diagonal. This surface is labelled the Harmonic Weighted Mass (HWM) index. We introduce the diagonal-deviation (d-d) plot that allows

  9. Survey for Listeria monocytogenes on ready-to-eat foods from retail establishments in the United States (2010-2013): assessing potential changes of pathogen prevalence and levels in a decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multi-year Interagency Listeria monocytogenes Market Basket Survey (Lm MBS) was undertaken for selected categories of refrigerated ready-to eat (RTE) foods purchased at retail in four FoodNet sites in the U.S. Eighteen product types were sampled, including RTE seafood, produce, dairy, meat, eggs,...

  10. Soil pH in fruit trees in relation to specific apple replant disorder (SARD). II. The first five years at Wageningen research plot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, H.; Hoestra, H.; Borsboom, O.; Pouwer, A.

    1980-01-01

    Field plots were established with 4 target pH values, viz. 4, 5, 6 and 7, to study the effect of pH on specific apple replant disorder (SARD). The target pH levels were not stable and frequently showed fluctuations. Although no significant differences have been found on tree performance, the develop

  11. The Plot and Artistic Research of Pushkin s Lyric Poems%普希金抒情诗中的情节与艺术性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩雪

    2016-01-01

    Pushkin is good at the creation of lyric poems and he can combine the narration and sentiment cleverly.The poetry presents a plot clear artistic characteristics in the plot to create and be good at creating plot brief poetic language,the establish-ment of story telling,circumstances and his poems have distinctive personality.In the art of Pushkin's pursuit of personalized plot and self characteristics of the integration,the use of rhythm and language integration,integration of the plot and form,the architecture of personalized art features.%普希金擅长抒情诗创作,其抒将叙事和抒情巧妙地融合,使诗歌呈现情节清晰的艺术特色,在情节创设善于用简短诗歌语言创设情节,创设故事、环境情节,使其诗歌有鲜明的个性。在艺术上普希金追求个性化的情节与自我特色的融入,运用韵律和语言融合,情节与形式融合,架构个性化艺术特色。

  12. The physical model of a terraced plot: first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlotto, Chiara; D'Agostino, Vincenzo; Buzzanca, Giacomo

    2017-04-01

    Terrace building have been expanded in the 19th century because of the increased demographic pressure and the need to crop additional areas at steeper slopes. Terraces are also important to regulate the hydrological behavior of the hillslope. Few studies are available in literature on rainfall-runoff processes and flood risk mitigation in terraced areas. Bench terraces, reducing the terrain slope and the length of the overland flow, quantitatively control the runoff flow velocity, facilitating the drainage and thus leading to a reduction of soil erosion. The study of the hydrologic-hydraulic function of terraced slopes is essential in order to evaluate their possible use to cooperate for flood-risk mitigation also preserving the landscape value. This research aims to better focus the times of the hydrological response, which are determined by a hillslope plot bounded by a dry-stone wall, considering both the overland flow and the groundwater. A physical model, characterized by a quasi-real scale, has been built to reproduce the behavior of a 3% outward sloped terrace at bare soil condition. The model consists of a steel metal box (1 m large, 3.3 m long, 2 m high) containing the hillslope terrain. The terrain is equipped with two piezometers, 9 TDR sensors measuring the volumetric water content, a surface spillway at the head releasing the steady discharge under test, a scale at the wall base to measure the outflowing discharge. The experiments deal with different initial moisture condition (non-saturated and saturated), and discharges of 19.5, 12.0 and 5.0 l/min. Each experiment has been replicated, conducting a total number of 12 tests. The volumetric water content analysis produced by the 9 TDR sensors was able to provide a quite satisfactory representation of the soil moisture during the runs. Then, different lag times at the outlet since the inflow initiation were measured both for runoff and groundwater. Moreover, the time of depletion and the piezometer

  13. The imprint of exile through the plot of the narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Dutrénit Bielous

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Exile is a circumstance different from other migrations, although it resembles them in the possible insertion or alienation from the receiving society. It is with no a doubt a forced migration process which is always accompanied by an idea and an imaginary: the disappearrance of the conditions that forced to exile and thus, the return.Although it is not possible to generalize, because there is no one single experience of exile and the subjectivities that compose it are diverse, it undoubtedly produces a sensation of alienation, which can lead to the rejection of the cultural norms of society; it is part of a process of “being in one place, but thinking about another.” However, as exile is prolonged, the experience of adaptation for the different generations involved becomes diversified, communication vessels develop, feelings of inclusion, of adaptation, of attachment with the social and cultural environment that the place of refuge offered.The present text builds on testimonies of Uruguayans exiled in Mexico who have returned to their country. In their narrative, the meanings that relate to the subjective perspective that provoked the “return” to their country of origin as being viable and a palpable event are perceived. In summary, an incursion through the testimonial plot explains to what extent the return is a recovery of the space of identity longed for and the subsequent abandonment of the foreign space, in other words, it adds to the perspective of identity as a dynamic and relational construction.

  14. High-speed digital phonoscopy images analyzed by Nyquist plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yuling

    2012-02-01

    Vocal-fold vibration is a key dynamic event in voice production, and the vibratory characteristics of the vocal fold correlate closely with voice quality and health condition. Laryngeal imaging provides direct means to observe the vocal fold vibration; in the past, however, available modalities were either too slow or impractical to resolve the actual vocal fold vibrations. This limitation has now been overcome by high-speed digital imaging (HSDI) (or high-speed digital phonoscopy), which records images of the vibrating vocal folds at a rate of 2000 frames per second or higher- fast enough to resolve a specific, sustained phonatory vocal fold vibration. The subsequent image-based functional analysis of voice is essential to better understanding the mechanism underlying voice production, as well as assisting the clinical diagnosis of voice disorders. Our primary objective is to develop a comprehensive analytical platform for voice analysis using the HSDI recordings. So far, we have developed various analytical approaches for the HSDI-based voice analyses. These include Nyquist plots and associated analysese that are used along with FFT and Spectrogram in the analysis of the HSDI data representing normal voice and specific voice pathologies.

  15. Applying manifold learning to plotting approximate contour trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Shigeo; Fujishiro, Issei; Okada, Masato

    2009-01-01

    A contour tree is a powerful tool for delineating the topological evolution of isosurfaces of a single-valued function, and thus has been frequently used as a means of extracting features from volumes and their time-varying behaviors. Several sophisticated algorithms have been proposed for constructing contour trees while they often complicate the software implementation especially for higher-dimensional cases such as time-varying volumes. This paper presents a simple yet effective approach to plotting in 3D space, approximate contour trees from a set of scattered samples embedded in the high-dimensional space. Our main idea is to take advantage of manifold learning so that we can elongate the distribution of high-dimensional data samples to embed it into a low-dimensional space while respecting its local proximity of sample points. The contribution of this paper lies in the introduction of new distance metrics to manifold learning, which allows us to reformulate existing algorithms as a variant of currently available dimensionality reduction scheme. Efficient reduction of data sizes together with segmentation capability is also developed to equip our approach with a coarse-to-fine analysis even for large-scale datasets. Examples are provided to demonstrate that our proposed scheme can successfully traverse the features of volumes and their temporal behaviors through the constructed contour trees.

  16. Dalitz plot analysis of $B\\to DDK$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Purohit, Milind V

    2015-01-01

    We present Dalitz plot analyses for the decays of $B$ mesons to $D^-D^0K^+$ and $\\overline{D}^0D^0K^+$. [Charge conjugate reactions are implicitly assumed throughout.] We report the observation of the $D^*_{s1}(2700)^+$ resonance in these two channels and obtain measurements of the mass $M(D^*_{s1}(2700)^+) = 2699^{+14}_{-7}$ MeV/$c^2$ and of the width $\\Gamma(D^*_{s1}(2700)^+) = 127^{+24}_{-19}$ MeV, including statistical and systematic uncertainties. In addition, we observe an enhancement in the $D^0K^+$ invariant mass around 2350--2500 MeV/$c^2$ in both decays $B^0 \\to D^-D^0K^+$ and $B^+ \\to \\overline{D}^0D^0K^+$, which we are not able to interpret. The results are based on 429 $fb^{-1}$ of data containing $471\\times 10^6$ $B\\overline{B}$ pairs collected at the $\\Upsilon(4S)$ resonance with the BaBar detector at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory.

  17. The quartile benefit plot: a middle ear surgery benefit assessment scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmerber, Sébastien; Karkas, Alexandre; Righini, Christian A; Chahine, Karim A

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to present a new method for the assessment of hearing improvement following stapes surgery, taking into account additional, previously omitted evaluation criteria. Retrospective. A quartile plot, based on the currently used Glasgow benefit plot, is structured to include two additional criteria of hearing assessment, namely the absence of postoperative sensorineural hearing loss and the closure of the air-bone gap to <10 dB. Pre- and postoperative hearing results of 132 patients diagnosed with bilateral otosclerosis and treated with bilateral stapes surgery were plotted on both the classical Glasgow benefit plot and the new quartile benefit plot. The difference in success assessment due to stricter assessment criteria is demonstrated. Functional success rate following bilateral stapes surgery as plotted on the traditional Glasgow benefit plot was 51.5%. Success rate for bilateral stapes surgery assessed on the new quartile plot with the addition of the two new criteria was 38.64%. The difference in success rates was found to be statistically significant. The basis of benefit assessment in stapes surgery solely on the mean deficit in air conduction results in overestimation of success rate. This study demonstrates that results that appear satisfactory when judged by the Glasgow benefit plot are of modest success when assessed by the new quartile plot. The quartile benefit plot presented in this paper provides a strict measure of presentation and evaluation of stapes surgery results.

  18. The art of visualising dose distributions: Improved plotting flexibility for the R-package 'Luminescence'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Michael; Kreutzer, Sebastian; Burow, Christoph; Fuchs, Margret; Fischer, Manfred; Schmidt, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    Luminescence dating profoundly relies on the compelling presentation of equivalent doses. However, there is no perfect way to depict equivalent dose distributions with all their measures of uncertainty. Amongst others, most common approaches are the Radial Plot and kernel density estimate (KDE) graphs. Both plot types are supported by the R-package 'Luminescence', a comprehensive and flexible compilation of functions for convenient analysis and presentation of luminescence dating data. In its upcoming version, the package comprises updated versions of these two most popular plot functions to allow the user sound control over a wide variety of graphical parameters. Furthermore, a new plot type is added: The Abanico Plot (plot_AbanicoPlot()). It combines the strengths of both, the classic Radial Plot and a KDE plot. Our contribution will show all updated data visualisation approaches and provide a quick guide (workflow chart) on how to get from measurement data to high-quality dose distribution plots. It may serve to raise further discussions about the package in general and specific plot approaches in particular.

  19. Establishment Registration & Device Listing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This searchable database contains establishments (engaged in the manufacture, preparation, propagation, compounding, assembly, or processing of medical devices...

  20. Establishment Registration & Device Listing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This searchable database contains establishments (engaged in the manufacture, preparation, propagation, compounding, assembly, or processing of medical devices...

  1. Litterfall and Leaf Area Index in the CONECOFOR Permanent Monitoring Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea CUTINI

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Forest canopies are more sensitive and react more promptly to abiotic and biotic disturbances than other stand structural components. Monitoring crown and canopy characteristics is therefore a crucial issue for intensive and continuous monitoring programs of forest ecosystem status. These observations formed the basis for the measurement of annual litter production and leaf area index (LAI in the Italian permanent monitoring plots (CONECOFOR program established within the EC-UN/ECE program "Intensive Monitoring (Level II of Forest Ecosystems". Preliminary results after three years of observation are presented. The low value of within plot mean relative standard deviation (20.8 ± 1.9% of litter production, which in any case never exceeded 30%, accounted for the good sampling error and accuracy of the chosen method, which seems to be accurate enough to detect changes in litter production through the years. The higher inconsistency of the amount of woody and fruits fractions over the years demonstrated the greater reliability of leaf fraction or, on the other hand, of LAI compared to total litter. Mean values of annual leaf-litter and total litter production and LAI were rather high in comparison with data reported in literature for similar stands, and reflected both a medium-high productivity and a juvenile phase in the development of the selected stands on average. Focusing on changes in litter production through the years, statistical analysis on a sub-sample of plots showed the existence of significant differences both in leaf litter and total litter production. These findings seem to attribute to the "year" factor a driving role in determining changes in litter production and LAI. Temporal intermittence in data collection, together with the shortness of the monitoring period, make it difficult to speculate or arrive at definitive conclusions on changes in litter production due to time-dependent factors. The importance of having a complete

  2. Impact of tillage on soil magnetic properties: results over thirty years different cultivation plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiesson, Julien; Kessouri, Pauline; Buvat, Solène; Tabbagh, Alain

    2010-05-01

    Cultivation may favour or not different processes such as air and water circulation, organic matter and fertilizers supplies..., consequently it can a priori induce significant changes in local oxido-reduction conditions which determine the magnetic properties of soils: the soil magnetic signal. If laboratory measurements on soil samples can be slow and irreversible, it is also possible to perform in field measurements by using electromagnetic devices that allow quick and easy measuring over the relevant soil thicknesses both in time (TDEM) and frequency (FDEM) domains. The object of this study is to compare the variation of two magnetic properties (magnetic susceptibility, measured by FDEM apparatus and magnetic viscosity measured by TDEM apparatus) and there ratio along depth for three different types of tillage (no tillage, ploughing, and simplified tillage). An experimental plot of 80 m by 50 m total area, on which these three types of tillage have been conducted for more than thirty years, was surveyed. The plot is divided in five strips of 16 m by 50 m area, each of which being cultivated by one type of tillage only. Each strip is divided in two parts, one half with nitrogen-fixing crop during intercultivation winter period and the other half with bare soil during this period. On each part, the variation along depth of both magnetic properties was assessed by surveying with different devices corresponding to three different volumes of investigation. For the magnetic susceptibility measurements the devices used were the MS2 of Bartington Ltd with the MS2D probe and the CS60 a slingram prototype use in VCP and HCP configurations. For the magnetic viscosity, the devices used were the DECCO from Littlemore ltd. And the VC100, a slingram prototype, used at two heights. Eleven values of the two magnetic properties have been recorded using each device and their medians calculated. The data were inverted to define the median magnetic profiles of each half

  3. Survey and Analysis of Job Satisfaction of Non-establishment Staff in the Public Hospital%公立医院非在编人员工作满意度调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马效恩; 李静; 康虹; 王晓明

    2012-01-01

    Objective By analyzing the impacts of job satisfaction of non-establishment staff in the public hospital, to make recommendations for promoting better service to patients. Methods Using "Likert Scale" as the satisfaction questionnaire and STATA10.0 software for statistical data analysis. Results Non-establishment Staffs' job satisfaction was medium, the mean score was (3.66±0.78). Personal and professional expectations, department management, work environment, bonuses treatment, education and training had great impacts on non-establishment staffs' job satisfaction. Conclusion The hospital should focus on non-establishment staff satisfaction management, concerned about the differences of the different groups and different factors in order to improve the job satisfaction effectively, and enhance the hospital's capacity for sustainable development.%目的 通过分析公立医院非在编人员工作满意度影响因素,提出改进建议,以更好地为患者提供优质服务.方法 满意度问卷调查表采用李克特量表,使用STATA10.0软件进行统计数据分析.结果 非在编人员工作总体满意度平均得分为(3.66±0.78)分,评价一般.影响满意度的因素有:个人职业期望、科室管理、工作氛围、奖金待遇、学习培训等.结论 医院应关注非在编员工满意度管理工作,关注不同群体的差异和不同影响因素,有效提高满意度,增强医院的可持续发展力.

