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Sample records for survey nps 2007-2008

  1. The Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008 (DANHES 2007-2008)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Louise; Grønbæk, Morten; Helge, Jørn Wulff;

    2011-01-01

    The Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES 2007-2008) was carried out by the National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, in 13 Danish municipalities in 2007-2008. The focus of the survey was diet, smoking, alcohol, and physical activity. The aim of the survey...

  2. Findings from the oral health study of the Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongstad, Johanne; Ekstrand, Kim; Qvist, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective. The aims of the oral part of the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES 2007-2008) were (1) to establish an oral health database for adult Danes and (2) to explore the influence of general diseases and lifestyle on oral health. This paper presents the study population, exami...

  3. CATACLYSMIC VARIABLES FROM THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY. VIII. THE FINAL YEAR (2007-2008)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szkody, Paula; Anderson, Scott F.; Brooks, Keira; Kronberg, Martin; Riecken, Thomas [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Gaensicke, Boris T. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Ross, Nicholas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CA 92420 (United States); Schmidt, Gary D. [The University of Arizona, Steward Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Agueeros, Marcel A. [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Gomez-Moran, Ada N.; Schwope, Axel D. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), 14482 Potsdam (Germany); Knapp, Gillian R. [Princeton University Observatory, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Schreiber, Matthias R., E-mail: szkody@astro.washington.edu [Departamento de Fisica y Astronomia, Universidad de Valparaiso (Chile)

    2011-12-15

    This paper completes the series of cataclysmic variables (CVs) identified from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) I/II. The coordinates, magnitudes, and spectra of 33 CVs are presented. Among the 33 are eight systems known prior to SDSS (CT Ser, DO Leo, HK Leo, IR Com, V849 Her, V405 Peg, PG1230+226, and HS0943+1404), as well as nine objects recently found through various photometric surveys. Among the systems identified since the SDSS are two polar candidates, two intermediate polar candidates, and one candidate for containing a pulsating white dwarf. Our follow-up data have confirmed a polar candidate from Paper VII and determined tentative periods for three of the newly identified CVs. A complete summary table of the 285 CVs with spectra from SDSS I/II is presented as well as a link to an online table of all known CVs from both photometry and spectroscopy that will continue to be updated as future data appear.

  4. Principal Turnover: Are There Different Types of Principals Who Move from or Leave Their Schools? A Latent Class Analysis of the 2007-2008 Schools and Staffing Survey and the 2008-2009 Principal Follow-Up Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Jared; Bowers, Alex J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the extent to which there is a typology of principals who depart from their schools in the U.S. using the 2007-2008 Schools and Staffing Survey and the 2008-2009 Principal Follow-up Survey. Prior principal retention research has focused on identifying factors that predict principal turnover; however,…

  5. Association between rice consumption and selected indicators of dietary and nutritional status using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Eileen; Luo, Hanqi

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating whether white rice, brown rice, and rice flour consumption has any association with selected measures of dietary intake and nutritional status, including various variables of energy intake, major vitamin and mineral intakes, weigh status, blood pressure, cholesterol level, and serum folate level for adults 20 years and older. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2008 and the Food Commodity Intake Database were used. Rice consumers had a significantly higher energy intake, yet they had lower percentage calorie intake from fat and saturated fat. Rice consumers also had significantly higher intakes of a range of nutrients. Rice consumers had lower waist circumference, triceps skinfold, and were significantly more likely to have a body mass index less than or equal to 25.

  6. Trichinellosis survey in the wild boar from the Toledo mountains in south-western Spain (2007-2008): molecular characterization of Trichinella isolates by ISSR-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, R N; Nogal-Ruiz, J J; Manzano-Lorenzo, R; Díaz, J M Arroyo; López, G Pérez; Ruano, F J Sánchez; Casas, A Ramiro; Bascón, C Crespo; Bolás-Fernández, F; Martínez-Fernández, A R

    2009-06-01

    In Spain, trichinellosis represents a public health problem, with an average of five outbreaks per year, wild boar meat being the main source of infection. A trichinellosis survey (2007-2008 hunting campaign) was carried out on wild boars in the Toledo Mountains (south-western Spain, EU) in the context of a surveillance programme on wildlife diseases. A total of 2216 wild boars from different locations of the region were examined. The examination was carried out by veterinarians in the local abattoir (Matadero Municipal de Toledo). The positive samples were sent to the Department of Parasitology (Facultad de Farmacia, UCM) for experimental isolation and specific identification by inter-simple sequence repeat-polymerase chain reaction (ISSR-PCR). Using this technique we identified 17 isolates as Trichinella spiralis with an electrophoretic profile indistinguishable from the T. spiralis reference strain (ISS48). We confirmed that ISSR-PCR is a robust technique for the molecular identification of Trichinella isolates. According to our results, the prevalence of T. spiralis in wild boars from the Toledo Mountains (>800 m above sea level) during the hunting season was approximately 0.77%. The prevalence of T. spiralis (100% of our observations) is a good example of the persistence of this species in sylvatic conditions (coming from the domestic cycle), if a good wild host is abundant. Our observations confirm the major prevalence of T. spiralis over T. britovi in this region, as well as the risk to human health represented by the consumption of uninspected wild boar meat.

  7. An update on the burden of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Jamaica: findings from the Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, T S; Francis, D K; Tulloch-Reid, M K; Younger, N O M; McFarlane, S R; Wilks, R J

    2011-07-01

    Previous studies have documented a high burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Jamaica and suggest that mortality from CVD may be increasing. This paper provides an update on the burden of CVD risk factors in Jamaica using data from the most recent national health survey and evaluates the impact of obesity and physical activity on other CVD risk factors. The Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey 2007-2008 (JHLS-2) recruited a nationally representative sample of 2848 Jamaicans, 15-74 years old between November 2007 and March 2008. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to obtain data on demographic characteristics, medical history and health behaviour Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were made using standardized protocols and capillary blood samples were obtained to measure fasting glucose and total cholesterol. Prevalence estimates for the various CVD risk factors were obtained within and across sex and other demographic categories. Data were weighted for the complex survey design, nonresponse to questionnaire items or failure to complete some segments of the evaluation. Prevalence estimates for traditional CVD risk factors were: hypertension, 25%; diabetes, 8%; hypercholesterolaemia, 12%; obesity, 25%; smoking 15%. In addition, 35% of Jamaicans had prehypertension, 3% had impaired fasting glucose and 27% were overweight. A higher proportion of women had diabetes, obesity and hypercholesterolaemia while the prevalence of prehypertension and cigarette smoking was higher in men. Approximately 50% of persons with hypertension, 25% of persons with diabetes and 86% of persons with hypercholesterolaemia were unaware of their risk status. In multivariate analysis, obesity was associated with increased odds of hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolaemia while physical inactivity was associated with higher odds of diabetes. The burden of CVD risk factors in Jamaica remains very high and warrants interventions to reduce CVD risk.

  8. People with dyslexia and heart, chest, skin, digestive, musculoskeletal, vision, learning, speech and mental disorders were more dissatisfied with neighbourhoods: Scottish Household Survey, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiue, Ivy

    2016-12-01

    Rarely do we know the perception toward neighbourhoods in people specifically with health conditions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to understand the perception toward neighbourhoods among adults with a series of the existing health conditions in a country-wide and population-based setting. Data were retrieved from and analysed in Scottish Household Survey, 2007-2008. Information on demographics, self-reported health conditions and perception toward neighbourhoods and the surrounding facilities was obtained by household interview. Analysis including chi-square test, t test and logistic regression modelling were performed. Of 19,150 Scottish adults (aged 16-80) included in the study cohort, 1079 (7.7 %) people were dissatisfied with their living areas; particularly for those who experienced harassment (15.4 %), did not recycle or with dyslexia, chest, digestive, mental and musculoskeletal problems. Twenty to forty per cent reported common neighbourhood problems including noise, rubbish, disputes, graffiti, harassment and drug misuse. People with heart or digestive problems were more dissatisfied with the existing parks and open space. People with arthritis, chest or hearing problems were more dissatisfied with the waste management condition. People with dyslexia were more dissatisfied with the existing public transportation. People with heart problems were more dissatisfied with the current street cleaning condition. People with hearing, vision, speech, learning problems or dyslexia were also more dissatisfied with sports and recreational facilities. People with heart, chest, skin, digestive, musculoskeletal, vision, learning, speech and mental disorders and dyslexia were more dissatisfied with their current neighbourhood environments. Upgrading neighbourhood planning to tackle social environment injustice and put pleasant life experience as priorty would be suggested. Graphical abstract interrelations of individual health and neighbourhood

  9. Health service deficits and school-aged children with asthma: a population-based study using data from the 2007-2008 National Survey of Child Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutfiyya, M Nawal; McCullough, Joel Emery; Lipsky, Martin S

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common and costly illnesses of childhood. This study addresses health services deficits experienced by school-aged children with asthma. Analyzing data from the 2007-2008 National Survey of Child Health, this cross-sectional study used household income, race/ethnicity, and geographic residency as the primary independent variables and health service deficits as the dependent variable. Multivariate analysis yielded that other/multiracial (odds ratio [OR], 1.234; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.226-1.242) and Hispanic (OR, 2.207; 95% CI, 1.226-1.242) school-aged children with asthma had greater odds of having health services deficits as did both urban (OR, 1.106; 95% CI, 1.099-1.113) and rural (OR, 1.133; 95% CI, 1.124-1.142) school-aged children with asthma. Children with either moderate (OR, 1.195; 95% CI, 1.184-1.207) or mild (OR, 1.445; 95% CI, 1.431-1.459) asthma had greater odds of having a health services deficit than those with severe asthma. Low-income school-aged children with asthma had greater odds of having a health services deficit than high-income children (OR, 1.031; 95% CI, 1.026-1.036). At lesser odds of having a health service deficit were those who were African American, of middle-range income, male, or who were school-aged children with asthma in good to excellent health. Both African American and other/multiracial school-aged children were at greater risk of having asthma than either Caucasian or Hispanic children. Three vulnerable subgroups of school-aged children with asthma-rural, Hispanic, and those of low income were the most likely to have health service deficits.

  10. Prevalence and patterns of cooking dinner at home in the USA: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virudachalam, Senbagam; Long, Judith A; Harhay, Michael O; Polsky, Daniel E; Feudtner, Chris

    2014-05-01

    To measure the prevalence of cooking dinner at home in the USA and test whether home dinner preparation habits are associated with socio-economic status, race/ethnicity, country of birth and family structure. Cross-sectional analysis. The primary outcome, self-reported frequency of cooking dinner at home, was divided into three categories: 0-1 dinners cooked per week ('never'), 2-5 ('sometimes') and 6-7 ('always'). We used bivariable and multivariable regression analyses to test for associations between frequency of cooking dinner at home and factors of interest. The 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The sample consisted of 10 149 participants. Americans reported cooking an average of five dinners per week; 8 % never, 43 % sometimes and 49 % always cooked dinner at home. Lower household wealth and educational attainment were associated with a higher likelihood of either always or never cooking dinner at home, whereas wealthier, more educated households were more likely to sometimes cook dinner at home (P dinners at home (mean = 4·4, 95 % CI 4·2, 4·6). Households with foreign-born reference persons cooked more dinners at home (mean = 5·8, 95 % CI 5·7, 6·0) than households with US-born reference persons (mean = 4·9, 95 % CI 4·7, 5·1). Households with dependants cooked more dinners at home (mean = 5·2, 95 % CI 5·1, 5·4) than households without dependants (mean = 4·6, 95 % CI 4·3, 5·0). Home dinner preparation habits varied substantially with socio-economic status and race/ethnicity, associations that likely will have implications for designing and appropriately tailoring interventions to improve home food preparation practices and promote healthy eating.

  11. A molecular and antigenic survey of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus isolates from smallholder duck farms in Central Java, Indonesia during 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibawa, Hendra; Henning, Joerg; Wong, Frank; Selleck, Paul; Junaidi, Akhmad; Bingham, John; Daniels, Peter; Meers, Joanne

    2011-09-07

    Indonesia is one of the countries most severely affected by H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus in terms of poultry and human health. However, there is little information on the diversity of H5N1 viruses circulating in backyard farms, where chickens and ducks often intermingle. In this study, H5N1 virus infection occurring in 96 smallholder duck farms in central Java, Indonesia from 2007-2008 was investigated and the molecular and antigenic characteristics of H5N1 viruses isolated from these farms were analysed. All 84 characterised viruses belonged to H5N1 clade 2.1 with three virus sublineages being identified: clade 2.1.1 (1), clade 2.1.3 (80), and IDN/6/05-like viruses (3) that did not belong to any of the present clades. All three clades were found in ducks, while only clade 2.1.3 was isolated from chickens. There were no significant amino acid mutations of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) sites of the viruses, including the receptor binding, glycosylation, antigenic and catalytic sites and NA inhibitor targets. All the viruses had polybasic amino acids at the HA cleavage site. No evidence of major antigenic variants was detected. Based on the HA gene, identical virus variants could be found on different farms across the study sites and multiple genetic variants could be isolated from HPAI outbreaks simultaneously or at different time points from single farms. HPAI virus was isolated from both ducks and chickens; however, the proportion of surviving duck cases was considerably higher than in chickens. The 2.1.3 clade was the most common lineage found in this study. All the viruses had sequence characteristic of HPAI, but negligible variations in other recognized amino acids at the HA and NA proteins which determine virus phenotypes. Multiple genetic variants appeared to be circulating simultaneously within poultry communities. The high proportion of live duck cases compared to chickens over the study period suggests that ducks are

  12. A molecular and antigenic survey of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus isolates from smallholder duck farms in Central Java, Indonesia during 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaidi Akhmad

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indonesia is one of the countries most severely affected by H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI virus in terms of poultry and human health. However, there is little information on the diversity of H5N1 viruses circulating in backyard farms, where chickens and ducks often intermingle. In this study, H5N1 virus infection occurring in 96 smallholder duck farms in central Java, Indonesia from 2007-2008 was investigated and the molecular and antigenic characteristics of H5N1 viruses isolated from these farms were analysed. Results All 84 characterised viruses belonged to H5N1 clade 2.1 with three virus sublineages being identified: clade 2.1.1 (1, clade 2.1.3 (80, and IDN/6/05-like viruses (3 that did not belong to any of the present clades. All three clades were found in ducks, while only clade 2.1.3 was isolated from chickens. There were no significant amino acid mutations of the hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA sites of the viruses, including the receptor binding, glycosylation, antigenic and catalytic sites and NA inhibitor targets. All the viruses had polybasic amino acids at the HA cleavage site. No evidence of major antigenic variants was detected. Based on the HA gene, identical virus variants could be found on different farms across the study sites and multiple genetic variants could be isolated from HPAI outbreaks simultaneously or at different time points from single farms. HPAI virus was isolated from both ducks and chickens; however, the proportion of surviving duck cases was considerably higher than in chickens. Conclusions The 2.1.3 clade was the most common lineage found in this study. All the viruses had sequence characteristic of HPAI, but negligible variations in other recognized amino acids at the HA and NA proteins which determine virus phenotypes. Multiple genetic variants appeared to be circulating simultaneously within poultry communities. The high proportion of live duck cases compared to

  13. Biotecnologia alimentaria. Curs 2007-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Universitat de Barcelona. Facultat de Farmàcia

    2007-01-01

    Pla docent de l'assignatura Biotecnologia agroalimentaria de l'Ensenyament de Ciència i Tecnologia dels Aliments.Curs acadèmic 2007-2008. Departament de Productes Naturals, Biologia Vegetal i Edafologia.

  14. Astronomy Degree Recipients: Initial Employment. Data from the Degree Recipient Follow-Up Survey for the Classes of 2007, 2008 and 2009. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Patrick; Shindel, Brandon

    2011-01-01

    Each fall the Statistical Research Center conducts its Survey of Enrollments and Degrees, which asks all degree-granting physics and astronomy departments in the US to provide information concerning the numbers of students they have enrolled and counts of recent degree recipients. In connection with this survey, the authors ask for the names and…

  15. A Survey of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins, Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans and Co-planar Polychlorinated Biphenyls in U.S. Meat and Poultry, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    A statistically-based survey of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in domestic meat and poultry was conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) from September 2007 to September 2008. Seventeen toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and three coplanar pol...

  16. ARL Supplementary Statistics, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Les, Comp.; Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents statistics on how Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries spend money on electronic resources. This report indicates that 109 ARL libraries purchased 32,329,187 electronic books. In 2007-2008, there was a median of 28,319 acquisitions of electronic books by ARL libraries (this includes one institution that…

  17. Navy-Wide Personnel Survey (NPS) 2008: Summary of Survey Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    officers, enlisted) and, where relevant, comparisons to previous NPS results. The authors acknowledge the assistance of Ms . Evangeline Clewis with the...integration, and organizational commitment. Past NPS and the related Navy Quality of Life ( QOL ) surveys have consistently found that the quality of...psychometric analysis of the 2005 NPS (Bann, Whittam, Barnett- Walker, 2006), in which scales were pared down to their essential questions. In this way, burden

  18. Socioeconomic status, food security, and dental caries in US children: mediation analyses of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L; Masterson, Erin E; Carle, Adam C; Mancl, Lloyd A; Coldwell, Susan E

    2014-05-01

    We examined associations of household socioeconomic status (SES) and food security with children's oral health outcomes. We analyzed 2007 and 2008 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for children aged 5 to 17 years (n = 2206) to examine the relationship between food security and untreated dental caries and to assess whether food security mediates the SES-caries relationship. About 20.1% of children had untreated caries. Most households had full food security (62%); 13% had marginal, 17% had low, and 8% had very low food security. Higher SES was associated with significantly lower caries prevalence (prevalence ratio [PR] = 0.77; 95% confidence interval = 0.63, 0.94; P = .01). Children from households with low or very low food security had significantly higher caries prevalence (PR = 2.00 and PR = 1.70, respectively) than did children living in fully food-secure households. Caries prevalence did not differ among children from fully and marginally food-secure households (P = .17). Food insecurity did not appear to mediate the SES-caries relationship. Interventions and policies to ensure food security may help address the US pediatric caries epidemic.

  19. Unconventional energy resources: 2007-2008 review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, P.D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes five 2007-2008 resource commodity committee reports prepared by the Energy Minerals Division (EMD) of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Current United States and global research and development activities related to gas hydrates, gas shales, geothermal resources, oil sands, and uranium resources are included in this review. These commodity reports were written to advise EMD leadership and membership of the current status of research and development of unconventional energy resources. Unconventional energy resources are defined as those resources other than conventional oil and natural gas that typically occur in sandstone and carbonate rocks. Gas hydrate resources are potentially enormous; however, production technologies are still under development. Gas shale, geothermal, oil sand, and uranium resources are now increasing targets of exploration and development, and are rapidly becoming important energy resources that will continue to be developed in the future. ?? 2009 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  20. What We Eat In America, NHANES 2007-2008: Documentation and Data Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    New nationwide dietary intake data were collected in What We Eat In America (WWEIA), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the years 2007-2008 and are now available for public use. Two days of dietary intake data are included for most participants. The dietary interview data ...

  1. CT exposure from pediatric M.D.C.T.: results from the 2007-2008 S.F.I.P.P./I.S.R.N. survey; Niveaux d'exposition en tomodensitometrie multicoupes pediatrique: resultats de l'enquete dosimetrique SFIPP/IRSN 2007-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisse, H.J. [Institut Curie, Dept. d' Imagerie, 75 - Paris (France); Aubert, B. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Unite d' Expertise en Radioprotection Medicale, 92 - Clamart (France)

    2009-02-15

    Purpose. To evaluate current exposure levels from pediatric MDCT examinations in order to issue recommendations for the routine clinical practice that may be used for establishing future diagnostic reference levels (DRL). Materials and methods. A survey was conducted at hospital sites affiliated with the SFIPP (Societe Francophone d'Imagerie Pediatrique et Prenatale). Tube potential and volume computed tomography dose index (CTDI) vol. values were obtained for three age groups (1, 5 and 10 years) for typical scanning indications of eight anatomical regions. Results. Twenty of 29 sites provided us with a copy of their protocols. All ages groups combined, 97% of protocols used a tension level {<=} 120 kVp. For age groups 1, 5 and 10 years respectively, the 75. percentiles of dose distributions were: 31, 39.5 and 49.5 mGy for the 'head' protocol; 24, 22 and 24 mGy for 'head and neck'; 11, 11, and 11 mGy for 'paranasal sinuses'; 46, 71 and 87 mGy for 'petrous bone'; 3, 3.5 and 5.5 mGy for 'chest'; 2, 3 and 4 mGy for 'low dose lung'; 4, 4.5 and 7 mGy for 'abdomen-pelvis'; 7,11 and 12 mGy for 'bone'. The inter-center discrepancy for doses were still high. Conclusion. This study provided an evaluation of current practices in reference centers for pediatric imaging and allowed readjustment of MDCT dose recommendations. It could help in the development of DRLS for pediatric MDCT. (author)

  2. Hawaii Small Boat Cost-Earnings Data: 2007-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent a cost-earnings study of the Hawaii small boat fishery in 2007-2008. Data collected include fisher classification, vessel characteristics,...

  3. Microbiologia i parasitologia dels aliments. Curs 2007-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Universitat de Barcelona. Facultat de Farmàcia

    2007-01-01

    Pla docent de l'assignatura Microbiologia i parasitologia dels aliments de l'Ensenyament de Ciència i Tecnologia dels Aliments. Curs acadèmic 2007-2008. Departament de Microbiologia i Parasitologia Sanitàries.

  4. Intergenogroup recombinant sapovirus in Japan, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanit, Wisoot; Thongprachum, Aksara; Khamrin, Pattara; Okitsu, Shoko; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2009-07-01

    We investigated the incidence of sapovirus (SaV)-associated gastroenteritis in infants and children in Japan during 2007-2008 and characterized the diversity of SaV-positive strains. SaV was detected in 19 (4%) of 477 fecal specimens. The leading genogroup (79%, 15 cases) comprised intergenogroup recombinant SaVs (GII/GIV).

  5. ARL Academic Health Sciences Library Statistics, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.; Bland, Les, Comp.

    2009-01-01

    This document presents data that describe collections, expenditures, personnel, and services in 64 medical libraries at Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member institutions throughout North America. In 2007-2008, the reporting health sciences libraries held a median of 240,955 volumes, spent a total of $240,019,298, and employed 2,304…

  6. 2007-2008 National Voter Registration Act of 1993 Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Election Assistance Commission — This dataset contains voter registration data for the 2008 election cycle. The dataset and corresponding report address the impact of the National Voter Registration...

  7. Geoeffectiveness of Stream Interaction Regions during 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Garcia, Elsa; Aguilar-Rodriguez, Ernesto; Ontiveros, Veronica

    2016-07-01

    The Stream Interaction Regions (SIRs) are generated in the interplanetary medium when a fast solar wind stream overtakes a slower one. If these large-scale phenomena interact with the Earth's magnetosphere they can give rise to geomagnetic storms (GSs). In this study we analyze the degree of geoeffectiveness of 20 events that were generated by SIRs. The events were observed during the 2007-2008 period that comprising the extended downward phase of solar cycle 23. The degree of geoeffectivity is measured using magnetic indices from different latitudes: PCN (Polar cap north), PCS (polar cap south), AA (antipodal amplitude), AE (Auroral Electrojet), Kp (estimated global index) and Dst (Disturbance storm time). We discuss some results on the correlation of these magnetic indices with the characteristics of shocks associated with the SIRs observed by STEREO-A/B, WIND and ACE spacecraft. All the 20 SIRs events generated GSs with Dst values in ranging from -86 nT up to -12 nT. Moreover, 6 out of the 20 events presented storm sudden commencement (SSC). We also discuss on the characteristics of the SIR-associated shocks and the intensity of the GSs.

  8. Pautas de homogamia socio-ocupacional (de clase en Argentina: 2007-2008 Patterns of occupational homogamy in Argentina: 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Rodríguez

    2012-06-01

    contributes to reproduce social inequality, given than it favors the differential transmission of economic, social and cultural resources from one generation to another. The aim of this paper is to analyze patterns of occupational homogamy / heterogamy in legal and consensual couples living in Argentina in 2007-2008. A quantitative methodological strategy it is used, employing descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. Data is taken from a survey on Stratification and social mobility, applied to a probability sample on a national level (2007-2008 by Centro de Estudios de Opinión Pública - Universidad de Buenos Aires. The main findings suggest that the selection between spouses is not at random and that their own social class is a relevant factor in couple formation. Occupational homogamy, in terms of social class, increases between younger couples.

  9. Gestão do voleibol no Brasil: o caso das equipes participantes da Superliga 2007-2008 Volleyball teams management in Brazil (superliga 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Castro Maroni

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A gestão profissional do Esporte tem sido tema recente de estudos no País, envolvendo pesquisas referentes ao gestor e sua atuação nos diferentes segmentos da Indústria do Esporte (Pitts & Stotlar, 2002. Poucos são os estudos desenvolvidos no sentido de caracterizar o administrador esportivo de clubes, federações e entidades de administração do Esporte (Bastos, 2003, 2004; Medalha,1982 e descrever as características organizacionais e de gestão de equipes brasileiras de Voleibol (Durieux, 2005; Pizzolato, 2004. A presente pesquisa, descritiva e exploratória, teve como objetivo descrever o perfil do gestor e as características organizacionais de equipes de Voleibol do Brasil participantes da Superliga de Voleibol 2007-2008, através de estudo de casos múltiplos. Para tanto, foi aplicado questionário junto aos gestores das equipes, composto de questões abertas e fechadas. Concluiu-se que as equipes possuem gestor profissional que exerce funções gerenciais estratégicas, e que a estrutura organizacional do Voleibol brasileiro de alto rendimento se caracteriza por ser fortemente calcada na instituição clubística, amparada prioritariamente pela iniciativa privada e com apoio do setor público municipalProfessional sport management has been a theme of studies in Brazil, involving researches concerning the manager and his performance in different segments of the sports industry (Pitts & Stotlar, 2002. Several studies have been developed, to characterize the administrator of clubs, federations and sports administration entities (Bastos, 2003, 2004; Medalha,1982 and to describe the organizational and managerial characteristics of brazilian volleyball teams (Durieux, 2005; Pizzolato, 2004. This survey, descriptive and exploratory, had the main objective of describing the manager profile and the organizational characteristics of brazilian volleyball teams, participants of the "2007-2008 Volleyball Superleague Championship", through

  10. Effects of Traditional and Nontraditional Forms of Parental Involvement on School-Level Achievement Outcome: An HLM Study Using SASS 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianping; Washington, Alandra L.; Bierlein Palmer, Louann; Xia, Jiangang

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined parental involvement's (PI) impact on school performance. The hierarchical linear modeling method was applied to national Schools and Staffing Survey 2007-2008 data. They found that PI variables explained significant variance for the outcomes of (a) meeting adequate yearly progress (AYP) and (b) being free from sanctions. The…

  11. Navy-Wide Personnel Survey (NPS) 1992: Graphic Presentation of Results for Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    CHILDRE N’S S EJADEOT TIME TO MOVING LENGTH OF NEW AW/T0oITH f- o 10 20 30 40 s0 0 70 0 90 100 Percent NPS-92 MULTIPLE RESPONSE QUESTION 014 REASON WHY...Sexual harassment is a form of sex " relationship.. which Is unduly familiar and discrimination that involves unwelcome - does not respect differences...harassment, both women M subordinate supervisory relationship exists. and men can be sexual harassers; people M can sexually harass persons of their own sex

  12. Relationship between urinary triclosan and paraben concentrations and serum thyroid measures in NHANES 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeppe, Erika S; Ferguson, Kelly K; Colacino, Justin A; Meeker, John D

    2013-02-15

    Triclosan and parabens are broad spectrum antimicrobials used in a range of consumer products. In vitro and animal studies have suggested the potential for these compounds to disrupt thyroid function, though studies in humans have been limited. The objective of the study was to assess the relationship of urinary concentrations of triclosan and parabens with serum thyroid measures in a large, representative sample of the US population. We conducted an exploratory, cross-sectional analysis of data on urinary biomarkers of triclosan and paraben exposure and serum thyroid measures obtained from 1831 subjects (ages≥12 years) as part of the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We found evidence of some inverse associations between parabens and circulating thyroid hormone levels in adults, with the strongest and most consistent associations among females. We also observed a positive association between triclosan and total triiodothyonine (T3) concentrations in adolescents. These results, in accordance with the in vitro and animal literature, suggest that paraben, and potentially triclosan, exposures may be associated with altered thyroid hormone levels in humans. Further research is needed for confirmation and to determine the potential clinical and public health significance of these findings.

  13. USGS-NPS Servicewide Benthic Mapping Program (SBMP) workshop report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Christopher S.; Nayagandhi, Amar; Brock, John; Beavers, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) Program recently allocated funds to initiate a benthic mapping program in ocean and Great Lakes parks in alignment with the NPS Ocean Park Stewardship 2007-2008 Action Plan. Seventy-four (ocean and Great Lakes) parks, spanning more than 5,000 miles of coastline, many affected by increasing coastal storms and other natural and anthropogenic processes, make the development of a Servicewide Benthic Mapping Program (SBMP) timely. The resulting maps and associated reports will be provided to NPS managers in a consistent servicewide format to help park managers protect and manage the 3 million acres of submerged National Park System natural and cultural resources. Of the 74 ocean and Great Lakes park units, the 40 parks with submerged acreage will be the focus in the early years of the SBMP. The NPS and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) convened a workshop (June 3-5, 2008) in Lakewood, CO. The assembly of experts from the NPS and other Federal and non-Federal agencies clarified the needs and goals of the NPS SBMP and was one of the key first steps in designing the benthic mapping program. The central needs for individual parks, park networks, and regions identified by workshop participants were maps including bathymetry, bottom type, geology, and biology. This workshop, although not an exhaustive survey of data-acquisition technologies, highlighted the more promising technologies being used, existing sources of data, and the need for partnerships to leverage resources. Workshop products include recommended classification schemes and management approaches for consistent application and products similar to other long-term NPS benthic mapping efforts. As part of the SBMP, recommendations from this workshop, including application of an improved version of the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS), will be tested in several pilot parks. In 2008, in conjunction with the findings of this workshop

  14. Navy-Wide Personnel Survey (NPS) 1992: Statistical Tables for Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    OTHER THAN CARRIER 11.3% 4.4% 3.4% N 18 98 48 DESTRYR TYPES 2.5% 7.0% 1.1% N 4 156 15 MINECRAFT .3% N 6 SUBMARINE .7% 6.7% 2.7% N 1 148 37 RESERVE UNIT...Inwhich 4 4 4 4 4- 4 4 4 4 .2 Minecraft 5.0 Submarine you received this 5 5 5 5 5- 5 5 5 5 1.1 Reserve Unit survey.) 6 6 6 6 6-6 6 6 6 2.0 Service

  15. Extreme changes of the Arctic Ocean during and after IPY 2007/2008

    OpenAIRE

    Timokhov, Leonid; Ashik, Igor; Dmitrenko, Igor; Hoelemann, Jens; Kassens, Heidemarie; Kirillov, Sergey; Polyakov, Igor; Sokolov, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale features of Arctic Ocean temperature and salinity distributions observed during 2007-2009 are described and discussed in the context of historical observation in order to document long-term variations. Oceanographic observations carried out in the frame of the International Polar Year (IPY 2007/2008) demonstrated unique conditions in the Arctic Ocean and seas during that period. For example, analyses of upper ocean temperature and salinity patterns 2007-2009 revealed an apparen...

  16. The Impact of the 2007/2008 Post Election Violence on Women in Kakamega County, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Mukabi Narotso Benardatte

    2015-01-01

    In most African societies women still occupy inferior positions both in the family and society as there is discrimination against them in terms of participation in decision making. This situation becomes worse in times of conflict where women become vulnerable and suffer most in terms of sexual violence, displacement widowhood among others. The 2007/2008 post-election violence (PEV) marked one of the darkest period in Kenya’s history characterized by widespread killings and destruction of pro...

  17. Situation 2007-2008 of diagnosis reference levels in nuclear medicine; Bilan 2007-2008 des niveaux de reference diagnostiques en medecine nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roch, P.; Aubert, B. [Institut de radioprotection et de surete nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: Update the diagnostic reference levels on the basis of dosimetric data transmitted in 2007 and 2008 by nuclear medicine services. This review conducted by I.R.S.N. aims both to consolidate or modify the recommendations made during the previous assessment and secondly to update the diagnosis reference levels (D.R.L.) for some examinations. Conclusions: the number of data collected and the results obtained over the period 2007-2008 have allowed us to propose a revision of the decree of 12 February 2004 taking into account national practices. These proposals focus more specifically on the list of examinations that can be evaluated, as well as the D.R.L. values. (N.C.)

  18. Gestion institucional bajo la presion del mercado competitivo en el sistema de salud colombiano, 2007-2008

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Molina Marin, Gloria; de Maria Caceres Manrique, Flor

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo: comprender la dinamica de las decisiones en salud y su relacion con el acceso y la calidad de los servicios, en el contexto del Sistema General de Seguridad Social en Salud Colombiano, durante 2007-2008. Metodos...

  19. HOME ADVANTAGE ANALYSIS IN ACB LEAGUE IN SEASON 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Garc\\u00EDa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Home advantage was defined as the fact that home teams win more than the 50% of their matches (Courneya & Carron, 1992. The aim of this work was to investigate the home advantage in the ACB league and identify the game-related statistics which best discriminate home and away teams. The data were obtained from the Spanish Basketball Association for the period 2007-2008 ACB league (n= 306. Game related statistics were normalized to 100 ball possessions. In order to compare game related statistics in home and away teams, a discriminative analysis was employed. This analysis identifies the game related statistics that best discriminate between home and away teams. The function obtained was interpreted with the structural canonical coefficients (SC, with values higher than |.30|. In the 2007-2008 ACB league, the home teams won the 55.22% (n=169 of the games. The analysis identifying the two-point field goals made, blocks made, dunks, the defensive rebounds and the assists as common to the mean vectors that discriminate home teams in all games. Blocks received contribute to discriminate away teams in ACB league. These results could be used by the psychologist who works with the team. They must design specific programs to decrease anxiety levels, and to improve motivation and concentration levels in basketball players before a competition.

  20. Science Communication during the International Polar Year 2007-2008: Successes and Recommendations (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, D. J.; Ipy Education, Outreach; Communication Committee

    2010-12-01

    This IPY (International Polar Year 2007-2008) represented one of the largest international scientific research efforts ever undertaken. It stimulated the active engagement of thousands of teachers, students, and citizens around the globe through international collaboration and cooperation, careful cultivation of a global community of enthusiastic professional science communicators and educators, and creative use of free technologies. From music performances in Alaska to tree planting in Malaysia, hundreds of events and activities around the world demonstrated the public enthusiasm and the broad impact of IPY. This paper describes the core concepts and tangible activities developed and implemented by the IPY international Education, Outreach, and Communication (EOC) Committee and community and the International Programme Office (IPO) between March 2006 and December 2009. We present methods and accomplishments and address two questions: 1) How did these activities come about? 2) How do the ideas, tools, experiences, and successes from this IPY apply more broadly to science communication?

  1. Mayaro fever in the city of Manaus, Brazil, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourão, Maria Paula Gomes; Bastos, Michele de Souza; de Figueiredo, Regina Pinto; Gimaque, João Bosco Lima; Galusso, Elizabeth dos Santos; Kramer, Valéria Munique; de Oliveira, Cintia Mara Costa; Naveca, Felipe Gomes; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2012-01-01

    Mayaro Alphavirus is an arbovirus that causes outbreaks of acute febrile illness in the Amazon region of South America. We show here the cases of Mayaro fever that occurred in 2007-2008, in Manaus, a large city and capital of the Amazonas State, in Western Brazilian Amazon. IgM antibodies to Mayaro virus (MAYV) were detected by an enzyme immunoassay using infected cell cultures as antigen in the sera of 33 patients from both genera and 6-65 years old. MAYV genome was also detected by RT-PCR in the blood of 1/33 of these patients. The patients presented mainly with headache, arthralgia, myalgia, ocular pain, and rash. These cases of Mayaro fever are likely to represent the tip of an iceberg, and probably a much greater number of cases occurred in Manaus in the study period.

  2. Results of the 2007-2008 International Snowy Plover (Charadrius alexandrinus) breeding season survey: Final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document describes a study design created to characterize the distribution and abundance of the snowy plover in the inland Gulf of Mexico Coast portion of its...

  3. Rio Grande Lidar Bank Erosion Monitoring: Preliminary 2007-2008 Results and Survey Design Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    point clouds were loaded into IMInspect for further processing and analysis. Planes were fitted to manually selected points along the waterline in...described by Wawrzyniec et al. (2007b) ERDC/CHL CR-10-3 16 to directly measure the differences between point clouds . This would eliminate the...same as in Figure 5 and vectors show measured erosion at select points. To estimate the volume of sediment lost downstream of the dam, the TLS point

  4. NPS AUV Integrated Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    147 3. GRAPHIC OBJECT MODEI’QUSING OBJECTFILE FORMAT (cIF)...................... ........... 149. APPENDIX -C. NPS, AUV SONAR CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM...Monterey Bay .. 15 Figure 2.8 Graphics simulation for NPS AUV sonar visualization .......... 15’ Figure 3.1 Integrated simulator network physical...3.11 Integrated simulation display of AUV minefield searh ........ 39 Figure4.1 NPS AUV sonar beam profiles in the NPS pool .......... 43 Figure 42 NPS

  5. Geoeffectiveness of Fast and Slow Solar Wind Stream Associated to SIRs During 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Garcia, E.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Gonzalez-Esparza, A.; Ontiveros-Hernandez, V.

    2016-12-01

    The Stream Interaction Regions (SIRs) are generated in the interplanetary medium when a fast solar wind stream overtakes a slower one. If these large-scale phenomena interact with the Earth's magnetosphere they can give rise to geomagnetic storms (GSs). In this study we analyze the degree of geoeffectiveness of 20 events that were generated by SIRs. The events were observed during the 2007-2008 period that comprising the minimum extended of solar cycle 23. The degree of geoeffectivity is measured using magnetic indices from different latitudes: PCN (Polar cap north), PCS (polar cap south), AA (antipodal amplitude), AE (Auroral Electrojet), Kp (estimated global index) and Dst (Disturbance storm time). We locate the peak of southward componente Bz if this occur before or after to current interface (CI). We identify the maximum intensity of GSs if this occur before or after to CI. We discuss and compare about the geoeffectivity of fast or slow solar wind stream associated to SIRs. Finally we determine the difference time between the peak of southward component Bz and the peak value of each GS.

  6. Epidemiology of measles outbreaks in Kerala, India, during 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Measles imparts high morbidity and mortality in low-income countries with weak health infrastructure. The coverage of measles vaccination in Kerala which is best performing state of India in indicators of health has also not reached the elimination level and outbreaks of measles continue to occur. Aim: The aim of the paper was to study the profile of measles outbreaks in Kerala during the years 2007-2008. Settings and Designs: The study design was cross-sectional and data of the measles surveillance project of Kerala were analyzed . Results: The total number of clinically suspected measles outbreaks in Kerala during the 2-year period of 2007 and 2008 was 29. But only 15(53.6% were found to be ′measles only′ outbreak. The total number of epidemiologically linked measles cases was 718 (314 in 2007 and 404 in 2008. The cases that were immunized but developed the disease were 187 (28.6%, the number of cases that were not immunized was 355 (54.3% and those whose immunization status was unknown were 112 (17.1%. The mean age of occurrence of disease was higher in the vaccinated group as compared to not vaccinated group. Two deaths were recorded in the study. Conclusions: Significant morbidity and mortality due to measles do occur in the most developed state of India. The epidemics were clustered in some districts. The study indicated an age shift in occurrence of measles cases among who received the vaccination.

  7. Rotavirus genotype distribution during the pre-vaccine period in Bolivia: 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Rosario; Forney, Kristen; Castro, Maria René; Rebolledo, Paulina A; Mamani, Nataniel; Patzi, Maritza; Halkyer, Percy; Leon, Juan S; Iñiguez, Volga

    2013-09-01

    Rotavirus is the most important etiology of severe diarrhea in Bolivia. The monovalent attenuated human oral rotavirus vaccine Rotarix(®) was introduced in Bolivia in 2008. We describe the molecular epidemiology of circulating rotavirus strains before vaccine introduction. Two thousand one hundred thirty-five diarrheal samples were collected from hospitals in four Bolivian cities during 2007-2008. Forty-three percent (445 of 1030 rotavirus-positive samples) were analyzed for G and P genotypes. Among those, 331 were electropherotyped by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Disease severity was quantified using a modified Vesikari scale. Among the 445 samples, five genotypes were found to be prevalent: G9P[8] (33%), G1P[6] (17%), G2P[4] (13%), G9P[6] (12%), and G1P[8] (4%). Co-infections with two or more strains accounted for 14% of samples. The most prevalent strain, G9, showed greater electropherotype diversity compared to other serogroups. Strain G1P[6] generally infected younger children and peaked later in the year than other strains. No particular genotype was associated with a higher severity score, though there was a significant difference in the duration of diarrhea between genotypes. During the 2-year pre-vaccine period, substantial diversity of rotavirus co-circulating strains was observed. These data constitute a baseline against which changes in circulating strains post-vaccine introduction can be monitored. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. How did the 2007-2008 Financial Crisis Influence Turkish Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Ebru AKSOY

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This paper investigates whether 2007-2008 global financial crisis hadan effecton Turkish firms. For this purpose, we investigated the firm-specific factors affecting the stock returns of firms in the BIST-XU100 in the 2004-2009 periods. The period was divided into two sub-samples, namely pre-crisisand during-crisis periods. Moreover, the effects of firm size, market-to-book ratio (MB, and price-to-earnings (PE ratio on stock return were examined using feasible generalized least-squares (FGLS and panel-corrected standard errors (PCSE models. In the literature, the US subprime mortgage crisis meltdown and spillover effects were studied on different countries and different stock markets. In this study, not only crisis effects but also effects of firm-specific factors were considered. Integration levels of the series were investigated by panel unit root tests. The models were used for both sub-samples, and the results of the two models werecompared. The results showed that. Size and MB variables were significant in all the periods and had positive effects on the stock return of the firms, and the global financial crisis hada significant but weak effect on Turkish firms.Keywords.Financial Crisis, Stock Market, FGLS, PCSE.JEL.C23, G01, G20.

  9. INTEGRASI PASAR SAHAM ASEAN-5: ANALISIS SEBELUM DAN SEPANJANG KRISIS KEUANGAN GLOBAL 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endri Endri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article investigated both the static and dynamic inter dependence of the fivestock markets in the original Association of Southeast Asian Nations countries (ASEAN-5,namely Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand and Philippine. Using data from 2000-2008,the paper employed both correlation and co-integration analysis to describe the behavior ofthe above markets, both before and during 2007-2008 Global financial crisis. Examination ofstock market index, using correlation analysis revealed an increase in the interdependencies(increased correlation across the Southeast Asian stock markets during the crisis. Multivari-ate co-integration tests showed that ASEAN-5 stock markets only had one significant co inte-gration vector along the crisis period. Along the full period there was one vector that signifi-cantly integrated or five common trends. This finding indicated the long time co-integrationamong the ASEAN-5 stock markets. On the other hand, along the global financial crisis noproof of long time co-integration was found among the ASEAN-5.

  10. Assessing Challenges and Opportunities for Education and Communication Activities for International Polar Year 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, M. S.

    2005-05-01

    Considerable planning has gone into identifying ways to maximize International Polar Year 2007-2008 (IPY) as a global event that will facilitate the integration of research and education inherent in IPY, and draw the interest and involvement of people around the world. Documents developed through the IPY planning process, including NRC Reports (2004), and drafts reports on education and outreach from the ICSU IPY Planning Group in the Fall of 2004, and the Bridging the Poles workshop of June, 2004, articulate the tremendous potential for IPY beyond the formal research agenda and goals. With less that two years before the start of IPY and fewer than fours years before the activities are completed, these and emerging opportunities face a number of challenges. In addition to the limited time frame remaining to prepare for these activities, participants involved with IPY education and outreach will also need to consider factors such as: uncertain funding for such activities; the lack of established international networks for geoscience education; the need for high level coordination of IPY education and communication; and the creative and intellectual challenge of making the polar regions relevant to people around the world. The planning process has identified six constituencies as key audiences of IPY communication efforts: i) the scientific/research community, ii) young and potentially new polar researchers, iii) the pre-university education community, iv) arctic communities, iv) the general public, and v) decision-makers. Understanding and meeting these audiences' expectations through on-going evaluation and engagement will be key to successful IPY education and outreach efforts. A number of distinct education and outreach projects have been proposed to the ICSU-WMO IPY planning process, such as courses and workshops on specific aspects of IPY, including efforts to address the social and cultural dimension of Arctic peoples. To help meet the challenges, achieve the

  11. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Juveniles, 2007-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achord, Stephen; Sandford, Benjamin P.; Hockersmith, Eric E. [Fish Ecology Division, Northwest Fisheries Science Center

    2009-07-09

    This report provides results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior and survival of wild juvenile spring/summer Chinook salmon in the Snake River Basin. Data reported is from detections of PIT tagged fish during late summer 2007 through mid-2008. Fish were tagged in summer 2007 by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in Idaho and by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) in Oregon. Our analyses include migration behavior and estimated survival of fish at instream PIT-tag monitors and arrival timing and estimated survival to Lower Granite Dam. Principal results from tagging and interrogation during 2007-2008 are: (1) In July and August 2007, we PIT tagged and released 7,390 wild Chinook salmon parr in 12 Idaho streams or sample areas. (2) Overall observed mortality from collection, handling, tagging, and after a 24-hour holding period was 1.4%. (3) Of the 2,524 Chinook salmon parr PIT tagged and released in Valley Creek in summer 2007, 218 (8.6%) were detected at two instream PIT-tag monitoring systems in lower Valley Creek from late summer 2007 to the following spring 2008. Of these, 71.6% were detected in late summer/fall, 11.9% in winter, and 16.5% in spring. Estimated parr-to-smolt survival to Lower Granite Dam was 15.5% for the late summer/fall group, 48.0% for the winter group, and 58.5% for the spring group. Based on detections at downstream dams, the overall efficiency of VC1 (upper) or VC2 (lower) Valley Creek monitors for detecting these fish was 21.1%. Using this VC1 or VC2 efficiency, an estimated 40.8% of all summer-tagged parr survived to move out of Valley Creek, and their estimated survival from that point to Lower Granite Dam was 26.5%. Overall estimated parr-to-smolt survival for all summer-tagged parr from this stream at the dam was 12.1%. Development and improvement of instream PIT-tag monitoring systems continued throughout 2007 and 2008. (4) Testing of PIT-tag antennas in lower Big Creek during 2007-2008

  12. The Global Financial Crisis (2007-2008) and Banks’ Liquidity Creation.‘Evidence from UK banks’

    OpenAIRE

    Shahatit, Salma

    2011-01-01

    The theory of financial intermediation states that liquidity creation has been the main source of risk for banks. This points out to a possible correlation between banks’ liquidity creation and financial crisis. It is believed that that the period preceding the recent Global Financial Crisis (2007-2008) was characterised by abundant liquidity, excessive lending due to deterioration of lending standards and trend towards securitisation. This study attempts to examine empirically this possibl...

  13. Yoduria en escolares y embarazadas del estado Trujillo, Venezuela 2007-2008 Urinary Iodine in school children and pregnant women of Trujillo state, Venezuela 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Caballero

    2011-10-01

    iodine deficiency in school children and pregnant women of Trujillo State, in the Andean region of Venezuela. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional survey of 400 school children aged 7-14 years and 300 pregnant women. Random urine samples were collected and analyzed for urinary iodine by Sandell-Kolthoff reaction. The criteria suggested by WHO to indicate iodine deficiency were applied. Results: Median urinary iodine for school children was 175 μg/L; and 6,25 % of children had urinary iodine concentrations below 50 μg/L. Median urinary iodine for pregnant women was 228 μg/L; and 25 % of pregnant women had urinary iodine concentrations below 150 μg/L. Conclusions: On the basis of the WHO criteria, the iodine intake in school children and pregnant women in Trujillo State, Venezuela, is adequate.

  14. Características de los casos de sífilis infecciosa diagnosticados en Instituciones Penitenciarias, 2007-2008 Characteristics of cases of infectious syphilis diagnosed in prisons, 2007-2008

    OpenAIRE

    C. Garriga; P. Gómez-Pintado; M Díez; E. Acín; Díaz, A

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo: Describir las características de los casos de sífilis en internos de prisiones. Material y Método: Estudio descriptivo de los casos confirmados de sífilis primaria, secundaria y latente precoz diagnosticados en prisiones españolas (2007-2008). Se recogieron variables sociodemográficas, clínicas y relacionadas con la transmisión en un cuestionario estandarizado cumplimentado por los médicos de los centros. Se obtuvieron distribuciones de frecuencia de las variables cualitativas y la ...

  15. Technology transfer, human capital, and cooperation: Determinants of innovative output in the manufacturing industry in Colombia 2007-2008; Transferencia tecnológica, capital humano y cooperación: factores determinantes de los resultados innovadores en la industria manufacturera en Colombia 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Hurtado Ayala

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Investment in technology and human capital, and co-operation networks,appear to play an important role in the development of the innovative process of a country ; proof of this are the different perspectives on innovation, including the theory of endogenous development. With the information from the IV Survey for Technological Innovation and Development conducted in Colombiafor the 2007-2008 period, The authors used a method of linear regression that allows defining causal relationships among the variables mentioned above. The results establish that variables like technology, the relations of cooperation, and investment in human capital determine the innovative results of the Colombian manufacturing industry, finding that these results are greater when they establish cooperative relations with other entities that support innovation and when investment in human capital formation takes place.

  16. NPS career forward

    OpenAIRE

    McLay, Deidre

    2014-01-01

    "NPS provided a critical link in my career from warfighting operator to strategic thinker and reasoner. I found the education at NPS to be superior in every respect, and I enrolled in as many classes as was physically possible during my time there so that I could take advantage of the expertise and resources that were available. My NPS education, as well as the Strategic Group XIX fellowship formulated many of the current initiatives for my Joint UAS Concepts team." US Navy (USN) author

  17. Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary in the Gulf of Mexico, 2007-2008 (NCEI Accession 0070125)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks 2007-2008 dataset includes biological and oceanographic measurements collected to satisfy the...

  18. Activity of telavancin and comparator antimicrobial agents tested against Staphylococcus spp. isolated from hospitalised patients in Europe (2007-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Rodrigo E; Sader, Helio S; Jones, Ronald N

    2010-10-01

    The activity of telavancin was evaluated against Staphylococcus spp. collected from European hospitals as part of an international surveillance study (2007-2008). A total of 7534 staphylococcal clinical isolates [5726 Staphylococcus aureus and 1808 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS)] were included. Isolates were tested for susceptibility according to reference methods and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were interpreted based on Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) 2010 and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) 2009 criteria. Telavancin breakpoints approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were applied. Telavancin activity was evaluated against meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) displaying several antibiogram resistance patterns, including multidrug-resistant isolates. Telavancin was active against S. aureus [MIC(50/90) values (MICs for 50% and 90% of the isolates, respectively)=0.12/0.25mg/L; 100.0% susceptible] and CoNS (MIC(50/90)=0.12/0.25mg/L), inhibiting all isolates at Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus lugdunensis and Staphylococcus xylosus (MIC(50)=0.12 mg/L) compared with Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Staphylococcus warneri (MIC(50)=0.25mg/L). Overall, telavancin exhibited MIC(90) results two- to eight-fold lower than comparators (daptomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, vancomycin and linezolid). Based upon MIC(90) values, telavancin demonstrated potent in vitro activity against a contemporary (2007-2008) collection of Staphylococcus spp. recovered from nearly 30 European medical centres.

  19. Low-fat Milk Consumption among Children and Adolescents in the United States, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or on cereal?" Participants were asked to include chocolate and other flavored milks as well as hot ... Associate Director for Science Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys Clifford L. Johnson, M.S.P.H., ...

  20. Changing patterns of spatial clustering of schistosomiasis in Southwest China between 1999-2001 and 2007-2008: assessing progress toward eradication after the World Bank Loan Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi; Xiong, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhijie; Luo, Can; Cohen, Ted; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Lijuan; Jiang, Qingwu

    2014-01-03

    We compared changes in the spatial clustering of schistosomiasis in Southwest China at the conclusion of and six years following the end of the World Bank Loan Project (WBLP), the control strategy of which was focused on the large-scale use of chemotherapy. Parasitological data were obtained through standardized surveys conducted in 1999-2001 and again in 2007-2008. Two alternate spatial cluster methods were used to identify spatial clusters of cases: Anselin's Local Moran's I test and Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic. Substantial reductions in the burden of schistosomiasis were found after the end of the WBLP, but the spatial extent of schistosomiasis was not reduced across the study area. Spatial clusters continued to occur in three regions: Chengdu Plain, Yangtze River Valley, and Lancang River Valley during the two periods, and regularly involved five counties. These findings suggest that despite impressive reductions in burden, the hilly and mountainous regions of Southwest China remain at risk of schistosome re-emergence. Our results help to highlight specific locations where integrated control programs can focus to speed the elimination of schistosomiasis in China.

  1. Considering common sources of exposure in association studies - Urinary benzophenone-3 and DEHP metabolites are associated with altered thyroid hormone balance in the NHANES 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sujin; Kim, Sunmi; Won, Sungho; Choi, Kyungho

    2017-10-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that thyroid hormone balances can be disrupted by chemical exposure. However, many association studies have often failed to consider multiple chemicals with possible common sources of exposure, rendering their conclusions less reliable. In the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from the U.S.A., urinary levels of environmental phenols, parabens, and phthalate metabolites as well as serum thyroid hormones were measured in a general U.S. population (≥12years old, n=1829). Employing these data, first, the chemicals or their metabolites associated with thyroid hormone measures were identified. Then, the chemicals/metabolites with possible common exposure sources were included in the analytical model to test the sensitivities of their association with thyroid hormone levels. Benzophenone-3 (BP-3), bisphenol A (BPA), and a metabolite of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were identified as significant determinants of decreased serum thyroid hormones. However, significant positive correlations were detected (p-valueexposure sources. In the subsequent sensitivity analysis, which included the chemicals/metabolite with potentially similar exposure sources in the model, we found that urinary BP-3 and DEHP exposure were associated with decreased thyroid hormones among the general population but BPA exposure was not. In association studies, the presence of possible common exposure sources should be considered to circumvent possible false-positive conclusions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations: Salmonid Studies Project Progress Report, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Walters, Jody; Maiolie, Melo [Idaho Department of Fish and Game

    2009-04-09

    This research report addresses bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and Redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss redd surveys, population monitoring, trout distribution, and abundance surveys in the Kootenai River drainage of Idaho. The bull trout is one of several sport fish native to the Kootenai River, Idaho that no longer supports a fishery. Because bull trout are listed under the Endangered Species Act, population data will be vital to monitoring status relative to recovery goals. Thirty-three bull trout redds were found in North and South Callahan creeks and Boulder Creek in 2007. This is a decrease from 2006 and 2005 and less than the high count in 2003. However, because redd numbers have only been monitored since 2002, the data series is too short to determine bull trout population trends based on redd counts. Redband trout still provide an important Kootenai River sport fishery, but densities are low, at least partly due to limited recruitment. The redband trout proportional stock density (PSD) in 2007 increased from 2006 for a second year after a two-year decline in 2004 and 2005. This may indicate increased recruitment to or survival in the 201-305 mm length group due to the minimum 406 mm (16 inches) length limit initiated in 2002. We conducted 13 redd surveys and counted 44 redband trout redds from May 7 to June 3, 2007 in a 3.8 km survey reach on Twentymile Creek. We surveyed streams in the Kootenai River valley to look for barriers to trout migration. Man-made barriers, for at least part of the year, were found on Caboose, Debt, Fisher, and Twenty Mile creeks. Removing these barriers would increase spawning and rearing habitat for trout and help to restore trout fisheries in the Kootenai River.

  3. GAMBARAN PENGGUNAAN TEMBAKAU/ROKOK PADA TUMOR/KANKER PARU DI INDONESIA, RISET KESEHATAN DASAR 2007/2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Roosihermiatie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: lung cancer is a comm on type of cancers, either in men or women and a leading cause of deaths from cancers. It aimed to determine characteristics and pattern of tobacco use among lung tumor/cancer respondents diagnosed by health workers (doctors/nurses/midwives. Methods: this study further analyzed secondairy data from Basic Health Research or Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas year 2007/2008 Samples were taken from respondents aged 10 year old and above and also used tobacco/smoke every day or sometimes at Riskesdas 2007/2008 among 973,662 househaId members in which 228,416 people (29.7% smoked. It was found that 14 persons were diagnosed lung tumor/cancer by health workers in past year of the research. Data were analyzed by univariat. Results showed that the majority of lung tumor/cancer patients were aged 51-70 years old, all men, tended to increase with higher education and relatively more comm on among informal workers. All the lung tumor/cancer respondents were past tobacco use/smokers, possibly they stopped use tobacco/smoking after diagnosed having lung tumor/cancer. From 3 respondents who answered duration of use tobacco/smoking, the longest was 10 year period. Meanwhile, lung tumor/cancer patients at the average were suffering for 6.9 years. Conclusions: men, higher education with occupation as informal workers tended smoking. Then, duration of use tobacco/smoking likelyassociated with incidence tumor/cancer. It suggests to enhance community knowledge on danger of tobacco use/smoking as duration of tobacco use/smoking associated with tumor/incidence on meetings at the lowest levels as Rukun Tetangga (RT, Rukun Warga (RW to the highest level also lndonesia Islamic Commettee Fatwa on "haram" for smoking among children, teenagers and smoking in public areas should be seriously implemented. Key words: lung tumor/cancer, characteristics, duration of tobacco use/smoking. ABSTRAK Pendahuluan: kanker paru merupakan kanker

  4. Cataclysmic Variables from SDSS. VIII. The Final Year (2007-2008)

    CERN Document Server

    Szkody, Paula; Brooks, Keira; Gaensicke, Boris T; Kronberg, Martin; Riecken, Thomas; Ross, Nicholas P; Schmidt, Gary D; Schneider, Donald P; Agueros, Marcel A; Gomez-Moran, Ada N; Knapp, Gillian R; Schreiber, Matthias R; Schwope, Axel D

    2011-01-01

    This paper completes the series of cataclysmic variables (CVs) identified from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey I/II. The coordinates, magnitudes and spectra of 33 CVs are presented. Among the 33 are eight systems known previous to SDSS (CT Ser, DO Leo, HK Leo, IR Com, V849 Her, V405 Peg, PG1230+226 and HS0943+1404), as well as nine objects recently found through various photometric surveys. Among the systems identified since the SDSS are two polar candidates, two intermediate polar candidates and one candidate for containing a pulsating white dwarf. Our followup data have confirmed a polar candidate from Paper VII and determined tentative periods for three of the newly identified CVs. A complete summary table of the 285 CVs with spectra from SDSS I/II is presented as well as a link to an online table of all known CVs from both photometry and spectroscopy that will continue to be updated as future data appear.

  5. NPS TINYSCOPE Program Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    orbit and the rotation of the Earth and Moon . The planets will also perturb the orbits with Jupiter and Venus acting as the primary sources...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NPS TINYSCOPE Program Management 6. AUTHOR( S ) Christopher Gordon Turner 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING /MONITORING

  6. Well Inventory and Geophysical Logging of Selected Wells in Troup County, Georgia, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Michael F.; Leeth, David C.; Hamrick, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) - in cooperation with the Troup County Board of Commissioners - conducted a well inventory to provide information to help evaluate ground-water resources for Troup County, Georgia. In addition, borehole geophysical logs were collected in selected wells to provide a better understanding of the subsurface geologic and water-bearing characteristics in specific areas of interest. This investigation provides information to help guide future ground-water development and water-management decisions for Troup County while enhancing understanding of the hydrogeology of fractured rocks in the Piedmont physiographic province. This report presents well data compiled from USGS files and from site visits to wells during November and December 2007. Data were entered into the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) and made available on the Web at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ga/nwis/inventory. Previous studies of ground-water resources have been conducted in the vicinity, but did not include Troup County. The ground-water resources of Heard and Coweta Counties, located north and northeast, respectively, of Troup County were part of a larger study by Cressler and others (1983) that encompassed the Greater Atlanta Region. That study evaluated the quantity and quality of ground water in the Atlanta region and described the methods that could be used for locating high-yielding wells in the Piedmont Province. The geology underlying the Atlanta area is similar to that underlying Troup County. Clarke and Peck (1990) conducted a similar investigation that included Meriwether and Coweta Counties, located to the east and northeast of Troup County.

  7. Reform in Defence of Sovereignty: South Africa in the UN Security Council, 2007-2008 Reformen zur Verteidigung von Souveränität: Die Republik Südafrika im UN-Sicherheitsrat 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-Henri Bischoff

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available After 1994, South Africa became the sine qua non of an interna¬tionalist state, willing to promote cooperation amongst a plurality of actors, believing common interests to be more important than their differences. This raised the hopes of constitutionalists, and those who believed in the expansion of a liberal democratic peace. South Africa has acted out two seemingly contradictory roles: those of a reformer and those of a conserver. By 2007-2008 she had shifted towards the latter, conservative-reformist position. Thus, South Africa’s voting record at the General Assembly expressed her overriding concern to regionalise African issues and minimise the US and the West shaping political events. This brought her foreign policy into sharper relief. But while in some sense successful, it came at a price: a controversy about her surrendering her internationalism and principles on human rights for African unity and traditional sovereignty. But it also marked the arrival of South Africa in the world of international Realpolitik. Nach 1994 profilierte sich das neue Südafrika zunächst als internationalistischer Staat, gewillt, die Zusammenarbeit zwischen den unterschiedlichen internationalen Akteuren zu fördern – im Glauben, wichtiger als alle Differenzen seien die gemeinsamen Interessen. In der Folgezeit übernahm der Staat in der internationalen politischen Arena zwei gegensätzliche Rollen und zeigte sich zwar reformorientiert, vertrat aber auch konservativere Positionen. Seit den Jahren 2007-2008 überwog zunehmend die konservative Rolle. Bei Abstimmungen in der Generalversammlung der Vereinten Nationen erwies sich deutlich, dass die Republik Südafrika überragendes Interesse an einer Regionalisierung afrikanischer Problembereiche hatte und an einer Minimierung der politischen Gestaltungsmacht der USA beziehungsweise des Westens. Damit erhielt die südafrikanische Außenpolitik ein klares Profil und konnte gewisse Erfolge erzielen

  8. Trends in Socioeconomic Inequalities in Body Mass Index, Underweight and Obesity among English Children, 2007-2008 to 2011-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, James; Rehkopf, David; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2016-01-01

    Deprivation at the lower super output area) as a measure of socioeconomic deprivation. From 2007-2008 to 2011-2012 inequalities in obesity between the most compared to least deprived group increased (from 7.21% to 8.30%; p....07%) of childhood obesity could be avoided. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic inequalities in childhood obesity and zBMI increased in England between 2007-2008 and 2011-2012. Inequalities in the prevalence of underweight did not change. Traditional methods of examining inequalities only at the clinical thresholds...

