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Sample records for survey pensacola mountains

  1. Deglacial history of the Pensacola Mountains, Antarctica from glacial geomorphology and cosmogenic nuclide surface exposure dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, M. J.; Hein, A. S.; Sugden, D. E.; Whitehouse, P. L.; Shanks, R.; Xu, S.; Freeman, S. P. H. T.

    2017-02-01

    The retreat history of the Antarctic Ice Sheet is important for understanding rapid deglaciation, as well as to constrain numerical ice sheet models and ice loading models required for glacial isostatic adjustment modelling. There is particular debate about the extent of grounded ice in the Weddell Sea embayment at the Last Glacial Maximum, and its subsequent deglacial history. Here we provide a new dataset of geomorphological observations and cosmogenic nuclide surface exposure ages of erratic samples that constrain the deglacial history of the Pensacola Mountains, adjacent to the present day Foundation Ice Stream and Academy Glacier in the southern Weddell Sea embayment. We show there is evidence of at least two glaciations, the first of which was relatively old and warm-based, and a more recent cold-based glaciation. During the most recent glaciation ice thickened by at least 450 m in the Williams Hills and at least 380 m on Mt Bragg. Progressive thinning from these sites was well underway by 10 ka BP and ice reached present levels by 2.5 ka BP, and is broadly similar to the relatively modest thinning histories in the southern Ellsworth Mountains. The thinning history is consistent with, but does not mandate, a Late Holocene retreat of the grounding line to a smaller-than-present configuration, as has been recently hypothesized based on ice sheet and glacial isostatic modelling. The data also show that clasts with complex exposure histories are pervasive and that clast recycling is highly site-dependent. These new data provide constraints on a reconstruction of the retreat history of the formerly-expanded Foundation Ice Stream, derived using a numerical flowband model.

  2. GPR Surveying in the kernel area of Grove Mountains, Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zemin; TAN Zhi; AI Songtao; LIU Haiyan; CHE Guowei

    2014-01-01

    The Grove Mountains, located between the Zhongshan Station and Dome A, are a very important area in inland Antarctic research. China has organized ifve investigations of the Grove Mountains, encompassing the geological structure, ancient climate, meteorites, ice-movement monitoring, basic mapping, meteorological observations, and other multi-disciplinary observational studies. During the 26th Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition in 2010, the Grove Mountains investigation team applied specialized ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to survey subglacial topography in the eastern kernel area of the Grove Mountains. In this paper, we processed GPS and GPR data gathered in the ifeld and drew, for the ifrst time, two subglacial topographic maps of the Grove Mountains kernel area using professional graphics software. The preliminary results reveal the mystery of the nunatak landform of this area, give an exploratory sense of the real bedrock landforms, and indicate a possible sedimentary basin under the Pliocene epoch fossil ice in the Grove Mountains area. Additionally, it has been proven from cross-sectional analysis between Mount Harding and the Zakharoff ridge that the box-valley shape between two nunataks has already matured.

  3. Resource and radioactivity survey in the Ellsworth Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreschhoff, G.A.M.; Zeller, E.J.; Thoste, V.; Bulla, K.

    1980-01-01

    During the 1979-80 field season, radiometric survey operations were mostly limited to the Ellsworth Mountain area. The only exception was a brief attempt to detect radioactive fallout on the sea ice at McMurdo Station. The fallout measurements were made in an effort to detect a supposed nuclear bomb test off the South African coast. No fission products were found. The gamma-ray spectrometer used for the survey was a Geometrics GR-800 with a total sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) detector volume of 8390 cubic centimeters. The equipment had not been modified since the previous year and it functioned without interruption throughout the survey flights.

  4. Hydraulics and morphology of mountain rivers; literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieben, J.

    1993-01-01

    Present knowledge on fluvial processes in mountain rivers should be expanded to enable the development of projects dealing with mountain rivers or mountain-river catchment areas. This study reviews research on hydraulic and morphological features of mountain rivers. A major characteristic of mountai

  5. Survey of acute mountain sickness on Mauna Kea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onopa, Janet; Haley, Amanda; Yeow, Mei Ean

    2007-01-01

    Although thousands of people ascend 4205 m to visit the summit of Mauna Kea each year, there has been no information on the rate of altitude illness triggered by such visits. Two surveys were used: one for tourists driving up to the summit and the other for summit astronomy workers staying at lodging facilities at intermediate altitude. The surveys included the standardized Lake Louise Self-report Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS) Questionnaire that, when scored, gave the Lake Louise Symptoms Score (LLSS). Thirty percent of surveyed day visitors and 69% of surveyed professional astronomy staff had AMS, defined as a LLSS score of 3 or greater, with headache. Nine participants reported "disorientation/confusion" or greater consciousness changes. A majority of astronomy professionals reported fatigue, disturbed sleep, reduced activity, and mental status changes. Few took any AMS medications. The incidence of AMS in visitors to Mauna Kea's summit warrants increased education and increased availability of supplemental oxygen at the summit. The absence of reported serious altitude illness in the community is probably due to the rapid descent available on Mauna Kea, with prompt reversibility of adverse effects.

  6. Quantifying Relationships between Water Quality and Aquatic Life Use Attainment using Sediment Profile Imagery (SPI) in Pensacola Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present results from a monthly sediment and water quality survey of nine stations along a transect in the Pensacola Bay estuary spanning the salinity gradient from Escambia River to the Gulf of Mexico. We evaluated Benthic Habitat Quality (Nilsson and Rosenberg 1997) derived f...

  7. 2016 Black-footed Ferret Fall Population Survey at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A report summarizing the fall 2016 and spring 2017 black-footed ferret surveys at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge. The primary objectives of the...

  8. National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey 2012: Individual refuge results for Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey for Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge and is part of the USGS Data Series 754. The...

  9. A survey of potential raptor nesting sites in the southern Askinuk Mountains, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During June 1989, selected areas of the southern Askinuk Mountains were surveyed for raptor nests. Ten nests were located on rock outcroppings at seven locations....

  10. Data supporting study of Ecosystem Metabolism in Pensacola Bay estuary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These files house the data collected during 2013 in lower Pensacola Bay. The data were used to estimate aquatic primary production and respiration. This dataset is...

  11. Cheat Mountain Salamander Coverboard Survey Summary for 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary goal for this project is to establish baseline information on populations of the Cheat Mountain salamander on the refuge. In the future, an additional...

  12. Mountaineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘步东

    2005-01-01

    Most young people enjoy some forms of physical activities.It may be walking,cycling or swimming,or in wither,skating or skiing.It may be a game of some kind,football,hockey(曲棍球),golf,or tennis.Perhaps it may be mountaineering.

  13. Preliminary analysis of gravity and aeromagnetic surveys of the Timber Mountain Area, southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, M.F.; Webring, M.W.; Bhattacharyya, B.K.

    1981-12-31

    Recent (1977 to 1978) gravity and aeromagnetic surveys of the Timber Mountain region, southern Nevada, have revealed new details of subsurface structure and lithology. The data strongly suggest that deformation caused by volcanic events has been accommodated along straight-line faults combining in such a fashion as to given a curvilinear appearance to regional structure. The magnetic data suggest that rock units in the central graben and along the southeast margin of Timber Mountain may have been altered, perhaps thermally, from their original state. The gravity data indicate that the south part of the Timber Mountain is underlain by relatively dense rock possibly intrusive rock, like that which crops out along its southeast side. The gravity data also suggest that the Silent Canyon caldera may extend considerably south of its presently indicated southern limit and may underlie much of the area of Timber Mountain. The moat areas appear to be more rectangular or triangular than annular in shape. The southern part of Timber Mountain caldera is separated from the Yucca Mountain area to the south by a triangular horst. The structural relations of the rock units making up the horst are complex. Several linear terrain features in the southern part of the caldera area are closely aligned with geophysical features, implying that the terrain features are fault-controlled.

  14. Soil Fertility Survey in Western Usambara Mountains,Northern Tanzania

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Soil samples from thirty sites representing four agro-ecological zones in the Western Usambara Mountains (WUM)of the Lushoto District in northern Tanzania were collected and analyzed for different nutrients. The results suggested that the major soil fertility constraint was P deficiency. On the basis of critical levels established in other areas, 90%of the soils were ranked as P deficient. This was followed by N, which was ranked as inadequate in 73% of the sites.Magnesium, K, and Ca also appeared limiting with 67%, 53% and 50% of the soils falling below the established critical values, respectively. A few soils (10%) were also found to contain exchangeable Al. The metallic micronutrients (Cu, Fe,and Zn) were adequate in all soils. Two sites had excessive Mn that could lead to toxicity in crops, and one was Mn deficient.

  15. Great Smoky Mountains National Park Creel Survey Application

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This survey is intended to gain an understanding of fish population dynamics and angler use patterns throughout the park. If you have fished only one particular...

  16. Seasonal distribution and aerial surveys of mountain goats in Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kurt; Beirne, Katherine; Happe, Patricia; Hoffman, Roger; Rice, Cliff; Schaberl, Jim

    2011-01-01

    We described the seasonal distribution of Geographic Positioning System (GPS)-collared mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks to evaluate aerial survey sampling designs and provide general information for park managers. This work complemented a companion study published elsewhere of aerial detection biases of mountain goat surveys in western Washington. Specific objectives reported here were to determine seasonal and altitudinal movements, home range distributions, and temporal dynamics of mountain goat movements in and out of aerial survey sampling frames established within each park. We captured 25 mountain goats in Mount Rainier (9), North Cascades (5), and Olympic (11) National Parks, and fitted them with GPS-collars programmed to obtain 6-8 locations daily. We obtained location data on 23 mountain goats for a range of 39-751 days from 2003 to 2008. Altitudinal distributions of GPS-collared mountain goats varied individually and seasonally, but median altitudes used by individual goats during winter ranged from 817 to 1,541 meters in Olympic and North Cascades National Parks, and 1,215 to 1,787 meters in Mount Rainier National Park. Median altitudes used by GPS-collared goats during summer ranged from 1,312 to 1,819 meters in Olympic and North Cascades National Parks, and 1,780 to 2,061 meters in Mount Rainier National Park. GPS-collared mountain goats generally moved from low-altitude winter ranges to high-altitude summer ranges between June 11 and June 19 (range April 24-July 3) and from summer to winter ranges between October 26 and November 9 (range September 11-December 23). Seasonal home ranges (95 percent of adaptive kernel utilization distribution) of males and female mountain goats were highly variable, ranging from 1.6 to 37.0 kilometers during summers and 0.7 to 9.5 kilometers during winters. Locations of GPS-collared mountain goats were almost 100 percent within the sampling frame used for

  17. Seasonal distribution and aerial surveys of mountain goats in Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kurt; Beirne, Katherine; Happe, Patricia; Hoffman, Roger; Rice, Cliff; Schaberl, Jim

    2011-01-01

    We described the seasonal distribution of Geographic Positioning System (GPS)-collared mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks to evaluate aerial survey sampling designs and provide general information for park managers. This work complemented a companion study published elsewhere of aerial detection biases of mountain goat surveys in western Washington. Specific objectives reported here were to determine seasonal and altitudinal movements, home range distributions, and temporal dynamics of mountain goat movements in and out of aerial survey sampling frames established within each park. We captured 25 mountain goats in Mount Rainier (9), North Cascades (5), and Olympic (11) National Parks, and fitted them with GPS-collars programmed to obtain 6-8 locations daily. We obtained location data on 23 mountain goats for a range of 39-751 days from 2003 to 2008. Altitudinal distributions of GPS-collared mountain goats varied individually and seasonally, but median altitudes used by individual goats during winter ranged from 817 to 1,541 meters in Olympic and North Cascades National Parks, and 1,215 to 1,787 meters in Mount Rainier National Park. Median altitudes used by GPS-collared goats during summer ranged from 1,312 to 1,819 meters in Olympic and North Cascades National Parks, and 1,780 to 2,061 meters in Mount Rainier National Park. GPS-collared mountain goats generally moved from low-altitude winter ranges to high-altitude summer ranges between June 11 and June 19 (range April 24-July 3) and from summer to winter ranges between October 26 and November 9 (range September 11-December 23). Seasonal home ranges (95 percent of adaptive kernel utilization distribution) of males and female mountain goats were highly variable, ranging from 1.6 to 37.0 kilometers during summers and 0.7 to 9.5 kilometers during winters. Locations of GPS-collared mountain goats were almost 100 percent within the sampling frame used for

  18. Chromosome doubling in Paspalum notatum var. saure (cultivar Pensacola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Weiler

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Paspalum notatum is one of the most important native grassland species of southern Brazil, and the main forage source for livestock. The native ecotypes are tetraploid and have apomictic reproduction, which prevents the registration and protection of plant varieties. However, the cultivated variety Paspalum notatum var. saurae (cultivar Pensacola is diploid and sexual. The objective of this study was to artificially produce polyploid cv. Pensacola plants, to be used as female parents in crosses with male tetraploid and apomictic parents. Seedlings and seeds were immersed in colchicine solutions for different periods. A tetraploid chromosome number was confirmed in three plants. The reproduction mode of the resulting polyploid plants will be assessed; if confirmed to be sexual, they can be used in crosses with native apomictic plants to breed new intraspecific hybrids.

  19. Salamander Survey Week August 4-7 and Area Search For Cheat Mountain Salamanders August 28 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Two separate reports are included. 1.) During the Week of August 4, 2003 a group of biologists were brought to CVNWR to perform a survey for Cheat Mountain...

  20. Bacteria and Turbidity Survey for Blue Mountain Lake, Arkansas, Spring and Summer, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasker, A. Dwight

    1995-01-01

    Introduction Blue Mountain Lake darn is located at river mile 74.4 on the Petit Jean River in Logan and Yell Counties in west-central Arkansas (fig. 1). Drainage area above the darn is 488 square miles. Blue Mountain Lake is located between two national forests-the Ozark National Forest and the Ouachita National Forest. The primary purpose for Blue Mountain Lake is flood control, but the lake is used for a variety of recreational purposes. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.s. Army Corps of Engineers, Little Rock District, conducted a bacterial and turbidity study of the Blue Mountain Lake Basin during the spring and suri1mer 1994. Samples were collected weekly at 11 locations within the lake basin from May through September 1994. Eight sampling sites were located on tributaries to the lake and three sampling sites were located on the lake with one of the sites located at a swim beach (fig. 2; table 1).

  1. Magnetotelluric survey to characterize the Sunnyside porphyry copper system in the Patagonia Mountains, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Brian D.; Sampson, Jay A.

    2010-01-01

    The Sunnyside porphyry copper system is part of the concealed San Rafael Valley porphyry system located in the Patagonia Mountains of Arizona. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies as part of the Assessment Techniques for Concealed Mineral Resources project. To help characterize the size and resistivity of the mineralized area beneath overburden, a regional east-west magnetotelluric sounding profile was acquired. This is a data release report of the magnetotelluric sounding data collected along the east-west profile; no interpretation of the data is included.

  2. Audio-magnetotelluric survey to characterize the Sunnyside porphyry copper system in the Patagonia Mountains, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Jay A.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2010-01-01

    The Sunnyside porphyry copper system is part of the concealed San Rafael Valley porphyry system located in the Patagonia Mountains of Arizona. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies as part of the Assessment Techniques for Concealed Mineral Resources project. To help characterize the size, resistivity, and skin depth of the polarizable mineral deposit concealed beneath thick overburden, a regional east-west audio-magnetotelluric sounding profile was acquired. The purpose of this report is to release the audio-magnetotelluric sounding data collected along that east-west profile. No interpretation of the data is included.

  3. Estimating detection probability for Canada lynx Lynx canadensis using snow-track surveys in the northern Rocky Mountains, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Squires; Lucretia E. Olson; David L. Turner; Nicholas J. DeCesare; Jay A. Kolbe

    2012-01-01

    We used snow-tracking surveys to determine the probability of detecting Canada lynx Lynx canadensis in known areas of lynx presence in the northern Rocky Mountains, Montana, USA during the winters of 2006 and 2007. We used this information to determine the minimum number of survey replicates necessary to infer the presence and absence of lynx in areas of similar lynx...

  4. A floristic survey of Yucca Mountain and vicinity, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niles, W.E.; Leary, P.J.; Holland, J.S.; Landau, F.H.

    1995-12-01

    A survey of the vascular flora of Yucca Mountain and vicinity, Nye County, Nevada, was conducted from March to June 1994, and from March to October 1995. An annotated checklist of recorded taxa was compiled. Voucher plant specimens were collected and accessioned into the Herbarium at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Collection data accompanying these specimens were entered into that herbarium`s electronic data base. Combined results from this survey and the works of other investigators reveal the presence of a total of 375 specific and intraspecific taxa within the area these allocated to 179 genera and 54 families. No taxon currently listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act was encountered during this study. Several candidate species for listing under this Act were present, and distributional data for these were recorded. No change in the status of these candidate species is recommended as the result of this study.

  5. Yucca Mountain socioeconomic project report on the 1987 risk perception telephone surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunreuther, H. [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Wharton School of Finance and Commerce; Slovic, P. [Decision Research, Eugene, OR (United States); Nigg, J. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Desvousges, W.H. [Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1987-09-01

    The measurement of the risk-related impacts from the siting of a high-level nuclear waste (HLNW) repository represents a new and important addition to conventional socioeconomic impact studies. In particular, the driving forces behind these impacts are the risks people perceive to be associated with the repository. Measuring the risk impacts requires a complementary set of approaches, of which, risk surveys are the cornerstone.a The purpose of these surveys is to provide scientifically defensible measures of the risk-related impacts. The risk surveys follow directly from a conceptual framework of how the HLNW repository affects peoples` perceptions and, ultimately, their behaviors. These surveys describe and measure: Characteristics of individuals, Risks people perceive from the HLNW repository, Views, or mind sets, they form about the HLNW repository, Changes in behaviors--e.g., changes in retirement decisions or industrial relocations--induced by the location of the repository, and Changes in well-being of Nevada citizens, if the repository were located at Yucca Mountain.

  6. Astronomical Site Survey for Mountain Wumingshan Area in Western Sichuan Based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, N.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, H. M.

    2016-11-01

    In the Western-China Astronomical Site Survey project, we utilize the Geographic Information System (GIS) for the collection of long-term data, in order to investigate and study the Wumingshan (WMS) mountain and its surrounding areas for their geography, geology, climate, meteorology, social and demographic trends. Data analysis results show that the WMS mountain is located in the eastern fold belt of the Tibet Plateau--the typical region of the Hengduan Mountains, which leads to its large elevation, gently trended ridge, and stable geological structure. The highest altitude above the sea level at the WMS is more than 5000 m, but there are population settlements nearby with the low altitude of only 2000-3000 m, which are important for realizing low-level cost logistics conditions for the future headquarter or logistic base. Earthquake landslides and other geological disasters were rarely recorded. The other facts are such as the dry and clean atmosphere, the sparse vegetation, the semi-dry-state land, the perennial prevailing southwest wind, the rain-less winter, and the relatively short rainy-season summer, the location in the heartland of the large Shangri-La, no records of dust storms and the other inclement weather, low cloud coverage, the stability of wind direction, the small wind speed, the high possibility of clear sky, the far distance away from the developed areas in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces, and Tibet Autonomous Region, the sparsely populated people, the slowly developed economy, the peaceful and stable social environment, etc. Specially, in recent years, with the development of the local tourist resources, the traffic conditions in Daocheng have been significantly improved. With high quality highway maintenance and daily air transport capacity, the transportation of land and aviation is rarely interrupted due to snowing, which often happens in high plateau regions. Therefore, the WMS area possesses the potential conditions to establish the future

  7. Survey on welfare of dairy cow in tie-stalls in mountain area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Bovolenta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the survey was to study the effect of Alpine pasture and breed on welfare of dairy cattle bred in tie-stalls in mountain area of Friuli Venezia Giulia Region. Twenty-four representative farms were divided into 4 groups following a factorial design: 2 managements (with vs. without summer grazing x 2 breeds (Italian Simmental vs. Italian Brown. Data were collected following a protocol that considers direct animals’ measures or remarks, buildings and equipments information. The results showed that summer grazing affected some physical parameters - BCS, claw conformation and injuries - and some behaviour parameters such as rising movements. In this trial the breed did not seem to markedly influence cows’ welfare, except for BCS and lie down time.

  8. A floristic survey of Yucca Mountain and vicinity, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niles, W.E.; Leary, P.J.; Holland, J.S.; Landau, F.H.

    1994-12-01

    A survey of the vascular flora of Yucca Mountain and vicinity, Nye County, Nevada, was conducted from March to June 1994. An annotated checklist of recorded taxa was compiled. Voucher plant specimens were collected and accessioned into the Herbarium at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Collection data accompanying these specimens were entered into that herbarium`s electronic data base. Combined results from this survey and the works of other investigators reveal the presence of a total of 325 specific and intraspecific taxa within the area, these allocated to 162 genera and 53 families. Owing to drought conditions prevalent throughout the area, the annual floristic component was largely absent during the period of study, and it is likely much under-represented in the tabulation of results. No taxon currently listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act was encountered during this study. Several candidate species for listing under this Act were present, and distributional data for these were recorded. No change in the status of these candidate species is recommended as the result of this survey.

  9. Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry of the Centennial Re-survey of the San Jacinto Mountains, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, M. L.; Swarth, E.; Swarth, C.; Smith-Herman, N.; Tremor, S.; Unitt, P.

    2009-12-01

    In 1908, the San Jacinto Mountains were first surveyed for their animal and plant diversity by Joseph Grinnell and Harry Swarth, Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, UC Berkeley. In 2008, continuing until 2011, the ecology and stable isotope biogeochemistry of the plants, insects, birds, and mammals is being re-surveyed. Results of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen isotopes in organic matter show the variation in regional climate and trophic structure. For example, δ15N of plants at more arid stations are more positive by 3-5‰. Plants on westward facing slopes have more negative δ15N (to -6‰) possibly indicating N sources from atmospheric N deposition originating from urban Los Angeles. Isotopic analyses of recent collections will be compared with historic, museum archived specimens of plants and resident birds species. Our initial results show that the carbon isotopic compositions of plants collected in 1908 and during the early part of the 20th century are 1.6‰ enriched in δ13C, as predicted with the rise in industrially influenced atmospheric CO2. Isotopic data will be augmented by species diversity to test the hypothesis that 100 years of human influence has affected the ecosystem in this area and in what manner.

  10. Baseline coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from Pensacola, Florida, to Breton Islands, Louisiana, February 7, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Karen L.M.; Krohn, M. Dennis; Doran, Kara; Guy, Kristy K.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts baseline and storm response photography missions to document and understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms (Morgan, 2009). On February 7, 2012, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from Pensacola, Fla., to Breton Islands, La., aboard a Piper Navajo Chieftain at an altitude of 500 feet (ft) and approximately 1,000 ft offshore. This mission was flown to collect baseline data for assessing incremental changes since the last survey, and the data can be used in the assessment of future coastal change. The photographs provided here are Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) images. The photograph locations are an estimate of the position of the aircraft and do not indicate the location of the feature in the images (see the Navigation Data page). These photos document the configuration of the barrier islands and other coastal features at the time of the survey. The header of each photo is populated with time of collection, Global Positioning System (GPS) latitude, GPS longitude, GPS position (latitude and longitude), keywords, credit, artist (photographer), caption, copyright, and contact information using EXIFtools (Subino and others, 2012). Photographs can be opened directly with any JPEG-compatible image viewer by clicking on a thumbnail on the contact sheet. Table 1 provides detailed information about the assigned location, name, data, and time the photograph was taken along with links to the photograph. In addition to the photographs, a Google Earth Keyhole Markup Language (KML) file is provided and can be used to view the images by clicking on the marker and then clicking on either the thumbnail or the link above the thumbnail. The KML files were created using the photographic navigation files (see the Photos and Maps page).

  11. Sediment transport and erosional processes of a mountain bedrock channel using high-resolution topographic surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yu-Hsuan; Shyu, J. Bruce H.

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, spatial information with high resolution and accuracy have become widely available, thanks to the rapid technological developments. Such data have been applied in a variety of topics, including the digitization and monitoring of outcrops and the construction of digital elevation models (DEMs) of landscapes. In fluvial geomorphology, it is critical to understand the sediment transport and erosional processes of bedrock channels, but previously this is generally done using computer numerical simulations or minimized experiments. Therefore, this study intends to observe in situ fluvial sediment transport and erosional processes using terrestrial laser scanning (also called "ground LiDAR") and structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry in a mountain bedrock channel in eastern Taiwan. Along the Swallow Grotto (Yanzikou) section of the Liwu River, there are many large boulders with different sizes that are up to more than ten meters. Most of these boulders came from rock fall events of a nearby tributary, and are gneiss in composition, distinctively different from the bedrock of the river channel (marble). Thus in this study, we chose these boulders as our survey targets. We applied ground LiDAR survey to observe the movement of the boulders, and to understand the transportation threshold of sediments under different flow conditions. For those giant boulders that do not seem to be moveable under regular fluvial conditions, we suspect that bedrock erosional processes apply to them. We then used SfM photogrammetry to monitor the erosion of particular boulders. By constructing 3D models of the boulders before and after flooding events, we will be able to analyze the amount and location of erosion occurred on the boulders. Combining these different datasets and results, we hope to further understand the sediment transport and erosional processes of bedrock channels.

  12. Distance sampling to estimate abundance of biological populations : protocol for distance sampling surveys of coyotes at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Protocol for distance sampling surveys of coyotes at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMA). Line transects are used to estimate the density of...

  13. A Report on a Breeding Landbird Survey at the Putney Mountain Unit of the Silvio O. Conte National Fish and Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the spring of 2000, the Vermont Institute of Natural Science (VINS) conducted its first breeding landbird survey at the Putney Mountain Unit (Tract 15) of the...

  14. A floristic survey of the Hyrcanian forests in Northern Iran, using two lowland-mountain transects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alireza Naqinezhad; Hassan Zare-Maivan; Hamid Gholizadeh

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the floristic composition of the Hyrcanian forests and the related forest-steppe ecotone in Northern Iran by using two long ecological transects, from lowland to upper mountain areas. The study was conducted during 2008 and 2009 and yielded the identification of 395 plant taxa belonging to 233 genera and 78 families. Dicots with 300 taxa were the richest groups of the flora, followed by monocots with 75 taxa, pteridophytes with 18 species, and gymnosperms with two species. The largest families were Asteraceae (33 taxa); Rosaceae (32 taxa); and Poa-ceae (30 taxa), and the most diverse genera included Carex (15 taxa); Alchemilla (7 taxa); and Poa, Geranium and Acer (6 taxa each). Hemicryptophytes were the most dominant life forms in the area (40%); followed by geo-phytes (31.4%); phanerophytes (15.4%); therophytes (11.4%);and chamaephytes (1.8%). Phytogeographically, Euro-Siberian/Irano-Turanian elements (86 taxa, 21.8%) and Euro-Siberian elements (85 taxa, 21.5%) were the most common chorotypes in the area. Out of 395 taxa, 66 taxa (16.7%) were endemics and subendemics in Iran, of which 26 taxa were exclusively endemics of Iran. According to the IUCN Red List Categories, 48 threatened plant taxa were found in the study area. Plant diversity, life form, and chorotypes in the current study were compared with similar transect studies in other areas of the Hyrcanian forests and in different altitudinal belts, using Sørenson similarity indices. Floristic composition of the surveyed transects demonstrated almost 50% similarity between them.

  15. First complete regional view of the Pensacola-Pole Basin from PolarGAP radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Tom; Ferraccioli, Fausto; Corr, Hugh; Forsberg, René; Matsuoka, Kenichi; Olesen, Arne; Seddon, Sam; Casal, Tania

    2017-04-01

    The broad region around South Pole, including the Support Force Ice Stream, is one of the most poorly understood on our planet. Critically, uncertainties in bedrock elevation of over a kilometre in this area have been shown to generate variations in modelled volumes of ice loss under warmer climatic scenarios equivalent to 1.68 m global sea level change. During the 2015-16 field season the European Space Agency PolarGAP project collected 38,000 km of new integrated aerogeophysical data across this region. The focus of this successful survey was collecting airborne gravity data to fill the southern polar gap in satellite gravity coverage required for global geoid models. Coincident airborne radar, aeromagnetic and airborne Lidar data will make a significant additional contribution to understanding this critical, but poorly understood region. Here we present the first compilation of the airborne radar data from the PolarGAP survey. To assess the impact of sub-ice topography on ice flow we compare the new bedrock topography with satellite measurements of ice flow velocity. We show that the upstream part of the Support Force Ice Stream flows within the 150 km wide Pensacola Pole Basin, which is generally 650 m below sea level and extends from the coast to South Pole. The fastest ice flow is offset from a 25 km wide over-deepened axial trough, up to 1800 m below sea level. Our data broadly supports the patterns of bed roughness and internal layer deformation identified by previous authors, with presently enhanced ice flow linked to smooth bed and buckled ice sheet internal layers. Upstream of South Pole limited internal layer deformation suggests that the observed smooth bed morphology is a relict feature. Together our new dataset provides both new constraints for ice sheet models and gives new information about the evolution of the East Antarctic Ice sheet in this previously un-explored region.

  16. September 2012 Survey of the Rocky Mountain Population of Greater Sandhill Cranes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Greater sandhill cranes of the Rocky Mountain Population (RMP) were counted at fall premigration staging areas in Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Utah, and Wyoming during...

  17. September 2013 Survey of the Rocky Mountain Population of Greater Sandhill Cranes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Greater sandhill cranes of the Rocky Mountain Population (RMP) were counted at fall premigration staging areas in Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Utah, and Wyoming during...

  18. Bio-optical water quality dynamics observed from MERIS in Pensacola Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Observed bio-optical water quality data collected from 2009 to 2011 in Pensacola Bay, Florida were used to develop empirical remote sensing retrieval algorithms for chlorophyll a (Chla), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), and suspended particulate matter (SPM). Time-series ...

  19. Characterization of Gulf sturgeon diel and seasonal activity in the Pensacola Bay system, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrege, Beth Marie

    2009-12-01

    We assess temporal and spatial distribution and diel variability in activity of Gulf of Mexico sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi in the Pensacola Bay system, Florida, using stationary ultrasonic telemetry. Gulf of Mexico sturgeon (n = 54) migrated through the bay system in fall to wintering areas in the Gulf of Mexico and Santa Rosa Sound. In spring, sturgeon migrated back through the bay system to summering habitats in rivers. Gulf of Mexico sturgeon use East Bay and Escambia Bay primarily as migration routes between riverine areas used in spring and summer and the Gulf of Mexico used in winter. North Central Pensacola Bay was not routinely frequented. Gulf of Mexico sturgeon used specific areas within the Pensacola Bay system in summer and winter not previously documented as essential sturgeon habitat. Areas in southeastern Pensacola were used heavily during winter by a portion of the population. Gulf of Mexico sturgeon also exhibited long-term winter residency in Santa Rosa Sound. Interestingly, an area in northeastern Escambia Bay supported Gulf of Mexico sturgeon in summer. This observation was unexpected; however, the identification of Gulf of Mexico sturgeon in this area at this time has important ecological and management implications. Gulf of Mexico sturgeon exhibited a strong diel activity pattern. Gulf of Mexico sturgeon were more active at night than during day in all seasons but summer. The use of prepositioned arrays of acoustic receivers not only provides continuous data within a defined area, but provides insights into nocturnal behavior not previously examined.

  20. EFFECTS OF HURRICANE IVAN ON WATER QUALITY IN PENSACOLA BAY, FL USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensacola Bay was in the strong NE quadrant of Hurricane Ivan when it made landfall on September 16, 2004 as a category 3 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale. We present data describing the timeline and maximum height of the storm surge, the extent of flooding of coastal land, ...

  1. Oil characterization and distribution in shoreline sediments of Pensacola Bay, Florida following the Deepwater Horizon spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrier islands of Northwest Florida were heavily oiled during the Deepwater Horizon spill, but less is known about the impacts to the shorelines of the associated estuaries. Shoreline sediment oiling was investigated at 18 sites within the Pensacola Bay, Florida system prior to...

  2. EFFECTS OF HURRICANE IVAN ON WATER QUALITY IN PENSACOLA BAY, FL USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensacola Bay was in the strong NE quadrant of Hurricane Ivan when it made landfall on September 16, 2004 as a category 3 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale. We present data describing the timeline and maximum height of the storm surge, the extent of flooding of coastal land, ...

  3. Bio-optical water quality dynamics observed from MERIS in Pensacola Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Observed bio-optical water quality data collected from 2009 to 2011 in Pensacola Bay, Florida were used to develop empirical remote sensing retrieval algorithms for chlorophyll a (Chla), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), and suspended particulate matter (SPM). Time-series ...

  4. Survey of glaciers in the northern Rocky Mountains of Montana and Wyoming; Size response to climatic fluctuations 1950-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatelain, E.E. [Valdosta State Univ., GA (United States)

    1997-09-01

    An aerial survey of Northern Rocky Mountain glaciers in Montana and Wyoming was conducted in late summer of 1996. The Flathead, Swan, Mission, and Beartooth Mountains of Montana were covered, as well as the Teton and Wind River Ranges of Wyoming. Present extent of glaciers in this study were compared to limits on recent USGS 15 and 7.5 topographic maps, and also from selected personal photos. Large cirque and hanging glaciers of the Flathead and Wind River Ranges did not display significant decrease in size or change in terminus position. Cirque glaciers in the Swan, Mission, Beartooth and Teton Ranges were markedly smaller in size; with separation of the ice body, growth of the terminus lake, or cover of the ice terminus with rockfalls. A study of annual snowfall, snowdepths, precipitation, and mean temperatures for selected stations in the Northern Rocky Mountains indicates no extreme variations in temperature or precipitation between 1950-1996, but several years of low snowfall and warmer temperatures in the 1980`s appear to have been sufficient to diminish many of the smaller cirque glaciers, many to the point of extinction. The disappearance of small cirque glaciers may indicate a greater sensitivity to overall climatic warming than the more dramatic fluctuations of larger glaciers in the same region.

  5. Biological Resources Survey of Mountain Springs Canyon on the Naval Weapons Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    Coleo - gyne association (Beatley, 1976) further up the canyon where the aspect of the north- facing slope changes from northwest to north near Mountain...argusensis) was collected in the upper half of the canyon. Although common in Coleo - j ne habitat, it is considered sensitive by BLM (1980) due to its endemic

  6. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Ute Mountain Area, Colorado and New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  7. Mediterranean diet and longevity in Sicily: survey in a Sicani Mountains population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasto, Sonya; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Rizzo, Claudia; Monastero, Roberto; Marchese, Antonio; Caruso, Calogero

    2012-04-01

    Over the past several years, increasing evidence suggests that the Mediterranean diet has a beneficial influence on several age-related diseases, showing protective effect on health and longevity. Mediterranean diet refers to dietary patterns found in olive-growing regions of the Mediterranean countries. Previous data reported that in Sicily, Italy, the largest Mediterranean island, there are some mountainous regions where there is a high frequency of male centenarians with respect to the Italian average. The aim of the present study was to characterize centenarians living in one of this region, the Sicani Mountains, located in western Sicily. Present data shows that in this zone there are more centenarians with respect to the Italian average. In fact, in the three villages of the Sicani Mountains, there were 15 people ranging from 100 to 107 years old, of the total population of about 10,000 inhabitants. This centenarian number was more than six-fold higher the national average (15.0 vs. 2.4/10,000); the female/male ratio was 1.5 in the study area, whereas the national ratio is 4.54. Centenarians living in these villages had anthropometric measurements within normal limits and moderate sensory disability without any sign of age-related diseases, including cognitive deterioration and dementia. In addition, their clinical chemistry profile was similar to young controls and far better than that of old controls. Unequivocally, their nutritional assessment showed a high adherence to the Mediterranean nutritional profile, with low glycemic index food consumed. Overall, close adherence to Mediterranean diet seems to play a key role in age-related disease prevention and in attaining longevity.

  8. Southern Nevada residents` views about the Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste repository and related issues: A comparative analysis of urban and rural survey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krannich, R.S.; Little, R.L. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Mushkatel, A.; Pijawka, K.D.; Jones, P. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1991-10-01

    two separate surveys were undertaken in 1988 to ascertain southern Nevadans` views about the Yucca Mountain repository and related issues. The first of these studies focused on the attitudes and perceptions of residents in the Las Vegas metropolitan area. The second study addressed similar issues, but focused on the views of residents in six rural communities in three counties adjacent to the Yucca Mountain site. However, parallel findings from the two data sets have not been jointly analyzed in order to identify ways in which the views and orientations of residents in the rural and urban study areas may be similar or different. The purpose of this report is to develop and present a comparative assessment of selected issues addressed in the rural and urban surveys. Because both urban and rural populations would potentially be impacted by the Yucca Mountain repository, such an analysis will provide important insights into possible repository impacts on the well-being of residents throughout southern Nevada.

  9. Entrepreneurial Human Capital Accumulation and the Growth of Rural Businesses: A Four-Country Survey in Mountainous and Lagging Areas of the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuras, Dimitris; Meccheri, Nicolas; Moreira, Manuel Belo; Rosell, Jordi; Stathopoulou, Sophia

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the processes of entrepreneurial human capital accumulation and its impact on rural business growth. Data are derived from four surveys on rural businesses in mountainous and less favoured areas in Southern Europe. Formal pathways of entrepreneurial human capital accumulation refer to education and training, while informal…

  10. F00276: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Approaches to Pensacola, Wire Drag Survey, Florida, 1974-07-18

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  11. F00309: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Approaches to Pensacola, Wire Drag Survey, Florida, 1974-06-26

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  12. October 2016 Recruitment Survey of the Rocky Mountain Population of Greater Sandhill Cranes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sandhill crane flocks were surveyed in the San Luis Valley, Colorado (SLV), during 21-26 October 2016 to assess recruitment (% juveniles (juv.)) in the Rocky...

  13. Mountain Longleaf and Cahaba River Vegatation Data for Bat Survey Points (Kristofik Thesis; 2009-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From Kristofik Thesis:Vegetative surveys were conducted within a 25 m-radius plot centered on each surveypoint. The protocol used was developed as part of a...

  14. Bibliography of publications related to the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project prepared by U.S. Geological Survey personnel through April 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glanzman, V.M.

    1991-11-01

    Personnel of the US Geological Survey have participated in nuclear-waste management studies in the State of Nevada since the mid-1970`s. A bibliography of publications prepared principally for the US Department of Energy Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (formerly Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations) through April 1991 contains 475 entries in alphabetical order. The listing includes publications prepared prior to the inception of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project in April 1977 and selected publications of interest to the Yucca Mountain region. 480 refs.

  15. Ice thickness, volume and subglacial topography of Urumqi Glacier No. 1, Tianshan mountains, central Asia, by ground penetrating radar survey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Puyu Wang; Zhongqin Li; Shuang Jin; Ping Zhou; Hongbing Yao; Wenbin Wang

    2014-04-01

    The results of radar survey for three times are presented, aiming to determine ice thickness, volume and subglacial topography of Urumqi Glacier No. 1, Tianshan Mountains, central Asia. Results show that the distribution of ice is more in the center and lesser at both ends of the glacier. The bedrock is quite regular with altitudes decreasing towards the ice front, showing the U-shaped subglacial valley. By comparison, typical ice thinning along the centerline of the East Branch of the glacier was 10–18 m for the period 1981–2006, reaching a maximum of ∼30 m at the terminus. The corresponding ice volume was 10296.2 × 104 m3, 8797.9 × 104 m3 and 8115.0 × 104 m3 in 1981, 2001 and 2006, respectively. It has decreased by 21.2% during the past 25 years, which is the direct result of glacier thinning. In the same period, the ice thickness, area and terminus decreased by 12.2%, 10.3%, and 3.6%, respectively. These changes are responses to the regional climatic warming, which show a dramatic increase of 0.6°C (10 a)−1 during the period 1981–2006.

  16. 贺兰山明长城调查与认知%Survey And Cognition About Great Wall Of The Ming Dynasty Along Helan Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤羽扬; 王哲

    2016-01-01

    Helan Mountain in Ningxia has been an important passageway to enter into Ningxia Plain from Alxa Plateau since ancient times. Many wars occurred at this place. Great Wal of the Ming Dynasty distributes along the towering Helan Mountain or wriggles along the aluvial-diluvial fans in front of the mountain in the form of precipitous wal, stone wal and rammed earth wal, etc., thus forming a solid military defensive line. In 2014, field survey was caried out on the Great Wal along Helan Mountain in order to prepare the conservation plan for Great Wal in Ningxia, and preliminary cognition was established.%宁夏贺兰山自古就是阿拉善高原进入宁夏平原的重要通道,在这里历史上曾发生许多战事。沿贺兰山分布的明长城以山险墙、石垒墙、夯土墙等多种形式或分布于山势嵯峨的贺兰山上,或沿山前洪积扇上蜿蜒,构成一道坚固的军事防线。2014年,为编制宁夏长城保护规划对贺兰山沿线长城进行了实地调查,建立初步认知。

  17. Hurricane Impacts on Ecological Services and Economic Values of Coastal Urban Forest: A Case Study of Pensacola, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    As urbanized areas continue to grow and green spaces dwindle, the importance of urban forests increases for both ecologically derived health benefits and for their potential to mitigate climate change. This study examined pre- and post- hurricane conditions of Pensacola's urban f...

  18. Hurricane Impacts on Ecological Services and Economic Values of Coastal Urban Forest: A Case Study of Pensacola, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    As urbanized areas continue to grow and green spaces dwindle, the importance of urban forests increases for both ecologically derived health benefits and for their potential to mitigate climate change. This study examined pre- and post- hurricane conditions of Pensacola's urban f...

  19. Finding rendezvous: An approach to locating Rocky Mountain Rendezvous sites through use of historic documents, geophysical survey, and LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Rory J.

    The general locations of the Rocky Mountain Rendezvous have been known to historians through documentary evidence since the mid to late 1800s. While the approximate locations of the rendezvous sites provided through historic documents have sufficed for the placement of signs and markers commemorating these annual events, archaeologists seeking to learn more about the yearly gathering of mountain men and native peoples through excavations need a more precise area to begin their search on the landscape. The exact locations of the Rocky Mountain Rendezvous are yet unknown in the sense of an archaeologist visiting a rendezvous site, trowel in hand, and hoping to unearth a small portion of fur trade history. In this study, I present a method for moving from the approximate locations for the Rocky Mountain Rendezvous sites provided by historic documents to identifying specific rendezvous archaeological sites through use of historic documents, geophysical survey, and GIS modeling. The first paper in this dissertation examines the demographics of the rendezvous. By use of historic documents, I present a method for estimating the number of people who may have been present at the rendezvous and winter camps from 1825 through 1829. By using this method for estimating people at the rendezvous, it becomes clear more native people were in attendance at the rendezvous and winter camps than trappers and traders of European descent. Once armed with the knowledge a rendezvous site should more closely resemble the archaeological signature of a Protohistoric native camp than a historic Euroamerican archaeological site, the search for a Protohistoric native camp to be mapped with geophysical survey instruments can begin. During this study, such a search resulted in the successful mapping of a portion of the camp surrounding a fur trading post on the banks of Powder River in east-central Wyoming. The final section in the dissertation will address the issue of where and how to focus a

  20. An avifaunal survey of the Istranca mountains, turkish thrace: novel breeding bird records including the first breeding record of Wood Warbler Phylloscopus sibilatrix in Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özkan, Korhan

    2011-01-01

    A breeding bird survey in the Istranca (Yıldız) mountains of Turkish Thrace seawards to the Black sea was conducted May–August 2009. Eighty-eight days of field work in 697 locations generated novel breeding evidence for several species. The survey provided the first certain evidence of Wood Warbler...... in the study area. Moreover, breeding evidence was gathered for Garden Warbler Sylvia borin, Baillon’s Crake Porzana pusilla, Stock Dove Columba oenas, Icterine Warbler Hippolais icterina and Common Rosefinch Carpodacus erythrinus for the first time in Turkish Thrace. Furthermore, the survey provided some...... cinclus, Sardinian Warbler Sylvia melanocephala, Barred Warbler Sylvia nisoria and Red-breasted Flycatcher Ficedula parva, which require further research on their breeding distributions in the study area....

  1. Status of aeromagnetic survey coverage of Yucca Mountain and vicinity to a radius of about 140 kilometers, southwestern Nevada and southeastern California, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, R.F.; Ponce, D.A.; Oliver, H.W.

    1993-12-31

    Fifty aeromagnetic surveys in the southwestern part of Nevada and the southeastern part of California have been evaluated to assess the quality and coverage of aeromagnetic data within 140 kilometers (km) of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The compilation shows that all the study area is covered by aeromagnetic surveys, but in some areas, particularly in the Death Valley region, new surveys flown with closer flight line spacing and lower elevations than the existing coverage are needed. In addition, the California part of the study area needs to be analytically continued downward to 305 meters (m) above ground level to provide a consistent data set for interpretation of subsurface geologic structures.

  2. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - Magnitude and Extent of Sediment Toxicity in Four Bays of the Florida Panhandle: Pensacola, Choctawhatchee, St. Andrew and Apalachicola

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The toxicity of sediments in Pensacola, Choctawhatchee, St. Andrew and Apalachicola Bays was determined as part of bioeffects assessments performed by NOAA's...

  3. H10525: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Pensacola and Perdido Bays, Florida and Alabama, 1994-03-18

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  4. H09928: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Pensacola Beach, Florida, 1981-11-11

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  5. H10521: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Pensacola and Perdido Bays, Florida and Alabama, 1994-01-14

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  6. H10455: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Pensacola and Perdido Bays, Florida and Alabama, 1993-09-28

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  7. H10497: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Pensacola and Perdido Bays, Florida and Alabama, 1993-09-28

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  8. H10450: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Pensacola and Perdido Bays, Florida and Alabama, 1993-02-24

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  9. H10449: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Pensacola and Perdido Bays, Florida and Alabama, 1992-05-19

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  10. H10522: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Pensacola and Perdido Bays, Florida and Alabama, 1993-12-16

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  11. H10460: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Pensacola and Perdido Bays, Florida and Alabama, 1993-08-02

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  12. H10492: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Pensacola and Perdido Bays, Florida and Alabama, 1993-10-29

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  13. H10526: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Pensacola and Perdido Bays, Florida and Alabama, 1994-03-16

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  14. H10528: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Pensacola and Perdido Bays, Florida and Alabama, 1994-03-29

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  15. H10387: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Approaches to Pensacola, Florida, 1991-07-09

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  16. H11763: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Pensacola, Florida, 2009-04-03

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  17. H10168: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Pensacola Bay, Florida, 1985-06-05

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  18. A Survey of Butterflies at South Border Region in Hengduan Mountains%横断山南部边缘地区蝶类调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓合黎; 李爱民; 吴立伟

    2011-01-01

    横断山南部边缘地区调查获得蝶类258种,隶属于10科,128属.其中蛱蝶最多,为65种;其次是灰蝶和弄蝶,分别是51种和50种,这3科蝴蝶占总数约2/3(166/258).优势种12个(4.7%)、常见种91个(35.3%)、少见种43个(16.7%)、罕见种112个(43.3%);个体数分布的规律接近对数级数法则.仅3个横断山特有种符合本调查区域处于边缘的性质,东洋种占总数的79.1%,说明了本地区蝴蝶东洋区的基本属性.%On the basis of survey, the paper reports 258 species of the butterflies, belonging to 10 families and 128 genera at south border region in Hengduan Mountains.65 species of them are Nymphs, which is maximum, second is 51 species of Blues, third is 50 species of Skippers, the butterflies of this three families are nearly two thirds of the total at south border region in Hengduan Mountains.The faunistic composition of butterflies is made up by 3 specialized species, 204 Oriental species, 15 Palaearctic species, 13 species wide species and other 60 species, it shows the basic Oriental and its property of border region at south border region in Hengduan Mountains.The patterns of butterfly species abundance and distribution at south border region in Hengduan Mountaines approached a logarithmic progression distribution, favoring a niche pre-emption hypothesis.

  19. Geochemical reanalysis of historical U.S. Geological Survey sediment samples from the Inmachuk, Kugruk, Kiwalik, and Koyuk River drainages, Granite Mountain, and the northern Darby Mountains, Bendeleben, Candle, Kotzebue, and Solomon quadrangles, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdon, Melanie B.; Granitto, Matthew; Azain, Jaime S.

    2015-01-01

    The State of Alaska’s Strategic and Critical Minerals (SCM) Assessment project, a State-funded Capital Improvement Project (CIP), is designed to evaluate Alaska’s statewide potential for SCM resources. The SCM Assessment is being implemented by the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS), and involves obtaining new airborne-geophysical, geological, and geochemical data. As part of the SCM Assessment, thousands of historical geochemical samples from DGGS, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and U.S. Bureau of Mines archives are being reanalyzed by DGGS using modern, quantitative, geochemical-analytical methods. The objective is to update the statewide geochemical database to more clearly identify areas in Alaska with SCM potential. The USGS is also undertaking SCM-related geologic studies in Alaska through the federally funded Alaska Critical Minerals cooperative project. DGGS and USGS share the goal of evaluating Alaska’s strategic and critical minerals potential and together created a Letter of Agreement (signed December 2012) and a supplementary Technical Assistance Agreement (#14CMTAA143458) to facilitate the two agencies’ cooperative work. Under these agreements, DGGS contracted the USGS in Denver to reanalyze historical USGS sediment samples from Alaska. For this report, DGGS funded reanalysis of 653 historical USGS sediment samples from the statewide Alaska Geochemical Database Version 2.0 (AGDB2; Granitto and others, 2013). Samples were chosen from an area covering portions of the Inmachuk, Kugruk, Kiwalik, and Koyuk river drainages, Granite Mountain, and the northern Darby Mountains, located in the Bendeleben, Candle, Kotzebue, and Solomon quadrangles of eastern Seward Peninsula, Alaska (fig. 1). The USGS was responsible for sample retrieval from the National Geochemical Sample Archive (NGSA) in Denver, Colorado through the final quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) of the geochemical analyses obtained through the USGS contract

  20. Structure and Velocities of the Northeastern Santa Cruz Mountains and the Western Santa Clara Valley, California, from the SCSI-LR Seismic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catchings, R.D.; Goldman, M.R.; Gandhok, G.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The Santa Clara Valley is located in the southern San Francisco Bay area of California and generally includes the area south of the San Francisco Bay between the Santa Cruz Mountains on the southwest and the Diablo Ranges on the northeast. The area has a population of approximately 1.7 million including the city of San Jose, numerous smaller cities, and much of the high-technology manufacturing and research area commonly referred to as the Silicon Valley. Major active strands of the San Andreas Fault system bound the Santa Clara Valley, including the San Andreas fault to the southwest and the Hayward and Calaveras faults to the northeast; related faults likely underlie the alluvium of the valley. This report focuses on subsurface structures of the western Santa Clara Valley and the northeastern Santa Cruz Mountains and their potential effects on earthquake hazards and ground-water resource management in the area. Earthquake hazards and ground-water resources in the Santa Clara Valley are important considerations to California and the Nation because of the valley's preeminence as a major technical and industrial center, proximity to major earthquakes faults, and large population. To assess the earthquake hazards of the Santa Clara Valley better, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has undertaken a program to evaluate potential earthquake sources and potential effects of strong ground shaking within the valley. As part of that program, and to better assess water resources of the valley, the USGS and the Santa Clara Valley Water District (SCVWD) began conducting collaborative studies to characterize the faults, stratigraphy, and structures beneath the alluvial cover of the Santa Clara Valley in the year 2000. Such geologic features are important to both agencies because they directly influence the availability and management of groundwater resources in the valley, and they affect the severity and distribution of strong shaking from local or regional

  1. Report on the Status of the Cheat Mountain Salamander in the Cabin Mountain Area of West Virginia 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This outlines the results of field surveys that were conducted for the Cheat Mountain salamander on the Kelley property on three mountains in the Cabin Mountain area...