  4. POMO--Plotting Omics analysis results for Multiple Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jake; Kreisberg, Richard; Kallio, Aleksi; Dudley, Aimée M; Nykter, Matti; Shmulevich, Ilya; May, Patrick; Autio, Reija

    2013-12-24

    Systems biology experiments studying different topics and organisms produce thousands of data values across different types of genomic data. Further, data mining analyses are yielding ranked and heterogeneous results and association networks distributed over the entire genome. The visualization of these results is often difficult and standalone web tools allowing for custom inputs and dynamic filtering are limited. We have developed POMO (http://pomo.cs.tut.fi), an interactive web-based application to visually explore omics data analysis results and associations in circular, network and grid views. The circular graph represents the chromosome lengths as perimeter segments, as a reference outer ring, such as cytoband for human. The inner arcs between nodes represent the uploaded network. Further, multiple annotation rings, for example depiction of gene copy number changes, can be uploaded as text files and represented as bar, histogram or heatmap rings. POMO has built-in references for human, mouse, nematode, fly, yeast, zebrafish, rice, tomato, Arabidopsis, and Escherichia coli. In addition, POMO provides custom options that allow integrated plotting of unsupported strains or closely related species associations, such as human and mouse orthologs or two yeast wild types, studied together within a single analysis. The web application also supports interactive label and weight filtering. Every iterative filtered result in POMO can be exported as image file and text file for sharing or direct future input. The POMO web application is a unique tool for omics data analysis, which can be used to visualize and filter the genome-wide networks in the context of chromosomal locations as well as multiple network layouts. With the several illustration and filtering options the tool supports the analysis and visualization of any heterogeneous omics data analysis association results for many organisms. POMO is freely available and does not require any installation or

  5. Model-independent plot of dynamic PET data facilitates data interpretation and model selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, Ole Lajord

    2012-02-21

    When testing new PET radiotracers or new applications of existing tracers, the blood-tissue exchange and the metabolism need to be examined. However, conventional plots of measured time-activity curves from dynamic PET do not reveal the inherent kinetic information. A novel model-independent volume-influx plot (vi-plot) was developed and validated. The new vi-plot shows the time course of the instantaneous distribution volume and the instantaneous influx rate. The vi-plot visualises physiological information that facilitates model selection and it reveals when a quasi-steady state is reached, which is a prerequisite for the use of the graphical analyses by Logan and Gjedde-Patlak. Both axes of the vi-plot have direct physiological interpretation, and the plot shows kinetic parameter in close agreement with estimates obtained by non-linear kinetic modelling. The vi-plot is equally useful for analyses of PET data based on a plasma input function or a reference region input function. The vi-plot is a model-independent and informative plot for data exploration that facilitates the selection of an appropriate method for data analysis.

  6. Research on Establishment Methods of Basic Survey Control Network and Quasi-Geoid Model for Youxi County%建立尤溪县基础测绘控制网和似大地水准面模型方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑正勰

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the present situation of basic survey control network of Youxi.Based on the current GPS space positioning technology,level survey technology,region quasi-geoid refine technology,it puts forward the necessity and application prospect to establish basic survey control network and quasi-geoid model for Youxi county.It also studies the method and process to establish them.%分析了尤溪县基础测绘控制网的现状,结合目前GPS空间定位技术、水准测量技术、区域似大地水准精化技术等多种大地测量技术手段,提出建立尤溪县基础测绘控制网和似大地水准面模型的必要性及应用前景,研究探讨了建立尤溪县基础测绘控制网和似大地水准面模型的内容方法和过程。

  7. The Status Survey of Medical Resource Utilization in Newly-established Residential Area of Beijing%北京市石景山新兴居民区的医疗资源利用现况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代珍; 武锋; 刘育函; 和志英; 拉珍; 耿寅

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the current situation of medical resource allocation and utilization in the newly-established residential area in Shijingshan Disffict of Beijng City, and explore the influential factors of medical resource utilization by the residents to put forward countermeasure and suggestion.Methods: 138 residents in a newly-established residential area of Shijingshan District were investigated by accidental sampling.Results: Medical resource utilization there present to concentrate in senior institutions, and the residents are satisfied with the relatively low degree because of its allocation is lagging behind Social economics, the quality of nearly medical services and accese to them influenced the medical resource utilization in the newly-established residential area.Conclusion: It is necessary to improve the medical resource utilization in the newly-established residential area rationally allocating medical resources in time, and improve the social medical secunty system as well as strengthen the ability of community medical service system.%目的:分析北京市石景山新兴居民区的医疗资源配置和利用的现状,探讨居民对医疗资源利用的影响因素,并提出对策建议.方法:采用偶遇抽样方法,对石景山某新兴居民小区138名居民进行问卷调查.结果:石景山新兴居民区的居民对医疗资源的利用呈现向高层次机构集中的状态;新兴居民区的医疗资源配置相对滞后,居民对其满意度相对较低;社会经济因素、附近医疗服务的质量及其可及性等因素对新兴居民区医疗资源的利用都存在一定程度的影响.结论:改善新兴居民区医疗服务利用程度,及时合理配置医疗资源,完善社会医疗保障制度,加强社区医疗服务体系能力建设.

  8. A new instrument to measure plot-scale runoff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Stewart

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurement of the amount and timing of surface runoff at multiple scales is needed to understand fundamental hydrological processes. At the plot-scale (i.e., length scales on the order of 1 to 10 m current methods for direct measurement of runoff either store the water in a collection vessel, which is unconducive to long-term monitoring studies, or utilize expensive installations such as large-scale tipping buckets or flume/weir systems. We developed an alternative low-cost, robust and reliable instrument to measure runoff that we call the "Upwelling Bernoulli Tube" (UBeTube. The UBeTube instrument is a pipe with a slot machined in its side that is installed vertically at the base of a runoff collection system. The flow rate through the slot is inferred by measuring the water height within the pipe. The geometry of the slot can be modified to suit the range of flow rates expected for a given site; we demonstrate a slot geometry which is capable of measuring flow rates across more than three orders of magnitude (up to 300 L min−1 while requiring only 30 cm of hydraulic head. System accuracy is dependent on both the geometry of the slot and the accuracy of the water level measurements. With an off-the-shelf pressure transducer sensor, the mean theoretical error for the demonstrated slot geometry was ~17% (ranging from errors of more than 50% at low flow rates to less than 2% at high flow rates, while the observed error during validation was 1–25%. A simple correction factor reduced this mean error to −14%, and further reductions in error could be achieved through the use of taller, narrower slot dimensions (which requires greater head gradients to drive flow or through more accurate water level measurements. The UBeTube device has been successfully employed in a long-term rainfall-runoff study, demonstrating the ability of the instrument to measure surface runoff across a range of flows and conditions.

  9. Blood Establishment Registration Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This application provides information for active, inactive, and pre-registered firms. Query options are by FEI, Applicant Name, Establishment Name, Other Names,...

  10. A New Process Monitoring Method Based on Waveform Signal by Using Recurrence Plot

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng Zhou; Weidong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Process monitoring is an important research problem in numerous areas. This paper proposes a novel process monitoring scheme by integrating the recurrence plot (RP) method and the control chart technique. Recently, the RP method has emerged as an effective tool to analyze waveform signals. However, unlike the existing RP methods that employ recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) to quantify the recurrence plot by a few summary statistics; we propose new concepts of template recurrence plots ...

  11. Recurrence Plot Based Damage Detection Method by Integrating  Control Chart

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng Zhou; Weidong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Because of the importance of damage detection in manufacturing systems and other areas, many fault detection methods have been developed that are based on a vibration signal. Little work, however, has been reported in the literature on using a recurrence plot method to analyze the vibration signal for damage detection. In this paper, we develop a recurrence plot based fault detection method by integrating the statistical process control technique. The recurrence plots of the vibration signals...

  12. Derivation of plotting position formula for GEV distribution using genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Heo, J.

    2008-12-01

    Probability plotting positions are used for the graphical display of annual maximum rainfall or flood series and the estimation of exceedance probability of those values. In addition, plotting positions allow a visual examination of the fitness of probability distribution provided by flood frequency analysis. Therefore, the graphical approach using plotting position has been applied to many fields of hydrology and water resources planning. Various plotting position formulas were developed for probability distributions in many researches and plotting position formulas by Gringorten(1963) and Cunnane(1978) were applied to the Gumbel and GEV distributions generally. Especially, Cunnane(1978) defined the plotting position that related with the mean of data and proposed the general formula that can be applied to various probability distributions. The definition of the plotting position by Cunnane(1978) have influenced on the plotting position of probability distribution contained shape parameter. In this study, the plotting position formula for the GEV distribution is derived by using the combination of the order statistics and the probability weight moment of the GEV distribution for various sample sizes and shape parameters. In addition, the parameters of plotting position formula for the GEV distribution are estimated by using genetic algorithm considering the range of a coefficient of skewness related with the shape parameters of the GEV distribution. The accuracy of derived plotting position formula for the GEV distribution is examined by the comparison of root mean square errors between theoretical reduced variates and those calculated from the derived and existing plotting position formulas such as Gringorten(1963) and Cunnane(1978).

  13. View_SPECPR: Software for Plotting Spectra (Installation Manual and User's Guide, Version 1.2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.

    2008-01-01

    This document describes procedures for installing and using the 'View_SPECPR' software system to plot spectra stored in SPECPR (SPECtrum Processing Routines) files. The View_SPECPR software is comprised of programs written in IDL (Interactive Data Language) that run within the ENVI (ENvironment for Visualizing Images) image processing system. SPECPR files are used by earth-remote-sensing scientists and planetary scientists for storing spectra collected by laboratory, field, and remote sensing instruments. A widely distributed SPECPR file is the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) spectral library that contains thousands of spectra of minerals, vegetation, and man-made materials (Clark and others, 2007). SPECPR files contain reflectance data and associated wavelength and spectral resolution data, as well as meta-data on the time and date of collection and spectrometer settings. Furthermore, the SPECPR file automatically tracks changes to data records through its 'history' fields. For more details on the format and content of SPECPR files, see Clark (1993). For more details on ENVI, see ITT (2008). This program has been updated using an ENVI 4.5/IDL7.0 full license operating on a Windows XP operating system and requires the installation of the iTools components of IDL7.0; however, this program should work with full licenses on UNIX/LINUX systems. This software has not been tested with ENVI licenses on Windows Vista or Apple Operating Systems.

  14. Immigration of the barley mildew pathogen into field plots of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Hara, R.B.; Brown, J.K.M.

    1996-01-01

    Immigration of the barley powdery mildew pathogen (Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei) into field plots of the spring barley variety Tyra (carrying the resistance allele Mla1) was investigated. Spores were trapped from the top of the plot canopies, as well as from control plots of wheat with no barley...... nearby. Comparison of the frequencies of virulent and avirulent single-colony isolates showed that the amount of immigration, relative to the amount of inoculum being produced within the plot, reduced very rapidly, until it could not be detected in the middle of the growing season (mid-June)....

  15. Field Plot Points for Colonial National Historical Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile shows the location of vegetation sampling plots used for vegetation classification and mapping at Colonial National Historical Park.

  16. Field Plot Points for Richmond National Battlefield Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile shows the location of vegetation sampling plots used for vegetation classification and mapping at Richmond National Battlefield Park.

  17. Visualizing the deep end of sound: plotting multi-parameter results from infrasound data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perttu, A. B.; Taisne, B.

    2016-12-01

    Infrasound is sound below the threshold of human hearing: approximately 20 Hz. The field of infrasound research, like other waveform based fields relies on several standard processing methods and data visualizations, including waveform plots and spectrograms. The installation of the International Monitoring System (IMS) global network of infrasound arrays, contributed to the resurgence of infrasound research. Array processing is an important method used in infrasound research, however, this method produces data sets with a large number of parameters, and requires innovative plotting techniques. The goal in designing new figures is to be able to present easily comprehendible, and information-rich plots by careful selection of data density and plotting methods.

  18. Textual Form and Cultural Affect: William Empson's Double-Plot and Raymond Williams's Structure of Feeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pamela McCallum

    2005-01-01

    By insisting on the primacy of double-plot, Empson brackets the sometimes deceptive appearances of a text's content to uncover and disengage the more fundamental double-plot system at work within the defining structure of the text. Empson's thinking about the reception of double-plot structures enables Raymond Williams's early formulations of structure of feeling, in particular the gesturing this perplexing, underdeveloped, but persistent concept makes towards understanding collective response to cultural forms. This article explores the implications of the reception of double-plot structures, drawing out the assumptions inscribed in Empson's claims about processes at work as an audience engages with these dramatic structures.

  19. Runoff and erosion from native and reclaimed sites: Large versus small plots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M.K.; Buchanan, B.A. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Estrada, O.J. [BHP - Utah International Inc., Fruitland, NM (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Runoff and erosion were compared using rainfall simulators on small (1 m{sup 2}) and large (3 x 10.67 m) runoff plots. Four small and two large plots were located on each of eight sites. These included two native sites dominated by bunchgrasses and shrubs on sandy dunes, two nearly barren badlands, two 10 year-old reclaimed sites treated with topdressing and dominated by bunchgrasses and shrubs, and two first year reclaimed sites treated with topdressing and dominated by annual forbs and wheat. Rainfall was more uniform and more easily controlled on small plots than large plots. Many small plots (at least eight) could be rained on each day by using wind screens while large plots required calm winds during simulated rainfall which was delayed for many days on numerous occasions. Results from small plots were as accurate and more precise than from large plots on native and reclaimed sites where slope lengths were truncated by shrubs and bunchgrasses. Runoff and erosion from small plots could be measured quickly and cheaply for evaluating reclamation success.

  20. Prairie chicken lek survey 2012 : performance report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Performance report for the 2012 spring prairie chicken lek surveys in Kansas state. This survey was initiated in 1963, and is preformed on established survey routes....