  9. Duck Valley Reservoirs Fish Stocking and O&M, Annual Progress Report 2007-2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellman, Jake; Perugini, Carol [Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Parks, Shoshone-Paiute Tribes

    2009-02-20

    The Duck Valley Reservoirs Fish Stocking and Operations and Maintenance Project (DV Fisheries) is an ongoing resident fish program that serves to partially mitigate the loss of anadromous fish that resulted from downstream construction of the federal hydropower system. The project's goals are to enhance subsistence fishing and educational opportunities for Tribal members of the Shoshone-Paiute Tribes and provide fishing opportunities for non-Tribal members. In addition to stocking rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Mountain View (MVR), Lake Billy Shaw (LBS), and Sheep Creek Reservoirs (SCR), the program is also designed to: maintain healthy aquatic conditions for fish growth and survival, provide superior facilities with wilderness qualities to attract non-Tribal angler use, and offer clear, consistent communication with the Tribal community about this project as well as outreach and education within the region and the local community. Tasks for this performance period fall into three categories: operations and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation, and public outreach. Operation and maintenance of the three reservoirs include maintaining fences, roads, dams and all reservoir structures, feeder canals, water troughs, stock ponds, educational signs, vehicles, equipment, and restroom facilities. Monitoring and evaluation activities include creel, gillnet, wildlife, and bird surveys, water quality and reservoir structures monitoring, native vegetation planting, photo point documentation, and control of encroaching exotic vegetation. Public outreach activities include providing environmental education to school children, providing fishing reports to local newspapers and vendors, updating the website, hosting community environmental events, and fielding numerous phone calls from anglers. The reservoir monitoring program focuses on water quality and fishery success. Sheep Creek Reservoir and Lake Billy Shaw had less than productive trout growth due to water

  10. Analysis of the outcome of Anterior Cruciate Ligament reconstruction surgery on knee in athletes from Sari, 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Esmaeel Shafiei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 3 November, 2009 ; Accepted 11 May, 2010AbstractBackground and purpose: The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL is one of the four major ligaments of the knee and also the most important knee stabilizer. Since the incidence of ACL tearing is especially high in young athletes, and reconstruction surgery and a prolonged rehabilitation may be rtequired, understanding the outcome of the ACL reconstruction surgery and preventive measures such as physiotherapy and muscle supporting exercises, could improve the outcome of the ACL reconstruction surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate and recognize the outcome of ACL reconstruction surgery in athletes from Sari in 2007-2008.Materials and methods: In this descriptive study, 57 male athletes (mean age: 26.56 ± 6.17 years referred to several hospitals in sari during 2007-2008 were assessed after ACL reconstruction surgery. The assessment for the outcome of the ACL reconstruction surgery was done by physical examination, such as range of motion (ROM and performing stability tests (lachman test, anterior drawer test. Data were analyzed using statistical tests; ANOVA, χ2 and t -test.Results: Mean age of the patients was 26.56 ± 6.17 years (17-51. Mean duration after surgery was 18.4 ± 10.57(5-35. The most common cause of tearing was playing soccer (63.2%. The right knee was affected in 35 players (61.4% compared with the left knee in 22 (38.6%. Thirty three (57.9% right knees were dominant in comparison with 24(42.1% left knees. Type of trauma in 17 subjects (29.8% was contact and 40 (70.2% was non-contact. There were three (5.3% patients with movement limitation (10-30˚ and five (8.8% with knee instability. There was no significant relationship between mean duration after surgery and limitations in movements (P=0.412, knee stability (P=0.999, and patients satisfaction (P=0.412. There was a significant relation between dominant knee and stability (P=0.046.Conclusion: According to the results

  11. Changes in mean intake of fatty acids and intake of saturated and trans fats from potatoes: NHANES 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Maureen L; Anderson, Patricia A

    2015-05-01

    Studies have shown that higher than usual intakes of trans fatty acids (TFAs) have adverse effects on blood lipids. Because of this, in 2006 the US FDA mandated labeling of TFAs on food packages. The food and restaurant industries, including the potato industry, reformulated their foods to reduce or eliminate partially hydrogenated vegetable oils and TFAs. Before mandatory labeling, grain-based desserts, yeast breads, and French-fried potatoes (FFPs) were the top sources of TFAs in the food supply; by 2007, potato food manufacturers and quick-service restaurants had reduced or eliminated TFAs without increasing saturated fatty acids (SFAs). FFPs are no longer a source of TFAs in the food supply. This study examined energy and fatty acid intake among children aged 6-11 y, adolescents aged 12-18 y, and adults aged ≥19 y across 3 time periods by using data from the NHANES 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010. On average, intakes of total energy, total fat, SFAs, and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) decreased significantly between 2005-2006 and 2009-2010 among children and adolescents; however, the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) did not change. Among adults, intakes of total fat, SFAs, and MUFAs decreased; however, total energy and PUFA intake did not change. On the day of the 2009-2010 survey, ∼13% of children and 10% of adolescents reported consuming fried FFPs, whereas <7% of adults reported consumption of fried FFPs. Intakes of SFAs and TFAs from fried FFPs decreased significantly between 2005-2006 and 2009-2010 among children, adolescents, and adults. This study confirms that intake of TFAs from FFPs is trivial.

  12. Estrellas Wolf-Rayet de tipo WN en La V\\'ia L\\'actea: Campa\\~na 2007-2008

    CERN Document Server

    Collado, A; Barbá, R

    2009-01-01

    We are carrying out a spectroscopic monitoring of Galactic Wolf-Rayet stars, in order to detect binary systems. The sample consists of approximately 50 stars of the Nitrogen sequence (WN) and fainter than V = 13. The observations are made from the 4-m telescope at CTIO, Chile. In the following, we present the first results of the 2007-2008 campaign.

  13. Molecular characterization of peste des petits ruminants virus from the Karamoja region of Uganda (2007-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luka, Pam D; Erume, Joseph; Mwiine, Frank N; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom

    2012-01-01

    Antibodies against peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) were first detected in goats in East Africa in 1995 without any clinical disease. It was not until during the years 2006 and 2007 that the disease outbreaks were first reported in Kenya and Uganda, respectively. This study was carried out to detect and characterize PPRV from a suspected outbreak in sheep and goats in the Karamoja region in 2007-2008. Oculo-nasal and blood samples were tested using F-gene-based primers, and their genetic relationships to other sequences in the GenBank database were investigated. A total of 383 samples suspected to contain PPRV were randomly collected and tested. Sixty-seven (17.5%) were positive when F protein gene primers were used. During the years 2007 and 2008, 38.1% (26/67) and 13.0% (41/316) of samples were positive by PCR, respectively. The 2007 sequences clustered with Asian sequences in lineage 4 and Cote d'Ivoire 86 (ICV 86) in lineage 2, while all of the 2008 samples clustered in lineage 1. Over the years, the implicated strains were genetically close (88%-91%) to the vaccine strain (Nig 75/1). Based on this study, the circulating PPR strains in Uganda are heterogeneous, and therefore, the disease may have been introduced from different sources.

  14. Determinants of success and sustainability of the WHO multimodal hand hygiene promotion campaign, Italy, 2007-2008 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Maria Luisa; Morsillo, Filomena; Nascetti, Simona; Parenti, Mita; Allegranzi, Benedetta; Pompa, Maria Grazia; Pittet, Didier

    2017-06-08

    A national hand hygiene promotion campaign based on the World Health Organization (WHO) multimodal, Clean Care is Safer Care campaign was launched in Italy in 2007. One hundred seventy-five hospitals from 14 of 20 Italian regions participated. Data were collected using methods and tools provided by the WHO campaign, translated into Italian. Hand hygiene compliance, ward infrastructure, and healthcare workers' knowledge and perception of healthcare-associated infections and hand hygiene were evaluated before and after campaign implementation. Compliance data from the 65 hospitals returning complete data for all implementation tools were analysed using a multilevel approach. Overall, hand hygiene compliance increased in the 65 hospitals from 40% to 63% (absolute increase: 23%, 95% confidence interval: 22-24%). A wide variation in hand hygiene compliance among wards was observed; inter-ward variability significantly decreased after campaign implementation and the level of perception was the only item associated with this. Long-term sustainability in 48 of these 65 hospitals was assessed in 2014 using the WHO Hand Hygiene Self-Assessment Framework tool. Of the 48 hospitals, 44 scored in the advanced/intermediate categories of hand hygiene implementation progress. The median hand hygiene compliance achieved at the end of the 2007-2008 campaign appeared to be sustained in 2014. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  15. Liceu 2007 2008

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Ajakirja esikaane siseküljel L Gran Teatre del Liceu reklaamil (R. Wagneri ooper "Tannhäuser" 19., 25., 27., 29. ja 31 märts ning 3., 6., 8, 10., 12., 14., 18. ja 22. apr. 2008) mainitud ka lauljat Lauri Vasarat (vt. www.liceubarcelona.com)

  16. Liceu 2007 2008

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Ajakirja esikaane siseküljel L Gran Teatre del Liceu reklaamil (R. Wagneri ooper "Tannhäuser" 19., 25., 27., 29. ja 31 märts ning 3., 6., 8, 10., 12., 14., 18. ja 22. apr. 2008) mainitud ka lauljat Lauri Vasarat (vt. www.liceubarcelona.com)

  17. Características de los casos de sífilis infecciosa diagnosticados en Instituciones Penitenciarias, 2007-2008 Characteristics of cases of infectious syphilis diagnosed in prisons, 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Garriga

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir las características de los casos de sífilis en internos de prisiones. Material y Método: Estudio descriptivo de los casos confirmados de sífilis primaria, secundaria y latente precoz diagnosticados en prisiones españolas (2007-2008. Se recogieron variables sociodemográficas, clínicas y relacionadas con la transmisión en un cuestionario estandarizado cumplimentado por los médicos de los centros. Se obtuvieron distribuciones de frecuencia de las variables cualitativas y la media y desviación estándar para la edad. Se calculó la tasa de incidencia anual por mil internos. Para evaluar la asociación entre variables cualitativas se utilizaron las pruebas de ji-cuadrado y exacta de Fisher y la de U de Mann-Whitney para las cuantitativas. Resultados: Se identificaron 94 casos de sífilis (35,1% primaria, 20,2% secundaria y 44,7% latente precoz. La tasa de incidencia fue 0,9 y 0,7 casos/1.000 internos en 2007 y 2008, respectivamente. La mayoría de enfermos fueron hombres (90,4%, entre 31 y 40 años (30,9% y extranjeros (52,1%. El 80,9% de los diagnósticos se realizaron por cribaje. Un 5,3% presentó coinfección con el VIH y el 16% refería haber tenido infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS previamente. El mecanismo de transmisión más probable fueron las relaciones heterosexuales (83,0%; la situación de riesgo más común para la adquisición de sífilis fue ser cliente de prostitución (39,4%. Conclusiones: La incidencia de sífilis en prisión es elevada. La oferta de screening de sífilis ha permitido detectar pacientes que no estaban siendo tratados y pone de manifiesto la importancia del sistema penitenciario en el control de las ITS.Objective: To describe the characteristics of cases of syphilis amongst prison inmates. Materials and Methods: Descriptive study. Confirmed cases of primary, secondary and early latent syphilis were identified in prisons in Spain during 2007-2008. Socio-demographic and clinical

  18. Gestión institucional bajo la presión del mercado competitivo en el sistema de salud colombiano, 2007-2008 = Institutional management under the pressure of competitive market within the Colombian health system, 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molina Marin, Gloria

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: comprender la dinámica de las decisiones en salud y su relación con el acceso y la calidad de los servicios, en el contexto del Sistema General de Seguridad Social en Salud Colombiano, durante 2007-2008.Métodos: se optó por una metodología de investigación cualitativa; se hicieron 179 entrevistas en profundidad a médicos, enfermeras y administradores de instituciones de salud, en seis ciudades colombianas; también se realizaron grupos focales con usuarios de los servicios de salud. Se grabaron, transcribieron, sistematizaron y analizaron las entrevistas mediante el método de codificación y categorización, y se generaron mapas conceptuales.Resultados: emergieron 13 categorías relacionadas con las decisiones en salud. Este artículo solo se ocupa de los modelos de gestión de las instituciones de salud, dados en un contexto de mercado competitivo. El propósito de la gestión en dichas instituciones tiene dos tendencias: la mayoría optan por un modelo centrado en obtener rentabilidad financiera, estableciendo mecanismos encaminados a disminuir los costos, lo que afecta el acceso y la calidad de los servicios de salud y las condiciones laborales de los empleados. Una minoría, en contraste, centra la gestión en la defensa de la salud y la vida de los usuarios, con procesos de garantía de calidad de los servicios y condiciones laborales dignas.

  19. Influenza A(H1N1) Oseltamivir Resistant Viruses in the Netherlands During the Winter 2007/2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Frederika; Jonges, Marcel; van Beek, Ruud; Donker, Gé A; Schellevis, François G; Koopmans, Marion; van der Sande, Marianne A.B; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E; Boucher, Charles A.B; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; Meijer, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Background: Antiviral susceptibility surveillance in the Netherlands was intensified after the first reports about the emergence of influenza A(H1N1) oseltamivir resistant viruses in Norway in January, 2008. Methods: Within the existing influenza surveillance an additional questionnaire study was performed to retrospectively assess possible risk factors and establish clinical outcome of all patients with influenza virus A(H1N1) positive specimens. To discriminate resistant and sensitive viruses, fifty percent inhibitory concentrations for the neuramidase inhibitors oseltamivir and zanamivir were determined in a neuraminidase inhibition assay. Mutations previously associated with resistance to neuramidase inhibitors and M2 blockers (amantadine and rimantadine) were searched for by nucleotide sequencing of neuraminidase and M2 genes respectively. Results: Among 171 patients infected with A(H1N1) viruses an overall prevalence of oseltamivir resistance of 27% (95% CI: 20-34%) was found. None of influenza A(H1N1) oseltamivir resistant viruses tested was resistant against amantadine or zanamivir. Patient characteristics, underlying conditions, influenza vaccination, symptoms, complications, and exposure to oseltamivir and other antivirals did not differ significantly between patients infected with resistant and sensitive A(H1N1) viruses. Conclusion: In 2007/2008 a large proportion of influenza A(H1N1) viruses resistant to oseltamivir was detected. There were no clinical differences between patients infected with resistant and sensitive A(H1N1) viruses. Continuous monitoring of the antiviral drug sensitivity profile of influenza viruses is justified, preferably using the existing sentinel surveillance, however, complemented with data from the more severe end of the clinical spectrum. In order to act timely on emergencies of public health importance we suggest setting up a surveillance system that can guarantee rapid access to the latter. PMID:22253652

  20. A large outbreak of influenza B-associated benign acute childhood myositis in Germany, 2007/2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, Sabine; Buchholz, Udo; Tibussek, Daniel; Jurke, Annette; An der Heiden, Matthias; Diedrich, Sabine; Schweiger, Brunhilde; Alpers, Katharina

    2011-08-01

    Benign acute childhood myositis (BACM) is a rare syndrome associated with various viral infections. Bilateral calve pain may lead to inability to walk. During winter 2007/2008, we investigated a nationwide outbreak of influenza-associated BACM (IA-BACM) to identify etiologic (sub)type, describe the course of disease, and explore how well the syndrome is known among physicians. We performed retrospective and prospective case finding in all German federal states. Physicians returned patient-based questionnaires containing information about sex, age, disease progression, patient-management, and number of BACM cases treated previously. We compared IA-BACM cases with influenza cases from the German virologic sentinel surveillance system for influenza. We investigated 219 children with IA-BACM. They coincided with the curve of influenza B of the German virologic sentinel surveillance system for influenza. Median age was 7 years, 74% (160/216) of cases were male, median time between the onset of fever and onset of BACM-symptoms was 3 days lasting for a median of 4 days. Almost half of the affected children had presented at hospitals. One case with beginning renal impairment occurred, but the patient recovered completely. Most reporting physicians had not seen BACM-patients previously. Multivariable analysis showed IA-BACM's strong association with influenza B, male sex, and age between 6 and 9 years. Influenza B caused a large BACM outbreak in Germany. Onset of BACM symptoms followed shortly after the onset of influenza symptoms. The course of this disease was almost exclusively mild and self-limiting. Diagnosis of this rare but distinct clinical entity by the alert physician can spare the patient potentially unneeded invasive testing and hospital admission.

  1. OBS records of Whale vocalizations from Lucky-strike segment of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge during 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, A.; Rai, A.; Singh, S. C.; Crawford, W. C.; Escartin, J.; Cannat, M.

    2009-12-01

    Passive seismic experiments to study seismicity require a long term deployment of ocean-bottom seismometers (OBSs). These instruments also record a large amount of non-seismogenic signals such as movement of large ships, air-gun shots, and marine mammal vocalizations. We report a bi-product of our passive seismic experiment (BBMOMAR) conducted around the Lucky-strike hydrothermal field of the slow-spreading mid-Atlantic ridge. Five multi-component ocean-bottom seismometers (recording two horizontal, one vertical and one pressure channel) were deployed during 2007-2008. During 13 months of deployment, abundant vocalizations of marine mammals have been recorded by all the five equipments. By analyzing the frequency content of data and their pattern of occurrence, we conclude that these low-frequency vocalizations (~20-40 Hz) typically corresponds to blue and fin-whales. These signals if not identified, could be mis-interpreted as underwater seismic/hydrothermal activity. Our data show an increase in the number of vocalizations recorded during the winter season relative to the summer. As part of the seismic monitoring of the Lucky-strike site, we anticipate to extend this study to the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 periods, after the recovery and deployment of the array during the BATHYLUCK09 cruise. Long-term and continuous records of calls of marine mammals provide valuable information that could be used to identify the species, study their seasonal behaviour and their migration paths. Our study suggestes that passive experiments such as ocean-bottom seismometers deployed at key locations, could provide useful secondary infromation about oceanic species besides recording seismicity, which is otherwise not possible without harming or interfering with their activity.

  2. Fauna and Monthly Activity of Sand flies in The Focus of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Bushehr District (2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolrasoul Forouzani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is one of the endemic diseases in Bushehr Province, which its prevalence has increased in some districts, as well as Bushehr district recently. This is essential to access minute information about epidemiology of diseases (Parasite, Vector, Reservior, in order to achieve effective control of disease. One of the basic information in respect of controlling measures, is the knowledge and information of fauna and monthly activities of vectors which is essential, because ignoring of different biological aspects of vectors, could cause failure to control strategies. Methods: This is a descriptive- cross sectional study, carried out in four villages of Bushehr district (2007-2008 which were affected by cutaneous Leishmaniasis. Sand flies were collected by standard sticky traps, and identified by electric microscope, using reliable identification keys. Results: Sixteen species. (six Phelebotomus and ten Sergentomyia were identified from a total of 15952 sand flies caught for this study, out of which eight species are reported for the first time in Bushehr district, namely: Phelobotomus mongolensis, P.caucasicus, P.ansari, Sergentomyia tiberiadis, S.clydei, S.antenata, S.iranica, S.palestiensis. Monthly activity of sand flies starts in mid March and ends by the end of December. The peack of sand flies monthly activities is in June, while the peack activity of P.papatasi is in the end of July. Conclusion: Considering nine months activity period of sand flies in Bushehr district, and their peack of activities, specially for P.paptasi, it is suggested that the controlling measures to be administrated in July.

  3. Efeito da crise de 2007/2008 na transmissão internacional de volatilidade no mercado de capitais brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Brutti Righi

    Full Text Available Com a crescente globalização, os mercados financeiros do mundo todo passaram a apresentar maior integração. Tal relacionamento entre mercados possui como implicação um termo que vem atraindo a atenção de profissionais e acadêmicos, a transmissão de volatilidade. Dessa forma, o presente trabalho tem como escopo analisar a transmissão internacional de volatilidade no mercado brasileiro. Para tanto, é utilizado um modelo Garch multivariado com parametrização BEKK. Com base nesse modelo, são estimados os relacionamentos bivariados entre o mercado brasileiro, representado pelo índice Ibovespa, e os mercados americano, argentino, mexicano e chinês, utilizando-se de índices representativos de 4 de janeiro de 2000 até 31 de março de 2010, totalizando 2667 cotações. A amostra foi dividida em três partes, representando os períodos anteriores, durante e posteriores à crise do subprime de 2007/2008. Os resultados obtidos permitem concluir que, durante a crise de 2008, de forma geral, houve mudança na direção da transmissão de volatilidade entre o mercado brasileiro e os demais estudados, de forma ao Brasil passar a exercer maior influência na volatilidade condicional desses, por ter sofrido menores consequências com a crise financeira. Além disso, após o período de turbulência causado pela crise de 2008, o relacionamento da volatilidade entre o mercado brasileiro com os demais passou a ser menos assimétrico do que no período anterior a crise.

  4. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Juveniles, 2007-2008 Report of Research.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achord, Stephen; Sandford, Benjamin P.; Hockersmith, Eric E. [Northwest Fisheries Science Center

    2009-05-26

    This report provides results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior and survival of wild juvenile spring/summer Chinook salmon in the Snake River Basin. Data reported is from detections of PIT tagged fish during late summer 2007 through mid-2008. Fish were tagged in summer 2007 by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in Idaho and by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) in Oregon. Our analyses include migration behavior and estimated survival of fish at instream PIT-tag monitors and arrival timing and estimated survival to Lower Granite Dam. Principal results from tagging and interrogation during 2007-2008 are listed below: (1) In July and August 2007, we PIT tagged and released 7,390 wild Chinook salmon parr in 12 Idaho streams or sample areas. (2) Overall observed mortality from collection, handling, tagging, and after a 24-hour holding period was 1.4%. (3) Of the 2,524 Chinook salmon parr PIT tagged and released in Valley Creek in summer 2007, 218 (8.6%) were detected at two instream PIT-tag monitoring systems in lower Valley Creek from late summer 2007 to the following spring 2008. Of these, 71.6% were detected in late summer/fall, 11.9% in winter, and 16.5% in spring. Estimated parr-to-smolt survival to Lower Granite Dam was 15.5% for the late summer/fall group, 48.0% for the winter group, and 58.5% for the spring group. Based on detections at downstream dams, the overall efficiency of VC1 (upper) or VC2 (lower) Valley Creek monitors for detecting these fish was 21.1%. Using this VC1 or VC2 efficiency, an estimated 40.8% of all summer-tagged parr survived to move out of Valley Creek, and their estimated survival from that point to Lower Granite Dam was 26.5%. Overall estimated parr-to-smolt survival for all summer-tagged parr from this stream at the dam was 12.1%. Development and improvement of instream PIT-tag monitoring systems continued throughout 2007 and 2008. (4) Testing of PIT-tag antennas in lower Big Creek during

  5. Today@NPS / July 2016

    OpenAIRE

    NPS Public Affairs Office

    2016-01-01

    Today@NPS showcases some of the speakers, conferences, experiments, lectures and other events that take place at the Naval Postgraduate School Contents: July 1, 2016: NPS Leadership Share Life Primers with Summer STEM Interns; July 5, 2016: Summer Quarter Welcomes Largest Incoming Class of the Year; July 6, 2016: NSAM Welcomes New Students With MWR Leisure Fair; July 7, 2016: Bowman Scholars Make the Rapid Transition to Graduate Studies; July 8, 2016: NPS Legal Details the Basics of Protec...

  6. Estrellas Wolf-Rayet de tipo WN en la Vía Láctea: Campaña 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, A.; Gamen, R.; Barbá, R. H.

    We are carrying out a spectroscopic monitoring of Galactic Wolf-Rayet stars, in order to detect binary systems. The sample consists of approx- imately 50 stars of the Nitrogen sequence (WN) and fainter than V =13. The observations are made from the 4-m telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter- American Observatory (CTIO), Chile. In the following, we present the first results of the 2007-2008 campaign. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  7. Caracterización de la conducta suicida en el Policlínico "René Ávila Reyes". Holguín 2007-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Eisy Mercedes Infantes Pérez; Tatiana Zoila Ochoa Roca; Rosa María Ochoa Roca

    2009-01-01

    Aborda un estudio descriptivo, de series de casos sobre el comportamiento de la conducta suicida en el Policlínico ¿René Ávila Reyes¿, Holguín .2007-2008. La muestra estuvo integrada por 52 pacientes con conducta suicida. Para la obtención de información se revisaron Historias Clínicas y discusiones de casos. En el intento suicida hubo un mayor predominio en los adolescentes, las mujeres y amas de casa. Las edades de 31 a 40 años, del sexo masculino y desocupados, se señalaron con mayor compo...

  8. A synopsis of oncology and oncology-related papers published in the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, P A; Shekar, K; McLeod, N; Puxeddu, R; Cascarini, L

    2009-10-01

    This paper provides a summary of the 95 papers related to oncology that were published in the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (BJOMS) during 2007-2008. They include full length articles on clinical studies, radiology, basic science, and reconstruction in oral, and head and neck cancer. The journal also publishes technical notes and short communications. It encompasses the whole remit of the specialty and it is encouraging that authors choose to submit their work to BJOMS, but to improve the quality and status of the journal, we need to increase the ratio of full length articles to other submissions. Reviews of other subspecialties will be published in due course.

  9. 2007-2008年国外语义Web研究进展%Researches on the Semantic Web Aboard from 2007 to 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘毅; 汤怡洁; 杨锐; 刘清

    2009-01-01

    2007-2008年国外语义Web的研究重点主要放在语义标注、语义推理、语义搜索引擎和语义Web服务4个方面,并且呈现出以下特点:语义Web在虚拟知识环境中针对性研究居多,综合性应用较少;实际应用主要集中在小范围的应用方面;研究成果以会议论文居多,期刊论文较少.

  10. ‘Antarctic biology in the 21st century - Advances in, and beyond the international polar year 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddart, Michael

    2010-08-01

    The International Polar Year 2007-2008 (IPY) has provided an opportunity for biology to show itself as an important part of Antarctic science in a manner in which it was not seen during earlier Polar Years. Of the 15 endorsed biological projects in Antarctica, 7 included more than 20 scientists and could be deemed truly international. Four were conducted in the marine environment, and one each in the fields of biological invasions, microbial ecology, and terrestrial ecology, and one was SCAR’s over-arching ‘Evolution and Biodiversity in the Antarctic’. The marine projects have left a robust legacy of data for future research into the consequences of environmental change, and into future decisions about marine protected areas. Studies on introductions of exotic organisms reveal an ever-present threat to the warmer parts of the high-latitude Southern Ocean, or parts which might become warmer with climate change. Studies on microbial ecology reveal great complexity of ecosystems with high numbers of unknown species. Terrestrial research has shown how vulnerable the Antarctic is to accidental introductions, and how productive the soils can be under changed climate conditions. Antarctic biology has come-of-age during IPY 2007-2008 and the campaign has set the scene for future research.

  11. THE SNOW CONDITION, THE AVALANCHES CAUSED AND THE DYNAMIC OF THE AVALANCHES CORRIDORS DURING THE WINTER 2007-2008. CASE STUDY, PADINILE FRUMOASE (PIATRA CRAIULUI MOUNTAINS, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA MUNTEANU

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The snow condition, the avalanches caused and the dynamic of the avalanches corridors during the winter 2007-2008. Case study, Padinile Frumoase (Piatra Craiului Mountains, Romania. In this paper we aim to present in detail the situations generated by meteorological and morphological parameters, which determined the generation of avalanches of different intensities, on five avalanches corridors in the winter 2007-2008. These are situated in the area named Padinile Frumoase, in the north-eastern part of the Piatra Craiului Mountains, which are situated in the central part of Romania and which belong to the Meridional Carpathians. The relief is represented by a calcareous- conglomeratic ridge, in the high part, the peak reaches over 2000 m altitude. Local conditions determine the forming of avalanches, which are oriented on well defined corridors, along the temporary hydrographic network. By studying the evolution of meteorological parameters and their overlapping with local morphological parameters, the existence of some favourable conditions for the apparition of avalanches were detected. There were noticed both active corridors with traces of avalanches, and inactive corridors on which it was not noticed the manifestation of these phenomena. The material adds up to the data base about the avalanches from this massif, being the second situation of analysed avalanches for this mountainous space totally situated in the National Park Piatra Craiului.

  12. 2007 - 2008 Florida Division of Emergency Management (FDEM) Lidar Project: Blocks 1 - 10 (Southeast Florida and Keys)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) LAS dataset is a topographic survey conducted for the State of Florida Division of Emergency Management LiDAR Project. These...

  13. Inside NPS, December 2010 [video

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School (U.S.)

    2010-01-01

    TNT Camp Roberts,Battlefield Medic,Paul Stockton. "Inside NPS" is a monthly show that features a wide range of university news, from research projects and student efforts to distinguished visitors and faculty honors. The monthly 30-minute broadcast is aired on the Pentagon Channel and can be seen locally on Access Monterey Television. With Host Alan Richmond.

  14. 2007-2008年印度生物技术产业收入超过25亿美元

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    印度生物技术产业在2007-2008年财政年度期间报告了25亿美元的收入。该行业在过去五年中所取得的增长下降了20%。主要是由于卢比的增值和来自于全球市场的压力。印度领先的3家公司:印度血清研究所,Biocon公司和Panacea公司保持了其在2007年的位置。

  15. 全国流感监测网络宁夏监测点2007-2008年度流感监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温秋芳; 孙晓强; 吴忠兰; 詹军; 郝琼; 付益仁; 刘明智

    2008-01-01

    目的 了解宁夏2007-2008年度流感流行状况、流感病毒流行株及其构成,为流感预防控制工作提供科学的依据.方法 每周统计哨点流感样病例(ILI)数、爆发点ILI数,采集ILI咽拭子标本,用狗肾传代细胞(MDCK)进行流感病毒分离,采用血红细胞凝集试验(HA)和红细胞凝集抑制试验(HI)进行流感病毒型别和亚型鉴定.结果 监测哨点医院共上报ILI 575份,ILI占门急诊就诊比例0.18%.采集ILI 557例,分离出流感病毒51株,其中B型49株,A型(H3N2)2株;爆发一起,爆发点ILI 67例,采集ILI咽拭子10份,分离出A型(H3N2)3株.病毒分离阳性率为9.52%,B型(Yamagata株系)占分离阳性毒株的90.74%;A型(H3N2)亚型占9.26%.结论 宁夏2007-2008年度流感流行状况显平静、散发状态,优势株为乙型(Yamagata株系),弱势株A型(H3N2)引起小范围局部爆发.

  16. Levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid in female serum samples from Japan in 2008, Korea in 1994-2008 and Vietnam in 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kouji H; Yang, Hye-Ran; Moon, Chan-Seok; Hung, Nguyen Ngoc; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Inoue, Kayoko; Niisoe, Tamon; Watanabe, Takao; Kamiyama, Shigetoshi; Takenaka, Katsunobu; Kim, Min-Young; Watanabe, Kiyohiko; Takasuga, Takumi; Koizumi, Akio

    2010-04-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have recently received attention owing to their widespread contamination in the environment. One of major manufacturers, 3M Company voluntarily phased out PFOS production in 2002. We measured the PFOS and PFOA concentrations in serum samples from Japan (Sendai, Takayama and Osaka), Korea (Busan and Seoul) and Vietnam (Hanoi) to evaluate the possible effects of the phase-out on the serum levels. There were spatial differences in both the serum PFOS and PFOA concentrations. The serum PFOS concentrations (ngmL(-1)) evaluated as the geometric mean (geometric standard deviation) in 2007-2008 ranged from 4.86 (1.45) in Sendai, Japan, to 9.36 (1.42) in Busan, Korea. The serum PFOA concentrations ranged from 0.575 (2.32) in Hanoi, Vietnam, to 14.2 (1.73) in Osaka, Japan. Historically archived samples collected from Korea in 1994-2008 revealed that the serum PFOA concentrations increased by 1.24-fold in Busan from 2000 to 2008 and 1.41-fold in Seoul from 1994 to 2007. On the other hand, the serum PFOS concentrations did not change from 1994 to 2007/2008. The serum PFOS levels in Japan in 2008 were significantly decreased compared with previously reported values (22.3-66.7% of the values in 2003/2004). However, the serum PFOA levels showed a clear decline from 2003 to 2008 in a high-exposed area, Osaka, but not in low-exposed areas in Japan. The trends toward decreases were not uniformly observed in Asian countries, unlike the case for the United States, suggesting that local factors associated with the production and introduction histories in each country overwhelm the effects of the phase-out. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Epidermolytic Hyperkeratosis -NPS 2 Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Jayanta Kumar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (epidermolytic hyperkeratosis or EHK with some unusual features is described. It was diagnosed in a 6 month old girl with no family history of either EHK or focal lesions suggestive of mosaicism. The girl probably had EHK type NPS-2; but non-involvement of face and lack of foul body odor set the case apart.

  18. Beyond the Price Effect in Time-of-Use Programs: Results from a Municipal Utility Pilot, 2007-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutzenhiser, Susan; Peters, Jane; Moezzi, Mithra; Woods, James

    2009-08-12

    This paper discusses results of a two-year collaborative research project between the authors and the Demand Response Research Center focused on behavioral response to a voluntary time-of-use pilot rate offered by the Sacramento Municipal Utilities District (SMUD) under the PowerChoice label. The project had two purposes: one was to assess the potential for increasing demand response through the introduction of enhanced information and real-time consumption feedback; the second was to better understand behavioral response to a TOU rate. Three successive waves of telephone surveys collected details about reasons for participation, actions taken, capacities and constraints to altering behavior, and a range of salient conditions, such as demographics and dwelling characteristics. Pre- and post-program interval meter data for participants and a comparison sample of households were also collected and analyzed to consider initial and season-change price effects of the rate and the effect of supplemental information treatments on response. Over half of surveyed participating households reported that they had made a great deal of effort to adjust their electricity consumption to the rate. Despite this, load data analysis revealed only minimal price effects; and, though households subjected to information treatments seemed to have learned from these treatments, load data analysis again detected only minimal effects on load. Given the currently high hopes for behavioral intervention and residential TOU rates, these unexpected results require explanation. We suggest a number of possibilities and discuss some implications for TOU programs, and for understanding demand response behavior and approaches to experiments with TOU rates.

  19. Groundwater level and specific conductance monitoring at Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, Onslow County, North Carolina, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, monitored water-resources conditions in the surficial, Castle Hayne, Peedee, and Black Creek aquifers in Onslow County, North Carolina, from November 2007 through September 2008. To comply with North Carolina Central Coastal Plain Capacity Use Area regulations, large-volume water suppliers in Onslow County must reduce their dependency on the Black Creek aquifer as a water-supply source and have, instead, proposed using the Castle Hayne aquifer as an alternative water-supply source. The Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, uses water obtained from the unregulated surficial and Castle Hayne aquifers for drinking-water supply. Water-level data were collected and field measurements of physical properties were made at 19 wells at 8 locations spanning the Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune. These wells were instrumented with near real-time monitoring equipment to collect hourly measurements of water level. Additionally, specific conductance and water temperature were measured hourly in 16 of the 19 wells. Graphs are presented relating altitude of groundwater level to water temperature and specific conductance measurements collected during the study, and the relative vertical gradients between aquifers are discussed. The period-of-record normal (25th to 75th percentile) monthly mean groundwater levels at two well clusters were compared to median monthly mean groundwater levels at these same well clusters for 2008 to determine groundwater-resources conditions. In 2008, water levels were below normal in the 3 wells at one of the well clusters and were normal in 4 wells at the other cluster.

  20. Introduction of the 2007-2008 JOGMEC/NRCan/Aurora Mallik Gas Hydrate Production Research Program, NWT, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K.; Dallimore, S. R.; Numasawa, M.; Yasuda, M.; Fujii, T.; Fujii, K.; Wright, J.; Nixon, F.

    2007-12-01

    prolonged testing planned in the near future. The authors acknowledge the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan (MH21), the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and NRCan for the support and funding. The Mallik 2002 program was undertaken jointly by JNOC, NRCan, GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ), the United State Geological Survey (USGS), the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), the India Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas (MOPNG)-Gas Authority of India (GAIL), and the BP-Chevron Texaco Mackenzie Delta Joint Venture.

  1. PENGEMBANGAN SISTEM REGISTRASI KEMATIAN & PENYEBAB KEMATIAN DI INDONESIA: EVALUASI SISTEM REGISTRASI KEMATIAN DILOKASI SENTINEL (KABUPATEN GORONTALO & KOTA METRO, 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Bisara Lolong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to evaluate problem related to the development of the mortality system in sentinel mortality sites (Metro city and Gorontalo District 2007-2008. Since 2006, NIHRD has established sentinel site for special surveillance of mortality in some cities and districts in some provinces.The death data sources orisinaled from the trained personnel performing detail interviews (verbal autopsy-VA with a responsible member of the household, respectively in order to ascertain the couse of illness and treatment of the diseases. The filled-in VA questionnaires were then scrutinized by a team of trained personnel for assigning the cause of death (COD which was coded as per International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10. The deaths taking place in the hospital were certified by medical officers for cause of death and coded accordingly. In order to evaluate the completeness of vital registration, the mortality registration system data was been assessed through a dual record system. A sample of households was interviewed whether a hease hold member has died in the previous two years. These death data were then directly matched with death data derived from medical certificate cause of death from mortality registration system to analyze the mortality registration completeness. The level of Completeness rate in Metro City (33% and Gorontalo District 2007-2008 (68,5% are still low. The other issues is about sustainability of the system. In some districts and cities the system are not running properly, while in other districts and cities the system is not running at all since the project closed. It happens because operational budget is not allocated to maintain the system. Therefore there is a need of the local government to create the local government decree to assure allocated budget availability. Furthermore, in order the system to be continuous, permanent, compulsory and universal, and can cover whole Indonesia, it should be integrated in

  2. Trends in Socioeconomic Inequalities in Body Mass Index, Underweight and Obesity among English Children, 2007-2008 to 2011-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James White

    Full Text Available Socioeconomic inequalities in childhood obesity have been reported in most developed countries, with obesity more common in deprived groups. Whether inequalities are found in the prevalence of underweight, the rest of the body mass index (BMI distribution, or have changed across time is not clear.The sample comprised 5,027,128 children on entry (4 to 5 years old and leaving (10 to 11 years state primary (elementary school who participated in the National Child Measurement Programme (England, United Kingdom. We used area-level deprivation (Indices of Multiple Deprivation at the lower super output area as a measure of socioeconomic deprivation. From 2007-2008 to 2011-2012 inequalities in obesity between the most compared to least deprived group increased (from 7.21% to 8.30%; p<0.001, whereas inequalities in the prevalence of underweight (1.50% to 1.21%; p = 0.15 were stable during this period. There were no differences by age group or by sex, but a three-way interaction suggested inequalities in obesity had increased at a faster rate for 10 to 11 year old girls, than 4 to 5 year old boys, (2.03% vs 0.07%; p<0.001 for interaction. Investigating inequalities across the distribution of zBMI showed increases in mean zBMI (0.18 to 0.23, p<0.001 could be attributed to increases in inequalities between the 50th and 75th centiles of BMI. Using the 2011 to 2012 population attributable risk estimates, if inequalities were halved, 14.04% (95% CI 14.00% to 14.07% of childhood obesity could be avoided.Socioeconomic inequalities in childhood obesity and zBMI increased in England between 2007-2008 and 2011-2012. Inequalities in the prevalence of underweight did not change. Traditional methods of examining inequalities only at the clinical thresholds of overweight and obesity may have led the magnitude of inequalities in childhood BMI to be underestimated.

  3. The optical and physical properties of atmospheric aerosols over the Indian Antarctic stations during southern hemispheric summer of the International Polar Year 2007-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaubey, Jai Prakash; Moorthy, K. Krishna; Babu, S. Suresh; Nair, Vijayakumar S. [Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram (India). Space Physics Lab.

    2011-07-01

    The properties of background aerosols and their dependence on meteorological, geographical and human influence are examined using measured spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD), total mass concentration (MT) and derived number size distribution (NSD) over two distinct coastal locations of Antarctica; Maitri (70 S, 12 E, 123 m m.s.l.) and Larsemann Hills (LH; 69 S, 77 E, 48 m m.s.l.) during southern hemispheric summer of 2007-2008 as a part of the 27th Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica (ISEA) during International Polar Year (IPY). Our investigations showed comparable values for the mean columnar AOD at 500 nm over Maitri (0.034{+-}0.005) and LH (0.032{+-}0.006) indicating good spatial homogeneity in the columnar aerosol properties over the coastal Antarctica. Estimation of Angstrom exponent {alpha} showed accumulation mode dominance at Maitri ({alpha}{proportional_to}1.2{+-}0.3) and coarse mode dominance at LH (0.7{+-}0.2). On the other hand, mass concentration (MT) of ambient aerosols showed relatively high values ({approx}8.25{+-}2.87 {mu}g m{sup -3}) at Maitri in comparison to LH (6.03{+-}1.33 {mu}g m{sup -3}). (orig.)

  4. Caracterización de la conducta suicida en el Policlínico "René Ávila Reyes". Holguín 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisy Mercedes Infantes Pérez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aborda un estudio descriptivo, de series de casos sobre el comportamiento de la conducta suicida en el Policlínico ¿René Ávila Reyes¿, Holguín .2007-2008. La muestra estuvo integrada por 52 pacientes con conducta suicida. Para la obtención de información se revisaron Historias Clínicas y discusiones de casos. En el intento suicida hubo un mayor predominio en los adolescentes, las mujeres y amas de casa. Las edades de 31 a 40 años, del sexo masculino y desocupados, se señalaron con mayor comportamiento en el suicidio. Los métodos más empleados para realizar el intento correspondieron a la ingestión de tabletas y el ahorcamiento para al suicidio. Los antecedentes patológicos familiares y personales de conducta suicida se señalaron como factor importante y el problema principal que desencadenó la conducta correspondió a la depresión marcada. Se recomendó el diseño de una estrategia de intervención comunitaria para lograr un impacto en el área de salud.

  5. 2007 2008 Academic Training programme

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 27, 28 & 29 May 2008 11:00 -12:00 – Main Auditorium, bldg. 500-1 The biological effects of ionizing radiation M. STREIT-BIANCHI, CERN, Geneva, CH Since the discovery of X-rays the practical use of ionizing radiation and its damaging effects have been a source of concern for occupational health and radiation protection. This led to the introduction of dose limits and strict controls associated with the use of radiation for civil uses. This Academic Training lecture series will discuss the effects of radiation on humans with special emphasis on the health effects of low doses. Radiation risks as assessed from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Chernobyl as well as others accidental and occupational exposures will be presented and discussed. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 June 2008 11:00 -12:00 – Main Auditorium, bldg. 500-1 Technology and applications of high field accelerator magnets Dr. G. AMBROSIO, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, USA Superconducting magnets are an enabling technology for high ene...

  6. 3GPP Standardisation 2007 - 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, M.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    This report reviews work carried out under SLA for NXP under the title Tracking and Analysis of 3GPP Standards” during 2007 and 2008. An overview of the status of the standardisation work in 3GPP is provided, together with an outline for its continuation. The report alsodetails the contributions mad

  7. 2007 2008 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 16, 17, 18, 19 June 2008 11:00 -12:00 – Main Auditorium, bldg. 500-1 Multivariate statistical methods and data mining in particle physics Dr. Glen COWAN, London University, Royal Holloway College, UK The lectures will cover multivariate statistical methods and their applications in High Energy Physics. The methods will be viewed in the framework of a statistical test, as used e.g. to discriminate between signal and background events. Topics will include an introduction to the relevant statistical formalism, linear test variables, neural networks, probability density estimation (PDE) methods, kernel-based PDE, decision trees and support vector machines. The methods will be evaluated with respect to criteria relevant to HEP analyses such as statistical power, ease of computation and sensitivity to systematic effects. Simple computer examples that can be extended to more complex analyses will be presented.

  8. 2007 2008 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 27, 28, 29, 30 November 2007 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, 
bldg. 500 Tevatron Physics Results B. HEINEMANN, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA I will summarize the physics results from the Tevatron experiments with particular emphasis on the experimental methods used in different kinds of analysis. In particular, the Tevatron is a proton-antiproton collider that has now accumulated more than 2 fb-1 of luminosity in the two experiments, called CDF and D0. In this lecture I will review the results on inclusive productions of jets, W- and Z-bosons, the results in the flavor sector, the measurements of top production, searches for Higgs boson production and searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. In each case I will explain the basic experimental concepts and methods needed for making the measurement.

  9. 2007 2008 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 27, 28, 29, 30 November 2007 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Tevatron Physics Results B. HEINEMANN, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA I will summarize the physics results from the Tevatron experiments with particular emphasis on the experimental methods used in different kinds of analysis. In particular, the Tevatron is a proton-antiproton collider that has now accumulated more than 2 fb-1 of luminosity in the two experiments, called CDF and D0. In this lecture I will review the results on inclusive productions of jets, W- and Z-bosons, the results in the flavor sector, the measurements of top production, searches for Higgs boson production and searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. In each case I will explain the basic experimental concepts and methods needed for making the measurement.

  10. 2007 2008 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 13 May 2008 11:00 -12:00 – Main Auditorium, bldg. 500-1 LHC Hardware Commissioning - Why LHC Hardware commissioning? Specificity and complexity of the LHC Roberto SABAN, CERN, Geneva The operation of the Large Hadron Collider relies many systems with technologies often beyond the start of the art and in particular on hundreds of superconducting magnets operating in superfluid He at 1.9K powered by more than 1700 power converters. A sophisticated magnet protection system is crucial to detect a quench and safely extract the energy stored in the circuits (about 1GJ only in one of the dipole circuits of each sector) after a resistive transition. In order to ensure safe operation, these systems depend on each other and on the infrastructure systems (controls, electricity distribution, water cooling, ventilation, communication systems, etc.). The commissioning of the technical systems together with the associated infrastructures is therefore mandatory. The complexity of operating this machine s...

  11. 2007 2008 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 21, 22, 23, 24, 25 April 2008 11:00 -12:00 – TH Auditorium – Bldg. 4-3-006 Fundamentals of Particle Detectors and Developments in Detector Technologies for future Experiments Dr. Werner RIEGLER, CERN, Geneva This lecture series will first review the elementary processes and techniques on which particle detectors are based. These must always be kept in mind when discussing the limits of existing technologies and motivations for novel developments. Using the examples of LHC detectors, the limits of state of the art detectors will be outlined and the current detector R&D trends for the LHC upgrade and other future experiments will be discussed. This discussion will include micropattern gas detectors, novel solid state detector technologies and trends in microelectronics.

  12. 2007 2008 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 01, 03, 04, 05 October 2007 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Tevatron: The Cinderella Story or The Art Of Collider Commissioning V. SHILTSEV / Fermi National Accelerator Laboraty, Batavia IL, USA The Tevatron Collider at Fermilab (Batavia, IL, USA) is the world’s highest energy particle collider at 1.8TeV c.m.e. The machine was a centerpiece of the US and world’s High Energy Physics for many years. Currently, the Tevatron is in the last years of its operation in so-called Run II which started 2001 and is tentatively scheduled to end in 2010. In this lecture series, we’ll try to learn from the exciting story of the Tevatron Collider Run II: the story of long preparations, great expectations, initial difficulties, years of "blood and sweat", continuous upgrades, exceeding its goals, high emotions, tune-up of accelerator organization for "combat fighting". The lectures will cover Introduction to the Tevatron, its history and Run II; "Plumbing" I...

  13. 2007 2008 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 01, 03, 04, 05 October 2007 11:00-12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Tevatron: The Cinderella Story or The Art Of Collider Commissioning V. SHILTSEV / Fermi National Accelerator Laboraty, Batavia IL, USA The Tevatron Collider at Fermilab (Batavia, IL, USA) is the world’s highest energy particle collider at 1.8TeV c.m.e. The machine was a centerpiece of the US and world’s High Energy Physics for many years. Currently, the Tevatron is in the last years of its operation in so-called Run II which started 2001 and is tentatively scheduled to end in 2010. In this lecture series, we’ll try to learn from the exciting story of the Tevatron Collider Run II: the story of long preparations, great expectations, initial difficulties, years of "blood and sweat", continuous upgrades, exceeding its goals, high emotions, tune-up of accelerator organization for "combat fighting". The lectures will cover Introduction to the Tevatron, its history and Run II; "Plumbing" Issu...

  14. 2007 2008 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 31 March, 1 & 3 April 2008 11:00 hrs.-12:00 hrs. - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Positrons sources for electron-positron colliders. Application to ILC and CLIC Dr. R. CHEHAB, IPNL/IN2P3/CNRS Université de Lyon 1, France The increased demanding qualities for positron sources dedicated to e+e- colliders pushed on investigations oriented on new kinds of e+ sources. The different kinds of positron sources polarized and no polarized are considered. Their main features (intensity, emittance) are described and analysed. Comparison between the different sources is worked out. The characteristics of the positron beam available in the collision point are greatly depending on the capture device and on the positron accelerator. Different kinds of capture systems are considered and their qualities, compared. Intense positron sources which are necessary for the colliders require intense incident beams (electrons or photons). The large number of pairs created in the targe...

  15. 2007 2008 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 27, 28, 29, 30 November 2007 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, 
bldg. 500 Tevatron Physics Results B. HEINEMANN, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA I will summarize the physics results from the Tevatron experiments with particular emphasis on the experimental methods used in different kinds of analysis. In particular, the Tevatron is a proton-antiproton collider that has now accumulated more than 2 fb-1 of luminosity in the two experiments, called CDF and D0. In this lecture I will review the results on inclusive productions of jets, W- and Z-bosons, the results in the flavor sector, the measurements of top production, searches for Higgs boson production and searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. In each case I will explain the basic experimental concepts and methods needed for making the measurement.

  16. 2007 2008 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 14, 15, 17 January 2008 11:00 to 12:00 - Council Chamber, Bldg. 503-1-001 Applications of accelerators to tumour therapy U. AMALDI, TERA Foundation & University of Milano Bicocca The first lecture is devoted to an historical review of the developments of the teletherapy techniques which make use of hadron beams and are collectively called "hadrontherapy". The main emphasis is on the use of protons and light ions, but also neutrons, pions and antiprotons are considered. The second lecture reviews the rationale behind the use of carbon ions in the treatment of radioresistant tumours and the results obtained both with proton and carbon ion beams on the 60 000 patients treated worldwide. The numbers of patients who would profit from hadrontherapy are presented together with the current landscape of running and planned hospital based centres. The main technical challenges set by this therapeutic modality are discussed in the third lecture together with the app...

  17. 2007 2008 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 18, 19, 20 & 21 February 2008 Main Auditorium, bldg. 500-1: 18, 19, 21 February 2008 - 11:00-12:00 Council Chamber, bldg 503-1-001: 20 February 2008 - 11:00-12:00 Council Chamber, bldg 503-1-001: 21 February 2008 - 14:00-15:00 QCD Phenomenology at High Energy Prof. Bryan WEBBER, Cambridge University, UK Whatever kind of physics may be found at the LHC, strongly-interacting particles will be involved and therefore quantum chromodynamics will play a crucial role. For processes at high energy scales, perturbation theory remains the most powerful approach. These lectures will review the foundations and limitations of perturbative QCD and its application to high-energy processes, including jet production and fragmentation, deep inelastic scattering, and heavy quark and Higgs boson production.

  18. 2007 2008 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 14, 15, 17 January 2008 11:00 to 12:00 - Council Chamber, bldg. 503-1-001 Applications of accelerators to tumour therapy U. AMALDI, TERA Foundation & University of Milano Bicocca The first lecture is devoted to an historical review of the developments of the teletherapy techniques which make use of hadron beams and are collectively called "hadrontherapy". The main emphasis is on the use of protons and light ions, but also neutrons, pions and antiprotons are considered. The second lecture reviews the rationale behind the use of carbon ions in the treatment of radioresistant tumours and the results obtained both with proton and carbon ion beams on the 60 000 patients treated worldwide. The numbers of patients who would profit from hadrontherapy are presented together with the current landscape of running and planned hospital based centres. The main technical challenges set by this therapeutic modality are discussed in the third lecture together with the app...

  19. 2007-2008 Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Begin destruction of binary neutralent in the Wet Air Oxidation system at Texas Molecular in Deer Park, TX • 3QFY07: Achieve 100 percent... Lufkin , TX) Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV) LMTV A1 Cargo MTV A1 Cargo Payload: 5,000 pounds 10,000 pounds Towed load: 12,000 pounds 21,000...FOREIGN MILITARY SALES None CONTRACTORS EADS North America (Arlington, VA) American Eurocopter (Columbus, MS; Grand Prairie, TX) CAE USA (Tampa, FL

  20. 2007 2008 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 27, 28 & 29 May 2008 11:00 -12:00 – Main Auditorium, bldg. 500-1 The biological effects of ionizing radiation M. STREIT-BIANCHI, CERN, Geneva, CH Since the discovery of X-rays the practical use of ionizing radiation and its damaging effects have been a source of concern for occupational health and radiation protection. This led to the introduction of dose limits and strict controls associated with the use of radiation for civil uses. This Academic Training lecture series will discuss the effects of radiation on humans with special emphasis on the health effects of low doses. Radiation risks as assessed from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Chernobyl as well as others accidental and occupational exposures will be presented and discussed. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 June 2008 11:00 -12:00 – Main Auditorium, bldg. 500-1 Technology and applications of high field accelerator magnets Dr. G. AMBROSIO, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, USA Superconducting magnets are an enabling technology for high ene...

  1. 2007 2008 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 6 & 8 May 2008 11:00 -12:00 – Main Auditorium, bldg. 500-1 Energy isn’t Everything: CERN’s Fixed Target Niche Prof. John DAINTON / Cockcroft Institute & Liverpool University, UK Fixed target physics at CERN remains an essential part of the Laboratory’s scientific programme and horizon. In recent years fixed target and decay physics using CERN’s unique accelerator and beam facilities has continued to enable unique experiments to be undertaken. An overview is presented of the status of this physics and, wherever appropriate, of its future. LECTURE SERIES 7 May 2008 11:00 -12:00 – TH Auditorium – Bldg. 4-3-006 A rich revenue from the use of radioactive beams and radioactive targets: recent highlights from the nTOF and ISOLDE facilities 9 May 2008 11:00 -12:00 – Main Auditorium, bldg. 500-1 The fifth decade of ISOLDE: HIE-ISOLDE Professor Mark HUYSE, Leuven University, BE The On-Line Isotope Mass Separator ISOLDE is a facility dedicated to the production of a...

  2. 2007 2008 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 21, 22, 23, 24, 25 April 2008 11:00 -12:00 – TH Auditorium – Bldg. 4-3-006 Fundamentals of Particle Detectors and Developments in Detector Technologies for future Experiments Dr. Werner RIEGLER, CERN, Geneva This lecture series will first review the elementary processes and techniques on which particle detectors are based. These must always be kept in mind when discussing the limits of existing technologies and motivations for novel developments. Using the examples of LHC detectors, the limits of state of the art detectors will be outlined and the current detector R&D trends for the LHC upgrade and other future experiments will be discussed. This discussion will include micropattern gas detectors, novel solid state detector technologies and trends in microelectronics.

  3. 2007 2008 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Unit

    2008-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 4 September 2008 11:00-12:00: AT Auditorium, Bldg 30-7-018 14:00-15:00: Main Auditorium, bldg. 500-1-001 ITER: Promises unkept ? Dr. Norbert HOLTKAMP / ITER Cadarache, France Fusion power as the source of energy on Earth has been the dream of mankind ever since the principles were understood. ITER, the Latin word for "the way", is the world’s largest Fusion device presently under construction in Cadarache, France. Supported by the People’s Republic of China, the European Atomic Energy Community, India, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation, and the United States of America, an international organization was founded after the signature of the Joint ITER Agreement in October of 2006. The goal is to build a Fusion reactor with a power amplification of 10, a total fusion power of 500 MW or more operating at extended burn times of 400-3000 seconds, with Deuterium and Tritium as its basic fuel. Following a short introduction into fusion science principles, the ...

  4. Two historians in front of the economic crisis of 2007-2008: Hobsbawm and Judt between Marxism and the legacies of 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bresciani Marco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available How did intellectuals react to the economic crisis of 2007-2008 and its long-term backlash? What did they learn from the main twentieth-century political and social experiences, in order to make a new sense of the traditional cultures of the Left? In order to answer these crucial issues, this proposal will analyze the paths of the well-known historians E. Hobsbawm and T. Judt and their apparently similar, but actually different reactions to the crisis. First, I will focus on their respective books: How to Change the World (2011 and Ill Fares the Land (2010. On the one hand, Hobsbawm’s critical approach to the post-1991 world, shaped by his lifelong fidelity to Marxism and his persistent sympathy for the Russian Revolution, was connected to his catastrophic vision of the end of the both conflicting and collaborative dynamics between capitalism and socialism. On the other hand, Judt’s re-thinking of the social-democratic tradition, compelled by the global transformations of the social question, was inspired by his connections with the East Central European dissidents’ anti-totalitarian liberalism and by his critical approach to the engagement of the French intellectuals. Second, I will investigate their different interpretations of the „Golden Age“ of post-1945 Europe (with special regard to the long-term impact of the crisis of 1929 and to the influence of Soviet communism and of the causes of its crisis. Third, I will show how, in spite of their common reference to Marx, late Hobsbawm’s and Judt’s historical visions - respectively combined with determinism and moralism - provide opposite ways of coping with the legacies of the 20th century and of criticizing the language of neoliberal economy within the Left.

  5. Screening for Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium ulcerans in patients with upper respiratory tract infections 2007-2008: a multicentre European study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wagner, K S

    2011-04-01

    Diphtheria is now rare in most European countries but, when cases do arise, the case fatality rate is high (5-10%). Because few countries continue to routinely screen for the causative organisms of diphtheria, the extent to which they are circulating amongst different European populations is largely unknown. During 2007-2008, ten European countries each screened between 968 and 8551 throat swabs from patients with upper respiratory tract infections. Six toxigenic strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae were identified: two from symptomatic patients in Latvia (the country with the highest reported incidence of diphtheria in the European Union) and four from Lithuania (two cases, two carriers); the last reported case of diphtheria in Lithuania was in 2002. Carriage rates of non-toxigenic organisms ranged from 0 (Bulgaria, Finland, Greece, Ireland, Italy) to 4.0 per 1000 (95% CI 2.0-7.1) in Turkey. A total of 28 non-toxigenic strains were identified during the study (26 C. diphtheriae, one Corynebacterium ulcerans, one Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis). The non-toxigenic C. ulcerans strain was isolated from the UK, the country with the highest reported incidence of cases due to C. ulcerans. Of the eleven ribotypes detected, Cluj was seen most frequently in the non-toxigenic isolates and, amongst toxigenic isolates, the major epidemic clone, Sankt-Petersburg, is still in circulation. Isolation of toxigenic C. diphtheriae and non-toxigenic C. diphtheriae and C. ulcerans in highly-vaccinated populations highlights the need to maintain microbiological surveillance, laboratory expertise and an awareness of these organisms amongst public health specialists, microbiologists and clinicians.

  6. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: body mass index and level of overweight among 6-9-year-old children from school year 2007/2008 to school year 2009/2010.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wijnhoven, Trudy Ma

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe has established the Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) to monitor changes in overweight in primary-school children. The aims of this paper are to present the anthropometric results of COSI Round 2 (2009\\/2010) and to explore changes in body mass index (BMI) and overweight among children within and across nine countries from school years 2007\\/2008 to 2009\\/2010.

  7. Management of upper respiratory tract infections by different medical practices, including homeopathy, and consumption of antibiotics in primary care: the EPI3 cohort study in France 2007-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamiae Grimaldi-Bensouda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prescribing of antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections (URTI varies substantially in primary care. OBJECTIVES: To describe and compare antibiotic and antipyretic/anti-inflammatory drugs use, URTI symptoms' resolution and occurrence of potentially-associated infections in patients seeking care from general practitioners (GPs who exclusively prescribe conventional medications (GP-CM, regularly prescribe homeopathy within a mixed practice (GP-Mx, or are certified homeopathic GPs (GP-Ho. METHOD: The EPI3 survey was a nationwide population-based study of a representative sample of 825 GPs and their patients in France (2007-2008. GP recruitment was stratified by self-declared homeopathic prescribing preferences. Adults and children with confirmed URTI were asked to participate in a standardized telephone interview at inclusion, one-, three- and twelve-month follow up. Study outcomes included medication consumption, URTI symptoms' resolution and potentially-associated infections (sinusitis or otitis media/externa as reported by patients. Analyses included calibration to account for non-respondents and groups were compared using multivate analyses adjusting for baseline differences with a propensity score. RESULTS: 518 adults and children with URTI (79.3% rhinopharyngitis were included (36.9% response rate comparable between groups. As opposed to GP-CM patients, patients in the GP-Ho group showed significantly lower consumption of antibiotics (Odds ratio (OR = 0.43, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.27-0.68 and antipyretic/anti-inflammatory drugs (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.38-0.76 with similar evolution in related symptoms (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 0.64-2.10. An excess of potentially-associated infections (OR = 1.70, 95% CI: 0.90-3.20 was observed in the GP-Ho group (not statistically significant. No difference was found between GP-CM and GP-Mx patients. CONCLUSION: Patients who chose to consult GPs certified in homeopathy used

  8. NPS Focus Digital Library and Research Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Scope: National. NPS Focus Digital Library and Research Station information system manages images and archives of images as well as documents described by linked...

  9. Epidemia midiática: produção de sentidos e configuração social da febre amarela na cobertura jornalística, 2007-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Malinverni,Cláudia; Cuenca, Angela Maria Belloni; Brigagão,Jacqueline Isaac Machado

    2012-01-01

    O objetivo deste artigo, situado no campo da comunicação em saúde, é analisar os sentidos atribuídos discursivamente à febre amarela silvestre durante a cobertura jornalística da epizootia da doença, ocorrida no Brasil no verão 2007-2008. Utilizando o referencial teórico das práticas discursivas e da produção de sentidos no cotidiano e as hipóteses de agendamento (agenda-setting) e enquadramento (framing) da notícia, foram analisadas todas as matérias sobre febre amarela veiculadas pelo jorna...

  10. Determinación de los riesgos laborales y su influencia en la salud en el personal que labora en la planta de agua de Uchupucun-Azogues, durante el proceso de potabilización 2007-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera Cárdenas, Susana Virginia

    2008-01-01

    La investigación Determinación de los riesgos laborales y su influencia en la salud en el personal que labora en la planta de agua de Uchupucun- Azogues durante el proceso de Potabilización.2007-2008" se planteó como objetivo identificar los procesos peligrosos o riesgos a los que se encuentra expuesto el personal que labora en la Planta de Agua. DISEÑO METODOLÓGICO. El universo que participó en la investigación fue pequeño de 7 personas, el tipo de estudio fue descriptivo y cualitativo, se...

  11. NPS Ocean Acoustics Laboratory Marine Mammal Research

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, Ching-Sang; Collins, Curtis; Joseph, John; Margolina, Tetyana; Stimpert, Alison; Miller, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The Marine Mammal Group within the Ocean Acoustics Laboratory at NPS is involved with a range of research studying marine mammal acoustics , both sound production and effects of anthropogenic sound on marine mammals. A sampling of our research is described below.

  12. Primary care NPs: Leaders in population health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartwout, Kathryn D

    2016-08-18

    A 2012 Institute of Medicine report calls primary and public healthcare workers to action, tasking them with working together to improve population health outcomes. A Practical Playbook released in 2014 enables this public health/primary care integration. Primary care NPs are in an excellent position to lead the charge and make this integration happen.