  2. Trichinellosis survey in the wild boar from the Toledo mountains in south-western Spain (2007-2008): molecular characterization of Trichinella isolates by ISSR-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, R N; Nogal-Ruiz, J J; Manzano-Lorenzo, R; Díaz, J M Arroyo; López, G Pérez; Ruano, F J Sánchez; Casas, A Ramiro; Bascón, C Crespo; Bolás-Fernández, F; Martínez-Fernández, A R

    2009-06-01

    In Spain, trichinellosis represents a public health problem, with an average of five outbreaks per year, wild boar meat being the main source of infection. A trichinellosis survey (2007-2008 hunting campaign) was carried out on wild boars in the Toledo Mountains (south-western Spain, EU) in the context of a surveillance programme on wildlife diseases. A total of 2216 wild boars from different locations of the region were examined. The examination was carried out by veterinarians in the local abattoir (Matadero Municipal de Toledo). The positive samples were sent to the Department of Parasitology (Facultad de Farmacia, UCM) for experimental isolation and specific identification by inter-simple sequence repeat-polymerase chain reaction (ISSR-PCR). Using this technique we identified 17 isolates as Trichinella spiralis with an electrophoretic profile indistinguishable from the T. spiralis reference strain (ISS48). We confirmed that ISSR-PCR is a robust technique for the molecular identification of Trichinella isolates. According to our results, the prevalence of T. spiralis in wild boars from the Toledo Mountains (>800 m above sea level) during the hunting season was approximately 0.77%. The prevalence of T. spiralis (100% of our observations) is a good example of the persistence of this species in sylvatic conditions (coming from the domestic cycle), if a good wild host is abundant. Our observations confirm the major prevalence of T. spiralis over T. britovi in this region, as well as the risk to human health represented by the consumption of uninspected wild boar meat.

  3. Atmospheric wet deposition of mercury and other trace elements in Pensacola, Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. M. Landing

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to understand and quantify the impact of local, regional, and far-distant atmospheric mercury sources to rainfall mercury deposition in the Pensacola, Florida watershed, a program of event-based rainfall sampling was started in late 2004. Modified Aerochem-Metrics wet/dry rainfall samplers were deployed at three sites in the region around the Crist coal-fired power plant and event-based samples were collected continuously for three years. Samples were analyzed for total Hg and a suite of trace elements including Al, As, Ba, Bi, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Ga, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, Th, U, V, and Zn. Nutrients (ammonia and nitrate and major anions (chloride and sulfate were also measured on each sample. Multivariate statistical methods were used to sort these tracers into factors that represent potential source categories contributing to the rainfall chemistry. As, Hg, Sb, Se, Sn, and non sea-salt sulfate were all significantly correlated (R>0.6 with one factor which we interpret as an anthropogenic source term reflecting input from coal combustion throughout the southeastern US. Using ratios of total Hg to volatile elements, we estimate that 22–33% of the rainfall Hg results from coal combustion in the southeastern US with the majority coming from the global background.

  4. Atmospheric wet deposition of mercury and other trace elements in Pensacola, Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. M. Landing

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available To understand and quantify the impact of local, regional, and distant atmospheric mercury sources to rainfall mercury deposition in the Pensacola, Florida watershed, a program of event-based rainfall sampling was started in late 2004. Modified Aerochem-Metrics wet/dry rainfall samplers were deployed at three sites in the region around the Crist coal-fired power plant and event-based samples were collected continuously for three years. Samples were analyzed for total mercury, volatile elements As, Se, and Sn, and a suite of trace elements including Al, Bi, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Fe, Ho, Ga, Gd, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nb, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, Pr, Rb, Sb, Sc, Si, Sm, Sr, Tb, Th, Ti, Tm, U, V, Y, Yb, and Zn. Nutrients and major ions were also measured on each sample.

    Multivariate statistical methods are used to sort these tracers into factors that represent potential source components that contribute to the rainfall chemistry. Hg, As, Se, Sn, Sb, and non sea-salt sulfate were all significantly correlated with one anthropogenic factor. Using various Hg/element ratios, we can estimate that 22–33% of the rainfall mercury in the region results from coal combustion.

  5. Draped aeromagnetic survey in Transantarctic Mountains over the area of the Butcher Ridge igneous complex showing extent of underlying mafic intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, John C.; Damaske, D.; Finn, C.A.; Kyle, P.; Wilson, T.J.

    2002-01-01

    A draped aeromagnetic survey over the area surrounding the Butcher Ridge igneous complex (BRIC), Transantarctic Mountains, was acquired in 1997-1998 as part of a larger Transantarctic Mountains Aerogeophysical Research Activity survey. The BRIC is a sill-like hypoabyssal intrusion ranging in composition from tholeiitic basalt to rhyolite. An 40Ar/39 Ar age of 174 Ma and the chemical character of the basaltic rocks show the BRIC to be part of the widespread Jurassic Ferrar suite of continental tholeiitic rocks, that extends for 3500 km across Antarctica. The aeromagnetic survey shows a horseshoe-shaped pattern of anomalies reaching amplitudes as great as 1900 nT generally associated with the bedrock topography where it is exposed. It is apparent that the high-amplitude anomaly pattern is more extensive than the 10-km-long exposed outcrop, first crossed by a single 1990 aeromagnetic profile. The highest-amplitude anomalies appear south of the profile acquired in 1990 and extend out of the survey area. The new aeromagnetic data allow determination of the extent of the interpreted Butcher mafic(?) intrusion beneath exposures of Beacon sedimentary rock and ice in the area covered, as well as beneath the small BRIC exposure. The magnetic anomalies show a minimum area of 3000 km2, a much greater extent than previously inferred. Magnetic models indicate a minimum thickness of ???1-2 km for a horizontal intrusion. However, nonunique models with magnetic layers decreasing in apparent susceptibility with depth are consistent with of a 4- to 8-km-thick layered intrusion. These magnetic models indicate progressively deeper erosion of the interpreted mafic-layered body from the south to north. The erosion has removed more magnetic upper layers that mask the magnetic effects of the lower less magnetic layers. The probable minimum volume of the intrusion in the area of the survey is ???6000 km3. An alternate, but less likely, interpretation of a series of dikes can also fit the

  6. Degradation mode survey candidate titanium-base alloys for Yucca Mountain project waste package materials. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gdowski, G.E.

    1997-12-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) is evaluating materials from which to fabricate high-level nuclear waste containers (hereafter called waste packages) for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Because of their very good corrosion resistance in aqueous environments titanium alloys are considered for container materials. Consideration of titanium alloys is understandable since about one-third (in 1978) of all titanium produced is used in applications where corrosion resistance is of primary importance. Consequently, there is a considerable amount of data which demonstrates that titanium alloys, in general, but particularly the commercial purity and dilute {alpha} grades, are highly corrosion resistant. This report will discuss the corrosion characteristics of Ti Gr 2, 7, 12, and 16. The more highly alloyed titanium alloys which were developed by adding a small Pd content to higher strength Ti alloys in order to give them better corrosion resistance will not be considered in this report. These alloys are all two phase ({alpha} and {beta}) alloys. The palladium addition while making these alloys more corrosion resistant does not give them the corrosion resistance of the single phase {alpha} and near-{alpha} (Ti Gr 12) alloys.

  7. Comparing LiDAR-Generated to ground- surveyed channel cross-sectional profiles in a forested mountain stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian C. Dietterick; Russell White; Ryan. Hilburn

    2012-01-01

    Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) holds promise to provide an alternative to traditional ground-based survey methods for stream channel characterization and some change detection purposes, even under challenging landscape conditions. This study compared channel characteristics measured at 53 ground-surveyed and LiDAR-derived crosssectional profiles located...

  8. GEOMATICS AS A SURVEY TOOL TO DOCUMENT AND ENHANCE THE CULTURAL AND LANDSCAPED HERITAGE OF THE MONUMENTAL COMPLEXES IN THE MOUNTAINS OF ABRUZZO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Palestini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The themes of the conference provide an opportunity to exchange views on topics of study in which multidisciplinary contributions of geomatics and restoration contribute to the cognitive process aimed at the conservation of cultural Heritage. In this regard, the contribution exposes research aimed at understanding the documentation and the enhancement of unique architectural – landscape patrimony kept in the Abruzzo mountains. It is about the numerous spiritual retreats established by Pietro da Morrone, Pope Celestino V, mounted among unpassable rocky walls, where the architecture blends with its natural environment camouflaging with it. The analysis refers, specifically to the aspects of survey conducted during the years with the aid of integrated methodologies, able to allow the acquisition, management and comparison of the data. The analysis refers, specifically, to recent digital acquisitions involving the development of San Bartolomeo in Legio, on the slopes of Majella near Roccamorice detected with the use of comparative Agisoft Photoscan and Pix4d software, with shots taken with drones of different sizes, able to mount professional photographic cameras and associate to each picture the coordinates Gps of the point of shooting. Follows a confrontation between a survey carried out with 3d laser scanner, Faro Ls1105, and described acquisitions, obtained from ground and from drone with Photoscan, in order to compare the two scans and the metric differences obtained with the two methods.

  9. Geomatics as a Survey Tool to Document and Enhance the Cultural and Landscaped Heritage of the Monumental Complexes in the Mountains of Abruzzo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palestini, C.; Basso, A.

    2017-05-01

    The themes of the conference provide an opportunity to exchange views on topics of study in which multidisciplinary contributions of geomatics and restoration contribute to the cognitive process aimed at the conservation of cultural Heritage. In this regard, the contribution exposes research aimed at understanding the documentation and the enhancement of unique architectural - landscape patrimony kept in the Abruzzo mountains. It is about the numerous spiritual retreats established by Pietro da Morrone, Pope Celestino V, mounted among unpassable rocky walls, where the architecture blends with its natural environment camouflaging with it. The analysis refers, specifically to the aspects of survey conducted during the years with the aid of integrated methodologies, able to allow the acquisition, management and comparison of the data. The analysis refers, specifically, to recent digital acquisitions involving the development of San Bartolomeo in Legio, on the slopes of Majella near Roccamorice detected with the use of comparative Agisoft Photoscan and Pix4d software, with shots taken with drones of different sizes, able to mount professional photographic cameras and associate to each picture the coordinates Gps of the point of shooting. Follows a confrontation between a survey carried out with 3d laser scanner, Faro Ls1105, and described acquisitions, obtained from ground and from drone with Photoscan, in order to compare the two scans and the metric differences obtained with the two methods.

  10. Prevalence of Anemia among Older Adults Residing in the Coastal and Andes Mountains in Ecuador: Results of the SABE Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Orces, Carlos H.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate the prevalence of anemia and its determinants among older adults in Ecuador. Methods. The present study was based on data from the National Survey of Health, Wellbeing, and Aging. Hemoglobin concentrations were adjusted by participants’ smoking status and altitude of residence, and anemia was defined according to the World Health Organization criteria (

  11. Data Qualification Report: Flow Meter Survey Data From Borehole UE-25c#3 For Use On The Yucca Mountain Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Wilson

    2001-02-28

    This Data Qualification Report uses corroborating data methods according to Attachment 2 of AP-SIII.2Q, Rev. 00, ICN 3, ''Qualification of Unqualified Data and the Documentation of Rationale for Accepted Data'', to qualify flowing interval data from a borehole spinner log. This report was prepared in accordance with Data Qualification Plan DQP-NBS-GS-000005, Rev. 00. These data were collected under the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (QARD) document but are unqualified because unqualified software was used in data reduction. The unqualified flow log was run in Borehole UE-25c No.3 in 1995. Corroborative evidence is available from independent flow logs run in the same borehole in 1984 by an earlier investigator. This corroborative support is unusually strong because it represents a second measurement of the same data. The corroborating data agree well with the data being qualified and support the adequacy of the data. The unqualified software, the TERRASTATION code by Terrasciences Inc., is widely used and accepted by the technical community for non-project applications. The widespread acceptance of the software further supports the adequacy of the data. In view of the evidence provided by the corroborating data and general acceptance of the software, the Data Qualification Team has concluded that the flowing interval data considered in this report are adequate for generalized use. These data are qualified for use by the YMP and can be appropriately used in a wide variety of applications, so long as consideration is given to accuracy, precision, and representativeness of the data for an intended use in a technical product.

  12. Data Qualification Report: Flow Meter Survey Data From Borehole UE-25c#3 For Use On The Yucca Mountain Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Wilson

    2001-02-28

    This Data Qualification Report uses corroborating data methods according to Attachment 2 of AP-SIII.2Q, Rev. 00, ICN 3, ''Qualification of Unqualified Data and the Documentation of Rationale for Accepted Data'', to qualify flowing interval data from a borehole spinner log. This report was prepared in accordance with Data Qualification Plan DQP-NBS-GS-000005, Rev. 00. These data were collected under the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (QARD) document but are unqualified because unqualified software was used in data reduction. The unqualified flow log was run in Borehole UE-25c No.3 in 1995. Corroborative evidence is available from independent flow logs run in the same borehole in 1984 by an earlier investigator. This corroborative support is unusually strong because it represents a second measurement of the same data. The corroborating data agree well with the data being qualified and support the adequacy of the data. The unqualified software, the TERRASTATION code by Terrasciences Inc., is widely used and accepted by the technical community for non-project applications. The widespread acceptance of the software further supports the adequacy of the data. In view of the evidence provided by the corroborating data and general acceptance of the software, the Data Qualification Team has concluded that the flowing interval data considered in this report are adequate for generalized use. These data are qualified for use by the YMP and can be appropriately used in a wide variety of applications, so long as consideration is given to accuracy, precision, and representativeness of the data for an intended use in a technical product.

  13. Prevalence of Anemia among Older Adults Residing in the Coastal and Andes Mountains in Ecuador: Results of the SABE Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate the prevalence of anemia and its determinants among older adults in Ecuador. Methods. The present study was based on data from the National Survey of Health, Wellbeing, and Aging. Hemoglobin concentrations were adjusted by participants' smoking status and altitude of residence, and anemia was defined according to the World Health Organization criteria (Ecuador. Moreover, further research is needed to examine the association between anemia and adverse health-related outcomes among older Ecuadorians. PMID:28321252

  14. MOUNTAINS UNITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Dovbenko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Schools in the Ukrainian Carpathian mountain region work in specific conditions. They have original traditions, a special nature of learning and work. Indeed, because of a remote location mountain village school becomes the center for a cultural and spiritual life. Of course, it is related to a present social and economic situation in the country and a slow progress of society. Therefore, we need to look at mountain school with a broader angle, help it in comprehensive development of an individual and ensure an availability of quality education for children living in mountainous areas. Here we should talk about learning as well as laying the foundations for a life success. The international research project Mountain School. Status. Problems. Prospects for Development. Is established to help solve these problems. Precarpathian National University is an active member of the project.

  15. USE OF COMPOSITE DATA SETS FOR SOURCE-TRACKING ENTEROCCOCCI IN THE WATER COLUMN AND SHORELINE INTERSTITIAL WATERS ON PENSACOLA BEACH, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genthner, Fred J., Joseph B. James, Diane F. Yates and Stephanie D. Friedman. Submitted. Use of Composite Data Sets for Source-Tracking Enterococci in the Water Column and Shoreline Interstitial Waters on Pensacola Beach Florida. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 33 p. (ERL,GB 1212). So...

  16. Using spatial metrics and surveys for the assessment of trans-boundary deforestation in protected areas of the Maya Mountain Massif: Belize-Guatemala border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicas, S D; Omine, K; Ford, J B; Sugimura, K; Yoshida, K

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the trans-boundary deforestation history and patterns in protected areas along the Belize-Guatemala border is of regional and global importance. To assess deforestation history and patterns in our study area along a section of the Belize-Guatemala border, we incorporated multi-temporal deforestation rate analysis and spatial metrics with survey results. This multi-faceted approach provides spatial analysis with relevant insights from local stakeholders to better understand historic deforestation dynamics, spatial characteristics and human perspectives regarding the underlying causes thereof. During the study period 1991-2014, forest cover declined in Belize's protected areas: Vaca Forest Reserve 97.88%-87.62%, Chiquibul National Park 99.36%-92.12%, Caracol Archeological Reserve 99.47%-78.10% and Colombia River Forest Reserve 89.22%-78.38% respectively. A comparison of deforestation rates and spatial metrics indices indicated that between time periods 1991-1995 and 2012-2014 deforestation and fragmentation increased in protected areas. The major underlying causes, drivers, impacts, and barriers to bi-national collaboration and solutions of deforestation along the Belize-Guatemala border were identified by community leaders and stakeholders. The Mann-Whitney U test identified significant differences between leaders and stakeholders regarding the ranking of challenges faced by management organizations in the Maya Mountain Massif, except for the lack of assessment and quantification of deforestation (LD, SH: 18.67, 23.25, U = 148, p > 0.05). The survey results indicated that failure to integrate buffer communities, coordinate among managing organizations and establish strong bi-national collaboration has resulted in continued ecological and environmental degradation. The information provided by this research should aid managing organizations in their continued aim to implement effective deforestation mitigation strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  17. Recent population trends of mountain goats in the Olympic Mountains, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kurt J.; Happe, Patricia J.; Beirne, Katherine F.; Hoffman, Roger A.; Griffin, Paul C.; Baccus, William T.; Fieberg, John

    2012-01-01

    Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) were introduced in Washington's Olympic Mountains during the 1920s. The population subsequently increased in numbers and expanded in range, leading to concerns by the 1970s over the potential effects of non-native mountain goats on high-elevation plant communities in Olympic National Park. The National Park Service (NPS) transplanted mountain goats from the Olympic Mountains to other ranges between 1981 and 1989 as a means to manage overabundant populations, and began monitoring population trends of mountain goats in 1983. We estimated population abundance of mountain goats during 18–25 July 2011, the sixth survey of the time series, to assess current population status and responses of the population to past management. We surveyed 39 sample units, comprising 39% of the 59,615-ha survey area. We estimated a population of 344 ± 72 (90% confidence interval [CI]) mountain goats in the survey area. Retrospective analysis of the 2004 survey, accounting for differences in survey area boundaries and methods of estimating aerial detection biases, indicated that the population increased at an average annual rate of 4.9% since the last survey. That is the first population growth observed since the cessation of population control measures in 1990. We postulate that differences in population trends observed in western, eastern, and southern sections of the survey zone reflected, in part, a variable influence of climate change across the precipitation gradient in the Olympic Mountains.

  18. Epidemiological survey of pulmanry tuberculosis in northern mountainous area of Guangzhou%广州北部山区结核病流行状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄海浪; 黄晓林; 钟淑萍; 侯清华

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解广州北部山区人群的肺结核病流行状况,为开展防治工作提供依据.方法 2010年5~6月在广州北部山区用分层整群随机抽样方法选定调查点,以逐户走访核实的方式进行调查,调查内容包括症状、胸片、结核杆菌病原学检查,结核防治知晓率问卷调查和检出结核病患者的经济情况调查.结果 共发现活动性肺结核9例,其中涂阳培阳患者3例,本地区结核病患病率为533.81/10万;9例患者多为低收入、低学历的外来人员,其结核防治知识知晓率明显偏低(11.11%~66.67%).结论 广州北部山区肺结核病的患病率偏高,有可能对城市中心的疫情造成影响,应加强防控,尤其是要加强对外来人口的管理.%Objective To evaluate the epidemiological status of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB)in northern mountainous area of Guangzhou. Methods Stratified cluster random sampling and house by house visiting methods were used for this survey in May and June 2010,the sampled-residents received clinical inquiry,physical examination,chest-X-ray examination, sputum-smear test and culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Results Nine patients, were diagnosed as active pulmonary TB,and 3 of them were smear-positive and bacteria-positive TB,the prevalence of active pulmonary TB was 533/100 000. Most of the active pulmonary TB patients were floating population with low TB knowledge, their income and education background were low be. Conclusion The prevalence of active pulmonary TB in northern Guangzhou mountainous area is higher than average level,emphasis should be put on strengthening the surveillance and control of TB in this area including management of the floating population.

  19. Prevalence of Anemia among Older Adults Residing in the Coastal and Andes Mountains in Ecuador: Results of the SABE Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos H. Orces

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To estimate the prevalence of anemia and its determinants among older adults in Ecuador. Methods. The present study was based on data from the National Survey of Health, Wellbeing, and Aging. Hemoglobin concentrations were adjusted by participants’ smoking status and altitude of residence, and anemia was defined according to the World Health Organization criteria (<12 g/dL in women and <13 g/dL in men. Gender-specific logistic regression models were used to examine the association between demographic and health characteristics and anemia. Results. A total of 2,372 subjects with a mean age of 71.8 (SD 8.2 years had their hemoglobin measured, representing an estimated 1.1 million older adults. The crude prevalence of anemia was 20.0% in women and 25.2% in men. However, higher anemia prevalence rates were seen with advancing age among black women and subjects residing in the urban coast. Likewise, certain health conditions such as hypoalbuminemia, cancer in men, chronic kidney disease, iron deficiency, and low grade inflammation were associated with increased odds of having anemia. Conclusions. Anemia is a prevalent condition among older adults in Ecuador. Moreover, further research is needed to examine the association between anemia and adverse health-related outcomes among older Ecuadorians.

  20. Prevalence of Anemia among Older Adults Residing in the Coastal and Andes Mountains in Ecuador: Results of the SABE Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orces, Carlos H

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate the prevalence of anemia and its determinants among older adults in Ecuador. Methods. The present study was based on data from the National Survey of Health, Wellbeing, and Aging. Hemoglobin concentrations were adjusted by participants' smoking status and altitude of residence, and anemia was defined according to the World Health Organization criteria (anemia. Results. A total of 2,372 subjects with a mean age of 71.8 (SD 8.2) years had their hemoglobin measured, representing an estimated 1.1 million older adults. The crude prevalence of anemia was 20.0% in women and 25.2% in men. However, higher anemia prevalence rates were seen with advancing age among black women and subjects residing in the urban coast. Likewise, certain health conditions such as hypoalbuminemia, cancer in men, chronic kidney disease, iron deficiency, and low grade inflammation were associated with increased odds of having anemia. Conclusions. Anemia is a prevalent condition among older adults in Ecuador. Moreover, further research is needed to examine the association between anemia and adverse health-related outcomes among older Ecuadorians.

  1. Who should manage protected areas in the Swedish mountain region? A survey approach to co-management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachrisson, Anna

    2008-04-01

    This article investigates attitudes towards co-management of protected areas in Sweden, at the national, county and local level. In Sweden, protected areas are still primarily designated and managed hierarchically-a practice increasingly contested by people living close to them, including indigenous Sámi reindeer herders whose economic activities are located within protected areas. The general view could, on the contrary, be anticipated to be pro-state since protected areas are considered to be of national interest. For democratic reasons, however, the opinions of the whole population should be considered. In order to measure both local and general views, this study is based on a two-sample survey of 8868 respondents. The objectives are to map and explain attitudes regarding who should manage protected areas in Sweden, and to test the usefulness of a multi-level quantitative method. Such an approach is unusual in co-management literature that is empirically mainly based on local case studies. The explanatory ambition sets out to test three hypotheses drawn from common-pool resource theory; resource dependency, common understanding, and trust. Perhaps surprisingly, the results show that a considerable majority of the respondents (at all levels) wish to see self- or co-management. All three hypotheses are important to understand attitudes toward the management of protected areas, but not always in the way that the theory anticipates.

  2. Mountaineering Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Maher

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Mountaineering Tourism Edited by Ghazali Musa, James Higham, and Anna Thompson-Carr. Abingdon, United Kingdom: Routledge, 2015. xxvi + 358 pp. Hardcover. US$ 145.00. ISBN 978-1-138-78237-2.

  3. A sightability model for mountain goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, C.G.; Jenkins, K.J.; Chang, W.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    Unbiased estimates of mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) populations are key to meeting diverse harvest management and conservation objectives. We developed logistic regression models of factors influencing sightability of mountain goat groups during helicopter surveys throughout the Cascades and Olympic Ranges in western Washington during summers, 20042007. We conducted 205 trials of the ability of aerial survey crews to detect groups of mountain goats whose presence was known based on simultaneous direct observation from the ground (n 84), Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry (n 115), or both (n 6). Aerial survey crews detected 77 and 79 of all groups known to be present based on ground observers and GPS collars, respectively. The best models indicated that sightability of mountain goat groups was a function of the number of mountain goats in a group, presence of terrain obstruction, and extent of overstory vegetation. Aerial counts of mountain goats within groups did not differ greatly from known group sizes, indicating that under-counting bias within detected groups of mountain goats was small. We applied HorvitzThompson-like sightability adjustments to 1,139 groups of mountain goats observed in the Cascade and Olympic ranges, Washington, USA, from 2004 to 2007. Estimated mean sightability of individual animals was 85 but ranged 0.750.91 in areas with low and high sightability, respectively. Simulations of mountain goat surveys indicated that precision of population estimates adjusted for sightability biases increased with population size and number of replicate surveys, providing general guidance for the design of future surveys. Because survey conditions, group sizes, and habitat occupied by goats vary among surveys, we recommend using sightability correction methods to decrease bias in population estimates from aerial surveys of mountain goats.

  4. US Geological Survey Committee for the Advancement of Science in the Yucca Mountain Project symposium on {open_quotes}Fractures, Hydrology, and Yucca Mountain{close_quotes}: Abstracts and summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomberg, J. [ed.

    1991-12-31

    The principal objective of this symposium is to review the available information on fractured/faulted terrains in terms of a coherent hydrogeologic model of ground-water fluid flow and transport, particularly as it pertains to the Yucca Mountain region. This review addresses the influence and significance of fractures on ground-water flow and the transport of conservative-species solutes within the context of the hydrogeologic setting of the Yucca Mountain area. The relations between fluid flow and fractured or faulted host rock are examined integrally from information on geologic, seismologic, hydrologic, and geomechanical properties of the system. The development of new hydrogeologic approaches that incorporate information from this integrated database are contrasted with more standard approaches toward understanding flow in fractured reservoirs. Ground-water flow in both the unsaturated zone and the saturated zone are considered. The application of various models of flow is addressed, examples include porous-media equivalent and discontinuum fracture-network models. Data and interpretations from the Yucca Mountain area are presented to establish a context for information exchange. The symposium includes discussions relevant to technical considerations for characterizing the Yucca Mountain area hydrogeology. On the basis of these discussions, CASY has compiled this document in order to formally summarize the proceedings and communicate recommendations for future directions of research and investigation.

  5. A Survey of the Adult Butterflies, Damselflies, and Dragonflies of the Silvio O. Conte National Wildlife Refuge and the West Mountain Wildlife Management Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an inventory of the butterflies and odonates on the Nulhegan Basin division of the Silvio Conte National Wildlife Refuge (SCNWR-NB) and the West Mountain...

  6. Proposal for the pre-sediment removal aquatic survey of Lake Mary, Ladora, and Lower Derby Reservois located on the U.S. Army Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposal for a monitoring program at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) to document the effectiveness of the sediment removal program. This project has been initiated...

  7. Successful Female Mountaineers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANSIYIN

    2004-01-01

    The Third Mountaineering Meet took place from September 26 to October 8, 2003. It was sponsored by the Tibet Association for Mountaineers and undertaken by the Tibet Mountaineering Team and the Tibet Mountaineering School.

  8. Accumulation of organic and inorganic contaminants in shellfish collected in estuarine waters near Pensacola, Florida: Contamination profiles and risks to human consumers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karouna-Renier, Natalie K. [Center for Environmental Diagnostics and Bioremediation, University of West Florida, 11000 University Parkway, Pensacola, FL 32514 (United States)]. E-mail: nkarouna@usgs.gov; Snyder, Richard A. [Center for Environmental Diagnostics and Bioremediation, University of West Florida, 11000 University Parkway, Pensacola, FL 32514 (United States); Allison, Jeffrey G. [Center for Environmental Diagnostics and Bioremediation, University of West Florida, 11000 University Parkway, Pensacola, FL 32514 (United States); Wagner, Matthew G. [Center for Environmental Diagnostics and Bioremediation, University of West Florida, 11000 University Parkway, Pensacola, FL 32514 (United States); Ranga Rao, K. [Center for Environmental Diagnostics and Bioremediation, University of West Florida, 11000 University Parkway, Pensacola, FL 32514 (United States)

    2007-01-15

    We conducted a screening level assessment of contaminants in blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) and oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from bays and bayous in the Pensacola, FL area. Tissue samples were analyzed for 17 dioxins/furans, 12 dioxin-like PCB (DL-PCBs) congeners, mercury, and various metals. Contaminant levels were compared to screening values (SV) calculated using U.S. EPA recommendations for establishing consumption advisories. All sampling locations exceeded the SV (0.098 pg g{sup -1}) for dioxins/furans/DL-PCBs, based on a Florida-specific consumption rate (46 g day{sup -1}). Arsenic (inorganic), mercury, cadmium, and zinc levels exceeded SVs in samples from select locations, and with the exception of mercury, these locations were generally downstream of known contaminated areas. We also assessed potential human health risks from consumption of these species. Risks to human health were greatest from consumption of crab hepatopancreas, suggesting that consumption of hepatopancreas, whether directly or indirectly, from crabs collected anywhere in the Pensacola Bay region should be avoided. - Elevated levels of dioxins/furans and dioxin-like PCBs were detected in blue crabs and oysters from select locations in the Pensacola Bay region.

  9. Mountain medicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bjørn; Hjuler, Kasper Fjellhaugen

    2016-01-01

    Travelling to high altitudes is an increasingly popular form of recreational holiday. Individual medical advice may be essential for certain groups of individuals such as patients with chronic disorders, pregnant women or children. This is the second part in a series of two articles on mountain...

  10. Changbai Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    The Changbai Mountains are located within the boundaries of Antu County, Fusong County and Changbai County of Jilin City of Jilin Province. They cover a total area of more than 200,000 hectares and is one of the largest nature preserves in China. There are abundant species of living things, such as Dongbei Tiger, sika, sable and

  11. Satellite Derived Water Quality Observations Are Related to River Discharge and Nitrogen Loads in Pensacola Bay, Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Lehrter

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Relationships between satellite-derived water quality variables and river discharges, concentrations and loads of nutrients, organic carbon, and sediments were investigated over a 9-year period (2003–2011 in Pensacola Bay, Florida, USA. These analyses were conducted to better understand which river forcing factors were the primary drivers of estuarine variability in several water quality variables. Remote sensing reflectance time-series data were retrieved from the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS and used to calculate monthly and annual estuarine time-series of chlorophyll a (Chla, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM, and total suspended sediments (TSS. Monthly MERIS Chla varied from 2.0 mg m−3 in the lower region of the bay to 17.2 mg m−3 in the upper bay. MERIS CDOM and TSS exhibited similar patterns with ranges of 0.51–2.67 (m−1 and 0.11–8.9 (g m−3. Variations in the MERIS-derived monthly and annual Chla, CDOM, and TSS time-series were significantly related to monthly and annual river discharge and loads of nitrogen, organic carbon, and suspended sediments from the Escambia and Yellow rivers. Multiple regression models based on river loads (independent variables and MERIS Chla, CDOM, or TSS (dependent variables explained significant fractions of the variability (up to 62% at monthly and annual scales. The most significant independent variables in the regressions were river nitrogen loads, which were associated with increased MERIS Chla, CDOM, and TSS concentrations, and river suspended sediment loads, which were associated with decreased concentrations. In contrast, MERIS water quality variations were not significantly related to river total phosphorus loads. The spatially synoptic, nine-year satellite record expanded upon the spatial extent of past field studies to reveal previously unseen system-wide responses to river discharge and loading variation. The results indicated that variations in Pensacola Bay Chla

  12. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a ... New Mexico. Why Is the Study of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever a Priority for NIAID? Tickborne diseases ...

  13. Management of Reclaimed Produced Water in the Rocky Mountain States Enhanced with the Expanded U.S. Geological Survey Produced Waters Geochemical Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, K. D.; Blondes, M. S.; Reidy, M. E.; Conaway, C. H.; Thordsen, J. J.; Rowan, E. L.; Kharaka, Y. K.; Engle, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Rocky Mountain states; Wyoming, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico and Utah produce annually approximately 470,000 acre-feet (3.66 billion barrels) of produced water - water that coexists with oil and gas and is brought to the surface with the pumping of oil and gas wells. Concerns about severe drought, groundwater depletion, and contamination have prompted petroleum operators and water districts to examine the recycling of produced water. Knowledge of the geochemistry of produced waters is valuable in determining the feasibility of produced water reuse. Water with low salinity can be reclaimed for use inside and outside of the petroleum industry. Since a great proportion of petroleum wells in the Rocky Mountain states, especially coal-bed methane wells, have produced water with relatively low salinity (generally water could be important as a drought mitigation strategy, through the irrigation of farmland, blending of low salinity waters with existing drainage basins, re-use in the petroleum industry for hydraulic fracturing or enhanced oil recovery, and even for municipal uses, such as drinking water. The USGS Produced Waters Geochemical Database, available at http://eerscmap.usgs.gov/pwapp, has 60,000 data points in this region (this includes 35,000 new data points added to the 2002 database) and will facilitate studies on the management of produced water for reclamation in the Rocky Mountain region. Expanding on the USGS 2002 database, which contains geochemical analyses of major ions and total dissolved solids, the new data also include geochemical analyses of minor ions and stable isotopes. We have added an interactive web map application which allows the user to filter data on chosen fields (e.g. TDS waters in water-constrained regions of the Rocky Mountains.

  14. WHITE MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, NEW MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerstrom, Kenneth; Stotelmeyer, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey the White Mountain Wilderness, which constitutes much of the western and northern White Mountains, New Mexico, is appraised to have six areas of probable mineral potential for base and precious metals. If mineral deposits exist in the wilderness, the potential is for small deposits of base and precious metals in veins and breccia pipes or, more significanlty, the possibility for large low-grade disseminated porphyry-type molybdenum deposits. There is little promise for the occurrence of geothermal energy resources in the area.

  15. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...... med surveys. Denne bog gennemgår alle surveyarbejdets faser og giver en praktisk indføring i: • design af undersøgelsen og udvælgelse af stikprøver, • formulering af spørgeskemaer samt indsamling og kodning af data, • metoder til at analysere resultaterne...

  16. 北京妙峰山玫瑰花种植生产特征及精油分析%Survey of the rose planting at Beijing’s Miaofengshan Mountain and its essetial oil analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙江; 李玲; 高景红; 张国光; 胡春风; 黄朝情; 郭宝林

    2012-01-01

    The growing environment, distribution area, culture techniques, and the time of the rose collecting and preservation were surveyed and analyzed. And the rose essential oil extracted by distilling the fresh rose petals of Miaofengshan Mountain in Bejing were tested and analyzed with the GC-MS method.%对北京妙峰山玫瑰花生产环境、分布区域、栽培条件特征状况、鲜花采收时间及处理保存进行调查分析,同时采集北京妙峰山玫瑰花新鲜花瓣,采用水蒸气蒸馏提取玫瑰精油,对精油成分进行GC-MS检测和分析。

  17. Mountain goat abundance and population trends in the Olympic Mountains, northwestern Washington, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kurt J.; Happe, Patricia J.; Beirne, Katherine F.; Baccus, William T.

    2016-11-30

    Executive SummaryWe estimated abundance and trends of non-native mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in the Olympic Mountains of northwestern Washington, based on aerial surveys conducted during July 13–24, 2016. The surveys produced the seventh population estimate since the first formal aerial surveys were conducted in 1983. This was the second population estimate since we adjusted survey area boundaries and adopted new estimation procedures in 2011. Before 2011, surveys encompassed all areas free of glacial ice at elevations above 1,520 meters (m), but in 2011 we expanded survey unit boundaries to include suitable mountain goat habitats at elevations between 1,425 and 1,520 m. In 2011, we also began applying a sightability correction model allowing us to estimate undercounting bias associated with aerial surveys and to adjust survey results accordingly. The 2016 surveys were carried out by National Park Service (NPS) personnel in Olympic National Park and by Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) biologists in Olympic National Forest and in the southeastern part of Olympic National Park. We surveyed a total of 59 survey units, comprising 55 percent of the 60,218-hectare survey area. We estimated a mountain goat population of 623 ±43 (standard error, SE). Based on this level of estimation uncertainty, the 95-percent confidence interval ranged from 561 to 741 mountain goats at the time of the survey.We examined the rate of increase of the mountain goat population by comparing the current population estimate to previous estimates from 2004 and 2011. Because aerial survey boundaries changed between 2004 and 2016, we recomputed population estimates for 2011 and 2016 surveys based on the revised survey boundaries as well as the previously defined boundaries so that estimates were directly comparable across years. Additionally, because the Mount Washington survey unit was not surveyed in 2011, we used results from an independent survey of the Mount

  18. Epidemiology Survey of Tourists' Sicknesses in Huangshan Mountain Scenic Spot%黄山山岳型景区游客发病流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘海波; 方婷婷; 张牧城; 刘剑; 董学军; 赵芒; 汪晓春; 汪建设; 程利萍; 王莉; 汪秀桃

    2011-01-01

    Objective To probe into the types, characteristics and regular patterns of sickness among tourists who were sightseeing in Huangshan mountain scenic spot, therefore to better facilitate in establishing medical emergency plan and ensure a safe sightseeing.Methods Data of tourists who suffered sickness and received treatment while visiting Huangshan Mountain from January 1,2005 to December 31,2009 were analyzed.Results The top five morbidities among group of children,group of adult and group of aged were as follows respectively: upper respiratory tract infection ,acute gastroenteritis, head trauma, bronchial asthma, wasp sting; upper respiratory tract infection, acute gastroenteritis, sprain of lower extremity, head trauma and monkey scratches or bite;and upper respiratory tract infection, acute gastroenteritis, acute coronary syndromes, high blood pressure and head trauma.Among each age group, the top two morbidities were the same, there were higher number of traumatic patients in group of children and group of adult, whereas, an apparent increase of cardiovascular diseases and sudden death incidents were observed among group of aged.Conclusion It was proved that the morbidities of tourists to certain degree had correlation with the environment in mountainous area.Therefore, to strengthen the publication of knowledge over prevention of the most seen and frequently encountered diseases in mountainous area combined with enhancing tourism related infrastructure construction will bear far-reaching significance as to ensure a safe and health sight-seeing.%目的 探讨黄山山岳型风景区内游客发病的病种、特点及规律,以有利于制定旅游急救预案,保障旅游安全.方法 对2005年1月1日-2009年12月31日在景区内发病就诊的游客患者,进行统计、归类、分析.结果 少儿组、成人组、老年组发病率前5位分别为:上呼吸道感染、急性胃肠炎、头外伤、支气管哮喘、蜂螫伤;上呼吸道感染、急性

  19. Assessment of diabetes care and the healthcare system in economically and transport underdeveloped rural mountain areas of western China: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Linqiu; Zhang, Yuwei; Wang, Xiaoqian; Li, Shengyong; Yang, Wei; Tong, Nanwei

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the quality of diabetes care and characteristics of the healthcare system in underdeveloped rural mountain areas of western China. Questionnaires were used to collect data from 288 diabetic patients with a multistage cluster sampling method in Zhongjiang County (Sichuan Province) between October 2009 and April 2010. Sixty-two village clinics, 23 town health centers, and a county central hospital were included to assess the availability of diabetes-related medical resources, in addition to diabetes-related medical insurance, reimbursement policies, and manpower. Of 288 patients, 38.2 % monitored their blood glucose regularly. Targets for fasting blood glucose (≤7 mmol/L) and blood pressure (≤130/80 mmHg) were achieved by 7.6 % and 9.7 % of patients, respectively. On average, each patient paid US$120 out of pocket annually for out-patient diabetes care, with a maximum US$86 reimbursed. The county central hospital was the only healthcare facility in the county that could provide all essential diabetes-related drugs and process-of-care measures and tests, except measures of HbA1c and the urinary albumin: creatinine ratio. Insulin was not available at village clinics, and only 29 % of village clinics had glucometers. "Certified" doctors were not available to provide primary care in village clinics. The quality of diabetes care was quite poor in underdeveloped rural mountain areas of western China. Recommendations for further intervention research to improve diabetes healthcare include increasing investment in medical infrastructure, improving the availability of essential drugs and process measures, organizing regular diabetes patient education, and recruiting village doctors. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Features and risk factors of nonfatal injury among the rural children: a survey of seven schools in a mountain area in Southwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Quan Shi

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the patterns and risk factors of nonfatal injuries among rural mountain-area children in southwest China.A stratified sampling method was used to recruit rural children aged 8 to 17 years (mainly 9-14 years from 7 schools. Self-reported injuries during the past 12 months and relevant concerns were collected from June to December 2012 by using a structured questionnaire in a class interview.The mean age of the 2,854 children was 12.2 ± 1.5 years. The probability of annual injury was 16.7% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 15.3-18.1%, with slightly higher injury risk for boys than girls (17.7% vs. 16.0%; P>0.05. The top 3 causes of injuries were falls (37.3%, animal-related incidents (20.6%, and burns (14.9%. The main injury risk factors included being involved in a violent episode (odds ratio [OR] 1.34, 95% CI 1.08-1.66, P = 0.007, maltreatment by parents or guardians (1.42, 1.17-1.72, P<0.001, and being from a single-child family (1.30, 1.10-1.66, P = 0.039. Older age was a protective factor (0.81, 0.76-0.87, P<0.001.The incidence of nonfatal injury among rural children was high, and falls were the leading cause. Younger children and boys from poor-care and poor-living environments were at increased risk of injury, which requires urgent attention. Injury prevention programs targeting these issues are needed in this mountain area and similar rural regions of China.

  1. Small Mammal Survey of the Nulhegan Basin Division of the Silvio 0. Conte NFWR and the State of Vermont's West Mountain Wildlife Management Area, Essex County Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of this study was to survey the small mammal diversity in the newly established Nulhegan Basin Division of the Silvio O. Conte National Fish and...

  2. Seismic data for study of shallow mountain bedrock limits seepage-based headwater climate refugia, Shenandoah National Park, Virginia: U.S. Geological Survey data release

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A combination of long-term daily temperature records and depth to bedrock measurements were used to parametrize one-dimensional models of shallow aquifer vertical...

  3. Temperature data for study of shallow mountain bedrock limits seepage-based headwater climate refugia, Shenandoah National Park, Virginia: U.S. Geological Survey data release

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A combination of long-term daily temperature records and depth to bedrock measurements were used to parameterize one-dimensional models of shallow aquifer vertical...

  4. Ethnic Minorities in Northern Mountains of Vietnam: Poverty, Income and Assets

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Viet, Cuong

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the asset and income pattern of poor ethnic minorities in Northern Mountains of Vietnam using data from a 2010 Northern Mountain Baseline Survey (NMBS) of the Second Northern Mountains Poverty Reduction Project and Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey (VHLSS) 2010. The poor ethnic minorities in Northern Mountains have lower assets and income than ethnic minorities in other regions. Their income is mainly from crops and livestock. Compared with Kinh/Hoa and ethnic minor...

  5. Iron Mountain Electromagnetic Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gail Heath

    2012-07-01

    Iron Mountain Mine is located seventeen miles northwest of Redding, CA. After the completion of mining in early 1960s, the mine workings have been exposed to environmental elements which have resulted in degradation in water quality in the surrounding water sheds. In 1985, the EPA plugged ore stoops in many of the accessible mine drifts in an attempt to restrict water flow through the mine workings. During this process little data was gathered on the orientation of the stoops and construction of the plugs. During the last 25 years, plugs have begun to deteriorate and allow acidic waters from the upper workings to flow out of the mine. A team from Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed geophysical surveys on a single mine drift and 3 concrete plugs. The project goal was to evaluate several geophysical methods to determine competence of the concrete plugs and orientation of the stopes.

  6. Survey of foliar monoterpenes across the range of jack pine reveal three widespread chemotypes: implications to host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer eTaft

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The secondary compounds of pines (Pinus can strongly affect the physiology, ecology and behaviors of the bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae that feed on sub-cortical tissues of hosts. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana has a wide natural distribution range in North America (Canada and USA and thus variations in its secondary compounds, particularly monoterpenes, could affect the host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, which has recently expanded its range into the novel jack pine boreal forest. We investigated monoterpene composition of 601 jack pine trees from natural and provenance forest stands representing 63 populations from Alberta to the Atlantic coast. Throughout its range, jack pine exhibited three chemotypes characterized by high proportions of α-pinene, β-pinene, or limonene. The frequency with which the α-pinene and β-pinene chemotypes occurred at individual sites was correlated to climatic variables, such as continentality and mean annual precipitation, as were the individual α-pinene and β-pinene concentrations. However, other monoterpenes were generally not correlated to climatic variables or geographic distribution. Finally, while the enantiomeric ratios of β-pinene and limonene remained constant across jack pine’s distribution, (‒:(+-α-pinene exhibited two separate trends, thereby delineating two α-pinene phenotypes, both of which occurred across jack pine’s range. These significant variations in jack pine monoterpene composition may have cascading effects on the continued eastward spread and success of D. ponderosae in the Canadian boreal forest.

  7. Acute mountain sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    High altitude cerebral edema; Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... Acute mountain sickness is caused by reduced air pressure and lower oxygen levels at high altitudes. The faster you ...

  8. Spermatophyte Flora Distribution in Hubei Daqi Mountain Nature Reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Zhengyu; Cai, Jingyong; Bai, Tao; Jiang, Jianguo; Wang, Shaoming

    2013-01-01

    A basic ingredient analysis of flora and geographic elements of plant genera and families in Daqi Mountain Nature Reserve was conducted through the field survey and specimen collection, based on the system investigation of plant flora, and an R/T ratio comparison between the flora in Daqi Mountain and adjacent mountain floras was made. Plant taxonomy identification indicates that spermatophytes in the nature reserve comprises 1035 species of 534 genera, falling in 140families, of which 10 gym...

  9. Using a morpho-functional approach to assess phytoplankton dynamics in two adjacent high-mountain lakes: a 10-year survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Trevisan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Colbricon Superiore and Inferiore are two small adjacent high-mountain lakes located in the Paneveggio Natural Park (Italy. The lakes differ by size and depth while sharing the same bedrock setting and catchment basin. Changes in the phytoplankton communities were studied over a 10-years period to individuate which environmental variables would determine the main differences in biotic assemblages across time and between the two lakes.The study was conducted with fortnightly samplings, assessing the density and biomass of algal taxa. Relationships of each of the biological variables with water temperature, pH, conductivity, transparency, water level, previous week rainfall, and relative water column stability were analyzed by correlation and regression analyses, cluster analysis, and by canonical correspondence analysis. The most significant variables resulted air temperature, hydrologic water level and pH. The smaller Colbricon Inferiore had about double the amount of phytoplankton density and biomass than did the larger Colbricon Superiore. The same lake had higher diversity and lower evenness in structure of the phytoplankton community. Notwithstanding their proximity each lake appears to follow independent species composition dynamics, however parallel patterns were interestingly revealed when data were analyzed by pooling taxa into morpho-functional groups. Morpho-functional groups (MFGs 1b, 3a, 6b, 7a, 9b were differentially most abundant in warm periods, while 2c, 3b, 11c, 5e, 10a prevailed in cold years. MFGs 1b, 2d, 3a and 3b were more characteristic of Lake Colbricon Superiore, while Colbricon Inferiore preferentially featured MFGs 5a, 5e, 9a, 9b, 10a, 11a and 8a. The role of the meteo-climatic parameters was pointed out in driving the different patterns observed in the two lakes.

  10. Effectiveness of apparent electrical conductivity surveys at varying soil water contents for assessing soil and water dynamics across a rainfed mountain olive orchard in SW Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aura, Pedrera,; De Vijver, Ellen, Van; Karl, Vanderlinden,; Sergio, Martos-Rosillo; Meirvenne, Marc, Van; Espejo-Pérez, Antonio, J.; Encarnación V., Taguas,; Giráldez, Juan, V.