  1. Evaluation of Soft Tissue Landmark Reliability between Manual and Computerized Plotting Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasinathan, Geetha; Kommi, Pradeep B; Kumar, Senthil M; Yashwant, Aniruddh; Arani, Nandakumar; Sabapathy, Senkutvan

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the reliability of soft tissue landmark identification between manual and digital plot-tings in both X and Y axes. A total of 50 pretreatment lateral cephalograms were selected from patients who reported for orthodontic treatment. The digital images of each cephalogram were imported directly into Dolphin software for onscreen digi-talization, while for manual tracing, images were printed using a compatible X-ray printer. After the images were standardized, and 10 commonly used soft tissue landmarks were plotted on each cephalogram by six different professional observers, the values obtained were plotted in X and Y axes. Intraclass correlation coefficient was used to determine the intrarater reliability for repeated landmark plotting obtained by both the methods. The evaluation for reliability of soft tissue landmark plottings in both manual and digital methods after subjecting it to interclass correlation showed a good reliability, which was nearing complete homogeneity in both X and Y axes, except for Y axis of throat point in manual plotting, which showed moderate reliability as a cephalometric variable. Intraclass correlation of soft tissue nasion had a moderate reliability along X axis. Soft tissue pogonion shows moderate reliability in Y axis. Throat point exhibited moderate reliability in X axis. The interclass correlation in X and Y axes shows high reliability in both hard tissue and soft tissue except for throat point in Y axis, when plotted manually. The intraclass correlation is more consistent and highly reliable for soft tissue landmarks and the hard tissue landmark identification is also consistent. The results obtained for manual and digital methods were almost similar, but the digital landmark plotting has an added advantage in archiving, retrieval, transmission, and can be enhanced during plotting of lateral cephalograms. Hence, the digital method of landmark plotting could be preferred for both daily use and

  2. Survey for Listeria monocytogenes in and on Ready-to-Eat Foods from Retail Establishments in the United States (2010 through 2013): Assessing Potential Changes of Pathogen Prevalence and Levels in a Decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchansky, John B; Chen, Yuhuan; Porto-Fett, Anna C S; Pouillot, Régis; Shoyer, Bradley A; Johnson-DeRycke, Rachel; Eblen, Denise R; Hoelzer, Karin; Shaw, William K; van Doren, Jane M; Catlin, Michelle; Lee, Jeehyun; Tikekar, Rohan; Gallagher, Daniel; Lindsay, James A; Dennis, Sherri

    2017-06-01

    A multiyear interagency Listeria monocytogenes Market Basket Survey was undertaken for selected refrigerated ready-to-eat foods purchased at retail in four FoodNet sites in the United States. Food samples from 16 food categories in six broad groups (seafood, produce, dairy, meat, eggs, and combination foods) were collected weekly at large national chain supermarkets and independent grocery stores in California, Maryland, Connecticut, and Georgia for 100 weeks between December 2010 and March 2013. Of the 27,389 total samples, 116 samples tested positive by the BAX PCR system for L. monocytogenes , and the pathogen was isolated and confirmed for 102 samples. Among the 16 food categories, the proportion of positive samples (i.e., without considering clustering effects) based on recovery of a viable isolate of L. monocytogenes ranged from 0.00% (95% confidence interval: 0.00, 0.18) for the category of soft-ripened and semisoft cheese to 1.07% (0.63, 1.68) for raw cut vegetables. Among the 571 samples that tested positive for Listeria-like organisms, the proportion of positive samples ranged from 0.79% (0.45, 1.28) for soft-ripened and semisoft cheese to 4.76% (2.80, 7.51) for fresh crab meat or sushi. Across all 16 categories, L. monocytogenes contamination was significantly associated with the four states (P monocytogenes , levels ranged from monocytogenes prevalence ranged from 0.11% (0.03, 0.34) for sprouts (prepackaged) to 1.01% (0.58, 1.74) for raw cut vegetables (prepackaged).

  3. IMPLEMENTATION OF DEMONSTRATION PLOTS DME NYAMPLUNG (Calophyllum inophyllum L IN BULUAGUNG AND PATUTREJO VILLAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Uripno

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   The purpose of this study were to evaluate the condition of the frist demplot DME nyamplung. Energy self sufficient village program aims to improve stock and diverse energy source and society economic opportunity. Nyamplung is very potential plant to be used as raw material of biofuel, because it has very high fat plant content and has not be used for food. The biofuel from nyamplung is a new innovation. Involvement of forest village community in biofuel industry development both as producers and as consumers is very important. Forestry Ministry has established demonstration plots in Buluagung and Patutrejo villages as a facilitation in developing biofuel nyamplung silvoindustry. Up to now, the demplots still faces some problems. The researh method was qualitatif analysis. Collecting data from 62 respondents using purposive sampling. Data were collected using questionnaires, field obsevation, and in-depth interview. Focus group discussion  was used to confirm the data from the respondents. Research results show that the demplots have not been developed through participatory approach. Involvement of community to demplots activity is low. Involvement of the village communities are significantly correlated to biofuel price, technology innovation, role of demplot and support from local leaders.  

  4. Box, Line, and Midgap Plots: Effects of Display Characteristics on the Accuracy and Bias of Estimates of Whisker Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, William A.; Behrens, John T.

    1991-01-01

    The accuracy and bias of estimates of whisker length based on box, line, and midgap plots were examined. For each type of graph, 20 different undergraduates (n=60) viewed 48 single-plot graphs. Whisker-length estimates for box and line plots were more accurate and less biased than those for midgap plots. (TJH)

  5. Establishing the Intermediate Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

    The State of Pennsylvania Act 102 establishes a system of 29 intermediate units, creates intermediate unit boards of directors, spells out their duties and functions, and provides a system of financing their operations. This handbook has been prepared by the Pennsylvania Department of Education to provide intermediate unit boards of directors,…

  6. Secular Religious Establishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2013-01-01

    Secularism as a political doctrine claims that religion and politics should be separated. The compatibility question is whether secularism can accept some forms of religious establishment in the form of institutional linkages between state and organised religion. I argue that the answer to the co...

  7. An Experience of Statistical Method Application in Forest Survey at Angara River Region in 1932

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Vashchuk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Report of the Angara forest economic expedition of forest economic survey in 1932 on the left bank of the Angara River has been found. The survey covered a part of Krasnoyarsk Territory and Irkutsk region, a total area of 18641.8 thousand ha. The report describes technology of forest inventory and achievements that have not previously been published. The survey was conducted by statistical method, which consisted of a sample by a continuous forest inventory enumeration of trees on sample plots (SP, arranged in an array on a particular system, followed by mathematical-statistical recalculation of the sample results to the entire survey. To do this, strip finders (sights were cut in the latitudinal direction at a distance from one another at 16 km. On the hacked sights, by every 2 km, 0.1 ha (10 × 100 m SP were established. In total 32 forest inventory sights were hacked, with total length of 9931 km, which incorporated 4817 SP. The accuracy of forest resources’ inventory characteristics determining also was investigated using smaller sample plots. For this purpose, each of the SP were cut to smaller area of 0.01 ha (10 × 10 m, where independent continuous enumeration of trees was conducted, andsample trees were cut, measured and bucked to the assortments, to explore the tree stand assortment structure. At each «sample cutting area» all the trees were felled out from 44 cm and above DBH. At half of the sample plot with 5 × 10 m size, located in the eastern end, all the trees were felled out and measured from 24 cm and above DBH. Every four «sample cutting area» in the fifth, all the trees with 12 cm and above DBH were cut down and measured. According to the results of the work, a detailed description of forest resources in the whole Angara river basin, and across 17 forest exploitation areas was completed.

  8. Forest Plots in Excel: Moving beyond a Clump of Trees to a Forest of Visual Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derzon, James H.; Alford, Aaron A.

    2013-01-01

    Forest plots provide an effective means of presenting a wealth of information in a single graphic. Whether used to illustrate multiple results in a single study or the cumulative knowledge of an entire field, forest plots have become an accepted and generally understood way of presenting many estimates simultaneously. This article explores…

  9. Determination of the Runoff and Suspended Sediment from Two Different Slope Length Using Field Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Şensoy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of slope length on runoff and suspended sediment yield has been investigated by using plots on uniform slopes under natural rainfall conditions. From September 2007 to September 2009, during two year-period, measurements were done in Dallıca village experimental area in Bartın province. In this study, six field plots with a width of 1.87 m were used. Three of them were 5.5 m long (short plots and remaining three were 11.05 m long (long plots. Plots were located on bare soil surface that has no conservative vegetation. During the period of experimentation, a total of 158 rainy days were registered and average annual rainfall amount was 1194.8 mm. Average annual runoff per square meter was 270.81 mm, and 311.27 mm in long and short plots, respectively. Average annual suspended sediment was 809.68 g m-2, and 766.53 g m-2 from long and short plots, respectively. While statistically significant differences were found in runoff amount from plots with different lengths, there were no statistically significant differences in terms of the amount of eroded sediment.

  10. Plot intensity and cycle-length effects on growth and removals estimates from forest inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. Van Deusen; Francis A. Roesch

    2015-01-01

    Continuous forest inventory planners can allocate the budget to more plots per acre or a shorter remeasurement cycle. A higher plot intensity benefits small area estimation and allows for more precision in current status estimates. Shorter cycles may provide better estimates of growth, removals and mortality. On a fixed budget, the planner can't have both greater...

  11. On-plot drinking water supplies and health: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbo, Alycia; Williams, Ashley R; Evans, Barbara; Hunter, Paul R; Bartram, Jamie

    2016-07-01

    Many studies have found that household access to water supplies near or within the household plot can reduce the probability of diarrhea, trachoma, and other water-related diseases, and it is generally accepted that on-plot water supplies produce health benefits for households. However, the body of research literature has not been analyzed to weigh the evidence supporting this. A systematic review was conducted to investigate the impacts of on-plot water supplies on diarrhea, trachoma, child growth, and water-related diseases, to further examine the relationship between household health and distance to water source and to assess whether on-plot water supplies generate health gains for households. Studies provide evidence that households with on-plot water supplies experience fewer diarrheal and helminth infections and greater child height. Findings suggest that water-washed (hygiene associated) diseases are more strongly impacted by on-plot water access than waterborne diseases. Few studies analyzed the effects of on-plot water access on quantity of domestic water used, hygiene behavior, and use of multiple water sources, and the lack of evidence for these relationships reveals an important gap in current literature. The review findings indicate that on-plot water access is a useful health indicator and benchmark for the progressive realization of the Sustainable Development Goal target of universal safe water access as well as the human right to safe water.

  12. Using contour plots in elecgroproduction to examine regions in {epsilon}, Q{sup 2}, W space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funsten, H. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    In determining incident CEBAF beam energies for CLAS electroproduction experiments that separate the longitudinal and transverse cross section components, contour plots of {epsilon} defined over a 2 dimensional Q{sup 2}, W space can be useful. This note describes an approximate method of constructing such plots.

  13. Follow-up Designs to Resolve Confounding in Split-Plot Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almimi, Ashraf A.; Kulahci, Murat; Montgomery, Douglas C.

    2008-01-01

    Split-plot designs are effective in industry due to time and/or cost constraints, restriction on randomization of the treatment combinations of the hard-to-change factors, and different sizes of experimental units. Some of the results of fractional factorial split-plot experiments can be ambiguou...

  14. Combining Multiple External Representations and Refutational Text: An Intervention on Learning to Interpret Box Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lem, Stephanie; Kempen, Goya; Ceulemans, Eva; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Box plots are frequently misinterpreted and educational attempts to correct these misinterpretations have not been successful. In this study, we used two instructional techniques that seemed powerful to change the misinterpretation of the area of the box in box plots, both separately and in combination, leading to three experimental conditions,…

  15. Identifying hidden common causes from bivariate time series: a method using recurrence plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Yoshito; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2010-01-01

    We propose a method for inferring the existence of hidden common causes from observations of bivariate time series. We detect related time series by excessive simultaneous recurrences in the corresponding recurrence plots. We also use a noncoverage property of a recurrence plot by the other to deny the existence of a directional coupling. We apply the proposed method to real wind data.

  16. Follow-up Designs to Resolve Confounding in Split-Plot Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almimi, Ashraf A.; Kulahci, Murat; Montgomery, Douglas C.

    2008-01-01

    Split-plot designs are effective in industry due to time and/or cost constraints, restriction on randomization of the treatment combinations of the hard-to-change factors, and different sizes of experimental units. Some of the results of fractional factorial split-plot experiments can be ambiguou...

  17. Including the Tukey Mean-Difference (Bland-Altman) Plot in a Statistics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Marcin; Wnuk, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    The Tukey mean-difference plot, also called the Bland-Altman plot, is a recognized graphical tool in the exploration of biometrical data. We show that this technique deserves a place on an introductory statistics course by encouraging students to think about the kind of graph they wish to create, rather than just creating the default graph for the…

  18. An Intuitive Graphical Approach to Understanding the Split-Plot Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Timothy J.; Brenneman, William A.; Myers, William R.

    2009-01-01

    While split-plot designs have received considerable attention in the literature over the past decade, there seems to be a general lack of intuitive understanding of the error structure of these designs and the resulting statistical analysis. Typically, students learn the proper error terms for testing factors of a split-plot design via "expected…

  19. Rainfall–runoff model parameter estimation and uncertainty evaluation on small plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four seasonal rainfall simulations in 2009 and 2010were applied to a field containing 36 plots (0.75 × 2 m each), resulting in 144 runoff events. In all simulations, a constant rate of rainfall was applied then halted 60min after initiation of runoff, with plot-scale monitoring o...

  20. The Effect Direction Plot: Visual Display of Non-Standardised Effects across Multiple Outcome Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Hilary J.; Thomas, Sian

    2013-01-01

    Visual display of reported impacts is a valuable aid to both reviewers and readers of systematic reviews. Forest plots are routinely prepared to report standardised effect sizes, but where standardised effect sizes are not available for all included studies a forest plot may misrepresent the available evidence. Tabulated data summaries to…

  1. Sample Plot Change in the Seventh Review of Continuous National Forest Inventory in Zigui County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongmei DENG; Jiaxuan XIANG; Jun SONG; Xueyong QIN; Dongwei WANG; Lei ZHOU

    2016-01-01

    The following qualitative conclusions of forest resources in Zigui can be drawn by the research on 73 plots and 5 vegetation plots:forest area is increasing; forest growing stock is increasing; the adjustment of forest category structure is constantly improved; forest quality has been improving; stand structure is optimized continuously; biodiversity has initially appeared.