  13. [Aims and methodology of the Polish National programme for Standardisation of Clinical Practices in Neonatology and Paediatric Intensive Care. Edition 2007/2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swietliński, Janusz; Zejda, Jan E; Piróg, Maciej; Dobrzańska, Anna; Helwich, Ewa; Ksiazyk, Janusz; Migdał, Marek; Szczapa, Jerzy; Brozek, Grzegorz; Musialik-Swietlińska, Ewa

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we outline the aims and methods of the Polish National Programme for Standardisation of Clinical Practice in Neonatology and Paediatric Intensive Care, with special reference to infants with low and extremely low birth weight. The aim of this Programme is to adjust the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures to the latest guide lines and recommendations. The first stage consisted of a national level survey in order to identify the diversity of procedures implemented in Medical University Clinical Departments, Neonatology Units and Paediatric Intensive Care Units. The survey also served to confront the legitimacy of the used procedures with the current clinical knowledge and research. It is planned to repeat the survey 24 months after the implementation of the latest recommendations with the aim to assess the impact of the Programme on clinical practice. Partial stages of the Programme were started since 2006. The survey is coordinated by an independent statistics unit. The recommendations are developed on published standards.

  14. Evaluación del modelo de clasificación de sucursales de la Gerencia División Financiera de la Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social y propuesta para el período 2007-2008

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Tesis de maestría -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Posgrado en Administración y Dirección de Empresas. Maestría Profesional en Administración y Dirección de Empresas, 2007 El objetivo general es evaluar el modelo actual de clasificación de sucursales de la Gerencia División Financiera de la Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social y proponer un nuevo modelo para el período 2007-2008, de acuerdo con el diagnóstico de la situación actual y los enfoques teóricos aplicables. Se desarrolló en la Gerenc...

  15. Individual and Co Transport Study of Titanium Dioxide NPs and Zinc Oxide NPs in Porous Media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Kumari

    Full Text Available The impact of pH and ionic strength on the mobility (individual and co-transport and deposition kinetics of TiO2 and ZnO NPs in porous media was systematically investigated in this study. Packed column experiments were performed over a series of environmentally relevant ionic strengths with both NaCl (0.1-10 mM and CaCl2 (0.01-0.1mM solutions and at pH 5, 7, and 9. The transport of TiO2 NPs at pH 5 was not significantly affected by ZnO NPs in solution. At pH 7, a decrease in TiO2 NP transport was noted with co-existence of ZnO NPs, while at pH 9 an increase in the transport was observed. At pH 5 and 7, the transport of ZnO NPs was decreased when TiO2 NPs was present in the solution, and at pH 9, an increase was noted. The breakthrough curves (BTC were noted to be sensitive to the solution chemistries; the decrease in the breakthrough plateau with increasing ionic strength was observed under all examined pH (5, 7, and 9. The retention profiles were the inverse of the plateaus of BTCs, as expected from mass balance considerations. Overall, the results from this study suggest that solution chemistries (ionic strength and pH are likely the key factors that govern the individual and co-transport behavior of TiO2 and ZnO NPs in sand.

  16. New psychoactive substances (NPS) on cryptomarket fora: An exploratory study of characteristics of forum activity between NPS buyers and vendors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hout, Marie Claire; Hearne, Evelyn

    2017-02-01

    The continual diversification of new psychoactive substances (NPS) circumventing legislation creates a public health and law enforcement challenge, and one particularly challenged by availability on Hidden Web cryptomarkets. This is the first study of its kind which aimed to explore and characterise cryptomarket forum members' views and perspectives on NPS vendors and products within the context of Hidden Web community dynamics. An internal site search was conducted on two cryptomarkets popular with NPS vendors and hosting fora; Alphabay and Valhalla, using the search terms of 40 popular NPS in the seven categories of stimulant/cathinone; GABA activating; hallucinogen, dissociative, cannabinoid, opioid and other/unspecified/uncategorised NPS. 852 identified threads relating to the discussion of these NPS were generated. Following exclusion of duplicates, 138 threads remained. The Empirical Phenomenological Psychological method of data analysis was applied. Four themes and 32 categories emerged. 120 vendors selling NPS were visible on Alphabay, and 21 on Valhalla. Themes were 'NPS Cryptomarkets and Crypto-community interest in NPS'; 'Motives for NPS use'; 'Indigenous Crypto Community Harm Reduction'; and 'Cryptomarket Characteristics underpinning NPS trafficking', with two higher levels of abstraction centring on 'NPS vendor reputation' and 'NPS transactioning for personal use'. NPS cryptomarket characteristics centred on generation of trust, honesty and excellent service. Users appeared well informed, with harm reduction and vendor information exchange central to NPS market dynamics. GABA activating substances appeared most popular in terms of buyer interest on cryptomarkets. Interest in sourcing 'old favorite' stimulant and dissociative NPS was evident, alongside the sequential and concurrent poly use of NPS, and use of NPS with illicit drugs such as MDMA. Continued monitoring of new trends in NPS within Surface Web and cryptomarkets are warranted. A particular

  17. Registro de la Nutrición Parenteral Domiciliaria (NPD en España de los años 2007, 2008 y 2009 (Grupo NADYA-SENPE Home Parenteral Nutrition (HPN registry in Spain for the years 2007, 2008 and 2009 (NADYA-SENPE Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Puiggrós

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Comunicar los datos del registro de Nutrición Parenteral Domiciliaria (NPD del grupo de trabajo NADYA-SENPE de los años 2007, 2008 y 2009. Material y métodos: Recopilación de los datos del registro "on-line" introducidos por las Unidades responsables del seguimiento de la NPD desde el 1 de enero de 2007 al 31 de diciembre de 2009 dividido por años naturales. Resultados: Año 2007: Se registraron 133 pacientes con NPD (61 hombres y 72 mujeres, de 21 hospitales. La edad media de los 119 pacientes mayores de 13 años fue de 53,7 ± 14,9 años, y de 3,6 ± 3,6 años la de los 14 pacientes que no los superaban. La patología más frecuente fue la neoplasia (24% seguida de las alteraciones de la motilidad intestinal y la enteritis posradiación (ambas 14%. En el 43% de los casos el motivo de indicación fue el síndrome de intestino corto, seguido de malabsorción (27% y obstrucción intestinal (23%. Los catéteres más utilizados fueron los tunelizados (69% y los reservorios subcutáneos (27%. Las complicaciones mas frecuentes fueron las sépticas relacionadas con el catéter con una tasa de 0,92 infecciones por cada mil días de NPD. La duración de la NPD fue superior a los dos años en el 50% de los casos. Al acabar el año seguía en activo el 71,4% de los pacientes; la muerte fue la principal causa de la finalización de la NPD (57,5%. El 26% de los pacientes se consideraron candidatos al trasplante intestinal. Año 2008: Se registraron 143 pacientes con NPD (62 hombres y 81mujeres, de 24 hospitales. La edad media de los 133 pacientes mayores de 13 años fue de 54,7 ± 13,9 años, y de 3,7 ± 0,6 años la de los 10 pacientes que no los superaban. La patología más frecuente fue la neoplasia (20% seguida de la enteritis rádica (14% y las alteraciones de la motilidad intestinal (13%. En el 44% de los casos el motivo de indicación fue el síndrome de intestino corto, seguido de malabsorción (28% y obstrucción Nutriintestinal (20

  18. Availability, affordability, and accessibility of a healthful diet in a low-income community, Central Falls, Rhode Island, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Marissa; Gans, Kim M; Tai, Ryan; George, Tiffiney; Lawson, Eliza; Pearlman, Deborah N

    2010-03-01

    Many Americans have diets that do not meet the dietary guidelines set by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA). Additionally, low-income people have the highest rates of obesity and have difficulty accessing the necessary foods for maintaining a healthful diet. In December 2007 and January 2008, 21 retail food stores in Central Falls, Rhode Island, where residents were predominantly low-income Hispanics, were evaluated for the availability and costs of foods that fulfill the USDA's Thrifty Food Plan (TFP) guidelines. Each surveyed store was evaluated for variety and weekly cost of 3 different types of market baskets (2 families and an elder). Each store's proximity to public transportation was estimated by using geographic information systems mapping. Only 2 stores in Central Falls and the discount supermarket in an adjacent city, Pawtucket, carried enough variety of foods to fill the TFP basket. At the 2 stores, costs were up to 40% higher, and at the discount store, costs were up to 18% cheaper, than the national average. Each of the stores was accessible by public transportation. Meeting the USDA TFP guidelines is difficult in this low-income, predominantly Hispanic city. Although the components of the TFP are available, high prices may make a nutritious diet unaffordable.

  19. Navy-wide Personnel Survey (NPS) 2003: Tabulated Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Column % Cases AVIATION SQUAD-SHORE DEPLOYED Column % Cases CRUISER Column % Cases DESTROYER TYPES Column % Cases MINECRAFT Column % Cases RESERVE... MINECRAFT Column % Cases RESERVE UNIT Column % Cases SERVICE FORCE SHIP Column % Cases SHORE BASED DEPLOYABLE Column % Cases SHORE OR STAFF COMMAND...Column % Cases CRUISER Column % Cases DESTROYER TYPES Column % Cases MINECRAFT Column % Cases RESERVE UNIT Column % Cases SERVICE FORCE SHIP Column

  20. Analysis on monitoring data of food sanitation in Xining from 2007 to 2008%2007-2008年西宁市部分食品卫生监测资料分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦焱; 葛华; 汪春翔

    2011-01-01

    Objective to understand the food hygiene quality status of Xi'ning county, provide scientific basis for protecting people's health. Method Surveillance data of food from 2007 to 2008 in Xi'ning was analyzed. Results 715 samples were tested from 2007 to 2008 in Xi, ning, among them, 663 was qualified, qualified rate was 92.73%. There was no statistical significance between qualified rates of different years ( P > 0.05 ) . The qualified rate of canned food, beverages, sweets and confect was the highest (100. 00% ) and the lowest were meat and meat product (80. 83% ) . There were statistical differences of qualified rates between different types and production places (P <0.05) . The qualified rate was the highest in shops (99. 55%) and the lowest in bazaars (88.06%) .The total bacterial count, cob'group, nitrite were the disqualification items. Conclusions We should enhance supervise and monitoring work in farm product markets and food processing factories, and improve the food hygiene quality of Xihing.%目的 了解西宁市食品卫生质量现状,为保障群众身体健康提供决策依据.方法 对2007 - 2008年西宁市部分食品监测资料进行分析.结果 2007 -2008年共检测样品715份,合格663份,合格率为92.73%.不同年份间合格率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).各类食品中,罐头、饮料、糖果蜜饯的合格率最高(100.00%),肉类及制品最低(80.83%).不同类别、样品产地的样品间合格率差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).不同的采样地点中,商店商场的合格率最高(99.55%),集贸市场的合格率最低(88.06%).不合格项目主要有细菌总数、大肠菌群、亚硝酸盐.结论 应对农贸市场、食品加工作坊等加强监督监测,以提高西宁市食品卫生质量.

  1. How nutritional risk is assessed and managed in European hospitals: A survey of 21,007 patients findings from the 2007-2008 cross-sectional nutritionDay survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Schindler; E. Pernicka; A. Laviano; P. Howard; T. Schuetz; P. Bauer; I. Grecu; C. Jonkers; J. Kondrup; O. Ljungqvist; M. Mouhieddine; C. Pichard; P. Singer; S. Schneider; C. Schuh; M. Hiesmayr

    2010-01-01

    Background & aims: Recognition and treatment of undernutrition in hospitalized patients are not often a priority in clinical practice. Objectives: We investigated how the nutritional risk of patients is determined and whether such assessment influences daily nutritional care across Europe and in Isr

  2. Sex-Specific Prevalence of Diabetes and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Middle-Aged Population of China: A Subgroup Analysis of the 2007-2008 China National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Shi; Ruan, Danjie; Yang, Zhaojun; Xing, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Wenhui; Wang, Na; Xie, Lingding; Yang, Wenying

    2015-01-01

    The sex difference in the prevalence rates of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) among the middle-aged population in China remain largely unknown. Therefore, we analyzed differences in the prevalence of diabetes, self-reported CVDs, and some CVD risk factors among men and women in the middle-aged population (30-49 years) and in individuals aged 50 years and older using data from the China National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Study of 2007-2008. Middle-aged men appeared to have significantly a higher prevalence of diabetes and self-reported CVDs than middle-aged women (8.07% vs 5.06% for diabetes, P diet control. The sex-specific differences in prediabetes, CVD, and CVD risk factors between men and women were diminished or even reversed in the population aged 50 years and older. No sex-specific differences were found in the prevalences of a family history of diabetes, coronary heart disease, and hypertension (P > 0.05) in middle-aged population. Specific strategies to reduce modifiable risk factors for the prevention and control of diabetes and CVD may be warranted in this population.

  3. Snow Grain Size Variability Along the JASE 2007/2008 Traverse Route in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, and its Relation to MOA NDSI Index, MERIS and MODIS Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvander, S.; Brown, I. A.; Jansson, P.

    2010-12-01

    Snow grain size is an important parameter for determining albedo of ice sheets, and for calibration of optical and microwave remote sensing scattering processes. Snow grain size is a function of the local climate and is determined by moisture content, air and snow temperature, and their gradients within the snow and firn, and wind patterns. Furthermore, it is important being an indicator on varying snow conditions and shape altering processes affected by the surroundings. This is a first attempt to validate satellite information by in situ measurements collected during the Japanese Swedish Antarctic Expedition (JASE) 2007/2008 using in-field photography of snow and pixel-based object oriented image analysis. The results show decreasing grain size towards the centre of Antarctica and larger grain size in the coastal areas. The remote sensing data used to validate is three different products based on two different types of optic satellite sensors; MERIS (Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). A first validation captures a cluster relation between grain sizes at the plateau areas and optical satellite reflection from MODIS.

  4. 2007-2008 Academic Training Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 28, 29, 30, 31 January 2008 11:00 to 12:00 - TH Auditorium, Bldg. 4 A Dark Universe: Dark Matter and Dark Energy Dr. E.W. KOLB, Chicago University, USA According to the standard cosmological model, 95% of the present mass density of the universe is dark: roughly 70% of the total in the form of dark energy and 25% in the form of dark matter. In a series of four lectures, I will begin by presenting a brief review of cosmology, and then I will review the observational evidence for dark matter and dark energy. I will discuss some of the proposals for dark matter and dark energy, and connect them to high-energy physics. I will also present an overview of an observational program to quantify the properties of dark energy.

  5. 2007-2008 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 10 & 11 March 2008 10 March 2008, 11:00-12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500-1 11 March 2008, 11:00-12:00, 14:00-15:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500-1 Warped Extra-Dimensional Opportunities and Signatures Prof. Lisa RANDALL, Harvard University, USA I plan to discuss ways of searching for warped geometry and other extra-dimensional scenarios, with emphasis on the general lessons for search strategies. We will consider RS geometry on the brane and in the bulk, as well as possible black hole or quantum gravity signatures. If time permits, we will also consider fermion masses and/or precision Higgs measurements.

  6. Coccidiodomycosis in Arizona 2007-2008

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-13

    This podcast looks at the impact of Coccidioidomycosis, or Valley Fever, in Arizona in 2007 and early 2008. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Tom Chiller discusses what researchers learned about this fungal disease.  Created: 10/13/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/27/2010.

  7. 2007-2008 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES QCD Phenomenology at High Energy Prof. Bryan WEBBER, Cambridge University, UK18, 19, 20 & 21 February 2008 Main Auditorium, bldg. 500-1: 18, 19, 21 February 2008 - 11:00-12:00 Council Chamber, bldg 503-1-001: 20 February 2008 - 11:00-12:00 Council Chamber, bldg 503-1-001: 21 February 2008 - 14:00-15:00 Whatever kind of physics may be found at the LHC, strongly-interacting particles will be involved and therefore quantum chromodynamics will play a crucial role. For processes at high energy scales, perturbation theory remains the most powerful approach. These lectures will review the foundations and limitations of perturbative QCD and its application to high-energy processes, including jet production and fragmentation, deep inelastic scattering, and heavy quark and Higgs boson production.

  8. New Jersey 2007 - 2008 High Resolution Orthophotography

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Digital orthographic imagery datasets contain georeferenced images of the Earth's surface, collected by a sensor in which object displacement has been removed for...

  9. Puksoo auhind 2007/2008 / Tiiu Reimo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reimo, Tiiu, 1953-

    2009-01-01

    23. jaanuaril 2009 Tartu Ülikooli Raamatukogus peetud Friedrich Puksoo 119. sünniaastapäevale pühendatud ettekandepäeval "Raamatust, raamatukogust, raamatukoguhoidjast" kuulutati välja järjekordsed Puksoo auhinna laureaadid. TÜR-i ja ERÜ poolt välja antava auhinna pälvis TÜR-i teaduri, filosoofiadoktor Meelis Friedenthali dissertatsioon "Tallinna Linnaarhiivi Tractatus moralis de oculo", tõsteti esile Jürgen Beyeri ja Larissa Petina tööd

  10. Puksoo auhind 2007/2008 / Tiiu Reimo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reimo, Tiiu, 1953-

    2009-01-01

    23. jaanuaril 2009 Tartu Ülikooli Raamatukogus peetud Friedrich Puksoo 119. sünniaastapäevale pühendatud ettekandepäeval "Raamatust, raamatukogust, raamatukoguhoidjast" kuulutati välja järjekordsed Puksoo auhinna laureaadid. TÜR-i ja ERÜ poolt välja antava auhinna pälvis TÜR-i teaduri, filosoofiadoktor Meelis Friedenthali dissertatsioon "Tallinna Linnaarhiivi Tractatus moralis de oculo", tõsteti esile Jürgen Beyeri ja Larissa Petina tööd

  11. Conformity of pre-gestational weight measurement and agreement of anthropometric data reported by pregnant women and those recorded in prenatal cards, City of Rio de Janeiro, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niquini, Roberta Pereira; Bittencourt, Sonia Azevedo; Leal, Maria do Carmo

    2013-09-01

    To assess the conformity of the weight measurement process in the pre-gestational care offered in the city of Rio de Janeiro by primary units and hospitals of the National Health System, as well as to verify the agreement between the anthropometric data reported by pregnant women and those recorded in prenatal cards. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2007 - 2008 with two cluster samples: one to obtain a sample of pregnant women to be interviewed and another one for the weight measurement procedures to be observed. The conformity of the weight measurement process was evaluated according to the Ministry of Health standards, and the agreement between the two sources of anthropometric data was evaluated using mean differences, Bland-Altman method, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and weighted Kappa. Out of the twelve criteria for weight measurement evaluation (n = 159 observations), three weren't in conformity (conformity), two of them only need to be assessed when the scale is mechanical. For the interviewed pregnant women (n = 2,148), who had the two sources of anthropometric data, there was a tendency of self-reported height overestimation and pre-gestational and current weight and Body Mass Index underestimation. Accordance between the two sources of anthropometric information, according to ICC and weighted Kappa, were high (> 0.80). Studies may use weight and height information reported by pregnant women, in the absence of prenatal cards records, when it is an important economy to their execution, although the improvement of these two sources of information by means of better anthropometric process is necessary.

  12. One pot biosynthesis of gold NPs using red cabbage extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekeufack, Diane D; Brioude, Arnaud

    2012-02-07

    Red cabbage extract was used as reducing agent and capping agent for the synthesis of gold NPs. The method developed is environmentally friendly and allows the control of NPs shape and size by changing the pH value and the concentration of aqueous red cabbage extract solution.

  13. Allosteric activation of the Ca2+ receptor expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes by NPS 467 or NPS 568.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerland, L G; Garrett, J E; Hung, B C; Levinthal, C; Nemeth, E F

    1998-06-01

    The Ca2+ receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor that enables parathyroid cells and certain other cells in the body to respond to changes in the concentration of extracellular Ca2+. In this study, two novel phenylalkylamine compounds, NPS 467 and NPS 568, were examined for effects on Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing the bovine or human parathyroid Ca2+ receptors. Increases in chloride current (ICl) were elicited in oocytes expressing the bovine Ca2+ receptor when the extracellular Ca2+ concentration was raised above 1.5 mM, whereas Ca2+ concentrations > 3 mM were generally necessary to elicit responses in oocytes expressing the human Ca2+ receptor. NPS 467 and NPS 568 potentiated the activation of ICl by extracellular Ca2+ in oocytes expressing either Ca2+ receptor homolog, and this resulted in a leftward shift of the Ca2+ concentration-response curve. Neither compound was active in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. Certain inorganic and organic cations known to activate the Ca2+ receptor were substituted for elevated levels of extracellular Ca2+ to increase ICl and the effects of these agonists were also potentiated by NPS 568 or NPS 467. The effects of NPS 568 were stereoselective and the R-enantiomer was about 10-fold more potent than the corresponding S-enantiomer. Neither NPS 467 nor 568 affected ICl in water-injected oocytes or in oocytes expressing the substance K receptor or the metabotropic glutamate receptor 1a. These results provide compelling evidence that NPS 467 and NPS 568 act directly upon the parathyroid Ca2+ receptor to increase its sensitivity to activation by extracellular Ca2+. This activity suggests that these compounds are positive allosteric modulators of the Ca2+ receptor. As such, these compounds define a new class of pharmacological agents with potent and selective actions on the Ca2+ receptor.

  14. Analysis of high risk factors associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in married women aged 25- 54 years in Beijing between 2007-2008%2007-2008年北京地区25~54岁已婚妇女子宫颈上皮内瘤变的高危因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李长东; 张为远; 武明辉; 张凇文; 周保利; 朱力; 潘静; 王建东

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨北京地区25~54岁已婚妇女宫颈上皮内瘤变(CIN)的高危因素.方法 采用横断面调查方法,于2007年3月至2008年9月,对北京地区12个区县共137个社区内随机抽取的25~54岁已婚妇女6339例进行问卷调查、妇科检查、宫颈细胞涂片液基薄层细胞学检查(TCT)、宫颈分泌物高危型人乳头状瘤病毒(HR-HPV)检测,并对TCT结果异常者行阴道镜下宫颈活组织检查.采用logistic回归分析方法,分析CIN的高危因素及危险度比值比(OR)和95%可信区间(95%CI).结果 6339例妇女中,CIN患病率为5.90%[(374/6339,包括4例鳞状上皮细胞癌(SCC)因例数少,未单独统计].多元回归分析结果显示,HR-HPV感染(95%CI=9.953~15.811)、滴虫性阴道炎病史(95%CI=1.046~2.104)、口服避孕药避孕(95%CI=1.087~1.806)以及年龄<45岁(95%CI=1.069~1.828)等因素与CIN患病相关.结论 HR-HPV感染是CIN患病的独立危险因素,而滴虫性阴道炎病史、口服避孕药避孕及年龄<45岁是CIN患病相关危险因素.%Objective To investigate high risk factors associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in married women aged 25 to 54 years in Beijing. Methods From Mar. 2007 to Sep.2008, 6339 married women at age of 25 to 54 years were selected randomly by cross sectional survey in a total of 137 communities of 12 districts or counties in Beijing. The interview was carried out with unified questionnaires, gynecological examination. The cervical smear cytology and high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection of cervical secretion were detected. Women with abnormal cervical cytology underwent colposcopy and cervical biopsy. Odd ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of related high risk factors with CIN were studied by logistic regression analysis. Results Among 6339 women, the prevalence rate of CIN including 4 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was 5. 90% (374/6339). By multinomial regression analysis, HR-HPV infection (95

  15. ПОЛИТИКА ВЬЕТНАМА В АСЕАН (2007-2008 ГГ.) (ПРОБЛЕМА ИНТЕГРАЦИИ)

    OpenAIRE

    Мурашева, Галина

    2008-01-01

    Dr. Murasheva in her article «Vietnam's policy in ASEAN, (2007-2008)» showed the country's participation in the regional economic integration as the basic trend of Vietnam's regional policy. The article deals with three directions of Vietnamese regional policy: participation in the construction of ASEAN economic community by 2015, the drafting of ASEAN Charter and taking part in the concrete projects with the aim to narrow the gap in the socio-economic development of ASEAN countries. The Viet...

  16. Relationship between Urinary Phthalate and Bisphenol A Concentrations and Serum Thyroid Measures in U.S. Adults and Adolescents from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2008

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    John D. Meeker; Kelly K. Ferguson

    2011-01-01

    .... adults and adolescents. Methods: We analyzed data on urinary biomarkers of exposure to phthalates and BPA, serum thyroid measures, and important covariates from 1,346 adults (ages ≥ 20 years...

  17. KONSUMSI ENERGI,PROTEIN DAN LEMAK PADA RUMAH TANGGA YANG MEMPUNYAI ANAK USIA 3-5 TAHUN MENURUT PEDOMAN UMUM GIZI SEIMBANG (PUGS DAN TINGKAT SOSIAL EKONOMI (ANALISIS DATA SEKUNDER RISKESDAS TAHUN 2007/2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Muljati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Household consumption is one of factors that play impotant role in creating a healthy family.Balanced diet be it in amount or variation is highly needed because there is no food that consist of-nor dothey have enough amount-every nutrition that are needed by body. To get used to consume foods thatcontain balanced diet is one of the ways to overcome double nutrition problems, be it malnutrition oroverweight that the Indonesian government faced. Foods for child 3-5 years old are still depend on foodthat are prepared by nannies, which are the same with food prepared for adults. It is interesting to studyhow energy, protein, and fat consumption on households that have child age 3-5 years old, considering thisgroup of age is the age of pre-school so they need to have the ultimate health. Objective: this analysis studyhow energy, protein, and fat consumption on households that have children age 3-5 years old according toPUGS and also social economic status. Method: Sample that are being analyzed are as much as 16348households that have children age 3-5 years old that derived from RISKESDAS year 2007/2008 data.Result: 46,7% of households are according to PUGS advices. Social factor economic, education of theleader of household, and the amount of member of the household are related to household's ability toprovide energy, protein and fat consumption according to PUGS. The socio economic, head of householdeducation level, and also amount of family member, are factors that related to the ability of household toprovide consumption of energy, protein, and fat according to PUGS advices. This is shown byOR:1.25(1.18-1.34 for household with socio economic level in kuintil 1-3, OR:1.12(1.05-1.20 foreducation level of household graduate from junior high school or lower. OR:1.16(1.19-1.24 for member ofhousehold more than four persons. Conclusion: Most of households that have children age 3-5 years old(53.3% not yet have energy, protein and fat

  18. Public Perceptions of Child Care in Alberta, Canada: Evidence for Policies and Practice from a Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tough, Suzanne; Rikhy, Shivani; Benzies, Karen; Vekved, Monica; Kehler, Heather; Johnston, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: This study assessed public perceptions of child care and its providers in a Canadian province where government funding for child care includes subsidies and a voluntary accreditation process. In 2007-2008, 1,443 randomly selected adults in Alberta, Canada, completed a telephone survey. Individuals were eligible to participate if…

  19. NPS Patent Office Helps Researchers Safeguard Intellectual Property

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    Associate Council, Intellectual Property Attorney Lisa Norris, and her assistant, Paralegal Kate Black-Will, are an Army of two, with a singular mission to protect the intellectual property of NPS students and faculty.

  20. NPS Defense Management Expert Elected to ASPA National Council

    OpenAIRE

    Honegger, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) George F. A. Wagner Professor of Public Management Lawrence R. "Larry" Jnoes, a world renowned expert on defense budgeting and financial management, has been elected to National Council of the American Society for Public Administration (ASPA),

  1. Transport of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagee, Omer; Dror, Ishai; Berkowitz, Brian

    2012-07-01

    The effect of soil properties on the transport of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was studied in a set of laboratory column experiments, using different combinations of size fractions of a Mediterranean sandy clay soil. The AgNPs with average size of ~30nm yielded a stable suspension in water with zeta potential of -39mV. Early breakthrough of AgNPs in soil was observed in column transport experiments. AgNPs were found to have high mobility in soil with outlet relative concentrations ranging from 30% to 70%, depending on experimental conditions. AgNP mobility through the column decreased when the fraction of smaller soil aggregates was larger. The early breakthrough pattern was not observed for AgNPs in pure quartz columns nor for bromide tracer in soil columns, suggesting that early breakthrough is related to the nature of AgNP transport in natural soils. Micro-CT and image analysis used to investigate structural features of the soil, suggest that soil aggregate size strongly affects AgNP transport in natural soil. The retention of AgNPs in the soil column was reduced when humic acid was added to the leaching solution, while a lower flow rate (Darcy velocity of 0.17cm/min versus 0.66cm/min) resulted in higher retention of AgNPs in the soil. When soil residual chloride was exchanged by nitrate prior to column experiments, significantly improved mobility of AgNPs was observed in the soil column. These findings point to the importance of AgNP-soil chemical interactions as a retention mechanism, and demonstrate the need to employ natural soils rather than glass beads or quartz in representative experimental investigations.

  2. Behind the scenes w/ an NPS alum (poster)

    OpenAIRE

    Reber, Ethan

    2012-01-01

    How NPS helped my Navy M&S career: "The Naval Postgraduate School provided the technical, analytical, research and critical thinking skills I required to excel as the Navigation, Seamanship, and Shiphandling Simulation Program Manage at the U.S. Navy's Shiphandling Center of Excellence, the Surface Warfare Officers School. No prgogram other than NPS' Modeling, Virtual Environments and Simulation (MOVES) curriculum provides such a full range of topics, skills, and joint service institutional ...

  3. Photoluminescent colloidal Cu@C-NPs suspensions synthesized by LASL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Contreras, D.; González-Aguilar, M. A.; Camacho-López, M. A.; Vigueras-Santiago, E.; Camacho-López, M.

    2017-05-01

    In this work we report the synthesis of photoluminescent carbon-coated copper nanoparticles (Cu@C-NPs) based colloidal suspensions, using the laser ablation of solids in liquids technique (LASL). LASL experiments were carried out by ablating a Cu solid target immersed in acetone as the liquid medium with ns-laser pulses (1064 nm) of a Nd-YAG laser. In all experiments the per pulse laser fluence and the repetition rate frequency were kept constant and the ablation time was varied. The as obtained Cu@C-NPs suspensions were optically characterized with absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopies. Raman spectroscopy was used to give evidence of the carbon shell deposited around the Cu NPs. TEM results showed that 10 nm spheroids Cu@C-NPs were obtained. The as obtained Cu@C-NPs suspensions displayed out a PL emission band similar to that for carbon nanoparticles suspensions obtained by the same technique. We have found that the blue-green PL emission band intensity is mainly dependent on the ablation and aging time of the samples. The Cu@C-NPs-based colloidal suspensions can be proposed as multifunctional due to its absorbance and emission properties.

  4. Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS: a Study on Persian Language Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Schi¬Fano

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the past few years, there has been an increasing recognition that Internet is playing a significant role in the synthesis, the distribution and the consumption of Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS.The aim of this study was to assess the online availability of NPS in Persian language websites.Methods: The Google search engine was used to carry out an accurate qualitative assessment of information available on NPS in a sample of 104 websites.Results: The monitoring has led to the identification of 14 NPS including herbal, synthetic, pharmaceutical and combination drugs that have been sold online.Conclusion: The availability of online marketing of NPS in Persian language websites may constitute a public health challenge at least across three Farsi-speaking countries in the Middle East. Hence, descriptions of this phenomenon are valuable to clinicians and health professional in this region. Further international collaborative efforts may be able to tackle the growth and expansion of regular offer of NPS.

  5. GKSS. Annual report 2007/2008. Science use; GKSS. Jahresbericht 2007/2008. Wissenschaft nutzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-06-15

    The following topics are dealt with: Titanium aluminide alloys, microscopy in materials research, a new generation of membranes based on nanostructured polymers, the GKSS Engineering Materials Science Synchrotron, regenerativ medicine, the colour of the coastal sea, news from the North German Climate Office, the climate change for the Baltic sea basin, polyfluorinated compounds as pollutant in the coastal environment, the FRG 1 research reactor. (HSI)

  6. 2007-2008年北京市0~6岁儿童伤害社区监测结果分析%Community based injury surveillance among children of 0~6 years old in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫淑娟; 陈欣欣; 万欢

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To understand the pattern of child injury through community based surveillance and to provide evidence for targeted interventions. [Methods] Children of 0~6 years old in 2 urban and 3 rural communities in Beijing, were included in the injury surveillance system by stratified cluster sampling. Injury data were collected at community primary health care centers and community kindergartens located in these communities. [ Results] From 2007 to 2008, an average of 8,085 children per year were covered by the surveillance. Injury incidence rates were reduced from 2. 09% to 1. 75%. The main causes of injury were falls (49. 52%), blunt object injury(12. 30%), animal injury(10. 36%), burn/ scald(10. 03%), and traffic injury(8. 09%). The main causes in urban area were falls and blunt object injuries whereas in rural area were falls, animal injuries, and traffic injuries. The majority of injuries happened at home(32. 04%),kindergar-ten(22.98%), courtyard/stair/corridor( 14. 24%), road(13. 59%) and public places(11. 33%). Head(50. 81%), upper limbs(28. 80%) and lower limbs(14. 24%) were injured more frequently than other parts of the body. The majority of the injuries are unintentional, minor injuries. [Conclusions] Community based injury surveillance provides a viable source of data collection for child injury prevention. In urban area, interventions should focus on falls and blunt object injuries, whereas dog bites and injuries resulting from children getting their feet caught in bicycle wheels are the focuses in rural area.%[目的]通过社区监测了解儿童伤害特点,制定有针对性的干预措施. [方法]采用分层整群抽样方法抽取北京市城市2个街道和农村3个乡镇,通过社区卫生服务中心和幼儿园监测0~6岁儿童伤害发生情况. [结果] 2007-2008年平均每年监测0~6岁儿童8 085人,2年中,0~6岁儿童伤害发生率从2.09%下降至1.75%.儿童主要伤害原因为跌伤(49.51%)、钝器伤(12.30%)

  7. Assessment of Network and Data Communication Reliability for Lungmen NPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Teng Chieh; Chou, Hwai Pwu [National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu (China); Chao, Chun Chang [The Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan (China)

    2011-08-15

    The Lungmen nuclear power station (NPS) is an advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR) with fully digitized instrumentation and control (I and C) system. The present work is to use the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) technique to investigate the concerns about network reliability and data communication errors for Lungmen NPS. The reactor protection system (RPS) has chosen as the target to investigate the network and data communication reliability. A fault tree based on the RPS configuration has been modeled to evaluate the weak point in the digital logic part. A Lungmen NPS event tree model has also built to calculate the core damage frequency (CDF). Sensitivity studies were performed by assuming various data communication delays and errors and to evaluate the network affect and the influence on the CDF.

  8. Frecuencia de eventos adversos de la terapia endodóntica y seguimiento de pacientes atendidos en el Posgrado de Endodoncia de la Pontificia Universidad Javeriana (2007-2008) / Frequency of Endodontic Treatment Adverse Events and Follow-up of Patients...

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes: los errores clínicos en la prestación de servicios de salud pueden deteriorar más la salud de un paciente. El sistema de salud de países como Colombia establece la obligatoriedad de reportar y hacer seguimiento de tales eventos adversos. Propósito: determinar la frecuencia y la naturaleza de los eventos adversos identificados en las historias clínicas de pacientes que asistieron al Posgrado de Endodoncia de la Pontificia Universidad Javeriana en Bogotá Colombia (2007-2008) y des...

  9. Navy Personnel Survey (NPS) 1990 Survey Report, Statistical Tables. Volume 1. Enlisted Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    I 6.1 +---------------------------- 10 I .4 I .8 I .5 I 45 MINECRAFT I I I I .7 ---------------------------- 11 I 2.5 I 5.5 I 4.6 I 305I SUBMARINE I I...Destroyer Types [2] Training Command [10] Minecraft [31 Shore or Staff Command [11] Submarine [4] Reserve Unit [12] Service Force ship [5] Aircraft

  10. Navy Personnel Survey (NPS) 1990 Survey Report, Statistical Tables. Volume 2. Officer Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    2.7 +---------------------------- 9 I 4.2 1 6.8 1 1.8 I 219 DESTROYER I I I I 5.0 +---------------------------- 10 I I .9 I .3 I 30 MINECRAFT I I I 1...26. To what type of ship/activity are you assigned? [1] Aviation Squadron [9] Destroyer Types [2] Training Commana [10] Minecraft [3] Shore or Staff

  11. NPS Government Purchase Card Program: An Analysis of Internal Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-18

    monthly AO and CH account statements (GSA, n.d.-d). The government has partnerships with Citibank , JP Morgan Chase, and U.S. Bank (GSA, n.d.-b), and... Citibank to process all types of transactions, including those made with the purchase, travel, and fleet card. However, the DoD’s independent agencies also...purchase card training. Furthermore, DoD annual ethics training is required as well. Initial training with Citibank is required, and NPS also requires that

  12. NPS Solar Cell Array Tester Cubesat Flight Testing and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    front face of NPS-SCAT. The antenna comprises two pieces of piano wire cut to the proper length, stowed using fishing line. Once in orbit, a piece of...launch and the other satellites in the launch vehicle. This is a risk mitigation technique and is performed on every spacecraft large or small...the experiment. Instead the distinction was made after the results were evaluated. As such, there was no previous disposition to which technique

  13. Geology, Bedrock, Bedrock geologic map of the NPS Blue Ridge Parkway corridor. Majority of central and southern segments completed with entire project completed by October 2008., Published in 2004, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, NC DENR / Div. of Land Resources / Geological Survey Section.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Geology, Bedrock dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2004. It is described as...

  14. Geology, Bedrock, Surficial and geologic hazard map of the NPS Blue Ridge Parkway corridor. Majority of central and southern segments completed with entire project completed by October 2008., Published in 2004, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, NC DENR / Div. of Land Resources / Geological Survey Section.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Geology, Bedrock dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2004. It is described as...

  15. Encapsulation of catechin and epicatechin on BSA NPS improved their stability and antioxidant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ramdhan; Kumar, Dharmesh; Kumari, Avnesh; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Nanoencapsulation of antioxidant molecules on protein nanoparticles (NPs) could be an advanced approach for providing stable, better food nutraceuticals and anticancer drugs. The bioavailability and stability of catechin (CAT) and epicatechin (ECAT) were very poor. In the present study, the CAT and ECAT were loaded on bovine serum albumin (BSA) NPs following desolvation method. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) recorded size of CAT-BSA NPs and ECAT-BSA NPs were 45 ± 5 nm and 48 ± 5 nm respectively. The encapsulation efficiency of CAT and ECAT on BSA NPs was found to be 60.5 and 54.5 % respectively. CAT-BSA NPs and ECAT-BSA NPs show slow and sustained in vitro release. The CAT-BSA NPs and ECAT-BSA NPs were stable in solution at various temperatures 37 °C, 47 °C and 57 °C. DPPH assay revealed that CAT and ECAT maintained their functional activity even after encapsulation on BSA NPs. Furthermore, the efficacy of CAT-BSA NPs and ECAT-BSA NPs determined against A549 cell lines was found to be improved. CAT and ECAT aptly encapsulated in BSA NPs, showed satisfactory sustained release, maintained antioxidant potential and found improved efficacy. This has thus suggested their more effective use in food and nutraceuticals as well as in medical field.

  16. Comparative study of antimicrobial activity of AgBr and Ag nanoparticles (NPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchomel, Petr; Kvitek, Libor; Panacek, Ales; Prucek, Robert; Hrbac, Jan; Vecerova, Renata; Zboril, Radek

    2015-01-01

    The diverse mechanism of antimicrobial activity of Ag and AgBr nanoparticles against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and also against several strains of candida was explored in this study. The AgBr nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by simple precipitation of silver nitrate by potassium bromide in the presence of stabilizing polymers. The used polymers (PEG, PVP, PVA, and HEC) influence significantly the size of the prepared AgBr NPs dependently on the mode of interaction of polymer with Ag+ ions. Small NPs (diameter of about 60-70 nm) were formed in the presence of the polymer with low interaction as are PEG and HEC, the polymers which interact with Ag+ strongly produce nearly two times bigger NPs (120-130 nm). The prepared AgBr NPs were transformed to Ag NPs by the reduction using NaBH4. The sizes of the produced Ag NPs followed the same trends--the smallest NPs were produced in the presence of PEG and HEC polymers. Prepared AgBr and Ag NPs dispersions were tested for their biological activity. The obtained results of antimicrobial activity of AgBr and Ag NPs are discussed in terms of possible mechanism of the action of these NPs against tested microbial strains. The AgBr NPs are more effective against gram-negative bacteria and tested yeast strains while Ag NPs show the best antibacterial action against gram-positive bacteria strains.

  17. Connecting the dots: a collaborative USGS-NPS effort to expand the utility of monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, James B.; Schoolmaster, Donald R.; Schweiger, E. William; Mitchell, Brian R.; Miller, Kathryn; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.

    2014-01-01

    The Natural Resource Challenge (National Park Service 1999) was a call to action. It constituted a mandate for monitoring based on the twin premises that (1) natural resources in national parks require active management and stewardship if we are to protect them from gradual degradation, and (2) we cannot protect what we do not understand. The intent of the challenge was embodied in its original description: We must expand existing inventory programs and develop efficient ways to monitor the vital signs of natural systems. We must enlist others in the scientific community to help, and also facilitate their inquiry. Managers must have and apply this information to preserve our natural resources. In this article, we report on ongoing collaborative work between the National Park Service (NPS) and the US Geological Survey (USGS) that seeks to add to our scientific understanding of the ecological processes operating behind vital signs monitoring data. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide insights that can facilitate an understanding of the systems and identify potential opportunities for active stewardship by NPS managers (Bennetts et al. 2007; Mitchell et al. 2014). The bulk of the work thus far has involved Acadia and Rocky Mountain national parks, but there are plans for extending the work to additional parks. Our story stats with work designed to consider ways of assessing the status and condition of natural resources and the potential for historical or ongoing influences of human activities. In the 1990s, the concept of "biotic integrity" began to take hold as an aspiration for developing quantitative indices describing how closely the conditions at a site resemble those found at pristine, unimpacted sites. Quantitative methods for developing indices of biotic integrity (IBIs) and elaborations of that idea (e.g., ecological integrity) have received considerable attention and application of these methods to natural resources has become widespread (Karr 1991

  18. 77 FR 59222 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: NPS Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... National Park Service Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: NPS Institutional Animal Care and... Submission) used by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (NPS IACUC/the Committee) to ensure... in use without an OMB Control Number. Title: NPS Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee...

  19. SITREP: The NPS Maritime Defense and Security Research Program Newsletter ; v. 38 (April 2009)

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This April 2009 issue of the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) Maritime Defense and Security Research Program Newsletter highlights the following research: "Join MDA [Maritime Defense and Awareness] Outreach on ODNI [Office of the Director of National Intelligence] Bridge" and "NPS Cooperative Operations and Applied Science & Technology Studies." It also provides links to future events, reports, articles, and NPS Theses regarding maritime defense and security.

  20. Evaluation of the Biological Effects of the Northwest Power Conservation Council's Mainstem Amendment on the Fisheries Upstream and Downstream of Libby Dam, Montana, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sylvester, Ryan; Stephens, Brian; Tohtz, Joel [Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks

    2009-04-03

    A new project began in 2005 to monitor the biological and physical effects of improved operations of Hungry Horse and Libby Dams, Montana, called for by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC) Mainstem Amendment. This operating strategy was designed to benefit resident fish impacted by hydropower and flood control operations. Under the new operating guidelines, July through September reservoir drafts will be limited to 10 feet from full pool during the highest 80% of water supply years and 20 feet from full pool during the lowest 20% of water supply (drought) years. Limits were also established on how rapidly discharge from the dams can be increased or decreased depending on the season. The NPCC also directed the federal agencies that operate Libby and Hungry Horse Dams to implement a new flood control strategy (VARQ) and directed Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks to evaluate biological responses to this operating strategy. The Mainstem Amendment operating strategy has not been fully implemented at the Montana dams as of June 2008 but the strategy will be implemented in 2009. This report highlights the monitoring methods used to monitor the effects of the Mainstem Amendment operations on fishes, habitat, and aquatic invertebrates upstream and downstream of Libby Dam. We also present initial assessments of data and the effects of various operating strategies on physical and biological components of the systems upstream and downstream of Libby Dam. Annual electrofishing surveys in the Kootenai River and selected tributaries, along with gill net surveys in the reservoir, are being used to quantify the impacts of dam operations on fish populations upstream and downstream of Libby Dam. Scales and otoliths are being used to determine the age structure and growth of focal species. Annual population estimates and tagging experiments provide estimates of survival and growth in the mainstem Kootenai River and selected tributaries. Radio telemetry will be used to

  1. Synthesis of Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with Antibacterial Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campillo Gloria, E.; Ederley, Vélez; Gladis, Morales; César, Hincapié; Jaime, Osorio; Oscar, Arnache; Uribe José, Ignacio; Franklin, Jaramillo

    2017-06-01

    The synthesis of nanomaterials is currently one of the most active in nanoscience branches; especially those help improve the human quality life. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are an example of this as it is known to have inhibitory and bactericidal effects. In this work, we report the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by chemical reduction method of silver nitrate (AgNO3) from aqueous solution, using a mix of polivinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) - Aloe Vera as reducing agent and for stabilization and control of particle size. Silver nanoparticles obtained were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), UV-visible spectroscopy and measurements using Zetasizer Nano ZS were applied to size estimation. The existence of surface plasmon resonance peak at λmax ~ 420 nm is evidence of silver nanoparticles formation. It was possible to standardize an appropriate protocol for the evaluation of bactericidal activity of the nanoparticles, for mesophilic microorganisms. Bactericidal activity above 90% against these kinds of bacteria was demonstrated.

  2. The preparation and antibacterial effects of dopa-cotton/AgNPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Hong, E-mail: hxu@dhu.edu.cn [Key Lab of Science and Technology of Eco-textile, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Shi Xue; Ma Hui; Lv Yihang; Zhang Linping [Key Lab of Science and Technology of Eco-textile, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Mao Zhiping, E-mail: zhpmao@dhu.edu.cn [Key Lab of Science and Technology of Eco-textile, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been known to have powerful antibacterial activity. In this paper, in situ generation of AgNPs on the surface of dopamine modified cotton fabrics (dopa-cotton/AgNPs) in aqueous solution under room temperature is presented. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) were used to analyze the surface chemical composition and the morphology of the modified cotton fabrics, respectively. The results indicated that the surface of cotton fabrics was successfully coated with polydopamine and AgNPs. The cotton fabrics with AgNPs showed durable antibacterial activity.

  3. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...... med surveys. Denne bog gennemgår alle surveyarbejdets faser og giver en praktisk indføring i: • design af undersøgelsen og udvælgelse af stikprøver, • formulering af spørgeskemaer samt indsamling og kodning af data, • metoder til at analysere resultaterne...

  4. Groundwater-quality data in seven GAMA study units: results from initial sampling, 2004-2005, and resampling, 2007-2008, of wells: California GAMA Program Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Robert; Belitz, Kenneth; Fram, Miranda S.

    2014-01-01

    The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The GAMA-PBP began sampling, primarily public supply wells in May 2004. By the end of February 2006, seven (of what would eventually be 35) study units had been sampled over a wide area of the State. Selected wells in these first seven study units were resampled for water quality from August 2007 to November 2008 as part of an assessment of temporal trends in water quality by the GAMA-PBP. The initial sampling was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within the seven study units. In the 7 study units, 462 wells were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area. Wells selected this way are referred to as grid wells or status wells. Approximately 3 years after the initial sampling, 55 of these previously sampled status wells (approximately 10 percent in each study unit) were randomly selected for resampling. The seven resampled study units, the total number of status wells sampled for each study unit, and the number of these wells resampled for trends are as follows, in chronological order of sampling: San Diego Drainages (53 status wells, 7 trend wells), North San Francisco Bay (84, 10), Northern San Joaquin Basin (51, 5), Southern Sacramento Valley (67, 7), San Fernando–San Gabriel (35, 6), Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins (91, 11), and Southeast San Joaquin Valley (83, 9). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides, and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N

  5. Synthesis of Green Metallic Nanoparticles (NPs and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varahalarao Vadlapudi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology (NT is a field that is mushrooming, making an impact in all spheres of human life. Presently available literature revealed that the NP synthesis using medicinal plants, microorganisms and algae and others as source has been unexplored and underexploited. NT is very important in developing sustainable technologies for the future, for humanity and the environment. The development of green processes for the synthesis of NP is evolving into an important branch of nanotechnology. Natural sources of nanoparticles include fires and volcanic eruptions. The nanotechnology have short to long term uses like environmental pollution cleanup, efficient and safe drug delivery mechanisms with less side effects, developments in information technology, self-cleaning window glass , ‘smart’ fabrics which adjust to suit the temperature. Plant mediated synthesis of metal nanoparticles is gaining more importance owing to its simplicity, rapid rate of synthesis of NP of attractive and diverse morphologies and elimination of elaborate maintenance of cell cultures and ecofriendliness. It has many advantages such as, ease with which the process can be measured up, economic viability and etc. Presently, the researchers are looking into the development of cost-effective procedures for producing reproducible, stable and biocompatible metal NPs.

  6. Palladium-phosphorus/sulfur nanoparticles (NPs) decorated on graphene oxide: synthesis using the same precursor for NPs and catalytic applications in Suzuki-Miyaura coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Hemant; Sharma, Kamal Nayan; Sharma, Alpesh K.; Singh, Ajai Kumar

    2014-04-01

    PdP2 and Pd4S nanoparticles (NPs) (size: ~2-6 and 9-15 nm respectively) have been prepared for the first time from a single source precursor complex [Pd(L)Cl2] (1) by its one pot thermolysis at 200 °C in TOP and OA/ODE (1 : 1) respectively. These NPs were stirred with graphene oxide (GO) at room temperature to prepare NP composites, GO-PdP2 and GO-Pd4S. The GO-PdP2 NPs have been synthesized for the first time. The thioether ligand L prepared by reaction of 1,3-dibromo-2-propanol with the in situ generated PhSNa reacts with [PdCl2(CH3CN)2] in CH3CN at 70 °C resulting in 1. The L and 1 have been characterized by 1H and 13C{1H} NMR and HR-MS. The single crystal structure of 1 determined by X-ray diffraction reveals nearly square planar geometry around the Pd metal centre. The catalytic activities of two palladium nano-phases having phosphorus and sulphur respectively as a co-constituent for Suzuki-Miyaura coupling have been found to be exceptionally different, as PdP2 nanoparticles (NPs) grafted on graphene oxide (GO-PdP2) are significantly more efficient than Pd4S NPs grafted on GO. Without grafting PdP2 and Pd4S both have low efficiency. This is the first report comparing the influence of P and S on the catalytic activity of Pd NPs. TEM, SEM-EDX and powder-XRD have been used to authenticate all NPs. The GO-PdP2 NPs have been found to be efficient catalysts for Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions (yield up to 96% in 30 min) at room temperature to 80 °C. Their recyclability has been found up to 6 cycles. In contrast, GO-Pd4S NPs are little active in comparison with GO-PdP2 NPs. The size of NPs and their distribution on GO appear to be key factors affecting the catalytic efficiency of the composite NPs. Leaching of Pd from GO-PdP2 NPs contributes significantly to the catalysis as evidenced by the three phase test, hot-filtration and recycling experiments. The catalysis is almost homogeneous.PdP2 and Pd4S nanoparticles (NPs) (size: ~2-6 and 9-15 nm respectively) have

  7. Study of energy transfer between riboflavin (vitamin B2) and AgNPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokashi, Vidya V.; Walekar, Laxman S.; Anbhule, Prashant V.; Lee, Sang Hak; Patil, Shivajirao R.; Kolekar, Govind B.

    2014-03-01

    Here, we report the studies on the interaction and formation of nanobiocomplex between silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) and vitamin B2, i.e., riboflavin (RF). The binding study of AgNP to RF was studied by fluorescence, UV-Vis, and TEM techniques. AgNPs were prepared by reducing AgNO3 with trisodium citrate. Prepared nanoparticles size obtained at 20 nm having surface Plasmon resonance band at 426 nm. The absorbance band of RF at 264, 374, and 444 nm changes significantly in the presence of AgNPs suggests that there is change in the chemical environment surrounding AgNPs. A fluorescence spectral change for a solution of RF upon the addition of AgNPs and rapid quenching is suggestive of a rapid adsorption of RF on AgNPs.

  8. Enhancement of QDs photoluminescence by localized surface plasmon effect of Au-NPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Esmaeil; Greco, Tonino; Stumpe, Joachim

    2012-04-01

    Photoluminescence enhancement of CdSe/CdS/ZnS QDs by localized surface plasmon resonance of large Au-NPs has been investigated. The photoluminescence of the QDs with an emission wavelength at 620 nm in a PMMA matrix is enhanced by immobilized Au-NPs. By considering the lifetime and excitation dependent photoluminescence we realized that the emission and excitation rate enhancements both contributed to the total photoluminescence enhancement. PL measurements were carried out for different sizes of Au-NPs to find out their influences on the emission of QDs. The largest enhancement is achieved by applying 80 nm Au-NPs. Silanization method gives us the opportunity easily to prepare samples with different concentrations of Au-NPs. It is revealed that increasing the concentration of the Au-NPs layer provides higher scattering cross section which contributes in PL enhancement.

  9. Effects of TiO2 NPs on Silkworm Growth and Feed Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, YangYang; Ni, Min; Li, FanChi; Zhang, Hua; Xu, KaiZun; Zhao, XiaoMing; Tian, JiangHai; Hu, JingSheng; Wang, BinBin; Shen, WeiDe; Li, Bing

    2016-02-01

    Silkworm (Bombyx mori) (B. mori) is an economically important insect and a model species for Lepidoptera. It has been reported that feeding of low concentrations of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) can improve feed efficiency and increase cocoon mass, cocoon shell mass, and the ratio of cocoon shell. However, high concentrations of TiO2 NPs are toxic. In this study, we fed B. mori with different concentrations of TiO2 NPs (5, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 mg/L) and investigated B. mori growth, feed efficiency, and cocoon quality. We found that low concentrations of TiO2 NPs (5 and 10 mg/L) were more effective for weight gains, with significant weight gain being obtained at 72 h (P TiO2 NPs at 20 mg/L or higher had certain inhibitory effects, with significant inhibition to B. mori growth being observed at 48 h. The feed efficiency was significantly improved at low concentrations of 5 and 10 mg/L for 14.6 and 13.1 %, respectively (P TiO2 NPs showed increased cocoon mass and cocoon shell mass; at 5 and 10 mg/L TiO2 NPs, cocoon mass was significantly increased by 8.29 and 9.39 %, respectively (P TiO2 NPs promoted B. mori growth and development, improved feed efficiency, and increased cocoon production, while high concentrations (20 mg/L or higher) of TiO2 NPs showed inhibitory effect to the B. mori. Consecutive feeding of high concentrations of TiO2 NPs led to some degrees of adaptability. This study provides a reference for the research on TiO2 NPs toxicity and the basis for the development of TiO2 NPs as a feed additive for B. mori.

  10. GENERAL REGULARITIES ON NPS CONSTRUCTION CONCRETE CORROSION PROCESSES AND THEIR SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Leonovich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Civil engineering material science has accumulated a great amount of scientific data on corrosive processes occurring in the NPS concrete structures (including the Bushehr NPS, Islamic Republic of Iran due to environmental conditions.This practical material creates appropriate prerequisites for generalizations, presentation of results in the form of mathematical models permitting to make calculations on durability of the NPS concrete and reinforced concrete  structures with the required accuracy. 

  11. Shillapoo Wildlife Area, Annual Report 2007-2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calkins, Brian

    2007-10-01

    This report summarizes accomplishments, challenges and successes on WDFW's Shillapoo Wildlife Area funded under Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Wildlife Mitigation Program (BPA project No.2003-012-00) during the Fiscal Year 08 contract period October 1, 2007-September 30, 2008. The information presented here is intended to supplement that contained in BPA's PISCES contract development and reporting system. The organization below is by broad categories of work but references are made to individual work elements in the PISCES Statement of Work as appropriate. Significant progress was realized in almost all major work types. Of particular note was progress made in tree plantings and pasture rehabilitation efforts. This year's tree planting effort included five sites detailed below and in terms of the number of plants was certainly the largest effort on the wildlife area to date in one season. The planting itself took a significant amount of time, which was anticipated. However, installation of mats and tubes took much longer than expected which impacted planned fence projects in particular. Survival of the plantings appears to be good. Improvement to the quality of waterfowl pasture habitats is evident on a number of sites due to replanting and weed control efforts. Continuing long-term weed control efforts will be key in improving this particular type of habitat. A prolonged cold, wet spring and a number of equipment breakdowns presented stumbling blocks that impacted schedules and ultimately progress on planned activities. The unusual spring weather delayed fieldwork on pasture planting projects as well as weed control and slowed the process of maintaining trees and shrubs. This time lag also caused the continued deferral of some of our fencing projects. The large brush hog mower had the driveline break twice and the smaller tractor had an engine failure that caused it to be down for over a month. We have modified our budget plan for next year to include a temporary employee that will work primarily on tree maintenance and fencing projects to make sure that we make progress in these areas and we will be investigating whether a heavier duty driveline can be obtained for the mower.

  12. Scotch Creek Wildlife Area 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Jim [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2008-11-03

    The Scotch Creek Wildlife Area is a complex of 6 separate management units located in Okanogan County in North-central Washington State. The project is located within the Columbia Cascade Province (Okanogan sub-basin) and partially addresses adverse impacts caused by the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee hydroelectric dams. With the acquisition of the Eder unit in 2007, the total size of the wildlife area is now 19,860 acres. The Scotch Creek Wildlife Area was approved as a wildlife mitigation project in 1996 and habitat enhancement efforts to meet mitigation objectives have been underway since the spring of 1997 on Scotch Creek. Continuing efforts to monitor the threatened Sharp-tailed grouse population on the Scotch Creek unit are encouraging. The past two spring seasons were unseasonably cold and wet, a dangerous time for the young of the year. This past spring, Scotch Creek had a cold snap with snow on June 10th, a critical period for young chicks just hatched. Still, adult numbers on the leks have remained stable the past two years. Maintenance of BPA funded enhancements is necessary to protect and enhance shrub-steppe and to recover and sustain populations of Sharp-tailed grouse and other obligate species.

  13. End-Of-Year Closure 2007/2008

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    As announced in Weekly Bulletin No. 3-4/2007, the Laboratory will be closed from Saturday 22 December 2007 to Sunday 6 January 2008 inclusive. This period consists of 15 days: 4 days of official holiday, i.e. 24, 25 and 31 December 2007 and 1 January 2008; 6 days of special paid leave in accordance with Article R II 4.38 of the Staff Regulations, i.e. 26, 27, 28, December 2007 and 2, 3, 4 January 2008; 3 Saturdays, i.e. 22, 29 December 2007 and 5 January 2008; 3 Sundays, i.e. 23, 30 December 2007 and 6 January 2008. The first working day in the New Year will be Monday 7 January 2008. Further information is available from Department Secretariats, specifically concerning the conditions applicable to members of the personnel who are required to work during this period. Human Resources Department Tel. 73903

  14. End-Of-Year Closure 2007/2008

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    As announced in Weekly Bulletin No. 3-4/2007, the Laboratory will be closed from Saturday 22 December 2007 to Sunday 6 January 2008 inclusive. This period consists of 15 days: • 4 days of official holiday, i.e. 24, 25 and 31 December 2007 and 1 January 2008; • 6 days of special paid leave in accordance with Article R II 4.38 of the Staff Regulations, i.e. 26, 27, 28, December 2007 and 2, 3, 4 January 2008; • 3 Saturdays, i.e. 22, 29 December 2007 and 5 January 2008; • 3 Sundays, i.e. 23, 30 December 2007 and 6 January 2008. The first working day in the New Year will be Monday 7 January 2008. Further information is available from Department Secretariats, specifically concerning the conditions applicable to members of the personnel who are required to work during this period. Human Resources Department Tel. 73903

  15. Developments in mycotoxin analysis: an update for 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review highlights developments in mycotoxin analysis and sampling over a period between mid-2007 and mid-2008. It covers the major mycotoxins aflatoxins, alternaria toxins, cyclopiazonic acid, fumonisins, ochratoxin, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone. Some aspects of natural occurrence, ...

  16. Research and Technology Capabilities Available for Partnership, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    evaluating the electrochemical performance, safety and physical characteristics of power sources including batteries, chargers , solar panels, fuel cells...of wholesale and retail logistics systems, primarily addressing supply, maintenance and reliability issues . • Supporting AMC, program managers and...firing. This facility is used to evaluate projectiles, mine compo- nents, telemetry packages , components for guidance systems, whole guidance systems

  17. Karakteristik af danske slagtesvinebesætninger 2007-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anna Irene Vedel; Lundsby, Katrine Løvenbalk; Larsen, Lars Stehr

    for majoriteten af slagtesvinene i de tre besætningstyper, dog er de mindste besætninger underrepræsenteret. Oplysninger om sohold og pattegrise omfatter kun sohold i samme besætning som slagtesvineholdet eller sohold med samme ejer. En del af forskellene imellem besætningstyperne kan direkte henføres til...

  18. Overview of global space activities in 2007/2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Nicolas; Delmotte, Raphaëlle

    2009-08-01

    The period ranging from July 2007 to June 2008 has been marked by significant trends and issues in the space sector, particularly under the impulsion of space-faring countries. The internationalisation and globalisation of the space sector which started a few years ago have been gaining momentum as well. As a consequence, the size of the space sector has been growing, as well as the global competition for market shares.