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge and understanding of the spatio-temporal variability of soil physical and chemical properties at the field or micro-catchment scale are of prime importance for many agricultural and environmental applications that aim at soil, water and carbon conservation. Geophysical methods, such as electromagnetic induction (EMI), are nowadays a key tool to monitor these properties across relevant scales, as a result of their non-destructive nature and their capability to survey repeatedly large areas within a small time window. Geophysical instrument response depends on the electromagnetic properties of the subsoil and for EMI in particular moist soil conditions are generally considered as most suitable for data acquisition. In water-limited environments, such as those under Mediterranean climate, these conditions are not met during large periods of the year, apparently hampering the usefulness of the method in these regions. The aim of this study is to obtain a better understanding of the sensor response and the contribution of soil properties to the geophysical signals under varying water contents. An experimental micro-catchment in SW Spain under rainfed olive cultivation was surveyed for apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) on 11 moments in time using a Dualem-21S. In addition, ECa and soil water content (SWC) was measured at 48 locations throughout the catchment on each survey date. At each of these locations, soil profile samples were analyzed for texture, soil organic matter content (SOM), soil depth, gravel content, and bulk density. Overall, correlations between the different soil properties and ECa improved with increasing SWC, although the ECa patterns remained constant in time. Time-lapse imaging offers the most promising results under the conditions of this study, but still requires at least one survey under wet soil conditions. Despite the smaller correlations between ECa and soil properties under dry conditions, ECa patterns are still relevant for

  11. A SEROLOGIC AND POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION SURVEY OF EQUINE HERPESVIRUS IN BURCHELL'S ZEBRAS (EQUUS QUAGGA), HARTMANN'S MOUNTAIN ZEBRAS (EQUUS ZEBRA HARTMANNAE), AND THOMSON'S GAZELLES (EUDORCAS THOMSONII) IN A MIXED SPECIES SAVANNAH EXHIBIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Karen M; Fleming, Gregory J; Mylniczenko, Natalie D

    2016-12-01

    Reports of equine herpesvirus (EHV) 1 and EHV-9 causing clinical disease in a wide range of species have been well documented in the literature. It is thought that zebras are the natural hosts of EHV-9 both in the wild and in captive collections. Concerns about potential interspecies transmission of EHV-1 and EHV-9 in a mixed species savannah exhibit prompted serologic and polymerase chain reaction surveys. Eighteen Burchell's zebras ( Equus quagga ), 11 Hartmann's mountain zebras ( Equus zebra hartmannae), and 14 Thomson's gazelles ( Eudorcas thomsonii ) cohabitating the same exhibit were examined for EHV-1 virus neutralization titers, and evidence of virus via EHV 1-5 polymerase chain reactions. None of the animals had previous exposure to vaccination with EHV-1 or EHV-4. All tested zebras had positive EHV-1 titers, ranging from 4 to 384. All zebras and Thomson's gazelles had negative polymerase chain reaction results for all targeted equine herpesviruses. EHV-9-specific assays are not available but EHV-1, EHV-4, and EHV-9 cross-react serologically. Positive serology results indicate a potential latent equine herpesvirus in the zebra population, which prompted initiation of an equine herpesvirus vaccine protocol, changes in pregnant zebra mare management, and equine herpesvirus polymerase chain reaction screening prior to shipment to or from the study site.

  12. Bull Mountain Basin Boundary from 1999 National Coal Resource Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a polygon representing the extent of the Bull Mountain coal basin boundary. This theme was created specifically for the National Coal...

  13. Bathymetric surveys of the Neosho River, Spring River, and Elk River, northeastern Oklahoma and southwestern Missouri, 2016–17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Shelby L.; Ashworth, Chad E.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2017-09-26

    In February 2017, the Grand River Dam Authority filed to relicense the Pensacola Hydroelectric Project with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. The predominant feature of the Pensacola Hydroelectric Project is Pensacola Dam, which impounds Grand Lake O’ the Cherokees (locally called Grand Lake) in northeastern Oklahoma. Identification of information gaps and assessment of project effects on stakeholders are central aspects of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission relicensing process. Some upstream stakeholders have expressed concerns about the dynamics of sedimentation and flood flows in the transition zone between major rivers and Grand Lake O’ the Cherokees. To relicense the Pensacola Hydroelectric Project with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, the hydraulic models for these rivers require high-resolution bathymetric data along the river channels. In support of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission relicensing process, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Grand River Dam Authority, performed bathymetric surveys of (1) the Neosho River from the Oklahoma border to the U.S. Highway 60 bridge at Twin Bridges State Park, (2) the Spring River from the Oklahoma border to the U.S. Highway 60 bridge at Twin Bridges State Park, and (3) the Elk River from Noel, Missouri, to the Oklahoma State Highway 10 bridge near Grove, Oklahoma. The Neosho River and Spring River bathymetric surveys were performed from October 26 to December 14, 2016; the Elk River bathymetric survey was performed from February 27 to March 21, 2017. Only areas inundated during those periods were surveyed.The bathymetric surveys covered a total distance of about 76 river miles and a total area of about 5 square miles. Greater than 1.4 million bathymetric-survey data points were used in the computation and interpolation of bathymetric-survey digital elevation models and derived contours at 1-foot (ft) intervals. The minimum bathymetric-survey elevation of the Neosho

  14. Mountain Plover [ds109

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Point locations representing observations of mountain plover (Charadrius montanus) feeding and roosting flocks (and occasional individuals) documented during an...

  15. EMISSÃO DE CO2, CARACTERÍSTICAS DO DOSSEL E ACÚMULO DE FORRAGEM EM PASTOS DE CAPIM-PENSACOLA SOB FREQUÊNCIAS DE DESFOLHAÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Galzerano

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate CO2 emission, canopy characteristics and herbage accumulation in pastures of pensacola bahiagrass under frequencies of defoliation. The experiment was conducted at the Universidade Estadual Paulista "Julio de Mesquita Filho", Faculty of Agrarian Sciences and Veterinary of UNESP, Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brasil. The experimental period was from May 3rd to July 26th 2012. The experimental area comprised 28 m2 of pensacola bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flügge, divided into 10 plots for allocation of treatment (frequencies of defoliation = 2 or 4 weeks. The following variables were studied: canopy height, light interception, leaf area index, herbage accumulation, tiller density, CO2 emissions, soil temperature and moisture. The frequencies of defoliation in the months of May, June and July slightly affect pensacola bahiagrass characteristics. CO2, soil temperature and moisture are more associated to environmental conditions (months of evaluation than to the frequencies of defoliation imposed to the canopies.

  16. Mountain Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene D. Amman; Mark D. McGregor; Robert E. Jr. Dolph

    1989-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a member of a group of beetles known as bark beetles: Except when adults emerge and attack new trees, the mountain pine beetle completes its life cycle under the bark. The beetle attacks and kills lodgepole, ponderosa, sugar, and western white pines. Outbreaks frequently develop in lodgepole pine stands that...

  17. Mountain chickadee (Poecile gambeli)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, D. Archibald; Grundel, Ralph; Dahlsten, Donald L.; Poole, Alan; Gill, Frank

    1999-01-01

    The Mountain Chickadee (Poecile gambeli), a small, cavity-nesting songbird, is one of the most common birds of montane and coniferous forest from southern Arizona and Baja California north to British Columbia and the Yukon territory. This publication describes the life history of the Mountain Chickadee.

  18. Características de produção e valor nutritivo do capim Pensacola (Paspalum notatum Fluegge var. saurae Parodi em função da idade de corte Production characteristics and nutritive value of pensacola bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Fluegge var. saurae Parodi in response to cutting age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Maluf Haddad

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento teve como objetivo avaliar a produção de matéria seca, a digestibilidade in vitro e a variação na composição químico-bromatológica e mineral do capim-pensacola (Paspalum notatum Fluegge var. saurae Parodi em função da idade de corte. O delineamento estatístico adotado foi inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os tratamentos constaram de seis idades de corte, com intervalo de 15 dias entre cada corte, sendo o primeiro corte realizado 20 dias após o rebaixamento. A produção de matéria seca aumentou de forma quadrática (P The objective of this experiment was to evaluate dry matter production, in vitro dry matter digestibility, variation in chemical composition and in macro and micro mineral contents in Pensacola bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Fluegge var. saurae Parodi as related to cutting age. The experimental design was completely randomized with six treatments, replicated five times. Treatments consisted of six cutting ages spaced 15 days apart, with the first cut made 20 days after staging. Dry matter production increased quadratically (P < 0.05 with increased age. In vitro dry matter digestibility and crude protein concentration decreased quadratically (P < 0.05 with increased age. Conversely, neutral detergent fiber increased quadratically (P < 0.05, whereas acid detergent fiber concentrations varied cubically (P < 0.05. Concentrations of the phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and sulfur decreased quadratically (P < 0.05, whereas potassium concentration varied cubically (P < 0.05 with increased age. Concentrations of copper and zinc decreased quadratically (P < 0.05, whereas that of manganese increased quadratically (P < 0.05. Results showed that the recommended cuttings should be performed in day 30 intervals, in order to garantee, if one seeks a good digestibility, adequate protein and mineral contents.

  19. Unpublished Digital Geologic Map of the Chisos Mountains, Texas (NPS, GRD, GRI, BIBE, CMTN digital map) adapted from a U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map by Bohannon (2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Unpublished Digital Geologic Map of the Chisos Mountains, Texas is composed of GIS data layers complete with ArcMap 9.3 layer (.LYR) files, two ancillary GIS...

  20. Rocky Mountain Arsenal Timeline

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document details all of the major events having occurred at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal from it's establishment on May 2, 1942 up through the document's release...

  1. Landforms of High Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek A. McDougall

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Landforms of High Mountains. By Alexander Stahr and Ewald Langenscheidt. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer, 2015. viii + 158 pp. US$ 129.99. Also available as an e-book. ISBN 978-3-642-53714-1.

  2. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mountain spotted fever is caused by the bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii (R. Rickettsii) , which is carried by ticks. ... Saunders; 2014:chap 212. Walker DH, Blaton LS. Rickettsia rickettsii and other spotted fever group rickettsiae (Rocky ...

  3. Diurnal variation of mountain waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Worthington

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Mountain waves could be modified as the boundary layer varies between stable and convective. However case studies show mountain waves day and night, and above e.g. convective rolls with precipitation lines over mountains. VHF radar measurements of vertical wind (1990–2006 confirm a seasonal variation of mountain-wave amplitude, yet there is little diurnal variation of amplitude. Mountain-wave azimuth shows possible diurnal variation compared to wind rotation across the boundary layer.

  4. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Simmons

    2004-04-16

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  5. The survey in different habitat to the mosquito-vector in Yimeng mountain area%沂蒙山区蚊类传播媒介的生态学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景晓; 常树珍; 张世水; 宫学诗; 赖世宏

    2012-01-01

    Objective To survey the different habitat to the species, distribution, habitat, behavior of mosquitoes in Yimeng mountain area for about twenty years,and provide local background data for killing mosquitoes. Methods Applying five ways :human baited net trap , catching with a net ,lamp baited trap, labor-hour methods and animal baited trap to catch the mosquitoes in different habitat. Results Mosquitoes collected were total subjected to 5 genera 28 species. Among them, 7 species as An. Lindosagi,Ae. Koreicus, Ae. Dorsalis,et al were new record. Mosquito larva breeded in different habitat. 11 species of the bloodsucking of mosquitoes were found,the bloodsucking of Culex pipiens pallens was wide-ranging. Conclusion When the infectious diseases caused by mosquito-vectors are continual changing at present, it is indispensable to continue strengthening the working of investigating mosquito, and consolidate achievements of eliminating the pests.%目的 通过对沂蒙山区蚊类生态习性近20年生态学调查,掌握不同生境蚊类的本底资料,为除害灭病提供科学依据.方法 选择取样点,用人帐法、网捕法、灯诱法、人工小时法、动物诱捕法等5种采集方法分别在不同生境中采集蚊虫成虫,分类计数.结果 共发现蚊类5属28种,其中环股按蚊、朝鲜伊蚊、背点伊蚊等7种为沂蒙山区新记录.蚊类的孳生地非常广泛,而不同蚊种在各种水质中又有不同的孳生特点.对11种常见蚊虫的嗜血习性进行了判断.结论 在当前蚊媒传播疾病不断发生变化的情况下,有必要继续加强对蚊类生态学的调查,以巩固除害灭病的成果.

  6. Geology of the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sandra H.B.

    2008-01-01

    The Southern Appalachian Mountains includes the Blue Ridge province and parts of four other physiographic provinces. The Blue Ridge physiographic province is a high, mountainous area bounded by several named mountain ranges (including the Unaka Mountains and the Great Smoky Mountains) to the northwest, and the Blue Ridge Mountains to the southeast. Metamorphic rocks of the mountains include (1) fragments of a billion-year-old supercontinent, (2) thick sequences of sedimentary rock that were deposited in subsiding (sinking) basins on the continent, (3) sedimentary and volcanic rocks that were deposited on the sea floor, and (4) fragments of oceanic crust. Most of the rocks formed as sediments or volcanic rocks on ocean floors, islands, and continental plates; igneous rocks formed when crustal plates collided, beginning about 450 million years ago. The collision between the ancestral North American and African continental plates ended about 270 million years ago. Then, the continents began to be stretched, which caused fractures to open in places throughout the crust; these fractures were later filled with sediment. This product (U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 2830) consists of a geologic map of the Southern Appalachian Mountains overlain on a shaded-relief background. The map area includes parts of southern Virginia, eastern West Virginia and Tennessee, western North and South Carolina, northern Georgia and northeastern Alabama. Photographs of localities where geologic features of interest can be seen accompany the map. Diagrams show how the movement of continental plates over many millions of years affected the landscapes seen today, show how folds and faults form, describe important mineral resources of the region, and illustrate geologic time. This two-sided map is folded into a convenient size (5x9.4 inches) for use in the field. The target audience is high school to college earth science and geology teachers and students; staffs of

  7. Mountain saved. is a mountain earned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margolis, K.

    The Anaconda Copper Company boasted that the smokestack on its Washee smelter mill was the world's tallest. It also was probably the world's deadliest. Mysterious livestock deaths began occurring in 1906. They seemed to concentrate in the path of the prevailing westerly winds, carrying the Washee's smelter smoke plume toward Mt. Haggin. As evidence mounted that the deaths were connected to particulate fallout from the smelter (largely oxides of zinc, arsenic, lead, and copper), there were rumblings of lawsuits against Anaconda. The company felt threatened, but did not possess the technology to cure the situation. To protect itself, Anaconda purchased all the lands that were affected by fallout from the smelter smokestack. The result was the formation of the 154,000-acre Mt. Haggin Ranch. Today, the Anaconda Copper Company uses sophisticated pollution abatement equipment, and it is possible to see the healing that has taken place in recent years. The ranch includes rugged mountain peaks and ridges, high mountain valleys, and rolling foothills. A fisherman's paradise, the area also contains 20 mountain lakes, numerous ponds, and over 60 miles of trout streams. The Conservancy has been working to save Mt. Haggin since 1969. Negotiations have involved not only the fee owner--Mt. Haggin Livestock, Inc.--but also parties holding grazing and timber contracts, a variety of public agencies, and the Anaconda Company, which still holds some rights over the portion of the property not yet purchased by the Conservancy. The Conservancy assists in preserving lands like Mt. Haggin by handling the financial and legal aspects of land purchases. The Conservancy is allocating property to two ultimate recipients: the U.S. Forest Service and the montana Department of Fish and Game.

  8. STRAWBERRY MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, T.P.; Stotelmeyer, Ronald B.

    1984-01-01

    The Strawberry Mountain Wilderness extends 18 mi along the crest of the Strawberry Range and comprises about 53 sq mi in the Malheur National Forest, Grant County, Oregon. Systematic geologic mapping, geochemical sampling and detailed sampling of prospect workings was done. A demonstrated copper resource in small quartz veins averaging at most 0. 33 percent copper with traces of silver occurs in shear zones in gabbro. Two small areas with substantiated potential for chrome occur near the northern edge of the wilderness. There is little promise for the occurrence of additional mineral or energy resources in the Strawberry Mountain Wilderness.

  9. Himalayan Mountain Range, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Snow is present the year round in most of the high Himalaya Mountain Range (33.0N, 76.5E). In this view taken at the onset of winter, the continuous snow line can be seen for hundreds of miles along the south face of the range in the Indian states of Punjab and Kashmir. The snow line is at about 12,000 ft. altitude but the deep Cenab River gorge is easily delineated as a break along the south edge of the snow covered mountains. '

  10. Understand mountain studies from earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Sichuan earthquake on 12 May was the most devastating one to hit China over the past 60 years or so. As the affected were mostly mountainous areas, serious damages were caused by various secondary disasters ranging from mountain collapse to the formation of quake lakes. This leaves Prof. DENG Wei, director-general of the Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS, much to think about, and he is calling for strengthening studies on mountain science.

  11. 2012 mule deer and white-tailed deer census and population density estimate : Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report on the 2012 deer census survey at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge. Census methods and survey results are discussed. A combination of census...

  12. Mountain-Plains Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain-Plains Education and Economic Development Program, Inc., Glasgow AFB, MT.

    The document lists the Mountain-Plains curriculum by job title (where applicable), including support courses. The curriculum areas covered are mathematics skills, communication skills, office education, lodging services, food services, marketing and distribution, welding support, automotive, small engines, career guidance, World of Work, health…

  13. Xiuhua Mountain Museum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    XIUHUA Mountain Museum,a building nestled amongthe hills,is the first private museum of the Tujiaethnicity.Its name is an amalgamation of the names ofthe couple who run it,Gong Daoxiu and her husband ChenChuhua.According to Chen,the reason that he put his wife’s

  14. Geologic reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains, Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voegtly, Nickolas E.

    1981-01-01

    A geologic reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, which include parts of the Brady-Hazen and the Stillwater-Soda Lake Known Geothermal Resource Areas, during June-December 1975, resulted in a reinterpretation of the nature and location of some Basin and Range faults. In addition, the late Cenozoic stratigraphy has been modified, chiefly on the basis of radiometric dates of volcanic rocks by U.S. Geological Survey personnel and others. The Hot Springs Mountains are in the western part of the Basin and Range province, which is characterized by east-west crustal extension and associated normal faulting. In the surrounding Trinity, West Humboldt, Stillwater, and Desert Mountains, Cenozoic rocks overlie ' basement ' rocks of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. A similar relation is inferred in the Hot Springs Mountains. Folding and faulting have taken place from the late Tertiary to the present. (USGS)

  15. Digital mountains: toward development and environment protection in mountain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaobo

    2007-06-01

    Former studies on mountain system are focused on the department or subject characters, i.e. different department and branches of learning carry out researches only for their individual purposes and with individual characters of the subject of interests. As a whole, their investigation is lacking of comprehensive study in combination with global environment. Ecological environment in mountain regions is vulnerable to the disturbance of human activities. Therefore, it is a key issue to coordinate economic development and environment protection in mountain regions. On the other hand, a lot of work is ongoing on mountain sciences, especially depending on the application of RS and GIS. Moreover, the development of the Digital Earth (DE) provides a clue to re-understand mountains. These are the background of the emergence of the Digital Mountains (DM). One of the purposes of the DM is integrating spatial related data and information about mountains. Moreover, the DM is a viewpoint and methodology of understanding and quantifying mountains holistically. The concept of the DM is that, the spatial and temporal data related to mountain regions are stored and managed in computers; moreover, manipulating, analyzing, modeling, simulating and sharing of the mountain information are implemented by utilizing technologies of RS, GIS, GPS, Geo-informatic Tupu, computer, virtual reality (VR), 3D simulation, massive storage, mutual operation and network communication. The DM aims at advancing mountain sciences and sustainable mountain development. The DM is used to providing information and method for coordinating the mountain regions development and environment protection. The fundamental work of the DM is the design of the scientific architecture. Furthermore, construct and develop massive databases of mountains are the important steps these days.

  16. Coupling atmospheric mercury isotope ratios and meteorology to identify sources of mercury impacting a coastal urban-industrial region near Pensacola, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Jason D.; Sherman, Laura S.; Blum, Joel D.; Marsik, Frank J.; Dvonch, J. Timothy

    2015-10-01

    Identifying the anthropogenic and natural sources of mercury (Hg) emissions contributing to atmospheric mercury on local, regional, and global scales continues to be a grand challenge. The relative importance of various direct anthropogenic emissions of mercury, in addition to natural geologic sources and reemission of previously released and deposited mercury, differs regionally and temporally. In this study, we used local-scale, mesoscale, and synoptic-scale meteorological analysis to couple the isotopic composition of ambient atmospheric mercury with potential sources of mercury contributing to a coastal urban-industrial setting near a coal-fired power plant in Pensacola, Florida, USA. We were able to broadly discern four influences on the isotopic composition of ambient atmospheric mercury impacting this coastal urban-industrial region: (1) local to regional urban-industrial anthropogenic emissions (mean δ202Hg = 0.44 ± 0.05‰, 1SD, n = 3), (2) marine-influenced sources derived from the Gulf of Mexico (mean δ202Hg = 0.77 ± 0.15‰, 1SD, n = 4), (3) continental sources associated with north-northwesterly flows from within the planetary boundary layer (mean δ202Hg = 0.65 ± 0.04‰, 1SD, n = 3), and (4) continental sources associated with north-northeasterly flows at higher altitudes (i.e., 2000 m above ground level; mean δ202Hg = 1.10 ± 0.21‰, 1SD, n = 8). Overall, these data, in conjunction with previous studies, suggest that the background global atmospheric mercury pool is characterized by moderately positive δ202Hg values; that urban-industrial emissions drive the isotopic composition of ambient atmospheric mercury toward lower δ202Hg values; and that air-surface exchange dynamics across vegetation and soils of terrestrial ecosystems drive the isotopic composition of ambient atmospheric mercury toward higher positive δ202Hg values. The data further suggest that mass-independent fractionation (MIF) of both even-mass- and odd-mass-number isotopes

  17. Development and characterization of the CU ground MAX-DOAS instrument: lowering RMS noise and first measurements of BrO, IO, and CHOCHO near Pensacola, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, S.; Dix, B.; Sinreich, R.; Volkamer, R.

    2011-01-01

    We designed and assembled the University of Colorado Ground Multi AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU GMAX-DOAS) instrument to retrieve bromine oxide (BrO), iodine oxide (IO), formaldehyde (HCHO), glyoxal (CHOCHO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and the oxygen dimer O4 in the coastal atmosphere of the Gulf of Mexico. The detection sensitivity of DOAS measurements is directly proportional to the root mean square (RMS) of the residual spectrum that remains after all absorbers have been subtracted. Here we describe the CU GMAX-DOAS instrument and demonstrate that the hardware is capable of attaining RMS values of ~6 × 10-6 without apparent limitations other than photon shot noise. Laboratory tests revealed two factors that, in practice, limit the RMS: (1) detector non-linearity noise, RMSNLin, and (2) temperature fluctuations that cause variations in optical resolution (full width at half the maximum, FWHM, of atomic emission lines) and give rise to optical resolution noise, RMSFWHM. The non-linearity of our detector is low (~10-3) yet - unless actively controlled - is sufficiently large to create a RMSNLin limit of up to 1.4 × 10-4. The optical resolution is sensitive to temperature changes (0.03 detector pixels/°C at 334 nm), and temperature variations of 0.1 °C can cause residual RMSFWHM of ~1 × 10-4. Both factors were actively addressed in the design of the CU GMAX-DOAS instrument. The CU GMAX-DOAS was set up at a coastal site near Pensacola, FL, where we detected BrO, IO and CHOCHO in the marine boundary layer (MBL), with daytime average tropospheric vertical column densities, VCDs, of ~2 × 1013 molec cm-2, 8 × 1012 molec cm-2 and 4 × 1014 molec cm-2, respectively. HCHO and NO2 were also detected with typical MBL VCDs of 1 × 1016 and 3 × 1015. These are the first measurements of BrO, IO and CHOCHO over the Gulf of Mexico. The atmospheric implications of these observations for elevated mercury wet deposition rates in this area are briefly

  18. Combined Thickness of the Modeled Saddle Mountains Basalt and Mabton Interbed Geomodel Units (smthk_f)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The smthk_f grid represents the modeled combined thickness of the Saddle Mountains Basalt and Mabton interbed geomodel units at a 500 foot resolution. It is one grid...

  19. Cheat Mountain Salamanders Search Report 2004 Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a report that outlines the results of a one-day survey for the endangered Cheat Mountain Salamander at Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge in 2004. The...

  20. Cheat Mountain Salamanders Search Reports 2008 Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This documents six different surveys between July and September, 2008 that were done to monitor the endangered Cheat Mountain salamander at Canaan Valley National...

  1. Word images as policy instruments: Lessons from the Yucca Mountain Controversey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conary, J.S.; Soden, D.L.; Carns, D.E.

    1993-08-01

    A study is described which explores word images which have developed about nuclear issues by Nevadans. The study is based on results of a survey conducted regarding issues related to the Yucca Mountain repository.

  2. Daily Statistically Downscaled Climate Projections for the US and southern Canada east of the Rocky Mountains.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This archive contains daily statistically downscaled climate projections for the United States and southern Canada east of the Rocky Mountains at 0.1 degree...

  3. Geospatial Database of Hydroclimate Variables, Spring Mountains and Sheep Range, Clark County, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This point feature class contains 81,481 points arranged in a 270-meter spaced grid that covers the Spring Mountains and Sheep Range in Clark County, Nevada. Points...

  4. Estimating abundance of mountain lions from unstructured spatial sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Robin E.; Royle, J. Andrew; Desimone, Richard; Schwartz, Michael K.; Edwards, Victoria L.; Pilgrim, Kristy P.; Mckelvey, Kevin S.

    2012-01-01

    Mountain lions (Puma concolor) are often difficult to monitor because of their low capture probabilities, extensive movements, and large territories. Methods for estimating the abundance of this species are needed to assess population status, determine harvest levels, evaluate the impacts of management actions on populations, and derive conservation and management strategies. Traditional mark–recapture methods do not explicitly account for differences in individual capture probabilities due to the spatial distribution of individuals in relation to survey effort (or trap locations). However, recent advances in the analysis of capture–recapture data have produced methods estimating abundance and density of animals from spatially explicit capture–recapture data that account for heterogeneity in capture probabilities due to the spatial organization of individuals and traps. We adapt recently developed spatial capture–recapture models to estimate density and abundance of mountain lions in western Montana. Volunteers and state agency personnel collected mountain lion DNA samples in portions of the Blackfoot drainage (7,908 km2) in west-central Montana using 2 methods: snow back-tracking mountain lion tracks to collect hair samples and biopsy darting treed mountain lions to obtain tissue samples. Overall, we recorded 72 individual capture events, including captures both with and without tissue sample collection and hair samples resulting in the identification of 50 individual mountain lions (30 females, 19 males, and 1 unknown sex individual). We estimated lion densities from 8 models containing effects of distance, sex, and survey effort on detection probability. Our population density estimates ranged from a minimum of 3.7 mountain lions/100 km2 (95% Cl 2.3–5.7) under the distance only model (including only an effect of distance on detection probability) to 6.7 (95% Cl 3.1–11.0) under the full model (including effects of distance, sex, survey effort, and

  5. 广西元宝山自然保护区两栖动物资源调查及保护%Survey and Conservation of Amphibia Resources in Yuanbao Mountain Nature Reserve of Guangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋才云; 曾小飚

    2011-01-01

    The amphibian resources in Yuanbao Mountain Nature Reserve of Guangxi were investigated from March to August in 2009. The results showed that 27 species of amphibians, belonging to 18 genera, 8 families, 2 orders, were recorded in the reserve. The Shannon-Wienner diversity index and Pielou evenness index were 2.877 and 0.873 respectively. According to the zoogeographic division, this area belong to Western mountain and plateau subregion, Central China region, Oriental Realm. The fauna is mainly composed of species distributed in both Central and South China Region. The ecological categories of 27 amphibians are mainly running-water type and Terrestrial & Quiet-water type. Compared to Maoershan Nature Reserve and Guilin Lijiang scenic spots located in the north of Guangxi similarly, the similarity coefficient of amphibian communities in Yuanbao Mountain Nature Reserve is higher. On the contrary,it has smaller similarity coefficient than Cenwanglaoshan Nature Reserve, Longtan Nature Reserve, Diding Nature Reserve of west of Guangxi and Shiwandashan, Guabang mountain of South of Guangxi. Based on the status of the amphibian resources, some protective suggestions were provided in the paper.%2009年3~8月,对广西元宝山自然保护区的两栖动物资源进行了调查.结果表明,该保护区有两栖动物27种,隶属18属8科2目;物种多样性指数为2.877,均匀度指数为0.873.动物地理区划属东洋界华中区西部山地高原亚区黔桂湘低山丘陵省,区系组成以华中区与华南区共有种为主:生态类型以流水型和陆栖静水型种类占优势:保护区和同样地处桂北的猫儿山自然保护区、桂林漓江风景名胜区的两栖动物群落相似系数较高,而与桂西地区的岑王老山自然保护区、龙滩自然保护区、底定自然保护区和桂南地区的十万大山、挂榜山的相似系数较小.最后,根据资源现状提出了保护对策.

  6. Teacher Contract Non-Renewal: Midwest, Rocky Mountains, and Southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Andy; Dam, Margaret; Packard, Abbot L.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated reasons that school principals recommend non-renewal of probationary teachers' contracts. Principal survey results from three regions of the US (Midwest, Rocky Mountains, & Southeast) were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U statistical procedures, while significance was tested applying a…

  7. Intensidade de colonização do córtex radicular e sua relação com a absorção de fósforo pelo capim-pensacola Intensity of root cortex colonization and its relation with phosphorus uptake by pensacola grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo dos Santos Rheinheimer

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Em plantas micorrizadas, após a colonização do córtex radicular, as hifas fúngicas extendem-se no solo absorvendo uma maior quantidade de nutrientes, especialmente o fósforo. Este trabalho tem por objetivo avaliar a relação entre porcentagem e intensidade de colonização do córtex radicular com a absorção de fósforo. Usou-se os resultados de três experimentos desenvolvidos no Departamento de Solos da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, no período de 1989 a 1992. No primeiro, usou-se cinco níveis de calagem representados por valores de pH (4,6; 5,0; 5,5; 6, 1 e 6,6 e duas doses de P2O5 (0 e 20mg/kg; no segundo, os mesmos valores de pH e quatro doses de P2O5 (0, 20, 50 e 70mg/kg e no terceiro, dois valores de pH (4,6 e 6,1 e três doses de P2O5, (50, 150 e 250mg/kg. Em todos os experimentos usaram-se três níveis de micorrização (solo fumigado, solo fumigado + esporos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (fMA nativos e solo natural e pensacola como planta hospedeira. Avaliou-se o fósforo absorvido pela parte aérea, a porcentagem e intensidade de colonização. Na avaliação da intensidade levou-se em consideração a presença de hifas internas e arbúsculos, atribuindo-se notas de 1 a 5. O córtex apresentou-se densamente colonizado pelas estruturas fúngicas em condições de solo ácido e com baixa disponibilidade de fósforo, coincidindo com as maiores absorções de fósforo. Em todos os experimentos e tratamentos a intensidade mostrou-se ser um parâmetro confiável na predição de absorção de fósforo pela pensacola.Plants colonized by mycorrhizal fungi are able to uptake more nutrients, especially phosphorus, than those without colonization due to the increase in the uptake área. The objective of this study was to evaluate the rate and the intensity of mycorrhizal colonization in Paspalum notatum roots and their correlation with P uptake. The data were obtained from three different experiment carried out in a

  8. 76 FR 23189 - Safety Zone; Pensacola Bay; Pensacola, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... protection of persons and vessels on navigable waters during the Blue Angels' air show. Entry into... vessels from safety hazards associated with the aerobatic displays. Background and Purpose Naval Air... poses significant safety hazards to both vessels and mariners operating in or near the air show area...

  9. Patient-centred mountain medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szawarski, Piotr; Hillebrandt, David

    2016-08-01

    Venturing into the mountains, doctors have accompanied expeditions to provide routine care to the teams, undertake research and occasionally take on a rescue role. The role of doctors practicing mountain medicine is evolving. Public health issues involving concepts of health and safety have become necessary with the coming of commercial and youth expeditions. Increasingly individuals with a disability or a medical diagnosis choose to ascend to high altitudes. Doctors become involved in assessment of risk and providing advice for such individuals. The field of mountain medicine is perhaps unique in that acceptance of risk is part of the ethos of climbing and adventure. The pursuit of mountaineering goals may represent the ultimate conquest of a disability. Knowledge of mountain environment is essential in facilitating mountain ascents for those who choose to undertake them, in spite of a disability or medical condition.

  10. 南极格罗夫山核心区冰下地形测绘%SUBGLACIAL TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYS IN THE KERNEL AREA OF THE GROVE MOUNTAINS,ANTARCTICA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王泽民; 谭智; 艾松涛; 刘海燕; 王立影

    2014-01-01

    格罗夫山地区位于中山站和冰穹A之间,是中国进行南极内陆科学综合考察的重点区。我们先后组织过5次格罗夫山地区的考察工作,开展了地质构造、古气候环境、陨石、冰盖运动监测、基础测绘和气象观测等多学科考察研究。2010年中国第26次南极科学考察期间,格罗夫山考察队利用专业探地雷达对格罗夫山东部核心区进行了冰下地形测绘工作。本文利用野外采集的测量数据(GPS/GPR数据),经数据处理后,利用专业的制图软件CorelDraw首次绘制出了格罗夫山核心区两幅冰下地形图,初步揭开了这一区域冰原岛峰冰下的地貌形态,对于今后研究整个格罗夫山地区真实的基岩地貌和可能存在的上新世古冰下沉积盆地具有探索性意义。本文还对哈丁山-萨哈罗夫岭间横截面进行分析,发现这两个冰原岛峰之间的槽谷形态已经发育成熟。%The Grove Mountains are located in a remote area of inland Antarctica between Zhongshan Station and Ice Dome A. China has organized five scientific investigations in the Grove Mountains, researching geological structure,ancient climate,and meteorites,monitoring ice movement,conducting basic mapping,meteorological observations,and other multi-disciplinary observational studies.During the 26th Chinese Antarctic Research Expedition in 201 0,the Grove Mountains investigation team used specialized ground penetrating radar (GPR)for topographic mapping under the ice in the eastern kernel area of the Grove Mountains.In this paper,global positioning system (GPS ) and GPR data are processed using professional graphics software to produce two subglacial topographic maps of the Grove Mountains kernel area.The maps revealed the structure of the nunataks and the bedrock in this area,and identified a possible sedimentary basin under the Pliocene epoch fossil ice.In ad-dition,cross-sectional analysis of the area between

  11. HENDUAN MOUNTAINS A Dazzling World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Indian Continent drifted northward and eventually collideawith the Euro-Asian Continent,pushing up the piece of land weknow today as the Himalayas and Henduan Mountains.Located where Qinghai,Tibet,Yunnan and Sichuan all meet.Asia,including the Nujiang,Jinshajiang and Lancanjiang.In the mountains,rivers Wave a drop of about 2,500 meters.Late last year,we drove into the mountainous area,covering adistance of some 1,000 km.

  12. Key issues for mountain areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Martin F; Jansky, Libor; Iatsenia, Andrei A

    2004-01-01

    ... and livelihood opportunities . . . ... Safdar Parvez and Stephen F. Rasmussen 86 6 Mountain tourism and the conservation of biological and cultural diversity... Wendy Brewer Lama and Nikhat Sattar 11...

  13. A Breath of Mountain Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU LINTAO

    2011-01-01

    Mountains are everywhere,and rivers flow in almost every valley.This is the Qinling Mountains,a major eastto-west range in southern Shaanxi Province,bordering Hubei and Henan provinces.Because of its huge forest coverage,the Qinling Mountains are also known as one of the lungs of China.Expectations for travelling are changing in China as the lifestyle of city dwellers has become fast-paced and demanding.That provides the Qirding Mountain area a great opportunity to develop leisure tourism.

  14. Development and characterization of the CU ground MAX-DOAS instrument: lowering RMS noise and first measurements of BrO, IO, and CHOCHO near Pensacola, FL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Coburn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We designed and assembled the University of Colorado Ground Multi AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU GMAX-DOAS instrument to retrieve bromine oxide (BrO, iodine oxide (IO, formaldehyde (HCHO, glyoxal (CHOCHO, nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and the oxygen dimer O4 in the coastal atmosphere of the Gulf of Mexico. The detection sensitivity of DOAS measurements is directly proportional to the root mean square (RMS of the residual spectrum that remains after all absorbers have been subtracted. Here we describe the CU GMAX-DOAS instrument and demonstrate that the hardware is capable of attaining RMS values of ~6 × 10-6 without apparent limitations other than photon shot noise.

    Laboratory tests revealed two factors that, in practice, limit the RMS: (1 detector non-linearity noise, RMSNLin, and (2 temperature fluctuations that cause variations in optical resolution (full width at half the maximum, FWHM, of atomic emission lines and give rise to optical resolution noise, RMSFWHM. The non-linearity of our detector is low (~10−3 yet – unless actively controlled – is sufficiently large to create a RMSNLin limit of up to 1.4 × 10-4. The optical resolution is sensitive to temperature changes (0.03 detector pixels/°C at 334 nm, and temperature variations of 0.1 °C can cause residual RMSFWHM of ~1 × 10-4. Both factors were actively addressed in the design of the CU GMAX-DOAS instrument.

    The CU GMAX-DOAS was set up at a coastal site near Pensacola, FL, where we detected BrO, IO and CHOCHO in the marine boundary layer (MBL, with daytime average tropospheric vertical column densities, VCDs, of ~2 × 1013 molec cm−2, 8 × 1012 molec cm−2 and 4 × 1014 molec cm−2, respectively. HCHO and NO2 were also detected with typical MBL VCDs of 1

  15. The CU ground MAX-DOAS instrument: characterization of RMS noise limitations and first measurements near Pensacola, FL of BrO, IO, and CHOCHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Coburn

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We designed and assembled the University of Colorado Ground Multi AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU GMAX-DOAS instrument to retrieve bromine oxide (BrO, iodine oxide (IO, formaldehyde (HCHO, glyoxal (CHOCHO, nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and the oxygen dimer (O4 in the coastal atmosphere of the Gulf of Mexico. The detection sensitivity of DOAS measurements is proportional to the root mean square (RMS of the residual spectrum that remains after all absorbers have been subtracted. Here we describe the CU GMAX-DOAS instrument and demonstrate that the hardware is capable of attaining RMS of ∼6 × 10−6 from solar stray light noise tests using high photon count spectra (compatible within a factor of two with photon shot noise.

    Laboratory tests revealed two critical instrument properties that, in practice, can limit the RMS: (1 detector non-linearity noise, RMSNLin, and (2 temperature fluctuations that cause variations in optical resolution (full width at half the maximum, FWHM, of atomic emission lines and give rise to optical resolution noise, RMSFWHM. The non-linearity of our detector is low (∼10−2 yet – unless actively controlled – is sufficiently large to create RMSNLin of up to 2 × 10−4. The optical resolution is sensitive to temperature changes (0.03 detector pixels °C−1 at 334 nm, and temperature variations of 0.1°C can cause RMSFWHM of ~1 × 10−4. Both factors were actively addressed in the design of the CU GMAX-DOAS instrument. With an integration time of 60 s the instrument can reach RMS noise of 3 × 10−5, and typical RMS in field measurements ranged from 6 × 10−5 to 1.4 × 10−4.

    The CU GMAX-DOAS was set up at a coastal site near Pensacola, Florida, where we detected BrO, IO and CHOCHO in the marine boundary layer (MBL, with daytime

  16. The CU ground MAX-DOAS instrument: characterization of RMS noise limitations and first measurements near Pensacola, FL of BrO, IO, and CHOCHO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, S.; Dix, B.; Sinreich, R.; Volkamer, R.

    2011-11-01

    We designed and assembled the University of Colorado Ground Multi AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU GMAX-DOAS) instrument to retrieve bromine oxide (BrO), iodine oxide (IO), formaldehyde (HCHO), glyoxal (CHOCHO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and the oxygen dimer (O4) in the coastal atmosphere of the Gulf of Mexico. The detection sensitivity of DOAS measurements is proportional to the root mean square (RMS) of the residual spectrum that remains after all absorbers have been subtracted. Here we describe the CU GMAX-DOAS instrument and demonstrate that the hardware is capable of attaining RMS of ∼6 × 10-6 from solar stray light noise tests using high photon count spectra (compatible within a factor of two with photon shot noise). Laboratory tests revealed two critical instrument properties that, in practice, can limit the RMS: (1) detector non-linearity noise, RMSNLin, and (2) temperature fluctuations that cause variations in optical resolution (full width at half the maximum, FWHM, of atomic emission lines) and give rise to optical resolution noise, RMSFWHM. The non-linearity of our detector is low (∼10-2) yet - unless actively controlled - is sufficiently large to create RMSNLin of up to 2 × 10-4. The optical resolution is sensitive to temperature changes (0.03 detector pixels °C-1 at 334 nm), and temperature variations of 0.1°C can cause RMSFWHM of ~1 × 10-4. Both factors were actively addressed in the design of the CU GMAX-DOAS instrument. With an integration time of 60 s the instrument can reach RMS noise of 3 × 10-5, and typical RMS in field measurements ranged from 6 × 10-5 to 1.4 × 10-4. The CU GMAX-DOAS was set up at a coastal site near Pensacola, Florida, where we detected BrO, IO and CHOCHO in the marine boundary layer (MBL), with daytime average tropospheric vertical column densities (average of data above the detection limit), VCDs, of ∼2 × 1013 molec cm-2, 8 × 1012 molec cm-2 and 4 × 1014 molec cm-2, respectively. HCHO and

  17. "Christ is the Mountain"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Hallencreutz

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author focuses on the religious function of symbols in the encounter and interaction of Christianity and other religions. Some observations on the religious function of the symbol of the Holy Mountain in different African contexts are presented. These contexts are a traditional Kikuyu religion, b a Christian hymn from Northern Tanzania, and c the New Year's Fiest of the independent Nazaretha Church among Zulu in South Africa. The examples of how the symbol of the holy mountain is used in different religious contexts in Africa are, of course, too limited to provide a basis for far-reaching generalizations on how symbols function religiously in the encounter of Christianity and other religions. However, this kind of analysis can be applied also when studying other encounters of religions inside and outside Africa. The symbol functions both as a carrier of a new religious message and as an indigenous means to appropriate this message locally and give it adequate form in different milieus. The symbols, which most likely have the religious functions are those which are of a general nature; light, way, living water, and which some are tempted to speak of as archetypes. Yet the comparison between the Chagga-hymn to the holy mountain and Shembe's interpretation of the blessing of the New Year's Fiest on Inhlangakozi indicates, that in the encounter of Christianity and other religions it is not only the symbols as such which produce the local appropriation of the new religious message and give it adequate localized form. Not even in the encounter of Christianity and other religions the symbols function religiously without human beings as actors in the historical process.

  18. Mountains of Our Future Earth: Defining Priorities for Mountain Research—A Synthesis From the 2015 Perth III Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin H. Gleeson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Perth conferences, held every 5 years in Perth, Scotland, bring together people who identify as mountain researchers and who are interested in issues related to global change in mountain social-ecological systems. These conferences provide an opportunity to evaluate the evolution of research directions within the mountain research community, as well as to identify research priorities. The Future Earth Strategic Research Agenda provides a useful framework for evaluating the mountain research community's progress toward addressing global change and sustainability challenges. Using a process originally set up to analyze contributions to the 2010 conference, the abstracts accepted for the 2015 conference in the context of the Future Earth framework were analyzed. This revealed a continued geographic underrepresentation in mountain research of Africa, Latin America, and South and Southeast Asia but a more even treatment of biophysical and social science themes than in 2010. It also showed that the Perth conference research community strongly focused on understanding system processes (the Dynamic Planet theme of the Future Earth research agenda. Despite the continued bias of conference contributions toward traditional observation- and conservation-oriented research, survey results indicate that conference participants clearly believe that transdisciplinary, transformative research is relevant to mountains. Of the 8 Future Earth focal challenges, those related to safeguarding natural assets, promoting sustainable land use, increasing resilience and understanding the water-energy-food nexus received considerable attention. The challenges related to sustainable consumption, decarbonizing socioeconomic systems, cities, and health were considerably less well represented, despite their relevance to mountain socioeconomic systems. Based on these findings, we outline a proposal for the future directions of mountain research.

  19. Human impacts to mountain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2006-09-01

    Mountain streams are here defined as channel networks within mountainous regions of the world. This definition encompasses tremendous diversity of physical and biological conditions, as well as history of land use. Human effects on mountain streams may result from activities undertaken within the stream channel that directly alter channel geometry, the dynamics of water and sediment movement, contaminants in the stream, or aquatic and riparian communities. Examples include channelization, construction of grade-control structures or check dams, removal of beavers, and placer mining. Human effects can also result from activities within the watershed that indirectly affect streams by altering the movement of water, sediment, and contaminants into the channel. Deforestation, cropping, grazing, land drainage, and urbanization are among the land uses that indirectly alter stream processes. An overview of the relative intensity of human impacts to mountain streams is provided by a table summarizing human effects on each of the major mountainous regions with respect to five categories: flow regulation, biotic integrity, water pollution, channel alteration, and land use. This table indicates that very few mountains have streams not at least moderately affected by land use. The least affected mountainous regions are those at very high or very low latitudes, although our scientific ignorance of conditions in low-latitude mountains in particular means that streams in these mountains might be more altered than is widely recognized. Four case studies from northern Sweden (arctic region), Colorado Front Range (semiarid temperate region), Swiss Alps (humid temperate region), and Papua New Guinea (humid tropics) are also used to explore in detail the history and effects on rivers of human activities in mountainous regions. The overview and case studies indicate that mountain streams must be managed with particular attention to upstream/downstream connections, hillslope

  20. Report of Survey for Waterfowl Broods and Marsh Birds at Nulhegan Basin Divison, Silvio O. Conte National Fish and Wildlife Refuge and West Mountain Wildlife Management Area, Island Pond, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes waterfowl and marsh bird surveys conducted at Silvio O. Conte National Fish and Wildlife Refuge during the spring and summer of 2000.

  1. Assessing habitat quality of the mountain nyala Tragelaphus buxtoni in the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul H.EVANGELISTA; John NORMAN Ⅲ; Paul SWARTZINKI; Nicholas E.YOUNG

    2012-01-01

    Populations of the endangered mountain nyala Tragelaphus buxtoni are significantly threatened by the loss of critical habitat.Population estimates are tentative,and information on the species' distribution and available habitat is required for formulating immediate management and conservation strategies.To support management decisions and conservation priorities,we integrated information from a number of small-scale observational studies,interviews and reports from multiple sources to define habitat parameters and create a habitat quality model for mountain nyala in the Bale Mountains.For our analysis,we used the FunConn model,an expertise-based model that considers spatial relationships (i.e,patch size,distance) between the species and vegetation type,topography and disturbance to create a habitat quality surface.The habitat quality model showed that approximately 18,610 km2 (82.7% of our study area) is unsuitable or poor habitat for the mountain nyala,while 2,857 km2 (12.7%) and 1,026 km2 (4.6%) was ranked as good or optimal habitat,respectively.Our results not only reflected human induced habitat degradation,but also revealed an extensive area of intact habitat on the remote slopes of the Bale Mountain's southern and southeastern escarpments.This study provides an example of the roles that expert knowledge can still play in modem geospatial modeling of wildlife habitat.New geospatial tools,such as the FunConn model,are readily available to wildlife managers and allow them to perform spatial analyses with minimal software,data and training requirements.This approach may be especially useful for species that are obscure to science or when field surveys are not practical.

  2. Proceedings of the second symposium on the geology of Rocky Mountain coal, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, H. E. [ed.

    1978-01-01

    The 1977 Symposium on the Geology of Rocky Mountain Coal was held May 9 and 10 on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines in Golden, Colorado. The 1977 Symposium was sponsored by the Colorado Geological Survey and the US Geological Survey. The 1977 Symposium consisted of four technical sessions: Depositional Models for Coal Exploration in the Rocky Mountain Cretaceous; Stratigraphy and Depositional Environments of Rocky Mountain Tertiary Coal Deposits; Depositional Models for Coal Exploration in non-Rocky Mountain Regions; and Application of Geology to Coal Mining and Coal Mine Planning. Several papers discuss geophysical survey and well logging techniques applied to the exploration of coal deposits and for mine planning. Fouteen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  3. mitochondrion Spermophilus musicus (Caucasian mountain ground [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mitochondrion Spermophilus musicus (Caucasian mountain ground [gbrod]: 2 CDS's (760... of codon usage for each CDS (format) Homepage mitochondrion Spermophilus musicus (Caucasian mountain ground ...

  4. Mountains and Tropical Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiman, Z.; Goodman, P. J.; Krasting, J. P.; Malyshev, S.; Russell, J. L.; Stouffer, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Observed tropical convection exhibits zonal asymmetries that strongly influence spatial precipitation patterns. The drivers of changes to this zonally-asymmetric Walker circulation on decadal and longer timescales have been the focus of significant recent research. Here we use two state-of-the-art earth system models to explore the impact of earth's mountains on the Walker circulation. When all land-surface topography is removed, the Walker circulation weakens by 33-59%. There is a ~30% decrease in global, large-scale upward vertical wind velocities in the middle of the troposphere, but only minor changes in global average convective mass flux, precipitation, surface and sea-surface temperatures. The zonally symmetric Hadley circulation is also largely unchanged. Following the spatial pattern of changes to large-scale vertical wind velocities, precipitation becomes less focused over the tropics. The weakening of the Walker circulation, but not the Hadley circulation, is similar to the behavior of climate models during radiative forcing experiments: in our simulations, the weakening is associated with changes in vertical wind velocities, rather than the hydrologic cycle. These results indicate suggest that mountain heights may significantly influence the Walker circulation on geologic time scales, and observed changes in tropical precipitation over millions of years may have been forced by changes in tropical orography.

  5. Protected areas in mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton, L. S.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The importance of a global Protected Areas Network in sustaining appropriate mountain development is presented in this paper. Present status of the world’s “official” Protected Areas in the UN List, and the proportion that are in mountain areas, and including international designations (World Heritage and Biosphere Reserves. Current and future challenges in the management of these special areas are also commented.