  2. New Iterative Learning Control Algorithms Based on Vector Plots Analysis1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIESheng-Li; TIANSen-Ping; XIEZhen-Dong

    2004-01-01

    Based on vector plots analysis, this paper researches the geometric frame of iterativelearning control method. New structure of iterative learning algorithms is obtained by analyzingthe vector plots of some general algorithms. The structure of the new algorithm is different fromthose of the present algorithms. It is of faster convergence speed and higher accuracy. Simulationspresented here illustrate the effectiveness and advantage of the new algorithm.

  3. Forest Plots in Excel: Moving beyond a Clump of Trees to a Forest of Visual Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derzon, James H.; Alford, Aaron A.

    2013-01-01

    Forest plots provide an effective means of presenting a wealth of information in a single graphic. Whether used to illustrate multiple results in a single study or the cumulative knowledge of an entire field, forest plots have become an accepted and generally understood way of presenting many estimates simultaneously. This article explores…

  4. Master plot analysis of microcracking in graphite/epoxy and graphite/PEEK laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairn, John A.; Hu, Shoufeng; Bark, Jong Song

    1993-01-01

    We used a variational stress analysis and an energy release rate failure criterion to construct a master plot analysis of matrix microcracking. In the master plot, the results for all laminates of a single material are predicted to fall on a single line whose slope gives the microcracking toughness of the material. Experimental results from 18 different layups of AS4/3501-6 laminates show that the master plot analysis can explain all observations. In particular, it can explain the differences between microcracking of central 90 deg plies and of free-surface 90 deg plies. Experimental results from two different AS4/PEEK laminates tested at different temperatures can be explained by a modified master plot that accounts for changes in the residual thermal stresses. Finally, we constructed similar master plot analyses for previous literature microcracking models. All microcracking theories that ignore the thickness dependence of the stresses gave poor results.

  5. Unbalanced and Minimal Point Equivalent Estimation Second-Order Split-Plot Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Peter A.; Kowalski, Scott M.; Vining, G. Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    Restricting the randomization of hard-to-change factors in industrial experiments is often performed by employing a split-plot design structure. From an economic perspective, these designs minimize the experimental cost by reducing the number of resets of the hard-to- change factors. In this paper, unbalanced designs are considered for cases where the subplots are relatively expensive and the experimental apparatus accommodates an unequal number of runs per whole-plot. We provide construction methods for unbalanced second-order split- plot designs that possess the equivalence estimation optimality property, providing best linear unbiased estimates of the parameters; independent of the variance components. Unbalanced versions of the central composite and Box-Behnken designs are developed. For cases where the subplot cost approaches the whole-plot cost, minimal point designs are proposed and illustrated with a split-plot Notz design.

  6. PETRO.CALC.PLOT, Microsoft Excel macros to aid petrologic interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidder, Gary B.

    1994-07-01

    PETRO.CALC.PLOT is a package of macros which normalizes whole-rock oxide data to 100%, calculates the cation percentages and molecular proportions used for normative mineral calculations, computes the apices for ternary diagrams, determines sums and ratios of specific elements of petrologic interest, and plots 33 X-Y graphs and five ternary diagrams. PETRO.CALC.PLOT also may be used to create other diagrams as desired by the user. The macros run in Microsoft Excel 3.0 and 4.0 for Macintosh computers and in Microsoft Excel 3.0 and 4.0 for Windows. Macros provided in PETRO.CALC.PLOT minimize repetition and time required to recalculate and plot whole-rock oxide data for petrologic analysis.

  7. Biological screening of rain forest plot trees from Palawan Island (Philippines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horgen, F D; Edrada, R A; de los Reyes, G; Agcaoili, F; Madulid, D A; Wongpanich, V; Angerhofer, C K; Pezzuto, J M; Soejarto, D D; Farnsworth, N R

    2001-01-01

    Study plots totaling 0.2 Ha were established in primary forest in the highlands of central Palawan Island, Philippines. Samples of various anatomical parts [typically leaf + twig (If/tw), stem bark (sb), and root (rt)] were collected from all tree species represented within the plots by individuals having a diameter at breast height > or = 10 cm. In all, 211 distinct samples were obtained from 68 tree species, representing 35 families (not including samples from 4 indeterminate species). Methanol extracts of these samples were tested in in vitro antiplasmodial, brine shrimp toxicity, and cytotoxicity assays. The following samples showed an IC50 Meliosma pinnata ssp. macrophylla (lf/tw, rt), Myristica guatteriifolia (lf/tw), Ochrosia glomerata (rt, sb), Swintonia foxworthyi (lf/tw), Syzygium sp. 1 (rt), Turpinia pomifera (rt), and Xanthophyllum flavescens (sb). Secondly, those samples which displayed > or = 50% immobilization of brine shrimp at 100 microg/mL were: Acronychia laurifolia (lf/tw/fruit, rt, sb), Agathis celebica (lf/tw, sb), Aglaia sp. 1 (lf/tw), Alphonsea sp. 1 (rt), Ardisia iwahigensis (lf/tw), Arthrophyllum ahernianum (lf/tw, rt, sb), Castanopsis cf. evansii (rt), Cinnamomum griffithii (lf/tw, rt), Croton argyratus (lf/tw), C. leiophyllus (lf/tw, rt), Dysoxylum cauliflorum (fruit, lf/tw, rt), Euonymus javanicus (rt), Glochidion sp. 1 (rt), Polyosma sp. 1 (rt), Symplocos polyandra (rt), Timonius gammillii (sb), and Xanthophyllum flavescens (rt). Lastly, samples which exhibited an IC50 < or = 20 microg/mL against one or more of the cancer cell lines employed (LU1, KB, KB-V1, P-388, LNCaP, or ZR-75-1) include: Acronychia laurifolia (lf/tw/fruit, rt, sb), Aglaia sp. 1 (sb), Aglaia sp. 2 (rt), Alphonsea sp. 1 (rt), Ardisia iwahigensis (lf/tw, rt, sb), Astronia cumingiana (sb), Croton argyratus (lf/tw, rt, sb), C. leiophyllus (lf/tw, rt), Dimorphocalyx murina (lf/tw, rt, sb), Lithocarpus caudatifolius (rt, sb), Litsea cf. sibuyanensis (rt), Syzygium cf

  8. Tree-fall gaps and carbon cycling in the Brazilian Amazon: results from two large forest plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espirito-Santo, F.; Keller, M.; Linder, E.; De Oliveira, R., Jr.; Pereira, C.; Oliveira, C. G.

    2013-12-01

    The dynamics of gaps play a role in the regimes of tree mortality and production of coarse woody debris (CWD) in forests. Few studies have attempted to map the distribution of gaps in tropical forest and the production of CWD, a large pool of ecosystem carbon. Here we linked gap formation with carbon cycling through analysis of the CWD inside of gaps. We surveyed two large forest inventory plots of 114 and 53 ha of the Tapajós National Forest (TNF) in the Brazilian Amazon during 2008 and 2009, respectively. We mapped all gaps and collected data on light availability, CWD stocks and tree mortality in the field. Gap location, canopy opening (CO) and leaf area index (LAI) estimated in the field were compared with two IKONOS-2 high-resolution satellite images acquired approximately at the time of the field measurements. We provide the first statistics of CWD production based on gap size in the tropical forest literature. In the two large plots (167 ha total area) we found 96 gaps. The gaps represented 1.42% of the total area and gaps TNF, the production of CWD in recent gaps was 0.76 Mg C ha-1 year-1 and the mean tree mortality was 2.38 stems ha-1 year 1. The area of gaps estimated by using thresholds of light intensity measured by remote sensing optical instruments was twice as large as the gap areas measured on the ground. We found no significant correlation between spectral remote sensing images and CO and LAI, likely because the high faction of shadow in high-resolution satellite images. We conclude that less than 30% of the annual tree mortality and CWD flux was associated with gaps and the detection of gaps with high resolution optical remote sensing remains a challenge because of the high proportion of shadow in the those images. These results highlight the need for permanent plots for long-term carbon studies.

  9. Secular Religious Establishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2013-01-01

    Secularism as a political doctrine claims that religion and politics should be separated. The compatibility question is whether secularism can accept some forms of religious establishment in the form of institutional linkages between state and organised religion. I argue that the answer...... to the compatibility question is not obvious and requires a systematic analysis of secularism. Based on a distinction between a general concept and specific conceptions of secularism I offer a general structure for conceptions of secularism that incorporates both a) basic values, e.g. political equality and freedom...... of conscience, b) intermediate political principles of separation, e.g. rights to religious liberty, and c) derived normative prescriptions, e.g. that an established church is unacceptable. I illustrate the structure using the conceptions of secularism advocated by Robert Audi and by Charles Taylor and Jocelyn...

  10. Overland flow connectivity in olive orchard plots with cover crops and conventional tillage, and under different rainfall scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vicente, Manuel; García-Ruiz, Roberto; Guzmán, Gema; Vicente-Vicente, José Luis; Gómez, José Alfonso

    2016-04-01

    The study of overland flow connectivity (QC) allows understanding the redistribution dynamics of runoff and soil components as an emergent property of the spatio-temporal interactions of hydrological and geomorphic processes. However, very few studies have dealt with runoff connectivity in olive orchards. In this study we simulated QC in four olive orchard plots, located on the Santa Marta farm (37° 20' 33.6" N, 6° 13' 44" W), in Seville province (Andalusia) in SW Spain. The olive plantation was established in 1985 with trees planted at 8 m x 6 m. Each bounded plot is 8 m wide (between 2 tree lines) and 60 m long (total area of 480 m2), laid out with the longest dimension parallel to the maximum slope and to the tree lines. The slope is uniform, with an average steepness of 11%. Two plots (P2 and P4) were devoted to conventional tillage (CT) consisting of regular chisel plow passes depending on weed growth. Another set of two plots had two types of cover crops (CC) in the inter tree rows (the area outside the vertical olive canopy projection): uniform CC of Lolium multiflorum (P3) and a mixture of L. rigidum and L. multiflorum together with other species (P5). The tree rows were treated with herbicide to keep bare soil. We selected the Index of runoff and sediment Connectivity (IC) of Borselli et al. (2008) to simulate three rainfall scenarios: i) low rainfall intensity (Sc-LowInt) and using the MD flow accumulation algorithm; ii) moderate rainfall intensity (Sc-ModInt) and using MD8; and iii) high rainfall intensity (Sc-HighInt) and using D8. After analysing the values of rainfall intensity during two hydrological years (Oct'09-Sep'10 and Oct'10-Sep'11) we associated the three scenarios with the followings months: Sc-LowInt during the period Jan-Mar, that summarizes 42% of all annual rainfall events; Sc-ModInt during Oct-Nov and Apr-May (32% of all events); and Sc-HighInt during the period Jun-Sep and in December (26% of all events). Instead of using the C

  11. Average Stand Age from Forest Inventory Plots Does Not Describe Historical Fire Regimes in Ponderosa Pine and Mixed-Conifer Forests of Western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jens T; Safford, Hugh D; North, Malcolm P; Fried, Jeremy S; Gray, Andrew N; Brown, Peter M; Dolanc, Christopher R; Dobrowski, Solomon Z; Falk, Donald A; Farris, Calvin A; Franklin, Jerry F; Fulé, Peter Z; Hagmann, R Keala; Knapp, Eric E; Miller, Jay D; Smith, Douglas F; Swetnam, Thomas W; Taylor, Alan H

    Quantifying historical fire regimes provides important information for managing contemporary forests. Historical fire frequency and severity can be estimated using several methods; each method has strengths and weaknesses and presents challenges for interpretation and verification. Recent efforts to quantify the timing of historical high-severity fire events in forests of western North America have assumed that the "stand age" variable from the US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program reflects the timing of historical high-severity (i.e. stand-replacing) fire in ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests. To test this assumption, we re-analyze the dataset used in a previous analysis, and compare information from fire history records with information from co-located FIA plots. We demonstrate that 1) the FIA stand age variable does not reflect the large range of individual tree ages in the FIA plots: older trees comprised more than 10% of pre-stand age basal area in 58% of plots analyzed and more than 30% of pre-stand age basal area in 32% of plots, and 2) recruitment events are not necessarily related to high-severity fire occurrence. Because the FIA stand age variable is estimated from a sample of tree ages within the tree size class containing a plurality of canopy trees in the plot, it does not necessarily include the oldest trees, especially in uneven-aged stands. Thus, the FIA stand age variable does not indicate whether the trees in the predominant size class established in response to severe fire, or established during the absence of fire. FIA stand age was not designed to measure the time since a stand-replacing disturbance. Quantification of historical "mixed-severity" fire regimes must be explicit about the spatial scale of high-severity fire effects, which is not possible using FIA stand age data.

  12. Average Stand Age from Forest Inventory Plots Does Not Describe Historical Fire Regimes in Ponderosa Pine and Mixed-Conifer Forests of Western North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens T Stevens

    Full Text Available Quantifying historical fire regimes provides important information for managing contemporary forests. Historical fire frequency and severity can be estimated using several methods; each method has strengths and weaknesses and presents challenges for interpretation and verification. Recent efforts to quantify the timing of historical high-severity fire events in forests of western North America have assumed that the "stand age" variable from the US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA program reflects the timing of historical high-severity (i.e. stand-replacing fire in ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests. To test this assumption, we re-analyze the dataset used in a previous analysis, and compare information from fire history records with information from co-located FIA plots. We demonstrate that 1 the FIA stand age variable does not reflect the large range of individual tree ages in the FIA plots: older trees comprised more than 10% of pre-stand age basal area in 58% of plots analyzed and more than 30% of pre-stand age basal area in 32% of plots, and 2 recruitment events are not necessarily related to high-severity fire occurrence. Because the FIA stand age variable is estimated from a sample of tree ages within the tree size class containing a plurality of canopy trees in the plot, it does not necessarily include the oldest trees, especially in uneven-aged stands. Thus, the FIA stand age variable does not indicate whether the trees in the predominant size class established in response to severe fire, or established during the absence of fire. FIA stand age was not designed to measure the time since a stand-replacing disturbance. Quantification of historical "mixed-severity" fire regimes must be explicit about the spatial scale of high-severity fire effects, which is not possible using FIA stand age data.

  13. [Effects of sampling plot number on tree species distribution prediction under climate change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu; He, Hong-Shi; Wu, Zhi-Wei; Li, Xiao-Na; Luo, Xu

    2013-05-01

    Based on the neutral landscapes under different degrees of landscape fragmentation, this paper studied the effects of sampling plot number on the prediction of tree species distribution at landscape scale under climate change. The tree species distribution was predicted by the coupled modeling approach which linked an ecosystem process model with a forest landscape model, and three contingent scenarios and one reference scenario of sampling plot numbers were assumed. The differences between the three scenarios and the reference scenario under different degrees of landscape fragmentation were tested. The results indicated that the effects of sampling plot number on the prediction of tree species distribution depended on the tree species life history attributes. For the generalist species, the prediction of their distribution at landscape scale needed more plots. Except for the extreme specialist, landscape fragmentation degree also affected the effects of sampling plot number on the prediction. With the increase of simulation period, the effects of sampling plot number on the prediction of tree species distribution at landscape scale could be changed. For generalist species, more plots are needed for the long-term simulation.