  19. Neutron data experiments for transmutation. Annual Report 2007/2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomgren, J.; al-Adili, A.; Andersson, P.; Bevilacqua, R.; Nilsson, L.; Pomp, S.; Simutkin, V.; Oehrn, A.; Oesterlund, M. (Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Div. of Applied Nuclear Physics)

    2008-08-15

    The project NEXT, Neutron data Experiments for Transmutation, is performed within the nuclear reactions group of the Dept. of Physics and Astronomy. The activities of the group are directed towards experimental studies of nuclear reaction probabilities of importance for various applications, like transmutation of nuclear waste, biomedical effects and electronics reliability. The experimental work is primarily undertaken at the The Svedberg Laboratory (TSL) in Uppsala, where the group is operating two world-unique instruments, MEDLEY and SCANDAL. Highlights from the past year: - The SCANDAL facility has been upgraded. - One PhD student has successfully defended her thesis. - Two PhD students have been accepted. - Vasily Simutkin has been selected as one of the top 12 PhD students within the European Nuclear Education Network. He has accordingly been invited to present his work at the ENEN PhD event held in connection with the PHYSOR conference in Interlaken, Switzerland, September 2008. - A research collaboration with the dedicated EU laboratory for nuclear data research has been established. - A well-attended workshop on nuclear data for ADS and Gen-IV has been organized as part of the EU project CANDIDE (Coordination Action on Nuclear Data for Industrial Development in Europe), coordinated by Jan Blomgren. - Several experiments have been performed at TSL, with beamtime funded through the EU project EFNUDAT (European Facilities for Nuclear Data research), partly coordinated by Jan Blomgren. - Nuclear power education has reached all-time high at Uppsala University. In particular, industry education has increased significantly. - IAEA has visited Uppsala University to investigate the industry-related nuclear power education, as part of a safety culture review of the Forsmark nuclear power plant

  20. School Empowerment Surges Ahead in 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    School empowerment and weighted student formula programs continue to grow across the United States. This article explores the key components of school empowerment programs and describes several existing programs from Baltimore to San Francisco. The article examines some of the anecdotal outcomes for these types of public school choice programs.…

  1. Avian Point Count Locations - Dahomey NWR 2007-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Map depicts locations of avian point counts conducted on Dahomey in 2007 and 2008. Actual point count data are contained in the avian knowledge network database

  2. Evaluation of noise pollution in Sari (2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Alizadeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available , , , (Received 16 Dec, 2008 ; Accepted 8 Apr, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Noise is one of the most harmful factors in the environment. It is also one of the harsh phenomenons in this century that people are exposed to. Exposure to noise higher than threshold limit value could cause some physical and mental disorders. High traffic flow due to recent increase in number of vehicles causes higher noise pollution. There are few studies regarding the evaluation of noise pollution in the environment in some Iranian cities. Thus, it is necessary to measure sound pressure level and other related parameters for noise pollution control. Identification of the effective factors on noise pollution is the best approach for promotion of individual, as well as, public health and safety. The aim of this study is to evaluate the noise level in the city of Sari.Materials and methods: There exist various methods for calculating the equivalent noise level regarding to noise measurement period. The most ordinary method is DL (day average sound level, that takes 15 hours of sampling (7 am- 10 pm, based on regulations that was approved by the National Environmental Protection Association in year 2003. This method was used for evaluation of noise level in this study. In the first stage, sampling locations were selected, followed by measuring sound levels at the height of one’s hearing zone (1.6 m above the ground surface. A calibrated sound level meter (Model Cell-490, Casella CEL, England was used for all measurements. The SPSS software V.15 was used to perform T-test analysis.Results: The results showed that the mean (SD DL was 75.52± (4.41 dB. The minimum and maximum sound pressure levels during the sampling period were 47 dB and 121.5 dB respectively. Due to the measurement of various circumstances, some times, and also, sampling locations, measure sound pressure level was high.Conclusion: The mean sound level during the daytime period was higher than the national standard levels. Therefore, environmental noise control is the best approach for the prevention of noise related to adverse health effects.Key words: J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 19(69: 45-52 (Persian

  3. National Acidification Trend Monitoring Network (TMV). Monitoring effort 2007/2008; TrendMeetnet Verzuring. Monsternemingen in 2007/2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masseling, N.J.; De Goffau, A.

    2010-10-15

    In the period December 2007 till March 2008, the quality of the upper one meter of the groundwater has been investigated at 75 locations of the TMV monitoring network. These data serve to assess the effects of acidification of the groundwater under nature areas (forest/heathland) on sandy soils. The European standard for nitrate of 50 mg per litre was exceeded at 5% of the locations investigated. The concentrations of cadmium, chromium, nickel and zinc exceeded the target levels at 63%, 45%, 23% and 87% of the sampled sites, respectively. At a few sites, the intervention level for cadmium, nickel and zinc was exceeded. The TMV was established in 1989. The network monitors periodically, in cycli of two years, 150 locations in the Netherlands. This implies that during one year of measurement the groundwater quality is assessed at 75 locations. The results of the 'first' 75 locations of the 2006/2008 cycle were published in 2009. The current report covers the second half of the 150 sites. An analysis of the measuring results will be done at a later stage. During the 2006/2008 measuring cycle also observation were made of soil texture and other environmental parameters such as type of vegetation, tree height and thickness of the litter. This type of information illustrates the variation in natural conditions at the locations investigated (deciduous forest, coniferous forest, heathland). These environmental parameters will be used to explain differences in groundwater quality at monitoring sites. [Dutch] Vanaf december 2007 tot in maart 2008 is op 75 locaties van het TrendMeetnet Verzuring (TMV) de kwaliteit van het bovenste grondwater onderzocht. Met deze gegevens worden in Nederlandse natuurgebieden op zandgrond (bos/heide) de effecten van verzuring op het grondwater in kaart gebracht. Op 5 procent van de onderzochte locaties is de EU norm voor nitraat (50 milligram per liter) overschreden. De concentratie van cadmium, chroom, nikkel en zink lag op respectievelijk 63, 45, 23 en 87 procent van de onderzochte locaties boven de streefwaarde. Op een enkele locatie is ook de interventiewaarde voor cadmium, nikkel en zink overschreden. Het TrendMeetnet Verzuring is in 1989 opgericht en onderzoekt periodiek, in cycli van twee jaar, 150 locaties in Nederland. Dit houdt in dat tijdens een meetjaar op 75 locaties de concentraties van stoffen worden gemeten. De meetresultaten van de 'eerste' 75 locaties van de cyclus 2006/2008 zijn in 2009 gepubliceerd. Dit rapport betreft de 'tweede helft' van de 150 locaties. Een analyse van de meetgegevens zal later worden uitgevoerd. In de meetcyclus van 2006/2008 is bovendien informatie verzameld over de bodemtextuur en omgevingsparameters zoals begroeiing, boomhoogte en dikte van de strooisellaag. Deze informatie geeft een beeld van de variatie in natuurlijke omstandigheden op de onderzochte locaties (loof, naald, heide). Deze variatie wordt gebruikt om verschillen in de grondwaterkwaliteit op de meetlocaties te verklaren.

  4. Information Engineering of the curricular Officers’ Segment of a Unified Student Academic Database System for NPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    HOUSING OCCUPANT SECTION-NUMBER SPLIT SECTION PROPOSED NPS DEGREE ACCREDITATION STATUS NPS MAJOR COMMISSIONING SOURCE STUDY SPACE LOCKER NUMBER DATE OF...ACCREDITATION STATUS NPS MAJOR - COMMISSIONING- SOURCE STUDY SPACE LOCKER NUMBER DATE OF BIRTH PLACE OF BIRTH CITY PLACE OF BIRTH STATE DATE REPORTED ABOARD...LAMESA HOUSING OCCUPANT SECTION -NUMBER SPLIT SECTION - PROPOSED NPS DEGREE ACCREDITATION STATUS NPS MAJOR - COMMISSIONING- SOURCE STUDY SPACE LOCKER

  5. 78 FR 9729 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: NPS Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... National Park Service Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: NPS Institutional Animal Care and... Submission, Exhibitor, Annual Review, and Amendment Forms) used by the Institutional Animal Care and Use... collection is currently in use without an OMB Control Number. Title: NPS Institutional Animal Care and...

  6. Exploring the Attractiveness of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) among Experienced Drug Users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amsterdam, J.G.C.; Nabben, T.; Keiman, D.; Haanschoten, G.; Korf, D.

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) appear yearly on the European market (81 for the first time in 2013, adding to a total of over 350 NPS). Using semi-structured interviews with 25 Dutch experienced recreational drug users, the role of the Internet and friends in gathering and

  7. University Provost Leonard Ferrari Outlines State of NPS During Latest SGL

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School Public Affairs Office

    2011-01-01

    Dr. Leonard Ferrari, NPS Executive Vice President and Provost, offers the State of NPS address to students, staff and faculty on Jan. 18 in King Hall. He spoke of the School’s achievements in 2010 and expressed hope for 2011.

  8. A critical first assessment of the new pre-market approval regime for new psychoactive substances (NPS) in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Chris

    2014-10-01

    New Zealand has recently attempted to address the underlying drivers of the escalating new psychoactive substances (NPS) ('legal highs') problem by establishing the world's first pre-market approval regulatory regime for NPS. NPS products which can be shown with clinical trial data to pose a 'low risk' of harm will be approved for legal manufacture and sale. This paper critically assesses the new regime, drawing on experience of the pharmaceutical sector and legal BZP market. A number of characteristics of the recreational use of NPS may not be well addressed by standard medical clinical trials, including binge use, polydrug use, use by vulnerable groups and high-risk modes of administration. The overt advertising and covert promotion of approved NPS products on the internet may make them fairly visible to young people. The black market for unapproved NPS may be difficult to suppress given that unapproved NPS will be physically identical to approved NPS. If the legal market for NPS encourages the use of NPS, alcohol and other drugs there may be an increase in drug-related harm. Alternatively, if the legal NPS market reduces the use of more harmful drugs, there may be a considerable public health benefit. The clinical trials required for NPS products should address the characteristics of recreational NPS use. Enforcement resources and technical solutions are required to clearly distinguish legal NPS products. The impact the new NPS regime has on other drug use is a key issue and demands further study. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Results of the geomagnetic surveys developed at the oppidum of Monte Bernorio (Pomar de Valdivia, Palencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús F. Torres-Martínez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The geomagnetic surveys carried out at the oppidum of Monte Bernorio in the years 2007-2008 have offered important insights into the structure of the settlement, its fortification system and the associated cemeteries. Moreover, the results have improved fieldwork planning, allowing the excavations to be undertaken in a more efficient way and resources to be optimized. This article offers, for the first time, a summary of the results of these surveys, carried out as the result of an international collaboration between scientific teams from Spain and Germany.

  10. Navy-wide Personnel Survey (NPS) 1998: Statistical Tables for Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Row% 5.3% 89.1% 5.6% 100.0% Col% 10.1% 9.2% .9% 5.9% MINECRAFT Cases 8 3 11 Row% 76.4% 23.6% 100.0% Col % .8% .4% .6% SUBMARINE Cases 58 16 75... MINECRAFT Cases 9 2 11 Row% 81.1% 18.9% 100.0% Col% .6% .8% .6% SUBMARINE Cases 75 75 Row% 100.0% 100.0% Col % 5.0% 4.2% TENDER Cases 8 8 Row% 100.0... MINECRAFT Cases 5 5 1 11 Row% 42.7% 47.9% 9.4% 100.0% Col % 1.2% .5% .4% .6% SUBMARINE Cases 15 20 40 75 Row % 19.9% 26.6% 53.5% 100.0% Col

  11. Navy-Wide Personnel Survey (NPS) 1991: Graphic Presentation of Results for Enlisted Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Assigned Shore/Staff Command 33% Aviation Squadron 71 Carrier Based Aircraft Carrier % Destroyer Types 0.° Training Command 4Y Minecraft % Submarine 0...Command Minecraft Submarine Reserve Unit Service Force Ship Tender Afloat Staff Amphibious Ship/Craft Battleship Cruiser * Other 0% 100/o 20% 30% 40% 50...Carrier BasedfComm Aircraft Carrier Destroyer Types 0 Training Command Minecraft Submarine, Reserve Unit Service Force Ship Tender 0 Afloat Staff

  12. Navy-Wide Personnel Survey (NPS) 1992: Graphic Presentation of Results for Enlisted Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    SHORE OR STAFF TRAINING COMMAND AVIATION SOD (NOT CAR) CARRIER BASED AIC A/C OTHER THAN CAR DESTROYER TYPES MINECRAFT - SUBMARINE-M RESERVE UNIT SRVC...THAN CAR DESTROYER TYPES MINECRAFT SUBMARINE RESERVE UNIT BRVC FORCE SHIP TENDER AFLOAT STAFF- AMPHBS SHIP/CRAFT F E2Ŕ CRUISER F[-]E4-E6 OTHER...Squadron/Detachment) station zip can be ) 2( 2 00 , M o Destroyer Types found on the 30000 00@0 - o Minecraft envelope in which . 0 G) G (D 4- 0

  13. Navy-Wide Personnel Survey (NPS) 1992: Statistical Tables for Enlisted Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    88 148 26 A/C OTHER THAN CARRIER 14.8% 8.2% 5.4% N 203 314 37 DESTAYR TYPES 3.9% 4.5% 4.1% N 54 171 28 MINECRAFT 1.6% .3% .3% N 22 13 2 SUBMARINE 1.4...Squadron/Detachment) found onthe 3 3 3 3 3- 3 3 3 3 4.3 Destroyer Types envelope in which 4 4 4 4 4- 4 4 4 4 .6 Minecraft you receivedthis 5 5 5 5 5-5

  14. Navy-Wide Personnel Survey (NPS) 1991: Statistical Tables for Enlisted Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    M. I -No ’, IN .r- NL0 NO 1t r’O 000 ,U\\I0 0 r f " N . I CO >. LO - 7~r \\ -. ao C\\ r-" N0% NN -~0 rC0 -O-T 0’- 1 0 0’ NCV - ~ -0I I - 00(n~ 0 : L6 0...a. Having sex with multiple partners increases the risk of passing the virus __________-that causes AIDS

  15. The 1984 ARI Survey of Army Recruits: Tabular Description of NPS Army National Guard Accessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    FOR EACH OF THE FOLLOWING PROGRAMS OR PROGRAMMING TYPES ON TV: NBA BASKETBALL . 1 - REGULARLY TURN ON THE TV TO WATCH IT 2 - SOMETIMES WATCH IT -- YOU...105. Major league baseball playoffs 106. World Series 116. Which of the following mathematics p. 107. NBA basketball and technical courses, if...PROG:NBA BASKETBALL 186-187 T262 WATCH TV PROG:COLLEGE BASKETBALL 188-189 T263 WATCH TV PROG:NHL HOCKEY 190-191 T264 WATCH TV PROG:PROFESSIONAL WRESTLING

  16. The 1985 ARI Survey of Army Recruits: Tabular Description of NPS Army Reserve Accessions. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    4 101. NBA baketball 1 2 3 4 102. College basketball 1 2 3 4 103. N4. hckey 1 2 3 4 104. Professional wrestling 1 2 3 4 105. Car roee 1 2 3 4 106...you participate in while you were in high school? (CIRCLE ALL THAT APPLY) Football........................1 Basketball ...................... 2...ALL THAT APPLY) Football ........................ 1 Basketball ..................... 2 Swi ning ........................ 3 Baseball

  17. The 1985 ARI Survey of Army Recruits: Tabular Description of NPS (active) Army Accessions. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    T261 -- WATCH TV PROG:NBA BASKETBALL DO YOU WATCH ANY OF THE FOLLOWING PROGRAMS OR PROGRAMMING TYPES ON REGULAR TV STATIONS? .- NBA BASKETBALL . 1...327𔃻 261 WATCH TV PROG:NBA BASKETBALL 328-329 T262 WATCH TV PROG:COLLEGE BASKETBALL 330-331 T263 WATCH TV PROG:NHL HOCKEY 332-333 T264 WlATCH TV...T262 -- WATCH TV PROG:COLLEGE BASKETBALL DO YOU WATCH ANY OF THE FOLLOWING PROGRAMS OR PROGRAMMING TYPES ON REGULAR TV STATIONS? - COLLEGE BASKETBALL . 1

  18. The 1984 ARI Survey of Army Recruits: Tabular Description of NPS Army Reserve Accessions. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    12 PROB. 0.1867 I 186 T261 — NATCH TV PROG’NBA BASKETBALL NARK ONE LETTER FOR EACH OF THE FOLLOWING PROGRAMS OR PROGRAMMING TYPES ON TV: NBA ...Major league baseball — regular seaaon games 105. Major league baaaball playoffs 106. World Series 107. NBA baaketball 106. College basketball 109...BASEBALL PLAYOFFS HATCH TV PROG:WORLD SERIES HATCH TV PROG:NBA BASKETBALL HATCH TV PROG:COLLEGE BASKETBALL HATCH TV PROG:NHL HOCKEY HATCH TV

  19. The 1985 ARI Survey of Army Recruits: Tabular Description of NPS Army Reserve Accessions. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    NBA basketball 1 2 3 4 102. College besketball 1 2 3 4 103. NHL hockey 1 2 3 4 104. Profesional wrestling 1 2 3 4 1OS. Car reces 1 2 3 4 106. Golf...did you participate in while you were in high school? (CIRCLE ALL THAT APPLY) SFootball ....................... I Basketball ..................... 2... Basketball ..................... 2 Swimming ....................... 3 Baseball ....................... Track ............ 5............ Other (Specify

  20. The 1984 ARI Survey of Army Recruits: Tabular Description of NPS (active) Army Accessions. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    WATCH TV PROG MJR LEAG BASEBALL PLAYOFFS 232-233 WATCH TV PROG WORLD SERIES 23<«-235 WATCH TV PROG NBA BASKETBALL 236-237 WATCH TV PROG COLLEGE...PROG:NBA BASKETBALL DO YOU ’^ATCH ANY OF THE FOLLOWING PROGRAMS OR PROGRAMMING TYPES ON TV? - NBA BASKETBALL , 1 - REGULARLY TURN ON THE TV TO WATCH...107. NBA basketball 108. College basketball 109. NHL hockey 110. Professional wrestling 111. Car r.ices 112. Golf tournaments 113. Tennis

  1. The 1984 ARI Survey of Army Recruits: Tabular Description of NPS (active) Army Accessions. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    YOU WATCH ANY OF THE FOLLOWING PROGRAMS OR PROGRAMMING TYPES ON TV? - NBA BASKETBALL 1 - REGULARLY TURN ON THE TV TO WATCH IT 2 - SOMETIMES WATCH IT...league baseball — regular season games 105. Major league baseball playoffs 106. World Series 107. NBA basketball 108. College basketball 109...LAG BASEBALL PLAYOFFS WORLD SERIES MBA BASKETBALL COLLEGE BASKETBALL NHL HOCKEY PROFESSIONAL WRESTLING CAR RACES 154 156 158- 160 162- 164

  2. The 1985 ARI Survey of Army Recruits: Tabular Description of NPS (active) Army Accessions. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    BASKETBALL DO YOU WATCH ANY OF THE FOLLOHING PROGRAMS OR PROGRAMMING TYPES ON REGULAR TV STATK - NBA BASKETBALL . 1 - REGULARLY TURN ON THE...PLAYOFFS WATCH TV PROG:WORLD SERIES WATCH TV PROG:NBA BASKETBALL WATCH TV PROG:COLLEGE BASKETBALL WATCH TV PROG:NHL HOCKEY WATCH TV...CHISQUARE VALUE 15.400 D.F. PROB. 12 0.2203 330 T262 WATCH TV PROG:COLLEGE BASKETBALL DO YOU WATCH ANY OF THE FOLLOWING PROGRAMS OR PROGRAMMING

  3. Navy-Wide Personnel Survey (NPS) 1997: Statistical Tables for Officers and Enlisted Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-02-01

    0 Filipino - )Pacific islander (Guamanian, Samoan, etc) 10. Did you receive premarital counseling? -0 Eskiman/Aleut 0None of the above N -11. If yes...can use the arrow keys found on the icon menu at the top of your screen to navigate your way through the documents. The right arrow key is used to

  4. PSP toxin levels and plankton community composition and abundance in size-fractionated vertical profiles during spring/summer blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense in the Gulf of Maine and on Georges Bank, 2007, 2008, and 2010: 2. Plankton community composition and abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitpas, Christian M; Turner, Jefferson T; Deeds, Jonathan R; Keafer, Bruce A; McGillicuddy, Dennis J; Milligan, Peter J; Shue, Vangie; White, Kevin D; Anderson, Donald M

    2014-05-01

    As part of the Gulf of Maine Toxicity (GOMTOX) project, we determined Alexandrium fundyense abundance, paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin levels in various plankton size fractions, and the community composition of potential grazers of A. fundyense in plankton size fractions during blooms of this toxic dinoflagellate in the coastal Gulf of Maine and on Georges Bank in spring and summer of 2007, 2008, and 2010. PSP toxins and A. fundyense cells were found throughout the sampled water column (down to 50 m) in the 20-64 μm size fractions. While PSP toxins were widespread throughout all size classes of the zooplankton grazing community, the majority of the toxin was measured in the 20-64 μm size fraction. A. fundyense cellular toxin content estimated from field samples was significantly higher in the coastal Gulf of Maine than on Georges Bank. Most samples containing PSP toxins in the present study had diverse assemblages of grazers. However, some samples clearly suggested PSP toxin accumulation in several different grazer taxa including tintinnids, heterotrophic dinoflagellates of the genus Protoperidinium, barnacle nauplii, the harpacticoid copepod Microsetella norvegica, the calanoid copepods Calanus finmarchicus and Pseudocalanus spp., the marine cladoceran Evadne nordmanni, and hydroids of the genus Clytia. Thus, a diverse assemblage of zooplankton grazers accumulated PSP toxins through food-web interactions. This raises the question of whether PSP toxins pose a potential human health risk not only from nearshore bivalve shellfish, but also potentially from fish and other upper-level consumers in zooplankton-based pelagic food webs.

  5. Exploring the Behavior and Metabolic Transformations of SeNPs in Exposed Lactic Acid Bacteria. Effect of Nanoparticles Coating Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Palomo-Siguero

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The behavior and transformation of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs in living systems such as microorganisms is largely unknown. To address this knowledge gap, we examined the effect of three types of SeNP suspensions toward Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LB-12 using a variety of techniques. SeNPs were synthesized using three types of coating agents (chitosan (CS-SeNPs, hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC-SeNPs and a non-ionic surfactant, surfynol (ethoxylated-SeNPs. Morphologies of SeNPs were all spherical. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM was used to locate SeNPs in the bacteria. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC on line coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS was applied to evaluate SeNP transformation by bacteria. Finally, flow cytometry employing the live/dead test and optical density measurements at 600 nm (OD600 were used for evaluating the percentages of bacteria viability when supplementing with SeNPs. Negligible damage was detected by flow cytometry when bacteria were exposed to HEC-SeNPs or CS-SeNPs at a level of 10 μg Se mL−1. In contrast, ethoxylated-SeNPs were found to be the most harmful nanoparticles toward bacteria. CS-SeNPs passed through the membrane without causing damage. Once inside, SeNPs were metabolically transformed to organic selenium compounds. Results evidenced the importance of capping agents when establishing the true behavior of NPs.

  6. Piezoelectric electrospun nanocomposite comprising Au NPs/PVDF for nerve tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, Asma Sadat; Mirzadeh, Hamid; Hajiesmaeilbaigi, Fereshteh; Bagheri Khoulenjani, Shadab; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali

    2017-03-03

    In this study, gold nanoparticles/Polyvinylidenefluoride composite electrospun mat with enhanced piezoelectricity were fabricated and characterized. Gold colloidal nanoparticles (Au NPs) were prepared via laser ablation of metallic targets in liquid media. The active Q-switched Nd:YAG laser was used as an irradiation source. Then, PVDF (Polyvinylidenefluoride) was dissolved in Au NPs colloidal solution at 30% wt for the synthesis of Au NPs/PVDF composite nanofibers by electrospinning. The optical absorbance spectra of Au NPS and the polymeric solutions were obtained by the UV-Visible spectroscopy. Moreover, the morphology of Au NPS, nanostructures of fibers and diameter size distribution of nanofibers were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Transmitted Electron Microscopy (TEM) methods. The crystallinity and piezoelectricity of PVDF and Au NPs/PVDF composite nanofibers mats were measured by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) methods. Subsequently, in vitro cytocompatibility was evaluated by MTT assay and the attachment and morphology of PC-12 cells cultured on scaffolds were studied. It was found that laser ablated Au NPs can be used in electrospun nanofibers of PVDF with adequate structural properties and increase piezoelectricity of nanofibers which might be suitable for applying as nerve tissue engineering scaffolds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Photocatalytic and antibacterial properties of phytosynthesized CeO2 NPs using Moringa oleifera peel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendra, T V; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana

    2016-08-01

    Biosynthetic methods are alternative approaches which are much safer than the normal techniques (physical and chemical) used for the methods for synthesis of metal nanoparticles. The benefits are sample as it is economic and environment friendly. Herein present investigation, we have reported a microwave mediated eco-friendly synthetic approach for preparing cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles. Here, we used Moringa oleifera peel as the stabilizing and reducing agent towards synthesize of Ce2O NPs via microwave irradiation. The NPs were further characterized using UV-Vis, FT-IR, XRD and HR-TEM techniques. The FTIR analysis confirmed the phytochemical involvement in NPs stabilization. The crystallinity of CeO2 nanoparticles are well demonstrated through X-ray Diffraction and HR-TEM. The TEM images reveal the spherical shape of the CeO2 NPs having an average size of 45nm. Additionally, these CeO2 NPs were used successfully as a catalyst in the degradation of the dye, crystal violet. Also the antibacterial activity of the synthesized CeO2 NPs was evaluated using Staphylococcus aureus (Gram positive bacteria) and Escherichia coli (Gram negative bacteria). CeO2 NPs showed better activity on E. coli than S. aureus. We have demonstrated an eco-friendly preparation of CeO2 nanoparticles, a good photocatalyst and having better antibacterial properties.

  8. Study on Synthesis and Antibacterial Properties of Ag NPs/GO Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using graphene oxide as substrate and stabilizer for the silver nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles-graphene oxide (Ag NPs/GO composites with different Ag loading were synthesized through a facile solution-phase method. During the synthesis process, AgNO3 on GO matrix was directly reduced by NaBH4. The structure characterization was studied through X-ray diffraction (XRD, atomic force microscopy (AFM, high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis, and selected area electron diffraction (SAED. The results show that Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs with the sizes ranging from 5 to 20 nm are highly dispersed on the surfaces of GO sheets. The shape and size of the Ag NPs are decided by the volume of initial AgNO3 solution added in the GO. The antibacterial activities of Ag NPs/GO nanocomposites were investigated and the result shows that all the produced composites exhibit good antibacterial activities against Gram-negative (G− bacterial strain Escherichia coli (E. coli and Gram-positive (G+ strain Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus. Moreover, the antibacterial activities of Ag NPs/GO nanocomposites gradually increased with the increasing of volume of initial AgNO3 solution added in the GO and this improvement of the antibacterial activities results from the combined action of size effect and concentration effect of Ag NPs in Ag NPs/GO nanocomposites.

  9. Green synthesized conditions impacting on the reactivity of Fe NPs for the degradation of malachite green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lanlan; Luo, Fang; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates green tea extract synthesized conditions impacting on the reactivity of iron nanoparticles (Fe NPs) used for the degradation of malachite green (MG), including the volume ratio of Fe2+ and tea extract, the solution pH and temperature. Results indicated that the reactivity of Fe NPs increased with higher temperature, but fell with increasing pH and the volume ratio of Fe2+ and tea extract. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that Fe NPs were spherical in shape, their diameter was 70-80 nm and they were mainly composed of iron oxide nanoparticles. UV-visible (UV-vis) indicated that reactivity of Fe NPs used in degradation of MG significantly depended on the synthesized conditions of Fe NPs. This was due to their impact on the reactivity and morphology of Fe NPs. Finally, degradation of MG showed that 90.56% of MG was removed using Fe NPs.

  10. Design of NPS61000SHEV Extended Range Electric Bus%NPS6100SHEV增程式电动客车设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐本祥

    2011-01-01

    Through the power matching, generator-set matching, battery capacity calculation and control strategy analyzing of NPS6100SHEV extended range electric bus, the author puts forward the overall design requirement and general design method of the extended range electric bus.%通过对NPS6100SHEV增程式电动客车的动力匹配、发电机组匹配、电池容量计算和控制策略分析,提出增程式电动客车的总体设计要求和一般设计方法。

  11. Rapid multiplexed molecular phenotyping of ex vivo and in vivo tissues with targeted SERS NPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Khan, Altaz; Som, Madhura; Leigh, Steven Y.; Wang, Danni; Chen, Ye; McVeigh, Patrick; Wilson, Brian C.; Liu, Jonathan T. C.

    2014-05-01

    We are developing a miniature fiber-optic spectral-detection device and topical-staining protocol to rapidly detect multiplexed surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles (NPs) targeted to cell-surface biomarkers in fresh tissues. Ex vivo and in vivo experiments were performed to optimize our strategy for the rapid detection of multiple cell-surface biomarkers following a brief (5 min) topical application of SERS NPs on tissues. The simultaneous detection and ratiometric quantification of targeted and nontargeted NPs allows for an unambiguous assessment of molecular expression that is insensitive to nonspecific variations in NP concentrations, potentially enabling point-of-care surgical guidance or early disease detection.

  12. Synthesis and optical properties study of nanocomposites based on AuNPs and AgNPs obtained by laser ablation in liquid monomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulina, Natalia A.; Pavlovetc, Ilia M.; Baranov, Mikhail A.; Kaliabin, Viacheslav O.; Denisyuk, Igor Yu.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, Ag and Au nanoparticles (AgNPs and AuNPs) stable colloid solution were prepared by laser ablation of chemically pure silver rod and gold film in liquid monomer isodecyl acrylate (IDA). Sizes of obtained nanoparticles were determined by scanning electron microscope and vary from 30 to 130 nm. Nanocomposites films were prepared from obtained stable colloid solution by photocuring. To prepare solid film based on aliphatic polymer IDA long molecules cross-linking, 1,6-Hexandiol diacrylate was used. Obtained films were transparent, homogenous and colored in brown for AgNPs and purple for AuNPs-filled nanocomposites. Prepared nanomaterials exhibit strong third-order nonlinear optical responses under CW laser irradiation at 532 nm, which was estimated by using z-scan technique performed with open and close aperture. The real and imaginary parts of third-order nonlinear optical coefficients of the studied nanocomposites were found to be up to Reχ (3) = 1.31 × 10-5 (esu) and Imχ (3) = 7.64 × 10-5 (esu), for samples negative nonlinear refractive index was obtained, which corresponds to self-defocusing effect.

  13. Key Player in Maersk Alabama Hostage Rescue Addresses NPS Students During Guest Lecture

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School Public Affairs Office

    2012-01-01

    Renowned Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) alumnus and former USS Bainbridge (DDG-96) commander, U.S. Navy Capt. Frank Castellano, recently addressed students and faculty at NPS’ King Auditorium, Oct. 16.

  14. Effect of silver NPs plasmon on optical properties of fluorescein dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragab, Alaa EL-din E. A.; Gadallah, A.; Mohamed, Mona B.; Azzouz, I. M.

    2013-11-01

    In this work we studied the effect of silver nanoparticles "AgNPs" on the optical properties of fluoretain-->rescein dye. Fluorescein dye solutions have been mixed with different concentrations of colloidal AgNPs. Absorption and fluorescence enhancement of fluorescein dye molecules was detected in the presence of AgNPs. Fluorescence enhancement of the dye molecules was observed with a maximal enhancement factor of about 3-fold. Enhancement of the rate of radiative transition was also detected. The enhancement mechanisms are attributed to a modification of the local density of electromagnetic modes in the vicinity of AgNPs at energies resonant with surface Plasmon. The ability of fluorophore-metal mixture to actively enhance the dye's luminescence could leads to new opportunities for technological development of light emitting and photonic devices. It also may have applications in the fields of bio-technology and medical diagnostics as new class of fluorescence based sensing.

  15. Fabrication LSPR sensor chip of Ag NPs and their biosensor application based on interparticle coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghodselahi, T., E-mail: t_ghodselahi@yahoo.com [Nano Mabna Iranian Inc., PO Box 1676664116, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences, PO Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Neishaboorynejad, T. [School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences, PO Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Arsalani, S. [School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences, PO Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Medicine, Bam University of Medical Sciences, Bam (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensor of silver nanoparticles on hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin film were synthetized by co-deposition of RF-sputtering and RF-PECVD. • Samples were characterized by XRD, XPS, AFM, and UV visible. • DNA primer at fM concentration was detected based on breaking of inter-particles coupling. • Dipolar plasmon of isolated Ag NPs, coupled Ag NPs plasmons, in-plane and out-plane coupling, and quadrupole plasmon modes were considered to explain biosensor properties. • The initial response, wavelength shift sensitivity, and response time of LSPR sensors were compared by morphology. - Abstract: We introduce a simple method to synthesize localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensor chip of Ag NPs on the hydrogenated amorphous carbon by co-deposition of RF-Sputtering and RF-PECVD. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the content of Ag and C atoms. X-ray diffraction profile and atomic force microscopy indicate that the Ag NPs have fcc crystal structure and spherical shape and by increasing deposition time, particle sizes do not vary and only Ag NPs aggregation occurs, resulting in LSPR wavelength shift. Firstly, by increasing Ag NPs content, in-plan interparticles coupling is dominant and causes redshift in LSPR. At the early stage of agglomeration, out-plane coupling occurs and in-plane coupling is reduced, resulting a blueshift in the LSPR. By further increasing of Ag NPs content, agglomeration is completed on the substrate and in-plan coupling rises, resulting significant redshift in the LSPR. Results were used to implement biosensor application of chips. Detection of DNA primer at fM concentration was achieved based on breaking interparticles coupling of Ag NPs. A significant wavelength shift sensitivity of 30 nm and a short response time of 30 min were obtained, where both of these are prerequisite for biosensor applications.

  16. Hepatoma-Targeted Radionuclide Immune Albumin Nanospheres: (131)I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mei; Huang, Junxing; Zhang, Dongsheng; Jiang, Xingmao; Zhang, Jia; Yu, Hong; Xiao, Yanhong; Shi, Yujuan; Guo, Ting

    2016-01-01

    An effective strategy has been developed for synthesis of radionuclide immune albumin nanospheres ((131)I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs). In vitro as well as in vivo targeting of (131)I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs to AFP-positive hepatoma was examined. In cultured HepG2 cells, the uptake and retention rates of (131)I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs were remarkably higher than those of (131)I alone. As well, the uptake rate and retention ratios of (131)I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs in AFP-positive HepG2 cells were also significantly higher than those in AFP-negative HEK293 cells. Compared to (131)I alone, (131)I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs were much more easily taken in and retained by hepatoma tissue, with a much higher T/NT. Due to good drug-loading, high encapsulation ratio, and highly selective affinity for AFP-positive tumors, the (131)I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs are promising for further effective radiation-gene therapy of hepatoma.

  17. Change of antioxidant enzymes activity of hazel (Corylus avellana L.) cells by AgNPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Mitra; Ghanati, Faezeh; Rezaei, Ayatollah; Bemani, Ebrahim

    2016-05-01

    Elicitation effect of silver nano particles (AgNPs) and triggering of defence system by production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a signaling molecule in the regulation of the activity of stress-related enzymes and production of Taxol was evaluated in suspension- cultured hazel cells (Corylus avellana L.). The cells were treated with different concentrations of AgNPs (0, 2.5, 5, and 10 ppm), in their logarithmic growth phase (d7) and were harvested after 1 week. Treatment of hazel cells with AgNPs decreased the viability of the cells. Also the results showed that while the activity of certain radical scavenging enzymes in particular of catalase and peroxidase increased by 2.5 and 5 ppm AgNPs, the activity of superoxide dismutase decreased in these treatments. The highest activity of ascorbate peroxidase was observed in 10 ppm AgNPs treatments. This treatment also showed the highest contents of H2O2 and phenolic compounds, as well as the highest activity of phenylalanine ammonialyase. According to the results, 5 ppm AgNPs was the best concentration for elicitation of hazel cells to produce efficient amounts of H2O2 in order for stimulation of antioxidant defence system, production of Taxol at the highest capacity of the cells, meanwhile reserving their viability.

  18. Evaluation of genotoxic effect of silver nanoparticles (Ag-Nps) in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Priscila; Balbinot, Fernanda; Martins de Oliveira, Hugo; Elibio Fagundes, Gabriela [PPGCS, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Laboratorio de Biologia Celular e Molecular (Brazil); Venancio, Mireli; Vieira Ronconi, Joao Vitor; Merlini, Aline [Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Laboratorio de Sintese de Complexos Multifuncionais (Brazil); Streck, Emilio L. [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Unidade Academica de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Laboratorio de Fisiopatologia Experimental (Brazil); Marques da Silva, Paula [Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Laboratorio de Sintese de Complexos Multifuncionais (Brazil); Moraes de Andrade, Vanessa, E-mail: vmoraesdeandrade@yahoo.com.br [PPGCS, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Laboratorio de Biologia Celular e Molecular (Brazil)

    2012-03-15

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are the most prominent nanoproducts. Due to their antimicrobial activity, they have been incorporated in different materials, such as catheters, clothes, electric home appliance, and many others. The genotoxicity of Ag-NPs (5-45 nm), in different concentrations and times of exposure, was evaluated by the comet assay in in vitro and in vivo conditions, respectively, using human peripheral blood and Swiss mice. The results showed the genotoxic effect of Ag-NPs in vitro, in all the doses tested in the initial hour of exposure, possibly through the reactive oxygen species generation. Nevertheless, the values for this damage decrease with time, indicating that the DNA may have been restored by the repair system. In the in vivo conditions, we found no genotoxicity of Ag-NPs in any hour of exposure and any dose investigated, which can be attributed to the activation of a cellular antioxidant network and the hydrophobic nature of Ag-NPs. Now, it is absolutely necessary to investigate the role of Ag-NPs in different cell lines in vivo.

  19. PSP toxin levels and plankton community composition and abundance in size-fractionated vertical profiles during spring/summer blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense in the Gulf of Maine and on Georges Bank, 2007, 2008, and 2010: 1. Toxin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeds, Jonathan R; Petitpas, Christian M; Shue, Vangie; White, Kevin D; Keafer, Bruce A; McGillicuddy, Dennis J; Milligan, Peter J; Anderson, Donald M; Turner, Jefferson T

    2014-05-01

    As part of the NOAA ECOHAB funded Gulf of Maine Toxicity (GOMTOX) project, we determined Alexandrium fundyense abundance, paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin composition, and concentration in quantitatively-sampled size-fractionated (20-64, 64-100, 100-200, 200-500, and > 500 μm) particulate water samples, and the community composition of potential grazers of A. fundyense in these size fractions, at multiple depths (typically 1, 10, 20 m, and near-bottom) during 10 large-scale sampling cruises during the A. fundyense bloom season (May-August) in the coastal Gulf of Maine and on Georges Bank in 2007, 2008, and 2010. Our findings were as follows: (1) when all sampling stations and all depths were summed by year, the majority (94% ± 4%) of total PSP toxicity was contained in the 20-64 μm size fraction; (2) when further analyzed by depth, the 20-64 μm size fraction was the primary source of toxin for 97% of the stations and depths samples over three years; (3) overall PSP toxin profiles were fairly consistent during the three seasons of sampling with gonyautoxins (1, 2, 3, and 4) dominating (90.7% ± 5.5%), followed by the carbamate toxins saxitoxin (STX) and neosaxitoxin (NEO) (7.7% ± 4.5%), followed by n-sulfocarbamoyl toxins (C1 and 2, GTX5) (1.3% ± 0.6%), followed by all decarbamoyl toxins (dcSTX, dcNEO, dcGTX2&3) (PSP toxin compositions for nearshore coastal Gulf of Maine sampling stations compared to offshore Georges Bank sampling stations for 2 out of 3 years; (4) surface cell counts of A. fundyense were a fairly reliable predictor of the presence of toxins throughout the water column; and (5) nearshore surface cell counts of A. fundyense in the coastal Gulf of Maine were not a reliable predictor of A. fundyense populations offshore on Georges Bank for 2 out of the 3 years sampled.

  20. Navy-wide Personnel Survey (NPS) 2000: Statistical Tables of Survey Results for Officers and Enlisted Sailors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Carrier Cruiser Destroyer types (includes frigates) Minecraft Submarine Tender/Repair ship Reserve Unit Service Force ship (USNS, auxiliaries...or university Work for civilian company or organization Work for civilian government (local, state or federal) Manage or work in a family business... UNIVERSITY LIBRARY AIRFORCE ARMSTRONG LABORATORY (CODE 13) ARMY MANAGEMENT STAFF COLLEGE LIBRARY ARMY RESEARCH INSTITUTE LIBRARY ARMY WAR COLLEGE

  1. Histopathological effects of nanosilver (Ag-NPs in liver after dermal exposure during wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saeed Heydarnejad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: With the advent of nanotechnology, significant progress has been made in the area of nanoscale materials such as nanosilver (Ag-Nps. These nanoparticles have a wide range of applications and been used for antimicrobial purposes for more than a century. However, little attention has been paid to the toxicity of nanosilver wound dressing. This study was designed to investigate the possible histopathological toxicity of Ag-NPs in liver of mice during wound healing.     Materials and Methods:   A group of 50 female BALB/c mice of about 8 weeks were randomly divided into two groups: Ag-NPs and control groups (n=25. After creating similar wound on the backs of all animals, the wound bed was treated in Ag-NPs group, with a volume of 50 microliters of the nanosilver solution (10ppm ,and in control group, with the same amount of distilled water. The experiment lasted for 14 days. Histopathaological samplings of liver were conducted on days 2, 7 and 14 of the experiment.   Results: Histopathological studies demonstrated time-dependent changes in mice liver treated with Ag-NPs compared to control group. Some changes include dilation in central venous, hyperemia, cell swelling, increase of Kupffer and inflammatory cells. Conclusion: This study suggests that use of nanosilver for wound healing may cause a mild toxicity, as indicated by time-dependent toxic responses in liver tissue. However, this issue will have to be considered more extensively in further studies.

  2. Green technology for durable finishing of viscose fibers via self-formation of AuNPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emam, Hossam E; El-Hawary, Nancy S; Ahmed, Hanan B

    2017-03-01

    Sensitivity of dyes' colors to the surrounding environment causes lower durability and stability of color, which reflects the importance of durable finishing treatment. Current technique offered antimicrobial/durable finishing of viscose fibers through direct formation of AuNPs inside fibers macromolecules without using any external agents. By using the reducing properties of cellulose in viscose, Au(+3) was reduced to AuNPs and CHO/OH of cellulose subsequently were oxidized to COOH. For comparison, two different media were used; aqueous and alkaline. Increasing the reactivity and accessibility of cellulose macromolecules in alkali leaded to enlargement of the reduction process and more incorporation of AuNPs. Size of AuNPs inside fiber was recorded to be in range of 22-112nm and 14-100nm, in case of using aqueous and alkaline medium, respectively. Structure and properties of fibers were not changed by treatment according to XRD and ATR-FTIR data. The treated fibers were acquired durable violet color by the action of LSPR for AuNPs and darker color obtained using higher Au(+3) concentration. The treated fibers exhibited good inhibition against different pathogenic microbes including bacteria and fungi. One-pot, quite simple, inexpensive, green and industrial viable are the significant advantages of the current technique for viscose finishing (pigmentation and antimicrobial action). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Interactions between ZnO Nanoparticles (NPs and α-Linolenic Acid (LNA Complexed to BSA Did Not Influence the Toxicity of ZnO NPs on HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwei Zhou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nanoparticles (NPs entering the biological environment could interact with biomolecules, but little is known about the interaction between unsaturated fatty acids (UFA and NPs. Methods: This study used α-linolenic acid (LNA complexed to bovine serum albumin (BSA for UFA and HepG2 cells for hepatocytes. The interactions between BSA or LNA and ZnO NPs were studied. Results: The presence of BSA or LNA affected the hydrodynamic size, zeta potential, UV-Vis, fluorescence, and synchronous fluorescence spectra of ZnO NPs, which indicated an interaction between BSA or LNA and NPs. Exposure to ZnO NPs with the presence of BSA significantly induced the damage to mitochondria and lysosomes in HepG2 cells, associated with an increase of intracellular Zn ions, but not intracellular superoxide. Paradoxically, the release of inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6 was decreased, which indicated the anti-inflammatory effects of ZnO NPs when BSA was present. The presence of LNA did not significantly affect all of these endpoints in HepG2 cells exposed to ZnO NPs and BSA. Conclusions: the results from the present study indicated that BSA-complexed LNA might modestly interact with ZnO NPs, but did not significantly affect ZnO NPs and BSA-induced biological effects in HepG2 cells.

  4. TEA controllable preparation of magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) with excellent magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chengliang; Zhu, Dejie; Wu, Hanzhao; Li, Yao; Cheng, Lu; Hu, Kunhong

    2016-06-01

    A fast and controllable synthesis method for superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) was developed in Fe(III)-triethanolamine (TEA) solution. The phase structure, morphology and particle size of the as-synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the magnetic particles were pure Fe3O4 with mean sizes of approximately 10 nm. The used TEA has key effects on the formation of well dispersing Fe3O4 NPs. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) result indicated that the as-obtained Fe3O4 NPs exhibited superparamagnetic behavior and the saturation magnetization (Ms) was about 70 emu/g, which had potential applications in magnetic science and technology.

  5. Antimicrobial wound dressing nanofiber mats from multicomponent (chitosan/silver-NPs/polyvinyl alcohol) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelgawad, Abdelrahman M; Hudson, Samuel M; Rojas, Orlando J

    2014-01-16

    Novel hybrid nanomaterials have been developed for antimicrobial applications. Here we introduce a green route to produce antibacterial nanofiber mats loaded with silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs, 25 nm diameter) enveloped in chitosan after reduction with glucose. The nanofiber mats were obtained from colloidal dispersions of chitosan-based Ag-NPs blended with polyvinyl alcohol. Nanofibers (150 nm average diameter and narrow size distribution) were obtained by electrospinning and cross-linked with glutaraldhyde. The effect of crosslinking on the release of silver was studied by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Antimicrobial activity was studied by the viable cell-counting; mats loaded with silver and control samples (chitosan/PVA) with different degrees of cross-linking were compared for their effectiveness in reducing or halting the growth of aerobic bacteria. The results showed superior properties and synergistic antibacterial effects by combining chitosan with Ag-NPs.

  6. Bifunctional Nanoparticle-SILP Catalysts (NPs@SILP) for the Selective Deoxygenation of Biomass Substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luska, Kylie L. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany); Julis, Jennifer [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany); Evonik Industries AG, Marl (Germany); Stavitski, Eli [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zakharov, Dmitri N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Adams, Alina [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany); Leitner, Walter [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany); Max Planck Inst. for Coal Research, Ruhr (Germany)

    2014-08-27

    We immobilized ruthenium nanoparticles onto an acidic supported ionic liquid phase (RuNPs@SILP) in the development of bifunctional catalysts for the selective deoxygenation of biomass substrates. RuNPs@SILPs possessed high catalytic activities, selectivities and recyclabilities in the hydrogenolytic deoxygenation and ring opening of C8- and C9-substrates derived from furfural or 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and acetone. When we tailor the acidity of the SILP through the ionic liquid loading provided a molecular parameter by which the catalytic activity and selectivity of the RuNPs@SILPs were controlled to provide a flexible catalyst system toward the formation of different classes of value-added products: cyclic ethers, primary alcohols or aliphatic ethers.

  7. Concentration-dependent, size-independent toxicity of citrate capped AuNPs in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Vecchio

    Full Text Available The expected potential benefits promised by nanotechnology in various fields have led to a rapid increase of the presence of engineered nanomaterials in a high number of commercial goods. This is generating increasing questions about possible risks for human health and environment, due to the lack of an in-depth assessment of the physical/chemical factors responsible for their toxic effects. In this work, we evaluated the toxicity of monodisperse citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs of different sizes (5, 15, 40, and 80 nm in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, upon ingestion. To properly evaluate and distinguish the possible dose- and/or size-dependent toxicity of the AuNPs, we performed a thorough assessment of their biological effects, using two different dose-metrics. In the first approach, we kept constant the total surface area of the differently sized AuNPs (Total Exposed Surface area approach, TES, while, in the second approach, we used the same number concentration of the four different sizes of AuNPs (Total Number of Nanoparticles approach, TNN. We observed a significant AuNPs-induced toxicity in vivo, namely a strong reduction of Drosophila lifespan and fertility performance, presence of DNA fragmentation, as well as a significant modification in the expression levels of genes involved in stress responses, DNA damage recognition and apoptosis pathway. Interestingly, we found that, within the investigated experimental conditions, the toxic effects in the exposed organisms were directly related to the concentration of the AuNPs administered, irrespective of their size.

  8. Green Synthesis of AgNPs Stabilized with biowaste and their antimicrobial activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakuleshwar Dut Jasuja

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, rapid reduction and stabilization of Ag+ ions with different NaOH molar concentration (0.5 mM, 1.0 mM and 1.5 mM has been carried out in the aqueous solution of silver nitrate by the bio waste peel extract of P.granatum. Generally, chemical methods used for the synthesis of AgNPs are quite toxic, flammable and have adverse effect in medical application but green synthesis is a better option due to eco-friendliness, non-toxicity and safe for human. Stable AgNPs were synthesized by treating 90 mL aqueous solution of 2 mM AgNO3 with the 5 mL plant peels extract (0.4% w/v at different NaOH concentration (5 mL. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, TEM and SEM. Further, antimicrobial activities of AgNPs were performed on Gram positive i.e. Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilius and Gram negative i.e. E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria. The AgNPs synthesized at 1.5 mM NaOH concentration had shown maximum zone of inhibition (ZOI i.e. 49 ± 0.64 in E. coli, whereas Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilius had shown 40 ± 0.29 mm, 28 ± 0.13 and 42 ± 0.49 mm ZOI respectively. The MIC value of 30 g/mL observed for E. coli Whereas, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilius and Pseudomonas aeruginosa had shown 45 µg/mL, 38 µg/mL, 35 µg/mL respectively. The study revealed that AgNPs had shown significant antimicrobial activity as compared to Streptomycin.

  9. Facile fabrication of AgNPs/(PVA/PEI) nanofibers: high electrochemical efficiency and durability for biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Han; Du, MingLiang; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Pan; Bao, ShiYong; Wang, LiNa; Fu, YaQin; Yao, JuMing

    2013-11-15

    A novel, facile and green approach for the fabrication of H2O2, glutathione (GSH) and glucose detection biosensor using water-stable PVA and PVA/PEI nanofibers decorated with AgNPs by combining an in situ reduction approach and electrospinning technique has been demonstrated. Small, uniform and well-dispersed AgNPs embedded in the PVA nanofibers and immobilized on functionalized PVA/PEI nanofibers indicate the highly sensitive detection of H2O2 with a detection limit of 5 μM and exhibit a fast response, broad linear range, low detection limit and excellent stability and reusability.

  10. NPS State Vector Analysis and Relative Motion Plotting Software for STS-51. Appendix C

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    vector *’tans -in, State -vector ftans-out, * double tans buf, int fbi, int point num, Perturbations *P) *This filter, created by Lou Zyla is designed to...main menu; ups menu displayWntO; return YES; static void ups display graphics(int graph mode) void upsdisplay~ grphics (int graph mode) if (nps ub~plot...in~graphics mode = YES; else if (ups graphics info.in graphics-mode = = NO) return; closegrapho; ups graphics info. in~ grphics mode =NO; void nps

  11. Influence of particle coating and matrix constituents on the cloud point extraction efficiency of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) and application for monitoring the formation of Ag-NPs from Ag(+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Georg; Baumgartner, Tanja; Schuster, Michael

    2014-01-01

    For the quantification of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) in environmental samples using cloud point extraction (CPE) for selective enrichment, surface modification of the Ag-NPs and matrix effects can play a key role. In this work we validate CPE with respect to the influence of different coatings and naturally occurring matrix components. The Ag-NPs tested were functionalized with inorganic and organic compounds as well as with biomolecules. Commercially available NPs and NPs synthesized according to methods published in the literature were used. We found that CPE can extract almost all Ag-NPs tested with very good efficiencies (82-105%). Only Ag-NPs functionalized with BSA (bovine serum albumin), which is a protein with the function to keep colloids in solution, cannot be extracted. No or little effect of environmentally relevant salts, organic matter, and inorganic colloids on the CPE of AgNPs was found. Additionally we used CPE to observe the in situ formation of Ag-NPs produced by the reduction of Ag(+) with natural organic matter (NOM).

  12. Green synthesis of AuNPs for eco-friendly functionalization of cellulosic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nabil A.; Eid, Basma M.; Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed S.

    2016-12-01

    In this research work, extracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using marine bacterial isolates (Streptomyces sp.) as a reducing/capping/stabilizing bio-agent and chlolauric acid (HAuCl4) as a precursor has been investigated. Surface modification of cotton and viscose knitted fabrics using O2-plasma followed by subsequent treatment with bio-synthesized AuNPs alone and in combination with TiO2NPs or ZnONPs to impart new functional properties namely antibacterial and UV-blocking were studied. The results show that loading of nominated nanomaterials onto the activated fabric samples results in a significant improvement in antibacterial activity against both G+ve (S. aureus) and G-ve (E. coli) along with a remarkable enhancement in the UV-protection functionality of the treated fabrics. The highest antibacterial and anti-UV values were obtained when O2-plasma treated fabrics were loaded with AuNPs/ZnONPs combination, irrespective of the used substrate. The imparted functional properties demonstrated remarkable retention even after 15 washings.

  13. 76 FR 62090 - Public Meeting for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... Education. 4. Climate Change Research. b. Subsistence Manager. c. Resource Management. 1. Wildlife (Musk Ox, Brown Bear, Sheep). 2. NPS Research/Studies. 3. Ranger Report (Education, Outreach and Visitor Protection). 9. Federal Subsistence Board Update. 10. Alaska Board of Game Update. 11. Old Business....

  14. New Tools for Characterizing Metallic Nanoparticles: AgNPs, A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fuenzalida, Rodrigo A; Moliner-Martínez, Yolanda; Molins-Legua, Carmen; Parada-Artigues, Vanesa; Verdú-Andrés, Jorge; Campins-Falcó, Pilar

    2016-01-19

    Currently, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is the main technique for estimating the sizes of spherical nanoparticles (NPs) and through them, their concentrations. This paper demonstrates for the first time that C18 reversed-phase capillary liquid chromatography (Cap-LC) coupled to diode array detection (DAD) has the potential to estimate mean concentrations of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and thereby determine their average size. Direct injection of the sample without previous extraction or separation steps is carried out. Only a unique standard with a known AgNP size is needed for the calibration. In a first approach, the new method has been tested over silver nanoparticles, produced using different methods of synthesis, and their water dilutions. Good results were achieved: relative errors ranged up to 5% compared with TEM. Also stability and functionality-related NP properties, as well as nonspherical AgNPs, can be studied using this method. Moreover, by coupling online in-tube solid-phase microextraction (IT-SPME) to Cap-LC-DAD, the effect of the dilution can be studied as particles distribute by polarity in two groups, a distribution that responds to average particle size of not only AgNPs, but also gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). In such a distribution, the average particle size is correlated with the peak area ratio. Additionally, besides higher sensitivity and concentration-dependent signals, IT-SPME-Cap-LC responds to changes in the particle's hydrodynamic diameter allowing, for instance, the detection of cationic surfactants. Size-exclusion and hydrophobic effects are the mechanisms involved to explain this behavior.

  15. Modification of Thin Film Composite (TFC) Membrane by Incorporation with Copper Nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) for Antibacterial Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chen

    Membrane biofouling has been a challenging problem restricting the application of reverse osmosis (RO) desalination process. Copper is known for its antimicrobial properties and is easily available with low cost. In this paper, copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) with a mean diameter of 15nm were synthesized by the reduction of copper (II) chloride with sodium borohydride (NaBH4), using cetyl trimethylammonium bromide ((C16H33)N(CH3) 3Br, CTAB) as a capping agent. After purification of Cu-NPs by dialysis, the particles were successfully immobilized onto the surface of thin film composite (TFC) membranes via either electrostatic interactions or by covalent bonding with cysteamine as a linker. The electrostatic method was simply to immerse the newly made TFC membranes to the Cu-NPs suspension. Since the CTAB had formed cationic bilayer outside the Cu-NPs, the Cu-NPs was not only adsorbed on the membranes but also attached to the surface because of the electrostatic effect with the negatively charged membrane surface. The covalent bonding method utilized cysteamine (C4H12N2S 2) to activate the thin film layer with thiol functional groups first and then incorporated the metallic copper nanoparticles to form the stable covalent chemical bonding in between. The resulting membranes by these two methods were labeled as TFC-CuNPs and TFC-S-CuNPs, respectively, in this study. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging and associated energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) showed that large amounts of Cu-NPs existed on both types of membranes. Surface hydrophilicity of the membranes was enhanced by the presence of Cu-NPs, as indicated by the measured contact angle of 63.25 +/- 0.75 for TFC, 38.63 +/- 2.16 for TFC-CuNPs, and 58.00 +/- 3.39 for TFC-S-CuNPs. Consistently, the water flux obtained from the RO desalination system was increased from 47.07 +/- 0.84 for TFC, 49.10 +/- 0.22 for TFC-CuNPs, and 69.13 +/- 1.43 for TFC-S-CuNPs, with this increase in hydrophilicity. The salt

  16. Study of fungicidal properties of colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs on trout egg pathogen, Saprolegnia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Johari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs are known to have bactericidal and fungicidal effects. Since, there is few information available on the interaction of colloidal nanosilver with fish pathogens. Hence, the current study investigated the effects of colloidal AgNPs on the in vitro growth of the fish pathogen Saprolegnia sp.. Before the experiments, various important properties of AgNPs were well-characterized. The antifungal activity of AgNPs was then evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs using two-fold serial dilutions of colloidal nanosilver in a glucose yeast extract agar at 22ºC. The growth of Saprolegnia sp. on the AgNPs agar treatments was compared to that of nanosilver-free agar as controls. The results showed that AgNPs have an inhibitory effect on the in vitro growth of the tested fungi. The MIC of AgNPs for Saprolegnia sp. was calculated at 1800 mg/L, which is equal to 0.18 percent. It seems that AgNPs could be a proper replacement for teratogenic and toxic agents, such as malachite green. In addition, the indirect use of AgNPs could be a useful method for providing new antifungal activity in aquaculture systems.

  17. Molecular control of TiO₂-NPs toxicity formation at predicted environmental relevant concentrations by Mn-SODs proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinxia Li

    Full Text Available With growing concerns of the safety of nanotechnology, the in vivo toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs at environmental relevant concentrations has drawn increasing attentions. We investigated the possible molecular mechanisms of titanium nanoparticles (Ti-NPs in the induction of toxicity at predicted environmental relevant concentrations. In nematodes, small sizes (4 nm and 10 nm of TiO₂-NPs induced more severe toxicities than large sizes (60 nm and 90 nm of TiO₂-NPs on animals using lethality, growth, reproduction, locomotion behavior, intestinal autofluorescence, and reactive oxygen species (ROS production as endpoints. Locomotion behaviors could be significantly decreased by exposure to 4-nm and 10-nm TiO₂-NPs at concentration of 1 ng/L in nematodes. Among genes required for the control of oxidative stress, only the expression patterns of sod-2 and sod-3 genes encoding Mn-SODs in animals exposed to small sizes TiO₂-NPs were significantly different from those in animals exposed to large sizes of TiO₂-NPs. sod-2 and sod-3 gene expressions were closely correlated with lethality, growth, reproduction, locomotion behavior, intestinal autofluorescence, and ROS production in TiO₂-NPs-exposed animals. Ectopically expression of human and nematode Mn-SODs genes effectively prevented the induction of ROS production and the development of toxicity of TiO₂-NPs. Therefore, the altered expression patterns of Mn-SODs may explain the toxicity formation for different sizes of TiO₂-NPs at predicted environmental relevant concentrations. In addition, we demonstrated here a strategy to investigate the toxicological effects of exposure to NPs upon humans by generating transgenic strains in nematodes for specific human genes.

  18. Dynorphin-dependent reduction of excitability and attenuation of inhibitory afferents of NPS neurons in the pericoerulear region of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay eJuengling

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Neuropeptide S system, consisting of the 20-amino acid peptide neuropeptide S (NPS and its G-protein coupled receptor (NPSR, modulates arousal, wakefulness, anxiety, and fear-extinction in mice. In addition, recent evidence indicates that the NPS system attenuates stress-dependent impairment of fear extinction, and that NPS-expressing neurons in close proximity to the locus coeruleus (pericoerulear, periLC region are activated by stress. Furthermore, periLC NPS neurons receive afferents from neurons of the centrolateral nucleus of the amygdala (CeL, of which a substantial population expresses the kappa opioid receptor (KOR ligand precursor prodynorphin. This study aims to identify the effect of the dynorphinergic system on NPS neurons in the periLC via pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms. Using electrophysiological recordings in mouse brain slices, we provide evidence that NPS neurons in the periLC region are directly inhibited by dynorphin A via activation of κ-opioid receptor 1 (KOR1 and a subsequent increase of potassium conductances. Thus, the dynorphinergic system is suited to inactivate NPS neurons in the periLC. In addition to this direct, somatic effect, dynorphin A reduces the efficacy of GABAergic synapses on NPS neurons via KOR1 and KOR2. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence for the interaction of the NPS and the kappa opioid system in the periLC. Therefore, the endogenous opioid dynorphin is suited to inhibit NPS neurons with a subsequent decrease in NPS release in putative target regions leading to a variety of physiological consequences such as increased anxiety or vulnerability to stress exposure.

  19. Identification and characterization of another 4-nitrophenol degradation gene cluster, nps, in Rhodococcus sp. strain PN1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kenta; Nishimura, Munehiro; Kato, Dai-ichiro; Takeo, Masahiro; Negoro, Seiji

    2011-06-01

    4-Nitrophenol (4-NP) is a toxic compound formed in soil by the hydrolysis of organophosphorous pesticides, such as parathion. We previously reported the presence of the 4-NP degradation gene cluster (nphRA1A2) in Rhodococcus sp. strain PN1, which encodes a two-component 4-NP hydroxylase system that oxidizes 4-NP into 4-nitrocatechol. In the current study, another gene cluster (npsC and npsRA2A1B) encoding a similar 4-NP hydroxylase system was cloned from strain PN1. The enzymes from this 4-NP hydroxylase system (NpsA1 and NpsA2) were purified as histidine-tagged (His-) proteins and then characterized. His-NpsA2 showed NADH/FAD oxidoreductase activity, and His-NpsA1 showed 4-NP oxidizing activity in the presence of His-NpsA2. In the 4-NP oxidation using the reconstituted enzyme system (His-NpsA1 and His-NpsA2), hydroquinone (35% of 4-NP disappeared) and hydroxyquinol (59% of 4-NP disappeared) were detected in the presence of ascorbic acid as a reducing reagent, suggesting that, without the reducing reagent, 4-NP was converted into their oxidized forms, 1,4-benzoquinone and 2-hydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone. In addition, in the cell extract of recombinant Escherichia coli expressing npsB, a typical spectral change showing conversion of hydroxyquinol into maleylacetate was observed. These results indicate that this nps gene cluster, in addition to the nph gene cluster, is also involved in 4-NP degradation in strain PN1.

  20. Biological studies and electrical conductivity of paper sheet based on PANI/PS/Ag-NPs nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, A M; Mohamed, S A; Abdel-Aziz, M S; Abdel-Aziz, M E; Turky, G; Kamel, S

    2016-08-20

    Polyaniline (PANI) with/without polystyrene (PS), was successfully manufactured in the occurrence of dispersed pulp fibers via the oxidative polymerization reaction of aniline monomer to produce conductive paper sheets containing PANI, PANI/PS composites. Additionally, sliver nitrate (Ag-NO3) was added by varied loadings to the oxidative polymerization of aniline monomer to provide sliver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) emptied into the prepared paper sheets. The prepared paper sheets were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (IR), the mechanical properties of the prepared paper sheets were evaluated. Moreover, the electrical conductivity and biological studies such as cellulases assay, Microorganism & culture condition and detection of the released of Ag-NPs were evaluated. Furthermore, the prepared paper sheets were displayed good antibacterial properties contrary to gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Consequently, the prepared paper sheet may be used as novel materials for packaging applications.