    El autor destaca la importancia de una Red Mundial de Espacios Protegidos para el desarrollo sostenible de las montañas. Comenta luego el estatus actual de las Áreas Protegidas “oficiales” del Mundo en la Lista de las Naciones Unidas y qué proporción de ellas forma parte de las montañas, sin olvidar las figuras internacionales de protección como Patrimonio de la Humanidad y Reservas de Biosfera. Para terminar, se discuten los problemas de gestión actuales y futuros de estas áreas tan especiales

  6. YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT - A BRIEFING --

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2003-08-05

    This report has the following articles: Nuclear waste--a long-term national problem; Spent nuclear fuel; High-level radioactive waste; Radioactivity and the environment; Current storage methods; Disposal options; U.S. policy on nuclear waste; The focus on Yucca Mountain; The purpose and scope of the Yucca Mountain Project; The approach for permanently disposing of waste; The scientific studies at Yucca Mountain; The proposed design for a repository at Yucca Mountain; Natural and engineered barriers would work together to isolate waste; Meticulous science and technology to protect people and the environment; Licensing a repository; Transporting waste to a permanent repository; The Environmental Impact Statement for a repository; Current status of the Yucca Mountain Project; and Further information available on the Internet.

  7. European mountain biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy, Jennifer

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper, originally prepared as a discussion document for the ESF Exploratory Workshop «Trends in European Mountain Biodiversity - Research Planning Workshop», provides an overview of current mountain biodiversity research in Europe. It discusses (a biogeographical trends, (b the general properties of biodiversity, (c environmental factors and the regulation of biodiversity with respect to ecosystem function, (d the results of research on mountain freshwater ecosystems, and (e climate change and air pollution dominated environmental interactions.- The section on biogeographical trends highlights the importance of altitude and latitude on biodiversity. The implications of the existence of different scales over the different levels of biodiversity and across organism groups are emphasised as an inherent complex property of biodiversity. The discussion on ecosystem function and the regulation of biodiversity covers the role of environmental factors, productivity, perturbation, species migration and dispersal, and species interactions in the maintenance of biodiversity. Regional and long-term temporal patterns are also discussed. A section on the relatively overlooked topic of mountain freshwater ecosystems is presented before the final topic on the implications of recent climate change and air pollution for mountain biodiversity.

    [fr] Ce document a été préparé à l'origine comme une base de discussion pour «ESF Exploratory Workshop» intitulé «Trends in European Mountain Biodiversity - Research Planning Workshop»; il apporte une vue d'ensemble sur les recherches actuelles portant sur la biodiversité des montagnes en Europe. On y discute les (a traits biogéographiques, (b les caractéristiques générales- de la biodiversité, (c les facteurs environnementaux et la régulation de la biodiversité par rapport à la fonction des écosystèmes, (d les résultats des études sur les écosystèmes aquatiques des montagnes et (e les

  8. Spermatophyte Flora Distribution in Hubei Daqi Mountain Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengyu; LEI; Jingyong; CAI; Tao; BAI; Jianguo; JIANG; Shaoming; WANG

    2013-01-01

    A basic ingredient analysis of flora and geographic elements of plant genera and families in Daqi Mountain Nature Reserve was conducted through the field survey and specimen collection,based on the system investigation of plant flora,and an R/T ratio comparison between the flora in Daqi Mountain and adjacent mountain floras was made.Plant taxonomy identification indicates that spermatophytes in the nature reserve comprises 1035 species of 534 genera,falling in 140families,of which 10 gymnosperm species of 8 genera fall in 5 families,while 1025angiosperm species of 526 genera in 135 families.The analysis of flora demonstrates that the region harbors 15 flora distribution types,with high complexity,paleo-flora origin,distinct trait of temperate zone,abundant ingredient of tropical zone,and close connection with the flora of East China.

  9. Geology at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-05-01

    Both advocates and critics disagree on the significance and interpretation of critical geological features which bear on the safety and suitability of Yucca Mountain as a site for the construction of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Critics believe that there is sufficient geological evidence to rule the site unsuitable for further investigation. Some advocates claim that there is insufficient data and that investigations are incomplete, while others claim that the site is free of major obstacles. We have expanded our efforts to include both the critical evaluations of existing geological and geochemical data and the collection of field data and samples for the purpose of preparing scientific papers for submittal to journals. Summaries of the critical reviews are presented in this paper.

  10. Survey and Thinking of Wild Hazelnut Resources in Guizhou Karst Mountainous Area%贵州喀斯特山区野生榛子资源概况调查及思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭琴; 符裕红; 颜世龙; 彭延英; 杨云彩

    2012-01-01

    As investigated,the wild hazelnut resources in Guizhou karst mountainous area are mainly distributed in West and Southwest Guizhou Province, and in the regions of Xingren, Pu ' an, Anlong, Panxian, Xianning, etc. . The wild hazelnut resources were the richest in Southwest Guizhou Province, and then followed by that in Iiupanshui, but their utilization was very limited. In this paper, the distribution regions, living environment, accompanying plants,and utilization status of the wild hazelnut resources were investigated,and some suggestions were proposed according to the actual situation.%经调查,贵州省喀斯特山区野生榛子资源分布于贵州西部及西南部,主要分布在兴仁、普安、安龙、盘县、威宁等地区.其中黔西南州野生榛子资源最为丰富,六盘水次之,但利用都十分有限.笔者主要对贵州喀斯特山区野生榛子分布区域、生存环境、伴生植物、利用状况等进行详细调查,并根据实际情况提出利用建议.

  11. Inventory survey and countermeasures research of gymnastics teaching in Southern Mountain of Ningxia%宁夏南部山区中小学体操教学现状调查与对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周振海; 古雅辉

    2012-01-01

    Review of the literature,questionnaire,and interview is used to study the Status Quo of Primary and Secondary Schools Gymnastics Teaching in Southern Mountain of Ningxia.The results showed that the teaching configuration structure is reasonable,but there are shortages of teaching equipments,places,teachers and gymnastics teaching in this district.To the gymnastics teaching problems,correspond countermeasures are put forward to give reference for promote Primary and Secondary Schools Gymnastics teaching development in this region.%通过文献资料法、问卷调查法、访谈法对宁夏南部山区中小学体操教学现状进行调查研究,结果表明,该地区中小学体操体育师资数量结构合理,但存在教学场地器材短缺、体操专项师资偏少、体操教学开展不足等问题.针对该地区体操教学存在的问题提出了相应的对策,为促进该地区中小学体操教学发展提供了参考.

  12. Glacial effects limiting mountain height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egholm, D L; Nielsen, S B; Pedersen, V K; Lesemann, J-E

    2009-08-13

    The height of mountain ranges reflects the balance between tectonic rock uplift, crustal strength and surface denudation. Tectonic deformation and surface denudation are interdependent, however, and feedback mechanisms-in particular, the potential link to climate-are subjects of intense debate. Spatial variations in fluvial denudation rate caused by precipitation gradients are known to provide first-order controls on mountain range width, crustal deformation rates and rock uplift. Moreover, limits to crustal strength are thought to constrain the maximum elevation of large continental plateaus, such as those in Tibet and the central Andes. There are indications that the general height of mountain ranges is also directly influenced by the extent of glaciation through an efficient denudation mechanism known as the glacial buzzsaw. Here we use a global analysis of topography and show that variations in maximum mountain height correlate closely with climate-controlled gradients in snowline altitude for many high mountain ranges across orogenic ages and tectonic styles. With the aid of a numerical model, we further demonstrate how a combination of erosional destruction of topography above the snowline by glacier-sliding and commensurate isostatic landscape uplift caused by erosional unloading can explain observations of maximum mountain height by driving elevations towards an altitude window just below the snowline. The model thereby self-consistently produces the hypsometric signature of the glacial buzzsaw, and suggests that differences in the height of mountain ranges mainly reflect variations in local climate rather than tectonic forces.

  13. Geologic and hydrologic investigations of a potential nuclear waste disposal site at Yucca Mountain, southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, M.D.; Yount, J.C. (eds.)

    1988-12-31

    Yucca Mountain in southern Nye County, Nevada, has been selected by the United States Department of Energy as one of three potential sites for the nation`s first high-level nuclear waste repository. Its deep water table, closed-basin ground-water flow, potentially favorable host rock, and sparse population have made the Yucca Mountain area a viable candidate during the search for a nuclear waste disposal site. Yucca Mountain, however, lies within the southern Great Basin, a region of known contemporary tectonism and young volcanic activity, and the characterization of tectonism and volcanism remains as a fundamental problem for the Yucca Mountain site. The United States Geological Survey has been conducting extensive studies to evaluate the geologic setting of Yucca Mountain, as well as the timing and rates of tectonic and volcanic activity in the region. A workshop was convened by the Geologic Survey in Denver, Colorado, on August 19, 20, and 21, 1985, to review the scientific progress and direction of these studies. Considerable debate resulted. This collection of papers represents the results of some of the studies presented at the workshop, but by no means covers all of the scientific results and viewpoints presented. Rather, the volume is meant to serve as a progress report on some of the studies within the Geological Survey`s continuing research program toward characterizing the tectonic framework of Yucca Mountain. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  14. [Mountain medicine - an introduction. I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjuler, Kasper Fjellhaugen; Bay, Bjørn

    2016-10-31

    Tourism to high-altitude areas is increasingly popular even from low-lying regions such as Denmark. Mountain sports include skiing, mountaineering, and ski touring. The young, elderly and at-risk individuals with pre-existing illnesses engage in recreational mountain activities. Thus, risk assessment and counselling regarding altitude exposure is increasingly relevant to all healthcare providers. In this first article of two in a review series, we summarize the state of the art of altitude physiology, alpine dangers and avalanches, and medical aspects of the increased UV-exposure at altitude.

  15. 27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The approved map for the York Mountain viticultural area is the U.S.G.S. map entitled...

  16. 27 CFR 9.108 - Ozark Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ozark Mountain. 9.108... Ozark Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Ozark Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of Ozark Mountain...

  17. 27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Bell Mountain viticultural area...

  18. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  19. 阿尔金山国家级自然保护区食肉鸟兽调查%Survey on Carnivore Birds and Mammals in Altun Mountain National Natural Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李叶; 张翔; 时磊

    2012-01-01

    2011-2012年,对阿尔金山国家级自然保护区的鼠类天敌——食肉鸟兽开展专项调查.通过调查,初步查明了保护区内共分布有鼠类天敌27种,分属2纲3目7科17属,其中有国家一级保护动物5种,二级保护动物17种.赤狐为保护区首次记录物种.对主要天敌的种类、分布、食性和活动规律,以及对高原鼠兔防治的潜在作用进行了初步分析.藏狐和大鵟可以作为进一步开展天敌防治鼠害工作的目标物种.%A special investigation on carnivorous mammals and birds was carried out in the Altun Mountain National Nature Reserve in 2011-2012. Research found out total 27 kinds of predators on rodent pests belonging to 2 classes,3 orders,7 families,and 17 genera distributing in the protected areas. Among them there are 5 kinds of national first class protection animal and 17 kinds of national second class protection animal. The red fox(Vulpes vuLpes)was first recorded from this region. The first analysis was carried out on varieties,distribution,feeding habits and the patterns of the main natural enemies and the potential role in controlling plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) . Tibetan fox and Buzzard can be used as target species for a further natural enemies controlling pika project.

  20. The Dilemma of Mountain Roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain roads and trails are proliferating throughout developing Southeast Asia with severe but largely unrecognized long-term consequences related to effects of landslides and surface erosion on communities and downstream resources.

  1. A mountain of millipedes IV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Two species of the genus Prionopetalum Attems, 1909, are recorded from the Udzungwa Mountains: P. asperginis sp. nov. and P. kraepelini (Attems, 1896). Prionopetalum stuhlmanni Attems, 1914, is synonymized under P. kraepelini. Odontopyge fasciata Attems, 1896, is transferred from Prionopetalum...

  2. The Table Mountain Field Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Table Mountain Field Site, located north of Boulder, Colorado, is designated as an area where the magnitude of strong, external signals is restricted (by State...

  3. Metals contamination in fish from reservoirs at Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge, Comanche County, Oklahoma 2000-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A preliminary fisheries survey conducted in 1997 at Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge indicated that fish from the Refuge contained elevated levels of mercury. Prior...

  4. THE MOST SUCCE SSFUL MOUNTAINEERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Tsering Dorje:I Dream of Climbing Mt. Qomolangma Carrying the Olympic Torch Tsering Dorje,the oldest of the Tibetan professional mountaineers,has successfully reached a total of fourteen of the world's highest mountain summits.His companions jokingly refer to him as"Aku"(meaning"uncle"in Tibetan).However, acting as an uncle,he has to shoulder the responsibilities of team leader to take care of the others.

  5. Mountain Child: Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audsley, Annie; Wallace, Rebecca M M; Price, Martin F

    2016-12-01

    Objectives This systematic review identifies and reviews both peer-reviewed and 'grey' literature, across a range of disciplines and from diverse sources, relating to the condition of children living in mountain communities in low- and middle-income countries. Findings The literature on poverty in these communities does not generally focus on the particular vulnerabilities of children or the impact of intersecting vulnerabilities on the most marginalised members of communities. However, this literature does contribute analyses of the broader context and variety of factors impacting on human development in mountainous areas. The literature on other areas of children's lives-health, nutrition, child mortality, education, and child labour-focuses more specifically on children's particular vulnerabilities or experiences. However, it sometimes lacks the broader analysis of the many interrelated characteristics of a mountainous environment which impact on children's situations. Themes Nevertheless, certain themes recur across many disciplines and types of literature, and point to some general conclusions: mountain poverty is influenced by the very local specificities of the physical environment; mountain communities are often politically and economically marginalised, particularly for the most vulnerable within these communities, including children; and mountain communities themselves are an important locus for challenging and interrupting cycles of increasing inequality and disadvantage. While this broad-scale review represents a modest first step, its findings provide the basis for further investigation.

  6. Discussion on Tree Resources Survey and Structure Adjustment of Phoenix Mountain Forest Park%凤凰山森林公园树种资源调查及结构调整初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩梅; 刘芳齐; 李双龙; 吴代坤; 戴应金

    2011-01-01

    Investigation on the species,abundance,landscape effect,diseases and insect pests in Phoenix Mountain Forest Park,the results showed that there were 133 woody plants,36 herbaceous plants,3 bamboo species,white ant occurred in large areas of the hill.At present,various kinds of trees grew well,more Cinnamomum glanduliferum(Wall.)Nees were planted in the park and lacked colors.The advice that according to topography,geomorphology,soil thickness,functional area were landscaped.The green scheme of aquatic and botanical garden,water accumulation land,Arboretum,activity place,hill edge,the main roads of park were discussed.in the plant allocation,we should increase native tree species,rare plant,and ornamental plant,the removal of miscellaneous shrubs,kudzus,plants that pests and died,enlarged activity place.%笔者通过对凤凰山森林公园植物的种类、多度、景观效果及病虫害等调查结果显示:公园现有木本植物133种、草本植物36种、竹类3种;山上白蚂蚁大面积发生。目前各种树种生长良好,但整个公园都是以樟树为主,缺少季相色彩变化。笔者针对性提出公园应该根据地形、地貌、土层厚度、功能分区进行植物造景,对水生植物园及积水地、树木园、活动场所、山崖坎边、公园主干道相结合的绿化方案进行了探讨。在植物配置过程中应加大乡土树种、珍稀植物及观赏性植物的应用比例,对影响主要树种生长及林下植物正常生长发育的"霸王树"、杂灌、葛藤、病虫害严重及枯死的植株进行伐除,扩大游人在林下的游栖地。

  7. Current Situation of Information Demand of Farmers in Taihang Mountain Area: A Case Study of Pingshan County in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lipeng; GUO; Haiyan; CAI

    2014-01-01

    Since the reform and opening-up,economy of mountain areas in China has realized considerable development.However,due to such factors as terrain,traffic,and individual differences,compared with plain and coastal areas,mountain areas still lag far behind.In recent years,informationization construction of China develops rapidly,but it nearly stagnates in mountain rural areas.Information has become an essential factor restricting economic development of rural areas.Based on the survey of current information demand of farmers carried out in Pingshan County in Hebei Province in 2010,this study came up with relevant recommendations,in order to speed up development of rural economic in mountain areas,narrow the regional gap,improve living condition of farmers in mountain areas,and increase income level of farmers in mountain areas.

  8. The origins of mountain geoecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ives, Jack D.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mountain geoecology, as a sub-discipline of Geography, stems from the life and work of Carl Troll who, in turn, was inspired by the philosophy and mountain travels of Alexander von Humboldt. As founding chair of the IGU Commission on High-Altitude Geoecology (1968, Troll laid the foundations for inter-disciplinary and international mountain research. The paper traces the evolution of the Commission and its close links with the UNESCO Man and Biosphere Programme (1972- and the United Nations University’s mountain Project (1978-. This facilitated the formation of a major force for inclusion of a mountain chapter in AGENDA 21 during the 1992 Rio de Janeiro Herat Summit (UNCED and the related designation by the United Nations of 2002 as the International Year of Mountains. In this way, mountain geoecology not only contributed to worldwide mountain research but also entered the political arena in the struggle for sustainable mountain development and the well-being of mountain people.La geoecología de montaña, como sub-disciplina de la Geografía, entronca con la vida y trabajo de Carl Troll, quien, a su vez, fue inspirado por la filosofía y viajes de Alexander von Humboldt. Como presidente fundador de la comisión de la UGI sobre High Altitude Geoecology (1968, Troll colocó las bases para la investigación interdisciplinar e internacional de las montañas. Este trabajo presenta la evolución de la Comisión y sus estrechas relaciones con el Programa Hombre y Biosfera de UNESCO (1972- y con el Proyecto de montaña de la Universidad de Naciones Unidas (1978-. Esto facilitó la inclusión de un capítulo sobre la montaña en AGENDA 21 durante la Cumbre de la Tierra de Río de Janeiro (UNCED, y la consiguiente designación de 2002 como el Año Internacional de las Montañas por parte de Naciones Unidas. En este sentido, la geoecología de montaña no sólo contribuyó a la investigación de las montañas del mundo sino que también empujó a la pol

  9. SF-36 applied in Tengchong of Yunnan Longling Mountain elementary school teachers’ quality of life survey reliability and validity of the research%SF-36应用于云南腾冲龙陵山区教师生存质量调查的信度和效度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红云; 陈基才; 艾志琼; 杨冠英; 李江雁

    2016-01-01

    Objective:to study the SF-36 survey scale applied in Yunnan in Yichun Tengchong and Longling moun-tainous area elementary school teacher survey of health-related quality of life of the reliability and validity.Meth-ods:the SF-36 to test of 600 famous mountains area elementary school teacher.Results:the SF-36 Cronbachs’ coefficient of 0.913 a.Two and a half of SF-36 scale coefficient of Spearman-Brown 1/2 reliability of 0.762.SF-36 each entry score with the dimension scores by correlation were bigger,and the correlation with scores of other dimensions smaller;Each dimension score his son scale correlation coefficient is bigger,smaller correlation coeffi-cient with other sub scale scores.Eight factors of factor analysis get agreement with the theoretical structure of the SF-36.SF-36 total score and two child scale score there is a close relationship with entry points are.Conclusion:application of SF-36 measuring Tengchong of Yunnan Longling mountain elementary school teachers’ current of health-related quality of life has good reliability and validity.%目的:研究SF-36调查量表应用于云南边境县腾冲和龙陵山区教师调查与健康有关的生存质量的信度和效度。方法:应用SF-36对600名山区教师进行测试。结果:SF-36的Cronbachs’ a系数为0.913。SF-36的两个分半量表的Spearman-Brown 系数分半信度为0.762。 SF-36各条目得分与其所在维度所得分的相关性均较大,而与其他维度所得分的相关性较小;各维度得分与其所在子量表得分相关系数较大,而与其它子量表得分相关系数较小。因子分析得到的8个因子与SF-36的理论结构基本一致。 SF-36总分以及两个子量表分与其条目分均存在密切关系。结论:应用SF-36测量云南腾冲龙陵山区教师与健康有关的生存质量现状,具有较好的信度和效度。

  10. Plant biodiversity patterns on Helan Mountain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuan; Kang, Muyi; Zhu, Yuan; Xu, Guangcai

    2007-09-01

    A case study was conducted to mountainous ecosystems in the east side of Helan Mountain, located in the transitional zone between steppe and desert regions of China, aiming to reveal the influences of four environmental factors on features of plant biodiversity—the spatial pattern of vegetation types, and the variation of α- and β-diversities in vegetation and flora. Field surveys on vegetation and flora and on environmental factors were conducted, and those field data were analyzed through CCA (Canonical Correspondence Analysis), and through Shannon-Weiner index for α-diversity and Sørensen index for β-diversity. The preliminary results are: (1) Ranked in terms of their impacts on spatial patterns of plant biodiversity, the four selected environmental factors would be: elevation > location > slope > exposure. (2) The variation of Shannon-Weiner index along the altitudinal gradient is similar to that of species amount within altitudinal belts spanning 200 m each, which suggests a unimodal relationship between the species richness and the environmental condition with regards to altitudinal factors. Both the Shannon-Weiner index and the species richness within each altitudinal belt reach their maximum at elevation range from about 1700 to 2000 m a.s.l. (3) The altitudinal extent with the highest Shannon-Weiner index is identical to the range, where both the deciduous broad-leaved forest, and the temperate evergreen coniferous and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest distribute. The altitudinal range from 1700 to 2200 m a.s.l. is the sector with both high level of species richness and diversified vegetation types. (4) The variation of β-diversity along the altitude is consistent with the vegetation vertical zones. According to the Sørensen index between each pair of altitudinal belts, the transition of vegetation spectrum from one zone to another, as from the base horizontal zone, the desert steppe, to the first vertical zone, the mountain open forest and

  11. Managing Recreational Trail Environments for Mountain Bike User Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symmonds; Hammitt; Quisenberry

    2000-05-01

    / The carrying capacity model is an effective tool for the management of a wildland recreation resource. Within the model are four primary subcapacities, namely, physical capacity, biological capacity, social capacity, and facility capacity; combined, they are essential to the appropriate management of wildland recreation resource environments. This study focuses on environmental factors of recreational environments that are primarily used by mountain bikers. Little research has been conducted on the social carrying capacity of mountain biking environments, relative to the amount of physical and biological capacity research that has been conducted. The objective of this study was to further resource management knowledge of the mountain bike user in order to better incorporate social carrying capacity into the management of bike use environments. An email survey was used to identify such issues as mountain biker preference of soil erosion management techniques and to measure the effect on experience of resultant factors of soil erosion and trail design. Other issues, such as environmental concern, biker perception of other users, and biker commitment, were also measured. A 58% response rate was achieved. Data gathered from bikers in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand (N = 406), highlight some important issues concerning the design and management of wildland recreation environments that are primarily used for mountain biking. For example, bikers were found to significantly prefer water bars above all other tested soil erosion management techniques; trail erosion factors, including the presence of rocks, roots, and gullies, all added to biking experiences on average; trail design factors, such as the presence of turns, bumps, jumps, and obstacles, all added to biking experiences in general. These findings were used to address questions that resource managers should consider when striving to effectively manage wildland recreation areas

  12. Near Earth Object Survey Telescope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Near Earth Object Survey Telescope (NEOST), located at the Xuyi station of the Purple Mountain Observatory, is a telescope with the most powerful detection capacity, the highest efficiency and the best performance in the fields of near Earth object survey and optical imaging in China. NEOST is an 171.8 Schmidt type telescope with a 1.20 meter primary mirror and a 1.04 meter corrector,

  13. Job performance in the mountain metros

    OpenAIRE

    Mark C. Snead; Kate Watkins

    2012-01-01

    This issue of the Rocky Mountain Economist explores the labor market performance of the mountain state metropolitan areas, including recent industry trends and comparisons to state and national job performance.

  14. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment Statistics ...

  15. Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station NPDES Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit CO-0034762, the Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station is authorized to discharge from the interior storm drainage system and air exhaust stacks at the Cheyenne Mountain Complex, in El Paso County, Colorado, to tributaries Fountain Creek.

  16. Yearly report, Yucca Mountain project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, J.N.

    1992-09-30

    We proposed to (1) Develop our data logging and analysis equipment and techniques for analyzing seismic data from the Southern Great Basin Seismic Network (SGBSN), (2) Investigate the SGBSN data for evidence of seismicity patterns, depth distribution patterns, and correlations with geologic features (3) Repair and maintain our three broad band downhole digital seismograph stations at Nelson, nevada, Troy Canyon, Nevada, and Deep Springs, California (4) Install, operate, and log data from a super sensitive microearthquake array at Yucca Mountain (5) Analyze data from micro-earthquakes relative to seismic hazard at Yucca Mountain.

  17. Life in the Taihang Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    THE Taihang Mountain Range meanders for 500 kilometers across the territories of Henan, Shanxi and Hebei provinces. It is an important ecological screen for the North China Plain and source of water. In Hebei’s Shexian County sits Wangjinzhuang, a 300-year-old stone village nestled in the mountains.The village is a stone world-lanes, houses, court-yard walls, towers, pavilions, tables, benches and mills are all hewn fom ancient rock. Streets and lanes are paved in stones of various shapes and sizes whose sur-

  18. Problems and Countermeasures of the Development of Family Farms in the Wuling Mountain Area---Based on Sample Survey of About 100 Family Farms%武陵山片区家庭农场发展的问题与对策研究--基于100余户家庭农场样本调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒晓惠; 李佳花; 周栩泉; 陈小娜

    2015-01-01

    In 2015 , the State Council issued “on the increase in the intensity of reform and innovation to speed up the construction of agricultural modernization in a number of opinions” , putting forward the agricultural modernization , to solve the problem of “agriculture , countryside and farmers” , which came down in one continuous line with the family farm in 2013 . In the Wuling Mountain Area , as a typical representative of the poverty - stricken areas , the development method of family farms is an important way to realize agricultural industrialization and urbanization . This paper overviews and analyzes the development situation of domestic and foreign family farms firstly . Then based on the status quo of the Wuling mountain area , the telephone and field survey on 101 family farms in the Wuling Mountain Area , the thesis discusses the present development situation of the family farms , characteristics and functions and further analyzes the factors and causes which restrict the development of family farms . Finally , referring to the experiences home and abroad , it puts forward three suggestions of government , financial institutions and farm for the development of the family farms in the poverty-stricken areas . The Internet crowdfunding and agricultural product options mode are introduced to innovate sales styles , expand the consumer market , and speed up the farm construction .%2015年国务院印发《关于加大改革创新力度加快农业现代化建设的若干意见》中提出的农业现代化,解决“三农”问题,正是对2013年家庭农场的一脉相承。武陵山片区作为连片贫困地区的典型代表,发展片区家庭农场是实现农业产业化与城镇化的重要途径。本文首先对国内外家庭农场的发展状况进行了概述和梳理,基于武陵山片区的现状,通过团队对武陵山片区101户家庭农场的电话与实地调查考证,探讨了片区家庭农场的发展现状、作用

  19. Infection Survey of the Ticks on Yak of Mountain Grasslands in Xinjiang%新疆山区草原牦牛革蜱感染情况的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王真; 曹文丽; 刘启生; 闫双; 陈亮; 巴音查汗

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] In recent years, the ticks spread by blood protozoa often occurred in Xinjiang yak grazing region, thus posing a serious threat to its breeding. Therefore, to investigate the surface parasitic infection of ticks on yaks, can be better prevention and treatment of tick - borne diseases and lay a foundation for researching media ticks and tick - borne disease in Xinjiang. [ Method ] The authors collected 800 ticks on yak surface from the local veterinarians, took them back to the school laboratory, and identified and surveyed yak infected ticks by the anatomical microscope and optical microscope. [ Result ] The morphological identification found that they were the Dermacentor montanus ( 20% ) , Dermacentor pavlovskyi ( 20% ) , Dermacentor niveus (21% ) , Dermacentor nuttalli (20% ) , Dermacentor silvarum ( 19% ). At the same time when observing and analyzing ticks in the kinds of basic morphological traits, the peritrematalia shape between the ticks, the size of dorsal prolongation, and whether they have supr and other " identification" of morphological characteristics between the foot II - IV tibia and tarsule were described. This established the key to predominant dermacentor species in Xinjiang. [Conclusion]Identified by the survey, it was found that the Dermacentor montanus and Dermacentor pavlovskyi were discovered for the first time to be the dominant species of ticks on the surface of yak. The results provide scientific evidence and technical support for further research on the public harm of Dermacentor in Xinjiang region and integrated control of the diseases spread by ticks.%[目的]近几年来在新疆牦牛放牧区常发生由蜱虫传播的血液原虫病,对牦牛养殖造成严重的威胁.查清牦牛体表寄生的革蜱感染情况,能有效的对蜱传疾病进行综合防治.并为新疆媒介蜱虫及蜱媒病研究奠定基础.[方法]跟从当地兽医人员及畜主从牦牛体表采集蜱虫800只,带回学校实验室,借助

  20. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever KidsHealth > For Parents > Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Print A A A What's in ... en español La rickettsiosis maculosa About RMSF Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a bacterial infection that's ...

  1. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  2. 27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94... Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Howell...

  3. Storymakers: Hopa Mountain's Early Literacy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templin, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Hopa Mountain's StoryMakers program is an innovative, research-based program for donating high quality young children's books to parents. Hopa Mountain is a nonprofit organization based in Bozeman, Montana. Hopa Mountain works with groups of rural and tribal citizen leaders who form StoryMakers Community Teams to talk one-on-one with local parents…

  4. 27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102... Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma...

  5. 27 CFR 9.112 - Arkansas Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arkansas Mountain. 9.112... Arkansas Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arkansas Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Arkansas...

  6. Density and Habitat Relationships of the Endemic White Mountain Fritillary (Boloria chariclea montinus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent P. McFarland

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted point counts in the alpine zone of the Presidential Range of the White Mountains, New Hampshire, USA, to estimate the distribution and density of the rare endemic White Mountain Fritillary (Boloria chariclea montinus. Incidence of occurrence and density of the endemic White Mountain Fritillary during surveys in 2012 and 2013 were greatest in the herbaceous-snowbank plant community. Densities at points in the heath-shrub-rush plant community were lower, but because this plant community is more widespread in the alpine zone, it likely supports the bulk of adult fritillaries. White Mountain Fritillary used cushion-tussock, the other alpine plant community suspected of providing habitat, only sparingly. Detectability of White Mountain Fritillaries varied as a consequence of weather conditions during the survey and among observers, suggesting that raw counts yield biased estimates of density and abundance. Point counts, commonly used to study and monitor populations of birds, were an effective means of sampling White Mountain Fritillary in the alpine environment where patches of habitat are small, irregularly shaped, and widely spaced, rendering line-transect methods inefficient and difficult to implement.

  7. Strain accumulation near Yucca Mountain, Nevada, 1983-1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, J. C.; Lisowski, M.; Gross, W. K.; King, N. E.; Svarc, J. L.

    1994-09-01

    Over the decade 1983-1993 the U.S. Geological Survey has measured the deformation of a 50-km-aperture trilateration network centered on Yucca Mountain, the proposed disposal site for high-level nuclear waste in the United States. The network was surveyed in 1983, 1984, and 1993. The average annual principal strain rates are 0.010 +/- 0.020 microstrain/yr N90 deg W +/- 24 deg and -0.009 +/- 0.021 microstrain/yr N00 deg E +/- 24 deg, indicating no significant strain accumulation. The southeast corner of the network was disturbed on June 29, 1992, by the Little Skull Mountain earthquake (M(sub s) = 5.4), the epicenter of which is about 20 km southeast of the Yucca Mountain site. Using the seismically determined fault plane (dip 54 deg S 55 deg E), we find that 0.580 +/- 0.075 m of normal slip to the observed deformation in the southeast corner of the network. The inferred seismic moment is (4.4 +/- 0.6) x 10(exp 17) N m, which compares well with the observed seismic moment of 4.1 x 10(exp 17) N m.

  8. A mountain of millipedes V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Three new genera of Odontopygidae are described, all based on new species from the Udzungwa mountains, Tanzania, and all monotypic: Casuariverpa gen. nov. (type species: C. scarpa gen. et sp. nov.), Yia gen. nov. (type species: Y. geminispina gen. et sp. nov.), and Utiliverpa gen. nov. (type...

  9. A mountain of millipedes III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The new genus Geotypodon gen. nov. is described. It includes two species from the Udzungwa Mountains: G. millemanus gen. et sp. nov. (type species) and G. submontanus gen. et sp. nov., one species from nearby Iringa: G. iringensis gen. et sp. nov., and 18 previously described species hitherto...

  10. Years Spent on Mountain Roads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    SONG Fangrong, the Tu nationality girl who grew up drinking water from mountain springs, walked into the Great Hall of the People in Beijing to accept the highest prize for China’s youth—the "May 4th Youth Prize." Not long before, she had been named one of the National Ten Outstanding Youths. She is the only individual to have won both.

  11. Effect of Agricultural Comprehensive Development on Increasing Income of Farmers in Jiangsu Hilly and Mountainous Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tuzhan WANG

    2015-01-01

    To adapt to rural and agricultural economic development,Jiangsu Province adjusted main task of comprehensive development of hilly and mountainous areas to supporting and promoting agricultural structural adjustment of hilly and mountainous areas and promoting increase of agricultural benefits and farmers’ income. Through typical survey,this paper made an objective evaluation of effect of agricultural comprehensive development of hilly and mountainous areas in Jiangsu Province from increasing farmers’ income. Results indicated that agricultural comprehensive development investment projects in Jiangsu hilly and mountainous areas are closely coupled with local agricultural production structure; financial funds promote social capital input to construction of economic forest,fruit and grass planting,and livestock raising. Through demonstration and guidance of farmers,it promoted adjustment of agricultural production structure and increased farmers’ income. Finally,it came up with pertinent policy recommendations.

  12. A Neogene structural dome in the Klamath Mountains, California and Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, N.; Coleman, R. G.

    1985-04-01

    Regional structural doming of Neogene age has affected rocks of the Klamath and Cascade mountains near the California-Oregon border. Evidence for this is seen in (1) subannular outcrop patterns of pre-Cretaceous lithotectonic units, (2) a crude pattern of radially oriented high-angle faults, (3) tilted Jurassic plutons, (4) tilted Cretaceous to Miocene strata, and (5) various geomorphological features. The age of doming is constrained by a major middle Miocene to earliest Pliocene angular unconformity within the Cascade Mountains and uplifted upper Miocene marine beds on the western edge of the Klamath Mountains. Uplift and doming may be the result of shortening in the Cascade fore-arc region or, more speculatively, the recent accretion of subducted material to the North American plate beneath the Klamath Mountains. *Present addresses: Mortimer, Department of Geological Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2B4, Canada; Coleman, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California 94025

  13. Levantamento florístico de um trecho de floresta serrana no planalto de Garanhuns, Estado de Pernambuco - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2120 Flora survey of a mountain forest stretch in Garanhuns, state of Pernambuco - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2120

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jesus Nogueira Rodal

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visa contribuir para o conhecimento da flora dos brejos de altitude do Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. Foi realizado o levantamento florístico de um remanescente de floresta estacional semidecidual Montana, localizado na Fazenda Monteiro (8º53’25”S’ e 36º 29’34”W’, Garanhuns, Pernambuco. As coletas de material botânico tiveram início no mês de julho de 1998, representando os diferentes hábitos. O material coletado foi processado segundo os métodos usuais em taxonomia. Foram registradas 69 espécies, acomodadas em 58 gêneros e 31 famílias, com destaque pelo maior número de espécies para: Euphorbiaceae (06, Asteraceae e Caesalpiniaceae (05, Fabaceae, Rubiaceae, Sapindaceae e Solanaceae (04. Dentre as espécies ocorrentes na área em estudo, verificaram-se: Senna rizzinii Irwin & Barneby, Casearia sylvestris Swartz., Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth e Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. MorongThe aim of this paper is to contribute for the flora information of marsh forests in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. A flora survey of a semi-deciduous mountain stationary forest located in Garanhuns plateau, in Monteiro farm (latitude 8º53’25”S and longitude 36º29’34”, in Garanhuns, Pernambuco was carried out. The botanical material collection started in July 1998, representing different habits. The collected material was processed according to methods adopted in plant taxonomy. 69 species were recorded, allocated in 58 genre and 31 families, standing out by the greatest number of species to: Euphorbiaceae (06, Asteraceae and Caesalpiniaceae (05, Fabaceae, Rubiaceae, Sapindaceae and Solanaceae (04 each. Amongest the species studied, Senna rizzinii Irwin & Barneby, Casearia sylvestris Swartz, Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth and Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong were verified

  14. Partição da biomassa e qualidade da forragem de Bahiagrass: Paspalun notatum cv. pensacola no centro-norte da Flórida - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i4.596

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lawton Stwart Junior

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Visando medir efeitos do manejo da Bahiagrass cv. pensacola (Paspalum notatum Flüggeé na repartição de biomassa (kg ha-1 das folhas+colmos, serrapilheira, raízes+rizomas, e valor nutritivo da forragem, foi instalado um experimento próximo a Gainesville, Flórida, EUA. Tratamentos: três manejos contínuos (não intensivo, moderadamente intensivo, altamente intensivo, recebendo 40, 120, e 360 kg N ha -1 ano-1 e com lotação de 1,2; 2,4 e 3,6 UA ha-1, respectivamente e um tratamento de manejo rotacionado (7 dias de pastejo e 21 dias de descanso, recebendo 360 kg N ha-1 ano-1 e 3,6 UA ha-1 (1 U A= 500 kg. A biomassa de raízes+rizomas foi superior a de folhas+colmos. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos na biomassa de raízes+rizomas. A biomassa de raízes+rizomas decresceu durante a estação de pastejo. A maior intensidade de manejo dos tratamentos altamente intensivo e rotacionado resultou em maior biomassa de folhas+colmos. A relação raiz/parte aérea decresceu com a intensificação do manejo. A biomassa de serrapilheira foi superior a de folhas+colmos nos tratamentos altamente intensivo e rotacionado, privilegiando a ciclagem de nutrienes via excreção animal. Os tratamentos não afetaram a FDN nem a DIVMO da forragem, mas intensificação do manejo tende a elevar a DIV MO da forragem.This experiment evaluated a pensacola Bahiagrass pasture (Paspalum notatum Flüggeé. It was conducted near Gainesville, Florida, USA, to measure the effect of pasture management on biomass allocation (kg ha -1 of herbage, litter, root+rhizome, as well as forage quality. Treatments were three continuously stocked (low, moderate, and high, receiving 40, 120, and 360 kg N fertilizer ha-1 yr-1and with stocking rates of 1.2, 2.4, and 3.6 AU ha-1, respectively and one rotationally stocked (RS; 7 -d grazing and 21-d rest periods; N rate of 360 kg ha-1 yr-1, 1 AU = 500 kg pasture. The root+rhizome biomass was 4 to 12 times greater than herbage biomass. There was

  15. Habitat selection by mountain plovers in shortgrass steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Much of the breeding range for the mountain plover (Charadrius montanus) occurs in shortgrass steppe and mixed-grass prairie in the western Great Plains of North America. Studies of mountain plovers in shortgrass steppe during the 1970s and 1990s were focused in Weld County, Colorado, which was considered a key breeding area for the species. These studies, however, did not include habitats influenced by black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) or prescribed fire. The role of these 2 rangeland disturbance processes has increased substantially over the past 15 years. During 2008–2009, I used radial distance point count surveys to estimate mountain plover densities early in the nesting season in 4 habitats on public lands in Weld County, Colorado. All 4 habitats were grazed by cattle during the growing season at moderate stocking rates but had different additional disturbances consisting of 1) dormant-season prescribed burns, 2) active black-tailed prairie dog colonies, 3) black-tailed prairie dog colonies affected by epizootic plague in the past 1–2 years, and 4) rangeland with no recent history of fire or prairie dogs. Mountain plover densities were similar on active black-tailed prairie dog colonies (x = 6.8 birds/km2, 95% CI = 4.3–10.6) and prescribed burns (x = 5.6 birds/km2, 95% CI = 3.5–9.1). In contrast, no plovers were detected at randomly selected rangeland sites grazed by cattle but lacking recent disturbance by prairie dogs or fire, even though survey effort was highest for this rangeland habitat. Mountain plover densities were intermediate (2.0 birds/km2, 95% CI = 0.8–5.0) on sites where black-tailed prairie dogs had recently been extirpated by plague. These findings suggest that prescribed burns and active black-tailed prairie dog colonies may enhance breeding habitat for mountain plovers in shortgrass steppe and illustrate the potential for suppressed or altered disturbance processes to influence habitat

  16. Best Practices Case Study: Pine Mountain Builders - Pine Mountain, GA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-09-01

    Case study of Pine Mountain Builders who worked with DOE’s IBACOS team to achieve HERS scores of 59 on 140 homes built around a wetlands in Georgia. The team used taped rigid foam exterior sheathing and spray foam insulation in the walls and on the underside of the attic for a very tight 1.0 to 1.8 ACH 50 building shell.

  17. NEW LANDSONAR METHOD FOR SURVEY OF GROUND IN BUSY TOWN, KARST CAVES IN MOUNTAIN AND SEA BOTTOM ON WATER%适合闹市区勘探及溶洞探查和水上勘探的物探新方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟世航; 王荣

    2013-01-01

    In busy city the geophysical exploration methods are interfered with the noise from vibration of heavy traffic and strong electromagnetic field and stray electricity.An conquering of the interference of rugged landform in mountain land also are the problem of all the geophysical method.Surveying of single karst cave with small or middle sizes is difficult.They are more required to put energy into the new development of technology and new method.Landsonar and its instrument can avoid the interference of noise from vibration of cars and pedestrains with frequency generally less than 300 Hz in city by exciting and receiving elastic waves of 10 ~4000 Hz.The instrument C-1can avoid the interference of strong electromagnetic field and stray electricity with supplying narrow frequency alternating current of 11 ~ 19 Hz.Because of the zero offset and high and wide frequency band,Landsonar can avoid the interference of landform and have high resolution on single karst cave with small to middle sizes.Because of the especial electrode arrangement,Differential Electric Sounding(DES) method can survey karst cave of 1 m high within 100m deep.KS marine acoustics prospecting instrument have better transverse and longitudinal resolution,can distinguish the silt layer,sand layer,cobble layer and riprap layer with thickness more than 1 m and geologic structure under sub-bottom,and can work with broken survey line and curve survey line.%城市闹市区的汽车、行人的震动噪声和地电及电磁干扰,使传统的物探方法难以为城铁、地铁作面积性的地质勘查.弹性波类方法必须克服噪声干扰,电法和电磁法类方则须避开地电和电磁干扰,才能在城市和公路上工作.探查中小溶洞是地质勘查的难题,也是传统物探技术的难题.崎岖山地的地形影响也是地球物理方法遇到的困难.这些都需要投入人力和资金发展新技术、新仪器.汽车、行人的震动噪声基本上在300Hz以下,陆地

  18. Interim Report - Baseline Population Inventory of Amphibians on the Mountain Longleaf National Wildlife Refuge and Screening for the Amphibian Disease Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Interim report provides the initial results of baseline amphibian survey and surveillance for chytrid disease on the mountain Longleaf National wildlife Refuge.

  19. Microbial activity at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, J.M.; Meike, A.

    1995-09-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy is engaged in a suitability study for a potential geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the containment and storage of commercially generated spent fuel and defense high-level nuclear waste. There is growing recognition of the role that biotic factors could play in this repository, either directly through microbially induced corrosion (MIC), or indirectly by altering the chemical environment or contributing to the transport of radionuclides. As a first step toward describing and predicting these processes, a workshop was held on April 10-12, 1995, in Lafayette, California. The immediate aims of the workshop were: (1) To identify microbially related processes relevant to the design of a radioactive waste repository under conditions similar to those at Yucca Mountain. (2) To determine parameters that are critical to the evaluation of a disturbed subterranean environment. (3) To define the most effective means of investigating the factors thus identified.

  20. DISCONTINUITIES AND INADVERTENCES IN MOUNTAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VASILESCU RAMONA VIOLETA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available For some, mountain outings represent hikes; for some – rock climbing, and for others they consist of staying in a pension or hotel, while enjoying a pool in addition to the comfort of their home. This paper considers hiking enthusiasts, especially those who set off from their camp in the morning and return to their tent or nonluxurious accommodation in the evening.

  1. Thunderstorms, Andean Mountains Ridgeline, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    In this scenic view of thunderstorms skirting the eastern ridgeline of the Andeas Mountains in northern Argentina (approximate coordinates 28.0S, 57.0W), the confluence of the Rio Salado and Rio Saladillo where they merge with the Rio Parana can be seen in sunglint. Thunderstorms along the eastern Andes are typical at this time of year (Southern Hemisphere summer) with anvils moving to the east from the core of the storm.

  2. Socio-Cultural and Economic Valuation of Ecosystem Services Provided by Mediterranean Mountain Agroecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernues, A.; Rodrıguez-Ortega, T.; Ripoll Bosch, R.; Alfnes, F.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to elucidate the socio-cultural and economic value of a number of ecosystem services delivered by mountain agroecosystems (mostly grazing systems) in Euro-Mediterranean regions. We combined deliberative (focus groups) and survey-based stated-preference methods (choice modell

  3. Modeled Top of the Saddle Mountains Basalt Geomodel Unit (smtop_f)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The smtop_f grid represents the modeled elevation of the top of the Saddle Mountains Basalt geomodlel unit at a 500 foot resolution. It is one grid of a geomodel...

  4. Cheat Mountain Salamanders Search Report 2006 Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of the survey was to document Cheat Mountain salamander use on either side of Powderline ski trail or Three-Mile ski trail in an effort to continue to...

  5. Geologic quadrangle maps of the United States: geology of the Casa Diablo Mountain quadrangle, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, C. Dean; Ross, Donald Clarence

    1957-01-01

    The Casa Diablo Mountain quadrangle was mapped in the summers of 1952 and 1953 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the California State Division of Mines as part of a study of potential tungsten-bearing areas.

  6. Mountain pine beetle attack in ponderosa pine: Comparing methods for rating susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    David C. Chojnacky; Barbara J. Bentz; Jesse A. Logan

    2000-01-01

    Two empirical methods for rating susceptibility of mountain pine beetle attack in ponderosa pine were evaluated. The methods were compared to stand data modeled to objectively rate each sampled stand for susceptibly to bark-beetle attack. Data on bark-beetle attacks, from a survey of 45 sites throughout the Colorado Plateau, were modeled using logistic regression to...

  7. Socio-Cultural and Economic Valuation of Ecosystem Services Provided by Mediterranean Mountain Agroecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernues, A.; Rodriguez-Ortega, T.; Ripoll Bosch, R.; Alfnes, F.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to elucidate the socio-cultural and economic value of a number of ecosystem services delivered by mountain agroecosystems (mostly grazing systems) in Euro-Mediterranean regions. We combined deliberative (focus groups) and survey-based stated-preference methods (choice modell

  8. Socio-Cultural and Economic Valuation of Ecosystem Services Provided by Mediterranean Mountain Agroecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernues, A.; Rodriguez-Ortega, T.; Ripoll Bosch, R.; Alfnes, F.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to elucidate the socio-cultural and economic value of a number of ecosystem services delivered by mountain agroecosystems (mostly grazing systems) in Euro-Mediterranean regions. We combined deliberative (focus groups) and survey-based stated-preference methods (choice

  9. The retreat of mountain glaciers: what can satellites tell us?; Recul des glaciers de montagne: que nous apprennent les satellites?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthier, E. [Toulouse Univ., UPS (OMP-PCA) - Legos, 31 (France); CNRS, OMP-LEGOS, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2008-11-15

    Mountain glaciers are one of the best indicators of climate change and their rapid wastage make them a strong contributor to sea level rise. The estimated 160,000 mountain glaciers are spread all around the globe and remain difficult to access. Consequently, only a limited number (about 50 glaciers) are regularly monitored in the field. Today, high resolution satellite optical images are combined to some advanced methodologies to survey their fast and alarming evolution. (author)

  10. Wastewater Characterization Survey, Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Water Pollution Control, Second Edition, New York, McGraw-Hill, 1989. 4. Manahan , Stanley E., Environmental Chemistry , Fifth Edition, Chelsea, Michigan...OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH DIRECTORATE 0 BIOENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING DIVISION2402 E Drive Brooks Air Force Base, TX 78235-5114 G March...Royal Road, Springfield VA 22161. DARRIN L. CURTIS, Capt, USAF, BSC EDWARD F. MAHER, Col, USAF, BSC Environmental Engineer Consultant Chief

  11. Nutrition Survey of White Mountain Apache Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, George M.; And Others

    As part of a national study of the nutrition of preschool children, data were collected on 201 Apache children, 1 to 6 years of age, living on an Indian reservation in Arizona. This report reviews procedures and clinical findings, and gives an analysis of growth data including skeletal maturation, nutrient intakes and clinical biochemical data. In…

  12. Overuse Injuries Associated with Mountain Biking: Is Single-Speed Riding a Predisposing Factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Lebec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Though mountain bikers are at significant risk for overuse injury, there is minimal quality research describing this relationship. Single-speed mountain biking, in which participants pedal a bike with only a single gear, may place riders at even greater risk for overuse problems due to the disproportionate physical effort associated with this type of riding. The focus of this study was to provide additional perspective on overuse injuries sustained by mountain bikers and to determine if single-speed mountain biking places participants at greater risk for overuse conditions. Four hundred and four (404 mountain bikers were surveyed concerning overuse injuries sustained during the previous year. Findings indicate that 63% of respondents reported an overuse injury affecting at least one area with the most commonly reported areas being the lumbar spine, knees, hand/wrist, and cervical spine. Individuals riding single-speed mountain bikes did not have a higher incidence of overuse injuries than riders of multiple-geared bikes. However, respondents who split time between riding single-speed and multiple-geared bikes were significantly more likely to report an overuse syndrome than those only riding single-speed or multiple-geared bikes (p = 0.0104. This group of riders may be at greater risk for overuse injury due to excessive fatigue and poor biomechanics.

  13. Resources, tourism and mountain territorial development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Rationale and objectivesThe Journal of Alpine Research is preparing a special issue dedicated to the theme “Resources”, tourism and mountain territorial development.” The objective is to bring together analyses concerning the identification, “invention,” communication and exploitation of territorial resources in development initiatives including tourism in African and European mountainous regions, or beyond. It will particularly stress the capacity of referring to “mountains,” as a generic ca...