  14. Time-lapse 3D ground-penetrating radar during plot-scale infiltration experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allroggen, Niklas; Jackisch, Conrad; Tronicke, Jens

    2016-04-01

    In electrical resistive soils, surface-based ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is known as the geophysical tool providing the highest spatial resolution. Thus, 2D and 3D GPR surveys are commonly used for imaging subsurface structures or estimating soil moisture content. Due to its sensitivity to soil moisture and its non-invasive character, GPR provides a large potential to monitor soil moisture variation at high temporal and spatial resolution. As shown in previous experiments, the acquisition of time-lapse GPR data under field conditions requires a high data quality in terms of repeatability as well as spatial and temporal resolution. We present hydrogeophysical field experiments at the plot scale (1m x 1m), during which we record time-lapse 3D GPR. For GPR data acquisition, we use a pulseEKKO PRO GPR system equipped with a pair of 500 MHz antennas in combination with a specially designed metal-free measuring platform. Additionally, we collect tracer and soil moisture data, which are used to improve the interpretation of the GPR data with special focus on preferential flow paths and their structured advective flow field. After an accurate time-lapse GPR data processing, we compare 3D reflection events before and after infiltration and quantitatively interpret their relative time-shift in terms of soil moisture variations. Thereby, we are able to account for basically all of the infiltrated water. The first experiments demonstrate the general applicability of our experimental approach but are limited by the number of acquired time steps and measurement during the sprinkling period (the time of the highest temporal dynamics) are not possible at all. Based on this experience we redesign our experimental setup to continuously collect GPR data during irrigation and infiltration. Thereby, we strongly increase the temporal resolution of our measurements, improve the interpretability of the GPR data, and monitor the temporal and spatial dynamics of shallow subsurface

  15. FERMI/GLAST Integrated Trending and Plotting System Release 5.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Sheila; Brumer, Haim; Reitan, Denise

    2012-01-01

    An Integrated Trending and Plotting System (ITPS) is a trending, analysis, and plotting system used by space missions to determine performance and status of spacecraft and its instruments. ITPS supports several NASA mission operational control centers providing engineers, ground controllers, and scientists with access to the entire spacecraft telemetry data archive for the life of the mission, and includes a secure Web component for remote access. FERMI/GLAST ITPS Release 5.0 features include the option to display dates (yyyy/ddd) instead of orbit numbers along orbital Long-Term Trend (LTT) plot axis, the ability to save statistics from daily production plots as image files, and removal of redundant edit/create Input Definition File (IDF) screens. Other features are a fix to address invalid packet lengths, a change in naming convention of image files in order to use in script, the ability to save all ITPS plot images (from Windows or the Web) as GIF or PNG format, the ability to specify ymin and ymax on plots where previously only the desired range could be specified, Web interface capability to plot IDFs that contain out-oforder page and plot numbers, and a fix to change all default file names to show yyyydddhhmmss time stamps instead of hhmmssdddyyyy. A Web interface capability sorts files based on modification date (with newest one at top), and the statistics block can be displayed via a Web interface. Via the Web, users can graphically view the volume of telemetry data from each day contained in the ITPS archive in the Web digest. The ITPS could be also used in nonspace fields that need to plot data or trend data, including financial and banking systems, aviation and transportation systems, healthcare and educational systems, sales and marketing, and housing and construction.

  16. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Visualization Single Satellite Footprint (SSF) Plot Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsi, Julia A.

    1995-01-01

    The first Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument will be launched in 1997 to collect data on the Earth's radiation budget. The data retrieved from the satellite will be processed through twelve subsystems. The Single Satellite Footprint (SSF) plot generator software was written to assist scientists in the early stages of CERES data analysis, producing two-dimensional plots of the footprint radiation and cloud data generated by one of the subsystems. Until the satellite is launched, however, software developers need verification tools to check their code. This plot generator will aid programmers by geolocating algorithm result on a global map.

  17. Establishing effective working relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Trish

    2016-02-24

    This article, the second in a series of 11, provides support and offers advice to new and existing mentors and practice teachers to enable them to progress in their role and develop a portfolio of evidence. In particular, the article discusses how to establish effective working relationships and emphasises the importance of the student-mentor or student-practice teacher relationship. It examines the essential qualities, attributes and characteristics of an effective mentor or practice teacher. The article provides learning activities and suggests ways in which mentors and practice teachers can undertake various self-assessments, enabling them to gather relevant evidence to demonstrate how they can meet and maintain the requirements for these roles as stipulated by the Nursing and Midwifery Council.

  18. Re-establishing dignity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente; Hall, E.O.C

    2012-01-01

    In western countries, the older population is increasing and with age follows a risk of un-health. Every fifth hospital patient is above 65 years of age. As a consequence, nursing care to older patients is a significant but tacit nursing issue. The aim of this study was to explore Danish clinical...... nurses’ experiences of caring for older hospital patients. The study was based on Benner and Wrubel’s phenomenological notion that caring as a special kind of involvement, a grasp of a situation in terms of its meaning, is primary in nursing. A qualitative secondary analysis of data from an interview...... study with 29 nurses and nurse assistants was performed following Van Manen’s hermeneutic phenomenology. Findings show that caring mainly concerns ‘re-establishing dignity’ especially through ‘seeing the patient as a unique person’, ‘assisting in getting rid of the bed’ and ‘supporting patient...

  19. Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park Vegetation Mapping Project - Field Plots, Observation and Accuracy Assessment Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the 2008 vegetation (classification) field plots (spatial database) and 2010 accuracy assessment points (spatial database) created from the...

  20. Field Plot and Observation Points for Timpanogos Cave National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This point feature class contains points representing field sample data (13 plots points and 10 observations points, collected June 2007) for the vegetation mapping...

  1. Golden Spike National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project - Field Plot and Observation Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This point feature class contains points representing field sample data (3 plots points and 46 observations points, collected June 2007) for the vegetation mapping...

  2. Field Plot and Observation Points for Colorado National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This point file displays the 525 field plot and observation locations visited in 2003 and 2004 as part of the vegetation mapping project for Colorado National...

  3. Ionospheric Values (Daily Work Sheets), F-Plots, Tabulations, Booklets, Catalogs, and Log Books

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These ionospheric data consist of scaling notes, equipment usage logs, and ionospheric values in the form of daily work sheets, F-Plots, tabulations, and booklets....

  4. Technical note: A significance test for data-sparse zones in scatter plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrova, V. V.; Bardsley, W. E.

    2012-04-01

    Data-sparse zones in scatter plots of hydrological variables can be of interest in various contexts. For example, a well-defined data-sparse zone may indicate inhibition of one variable by another. It is of interest therefore to determine whether data-sparse regions in scatter plots are of sufficient extent to be beyond random chance. We consider the specific situation of data-sparse regions defined by a linear internal boundary within a scatter plot defined over a rectangular region. An Excel VBA macro is provided for carrying out a randomisation-based significance test of the data-sparse region, taking into account both the within-region number of data points and the extent of the region. Example applications are given with respect to a rainfall time series from Israel and also to validation scatter plots from a seasonal forecasting model for lake inflows in New Zealand.

  5. Field Plot Points for Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This spatial dataset in ESRI Coverage format maps field releve plot locations for the vegetation classification and descriptions of the vegetation map at Sunset...

  6. Field Plot Points for Walnut Canyon National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This spatial dataset in ESRI Coverage format maps field releve plot locations for the vegetation classification and descriptions of the vegetation map at Walnut...

  7. [Effects of spatial heterogeneity on spatial extrapolation of sampling plot data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu; He, Hong-Shi; Hu, Yuan-Man; Bu, Ren-Cang

    2012-01-01

    By using model combination method, this paper simulated the changes of response variable (tree species distribution area at landscape level under climate change) under three scenarios of environmental spatial heterogeneous level, analyzed the differentiation of simulated results under different scenarios, and discussed the effects of environmental spatial heterogeneity on the larger spatial extrapolation of the tree species responses to climate change observed in sampling plots. For most tree species, spatial heterogeneity had little effects on the extrapolation from plot scale to class scale; for the tree species insensitive to climate warming and the azonal species, spatial heterogeneity also had little effects on the extrapolation from plot-scale to zonal scale. By contrast, for the tree species sensitive to climate warming, spatial heterogeneity had effects on the extrapolation from plot scale to zonal scale, and the effects could be varied under different scenarios.

  8. Field Plot Points for Bluestone National Scenic River Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class contains point features which represent locations of vegetation sampling plots in Bluestone National Scenic River. Location coordinates for most...

  9. Field Plot Points for Wind Cave National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation field plots at Wind Cave NP were visited, described, and documented in a digital database. The database consists of 2 parts - (1) Physical Descriptive...

  10. Field Plot and Accuracy Assessment Points for Shenandoah National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This data set is an ESRI point shapefile. Points represent vegetation and accuracy assessment plots from which field data were collected as part of the Version 2.0...

  11. Field Plot and Accuracy Assessment Points for Ozark National Scenic Riverways Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Accuracy Assessment, Observation and Plot Points. This data set includes points used to collect data for map valdiation of community types in Ozark National Scenic...

  12. Field Plot and Observation Points for Fossil Butte National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This point file contains 255 point locations of field plot and observation data used by, and collected for, the vegetation mapping project for Fossil Butte National...

  13. Field Plot Points Modified for Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Location of vegetation sampling plots use to collect data for vegetation classification and mapping at Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. In this data set,...

  14. Field Plot Points for George Washington Birthplace National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile shows the location of vegetation sampling plots used for vegetation classification and mapping at George Washington Birthplace National Monument.

  15. Field Plot Points for Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Location of vegetation sampling plots used to collect data for vegetation classification and mapping at Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River.

  16. Field Plot Points for Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile shows the location of vegetation sampling plots used for vegetation classification and mapping at Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park

  17. Field Plot Points for Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Location of vegetation sampling plots used to collect data for vegetation classification and mapping at Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site. In this...

  18. Field Plot Points for Appomattox Court House National Historical Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile shows the location of vegetation sampling plots used for vegetation classification and mapping at Appomottox Court House National Historical Park

  19. Field Plot Points for Booker T. Washington National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile shows the location of vegetation sampling plots used for vegetation classification and mapping at Booker T. Washington National Monument

  20. Field Plot Points for Fire Island National Seashore Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This dataset was compiled to provide users with the geographic locations of the vegetation plots used to create the Fire Island Vegetation Map classification system.

  1. Flyby Error Analysis Based on Contour Plots for the Cassini Tour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, P. W.; Gist, E. M.; Goodson, T. D.; Hahn, Y.; Wagner, S. V.; Williams, P. N.

    2008-01-01

    The maneuver cancellation analysis consists of cost contour plots employed by the Cassini maneuver team. The plots are two-dimensional linear representations of a larger six-dimensional solution to a multi-maneuver, multi-encounter mission at Saturn. By using contours plotted with the dot product of vectors B and R and the dot product of vectors B and T components, it is possible to view the effects delta V on for various encounter positions in the B-plane. The plot is used in operations to help determine if the Approach Maneuver (ensuing encounter minus three days) and/or the Cleanup Maneuver (ensuing encounter plus three days) can be cancelled and also is a linear check of an integrated solution.

  2. Comparison of three methods for drawing line in the Rutland-Patlak plot of renography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jødal, Lars; Eskild-Jensen, Anni; Brøchner-Mortensen, Jens

    BACKGROUND: When individual kidney function is determined by renography, the Rutland-Patlak plot is used in the calculations. In the so-called uptake phase the plot is a straight line, but the duration of this phase may differ from patient to patient. A good method for drawing the correct line...... in the Rutland-Patlak plot should take into account that data may show unusual behaviour or be noisy. AIM: To find a method for the line-drawing that gives reliable results on all groups of data. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were collected from 63 consecutive renographies routinely made at the department...... of Nuclear Medicine in Aalborg. Furthermore, 10 renographies were selected where at least one kidney had a renogram with irregular behaviour or noisy data ("problematic" data). Rutland-Patlak plots were calculated, and three methods were used for line-drawing: Manual drawing on hardcopies by three...

  3. Behavior of QQ-plots and genomic control in studies of gene-environment interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arend Voorman

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies of gene-environment interaction (GxE GWAS are becoming popular. As with main effects GWAS, quantile-quantile plots (QQ-plots and Genomic Control are being used to assess and correct for population substructure. However, in G x E work these approaches can be seriously misleading, as we illustrate; QQ-plots may give strong indications of substructure when absolutely none is present. Using simulation and theory, we show how and why spurious QQ-plot inflation occurs in G x E GWAS, and how this differs from main-effects analyses. We also explain how simple adjustments to standard regression-based methods used in G x E GWAS can alleviate this problem.

  4. Field Plot and Observation Points for Hovenweep National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This point feature class contains points representing field sample data (27 plots points and 32 observations points, collected April and May of 2003) for the...

  5. Field Plot Points for Washita Battlefield National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the 2005 vegetation data points (spatial database) created from the sample vegetation plots collected at Washita Battlefield National Historic...

  6. Field Plot Points for Buck Island Reef National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile represents all the field plots visited on Buck Island. To fully comprehend this feature class, please refer to the full "Buck Island Reef National...

  7. Field Plot Points for Devils Tower National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation field plots at Devils Tower NM were visited, described, and documented in a digital database. The database consists of 2 parts - (1) Physical Descriptive...

  8. Field Plot and Observation Points for Pipe Spring National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This point feature class contains points representing field sample data (3 plots points and 4 observations points, collected August 2007 and September 2008) for the...

  9. Field Plot Points for Craters of Moon National Monument and Preserve Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the 2006 vegetation data points (spatial database) created from the sample vegetation plots collected at Craters of Moon National Monument and...

  10. Mars Science Laboratory Launch-Arrival Space Study: A Pork Chop Plot Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciolo, Alicia Dwyer; Powell, Richard; Lockwood, Mary Kae

    2006-01-01

    Launch-Arrival, or "pork chop", plot analysis can provide mission designers with valuable information and insight into a specific launch and arrival space selected for a mission. The study begins with the array of entry states for each pair of selected Earth launch and Mars arrival dates, and nominal entry, descent and landing trajectories are simulated for each pair. Parameters of interest, such as maximum heat rate, are plotted in launch-arrival space. The plots help to quickly identify launch and arrival regions that are not feasible under current constraints or technology and also provide information as to what technologies may need to be developed to reach a desired region. This paper provides a discussion of the development, application, and results of a pork chop plot analysis to the Mars Science Laboratory mission. This technique is easily applicable to other missions at Mars and other destinations.