  1. Monitoring new psychoactive substances (NPS) in The Netherlands : data from the drug market and the Poisons Information Centre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondebrink, Laura|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833134; Nugteren-van Lonkhuyzen, Annette; Van Der Gouwe, Daan; Brunt, Tibor M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In recent years, the number of new psychoactive substances (NPS) appearing on the illicit drug market strongly increased. However, little is known about their toxic effects and risks. Therefore, we determined the most frequently occurring NPS in The Netherlands and combined this with dat

  2. Monitoring new psychoactive substances (NPS) in The Netherlands : data from the drug market and the Poisons Information Centre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondebrink, Laura; Nugteren-van Lonkhuyzen, Annette; Van Der Gouwe, Daan; Brunt, Tibor M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In recent years, the number of new psychoactive substances (NPS) appearing on the illicit drug market strongly increased. However, little is known about their toxic effects and risks. Therefore, we determined the most frequently occurring NPS in The Netherlands and combined this with

  3. Monitoring new psychoactive substances (NPS) in The Netherlands : data from the drug market and the Poisons Information Centre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondebrink, Laura; Nugteren-van Lonkhuyzen, Annette; Van Der Gouwe, Daan; Brunt, Tibor M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In recent years, the number of new psychoactive substances (NPS) appearing on the illicit drug market strongly increased. However, little is known about their toxic effects and risks. Therefore, we determined the most frequently occurring NPS in The Netherlands and combined this with dat

  4. The Information Revolution Planning for Institutional Change, The NPS Information Technology Strategic Plan / FY 2003

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The Joint Vision of NPS outlines the future goals for the institution within the context of national priorities and defines academic goals through excellence in scholarly accomplishment and peer recognition. It requires that our faculty and staff are experienced in using modern technologies for teaching and learning. We must nurture and sustain efforts in high performance computing, multi-media technology, educational technology, and the technology of distance education.

  5. Low-Speed Wind Tunnel Testing of the NPS/NASA Ames Mach 6 Optimized Waverider

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-16

    Specifically, thanks to Prof. Richard M. Howard for providing wind tunnel equipment and guidance necessary to run the tests. Thanks to Mr. Jack King for...tuft in the column. However, each tuft was mounted perpendicular to the centerline. Professor Richard Howard, NPS Department of Aeronautical and...axial.arrayl(), sone.arrmyl() COMMON SHARF .? stwo.Arrayl(), rm.arraylf() 72 DECLARE S"P volt (nonol, nftwn, axisa], sonel, Rtwol, rml) SCREEN 9, 0 CAIIPRATION

  6. Cell uptake, intracellular distribution, fate and reactive oxygen species generation of polymer brush engineered CeO2-x NPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yuan; Rojas, Elena; Murray, Richard A.; Irigoyen, Joseba; Gregurec, Danijela; Castro-Hartmann, Pablo; Fledderman, Jana; Estrela-Lopis, Irina; Donath, Edwin; Moya, Sergio E.

    2015-04-01

    Cerium Oxide nanoparticles (CeO2-x NPs) are modified with polymer brushes of negatively charged poly (3-sulfopropylmethacrylate) (PSPM) and positively charged poly (2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl-trimethylammonium chloride) (PMETAC) by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerisation (ATRP). CeO2-x NPs are fluorescently labelled by covalently attaching Alexa Fluor® 488/Fluorescein isothiocyanate to the NP surface prior to polymerisation. Cell uptake, intracellular distribution and the impact on the generation of intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) with respect to CeO2-x NPs are studied by means of Raman Confocal Microscopy (CRM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). PSPM and PMETAC coated CeO2-x NPs show slower and less uptake compared to uncoated Brush modified NPs display a higher degree of co-localisation with cell endosomes and lysosomes after 24 h of incubation. They also show higher co-localisation with lipid bodies when compared to unmodified CeO2-x NPs. The brush coating does not prevent CeO2-x NPs from displaying antioxidant properties.Cerium Oxide nanoparticles (CeO2-x NPs) are modified with polymer brushes of negatively charged poly (3-sulfopropylmethacrylate) (PSPM) and positively charged poly (2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl-trimethylammonium chloride) (PMETAC) by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerisation (ATRP). CeO2-x NPs are fluorescently labelled by covalently attaching Alexa Fluor® 488/Fluorescein isothiocyanate to the NP surface prior to polymerisation. Cell uptake, intracellular distribution and the impact on the generation of intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) with respect to CeO2-x NPs are studied by means of Raman Confocal Microscopy (CRM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). PSPM and PMETAC coated CeO2-x NPs show slower and less uptake compared to uncoated Brush modified NPs display a higher degree of co-localisation with cell

  7. Photocurrent Enhancement of P3HT:PCBM Organic Solar Cell with Cylindrical Ag-NPs by EBM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gye-Choon

    2015-08-01

    The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of PSS/P3HT:PCBM organic solar cells(SCs) with Ag nanoparticles (NPs) on ITO is studied, and the optical absorption of the SCs with a cylindrical Ag-NPs model is investigated. The fabricated device structure is simulated with a finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. This cylindrical Ag-NPs model is able to explain the photocurrent enhancement by the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) modes, and to provide a further understanding of Ag-NPs shape parameters which play an important role to determine the broadband absorption phenomena in plasmonic organic solar cells. Compared with the SCs without Ag-NPs, an increase in the PCE of the plasmonic solar cell was accurately identified. The photocurrent-voltage characteristic of the examined solar cells reveals higher efficiency of 2.75% compared with the reference cells which show 1.67%.

  8. Chronic ZnO-NPs exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations results in metabolic and locomotive toxicities in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Wei; Li, Shang-Wei; Hsiu-Chuan Liao, Vivian

    2017-01-01

    ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) are emerging contaminants that raise the concerns of potential risk in the aquatic environment. It has been estimated that the environmental ZnO-NPs concentration is 76 μg/l in the aquatic environment. Our aim was to determine the aquatic toxicity of ZnO-NPs with chronic exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Two simulated environmentally relevant mediums-moderately hard reconstituted water (EPA water) and simulated soil pore water (SSPW)-were used to represent surface water and pore water in sediment, respectively. The results showed that the ZnO-NPs in EPA water has a much smaller hydrodynamic diameter than that in SSPW. Although the ionic release of Zn ions increased time-dependently in both mediums, the Zn ions concentrations in EPA water increased two-fold more than that in SSPW at 48 h and 72 h. The ZnO-NPs did not induce growth defects or decrease head thrashes in C. elegans in either media. However, chronic exposure to ZnO-NPs caused a significant reduction in C. elegans body bends in EPA water even with a relatively low concentration (0.05 μg/l); similar results were not observed in SSPW. Moreover, at the same concentrations (50 and 500 μg/l), body bends in C. elegans were reduced more severely in ZnO-NPs than in ZnCl2 in EPA water. The ATP levels were consistently and significantly decreased, and ROS was induced after ZnO-NPs exposure (50 and 500 μg/l) in EPA water. Our results provide evidences that chronic exposure to ZnO-NPs under environmentally relevant concentrations causes metabolic and locomotive toxicities implicating the potential ecotoxicity of ZnO-NPs at low concentrations in aquatic environments.

  9. Rapid Biosynthesis of AgNPs Using Soil Bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii With Promising Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, Gopalu; Jagathambal, Matheswaran; Gusev, Alexander; Torres, Juan Antonio Lopez; Kolesnikov, Evgeny; Kuznetsov, Denis

    2017-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are applied in various fields from electronics to biomedical applications as a result of their high surface-to-volume ratio. Even though different approaches are available for synthesis of AgNPs, a nontoxic method for the synthesis has not yet been developed. Thus, this study focused on developing an easy and ecofriendly approach to synthesize AgNPs using Azotobacter vinelandii culture extracts. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were further characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), energy-dispersive spectrum, particle size distribution (PSD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). UV absorption noticed at 435 nm showed formation of AgNPs. The XRD pattern showed a face-centered cubic structure with broad peaks of 28.2°, 32.6°, 46.6°, 55.2°, 57.9°, and 67.8°. The FTIR confirmed the involvement of various functional groups in the biosynthesis of AgNPs. The PSD and TEM analyses showed spherical, well-distributed nanoparticles with an average size of 20-70 nm. The elemental studies confirmed the existence of pure AgNPs. The bacterial extract containing extracellular enzyme nitrate reductase converted silver nitrate into AgNPs. AgNPs significantly inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Streptomyces fradiae (National Collection of Industrial Microorganisms (NCIM) 2419), Staphylococcus aureus (NCIM 2127), Escherichia coli (NCIM 2065), and Serratia marcescens (NCIM 2919). In addition, biosynthesized AgNPs were found to possess strong antioxidant activity. Thus, the results of this study revealed that biosynthesized AgNPs could serve as a lead in the development of nanomedicine.

  10. Rapid Biosynthesis of AgNPs Using Soil Bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii With Promising Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, Gopalu; Jagathambal, Matheswaran; Gusev, Alexander; Torres, Juan Antonio Lopez; Kolesnikov, Evgeny; Kuznetsov, Denis

    2016-11-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are applied in various fields from electronics to biomedical applications as a result of their high surface-to-volume ratio. Even though different approaches are available for synthesis of AgNPs, a nontoxic method for the synthesis has not yet been developed. Thus, this study focused on developing an easy and ecofriendly approach to synthesize AgNPs using Azotobacter vinelandii culture extracts. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were further characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), energy-dispersive spectrum, particle size distribution (PSD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). UV absorption noticed at 435 nm showed formation of AgNPs. The XRD pattern showed a face-centered cubic structure with broad peaks of 28.2°, 32.6°, 46.6°, 55.2°, 57.9°, and 67.8°. The FTIR confirmed the involvement of various functional groups in the biosynthesis of AgNPs. The PSD and TEM analyses showed spherical, well-distributed nanoparticles with an average size of 20-70 nm. The elemental studies confirmed the existence of pure AgNPs. The bacterial extract containing extracellular enzyme nitrate reductase converted silver nitrate into AgNPs. AgNPs significantly inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Streptomyces fradiae (National Collection of Industrial Microorganisms (NCIM) 2419), Staphylococcus aureus (NCIM 2127), Escherichia coli (NCIM 2065), and Serratia marcescens (NCIM 2919). In addition, biosynthesized AgNPs were found to possess strong antioxidant activity. Thus, the results of this study revealed that biosynthesized AgNPs could serve as a lead in the development of nanomedicine.

  11. n vivo retention of ingested Au NPs by Daphnia magna: No evidence for trans-epithelial alimentary uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farhan R.; Kennaway, Gabrielle M.; Croteau, Marie-Noële; Dybowska, Agnieszka; Smith, Brian D.; Nogueira, António J.A.; Rainbow, Philip S.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    In vivo studies with Daphnia magna remain inconclusive as to whether engineered nanoparticles (NPs) are internalized into tissues after ingestion. Here we used a three-pronged approach to study the in vivo retention and efflux kinetics of 20 nm citrate stabilized Au NPs ingested by this key aquatic species. Daphnids were exposed to suspended particles (600 μg L−1) for 5 h after which they were depurated for 24 h in clean water containing algae. Light microscopy was used to follow the passage of Au NPs through the gastrointestinal tract, Au body burdens were determined by ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to examine the presence and distribution of Au NPs in tissues. Results revealed that the elimination of Au NPs was bi-phasic. The fast elimination phase lasted −1 (±SE) which accounted for ∼75% of the ingested Au. The remaining ∼25% of the ingested Au NPs was eliminated at a 100-fold slower rate. TEM analysis revealed that Au NPs in the midgut were in close proximity to the peritrophic membrane after 1 and 24 h of depuration. There were no observations of Au NP uptake at the microvilli. Thus, although Au NPs were retained in the gut lumen, there was no observable internalization into the gut epithelial cells. Similar to carbon nanotubes and CuO NPs, our findings indicate that in daphnids the in vivo retention of Au NPs does not necessarily result in their internalization.

  12. Study on the Effect of γ-Irradiation on Gadolinium Oxysulfide Nanophosphors (Gd2O2S-NPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hassyakirin Hasim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gadolinium oxysulfide nanophosphors (Gd2O2S-NPs have been successfully synthesized using γ-irradiation and hydrogenation treatment. The primary stage of Gd2O2S-NPs synthesis was carried out using various doses of γ-irradiation to form diverse sizes of Gd2(SO43 precursor, followed by hydrogenation treatment at 900°C for 2 hours to form Gd2O2S-NPs. Then, the nanophosphors were characterized for the structure, morphology, and luminescence properties through X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, and photoluminescence spectrometer (PL. Pure hexagonal phase of Gd2O2S-NPs was obtained with high crystallinity and without any impurities. The morphologies were observed from grain-like nanostructures transformed to spherical shape as the irradiation dose reached 40 kGy. Besides, Gd2O2S-NPs which were prepared at highest irradiation dose of 40 kGy show highest intensity of emission peak at 548 nm and corresponded to Stark level transition from the GJ6 state of Gd3+ ion. It can be emphasized that the different doses of γ-irradiation influenced the nucleation event of Gd2(SO43 precursor thus affecting the morphology and size particles of Gd2O2S-NPs. Hence, from the results, it can be suggested that Gd2O2S-NPs can be a promising host for optical applications.

  13. Structural, chemical and optical properties of SnO2 NPs obtained by three different synthesis routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzymała, Elżbieta; Gruzeł, Grzegorz; Depciuch, Joanna; Budziak, Andrzej; Kowal, Andrzej; Parlinska-Wojtan, Magdalena

    2017-08-01

    Polyol (P), chemical precipitation (C) and microwave-assisted (M) syntheses were chosen to produce SnO2 nanoparticles with uniform size and minimum agglomeration. Their structural, chemical and optical properties were investigated using dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), Raman, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) using the Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) technique and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopies. STEM observations showed that the SnO2(P) and SnO2(C) nanoparticles (NPs) are combined into larger agglomerates with heterogeneous thickness, while the microwave-assisted NPs form a uniform thin layer across the TEM grid. The strongest agglomeration of the SnO2(C) NPs, observed by DLS, STEM and UV-Vis is explained by the very moderate amount of water present on the surface of the NPs identified by FTIR spectroscopy. High resolution STEM combined with SAED and X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns confirmed the crystalline character of the NPs. In the nanoparticles from polyol synthesis, chlorine from the remains of metal precursors during reduction was detected by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), contrary to the NPs obtained by the chemical precipitation and microwave-assisted methods. All three syntheses routes lead to small, 2-10 nm SnO2 NPs, which were the result of the low concentration of Cl ions in the solutions.

  14. Ratiometric fluorescence detection of superoxide anion based on AuNPs-BSA@Tb/GMP nanoscale coordination polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nan; Hao, Juan; Cai, Keying; Zeng, Mulan; Huang, Zhenzhong; Chen, Lili; Peng, Bingxian; Li, Ping; Wang, Li; Song, Yonghai

    2017-08-03

    A novel ratiometric fluorescence nanosensor for superoxide anion (O2(•-) ) detection was designed with gold nanoparticles-bovine serum albumin (AuNPs-BSA)@terbium/guanosine monophosphate disodium (Tb/GMP) nanoscale coordination polymers (NCPs) (AuNPs-BSA@Tb/GMP NCPs). The abundant hydroxyl and amino groups of AuNPs-BSA acted as binding points for the self-assembly of Tb(3+) and GMP to form core-shell AuNPs-BSA@Tb/GMP NCP nanosensors. The obtained probe exhibited the characteristic fluorescence emission of both AuNPs-BSA and Tb/GMP NCPs. The AuNPs-BSA not only acted as a template to accelerate the growth of Tb/GMP NCPs, but also could be used as the reference fluorescence for the detection of O2(•-) . The resulting AuNPs-BSA@Tb/GMP NCP ratiometric fluorescence nanosensor for the detection of O2(•-) demonstrated high sensitivity and selectivity with a wide linear response range (14 nM-10 μM) and a low detection limit (4.7 nM). Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. The effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on proliferation and apoptosis of in ovo cultured glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbańska, Kaja; Pająk, Beata; Orzechowski, Arkadiusz; Sokołowska, Justyna; Grodzik, Marta; Sawosz, Ewa; Szmidt, Maciej; Sysa, Paweł

    2015-03-01

    Recently, it has been shown that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) provide a unique approach to the treatment of tumors, especially those of neuroepithelial origin. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of AgNPs on proliferation and activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells cultured in an in ovo model. Human GBM cells, line U-87, were placed on chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane. After 8 days, the tumors were divided into three groups: control (non-treated), treated with colloidal AgNPs (40 μg/ml), and placebo (tumors supplemented with vehicle only). At the end of the experiment, all tumors were isolated. Assessment of cell proliferation and cell apoptosis was estimated by histological, immunohistochemical, and Western blot analyses. The results show that AgNPs can influence GBM growth. AgNPs inhibit proliferation of GBM cells and seem to have proapoptotic properties. Although there were statistically significant differences between control and AgNP groups in the AI and the levels of active caspase 9 and active caspase 3, the level of these proteins in GBM cells treated with AgNPs seems to be on the border between the spontaneous apoptosis and the induced. Our results indicate that the antiproliferative properties of silver nanoparticles overwhelm proapoptotic ones. Further research focused on the cytotoxic effect of AgNPs on tumor and normal cells should be conducted.

  16. Identification of new psychoactive substances (NPS) using handheld Raman spectroscopy employing both 785 and 1064nm laser sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirguis, Amira; Girotto, Sarah; Berti, Benedetta; Stair, Jacqueline L

    2017-02-04

    The chemical identification of new psychoactive substances (NPS) in the field is challenging due not only to the plethora of substances available, but also as a result of the chemical complexity of products and the chemical similarity of NPS analogues. In this study, handheld Raman spectroscopy and the use of two excitation wavelengths, 785 and 1064nm, were evaluated for the identification of 60 NPS products. The products contained a range of NPS from classes including the aminoindanes, arylalkylamines, benzodiazepines, and piperidines & pyrrolidines. Identification was initially assessed using the instruments' in built algorithm (i.e., % HQI) and then further by visual inspection of the Raman spectra. Confirmatory analysis was preformed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. For the 60 diverse products, an NPS was successfully identified via the algorithm in 11 products (18%) using the 785nm source and 29 products (48%) using the 1064nm source. Evaluation of the Raman spectra showed that increasing the excitation wavelength from 785 to 1064nm improved this 'first pass' identification primarily due to a significant reduction in fluorescence, which increased S/N of the characteristic peaks of the substance identified. True positive correlations between internet products and NPS signatures ranged from 57.0 to 91.3% HQI with typical RSDs<10%. Tablet formulations and branded products were particularly challenging as a result of low NPS concentration and high chemical complexity, respectively. This study demonstrates the advantage of using a 1064nm source with handheld Raman spectroscopy for improved 'first pass' NPS identification when minimal spectral processing is required, such as when working in field. Future investigations will focus on the use of mixture algorithms, effect of NPS concentration, and further improvement of spectral libraries.

  17. Investigations of spherical Cu NPs in sodium lauryl sulphate with Tb{sup 3+} ions dispersed in PVA films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Brijesh; Kaur, Gagandeep, E-mail: gagandeep_bhu@yahoo.com; Rai, S.B., E-mail: sbrai49@yahoo.co.in

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Cu NPs were prepared in SDS using 1064 nm laser radiation at fluence 37, 64 and 88 J/cm{sup 2}. • Spherical Cu NPs with average diameter varying between 10 and 50 nm atdifferent fluence. • PL of Tb3+ ions in PVA polymer film is maximum with Cu NPS at fluence 37 J/cm{sup 2}. • PVA films of Cu NPs displayed a highly temperature-dependent electrical conductivity. • These copper NPs embedded PVA films can be used as novel, low-cost sensor materials. - Abstract: Cu nanoparticles (NPs) have been prepared in SDS solution using 1064 nm laser radiation at different fluence 37 J/cm{sup 2}, 64 J/cm{sup 2} and 88 J/cm{sup 2} and structurally characterized. The TEM measurements reveal the presence of nanoparticles of spherical shape with different size. The size of the nanoparticles and their concentration increases with the increase of fluence.The effect of these Cu nanoparticles on the emissive properties of Tb{sup 3+} ion in polymer films has been studied. It is found that emission intensity of Tb{sup 3+} first increases and then deceases both with concentration of Cu NPs as well as with sizes. The PL intensity of Tb{sup 3+} ions is minimum for Cu NPs prepared with highest fluence. It has been explained in term of local field effect. This was also verified by life time measurements. These thin PVA films of copper nanoparticles displayed a highly temperature-dependent electrical conductivity with sensitivity at least comparable to commercial materials which suggest the use of these copper NPs embedded PVA films as novel, low-cost sensor materials.

  18. Impact of bio-palladium nanoparticles (bio-Pd NPs) on the activity and structure of a marine microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzo, Andrea; Hosseinkhani, Baharak; Boon, Nico; Zanaroli, Giulio; Fava, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Biogenic palladium nanoparticles (bio-Pd NPs) represent a promising catalyst for organohalide remediation in water and sediments. However, the available information regarding their possible impact in case of release into the environment, particularly on the environmental microbiota, is limited. In this study the toxicity of bio-Pd NPs on the model marine bacterium V. fischeri was assessed. The impacts of different concentrations of bio-Pd NPs on the respiratory metabolisms (i.e. organohalide respiration, sulfate reduction and methanogenesis) and the structure of a PCB-dechlorinating microbial community enriched form a marine sediment were also investigated in microcosms mimicking the actual sampling site conditions. Bio-Pd NPs had no toxic effect on V. fischeri. In addition, they had no significant effects on PCB-dehalogenating activity, while showing a partial, dose-dependent inhibitory effect on sulfate reduction as well as on methanogenesis. No toxic effects by bio-Pd NPs could be also observed on the total bacterial community structure, as its biodiversity was increased compared to the not exposed community. In addition, resilience of the microbial community to bio-Pd NPs exposure was observed, being the final community organization (Gini coefficient) of samples exposed to bio-Pd NPs similar to that of the not exposed one. Considering all the factors evaluated, bio-Pd NPs could be deemed as non-toxic to the marine microbiota in the conditions tested. This is the first study in which the impact of bio-Pd NPs is extensively evaluated over a microbial community in relevant environmental conditions, providing important information for the assessment of their environmental safety.

  19. Influence of HCl on the NPs-CdSe synthesis prepared by the colloidal method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sarmiento Arellano

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium selenide nanoparticles (NPs-CdSe were synthesized by colloidal route at room temperature and atmospheric pressure using cadmium chloride (CdCl2·2.5 hydrate and elemental selenium (Se as precursors. Sodium borohydride (NaBH4 was used as reducing agent to obtain Se2− ions and an aqueous solution with a NaOH and Penta sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP was used to protect Cd2+ ions. To remove the by-products generated during the chemical reaction and to promote the precipitation of NPs-CdSe, a cleaning process with an aqueous solution of HCl was performed. The HCl volume was varied from 0.2 to 1.2 ml during the cleaning process to study its effects on CdSe synthesis. The crystalline structure was analyzed by inspection of the high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. This analysis showed that crystals of CdSe exhibit a face-centered cubic structure (FCC. The calculated crystallite size is 3.5 nm and increases to 4.5 nm as the HCl volume increases. The morphologies of the products were observed by SEM and TEM techniques. HRTEM images showed that NPs-CdSe synthetized to 0.8 ml are composed of a great number of homogeneous and smooth nanospheres which are not appreciable in SEM but are observable in TEM. By contrast, 0.2 and 1.2 ml HCl samples are comprised of a great deal of rods of compounds of Se mixed with CdSe spheres nanostructures. This work, which did not require the use of surfactants complexes or specials environment, is considered to have advantages over other works.

  20. Colorimetric detection of melamine based on p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid-modified AuNPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianfang; Huang, Pengcheng; Wu, Fangying

    2016-06-01

    A highly selective and sensitive method is developed for colorimetric detection of melamine using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functionalized with p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid. The addition of melamine induced the aggregation of AuNPs, as evidenced from the morphological characterizations and the color changed from red wine to blue, which could also be monitored by the UV-visible spectrometer and even naked eyes. This process caused a significant increase in the absorbance ratio (A650nm/A520nm) of p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid-AuNPs. Under optimized conditions, the system exhibited a linear response to melamine in the range of 6.0 × 10-7-1.5 × 10-6 mol L-1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.997, and the limit of detection can even be 2.3 nM, which was much lower than some other methods and the safe limits (20 μM in both the USA and EU, 8.0 μM for infant formula in China, 1.2 μM in the CAC (Codex Alimentarius Commission) review for melamine in liquid infant formula). More importantly, the developed method presented excellent tolerance to coexisting common metal ions such as Ca2+, Zn2+, whose concentration is 1000 times of melamine, so that it had been applied to the analysis of melamine in liquid milk and milk powder with the recovery of 97.0-101 % and 100-103 %, respectively, indicating that the proposed method is quite a highly effective means to determine melamine in milk products.

  1. Spectroscopic probe to contribution of physicochemical transformations in the toxicity of aged ZnO NPs to Chlorella vulgaris: new insight into the variation of toxicity of ZnO NPs under aging process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Huang, Qing; Xu, An; Wu, Lijun

    2016-10-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are one of the most abundantly applied nanomaterials in nanotechnology-based industries and they may cause unexpected environmental and health risks with their physicochemical transformations in the environment. Currently, there is still a lack of the in-depth understanding of the toxicity of aged ZnO NPs to aquatic organisms, particularly demanding quantitative analysis of the physicochemical transformations to distinguish their contributions in the toxicity assessment. For this purpose, therefore, we initiated the study of the toxicity of aged ZnO NPs to the model aquatic microalga, i.e. Chlorella vulgaris, and with the aid of spectroscopic tools for characterization and quantification of the physicochemical transformations, we scrutinized the toxicity variations for ZnO NPs with different aging times. As a result, we found that the toxicity altered in an abnormal manner with the aging time, i.e. the toxicity of aged ZnO NPs for 30 days showed the higher toxicity to the green alga than the fresh ZnO NPs or the ZnO NPs aged for longer time (e.g. 120 and 210 days). Through spectroscopic tools such as XRD, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, we made both the qualitative and quantitative assessments of the physicochemical changes of the ZnO NPs, and confirmed that in the early stage, the toxicity mainly stemmed from the release of zinc ions, but with longer aging time, the neoformation of the nanoparticles played the critical role, leading to the overall reduced toxicity due to the less toxic hydrozincite and zinc hydroxide in the transformed compounds.

  2. Controlling the Nanoscale Patterning of AuNPs on Silicon Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris J. Allender

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the effectiveness of vapour-phase deposition for creating sub-monolayer coverage of aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES on silicon in order to exert control over subsequent gold nanoparticle deposition. Surface coverage was evaluated indirectly by observing the extent to which gold nanoparticles (AuNPs deposited onto the modified silicon surface. By varying the distance of the silicon wafer from the APTES source and concentration of APTES in the evaporating media, control over subsequent gold nanoparticle deposition was achievable to an extent. Fine control over AuNP deposition (AuNPs/μm2 however, was best achieved by adjusting the ionic concentration of the AuNP-depositing solution. Furthermore it was demonstrated that although APTES was fully removed from the silicon surface following four hours incubation in water, the gold nanoparticle-amino surface complex was stable under the same conditions. Atomic force microscopy (AFM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS were used to study these affects.

  3. The inhibitory effect of disulfiram encapsulated PLGA NPs on tumor growth: Different administration routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasehee, Hamidreza; Zarrinrad, Ghazaleh; Tavangar, Seyed Mohammad; Ghaffari, Seyed Hamidollah; Faghihi, Shahab

    2016-06-01

    The strong anticancer activity of disulfiram is hindered by its rapid degradation in blood system. A novel folate-receptor-targeted poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) nanoparticle (NP) is developed for encapsulation and delivery of disulfiram into breast cancer tumor using passive (EPR effect) and active (folate receptor) targeting. The anticancer activity of disulfiram and its effect on caspase-3 activity and cell cycle are studied. The administration of encapsulated PLGA NPs using intra-peritoneal, intravenous and intra-tumor routes is investigated using animal model. Disulfiram shows strong cytotoxicity against MCF7 cell line. The activity of caspase-3 inhibited with disulfiram via dose dependent manner while the drug causes cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 and S phase time-dependently. The encapsulated disulfiram shows higher activity in apoptosis induction as compared to free drug. In nontoxic dose of encapsulated disulfiram, the highest and lowest efficacy of NPs in tumor growth inhibition is observed for intravenous injection and intraperitoneal injection. It is suggested that administration of disulfiram by targeted PLGA nanoparticles using intravenous injection would present an alternative therapeutic approach for solid tumor treatment.

  4. Surface-Renewable AgNPs/CNT/rGO Nanocomposites as Bifunctional Impedimetric Sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Azadeh Azadbakht; Amir Reza Abbasi; Zohreh Derikvand; Ziba Karimi; Mahmoud Roushani

    2017-01-01

    In this study, glassy carbon electrode modified by silver nanoparticles/carbon nanotube/reduced graphene oxide (AgNPs/CNT/rGO) composite has been utilized as a platform to immobilize cis-dioxomolybdenum (VI)–salicylaldehyde-histidine (MoO2/Sal-His). The modified electrode shows two reversible redox couples for MoO2/Sal-His. Electrocatalytic oxidation of cysteine (CySH) and electrocatalytic reduction of iodate on the surface of the modified electrode were investigated with cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods. The presence of MoO2/Sal-His on AgNPs/CNT/rGO shifted the catalytic current of iodate reduction to a more positive potential and the catalytic current of cysteine oxidation to a more negative potential. The change of interfacial charge transfer resistance (Rct) recorded by the modified electrode was monitored for sensitive quantitative detection of CySH and iodate. Moreover, the sensor has a good stability, and it can be renewed easily and repeatedly through a mechanical or electrochemical process.

  5. Enhance antimicrobial activity of ZnO nanomaterial's (QDs and NPs) and their analytical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Rizwan; Khan, Farheen; Lutfullah; Singh, R. B.; Khan, Asif

    2014-08-01

    The small scale nanomaterial's such as quantum dots and nanoparticles, which have unique properties studied under varying conditions. Various techniques were used in order to best understand the structure of ZnO nanoparticles and quantum dots, which inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli bacteria under dose dependent manner. The results of obtained datas were confirmed with statistical analytical methods. The linear regressive equation data obtained from UV-visible spectra, which give satisfactory results and allows to quickly and easily calculate statistical datas such as: concentration range of analytes, mean, standard deviation, variance and standard analytical error, relative standard deviation, coefficient of correlation, variance of regression line errors in the slope and the intercept, confidence limit for the slope and the intercept. Instead, validation is an important trait measure by any methods due to near to the quality of results. The proposed method validated by specificity, precision, accuracy, limit detection and quantitation. The absorption spectra of sample solution were recorded maximum absorbance for both nanoparticles (NPs) and quantum dots (QDs) at ʎmax 600 nm, this wavelength was suitable and selected for all operational analytical measurements. The size and shape of the prepared NPs and QDs were examined with sophisticated instruments such as FESEM and TEM, whereas crystallinity of the prepared materials was analyzed with X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD).

  6. NPS: A Tested Platform for Political Transformation Against Anger & Apathy in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allah Nawaz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Political inaction is a major ‘Barrier’ to the progress of democratic values and systems in a society. It is more critical in the developing countries like Pakistan. A huge body of research on political apathy and anger in Pakistan is reporting over and over on the causes and consequences of this pathetic psychology. All that is true however, rays of hope are always there provided nations continue searching for the opportunities through scientific and rigorous research accompanied with sincerity and sense of responsibility at all the decision making levels of the state. This paper postulates a solution model for the issue in the perspectives of Pakistan by capitalizing on the role of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT in the Instant Political Transformation of the developing countries like Egypt & Lybia. The New Public Sphere (NPS is populated with Global Civil Society (GCS where International Citizens are connected together 24/7 from any corner of the Global Village and involved in use of ICT for Social Activism. Pakistan now has millions of Internet and Cell-users who are the part of GCS and waiting for a ‘Trigger’ to switch from the ‘Informal Activism to Formal & Political Activism’ through NPS.

  7. The utilization of SiNWs/AuNPs-modified indium tin oxide (ITO) in fabrication of electrochemical DNA sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Jahwarhar Izuan Abdul [Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Chemistry and Biology, Centre for Defense Foundation Studies, National Defense University of Malaysia, Sungai Besi Camp, 57000 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Yusof, Nor Azah, E-mail: azahy@upm.edu.my [Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Abdullah, Jaafar [Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Hashim, Uda [Institute of Nanoelectronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Hajian, Reza, E-mail: rezahajian@upm.edu.my [Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-12-01

    This work describes the incorporation of SiNWs/AuNPs composite as a sensing material for DNA detection on indium tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass slide. The morphology of SiNWs/AuNPs composite as the modifier layer on ITO was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The morphological studies clearly showed that SiNWs were successfully decorated with 20 nm-AuNPs using self-assembly monolayer (SAM) technique. The effective surface area for SiNWs/AuNPs-modified ITO enhanced about 10 times compared with bare ITO electrode. SiNWs/AuNPs nanocomposite was further explored as a matrix for DNA probe immobilization in detection of dengue virus as a bio-sensing model to evaluate its performance in electrochemical sensors. The hybridization of complementary DNA was monitored by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) using methylene blue (MB) as the redox indicator. The fabricated biosensor was able to discriminate significantly complementary, non-complementary and single-base mismatch oligonucleotides. The electrochemical biosensor was sensitive to target DNA related to dengue virus in the range of 9.0–178.0 ng/ml with detection limit of 3.5 ng/ml. In addition, SiNWs/AuNPs-modified ITO, regenerated up to 8 times and its stability was up to 10 weeks at 4 °C in silica gel. - Highlights: • A sensitive biosensor is presented for detection of dengue virus. • SiNWs and AuNPs used as nanocomposite layers on ITO for construction of biosensor • The detection mechanism is based on the interaction of MB with DNA bonded on AuNPs. • The reduction signal of MB decreases upon complementary hybridization.

  8. The non-point source (NPS) information system based on remote sensing and GIS and its preliminary application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A non-point source information system (NPSIS) has been constructed by use of remote sensing and GIS technology, and a construction method of NPSlS introduced with Shenzhen as an example. With the remote sensing land-using images as an environment unit, the analysis modules based on NPSIS are built through combining the NPS model with NPSIS, and the preliminary NPS calculation and analysis performed.

  9. Development of a LIDAR for integration with the Naval Postgraduate School Infrared Search and Target Designation (NPS-IRSTD) system

    OpenAIRE

    Regush, Murray Michael

    1993-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. A lidar was designed and manufactured at the Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, to provide range information to atmospheric features, such as clouds. It is further planned to integrate the lidar with the NPS-IRSTD system at some future date. The NPS-IRSTD uses two vertical linear focal plane arrays for target detection and target direction can be determined very accurately but the system does not provide any useful range informa...

  10. A Whole City Response to the Use of Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS) by Young People in Newcastle-upon-Tyne

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS) (otherwise known as ‘legal highs’) have posed an increasingly significant problem for practitioners and policy makers due to their widespread availability, largely unknown chemical composition and negative effects on health and wellbeing. Young people (aged 10-25) seem to be at particular risk of using NPS and experiencing the associated harms. As such, the Department of Social Sciences and Languages at Northumbria University were commissio...

  11. The utilization of SiNWs/AuNPs-modified indium tin oxide (ITO) in fabrication of electrochemical DNA sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Jahwarhar Izuan Abdul; Yusof, Nor Azah; Abdullah, Jaafar; Hashim, Uda; Hajian, Reza

    2014-12-01

    This work describes the incorporation of SiNWs/AuNPs composite as a sensing material for DNA detection on indium tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass slide. The morphology of SiNWs/AuNPs composite as the modifier layer on ITO was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The morphological studies clearly showed that SiNWs were successfully decorated with 20 nm-AuNPs using self-assembly monolayer (SAM) technique. The effective surface area for SiNWs/AuNPs-modified ITO enhanced about 10 times compared with bare ITO electrode. SiNWs/AuNPs nanocomposite was further explored as a matrix for DNA probe immobilization in detection of dengue virus as a bio-sensing model to evaluate its performance in electrochemical sensors. The hybridization of complementary DNA was monitored by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) using methylene blue (MB) as the redox indicator. The fabricated biosensor was able to discriminate significantly complementary, non-complementary and single-base mismatch oligonucleotides. The electrochemical biosensor was sensitive to target DNA related to dengue virus in the range of 9.0-178.0 ng/ml with detection limit of 3.5 ng/ml. In addition, SiNWs/AuNPs-modified ITO, regenerated up to 8 times and its stability was up to 10 weeks at 4°C in silica gel.

  12. Calcium-sensing receptor antagonist NPS2390 attenuates neuronal apoptosis though intrinsic pathway following traumatic brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhaoliang; Song, Zhengfei; Wan, Yingfeng; Wang, Kun; Mo, Lianjie; Wang, Yirong

    2017-04-29

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) initiates a complex cascade of neurochemical and signaling changes that leads to neuronal apoptosis, which contributes to poor outcomes for patients with TBI. Previous study indicates that calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) activation contributes to neuron death in focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion mice, however, its role in neuronal apoptosis after TBI is not well-established. Using a controlled cortical impact model in rats, the present study was designed to determine the effect of CaSR inhibitor NPS2390 upon neuronal apoptosis after TBI. Rats were randomly distributed into three groups undergoing the sham surgery or TBI procedure, and NPS2390 (1.5 mg/kg) was infused subcutaneously at 30 min and 120 min after TBI. All rats were sacrificed at 24 h after TBI. Our data indicated that NPS2390 significantly reduced the brain edema and improved the neurological function after TBI. In addition, NPS2390 decreased caspase-3 levels and the number of apoptotic neurons. Furthermore, NPS2390 up-regulated anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 expression and down-regulated pro-apoptotic protein Bax, and reduced subsequent release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. In summary, this study indicated that inhibition of CaSR by NPS2390 attenuates neuronal apoptosis after TBI, in part, through modulating intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Facile biosynthesis of Ag-NPs using Otostegia limbata plant extract: Physical characterization and auspicious biological activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausar, Rizwan; Shaheen, Muhammad Ashraf; Maqbool, Qaisar; Naz, Sania; Nazar, Mudassar; Abbas, Fazal; Hussain, Talib; Younas, Umer; Shams, Muhammad Fahad

    2016-09-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) synthesized through reduction by Otostegia limbata green extract are, hereby, reported for the first time. It is very interesting to observe that in this case, O. limbata plant extract acts as a strong chelating agent in Ag-NPs formation through AgNO3. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies expose that Ag-NPs formation is highly homogenous and spherical with mean particle size of 32 ±0.8 nm. A typical Ag absorption peak has been observed at 419 nm by ultra violet (UV)-visible spectroscopy which have endorsed the successful formation of single phase Ag-NPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) examination further validates the crystalline pure phase structure of Ag-NPs. Promising results have been recorded against protein kinase inhibition assay and antibacterial assay having prominent pathogenic strains. Our present study explores that biosynthesized eco-friendly Ag-NPs have great potential, in the future, for anticancer drug development with wide range pharmaceutical applications.

  14. The 1984 ARI Survey of Army Recruits: Tabular Description of NPS Army Reserve Guard Accessions. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    SERIES NBA BASKETBALL COLLEGE BASKETBALL NHL HOCKEY PROFESSIONAL WRESTLING CAR RACES GOLF TOURNAMENTS TENNIS TOURNAMENTS WKEND SPORTS SH/WIDE...TV PROG* NBA BASKETBALL MARK ONE LETTER FOR EACH OF THE FOLLOWING PROGRAMS OR PROGRAMMING TYPES ON TV: NBA BASKETBALL . 1 - REGULARLY TURN ON THE TV...188 T262 — WATCH TV PROG:COLLEGE BASKETBALL MARK ONE LETTER FOR EACH OF THE FOLLOWING PROGRAMS OR PROGRAMMING TYPES ON TV: COLLEGE BASKETBALL

  15. The 1986 ARI Survey of U.S. Army Recruits: Tabular Descriptions of NPS National Guard Accessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    commelcials Opl regular season games 0 G0 0 G on cable only channels. . 0 0 0 C m 0 NCAA Basketball playoffs 0 00.C.0 C Movies with commercials R NBA ...0 0 0. 0 A Sports programming on jol 1,. T.c. N-.r 0 USFL Football 0 0 0 0cable only channels0 0 0 C -m P NCAA Basketball - B Movies without...regular season on cable only channels . 0. 0 3 C games 0 . 0 0) 0D Reruns of old programs - S NBA pla,,offs. .. . 0 C00 0 C on cable only channels 00C T

  16. The 1986 ARI Survey of U.S. Army Recruits: Tabular Descriptions of NPS Army Reserve Accessions. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    channels. 0... C 0 ON 0C NCAA Basketball playoffs . 0..0-0. 0.0 C Movies with commercials ON R NBA - regular season on cable only channels C .0 0 3 0...high school? ONLY ONCE.) as’ (MARK ALL THAT APPLY) m 0 Football mn 0 Basketball m 0 Swimming EN "- Baseball - 0 Track m 0 Soccer "- This Is not a test...SFL Football . .0 0C 0 0 cable only channels. 0 ,. P NCAA Basketball - B Movies without commeicials regular season games . ... 0 0, . G on cable only

  17. Механизмы распространения и усиления кризиса на примере финансового кризиса 2007-2008 гг

    OpenAIRE

    Архиповская, А.

    2011-01-01

    В данной статье представлен обзор событий, происходивших на финансовом рынке в 2007-2008 гг. Автор рассматривает взаимосвязь между макроэкономической политикой, которую проводили монетарные власти США с начала 80-х гг. XX в. до настоящего времени, и теми рисками, которые сконцентрировались в финансовой системе и, в итоге, привели к кризису. Автор подробно останавливается на механизмах усиления и развертывания данного кризиса, дает им свою оценку....

  18. 中国宏观经济形势与政策:2007-2008年%CHINA'S MACROECONOMIC SITUATION AND POLICIES: 2007-2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    中国人民大学经济学研究所

    2008-01-01

    2007年,中国经济保持高速增长与低通货膨胀的良好配合格局,在将核心CPI上涨率控制在2%以下的同时,实现11%以上的实际GDP增长速度.中国宏观经济管理应该在2008年继续实行稳健的财政政策,采取中性的需求管理政策取向,以在总体经济景气进入收缩阶段后延续其繁荣形态.

  19. Verein der Kohlenimporteure. Annual report 2008. Facts and trends 2007/2008; Verein der Kohlenimporteure. Jahresbericht 2008. Fakten und Trends 2007/2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Energy economy developments of the world, the European Union and the Federal Republic of Germany are gone into. The main aspects discussed are the coal market and trade which depends on political decisions and concepts, but also on the availability of other primary energy sources such as oil and nuclear power. The situation of the various countries in the field of coal is illustrated by so-called country reports.

  20. Effects of computing parameters and measurement locations on the estimation of 3D NPS in non-stationary MDCT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miéville, Frédéric A; Bolard, Gregory; Bulling, Shelley; Gudinchet, François; Bochud, François O; Verdun, François R

    2013-11-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of computing parameters and the location of volumes of interest (VOI) on the calculation of 3D noise power spectrum (NPS) in order to determine an optimal set of computing parameters and propose a robust method for evaluating the noise properties of imaging systems. Noise stationarity in noise volumes acquired with a water phantom on a 128-MDCT and a 320-MDCT scanner were analyzed in the spatial domain in order to define locally stationary VOIs. The influence of the computing parameters in the 3D NPS measurement: the sampling distances bx,y,z and the VOI lengths Lx,y,z, the number of VOIs NVOI and the structured noise were investigated to minimize measurement errors. The effect of the VOI locations on the NPS was also investigated. Results showed that the noise (standard deviation) varies more in the r-direction (phantom radius) than z-direction plane. A 25 × 25 × 40 mm(3) VOI associated with DFOV = 200 mm (Lx,y,z = 64, bx,y = 0.391 mm with 512 × 512 matrix) and a first-order detrending method to reduce structured noise led to an accurate NPS estimation. NPS estimated from off centered small VOIs had a directional dependency contrary to NPS obtained from large VOIs located in the center of the volume or from small VOIs located on a concentric circle. This showed that the VOI size and location play a major role in the determination of NPS when images are not stationary. This study emphasizes the need for consistent measurement methods to assess and compare image quality in CT.

  1. Specimens: "most of" generic NPs in a contextually flexible type theory

    CERN Document Server

    Retoré, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes to compute the meanings associated to sentences with generic NPs corresponding to the most of generalized quantifier. We call these generics specimens and they resemble stereotypes or prototypes in lexical semantics. The meanings are viewed as logical formulae that can be thereafter interpreted in your favorite models. We rather depart from the dominant Fregean single untyped universe and go for type theory with hints from Hilbert epsilon calculus and from medieval philosophy. Our type theoretic analysis bears some resemblance with on going work in lexical semantics. Our model also applies to classical examples involving a class (or a generic element of this class) which is provided by the context. An outcome of this study is that, in the minimalism-contextualism debate, if one adopts a type theoretical view, terms encode the purely semantic meaning component while their typing is pragmatically determined.

  2. Rapid detection of NBOME's and other NPS on blotter papers by direct ATR-FTIR spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho Neto, José

    2015-07-01

    Blotter paper is among the most common forms of consumption of new psychotropic substances (NPS), formerly referred as designer drugs. In many cases, users are misled to believe they are taking LSD when, in fact, they are taking newer and less known drugs like the NBOMEs or other substituted phenethylamines. We report our findings in quick testing of blotter papers for illicit substances like NBOMEs and other NPS by taking ATR-FTIR spectra directly from blotters seized on the streets, without any sample preparation. Both sides (front and back) of each blotter were tested. Collected data were analyzed by single- and multi-component spectral matching and submitted to chemometric discriminant analysis. Our results showed that, on 66.7% of the cases analyzed, seized blotters contained one or more types of NBOMEs, confirming the growing presence of this novel substances on the market. Matching IR signals were detected on both or just one side of the blotters and showed variable strength. Although no quantitative analysis was made, detection of these substances by the proposed approach serves as indication of variable and possibly higher dosages per blotter when compared to LSD, which showed to be below the detection limit of the applied method. Blotters containing a mescaline-like compound, later confirmed by GC-MS and LC-MS to be MAL (methallylescaline), a substance very similar to mescaline, were detected among the samples tested. Validity of direct ATR-FTIR testing was confirmed by checking the obtained results against independent GC-MS or LC-MS results for the same cases/samples.

  3. Neuropharmacology of new psychoactive substances (NPS: focus on the rewarding and reinforcing properties of cannabimimetics and amphetamine-like stimulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eMiliano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available New psychoactive substances (NPS are a heterogeneous and rapidly evolving class of molecules available on the global illicit drug market (e.g smart shops, internet, dark net as a substitute for controlled substances. The use of NPS, mainly consumed along with other drugs of abuse and/or alcohol, has resulted in a significantly growing number of mortality and emergency admissions for overdoses, as reported by several poison centers from all over the world. The fact that the number of NPS have more than doubled over the last 10 years, is a critical challenge to governments, the scientific community, and civil society (UNODC, World Drug Report, 2014; EMCDDA, European Drug Report 2014: Trends and developments. The chemical structure (phenethylamines, piperazine, cathinones, tryptamines, synthetic cannabinoids of NPS and their pharmacological and clinical effects (hallucinogenic, anesthetic, dissociative, depressant help classify them into different categories. In the recent past, 50% of newly identified NPS have been classified as synthetic cannabinoids followed by new phenethylamines (17%(WDR, 2014. Besides peripheral toxicological effects, many NPS seem to have addictive properties. Behavioral, neurochemical, and electrophysiological evidence can help in detecting them. This manuscript will review existing literature about the addictive and rewarding properties of the most popular NPS classes: cannabimimetics (JWH, HU, CP series and amphetamine-like stimulants (amphetamine, methamphetamine, methcathinone and MDMA analogues. Moreover, the review will include recent data from our lab which links JWH-018, a CB1 and CB2 agonist more potent than Δ9-THC, to other cannabinoids with known abuse potential, and to other classes of abused drugs that increase dopamine signaling in the Nucleus Accumbens (NAc shell. Thus the neurochemical mechanisms that produce the rewarding properties of JWH-018, which most likely contributes to the greater incidence of

  4. Neuropharmacology of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS): Focus on the Rewarding and Reinforcing Properties of Cannabimimetics and Amphetamine-Like Stimulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miliano, Cristina; Serpelloni, Giovanni; Rimondo, Claudia; Mereu, Maddalena; Marti, Matteo; De Luca, Maria Antonietta

    2016-01-01

    New psychoactive substances (NPS) are a heterogeneous and rapidly evolving class of molecules available on the global illicit drug market (e.g smart shops, internet, "dark net") as a substitute for controlled substances. The use of NPS, mainly consumed along with other drugs of abuse and/or alcohol, has resulted in a significantly growing number of mortality and emergency admissions for overdoses, as reported by several poison centers from all over the world. The fact that the number of NPS have more than doubled over the last 10 years, is a critical challenge to governments, the scientific community, and civil society [EMCDDA (European Drug Report), 2014; UNODC, 2014b; Trends and developments]. The chemical structure (phenethylamines, piperazines, cathinones, tryptamines, synthetic cannabinoids) of NPS and their pharmacological and clinical effects (hallucinogenic, anesthetic, dissociative, depressant) help classify them into different categories. In the recent past, 50% of newly identified NPS have been classified as synthetic cannabinoids followed by new phenethylamines (17%) (UNODC, 2014b). Besides peripheral toxicological effects, many NPS seem to have addictive properties. Behavioral, neurochemical, and electrophysiological evidence can help in detecting them. This manuscript will review existing literature about the addictive and rewarding properties of the most popular NPS classes: cannabimimetics (JWH, HU, CP series) and amphetamine-like stimulants (amphetamine, methamphetamine, methcathinone, and MDMA analogs). Moreover, the review will include recent data from our lab which links JWH-018, a CB1 and CB2 agonist more potent than Δ(9)-THC, to other cannabinoids with known abuse potential, and to other classes of abused drugs that increase dopamine signaling in the Nucleus Accumbens (NAc) shell. Thus the neurochemical mechanisms that produce the rewarding properties of JWH-018, which most likely contributes to the greater incidence of dependence associated

  5. Green synthesis of ZnO NPs from various parts of Azhadirachta indica (neem) plant as biotemplates for anti-bacterial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Savita; Oudhia, Anjali

    2016-05-01

    A green and cost effective method of production of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) was developed using extracts from different parts of Neem plant (e.g. leaf, seed, and stem) as bio templates. ZnO NPs obtained through these bio-templates exhibit different structures, morphologies and optical properties, showing potential of the present method in preparing NPs with desired properties, FTIR and XRD techniques were used for characterization. A comparison of antibacterial activities of ZnO NPs show decreasing zone of inhibition with increasing particle sizes. The as prepared ZnO NPs functionalized with various materials to make them bio compatible. It was observed that natural tri-peptide GSH was most effective capping agents for controlling the toxicity of ZnO NPs. A mechanism is proposed to explain the variation in growth patterns and properties of ZnO NPs obtained from the aforementioned bio-templates.

  6. High-performance SERS substrate based on hybrid structure of graphene oxide/AgNPs/Cu film@pyramid Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Xu, Shi Cai; Zhang, Chao; Liu, Xiao Yun; Gao, Sai Sai; Hu, Li Tao; Guo, Jia; Ma, Yong; Jiang, Shou Zhen; Si, Hai Peng

    2016-12-01

    We present a novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate based on graphene oxide/silver nanoparticles/copper film covered silicon pyramid arrays (GO/AgNPs/PCu@Si) by a low-cost and simple method. The GO/AgNPs/PCu@Si substrate presents high sensitivity, good homogeneity and well stability with R6G molecules as a probe. The detected concentration of Rhodamine 6 G (R6G) is as low as 10-15 M. These sensitive SERS behaviors are also confirmed in theory via a commercial COMSOL software, the electric field enhancement is not only formed between the AgNPs, but also formed between the AgNPs and Cu film. And the GO/AgNPs/PCu@Si substrates also present good property on practical application for the detection of methylene blue (MB) and crystal violet (CV). This work may offer a novel and practical method to facilitate the SERS applications in areas of medicine, food safety and biotechnology.

  7. Laminin Receptor-Avid Nanotherapeutic EGCg-AuNPs as a Potential Alternative Therapeutic Approach to Prevent Restenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menka Khoobchandani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In our efforts to develop new approaches to treat and prevent human vascular diseases, we report herein our results on the proliferation and migration of human smooth muscles cells (SMCs and endothelial cells (ECs using epigallocatechin-3-gallate conjugated gold nanoparticles (EGCg-AuNPs as possible alternatives to drug coated stents. Detailed in vitro stability studies of EGCg-AuNPs in various biological fluids, affinity and selectivity towards SMCs and ECs have been investigated. The EGCg-AuNPs showed selective inhibitory efficacy toward the migration of SMCs. However, the endothelial cells remained unaffected under similar experimental conditions. The cellular internalization studies have indicated that EGCg-AuNPs internalize into the SMCs and ECs within short periods of time through laminin receptor mediated endocytosis mode. Favorable toxicity profiles and selective affinity toward SMCs and ECs suggest that EGCg-AuNPs may provide attractive alternatives to drug coated stents and therefore offer new therapeutic approaches in treating cardiovascular diseases.

  8. A ratiometric nanosensor based on conjugated polyelectrolyte-stabilized AgNPs for ultrasensitive fluorescent and colorimetric sensing of melamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xixi; Xiao, Yi; Jiang, Xiaoying; Li, Jiahui; Qin, Hongling; Huang, Hongmei; Zhang, Youyu; He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Kemin

    2016-05-01

    A new ratiometric nanosensor is developed for selective and ultrasensitive detection of melamine based on conjugated polyelectrolyte (CPE)-stabilized silver nanoparticles (P1-AgNPs) by perfectly combining the advantages of CPE and AgNPs. P1 featuring a π-delocalized backbone bearing pyridinyl groups can act as an excellent dual-emission fluorescent probe as well as a polymer localizer for AgNPs. In the presence of melamine, the fluorescence intensity at 386nm increases owing to the turn-on of the fluorescence of P1, whereas FL intensity at 488nm decreases due to the melamine-induced aggregation and subsequent aggregation-enhanced emission quenching of P1-AgNPs, therefore leading to the ratiometric fluorescent sensing of analyte. Moreover, analyte-induced aggregation of P1-AgNPs also allows the ratiometric colorimetric measurement of melamine. Under the optimum conditions, this facile ratiometric nanosensor favors the fluorescent and colorimetric determination of melamine in liquid milk products with the detection limit as low as 0.1 and 0.45nM, respectively.

  9. Electrochemical Characterization of Graphene and MWCNT Screen-Printed Electrodes Modified with AuNPs for Laccase Biosensor Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Favero

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to show how the integration of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs into multi-wall-carbon-nanotubes (MWCNTs based screen-printed electrodes and into graphene-based screen-printed electrodes (GPHs could represent a potential way to further enhance the electrochemical properties of those electrodes based on nanoparticles. Laccase from Trametes versicolor (TvL was immobilized over MWCNTs and GPH previously modified with AuNPs (of 5 and 10 nm. The characterization of the modified electrode surface has been carried out by cyclic voltammetry. The results showed that the use of AuNPs for modification of both graphene and MWCNTs screen-printed electrode surfaces would increase the electrochemical performances of the electrodes. MWCNTs showed better results than GPH in terms of higher electroactive area formation after modification with AuNPs. The two modified nanostructured electrodes were successively proven to efficiently immobilize the TvL; the electrochemical sensing properties of the GPH- and MWCNT-based AuNPs-TvL biosensors were investigated by choosing 2,2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic-acid diammonium salt (ABTS, catechol and caffeic acid as laccase mediators; and the kinetic parameters of the laccase biosensor were carefully evaluated.

  10. High-performance SERS substrate based on hybrid structure of graphene oxide/AgNPs/Cu film@pyramid Si.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Xu, Shi Cai; Zhang, Chao; Liu, Xiao Yun; Gao, Sai Sai; Hu, Li Tao; Guo, Jia; Ma, Yong; Jiang, Shou Zhen; Si, Hai Peng

    2016-12-07

    We present a novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate based on graphene oxide/silver nanoparticles/copper film covered silicon pyramid arrays (GO/AgNPs/PCu@Si) by a low-cost and simple method. The GO/AgNPs/PCu@Si substrate presents high sensitivity, good homogeneity and well stability with R6G molecules as a probe. The detected concentration of Rhodamine 6 G (R6G) is as low as 10(-15) M. These sensitive SERS behaviors are also confirmed in theory via a commercial COMSOL software, the electric field enhancement is not only formed between the AgNPs, but also formed between the AgNPs and Cu film. And the GO/AgNPs/PCu@Si substrates also present good property on practical application for the detection of methylene blue (MB) and crystal violet (CV). This work may offer a novel and practical method to facilitate the SERS applications in areas of medicine, food safety and biotechnology.

  11. Preparation of reduced graphene oxide/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs ternary composites and their visible-light-induced photocatalytic degradation n of methylene blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yongfang; Ma, Zheng; Xu, Lidong [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Wang, Hefang, E-mail: whf0618@163.com [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Fu, Nian, E-mail: funian3678@163.com [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); College of Physics Science and Technology of Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China)

    2016-04-30

    Graphical abstract: Reduced graphene oxide/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs (RGO/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs) ternary composites were prepared via the addition of graphene oxide to the dispersion of meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs under a hydrothermal condition. The RGO/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs ternary composites show high photocatalytic activity toward MB. - Highlights: • RGO/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs were obtained by addition of graphene oxide to meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs. • Au NPs in the mesopores of meso-TiO{sub 2} reduce the recombination of charge carriers. • RGO covered with the surface of the meso-TiO{sub 2} enhance the adsorption of MB. • RGO/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs composites show high photocatalytic performance toward MB. - Abstract: Reduced graphene oxide/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs (RGO/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs) ternary composites were prepared via the addition of graphene oxide to the dispersion of meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs under hydrothermal conditions. The structure and the morphology of the RGO/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs materials were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic activity of RGO/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs was evaluated by degradation of methyl blue (MB) under visible-light illumination. The ternary composites present an extended light absorption range, efficient charge separation properties, high adsorption ability for MB and high photocatalytic degradation activity of MB compared to the meso-TiO{sub 2} and meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs.

  12. 2004 ITACS Customer Satisfaction Survey Report

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The IT Strategic Plan, The Information Revolution: Planning for Institutional Change, proposed a number of recommendations to improve management, customer responsiveness, and accountability for the IT arena at NPS. A periodic customer satisfaction survey was included as one of those recommendations.

  13. Antibacterial and antifouling activities of chitosan/TiO2/Ag NPs nanocomposite films against packaged drinking water bacterial isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Saravanan; Bhuvaneshwari, M; Lakshmi, D Shanthana; Mrudula, P; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2016-10-01

    TiO2 and Ag NPs are widely used as antibacterial agents against many bacterial pathogens. Chitosan (polymer) itself acts as a strong antibacterial agent. Hence, chitosan/TiO2/Ag NPs incorporated nanocomposite film was prepared against packed drinking water bacterial strains. A concentration-dependent increase in the reduction of cell viability was observed in all the isolates under UV-C and dark exposure conditions. The bacteria consortium showed greater resistance against antibacterial effects of chitosan/TiO2/Ag nanocomposite as compared to single isolates. Glycocalyx test and mass assessment conclude the effective antibacterial activity by inhibiting bacterial adhesion on the film surface. The release of LDH and generation of ROS act as the predominant antibacterial mechanism induced by TiO2/Ag NPs. Surface characterization of chitosan/TiO2/Ag nanocomposite was studied by FTIR and XRD analyses and SEM analysis after interaction with the bacteria.

  14. Gold nanoparticles supported on mesoporous silica: origin of high activity and role of Au NPs in selective oxidation of cyclohexane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pingping; Bai, Peng; Yan, Zifeng; Zhao, George X. S.

    2016-01-01

    Homogeneous immobilization of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) on mesoporous silica has been achieved by using a one-pot synthesis method in the presence of organosilane mercapto-propyl-trimethoxysilane (MPTMS). The resultant Au NPs exhibited an excellent catalytic activity in the solvent-free selective oxidation of cyclohexane using molecular oxygen. By establishing the structure-performance relationship, the origin of the high activity of mesoporous supported Au catalyst was identified to be due to the presence of low-coordinated Au (0) sites with high dispersion. Au NPs were confirmed to play a critical role in the catalytic oxidation of cyclohexane by promoting the activation of O2 molecules and accelerating the formation of surface-active oxygen species.

  15. The effect of CuO NPs on reactive oxygen species and cell cycle gene expression in roots of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuling; Liu, Hanzhu; Zhang, Yuxi; Xin, Hua

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) on root growth, root reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and the expression of 2 genes (OsCDC2 and OsCYCD) associated with root growth of Oryza sativa (rice), rice roots were treated with 5 mg/L CuO NP suspension, 5 mg/L CuO bulk particle suspension, and 0.27 mg/L CuSO4  · 5H2 O solution, with distilled water as control. The results indicated that CuO NPs and Cu(2+) severely inhibited the elongation and biomass of rice roots after 72-h exposure. Dyeing with 7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA) showed that in all 3 treatment groups, the fluorescence was primarily located in the meristem zone, demonstrating that the meristem zone was where ROS were primarily generated. In addition, a significant increase in ROS was detected in the meristem zone of roots treated with the CuO NP suspension and the CuSO4  · 5H2 O solution, both of which greatly influenced the expression level of OsCDC2 and OsCYCD. The impact of Cu(2+) on these 2 genes was smaller than that of CuO NPs. The Cu content in roots of rice after treatment with CuO NPs was much higher than that found after the other treatments, which indicated that CuO NPs may have been absorbed into root tissue. Collectively, these data suggest that growth inhibition, higher ROS production, and gene expression inhibition may be caused not only by the ions themselves, but also the NPs. © 2014 SETAC.

  16. Optimization of ZnO-NPs to Investigate Their Safe Application by Assessing Their Effect on Soil Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shruti; Kushwah, Tanuja; Vishwakarma, Ashutosh; Yadav, Shweta

    2015-12-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) are increasingly receiving attention due to their widespread application in cosmetics, pigments and coatings. This has raised concerns in the public and scientific communities regarding their unexpected health effects. Toxicity effect of ZnO-NPs on the environment was assessed in the present study using Caenorhabditis elegans. Multiple toxicity end points including their mortality, behaviour, reproduction, in vitro distribution and expression of stress response mtl-1 and sod-1 genes were observed to evaluate safe application of ZnO-NPs. C. elegans were exposed to 10, 50, and 100 nm ZnO-NPs (0.1 to 2.0 g/l). Application of 10 nm ≥0.7g/l adversely affects the survivability of worms and was significantly not affected with exposure of 50 and 100 nm ≤1.0 g/l. However, reproduction was affected at much low concentration as compared to their survivability. LC50 was recorded 1.0 ± 0.06 (g/l) for 100 nm, 0.90 ± 0.60 for 50 nm and 0.620 ± 0.08 for 10 nm. Expression of mtl-1 and sod-1 was significantly increased with application of 10 nm ≥0.7g/l and significantly unaffected with exposure of 50 and 100 nm at the same concentration. ZnO-NPs (10 nm) had shown even distribution extended nearly the entire length of the body. The distribution pattern of ZnO-NPs indicates that the intestine is the major target tissues for NP toxicity. Study demonstrates that small-sized (10 nm) ZnO-NPs ≥0.7g/l is more toxic than larger-sized particles. This may be suggested on the basis of available data; application of 50 and 100 nm ≤1.0 g/l ZnO-NPs may be used to the environment as this shows no significant toxicity. However, further calibration is warranted to explore safe dose on soil compartments prior to their field application.