  14. On the Mountain Urban Landscape Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU ChunLan

    2009-01-01

    Mountain Urban Landscape Studies is a discipline to research on the formation, evolution and char-acteristics of the urban landscape in mountainous areas. The author has made systematic research on the basic issues of the subject, including the definition of mountain urban landscape studies, its con-notation and denotation, the research scope, research background and significance, research meth-odology, its relationship with landscape architecture, architecture, city planning and other disciplines.

  15. On the Mountain Urban Landscape Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Mountain Urban Landscape Studies is a discipline to research on the formation,evolution and characteristics of the urban landscape in mountainous areas. The author has made systematic research on the basic issues of the subject,including the definition of mountain urban landscape studies,its connotation and denotation,the research scope,research background and significance,research methodology,its relationship with landscape architecture,architecture,city planning and other disciplines.

  16. Location Awareness in a Mountain Rescue Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Georgopoulos, Panagiotis; Edwards, Christopher; Dunmore, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Aiding the efficient collaboration and coordination of rescue teams is a challenging task especially in a heterogeneous mountainous region. Knowing the exact location of the rescuers during a mountain search and rescue mission can be of great value for the successful progress of the mission and help the mission coordinator in taking informed decisions. The devised Location Awareness System can provide, in a quasi real time manner, exact location information of the rescuers on the mountain, to...

  17. Fouffeen Mountain Summits:the Dreams and Glory of Chinese Mountaineers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DORJE; DRADUL

    2007-01-01

    As the first mountaineering team to challenge the fourteen world's highest mountain summits,these Chinese mountaineers have finally realized their dream.They are all ethnic Tibetans and have gone through hardship and dangers over the years;some of them have even contributed their lives to the realization of the project.Finally,three of them have accomplished it and set a marvelous record in world mountaineering that is unprecedented.

  18. Landscape, Mountain Worship and Astronomy in Socaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyano, Ricardo

    The spatiotemporal analysis of mountain worship in the indigenous community of Socaire, Atacama, northern Chile, relates to cultural, geographical, climatic, psychological, and astronomical information gathered from ethno archaeological studies. We identify a system of offerings to the mountains that incorporates concepts such as ceque (straight line), mayllku (mountain lord or ancestor), and pacha (space and time). Here, the mountains on the visible horizon (Tumisa, Lausa, Chiliques, Ipira, and Miñiques) feature as the fingers on the left hand (PAH Triad). This structure regulates annual activities and rituals and sets the basis for the Socaireños' worldview raised on a humanized landscape.

  19. 武陵山片区农村医药卫生人员继续医学教育需求调查与对策探讨%A survey of the demand and the countermeasure on the continuing medical education for rural healthcare personnel in Wuling mountain area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓阳; 廉小玲; 彭艾莉; 何小进; 熊正南; 段于峰; 许燕山; 张丽霞; 胡昌军; 蒲泉州; 朱新洪; 张光辉

    2016-01-01

    rural healthcare personnel from township health centers in 18 counties of 4 provinces in Wuling mountain area.Countermeasures to meet their needs are under discussion,which may provide an evidence for the decision-makers to carry out continuing medical education.Methods Questionnaires for basic health institutions and healthcare personnel are separately formulated,which aims to conduct the field in-vestigation on the continuing medical education demands of township health centers,health staff and coun-try doctors in the survey areas.Results There are 37 township health centers and 182 village clinics un-der investigation.The number of medical and health personnel from townships and villages is 435.It is believed that the most suitable ways for the continuing medical education are training classes and advanced study.The knowledge and abilities in urgent need are basic medical care,basic health services,sanitary regulations,grass-roots health management and interpersonal communication.The assurance conditions of continuing medical education in great demand are wages and benefits,tuition payment and requirements on education.The standard certificates,technical secondary school diplomas and college diplomas could be the best proof of the country doctors’qualifications.Conclusions The professional qualities of rural healthcare personnel in Wuling mountain area are relatively low,and their practicing abilities are not strong,so they cannot meet the local peasants’increasing needs of medicine and health.As a consequence, academic education and training education should be positively put into force in order to bring up rural healthcare personnel who can provide satisfying healthcare services for people in Wuling mountain area.

  20. A mountain of millipedes I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Twenty new species of the millipede genus Chaleponcus Attems, 1914, are described from the Udzungwa Mountains: C. netus sp. nov., C. quasimodo sp. nov., C. malleolus sp. nov., C. scopus sp. nov., C. nikolajscharffi sp. nov., C. mwanihanensis sp. nov., C. basiliscus sp. nov., C. krai sp. nov., C. ...... and unusual tarsal setation of a few species tentatively suggest adaptive radiation......., they constitute the Chaleponcus dabagaensis-group, well characterized by apparently apomorphic gonopodal characters, presumably monophyletic, and the first example of a major radiation within the Udzungwas. All species are restricted to altitudes >1390 m, all but one were found in only one, rarely two forest...

  1. Cascade Mountain Range in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The Cascade mountain system extends from northern California to central British Columbia. In Oregon, it comprises the Cascade Range, which is 260 miles long and, at greatest breadth, 90 miles wide (fig. 1). Oregon’s Cascade Range covers roughly 17,000 square miles, or about 17 percent of the state, an area larger than each of the smallest nine of the fifty United States. The range is bounded on the east by U.S. Highways 97 and 197. On the west it reaches nearly to Interstate 5, forming the eastern margin of the Willamette Valley and, farther south, abutting the Coast Ranges. 

  2. OS X Mountain Lion bible

    CERN Document Server

    Gruman, Galen

    2012-01-01

    The complete guide to Mac OS X, fully updated for the newest release! The Mac's solid, powerful operating system and the exploding popularity of iOS devices are fueling a strong increase in market share for Apple. Previous editions of this book have sold more than 75,000 copies, and this new edition is fully updated with all the exciting features of OS X Mountain Lion, including Game Center, Messages, and Notifications. Written by industry expert Galen Gruman, it covers all the basics and then delves deep into professional and higher-end topics, making it the one book you need to succeed with

  3. 27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213... Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snipes Mountain”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snipes Mountain” is a term of viticultural...

  4. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Charles R

    2013-04-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is typically undifferentiated from many other infections in the first few days of illness. Treatment should not be delayed pending confirmation of infection when Rocky Mountain spotted fever is suspected. Doxycycline is the drug of choice even for infants and children less than 8 years old.

  5. 36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mountain climbing. 13.910 Section 13.910 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Provisions § 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley or Mount Foraker without a permit...

  6. Summiteers--Moving Mountains with Bereaved Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Hans-Georg

    2011-01-01

    Summiteers are people who rush to the top. There is a mountain summit and a metaphorical summit inside us which we can climb. In the area of mountain summits, Reinhold Messner is surely the best known and most successful summiteer. He climbed, among other things, the highest peak on earth without supplemental oxygen. In the language of the country…

  7. 27 CFR 9.205 - Chehalem Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chehalem Mountains. 9.205... Chehalem Mountains. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chehalem Mountains”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Chehalem Mountains” is a term of...

  8. The mountain vegetation of South Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos-Tubée, D.B.

    2016-01-01

    THE MOUNTAIN VEGETATION OF SOUTH PERU: SYNTAXONOMY, ECOLOGY, PHYTOGEOGRAPHY AND CONSERVATION This thesis presents an overview and revision of plant communities from xerophytic and mountain landscapes in the dry Andes of South Peru. The revision is based on comparison of the collecte

  9. Can wolves help save Japan's mountain forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-meyer, Shannon

    2017-01-01

    Japan’s wolves were extinct by 1905. Today Japan's mountain forests are being killed by overabundant sika deer and wild boars. Since the early 1990s, the Japan Wolf Association has proposed wolf reintroduction to Japan to restore rural ecology and to return a culturally important animal. In this article I discuss whether the return of wolves could help save Japan's mountain forests.

  10. A Report from Great Smoky Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋瑾

    2008-01-01

    This is a report from Great Smoky Mountain. From this report, I will tell you a story about me and my team. After ten years of hardworking, we made some achievements in Branson, Missouri in America, and then we turned to Great Smoky Mountain for another business. To my group and me, itis like a legend.

  11. The Bauhaus and Black Mountain College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellert, JoAnn C.

    1972-01-01

    In view of the sixteen-year tenure (1933-1949) at Black Mountain College of Josef Albers, a former Bauhaus Master, and his wife, Anni, a Bauhaus graduate and teacher, exploration of the influence of the Bauhaus on this small, progressive, art-centered college in the mountains of North Carolina is warrented. (Author)

  12. The mountain vegetation of South Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos-Tubée, D.B.

    2016-01-01

    THE MOUNTAIN VEGETATION OF SOUTH PERU: SYNTAXONOMY, ECOLOGY, PHYTOGEOGRAPHY AND CONSERVATION This thesis presents an overview and revision of plant communities from xerophytic and mountain landscapes in the dry Andes of South Peru. The revision is based on comparison of the

  13. 78 FR 29366 - Green Mountain Power Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Green Mountain Power Corporation Notice of Filing Take notice that on May 2, 2013, Green Mountain Power Corporation filed additional information in support of its request...

  14. Engineered barrier environment, Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilder, D.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The suitability of Yucca Mountain (YM) as a potential nuclear waste repository site will ultimately depend on how well it provides for isolation of the waste. Analysis of isolation capabilities of YM must consider interactions between natural and engineered systems. In addition, environmental conditions are important to EBS design, materials testing, selection, design criteria, and waste-form characterization. Studies of environmental interactions with the EBS, have emphasized processes and changed (not ambient) conditions resulting from interaction with waste, since these are the pertinent conditions for the EBS. The results of these studies indicate that the radioactive heat-of-decay from spent nuclear fuel will play a dominant role in the performance of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain. In addition, coupled hydrothermal-geochemical phenomena may significantly affect the performance of natural barriers surrounding the repository. Depending on the thermal-loading management strategy, as well as site conditions, repository heat may either substantially increase the likelihood of water contacting waste packages, with an associated potential increased magnitude of release and transport of radionuclides, or preclude, or at least minimize, these effects for extended periods of time, perhaps as much as hundreds of thousand years.

  15. Impacts of Yulong Mountain Glacier on Tourism in Lijiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The glacier on the Yulong Mountain is one of the most important attractions in Lijiang, Yunnan,China. But it keeps retreating these years due to global warming, which is bound to influence regional tourism significantly in Lijiang. This study estimates the effects of the glacier retreat of the Yulong Mountains on tourism there. Primary data were collected through a visitor survey including demographics, motives, lengths of stay, and opinions about each tourism resource from tourists to Lijiang,as well as questions about which scenic spot(s) they had visited or would visit, how much they expended per day during their visit and how their visiting behavior would be changed upon the hypothesis that the glacier would disappear. These data were used to analyze the proportion of the contribution of glacier to the tourism in Lijiang and estimate the impact of glacier on the regional tourism quantitatively.According to the survey, it could be concluded that three quarters of the tourists to Lijiang were interested in the Yulong Mountain glacier, indicating that the glacier possesses notable appeal for sightseeing tourists. The results of our analysis showed that about 689,013~1,508,247 tourists,accounting for 19.63~42.97 % of the total 3,510,000 domestic tourists to Lijiang in 2004, would not come to Lijiang in the absence of the glacier,resulting in a possible direct economic loss of 84,382,508~184,713,011 USD (viz. 700,374,824~1,533,117,993 RMB) and a markedly decrease in the attraction radius.

  16. Mountain coniferous forests, refugia and butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Zoltán

    2008-05-01

    The boreal coniferous forests form the most extended vegetation zone of the Northern Hemisphere. As opposed to North America, they are disconnected from the mountain coniferous forests in Europe, because of the dominant east-west direction of the mountain chains. Consequently, the mountain forests show some unique characteristic features of glacial survival and postglacial history, as well. The mountain coniferous forests have numerous common floral and faunal elements with the boreal zone. However, the few unique faunal elements of the European mountain coniferous forests can be used to unravel the peculiar patterns and processes of this biome. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Thomas Schmitt and Karola Haubrich (2008) use the relatively common and taxonomically well-studied butterfly, the large ringlet (Erebia euryale) to identify the last glacial refugia and postglacial expansion routes.

  17. Mapping snow avalanche risk using GIS technique and 3D modeling in Ceahlau Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covasnianu, A.; Grigoras, I. R.; State, L. E.; Balin, D.; Hogas, S.; Balin, I.

    2009-04-01

    This study consisted in a precise mapping project (GPS field campaign and on-screen digitization of the topographic maps at 1:5.000 scale) of the Ceahlau mountain area in Romanian Carpathians in order to address the snow avalanche risk management, surveying and monitoring. Thus we considered the slope, aspect, altitude, landforms and roughness derived from a high resolute numerical terrain model (31 km2 at 1: 5.000 scale resulted in a spatial resolution of 3 m by the help of Topo to Raster tool). These parameters were classified according to a model applied into Tatra Mountains and used over Ceahlau Massive. The results were adapted and interpreted considering to the European Avalanche Hazard Scale. This work was made in the context of the elaboration of Risk Map and is directly concerning both the security of tourism activities but also the management of the Natural Park Ceahlau. The extension of this method to similar mountain areas is ongoing.

  18. Geology and hydrogeology of the Čemernica mountain massif, Western Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenić Dejan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The mountain massif of Čemernica, Western Serbia, is an orogenic feature of the Inner Dinarides. Hitherto, hydrogeological prospecting of the Massif was all on a regional scale, not detailed. Only scanty data, previously collected, were mappable on a scale larger than 1:100 000. The 2005 to 2008 research of the Čemernica Mountain Massif included geological and hydrogeological reconnaissance and mapping, the employment of remote sensing, a geophysical survey, the monitoring of quantitative and qualitative groundwater variation parameters, etc. The groundwaters of Čemernica are a large potential resource of water supply to multiple users. This paper is a contribution to the study of the geology and hydrogeology of the Čemernica Mountain Massif.

  19. Estimates of groundwater recharge rates and sources in the East Mountain area, Eastern Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2005-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Steven E.; Crilley, Dianna M.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bernalillo County Public Works Division, has conducted a monitoring program in the East Mountain area of eastern Bernalillo County, New Mexico, since 2000 to better define the hydrogeologic characteristics of the East Mountain area and to provide scientific information that will assist in the sustainable management of water resources. This report presents estimates of groundwater recharge to the aquifers that supply water to a network of springs that discharged within the East Mountain area of eastern Bernalillo County during 2005–12. Chloride concentration, the mass ratio of chloride to bromide, and the stable isotope ratios of hydrogen and oxygen were used to estimate annual groundwater recharge rates and to identify the sources and timing of recharge to the aquifers in the East Mountain area. Groundwater recharge rates were estimated by using a chloride mass-balance (CMB) method applied to data from selected springs located in the study area.

  20. The Role of Travel Intermediaries in the Development of Sustainable Mountain Tourism - the Case of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Icoz Onur

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to investigate the current situation of mountain tourism and its sustainability in Turkey. Not only the tourism policies of the government are enough to promote a new alternative tourism type, but also the role and effects of tourism middlemen such as travel agencies, tour operators, and tour wholesalers cannot be denied in the promotion of a destination. Mountain tourism could be one of the best alternative tourism opportunities for many destinations if they have sufficient resources, namely naturally attractive mountains and related infra and/or superstructure. Turkey and Aegean region have many attractive resources in this sense. In this research, in addition to analyzing the current situation in Turkey; ways of developing mountain tourism in a sustainable way as well as possible roles and effects of travel intermediaries in this area are questioned. With this purpose, the contents of the research vary differently. The first part depends on literature review presenting general definitions and discussions concerning mountain tourism. In the second part of the study, tourism policies in general and the mountain tourism policies of Turkish Government will be discussed. In the last part, the field survey is applied by developing and distributing questionnaire to major group A travel agencies in Turkey and outbound tour operators organizing tours to Turkey as well. The sample of the research consists of 83 firms and each was reached via e-mail. The data gained through the survey were analysed by computer based statistical program, SPSS 16. In the discussion part of the research, depending on the major findings, the comments and suggestions for further researches were developed.

  1. Late glacial aridity in southern Rocky Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, O.K.; Pitblado, B.L. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    While the slopes of the present-day Colorado Rocky Mountains are characterized by large stands of subalpine and montane conifers, the Rockies of the late glacial looked dramatically different. Specifically, pollen records suggest that during the late glacial, Artemisia and Gramineae predominated throughout the mountains of Colorado. At some point between 11,000 and 10,000 B.P., however, both Artemisia and grasses underwent a dramatic decline, which can be identified in virtually every pollen diagram produced for Colorado mountain sites, including Como Lake (Sangre de Cristo Mountains), Copley Lake and Splains; Gulch (near Crested Butte), Molas Lake (San Juan Mountains), and Redrock Lake (Boulder County). Moreover, the same pattern seems to hold for pollen spectra derived for areas adjacent to Colorado, including at sites in the Chuska Mountains of New Mexico and in eastern Wyoming. The implications of this consistent finding are compelling. The closest modem analogues to the Artemisia- and Gramineae-dominated late-glacial Colorado Rockies are found in the relatively arid northern Great Basin, which suggests that annual precipitation was much lower in the late-glacial southern Rocky Mountains than it was throughout the Holocene.

  2. The Effects of Site Characterization Activities on the Abundance of Ravens (Corvus corax) in the Yucca Mountain Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.E. Lederle

    1998-05-08

    In response to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) developed and is implementing the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Raven abundance was measured from August 1991 through August 1995 along treatment and control routes to evaluate whether site characterization activities resulted in increased raven abundance at Yucca Mountain. This study fulfills the requirement set forth in the incidental take provisions of the Biological Opinion that DOE monitor the abundance of ravens at Yucca Mountain. Ravens were more abundant at Yucca Mountain than in the control area, and raven abundance in both areas increased over time. However, the magnitude of differences between Yucca Mountain and control surveys did not change over time, indicating that the increase in raven abundance observed during this study was not related to site characterization activities. Increases over time on both Yucca Mountain and control routes are consistent with increases in raven abundance in the Mojave Desert reported by the annual Breeding Bird Survey of the US. Fish and Wildlife Service. Evidence from the Desert Tortoise Monitoring Program at Yucca Mountain suggests that ravens are not a significant predator of small tortoises in this locale. Carcasses of small tortoises (less than 110 mm in length) collected during the study showed little evidence of raven predation, and 59 radiomarked hatchlings that were monitored on a regular basis were not preyed upon by ravens. Overall, no direct evidence of raven predation on tortoises was observed during this study. Small tortoises are probably encountered so infrequently by ravens that they are rarely exploited as a food source. This is likely due to the relatively low abundance of both desert tortoises and ravens in the Yucca Mountain area.

  3. Major results of geophysical investigations at Yucca Mountain and vicinity, southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, H.W.; Ponce, D.A. [eds.] [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hunter, W.C. [ed.] [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Yucca Mountain Project Branch

    1995-12-31

    In the consideration of Yucca Mountain as a possible site for storing high level nuclear waste, a number of geologic concerns have been suggested for study by the National Academy of Sciences which include: (1) natural geologic and geochemical barriers, (2) possible future fluctuations in the water table that might flood a mined underground repository, (3) tectonic stability, and (4) considerations of shaking such as might be caused by nearby earthquakes or possible volcanic eruptions. This volume represents the third part of an overall plan of geophysical investigation of Yucca Mountain, preceded by the Site Characterization Plan (SCP; dated 1988) and the report referred to as the Geophysical White Paper, Phase 1, entitled Status of Data, Major Results, and Plans for Geophysical Activities, Yucca Mountain Project (Oliver and others, 1990). The SCP necessarily contained uncertainty about applicability and accuracy of methods then untried in the Yucca Mountain volcano-tectonic setting, and the White Paper, Phase 1, focused on summarization of survey coverage, data quality, and applicability of results. For the most part, it did not present data or interpretation. The important distinction of the current volume lies in presentation of data, results, and interpretations of selected geophysical methods used in characterization activities at Yucca Mountain. Chapters are included on the following: gravity investigations; magnetic investigations; regional magnetotelluric investigations; seismic refraction investigations; seismic reflection investigations; teleseismic investigations; regional thermal setting; stress measurements; and integration of methods and conclusions. 8 refs., 60 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Mountains Move Up the European Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin F. Price

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mountain areas cover a significant proportion of the European continent. Within the European Union (EU, many of the newest Member States have particularly high proportions of mountainous land. Ongoing debates in the EU relate to perceptions of mountains as being “handicapped” or marginalized versus having specific development opportunities, and to the challenges of climate change and other global changes. In 2015 and 2016, these issues have been highlighted by the European Parliament and through the publication of a strategic research agenda by the Swiss–Austrian Alliance.

  5. Periglacial landforms in the Pohorje Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Natek

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to the well-studied Pleistocene glaciation, periglacial phenomena in Slovenia have been given less scientific attention because they are not particularly evident in high mountains due to prevailing carbonate rocks. This, however, is not the case in the Pohorje Mountains: built of igneous and metamorphic rocks, it was not glaciated due to its insufficient elevation, but was subject to periglacial processes. In the article, some of the periglacial landforms of the Pohorje Mountains are presented for the first time, especially nivation hollows in the uppermost zone, and the Jezerc cirque where a smaller glacier, unknown until recently, existed at the peak of the glaciation.

  6. Location awareness in a mountain rescue domain

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The notion of location awareness in a Mountain Rescue domain is critical for the mission coordinator of a Mountain Rescue Team who tries to organize the team and make informed decisions for all its members. The knowledge of location of each member of the team while they are on a mission, could be provided by sending GPS coordinates from a device that each rescue worker would carry, to the server of the team located at its headquarters. The physical characteristics of the Mountain Rescue domai...

  7. Use of an analog site near Raymond, California, to develop equipment and methods for characterizing a potential high-level, nuclear waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umari, A.M.J.; Geldon, A.; Patterson, G.; Gemmell, J.; Earle, J.; Darnell, J. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, currently is being investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey as a potential site for a high-level nuclear waste repository. Planned hydraulic-stress and tracer tests in fractured, tuffaceous rocks below the water table at Yucca Mountain will require work at depths in excess of 1,300 feet. To facilitate prototype testing of equipment and methods to be used in aquifer tests at Yucca Mountain, an analog site was selected in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada near Raymond, California. Two of nine 250- to 300-feet deep wells drilled into fractured, granitic rocks at the Raymond site have been instrumented with packers, pressure transducers, and other equipment that will be used at Yucca Mountain. Aquifer tests conducted at the Raymond site to date have demonstrated a need to modify some of the equipment and methods conceived for use at Yucca Mountain.

  8. Partição da biomassa e qualidade da forragem de Bahiagrass: Paspalun notatum cv. pensacola no centro-norte da Flórida - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i4.596

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Lawton Stwart Junior; Sindy Interrante; José Carlos Dubeux Junior; Lynn Sollenberger; Marcia Mascarenhas Grise; Adelino Pelissari

    2006-01-01

    Visando medir efeitos do manejo da Bahiagrass cv. pensacola (Paspalum notatum Flüggeé) na repartição de biomassa (kg ha-1) das folhas+colmos, serrapilheira, raízes+rizomas, e valor nutritivo da forragem, foi instalado um experimento próximo a Gainesville, Flórida, EUA. Tratamentos: três manejos contínuos (não intensivo, moderadamente intensivo, altamente intensivo, recebendo 40, 120, e 360 kg N ha -1 ano-1 e com lotação de 1,2; 2,4 e 3,6 UA ha-1, respectivamente) e um tratamento de manejo rot...

  9. The adder (Vipera berus) in Southern Altay Mountains: population characteristics, distribution, morphology and phylogenetic position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shaopeng; Luo, Xiao; Chen, Daiqiang; Sun, Jizhou; Chu, Hongjun; Li, Chunwang; Jiang, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    As the most widely distributed snake in Eurasia, the adder (Vipera berus) has been extensively investigated in Europe but poorly understood in Asia. The Southern Altay Mountains represent the adder's southern distribution limit in Central Asia, whereas its population status has never been assessed. We conducted, for the first time, field surveys for the adder at two areas of Southern Altay Mountains using a combination of line transects and random searches. We also described the morphological characteristics of the collected specimens and conducted analyses of external morphology and molecular phylogeny. The results showed that the adder distributed in both survey sites and we recorded a total of 34 sightings. In Kanas river valley, the estimated encounter rate over a total of 137 km transects was 0.15 ± 0.05 sightings/km. The occurrence of melanism was only 17%. The small size was typical for the adders in Southern Altay Mountains in contrast to other geographic populations of the nominate subspecies. A phylogenetic tree obtained by Bayesian Inference based on DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (1,023 bp) grouped them within the Northern clade of the species but failed to separate them from the subspecies V. b. sachalinensis. Our discovery extends the distribution range of V. berus and provides a basis for further researches. We discuss the hypothesis that the adder expands its distribution border to the southwest along the mountains' elevation gradient, but the population abundance declines gradually due to a drying climate.

  10. New Approach for forest inventory estimation and timber harvesting planning in mountain areas: the SLOPE project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Prandi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Forests represent an important economic resource for mountainous areas being for a few region and mountain communities the main form of income. However, wood chain management in these contexts differs from the traditional schemes due to the limits imposed by terrain morphology, both for the operation planning aspects and the hardware requirements. In fact, forest organizational and technical problems require a wider strategic and detailed level of planning to reach the level of productivity of forest operation techniques applied on flatlands. In particular, a perfect knowledge of forest inventories improves long-term management sustainability and efficiency allowing a better understanding of forest ecosystems. However, this knowledge is usually based on historical parcel information with only few cases of remote sensing information from satellite imageries. This is not enough to fully exploit the benefit of the mountain areas forest stocks where the economic and ecological value of each single parcel depends on singletree characteristics. The work presented in this paper, based on the results of the SLOPE (Integrated proceSsing and controL systems fOr sustainable forest Production in mountain arEas project, investigates the capability to generate, manage and visualize detailed virtual forest models using geospatial information, combining data acquired from traditional on-the-field laser scanning surveys technologies with new aerial survey through UAV systems. These models are then combined with interactive 3D virtual globes for continuous assessment of resource characteristics, harvesting planning and real-time monitoring of the whole production.

  11. New Approach for forest inventory estimation and timber harvesting planning in mountain areas: the SLOPE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandi, F.; Magliocchetti, D.; Poveda, A.; De Amicis, R.; Andreolli, M.; Devigili, F.

    2016-06-01

    Forests represent an important economic resource for mountainous areas being for a few region and mountain communities the main form of income. However, wood chain management in these contexts differs from the traditional schemes due to the limits imposed by terrain morphology, both for the operation planning aspects and the hardware requirements. In fact, forest organizational and technical problems require a wider strategic and detailed level of planning to reach the level of productivity of forest operation techniques applied on flatlands. In particular, a perfect knowledge of forest inventories improves long-term management sustainability and efficiency allowing a better understanding of forest ecosystems. However, this knowledge is usually based on historical parcel information with only few cases of remote sensing information from satellite imageries. This is not enough to fully exploit the benefit of the mountain areas forest stocks where the economic and ecological value of each single parcel depends on singletree characteristics. The work presented in this paper, based on the results of the SLOPE (Integrated proceSsing and controL systems fOr sustainable forest Production in mountain arEas) project, investigates the capability to generate, manage and visualize detailed virtual forest models using geospatial information, combining data acquired from traditional on-the-field laser scanning surveys technologies with new aerial survey through UAV systems. These models are then combined with interactive 3D virtual globes for continuous assessment of resource characteristics, harvesting planning and real-time monitoring of the whole production.

  12. Environmental Quality of the Pensacola Bay System ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this report is to summarize the scattered environmental information for the PBS which is essential for understanding its current environmental condition and trend and needed for future cost-effective and science-based resource management. The management and regulatory response to the on-going influx of anthropogenic contaminants, the effects of episodic events (hurricanes, oil spills) and the effects of climate change depend upon technically-based information such as that contained in a current state-of-the-science synthesis report. Many environmental reviews are available for the PBS (examples, Pratt et al. 1990; Thorpe et al. 1997; BARC et al. 1998; WFRPC et al. 2005) but many are limited in scope, most are outdated, and none have been published in the peer-reviewed literature. This review provides an updated and critical appraisal of the environmental condition of the PBS based on consolidation and integration of historical, recently published, and unpublished information reflective of current chemical and biological assessment methodologies. The review also includes summaries for ecological information lacking or under-reported in previous reviews. This includes information for biodiversity, non-nutrient contaminant concentrations in surface water and sediment, sediment phytotoxicity and genotoxicity, bioaccumulation, use of colonized periphyton as bioindicators, organism and wildlife health, economic value for ecological services, climate c

  13. Annual Copper Mountain Conferences on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, Copper Mountain, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Stephen F. [Front Range Scientific, Inc., Lake City, CO (United States)

    2016-03-25

    This project supported the Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, held from 2007 to 2015, at Copper Mountain, Colorado. The subject of the Copper Mountain Conference Series alternated between Multigrid Methods in odd-numbered years and Iterative Methods in even-numbered years. Begun in 1983, the Series represents an important forum for the exchange of ideas in these two closely related fields. This report describes the Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, 2007-2015. Information on the conference series is available at http://grandmaster.colorado.edu/~copper/.

  14. [FY 1996 Budget Summary : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains information related to Rocky Mountain Arsenal's budget for the 1996 fiscal year. Page 1 is the memorandum from the Service to the U.S. Army...

  15. VT Green Mountain National Forest - Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) GMNFTRAILS contains minor Forest Service roads and all trails within the proclamation boundary of the Green Mountain National Forest and many of...

  16. Great Smoky Mountains National Park Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Digital Geologic Units of Great Smoky Mountains National Park and Vicinity, Tennessee and North Carolina consists of geologic units mapped as area (polygon)...

  17. Rocky Mountain Arsenal : 2006 vegetation management plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Vegetation Management Plan (VMP) is to describe the approach for implementing vegetation management activities at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal...

  18. Rocky Mountain Arsenal : 2007 vegetation management plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Vegetation Management Plan (VMP) is to describe the approach for implementing vegetation management activities at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal...

  19. Quartz Mountain/Oklahoma Summer Arts Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frates, Mary Y.; Madeja, Stanley S.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the Quartz Mountain Oklahoma Summer Arts Institute program. It is designed to nurture artistic talent and to provide intensive arts experiences in music, dance, theater, and the visual arts for talented students aged 14-18. (AM)

  20. VT Green Mountain Power Pole Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Green Mountain Power (GMP) pole and OVERHEAD linear distribution/sub-transmission model data. THE LINEAR DISTRIBUTION LAYER ONLY INCLUDES OVERHEAD...

  1. Badgers on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Nineteen badgers (Taxidea taxus) were captured on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) using Woodstream Softcatch traps and live snares. This represents a minimum...

  2. Fishery management scenarios : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The fishery resources at Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) have been managed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service since the early 1960's. Management activities included...

  3. Great Smoky Mountains National Wetland Habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent, approximate location and type of wetlands and deepwater habitats in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. These data...

  4. Vegetation resources of Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report presents the results of plant ecological studies conducted at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) in 1986 and 1987. The studies were performed by...

  5. Owl Mountain Partnership : An external assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — External review of the Owl Mountain Partnership (OMP) to identify benefits and successes associatedwith collaborative work through the perceptions of participating...

  6. Starling nest box monitoring [Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document described the standard operating procedures for observing and recording data collected from starling nest box monitoring at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal....

  7. MOUNTAIN TOURISM-PLEASURE AND NECESSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Corina SLUSARIUC

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tourism has a more and more important role in the economic development of many countries. Mountain tourism is an anti-stress solutions and a type of disconnection from the citadel life style through replacing some activities of media consuming type, games and virtual socializing with therapy through movement, the physical activity being an essential dimension in assuring the high life quality. Mountaineering is searched for: practicing winter sports, its invigorating and comforting, relaxing role, medical spa treatments practicing hiking, alpinism. Mountain tourism generates increased economic benefits for the surrounding areas, improves the life quality of the local communities and can assure the prosperity of some disadvantaged areas, being able to be a remedy for unindustrialised regions. Mountain tourism contributes to the economic development of the region and also to satisfying spiritual and psychological needs of the people, representing a necessity for a touristic area and a pleasure for tourist consumers.

  8. Great Smoky Mountains National Park Hydro Plus

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Park Hydro Plus is a value-added attribution of data produced by Great Smoky Mountains National Park and published by the USGS NHD. Not to be confused with the USGS...

  9. [FY 1989 Budget Summary : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a single page document summarizing Rocky Mountain Arsenal's Budget for the 1989 fiscal year. There are three mentioned tasks; Operations & Planning, Law...

  10. [FY 1990 Budget Summary : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains information related to Rocky Mountain Arsenal's budget for the 1990 fiscal year. The specifics are broken down into seven tasks, task #1 being...

  11. VT Green Mountain National Forest - Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) GMNFTRAILS contains minor Forest Service roads and all trails within the proclamation boundary of the Green Mountain National Forest and many of...

  12. Yucca Mountain reveals its secrets to scientists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gertz, C.P. [Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Teitelbaum, S. [Science Applications International Corp., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1994-12-31

    US nuclear power plants have generated some 20,000 metric tons of waste, according to Carl P. Gertz, former Department of Energy (DOE) project manager for Yucca Mountain Site Characterization, and Sheldon Teitelbaum, senior writer for the Las Vegas-based Science Application International Corporation. In the search for disposal methods, DOE fixed on Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a {open_quotes}sprawling heap of volcanic tuff{close_quotes} situated on a parcel of federally owned land 90 miles northwest of Las Vegas. The authors maintain that Yucca Mountain`s sparse population, dry climate, deep watertable, and 5,000-foot-thick layer of compressed volcanic rock may make it a suitable long-term storage facility. Nevertheless, Gertz and Teitelbaum say, much research must be done before the site is formally adopted as a repository and begins to receive shipments of high-level nuclear waste.

  13. Great Smoky Mountains National Park Fish Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Background and History The brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) is the only trout native to the southern Appalachian Mountains. It was once widespread in Great Smoky...

  14. [Water Sample Results : Rocky Mountain Arsenal : 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A memorandum, from sample collector (organization unknown) Cathy H. to Rocky Mountain Arsenal staff, prefaces tabular water sample results collected from various...

  15. Tectonic and neotectonic framework of the Yucca Mountain Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweickert, R.A.

    1992-09-30

    Highlights of major research accomplishments concerned with the tectonics and neotectonics of the Yucca Mountain Region include: structural studies in Grapevine Mountains, Bullfrog Hills, and Bare Mountain; recognition of significance of pre-Middle Miocene normal and strike-slip faulting at Bare Mountain; compilation of map of quaternary faulting in Southern Amargosa Valley; and preliminary paleomagnetic analysis of Paleozoic and Cenozoic units at Bare Mountain.

  16. Rocky Mountain snowpack chemistry network; history, methods, and the importance of monitoring mountain ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, George P.; Turk, John T.; Mast, M. Alisa; Clow, David W.; Campbell, Donald H.; Bailey, Zelda C.

    2002-01-01

    Because regional-scale atmospheric deposition data in the Rocky Mountains are sparse, a program was designed by the U.S. Geological Survey to more thoroughly determine the quality of precipitation and to identify sources of atmospherically deposited pollution in a network of high-elevation sites. Depth-integrated samples of seasonal snowpacks at 52 sampling sites, in a network from New Mexico to Montana, were collected and analyzed each year since 1993. The results of the first 5 years (1993?97) of the program are discussed in this report. Spatial patterns in regional data have emerged from the geographically distributed chemical concentrations of ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate that clearly indicate that concentrations of these acid precursors in less developed areas of the region are lower than concentrations in the heavily developed areas. Snowpacks in northern Colorado that lie adjacent to both the highly developed Denver metropolitan area to the east and coal-fired powerplants to the west had the highest overall concentrations of nitrate and sulfate in the network. Ammonium concentrations were highest in northwestern Wyoming and southern Montana.

  17. Floods in mountain environments: A synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, Markus; Wyżga, Bartłomiej; Marston, Richard A.

    2016-11-01

    Floods are a crucial agent of geomorphic change in the channels and valley floors of mountains watercourses. At the same time, they can be highly damaging to property, infrastructure, and life. Because of their high energy, mountain watercourses are highly vulnerable to environmental changes affecting their catchments and channels. Many factors have modified and frequently still tend to modify the environmental conditions in mountain areas, with impacts on geomorphic processes and the frequency, magnitude, and timing of floods in mountain watercourses. The ongoing climate changes vary between regions but may affect floods in mountain areas in many ways. In many mountain regions of Europe, widespread afforestation took place over the twentieth century, considerably increasing the amounts of large wood delivered to the channels and the likelihood of jamming bridges. At the same time, deforestation continues in other mountain areas, accelerating runoff and amplifying the magnitude and frequency of floods in foreland areas. In many countries, in-channel gravel mining has been a common practice during recent decades; the resultant deficit of bed material in the affected channels may suddenly manifest during flood events, resulting in the failure of scoured bridges or catastrophic channel widening. During the past century many rivers in mountain and foreland areas incised deeply; the resultant loss of floodplain water storage has decreased attenuation of flood waves, hence increasing flood hazard to downstream river reaches. On the other hand, a large amount of recent river restoration activities worldwide may provide examples of beneficial changes to flood risk, attained as a result of increased channel storage or reestablished floodplain water storage. Relations between geomorphic processes and floods operate in both directions, which means that changes in flood probability or the character of floods (e.g., increased wood load) may significantly modify the morphology

  18. Surface water-quality and water-quantity data from selected urban runoff-monitoring sites at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, Colorado, water years 1988-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey has monitored the quality and quantity of streamflow at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) northeast of Denver, Colorado, since the early...

  19. Delimiting tropical mountain ecoregions for conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Platts, Philip J.; Burgess, Neil David; Gereau, Roy E.

    2011-01-01

    is imprecise and inconsistent boundary placement. For globally important mountain regions such as the Eastern Arc (Tanzania and Kenya), where qualitative definitions of biophysical affinity are well established, rule-based methods for landform classification provide a straightforward solution to ambiguities...... of predicted, but as yet undocumented, biological importance. Similar methods could work well in other regions where mountain extent is poorly resolved. Spatial data accompany the online version of this article....

  20. The Rock Paintings of the Helan Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    THE HelanMountains sit ina corner of theNingxia Hui Autonom-ous Region of north-western China in a widearc running for 250 kmfrom north to south.Insome places the range is20 to 30 km across;the individual moun-tain peaks are on aver-age 1,400 m above sealevel and the high-est peak Shaguozhou,reaches 3,556 m intothe sky.When the YellowRiver enters Ningxia

  1. Zen Mountains: An Illusion of Perceptual Transparency

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The human visual system is usually very successful in segmenting complex natural scenes. During a trip to the Nepalese Himalayas, we observed an impossible example of Nature's beauty: “transparent” mountains. The scene is captured in a photograph in which a pair of mountain peaks viewed in the far distance appear to be transparent. This illusion results from a fortuitous combination of lighting and scene conditions, which induce an erroneous integration of multiple segmentation cues. The illu...

  2. Complement C3 in Bernese Mountain dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Bernhard; Eichenberger, Simone; Joller-Jemelka, Helen I; Wittenbrink, Max M; Reusch, Claudia E

    2010-06-01

    Previous research suggests that low serum concentrations of the third component of complement (C3) are associated with both the susceptibility to infectious agents such as Borrelia burgdorferi and the development of glomerular disease. We hypothesized that low levels of C3 are associated with the coincident occurrence of B. burgdorferi infection and glomerulonephritis in Bernese Mountain dogs. The aims of this study were to evaluate the serum concentration of C3 in Bernese Mountain dogs with and without antibodies against B. burgdorferi and to compare this concentration with that of healthy control dogs. Eighty-three clinically healthy Bernese Mountain dogs and 46 control dogs were included. Antibodies against B. burgdorferi were determined using an ELISA with a whole cell sonicate as antigen. Results were confirmed using Western blot. C3 was measured using a single radial immunodiffusion test. Results were reported as the percentage concentration of C3 compared with that in pooled preserved canine serum (100% C3 concentration). Median C3 concentration was 128.5% in Bernese Mountain dogs with antibodies against B. burgdorferi, 133.5% in B. burgdorferi-negative Bernese Mountain dogs, 87.8% in positive control dogs, and 102.2% in negative control dogs. Within Bernese Mountain and control groups, C3 was lower in dogs with antibodies against B. burgdorferi compared with those without. Percentage concentration of C3 was higher in healthy Bernese Mountain dogs compared with control dogs. Low C3 concentration is not an explanation for the high prevalence of B. burgdorferi infections and glomerular disease in Bernese Mountain dogs.

  3. Rockfall exposures in Montserrat mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontquerni Gorchs, Sara; Vilaplana Fernández, Joan Manuel; Guinau Sellés, Marta; Jesús Royán Cordero, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Mountain. It is important to mention that the exposure level calculation has been obtained from natural hazard data do not protected by defense works. Results of this work enable us to consider best strategies to reduce rockfalls risk in the PNMM. It is clear that, apart from the required structural defense works, some of them already made, implementation of strategies not involving structural defense is, in the medium and long term, the best policy to mitigate the risk. In the PNMM case, rethinking of mobility and traffic management on the mountain access would be definitely helpful to achieve a minimized geological risk.

  4. Flat-topped mountain ranges: Their global distribution and value for understanding the evolution of mountain topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, Marc; Gunnell, Yanni; Farines, Bernard

    2015-07-01

    Extensive tracts of low-gradient topography in steep mountain ranges, either forming rangetop plateaus or terraced pediments on range flanks, are widely distributed in mountain belts around the world. Before the advent of plate tectonics, such populations of planar landforms were interpreted as vestiges of a post-orogenic raised peneplain, i.e., a low-gradient land surface resulting from the decay, during long intervals of base-level stability, of a previous mountain range that was subsequently raised once again to great elevations-thus forming a new mountain range. This two-stage model has been challenged by theories that advocate continuity in tectonic processes and more gradual changes in base level, and thus expect a more immediate and proportionate response of geomorphic systems. Here we present a global survey of erosion surfaces in mountain ranges and put existing theories and empirical evidence into a broad perspective calling for further research into the rates and regimes of long-term mountain evolution. The resulting library of case studies provides opportunities for comparative analysis and helps to classify the landform mosaics that are likely to arise from the interplay between (i) crustal regimes, which at convergent plate margins need be neither uniform nor steady at all times; (ii) radiation-driven and gravity-driven geomorphic regimes, which are mainly determined by crustal boundary conditions and climate; and (iii) paleogeography, through which clues about base-level changes can be obtained. We examine intracratonic and plate-margin settings, with examples from thin-skinned fold belts, thick-skinned fold belts, island-arc and other subduction-related settings, and bivergent collisional orogens. Results reveal that the existence of erosion surfaces is not a simple function of geodynamic setting. Although some erosion surfaces are pre-orogenic, evidence about their predominantly post-orogenic age is supported by apatite fission-track and helium

  5. Mapping Forest Fire Susceptibility in Temperate Mountain Areas with Expert Knowledge. A Case Study from Iezer Mountains, Romanian Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, Bogdan; Savulescu, Ionut

    2014-05-01

    Forest fires in Romanian Carpathians became a frequent phenomenon during the last decade, although local climate and other environmental features did not create typical conditions. From 2004, forest fires affect in Romania more than 100 hectares/year of different forest types (deciduous and coniferous). Their magnitude and frequency are not known, since a historical forest fire inventory does not exist (only press papers and local witness for some selected events). Forest fires features the summer dry periods but there are dry autumns and early winter periods with events of different magnitudes. The application we propose is based on an empirical modeling of forest fire susceptibility in a typical mountain area from the Southern Carpathians, the Iezer Mountains (2462 m). The study area features almost all the altitudinal vegetation zones of the European temperate mountains, from the beech zone, to the coniferous zone, the subalpine and the alpine zones (Mihai et al., 2007). The analysis combines GIS and remote sensing models (Chuvieco et al., 2012), starting from the ideas that forest fires are featured by the ignition zones and then by the fire propagation zones. The first data layer (ignition zones) is the result of the crossing between the ignition factors: lightning - points of multitemporal occurence and anthropogenic activities (grazing, tourism and traffic) and the ignition zones (forest fuel zonation - forest stands, soil cover and topoclimatic factor zonation). This data is modelled from different sources: the MODIS imagery fire product (Hantson et al., 2012), detailed topographic maps, multitemporal orthophotos at 0.5 m resolution, Landsat multispectral imagery, forestry cadastre maps, detailed soil maps, meteorological data (the WorldClim digital database) as well as the field survey (mapping using GPS and local observation). The second data layer (fire propagation zones) is the result of the crossing between the forest fuel zonation, obtained with the

  6. The digital mapping of satellite images under no ground control and the distribution of landform, blue ice and meteorites in the Grove Mountains, Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙家抦; 霍东民; 周军其; 孙朝辉

    2001-01-01

    The colorful satellite image maps with the scale of 1∶100 000 were made by processing the parameters-on-satellite under the condition of no data of field surveying. The purpose is to ensure the smooth performance of the choice of expedition route, navigation and research task before the Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition (CHINARE) first made researches on the Grove Mountains. Moreover, on the basis of the visual interpretation of the satellite image, we preliminarily analyze and discuss the relief and landform, blue ice and meteorite distribution characteristics in the Grove Mountains. Key words Grove Mountains, parameters-on-satellite, satellite image, digital mapping, blue ice, meteorites distribution.

  7. “Kekexilli: Mountain Patrol”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenBaoguang

    2005-01-01

    At the 17th Tokyo International Film Festival which condluded on October 31,2004,the Special July Prize went to the sole participating Chinese film “Kekexilli:Mountain Patrol”.The theme of the film is “thrill,obligation and life”。During the weeklong festival,every screening of the film played to a packed house and received enthusiastic applause.Director Lu Chuan cried when he accepted the prize onstage.He told the media,“I put my heart and soul into producing this film.But I believe it was worth it,because the film has gained recognition by so many people”.The film debuted in mainland China on October 1,2004.According to producer wang Zhonglei,the investment in the production totaled 10 million RMB.Box office figures from the mainland are estimated to reach 10 million RMB.Meanwhile,the overseas copyright has been sold for 800,000 USD.

  8. Forest Plant community changes during 1989-2007 in response to climate warming in the Jura Mountains (France and Switzerland)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenoir, Jonathan; Gégout, J.C.; Dupouey, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    reflecting the confounding influence of forest stand dynamics. Location: Jura Mountains (France and Switzerland). Methods: We assessed changes in plant community composition by surveying 154 Abies alba forest vegetation relevés (550-1,350 m a.s.l.) in 1989 and 2007. Over this period, temperatures increased...

  9. Mineral resource potential map of the Blanco Mountain and Black Canyon roadless areas, Inyo and Mono counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggles, Michael F.; Blakely, Richard J.; Rains, Richard L.; Schmauch, Steven W.

    1983-01-01

    On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and geophysical investigations and a survey of mines and prospects, the mineral resource potential for gold, silver, lead, zinc, tungsten, and barite of the Blanco Mountain and Black Canyon Roadless Areas is judged to be low to moderate, except for one local area that has high potential for gold and tungsten resources.

  10. Seasonal cycles in streamwater quality on Catoctin Mountain, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Karen C.; Bricker, Owen P.

    1995-01-01

    In 1980, the U.S. Congress mandated the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) to study the effects of acidic precipitation (acid rain). In 1982, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was selected to be the lead Federal agency under NAPAP to monitor the composition of precipitation and its effects on the environment. In 1982, the USGS began to monitor precipitation and streamwater on Catoctin Mountain in north-central Maryland (fig. 1); the effort has continued through the present. Beginning in 1990, funding for these data-collection and interpretation activities was supplemented by the Maryland Department of the Environment and the Maryland Department of Natural Re- sources. The collection and interpretation of long-term precipitation and streamwater-quality records, such as those at Catoctin Mountain, provide valuable information for management decisions. At the local level, the information can be used to identify periods when streamwater quality may pose a danger to aquatic resources, such as finfish; at the national level, the information can be used to assess the effectiveness of the Clean Air Act Amendments.

  11. Structural diversity of forest communities on Baihuashan Mountain,Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The structural diversity of forests on Baihuashan Mountain,Beijing,was surveyed by a plotless method combined with branch and leaf coverage estimation in the different layers.New structural indices were constructed,calculated and compared among different communities.On the basis of previous work,structural diversity of forest communities at the stand level was described by a vertical complexity index and a horizontal heterogeneity index.From a correlational analysis among the new indices and other commonly used biodiversity indices,we concluded that the new indices are closely related to a tree height inequality index and the Shannon-Wiener index of the tree and shrub layer,which indicated that the new indices were good at indicating structural diversity in the different forests on Baihuashan Mountain.The results show that,in natural forests,structural diversity of pioneer communities is much lower than in late successive communities.In plantations,structural diversity is determined by the stage of development and tree species.Tending would increase horizontal heterogeneity and decrease vertical complexity.

  12. High-precision gravity network to monitor temporal variations in gravity across Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, R.N.; Ponce, D.A.

    1988-12-31

    Repeatable high-precision gravity surveys provide a method of monitoring temporal variations in the gravity field. Fluctuations in the gravity field may indicate water table changes, crustal deformation, or precursors to volcanism and earthquakes. This report describes a high-precision gravity loop which has been established across Yucca Mountain, Nevada in support of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) program. The purpose of this gravity loop is to monitor temporal variations in gravity across Yucca Mountain in an effort to interpret and predict the stability of the tectonic framework and changes in the subsurface density field. Studies of the tectonic framework which include volcanic hazard seismicity, and faulting studies are in progress. Repeat high-precision gravity surveys are less expensive and can be made more rapidly than a corresponding leveling survey. High-precision gravity surveys are capable of detecting elevation changes of 3 to 5 cm, and thus can be employed as an efficient tool for monitoring vertical crustal movements while supplementing or partially replacing leveling data. The Yucca Mountain gravity network has been tied to absolute gravity measurements established in southern Nevada. These ties provide an absolute datum for comparing repeat occupations of the gravity network, and provide a method of monitoring broad-scale changes in gravity. Absolute gravity measurements were also made at the bottom and top of the Charleston Peak calibration loop in southern Nevada. These absolute gravity measurements provide local control of calibrating gravity meters over the gravity ranges observed at Yucca Mountain. 13 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Public opinion polling and the Yucca Mountain controversy: A seven year inventory December 1986--August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himmelberger, J.J. [Clark Univ., Worcester, MA (United States); Baughman, M.L. [Interch Services Corp., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents an inventory of recent (12/87-6/93) public opinion polling activities related to the proposed Yucca Mountain repository. The inventory of polls is discussed in terms of sponsor intentions/objectives, populations polled, survey design/implementation characteristics, and media attention to key findings. We close with some observations on {open_quotes}like{close_quotes} questions as asked over time to Nevadans to shed light on the state of public opinion related to the proposed repository.