  11. Longitudinal strain bull's eye plot patterns in patients with cardiomyopathy and concentric left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Hu, Kai; Nordbeck, Peter; Ertl, Georg; Störk, Stefan; Weidemann, Frank

    2016-05-10

    Despite substantial advances in the imaging techniques and pathophysiological understanding over the last decades, identification of the underlying causes of left ventricular hypertrophy by means of echocardiographic examination remains a challenge in current clinical practice. The longitudinal strain bull's eye plot derived from 2D speckle tracking imaging offers an intuitive visual overview of the global and regional left ventricular myocardial function in a single diagram. The bull's eye mapping is clinically feasible and the plot patterns could provide clues to the etiology of cardiomyopathies. The present review summarizes the longitudinal strain, bull's eye plot features in patients with various cardiomyopathies and concentric left ventricular hypertrophy and the bull's eye plot features might serve as one of the cardiac workup steps on evaluating patients with left ventricular hypertrophy.

  12. Cedar Breaks National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project - Field Plot, Observation Points and Accuracy Assessment Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This point file contains 282 point locations of field plot and observation data used by, and collected for, the vegetation mapping project for Cedar Breaks National...

  13. Intercoder Reliability and Validity of WebPlotDigitizer in Extracting Graphed Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drevon, Daniel; Fursa, Sophie R; Malcolm, Allura L

    2017-03-01

    Quantitative synthesis of data from single-case designs (SCDs) is becoming increasingly common in psychology and education journals. Because researchers do not ordinarily report numerical data in addition to graphical displays, reliance on plot digitizing tools is often a necessary component of this research. Intercoder reliability of data extraction is a commonly overlooked, but potentially important, step of this process. The purpose of this study was to examine the intercoder reliability and validity of WebPlotDigitizer (Rohatgi, 2015), a web-based plot digitizing tool for extracting data from a variety of plots, including XY coordinates of interrupted time-series data. Two coders extracted 3,596 data points from 168 data series in 36 graphs across 18 studies. Results indicated high levels of intercoder reliability and validity. Implications of and recommendations based on these results are discussed in relation to researchers involved in quantitative synthesis of data from SCDs.

  14. NOTE - Minimum number of common bean plants per plot to assess field resistance to white mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    uliana Andrade Dias

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the minimum number of plants per plot to assess the field resistance in common beanto white mold. Thirteen cultivars were inoculated with six isolates of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and evaluated in a randomized blockdesign with three replications and plots consisting of 1-m rows with 15 plants. Plants were inoculated by the straw test as proposedby Petzoldt and Dickson (1996, to evaluate partial resistance in a greenhouse. Eight days after inoculation the disease severity wasevaluated on a 1-9 diagrammatic scale, where 1 = asymptomatic plants to 9 = plant death. To determine the minimum number ofplants per plot, the following methods were used: maximum curvature, segmented linear model, quadratic segmented model and therelative CV model. There were significant differences among cultivars and isolates and no significant cultivar - isolate interaction.It was observed that eight plants per plot is an adequate number to assess the reaction of common bean to white mold.

  15. Field Plot Points for Guilford Courthouse National Military Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector file showing the location of NatureServe plots at Guilford Courthouse National Military Park. The coordinates of this dataset were collected using...

  16. Field Plot Points for Fort Larned National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the 2005 vegetation data points (spatial database) created from the sample vegetation plots collected at Fort Larned National Historic Site.

  17. Comparison of three methods for drawing line in the Rutland-Patlak plot of renography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jødal, Lars; Eskild-Jensen, Anni; Brøchner-Mortensen, Jens

    BACKGROUND: When individual kidney function is determined by renography, the Rutland-Patlak plot is used in the calculations. In the so-called uptake phase the plot is a straight line, but the duration of this phase may differ from patient to patient. A good method for drawing the correct line...... in the Rutland-Patlak plot should take into account that data may show unusual behaviour or be noisy. AIM: To find a method for the line-drawing that gives reliable results on all groups of data. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were collected from 63 consecutive renographies routinely made at the department...... of Nuclear Medicine in Aalborg. Furthermore, 10 renographies were selected where at least one kidney had a renogram with irregular behaviour or noisy data ("problematic" data). Rutland-Patlak plots were calculated, and three methods were used for line-drawing: Manual drawing on hardcopies by three...

  18. Field Plot Points for New River Gorge National River Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This data set contains point features which represent locations of vegetation sampling plots in the New River Gorge National River. Location coordinates for most...

  19. Field Plot Points Modified for Valley Forge National Historical Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile includes the locations of vegetation classification sampling plots used to develop an association-level vegetation classification of Valley Forge...

  20. Volcano plots in analyzing differential expressions with mRNA microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wentian

    2012-12-01

    A volcano plot displays unstandardized signal (e.g. log-fold-change) against noise-adjusted/standardized signal (e.g. t-statistic or -log(10)(p-value) from the t-test). We review the basic and interactive use of the volcano plot and its crucial role in understanding the regularized t-statistic. The joint filtering gene selection criterion based on regularized statistics has a curved discriminant line in the volcano plot, as compared to the two perpendicular lines for the "double filtering" criterion. This review attempts to provide a unifying framework for discussions on alternative measures of differential expression, improved methods for estimating variance, and visual display of a microarray analysis result. We also discuss the possibility of applying volcano plots to other fields beyond microarray.

  1. Simkin et al. 2016 PNAS data on herbaceous species richness and associated plot and covariate information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes the geographic location (lat/lon) for 15,136 plots, as well as the herbaceous species richness, climate, soil pH, and other variables related...

  2. User's manual for THPLOT, A FORTRAN 77 Computer program for time history plotting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    A general purpose FORTRAN 77 computer program (THPLOT) for plotting time histories using Calcomp pen plotters is described. The program is designed to read a time history data file and to generate time history plots for selected time intervals and/or selected data channels. The capabilities of the program are described. The card input required to define the plotting operation is described and examples of card input and the resulting plotted output are given. The examples are followed by a description of the printed output, including both normal output and error messages. Lastly, implementation of the program is described. A complete listing of the program with reference maps produced by the CDC FTN 5.0 compiler is included.

  3. Field Plot Points for Weir Farm National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile shows the location of vegetation sampling plots used for vegetation classification and mapping at Weir Farm National Historic Site.

  4. Characteristics of Gaseous Carbon Emission from a Tropical Peatland Fire: A Plot-Scale Field Experiment in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Y.; Darung, U.; Limin, S. H.; Hatano, R.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical peatland in Southeast Asia is a vast reservoir of terrestrial carbon, which covers 24.8 million hectares and stores 68.5 PgC peat, equal to 11-14% of global peat carbon. In recent decades, large scale peatland fire has occurred frequently in that region, in which many areas of peatland were reclaimed with intention to use the land for forest plantation and rice paddy. We conducted a plot-scale peat burning experiment to elucidate the characteristics of gaseous carbon emission from a tropical peatland fire at the ground level. The experimental site was established at an open area 20 km southeast from Palangka Raya, Central Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. The size of the burning plot is 4 m in length and 3 m in width. Gas samples were collected at heights of 1.0, 0.5, 0.0 (aboveground), -0.1 and -0.2 m (belowground) through stainless steel and/or aluminum tubes settled across the edge of the plot. The concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4) and particulate matter (PM) was determined. Soil temperature was recorded every 10 minutes 0.1 and 0.2 m below the ground surface. Twelve iron rods were installed in 1-m by 1-m square grid to determine the depth of burn scar. After ignition, flaming stage of peat burning was ceased within 1-2 hours. The following smoldering stage continued for a week. In the flaming stage, soil temperature at -0.1 m increased tentatively. After the smoldering stage began, the temperature rapidly increased to 350-450°C. Response of soil temperature at -0.2 m was less prominent. Concentrations of gaseous components became maximal in the flaming stage. During the smoldering stage, the concentrations gradually decreased. The influence of burning on CO2 and PM was prominently remained at -0.1 m, whereas those at -0.2 m were not so much. The averaged burnt depth was 5.8±5.1 cm. Based on bulk density of 0.22 g/cm3 and carbon content of 55.5%, the amount of carbon lost from the plot was 85.3 kg. Most of the

  5. Measuring specific receptor binding of a PET radioligand in human brain without pharmacological blockade: The genomic plot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronese, Mattia; Zanotti-Fregonara, Paolo; Rizzo, Gaia; Bertoldo, Alessandra; Innis, Robert B; Turkheimer, Federico E

    2016-04-15

    PET studies allow in vivo imaging of the density of brain receptor species. The PET signal, however, is the sum of the fraction of radioligand that is specifically bound to the target receptor and the non-displaceable fraction (i.e. the non-specifically bound radioligand plus the free ligand in tissue). Therefore, measuring the non-displaceable fraction, which is generally assumed to be constant across the brain, is a necessary step to obtain regional estimates of the specific fractions. The nondisplaceable binding can be directly measured if a reference region, i.e. a region devoid of any specific binding, is available. Many receptors are however widely expressed across the brain, and a true reference region is rarely available. In these cases, the nonspecific binding can be obtained after competitive pharmacological blockade, which is often contraindicated in humans. In this work we introduce the genomic plot for estimating the nondisplaceable fraction using baseline scans only. The genomic plot is a transformation of the Lassen graphical method in which the brain maps of mRNA transcripts of the target receptor obtained from the Allen brain atlas are used as a surrogate measure of the specific binding. Thus, the genomic plot allows the calculation of the specific and nondisplaceable components of radioligand uptake without the need of pharmacological blockade. We first assessed the statistical properties of the method with computer simulations. Then we sought ground-truth validation using human PET datasets of seven different neuroreceptor radioligands, where nonspecific fractions were either obtained separately using drug displacement or available from a true reference region. The population nondisplaceable fractions estimated by the genomic plot were very close to those measured by actual human blocking studies (mean relative difference between 2% and 7%). However, these estimates were valid only when mRNA expressions were predictive of protein levels (i

  6. Assessing exotic plant species invasions and associated soil characteristics: A case study in eastern Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA, using the pixel nested plot design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkhan, M.A.; Stafford, E.J.; Woodly, P.J.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    2007-01-01

    Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP), Colorado, USA, contains a diversity of plant species. However, many exotic plant species have become established, potentially impacting the structure and function of native plant communities. Our goal was to quantify patterns of exotic plant species in relation to native plant species, soil characteristics, and other abiotic factors that may indicate or predict their establishment and success. Our research approach for field data collection was based on a field plot design called the pixel nested plot. The pixel nested plot provides a link to multi-phase and multi-scale spatial modeling-mapping techniques that can be used to estimate total species richness and patterns of plant diversity at finer landscape scales. Within the eastern region of RMNP, in an area of approximately 35,000 ha, we established a total of 60 pixel nested plots in 9 vegetation types. We used canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and multiple linear regressions to quantify relationships between soil characteristics and native and exotic plant species richness and cover. We also used linear correlation, spatial autocorrelation and cross correlation statistics to test for the spatial patterns of variables of interest. CCA showed that exotic species were significantly (P soil nitrogen (r = 0.58) and bare ground (r = -0.66). Pearson's correlation statistic showed significant linear relationships between exotic species, organic carbon, soil nitrogen, and bare ground. While spatial autocorrelations indicated that our 60 pixel nested plots were spatially independent, the cross correlation statistics indicated that exotic plant species were spatially associated with bare ground, in general, exotic plant species were most abundant in areas of high native species richness. This indicates that resource managers should focus on the protection of relatively rare native rich sites with little canopy cover, and fertile soils. Using the pixel nested plot approach for

  7. Comparative evolutionary diversity and phylogenetic structure across multiple forest dynamics plots: a mega-phylogeny approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, David L.; Jones, Frank A.; Swenson, Nathan G.; Pei, Nancai; Bourg, Norman A.; Chen, Wenna; Davies, Stuart J.; Ge, Xue-jun; Hao, Zhanqing; Howe, Robert W.; Huang, Chun-Lin; Larson, Andrew J.; Lum, Shawn K. Y.; Lutz, James A.; Ma, Keping; Meegaskumbura, Madhava; Mi, Xiangcheng; Parker, John D.; Fang-Sun, I.; Wright, S. Joseph; Wolf, Amy T.; Ye, W.; Xing, Dingliang; Zimmerman, Jess K.; Kress, W. John

    2014-01-01

    Forest dynamics plots, which now span longitudes, latitudes, and habitat types across the globe, offer unparalleled insights into the ecological and evolutionary processes that determine how species are assembled into communities. Understanding phylogenetic relationships among species in a community has become an important component of assessing assembly processes. However, the application of evolutionary information to questions in community ecology has been limited in large part by the lack of accurate estimates of phylogenetic relationships among individual species found within communities, and is particularly limiting in comparisons between communities. Therefore, streamlining and maximizing the information content of these community phylogenies is a priority. To test the viability and advantage of a multi-community phylogeny, we constructed a multi-plot mega-phylogeny of 1347 species of trees across 15 forest dynamics plots in the ForestGEO network using DNA barcode sequence data (rbcL, matK, and psbA-trnH) and compared community phylogenies for each individual plot with respect to support for topology and branch lengths, which affect evolutionary inference of community processes. The levels of taxonomic differentiation across the phylogeny were examined by quantifying the frequency of resolved nodes throughout. In addition, three phylogenetic distance (PD) metrics that are commonly used to infer assembly processes were estimated for each plot [PD, Mean Phylogenetic Distance (MPD), and Mean Nearest Taxon Distance (MNTD)]. Lastly, we examine the partitioning of phylogenetic diversity among community plots through quantification of inter-community MPD and MNTD. Overall, evolutionary relationships were highly resolved across the DNA barcode-based mega-phylogeny, and phylogenetic resolution for each community plot was improved when estimated within the context of the mega-phylogeny. Likewise, when compared with phylogenies for individual plots, estimates of

  8. Unbiased recurrence plot quantification of chaotic dynamic systems by eliminating sojourn points

    OpenAIRE

    Zaylaa, Amira,; Girault, Jean-Marc; Charara, Jamal

    2013-01-01

    International audience; —Recurrence plots are nonlinear tools used to visual-ize the behavior of trajectories of Dynamic Systems. Occurrence of false points known as 'sojourn points' have biased recurrence plots. To solve this contentious issue, the use of high embedding dimension was proposed. However it required a lot of computa-tion and was based on the phase space. For that, we proposed in this paper to compare four quantification techniques, by dropping out sojourn points from the recurr...

  9. Superplot: a graphical interface for plotting and analysing MultiNest output

    CERN Document Server

    Fowlie, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    We present an application, Superplot, for calculating and plotting statistical quantities relevant to parameter inference from a "chain" of samples drawn from a parameter space, produced by e.g. MultiNest. A simple graphical interface allows one to browse a chain of many variables quickly, and make publication quality plots of, inter alia, profile likelihood, posterior pdf, confidence intervals and credible regions. In this short manual, we document installation and basic usage, and define all statistical quantities and conventions.