  17. Optimization of ZnO-NPs to Investigate Their Safe Application by Assessing Their Effect on Soil Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shruti; Kushwah, Tanuja; Vishwakarma, Ashutosh; Yadav, Shweta

    2015-07-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) are increasingly receiving attention due to their widespread application in cosmetics, pigments and coatings. This has raised concerns in the public and scientific communities regarding their unexpected health effects. Toxicity effect of ZnO-NPs on the environment was assessed in the present study using Caenorhabditis elegans. Multiple toxicity end points including their mortality, behaviour, reproduction, in vitro distribution and expression of stress response mtl-1 and sod-1 genes were observed to evaluate safe application of ZnO-NPs. C. elegans were exposed to 10, 50, and 100 nm ZnO-NPs (0.1 to 2.0 g/l). Application of 10 nm ≥0.7g/l adversely affects the survivability of worms and was significantly not affected with exposure of 50 and 100 nm ≤1.0 g/l. However, reproduction was affected at much low concentration as compared to their survivability. LC50 was recorded 1.0 ± 0.06 (g/l) for 100 nm, 0.90 ± 0.60 for 50 nm and 0.620 ± 0.08 for 10 nm. Expression of mtl-1 and sod-1 was significantly increased with application of 10 nm ≥0.7g/l and significantly unaffected with exposure of 50 and 100 nm at the same concentration. ZnO-NPs (10 nm) had shown even distribution extended nearly the entire length of the body. The distribution pattern of ZnO-NPs indicates that the intestine is the major target tissues for NP toxicity. Study demonstrates that small-sized (10 nm) ZnO-NPs ≥0.7g/l is more toxic than larger-sized particles. This may be suggested on the basis of available data; application of 50 and 100 nm ≤1.0 g/l ZnO-NPs may be used to the environment as this shows no significant toxicity. However, further calibration is warranted to explore safe dose on soil compartments prior to their field application.

  18. Unraveling the complex behavior of AgNPs driving NP-Cell interactions and toxicity to algal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malysheva, Anzhela; Voelcker, Nicolas; Holm, Peter Engelund

    2016-01-01

    toxicity test. In particular, we investigated NP aggregation and dissolution by time-resolved inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and ultrafiltration and performed mass balance measurements to study the distribution of Ag in the test system. We also determined the amount of extra......- and intracellular Ag by chemically etching AgNPs on the surface of algal cells and used dark field microscopy for their imaging. We observed that positively charged branched polyethilenimine (bPEI)-coated AgNPs tend to aggregate in the presence of algae and interact with test vessels and algal cells, while citrate...

  19. Information Technology and Communications Services (ITACS) Customer Satisfaction Survey Summary

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    2004 ITACS Customer Satisfaction Survey Report The IT Strategic Plan, The Information Revolution: Planning for Institutional Change, proposed a number of recommendations to improve management, customer responsiveness, and accountability for the IT arena at NPS. A periodic customer satisfaction survey was included as one of those recommendations.

  20. Antioxidant enzyme activities as biomarkers of fluvial biofilm to ZnO NPs ecotoxicity and the Integrated Biomarker Responses (IBR) assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jun; You, Guoxiang; Xu, Yi; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang; Miao, Lingzhan; Dai, Shanshan; Lv, Bowen; Yang, Yangyang

    2016-11-01

    The presence of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) in natural waters has raised concerns about their environmental impacts, but the potential influences of ZnO NPs on fluvial biofilm have not been reported. In this study, the utility of antioxidant enzyme activities (AEA) as biomarkers of fluvial biofilm to ZnO NPs toxicity and a method that combines AEA into an index of "Integrated Biomarker Responses (IBR)" were studied. Compared with the absence of ZnO NPs, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images revealed that a large amount of ZnO NPs were adsorbed onto biofilm and these NPs exerted adverse effects on the viability of bacteria in biofilm. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with high concentrations (30 and 100mg/L) of ZnO NPs exposure reached to 184% and 244% of the control, while no cell leakage and membrane damage were observed. After exposure to ZnO NPs for 0.25 and 3 days, the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were significantly increased, respectively. At the end of exposure period (21 days), the AEA with the presence of 1mg/L ZnO NPs exposure were comparable to the control, while most of those in high concentrations of ZnO NPs were decreased. The results of IBR showed that the biofilm can adapt to 1mg/L ZnO NPs exposure, while be seriously damaged by 30 and 100mg/L ZnO NPs after 3 and 0.25 days. IBR can be used as an appropriate evaluation system of the toxicity effects of ZnO NPs on fluvial biofim.

  1. Antimicrobial kinetics of Alstonia scholaris bark extract-mediated AgNPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supraja, N.; Prasad, T. N. V. K. V.; David, E.; Giridhara Krishna, T.

    2016-06-01

    Nanobiotechnology is considered as one of the important branches of nanotechnology, and research on synthesis of nanoscale materials, silver in particular, using plant and plant parts has been progressing rapidly. Herein, we used bark extract of Alstonia scholaris one of the most important medicinal plants to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) which exhibited excellent antimicrobial properties against biofilm formed in drinking water PVC pipes. The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles was done by treating 90 mL of 1 mM AgNO3 aqueous solution with 10 mL of 5 % bark extract. As-prepared silver nanoparticles were characterized using the biophysical techniques such as UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering for the measurement of hydrodynamic diameter and zeta potential. The kinetics of the antimicrobial activity against PVC biofilm of prepared silver nanoparticles were done using comparative solution suspension time-killing assessments and which are evidenced in Epi-fluorescent microscopic observations.

  2. Lignin-AuNPs liquid marble for remotely-controllable detection of Pb2+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guocheng; Wang, Xiaoying; Hamel, Jonathan; Zhu, Hongli; Sun, Runcang

    2016-12-01

    This work reported the green and facile fabrication of a versatile lignin-AuNP composite, which was readily and remotely encapsulated to form novel liquid marbles. The marbles can stay suspended in water, and show excellent photothermal conversion properties, as well as visual detection and adsorption towards Pb2+. More importantly, the marbles can simultaneously remotely detect and adsorb Pb2+ via co-precipitation by simply controlling the near infrared (NIR) irradiation. It is believed that the remotely-controllable NIR-responsive lignin-AuNPs liquid marble can be used in Pb2+-related reactions. The liquid marble can be placed in the system at the very beginning of the reaction and stably stays on the surface until the reaction has ended. After reacting, upon remote NIR irradiation, the liquid marble bursts to adsorb Pb2+, and the residual Pb2+ can be collected. This facile manipulation strategy does not use complicated nanostructures or sophisticated equipment, so it has potential applications for channel-free microfluidics, smart microreactors, microengines, and so on.

  3. 78 FR 14589 - Notice of Open Public Meetings for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's Subsistence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... Stat. 770), the NPS is hereby giving notice that the Gates of the Arctic National Park Subsistence... the Arctic National Park SRC Meeting Date and Location: The Gates of the Arctic National Park SRC will... School in Ambler, AK. SRC meeting locations and dates may change based on inclement weather...

  4. 77 FR 14828 - Notice of Public Meeting for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... changed based on inclement weather or exceptional circumstances. Gates of the Arctic National Park SRC Meeting Date and Location: The Gates of the Arctic National Park SRC will meet in Anaktuvuk Pass, Alaska... the Arctic National Park SRC will meet to develop and continue work on NPS subsistence...

  5. Cocos nucifera coir-mediated green synthesis of Pd NPs and its investigation against larvae and agricultural pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elango, Ganesh; Mohana Roopan, Selvaraj; Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Naif; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Irukatla Damodharan, Kasinathan; Elumalai, Kuppuswamy

    2016-12-01

    In recent decades, several scientists focused their process towards nanoparticles synthesis by using various sustainable approaches. Cocos nucifera (C. nucifera) was one of the versatile trees in tropical regions which also can act as a thrust quencher in all over the world. Cocos nucifera coir was one of the waste by-products in all coconut-refining industries and with the help C. nucifera coir, Palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) were synthesized. Green-synthesized spherical-shape Pd NPs were over layered by secondary metabolites from C. nucifera coir extract and with an average particle size of 62 ± 2 nm, which were confirmed by morphological analysis. Eco-friendly mediated Pd NPs were further subjected to several biological applications like larvicidal against Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti) and anti-feedent, ovicidal, and oviposition deterrent against agricultural pest Callasobruchus maculates (C. maculates) and compared with C. nuciferacoir methanolic extract, which results in LC50 value of 288.88 ppm and LC90 value of 483.06 ppm using LSD-Tukey's test against dengue vector (A. aegypti). Cocos nucifera coir methanolic extract shows significant output while compared with Pd NPs towards anti-feedent assays; ovicidal activity and oviposition deterrent were discussed here.

  6. 75 FR 65377 - Notice of Public Meeting for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... subsistence hunting program recommendations and other related subsistence management issues. The NPS SRC... Station Hotel, 1717 University Avenue, Fairbanks, AK 99709, (907) 479-3650. The meeting may end early if... Manager's Report 10. Park Staff Reports a. Resource Management Update b. Ranger Division Update c...

  7. Evaluation of Cytotoxic Effects of Different Concentrations of Porous Hollow Au Nanoparticles (PHAuNPs on Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smitha Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles (NPs have been introduced as a suitable alternative in many in vivo bioapplications. The risks of utilizing nanoparticles continue to be an ongoing research. Furthermore, the various chemicals used in their synthesis influence the cytotoxic effects of nanoparticles. We have investigated the cytotoxicity of Porous Hollow Au Nanoparticles (PHAuNPs on cancer cell lines PC-3, PC-3ML, and MDA-MB-231 and the normal cell line PNT1A. Cell proliferation for the different cells in the presence of different concentrations of the PHAuNPs was assessed after 24 hours and 72 hours of incubation using MTT assay. The study also included the cytotoxic evaluation of pegylated PHAuNPs. Identical cell seeding densities, particle concentrations, and incubation times were employed for these two types of Au nanoparticles. Our results indicated that (1 impact on cell proliferation was concentration dependent and was different for the different cell types without cellular necrosis and (b cellular proliferation might be impacted more based on the cell line.

  8. Zinc (hydr)oxide/graphite oxide/AuNPs composites: role of surface features in H₂S reactive adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakoudakis, Dimitrios A; Bandosz, Teresa J

    2014-12-15

    Zinc hydroxide/graphite oxide/AuNPs composites with various levels of complexity were synthesized using an in situ precipitation method. Then they were used as H2S adsorbents in visible light. The materials' surfaces were characterized before and after H2S adsorption by various physical and chemical methods (XRD, FTIR, thermal analysis, potentiometric titration, adsorption of nitrogen and SEM/EDX). Significant differences in surface features and synergistic effects were found depending on the materials' composition. Addition of graphite oxide and the deposition of gold nanoparticles resulted in a marked increase in the adsorption capacity in comparison with that on the zinc hydroxide and zinc hydroxide/AuNP. Addition of AuNPs to zinc hydroxide led to a crystalline ZnO/AuNP composite while the zinc hydroxide/graphite oxide/AuNP composite was amorphous. The ZnOH/GO/AuNPs composite exhibited the greatest H2S adsorption capacity due to the increased number of OH terminal groups and the conductive properties of GO that facilitated the electron transfer and consequently the formation of superoxide ions promoting oxidation of hydrogen sulfide. AuNPs present in the composite increased the conductivity, helped with electron transfer to oxygen, and prevented the fast recombination of the electrons and holes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 浅析NPS顾客忠诚度测评法%Analysis of NPS Customer Loyalty Evaluation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁淑琴

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of mobile Internet, great changes have taken place in consumer behavior, coupled with the homogenization of products and the market is relatively saturated, how to improve customer loyalty in front of the operator. This paper introduces the NPS system, understand the advantages of NPS and NPS, combining with the practical work, the operator NPS promotion strategy, to improve customer loyalty, and promote the healthy development of enterprises.%面对移动互联网的飞速发展,用户消费行为发生了巨大的变化,加之产品同质化与市场相对饱和,如何提升客户忠诚度摆在了运营商的面前。文章通过介绍NPS体系,了解NPS的优点,并将NPS与实际工作相结合,提出运营商NPS提升策略,以提高客户忠诚度,促进企业良性发展。

  10. Application of the PJ and NPS evaporation duct models over the South China Sea (SCS) in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaobo; Li, Xingfei; Wu, Chao; He, Xin; Zhong, Ying

    2017-01-01

    The detection of duct height has a significant effect on marine radar or wireless apparatus applications. The paper presents two models to verify the adaptation of evaporation duct models in the SCS in winter. A meteorological gradient instrument used to measure evaporation ducts was fabricated using hydrological and meteorological sensors at different heights. An experiment on the adaptive characteristics of evaporation duct models was carried out over the SCS. The heights of the evaporation ducts were measured by means of log-linear fit, Paulus-Jeske (PJ) and Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) models. The results showed that NPS model offered significant advantages in stability compared with the PJ model. According the collected data computed by the NPS model, the mean deviation (MD) was -1.7 m, and the Standard Deviation (STD) of the MD was 0.8 m compared with the true value. The NPS model may be more suitable for estimating the evaporation duct height in the SCS in winter due to its simpler system characteristics compared with meteorological gradient instruments.

  11. Solid-Phase Synthesis of New Trp(Nps-Containing Dipeptide Derivatives as TRPV1 Channel Blockers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario González-Muñiz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Trp(Nps-Lys-NH2 derivatives, bearing alkyl or guanidine groups either at the N–terminus or on the Lys side-chain or at both positions were conveniently prepared on solid-phase and evaluated as TRPV1 channel antagonists.

  12. Developmental abnormalities and neurotoxicological effects of CuO NPs on the black sea urchin Arbacia lixula by embryotoxicity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisano, Maria; Cappello, Tiziana; Catanese, Eva; Vitale, Valeria; Natalotto, Antonino; Giannetto, Alessia; Barreca, Davide; Brunelli, Elvira; Mauceri, Angela; Fasulo, Salvatore

    2015-10-01

    The embryotoxicity of CuO NPs was evaluated in the black sea urchin Arbacia lixula embryos, by using 24-well plates. Fertilized eggs were exposed to five doses of CuO NPs ranging from 0.07 to 20 ppb, until pluteus stage. CuO NPs suspensions in artificial seawater formed agglomerates of 80-200 nm size, and copper uptake was 2.5-fold up in larvae exposed to high NP concentrations in respect to control. Developmental delay and morphological alteration, including skeletal abnormalities, were observed, as well as impairment in cholinergic and serotonergic nervous systems. These findings suggest the potential of CuO NPs to interfere with the normal neurotransmission pathways, thus affecting larval morphogenesis. Overall, the embryotoxicity tests are effective for evaluation of nanoparticle effects on the health of aquatic biota. Furthermore, as the black sea urchin A. lixula demonstrated to be vulnerable to NP exposure, it may be a valid bioindicator in marine biomonitoring and ecotoxicological programmes.

  13. Preparation of reduced graphene oxide/meso-TiO2/AuNPs ternary composites and their visible-light-induced photocatalytic degradation n of methylene blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongfang; Ma, Zheng; Xu, Lidong; Wang, Hefang; Fu, Nian

    2016-04-01

    Reduced graphene oxide/meso-TiO2/AuNPs (RGO/meso-TiO2/AuNPs) ternary composites were prepared via the addition of graphene oxide to the dispersion of meso-TiO2/AuNPs under hydrothermal conditions. The structure and the morphology of the RGO/meso-TiO2/AuNPs materials were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic activity of RGO/meso-TiO2/AuNPs was evaluated by degradation of methyl blue (MB) under visible-light illumination. The ternary composites present an extended light absorption range, efficient charge separation properties, high adsorption ability for MB and high photocatalytic degradation activity of MB compared to the meso-TiO2 and meso-TiO2/AuNPs.

  14. Habitats on the NPS Martin Van Buren NHS and on the adjacent Open Space Institute land.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile is part of a project called Biological Surveys at the Martin Van Buren NHS conducted by Hudsonia Ltd. Habitats are mapped according to methodology in...

  15. 2007 USGS/NPS/NASA Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL): Naval Live Oaks Area, FL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — ASCII xyz point cloud data were produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  16. Evaluation of AgClNPs@SBA-15/IL nanoparticle-induced oxidative stress and DNA mutation in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Farrokh; Dabbagh, Somayyeh; Alizadeh, Sina; Rostamnia, Sadegh

    2016-08-01

    The bactericidal effects of silver nanoparticles have been demonstrated in the past years. Recently, the new antimicrobial compounds of silver nanoparticles with different formulations have been developed. In this work, AgClNPs@SBA-15/IL as a new compound of Ag nanoparticles, was synthesized and characterized by XRD, TEM, SEM, FTIR, and EDX. The antibacterial activity and the molecular mechanism effects of AgClNPs@SBA-15/IL nanoparticles (SNPs) on Escherichia coli DH5α cells were investigated by analyzing the growth inhibitory, H2O2 level, catalase activity, DNA mutation, and plasmid copy number following treatment with AgClNPs@SBA-15/IL nanoparticles. In experimental results, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was observed in 75 μg/ml and the antibacterial efficacy (ABE) in CFU analysis was estimated 95.3 %. In bacterial cells treated with 75 and 100 μg/ml, H2O2 level significantly increased and catalase activity decreased compared with control. The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to evaluate the effect of AgClNPs@SBA-15/IL nanoparticles in DNA damages and mutation in E. coli genome. RADP-PCR results indicated different banding patterns including appearance or disappearance of bands and differences in their intensity. Cluster analysis of the RAPD-PCR results based on genetic similarity showed genetic difference between E. coli cells treated with AgClNPs@SBA-15/IL nanoparticles, and control and phylogenetic tree were divided to two clusters. Plasmid copy number analysis indicated that after 8 h incubation of E. coli cells with 50, 75, and 100 μg/ml AgClNPs@SBA-15/IL nanoparticles, copy number of pET21a (+) significantly decreased compared with control which indicating DNA replication inhibition by Ag nanoparticles. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that AgClNPs@SBA-15/IL nanoparticles can be used as an effective bactericidal agent against bacterial cells.

  17. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) biosynthesized using pod extract of Cola nitida enhances antioxidant activity and phytochemical composition of Amaranthus caudatus Linn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeez, Luqmon; Lateef, Agbaje; Adebisi, Segun A.

    2017-02-01

    This study investigates the influence of different concentrations of AgNPs biologically synthesized using pod extract of Cola nitida on antioxidant activity, phenolic contents, flavonoid contents and compositions of Amaranthus caudatus L. AgNPs of 25, 50, 75, 100 and 150 ppm were utilized in growing A. caudatus while water was used as control. Delayed germination for two days was observed for A. caudatus grown with 150 ppm of AgNPs, while others showed no difference. There were 43.3, 38.7, 26.7 and 6.48% improvements in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) antioxidant activity of A. caudatus grown with 25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm of AgNPs, respectively, compared to control. Antioxidant activity of A. caudatus grown with AgNPs reduced with increase in the concentrations of AgNPs. A. caudatus grown with 50 ppm of AgNPs was the most potent with the least IC50 of 0.67 mg/ml. Significant improvements obtained for phenolic and flavonoid contents grown with AgNPs were concentration dependent. Enhancements of 21.9, 68.19, and 1.98% in phenolic contents were achieved in treatments with 25, 50 and 75 ppm AgNPs, respectively, while 32.58, 35.80, and 7.20% improvement in flavonoids were obtained for 25, 50 and 100 ppm treatments, respectively. Kaempferol and quercetin were the most abundant flavonoids in A. caudatus treated with 50 ppm of AgNPs, showing the highest flavonoid composition. This further confirms A. caudatus grown with 50 ppm of AgNPs as the most potent. This study has shown that concentration-dependent AgNPs can be used to boost antioxidant activity and phytochemical contents of vegetables.

  18. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) biosynthesized using pod extract of Cola nitida enhances antioxidant activity and phytochemical composition of Amaranthus caudatus Linn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeez, Luqmon; Lateef, Agbaje; Adebisi, Segun A.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of different concentrations of AgNPs biologically synthesized using pod extract of Cola nitida on antioxidant activity, phenolic contents, flavonoid contents and compositions of Amaranthus caudatus L. AgNPs of 25, 50, 75, 100 and 150 ppm were utilized in growing A. caudatus while water was used as control. Delayed germination for two days was observed for A. caudatus grown with 150 ppm of AgNPs, while others showed no difference. There were 43.3, 38.7, 26.7 and 6.48% improvements in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) antioxidant activity of A. caudatus grown with 25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm of AgNPs, respectively, compared to control. Antioxidant activity of A. caudatus grown with AgNPs reduced with increase in the concentrations of AgNPs. A. caudatus grown with 50 ppm of AgNPs was the most potent with the least IC50 of 0.67 mg/ml. Significant improvements obtained for phenolic and flavonoid contents grown with AgNPs were concentration dependent. Enhancements of 21.9, 68.19, and 1.98% in phenolic contents were achieved in treatments with 25, 50 and 75 ppm AgNPs, respectively, while 32.58, 35.80, and 7.20% improvement in flavonoids were obtained for 25, 50 and 100 ppm treatments, respectively. Kaempferol and quercetin were the most abundant flavonoids in A. caudatus treated with 50 ppm of AgNPs, showing the highest flavonoid composition. This further confirms A. caudatus grown with 50 ppm of AgNPs as the most potent. This study has shown that concentration-dependent AgNPs can be used to boost antioxidant activity and phytochemical contents of vegetables.

  19. The Neutrophil-Platelet Score (NPS Predicts Survival in Primary Operable Colorectal Cancer and a Variety of Common Cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Watt

    Full Text Available Recent in-vitro studies have suggested that a critical checkpoint early in the inflammatory process involves the interaction between neutrophils and platelets. This confirms the importance of the innate immune system in the elaboration of the systemic inflammatory response. The aim of the present study was to examine whether a combination of the neutrophil and platelet counts were predictive of survival in patients with cancer.Patients with histologically proven colorectal cancer who underwent potentially curative resection at a single centre between March 1999 and May 2013 (n = 796 and patients with cancer from the Glasgow Inflammation Outcome Study, who had a blood sample taken between January 2000 and December 2007 (n = 9649 were included in the analysis.In the colorectal cancer cohort, there were 173 cancer and 135 non-cancer deaths. In patients undergoing elective surgery, cancer-specific survival (CSS at 5 years ranged from 97% in patients with TNM I disease and NPS = 0 to 57% in patients with TNM III disease and NPS = 2 (p = 0.019 and in patients undergoing elective surgery for node-negative colon cancer from 98% (TNM I, NPS = 0 to 65% (TNM II, NPS = 2 (p = 0.004. In those with a variety of common cancers there were 5218 cancer and 929 non-cancer deaths. On multivariate analysis, adjusting for age and sex and stratified by tumour site, incremental increase in the NPS was significantly associated with poorer CSS (p<0.001.The neutrophil-platelet score predicted survival in a variety of common cancers and highlights the importance of the innate immune system in patients with cancer.

  20. Electrochemical preparation of Au-PtNPs/SWNT modified electrode and its application%Au-PtNPs/SWNT复合材料修饰电极的电化学制备及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春兰; 朱效华; 朱旭; 徐茂田

    2013-01-01

    The Au-PtNPs/SWNT modified electrode was prepared by an electrochemical method at room temperature. The surface morphology of the modified electrode was measured by AFM and the results indicate that there are dispersions and high loadings of Au-Pt nanoparticles on SWNT. Under the optimal modification conditions(Electrodeposition of SWNT for 30 s,soaking in H2PtO6 for 10 minutes,multi-step deposition of gold nanoparticles for 45 cycles(glucose) or 30 cycles( methanol) ) ,glucose and methanol can be electrocatalytically oxidized on the surface of Au-PtNPs/SWNT modified electrode in alkaline environment Thus,the Au-Pt-NPs/SWNT/GCE is expected to be applied as a nonenzymatic glucose sensor or in the filed of methanol fuel cells.%在室温条件下,利用恒电位吸附法和多电位阶跃法制备了金-铂纳米粒子(Au-PtNPs)/单壁碳纳米管(SWNT)复合材料修饰电极,并利用电化学方法和原子力显微镜(AFM)对其进行了表征.结果表明:Au-Pt-NPs可很好的结合在SWNT表面,在该电极的最佳修饰条件下(SWNT分散液中电沉积30 s,H2PtO6中浸泡10min,循环阶跃沉积金纳米粒子45次(葡萄糖)或30次(甲醇))可以较好的电催化氧化碱性环境中的葡萄糖及甲醇,有望在葡萄糖无酶传感器及甲醇燃料电池中得到应用.

  1. Kootenai River Floodplain Ecosystem Operational Loss Assessment, Protection, Mitigation and Rehabilitation, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, Norm [Kootenai Tribe of Idaho

    2009-02-18

    The overarching goals of the 'Kootenai River Floodplain Ecosystem Operational Loss Assessment, Protection, Mitigation and Rehabilitation' Project (BPA Project No.2002-011-00) are to: (1) assess abiotic and biotic factors (i.e., geomorphologic, hydrological, aquatic and riparian/floodplain communities) in determining a definitive composition of ecological integrity, (2) develop strategies to assess and mitigate losses of ecosystem functions, and (3) produce a regional operational loss assessment framework. To produce a scientifically defensible, repeatable, and complete assessment tool, KTOI assembled a team of top scientists in the fields of hydrology, hydraulics, ornithology, entomology, statistics, and river ecology, among other expertise. This advisory team is known as the Research Design and Review Team (RDRT). The RDRT scientists drive the review, selection, and adaptive management of the research designs to evaluate the ecologic functions lost due to the operation of federal hydropower facilities. The unique nature of this project (scientific team, newest/best science, adaptive management, assessment of ecological functions, etc.) has been to work in a dynamic RDRT process. In addition to being multidisciplinary, this model KTOI project provides a stark contrast to the sometimes inflexible process (review, re-review, budgets, etc.) of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The project RDRT is assembled annually, with subgroups meeting as needed throughout the year to address project issues, analyses, review, and interpretation. Activities of RDRT coordinated and directed the selection of research and assessment methodologies appropriate for the Kootenai River Watershed and potential for regional application in the Columbia River Basin. The entire RDRT continues to meet annually to update and discuss project progress. RDRT Subcontractors work in smaller groups throughout the year to meet project objectives. Determining the extent to which ecological systems are experiencing anthropogenic disturbance and change in structure and function is critical for long term conservation of biotic diversity in the face of changing landscapes and land use. KTOI and the RDRT propose a concept based on incorporating hydrologic, aquatic, and terrestrial components into an operations-based assessment framework to assess ecological losses as shown in Figure E-1.

  2. Detecting early signs of the 2007-2008 crisis in the world trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracco, Fabio; Di Clemente, Riccardo; Gabrielli, Andrea; Squartini, Tiziano

    2016-07-27

    Since 2007, several contributions have tried to identify early-warning signals of the financial crisis. However, the vast majority of analyses has focused on financial systems and little theoretical work has been done on the economic counterpart. In the present paper we fill this gap and employ the theoretical tools of network theory to shed light on the response of world trade to the financial crisis of 2007 and the economic recession of 2008-2009. We have explored the evolution of the bipartite World Trade Web (WTW) across the years 1995-2010, monitoring the behavior of the system both before and after 2007. Our analysis shows early structural changes in the WTW topology: since 2003, the WTW becomes increasingly compatible with the picture of a network where correlations between countries and products are progressively lost. Moreover, the WTW structural modification can be considered as concluded in 2010, after a seemingly stationary phase of three years. We have also refined our analysis by considering specific subsets of countries and products: the most statistically significant early-warning signals are provided by the most volatile macrosectors, especially when measured on developing countries, suggesting the emerging economies as being the most sensitive ones to the global economic cycles.

  3. Self Managed Superannuation Funds and the Bear Market of 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Phillips

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine the bear market performance of self managed superannuation funds(SMSFs. Previous studies have highlighted some problems with the portfolio construction ofSMSFs. This provides a rationale for examining the performance of SMSFs during the recentbear market. Based on data from two independent samples of a total of 141 self managedsuperannuation funds, two archetype SMSF portfolios are constructed in order to generateinsights into the average performance of the funds in the samples. The performance of thesefunds is compared with (1 the unmanaged market index; and (2 the average returnsgenerated by retail (balanced superannuation funds. Interestingly, whilst the SMSFs havegenerated negative returns and problems with the portfolio construction remain, the relativeperformance of the overall portfolios vis-à-vis the market index and professionally managedfunds is reasonably favourable. However, the equity portions of the SMSF portfolios sufferfrom under-diversification and could be more efficiently constructed.

  4. PERSEPSI TERHADAP KONSUMSI KOPI DAN TEH MAHASISWA TPB-IPB TAHUN AJARAN 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febriana Ira Dewi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Design of this research is a cross sectional study and study site in Bogor Agricultural Institute, Bogor. A total of 354 samples was drawn randomly. Average daily coffee and tea consumption were about 20.4 g and 1.93 g. Coffee is usually consumed at night. Whereas, tea is consumed in the morning. Samples feel positive and negative effects after consumption of coffee and tea such us sleepless, fatigue, fresh, easy to concentrate, addiction, diuresis, and cardiac arrhythmias. Keywords: coffee, tea, consumption.

  5. Enhancing the Environmental Legacy of the International Polar Year 2007- 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tin, T.; Roura, R.; Perrault, M.

    2006-12-01

    The International Geophysical Year (IGY) left a legacy of peace and international cooperation in the form of the 1959 Antarctic Treaty. Since the IGY, the 1991 Protocol of Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was signed and entered into force. The Protocol establishes that the protection of the environment and the wilderness values of Antarctica "shall be fundamental considerations in the planning and conduct of all activities in the Antarctic Treaty area". Fifty years on, the IPY 2007-08 can, in turn, leave behind a positive environmental legacy - where the sharing of facilities and logistics are encouraged, the human footprint in Antarctica is minimized and a future generation of environmentally aware scientists, logisticians and visitors is fostered. Based on an analysis of all Expressions of Interest submitted to the IPY, we found that about three-quarters of IPY's Antarctic projects plan to have fieldwork components. About one-third of these field projects expect to leave physical infrastructure in Antarctica. A number of projects plan to develop large-scale infrastructure, such as stations and observatories, in hitherto pristine areas. Fewer than one percent of Antarctic field projects address the issue of their environmental legacy: four projects indicated that the site will be cleaned up or the equipment will be removed at the end of the project; two projects indicated that their results may be useful for the management of the Antarctic environment, e.g., in the control of invasive species or setting up of marine protected areas. With the goal of increasing the environmental awareness of Antarctic field scientists, our contribution will review current research on the impacts of human activities science, tourism, exploitation of marine resources and global climate change - on the Antarctic environment. A preliminary analysis of the cumulative impacts of IPY activities will be presented. Case studies of scientific projects in Antarctica with a potentially positive environmental legacy will be highlighted, and suggestions of actions that could be taken to increase the environmental friendliness of scientific projects will be discussed.

  6. Turning points in nonlinear business cycle theories, financial crisis and the 2007-2008 downturn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Mohammed H I; Singh, Ragiv G

    2009-10-01

    This paper reviews three nonlinear dynamical business cycle theories of which only one (The Goodwin model) reflects the stylized facts of observed business cycles and has a plausible turning point mechanism. The paper then examines the US (and now global) financial crisis of 2008 and the accompanying downturn in the US. The paper argues that a skewed income distribution could not sustain effective demand and that over the 2001-2006 expansion demand was maintained through massive amounts of credit, with more than 50 percent of sales in the US being maintained through credit. A vector autoregression model confirms the crucial role played by credit. However legislative changes that dismantled the restrictions placed on the financial sector after the crash of 1929 and the consequent structural changes in the financial sector after 1980 enabled the growth of new debt instruments and credit. But overexpansion of credit when profits and house prices were declining in 2005/06 led to a nonlinear shift due to a new realization of the poor quality of some of this debt, namely mortgage backed securities. Bankruptcies, followed by retrenchment at the banks, then led to the bursting of the credit bubble, with the possibility of a severe recession.

  7. The Portugese, Slovenian and French presidencies 2007-2008: A sea change in European spatial planning?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faludi, A.K.F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper gives an account of the successive presidencies of Portugal, Slovenia and France. It asks whether European spatial planning is undergoing a sea change: a transformation caused by the unintentional cumulative impact of pragmatic organisational changes. The paper also invokes the notion of

  8. Seroprevalence of HTLV1,2 Virus Among Injection Drug Addicts in Isfahan, 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Farzaneh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV, is a member of the retroviridae family. Infection with this virus leads to adult T-cell leukemia (ATL and tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP. HTLV is endemic in Japan, parts of central Africa, Caribbean basin and Iran (Mashhad. Transmission routes of HTLV are believed to be from mother to child, especially during breastfeeding, sexual contact, and through blood transfusion or needle sharing. Considering the risk of HTLV infection among injection drug addicts, the authors evaluated the seroprevalence of HTLV1,2 infection among injection drug addicts in Isfahan Methods: This cross sectional study included a total of 150 injection drug users who were recruited at the drug abuse treatment clinic and the infectious diseases department of Alzahra university Hospital. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Epidemiologic data were recorded and their blood samples were tested for HBs Ag and antibodies against HTLV1,2, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis C (HCV by Elisa method . Results were analyzed by SPSS software version 13. Results: Seroprevalence of HTLV1,2, HBV(HBs Ag, HCV and HIV was 2.7%, 1.3% 23.3% and 2.7%, respectively. Some of the subjects were co infected with two viruses. One patient was infected with both HCV Ab and HBs Ag , while another was positive for HIV Ab plus HBs Ag . Three were co infected with HCV and HIV. Among those with HTLV1,2, only one was HCV Ab positive. Only in one person with HTLV1,2 Ab had a positive history of blood transfusion. Conclusion: This study shows that this virus is present in injection drug users community of Isfahan and can be a potential source for transmission. But proposal of screening of HTLV1,2 among injection drug users in Isfahan requires further investigations.

  9. 2007 2008 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME: Tevatron: The Cinderella Story or The Art Of Collider Commissioning

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 01, 03, 04, 05 October 2007 Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Tevatron: The Cinderella Story or The Art Of Collider Commissioning V. SHILTSEV / Fermi National Accelerator Laboraty, Batavia IL, USA The Tevatron Collider at Fermilab (Batavia, IL, USA) is the world’s highest energy particle collider at 1.8TeV c.m.e. The machine was a centerpiece of the US and world’s High Energy Physics for many years. Currently, the Tevatron is in the last years of its operation in so-called Run II which started 2001 and is tentatively scheduled to end in 2010. In this lecture series, we’ll try to learn from the exciting story of the Tevatron Collider Run II: the story of long preparations, great expectations, initial difficulties, years of "blood and sweat", continuous upgrades, exceeding its goals, high emotions, tune-up of accelerator organization for "combat fighting". The lectures will cover Introduction to the Tevatron, its history and Run II; "Plumbing"...

  10. Surveillance for Waterborne Disease Outbreaks Associated with Drinking Water United States, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Problem/Condition: Since 1971, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have maintained a collaborative Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOS...

  11. AY 2007-2008 Achieving U.S. Energy Security: Energy Industry Sector Report Seminar 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    mpg on the highway.30 PHEV versions of current hybrid vehicles, such as the Toyota Prius and Ford Escape, are undergoing fleet tests and models...China’s Plucky Plug-In Hybrid,” Business Week, January 21, 2008. 29 James Healey, “ Prius Plug-In Displays Battery of Good Points,” USA Today...January 17, 2008. 30 James Healey, “Ford Escape Plug-in Hybrid Shows Potential”, USA Today, January 24, 2008. 31 James Healey, “ Prius Plug-In Displays

  12. AFSC/ABL: Southeast and Prince William Sound, Alaska Herring Microsatellite data, 2007-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Herring is one of the most energy-rich fish in the Alaskan ecosystem, and when populations struggle over time, such as the Lynn Canal population, there is management...

  13. Council on Library and Information Resources: Annual Report, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council on Library and Information Resources, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This annual report of the Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) contains an overview of activities of the Council between July 1, 2007 and June 30, 2008. These include programs, advisory groups, grants and contracts, and financial statements. It also includes a list of staff, a letter from the chairperson Paula Kaufman, and a message…

  14. Analysis of enterovirus and adenovirus presence in swimming pools in Cyprus from 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashiardes, S; Koptides, D; Pavlidou, S; Richter, J; Stavrou, N; Kourtis, C; Papageorgiou, G T; Christodoulou, C G

    2011-01-01

    An analysis was carried out to determine the presence of enteroviruses and adenoviruses in public swimming pools in Cyprus. The effectiveness of the commonly implemented disinfection procedure of chlorination was confirmed by determination of bacteriological markers. Analysis of viral presence was carried out by sampling random swimming pools from the five major cities in Cyprus during a period of 21 months spanning from April 2007 to December 2008. A 10 I sample was taken from each swimming pool to be tested and was subsequently concentrated via membrane filtration using a new methodological approach for virus elution. Concentrated samples were analysed using of a Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) TaqMan probe based approach to detect the presence of enteroviruses and adenoviruses. Over the period of 21 months a total of 126 swimming pools were sampled and analysed. In four swimming pools enteroviruses were detected, in one pool echovirus 18 was identified, in two pools echovirus 30 was identified and in one other pool poliovirus Sabin 1 was identified. Similarly, in four swimming pools adenoviruses were detected, in all four adenovirus 41 was identified. Bacteriological marker analysis showed that 98% of pools complied with Cyprus regulations.

  15. What's new in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy in 2007-2008?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Ivo N

    2008-12-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP)-related research has made progress in the field of pathogenesis, genetics, and treatment. The number of circulating CD4(+) CD25(+) T-regulatory cells was shown to be reduced in CIDP patients. Increased frequency of genotype GA13-16 of the SH2D2A gene encoding for a T-cell-specific adapter protein in CIDP patients may result in a defective control and elimination of autoreactive T cells. IVIg treatment has been shown to increase numbers and function of peripheral CD4(+) CD25(+) T-regulatory cell in a mouse model. These findings shed new light on the understanding of why peripheral tolerance is breached in CIDP patients and why the disease becomes chronic and adds another possible mechanism of action of intravenous immunoglobulin to the already long list. Long-term effectiveness of IVIg has now been proven. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin could be an alternative for IVIg, but this has to be explored further in well-designed trials. Autologous stem cell transplantation has been tried in refractory patients, but larger trials are necessary to assess safety and effect of this treatment.

  16. Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudel, Marc; Tucker, Strahan; Morris, John

    2009-03-09

    Historically, salmon stocks from the Columbia River and Snake River formed one of the most valuable fisheries on the west coast of North America. However, salmon and steelhead returns sharply declined during the 1980s and 1990s to reach nearly 1 million fish. Although several factors may be responsible for the decline of Columbia River salmon and steelhead, there is increasing evidence that these drastic declines were primarily attributable to persistently unfavorable ocean conditions. Hence, an understanding of the effects of ocean conditions on salmon production is required to forecast the return of salmon to the Columbia River basin and to assess the efficacy of mitigation measures such as flow regulation on salmon resources in this system. The Canadian Program on High Seas Salmon has been collecting juvenile salmon and oceanographic data off the west coast of British Columbia and Southeast Alaska since 1998 to assess the effects of ocean conditions on the distribution, migration, growth, and survival of Pacific salmon. Here, we present a summary of the work conducted as part of the Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study during the 2008 fiscal year and compare these results with those obtained from previous years. The working hypothesis of this research is that fast growth enhances the marine survival of salmon, either because fast growing fish quickly reach a size that is sufficient to successfully avoid predators, or because they accumulate enough energy reserves to better survive their first winter at sea, a period generally considered critical in the life cycle of salmon. Sea surface temperature decreased from FY05 to FY08, whereas, the summer biomass of phytoplankton increased steadily off the west coast of Vancouver Island from FY05 to FY08. As in FY07, zooplankton biomass was generally above average off the west coast of Vancouver Island in FY08. Interestingly, phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass were higher in FY08 than was expected from the observed nutrient concentration that year. This suggests nutrients were more effectively by phytoplankton in FY08. In addition, the abundance of lipid-rich northern copepods increased from FY05 to FY08, whereas lipid-poor southern copepods showed the opposite pattern, suggesting that growth conditions were more favorable to juvenile salmon in FY08 than in previous years. However, growth indices for juvenile coho salmon were near the 1998-2008 average, both off the west coast of Vancouver Island and Southeast Alaska, indicating that additional factors beside prey quality affect juvenile salmon growth in the marine environment. Catches of juvenile Chinook, sockeye and chum salmon off the west coast of Vancouver Island in June-July 2008 were the highest on record during summer since 1998, suggesting that early marine survival for the 2008 smolt year was high. Interestingly, the proportion of hatchery fish was high (80-100%) among the juvenile Columbia River Chinook salmon caught off the British Columbia coast during summer, suggest that relatively few wild Chinook salmon are produced in the Columbia River Chinook. In addition, we also recovered two coded-wire tagged juvenile Redfish Lake sockeye salmon in June 2008 off the west coast of British Columbia. As relatively few Redfish Lake sockeye smolts are tagged each year, this also suggests that early marine survival was high for these fish, and may result in a high return in 2009 if they mature at age three, or in 2010 if they mature at age four. To date, our research shows that different populations of Columbia River salmon move to different locations along the coastal zone where they establish their ocean feeding grounds and overwinter. We further show that ocean conditions experienced by juvenile Columbia River salmon vary among regions of the coast, with higher plankton productivity and temperatures off the west coast of Vancouver Island than in Southeast Alaska. Hence, different stocks of juvenile salmon originating from the Columbia River and Snake River are exposed to different ocean conditions and may respond differ

  17. Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudel, Marc; Tucker, Strahan; Morris, John

    2009-03-09

    Historically, salmon stocks from the Columbia River and Snake River formed one of the most valuable fisheries on the west coast of North America. However, salmon and steelhead returns sharply declined during the 1980s and 1990s to reach nearly 1 million fish. Although several factors may be responsible for the decline of Columbia River salmon and steelhead, there is increasing evidence that these drastic declines were primarily attributable to persistently unfavorable ocean conditions. Hence, an understanding of the effects of ocean conditions on salmon production is required to forecast the return of salmon to the Columbia River basin and to assess the efficacy of mitigation measures such as flow regulation on salmon resources in this system. The Canadian Program on High Seas Salmon has been collecting juvenile salmon and oceanographic data off the west coast of British Columbia and Southeast Alaska since 1998 to assess the effects of ocean conditions on the distribution, migration, growth, and survival of Pacific salmon. Here, we present a summary of the work conducted as part of the Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study during the 2008 fiscal year and compare these results with those obtained from previous years. The working hypothesis of this research is that fast growth enhances the marine survival of salmon, either because fast growing fish quickly reach a size that is sufficient to successfully avoid predators, or because they accumulate enough energy reserves to better survive their first winter at sea, a period generally considered critical in the life cycle of salmon. Sea surface temperature decreased from FY05 to FY08, whereas, the summer biomass of phytoplankton increased steadily off the west coast of Vancouver Island from FY05 to FY08. As in FY07, zooplankton biomass was generally above average off the west coast of Vancouver Island in FY08. Interestingly, phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass were higher in FY08 than was expected from the observed nutrient concentration that year. This suggests nutrients were more effectively by phytoplankton in FY08. In addition, the abundance of lipid-rich northern copepods increased from FY05 to FY08, whereas lipid-poor southern copepods showed the opposite pattern, suggesting that growth conditions were more favorable to juvenile salmon in FY08 than in previous years. However, growth indices for juvenile coho salmon were near the 1998-2008 average, both off the west coast of Vancouver Island and Southeast Alaska, indicating that additional factors beside prey quality affect juvenile salmon growth in the marine environment. Catches of juvenile Chinook, sockeye and chum salmon off the west coast of Vancouver Island in June-July 2008 were the highest on record during summer since 1998, suggesting that early marine survival for the 2008 smolt year was high. Interestingly, the proportion of hatchery fish was high (80-100%) among the juvenile Columbia River Chinook salmon caught off the British Columbia coast during summer, suggest that relatively few wild Chinook salmon are produced in the Columbia River Chinook. In addition, we also recovered two coded-wire tagged juvenile Redfish Lake sockeye salmon in June 2008 off the west coast of British Columbia. As relatively few Redfish Lake sockeye smolts are tagged each year, this also suggests that early marine survival was high for these fish, and may result in a high return in 2009 if they mature at age three, or in 2010 if they mature at age four. To date, our research shows that different populations of Columbia River salmon move to different locations along the coastal zone where they establish their ocean feeding grounds and overwinter. We further show that ocean conditions experienced by juvenile Columbia River salmon vary among regions of the coast, with higher plankton productivity and temperatures off the west coast of Vancouver Island than in Southeast Alaska. Hence, different stocks of juvenile salmon originating from the Columbia River and Snake River are exposed to different ocean conditions and may respond differently to climate changes. In particular, our work shows that the growth and fat content of Chinook and coho salmon vary along different parts of the coast and among years. These growth differences appear to be associated with differences in prey quality rather than by a direct effect of temperature on salmon growth or prey quantity, indicating that changes in ocean conditions and circulation affect salmon production indirectly through changes in prey community composition and quality. Taken together, our analyses indicate that the relative survival of different stocks of salmon in the ocean will depend on where they migrate in the ocean, and that changes at the base of the food chain must be taken into consideration to understand the effects of ocean conditions on salmon growth, and hence, on salmon survival.

  18. Investigating Groundwater/Surface Water Interaction at the Diversion Dam Site: Report Documentary 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    and setup issues concerning the loggers and the ERDC/CHL CR-11-1 8 Figure 4. Solinst Gold Model 3001 pressure transducer. learning curve that...applicable. • Enviro 2” locking well cap w/key, and a ring from a key chain to suspend the LGR • Water level beeper (submersible type if measuring DTR

  19. State of Flood Related Modeling Along Middle Rio Grande: Report Documentary 2007-2008 Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    for Sand Beds Nick A. Marsh, Andrew W. Western, and Rodger B. Grayson Influence of Bed Material Size Heterogeneity on Bedload Transport Uncertainty...Geospatial Representation of River Channels Venkatesh M. Merwade, David R. Maidment, and Ben R. Hodges Metrics for Assessing the Downstream Effects of

  20. Designing smart energy. Final report of the Tekes research project 2007-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltonen, S.; Pakkanen, M.; Pitkaejaervi, S.; Lautamaeki, S.; Oehman, C.; Baang, M.; Peltola, T.; Broms, L.; Gustafsson, M.-L.

    2009-07-01

    The Desme project aimed at analysing the possibilities of changing consumer behaviour in terms of energy efficiency by using industrial design as a tool. Concept and interaction design was used in order to study how consumers react to the concepts of smart energy applications that focus on showing and guiding consumer's energy usage. Several studies of people's attitudes and knowledge related to energy already exist. However, these studies measure people's intentions rather than their actions and actual buying decisions. In order to be effective, segmentation needs to be based not only on consumer attitudes towards energy saving but also on their actual energy behaviour as multiple studies have shown that the correlation between people's attitudes and behaviour is weak. It is important to understand how people use energy in their everyday lives, what kinds of energy saving actions they currently employ and what their general view on energy saving amounts to. Understanding consumers' energy behaviour is important in order to be able to create more specific energy saving solutions for different contexts of everyday life. Several product and service concepts were created during the design phase of the Desme project. When creating the concept ideas, the designers focused on two different but supporting aspects: the everyday life context and consumer lifestyles. The existing knowledge of energy consumer segments was also employed as a framework for the concept ideas. The main purpose was to design products that would relate to some major problem areas concerning energy saving in the home environment and still fit in with the user's lifestyle. The concept ideas were evaluated by companies, designers and a research group. Four concepts were selected for further development and consumer testing: Home display, Shower duck, Key hanger and Energy plant. The concept testing revealed that these four design concepts approached the energy saving issue from a very fresh angle. This new approach was seen as very welcome by both experts and consumers. One of the most valuable findings was the five energy consumer segments that were identified: Passionate ecologists, Active energy savers, Insensitive energy users, Reluctant energy savers and Unaware energy consumers. These five energy consumer segments clearly differ from each other by their actions, awareness, attitudes and intentions regarding energy saving. In conclusion, several lessons were learned during the Desme project. First of all, it is important to realize that in order to be able to influence in the consumers' energy usage behaviour, it is extremely important to deeply understand their awareness, attitudes and current behaviour. Second, it must be understood that consumers are not a heterogeneous group of people and therefore they need to be approached by different ways and to be offered different solutions. Finally, not only communication, education and more energy efficient technology are needed in order to enhance the consumers to behave in a more energy efficient manner; also innovative and desirable products and services are needed. Industrial design can be a very effective tool for encouraging consumers to think about their energy usage more and use energy less. (orig.)

  1. Metabolic Syndrome. Diagnosis in women of five doctor's office. North Area. November 2007-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaneisy Triana Toledo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The morbility for Metabolic-Syndrome in five doctor's office of the north health area in the municipality Accomplished a descriptive transverse cut investigation in 151 adult women's probabilistic sign to characterize itself Sancti - Spíritus, among 1ro of Noviembre of the 2007 and the November 30 the 2008. Morbility, the antecedent factors personnels of risk and of chronic illnesses were variables gone into no transmissible, they gathered data in a fill-out form, statistical analysis included percentages calculation, parameters esteem and tests them of proportions difference (x2. The main things aftermaths were Metabolic Syndrome prevalence of 33,3 % In the patients with metabolic syndrome the risk factor of chronic illnesses no transmissible that predominate was in order not to accomplish physical activity (96,1 %, her hiperlipidemia (27,3 %, as well as the obesity (24,4 % in this entity's bearers. The antecedent pathological personals for chronic illnesses no transmissible registered hypertension went with 64,7 %.

  2. Demographic and Geographic Differences in Exposure to Secondhand Smoke in Missouri Workplaces, 2007-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Jenine K.; Geremakis, Caroline; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Carothers, Bobbi J.; Shelton, Sarah C; Kariuki, Barbara; Kuhlenbeck, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Introduction African Americans, Hispanics, service and blue-collar workers, and residents of rural areas are among those facing higher rates of workplace secondhand smoke exposure in states without smokefree workplace laws. Consequently, these groups also experience more negative health effects resulting from secondhand smoke exposure. The objective of this study was to examine disparities in workplace secondhand smoke exposure in a state without a comprehensive statewide smokefree workplace ...

  3. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act: Fiscal Year 2007-2008 Report. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, Terry; Turner, Susan; Ridgeway, Greg

    2010-01-01

    In 2000, the California State Legislature passed the Schiff-Cardenas Crime Prevention Act, which authorized funding for county juvenile-justice programs and designated the Corrections Standards Authority (CSA) (formerly named the Board of Corrections) the administrator of funding. A 2001 California Senate bill extended the funding and changed the…

  4. Comment on “Informatics and the 2007-2008 Electronic Geophysical Year”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, James E.

    2009-04-01

    In the article by D. N. Baker et al. on informatics and the Electronic Geophysical Year (see Eos, 89(48), 25 November 2008), “informatics science” rather than “science” should have been noted on the horizontal beam in Figure 2 indicating “the pillars supporting state-of-the-art science.” I stared in puzzlement at the figure before I realized that—although not stated—the figure applies to this narrow (the authors probably consider it as broad) area of science. My sensitivity about this matter is probably due to my having always felt that AGU—to the detriment of its scientific activities—downplays the importance of measurement science and technological advances, two essential pillars of support for its activities. I believe that measurement capabilities are the enablers of almost all scientific progress, and that the activity of creating them is not normally “covered” (certainly not in most people's minds) by a pillar entitled “experiment + observation.”

  5. Connecting Worlds/Mundos Unidos Project: End-of-Year Report, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciriza, Frank

    2008-01-01

    This report presents information on the Connecting Worlds/Mundos Unidos Project and provides a general comparison overview of accomplishments during its five years of operation. The Connecting Worlds/Mundos Unidos Project has been operating in the El Paso Independent School District (EPISD) for eleven years, but in the present format as a Jacob K.…

  6. Connecticut Women's Education and Legal Fund Annual Report, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connecticut Women's Education and Legal Fund, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Connecticut Women's Education and Legal Fund (CWEALF) is a statewide non-profit organization dedicated to empowering women, girls and their families to achieve equal opportunities in their personal and professional lives. Members are guided by their commitment to feminism, diversity, empowerment, personal responsibility and self-sufficiency,…

  7. Official holidays in 2007 and end-of-year closure 2007/2008

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    (Application of Articles R II 4.38 and R II 4.39 of the Staff Regulations) Official holidays in 2007 (in addition to the end-of-year holidays): Friday, 6th April (Good Friday) Monday, 9th April (Easter Monday) Tuesday, 1st May (1st May) Thursday, 17th May (Ascension Day) Monday, 28th May (Whit Monday) Thursday, 6th September ('Jeûne genevois') Annual closure of the site of the Organization during the Christmas holidays and days of special leave granted by the Director-General: The Laboratory will be closed from Saturday, 22nd December 2007 to Sunday, 6th January 2008 inclusive (without deduction of annual leave). The first working day in the New Year will be Monday, 7th January 2008. Human Resources Department Tel. 74128

  8. Official holidays in 2007 and end-of-year closure 2007/2008

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    (Application of Articles R II 4.38 and R II 4.39 of the Staff Regulations) Official holidays in 2007 (in addition to the end-of-year holidays) : - Friday, 6th April (Good Friday) - Monday, 9th April (Easter Monday) - Tuesday, 1st May (1st May) - Thursday, 17th May (Ascension Day) - Monday, 28th May (Whit Monday) - Thursday, 6th September ("Jeûne genevois") Annual closure of the site of the Organization during the Christmas holidays and days of special leave granted by the Director-General : The Laboratory will be closed from Saturday, 22nd December 2007 to Sunday, 6th January 2008 inclusive (without deduction of annual leave). The first working day in the New Year will be Monday, 7th January 2008. Human Resources Department Tel. 74128

  9. Diabetes Self-Management Education in South Auckland, New Zealand, 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Silva, PhD

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionSelf-management education programs seek to help patients realize that they are their own principal caregivers and that health care professionals are consultants who support them in this role. The aim of this study was to evaluate a diabetes self-management education program implemented as part of a district-wide approach in South Auckland, New Zealand, which has some of the highest prevalence rates for diabetes and is one of the most ethnically diverse and deprived regions of New Zealand.MethodsSelf-management attitudes and behaviors were monitored with the use of questionnaires before and after program implementation. Clinical outcomes such as hemoglobin A1c, body mass index, and blood pressure were also tracked before the program began and 3 months after the program ended. Participant focus groups and facilitator interviews were conducted to explore perceptions of the program.ResultsParticipants showed improvement in attitudes toward their own ability to manage their diabetes; in diet, physical activity, and foot care; and in hemoglobin A1c levels 3 months after the end of participation. Participants also reduced their sense of isolation when dealing with their diabetes. However, catering to the needs of a multiethnic community is extremely resource-intensive because of the need to provide adequate language and cultural interpretation.ConclusionSelf-management education can work in multiethnic, high-needs communities in New Zealand. Programs must ensure they enable the appropriate mechanisms and have appropriate resources to support the community’s needs.

  10. HHS Report on Social and Economic Conditions of Native Americans for 2007-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This report to Congress provides data specific to awards made from the Department of Health and Human Services to Native Americans and provides highlights of Native...

  11. Beiträge zum Göttinger Umwelthistorischen Kolloquium 2007 - 2008

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This annual yearbook presents essays in environmental history based on lectures given at the Göttingen study group “Environmental History” by external authors. As previous yearbooks it is dedicated to the plurality of approaches in environmental history and serves as a valuable source for information about current research in that realm. Seit seiner Gründung vor annähernd 25 Jahren hat sich das Göttinger Umwelthistorische Kolloquium zu einer Einrichtung entwickelt, welche die vielfältigen,...

  12. Water Quality Trends in the Entiat River Subbasin: 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andy Bookter; Richard D. Woodsmith; Frank H. McCormick; Karl M. Polivka

    2009-01-01

    Production of high-quality water is a vitally important ecosystem service in the largely semiarid interior Columbia River basin (ICRB). Communities, tribal governments, and various agencies are concerned about maintenance of this water supply for domestic, agricultural, industrial, recreational, and ecosystem uses. Water quantity and...

  13. Arbobalans 2007/2008 : kwaliteit van de arbeid, effecten en maatregelen in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouw, P.; Hooftman, W.; Bakhuys Roozeboom, M.; Houtman, I.; Klein Hesselink, J.

    2008-01-01

    De Arbobalans is een jaarlijks verschijnende publicatie waarin cijfers en gegevens zijn opgenomen die het resultaat zijn van "arbomonitoring", het systematisch verzamelen van gegevens over veiligheids- en gezondheidsrisico's op de werkplek. In deze Arbobalans zijn de meest recente cijfers over de on

  14. 2007-2008 Annual Progress Report for BPA Grant Exp Restore Walla Walla River Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, Bob [WWBWC (Walla Walla Basin Watershed Council)

    2009-07-10

    WWBWC and its partners have been working on a wide variety of conservation and aquifer recharge related activities including: monitoring groundwater and surface water conditions, creating a geospatial database for the Walla Walla River valley (project focal area), expanding aquifer recharge testing at the HBDIC site and conducting an extensive outreach/education program by which to share the information, ideas and potential solutions to our current water management issues in this basin. This report is an outline of those activities and is accompanied by individual program-component (attached as appendices) reports for the areas that BPA is assisting to fund these on-the-ground projects along with the innovative research and monitoring being done to further aquifer recharge as a water management tool for the Pacific Northwest.

  15. The Afterschool Experience in "Salsa, Sabor y Salud": Evaluation, 2007-2008. CRESST Report 747

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Denise; La Torre, Deborah; Oh, Christine; Harven, Aletha; Huber, Lindsay; Leon, Seth; Mostafavi, Sima

    2008-01-01

    In the United States, there is an alarming trend toward obesity and inactivity among children. Minorities and economically disadvantaged children are at an even higher risk. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention one in two Latino children will become diabetic. As a result, there is a dire need for tailored intervention…

  16. 78 FR 50113 - Distribution of 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 Cable Royalty Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Petitions to Participate and the $150 filing fee by an overnight delivery service other than the U.S. Postal Service Express Mail. If participants choose to use U.S. Postal Service (including overnight delivery... 20559- 6000. If participants choose delivery by a commercial courier, they must deliver the...

  17. Ebola hemorrhagic fever associated with novel virus strain, Uganda, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamala, Joseph F; Lukwago, Luswa; Malimbo, Mugagga; Nguku, Patrick; Yoti, Zabulon; Musenero, Monica; Amone, Jackson; Mbabazi, William; Nanyunja, Miriam; Zaramba, Sam; Opio, Alex; Lutwama, Julius J; Talisuna, Ambrose O; Okware, Sam I

    2010-07-01

    During August 2007-February 2008, the novel Bundibugyo ebolavirus species was identified during an outbreak of Ebola viral hemorrhagic fever in Bundibugyo district, western Uganda. To characterize the outbreak as a requisite for determining response, we instituted a case-series investigation. We identified 192 suspected cases, of which 42 (22%) were laboratory positive for the novel species; 74 (38%) were probable, and 77 (40%) were negative. Laboratory confirmation lagged behind outbreak verification by 3 months. Bundibugyo ebolavirus was less fatal (case-fatality rate 34%) than Ebola viruses that had caused previous outbreaks in the region, and most transmission was associated with handling of dead persons without appropriate protection (adjusted odds ratio 3.83, 95% confidence interval 1.78-8.23). Our study highlights the need for maintaining a high index of suspicion for viral hemorrhagic fevers among healthcare workers, building local capacity for laboratory confirmation of viral hemorrhagic fevers, and institutionalizing standard precautions.

  18. Piezoresistive Sensor with High Elasticity Based on 3D Hybrid Network of Sponge@CNTs@Ag NPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Liu, Nishuang; Shi, Yuling; Liu, Weijie; Yue, Yang; Wang, Siliang; Ma, Yanan; Wen, Li; Li, Luying; Long, Fei; Zou, Zhengguang; Gao, Yihua

    2016-08-31

    Pressure sensors with high elasticity are in great demand for the realization of intelligent sensing, but there is a need to develope a simple, inexpensive, and scalable method for the manufacture of the sensors. Here, we reported an efficient, simple, facile, and repeatable "dipping and coating" process to manufacture a piezoresistive sensor with high elasticity, based on homogeneous 3D hybrid network of carbon nanotubes@silver nanoparticles (CNTs@Ag NPs) anchored on a skeleton sponge. Highly elastic, sensitive, and wearable sensors are obtained using the porous structure of sponge and the synergy effect of CNTs/Ag NPs. Our sensor was also tested for over 2000 compression-release cycles, exhibiting excellent elasticity and cycling stability. Sensors with high performance and a simple fabrication process are promising devices for commercial production in various electronic devices, for example, sport performance monitoring and man-machine interfaces.

  19. Nata de coco (NDC) hydrogel as nanoreactors for preparation iron nanoparticles (FeNps) from ferrocenium reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andarini, Mellissa; Lazim, Azwan [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    This study focuses on hydrogel as nano template to produce iron nanoparticles (FeNps). Radical polymerization was used to synthesize the hydrogel from nata de coco (NDC-g-PAA). Ferrocenium (FcCL) with 1 × 10{sup −4} g/ml has successfully incorporated with NDC-g-PAA hydrogel system and reduce using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at different concentrations. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) result demonstrates that the size of FeNps produced was about 5 – 20 nm. Morphological analysis of hydrogel is carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), SEM-EDEX is used to determine percentage of iron (Fe) in hydrogel. The results offer a wide range of application in various areas, especially the use of hydrogel system as a responsive template.

  20. Long-term effects of cupric oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) on the performance, microbial community and enzymatic activity of activated sludge in a sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sen; Li, Zhiwei; Gao, Mengchun; She, Zonglian; Ma, Bingrui; Guo, Liang; Zheng, Dong; Zhao, Yangguo; Jin, Chunji; Wang, Xuejiao; Gao, Feng

    2017-02-01

    The long-term effects of cupric oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) on the performance, microbial activity and microbial community of activated sludge were investigated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The SBR performance had no evident change at 0-10 mg/L CuO NPs, whereas the CuO NPs concentration at 30-60 mg/L affected the COD, NH4(+)-N and soluble orthophosphate (SOP) removal, nitrogen and phosphorus removal rate and microbial enzymatic activity of activated sludge. Some CuO NPs might be absorbed on the surface of activated sludge or penetrate the microbial cytomembrane into the microbial cell interior of activated sludge. Compared to 0 mg/L CuO NPs, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release increased by 43.6% and 56.4% at 60 mg/L CuO NPs, respectively. The variations of ROS production and LDH release demonstrated that CuO NPs could induce the toxicity towards the microorganisms and destroy the integrity of microbial cytomembrane in the activated sludge. High throughput sequencing of 16S rDNA indicated that CuO NPs could evidently impact on the microbial richness, diversity and composition of activated sludge in the SBR.