  14. A geochemical perspective of Red Mountain: an unmined volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit in the Alaska Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Stuart A.; Eppinger, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has investigated the environmental geochemistry of a group of unmined volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits in the Bonnifield mining district, Alaska Range, east-central Alaska. The spectacularly colored Red Mountain deposit is the best exposed of these and provides excellent baseline geochemical data for natural environmental impacts of acidic rock drainage, metal dissolution and transport, and acidic salt and metal precipitation from an exposed and undisturbed VMS deposit.

  15. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RESORT LIFE CYCLE AND RESIDENTS' PERCEPTION AND ATTITUDE--A Case Study of Putuo Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-zhong; LU Lin; ZHANG Guang-sheng; LU Song; XUAN Guo-fu

    2004-01-01

    The change in residents' perception and attitude and resort life cycle are the basic problems in the course of resort evolution. This thesis sets up the dynamic model of residents'perception and attitude, analyzes the linkage between residents' perception and attitude and the influential factors of resort life cycle, and finally, with a case study of Putuo Mountain, preliminarily discusses the relationship between resort life cycle and residents'perception and attitude. The research findings show that, although within development stage of life cycle, Putuo Mountain has already presented some signs of mature stage. The on-the-spot survey also indicates that, the local residents'positive perception is stronger than their negative perception. But compared with residents in some other coastal resorts such as Haikou and Sanya, negative perception of residents in Putuo Mountain is more evident, as the result of the smaller tourism carrying capacity in Putuo Mountain. There are some influential factors that have great impact on tourism carrying capacity in Putuo Mountain: tourist-resident number ratio, residents' benefit-cost ratio and characteristics of tourism resources. And the less influential factors are residents' demographic character, tourist behavioral character and cultural differences between local residents and tourists. Therefore, effective measures should be taken to adjust the structure of tourism product for the purpose of expanding tourism carrying capacity, lowering its pressure, lessening residents' environmental cost and enhancing their positive perception, which is the most essential prerequisite for the maturation of life cycle in Putuo Mountain.

  16. Diversity and Distribution of Host Animal Species of Hantavirus and Risk to Human Health in Jiuhua Mountain Area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xing Qiang; LI Shi Guang; LIU Hong; WANG Jun; HUA Ri Mao

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diversity and the distribution of host animal species of hantavirus and the effect on human health in Jiuhua Mountain area, China. Methods The host animal species of hantavirus was surveyed by using the trap method and the species diversity was evaluated by using the Simpson, Shannon-Weaner, and Pielou indices. Hantavirus antigens or antibodies in lung and blood samples of all the captured host animals were detected by direct or indirect immunofluorescence. Results Nine animal species of hantavirus were distributed in the forest ecosystem of Jiuhua Mountain. Of these, Niviventer confucianus and Apodemus agrarius were predominant, and N. confucianus, Rattus norvegicus, and Mus musculus had relatively large niche breadth index values. The host animals in the eastern and western mountain regions shared similar biodiversity index characteristics, predominant species, and species structures. Hantavirus was detected in 5 host animal species in Jiuhua Mountain area, the carriage rate of hantavirus was 6.03%. The average density of host animals in forest areas of the mountainous area was only 2.20%, and the virus infection rate in the healthy population was 2.33%. Conclusion The circulation of hantavirus was low in the forest areas of Jiuhua Mountain and did not pose a threat to human health.

  17. Model for predicting mountain wave field uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiens, Florentin; Lott, François; Millet, Christophe; Plougonven, Riwal

    2017-04-01

    Studying the propagation of acoustic waves throughout troposphere requires knowledge of wind speed and temperature gradients from the ground up to about 10-20 km. Typical planetary boundary layers flows are known to present vertical low level shears that can interact with mountain waves, thereby triggering small-scale disturbances. Resolving these fluctuations for long-range propagation problems is, however, not feasible because of computer memory/time restrictions and thus, they need to be parameterized. When the disturbances are small enough, these fluctuations can be described by linear equations. Previous works by co-authors have shown that the critical layer dynamics that occur near the ground produces large horizontal flows and buoyancy disturbances that result in intense downslope winds and gravity wave breaking. While these phenomena manifest almost systematically for high Richardson numbers and when the boundary layer depth is relatively small compare to the mountain height, the process by which static stability affects downslope winds remains unclear. In the present work, new linear mountain gravity wave solutions are tested against numerical predictions obtained with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. For Richardson numbers typically larger than unity, the mesoscale model is used to quantify the effect of neglected nonlinear terms on downslope winds and mountain wave patterns. At these regimes, the large downslope winds transport warm air, a so called "Foehn" effect than can impact sound propagation properties. The sensitivity of small-scale disturbances to Richardson number is quantified using two-dimensional spectral analysis. It is shown through a pilot study of subgrid scale fluctuations of boundary layer flows over realistic mountains that the cross-spectrum of mountain wave field is made up of the same components found in WRF simulations. The impact of each individual component on acoustic wave propagation is discussed in terms of

  18. Sustainable Land Use in Mountain Regions Under Global Change: Synthesis Across Scales and Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Huber

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mountain regions provide essential ecosystem goods and services (EGS for both mountain dwellers and people living outside these areas. Global change endangers the capacity of mountain ecosystems to provide key services. The Mountland project focused on three case study regions in the Swiss Alps and aimed to propose land-use practices and alternative policy solutions to ensure the provision of key EGS under climate and land-use changes. We summarized and synthesized the results of the project and provide insights into the ecological, socioeconomic, and political processes relevant for analyzing global change impacts on a European mountain region. In Mountland, an integrative approach was applied, combining methods from economics and the political and natural sciences to analyze ecosystem functioning from a holistic human-environment system perspective. In general, surveys, experiments, and model results revealed that climate and socioeconomic changes are likely to increase the vulnerability of the EGS analyzed. We regard the following key characteristics of coupled human-environment systems as central to our case study areas in mountain regions: thresholds, heterogeneity, trade-offs, and feedback. Our results suggest that the institutional framework should be strengthened in a way that better addresses these characteristics, allowing for (1 more integrative approaches, (2 a more network-oriented management and steering of political processes that integrate local stakeholders, and (3 enhanced capacity building to decrease the identified vulnerability as central elements in the policy process. Further, to maintain and support the future provision of EGS in mountain regions, policy making should also focus on project-oriented, cross-sectoral policies and spatial planning as a coordination instrument for land use in general.

  19. Participatory and Integrated Research in Mountainous Regions of Thailand and Vietnam: Approaches and Lessons Learned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas Neef; Franz Heidhues; Karl Stahr; Pittaya Sruamsiri

    2006-01-01

    Participatory and integrated research approaches employed by a long-term ThaiVietnamese-German collaborative research program,circles of resource scarcity, environmental degradation and rural poverty in mountainous regions of northern Thailand and northern Vietnam are discussed in this paper. We present two examples from the Thai component of the research program to show how different disciplines and stakeholders need to cooperate at different scales to make meaningful scientific contributions towards sustainable land use and rural development in mountainous regions. The case of resource conservation in the Thai highlands shows that local and scientific knowledge, conventional surveys and participatory modeling can be creatively combined. Integrated research on the potential of integrating fruit trees and associated technologies into mountain farming systems suggests that natural scientists have to work alongside economists and social scientists to avoid harmful effects of purely technology-driven and productivityenhancing approaches. The success of new technologies cannot be measured solely by adoption rates and yield increases, but also needs to take into account their long-term impact on various groups of farmers and the ecological, economic and social trade-offs that they entail. Technical and institutional innovations need to go hand in hand to provide viable livelihood opportunities for smallholder farmers in mountain watersheds. The major lesson learned from the first six years of our research in the mountains of Thailand and Vietnam is that conventional and participatory approaches are not antagonistic; if scientists from various disciplines and research paradigms are open-minded, the combination of both approaches can produce meaningful results that cater for the needs of both the academic community and local stakeholders in mountain environments.

  20. Status of northern mountain caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in Yukon, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy M. Hegel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SV X-NONE X-NONE Caribou (Rangifer tarandus are an important ecological, cultural and economic resource in Yukon, Canada. Three caribou ecotypes occur within Yukon: Grant’s (R. t. granti, northern mountain (R. t. caribou, and boreal (R. t. caribou. Northern mountain caribou are classified as a species of special concern under Canada’s Species at Risk Act, and a national management plan for northern mountain caribou was recently completed. Twenty-six northern mountain caribou herds occur at least partially within Yukon, representing approximately 30,000 – 35,000 animals. Active monitoring of Yukon’s northern mountain caribou began in earnest in the early 1980s. To date, over 200 fall composition surveys have been carried out, over 1000 animals have been fitted with radio-collars, and nearly 40 formal population estimates have been completed. Disease and contaminant monitoring of these caribou has indicated relatively low disease prevalence and contaminant loading. Northern mountain caribou are harvested in Yukon, with an average of 230 caribou harvested per year by licensed hunters (1995 – 2012 and an unknown number by First Nation hunters. Future challenges related to caribou management and conservation in Yukon include increasing levels of industrial development primarily through mineral exploration and development, ensuring harvest of these herds is conducted sustainably given the absence of total harvest information, inter-jurisdictional management of shared herds, existing uncertainty surrounding herd distribution and delineation, and dealing with vehicle-related mortality of caribou for certain herds. Overall, the population status (i.e., trend of eight herds is known, with two increasing, two decreasing, and four stable.

  1. Saturated Zone Plumes in Volcanic Rock: Implications for Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Kelkar; R. Roback; B. Robinson; G. Srinivasan; C. Jones; P. Reimus

    2006-02-14

    This paper presents a literature survey of the occurrences of radionuclide plumes in saturated, fractured rocks. Three sites, Idaho National laboratory, Hanford, and Oak Ridge are discussed in detail. Results of a modeling study are also presented showing that the length to width ratio of a plume starting within the repository footprint at the Yucca Mountain Project site, decreases from about 20:1 for the base case to about 4:1 for a higher value of transverse dispersivity, indicating enhanced lateral spreading of the plume. Due to the definition of regulatory requirements, this lateral spreading does not directly impact breakthrough curves at the 18 km compliance boundary, however it increases the potential that a plume will encounter reducing conditions, thus significantly retarding the transport of sorbing radionuclides.

  2. Topographical Correction on Gravity Data in Complex Mountainous Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangZhanjun; LiuYunxiang; ChaiYupu

    2003-01-01

    Discussed in this paper was the pre-processing procedure for gravity data, including topographical correction,intermediary layer correction etc. The necessity to utilize aerial photogram to do topographical correction in middle area was discussed, and a real examples given showing the effect. We discussed the problems caused by the maximum radius for conventional correction, the necessity of extending the radius for topographical correction, the corresponding method for calculation of topographical correction, and the standard of optimally selecting the radium for topographical correction.This method could raise the data accuracy of gravity survey in the complex mountainous areas by several millil-gals-several tens milli-gals reaching the exploration effect as well as in plain area almost.

  3. CENTENNIAL MOUNTAINS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MONTANA AND IDAHO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkind, Irving J.; Ridenour, James

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey conducted within the Centennial Mountains Wilderness study area in Montana and Idaho showed large areas of probable and substantiated resource potential for phosphate. Byproducts that may be derived from processing the phosphate include vanadium, chromium, uranium, silver, fluorine, and the rare earths, lanthanum and yttrium. Results of a geochemical sampling program suggest that there is little promise for the occurrence of base and precious metals in the area. Although the area contains other nonmetallic deposits, such as coal, building stone, and pumiceous ash they are not considered as mineral resources. There is a probable resource potential for oil and gas and significant amounts may underlie the area around the Peet Creek and Odell Creek anticlines.

  4. Amphibians of the Simbruini Mountains (Latium, Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangelo Crucitti

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Little attention has been paid to the herpetological fauna of the Simbruini Mountains Regional Park, Latium (Central Italy. In this study, we surveyed 50 sites in the course of about ten years of field research, especially during the period 2005-2008. Nine amphibian species, four Caudata and five Anura, 60.0% out of the 15 amphibian species so far observed in Latium, were discovered in the protected area: Salamandra salamandra, Salamandrina perspicillata, Lissotriton vulgaris, Triturus carnifex, Bombina pachypus, Bufo balearicus, Bufo bufo, Rana dalmatina, Rana italica. Physiography of sites has been detailed together with potential threatening patterns. For each species the following topics have been discussed; ecology of sites, altitudinal distribution, phenology, sintopy. Salamandra salamandra and Bombina pachypus are at higher risk. The importance of the maintenance of artificial/natural water bodies for the conservation management of amphibian population of this territory is discussed.

  5. Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Anti-Atlas Mountains of Morocco formed as a result of the collision of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates about 80 million years ago. This collision destroyed the Tethys Ocean; the limestone, sandstone, claystone, and gypsum layers that formed the ocean bed were folded and crumpled to create the Atlas and Anti-Atlas Mountains. In this ASTER image, short wavelength infrared bands are combined to dramatically highlight the different rock types, and illustrate the complex folding. The yellowish, orange and green areas are limestones, sandstones and gypsum; the dark blue and green areas are underlying granitic rocks. The ability to map geology using ASTER data is enhanced by the multiple short wavelength infrared bands, that are sensitive to differences in rock mineralogy. This image was acquired on June 13, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and

  6. BVOC fluxes above mountain grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bamberger

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Grasslands comprise natural tropical savannah over managed temperate fields to tundra and cover one quarter of the Earth's land surface. Plant growth, maintenance and decay result in volatile organic compound (VOCs emissions to the atmosphere. Furthermore, biogenic VOCs (BVOCs are emitted as a consequence of various environmental stresses including cutting and drying during harvesting. Fluxes of BVOCs were measured with a proton-transfer-reaction-mass-spectrometer (PTR-MS over temperate mountain grassland in Stubai Valley (Tyrol, Austria over one growing season (2008. VOC fluxes were calculated from the disjunct PTR-MS data using the virtual disjunct eddy covariance method and the gap filling method. Methanol fluxes obtained with the two independent flux calculation methods were highly correlated (y = 0.95×−0.12, R2 = 0.92. Methanol showed strong daytime emissions throughout the growing season – with maximal values of 9.7 nmol m−2 s−1, methanol fluxes from the growing grassland were considerably higher at the beginning of the growing season in June compared to those measured during October (2.5 nmol m−2 s−1. Methanol was the only component that exhibited consistent fluxes during the entire growing periods of the grass. The cutting and drying of the grass increased the emissions of methanol to up to 78.4 nmol m−2 s−1. In addition, emissions of acetaldehyde (up to 11.0 nmol m−2 s−1, and hexenal (leaf aldehyde, up to 8.6 nmol m−2 s−1 were detected during/after harvesting.

  7. Rurality, ethnicity and mountain areas:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Amilhat-Szary

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In a Latin American context where indigenous populations have had to wait until the end of the XXth century to recover a certain visibility, the definition of Andean identity is still an issue. In this paper, an analysis of the various steps in a territorially based collective movement provides insights into this identity that was for so long denied or repressed on account of socio-political conditions. The possible re-assertion of “Andeanity” is very complex, as the case study of the “Aymaras Sin Fronteras” (Aymaras without borders movement reveals. In this movement, the territorialisation process is based on the dialectics between its rural, ethnic and mountain (Andean components.Dans un contexte latinoaméricain où les populations autochtones ont dû attendre la fin du XXème siècle pour regagner en visibilité, l’identité andine pose question. Dans cet article, l’analyse des étapes d’une mobilisation collective à base territoriale permet de suivre la  redécouverte d’un ancrage identitaire longtemps nié ou refoulé du fait des conditions socio-politiques. L’affirmation retrouvée de l’ethnicité, voire de l’« andinité » s’avère très  complexe, comme le cas étudié, l’alliance « Aymaras sin Fronteras » (Aymaras sans frontières le révèle. Dans ce cas, le processus de territorialisation se fonde sur une interaction dialectique entre ses composantes rurale, ethnique, et montagnarde (andine.

  8. Remote sensing for environmental site screening and watershed evaluation in Utah Mine lands - East Tintic mountains, Oquirrh mountains, and Tushar mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.; McDougal, Robert R.; Gent, Carol A.

    2005-01-01

    Imaging spectroscopy-a powerful remote-sensing tool for mapping subtle variations in the composition of minerals, vegetation, and man-made materials on the Earth's surface-was applied in support of environmental assessments and watershed evaluations in several mining districts in the State of Utah. Three areas were studied through the use of Landsat 7 ETM+ and Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data: (1) the Tintic mining district in the East Tintic Mountains southwest of Provo, (2) the Camp Floyd mining district (including the Mercur mine) and the Stockton (or Rush Valley) mining district in the Oquirrh Mountains south of the Great Salt Lake, and (3) the Tushar Mountains and Antelope Range near Marysvale. The Landsat 7 ETM+ data were used for initial site screening and the planning of AVIRIS surveys. The AVIRIS data were analyzed to create spectrally defined maps of surface minerals with special emphasis on locating and characterizing rocks and soils with acid-producing potential (APP) and acid-neutralizing potential (ANP). These maps were used by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for three primary purposes: (1) to identify unmined and anthropogenic sources of acid generation in the form of iron sulfide and (or) ferric iron sulfate-bearing minerals such as jarosite and copiapite; (2) to seek evidence for downstream or downwind movement of minerals associated with acid generation, mine waste, and (or) tailings from mines, mill sites, and zones of unmined hydrothermally altered rocks; and (3) to identify carbonate and other acid-buffering minerals that neutralize acidic, potentially metal bearing, solutions and thus mitigate potential environmental effects of acid generation. Calibrated AVIRIS surface-reflectance data were spectrally analyzed to identify and map selected surface materials. Two maps were produced from each flightline of AVIRIS data: a map of iron-bearing minerals and water having absorption features in the

  9. A new network on mountain geomorphosites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Since about two decades, the value of geoheritage in mountain areas has been re-discovered in various parts of the Alps (Reynard et al., 2010) and other mountain ranges, and various initiatives (protection of sites worthy of protection, inventories of geomorphosites, geotourist promotion, creation of geoparks, etc.) to conserve or promote mountain geoheritage have been developed. As mountains are recognized as natural areas with a very high geodiversity, and at the same time as areas with a great potential for the development of soft tourism, a new Network on Mountain Geomorphosites was created in October 2012 in conclusion to a workshop organized by the University of Lausanne (Switzerland). The Network is open to all researchers active in geoheritage, geoconservation and geotourism studies in mountain areas. For the first years research will focus on three main issues: - Geoheritage and natural processes: Mountains are very sensitive areas where climate change impacts are very acute and where active geomorphological processes rapidly modify landscapes. It is hypothesized that geoheritage will be highly impacted by global change in the future. Nevertheless, at the moment, very little research is carried out on the evolution of landforms recognized as geoheritage and no specific management measures have been developed. Also, the tourist activities related to geoheritage, especially the trails developed to visit geomorphosites, are sensitive to geomorphological processes in mountain areas in a context of global change, and need, therefore, to be better addressed by geomorphologists. - Geotourism: During the last two decades numerous initiatives have developed geotourism in mountain areas. Nevertheless, studies addressing issues such as the needs of the potential public(s) of geotourism, the evaluation of the quality of the geotourist products developed by scientists and/or local authorities, and the assessment of the economic benefits of geotourism for the regional

  10. Analysis on the Characteristics of Forest Landscape on Northern Slope of the Tianshan Mountains Based on Survey and Classification of Forest%基于森林调查分类的天山北坡森林景观特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗磊; 张毓涛; 师庆东; 安文明; 常顺利

    2012-01-01

    [目的]干旱区山区森林景观具有显著的空间异质分布特性,景观中特征的不同梯度分布,制约着景观的各种生态过程.将景观生态学方法引入到森林资源定量分析及科学评价,可为森林资源调查提供一种新的分析评价工具.[方法]在森林资源规划设计调查土地分类的基础上,运用景观生态学原理,采用景观指数法,通过ArcGIS和Fragstats软件对天山北坡沙湾林场7种景观类型的格局进行分析.所使用的景观格局指标包括平均斑块面积、平均斑块周长、斑块密度、边缘密度、景观形状指数、聚集度、海拔、坡度、坡向等.[结果]沙湾林场景观类型丰富度较低,且各景观类型拥有的斑块数分布很不均匀.从面积来看,以未利用地面积最大,为林场森林景观的基质;针叶林景观、国家特别规定灌木林景观是沙湾林场的主要森林景观类型,是沙湾林场森林资源的重要组成部分,其景观面积分别占13.95%、8.71%;并且受地形因子影响,各类型景观分布很不均匀.[结论]景观生态学可以在森林资源规划设计调查土地分类的基础上根据森林、林地和林木资源的种类、数量、质量与分布,为综合分析与评价森林资源与经营管理现状提供有效分析方法.%[ Objective] Mountain forest landscape of arid areas has significant heterogeneity of the spatial distribution, and different gradient distribution of landscape features restrict varieties of ecological processes of the landscape. The landscape ecology method was introduced to the quantitative analysis and scientific evaluation of the forest resources, which could provide a new tool of analysis and evaluation for the survey of forest resources. [Method]Based on the classification of forest resource plan design and land inventory, with the landscape ecological theory, by the method of landscape index, the paper analyzed 7 kinds of landscape patterns in

  11. Aeromagnetic map of the Sandia Mountain Wilderness, Bernalillo and Sandoval counties, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, D.C.; Cordell, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    During 1981 and 1982 the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mimes conducted field investigations to evaluate the mineral resource potential of the Sandia Mountain Wilderness, Bernalillo and Sandoval Counties, New Mexico. This report and map represent only the results of the aeromagnetic compilation from previous publications (U.S. geological Survey, 1975a,b,c). The wilderness encompasses 61 mi2 (37,232 acres) within the Cibola National Forest, but the map area is about 145 mi2 and includes areas adjacent to the wilderness boundary.

  12. The Altai Mountains environmental disaster (Eastern Kazakhstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmadiyeva, Z. K.

    2009-12-01

    The space centre "Baikoniyr" (Kazakhstan) has had substantial affects on the environment. During the past several decades as a result of the launching of carrier rockets, such as "Proton" that use as fuel the asymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (ASDH), more well-known as "heptyl", the unique mountain landscapes in Eastern Kazakhstan have been subjected to pollution. In 2004, RSE "Kazakh research Institute of Ecology and Climate" carried out the complex geochemical and radiation researches in East Kazakhstan that is an impact area of second stages of carrier rockets. Such detailed examinations of this area were conducted for the first time because the Eastern Kazakhstan Mountains are difficult for human access. The landscape-geochemical research over the natural landscapes covered the ridge, low, and middle mountains with fir forests. The research results have shown the presence of heptyl in the samples of the soil, plants, and rivers’ bottom sediments. The findings of the influence of space activity on environment of the Kazakhstan part of the Altai Mountains confirm and complement the Russian scientific research results over the territory of the neighbouring Altai Krai. Though the heptyl pollution in the investigated region is of a local nature and highly spatially inhomogeneous, nevertheless, this anthropogenic effect intensifying from year to year increases the load on the natural ecosystems. In particular, it strengthens the desertification process of mountain regions of East Kazakhstan.

  13. DANGERS AND SAFETY MEASURES IN A MOUNTAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovica Petković

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mountaineering and everything that is connected with it is a sport with con¬tro¬lled risk. Mountaineers, alpinists, climbers, cavers and all the others who visit and sojourn in mountains are faced with many risks and dangers, which are caused by na¬ture and also by their own mistakes. The dangers in the mountains, like dangers in any other environment, are mainly predictable, so it is best to deal with them with good esti¬mation, knowledge and skill. One has to be aware of his surroundings – the moun¬tain, to respect it and to know what is dangerous and how much it is dangerous at any moment. The organization of the mountaineering expeditions and leadership per¬haps re¬present the highest level of security control. To develop skills for organizing and lead¬ing a group means to ensure the safety of the entire group – to work pre¬ven¬ti¬ve¬ly at the level of the entire group, not only at the level of an individual. The success of the enti¬re group as well as safety depends on the organization and leadership.

  14. "Suntelligence" Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the American Academy of Dermatology's "Suntelligence" sun-smart survey. Please answer the following questions to measure ... be able to view a ranking of major cities suntelligence based on residents' responses to this survey. ...

  15. Mountain Residence at Mt.Fuchun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Yuan Dynasty paintings laid stress on landscape with literary interest. Poems, calligraphy and painting were consciously arranged in perfect harmony so as to form the style of mountains-and-water painting with the "scholars’ painting" as its main theme. Huang Gongwang (1269-1354) was learned. Proficient in tonality and good at calligraphy, he began to paint mountains and streams when he was in his 50s. With his magnificent,refined and elegant style, Huang Gongwang’s paintings gained important position among artists of the time. The scroll Mountain Residence at Mt. Fuchun is his most popular piece. As a paper wash painting scroll, it is divided into two sections with the previous section 31.8 cm tall and 51.4 cm long,owned by the Zhejiang Provincial Museum, and the latter section 33 cm tall and 636.9 cm long, owned by the Palace Museum in Taiwan.

  16. Mechanical excavator performance in Yucca Mountain tuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdemir, L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (USA); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)

    1991-01-01

    A research effort of four phases is in progress at the Colorado School of Mines. The overall program will evaluate the cutability of welded tuff and other lithologies likely to be excavated at Yucca Mountain in the site characterization process. Several mechanical systems are considered with emphasis given to the tunnel boring machine. The research comprises laboratory testing, linear drag bit and disc cutter tests and potentially large-scale laboratory demonstrations to support potential use of a tunnel boring machine in welded tuff. Preliminary estimates of mechanical excavator performance in Yucca Mountain tuff are presented here. As phases of the research project are completed, well quantified estimates will be made of performance of mechanical excavators in the Yucca Mountain tuffs. 3 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. A case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, Barry S

    2007-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a serious, generalized infection that is spread to humans through the bite of infected ticks. It can be lethal but it is curable. The disease gets its name from the Rocky Mountain region where it was first identified in 1896. The fever is caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii and is maintained in nature in a complex life cycle involving ticks and mammals. Humans are considered to be accidental hosts and are not involved in the natural transmission cycle of this pathogen. The author examined a 47-year-old woman during a periodic recall appointment. The patient had no dental problems other than the need for routine prophylaxis but mentioned a recent problem with swelling of her extremities with an accompanying rash and general malaise and soreness in her neck region. Tests were conducted and a diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever was made.

  18. Periurban landscapes in mountain areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Bertrand

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Les mutations des paysages régionaux dues aux pressions urbaines questionnent l’usage du sol. Elles interpellent à la fois des enjeux économiques, sociaux et environnementaux voire spatiaux sous-tendus par l’étalement urbain, l’accroissement des déplacements domicile-travail, le mitage de l’espace. Ces évolutions et dysfonctionnements renvoient à la question de la durabilité du développement des régions, et particulièrement des Alpes, espace contraint géographiquement et objet de nombreuses pressions anthropiques et riche en biotopes remarquables. Cet article est basé sur deux ans de travaux menés par des socio-économistes et des écologues sur les effets sur le paysage et l’environnement de la périurbanisation d’un massif alpin. Nous avons pris en compte l’espace dans les processus environnementaux, économiques ou sociaux. Intrinsèque dans les analyses écologiques, elle a longtemps posé problème à l’économie pour intégrer l’espace comme dimension à part entière des processus économiques. Trois thèmes sont ici développés : l’approche du point de vue du paysage, les problèmes d’échelles spatiales et temporelles, le choix d’indicateurs. Ils demandent de hiérarchiser les questions et de pratiquer le travail en commun. Aller au-delà nécessite de développer une interrogation plus écologique ou plus économique et/ou sociale en quittant de ce fait l’interface pour favoriser des interrogations disciplinaires particulières.Changes in regional landscapes due to urban pressures raise questions regarding land use. They also give rise to economic, social and environmental issues related to urban sprawl, increases in daily commuting, and land consumption. These changes and dysfunctions are ultimately underpinned by the question of sustainable regional development. Mountain regions such as the Alps, with their various outstanding biotopes in a restricted space, are particularly vulnerable.

  19. Flow directionality, mountain barriers and functional traits determine diatom metacommunity structuring of high mountain streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoyu; Li, Bin; He, Fengzhi; Gu, Yuan; Sun, Meiqin; Zhang, Haomiao; Tan, Lu; Xiao, Wen; Liu, Shuoran; Cai, Qinghua

    2016-04-19

    Stream metacommunities are structured by a combination of local (environmental filtering) and regional (dispersal) processes. The unique characters of high mountain streams could potentially determine metacommunity structuring, which is currently poorly understood. Aiming at understanding how these characters influenced metacommunity structuring, we explored the relative importance of local environmental conditions and various dispersal processes, including through geographical (overland), topographical (across mountain barriers) and network (along flow direction) pathways in shaping benthic diatom communities. From a trait perspective, diatoms were categorized into high-profile, low-profile and motile guild to examine the roles of functional traits. Our results indicated that both environmental filtering and dispersal processes influenced metacommunity structuring, with dispersal contributing more than environmental processes. Among the three pathways, stream corridors were primary pathway. Deconstructive analysis suggested different responses to environmental and spatial factors for each of three ecological guilds. However, regardless of traits, dispersal among streams was limited by mountain barriers, while dispersal along stream was promoted by rushing flow in high mountain stream. Our results highlighted that directional processes had prevailing effects on metacommunity structuring in high mountain streams. Flow directionality, mountain barriers and ecological guilds contributed to a better understanding of the roles that mountains played in structuring metacommunity.

  20. Survey Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    Survey Says is a lesson plan designed to teach college students how to access Internet resources for valid data related to the sexual health of young people. Discussion questions based on the most recent available data from two national surveys, the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance-United States, 2003 (CDC, 2004) and the National Survey of…

  1. Recent changes in area and thickness of Torngat Mountain glaciers (northern Labrador, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrand, Nicholas E.; Way, Robert G.; Bell, Trevor; Sharp, Martin J.

    2017-01-01

    The Torngat Mountains National Park, northern Labrador, Canada, contains more than 120 small glaciers: the only remaining glaciers in continental northeast North America. These small cirque glaciers exist in a unique topo-climatic setting, experiencing temperate maritime summer conditions yet very cold and dry winters, and may provide insights into the deglaciation dynamics of similar small glaciers in temperate mountain settings. Due to their size and remote location, very little information exists regarding the health of these glaciers. Just a single study has been published on the contemporary glaciology of the Torngat Mountains, focusing on net mass balances from 1981 to 1984. This paper addresses the extent to which glaciologically relevant climate variables have changed in northern Labrador in concert with 20th-century Arctic warming, and how these changes have affected Torngat Mountain glaciers. Field surveys and remote-sensing analyses were used to measure regional glacier area loss of 27 % from 1950 to 2005, substantial rates of ice surface thinning (up to 6 m yr-1) and volume losses at Abraham, Hidden, and Minaret glaciers, between 2005 and 2011. Glacier mass balances appear to be controlled by variations in winter precipitation and, increasingly, by strong summer and autumn atmospheric warming since the early 1990s, though further observations are required to fully understand mass balance sensitivities. This study provides the first comprehensive contemporary assessment of Labrador glaciers and will inform both regional impact assessments and syntheses of global glacier mass balance.

  2. Phenotypic plasticity of Vaccinium meridionale (Ericaceae) in wild populations of mountain forests in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligarreto, Gustavo A; Patiño, Maria del Pilar; Magnitskiy, Stanislav V

    2011-06-01

    Vaccinium meridionale is a promising crop for the Andean region of South America and is currently available only in the wild. Spontaneous populations of this plant are found across the Colombian mountains, but very few published records on this plant morphology are available. A zonification study of V. meridionale was conducted in four principal areas of a low mountain forest of Colombia (Provinces of Boyacá, Cundinamarca, Santander and Nariño) in 2007. A total of 20 populations and 100 plants of V. meridionale were individually characterized and surveyed, using a list of 26 characters of morphological variables (9 quantitative and 17 qualitative characters). Our results indicated that natural populations of V. meridionale might be found in the tropical forest under a highly heterogeneous climate and microclimate conditions, at different mountain regions between 2 357 and 3 168masl. The shrubs of V. meridionale exhibited a high level of intra-population variation in several quantitative (plant height, stem diameter) and qualitative (growth habit, ramification density, presence of anthocyanins in stems) morphological characters, suggesting an environmentally induced phenotypic plasticity. Plant height, stem diameter and foliar density were the most variable morphological traits, with coefficients of variation higher than 50%. However, several quantitative characters of its reproductive potential, such as berry dimensions, rachis length and number of flowers per inflorescence, resulted with low plasticity with coefficients of variation lower than 30.2%, indicating that these characters were genetically determined. The highest correlation coefficients (p mountain forests of Colombia.

  3. Reconnaissance geologic map of the Dubakella Mountain 15 quadrangle, Trinity, Shasta, and Tehama Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, William P.; Yule, J. Douglas; Court, Bradford L.; Snoke, Arthur W.; Stern, Laura A.; Copeland, William B.

    2011-01-01

    Cretaceous (about 120 Ma) metamorphic age. Remnants of the Great Valley sequence of dominantly Cretaceous marine sedimentary strata, which once covered much of the southern fringe of the Klamath Mountains, are present at three places in the Dubakella Mountain quadrangle. Mineral production in the quadrangle has included small amounts of gold, chromite, and manganese. This map of the Dubakella Mountain 15' quadrangle is a digital rendition of U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-1808, with various improvements and additions.

  4. 2016: Special Use Permits : Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This reference is a collection of Special Use Permits originating from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex. The Complex consists of Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR,...

  5. 2012: Special Use Permits : Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This reference is a collection of Special Use Permits originating from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex. The Complex consists of Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR,...

  6. 2015: Special Use Permits : Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This reference is a collection of Special Use Permits originating from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex. The Complex consists of Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR,...

  7. [Exit Strategy - Issues Summary : Rocky Mountain Arsenal : January 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is the Exit Strategy spreadsheet developed in a joint meeting between the Rocky Mountain Arsenal Council and the Rocky Mountain Arsenal Committee...

  8. 2014: Special Use Permits : Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This reference is a collection of Special Use Permits originating from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex. The Complex consists of Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR,...

  9. 2017: Special Use Permits : Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This reference is a collection of Special Use Permits originating from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex. The Complex consists of Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR,...

  10. 2013: Special Use Permits : Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This reference is a collection of Special Use Permits originating from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex. The Complex consists of Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR,...

  11. 2008: Special Use Permits : Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This reference is a collection of Special Use Permits originating from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex. The Complex consists of Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR,...

  12. 2011: Special Use Permits : Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This reference is a collection of Special Use Permits originating from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR Complex. The Complex consists of Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR,...

  13. Mountain Regions in Swiss Politics and Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Bätzing

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Die schweizerischen Berggebiete in der Politik [ Mountain Regions in Swiss Politics and Policies] By Gilles Rudaz and Bernard Debarbieux. Translated from French (see below. Zurich, Switzerland: vdf Hochschulverlag, 2014. 136 pp. CHF 24.00, € 21.00. Also available as an e-book. ISBN 978-3-7281-3604-6. Reviewed: La montagne Suisse en politique [ Mountain Regions in Swiss Politics and Policies] By Gilles Rudaz and Bernard Debarbieux. Lausanne, Switzerland: Presses polytechniques et universitaires romandes, 2013. 128 pp. CHF 17.50. Also available as an e-book. ISBN 978-2-88915-043-4.

  14. Periglacial landforms in the Pohorje Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Natek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to the well-studied Pleistocene glaciation, periglacial phenomena in Slovenia havebeen given less scientific attention because they are not particularly evident in high mountainsdue to prevailing carbonate rocks. This, however, is not the case in the Pohorje Mountains:built of igneous and metamorphic rocks, it was not glaciated due to its insufficient elevation,but was subject to periglacial processes. In the article, some of the periglacial landforms ofthe Pohorje Mountains are presented for the first time, especially nivation hollows in theuppermost zone, and the Jezerc cirque where a smaller glacier, unknown until recently, existedat the peak of the glaciation.

  15. MOUNTAIN TOURISM INTERCONNECTIONS. VARIATION OF MOUNTAIN TOURIST FLOW IN SUCEAVA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George CHEIA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mountain tourism, in addition to one of the most common types of tourism, is generated by a complex of factors and at the same time, triggers a series of processes involving tourism phenomenon, especially the environment where it is taking place. This paper aims to discuss some of these causal factors, and the relationship between this type of tourism and the tourist area itself (1. By using SPSS analytical methods , it can be practically demonstrated the impact of mountain tourist flow in spas (2 and mountain resorts (3 in Suceava county.

  16. 75 FR 12163 - Class E Airspace; Mountain View, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Class E Airspace; Mountain View, AR AGENCY: Federal... proposes to amend Class E airspace at Mountain View, AR. Decommissioning of the Wilcox non-directional beacon (NDB) at Mountain View Wilcox Memorial Field Airport has made this action necessary for the...

  17. 27 CFR 9.118 - Ben Lomond Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ben Lomond Mountain. 9.118... Lomond Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Ben Lomond Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Ben...

  18. Aspen biology, community classification, and management in the Blue Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    David K. Swanson; Craig L. Schmitt; Diane M. Shirley; Vicky Erickson; Kenneth J. Schuetz; Michael L. Tatum; David C. Powell

    2010-01-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) is a valuable species that is declining in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon. This publication is a compilation of over 20 years of aspen management experience by USDA Forest Service workers in the Blue Mountains. It includes a summary of aspen biology and occurrence in the Blue Mountains, and a...

  19. 27 CFR 9.155 - Texas Davis Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Texas Davis Mountains. 9... Texas Davis Mountains. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Texas Davis Mountains.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Texas...

  20. 27 CFR 9.31 - Santa Cruz Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Santa Cruz Mountains. 9.31... Cruz Mountains. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Santa Cruz Mountains.” (b) Approved maps. The 24 approved U.S.G.S. maps for determining the boundaries are 23...

  1. Phytogeography of the tropical north-east African mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Friis

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The tropical north-east African mountains are tentatively divided into four phytochoria, the formal rank of which is not defined. The division is based on patterns of distribution and endemism in the region. The recognition of a distinct Afromontane phytochorion is now well established (Chapman & White, 1970; Werger, 1978; White, 1978. However, there is still very little information on the phytogeography of the individual mountains or mountain systems. This study hopes to fill a little of the gap by analysing distribution patterns and patterns of endemism in the flora of the tropical north-east African mountains. The north-east African mountain system is the largest in tropical Africa (see e.g. map in White, 1978. At the core of this system is the large Ethiopian massif, around which are located various mountains and mountain chains. These include the Red Sea Hills in the Sudan, the mountain chain in northern Somalia, the south-west Arabian mountains, and the Imatong mountains of south-east Sudan. The latter are often referred to the East African mountain system (White, 1978 but. as I will point out later, they also have a close connection with the south-west highlands of Ethiopia. The paper presents some results of my study of the mountain flora of tropical north-east Africa, particularly the forest species. Where no source is indicated, the data are from my own unpublished studies.

  2. Wildlife Inventory, Craig Mountain, Idaho.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassirer, E. Frances

    1995-06-01

    Wildlife distribution/abundance were studied at this location during 1993 and 1994 to establish the baseline as part of the wildlife mitigation agreement for construction of Dworshak reservoir. Inventory efforts were designed to (1) document distribution/abundance of 4 target species: pileated woodpecker, yellow warbler, black-capped chickadee, and river otter, (2) determine distribution/abundance of rare animals, and (3) determine presence and relative abundance of all other species except deer and elk. 201 wildlife species were observed during the survey period; most were residents or used the area seasonally for breeding or wintering. New distribution or breeding records were established for at least 6 species. Pileated woodpeckers were found at 35% of 134 survey points in upland forests; estimated densities were 0-0.08 birds/ha, averaging 0.02 birds/ha. Yellow warblers were found in riparian areas and shrubby draws below 3500 ft elev., and were most abundant in white alder plant communities (ave. est. densities 0.2-2. 1 birds/ha). Black-capped chickadees were found in riparian and mixed tall shrub vegetation at all elevations (ave. est. densities 0-0.7 birds/ha). River otters and suitable otter denning and foraging habitat were observed along the Snake and Salmon rivers. 15 special status animals (threatened, endangered, sensitive, state species of special concern) were observed at Craig Mt: 3 amphibians, 1 reptile, 8 birds, 3 mammals. Another 5 special status species potentially occur (not documented). Ecosystem-based wildlife management issues are identified. A monitoring plant is presented for assessing effects of mitigation activities.

  3. Biodiversity of Jinggangshan Mountain: The Importance of Topography and Geographical Location in Supporting Higher Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Huang, Fang-Fang; Liu, Jin-Gang; Liao, Wen-Bo; Wang, Ying-Yong; Ren, Si-Jie; Chen, Chun-Quan; Peng, Shao-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Diversity is mainly determined by climate and environment. In addition, topography is a complex factor, and the relationship between topography and biodiversity is still poorly understood. To understand the role of topography, i.e., altitude and slope, in biodiversity, we selected Jinggangshan Mountain (JGM), an area with unique topography, as the study area. We surveyed plant and animal species richness of JGM and compared the biodiversity and the main geographic characteristics of JGM with the adjacent 4 mountains. Gleason’s richness index was calculated to assess the diversity of species. In total, 2958 spermatophyte species, 418 bryophyte species, 355 pteridophyte species and 493 species of vertebrate animals were recorded in this survey. In general, the JGM biodiversity was higher than that of the adjacent mountains. Regarding topographic characteristics, 77% of JGM’s area was in the mid-altitude region and approximately 40% of JGM’s area was in the 10°–20° slope range, which may support more vegetation types in JGM area and make it a biodiversity hotspot. It should be noted that although the impact of topography on biodiversity was substantial, climate is still a more general factor driving the formation and maintenance of higher biodiversity. Topographic conditions can create microclimates, and both climatic and topographic conditions contribute to the formation of high biodiversity in JGM. PMID:25763820

  4. The adder (Vipera berus in Southern Altay Mountains: population characteristics, distribution, morphology and phylogenetic position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaopeng Cui

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As the most widely distributed snake in Eurasia, the adder (Vipera berus has been extensively investigated in Europe but poorly understood in Asia. The Southern Altay Mountains represent the adder’s southern distribution limit in Central Asia, whereas its population status has never been assessed. We conducted, for the first time, field surveys for the adder at two areas of Southern Altay Mountains using a combination of line transects and random searches. We also described the morphological characteristics of the collected specimens and conducted analyses of external morphology and molecular phylogeny. The results showed that the adder distributed in both survey sites and we recorded a total of 34 sightings. In Kanas river valley, the estimated encounter rate over a total of 137 km transects was 0.15 ± 0.05 sightings/km. The occurrence of melanism was only 17%. The small size was typical for the adders in Southern Altay Mountains in contrast to other geographic populations of the nominate subspecies. A phylogenetic tree obtained by Bayesian Inference based on DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (1,023 bp grouped them within the Northern clade of the species but failed to separate them from the subspecies V. b. sachalinensis. Our discovery extends the distribution range of V. berus and provides a basis for further researches. We discuss the hypothesis that the adder expands its distribution border to the southwest along the mountains’ elevation gradient, but the population abundance declines gradually due to a drying climate.

  5. The Nguru mountains of Tanzania, an outstanding hotspot of herpetofaunal diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Menegon

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the vicinity of a major road, the rainforests of the South Nguru Mountains in eastern Tanzania were virtually unexplored until 2004, particularly from a herpetological point of view. Several surveys were conducted between 2004 and 2006 with the aim of providing a comprehensive list of the amphibian and reptile species of this overlooked hotspot of biological diversity. The surveys resulted in this assessment of the herpetofaunal diversity, with 92 species recorded, of which 15 represent new records for this area, and the discovery of 16 species new to science, all of which are likely to be strictly endemic to the Nguru Mountains. Pressure on the forests, particularly the lowland forests, remains high. A conservation planning process is now underway that is attempting to address the loss of these critically important forests. These results, documenting the high species richness and the outstanding number of putative endemics of the forests, strongly highlight the biological importance of the South Nguru Mountains and place them among the most important sites for the conservation of herpetofauna in Africa.

  6. Biodiversity of Jinggangshan Mountain: the importance of topography and geographical location in supporting higher biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ting; Chen, Bao-Ming; Liu, Gang; Huang, Fang-Fang; Liu, Jin-Gang; Liao, Wen-Bo; Wang, Ying-Yong; Ren, Si-Jie; Chen, Chun-Quan; Peng, Shao-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Diversity is mainly determined by climate and environment. In addition, topography is a complex factor, and the relationship between topography and biodiversity is still poorly understood. To understand the role of topography, i.e., altitude and slope, in biodiversity, we selected Jinggangshan Mountain (JGM), an area with unique topography, as the study area. We surveyed plant and animal species richness of JGM and compared the biodiversity and the main geographic characteristics of JGM with the adjacent 4 mountains. Gleason's richness index was calculated to assess the diversity of species. In total, 2958 spermatophyte species, 418 bryophyte species, 355 pteridophyte species and 493 species of vertebrate animals were recorded in this survey. In general, the JGM biodiversity was higher than that of the adjacent mountains. Regarding topographic characteristics, 77% of JGM's area was in the mid-altitude region and approximately 40% of JGM's area was in the 10°-20° slope range, which may support more vegetation types in JGM area and make it a biodiversity hotspot. It should be noted that although the impact of topography on biodiversity was substantial, climate is still a more general factor driving the formation and maintenance of higher biodiversity. Topographic conditions can create microclimates, and both climatic and topographic conditions contribute to the formation of high biodiversity in JGM.

  7. Biodiversity of Jinggangshan Mountain: the importance of topography and geographical location in supporting higher biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Zhou

    Full Text Available Diversity is mainly determined by climate and environment. In addition, topography is a complex factor, and the relationship between topography and biodiversity is still poorly understood. To understand the role of topography, i.e., altitude and slope, in biodiversity, we selected Jinggangshan Mountain (JGM, an area with unique topography, as the study area. We surveyed plant and animal species richness of JGM and compared the biodiversity and the main geographic characteristics of JGM with the adjacent 4 mountains. Gleason's richness index was calculated to assess the diversity of species. In total, 2958 spermatophyte species, 418 bryophyte species, 355 pteridophyte species and 493 species of vertebrate animals were recorded in this survey. In general, the JGM biodiversity was higher than that of the adjacent mountains. Regarding topographic characteristics, 77% of JGM's area was in the mid-altitude region and approximately 40% of JGM's area was in the 10°-20° slope range, which may support more vegetation types in JGM area and make it a biodiversity hotspot. It should be noted that although the impact of topography on biodiversity was substantial, climate is still a more general factor driving the formation and maintenance of higher biodiversity. Topographic conditions can create microclimates, and both climatic and topographic conditions contribute to the formation of high biodiversity in JGM.

  8. Airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) images over disseminated gold deposits, Osgood Mountains, Humboldt County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, M. Dennis

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) acquired airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) images over several disseminated gold deposits in northern Nevada in 1983. The aerial surveys were flown to determine whether TIMS data could depict jasperoids (siliceous replacement bodies) associated with the gold deposits. The TIMS data were collected over the Pinson and Getchell Mines in the Osgood Mountains, the Carlin, Maggie Creek, Bootstrap, and other mines in the Tuscarora Mountains, and the Jerritt Canyon Mine in the Independence Mountains. The TIMS data seem to be a useful supplement to conventional geochemical exploration for disseminated gold deposits in the western United States. Siliceous outcrops are readily separable in the TIMS image from other types of host rocks. Different forms of silicification are not readily separable, yet, due to limitations of spatial resolution and spectral dynamic range. Features associated with the disseminated gold deposits, such as the large intrusive bodies and fault structures, are also resolvable on TIMS data. Inclusion of high-resolution thermal inertia data would be a useful supplement to the TIMS data.

  9. Migration and global environmental change: methodological lessons from mountain areas of the global South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, A.; Gioli, G.; Afifi, T.

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between migration and environmental and climatic changes is a crucial yet understudied factor influencing mountain livelihoods in the global South. These livelihoods are often characterized by high prevalence of family farming, widespread dependence on natural resources, and high sensitivity to climatic changes. Except for a limited number of empirical case studies, the literature on migration and global environmental change has not yet moved beyond case study results to address and explain global patterns and specificities of migration in mountain areas of the global South. After an introduction to the topic, the authors present a new synthesis of three field studies combining household surveys, participatory research approach (PRA) tools and key informant interviews in Pakistan, Peru, and Tanzania. This article suggests that the systematic use of transdisciplinary approaches, with a combination of quantitative and qualitative empirical methods, is the key to understanding global migration patterns in rural mountain areas of the global South. The results of our synthesis suggests that survey data should be triangulated with PRA results as well as secondary data in order to build household profiles connecting vulnerability (measured through a multidimensional index) with human mobility patterns. Such profiles can be conducive to better understand the feedback processes between livelihoods and mobility patterns both within each case study and across case studies, helping researchers to draw general lessons.

  10. Summary of lithologic logging of new and existing boreholes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, August 1993 to February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geslin, J.K.; Moyer, T.C.; Buesch, D.C.

    1995-05-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being investigated as a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. This report summarizes the lithologic logging of new and existing boreholes at Yucca Mountain that was done from August 1993 to February 1994 by the Rock Characteristics Section, Yucca Mountain Project Branch, US Geological Survey (USGS). Units encountered during logging include Quaternary-Tertiary alluvium/colluvium, Tertiary Rainier Mesa Tuff, all units in the Tertiary Paintbrush Group, Tertiary Calico Hills Formation and Tertiary Prow Pass Tuff. We present criteria used for recognition of stratigraphic contacts, logging results as tables of contact depths for core from neutron (UZN) boreholes and graphical lithologic logs for core from non-UZN boreholes, and descriptions of several distinctive nonwelded tuffs recognized in the PTn hydrogeologic unit of the Paintbrush Group.