  10. [Spreading experience of demonstration plots and strengthening control of parasitic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wang

    2011-10-01

    This paper summarizes the achievements and experiences of demonstration plots carrying out comprehensive control measures of parasite diseases in China, and elaborates the hard task of the control of parasitic diseases as one of main public health problems. The article also elaborates the significance of spreading the experiences of demonstration plots carrying out comprehensive control measures of parasite diseases for improving the health of people and promoting the construction of new countryside.

  11. Source apportionment advances using polar plots of bivariate correlation and regression statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, Stuart K.; Lewis, Alastair C.; Carslaw, David C.

    2016-11-01

    This paper outlines the development of enhanced bivariate polar plots that allow the concentrations of two pollutants to be compared using pair-wise statistics for exploring the sources of atmospheric pollutants. The new method combines bivariate polar plots, which provide source characteristic information, with pair-wise statistics that provide information on how two pollutants are related to one another. The pair-wise statistics implemented include weighted Pearson correlation and slope from two linear regression methods. The development uses a Gaussian kernel to locally weight the statistical calculations on a wind speed-direction surface together with variable-scaling. Example applications of the enhanced polar plots are presented by using routine air quality data for two monitoring sites in London, United Kingdom for a single year (2013). The London examples demonstrate that the combination of bivariate polar plots, correlation, and regression techniques can offer considerable insight into air pollution source characteristics, which would be missed if only scatter plots and mean polar plots were used for analysis. Specifically, using correlation and slopes as pair-wise statistics, long-range transport processes were isolated and black carbon (BC) contributions to PM2.5 for a kerbside monitoring location were quantified. Wider applications and future advancements are also discussed.

  12. A New Process Monitoring Method Based on Waveform Signal by Using Recurrence Plot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Zhou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Process monitoring is an important research problem in numerous areas. This paper proposes a novel process monitoring scheme by integrating the recurrence plot (RP method and the control chart technique. Recently, the RP method has emerged as an effective tool to analyze waveform signals. However, unlike the existing RP methods that employ recurrence quantification analysis (RQA to quantify the recurrence plot by a few summary statistics; we propose new concepts of template recurrence plots and continuous-scale recurrence plots to characterize the waveform signals. A new feature extraction method is developed based on continuous-scale recurrence plot. Then, a monitoring statistic based on the top-  approach is constructed from the continuous-scale recurrence plot. Finally, a bootstrap control chart is built to detect the signal changes based on the constructed monitoring statistics. The comprehensive simulation studies show that the proposed monitoring scheme outperforms other RQA-based control charts. In addition, a real case study of progressive stamping processes is implemented to further evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme for process monitoring.

  13. Reducing sojourn points from recurrence plots to improve transition detection: Application to fetal heart rate transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaylaa, Amira; Charara, Jamal; Girault, Jean-Marc

    2015-08-01

    The analysis of biomedical signals demonstrating complexity through recurrence plots is challenging. Quantification of recurrences is often biased by sojourn points that hide dynamic transitions. To overcome this problem, time series have previously been embedded at high dimensions. However, no one has quantified the elimination of sojourn points and rate of detection, nor the enhancement of transition detection has been investigated. This paper reports our on-going efforts to improve the detection of dynamic transitions from logistic maps and fetal hearts by reducing sojourn points. Three signal-based recurrence plots were developed, i.e. embedded with specific settings, derivative-based and m-time pattern. Determinism, cross-determinism and percentage of reduced sojourn points were computed to detect transitions. For logistic maps, an increase of 50% and 34.3% in sensitivity of detection over alternatives was achieved by m-time pattern and embedded recurrence plots with specific settings, respectively, and with a 100% specificity. For fetal heart rates, embedded recurrence plots with specific settings provided the best performance, followed by derivative-based recurrence plot, then unembedded recurrence plot using the determinism parameter. The relative errors between healthy and distressed fetuses were 153%, 95% and 91%. More than 50% of sojourn points were eliminated, allowing better detection of heart transitions triggered by gaseous exchange factors. This could be significant in improving the diagnosis of fetal state.

  14. Recurrence Plot Based Damage Detection Method by Integrating  Control Chart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Zhou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Because of the importance of damage detection in manufacturing systems and other areas, many fault detection methods have been developed that are based on a vibration signal. Little work, however, has been reported in the literature on using a recurrence plot method to analyze the vibration signal for damage detection. In this paper, we develop a recurrence plot based fault detection method by integrating the statistical process control technique. The recurrence plots of the vibration signals are derived by using the recurrence plot (RP method. Five types of features are extracted from the recurrence plots to quantify the vibration signals’ characteristic. Then, the  control chart, a multivariate statistical process control technique, is used to monitor these features. The  control chart technique, however, has the assumption that all the data should follow a normal distribution. The RP based  bootstrap control chart is proposed to estimate the control chart parameters. The performance of the proposed RP based  bootstrap control chart is evaluated by a simulation study and compared with other univariate bootstrap control charts based on recurrence plot features. A real case study of rolling element bearing fault detection demonstrates that the proposed fault detection method achieves a very good performance.

  15. Dynamical assessment of physiological systems and states using recurrence plot strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, C L; Zbilut, J P

    1994-02-01

    Physiological systems are best characterized as complex dynamical processes that are continuously subjected to and updated by nonlinear feedforward and feedback inputs. System outputs usually exhibit wide varieties of behaviors due to dynamical interactions between system components, external noise perturbations, and physiological state changes. Complicated interactions occur at a variety of hierarchial levels and involve a number of interacting variables, many of which are unavailable for experimental measurement. In this paper we illustrate how recurrence plots can take single physiological measurements, project them into multidimensional space by embedding procedures, and identify time correlations (recurrences) that are not apparent in the one-dimensional time series. We extend the original description of recurrence plots by computing an array of specific recurrence variables that quantify the deterministic structure and complexity of the plot. We then demonstrate how physiological states can be assessed by making repeated recurrence plot calculations within a window sliding down any physiological dynamic. Unlike other predominant time series techniques, recurrence plot analyses are not limited by data stationarity and size constraints. Pertinent physiological examples from respiratory and skeletal motor systems illustrate the utility of recurrence plots in the diagnosis of nonlinear systems. The methodology is fully applicable to any rhythmical system, whether it be mechanical, electrical, neural, hormonal, chemical, or even spacial.

  16. Similarity-dissimilarity plot for visualization of high dimensional data in biomedical pattern classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Muhammad

    2012-06-01

    In pattern classification problems, feature extraction is an important step. Quality of features in discriminating different classes plays an important role in pattern classification problems. In real life, pattern classification may require high dimensional feature space and it is impossible to visualize the feature space if the dimension of feature space is greater than four. In this paper, we have proposed a Similarity-Dissimilarity plot which can project high dimensional space to a two dimensional space while retaining important characteristics required to assess the discrimination quality of the features. Similarity-dissimilarity plot can reveal information about the amount of overlap of features of different classes. Separable data points of different classes will also be visible on the plot which can be classified correctly using appropriate classifier. Hence, approximate classification accuracy can be predicted. Moreover, it is possible to know about whom class the misclassified data points will be confused by the classifier. Outlier data points can also be located on the similarity-dissimilarity plot. Various examples of synthetic data are used to highlight important characteristics of the proposed plot. Some real life examples from biomedical data are also used for the analysis. The proposed plot is independent of number of dimensions of the feature space.

  17. Checking the Adequacy of Fit of Models from Split-Plot Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almini, A. A.; Kulahci, Murat; Montgomery, D. C.

    2009-01-01

    One of the main features that distinguish split-plot experiments from other experiments is that they involve two types of experimental errors: the whole-plot (WP) error and the subplot (SP) error. Taking this into consideration is very important when computing measures of adequacy of fit for split......-plot models. In this article, we propose the computation of two R-2, R-2-adjusted, prediction error sums of squares (PRESS), and R-2-prediction statistics to measure the adequacy of fit for the WP and the SP submodels in a split-plot design. This is complemented with the graphical analysis of the two types...... of errors to check for any violation of the underlying assumptions and the adequacy of fit of split-plot models. Using examples, we show how computing two measures of model adequacy of fit for each split-plot design model is appropriate and useful as they reveal whether the correct WP and SP effects have...

  18. Local Group Galaxy Emission-line Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaha, Cindy; Baildon, Taylor; Mehta, Shail; Garcia, Edgar; Massey, Philip; Hodge, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of the Local Group Galaxy Emission-line Survey of Hα emission regions in M31, M33 and seven dwarf galaxies in (NGC6822, IC10, WLM, Sextans A and B, Phoenix and Pegasus). Using data from the Local Group Galaxy Survey (LGGS - see Massey et al, 2006), we used continuum-subtracted Ha emission line images to define emission regions with a faint flux limit of 10 -17 ergs-sec-1-cm-2above the background. We have obtained photometric measurements for roughly 7450 Hα emission regions in M31, M33 and five of the seven dwarf galaxies (no regions for Phoenix or Pegasus). Using these regions, with boundaries defined by Hα-emission flux limits, we also measured fluxes for the continuum-subtracted [OIII] and [SII] images and constructed a catalog of Hα fluxes, region sizes and [OIII]/ Hα and [SII]/ Hα line ratios. The HII region luminosity functions and size distributions for the spiral galaxies M31 and M33 are compared with those of the dwarf galaxies NGC 6822 and IC10. For M31 and M33, the average [SII]/ Hα and [OIII]/ Hα line ratios, plotted as a function of galactocentric radius, display a linear trend with shallow slopes consistent with other studies of metallicity gradients in these galaxies. The galaxy-wide averages of [SII]/ Hα line ratios correlate with the masses of the dwarf galaxies following the previously established dwarf galaxy mass-metallicity relationship. The slope of the luminosity functions for the dwarf galaxies varies with galaxy mass. The Carleton Catalog of this Local Group Emission-line Survey will be made available on-line.

  19. Establishing lunar resource viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J.; Fisackerly, R.; Houdou, B.

    2016-11-01

    Recent research has highlighted the potential of lunar resources as an important element of space exploration but their viability has not been demonstrated. Establishing whether or not they can be considered in future plans is a multidisciplinary effort, requiring scientific expertise and delivering scientific results. To this end various space agencies and private entities are looking to lunar resources, extracted and processed in situ, as a potentially game changing element in future space architectures, with the potential to increase scale and reduce cost. However, before any decisions can be made on the inclusion of resources in exploration roadmaps or future scenarios some big questions need to be answered about the viability of different resource deposits and the processes for extraction and utilisation. The missions and measurements that will be required to answer these questions, and which are being prepared by agencies and others, can only be performed through the engagement and support of the science community. In answering questions about resources, data and knowledge will be generated that is of fundamental scientific importance. In supporting resource prospecting missions the science community will de facto generate new scientific knowledge. Science enables exploration and exploration enables science.

  20. Vegetation Plot Data of the Coastal Wetland Elevation Monitoring Sites on National Wildlife Refuges in the South Atlantic Geography.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Plot level raw datasets--including Cover, Woody Stem, Plot/Environmental, and Soil--from vegetation sampling on Coastal Wetland Elevation Monitoring Sites within the...

  1. A vegetation survey of the Cape of Good Hope Nature Reserve. I. The use of association-analysis and Braun-Blanquet methods*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Taylor

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The survey aimed to establish broad vegetation units that could be mapped on an extensive scale in the Cape of Good Hope Nature Reserve at the southern tip of the Cape Peninsula. This paper compares the performance of two methods, association-analysis and the Braun-Blanquet method as developed by the Zurich-Montpellier School of Phytosociology. One hundred 50 m2  sample plots, covering the whole Reserve, were placed systematically at grid intersections on the 1:18 000 topographical map. at 1 000-yard (914 m intervals. Species lists, recording merely presence of all species with permanently recognizable aerial parts, were made for each plot. The association-analysis resulted in a classification of 23 final groups of sample plots, of which only five groups showed high floristic and ecological homogeneity. Of the remainder, eight groups contained some anomalous, misplaced plots, and ten represented small, isolated fragments of natural units. The original data were then analysed using Braun-Blanquet methods to provide an independent classification for comparison with the former. The Braun-Blanquet communities were found to be more homogeneous in terms of previously defined habitat groupings and showed floristic relationships consistent with these groupings. It is concluded that, with the type of sampling used, the synthetic phytosociological Braun-Blanquet method provides a more natural classification of plant communities of the Reserve than does the monothetic divisive association-analysis method.

  2. 增强现实技术在海军标图中的应用%Application of Augmented Reality in Navy Plotting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘喜作; 蔡畅; 邹文萌

    2012-01-01

    To solve the problem of human-computer nature interaction (HCNI), real-time plotting and generating three-dimensional situation of battlefield in three-dimensional electronic sand table, established a new flat using navy three-dimensional plotting using augmented reality technology. Describe the key technology of augmented reality three-dimensional modeling, use example to carry out three-dimensional loading and dramatizing of virtual army forces and virtual landscape and interspaces location and three-dimensional navy plotting. The simulation result shows, comparing with the traditional two-dimensional plotting, the three-dimensional plotting method is more flexible, natural and intuitive, and the AR-based space is more immersive and thinking.%为解决在三维电子沙盘中进行自然交互、实时标绘和生成三堆态势图的问题,利用增强现实技术构建一个应用于海军三维标图的平台.对增强现实三维空间建模的关键技术进行描述,并以实例对虚拟兵力和虚拟地形进行三维模型加载和渲染,空间定位和三维海军标图.仿真结果表明:与传统的二维标图相比,该三维标图方式更为灵活、直观自然,具有沉浸感强及想象空间丰富的特点.

  3. Application of Excel software in the design work of forest harvesting in the point sample plot%Excel 软件在林木采伐作业设计角规样地中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓玉明

    2015-01-01

    Using by the Excel software formula function to establish the design work of forest harvesting in the point sam-ple plot.The operating procedures are:1.Fill in the codes of species name form,high and yield rate;2.Fill in the in-vestigation data of tree diameter,basal area,average high;3.Fill in the subcompartment area,and other data can be generated automatically summary and calculation.The Excel software could solve the tedious,error prone in the sample survey investigation and calculation wor.%利用 Excel 软件的函数功能,建立林木采伐作业设计角规样地表,操作规程为:①填写树种名和形高、出材率代码;②录入树种、径阶、断面积、平均高等调查数据;③填写采伐小班面积,其它数据可自动生成并进行汇总计算。通过 Excel 软件解决了角规样地调查内业查表、计算等工作繁琐、容易出错等问题。

  4. Plot Unravels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    An investigation suggests the July 5 riot in Urumqi was organized and linked to terrorist groups Although alerted to a possible protest beforehand, the government of Urumqi did not expect the demonstration on July 5 to escalate into a murderous rampage with brutality, the likes of which the city had never seen, officials said.