  1. Aminated polyethersulfone-silver nanoparticles (AgNPs-APES) composite membranes with controlled silver ion release for antibacterial and water treatment applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, M Salman; Shao, Godlisten N; Imran, S M; Park, Sung Soo; Abbas, Nadir; Tahir, M Suleman; Hussain, Manwar; Bae, Wookeun; Kim, Hee Taik

    2016-05-01

    The present study reports the antibacterial disinfection properties of a series of silver nanoparticle (AgNP) immobilized membranes. Initially, polyethersulfone (PES) was functionalized through the introduction of amino groups to form aminated polyethersulfone (NH2-PES, APES). AgNPs were then coordinately immobilized on the surface of the APES composite membrane to form AgNPs-APES. The properties of the obtained membrane were examined by FT-IR, XPS, XRD, TGA, ICP-OES and SEM-EDAX analyses. These structural characterizations revealed that AgNPs ranging from 5 to 40 nm were immobilized on the surface of the polymer membrane. Antibacterial tests of the samples showed that the AgNPs-APES exhibited higher activity than the AgNPs-PES un-functionalized membrane. Generally, the AgNPs-APES 1 cm × 3 cm strip revealed a four times longer life than the un-functionalized AgNPs polymer membranes. The evaluation of the Ag(+) leaching properties of the obtained samples indicated that approximately 30% of the AgNPs could be retained, even after 12 days of operation. Further analysis indicated that silver ion release can be sustained for approximately 25 days. The present study provides a systematic and novel approach to synthesize water treatment membranes with controlled and improved silver (Ag(+)) release to enhance the lifetime of the membranes.

  2. NPS comparison of anatomical noise characteristics in mammography, tomosynthesis, and breast CT images using power law metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Boone, John M.; Nosratieh, Anita; Abbey, Craig K.

    2011-03-01

    Digital mammography is the current standard for breast cancer screening, however breast tomosynthesis and breast CT (bCT) have been studied in clinical trials. At our institution, 30 women (BIRADS 4 and 5) underwent IRB-approved imaging by mammography, breast tomosynthesis, and bCT on the same day. Twenty three data sets were used for analysis. The 2D noise power spectrum (NPS) was computed and averaged for each data set. The NPS was computed for different slice thicknesses of dx × N, where dx ~ 0.3 mm and N=1-64, on the bCT data. Each 2D NPS was radially averaged, and the 1D data were fit using a power law function as proposed by Burgess: NPS(f) = αf-β. The value of β was determined over a range of frequencies corresponding to anatomical noise, for each patient and each modality. Averaged over the 30 women (26 for bCT, 28 for tomosynthesis, 28 for mammography), for mammography β=3.06 (0.25), for CC tomosynthesis β=2.91 (0.35), and for axial bCT β=1.72 (0.47). For sagittal bCT β=1.77 (0.36) and for coronal bCT, β=1.88 (0.45). The computation of β versus slice thickness on the coronal bCT data set led to β~1.7 for N=1, asymptotically reaching β ~ 3 for larger slice thickness. These results suggest that there is a fundamental difference in breast anatomic noise as characterized by β, between thin slices (<2 mm) and thicker slices. Tomosynthesis was found to have anatomic noise properties closer to mammography than breast CT, most likely due to the relatively thick slice sensitivity profile of tomosynthesis.

  3. Design, simulation, and experimental verification of a computer model and enhanced position estimator for the NPS AUV II

    OpenAIRE

    Warner, David C.

    1991-01-01

    A full six-degree-of-freedom computer model of the Naval Postgraduate School Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (NPS AUV II) is developed. Hydrodynamic Coefficients are determined by geometric similarity with an existing swimmer delivery vehicle and analysis of initial open loop AUV II trials. Comparisons between simulated and experimental results demonstrate the validity of the model and the techniques used. A reduced order observer of lateral velocity was produced to provide an input for an enha...

  4. Abnormal response to stress and impaired NPS-induced hyperlocomotion, anxiolytic effect and corticosterone increase in mice lacking NPSR1

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Hongyan; Mingler, Melissa K; McBride, Melissa L.; Murphy, Andrew J.; Valenzuela, David M.; Yancopoulos, George D.; Williams, Michael T.; Vorhees, Charles V.; Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2010-01-01

    NPSR1 is a G protein coupled receptor expressed in multiple brain regions involved in modulation of stress. Central administration of NPS, the putative endogenous ligand of NPSR1, can induce hyperlocomotion, anxiolytic effects and activation of the HPA axis. The role of NPSR1 in the brain remains unsettled. Here we used NPSR1 gene-targeted mice to define the functional role of NPSR1 under basal conditions on locomotion, anxiety- and/or depression-like behavior, corticosterone levels, acoustic...

  5. STUDYING THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM AND THE INNER REGION OF NPS/LOOP 1 WITH SHADOW OBSERVATIONS TOWARD MBM36

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ursino, E.; Galeazzi, M.; Liu, W., E-mail: galeazzi@physics.miami.edu [Physics Department, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33155 (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed data from a shadow observation of the high density molecular cloud MBM36 (l ∼ 4°, b ∼ 35°) with Suzaku. MBM36 is located in a region that emits relatively weakly in the 3/4 keV band compared to the surrounding North Polar Spur (NPS)/Loop 1 structure and the Galactic Bulge (GB). The contrast between high and low density targets in the MBM36 area allows one to separate the local and distant contributors to the soft diffuse X-ray background, providing a much better characterization of the individual components compared to single pointing observations. We identify two non-local thermal components, one at kT ≈ 0.12 keV and one at kT ≈ 0.29 keV. The colder component matches well with models of emission from the higher latitude region of the GB. The emission of the warmer component is in agreement with models predicting that the NPS is due to a hypershell from the center of the Milky Way. Geometrical and pressure calculations rule out a nearby bubble as responsible for the emission associated with the NPS. Any Galactic Halo/circumgalactic halo emission, if present, is outshined by the other components. We also report an excess emission around 0.9 keV, likely due to an overabundance of Ne ix.

  6. Development of a lidar for integration with the Naval Postgraduate School Infrared Search and Target Designation (NPS-IRSTD) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regush, Murray M.

    1993-06-01

    A lidar was designed and manufactured at the Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, to provide range information to atmospheric features, such as clouds. It is further planned to integrate the lidar with the NPS-IRSTD system at some future date. The NPS-IRSTD uses two vertical linear focal plane arrays for target detection and target direction can be determined very accurately but the system does not provide any useful range information. The lidar was proposed as the solution for this shortcoming. The lidar used a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser which had an energy output of 2 millijoules. The laser beam was expanded to 17.75 inches using a Dall-Kirkham telescope to operate within laser safety limitations. The theoretical analysis of the 'Klett' method for the inversion of lidar returns was derived and a MATLAB program was written to demonstrate the process. A daytime and nighttime maximum range equation for the lidar was developed. The considerations for integrating the lidar with the NPS-IRSTD were listed and a solution was proposed to obtain the mean extinction coefficient along the path in the infrared spectrum using the lidar inversion extinction coefficient profile at 532 nanometers.

  7. BIOSYNTHESIS OF AgNPs WITH THREE WIDESPREAD LOAM FUNGI VIA ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS, FUSARIUM SPP. RHIZOPUS SPP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. SHIVAKUMAR SINGH

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using fungi Aspergillus fumigatus, Fusarium spp. and Rhizopus spp. for the potential synthesis of metal nanoparticles. Methods: The standard techniques have been followed for the AgNPs synthesis characterizations. Spectral analysis of UV-visible spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffraction studies, energy dispersive X-ray, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy. Results: The hurried decline of silver (Ag+ ions was monitored using a UV-visible spectrophotometer and showed the formation of silver nanoparticles within 28 minutes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM showed that the synthesized silver nanoparticles are varied from 15-50 nm and have the varying in shapes like round, rod, uneven. Further, the XRD analysis confirms the nano-crystalline phase of the silver structure. FTIR examinations confirm the Silver particles. The present study, it reveals the increasing broth concentration increases the rate of reduction and decreases the particle size. Conclusion: The AgNPs were biologically synthesized using isolated fungal species biomass from the soil of loam. The cell filtrate of fungi was challenged with 1mm Silver nitrate, change of mixture from colorless to orange-brown indicates the synthesis of AgNPs in the reaction mixture. The isolated fungi are an important producer of Silver nanoparticles.

  8. Studying the Interstellar Medium and the inner region of NPS/Loop 1 with shadow observations toward MBM36

    CERN Document Server

    Ursino, E; Liu, W

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed data from a shadow observation of the high density molecular cloud MBM36 (l~4{\\deg}, b~35{\\deg}) with Suzaku. MBM36 is located in a region that emits relatively weakly in the 3/4~keV band, compared to the surrounding NPS/Loop 1 structure and the Galactic Bulge. The contrast between a high and low density targets in the MBM36 area allows one to separate the local and distant contributors to the Soft Diffuse X-ray Background, providing a much better characterization of the individual components compared to single pointing observations. We identify two non-local thermal components, one at kT~0.12 keV and one at kT~0.29keV. The colder component matches well with models of emission from the higher latitude region of the Galactic Bulge. The emission of the warmer component is in agreement with models predicting that the NPS is due to a hypershell from the center of the Milky Way. Geometrical and pressure calculations rule out a nearby bubble as responsible for the emission associate with the NPS. Any Ga...

  9. Fluorescence turn-on recognition of chiral amino acids using dye incorporated β-CD functionalized AuNPs assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aswathy, B., E-mail: aswathybv@gmail.com; Sony, G., E-mail: emailtosony@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    An assembly of dye incorporated β-cyclodextrin (βCD) functionalized AuNPs for the fluorescent probing of chiral amino acids is presented. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) possessing a high extinction coefficient function can be used as excellent fluorescent quenchers in AuNP–fluorophore system. Inclusion of fluorescein (FL) into β-cyclodextrin (βCD) makes energy transfer to occur through the donor and quencher nearby. This energy transfer switches off by virtue of the analyte induced release of FL from β-CD cavity, which results in the fluorescence recovery of the quenched dye. Analysis suggests that the assembly of AuNPs–βCDs–FL is effective as a turn-on fluorescent probe for the chiroselective optical discrimination between D,L-tryptophan, D,L-phenyl alanine and D,L-tyrosine. The detection limits for analyzing L-tryptophan, L-phenyl alanine and L-tyrosine were found to be 0.59, 1.2 and 1.5 μM respectively. - Highlights: • Fluorescence quenching AuNP–βCD–dye assembly via energy transfer. • Energy transfer from dye to AuNPs is a SET process. • Fluorescence turn-on detection of amino acids by the competitive binding method. • Chiroselective discrimination between enantiomeric amino acids.

  10. An Electrochemical Microsensor Based on a AuNPs-Modified Microband Array Electrode for Phosphate Determination in Fresh Water Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the fabrication, characterization, and application of a gold microband array electrode (MAE for the determination of phosphate in fresh water samples. The working principle of this MAE is based on the reduction of a molybdophosphate complex using the linear sweep voltammetric (LSV method. The calibration of this microsensor was performed with standard phosphate solutions prepared with KH2PO4 and pH adjusted to 1.0. The microsensor consists of a platinum counter electrode, a gold MAE as working electrode, and an Ag/AgCl electrode as reference electrode. The microelectrode chips were fabricated by the Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS technique. To improve the sensitivity, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs were electrodeposited on the working electrode. With a linear range from 0.02 to 0.50 mg P/L, the sensitivity of the unmodified microsensor is 2.40 µA per (mg P/L (R2 = 0.99 and that of the AuNPs-modified microsensor is 7.66 µA per (mg P/L (R2 = 0.99. The experimental results showed that AuNPs-modified microelectrode had better sensitivity and a larger current response than the unmodified microelectrode.

  11. The fate of iron nanoparticles in environmental waters treated with nanoscale zero-valent iron, FeONPs and Fe3O4NPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Kelly; Lespes, Gaëtane; Zuliani, Tea; Ščančar, Janez; Milačič, Radmila

    2016-05-01

    Among the different nanoparticles (NPs) that are used in the remediation of contaminated environmental waters, iron nanoparticles (FeNPs) are the most frequently applied. However, if these FeNPs remain in the waters after the treatment, they can cause a hazard to the environment. In this work the time dependent size distribution of iron particles was investigated in Milli-Q water, forest spring water and landfill leachate after a variety of FeNP treatments. The efficiency of the metal removal by the FeNPs was also examined. The concentrations of the metals in the aqueous samples were determined before and after the nano-remediation by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The data revealed that the settling and removal of the FeNPs after the treatment of the waters was related to the sample characteristics and the ways of dispersing the NPs. When mixing was used for the dispersion, the nano zero-valent iron (nZVI), FeONPs and Fe3O4NPs settled quickly in the Milli-Q water, the forest spring water and the landfill leachate. Dispersion with tertramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) resulted in a slower settling of the iron aggregates. In the Milli-Q and forest spring waters treated with FeONPs and dispersed by TMAH, the nanosized iron remained in solution as long as 24 h after the treatment and could represent a potential threat in environmental waters with a low ionic strength. The removal of the metals strongly depended on the type of FeNPs, the chemical speciation of the elements and the sample matrix. If the FeNPs are contaminated by a particular metal, this contaminant could be, during the NPs treatment, released into the water that is being remediated.

  12. Dynamic equilibrium of endogenous selenium nanoparticles in selenite-exposed cancer cells: a deep insight into the interaction between endogenous SeNPs and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Peng; Chen, Song-Can; Xiao, Ke-Qing

    2015-12-01

    Elemental selenium (Se) was recently found to exist as endogenous nanoparticles (i.e., SeNPs) in selenite-exposed cancer cells. By sequestrating critical intracellular proteins, SeNPs appear capable of giving rise to multiple cytotoxicity mechanisms including inhibition of glycolysis, glycolysis-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction, microtubule depolymerization and inhibition of autophagy. In this work, we reveal a dynamic equilibrium of endogenous SeNP assembly and disassembly in selenite-exposed H157 cells. Endogenous SeNPs are observed both in the cytoplasm and in organelles. There is an increase in endogenous SeNPs between 24 h and 36 h, and a decrease between 36 h and 72 h according to transmission electron microscopy results and UV-Vis measurements. These observations imply that elemental Se in SeNPs could be oxidized back into selenite by scavenging superoxide radicals and ultimately re-reduced into selenide; then the assembly and disassembly of SeNPs proceed simultaneously with the sequestration and release of SeNP high-affinity proteins. There is also a possibility that the reduction of elemental Se to selenide pathway may lie in selenite-exposed cancer cells, which results in the assembly and disassembly of endogenous SeNPs. Genome-wide expression analysis results show that endogenous SeNPs significantly altered the expression of 504 genes, compared to the control. The endogenous SeNPs induced mitochondrial impairment and decreasing of the annexin A2 level can lead to inhibition of cancer cell invasion and migration. This dynamic flux of endogenous SeNPs amplifies their cytotoxic potential in cancer cells, thus provide a starting point to design more efficient intracellular self-assembling systems for overcoming multidrug resistance.

  13. A comparative analysis of OTF, NPS, and DQE in energy integrating and photon counting digital x-ray detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acciavatti, Raymond J; Maidment, Andrew D A

    2010-12-01

    One of the benefits of photon counting (PC) detectors over energy integrating (EI) detectors is the absence of many additive noise sources, such as electronic noise and secondary quantum noise. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate that thresholding voltage gains to detect individual x rays actually generates an unexpected source of white noise in photon counters. To distinguish the two detector types, their point spread function (PSF) is interpreted differently. The PSF of the energy integrating detector is treated as a weighting function for counting x rays, while the PSF of the photon counting detector is interpreted as a probability. Although this model ignores some subtleties of real imaging systems, such as scatter and the energy-dependent amplification of secondary quanta in indirect-converting detectors, it is useful for demonstrating fundamental differences between the two detector types. From first principles, the optical transfer function (OTF) is calculated as the continuous Fourier transform of the PSF, the noise power spectra (NPS) is determined by the discrete space Fourier transform (DSFT) of the autocovariance of signal intensity, and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) is found from combined knowledge of the OTF and NPS. To illustrate the calculation of the transfer functions, the PSF is modeled as the convolution of a Gaussian with the product of rect functions. The Gaussian reflects the blurring of the x-ray converter, while the rect functions model the sampling of the detector. The transfer functions are first calculated assuming outside noise sources such as electronic noise and secondary quantum noise are negligible. It is demonstrated that while OTF is the same for two detector types possessing an equivalent PSF, a frequency-independent (i.e., "white") difference in their NPS exists such that NPS(PC) > or = NPS(EI) and hence DQE(PC) function given as zero or unity everywhere. In analyzing the model detector with Gaussian blurring

  14. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in U.S. Meat and poultry from two statistically designed surveys showing trends and levels from 2002 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huwe, Janice K; West, Mark

    2011-05-25

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) body burdens in the general U.S. population have been linked to the consumption of red meat and poultry. Exposure estimates have also indicated that meat products are a major contributor to PBDE dietary intake. To establish solid estimates of PBDE concentrations in domestic meat and poultry, samples from two statistically designed surveys of U.S. meat and poultry were analyzed for PBDEs. The two surveys were conducted in 2002-2003 and 2007-2008, between which times the manufacturing of penta-BDE and octa-BDE formulations had ceased in the United States (December 2004). Thus, the data provided an opportunity to observe prevalence and concentration trends that may have occurred during this time frame and to compare the mean PBDE levels among the meat and poultry industries. On the basis of composite samples, the average sum of the seven most prevalent PBDEs (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, and -183) decreased by >60% from 1.95 ng/g lipid in 2002-2003 to 0.72 ng/g lipid in 2007-2008 for meat and poultry. PBDEs measured in individual samples in 2008 showed that beef samples had the lowest PBDE levels followed by hogs and chickens and then by turkeys. The PBDE congener pattern was the same for both surveys and resembled the penta-BDE formulation with BDE-47 and -99 accounting for 30 and 40% of the total, respectively. On the basis of the data from the two surveys, it appears that PBDE levels in U.S. meat and poultry have declined since manufacturing ceased; however, exposure pathways of PBDEs to livestock are still not known.

  15. Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for sizing SeNPs for packaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo-Siguero, María; Vera, Paula; Echegoyen, Yolanda; Nerin, Cristina; Cámara, Carmen; Madrid, Yolanda

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes the application of Asymmetrical Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4) coupled to diode array detector (DAD) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (AF4-UV-ICP-MS) to characterize selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) in an aqueous acrylic adhesive to be used in a multilayer food packaging material. SeNPs were synthesized using a solution-phase approach based on the reduction of selenite with ascorbic acid in presence of different stabilizers compatible with food industry such as polysaccharides (chitosan (poly(D-glucosamine) and hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC)) and non-ionic surfactants (Triton X-100 (t-octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol), 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl 5decyne-4,7-diol ethoxylate, and isotridecanol ethoxylate). Several parameters such as pH, ascorbic acid and stabilizers concentration, and compatibility of the stabilizer with the adhesive were evaluated. SeNPs suspensions with spherical morphology were obtained except when isotridecanol ethoxylate was employed which provides SeNPs with a nanorod morphology. AF4-DAD-ICP-MS was further applied for sizing the different SeNPs preparations. DAD was used as detector for selecting the best AF4 separation conditions before coupling to ICP-MS to ensure unequivocal identification of NPs. AF4 calibration with polystyrene latex (PSL) beads of known sizes allowed size determination of the different SeNPs. The following estimated hydrodynamic sizes (expressed as the mean ± standard deviation, n = 6 replicates) were found: chitosan-SeNPs- (26 ± 3 nm), TritonX100-SeNPs (22 ± 10 nm) HEC- SeNPs (91 ± 8 nm) and 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl 5decyne-4,7-diol ethoxylate- SeNPs (59 ± 4 nm). The proposed methodology was successfully applied to the characterization in terms of size of aqueous acrylic adhesives containing SeNPs Results from AF4-ICP-MS and TEM shown that only those SeNPs obtained with non-ionic surfactants and HEC were compatible with the adhesive. The results reported here evidence the usefulness of AF4-ICP

  16. Fabrication of ITO-rGO/Ag NPs nanocomposite by two-step chronoamperometry electrodeposition and its characterization as SERS substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Rong [Chemistry and Chemical Engineering College, Chongqing University, Shapingba, Chongqing 400044 (China); Key Disciplines Lab of Novel Micro-Nano Devices and System Technology, and School of Optoelectronics Engineering, Chongqing University, Shapingba, Chongqing 400044 (China); Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University of Science & Engineering, Zigong, Sichuan 643000 (China); Xu, Yi [Chemistry and Chemical Engineering College, Chongqing University, Shapingba, Chongqing 400044 (China); Key Disciplines Lab of Novel Micro-Nano Devices and System Technology, and School of Optoelectronics Engineering, Chongqing University, Shapingba, Chongqing 400044 (China); Wang, Chunyan [Key Disciplines Lab of Novel Micro-Nano Devices and System Technology, and School of Optoelectronics Engineering, Chongqing University, Shapingba, Chongqing 400044 (China); School of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, Shapingba, Chongqing 400044 (China); Zhao, Huazhou; Wang, Renjie; Liao, Xin [Chemistry and Chemical Engineering College, Chongqing University, Shapingba, Chongqing 400044 (China); Key Disciplines Lab of Novel Micro-Nano Devices and System Technology, and School of Optoelectronics Engineering, Chongqing University, Shapingba, Chongqing 400044 (China); Chen, Li; Chen, Gang [Key Disciplines Lab of Novel Micro-Nano Devices and System Technology, and School of Optoelectronics Engineering, Chongqing University, Shapingba, Chongqing 400044 (China); School of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, Shapingba, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • A novel structure of ITO-rGO/Ag NPs substrate was developed for SERS application. • Two-step chronoamperometry deposition method was used to prepare SERS substrate. • The SERS substrate had high SERS activity, good uniformity and reproducibility. - Abstract: A novel composite structure of reduced graphene oxide (rGO)–Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) nanocomposite, which was integrated on the indium tin oxide (ITO) glass by a facile and rapid two-step chronoamperometry electrodeposition route, was proposed and developed in this paper. SERS-activity of the rGO/Ag NPs nanocomposite was mainly affected by the structure and size of the fabricated rGO/Ag NPs nanocomposite. In the experiments, the operational conditions of electrodeposition process were studied in details. The electrodeposited time was the important controllable factor, which decided the particle size and surface coverage of the deposited Ag NPs on ITO glass. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limit for rhodamine6G (R6G) was as low as 10{sup −11} M and the Raman enhancement factor was as large as 5.9 × 10{sup 8}, which was 24 times higher than that for the ITO–Ag NPs substrate. Apart from this higher enhancement effect, it was also illustrated that extremely good uniformity and reproducibility with low standard deviation could be obtained by the prepared ITO-rGO/Ag NPs nanocomposite for SRES detection.

  17. An investigation on cytotoxic effect of bioactive AgNPs synthesized using Cassia fistula flower extract on breast cancer cell MCF-7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Remya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A single step protocol to produce biofunctionalized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using the aqueous extract of Cassia fistula flower as “natural factory” was investigated. The reaction between silver ions and aqueous flower extract after the bioreduction process has resulted in the formation of reddish brown color colloidal solution. XRD pattern showed the face centered cubic crystalline structure of AgNPs and exhibited spherical morphology as characterized by FE-SEM. FTIR studies identified different functional groups involved in effective capping of AgNPs. The zeta potential affirmed the phytoreduced AgNPs possess good stability and the size of the particle was measured by DLS. The synthesized AgNPs displayed effective cytotoxic potential against MCF7 and the inhibitory concentration (IC50 was recorded at 7.19 μg/mL. The apoptotic effects of the AgNPs were also confirmed by AO/EB staining. The investigation presents preliminary evidence that biosynthesized AgNPs can be used in the development of novel anticancer drugs.

  18. Synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles (CuO and ZnO NPs) via biological template and their optical sensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthupandy, Muthuchamy; Zuo, Yong; Chen, Jing-Shuai; Song, Ji-Ming; Niu, He-Lin; Mao, Chang-Jie; Zhang, Sheng-Yi; Shen, Yu-Hua

    2017-03-01

    The present study is focused on employing Camellia japonica leaf extract as inductive and stabilizing agent to synthesis CuO and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs). The chemicals, such as (Cu(NO3)2·3H2O) and (Zn(NO3)2·6H2O) were converted into copper and zinc ions, respectively because of the different natural products present in the C. japonica leaf extract. The UV-vis spectra of CuO and ZnO NPs showed absorption peak at 290 nm and 301 nm, respectively. The XRD result revealed crystalline nature of the metal oxide NPs and the TEM images indicated that average sizes of the synthesized CuO and ZnO NPs were ∼17 nm and ∼20 nm, respectively. The FTIR spectra of C. japonica leaf extract showed the presence of organic groups, such as, sbnd OH, sbnd Csbnd N, and N-H, which would be responsible for forming CuO and ZnO NPs. The synthesized CuO and ZnO NPs were tested for the optical sensing of metal ions, viz. Li+ and Ag+ that illustrated excellent outcome and hence this method offers a novel lane for the synthesis of metal oxide NPs, which can be used as optical sensor for the detection of metal ions.

  19. Modification-free and N-acetyl-L-cysteine-induced colorimetric response of AuNPs: A mechanistic study and sensitive Hg(2+) detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jie; Wu, Peng; Hou, Xiandeng; Xu, Kailai

    2016-10-01

    A facile yet sensitive and selective method was proposed for Hg(2+) detection based on N-acetyl-L-cysteine(NAC)-induced colorimetric response of AuNPs. The proposed method can be easily performed by introducing the premixing of NAC and Hg(2+) into as-prepared citrate-capped AuNPs solution. A combination of experimental and theoretical studies was applied to illustrate the mechanism of this AuNPs colorimetric system. The strong interaction of NAC and AuNPs through Au-S bond could lead to the aggregation of AuNPs, but the formation of NAC-Hg-NAC complex decreased the affinity between NAC and AuNPs and resulted in an anti-aggregation effect. Therefore, the color of the AuNPs solution would progress from purple to red with the increase of Hg(2+) concentration. The proposed method had a high sensitivity with a limit of detection of 9.9nM. Coexistent metal ions, including Cd(2+), Mn(2+), Al(3+), Ag(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cr(3+), Cu(2+), Fe(3+), Pb(2+), Ni(2+) and Zn(2+), did not interfere with the detection of Hg(2+). This method can be used to monitor Hg(2+) in tap water.

  20. Green synthesis, characterisation and biological evaluation of AgNPs using Agave americana, Mentha spicata and Mangifera indica aqueous leaves extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Bashir; Shireen, Farah; Bashir, Shumaila; Khan, Ibrar; Azam, Sadiq

    2016-10-01

    The current study was performed to synthesize stable, eco-friendly and bio-compatible silver nano-particles (AgNPs) of Agave americana, Mentha spicata and Mangifera indica leaves and to screen them for biological activities. The ultraviolet-visible spectroscopic analysis revealed that λ-max for AgNPs range from 350-500 nm. All AgNPs possessed polycrystalline structure as notified as intense graphical peaks in complete spectrum of 20 values ranging from 10-80° in X-ray diffraction measurements and supported by scanning electron microscopy data. The size of the nano-particles was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (30-150 nm). Mass loss at variable temperatures was evaluated by simultaneous thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis revealed reduction in mass and activity of compounds was notified by temperature increase from 200 to 800 °C, thus concluding it as thermally sensitive compounds. A. americana AgNPs showed significant (96%) activity against Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli (95%) and Fusarium oxysporum (89%). Good antioxidant activity was shown by M. spicata AgNPs at 300 µl (79%). M. indica AgNPs showed significant phytotoxic activity (88%) at highest concentration. No haemagglutination reaction was observed for the test samples. The above results revealed that AgNPs synthesized from selected plant species possesses significant antimicrobial and phytotoxic effect.

  1. Evaluation of environmental safety concentrations of DMSA Coated Fe2O3-NPs using different assay systems in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuli Wu

    Full Text Available Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA coating improves the uptake efficiency presumably by engendering the Fe(2O(3-NPs. In the present study, we investigated the possible environmental safety concentrations of Fe(2O(3-NPs using different assay systems in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans with lethality, development, reproduction, locomotion behavior, pharyngeal pumping, defecation, intestinal autofluorescence and reactive oxygen species (ROS production as the endpoints. After exposure from L4-larvae for 24-hr, DMSA coated Fe(2O(3-NPs at concentrations more than 50 mg/L exhibited adverse effects on nematodes. After exposure from L1-larvae to adult, DMSA coated Fe(2O(3-NPs at concentrations more than 500 μg/L had adverse effects on nematodes. After exposure from L1-larvae to day-8 adult, DMSA coated Fe(2O(3-NPs at concentrations more than 100 μg/L resulted in the adverse effects on nematodes. Accompanied with the alterations of locomotion behaviors, ROS production was pronouncedly induced by exposure to DMSA coated Fe(2O(3-NPs in the examined three assay systems, and the close associations of ROS production with lethality, growth, reproduction, locomotion behavior, pharyngeal pumping, defecation, or intestinal autofluorescence in nematodes exposed to DMSA coated Fe(2O(3-NPs were confirmed by the linear regression analysis. Moreover, mutations of sod-2 and sod-3 genes, encoding Mn-SODs, showed more susceptible properties than wild-type when they were used for assessing the DMSA coated Fe(2O(3-NPs-induced toxicity, and the safety concentrations for DMSA coated Fe(2O(3-NPs should be defined as concentrations lower than 10 μg/L in sod-2 and sod-3 mutant nematodes.

  2. Formyl-peptide Receptor Agonists and Amorphous SiO2-NPs Synergistically and Selectively Increase the Inflammatory Responses of Human Monocytes and PMNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Tavano

    2016-02-01

    ligands, but not toward FPR2-specific ones. Conversely, the chemotaxis of monocytes toward FPR2-specific peptides was inhibited by SiO2-NPs. NADPH-oxidase activation triggered by FPR1- and FPR2-specific ligands in both cell types was not altered by SiO2-NPs. Microbial and tissue danger signals sensed by FPRs selectively amplified the functional responses of monocytes and PMNS to SiO2-NPs, and should be carefully considered in the assessment of the risk associated with nanoparticle exposure.

  3. Integrated mRNA and micro RNA profiling reveals epigenetic mechanism of differential sensitivity of Jurkat T cells to AgNPs and Ag ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Hyun-Jeong; Chatterjee, Nivedita; Lee, Jeongsoo; Choi, Jinhee

    2014-08-17

    In our previous in vitro study of the toxicity on silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), we observed a dramatically higher sensitivity of Jurkat T cells to AgNPs than to Ag ions, and DNA damage and apoptosis were found to be involved in that toxicity. In this study, to understand underlying mechanism of different sensitivity of Jurket T cells to AgNPs and Ag ions, mRNA microarray and micro RNA microarray were concomitantly conducted on AgNPs and Ag ions exposed Jurkat T cells. Surprisingly only a small number of genes were differentially expressed by exposure to each of the silver (15 altered mRNA by AgNPs exposure, whereas 4 altered mRNA by Ag ions exposure, as determined 1.5-fold change as the cut-off value). miRNA microarray revealed that the expression of 63 miRNAs was altered by AgNPs exposure, whereas that of 32 miRNAs was altered by Ag ions exposure. An integrated analysis of mRNA and miRNA expression revealed that the expression of hsa-miR-219-5p, was negatively correlated with the expression of metallothionein 1F (MT1F) and tribbles homolog 3 (TRIB3), in cells exposed to AgNPs; whereas, the expression of hsa-miR-654-3p was negatively correlated with the expression of mRNA, endonuclease G-like 1 (EDGL1) in cells exposed to Ag ions. Network analysis were further conducted on mRNA-miRNA pairs, which revealed that miR-219-5p-MT1F and -TRIB3 pairs by AgNPs are being involved in various cellular processes, such as, oxidative stress, cell cycle and apoptosis, whereas, miR-654-3p and ENDOGL1 pair by Ag ions generated a much simpler network. The putative target genes of AgNPs-induced miR-504, miR-33 and miR-302 identified by Tarbase 6.0 are also found to be involved in DNA damage and apoptosis. These results collectively suggest that distinct epigenetic regulation may be an underlying mechanism of different sensitivity of Jurkat T cells to AgNPs and Ag ion. Further identification of putative target genes of DE miRNA by AgNPs and Ag ions may provide additional clues for the

  4. ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) and their antifungal activity against coffee fungus Erythricium salmonicolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciniegas-Grijalba, P. A.; Patiño-Portela, M. C.; Mosquera-Sánchez, L. P.; Guerrero-Vargas, J. A.; Rodríguez-Páez, J. E.

    2017-06-01

    In this work, a methodology of synthesis was designed to obtain ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) in a controlled and reproducible manner. The nanoparticles obtained were characterized using infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Also, we determined the antifungal capacity in vitro of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized, examining their action on Erythricium salmonicolor fungy causal of pink disease. To determine the effect of the quantity of zinc precursor used during ZnO NPs synthesis on the antifungal capacity, 0.1 and 0.15 M concentrations of zinc acetate were examined. To study the inactivation of the mycelial growth of the fungus, different concentrations of ZnO NPs of the two types of synthesized samples were used. The inhibitory effect on the growth of the fungus was determined by measuring the growth area as a function of time. The morphological change was observed with high-resolution optical microscopy (HROM), while TEM was used to observe changes in its ultrastructure. The results showed that a concentration of 9 mmol L-1 for the sample obtained from the 0.15 M and at 12 mmol L-1 for the 0.1 M system significantly inhibited growth of E. salmonicolor. In the HROM images a deformation was observed in the growth pattern: notable thinning of the fibers of the hyphae and a clumping tendency. The TEM images showed a liquefaction of the cytoplasmic content, making it less electron-dense, with the presence of a number of vacuoles and significant detachment of the cell wall.

  5. Enhancement of TiO2 NPs Activity by Fe3O4 Nano-Seeds for Removal of Organic Pollutants in Water

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Villa, Silvia; Caratto, Valentina; Locardi, Federico; Alberti, Stefano; Sturini, Michela; Speltini, Andrea; Maraschi, Federica; Canepa, Fabio; Ferretti, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    .... Photocatalytic activity data, i.e., the degradation of methylene blue and the Ofloxacin fluoroquinolone emerging pollutant, give evidence that the increased crystalline structure of the NPs, even if correlated to a reduced surface to mass ratio...

  6. Electrochemiluminescence induced photoelectrochemistry for sensing of the DNA based on DNA-linked CdS NPs superstructure with intercalator molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yingshu; Sun, Yuanshun; Zhang, Shusheng

    2011-02-07

    A novel detection protocol of DNA was developed using electrochemiluminescence (ECL) induced photoelectrochemistry (PEC) synthesis based on DNA-linked CdS NPs superstructure with methylene blue as the intercalator molecule.

  7. Bathymetry 2M Grid, of NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (Offshore), St. John, US Virgin Islands, 2005, UTM 20 NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Grid with 2 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of an offshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National...

  8. Bathymetry 2M Grid of NPS's Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Reserve, St. Croix, US Virgin Islands, 2005, UTM 20 NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Grid with 2 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of the a portion of the NPS's Salt River Bay National Historical Park and...

  9. Bathymetry of NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (Inshore), St. John, US Virgin Islands 2005, 1M Grid, UTM 20 NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Grid with 1 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of an inshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument,...

  10. Neurite outgrowth stimulatory effects of myco synthesized AuNPs from Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr.) Pers. on pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Jegadeesh; Lakshmanan, Hariprasath; John, Priscilla A; Zhijian, Chan; Periasamy, Vengadesh; David, Pamela; Naidu, Murali; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2015-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus has been reported to have a wide range of medicinal properties such as stimulation of neurite outgrowth, promotion of functional recovery of axonotmetic peroneal nerve injury, antioxidant, antihypertensive, and antidiabetic properties. In recent years, the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has attracted intense interest due to the potential use in biomedical applications. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AuNPs from aqueous extract of H. erinaceus on neurite outgrowth of rat pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells. The formation of AuNPs was characterized by UV-visible spectrum, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), particle size distribution, and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Furthermore, the neurite extension study of synthesized AuNPs was evaluated by in vitro assay. The AuNPs exhibited maximum absorbance between 510 and 600 nm in UV-visible spectrum. FESEM and TEM images showed the existence of nanoparticles with sizes of 20-40 nm. FTIR measurements were carried out to identify the possible biomolecules responsible for capping and efficient stabilization of the nanoparticles. The purity and the crystalline properties were confirmed by EDX diffraction analysis, which showed strong signals with energy peaks in the range of 2-2.4 keV, indicating the existence of gold atoms. The synthesized AuNPs showed significant neurite extension on PC-12 cells. Nerve growth factor 50 ng/mL was used as a positive control. Treatment with different concentrations (nanograms) of AuNPs resulted in neuronal differentiation and neuronal elongation. AuNPs induced maximum neurite outgrowth of 13% at 600 ng/mL concentration. In this study, the AuNPs synthesis was achieved by a simple, low-cost, and rapid bioreduction approach. AuNPs were shown to have potential neuronal differentiation and stimulated neurite outgrowth. The water

  11. Cytotoxicity of ZnO NPs towards fresh water algae Scenedesmus obliquus at low exposure concentrations in UV-C, visible and dark conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhuvaneshwari, M.; Iswarya, V. [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore 632014 (India); Archanaa, S. [Department of Biotechnology, IIT Madras (India); Madhu, G.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, M.S. Ramaiah Institute of Technology, Bangalore (India); Kumar, G.K. Suraish [Department of Biotechnology, IIT Madras (India); Nagarajan, R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, IIT Madras (India); Chandrasekaran, N. [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore 632014 (India); Mukherjee, Amitava, E-mail: amit.mookerjea@gmail.com [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore 632014 (India)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • The cytotoxicity of ZnO NPs with two hydrodynamic sizes towards freshwater algae. • Size dependent toxicity under UV-C, dark and visible light conditions. • Cytotoxicity principally due to ZnO NPs not the released Zn{sup 2+} ions. • The internalization of ZnO NPs leads to membrane damage and ROS production. - Abstract: Continuous increase in the usage of ZnO nanoparticles in commercial products has exacerbated the risk of release of these particles into the aquatic environment with possible harmful effects on the biota. In the current study, cytotoxic effects of two types of ZnO nanoparticles, having different initial effective diameters in filtered and sterilized lake water medium [487.5 ± 2.55 nm for ZnO-1 NPs and 616.2 ± 38.5 nm for ZnO-2 NPs] were evaluated towards a dominant freshwater algal isolate Scenedesmus obliquus in UV-C, visible and dark conditions at three exposure concentrations: 0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/L. The toxic effects were found to be strongly dependent on the initial hydrodynamic particle size in the medium, the exposure concentrations and the irradiation conditions. The loss in viability, LDH release and ROS generation were significantly enhanced in the case of the smaller sized ZnO-1 NPs than in the case of ZnO-2 NPs under comparable test conditions. The toxicity of both types of ZnO NPs was considerably elevated under UV-C irradiation in comparison to that in dark and visible light conditions, the effects being more enhanced in case of ZnO-1 NPs. The size dependent dissolution of the ZnO NPs in the test medium and possible toxicity due to the released Zn{sup 2+} ions was also noted. The surface adsorption of the nanoparticles was substantiated by scanning electron microscopy. The internalization/uptake of the NPs by the algal cells was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and elemental analyses.

  12. Enhanced corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of AZ31 Mg alloy using PCL/ZnO NPs via electrospinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinwoo; Mousa, Hamouda M.; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2017-02-01

    In the efforts to improve corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of magnesium alloys, polycarprolactone (PCL) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) composite coatings were applied onto AZ31 Mg alloys via electrospinning technique in this study. The PCL/ZnO composite coatings on Mg alloys were characterized by using FE-SEM, EDX, XPS, and FT-IR. Moreover, coating adhesion test, electrochemical corrosion test, and biocompatibility test in vitro were performed to measure coating performance. Our results revealed that the increase in the content of ZnO NPs in the composite coatings not only improved the coating adhesion of composite coatings on Mg alloys, but also increased the corrosion resistance. Furthermore, the biocompatibility of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts of the PCL/ZnO composite coated samples was superior to the biocompatibility of the bare samples. Such data suggest that applying PCL/ZnO composite coating to the magnesium alloys has suitable potential in biomedical applications.

  13. DETERMINING THE ACUTE TOXIC EFFECTS OF POLY(VINYLFERROCENIUM SUPPORTED PLATINUM NANOPARTICLE (PT/PVF+ NPS ON APIS MELLIFERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeşim Dağlıoğlu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of engineering nanomaterials on a large scale along with their production, and their potential effects on the environment and on human health as well as their environmental emission have increased these concerns. For this reason, nanoparticles which are released into the environment are necessary determine the toxicity by using indicator organisms. With this study, it was aimed that the acute toxic effects of Polyvinylferrocene (PVF+- supported platinum (Pt nanoparticle (Pt/PVF+ NPs, Poly(vinylferrocenium (PVF+ and K2PtCl4 be evaluted comparatively by using the honey bees (Apis Mellifera. LC50 values for 48 and 96 hours of these substances respectively; 713.290 ve 6.899 mg/l for K2PtCl4; 12458374.000 ve 178.262 mg/l for Pt/PVF+ NPs and 148.153 ve 0.344 mg/l for PVF+. When we look at this value, the toxic effect for all three substance had increased on a serious level, depending on the exposure time.

  14. Effects of reducibility of graphene oxide nanosheets on preparation of AgNPs/GO nanocomposites and their electrocatalytic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou, Yanpeng; Peng, Junjun, E-mail: john-peng@whu.edu.cn; Li, Wei; Li, Ming; Liu, Huihong; Zhang, Hanmin [Wuhan Textile University, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2015-12-15

    Silver nanoparticles/graphene oxide (AgNPs/GO) nanocomposites were prepared in a solution of AgNO{sub 3} and GO. The GO serves not only as a reductant but also as a substrate to support the as-reduced silver nanoparticles. The reducibility of GO was investigated by analyzing the influence factors such as pH, duration, the reaction temperature, and the weight ratio of AgNO{sub 3} and GO in the AgNP/GO nanocomposite mixture, which were evaluated by the UV–vis absorption spectroscopy. The results demonstrated that Ag nanoparticles with an average diameter of 5–10 nm were uniformly dispersed on the surface of GO nanosheets under the optimum synthesis conditions of pH between 8 and 11, weight ratio of AgNO{sub 3} and GO between 55 % and 60 %, and at 80 °C for 6 h. Moreover, the obtained AgNPs/GO nanocomposites exhibit good electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of p-nitrophenol to 4-(hydroxyamino) phenol.

  15. Amperometric Immunosensor for Carbofuran Detection Based on MWCNTs/GS-PEI-Au and AuNPs-Antibody Conjugate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyou Wang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an amperometric immunosensor for the detection of carbofuran was developed. Firstly, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs and graphene sheets-ethyleneimine polymer-Au (GS-PEI-Au nanocomposites were modified onto the surface of a glass carbon electrode (GCE via self-assembly. The nanocomposites can increase the surface area of the GCE to capture a large amount of antibody, as well as produce a synergistic effect in the electrochemical performance. Then the modified electrode was coated with gold nanoparticles-antibody conjugate (AuNPs-Ab and blocked with BSA. The monoclonal antibody against carbofuran was covalently immobilized on the AuNPs with glutathione as a spacer arm. The morphologies of the GS-PEI-Au nanocomposites and the fabrication process of the immunosensor were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, respectively. Under optimal conditions, the immunosensor showed a wide linear range, from 0.5 to 500 ng/mL, with a detection limit of 0.03 ng/mL (S/N = 3. The as-constructed immunosensor exhibited notable performance features such as high specificity, good reproducibility, acceptable stability and regeneration performance. The results are mainly due to the excellent properties of MWCNTs, GS-PEI-Au nanocomposites and the covalent immobilization of Ab with free hapten binding sites for further immunoreaction. It provides a new avenue for amperometric immunosensor fabrication.

  16. Amperometric immunosensor for carbofuran detection based on MWCNTs/GS-PEI-Au and AuNPs-antibody conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Cao, Yaoyao; Sun, Xia; Wang, Xiangyou

    2013-04-19

    In this paper, an amperometric immunosensor for the detection of carbofuran was developed. Firstly, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and graphene sheets-ethyleneimine polymer-Au (GS-PEI-Au) nanocomposites were modified onto the surface of a glass carbon electrode (GCE) via self-assembly. The nanocomposites can increase the surface area of the GCE to capture a large amount of antibody, as well as produce a synergistic effect in the electrochemical performance. Then the modified electrode was coated with gold nanoparticles-antibody conjugate (AuNPs-Ab) and blocked with BSA. The monoclonal antibody against carbofuran was covalently immobilized on the AuNPs with glutathione as a spacer arm. The morphologies of the GS-PEI-Au nanocomposites and the fabrication process of the immunosensor were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Under optimal conditions, the immunosensor showed a wide linear range, from 0.5 to 500 ng/mL, with a detection limit of 0.03 ng/mL (S/N = 3). The as-constructed immunosensor exhibited notable performance features such as high specificity, good reproducibility, acceptable stability and regeneration performance. The results are mainly due to the excellent properties of MWCNTs, GS-PEI-Au nanocomposites and the covalent immobilization of Ab with free hapten binding sites for further immunoreaction. It provides a new avenue for amperometric immunosensor fabrication.

  17. Cytotoxicity of ZnO NPs towards fresh water algae Scenedesmus obliquus at low exposure concentrations in UV-C, visible and dark conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneshwari, M; Iswarya, V; Archanaa, S; Madhu, G M; Kumar, G K Suraish; Nagarajan, R; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2015-05-01

    Continuous increase in the usage of ZnO nanoparticles in commercial products has exacerbated the risk of release of these particles into the aquatic environment with possible harmful effects on the biota. In the current study, cytotoxic effects of two types of ZnO nanoparticles, having different initial effective diameters in filtered and sterilized lake water medium [487.5±2.55 nm for ZnO-1 NPs and 616.2±38.5 nm for ZnO-2 NPs] were evaluated towards a dominant freshwater algal isolate Scenedesmus obliquus in UV-C, visible and dark conditions at three exposure concentrations: 0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/L. The toxic effects were found to be strongly dependent on the initial hydrodynamic particle size in the medium, the exposure concentrations and the irradiation conditions. The loss in viability, LDH release and ROS generation were significantly enhanced in the case of the smaller sized ZnO-1 NPs than in the case of ZnO-2 NPs under comparable test conditions. The toxicity of both types of ZnO NPs was considerably elevated under UV-C irradiation in comparison to that in dark and visible light conditions, the effects being more enhanced in case of ZnO-1 NPs. The size dependent dissolution of the ZnO NPs in the test medium and possible toxicity due to the released Zn(2+) ions was also noted. The surface adsorption of the nanoparticles was substantiated by scanning electron microscopy. The internalization/uptake of the NPs by the algal cells was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and elemental analyses.

  18. Nano-pulse stimulation (NPS) ablate tumors and inhibit lung metastasis on both canine spontaneous osteosarcoma and murine transplanted hepatocellular carcinoma with high metastatic potential

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xinhua; Chen, Yiling; Jiang, Jianwen; Wu, Liming; Yin, Shengyong; Miao, Xudong; Swanson, Robert J.; Zheng, Shusen

    2017-01-01

    Background Nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF), which is also termed as nano-pulse stimulation (NPS), has the potential of stimulating immune responses toward cancer cells. The current study investigates its local and systemic antitumor efficacy in vivo in late stage tumors with lung metastasis. Method The 12 canines with spontaneous osteosarcomas and 12 nude mice transplanted with human hepatocellular carcinoma were divided randomly and were given NPS treatment, surgery or no treatment ...

  19. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro study of biocompatible cinnamaldehyde functionalized magnetite nanoparticles (CPGF Nps for hyperthermia and drug delivery applications in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirtee D Wani

    Full Text Available Cinnamaldehyde, the bioactive component of the spice cinnamon, and its derivatives have been shown to possess anti-cancer activity against various cancer cell lines. However, its hydrophobic nature invites attention for efficient drug delivery systems that would enhance the bioavailability of cinnamaldehyde without affecting its bioactivity. Here, we report the synthesis of stable aqueous suspension of cinnamaldehyde tagged Fe3O4 nanoparticles capped with glycine and pluronic polymer (CPGF NPs for their potential application in drug delivery and hyperthermia in breast cancer. The monodispersed superparamagnetic NPs had an average particulate size of ∼ 20 nm. TGA data revealed the drug payload of ∼ 18%. Compared to the free cinnamaldehyde, CPGF NPs reduced the viability of breast cancer cell lines, MCF7 and MDAMB231, at lower doses of cinnamaldehyde suggesting its increased bioavailability and in turn its therapeutic efficacy in the cells. Interestingly, the NPs were non-toxic to the non-cancerous HEK293 and MCF10A cell lines compared to the free cinnamaldehyde. The novelty of CPGF nanoparticulate system was that it could induce cytotoxicity in both ER/PR positive/Her2 negative (MCF7 and ER/PR negative/Her2 negative (MDAMB231 breast cancer cells, the latter being insensitive to most of the chemotherapeutic drugs. The NPs decreased the growth of the breast cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner and altered their migration through reduction in MMP-2 expression. CPGF NPs also decreased the expression of VEGF, an important oncomarker of tumor angiogenesis. They induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells through loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspase-3. Interestingly, upon exposure to the radiofrequency waves, the NPs heated up to 41.6 °C within 1 min, suggesting their promise as a magnetic hyperthermia agent. All these findings indicate that CPGF NPs prove to be potential nano-chemotherapeutic agents in breast cancer.

  20. Climate Change Education in Protected Areas: Highlights from the Earth to Sky NASA-NPS-USFWS Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A.; Morris, J.; Paglierani, R.

    2009-12-01

    National Parks, Hatcheries, Refuges, and other protected lands provide ideal settings for communicating the immediate and obvious effects of climate change, from rapidly melting glaciers, increased intensity and length of fire seasons, to flooding of archeological and historical treasures. Our nation's protected areas demonstrate clearly that climate change is happening now, and the impacts are affecting us all. Highlights of interpretive, educational and informational products presented in these sites, and developed through the Earth to Sky (ETS) partnership are described. The visiting public in our nation's parks, refuges, cultural sites and other protected lands wants to learn more about climate change, and is asking questions—often, complex questions. A broad array of educational programs and media are delivered in these unique settings, to diverse audiences. To be good "honest brokers" of the best information, staff needs access to accurate, up-to-date data, descriptions, analysis, and imagery that make the issues understandable. Pairing real world experiences of climate effects such as glacial retreat or beetle infestations, with NASA’s unique planetary perspective provides opportunities to link local, regional, and global effects in the minds and hearts of the public and students. The perspective afforded by such linkages can create powerful and long lasting impressions, and will likely provoke further learning about this topic. About Earth to Sky Earth to Sky is a partnership between NASA's Space and Earth Science disciplines, the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and the National Park Service (NPS). The partnership actively fosters collaborative work between the science and interpretation/education communities of NPS, USFWS, and NASA, centering around a series of professional development workshops aimed at informal educators. The workshops weave NASA content with NPS and USFWS interpretation and environmental education methodology, and use best

  1. Biogenic SeNPs from Bacillus mycoides SelTE01 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SelTE02: Characterization with reference to their associated organic coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacenza, Elena; Bulgarini, Alessandra; Lampis, Silvia; Vallini, Giovanni; Turner, Raymond J.

    2017-08-01

    The exploitation of biological systems (i.e. plants, fungi and bacteria) for the production of nanomaterials relies on their ability to bioconvert toxic metal(loid) ions into their less toxic and bioavailable elemental states forming mainly nanoparticles (NPs) or nanorods (NRs). Further, these methods of nanomaterial production are nowadays recognized as eco-friendly alternatives to the chemical synthesis processes. A common feature among the so-called biogenic nanomaterials is the presence of an organic layer surrounding them. However, we are just learning the existing relation between biogenic nanostructures and their organic material. Our work is focused on the study of bacterial strains for the production of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) as end product of selenite (SeO32 -) bioconversion. In this context, our previous reports described the ability of two bacteria, namely Bacillus mycoides SelTE01 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SelTE02, to generate SeNPs, which were surrounded by organic material. Here, the potential role of this organic material as stabilizing agent of SeNPs was investigated altering both the bacteria cells culturing and the SeNPs extraction procedure, in order to understand the interaction between these two elements in suspension. As a result, SeNPs produced by both bacterial strains showed the tendency to aggregate when subjected to the treatments tested, suggesting an involvement of the surrounding organic material in their stabilization in suspension.

  2. Synthesis, kinetics and photocatalytic study of "ultra-small" Ag-NPs obtained by a green chemistry method using an extract of Rosa 'Andeli' double delight petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Cerda, Javier; Alonso-Nuñez, Gabriel; Espinoza-Gómez, Heriberto; Flores-López, Lucía Z

    2015-11-15

    This paper reports the effect of different concentrations of Rosa 'Andeli' double delight petals aqueous extract (PERA) in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), using an easy green chemistry method. Its kinetics study and photocatalytic activity were also evaluated. The Ag-NPs were obtained using an aqueous silver nitrate solution (AgNO3) with 9.66% w/v, 7.25% w/v, and 4.20% w/v PERA as both reducing-stabilizing agent. The formation of the Ag-NPs was demonstrated by analysis of UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM analysis shows spherical nanoparticles in shape and size between ∼0.5 and 1.4nm. A comparative study was done to determine which concentration was the best reducing-stabilizing agent, and we found out that "ultra-small" nanoparticles (0.5-1.1nm) were obtained with 9.66% w/v of PERA. The size of the Ag-NPs depends on the concentration of PERA and Ag(I). The reaction of formation of "ultra-small" Ag-NPs, proved to be first order for metallic precursor (silver) and second order for reducing-stabilizing agent (PERA). The Ag-NPs showed photocatalytic activity, in degradation of commercial dye with an efficiency of 95%.

  3. A simple electrochemical biosensor based on AuNPs/MPS/Au electrode sensing layer for monitoring carbamate pesticides in real samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yonghai; Chen, Jingyi; Sun, Min; Gong, Coucong; Shen, Yuan; Song, Yonggui; Wang, Li

    2016-03-05

    A simple electrochemical biosensor for quantitative determination of carbamate pesticide was developed based on a sensing interface of citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)/(3-mercaptopropyl)-trimethoxysilane (MPS)/gold electrode (Au). The biosensor was fabricated by firstly assembling three-dimensional (3D) MPS networks on Au electrode and subsequently assembling citrate-capped AuNPs on 3D MPS network via AuS bond. The interface of AuNPs/MPS/Au was negatively charged originating from the citrate coated on AuNPs that would repulse the negatively charged ferricyanide ([Fe(CN)6](3-/4-)) to produce a negative response. In the presence of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and acetylthiocholine (ATCl), the AChE catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATCl into positively charged thiocholine which would replace the citrate on AuNPs through the strong AuS bond and convert the negative charged surface to be positively charged. The resulted positively charged AuNPs/MPS/Au then attracted the [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-) to produce a positive response. Based on the inhibition of carbamate pesticides on the activity of AChE, the pesticide could be quantitatively determined at a very low potential. The linear range was from 0.003 to 2.00 μM. The sensing platform was also proved to be suitable for carbamate pesticides detection in practical sample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Decorating CdTe QD-Embedded Mesoporous Silica Nanospheres with Ag NPs to Prevent Bacteria Invasion for Enhanced Anticounterfeit Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yangyang; Dong, Qigeqi; Lan, Shi; Cai, Qian; Simalou, Oudjaniyobi; Zhang, Shiqi; Gao, Ge; Chokto, Harnoode; Dong, Alideertu

    2015-05-13

    Quantum dots (QDs) as potent candidates possess advantageous superiority in fluorescence imaging applications, but they are susceptible to the biological circumstances (e.g., bacterial environment), leading to fluorescence quenching or lose of fluorescent properties. In this work, CdTe QDs were embedded into mesoporous silica nanospheres (m-SiO2 NSs) for preventing QD agglomeration, and then CdTe QD-embedded m-SiO2 NSs (m-SiO2/CdTe NSs) were modified with Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) to prevent bacteria invasion for enhanced anticounterfeit applications. The m-SiO2 NSs, which serve as intermediate layers to combine CdTe QDs with Ag NPs, help us establish a highly fluorescent and long-term antibacterial system (i.e., m-SiO2/CdTe/Ag NSs). More importantly, CdTe QD-embedded m-SiO2 NSs showed fluorescence quenching when they encounter bacteria, which was avoided by attaching Ag NPs outside. Ag NPs are superior to CdTe QDs for preventing bacteria invasion because of the structure (well-dispersed Ag NPs), size (small diameter), and surface charge (positive zeta potentials) of Ag NPs. The plausible antibacterial mechanisms of m-SiO2/CdTe/Ag NSs toward both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were established. As for potential applications, m-SiO2/CdTe/Ag NSs were developed as fluorescent anticounterfeiting ink for enhanced imaging applications.

  5. First data on canids depredation on livestock in an area of recent recolonization by wolf in central Italy : considerations on conflict survey and prevention methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magrini Caterina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Wolf and dog depredation on livestock in the province of Rieti, central Italy, in 2007-2008, was studied. The study area was characterized by a high degree of human disturbance, widespread presence of free ranging dogs and a recent wolf recolonization. Because of the ineffectiveness of compensation programmes, it was not possible to use the official statistics to investigate the extent of the conflict, but sample interviews and surveys of farmers were used. Also, the farming protection tecniques adopted for different livestock species were analysed; the most utilized husbandry method was stabling for cattle and pigs, annual fenced grazing for horses and sheeps, and annual open grazing only for goats. Although sheep farms were the most attacked because of their availability (33.6% of the whole farms, goat farms were the most selected by predators because of their accessibility (40% of farms kept goats in annual open grazing. Management implications to mitigate livestock depredation were discussed.

  6. Green synthesis of anticancerous honeycomb PtNPs clusters: Their alteration effect on BSA and HsDNA using fluorescence probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansare, Amol V; Kulal, Dnyaneshwar K; Shedge, Amol A; Patil, Vishwanath R

    2016-09-01

    The screening and characterization of cancer cells has been challenging due to sample insufficiency and extravagant. In this article, we highlighted easy green synthesis of Platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) in the honeycomb like clusters, and their optical properties (by HRTEM, XRD, DLS, Zeta potential, EDAX, and UV-Visible techniques). PtNPs were responsive of binding mechanisms with the bovine serum albumin (BSA), herring sperm deoxyribonucleic acid (HsDNA) and cytotoxicity of human carcinomas cell. We are able to elucidate the responses of various concentrations of PtNPs for the control of MDA-MB-468 cell and binding conformation of BSA and HsDNA by using multi-spectroscopic techniques under the physiological conditions. The extent of quenching was in agreement of PtNPs-BSA binding reaction was mainly a static. The Ksv, K, the number of binding sites at different temperatures and the thermodynamic parameters between BSA and PtNPs were calculated. The positive ΔS(0) and negative ΔH(0), ΔG(0) values indicated that the binding pattern was determined by spontaneous hydrogen bond electrostatic interaction of BSA with esterage like activity. The binding properties of the PtNPs with HsDNA have been investigated by thermal denaturation, competitive DNA-binding studies with ethidium bromide (EB), Hochest-33258 and relative viscosity. The negative ΔH(0), ΔS(0) and ΔG(0) values indicated that the hydrophilic interaction were main force in spontaneity in binding mechanism of PtNPs to HsDNA. GI50 value of PtNPs demonstrated that these nanoparticles showed cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-468 human breast cancer cell line. Our results also clarified that PtNPs bind to BSA and can be effectively transported in the body and eliminated. PtNPs showed minor groove binding with HsDNA, which could be a useful guideline for further versatile approach to develop biomedical coatings with different functions of drug design.

  7. Application of a Multi-Objective Optimization Method to Provide Least Cost Alternatives for NPS Pollution Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maringanti, Chetan; Chaubey, Indrajeet; Arabi, Mazdak; Engel, Bernard

    2011-09-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollutants such as phosphorus, nitrogen, sediment, and pesticides are the foremost sources of water contamination in many of the water bodies in the Midwestern agricultural watersheds. This problem is expected to increase in the future with the increasing demand to provide corn as grain or stover for biofuel production. Best management practices (BMPs) have been proven to effectively reduce the NPS pollutant loads from agricultural areas. However, in a watershed with multiple farms and multiple BMPs feasible for implementation, it becomes a daunting task to choose a right combination of BMPs that provide maximum pollution reduction for least implementation costs. Multi-objective algorithms capable of searching from a large number of solutions are required to meet the given watershed management objectives. Genetic algorithms have been the most popular optimization algorithms for the BMP selection and placement. However, previous BMP optimization models did not study pesticide which is very commonly used in corn areas. Also, with corn stover being projected as a viable alternative for biofuel production there might be unintended consequences of the reduced residue in the corn fields on water quality. Therefore, there is a need to study the impact of different levels of residue management in combination with other BMPs at a watershed scale. In this research the following BMPs were selected for placement in the watershed: (a) residue management, (b) filter strips, (c) parallel terraces, (d) contour farming, and (e) tillage. We present a novel method of combing different NPS pollutants into a single objective function, which, along with the net costs, were used as the two objective functions during optimization. In this study we used BMP tool, a database that contains the pollution reduction and cost information of different BMPs under consideration which provides pollutant loads during optimization. The BMP optimization was performed using a NSGA

  8. Delirium: A Survey of Healthcare Professionals' Knowledge, Beliefs, and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinvani, Liron; Kozikowski, Andrzej; Pekmezaris, Renee; Akerman, Meredith; Wolf-Klein, Gisele

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate knowledge, beliefs, and practices regarding delirium of physicians, nurse practitioners (NPs), and registered nurses (RNs). Anonymous cross-sectional paper survey. New York metropolitan area tertiary care hospital. RNs, NPs, and physicians (N = 164). The survey assessed knowledge, beliefs, and practices regarding delirium and prior delirium or geriatric training. Of the 200 surveys distributed, 164 were completed (82% response rate). Of these, 61.7% were RNs, 13.6% were NPs, and 20.7% were physicians. Mean participant age was 36.3. The majority (80.1%) were female; 56.5% were white, 18.1% Asian, 8.7% Hispanic, 8.0% black, and 8.7% other. Of the seven potential barriers to delirium screening assessed, the three most frequently reported were lack of conceptual understanding of delirium (48.0%), similarity of delirium and dementia (41.4%), and the fluctuating nature of delirium (38.1%). Physicians were more likely than NPs and RNs to report being confident in identifying delirium (P = .002) and to score higher on the delirium knowledge assessment (P delirium (P = .005) and to score higher on overall delirium knowledge assessment (P = .003). Geriatric training is associated with more confidence in delirium screening and higher delirium knowledge scores. There is an urgent need to broaden the approach to delirium education of nurses and physicians caring for hospitalized older adults using comprehensive multidisciplinary geriatric educational models. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  9. Effect of alginate on the aggregation kinetics of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs): bridging interaction and hetero-aggregation induced by Ca(2.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Lingzhan; Wang, Chao; Hou, Jun; Wang, Peifang; Ao, Yanhui; Li, Yi; Lv, Bowen; Yang, Yangyang; You, Guoxiang; Xu, Yi

    2016-06-01

    The stability of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) is expected to play a key role in the environmental risk assessment of nanotoxicity in aquatic systems. In this study, the effect of alginate (model polysaccharides) on the stability of CuO NPs in various environmentally relevant ionic strength conditions was investigated by using time-resolved dynamic light scattering. Significant aggregation of CuO NPs was observed in the presence of both monovalent and divalent cations. The critical coagulation concentrations (CCC) were 54.5 and 2.9 mM for NaNO3 and Ca(NO3)2, respectively. The presence of alginate slowed nano-CuO aggregation rates over the entire NaNO3 concentration range due to the combined electrostatic and steric effect. High concentrations of Ca(2+) (>6 mM) resulted in stronger adsorption of alginate onto CuO NPs; however, enhanced aggregation of CuO NPs occurred simultaneously under the same conditions. Spectroscopic analysis revealed that the bridging interaction of alginate with Ca(2+) might be an important mechanism for the enhanced aggregation. Furthermore, significant coagulation of the alginate molecules was observed in solutions of high Ca(2+) concentrations, indicating a hetero-aggregation mechanism between the alginate-covered CuO NPs and the unabsorbed alginate. These results suggested a different aggregation mechanism of NPs might co-exist in aqueous systems enriched with natural organic matter, which should be taken into consideration in future studies. Graphical abstract Hetero-aggregation mechanism of CuO nanoparticles and alginate under high concentration of Ca(2.)