  11. The mountain Cer: Potentials for tourism development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grčić Mirko D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In northwest of Serbia in the meridians directions an elongated mountain range of Cer with Iverak and Vlašić stretches itself. On the north it goes down to Mačva and Posavina, on the west to Podrinje, on the east to the valley of Kolubara, on the south to the basins and valleys of Jadar and upper Kolubara, which separate it from the mountains of Valjevo and Podrinje area. Cer mountain offers extremely good condition for development of eco-tourism. The variety of relief with gorgeous see-sites, natural rarities, convenient bio-climatic conditions, significant water resources, forest complexes, medieval fortresses, cultural-historic monuments, richness of flora and fauna, preserved rural environment, traditions and customs of local population, were all neglected as strategic factors in the development of tourism. This mountain’s potentials are quite satisfactory for the needs of eco-tourism, similar to the National Park of Fruška Gora, but it has lacked an adequate ecotourist strategy so far. This study aims to pointing to the potential and possibilities of ecotourist valorization of this mountain.

  12. Cerebral blood flow in acute mountain sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J B; Wright, Anne; Lassen, N A

    1990-01-01

    Changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) were measured using the radioactive xenon technique and were related to the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS). In 12 subjects, ascending from 150 to 3,475 m, CBF was 24% increased at 24 h [45.1 to 55.9 initial slope index (ISI) units] and 4% increased...

  13. Effects of forest expansion on mountain grassland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guidi, Claudia; Magid, Jakob; Rodeghiero, Mirco

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Grassland abandonment followed by forest succession is the dominant land-use change in the European Alps. We studied the impact of current forest expansion on mountain grassland on changes in physical soil organic carbon (SOC) fractions along a land-use and management gradient...

  14. Mountain Guides: Between Ethics and Socioeconomic Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Thierry; Bazin, Damien; Massiera, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    This study analysed mountain guides' representations of environmental responsibility and explored the paradox that these professionals face: using nature as a source of income while trying to preserve it. The study was mainly guided by the philosophical literature on this topic and made use of the concepts of sustainable development and nature.…

  15. Mountains: Geology, Topography and Environmental Concerns

    OpenAIRE

    Martin F. Price

    2016-01-01

    Reviewed: Mountains: Geology, Topography and Environmental Concerns. Edited by António José, Bento Gonçalves, and António Avelino Batista Vieria. New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers, 2014. ix + 371 pp. US$ 175.00. ISBN 978-1-63117-288-5.

  16. Mountains: Geology, Topography and Environmental Concerns

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Martin F.

    2016-01-01

    Reviewed: Mountains: Geology, Topography and Environmental Concerns. Edited by António José, Bento Gonçalves, and António Avelino Batista Vieria. New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers, 2014. ix + 371 pp. US$ 175.00. ISBN 978-1-63117-288-5.

  17. Mountains: Geology, Topography and Environmental Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin F. Price

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Mountains: Geology, Topography and Environmental Concerns. Edited by António José, Bento Gonçalves, and António Avelino Batista Vieria. New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers, 2014. ix + 371 pp. US$ 175.00. ISBN 978-1-63117-288-5.

  18. The glacial relief in the Leaota Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George MURĂTOREANU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence of glacial relief in the Romanian medium height massifs is still controversial. The medium height mountains, such as theLeaota Mountains (in the Bucegi group, with maximum altitudes of almost 2000 m andmedium altitudes of approximately 1250 m, can display traces of glacial relief dating from theUpper Pleistocene. The aim of this article is to provide evidence about the presence of theglacial morphology in the northern part of the Leaota Peak, the main orographic node in themassif with the same name. Thus, on the basis of field observations, of topographical mapanalysis and by using the geographic information systems which made possible a detailedmorphometric analysis, I was able to gather evidence proving the existence of a glacial cirquein the Leaota Mountains. The arguments put forward in this article show that the glacial reliefis represented in the Leaota Mountains through a small-size suspended glacial cirque, whichdisplays all the morphologic elements proving the existence of glaciation in this massif.

  19. Mountain Warfare and Cold Weather Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-29

    EQUIPMENT POSTURE ............... C-1 Appendix D ARMY COMPATIBLE HEATERS AND TENTS ................................................ D-1 Appendix E...required for personal hygiene , vehicle maintenance, medical care, and pack animals, however, priorities must be set for water consumption and...MEDICAL SUPPORT CONSIDERATIONS 6-87. In a cold, mountainous environment, personal hygiene is difficult to maintain due to limited water. The potential

  20. Mountain building of solid quark stars

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Haifeng

    2011-01-01

    One of the key differences between normal neutron and (bare) quark stars is relevant to the fact that the former are gravitationally bound while the latter self-confined unless their masses approach the maximum mass. This difference results in the possibility that quark stars could be very low massive whereas neutron stars cannot. Mountains could also be build on quark stars if realistic cold quark matter is in a solid state, and an alternative estimation of the mountain building is present. As spinning compact objects with non-axisymmetric mass distribution will radiate gravitational waves, the equations of states of pulsars could be constraint by the amplitude of gravitational waves being dependent on the heights of mountains. We then estimate the maximum mountains and thus quadrupole moment on solid quark stars, to be consistent with that by Owen (2005) if the breaking strain is 0.1, addressing that a solid quark star with mass < 10^{-2} Msun could be `potato-like'. We estimate the gravitational wave am...

  1. Ecology and evolution of mountain butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    KLEČKOVÁ, Irena

    2014-01-01

    The thesis deals with speciation processes, thermal ecology and habitat use in Holarctic mountain and arctic butterflies. It demonstrates a crucial role of environmental heterogeneity for speciation, survival of butterfly lineages, coexistence of closely related species and, finally, for resource use of sexes with different habitats demands at the level of individual species.

  2. Acidification in the mountains ?; Foersurning i fjaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degerman, E. [National Board of Fisheries, Drottningholm (Sweden). Inst. of Freshwater Research; Engblom, E.; Lingdell, P.E. [Limnodata AB, Skinnskatteberg (Sweden); Melin, E.; Olofsson, E. [Haerjedalens Kommun, Sveg (Sweden)

    1992-12-31

    The present paper is a literature review dealing with the extent of acidification in the Swedish mountain range. The first effects of acidification were noted in the beginning of the 1960`s in the Fulufjaell area in the southernmost part of the mountain range. Since then many studies have been published indicating that the extent of acidification and the negative effects of biota were widespread. However, many scientists have claimed that there is no acidification in the area and that acid surges following snow melt have always been a problem to the fauna due to natural dilution of the water. This is contradicted by this paper. Acidification in this area is caused by anthropogenic emissions of acidifying substances. It is shown that the mountain area has a higher load of airborne pollutants than the surrounding lowland. Lakes are not as badly affected as streams, but an overall loss of alkalinity is found in the entire mountain range and several small ephemeral lakes in the southern part of the range have lost alkalinity completely. There are indications that acidification also affects lichens (Cladonia spp.) negatively, and it is suspected that the abundance of epilithic green algae has increased in streams. Relatively few objects have been limed so far. Re colonization of benthos, fish and birds has been noted after liming. It is recommended that the liming programme is extended. The ultimate goal should be to achieve a pH above 5 in snow to avoid harmful effects to the most sensitive water bodies. 307 refs

  3. Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Krier

    2004-10-04

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report, ''Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'', is to present information about natural volcanic systems and the parameters that can be used to model their behavior. This information is used to develop parameter-value distributions appropriate for analysis of the consequences of volcanic eruptions through a repository at Yucca Mountain. This scientific analysis report provides information to four other reports: ''Number of Waste Packages Hit by Igneous Intrusion'', (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170001]); ''Atmospheric Dispersal and Deposition of Tephra from Potential Volcanic Eruption at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170026]); ''Dike/Drift Interactions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170028]); ''Development of Earthquake Ground Motion Input for Preclosure Seismic Design and Postclosure Performance Assessment of a Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, NV'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170027], Section 6.5). This report is organized into seven major sections. This section addresses the purpose of this document. Section 2 addresses quality assurance, Section 3 the use of software, Section 4 identifies the requirements that constrain this work, and Section 5 lists assumptions and their rationale. Section 6 presents the details of the scientific analysis and Section 7 summarizes the conclusions reached.

  4. Rocky Mountain Research Station: Strategic Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane Eskew

    2003-01-01

    A strategic plan is a tool for charting a path into the future. This Strategic Framework will help guide the USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station over the next decade during inevitable socioeconomic and environmental change. It is the product of a dialog with our stakeholders and employees to examine the Station's capabilities, anticipate research...

  5. Carboniferous Fusulinids from the Cantabrian Mountains (Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginkel, van A.C.

    1965-01-01

    Fusulinid faunas from various locations spread throughout the Cantabrian mountains are described as belonging to about 180 species including 17 new species and 11 new subspecies of 18 genera. The latter are Staffella (with 3 new species), Parastaffella (with 3 new species and 2 new subspecies), Mill

  6. Toward mountains without permanent snow and ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, M.; Bookhagen, B.; Huggel, C.; Jacobsen, D.; Bradley, R. S.; Clague, J. J.; Vuille, M.; Buytaert, W.; Cayan, D. R.; Greenwood, G.; Mark, B. G.; Milner, A. M.; Weingartner, R.; Winder, M.

    2017-05-01

    The cryosphere in mountain regions is rapidly declining, a trend that is expected to accelerate over the next several decades due to anthropogenic climate change. A cascade of effects will result, extending from mountains to lowlands with associated impacts on human livelihood, economy, and ecosystems. With rising air temperatures and increased radiative forcing, glaciers will become smaller and, in some cases, disappear, the area of frozen ground will diminish, the ratio of snow to rainfall will decrease, and the timing and magnitude of both maximum and minimum streamflow will change. These changes will affect erosion rates, sediment, and nutrient flux, and the biogeochemistry of rivers and proglacial lakes, all of which influence water quality, aquatic habitat, and biotic communities. Changes in the length of the growing season will allow low-elevation plants and animals to expand their ranges upward. Slope failures due to thawing alpine permafrost, and outburst floods from glacier- and moraine-dammed lakes will threaten downstream populations. Societies even well beyond the mountains depend on meltwater from glaciers and snow for drinking water supplies, irrigation, mining, hydropower, agriculture, and recreation. Here, we review and, where possible, quantify the impacts of anticipated climate change on the alpine cryosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere, and consider the implications for adaptation to a future of mountains without permanent snow and ice.

  7. Devonian Stromatoporoids of the Cantabrian Mountains (Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleumer, B.H.G.

    1969-01-01

    In the Cantabrian Mountains stromatoporoids only have been found up to now in Devonian formations. They occur together with tabulate and rugose corals and brachiopods. Together with these organisms they form biostromes or just biogenetic layers of brecciated and overturned colonies. Four primary mic

  8. Geo-Hazards and Mountain Road Development in Nepal: Understanding the Science-Policy-Governance Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugar, Sumit; Dahal, Vaskar

    2015-04-01

    The foothills of Nepalese Himalayas located in the neotectonic mountain environment are among some of the most unstable and geomorphologically dynamic landscapes in the world. Young fold mountains in this region are characterized by complex tectonics that influence the occurrence of earthquakes, while climatic processes such as intense orographic rainfall often dictate the occurrence of floods and landslides. Development of linear infrastructures, such as roads, in mountainous terrain characterized by high relief and orogeny is considerably challenging where the complexity of landscape in steep and irregular topography, difficult ground conditions and weak geology, presents engineers and planners with numerous difficulties to construct and maintain mountain roads. Whilst application of engineering geology, geomorphic interpretation of terrain in terms of physiography and hydrology, and identification of geo-hazards along the road corridor is critical for long term operation of mountain roads, low-cost arterial roads in the Himalayan foothills generally fail to incorporate standard road slope engineering structures. This research provides unique insights on policy and governance issues in developing mountainous countries such as Nepal, where achieving a sound balance between sustainability and affordability is a major challenge for road construction. Road development in Nepal is a complex issue where socio-economic and political factors influence the budget allocation for road construction in rural hilly areas. Moreover, most mountain roads are constructed without any geological or geo-technical site investigations due to rampant corruption and lack of adequate engineering supervision. Despite having good examples of rural road construction practices such as the Dharan-Dhankuta Road in Eastern Nepal where comprehensive terrain-evaluation methods and geo-technical surveys led to an improved understanding of road construction, learnings from this project have not

  9. Mammoth Mountain, California broadband seismic experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, P. B.; Pitt, A. M.; Wilkinson, S. K.; Chouet, B. A.; Hill, D. P.; Mangan, M.; Prejean, S. G.; Read, C.; Shelly, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    Mammoth Mountain is a young cumulo-volcano located on the southwest rim of Long Valley caldera, California. Current volcanic processes beneath Mammoth Mountain are manifested in a wide range of seismic signals, including swarms of shallow volcano-tectonic earthquakes, upper and mid-crustal long-period earthquakes, swarms of brittle-failure earthquakes in the lower crust, and shallow (3-km depth) very-long-period earthquakes. Diffuse emissions of C02 began after a magmatic dike injection beneath the volcano in 1989, and continue to present time. These indications of volcanic unrest drive an extensive monitoring effort of the volcano by the USGS Volcano Hazards Program. As part of this effort, eleven broadband seismometers were deployed on Mammoth Mountain in November 2011. This temporary deployment is expected to run through the fall of 2013. These stations supplement the local short-period and broadband seismic stations of the Northern California Seismic Network (NCSN) and provide a combined network of eighteen broadband stations operating within 4 km of the summit of Mammoth Mountain. Data from the temporary stations are not available in real-time, requiring the merging of the data from the temporary and permanent networks, timing of phases, and relocation of seismic events to be accomplished outside of the standard NCSN processing scheme. The timing of phases is accomplished through an interactive Java-based phase-picking routine, and the relocation of seismicity is achieved using the probabilistic non-linear software package NonLinLoc, distributed under the GNU General Public License by Alomax Scientific. Several swarms of shallow volcano-tectonic earthquakes, spasmodic bursts of high-frequency earthquakes, a few long-period events located within or below the edifice of Mammoth Mountain and numerous mid-crustal long-period events have been recorded by the network. To date, about 900 of the ~2400 events occurring beneath Mammoth Mountain since November 2011 have

  10. Extreme ground motions and Yucca Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Thomas C.; Abrahamson, Norman A.; Baker, Jack W.; Boore, David M.; Board, Mark; Brune, James N.; Cornell, C. Allin; Whitney, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Yucca Mountain is the designated site of the underground repository for the United States' high-level radioactive waste (HLW), consisting of commercial and military spent nuclear fuel, HLW derived from reprocessing of uranium and plutonium, surplus plutonium, and other nuclear-weapons materials. Yucca Mountain straddles the western boundary of the Nevada Test Site, where the United States has tested nuclear devices since the 1950s, and is situated in an arid, remote, and thinly populated region of Nevada, ~100 miles northwest of Las Vegas. Yucca Mountain was originally considered as a potential underground repository of HLW because of its thick units of unsaturated rocks, with the repository horizon being not only ~300 m above the water table but also ~300 m below the Yucca Mountain crest. The fundamental rationale for a geologic (underground) repository for HLW is to securely isolate these materials from the environment and its inhabitants to the greatest extent possible and for very long periods of time. Given the present climate conditions and what is known about the current hydrologic system and conditions around and in the mountain itself, one would anticipate that the rates of infiltration, corrosion, and transport would be very low—except for the possibility that repository integrity might be compromised by low-probability disruptive events, which include earthquakes, strong ground motion, and (or) a repository-piercing volcanic intrusion/eruption. Extreme ground motions (ExGM), as we use the phrase in this report, refer to the extremely large amplitudes of earthquake ground motion that arise at extremely low probabilities of exceedance (hazard). They first came to our attention when the 1998 probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for Yucca Mountain was extended to a hazard level of 10-8/yr (a 10-4/yr probability for a 104-year repository “lifetime”). The primary purpose of this report is to summarize the principal results of the ExGM research program

  11. Preliminary isostatic residual gravity map of the Newfoundland Mountains 30' by 60' quadrangle and east part of the Wells 30' by 60' quadrangle, Box Elder County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenheim, Victoria; Athens, N.D.; Churchel, B.A.; Willis, H.; Knepprath, N.E.; Rosario, Jose J.; Roza, J.; Kraushaar, S.M.; Hardwick, C.L.

    2013-01-01

    A new isostatic residual gravity map of the Newfoundland Mountains and east of the Wells 30×60 quadrangles of Utah is based on compilation of preexisting data and new data collected by the Utah and U.S. Geological Surveys. Pronounced gravity lows occur over Grouse Creek Valley and locally beneath the Great Salt Lake Desert, indicating significant thickness of low-density Tertiary sedimentary rocks and deposits. Gravity highs coincide with exposures of dense pre-Cenozoic rocks in the Newfoundland, Silver Island, and Little Pigeon Mountains. Gravity values measured on pre-Tertiary basement to the north in the Bovine and Hogup Mountains are as much as 10mGal lower. Steep, linear gravity gradients may define basin-bounding faults concealed along the margins of the Newfoundland, Silver Island, and Little Pigeon Mountains, Lemay Island and the Pilot Range.

  12. PRECISE LEVELING OF THE VERY LONG QINLING MOUNTAIN TUNNEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The Qinling tunnel with length of 18.488km is located on the railway line from Xi'an (Shanxi Province) to Ankan (Sichuan Province) in the middle of Qinling moun tain. It is the longest double track railway tunnel in China and takes the third place in the world. According to the design, the break-through error in vertical direction caused by the al timetric control surveying is limited to 18mm for the case of one piercing face. Because the leveling route reaches over 120km in length and must go over two mountains in 2 800m height, the first-order precise leveling and precise gravity measurement should be carried out in the construction stage. In this paper the field leveling approach, the application of new technology,some experience as well as the office calculation with final results analysis are in troduced. By meticulous planning,organization and observation, the final accuracy of vertical difference between two tunnel end points is only 8mm, and it provides reliable surveying guarantee for this great tunnel engineering. Finally it is pointed out that this vertical differ ence distinguishes obviously from the primary measurement result as high as 114mm. It means that the primary result is not accurate enough.

  13. Landscape and Astronomy in Megalithic Portugal: the Carregal do Sal Nucleus and Star Mountain Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Central Portugal, delimited by the Douro river to the north and the Mondego to the south, is the second densest region of megalithic monuments in the country. The Neolithic archaeological record indicates seasonal transhumance between higher pastures in the summer and lower grounds in the winter. The monuments are found in lower ground and it has been suggested that they were built during the winter occupation of their surroundings. The astronomical orientation of their entrances lends further support to this hypothesis. A recent survey of the orientation of the chambers and corridors of these dolmens, conducted by the author, found good agreement with prior surveys, but also demonstrated that other interpretations are possible. This paper presents an update on the survey, including extra sites surveyed in the spring of 2011, as well as the GIS confirmation of all horizon altitudes that couldn’t be empirically measured. The megalithic nucleus of Carregal do Sal, on the Mondego valley, is then looked at in more detail. It is found that there is a preference for the orientation of dolmens towards Star Mountain Range in-line with the topographic arguments of landscape archaeology. In addition, it was found that the topography also marks the rise of particular red stars, Betelgeuse and Aldebaran, during the period of megalithic building, at the onset of spring marking the transition from low ground to the high pastures. This hypothesis finds further support from toponymic folktales that explain the origin of the name of the mountain range.

  14. Growth of the deposit wedge in the mountain reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Song, G.

    2011-12-01

    The sedimentary problem of mountain reservoirs in Taiwan is getting serious year by year.Due to eroded sediments enter downstream reservoirs,the loss of sediment transport capacity may cause deposition of sediment in reservoirs.This phenomenon make problems to small mountain reservoirs.To realize the interaction between deposit wedges and mountain reservoirs,we selected Wushe reservoir which is situated in central Taiwan for a case study. Wushe reservoir is long and narrow.In recent years,most sediment is introduced during rain events that now accompany climate change are very important in sediment supply.In this thesis,we collected data of underwater landform and sub-bottom bedding information by using high resolution Multibeam Survey System(MBS) and seismic-reflection system.Up to now,we already had the bathymetric data for more than ten years,moreover,in 2010,we used 3.5kHz sub-bottom seismic profiler to analysis the sedimentary bedding situation in this area.These methods provide us accurate reservoir topography,sediment accumulation and the major ways of sediment transportation.The study purposes are as follows: First,according to the available underwater data for last ten years,we recognize the geomorphological characters of sedimentation as well as complete the mappings.Comparing to bathymetric images each year,we evaluate the carried ways of sediment.The flow water which enters this area transports along the thalweg,which in eastern reservoir.The range of water level variation cause alteration of sedimentary morphology,it also affects the scope of alluvial fan.The alluvial fan is located in the middle of the reservoir,the edge of it had moved forward 500 meters for last ten years.The annual mean of forward velocity was 50 meters,the elevation of fan edge also accelerated 10 meters per year.In a word,the large volume of the sedimentary delta is in Wushe reservoir now. Second,trying to clarify the composition of sedimentation and explain the sub

  15. Association analysis of PRNP gene region with chronic wasting disease in Rocky Mountain elk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spraker Terry R

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic wasting disease (CWD is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE of cervids including white-tailed (Odocoileus virginianus and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus, Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni, and moose (Alces alces. A leucine variant at position 132 (132L in prion protein of Rocky Mountain elk confers a long incubation time with CWD, but not complete resistance. However, variants in regulatory regions outside the open reading frame of PRNP have been associated with varying degrees of susceptibility to prion disease in other species, and some variants have been observed in similar regions of Rocky Mountain elk PRNP. Thus, additional genetic variants might provide increased protection, either alone or in combination with 132L. Findings This study provided genomic sequence of all exons for PRNP of Rocky Mountain elk. Many functional sites in and around the PRNP gene region were sequenced, and this report approximately doubled (to 75 the number of known variants in this region. A haplotype-tagging approach was used to reduce the number of genetic variants required to survey this variation in the PRNP gene region of 559 Rocky Mountain elk. Eight haplotypes were observed with frequencies over 1.0%, and one haplotype was present at 71.2% frequency, reflecting limited genetic diversity in the PRNP gene region. Conclusions The presence of 132L cut odds of CWD by more than half (Odds Ratio = 0.43; P = 0.0031, which was similar to a previous report. However after accounting for 132L, no association with CWD was found for any additional variants in the PRNP region (P > 0.05.

  16. Geologic map of the Simcoe Mountains Volcanic Field, main central segment, Yakama Nation, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Mountainous parts of the Yakama Nation lands in south-central Washington are mostly covered by basaltic lava flows and cinder cones that make up the Simcoe Mountains volcanic field. The accompanying geologic map of the central part of the volcanic field has been produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) on behalf of the Water Resources Program of the Yakama Nation. The volcanic terrain stretches continuously from Mount Adams eastward as far as Satus Pass and Mill Creek Guard Station. Most of the many hills and buttes are volcanic cones where cinders and spatter piled up around erupting vents while lava flows spread downslope. All of these small volcanoes are now extinct, and, even during their active lifetimes, most of them erupted for no more than a few years. On the Yakama Nation lands, the only large long-lived volcano capable of erupting again in the future is Mount Adams, on the western boundary.

  17. UPDATE TO THE PROBABILISTIC VOLCANIC HAZARD ANALYSIS, YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.J. Coppersmith

    2005-09-14

    A probabilistic volcanic hazard analysis (PVHA) was conducted in 1996 for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Based on data gathered by the Yucca Mountain Project over the course of about 15 years, the analysis integrated the judgments of a panel of ten volcanic experts using methods of formal expert elicitation. PVHA resulted in a probability distribution of the annual frequency of a dike intersecting the repository, which ranges from 10E-7 to 10E-10 (mean 1.6 x 10E-8). The analysis incorporates assessments of the future locations, rates, and types of volcanic dikes that could intersect the repository, which lies about 300 m below the surface. A particular focus of the analysis is the quantification of uncertainties. Since the 1996 PVHA, additional aeromagnetic data have been collected in the Yucca Mountain region, including a high-resolution low-altitude survey. A number of anomalies have been identified within alluvial areas and modeling suggests that some of these may represent buried eruptive centers (basaltic cinder cones). A program is currently underway to drill several of the anomalies to gain information on their origin and, if basalt, their age and composition. To update the PVHA in light of the new aeromagnetic and drilling data as well as other advancements in volcanic hazard modeling over the past decade, the expert panel has been reconvened and the expert elicitation process has been fully restarted. The analysis requires assessments of the spatial distribution of igneous events, temporal distributions, and geometries and characteristics of future events (both intrusive and extrusive). The assessments are for future time periods of 10,000 years and 1,000,000 years. Uncertainties are being quantified in both the conceptual models that define these elements as well as in the parameters for the models. The expert elicitation process is centered around a series of workshops that focus on the available data; alternative approaches to

  18. Vertigo in downhill mountain biking and road cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lion, Alexis; Vibert, Dominique; Bosser, Gilles; Gauchard, Gérome C; Perrin, Philippe P

    2016-01-01

    Vertigo has been described after the practice of mountain bike. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of vertigo following competitions or training sessions of downhill mountain biking (DMB) or road cycling (RC). One hundred and two DMB riders, 79 road cyclists and 73 control participants filled in a survey intended to evaluate the prevalence of vertigo in daily living activities and following competitions or training sessions. Vertigo causal factors (crashes, head trauma, fatigue, characteristics of the path/road ridden) were recorded. DMB riders and road cyclists did not report more vertigo during daily living activities than controls. But DMB riders older than 30 had more risk to report vertigo than age-matched road cyclists (OR: 5.06, 95% CI: 1.23-20.62). Road cyclists aged between 20 and 29 were 2.59-fold (95% CI: 1.06-6.27) more likely to report vertigo than controls. After competitions and training sessions, DMB riders were 2.33-fold (95% CI: 1.22-4.41) more likely to report vertigo than road cyclists. Vertigo causal factors were crash with head trauma in DMB riders and fatigue in road cyclists. Vertigo during daily living activities may be of concern for cyclists, particularly older DMB riders. The accumulation of impacts (crashes, vibrations) during the career of a DMB rider may generate micro-traumatisms of the central nervous system and/or peripheral vestibular structures, particularly the otolith organs. In RC, the pathophysiological mechanisms generating vertigo might be effort-related disturbance of homeostasis. To avoid injuries, DMB riders should be aware that vertigo may occur at the end of training sessions or competitions.

  19. Dialogs on the Yucca Mountain controversy. Special report No. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archambeau, C.B.; Szymanski, J.S.

    1993-03-01

    The recent, 1992, report prepared by the Panel on Coupled Hydrologic/Tectonic/Hydrothermal Systems at Yucca Mountain for the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences, entitled Ground Water at Yucca Mountain: How High Can It Rise? has generated critical reviews by Somerville et al. (1992) and by Archambeau (1992). These reviews were submitted as reports to the Nuclear Waste Project Office, State of Nevada by Technology and Resource Assessment Corporation under Contract No. 92/94.0004. A copy of the review report by C. B. Archambeau was also sent to Dr. Frank Press, President of the National Academy of Sciences, along with a cover letter from Dr. Archambeau expressing his concerns with the NRC report and his suggestion that the Academy President consider a re-evaluation of the issues covered by the NRC report. Dr. Press responded in a letter to Dr. Archambeau in February of this year which stated that, based on his staff recommendations and a review report by Dr. J. F. Evernden of the United States Geological Survey, he declined to initiate any further investigations and that, in his view, the NRC report was a valid scientific evaluation which was corroborated by Evernden`s report. He also enclosed, with his letter, a copy of the report he received from his staff. In March of this year Dr. Archambeau replied to the letter and NRC staff report sent by Dr. Press with a detailed point-by-point rebuttal of the NRC staff report to Press. Also, in March, a critical review of Dr. Evernden`s report by M. Somerville was submitted to the Nuclear Waste Project Office of the State of Nevada and this report, along with the earlier review of the NRC report by Somerville et al., was included as attachments to the letter sent to Dr. Press.

  20. Acute injuries from mountain biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, T K; Bracker, M D; Patrick, K

    1993-08-01

    We questioned members of 2 southern California off-road bicycling organizations about injuries associated with the use of all-terrain bicycles. Cyclists were asked about riding and safety habits, the kind(s) of injury sustained with their most recent accident and whether they sought medical treatment, and the circumstances of the accident. Of 459 mailed surveys, 268 (58.4%) were returned. Respondents (82.8% of whom were male) ranged in age from 14 to 68 years. Of these, 225 (84%) had been injured while riding all-terrain bicycles, 51% in the past year. Although most injuries were characterized as minor, 26% required professional medical care, and 4.4% of those injured were admitted to hospital. Extremity injuries--abrasions, lacerations, contusions--occurred in 201 (90%) cyclists with 27 (12%) sustaining a fracture or dislocation. High levels of helmet use (88%) may explain the low occurrence of head and neck trauma (12%). Frequent riding and riding on paved terrain were associated with increased severity of injury, although most accidents--197 (87.6%)--occurred off paved roads. These results suggest that, compared with regular bicyclists, all-terrain cyclists have more, but not necessarily more severe, injuries. Clinicians and emergency medical personnel should be aware that the increasing popularity of off-road cycling may change the frequency and nature of bicycling injuries.

  1. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2001-01-01

    The aim of Engineering Surveying has always been to impart and develop a clear understanding of the basic topics of the subject. The author has fully revised the book to make it the most up-to-date and relevant textbook available on the subject.The book also contains the latest information on trigonometric levelling, total stations and one-person measuring systems. A new chapter on satellites ensures a firm grasp of this vitally important topic.The text covers engineering surveying modules for civil engineering students on degree courses and forms a reference for the engineering surveying module in land surveying courses. It will also prove to be a valuable reference for practitioners.* Simple clear introduction to surveying for engineers* Explains key techniques and methods* Details reading systems and satellite position fixing

  2. Geoid of Nepal from airborne gravity survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Einarsson, Indriði

    2011-01-01

    An airborne gravity survey of Nepal was carried out December 2010 in a cooperation between DTU-Space, Nepal Survey Department, and NGA, USA. The entire country was flown with survey lines spaced 6 nm with a King Air aircraft, with a varying flight altitude from 4 to 10 km. The survey operations...... were a major challenge due to excessive jet streams at altitude as well as occasional excessive mountain waves. Despite the large 400 mGal+ range of gravity anomaly changes from the Indian plains to the Tibetan Plateau, results appear accurate to a few mGal, with proper evaluation from cross...... as well as recent GPS-heights of Mt. Everest. The new airborne data also provide an independent validation of GOCE gravity field results at the local ~100 km resolution scale....

  3. OS X Mountain Lion Portable Genius

    CERN Document Server

    Spivey, Dwight

    2012-01-01

    Essential tips and techniques on the Mac OS X features you use most! If you want the kind of hip, friendly help you'd get from friends on how to get the most of out of Mac OS X Mountain Lion, this is the guide you need. Jump right into the coolest new Mac OS X features like Game Center, Messages, and Notification, or get a better handle on the basic tools and shortcuts that will help keep your mountain cat purring. From customizing to using multimedia to syncing your Mac to other devices, this book saves you time and hassle, avoids fluff, and covers what you want to know most. New addition t

  4. Zen Mountains: An Illusion of Perceptual Transparency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan G. Wardle

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The human visual system is usually very successful in segmenting complex natural scenes. During a trip to the Nepalese Himalayas, we observed an impossible example of Nature's beauty: “transparent” mountains. The scene is captured in a photograph in which a pair of mountain peaks viewed in the far distance appear to be transparent. This illusion results from a fortuitous combination of lighting and scene conditions, which induce an erroneous integration of multiple segmentation cues. The illusion unites three classic principles of visual perception: Metelli's constraints for perceptual transparency, the Gestalt principle of good continuation, and depth from contrast and atmospheric scattering. This real-world “failure” of scene segmentation reinforces how ingeniously the human visual system typically integrates complex sources of perceptual information using heuristics based on likelihood as shortcuts to veridical perception.

  5. Rail Access to Yucca Mountain: Critical Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halstead, R. J.; Dilger, F.; Moore, R. C.

    2003-02-25

    The proposed Yucca Mountain repository site currently lacks rail access. The nearest mainline railroad is almost 100 miles away. Absence of rail access could result in many thousands of truck shipments of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Direct rail access to the repository could significantly reduce the number of truck shipments and total shipments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) identified five potential rail access corridors, ranging in length from 98 miles to 323 miles, in the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for Yucca Mountain. The FEIS also considers an alternative to rail spur construction, heavy-haul truck (HHT) delivery of rail casks from one of three potential intermodal transfer stations. The authors examine the feasibility and cost of the five rail corridors, and DOE's alternative proposal for HHT transport. The authors also address the potential for rail shipments through the Las Vegas metropolitan area.

  6. Interference of lee waves over mountain ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Makarenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal waves in the atmosphere and ocean are generated frequently from the interaction of mean flow with bottom obstacles such as mountains and submarine ridges. Analysis of these environmental phenomena involves theoretical models of non-homogeneous fluid affected by the gravity. In this paper, a semi-analytical model of stratified flow over the mountain range is considered under the assumption of small amplitude of the topography. Attention is focused on stationary wave patterns forced above the rough terrain. Adapted to account for such terrain, model equations involves exact topographic condition settled on the uneven ground surface. Wave solutions corresponding to sinusoidal topography with a finite number of peaks are calculated and examined.

  7. On the dynamic smoothing of mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, S.; Porporato, A.

    2017-06-01

    After their formation, mountainous landscapes gradually evolve toward smoother geometries controlled by the interplay of erosion and sedimentation. The statistical mechanical properties of this process and the link between topography and geology have remained largely unexplored. We analyze the slope statistics of different mountains worldwide, showing that landscape age is fingerprinted in their distribution tails. Data reveal a universal relaxation process, through an algebraic decay progressively replaced by an exponential one, with exponents described by a global monotonic function. We then investigate the dominant components of this dynamic smoothing using a landscape evolution model, showing that the time evolution of slope statistics results from a delicate balance between diffusive soil creep, noise, and advective river incision, with the relaxation phase mainly dominated by diffusion. Results may suggest ways to formulate reduced order topographic evolution models for geomorphological and climatological applications, and to explore similarities in surface evolution in different contexts.

  8. Stoneflies (Plecoptera, Insecta from Vrachanska Planina Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIOLETA TYUFEKCHIEVA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This work summarizes both literature and new data on the fauna of Plecoptera (Insecta of the Vrachanska Planina Mountains, Bulgaria. A total of 20 species and seven subspecies are known from the mountain. The recorded stoneflies belong to 12 genera and seven families. They represent 25% of the 108 stoneflies currently known from Bulgaria. Among the 27 species that have been recorded, two are Critically Endangered (CR, one –Endangered (EN and ten – Vulnerable (VU. From a zoogeographical point of view, one subspecies and four species from the Plecoptera, recorded in Vrachanska Planina Mts., are Balkan endemics: Capnopsis schilleri balcanica Zwick, 1984, Leuctra balcanica Rauser, 1965, Leuctra hirsuta Bogoescu, Tabacaru, 1960, Nemoura braaschi Joost, 1970 and Isoperla belai Illies, 1963. Four of the recorded species are rare for Bulgaria.

  9. Teach yourself visually OS X Mountain Lion

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Get to know the new cat in the pride-Mac OS X Mountain Lion-with this VISUAL guide Apple's new Mac OS X Mountain Lion is impressive, with features and functions that will be familiar to Mac users from their iPhones and iPads. Make sure you get the most out of your new big cat with this practical guide. Using step-by-step instructions and full-color screenshots or illustrations on virtually every page-the hallmark of the practical Teach Yourself VISUALLY series-this book clearly shows you how to accomplish tasks, rather than burying you with paragraphs of text. You'll learn how to customize

  10. Local Geoid Determination in Mountain Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    astronomical observations have again proved very feasible in mountains; see the articles by Erker, Bretterbauer, Lichtenegger and Chesi in Chapter 2...linear combination f of suitable base functions I1 *2 , . . . , q with appropriate coefficients bk . All these are functions of the space point P under...depending on whether we emphasize global or local applications. 33 The coefficients bk may be chosen such that the given ohser- 0 vational values are

  11. Revised mineralogic summary of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bish, D.L.; Chipera, S.J.

    1989-03-01

    We have evaluated three-dimensional mineral distribution at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, using quantitative x-ray powder diffraction analysis. All data were obtained on core cuttings, or sidewall samples obtained from drill holes at and around Yucca Mountain. Previously published data are included with corrections, together with new data for several drill holes. The new data presented in this report used the internal standard method of quantitative analysis, which yields results of high precision for the phases commonly found in Yucca Mountain tuffs including opal-CT and glass. Mineralogical trends with depth previously noted are clearly shown by these new data. Glass occurrence is restricted almost without exception to above the present-day static water level (SWL), although glass has been identified below the SWL in partially zeolitized tuffs. Silica phases undergo well-defined transitions with depth, with tridymite and cristobalite occurring only above the SWL, opal-CT occurring with clinoptilolite-mordenite tuffs, and quartz most abundant below the SWL. Smectite occurs in small amounts in most samples but is enriched in two distinct zones. These zones are at the top of the vitric nonwelded base of the Tiva Canyon Member and at the top of the basal vitrophyre of the Topopah Spring Member. Our data support the presence of several zones of mordenite and clinoptilolite-heulandite as shown previously. New data on several deep clinoptililite-heulandite samples coexisting with analcime show that they are heulandite. Phillipsite has not been found in any Yucca Mountain samples, but erionite and chabazite have been found once in fractures. 21 refs., 17 figs.

  12. Obed Mountain Coal railcar loading automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templeton, J.C. [Hinz Consulting Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    Coal from Obed Mountain Coal`s open pit mine near Hinton, Alberta is carried 11 km. by conveyor from the plant to the train loadout facility. The loadout facility is equipped with an upgraded computer system. The bin weighing system and the train car scale are connected directly to the loadout computer. The operator has complete information to collect, enter, and access information and to produce manifest and summary reports, in addition to controlling the loadout facility. 7 figs.

  13. Mayflies (Ephemeroptera, Insecta from Vrachanska Planina Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANKA VIDINOVA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen species, belonging to 7 subgenera, 11 genera and 7 families, are currently known from 8 sites of streams and rivers on the territory of Vrachanska Planina Mts. They represent 15,52 % of the mayflies known up to now for Bulgaria. Twelve species are newly reported for the mountain. Brief faunistic and zoogeographical notes are given. The conservation status of the species is also discussed. Ephemeroptera, faunistics, Vrachanska Planina Mts., NW Bulgaria.

  14. Nuclear Waste Disposal: Alternatives to Yucca Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-06

    pr_121508_energysecnom.cfm. 13 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, “Growing energy: Berkeley Lab’s Steve Chu on what termite guts have to do with global warming...does not seem an attractive alternative to the geological 60 Steven Nadis, “The Sub-Seabed Solution...could be done at Yucca Mountain.82 Such “salt creep” occurs more quickly at higher temperatures , which could result from the disposal of high-level waste

  15. Predicting the Future at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. R. Wilson

    1999-07-01

    This paper summarizes a climate-prediction model funded by the DOE for the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository. Several articles in the open literature attest to the effects of the Global Ocean Conveyor upon paleoclimate, specifically entrance and exit from the ice age. The data shows that these millennial-scale effects are duplicated on the microscale of years to decades. This work also identifies how man may have influenced the Conveyor, affecting global cooling and warming for 2,000 years.

  16. Mountain biking injuries in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Kylee B; Meyers, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, the sport of mountain biking has experienced extensive growth in youth participation. Due to the unpredictable nature of outdoor sport, a lack of rider awareness and increased participation, the number of injuries has unnecessarily increased. Many believe that the actual incidence of trauma in this sport is underestimated and is just the 'tip of the iceberg'. The most common mechanism of injury is usually attributed to downhill riding and forward falling. Although rare, this type of fall can result in serious cranial and thoraco-abdominal trauma. Head and neck trauma continue to be documented, often resulting in concussions and the possibility of permanent neurological sequelae. Upper limb injuries range from minor dermal abrasions, contusions and muscular strains to complex particular fracture dislocations. These are caused by attempting to arrest the face with an outstretched hand, leading to additional direct injury. Common overuse injuries include repeated compression from the handlebars and vibration leading to neurovascular complications in the hands. Along with reports of blunt abdominal trauma and lumbar muscle strains, lower extremity injuries may include various hip/pelvic/groin contusions, patellofemoral inflammation, and various muscle strains. The primary causes of mountain biking injuries in children and adolescents include overuse, excessive fatigue, age, level of experience, and inappropriate or improperly adjusted equipment. Additional factors contributing to trauma among this age group involve musculoskeletal immaturity, collisions and falls, excessive speed, environmental conditions, conditioning and fitness status of the rider, nonconservative behavioural patterns, and inadequate medical care. The limited available data restrict the identification and understanding of specific paediatric mountain biking injuries and injury mechanisms. Education about unnecessary risk of injury, use of protective equipment, suitable bikes

  17. Evaluating cumulative ascent: Mountain biking meets Mandelbrot

    CERN Document Server

    Rapaport, D C

    2010-01-01

    The problem of determining total distance ascended during a mountain bike trip is addressed. Altitude measurements are obtained from GPS receivers utilizing both GPS-based and barometric altitude data, with data averaging used to reduce fluctuations. The estimation process is sensitive to the degree of averaging, and is related to the well-known question of determining coastline length. Barometric-based measurements prove more reliable, due to their insensitivity to GPS altitude fluctuations.

  18. Mountains as early warning indicators of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    The panoramic splendor and complexity of mountain environments have inspired and challenged humans for centuries. These areas have been variously perceived as physical structures to be conquered, as sites of spiritual inspiration, and as some of the last untamed natural places on Earth. In our time, the perception that "mountains are forever" may provide solace to those seeking stability in a rapidly changing world. However, changes in the hydrology and in the abundance and species composition of the native flora and fauna of mountain ecosystems are potential bellwethers of global change, because these systems have a propensity to amplify environmental changes within specific portions of this landscape. Mountain areas are thus sentinels of climate change. We are seeing effects today in case histories I present from the Himalaya's, Andes, Alps, and Rocky Mountains. Furthermore, these ecosystem changes are occurring in mountain areas before they occur in downstream ecosystems. Thus, mountains are early warning indicators of perturbations such as climate change. The sensitivity of mountain ecosystems begs for enhanced protection and worldwide protection. Our understanding of the processes that control mountain ecosystems—climate interactions, snowmelt runoff, biotic diversity, nutrient cycling—is much less developed compared to downstream ecosystems where human habitation and development has resulted in large investments in scientific knowledge to sustain health and agriculture. To address these deficiencies, I propose the formation of an international mountain research consortium.

  19. Geochemical quantification of semiarid mountain recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahi, Arun K; Hogan, James F; Ekwurzel, Brenda; Baillie, Matthew N; Eastoe, Christopher J

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of a typical semiarid mountain system recharge (MSR) setting demonstrates that geochemical tracers help resolve the location, rate, and seasonality of recharge as well as ground water flowpaths and residence times. MSR is defined as the recharge at the mountain front that dominates many semiarid basins plus the often-overlooked recharge through the mountain block that may be a significant ground water resource; thus, geochemical measurements that integrate signals from all flowpaths are advantageous. Ground water fluxes determined from carbon-14 ((14)C) age gradients imply MSR rates between 2 x 10(6) and 9 x 10(6) m(3)/year in the Upper San Pedro Basin, Arizona, USA. This estimated range is within an order of magnitude of, but lower than, prior independent estimates. Stable isotopic signatures indicate that MSR has a 65% +/- 25% contribution from winter precipitation and a 35% +/- 25% contribution from summer precipitation. Chloride and stable isotope results confirm that transpiration is the dominant component of evapotranspiration (ET) in the basin with typical loss of more than 90% of precipitation-less runoff to ET. Such geochemical constraints can be used to further refine hydrogeologic models in similar high-elevation relief basins and can provide practical first estimates of MSR rates for basins lacking extensive prior hydrogeologic measurements.

  20. Thermally driven upslope flow in mountainous terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberzon, Dan; Hocut, Christopher; Fernando, Harindra; Environmental Fluid Dynamics Team

    2011-11-01

    Buoyancy driven up-slope flow and its separation from mountain apex are two important processes that determine meso and regional flows in mountainous areas. Such flow configurations have applications from mountain meteorology to large scale monsoonal circulation. A combined experimental and theoretical study toward improving our understanding of the mechanisms governing upslope flow processes, in particular, generation of upstream circulating cells and plume rise at the apex is presented. The experiments were performed in a 1.25x.35x.3 m water tank, using an inclined (10 to 30 degrees from the horizontal) electrical foil as the heated slope. Under certain condition the flow configuration produced stable circulation cells and rising limited plumes of finite height. Particle Tracking Velocimetry and flow visualization techniques were used for the diagnostics of velocity field and plume rise height, and relevant salient dimensionless quantities were evaluated in terms of governing parameters. Theoretical arguments are presented to explain the results. Parameter ranges for the appearance of characteristic flow patterns are also delineated.

  1. Food Web Topology in High Mountain Lakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sánchez-Hernández

    Full Text Available Although diversity and limnology of alpine lake systems are well studied, their food web structure and properties have rarely been addressed. Here, the topological food webs of three high mountain lakes in Central Spain were examined. We first addressed the pelagic networks of the lakes, and then we explored how food web topology changed when benthic biota was included to establish complete trophic networks. We conducted a literature search to compare our alpine lacustrine food webs and their structural metrics with those of 18 published lentic webs using a meta-analytic approach. The comparison revealed that the food webs in alpine lakes are relatively simple, in terms of structural network properties (linkage density and connectance, in comparison with lowland lakes, but no great differences were found among pelagic networks. The studied high mountain food webs were dominated by a high proportion of omnivores and species at intermediate trophic levels. Omnivores can exploit resources at multiple trophic levels, and this characteristic might reduce competition among interacting species. Accordingly, the trophic overlap, measured as trophic similarity, was very low in all three systems. Thus, these alpine networks are characterized by many omnivorous consumers with numerous prey species and few consumers with a single or few prey and with low competitive interactions among species. The present study emphasizes the ecological significance of omnivores in high mountain lakes as promoters of network stability and as central players in energy flow pathways via food partitioning and enabling energy mobility among trophic levels.

  2. A geodynamic model of Andean mountain building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellart, Wouter P.

    2017-04-01

    The Andes mountain range in South America is the longest in the world and is unique in that it has formed at a subduction zone and not at a continent-continent collision zone. The mountain range has formed due to overriding plate shortening since the Late Cretaceous, and its origin and the driving mechanism(s) responsible for its formation remain a topic of intense debate. Here I present a buoyancy-driven geodynamic model of South American-style subduction, mantle flow and overriding plate deformation, illustrating how subduction-induced mantle flow drives overriding plate deformation. The model reproduces several first-order characteristics of the Andes, including major crustal thickening (up to double the initial crustal thickness) and hundreds of km of east-west shortening in the Central Andes, as well as a slab geometry that is comparable to that of the Nazca slab below the Central Andes. Ultimately, the geodynamic model shows that subduction-induced mantle flow is responsible for Andean-style mountain building.

  3. The Airborne Carbon in the Mountains Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimel, D.; Stephens, B.; Running, S.; Monson, R.; Vukicevic, T.; Ojima, D.

    2004-12-01

    Mountain landscapes of the Western US contain a significant portion of the North American carbon sink. This results from the land use history of the region, which has a preponderance of potentially aggrading mid-aged stands. The issue is significant not only because of the significant sink but because of the vulnerability of that sink to drought, insects, wildfire and other ecological changes occurring rapidly in the West. Quantification of the carbon budgets of western forests have received relatively limited attention, in part because direct carbon flux measurements are believed to be difficult to apply in complex landscapes. New techniques that take advantage of organized nighttime drainage flows may allow quantification of respiration on scales inaccessible in level landscapes, while Lagrangian airborne measurements may allow daytime fluxes to be quantified. Airborne and ground-based measurements during the summer of 2004 in Colorado show substantial drawdown of atmospheric carbon dioxide during the day and strong enrichment of the nocturnal boundary layer from nighttime respiration. We present a strategy whereby in situ measurements at multiple scales, remote sensing and data assimilation may be used to quantify carbon dynamics in mountain landscapes. Larger scales of integration may be possible in mountainous than level landscapes because of the integrative flow of air and water, while because of high heterogeneity, scaling from detailed local process studies remains difficult.

  4. Mountain treelines: A roadmap for research orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanson, George P.; Resler, Lynn M.; Bader, Maaike Y.; Holtmeier, Fredrich-Karl; Butler, David R.; Weiss, Daniel J.; Daniels, Lori D.; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2011-01-01

    For over 100 years, mountain treelines have been the subject of varied research endeavors and remain a strong area of investigation. The purpose of this paper is to examine aspects of the epistemology of mountain treeline research-that is, to investigate how knowledge on treelines has been acquired and the changes in knowledge acquisition over time, through a review of fundamental questions and approaches. The questions treeline researchers have raised and continue to raise have undoubtedly directed the current state of knowledge. A continuing, fundamental emphasis has centered on seeking the general cause of mountain treelines, thus seeking an answer to the question, "What causes treeline?" with a primary emphasis on searching for ecophysiological mechanisms of low-temperature limitation for tree growth and regeneration. However, treeline research today also includes a rich literature that seeks local, landscape-scale causes of treelines and reasons why treelines vary so widely in three-dimensional patterns from one location to the next, and this approach and some of its consequences are elaborated here. In recent years, both lines of research have been motivated greatly by global climate change. Given the current state of knowledge, we propose that future research directions focused on a spatial approach should specifically address cross-scale hypotheses using statistics and simulations designed for nested hierarchies; these analyses will benefit from geographic extension of treeline research.

  5. First report of the white pine blister rust fungus, Cronartium ribicola, infecting Pinus flexilis on Pine Mountain, Humboldt National Forest, Elko County, northeastern Nevada, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detlev R. Vogler; Patricia E. Maloney; Tom Burt; Jacob W. Snelling

    2017-01-01

    In 2013, while surveying for five-needle white pine cone crops in northeastern Nevada, we observed white pine blister rust, caused by the rust pathogen Cronartium ribicola Fisch., infecting branches and stems of limber pines (Pinus flexilis James) on Pine Mountain (41.76975°N, 115.61622°W), Humboldt National Forest,...