  5. Plot 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Inger-Lise; Hermansen, Anne-Mette; Ferdinand, Trine

    Her møder eleven både den klassiske litteratur og de helt nye tekster. Nye medieformer giver særlige oplevelsesmuligheder og har anderledes sprogformer. Eleverne møder det hele. De skal arbejde med tekster, som udfordrer dem både sprogligt og intellektuelt, og som rummer den store variation, der ...

  6. Plot 6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Inger-Lise; Ferdinand, Trine; Abildgaard, Stina

    Elevbogen indeholder 6 kapitler. Kapitlernes indhold kommer rundt i hele danskfaget med forskellige vinkler, og elevernes læring udspringer af kompetenceområderne: læsning, fremstilling, fortolkning og kommunikation...

  7. Plot 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Inger-Lise; Hermansen, Anne-Mette; Ferdinand, Trine

    Her møder eleven både den klassiske litteratur og de helt nye tekster. Nye medieformer giver særlige oplevelsesmuligheder og har anderledes sprogformer. Eleverne møder det hele. De skal arbejde med tekster, som udfordrer dem både sprogligt og intellektuelt, og som rummer den store variation, der ...

  8. Predicting cotton yield of small field plots in a cotton breeding program using UAV imagery data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maja, Joe Mari J.; Campbell, Todd; Camargo Neto, Joao; Astillo, Philip

    2016-05-01

    One of the major criteria used for advancing experimental lines in a breeding program is yield performance. Obtaining yield performance data requires machine picking each plot with a cotton picker, modified to weigh individual plots. Harvesting thousands of small field plots requires a great deal of time and resources. The efficiency of cotton breeding could be increased significantly while the cost could be decreased with the availability of accurate methods to predict yield performance. This work is investigating the feasibility of using an image processing technique using a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) camera mounted on a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (sUAV) to collect normal RGB images in predicting cotton yield on small plot. An orthonormal image was generated from multiple images and used to process multiple, segmented plots. A Gaussian blur was used to eliminate the high frequency component of the images, which corresponds to the cotton pixels, and used image subtraction technique to generate high frequency pixel images. The cotton pixels were then separated using k-means cluster with 5 classes. Based on the current work, the calculated percentage cotton area was computed using the generated high frequency image (cotton pixels) divided by the total area of the plot. Preliminary results showed (five flights, 3 altitudes) that cotton cover on multiple pre-selected 227 sq. m. plots produce an average of 8% which translate to approximately 22.3 kgs. of cotton. The yield prediction equation generated from the test site was then use on a separate validation site and produced a prediction error of less than 10%. In summary, the results indicate that a COTS camera with an appropriate image processing technique can produce results that are comparable to expensive sensors.

  9. Quantitative XRD HW-IR plot for clay mineral domain size and lattice strain analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. J.; Chen, D. Z.; Zhou, J.; Chen, T.; Wang, H.; Zhang, Z. Q.

    2003-04-01

    Based on integral-breadth method, the one of three basic XRD methods (Klug &Alexander, 1974), authors (2000) proposed a qualitative half width (HW)-intensity ratio (IR) plot for clay mineral domain size and lattice strain analyses. In this study, the quantitative HW-IR plot is further developed on the basis of i) the curve relation between the Voigt function and the Pearson VII function; ii) the relationship between the Kübler index and the Weaver index. By numerical simulating, it is derived a curve relation between shape indexes k of the Voigt function and u of the Pearson VII function. With this curve relation, k and u can be converted each other in an accuracy of ten thousandth and therefore the domain size and the lattice strain contributions can be precisely separated from an XRD peak according to Langford's (1978) formula. For micaceous minerals, the HW-IR plot requires only a pair of values of the Kübler index and the Weaver index from 1nm reflection. For other clay minerals, the plot needs a pair of values of the (00l) peak's half width and intensity ratio IR. IR is a ratio of peak maximum to the intensity at the position of maximum minus 0.422oΔ2Θ in CuKα radiation. This quantitative plot renders a mean dimension of clay particles perpendicular to the reflection plane (00l) and an approximate upper limit strain normal to d001. The accuracy for domain size analysis reaches one tenth of nanometre and that for the lattice strain analysis is in ten thousandth respectively. This plot method can be widely used with any digital X-ray diffractometer, whose XRD data can be converted into text format. Excel 5.0 or latter versions in both English and Chinese can well support the HW-IR plot. This study was supported by NNSFC (Grant No 40272022)

  10. Reduciblity, Arrhenius plots and the Uroboros Dragon, a reply to the preprint "Correlations in Nuclear Arrhenius-Type Plots" by M.B. Tsang and P. Danielewicz

    CERN Document Server

    Moretto, L G; Phair, L; Wozniak, G J

    1997-01-01

    In a recent preprint by Tsang and Danielewicz, the authors attempt to give alternative or trivial explanations for the reducible and "thermal" nature of the intermediate mass fragment excitation functions reported previously (Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1530 (1995), Phys. Lett B 361, 25 (1995), Phys. Rep. 287, 249 (1997)). We demonstrate that their proposed "self-correlation" explanation for linear Arrhenius plots is based upon a flawed autocorrelation analysis involving circular reasoning.

  11. The pig story (tiboi sakkoko Storytelling of kinship, memories of the past, and rights to plots of ancestral land in Mentawai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juniator Tulius

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines some significant elements of the pig story (tiboi sakkoko. This tale contains crucial information about the collective identity, ancestors and historical events affecting particular Mentawai kin-groups. As families do not preserve their culture and traditions in written form, storytellers of kin-groups have narrated the pig story from generation to generation so as to preserve it carefully. In the course of time, storytellers establish particular ways of telling their stories so as to remember the content and plot of the stories easily. Through the pig story, members of kin groups also recollect their ancestral place of origin and plots of ancestral lands. The role of human memory is indispensable to recalling all these important elements. Therefore, this paper analyses memories of the past of different family generations. To achieve its aims, this paper also evaluates the roles of family stories in the culture and traditions of Mentawai society.

  12. Maintaining the confidentiality of plot locations by exploiting the low sensitivity of forest structure models to different spectral extraction kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean P. Healey; Elizabeth Lapoint; Gretchen G. Moisen; Scott L. Powell

    2011-01-01

    The United States Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) unit maintains a large national network of inventory plots.While the consistency and extent of this network make FIA data attractive for ecological modelling, the FIA is charged by statute not to publicly reveal inventory plot locations. However, use of FIA plot data by the remote sensing community...

  13. Calibration of multivariate scatter plots for exploratory analysis of relations within and between sets of variables in genomic research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graffelman, J.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    2005-01-01

    The scatter plot is a well known and easily applicable graphical tool to explore relationships between two quantitative variables. For the exploration of relations between multiple variables, generalisations of the scatter plot are useful. We present an overview of multivariate scatter plots focussi

  14. The Application of TD/GC/NICI-MS with an Al2O3-PLOT-S Column for the Determination of Perfluoroalkylcycloalkanes in the Atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yu; Schlager, Hans; Martin, Damien

    2014-01-01

    A modified method for the quantitative determination of atmospheric perfluoroalkylcycloalkanes (PFCs) using thermal desorption coupled with gas chromatography and detection by negative ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometry was developed. Using an optimized analytical system, a commercially available Al2O3 porous layer open tubular (PLOT) capillary column (30 m × 0.25 mm) deactivated with Na2SO4 was used for separation of PFCs. Improvements in the separation of PFCs, the corresponding identification and the limit of detection of PFCs using this method and column are presented. The method was successfully applied to determine the atmospheric background concentrations of a range of PFCs from a number of samples collected at a rural site in Germany. The results of this study suggest that the method outlined using the Al2O3-PLOT-S capillary column has good sensitivity and selectivity, and that it can be deployed in a routine laboratory process for the analysis of PFCs in the future research work. In addition, the ability of this column to separate the isomers of one of the lower boiling PFCs (perfluorodimethylcyclobutane) and its ability to resolve perfluoroethylcyclohexane offer the opportunity for single-column analysis for multiple PFCs.

  15. Characterization of Surface Runoff, Soil Erosion, Nutrient Loss and their relationship for Agricultural plots in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan La

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to explore the existence of relationship among rainfall, runoff, soil loss and nutrient losses from the agricultural plots located at Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India. The natural rainfall generated runoff and soil loss from the 12 agricultural runoff plots (with four land uses namely sugarcane, maize, black gram and fallow land and having slope 5%, 3% and 1% for each land use were recorded during monsoon period (June 2013 to September 2013. The highest grade plot was found to yield the highest magnitude of runoff (i.e. runoff coefficient for a given land use and soil type. The soil loss from the experimental plots of various characteristics shown that for given rainfall input, on average, the plots with sugarcane land use were found to produce high amount of soil loss followed by Maize, fallow land and Blackgram. The nutrients losses were very low in the sediment as compared to the dissolved losses. Nutrients concentrations in sediment and runoff water were found to be more during the critical period. The higher limit of seasonal sediment yield obtained from the present study is lower than soil loss tolerance limit of 2.5 to 12.5 t/ha /yr for Indian subcontinent.

  16. What the Darken-Gurry Plot Means About the Solubility of Elements in Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mae, Yoshiharu

    2016-12-01

    The solubility of elements in metals is a classical subject but still an important one. There are Hume-Rothery rules, which describe the solubility of elements in metals. The Darken-Gurry plot is a diagrammatical representation of Hume-Rothery rules in which the atomic radius is taken as the abscissa and the electronegativity as the ordinate. Apart from the existing methods, the author introduced the "thermal conductivity-Young's modulus" (TC-YM) diagram in which thermal conductivity is taken as the abscissa and the Young's modulus as the ordinate. The maximum solubilities of elements in γ-Fe, α-Fe, Cu, and Al are shown on both the Darken-Gurry plot and the TC-YM diagram. The TC-YM diagrams showed clear patterns of solubility on the diagram, while the Darken-Gurry plots showed only vague ones. According to the TC-YM diagram, the atomic radius and electronegativity, which are factors in the Darken-Gurry plot, were proven to be similar factors of the same trend. This is why the Darken-Gurry plot shows vague trends on the figure. On the other hand, the TC-YM diagram shows a clear trend of the solubility of elements. The same crystal structure, nearness to the matrix metal on the diagram, and similar Young's modulus are concluded to be main factors for the large solubility.

  17. Fungicides transport in runoff from vineyard plot and catchment: contribution of non-target areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrancq, Marie; Payraudeau, Sylvain; García Verdú, Antonio Joaquín; Maillard, Elodie; Millet, Maurice; Imfeld, Gwenaël

    2014-04-01

    Surface runoff and erosion during the course of rainfall events are major processes of pesticides transport from agricultural land to aquatic ecosystem. These processes are generally evaluated either at the plot or the catchment scale. Here, we compared at both scales the transport and partitioning in runoff water of two widely used fungicides, i.e., kresoxim-methyl (KM) and cyazofamid (CY). The objective was to evaluate the relationship between fungicides runoff from the plot and from the vineyard catchment. The results show that seasonal exports for KM and CY at the catchment were larger than those obtained at the plot. This underlines that non-target areas within the catchment largely contribute to the overall load of runoff-associated fungicides. Estimations show that 85 and 62 % of the loads observed for KM and CY at the catchment outlet cannot be explained by the vineyard plots. However, the partitioning of KM and CY between three fractions, i.e., the suspended solids (>0.7 μm) and two dissolved fractions (i.e., between 0.22 and 0.7 µm and catchment and the plot scales enable to evaluate the sources areas of pesticide off-site transport.

  18. Parametric-Studies and Data-Plotting Modules for the SOAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    "Parametric Studies" and "Data Table Plot View" are the names of software modules in the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP). Parametric Studies enables parameterization of as many as three satellite or ground-station attributes across a range of values and computes the average, minimum, and maximum of a specified metric, the revisit time, or 21 other functions at each point in the parameter space. This computation produces a one-, two-, or three-dimensional table of data representing statistical results across the parameter space. Inasmuch as the output of a parametric study in three dimensions can be a very large data set, visualization is a paramount means of discovering trends in the data (see figure). Data Table Plot View enables visualization of the data table created by Parametric Studies or by another data source: this module quickly generates a display of the data in the form of a rotatable three-dimensional-appearing plot, making it unnecessary to load the SOAP output data into a separate plotting program. The rotatable three-dimensionalappearing plot makes it easy to determine which points in the parameter space are most desirable. Both modules provide intuitive user interfaces for ease of use.

  19. The Use of Crow-AMSAA Plots to Assess Mishap Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Jeffrey W.

    2011-01-01

    Crow-AMSAA (CA) plots are used to model reliability growth. Use of CA plots has expanded into other areas, such as tracking events of interest to management, maintenance problems, and safety mishaps. Safety mishaps can often be successfully modeled using a Poisson probability distribution. CA plots show a Poisson process in log-log space. If the safety mishaps are a stable homogenous Poisson process, a linear fit to the points in a CA plot will have a slope of one. Slopes of greater than one indicate a nonhomogenous Poisson process, with increasing occurrence. Slopes of less than one indicate a nonhomogenous Poisson process, with decreasing occurrence. Changes in slope, known as "cusps," indicate a change in process, which could be an improvement or a degradation. After presenting the CA conceptual framework, examples are given of trending slips, trips and falls, and ergonomic incidents at NASA (from Agency-level data). Crow-AMSAA plotting is a robust tool for trending safety mishaps that can provide insight into safety performance over time.

  20. Selecting the optimum plot size for a California design-based stream and wetland mapping program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackey, Leila G; Stein, Eric D

    2014-04-01

    Accurate estimates of the extent and distribution of wetlands and streams are the foundation of wetland monitoring, management, restoration, and regulatory programs. Traditionally, these estimates have relied on comprehensive mapping. However, this approach is prohibitively resource-intensive over large areas, making it both impractical and statistically unreliable. Probabilistic (design-based) approaches to evaluating status and trends provide a more cost-effective alternative because, compared with comprehensive mapping, overall extent is inferred from mapping a statistically representative, randomly selected subset of the target area. In this type of design, the size of sample plots has a significant impact on program costs and on statistical precision and accuracy; however, no consensus exists on the appropriate plot size for remote monitoring of stream and wetland extent. This study utilized simulated sampling to assess the performance of four plot sizes (1, 4, 9, and 16 km(2)) for three geographic regions of California. Simulation results showed smaller plot sizes (1 and 4 km(2)) were most efficient for achieving desired levels of statistical accuracy and precision. However, larger plot sizes were more likely to contain rare and spatially limited wetland subtypes. Balancing these considerations led to selection of 4 km(2) for the California status and trends program.