  6. Surveying Humaness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Randi; Gad, Christopher

    Christopher Gad. Ph.d. Dept. of Information and Media Studies Randi Markussen. Associate Professor, Dept. of Information and Media Studies. rmark@imv.au.dk   Abstract:   Surveying humanness -politics of care improvement   For various reasons we both were subjected to a specific survey procedure...... and development of a large collection of biological and psychological symptoms and psycho-social problems. However, the surveys say nothing about how the information will be of use to the people who answer the procedure or how this scientific intervention will be put to use more specifically within the public...... carried out in a Danish county in order to improve treatment of people who have suffered from long-term illnesses. The surveys concern not only feed back on how people experience their present and past interaction with the social services and health care system; they also ask people to indicate the state...

  7. Surveying Humaness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Randi; Gad, Christopher

    Christopher Gad. Ph.d. Dept. of Information and Media Studies Randi Markussen. Associate Professor, Dept. of Information and Media Studies. rmark@imv.au.dk   Abstract:   Surveying humanness -politics of care improvement   For various reasons we both were subjected to a specific survey procedure...... and development of a large collection of biological and psychological symptoms and psycho-social problems. However, the surveys say nothing about how the information will be of use to the people who answer the procedure or how this scientific intervention will be put to use more specifically within the public...... be imagined as a positive end, as ‘making explicit’ (in a popular psychological perspective) is considered to be therapeutic and good in itself? We will discuss those questions from a Foucaultian and ANT perspective, where one does not accept that pre-existing subjects are exposed to survey procedures...

  8. Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cleaned and QCd data for the Fishing Effort Survey. Questions on fishing and other out are asked on weather and outdoor activity, including fishing trips. Used for...

  9. Review article: The mountain motif in the plot of Matthew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert J. Volschenk

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article reviewed T.L. Donaldson’s book, Jesus on the mountain: A study in Matthean theology, published in 1985 by JSOT Press, Sheffield, and focused on the mountain motif in the structure and plot of the Gospel of Matthew, in addition to the work of Donaldson on the mountain motif as a literary motif and as theological symbol. The mountain is a primary theological setting for Jesus’ ministry and thus is an important setting, serving as one of the literary devices by which Matthew structured and progressed his narrative. The Zion theological and eschatological significance and Second Temple Judaism serve as the historical and theological background for the mountain motif. The last mountain setting (Mt 28:16–20 is the culmination of the three theological themes in the plot of Matthew, namely Christology, ecclesiology and salvation history.

  10. Epidemiological survey and analysis on infants passive smoking in Han,Hui and Kazakh ethnic group in North of Tianshan Mountains%天山北麓汉回哈族婴幼儿被动吸烟流行现况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩林俐; 吴星燕; 陈江芸; 陶化青; 蒋佩; 杜爽; 李新辉

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current status of infants passive smoking in Han,Hui and Kazakh ethnic groups in North of Tianshan Mountains.Methods From November 2014 to August 2015,a method of stratified random cluster sample was used to investigate 568 infants’parents by a face-to-face questionnaire at Urumqi City,Shihezi City and Shawan County in north of Tianshan Mountains.Results The passive smoking rate of infants was 40.5% in totally,and 28.7% at home and 17.8% in public respectively.The passive smoking rate of Han ethnic group infants was 47.2%, 32.3% in Hui ethnic group and 29.6% in Kazakh ethnic group,respectively.Different ethnic groups showed significant differences (P <0.001).The passive smoking rate among infants aged under 1 year old was 34.9%,the percentage in in-fants aged 1 to 2 year old was 44.0%,and the percentage in infants aged 2 to 3 year old infants was 46.3%,respective-ly.The passive smoking rates increased with age,and the passive smoking rate in each age stage of Han ethnic group was higher than Hui and Kazakh ethnic groups,which showed significant differences (P <0.05).Conclusion Passive smok-ing was very common in infants,it is a huge challenge to control passive smoking,corresponding measures should be taken to create smoke-free environment for infants growing at home and in public places.%目的:调查天山北麓汉、回、哈萨克族婴幼儿被动吸烟的流行现况。方法2014年11月—2015年8月,采用分层随机整群抽样的方法,选取天山北麓乌鲁木齐市、石河子市和沙湾县568名婴幼儿的家长进行问卷调查。结果婴幼儿被动吸烟率为40.5%,其中在家中为28.7%,在公共场所为17.8%。汉族婴幼儿被动吸烟率为47.2%,回族为32.3%,哈萨克族为29.6%,差异有统计学意义(P <0.001)。婴儿被动吸烟率为34.9%,1~2岁幼儿为44.0%,2~3岁幼儿为46.3%,婴幼儿随年龄增长被动吸烟率随之增加,且各年龄

  11. Favorable areas for prospecting adjacent to the Roberts Mountains thrust in southern Lander County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John Harris; McKee, Edwin H.

    1968-01-01

    Recent geologic mapping by the U.S. Geological Survey of more than 2,500 square miles of a relatively little-studied part of central Nevada has outlined four areas favorable for the discovery of metallic mineral deposits. In these areas, lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks crop out below the Roberts Mountains thrust, a widespread fault in central and north-central Nevada. These areas have a stratigraphic and structural setting similar to that of the areas where large, open-pit gold deposits have been discovered recently at Carlin and Cortez in north-central Nevada.

  12. Yucca Mountain Task 4, Final report FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, J.N.

    1993-09-30

    Four major projects at UNRSL have been supported by NWPO-Neotectonics Yucca Mountain Task 4 funds during the last year: (1) Operation and analysis of data from the UNRSL microearthquake network at Yucca Mountain. (2) Continued operation, maintenance, and calibration of three broadband stations. Limited data analysis was also initiated. (3) Continued review by Dr. Brune of documents and literature related to seismic hazard and tectonics of the Yucca Mountain region. (4) Testing of noise levels in boreholes.

  13. THE MOUNTAIN REGIONS IN CONTEXT OF STRATEGY 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONESCU Daniela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The mountain regions in Romania and European Union represent a special territory of interest, with a huge economic, social, environmental and cultural potential. More, mountain area is considerate a natural-economic region and constitutes an important objective for regional development policy. The main sectors of mountain area are presented in agriculture and tourism fields that lead the key role in safeguarding the sensitive eco-system and thereby maintaining the general living and working space.Mountain areas should have a specific policy defined by the sustainable development principle, which meets the needs of the present without compromising the opportunities of future generations. The specific mountain policy aims to reduce the imbalance between favored and disadvantaged mountain regions, permanently marked by natural, economic, social, cultural and environmental constraints. In previous programming period, mountain regions among have profited from the intensive regional support, in specially, for constructing of and connecting them to fresh water and waste water networks, in particular for increasing of life quality. In context of 2020 Strategy, the Member States will concentrate investments on a small number of thematic objectives. In advanced regions, 60 % of funds will used for only two of these objectives (competitiveness of SME and research/innovation. The all less developed regions will received about 50% of Structural Funds In Romania, mountain representing 29.93% out of the total national surface and 20.14% from UAA (Utilised Agricultural Area of total national. The mountain territory has around 20% of the national population and is overlapping almost 100% with the Carpathian Mountains. Due to these conditions, Romania's regional development policy must take into account the specificities of mountain area, the problems they faced, and the requirements of 2020 Strategy.This paper presents the main aspects to be taken into account

  14. Subgrid snow depth coefficient of variation within complex mountainous terrain

    OpenAIRE

    Sexstone, Graham A.; Fassnacht, Steven R.; López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio; Christopher A. Hiemstra

    2016-01-01

    Given the substantial variability of snow in complex mountainous terrain, a considerable challenge of coarse scale modeling applications is accurately representing the subgrid variability of snowpack properties. The snow depth coefficient of variation (CVds) is a useful metric for characterizing subgrid snow distributions but has not been well defined by a parameterization for mountainous environments. This study utilizes lidar-derived snow depth datasets from mountainous terrain in Colorado,...

  15. Fault Characteristics in Longmen Mountain Thrust Belt,Western Sichuan Foreland Basin,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan Guimei; Tang Liangjie; Yang Keming; Jin Wenzheng; LU Zhizhou; Yu Yixin

    2008-01-01

    Through field geological survey,the authors found that abundant thrust faults developed in the Longmen (龙门) Mountain thrust belt.These faults can be divided into thrust faults and strike-slip faults according to their formation mechanisms and characteristics.Furthermore,these faults can be graded into primary fault,secondary fault,third-level fault,and fourth-level fault according to their scale and role in the tectonic evolution of Longmen Mountain thrust belt.Each thrust fault is composed of several secondary faults,such as Qingchuan (青川)-Maowen (茂汶) fault zone is composed of Qiaozhuang (乔庄) fault,Qingxi (青溪) fault,Maowen fault,Ganyanggou (赶羊沟) fault,etc..The Longmen Mountain thrust belt experienced early Indosinian movement,Anxian (安县) movement,Yanshan (燕山)movement,and Himalayan movement,and the faults formed gradually from north to south.

  16. An inventory of epigeal ants of the western Soutpansberg Mountain Range, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thinandavha C. Munyai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution, abundance and sensitivity invertebrates to habitat change are largely unknown. Long-term monitoring of ecological gradients with standardised and comparable protocols can form the basis of a better understanding. Altitudinal gradients are particularly relevant within this context. Here we provide a check list and baseline data for ant species collected over a 5-year period across the Soutpansberg Mountain Range, South Africa. Standardised pitfall surveys across 11 sites yielded a total of 133 species in 38 genera and 6 subfamilies. Sample coverage of epigeal ants was 0.98 for the transect as a whole. Of these species, 21% were restricted to the southern slope of the mountain and 14% to the northern slope. Extrapolated richness estimates reached an asymptote for all, except for three sites. These were the only sites impacted by bush encroachment. Observed richness was the highest at a low-altitude mesic site that is exposed to considerable disturbance by megaherbivores and mechanical clearing of woody vegetation. Structural classification of vegetation was predictive of a broad-scale ant assemblage structure. On a smaller scale, however, structure was a function of elevation, space and temperature.Conservation implications: Future monitoring should target indicator taxa associated with bush encroachment, particularly with reference to their impacts on grasslands. Bush encroachment could endanger several ant species associated with mesic grasslands and woodlands on the mountain, as well as ant diversity, as these were the habitats with the highest ant diversity.

  17. Rain, Rain, Go Away, Come Again Another Day. Weather Preferences of Summer Tourists in Mountain Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Steiger

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Weather and climate are important factors for travel decision-making and overall tourist satisfaction. As central motivators for destination choice, they directly and indirectly influence demand patterns and can be a resource and limitation for tourism at the same time. In this paper, results of an in-situ survey of mountain summer tourists (n = 733 in the Alps in Southern Germany are presented. Respondents rated ‘rain’ as the most important aspect of weather during their holiday. During a 7-day holiday, 2.1 days of continuous rain are accepted, and 3.1 days of days with thunderstorms. The ideal temperature range is between 21 and 25 °C, thus lying 4–7 degrees lower than for beach tourism. Temperatures below 15 °C and above 30 °C are perceived as unacceptable. Statistically significant differences were found for several tourist types: Older tourists are more sensitive to heat, tourists with sports activities are more tolerant to cool temperatures, first-time visitors are more sensitive to rain and families with children prefer higher temperatures. From the results, some implications for mountain destinations arise: mountain destinations could be promoted as a heat refuge, and attracting sports tourists might be a promising way to reduce weather sensitivity; however, some variety of well-promoted weather independent attractions seems to be mandatory.

  18. Land Surface Coverage, Main Vegetation and Physical Soil Characteristics of West Side of Lawu Mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahayu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability of catchment area management of a mountain requeres identification the vegetation and condition of the major vegetation. This reserachs purpouse was characterizing major vegetation, coverage and soil properties at 1000 m elevation sea level to the top of Lawu mountain. Survey was started by identification of every vegetation unit followed by taking soil sample that was analyzed in laboratory for identifying the properties. Sampling and identification conducted close by common climbing track line to the top, including Jogorogo and Cemoro Sewu East Java, and Cemoro Kandang and Sukuh Central java. Coverage of vegetation used sattellite immage landsad and was analyzed by Arview software. Results showed that intens and dense forest was 36,22% and the other was rare density forest. Major vegetation of Lawu mountain was Pinus (Pinus merkusii, Cemara (Casuarina equisatifolia, Tanganan (Schleptera sp, Akasia gunung (Acasia decurren, rumput vestuca, Cantigi (Vaccinium sp kayu pasang (Lithocarpus pruinusa and vegetables on agriculture land. Every type of vegetation unit had different soil physycal properties of topsoil, while elevation had effect on soil bulk volume and porocity.

  19. Investigation and assessment on mountain tunnels and geotechnical damage after the Wenchuan earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    On May 12, 2008, a strong earthquake with a magnitude of 8.0 (Ms) struck Wenchuan town, in the eastern Sichuan area of west China. Following the earthquake on May 18, the Southwest Jiaotong University organized a damage survey team and dispatched it to the affected area for the investigation into the damage and collection of information and data. This paper outlines the findings of this investigation on the earthquake disaster to mountain tunnels and geotechnical engineering. The systematic investigation, involving geological conditions, design documents, construction and maintenance records of the tunnels, has been conducted and the degree of damage to investigated tunnels has been assessed according to the width and length of cracks, the stability of the slope above the tunnel, and the condition of the groundwater inrush. The results show that the major damage of the mountain tunnels was mainly concentrated in the tunnel portals due to widespread landslides and rockfalls, and the inner part of investigated tunnels suffered moderate damages mainly due to fault displacements. It is hoped that the information shared herein could enhance the outstanding of seismic behavior of mountain tunnels and improve seismic design and construction procedures.

  20. The hydrological significance of mountains: from regional to global scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Viviroli

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Mountain regions supply a large share of the world’s population with fresh water. Quantification of the hydrological significance of mountains, however, is subject to great uncertainty. Instead of focusing on global averages in advance, the present analysis follows a catchment-based approach using discharge data provided by the Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC. The River Rhine originating in the European Alps is chosen as a first study area, revealing the hydrological relationship between mountainous and lowland regions in a well-documented area. Following the findings from this analysis, different aspects of runoff characteristics for a total of 22 case-study river basins world-wide have been investigated and compared, for a global view. The view has been extended through aspects of climate and human use of mountain runoff. The particular hydrological characteristics of mountain areas are characterised by disproportionately large discharges. In humid areas, mountains supply up to 20–50% of total discharge while in arid areas, mountains contribute from 50–90% of total discharge, with extremes of over 95%. The overall assessment of the hydrological significance of mountain areas reveals that the world’s major 'water towers' are found in arid or semi-arid zones where they provide essential fresh water for a significant proportion of a quickly growing global population. Keywords: mountain hydrology, global comparative assessment, runoff, water resources, sustainability, Rhine River, European Alps

  1. Climate and Geomorphic Risks in High-Mountain Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggel, Christian; Kääb, Andreas; Schneider, Jean

    2010-03-01

    Glacier Hazards, Permafrost Hazards, and Glacier Lake Outburst Floods in Mountain Areas: Processes, Assessment, Prevention, Mitigation; Vienna, Austria, 10-13 November 2009; Recent atmospheric warming is profoundly affecting high-mountain environments around the world. Glaciers are thinning and retreating, new and often unstable lakes are forming at glacier margins, other lakes are suddenly draining, and permafrost is degrading. These changes pose serious hazards to people and property in mountain valleys. Several tens of thousands of people were killed by landslides, floods, and debris flows from high-mountain regions during the twentieth century, and there is concern that such events will increase as temperatures warm through the 21st century.

  2. Impact of mountain gravity waves on infrasound propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiens, Florentin; Lott, François; Millet, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Linear theory of acoustic propagation is used to analyze how mountain waves can change the characteristics of infrasound signals. The mountain wave model is based on the integration of the linear inviscid Taylor-Goldstein equation forced by a nonlinear surface boundary condition. For the acoustic propagation we solve the wave equation using the normal mode method together with the effective sound speed approximation. For large-amplitude mountain waves we use direct numerical simulations to compute the interactions between the mountain waves and the infrasound component. It is shown that the mountain waves perturb the low level waveguide, which leads to significant acoustic dispersion. The mountain waves also impact the arrival time and spread of the signals substantially and can produce a strong absorption of the wave signal. To interpret our results we follow each acoustic mode separately and show which mode is impacted and how. We also show that the phase shift between the acoustic modes over the horizontal length of the mountain wave field may yield to destructive interferences in the lee side of the mountain, resulting in a new form of infrasound absorption. The statistical relevance of those results is tested using a stochastic version of the mountain wave model and large enough sample sizes.

  3. Tracking climate change in oligotrophic mountain lakes: Recent hydrology and productivity synergies in Lago de Sanabria (NW Iberian Peninsula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambrina-Enríquez, Margarita; Recio, Clemente; Vega, José Carlos; Valero-Garcés, Blas

    2017-07-15

    Mountain lakes are particularly sensitive to global change as their oligotrophic conditions may be rapidly altered after reaching an ecological threshold, due to increasing human impact and climate change. Sanabria Lake, the largest mountain lake in the Iberian Peninsula and with a recent history of increased human impact in its watershed, provides an opportunity to investigate recent trends in an oligotrophic, hydrologically-open mountain lake, and their relationship with climate, hydrological variability and human pressure. We conducted the first systematic and detailed survey of stable isotope compositions of Sanabria Lake and Tera River together with limnological analyses during 2009-2011. δ(18)Olakewater and δDlakewater seasonal fluctuations are strongly linked to river discharges, and follow the monthly mean isotopic composition of precipitation, which is controlled by NAO dynamics. δ(13)CPOM and δ(13)CDIC revealed higher contribution of allochthonous organic matter in winter and spring due to higher river inflow and lower primary productivity. Increased phytoplankton biomass in late summer correlated significantly with higher pH and Chl-a, and higher nutrient input and lower river inflow. However, the small δ(13)CPOM seasonal amplitude underlines the stability of the oligotrophic conditions and the isotopic variation in POM and DIC reflect small seasonal fluctuations mostly as a consequence of strong throughflow. The stability of hydrology and productivity patterns is consistent with Holocene and last millennium reconstructions of past limnological changes in Sanabria Lake. The results of this study indicate that trophic state in this hydrologically-open mountain lake is strongly controlled by climate variability, but recent changes in human-land uses have increased sediment delivery and nutrients supply to the lake and have to be considered for management policies. Monitoring surveys including isotope techniques provide snapshots of modern isotope

  4. Merging aeromagnetic data collected at different levels: the GEOMAUD survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Damaske

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of the German GEOMAUD-expedition an aeromagnetic survey was carried out in Central Queen Maud Land. The helicopter-borne survey was designed in a conventional form of a regional survey with a spacing of profile-lines of 4.4 km. Due to terrain considerations - surveying from the coast across the mountain ranges to the high altitudes of the polar plateau - the survey was split into two sections flown at different constant levels. Over the coastal part survey elevation was 570 m (above sea level while for the mountain section 2845 m was chosen. Both survey parts were processed separately. The low level section was upward continued before merging with the high level section. Though this leads to a homogeneous magnetic anomaly map, in some applications it may be more advantageous to present the anomalies of the magnetic field in original survey levels as a simple combined map because small scale features are preserved and can be used in recognizing magnetic units and patterns for geological/geophysical interpretation.

  5. Institutional trust, information, and risk perceptions; Report of findings of the Las Vegas metropolitan area survey, June 29--July 1, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mushkatel, A.H.; Pijawka, K.D. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1992-09-01

    This study reports on the preliminary results of a survey of attitudes and perceptions of Las Vegas area residents regarding the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository. The survey`s focus was to examine the various dimensions of trust and confidence in government`s efforts to develop the country`s nuclear waste repository in Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  6. Hydrogeologic data for the northern Rocky Mountains intermontane basins, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, DeAnn M.; Lawlor, Sean M.; Briar, D.W.; Tresch, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey began a Regional Aquifer- System Analysis of the Northern Rocky Mountains Intermontane Basins of western Montana and central and central and northern Idaho in 1990 to establish a regional framework of information for aquifers in 54 intermontane basins in an area of about 77,500 square miles. Selected hydrogeologic data have been used as part of this analysis to define the hydro- logic systems. Records of 1,376 wells completed in 31 of the 34 intermontane basins in the Montana part of the study area are tabulated in this report. Data consist of location, alttiude of land surface, date well constructed, geologic unit, depth of well, diameter of casing, type of finish, top of open interval, primary use of water, water level, date water level measured, discharge, specific capacity, source of discharge data, type of log available, date water-quality parameters measured, specific conductance, pH, and temperature. Hydrographs for selected wells also are included. Locations of wells and basins are shown on the accompanying plate.

  7. Geology of the Pine Mountain quadrangle, Mesa county, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.

    1953-01-01

    The Pine Mountain quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over mush of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confines to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in sizer from irregular masses containing only a few ton of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  8. Testing conceptual unsaturated zone flow models for Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.P.; Lehman, L.L. [L. Lehman & Associates, Inc., Burnsville, MN (United States); Nieber, J.L. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    An important component of site characterization and suitability assessment of the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is determination of the most appropriate conceptual model of the hydrologic mechanisms governing saturated and unsaturated flow for the site. As observers in the ITNRAVAL Unsaturated Zone Working Group, L. Lehman & Associates conducted a modeling exercise which numerically examined alternative conceptual flow models. Information was provided to the Working Group by the U.S. Geological Survey. Additional published data were utilized to fill in data gaps and to provide additional confidence in results. Data were modeled utilizing one and two dimensional matrix and fracture numerical models. Good agreement was obtained using a 2-dimensional dual porosity fracture flow model. Additional measures are needed to constrain the field conditions enough to validate conceptual models using numerical models. Geochemical data on tritium, chlorine-36, or carbon-14 concentrations or temperature profiles which can give estimates of time since recharge for water in the unsaturated zone, are needed to eliminate the non-uniqueness of various model solutions.

  9. A Survey of Mountainous Areas on the Folk and Medical Prescription of Yi Nationality and Environmental Change in Yunnan Province:With a Historical Investigation in Wenshan River Basin of E’shan County as a Centre%云南省山区彝族民间药方与环境变迁调查--以峨山县文山河流域为中心的历史考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白玉军; 王天福

    2015-01-01

    The flora and fauna resources in mountainous areas whereYi Nationality lived are rich, including some medicines for treating diseases. Some common and folk medicines are mostly related to the animal and plant resources in mountainous areas. In recent years, with large-scale development and utilization in mountainous areas, larger area of the vegetations is disappearing. what’s worse, these development and utilized activities in mountainous areas were accelerating the disappearance of folk herbs. The disappearance of the folk medical herbs, on the one hand is true portraiture of the ecological environment deterioration, on the other hand, objectively accelerate the prevalence of western medicine. Deterioration of ecological environmental gradually accelerates fading even death of the folk prescription of Yi Nationality in the mountainous area to certain extent .%云南省彝族居住的山区动植物资源丰富,其中不乏治病药物。一些常见民间治病药方大都来自山区动植物资源。近年来,随着山区大规模的开发与利用,出现了山区植被的大面积消亡,从而加速了民间草药的消失。民间药物的消失,一方面是生态环境恶化的真实写照,另一方面在客观上加速了西医的盛行。生态环境恶化在一定程度上加速了山区彝族民间药方的逐渐淡化甚至消亡。

  10. Raise the Flag for Mountains: Enhancing Policy Dialogue and Knowledge Sharing through the World Mountain Forum Series

    OpenAIRE

    André Wehrli

    2016-01-01

    As a mountain country, Switzerland has an intrinsic interest and a proven track record in sustainable mountain development (SMD). Many Swiss stakeholders, including the federal and cantonal administrations, universities, and nongovernmental organizations, actively contribute to global SMD in many ways. Switzerland, with its extensive operational experience in mountainous countries around the world, has been one of the driving forces promoting policy dialogue and knowledge management among dif...

  11. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2007-01-01

    Engineering surveying involves determining the position of natural and man-made features on or beneath the Earth's surface and utilizing these features in the planning, design and construction of works. It is a critical part of any engineering project. Without an accurate understanding of the size, shape and nature of the site the project risks expensive and time-consuming errors or even catastrophic failure.Engineering Surveying 6th edition covers all the basic principles and practice of this complex subject and the authors bring expertise and clarity. Previous editions of this classic text have given readers a clear understanding of fundamentals such as vertical control, distance, angles and position right through to the most modern technologies, and this fully updated edition continues that tradition.This sixth edition includes:* An introduction to geodesy to facilitate greater understanding of satellite systems* A fully updated chapter on GPS, GLONASS and GALILEO for satellite positioning in surveying* Al...

  12. Noninvasive saliva collection techniques for free-ranging mountain gorillas and captive eastern gorillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiley, Tierra; Spelman, Lucy; Lukasik-Braum, Magdalena; Mukherjee, Jean; Kaufman, Gretchen; Akiyoshi, Donna E; Cranfield, Michael

    2010-06-01

    This study was designed to develop a simple, noninvasive method for saliva collection: a first step toward developing new diagnostic tests to survey gorillas for infectious diseases. The subjects included free-ranging mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in the Parc National des Volcans, Rwanda, and a group of orphan mountain and Grauer's gorillas (Gorilla heringei graueri) housed nearby in a temporary holding facility. Three collection methods were used to recover saliva from discarded forest food: swabbing, soaking, and washing. Saliva was also collected from orphan gorillas maintained in a captive setting by using dental ropes inside mesh bags. The presence of gorilla saliva in each sample was confirmed by using a salivary s-amylase assay and forensic press test paper. The recovery of gorilla DNA was verified by polymerase chain reaction by using primers specific to mountain and Grauer's gorillas. Of the three collection techniques used to recover saliva from forest food, directly swabbing plant bite marks was the most effective. Wild celery (Peucedanum linderi) provided for the most consistent saliva recovery and is eaten year round by mountain gorillas in Rwanda. This study shows that gorilla saliva can be recovered easily and noninvasively from known individual free-ranging gorillas by collecting pieces of wild celery discarded as the gorillas forage and from captive gorillas by offering them juice-soaked dental ropes inside mesh bags. Both methods can be used to recover gorilla DNA for genetic studies. Saliva collected from free-ranging and captive gorillas may prove to be a useful biologic sample for the development of new diagnostic tests and hormonal analysis.

  13. Snow avalanche activity in the High Tatras Mountains: new data achieved by means of dendrogeomorphic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichavsky, R.

    2016-12-01

    The High Tatras Mountains are permanently affected by the occurrence of hazardous geomorphic processes. Snow avalanches represent a common hazard that threatens the infrastructure and humans living and visiting the mountains. So far, the spatio-temporal reconstruction of snow avalanche histories was based only on existing archival records, orthophoto interpretation and lichenometric dating in the High Tatras Mountains. Dendrogeomorphic methods allow for the intra-seasonal dating of scars on tree stems and branches and have been broadly used for the dating of snow avalanche events all over the world. We extracted the increment cores and cross sections from 189 individuals of Pinus mugo var. mugo growing on four tali in the Great Cold Valley and dated all the past scars that could correspond with the winter to early spring occurrence of snow avalanches. The dating was supported by the visual analysis of three orthophoto images from 2004, 2009 and 2014. In total, nineteen event years of snow avalanches (10 certain events, and 9 probable events) were identified since 1959. Historical archives provided evidence only for nine event years since 1987, and three of them were confirmed dendrogeomorphically. Geomorphic effect of recent snow avalanches identified by the spatial distribution of scarred trees in individual years corresponds with the extent of events visible from the orthophotos. We can confirm higher frequency of snow avalanche events since 1980s (17 out of 19 events) and significant increase during the last ten years. The future expected climatic changes associated with the changes in temperature and precipitation regime could significantly influence on the frequency of snow avalanches. Therefore, our results can become the starting line for more extensive dendrogeomorphic survey in the High Tatras Mountains in order to create a catalogue of all natural hazards for the future prediction and modelling of these phenomena in context of environmental changes.

  14. Modeling a historical mountain pine beetle outbreak using Landsat MSS and multiple lines of evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assal, Timothy J.; Sibold, Jason; Reich, Robin M.

    2014-01-01

    Mountain pine beetles are significant forest disturbance agents, capable of inducing widespread mortality in coniferous forests in western North America. Various remote sensing approaches have assessed the impacts of beetle outbreaks over the last two decades. However, few studies have addressed the impacts of historical mountain pine beetle outbreaks, including the 1970s event that impacted Glacier National Park. The lack of spatially explicit data on this disturbance represents both a major data gap and a critical research challenge in that wildfire has removed some of the evidence from the landscape. We utilized multiple lines of evidence to model forest canopy mortality as a proxy for outbreak severity. We incorporate historical aerial and landscape photos, aerial detection survey data, a nine-year collection of satellite imagery and abiotic data. This study presents a remote sensing based framework to (1) relate measurements of canopy mortality from fine-scale aerial photography to coarse-scale multispectral imagery and (2) classify the severity of mountain pine beetle affected areas using a temporal sequence of Landsat data and other landscape variables. We sampled canopy mortality in 261 plots from aerial photos and found that insect effects on mortality were evident in changes to the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) over time. We tested multiple spectral indices and found that a combination of NDVI and the green band resulted in the strongest model. We report a two-step process where we utilize a generalized least squares model to account for the large-scale variability in the data and a binary regression tree to describe the small-scale variability. The final model had a root mean square error estimate of 9.8% canopy mortality, a mean absolute error of 7.6% and an R2 of 0.82. The results demonstrate that a model of percent canopy mortality as a continuous variable can be developed to identify a gradient of mountain pine beetle severity on the

  15. Evolution of the hydromorphodynamics of mountain river confluences for varying discharge ratios and junction angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén-Ludeña, S.; Franca, M. J.; Cardoso, A. H.; Schleiss, A. J.

    2016-02-01

    Mountain river confluences are characterized by narrow and steep tributaries that supply abundant sediment load to a main channel that, in turn, provides the dominant flow discharge. In addition, bed sediments consist of poorly sorted mixtures that promote bed armoring. The knowledge of the hydrodynamics and morphodynamics of mountain river confluences is sparse because most of the existent studies on confluence dynamics focus on lowland confluences. This study aims at examining the influence of the junction angle (α) and discharge ratio (Qr = Qt / Qm) on flow dynamics and bed morphology of mountain river confluences. This study presents the results of six laboratory experiments in which three discharge ratios were tested (Qr = Qt / Qm = 0.11, 0.15, 0.23) with two different junction angles (α = 90° and 70°). The experiments were conducted under movable bed conditions and with continuous sediment supply to both flumes. Measurements consisted of systematic bed topography and water surface surveys performed at different instants during the experiments and at equilibrium, i.e., when the outgoing sediment rate coincided with the incoming and bed topography reached a steady state. The results show that the discharge ratio and the junction angle parameters are major controls of the dynamics of mountain river confluences. Also, the evolution of bed morphology and flow dynamics for varying junction angles and discharge ratios present some patterns that contrast with those reported for lowland confluences. Among these patterns are the different flow regimes adopted by the tributary for different junction angles and the decrease of the height of the bank-attached bar for increasing discharge ratios. Moreover, results show that the abundant sediment load of the tributary plays a major role on the dynamics of this type of confluence. This load resulted in a marked bed discordance that, in turn, influenced flow dynamics and bed morphology of the confluence.

  16. Relief Evolution in Tectonically Active Mountain Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Kelin X.

    2004-01-01

    The overall aims of this 3-yr project, as originally proposed were to: (1) investigate quantitatively the roles of fluvial and glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions, and (2) test rigorously the quality and accuracy of SRTM topographic data in areas of rugged relief - both the most challenging and of greatest interest to geomorphic, neotectonic, and hazards applications. Natural laboratories in both the western US and the Southern Alps of New Zealand were identified as most promising. The project has been both successful and productive, despite the fact that no SRTM data for our primary field sites in New Zealand were released on the time frame of the work effort. Given the delayed release of SRTM data, we pursued the scientific questions of the roles of fluvial and, especially, glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions using available digital elevation models (DEMs) for the Southern Alps of New Zealand (available at both 25m and 50m pixel sizes), and USGS 10m and 30m DEMs within the Western US. As emphasized in the original proposal, we chose the emphasis on the role of glacial modification of topographic relief because there has been little quantitative investigation of glacial erosion processes at landscape scale. This is particularly surprising considering the dramatic sculpting of most mid- and high-latitude mountain ranges, the prodigious quantities of glacially-derived sediment in terrestrial and marine basins, and the current cross-disciplinary interest in the role of denudational processes in orogenesis and the evolution of topography in general. Moreover, the evolution of glaciated landscapes is not only a fundamental problem in geomorphology in its own right, but also is at the heart of the debate over Late Cenozoic linkages between climate and tectonics.

  17. A View from the Mountain Top: The Purple Mountain Observatory Library, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the author's experience directing the Purple Mountain Observatory Library, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) in Nanjing, China. Routine collection development, management and preservation issues are described, and the unique challenges and opportunities involved in operating a remote observatory library are highlighted.

  18. Defining Hydrogeological Boundaries for Mountain Front Recharge (MFR) Predictions in Multi-Catchment Mountainous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson-Welch, L. A.; Allen, D. M.

    2010-12-01

    Cross-catchment groundwater flow in mountainous watersheds results from the development of local, intermediate, and regional groundwater flow pathways in multi-catchment systems. As such, hydrogeological analysis (e.g. water balance calculations and numerical modelling) to assess contributions of groundwater to mountain front recharge (MFR) must consider the choice of boundaries based on hydrological divides. Numerical 3-dimensional hydrogeological modelling was completed using FeFlow (DHI-WASY), for conceptual regional-scale multi-catchment systems; extending from a watershed boundary to a mountain front. The modelled systems were designed to represent major ridge and valley configurations observed in mountainous watersheds including: nested, adjacent, disconnected, non-parallel, and parallel catchments. Both homogeneous and heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity scenarios were simulated; with the heterogeneous scenario including a shallow zone of higher hydraulic conductivity bedrock overlying less permeable bedrock. The influence of cross-catchment flow in the development of groundwater flow pathways contributing to MFR was examined. The results provide a basis for identifying topographic scenarios where contributions to MFR may originate outside hydrological divides. This understanding will contribute to improving MFR predictions using both the numerical modelling approach and the water balance approach.

  19. Comparison of extreme precipitation characteristics between the Ore Mountains and the Vosges Mountains (Europe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minářová, Jana; Müller, Miloslav; Clappier, Alain; Kašpar, Marek

    2017-08-01

    Understanding the characteristics of extreme precipitation events (EPEs) not only helps in mitigating the hazards associated with it but will also reduce the risks by improved planning based on the detailed information, and provide basis for better engineering decisions which can withstand the recurring and likely more frequent events predicted in future in the context of global climate change. In this study, extremity, temporal and spatial characteristics, and synoptic situation of the 54 EPEs that occurred during 1960-2013 were compared between two low mountain ranges situated in Central Europe: the Ore Mountains (OM) and Vosges Mountains (VG). The EPEs were defined using the Weather Extremity Index, which quantifies the extremity, duration, and spatial extent of events. Comparative analysis of EPE characteristics showed that in both regions the EPEs were mostly short (lasted 1-2 days) and their seasonal occurrence significantly depended on the synoptic situation and duration of EPEs; the low was related to summer short EPEs, while zonal circulation to winter long EPEs. The EPEs were generally related to lows in OM and to troughs in VG. The lows often moved to OM from the Mediterranean area, i.e. along the Vb track. However, five EPEs in VG occurred during a low with Vb track significantly deflected westwards. The EPEs in VG affected smaller area as compared to that in OM. The comparison of EPEs between the two low mountain ranges is first of its kind and contributes to the understanding of EPE characteristics in the regions.

  20. 河北省昌黎县城北外环至碣石山脚下鸟类初步调查%A Preliminary Survey of birds in the Area of Northern Outer Ring Road of County Town of Changli to the Foot of Jieshi Mountain , Heibei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波; 张冀宁; 欧秀云

    2012-01-01

    Birds in the area of northern outer ring road of county town of Changli to the foot of Jieshi Mountain of Hebei were investigated during the period from October 2009 to October 2011. There are 99 species which belong to 14 orders,37 families. Among these,72 species are distributed in the Palaearctic region,7 species in the Oriental region and 20 species are widely distributed. 22 species are residents, 21 species are summer breeders, 11 species are winter species and 45 species are transient migrants. Dominant species include Barn Swallow ( Hirundo mstica), Common Magpie ( Pica pica) and Eurasian Tree Sparrow ( Passer montanus) ; Common species including Eurasian Collared Dove ( Streptopelia decaocto), Red-rumped Swallow ( Hirundo daurica) ,Chinese Bulbul (Pycnonotus sinensis),Brown Shrike (Lanius cristatus),Red-billed Blue Magpie (Urocissa erythrorhyncha),Red-billed Chough (Pyrrhooorax pyrrhocorax), Naumann' s Thrush (Turdus nau- manni), Yellow-browed Warbler (Phylloseopus inomatus) and Little Bunting (Emberiza pusiUa). Among these birds ,there are 7 species which belong to the second class of the national protected birds and 19 species of the Hebei Province emphatically protected birds.%2009年10月至2011年10月,对河北省昌黎县城北外环路至碣石山脚下的鸟类进行了初步调查,共记录野生鸟类14目37科99种。其中古北种72种,东洋种7种,广布种20种;留鸟22种,夏候鸟21种,冬候鸟11种,旅鸟45种;家燕(Hirundorustica)、喜鹊(Picapica)和麻雀(Passermontanus)为优势种;灰斑鸠(Strep.topdiadecaocto)、金腰燕(Hinmdodaurica)、白头鹎(Pycnonotussinensis)、红尾伯劳(Laniuscristatus)、红嘴蓝鹊(Urocissaerythrorhyncha)、红嘴山鸦( Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax )、红尾鸫(Turdus naumanni)、黄眉柳莺(PhyUosco-pusinornatus)和小鸦(Emberizapusilla)为常见种。

  1. 77 FR 281 - Green Mountain Power Corporation; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Green Mountain Power Corporation; Notice of Application Accepted for...: Green Mountain Power Corporation. e. Name of Projects: Waterbury Hydroelectric Project. f. Location.... h. Applicant Contact: Mr. Jason Lisai, Green Mountain Power Corporation, 163 Acorn Lane,...

  2. Lead Speciation in remote Mountain Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plöger, A.; van den Berg, C. M. G.

    2003-04-01

    In natural waters trace metals can become complexed by organic matter. This complexation can change the geochemistry of the metals by preventing them being scavenged, thereby increasing their residence time in the water column. The chemical speciation of trace metals also affects the bioavalability and their toxicological impact on organisms. It is therefore important to determine the chemical speciation of trace metals as well as their concentrations. Mountain lakes have been less studied in the past than other lakes- partly because of their remoteness and partly because they were perceived to be unpolluted and undisturbed. But work so far on mountain lakes has shown that most sites are affected and threatened, for example by transboundary air pollutants like trace metals. One of the important features that distinguishes these lakes from lowland lakes at similar latitudes is the fact that they may be isolated from the atmosphere for six months or more during the winter by a thick ice cover. Also, as these lakes are remote from direct anthropogenic influences, they reflect the regional distribution of pollutants transferred via the atmosphere. For this work, under the framework of the EMERGE (European Mountain lake Ecosystems: Regionalisation, diaGnostic and socio-economic Evaluation) programme, two remote mountain lakes have been studied in detail, with water sampling taking place at different times of the year to investigate possible seasonal differences in lead concentrations and speciation. Results so far have shown that lead-complexing ligand concentrations are in excess to dissolved lead concentrations, indicating that dissolved lead probably occurs fully complexed in these lakes. Therefore the toxic fraction is likely to be less than the dissolved lead concentration. Also, lead concentrations at the time of the spring thaw are higher than autumn concentrations just before ice cover, indicating that a significant proportion of fallout onto the lake catchment

  3. Creating advanced web map for mountain biking

    OpenAIRE

    Pasarić, Darko

    2013-01-01

    The diploma presents the creation of a web map designed for mountain bikers. The web map is based on Google’s application Google maps. This means that we use Google’s maps to show the route and its markers. The thesis mostly describes web programming and the interface Google Maps JavaScript API v3 that enables us, to integrate the interactive map onto web page. It also describes the markup language for web pages (HTML). In the thesis we discuss chapters such as HTML, Google maps, the b...

  4. Mountain Infantry - Is There a Need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-03

    fail to realize this. LTC John Schmelzer , in his after action report on mountain warfare during World War II, states that "morale of the troops in...Evaluation, p.79. 62. U.S. Army, FM 100-5. Operatione, pp.12-13. 63. Schmelzer , p.2. 64. CPT Michael Robertson, "Briefing on the Force Design of the... Schmelzer . 1944. One of the best sources found. Provides keen insight into the struggles of the units in Italy as they fought the environment and the

  5. Liverworts (Marchantiophyta flora of Bolu Mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan ŞİMŞEK

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The liverwort (Marchantiophyta flora of Bolu mountains was investigated in this study. 310 specimens were collected between period of September 2009 and September 2011. After identifications of these specimens 34 liverwort taxa belonging 18 families and 22 genera have been reported. Also, Marsupella funckii (F. Weber & D. Mohr. Dumort. was reported for the first time from A2 sqaure of Turkey which adopted by Henderson (1961. Scapaniaceae is the rishest family with 6 species and 17,65% rates in the study area. The second family is Lophocoleaceae with 5 species and the rate of this family to all families at the study area is 14,71%.

  6. Volcanic Pipe of the Namuaiv Mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir K. Karzhavin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at reconstructing thermodynamic conditions required for the studied mineral assemblages to be created and exist in nature. The results of the investigations confirm to the recent ideas about an important, even leading, role of temperature, pressure and dioxide carbon in diamond formation in volcanic pipers. The results of this theoretical research allows assuming that one of the reasons for the absence of diamonds in the Namuaiv Mountain volcanic pipe may lie in the increased content of water and oxidizing environmental conditions of their formation

  7. A Meltwater Pool Discovered in Tianshan Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ On an expedition to northwest China's Glacier 1 in the TianshanMountains, a research team led by Prof. Li Zhongqin from the CAS Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute found a 15-meter-long, 4-meterhigh ice cliff in the northwest of the source area on the glacier top. To their surprise, the south-facing ice cliff overlooked an approximately 30-m2 pool sprawling on the glacial sheet. The experts say the pool is at least 1.5 m deep and formed by the summer melt.

  8. Human Infection in Wild Mountain Gorillas

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-25

    This podcast discusses a study about the transmission of Human Metapneumovirus Infection to wild mountain gorillas in Rwanda in 2009, published in the April 2011 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases. Dr. Ian Lipkin, Director of the Center for Infection and Immunity and Dr. Gustavo Palacios, investigator in the Center of Infection & Immunity share details of this study.  Created: 4/25/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/2/2011.

  9. Local and regional characterisation of the diurnal mountain wind systems in the Guadarrama mountain range (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrillaga, Jon A.; Cano, Darío; Sastre, Mariano; Román-Cascón, Carlos; Maqueda, Gregorio; Morales, Gema; Viana, Samuel; Inclán, Rosa M.; Fidel González-Roúco, J.; Santolaria, Edmundo; Durán, Luis; Yagüe, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Diurnal mountain wind systems that develop in the surroundings of the Guadarrama mountain range (Spain) are studied in this work. This area is highly interesting: the city of Madrid is located at approximately 50 km towards the SE; and on the other hand, unlike in other mountainous regions, the summers are characterised to be significantly dry, providing an interesting case study of energy balance in the context of complex orography. Slope and basin circulations formed play an important role in the development of fog and pollution episodes in the whole region. On top of that, when upslope basin winds strengthened by diurnal convection exceed 10 m s-1, the runway configuration at the airport of Madrid needs to be modified. Continuous meteorological data and turbulent fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapour, momentum and heat are provided since June 2016 from measurements at a 10 m tower at La Herrería site, which is located at the foot of the Guadarrama mountain range. Besides, a 4 m high portable station is available for complementary measurements. La Herrería is part of the Guadarrama Monitoring Network (GuMNet; www.ucm.es/gumnet/), an atmospheric and subsurface observational facility distributed over the Guadarrama mountain range. As a support for the analysis, data from conventional meteorological stations within the region and a wind profiler at the airport are also employed. The wind roses for the period analysed (summer 2016) show how the diurnal cycle of the flows is influenced by local slopes and by the configuration of the basin. The irruption of the downslope flow in the evening produces a significant increase of the turbulence intensity and the eventual breakdown of the surface-based thermal inversion. However, the severe drying out of the soil throughout the summer, evident from the evolution of the surface latent and sensible heat fluxes, seems to play a role in altering the characteristics of the mountain-breeze system and its impact on turbulence

  10. Chemical data for bottom sediment, lake water, bottom-sediment pore water, and fish in Mountain Creek Lake, Dallas, Texas, 1994-96

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S.A.; Van Metre, P.C.; Moring, J.B.; Braun, C.L.; Wilson, J.T.; Mahler, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    Mountain Creek Lake is a reservoir adjacent to two U.S. Department of the Navy facilities, the Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant and the Naval Air Station in Dallas, Texas. A Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation found ground-water plumes containing chlorinated solvents on both facilities. These findings led to a U.S. Geological Survey study of Mountain Creek Lake adjacent to both facilities between June 1994 and August 1996. Bottom sediments, lake water, bottom-sediment pore water, and fish were collected for chemical analysis.

  11. Happiness Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Are Chinese people happy in today’s fast-paced, modern society? What are the sources of their happiness? In today’s rapidly developing economy, is happiness closely related to wealth or not? A recent happiness survey conducted in China gives some answers.

  12. Death Valley Lower Carbonate Aquifer Monitoring Program Wells Down gradient of the Proposed Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inyo County

    2006-07-26

    Inyo County has participated in oversight activities associated with the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository since 1987. The overall goal of these studies are the evaluation of far-field issues related to potential transport, by ground water, or radionuclides into Inyo County, including Death Valley, and the evaluation of a connection between the Lower Carbonate Aquifer (LCA) and the biosphere. Our oversight and completed Cooperative Agreement research, and a number of other investigators research indicate that there is groundwater flow between the alluvial and carbonate aquifers both at Yucca Mountain and in Inyo County. In addition to the potential of radionuclide transport through the LCA, Czarnecki (1997), with the US Geological Survey, research indicate potential radionuclide transport through the shallower Tertiary-age aquifer materials with ultimate discharge into the Franklin Lake Playa in Inyo County. The specific purpose of this Cooperative Agreement drilling program was to acquire geological, subsurface geology, and hydrologic data to: (1) establish the existence of inter-basin flow between the Amargosa Basin and Death Valley Basin; (2) characterize groundwater flow paths in the LCA through Southern Funeral Mountain Range, and (3) Evaluation the hydraulic connection between the Yucca Mountain repository and the major springs in Death Valley through the LCA.

  13. Sustainability and Mountain Tourism: The Millennial’s Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Bonadonna

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from several studies illustrates the different points of view through which sustainability and mountains have been studied over the years. Nowadays, interest in Millennials is increasing but no research has compared Millennials and sustainability in the mountain context. This study aims at defining sustainability with reference to Millennial perception of both winter and summer mountain sports. By analysing data gathered from a sample of 2292 Millennials (Piedmont area, the authors confirm their high degree of sensitivity towards sustainable issues and, above all, discover that there are differences in the sustainable perception Millennials have of both mountain winter and summer sports. More specifically, Millennial perception is deeply influenced by the place where they are used to living―mountains or cities―and by their gender. From a managerial point of view, results have direct implications on the administrators of mountain institutions who can implement appropriate initiatives in order to correctly sensitise Millennials towards mountain sports. Moreover, from a theoretical perspective, the study opens a new scenario on two important topics linked to sustainability, namely Millennials and mountain sports.

  14. 36 CFR 7.7 - Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rocky Mountain National Park. 7.7 Section 7.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.7 Rocky Mountain National Park....

  15. 36 CFR 7.93 - Guadalupe Mountains National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guadalupe Mountains National Park. 7.93 Section 7.93 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.93 Guadalupe Mountains National...

  16. Revolution in Military Logistics: No More Mountains to Move?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-08

    REVOLUTION IN MILITARY LOGISTICS : NO MORE MOUNTAINS TO MOVE? BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL SCOTT M. BERGERON United States Army !DT tA DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A...17013-5050 c3, Revolution in Military Logistics : No More Mountains to Move? The views expressed in this paper are those of the author and do not

  17. Periodic Burning In Table Mountain-Pitch Pine Stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell B. Randles; David H. van Lear; Thomas A. Waldrop; Dean M. Simon

    2002-01-01

    Abstract - The effects of multiple, low intensity burns on vegetation and wildlife habitat in Table Mountain (Pinus pungens Lamb.)-pitch (Pinus rigida Mill.) pine communities were studied in the Blue Ridge Mountains of North Carolina. Treatments consisted of areas burned from one to four times at 3-4 year...

  18. Climate change vulnerability and adaptation in the Blue Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica E. Halofsky; David L. Peterson

    2017-01-01

    The Blue Mountains Adaptation Partnership was developed to identify climate change issues relevant to resource management in the Blue Mountains region, to find solutions that can minimize negative effects of climate change, and to facilitate transition of diverse ecosystems to a warmer climate. Partnering organizations included three national forests (Malheur, Umatilla...

  19. Bioprospecting for podophyllotoxin in the Big Horn Mountains, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate variations in podophyllotoxin concentrations in Juniperus species found in the Big Horn Mountains in Wyoming. It was found that Juniperus species in the Big Horn Mountains included three species; J. communis L. (common juniper), J. horizontalis Moench. (c...

  20. The herpetofauna of Madran Mountain (Aydın, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Özcan, Serdar; ÜZÜM, NAZAN

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates amphibian and reptile species of Madran Mountain. Specimens were collected in September 2011 and April and May 2012. A total of 23 species (3 amphibians and 20 reptiles) were determined. These species are thought to contribute to our knowledge of the Turkish herpetofauna. In addition, a chorotype classification of the species determined on Madran Mountain is given.