  10. Fallout and drinking water contamination by I-131 and Cs-134, 137 in Japan, from the Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelecom, Alphonse; Miyashita, Erika; Kelecom, Patrick Vicent [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The earthquake followed by a tsunami in Japan, on last March 11, seriously damaged four of the six reactors of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station (NPS). Radioactive smokes and highly contaminated water were released for weeks to the environment. Since March 12, when the plant operator TEPCO and Japan's nuclear agency (NISA) confirmed the presence of radionuclides near the NPS, a giant environmental monitoring operation was set up, covering the entire Japanese territory. Daily thousands measurements are realized. We here analyze data released during 60 days on I-131 and Cs-134,137 radioactive concentrations in drinking water and fallout for 45 prefectures. Miyagi and Fukushima, that requires a separate study, are not considered here. Drinking water contamination by I-131 was observed in 13 prefectures, including Tokyo. The most impacted one was Tochigi (maximum of 110 Bq/l, March 24). This value turned water not drinkable for infants and babies. Cs-137 was detected in drinking water in 8 prefectures, with a maximum level of 18 Bq/l in Ibaraki. These levels do not affect potability of tap water. I-131 was observed in fallout in 27 prefectures, with level reaching 93 kBq/m2 in Ibaraki and 36 kBq/m{sup 2} in Tokyo on March 21 and 23 respectively. Fallout of Cs-137 was observed in 19 prefectures. The maximum deposition occurred again in Ibaraki (13kBq/m{sup 2}, March 21) and in Tokyo (5.3 kBq/m2, March 22). Since mid April, only trace contamination has been observed for both radionuclides in drinking water. Sporadically medium levels of Cs-137 are still observed in fallout. (author)

  11. A survey of honey bee colony losses in the U.S., fall 2007 to spring 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Engelsdorp, Dennis; Hayes, Jerry; Underwood, Robyn M; Pettis, Jeffery

    2008-01-01

    Honey bees are an essential component of modern agriculture. A recently recognized ailment, Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), devastates colonies, leaving hives with a complete lack of bees, dead or alive. Up to now, estimates of honey bee population decline have not included losses occurring during the wintering period, thus underestimating actual colony mortality. Our survey quantifies the extent of colony losses in the United States over the winter of 2007-2008. Surveys were conducted to quantify and identify management factors (e.g. operation size, hive migration) that contribute to high colony losses in general and CCD symptoms in particular. Over 19% of the country's estimated 2.44 million colonies were surveyed. A total loss of 35.8% of colonies was recorded; an increase of 11.4% compared to last year. Operations that pollinated almonds lost, on average, the same number of colonies as those that did not. The 37.9% of operations that reported having at least some of their colonies die with a complete lack of bees had a total loss of 40.8% of colonies compared to the 17.1% loss reported by beekeepers without this symptom. Large operations were more likely to have this symptom suggesting that a contagious condition may be a causal factor. Sixty percent of all colonies that were reported dead in this survey died without dead bees, and thus possibly suffered from CCD. In PA, losses varied with region, indicating that ambient temperature over winter may be an important factor. Of utmost importance to understanding the recent losses and CCD is keeping track of losses over time and on a large geographic scale. Given that our surveys are representative of the losses across all beekeeping operations, between 0.75 and 1.00 million honey bee colonies are estimated to have died in the United States over the winter of 2007-2008. This article is an extensive survey of U.S. beekeepers across the continent, serving as a reference for comparison with future losses as well as

  12. A survey of honey bee colony losses in the U.S., fall 2007 to spring 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis van Engelsdorp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Honey bees are an essential component of modern agriculture. A recently recognized ailment, Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD, devastates colonies, leaving hives with a complete lack of bees, dead or alive. Up to now, estimates of honey bee population decline have not included losses occurring during the wintering period, thus underestimating actual colony mortality. Our survey quantifies the extent of colony losses in the United States over the winter of 2007-2008. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Surveys were conducted to quantify and identify management factors (e.g. operation size, hive migration that contribute to high colony losses in general and CCD symptoms in particular. Over 19% of the country's estimated 2.44 million colonies were surveyed. A total loss of 35.8% of colonies was recorded; an increase of 11.4% compared to last year. Operations that pollinated almonds lost, on average, the same number of colonies as those that did not. The 37.9% of operations that reported having at least some of their colonies die with a complete lack of bees had a total loss of 40.8% of colonies compared to the 17.1% loss reported by beekeepers without this symptom. Large operations were more likely to have this symptom suggesting that a contagious condition may be a causal factor. Sixty percent of all colonies that were reported dead in this survey died without dead bees, and thus possibly suffered from CCD. In PA, losses varied with region, indicating that ambient temperature over winter may be an important factor. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Of utmost importance to understanding the recent losses and CCD is keeping track of losses over time and on a large geographic scale. Given that our surveys are representative of the losses across all beekeeping operations, between 0.75 and 1.00 million honey bee colonies are estimated to have died in the United States over the winter of 2007-2008. This article is an extensive survey of U.S. beekeepers

  13. Valuation of national park system visitation: the efficient use of count data models, meta-analysis, and secondary visitor survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neher, Christopher; Duffield, John; Patterson, David

    2013-09-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) currently manages a large and diverse system of park units nationwide which received an estimated 279 million recreational visits in 2011. This article uses park visitor data collected by the NPS Visitor Services Project to estimate a consistent set of count data travel cost models of park visitor willingness to pay (WTP). Models were estimated using 58 different park unit survey datasets. WTP estimates for these 58 park surveys were used within a meta-regression analysis model to predict average and total WTP for NPS recreational visitation system-wide. Estimated WTP per NPS visit in 2011 averaged $102 system-wide, and ranged across park units from $67 to $288. Total 2011 visitor WTP for the NPS system is estimated at $28.5 billion with a 95% confidence interval of $19.7-$43.1 billion. The estimation of a meta-regression model using consistently collected data and identical specification of visitor WTP models greatly reduces problems common to meta-regression models, including sample selection bias, primary data heterogeneity, and heteroskedasticity, as well as some aspects of panel effects. The article provides the first estimate of total annual NPS visitor WTP within the literature directly based on NPS visitor survey data.

  14. Proteomic response of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to CuO NPs and Cu²⁺: an exploratory biomarker discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Tânia; Chora, Suze; Pereira, Catarina G; Cardoso, Cátia; Bebianno, Maria João

    2014-10-01

    CuO NPs are one of the most used metal nanomaterials nowadays with several industrial and other commercial applications. Nevertheless, less is known about the mechanisms by which these NPs inflict toxicity in mussels and to what extent it differs from Cu(2+). The aim of this study was to investigate changes in protein expression profiles in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed for 15 days to CuO NPs and Cu(2+) (10 μg L(-1)) using a proteomic approach. Results demonstrate that CuO NPs and Cu(2+) induced major changes in protein expression in mussels' showing several tissue and metal-dependent responses. CuO NPs showed a higher tendency to up-regulate proteins in the gills and down-regulate in the digestive gland, while Cu(2+) showed the opposite tendency. Distinctive sets of differentially expressed proteins were found, either common or specific to each Cu form and tissue, reflecting different mechanisms involved in their toxicity. Fifteen of the differentially expressed proteins from both tissues were identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF. Identified proteins indicate common response mechanisms induced by CuO NPs and Cu(2+), namely in cytoskeleton and cell structure (actin, α-tubulin, paramyosin), stress response (heat shock cognate 71, putative C1q domain containing protein), transcription regulation (zinc-finger BED domain-containing protein 1, nuclear receptor subfamily 1G) and energy metabolism (ATP synthase F0 subunit 6). CuO NPs alone also had a marked effect on other biological processes, namely oxidative stress (GST), proteolysis (cathepsin L) and apoptosis (caspase 3/7-1). On the other hand, Cu(2+) affected a protein associated with adhesion and mobility, precollagen-D that is associated with the detoxification mechanism of Cu(2+). Protein identification clearly showed that the toxicity of CuO NPs is not solely due to Cu(2+) dissolution and can result in mitochondrial and nucleus stress-induced cell signalling cascades that can lead to apoptosis. While the

  15. Effect and Properties of Surface-Modified Copper Doped ZnO Nanoparticles (Cu:ZnO NPs on Killing Curves of Bacterial Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enayatollah Kalantar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current study aimed to determine the effect and properties of surface-modified copper doped Cu:ZnO NPs on killing curves of bacterial pathogens.Methods:  Preparation  of  in  situ  surface-modified  copper  doped  ZnOnanoparticles (Cu:ZnO NPs was done according to standard procedure.Assay for antimicrobial activity of Cu:ZnO NPs against bacterial pathogens was carried out based on disc diffusion method. Determination of shelf life, thermal and pH stability of antibacterial activity of Cu:ZnO NPs was done and residual activity was determined against the target cultures.Results: FTIR spectra indicate that the nanomaterials synthesized have higher peak intensity compared with reagent grade ZnO. According to the SEM image the nanoparticles synthesized have different size and heterogeneous morphology.  400  ppm  of  Cu:ZnO  NPs  gave  zones  of  inhibition  with diameters of 9.0 – 16 mm against the target cultures. Amongst the target cultures, Escherchia coli was the most sensitive to the Cu:ZnO NPs inhibition zone diameter 16 mm; whereas, 9 mm wide inhibition zone was obtained against  Staphylococcus  aureus. The  Cu:ZnO  NPs  was  fairly stable  for a period of 60 days at room temperature (RT showing lost of only 20% and30%     antibacterial  activity  as  tested  against  E.  coli  and  S.  aureus, respectively. The Cu:ZnO NPs was quite stable at this pH and temperaturerange tested against both E. coli and S. aureus.Conclusion: Surface-modified copper doped Cu:ZnO NPs have significant potential for their usefulness as antibacterial agents.

  16. Coupling a universal DNA circuit with graphene sheets/polyaniline/AuNPs nanocomposites for the detection of BCR/ABL fusion gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xueping [Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medical Diagnostics of Education, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Wang, Li [Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medical Diagnostics of Education, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Department of Medical Laboratory, Chongqing Emergency Medical Center (Chongqing The Fourth Hospital), Chongqing, 400016 (China); Sheng, Shangchun [The No.2 Peoples' Hospital of Yibin, Sichuan, 644000 (China); Wang, Teng; Yang, Juan [Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medical Diagnostics of Education, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Xie, Guoming, E-mail: guomingxie@cqmu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medical Diagnostics of Education, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Feng, Wenli, E-mail: fengwlcqmu@sina.com [Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medical Diagnostics of Education, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China)

    2015-08-19

    This article described a novel method by coupling a universal DNA circuit with graphene sheets/polyaniline/AuNPs nanocomposites (GS/PANI/AuNPs) for highly sensitive and specific detection of BCR/ABL fusion gene (bcr/abl) in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). DNA circuit known as catalyzed hairpin assembly (CHA) is enzyme-free and can be simply operated to achieve exponential amplification, which has been widely employed in biosensing. However, application of CHA has been hindered by the need of specially redesigned sequences for each single-stranded DNA input. Herein, a transducer hairpin (HP) was designed to obtain a universal DNA circuit with favorable signal-to-background ratio. To further improve signal amplification, GS/PANI/AuNPs with excellent conductivity and enlarged effective area were introduced into this DNA circuit. Consequently, by combining the advantages of CHA and GS/PANI/AuNPs, bcr/abl could be detected in a linear range from 10 pM to 20 nM with a detection limit of 1.05 pM. Moreover, this protocol showed excellent specificity, good stability and was successfully applied for the detection of real sample, which demonstrated its great potential in clinical application. - Highlights: • A transducer hairpin was designed to improve the versatility of DNA circuit. • GS/PANI/AuNPs were introduced to the DNA circuit for further signal amplification. • The established biosensor displayed high sensitivity and good specificity.

  17. Does Physical Production of Nanoparticles Reduce Their Ecotoxicity? A Case of Lower Toxicity of AgNPs Produced by Laser Ablation to Zebrafish (Danio rerio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Johari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Use of nano-materials has increased in various aspects of human life. However, possible outbreak of nano-materials toxicity in humans and other organisms is one of the future challenges. Different chemical precursors which are used in chemical approaches for production of nano-materials may have secondary and sometimes toxic effects in living organisms. These secondary effects may be reduced in physical approaches due to not use of chemicals. To test this hypothesis, acute toxic effects of two types of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs which were produced by physical (top-down and chemical (bottom-up methods on survival rate of Zebrafish (Danio rerio were compared. According to the results, AgNPs produced by physical method were 38 times less toxic than ones generated by chemical method and therefore, the hypothesis was approved. The estimated 96 hr LC50 values of AgNPs produced by physical and chemical methods for zebra fish were 0.540 ± 0.032 and 0.014 ± 0.001 mg/L, respectively. According to these values and regarding the rules of European Union, both types of AgNPs are considered as highly toxic chemicals to aquatic organisms. Generally, AgNPs seems to have toxic effects on aquatic organisms regardless of the method used for their production, and so, their accidental or intentional entrance into the aquatic ecosystems should be inhibited.

  18. Enhancement of TiO2 NPs Activity by Fe3O4 Nano-Seeds for Removal of Organic Pollutants in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Villa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The enhancement of the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs, synthesized in the presence of a very small amount of magnetite (Fe3O4 nanoparticles, is here presented and discussed. From X-ray diffraction (XRD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analyses, the crystallinity of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs seems to be affected by Fe3O4, acting as nano-seeds to improve the tetragonal TiO2 anatase structure with respect to the amorphous one. Photocatalytic activity data, i.e., the degradation of methylene blue and the Ofloxacin fluoroquinolone emerging pollutant, give evidence that the increased crystalline structure of the NPs, even if correlated to a reduced surface to mass ratio (with respect to commercial TiO2 NPs, enhances the performance of this type of catalyst. The achievement of a relatively well-defined crystal structure at low temperatures (Tmax = 150 °C, preventing the sintering of the TiO2 NPs and, thus, preserving the high density of active sites, seems to be the keystone to understand the obtained results.

  19. Photoconversion of 4-nitrophenol in the presence of hydrazine with AgNPs-TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles prepared by the sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández-Gordillo, Agileo, E-mail: agileo12@hotmail.com [División de Materiales Avanzados, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica, Camino a la Presa San José 2055 Col. Lomas 4a. sección, C.P. 78216 San Luis Potosí, SLP, México (Mexico); CIIEMAD, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Calle 30 de Junio de 1520 s/n, Barrio la Laguna Ticomán, C.P. 07340, Del. Gustavo A. Madero, DF, México (Mexico); Arroyo, Missael [División de Materiales Avanzados, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica, Camino a la Presa San José 2055 Col. Lomas 4a. sección, C.P. 78216 San Luis Potosí, SLP, México (Mexico); Zanella, R. [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, A.P. 70-186, Delegación Coyoacán, C.P. 04510 México, DF, México (Mexico); and others

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • AgNPs are well dispersed on TiO{sub 2} semiconductor surface. • TiO{sub 2} with 1.5 wt% of Ag{sup 0} is the most photoactive for the 4-nitrophenol conversion. • High conversion of 4-nitrofenol to 4-aminophenol was achieved with hydrazine. • Enhanced photoactivity of Ag-TiO{sub 2} is associated with the ability to oxidize hydrazine. - Abstract: The photocatalytic properties of functionalized TiO{sub 2} with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for the conversion of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in the presence of hydrazine were investigated. The TiO{sub 2} semiconductor synthesized by the sol–gel method was functionalized with AgNPs at different loadings, and their structural and optical properties were characterized by several techniques. The functionalized TiO{sub 2} with 1.5 wt% AgNPs presented the highest photocatalytic activity for the conversion of 4-nitrophenol with appropriate hydrazine concentrations (0.5 M). The photoefficiency enhancement under UV light irradiation was attributed to the electron transfer from the TiO{sub 2} semiconductor surface to the adsorbed acceptor reactant (4-nitrophenol) through the deposited AgNPs.

  20. Metabolic responses of the growing Daphnia similis to chronic AgNPs exposure as revealed by GC-Q-TOF/MS and LC-Q-TOF/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Hui; Du, Chunlei; Ng, Qin Xiang; Hu, Chaoyang; He, Yiliang; Ong, Choon Nam

    2017-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most widely used nanomaterials. Their fast-growing utilization has increased the occurrence of AgNPs in the environment, posing potential health and ecological risks. In this study, we conducted chronic toxicity tests and investigated the metabolic changes of the growing Daphna similis with exposure to 0, 0.02, and 1 ppb AgNPs, using non-targeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report the baseline metabolite change of a common aquatic organism Daphnia crustacean through its life-cycle. The results show a dynamic kinetic pattern of the growing Daphnia's metabolome underwent a cycle from day 0 to day 21, with the level of metabolites gradually increasing from day 0 to day 13, before falling back to the baseline level of day 0 on day 21. As for the samples exposed to environmental concentrations of AgNPs, although without morphological or structural changes, numerous metabolite changes occurred abruptly during the first 10 days, and these changes reached steady state by day 13. The significant changes in certain metabolites, such as amino acids (serine, threonine and tyrosine), sugars (d-allose) and fatty acids (arachidonic acid) revealed new insights into how these metabolites in Daphnia respond to chronic AgNPs stress. These findings highlight the capability of metabolomics to discover early metabolic responses to environmental silver nanoparticles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Core-Shell γ-Fe2O3/SiO2/PCA/Ag-NPs Hybrid Nanomaterials as a New Candidate for Future Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleyman, R.; Pourjavadi, A.; Masoud, N.; Varamesh, A.

    2014-04-01

    In the current study, γ-Fe2O3/SiO2/PCA/Ag-NPs hybrid nanomaterials were successfully synthesized and characterized. At first, prepared γ-Fe2O3 core nanoparticles were modified by SiO2 layer. Then they were covered by poly citric acid (PCA) via melting esterification method as well. PCA shell acts as an effective linker, and provides vacancies for conveying drugs. Moreover, this shell as an effective capping agent directs synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) via in situ photo-reduction of silver ions by sunlight-UV irradiation. This system has several benefits as a suitable cancer therapy nanomaterial. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) can guide Ag-NPs and drugs to cancer cells and then Ag-NPs can affect those cells via Ag-NPs anti-angiogenesis effect. Size and structure of the prepared magnetic hybrid nanomaterials were characterized using FTIR and UV-Vis spectra, AFM and TEM pictures and XRD data.

  2. Improved nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties in non-covalent functionalized reduced graphene oxide/silver nanoparticle (NF-RGO/Ag-NPs) hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakho, El hadji Mamour; Oluwafemi, Oluwatobi S.; Sreekanth, P.; Philip, Reji; Thomas, Sabu; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar

    2016-08-01

    Nonlinear optical (NLO) response under near infrared (800 nm) and visible (532 nm) laser excitations, of 100 fs (fs) and 5 ns (ns) pulse durations respectively, of reduced graphene oxide (RGO), non-covalent functionalized reduced graphene oxide (NF-RGO) and NF-RGO decorated with various concentration of silver nanoparticles (NF-RGO/Ag-NPs) have been investigated using the Open-aperture Z-Scan technique. For both femtosecond and nanosecond laser excitations, the studied graphene-based materials exhibit good nonlinear optical power limiting properties (OL), with NF-RGO/Ag-NPs sample prepared with 0.1 M AgNO3 showing the best nonlinear optical properties. For the ns regime, the optical limiting threshold decreased from 8.3 J/cm2 in NF-RGO to 4.3 J/cm2 in NF-RGO/Ag-NPs, while at fs regime, the nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) was found to increase with decrease in concentration of Ag-NPs in the hybrid. Two-photon absorption (2 PA) in combination with saturable absorption (SA) in femtosecond regime, and reverse saturable absorption (RSA) along with saturable absorption (SA) in the nanosecond regime, are responsible for the observed nonlinear optical absorption (NLA) behavior in these materials. These findings show that the as-synthesized NF-RGO/Ag-NPs hybrid is a relatively better material for nonlinear optical limiting applications.

  3. Physical and thermo-mechanical properties of bionano reinforced poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate, hemp/CNF/Ag-NPs composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harikrishnan Pulikkalparambil

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A facile approach to prepare bionanocomposites of poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT is reported in this paper. The effect of different wt% of hemp/Sihemp, carbon nanofiber (CNF and silver nanoparticle (Ag-NPs on the density, water absorption, melting and crystallization behavior, thermal stability, mechanical properties and morphology was investigated. The density of the composites was reduced except for Ag-NPs reinforced nanocomposites while diffusion coefficient and maximum water absorption were decreased for Sihemp reinforced composites making it a suitable material to replace conventional polymers. Significant improvement in tensile strength (TS and tensile modulus (TM was observed for the PBAT/Sihemp composites. For CNF and Ag-NPs reinforced nanocomposites, mechanical properties were retained at lower filler concentration. But as the concentration increased, there was a tendency for the nanofillers to agglomerate, which resulted in a reduction in mechanical properties.

  4. Assessing the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact of Land Use Change Using a GIS-NPS Model and the World Wide Web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaduri, B.; Engel, B.; Harbor, J.; Jones, D.; Lim, K.J.

    1999-09-22

    Assessment of the long-term hydrologic impacts of land use change is important for optimizing management practices to control runoff and non-point source (NPS) pollution associated with watershed development. Land use change, dominated by an increase in urban/impervious areas, can have a significant impact on water resources. Non-point source (NPS) pollution is the leading cause of degraded water quality in the US and urban areas are an important source of NPS pollution. Despite widespread concern over the environmental impacts of land use changes such as urban sprawl, most planners, government agencies and consultants lack access to simple impact-assessment tools that can be used with readily available data. Before investing in sophisticated analyses and customized data collection, it is desirable to be able to run initial screening analyses using data that are already available. In response to this need, we developed a long-term hydrologic impact assessment technique (L-THIA) using the popular Curve Number (CN) method that makes use of basic land use, soils and long-term rainfall data. Initially developed as a spreadsheet application, the technique allows a user to compare the hydrologic impacts of past, present and any future land use change. Consequently, a NPS pollution module was incorporated to develop the L-THWNPS model. Long-term daily rainfall records are used in combination with soils and land use information to calculate average annual runoff and NPS pollution at a watershed scale. Because of the geospatial nature of land use and soils data, and the increasingly widespread use of GE by planners, government agencies and consultants, the model is linked to a Geographic Information System (GIS) that allows convenient generation and management of model input and output data, and provides advanced visualization of the model results. Manipulation of the land use layer, or provision of multiple land use layers (for different scenarios), allows for rapid and

  5. One-step synthesis of graphene-AuNPs by HMTA and the electrocatalytical application for O2 and H2O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianguo; Li, Fenghua; Wang, Kaikai; Han, Dongxue; Zhang, Qixian; Yuan, Junhua; Niu, Li

    2012-05-15

    A green, one-step method for synthesis of graphene-Au nanoparticles (graphene-AuNPs) was introduced in this article, using an environmentally benign hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) as reducing and stabilizing agent. HMTA slowly was hydrolyzed to generate aldehyde ammonia to reduce graphene oxides (GO) and hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (Au precursor). The structure and composition of the graphene-AuNPs nanocomposites were studied by means of ultraviolet visible (UV) absorption spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The AuNPs are well-dispersed on graphene nanosheets in narrow size range. The nanocomposites have excellent electrocatalytical properties for catalytic reduction of O(2) and H(2)O(2).

  6. Anthelmintic Effect of Biocompatible Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NPs on Gigantocotyle explanatum, a Neglected Parasite of Indian Water Buffalo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Akhtar Khan

    Full Text Available Helminth parasites of veterinary importance cause huge revenue losses to agrarian economy worldwide. With the emergence of drug resistance against the current formulations, there is a need to focus on the alternative approaches in order to control this menace. In the present study, biocompatible zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs were used to see their in vitro effect on the biliary amphistomes, Gigantocotyle explanatum, infecting Bubalus bubalis because these nanoparticles are involved in generation of free radicals that induce oxidative stress, resulting in disruption of cellular machinery. The ZnO NPs were synthesized by using egg albumin as a biotemplate and subsequently characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, X-ray Diffraction and Spectrophotometrical, which showed that ZnO NPs were highly purified wurtzite type polycrystals, with a mean size of 16.7 nm. When the parasites were treated with lower concentrations (0.004% and 0.008% of the ZnO NPs, the worms mounted a protective response by stimulating the antioxidant system but the treatment of G. explanatum with 0.012% ZnO NPs produced significant inhibition of the antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD (p< 0.05 and glutathione S- transferase (GST (p<0.01, while the level of malondialdehyde (MDA, a lipid peroxidation marker, was significantly (p< 0.01 elevated. SEM and histopathology revealed pronounced tegumental damage showing the disruption of surface papillae and the annulations, particularly in the posterior region near acetabulum. The under expression of a number of polypeptides, loss of worm motility in a time dependent manner, further reflect strong anthelmintic potential of ZnO NPs. It can be concluded that the anthelmintic effect might be due to the production of reactive oxygen species that target a variety of macromolecules such as nucleic acid, protein and lipids which are involved in different cellular processes.

  7. Comparative phytotoxicity of ZnO NPs, bulk ZnO, and ionic zinc onto the alfalfa plants symbiotically associated with Sinorhizobium meliloti in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Susmita; Plascencia-Villa, Germán; Mukherjee, Arnab; Rico, Cyren M; José-Yacamán, Miguel; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2015-05-15

    ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) are reported as potentially phytotoxic in hydroponic and soil media. However, studies on ZnO NPs toxicity in a plant inoculated with bacterium in soil are limited. In this study, ZnO NPs, bulk ZnO, and ZnCl₂ were exposed to the symbiotic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)-Sinorhizobium meliloti association at concentrations ranging from 0 to 750 mg/kg soil. Plant growth, Zn bioaccumulation, dry biomass, leaf area, total protein, and catalase (CAT) activity were measured in 30 day-old plants. Results showed 50% germination reduction by bulk ZnO at 500 and 750 mg/kg and all ZnCl₂ concentrations. ZnO NPs and ionic Zn reduced root and shoot biomass by 80% and 25%, respectively. Conversely, bulk ZnO at 750 mg/kg increased shoot and root biomass by 225% and 10%, respectively, compared to control. At 500 and 750 mg/kg, ZnCl₂ reduced CAT activity in stems and leaves. Total leaf protein significantly decreased as external ZnCl₂ concentration increased. STEM-EDX imaging revealed the presence of ZnO particles in the root, stem, leaf, and nodule tissues. ZnO NPs showed less toxicity compared to ZnCl₂ and bulk ZnO found to be growth enhancing on measured traits. These findings are significant to reveal the toxicity effects of different Zn species (NPs, bulk, and ionic Zn) into environmentally important plant-bacterial system in soil.

  8. Anisotropic In Situ-Coated AuNPs on Screen-Printed Carbon Surface for Enhanced Prostate-Specific Antigen Impedimetric Aptasensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Tram T. N.; Van Phi, Toan; Nguy, Tin Phan; Wagner, Patrick; Eersels, Kasper; Vestergaard, Mun'delanji C.; Truong, Lien T. N.

    2016-12-01

    An impedimetric aptasensor has been used to study the effect of charge transfer on the binding of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) to its aptamer. Full understanding of this mechanism will be beneficial to further improve its sensitivity for PSA detection in human semen at physiologically relevant concentrations. Bare gold electrodes (SPAuEs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)-coated screen-printed carbon ink electrodes (AuNPs/SPCEs) were coated with aptamer solution at various concentrations and the sensor response to increasing PSA concentration in buffer solution examined. AuNPs were deposited onto carbon electrodes in 10 cycles. AuNPs/SPCEs were then coated with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid prior to aptamer immobilization at dose of 5 μg mL-1. The results indicate that anisotropic AuNPs/SPCEs outperform bare gold electrodes in terms of decreased amount of aptamer bunches as well as the number of intermediate PSA-aptamer complexes formed on the electrode surface. The key finding is that the fabricated aptasensor is sensitive enough [limit of detection (LoD) 1.95 ng mL-1] for early diagnosis of prostate cancer and displays linear response in the physiologically relevant concentration range (0 ng mL-1 to 10 ng mL-1), as shown by the calibration curve of the relative change in electron transfer resistance (ΔR CT) versus PSA concentration when aptamer/SAM/AuNPs/SPCEs were exposed to buffer containing PSA at different concentrations.

  9. Identifying English BaseNPs Through a Combination of Maximum Entropy Approach and Brill Approach%最大熵和Brill方法结合识别英语BaseNPs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕琳; 刘玉树

    2006-01-01

    为了进一步提高基本名词短语(BaseNPs)的识别精度,针对最大熵方法和Brill方法各自的特点,提出基于两者相结合的英语基本名词短语识别算法.该算法是在高准确率词性标注的基础上实现的.在训练和测试两个阶段中,均先采用最大熵方法识别基本名词短语,然后将已具有很高精度的识别结果作为初始标注结果运用于Brill方法中.实验结果表明,此联合算法达到了94%的准确率和召回率,充分融合了最大熵方法和Brill方法的优点,可与基于相同训练和测试语料的目前最理想的英语基本名词短语识别结果相比.

  10. NPS Defense Affordability Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    MEADS CAP AMRAAM (AIM-120) MQ-9 UAS REAPER AMF JTRS Chem Demil -ACWA TRIDENT II MISSILE USMC H-1 UPGRADES LHA 6 JLENS 100 50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300...DDG 1000, E-2D AHE, EFV(2)**, RMS, VH-71* – Air Force: AEHF, C-5 RERP, C-130 AMP, EELV(2), Global Hawk, JASSM, JPATS, WGS – DoD: Chem Demil -ACWA(2...Javelin, JLENS – Navy: H-1 Upgrades – Air Force: AEHF, C-27J, NPOESS, C-130 AMP – DoD: Chem Demil -ACWA, JTRS GMR * This program reported

  11. Solution-Processed rGO/AgNPs/rGO Sandwich Structure as a Hole Extraction Layer for Polymer Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quang Trung Tran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We found that inserting silver nanoparticles (AgNPs between two layers of reduced grapheme oxide (rGO has an effect on tailoring the work function of rGO. The utilization of rGO/AgNPs/rGO sandwich structure as the hole extraction layer in polymer solar cells is demonstrated. Solution-processable fabrication of this sandwich structure at the ITO/active layer interface facilitates the extraction of hole from active layer into ITO anode because of lowering the barrier level alignment at the interface. It results in an improvement of the short circuit current density and the overall photovoltaic performance.

  12. Proteomic response of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to CuO NPs and Cu{sup 2+}: An exploratory biomarker discovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Tânia, E-mail: tania.gomes@niva.no; Chora, Suze; Pereira, Catarina G.; Cardoso, Cátia; Bebianno, Maria João

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Different protein expression patterns, tissue and Cu form dependent. • Different cellular mechanisms involved in CuO NPs and Cu{sup 2+} toxicity. • CuO NPs toxicity mediated by cell signalling cascades that result in apoptosis. • Caspase 3/7–1, catL, Zn-finger, precol-D as new molecular targets for both Cu forms in mussels. - Abstract: CuO NPs are one of the most used metal nanomaterials nowadays with several industrial and other commercial applications. Nevertheless, less is known about the mechanisms by which these NPs inflict toxicity in mussels and to what extent it differs from Cu{sup 2+}. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in protein expression profiles in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed for 15 days to CuO NPs and Cu{sup 2+} (10 μg L{sup −1}) using a proteomic approach. Results demonstrate that CuO NPs and Cu{sup 2+} induced major changes in protein expression in mussels’ showing several tissue and metal-dependent responses. CuO NPs showed a higher tendency to up-regulate proteins in the gills and down-regulate in the digestive gland, while Cu{sup 2+} showed the opposite tendency. Distinctive sets of differentially expressed proteins were found, either common or specific to each Cu form and tissue, reflecting different mechanisms involved in their toxicity. Fifteen of the differentially expressed proteins from both tissues were identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF. Identified proteins indicate common response mechanisms induced by CuO NPs and Cu{sup 2+}, namely in cytoskeleton and cell structure (actin, α-tubulin, paramyosin), stress response (heat shock cognate 71, putative C1q domain containing protein), transcription regulation (zinc-finger BED domain-containing protein 1, nuclear receptor subfamily 1G) and energy metabolism (ATP synthase F0 subunit 6). CuO NPs alone also had a marked effect on other biological processes, namely oxidative stress (GST), proteolysis (cathepsin L) and apoptosis (caspase 3/7-1). On

  13. Determination of Gallic Acid by Flow Injection Analysis Based on LuminoI-AgNO3-Ag NPs Chemiluminescence System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世凤; 孙惠敏; 王东; 钱莉; 朱燕; 陶善军

    2012-01-01

    A novel flow injection procedure has been developed for the determination of gallic acid based on the en- hancement function for luminol-AgNO3-Ag NPs chemiluminescence (CL) system by gallic acid. The enhancement mechanism was proposed for the reinforcing effect of the gallic acid on the CL system. The UV-vis absorption spectrum and CL emission spectrum were applied to confirm the mechanism. The method is simple, rapid and sen- sitive with a detection limit of 5 × 10^-10 g.mL-l and a linear range of 8.0 × 10^-10- 1.0 × 10-7 g.mL-1. The relative standard deviation (RSD) is 1.3% for eleven measurements of 5 × 10^-8 g-mL-1 gallic acid. The method has been successfully applied to the determination of gallic acid in Chinese proprietary medicine--Jianmin Yanhou tablets and synthesized samples.

  14. PDMS-based Optical Leaky Waveguide Coated with Self-assemble Au-NPs for Bio-analytical Detections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chieh Chen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method for fabricating PDMS-based optical leaky waveguides coated with self-assembled gold nano-particles (Au-NP for bio-analytical detection utilizing the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR effect. In the presented method, a PDMS optical waveguide is first cast in Teflon tubing to form a cylindrical leaky waveguide structure. The de-molded PDMS optical waveguide is then modified with PDDA molecules and coated with a layer of 13 nm Au-NPs for inducing the LSPR effect. The fabricated LSPR sensor is finally connected to multi-mode optic fibers for guiding the detection light. The measured sensitivity of the PDMS waveguide based LSPR sensor for detecting diluted glycerol solutions was 7.25 AU/RIU and 325.97 nm/RIU. Experimental results of a label-free detection of DNA hybridization show that the presented PDMS waveguide based LSPR sensor has a good linear response and has a detection limit of about 10pM, confirming the detection performance of the developed PDMS waveguide-based LSPR sensor.

  15. Role of Carboxylate ligands in the Synthesis of AuNPs: Size Control, Molecular Interaction and Catalytic Activity

    KAUST Repository

    Aljohani, Hind Abdullah

    2016-05-22

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are the basis of nanotechnology and finding numerous applications in various fields such as health, electronics, environment, personal care products, transportation, and catalysis. To fulfill these functions, the nanoparticles must be synthesized, passivated to control their chemical reactivity, stabilized against aggregation and functionalized to achieve specific performances. The chemistry of metal nanoparticles especially that of noble metals (Gold, Platinum…) is a growing field. The nanoparticles have indeed different properties from those of the corresponding bulk material. These properties are largely influenced by several parameters; the most important are the size, shape, and the local environment of the nanoparticles. One of the most common synthetic methods for the preparation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) is based on stabilization by citrate. Since it was reported first by Turkevich et al. in 1951, this synthetic scheme has been widely used, studied and a substantial amount of important information regarding this system has been reported in the literature. The most popular method developed by Frens for controlling the size of the noble gold nanoparticles based on citrate was achieved by varying the concentration of sodium citrate. Despite a large number of investigations focused on utilizing Cit-AuNPs, the structural details of citrate anions adsorbed on the AuNP surface are still unknown. It is known only that citrate anions “coordinate” to the metal surface by inner sphere complexation of the carboxylate groups and there are trace amounts of AuCl4−, Cl−, and OH− on the metal surface. Moreover, it is generally accepted that the ligand shell morphology of Au nanoparticles can be partly responsible for important properties such as oxidation of carbon monoxide. The use of Au-NPs in heterogeneous catalysis started mostly with Haruta who discovered the effect of particle size on the activity for carbon monoxide oxidation at

  16. Physicochemical and biological properties of hydrogel/gelatin/hydroxyapatite PAA/G/HAp/AgNPs composites modified with silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobczak-Kupiec, Agnieszka; Malina, Dagmara; Piatkowski, Marek; Krupa-Zuczek, Kinga; Wzorek, Zbigniew; Tyliszczak, Bozena

    2012-12-01

    Composites comprising biodegradable polymer matrix, bioactive ceramic fillers and metallic nanoparticles can be applied in the substitution of bone tissue and many others medical and dental applications. Recently, fully resorbable composite materials applicable as bone substitutes are the subject of intensive studies in surgical reconstruction and bone tissue engineering. Biological composites, such as bone and teeth, contain hydroxyapatite (HAp), a mineral component with composition Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. Silver nanoparticles or silver ions have long been known to have strong inhibitory and bactericidal effects as well as a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities. In this study we applied natural origin hydroxyapatite obtained from pork bone sludge. As polymer matrix gelatin and poly(acrylic acid) were used. Composite materials were obtained with the use of microwave irradiation. The influence of metallic nanoparticles presence on the degradation process of composite materials was investigated by pH and conductivity analyses of water filtrates. In vitro tests in simulated body fluid (SBF) and artificial saliva confirmed that it is possible to produce hydroxyapatite/polymer composites doped with silver nanoparticles for medical applications. Tests proved that content of silver nanoparticles in composites had influence on degradation behaviour of HA/Polymer/AgNPs in artificial media such as simulated body fluid and saliva.

  17. Biocompatible synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using marine Vibrio sp. and study their pharmacological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Surya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a rapid and a green biogenic approach for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using marine bacteria such as Vibrio sp. The bioactive compounds of Vibrio sp. induced the reduction of Ag+ ions from AgNO3, which resulted in the formation of bacterial mediated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs. The reduction of Ag+ ions to elemental silver was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Dynamic light scattering (DLS. The nanoparticles show maximum absorbance at 421 nm on ultraviolet-visible spectra. The presence of biomolecules were identified by Fourier transform–infrared spectroscopy. The bioactive compounds and nanoparticles were found to direct different shape and sized and their size/ shape were varied. The silver nanoparticle synthesized were spherical, in the range of 40-80 nm in size. In antimicrobial screening, all the pathogens were fairly affected and nil effect was not observed in the test samples, In bacteria, the test sample was most effective against Enterococcus faecalis B2 and Salmonella typhimurium B5. In fungi, which was effective against Candida albicans F1, Microsporum canis F3 and Trichophyton rubrum F4.

  18. The Electrochemical Behavior of Au/AuNPs/PNA/ZnSe-QD/ACA Electrode Towards CySH Oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Azadeh Azadbakht; Amir Reza Abbasi; Zohreh Derikvand; Ziba Karimi

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the electrochemical behavior of azodicarboxamide (ACA) film immobilized on the surface of penicillamine (PNA)/ZnSe-quantum dot (ZnSe-QD) gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) Au electrode. Electrocatalytic activity of modified electrode toward the oxidation of cysteine (CySH) was investigated. The surface structure and composition of the sensor were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Oxidation of CySH on the surface of modified electrode was investigated with cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), hydrodynamic voltammetry and chronoamperometry methods. The results show that the PNA/ZnSe-QD/ACA film displays excellent electrochemical catalytic activities towards CySH oxidation. The modified electrode shows repro-ducible behavior and high level of stability during the electrochemical experiments. Also it has short response time, low detection limit, high sensitivity and low operation potential, which can be used as an amperometric sensor for moni-toring of CySH. The proposed modified electrode was successfully used for determination of CySH in real sample such as human serum.

  19. Spatial and Seasonal Variations of Heavy Metal Loads in Uyo Urban Drainage Stream under PS and NPS Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Essien

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of heavy metals (HM in the 4km urban drainage stream in Uyo was studied using grab and composite sampling of water from six stations on the stream, and analyzed by a multipurpose atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 17 software arid correlated between stations and among samples. HM contamination was evaluated with the coefficient and rate of dispersion between stations and the Normalized Scatter Coefficient (NSC. The seasonal distribution of metal pollution varied individually amongst metals at stations. The Fe and Pb concentrations exceeded the safe drinking water standard, rendering the water quality not acceptable for drinking; however, the quality was within the safe limit for crop production along the river bank. The relative.dominance of heavy metals followed a different sequence in upstream leachate effluent from all downstream stations. The NSC in dry-wet season was higher than in wet season, and was in the order: Fe>Cu>Zn>Pb, showing that large but variable concentration of Fe from PS and NPS contaminated the stream at faster rate in the wet season while Pb contaminated at nearly constant rate. However, in the dry season, Fe and Pb depleted at downstream at rates far higher than Zn as Cu was increasing. Fe and Pb could be good pollution monitor for total maximum daily load (TMDL pollution monitoring programme.

  20. Survey on Agricultural Biological Resources and Traditional Cultural Knowledge of Hani People in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liqin; ZHANG; Hong; LUO; Wenjie; LONG; Yongtao; LEI; Qing; CAI; Mei; LAN; Li; ZHONG

    2015-01-01

    In 2007- 2008,a systematic survey,collection and arrangement was carried out for agricultural biological resources and traditional cultural knowledge of Hani People in 8 counties,15 towns,and 23 village committees of Yunnan Province. A total of 299 samples were obtained about agricultural biological resources related to production and living of Hani People. According to purpose of utilization,samples were divided into grain crops,medicinal plants,vegetables,fruit trees,and oil crops,taking up 48. 2%,21. 7%,18. 4%,7. 7%,and 2. 0% of the samples respectively. The survey indicated that planting industry and breeding industry take up the dominant role in rural social economy of Hani People,so agricultural biological resources are the fundamental means of production maintaining rural social development of Hani People.The current situation of agricultural biological resources of Hani People in Yunnan,reasons for growth and decline were analyzed,and the utilization,protection and development of agricultural biological resources were discussed.

  1. Comparative effects on rat primary astrocytes and C6 rat glioma cells cultures after 24-h exposure to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar-García, Samuel; Silva-Ramírez, Ana Sonia; Ramirez-Lee, Manuel A.; Rosas-Hernandez, Hector [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas (Mexico); Rangel-López, Edgar [Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia Manuel Velasco Suárez, Laboratorio de Aminoacidos Excitadores (Mexico); Castillo, Claudia G. [Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Santamaría, Abel [Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia Manuel Velasco Suárez, Laboratorio de Aminoacidos Excitadores (Mexico); Martinez-Castañon, Gabriel A. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Facultad de Estomatologia (Mexico); Gonzalez, Carmen, E-mail: cgonzalez.uaslp@gmail.com, E-mail: gonzalez.castillocarmen@fcq.uaslp.mx [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas (Mexico)

    2015-11-15

    The aim of this work was to compare the effects of 24-h exposure of rat primary astrocytes and C6 rat glioma cells to 7.8 nm AgNPs. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor and current treatments lead to diverse side-effects; for this reason, it is imperative to investigate new approaches, including those alternatives provided by nanotechnology, like nanomaterials (NMs) such as silver nanoparticles. Herein, we found that C6 rat glioma cells, but no primary astrocytes, decreased cell viability after AgNPs treatment; however, both cell types diminished their proliferation. The decrease of glioma C6 cells proliferation was related with necrosis, while in primary astrocytes, the decreased proliferation was associated with the induction of apoptosis. The ionic control (AgNO{sub 3}) exerted a different profile than AgNPs; the bulk form did not modify the basal effect in each determination, whereas cisplatin, a well-known antitumoral drug used as a comparative control, promoted cytotoxicity in both cell types at specific concentrations. Our findings prompt the need to determine the fine molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the differential biological responses to AgNPs in order to develop new tools or alternatives based on nanotechnology that may contribute to the understanding, impact and use of NMs in specific targets, like glioblastoma cells.

  2. High-throughput screening for new psychoactive substances (NPS) in whole blood by DLLME extraction and UHPLC-MS/MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoardi, Sara; Fisichella, Marco; Romolo, Francesco Saverio; Strano-Rossi, Sabina

    2015-09-01

    The increasing number of new psychoactive substances (NPS) present in the illicit market render their identification in biological fluids/tissues of great concern for clinical and forensic toxicology. Analytical methods able to detect the huge number of substances that can be used are sought, considering also that many NPS are not detected by the standard immunoassays generally used for routine drug screening. The aim of this work was to develop a method for the screening of different classes of NPS (a total of 78 analytes including cathinones, synthetic cannabinoids, phenethylamines, piperazines, ketamine and analogues, benzofurans, tryptamines) from blood samples. The simultaneous extraction of analytes was performed by Dispersive Liquid/Liquid Microextraction DLLME, a very rapid, cheap and efficient extraction technique that employs microliters amounts of organic solvents. Analyses were performed by a target Ultrahigh Performance Liquid Chromatography tandem Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The method allowed the detection of the studied analytes with limits of detection (LODs) ranging from 0.2 to 2ng/mL. The proposed DLLME method can be used as an alternative to classical liquid/liquid or solid-phase extraction techniques due to its rapidity, necessity to use only microliters amounts of organic solvents, cheapness, and to its ability to extract simultaneously a huge number of analytes also from different chemical classes. The method was then applied to 60 authentic real samples from forensic cases, demonstrating its suitability for the screening of a wide number of NPS.

  3. Silica (NPs) supported Fe (III) as a reusable heterogeneous catalyst for the one-pot synthesis of 1, 4-dihydropyridines under mild conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Javad Safaei-Ghomi; Abolfazl Ziarati; Safura Zahedi

    2012-07-01

    A cheap and recyclable silica (NPs) supported Fe (III) was prepared as heterogeneous catalyst for the synthesis of various substituted 1,4-dihydropyridines via condensation of aldehydes with ethyl acetoacetate and ammonium acetate in ethanol. The products were separated from the catalyst simply by filtration and the catalyst could be recycled and reused for several times without noticeable decrease in the catalytic activity.

  4. Bioinspired polydopamine as the scaffold for the active AuNPs anchoring and the chemical simultaneously reduced graphene oxide: characterization and the enhanced biosensing application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Juan; Deng, Sheng-Yuan; Li, Da-Li; Shan, Dan; He, Wei; Zhang, Xue-Ji; Shi, You

    2013-11-15

    We report here an efficient approach to enhance the performance of biosensing platform based on graphene or graphene derivate. Initially, graphene oxides (GO) nanosheets were reduced and surface functionalized by one-step oxidative polymerization of dopamine in basic solution at environment friendly condition to obtain the polydopamine (Pdop) modified reduced graphene oxides (PDRGO). The bioinspired surface was further used as a support to anchor active gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The morphology and structure of the as-prepared AuNPs/PDRGO nanocomposite were investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Electrochemical studies demonstrate that the as-prepared AuNPs/PDRGO hybrid materials possess excellent electrochemical properties and electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of NADH at low potential (0.1 V vs. SCE) with the fast response (15s) and the broad linear range (5.0 × 10(-8)-4.2 × 10(-5)M). Thus, this AuNPs/PDRGO nanocomposite can be further used to fabricate a sensitive alcohol biosensor using alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), by simply incorporating the specific enzyme within the composite matrix with the aid of chitosan (Chit).

  5. Enhanced photocatalytic performance of morphologically tuned Bi2S3 NPs in the degradation of organic pollutants under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Arpita; Ghosh, Abhisek Brata; Saha, Namrata; Srivastava, Divesh N; Paul, Parimal; Adhikary, Bibhutosh

    2016-12-01

    Here in, morphologically tuned Bi2S3 NPs were successfully synthesized from a single-source precursor complex [Bi(ACDA)3] [HACDA=2-aminocyclopentene-1-dithiocarboxylic acid] by decomposing in various solvents using a simple solvothermal method. The as-obtained products were characterized by XRD, TEM, UV-vis spectroscopy and BET surface area measurements. Structural analyses revealed that the as-prepared Bi2S3 NPs can be tuned to different morphologies by varying various solvents and surfactants. The interplay of factors that influenced the size and morphology of the nanomaterials has been studied. Moreover, mastery over the morphology of nanoparticles enables control of their properties and enhancement of their usefulness for a given application. These materials emerged as a highly active visible light-driven photocatalyst towards degradation of methylene blue dye and the efficiencies are dependent on size and surface area of the NPs. In addition, photocatalytic degradation of highly toxic dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane was studied using synthesized Bi2S3 NPs as catalyst and the rate of degradation has been found to be much better compared to that exhibited by commercial WO3. We believe that this new synthesis approach can be extended to the synthesis of other metal sulfide nanostructures and open new opportunities for device applications.

  6. From concept(ion) to life after death/the grave: The 'natural' history and life cycle(s) of novel psychoactive substances (NPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corkery, John Martin; Orsolini, Laura; Papanti, Duccio; Schifano, Fabrizio

    2017-05-01

    A range of information needs should be met in order to better understand and predict the longevity/existence of novel psychoactive substances (NPS). This conceptual paper argues that one way of assessing how long a molecule may be around is to document how the life cycles or natural histories of 'traditional' drugs and NPS evolve. The earliest indication of the possible appearance of a new substance might be evidenced on the DeepWeb. However, this means they are less visible, in line with the clandestine nature of drug use and supply. Therefore, monitoring discussion groups/fora needs the development of new methods compared to those used in the Surface Net. Issues needing consideration in establishing NPS life cycles are outlined here, together with the probable outcomes that could result. The approach advocated means that it should be easier to identify which NPS are likely to come up or are emerging in real time, and, therefore, pre-empt/prevent their supply. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Development of sensitive amperometric hydrogen peroxide sensor using a CuNPs/MB/MWCNT-C{sub 60}-Cs-IL nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roushani, Mahmoud, E-mail: mahmoudroushani@yahoo.com; Bakyas, Kobra; Zare Dizajdizi, Behruz

    2016-07-01

    A sensitive hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) sensor was constructed based on copper nanoparticles/methylene blue/multiwall carbon nanotubes–fullerene–chitosan–ionic liquid (CuNPs/MB/MWCNTs–C{sub 60}–Cs–IL) nanocomposites. The MB/MWCNTs–C{sub 60}–Cs–IL and CuNPs were modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by the physical adsorption and electrodeposition of copper nitrate solution, respectively. The physical morphology and chemical composition of the surface of modified electrode was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. The electrochemical properties of CuNPs/MB/MWCNTs–C{sub 60}–Cs–IL/GCE were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry techniques and the sensor exhibited remarkably strong electrocatalytic activities toward the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. The peak currents possess a linear relationship with the concentration of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the range of 0.2 μM to 2.0 mM, and the detection limit is 55.0 nM (S/N = 3). In addition, the modified electrode was used to determine H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration in human blood serum sample with satisfactory results. - Highlights: • CuNPs/MB/MWCNT-C{sub 60}-Cs-IL/GC electrode was constructed by layer-by-layer method. • The catalytic performance of the sensor was studied with the use of amperometric technique. • The constructed sensor showed enhanced electrocatalytic activity toward the reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. • The CuNPs/MB/MWCNT-C{sub 60}-Cs-IL/GC electrode demonstrated high stability for the detection of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

  8. Mitochondrial and Chromosomal Damage Induced by Oxidative Stress in Zn(2+) Ions, ZnO-Bulk and ZnO-NPs treated Allium cepa roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Bilal; Dwivedi, Sourabh; Abdin, Malik Zainul; Azam, Ameer; Al-Shaeri, Majed; Khan, Mohammad Saghir; Saquib, Quaiser; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Musarrat, Javed

    2017-01-25

    Large-scale synthesis and release of nanomaterials in environment is a growing concern for human health and ecosystem. Therefore, we have investigated the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs), zinc oxide bulk (ZnO-Bulk), and zinc ions (Zn(2+)) in treated roots of Allium cepa, under hydroponic conditions. ZnO-NPs were characterized by UV-visible, XRD, FT-IR spectroscopy and TEM analyses. Bulbs of A. cepa exposed to ZnO-NPs (25.5 nm) for 12 h exhibited significant decrease (23 ± 8.7%) in % mitotic index and increase in chromosomal aberrations (18 ± 7.6%), in a dose-dependent manner. Transmission electron microcopy and FT-IR data suggested surface attachment, internalization and biomolecular intervention of ZnO-NPs in root cells, respectively. The levels of TBARS and antioxidant enzymes were found to be significantly greater in treated root cells vis-à-vis untreated control. Furthermore, dose-dependent increase in ROS production and alterations in ΔΨm were observed in treated roots. FT-IR analysis of root tissues demonstrated symmetric and asymmetric P=O stretching of >PO2(-) at 1240 cm(-1) and stretching of C-O ribose at 1060 cm(-1), suggestive of nuclear damage. Overall, the results elucidated A. cepa, as a good model for assessment of cytotoxicity and oxidative DNA damage with ZnO-NPs and Zn(2+) in plants.

  9. Mitochondrial and Chromosomal Damage Induced by Oxidative Stress in Zn2+ Ions, ZnO-Bulk and ZnO-NPs treated Allium cepa roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Bilal; Dwivedi, Sourabh; Abdin, Malik Zainul; Azam, Ameer; Al-Shaeri, Majed; Khan, Mohammad Saghir; Saquib, Quaiser; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.; Musarrat, Javed

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale synthesis and release of nanomaterials in environment is a growing concern for human health and ecosystem. Therefore, we have investigated the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs), zinc oxide bulk (ZnO-Bulk), and zinc ions (Zn2+) in treated roots of Allium cepa, under hydroponic conditions. ZnO-NPs were characterized by UV-visible, XRD, FT-IR spectroscopy and TEM analyses. Bulbs of A. cepa exposed to ZnO-NPs (25.5 nm) for 12 h exhibited significant decrease (23 ± 8.7%) in % mitotic index and increase in chromosomal aberrations (18 ± 7.6%), in a dose-dependent manner. Transmission electron microcopy and FT-IR data suggested surface attachment, internalization and biomolecular intervention of ZnO-NPs in root cells, respectively. The levels of TBARS and antioxidant enzymes were found to be significantly greater in treated root cells vis-à-vis untreated control. Furthermore, dose-dependent increase in ROS production and alterations in ΔΨm were observed in treated roots. FT-IR analysis of root tissues demonstrated symmetric and asymmetric P=O stretching of >PO2− at 1240 cm−1 and stretching of C-O ribose at 1060 cm−1, suggestive of nuclear damage. Overall, the results elucidated A. cepa, as a good model for assessment of cytotoxicity and oxidative DNA damage with ZnO-NPs and Zn2+ in plants. PMID:28120857

  10. Identificação e distribuição espacial de imóveis-chave de Aedes aegypti no bairro Porto Dantas, Aracaju, Sergipe, Brasil entre 2007 e 2008 Identificación y distribución espacial de recipientes-clave de Aedes aegypti en el barrio Porto Dantas, Aracaju, Sergipe, Brasil entre 2007 y 2008 Identification and spatial distribution of key premises for Aedes aegypti in the Porto Dantas neighborhood, Aracaju, Sergipe State, Brazil, 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Conceição Gomes Machado de Araújo

    2013-02-01

    y buffer. Se constató que los recipientes-clave son responsables del mantenimiento de la infestación en la localidad, independientemente de las condiciones ambientales y del período epidémico, además, son focos generadores de mosquitos que pueden dispersarse hacia áreas vecinas del barrio. De esta forma, las acciones de control vectorial, para ser más efectivas, deben estar dirigidas hacia esos inmuebles.Currently the best way to avoid new dengue epidemics is to control the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti. This study thus aimed to identify and analyze the spatial distribution of "key premises" for Ae. aegypti in Aracaju, Sergipe State, Brazil. Three entomological surveys were performed prior to, during, and after the dengue epidemic and in different conditions of precipitation: the end of the rainy season, beginning of the rainy season, and the dry season. Key premises were identified by positivity in more than one survey and presence of pupae. Spatial distribution and dispersal of mosquitoes used analysis of point patterns, with the kernel and buffer density estimator. Key premises were responsible for maintaining infestation of the area, independently of environmental conditions and the period in the epidemic, serving as foci generating mosquitoes that can spread to areas adjacent to the neighborhood. Thus, in order to be more effective, vector control measures should target these properties.

  11. The Extended GMRT Radio Halo Survey I: New upper limits on radio halos and mini-halos

    CERN Document Server

    Kale, R; Giacintucci, S; Dallacasa, D; Cassano, R; Brunetti, G; Macario, G; Athreya, R

    2013-01-01

    A fraction of galaxy clusters host diffuse radio sources called radio halos, radio relics and mini-halos. We present the sample and first results from the Extended GMRT Radio Halo Survey (EGRHS)- an extension of the GMRT Radio Halo Survey (GRHS, Venturi et al. 2007, 2008). It is a systematic radio survey of galaxy clusters selected from the REFLEX and eBCS X-ray catalogs . Analysis of GMRT data at 610/ 235/ 325 MHz on 12 galaxy clusters are presented. We report the detection of a newly discovered mini-halo in the cluster RXJ1532.9+3021 at 610 MHz. A small scale relic (~200 kpc) is suspected in the cluster Z348. We do not detect cluster-scale diffuse emission in 11 clusters. Robust upper limits on the detection of radio halo of size of 1 Mpc are determined. We also present upper limits on the detections of mini-halos in a sub-sample of cool-core clusters. The upper limits for radio halos and mini-halos are plotted in the radio power- X-ray luminosity plane and the correlations are discussed. Diffuse extended e...

  12. Electrochemical detection of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) using VEGF antibody fragments modified Au NPs/ITO electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gang-Il; Kim, Kyung-Woo; Oh, Min-Kyu; Sung, Yun-Mo

    2010-03-15

    A new electrochemical technique for the detection of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) as a cancer-related biomarker is presented in this paper. Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) were self-assembled onto an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode to prepare a modified sandwich type electrochemical immunoassay platform. VEGF antibodies were cleaved into two half-fragments by 2-mercaptoethylamine-HCl (2-MEA) and the fragments were immobilized onto the Au NP substrates by their thiol groups. Through this strategy, randomly oriented attachment of antibodies was prevented which frequently occurs in a general use of whole antibody and reduces the number of available sites for the attachment of target molecules. VEGF target molecules were applied to the immunoelectrodes and they combined with the antibody fragments covering the Au NP electrode, forming antigen-antibody complexes. Then, ferrocene-tagged antibodies, which release electrons under a proper applied potential, were added to the system and they combined with the VEGF molecules pre-attached to the antibody fragments. The redox current of ferrocene measured by the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) increased almost linearly from 1.27 x 10(-4) to 4.17 x 10(-4)A according to the increase in the concentration of the VEGF target molecules from 100 to 600 pg/ml. The measured current values represent the concentration of the VEGF since they are proportional to the number of ferrocene molecules which is in turn proportional to the concentration of VEGF target molecules. Using this modified sandwich immunoassay with the Au NP/ITO electrode, VEGFs as low as 100 pg/ml were detected with high specificity.

  13. Are the TiO2 NPs a "Trojan horse" for personal care products (PCPs) in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendra, M; Pintado-Herrera, M G; Aguirre-Martínez, G V; Moreno-Garrido, I; Martin-Díaz, L M; Lara-Martín, P A; J, Blasco

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, increasing quantities of personal care products (PCPs) are being released into the environment. However, data about bioaccumulation and toxicity are scarce; and extraction and analytical approaches are not well developed. In this work, the marine clam Ruditapes philippinarum, selected as model organism, has been employed to investigate bioaccumulation, antioxidant enzyme activities and DNA damage due to exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles and bulk TiO2 (inorganic compounds that are frequent components of PCPs, plastics, paints and coatings, foods and disinfectant water treatments). We have also studied the joint effect of both forms of inorganic TiO2 combined with four organic compounds (mixture exposures) commonly used in PCPs: an antimicrobial (triclosan), a fragrance (OTNE) and two UV filters (benzophenone-3 and octocrylene). Bioaccumulation of the inorganic compound, TiO2, was almost immediate and constant over exposure time. With respect to the organic compounds in mixtures, they were mediated by TiO2 and bioaccumulation is driven by reduced size of the particles. In fact, nanoparticles can be considered as a vector to organic compounds, such as triclosan and benzophenone-3. After a week of depuration, TiO2 NPs and TiO2 bulk in clams showed similar levels of concentration. Some organic compounds with bioactivity (Log Kow >3), like OTNE, showed low depuration after one week. The joint action of the organic compound mixture and either of the two forms of TiO2 provoked changes in enzyme activity responses. However, for the mixtures, DNA damage was found only after the depuration period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationships among moral distress, level of practice independence, and intent to leave of nurse practitioners in emergency departments: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, Jennifer; Epstein, Elizabeth; Rovnyak, Virginia; Snyder, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this research study were to investigate moral distress among emergency department (ED) nurse practitioners (NPs) and examine relationships between moral distress and level of practice independence as well as intent to leave a position. Moral distress has been studied regarding registered nurses and physicians (MDs) but less so in NPs. It is important to explore moral distress in NPs because they tread a unique path between nursing and physician roles. Moral distress may play a significant role in staff nurses' intention to leave practice, and level of practice independence is found to have a relationship with NPs' intention to leave. A convenience sample of ED NPs was obtained from a mailing list of a national nursing specialty organization, the Emergency Nurses Association. Using a correlational design, survey methods assessed moral distress with the Moral Distress Scale-Revised (MDS-R), level of practice independence with the Dempster Practice Behavior Scale, and intent to leave with self-report. Correlational and regression analyses of data were conducted to characterize moral distress among ED NPs and associations between moral distress, level of practice independence, and intent to leave. Results found ED NPs do experience moral distress with poor patient care results from inadequate staff communication and working with incompetent coworkers in their practice. The MDS-R was a significant predictor of intention to leave among respondents. This study is the first of its kind to explore moral distress in ED NPs. Results suggest moral distress influences ED NPs' intent to leave their position. Further studies are needed to explore the findings from this research and to formulate interventions to alleviate moral distress in ED NPs and improve retention in the clinical setting.

  15. "Suntelligence" Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the American Academy of Dermatology's "Suntelligence" sun-smart survey. Please answer the following questions to measure ... be able to view a ranking of major cities suntelligence based on residents' responses to this survey. ...

  16. Survey Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    Survey Says is a lesson plan designed to teach college students how to access Internet resources for valid data related to the sexual health of young people. Discussion questions based on the most recent available data from two national surveys, the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance-United States, 2003 (CDC, 2004) and the National Survey of…

  17. Solution-Processed CuS NPs as an Inorganic Hole-Selective Contact Material for Inverted Planar Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Haixia; Sun, Weihai; Ye, Senyun; Yan, Weibo; Li, Yunlong; Peng, Haitao; Liu, Zhiwei; Bian, Zuqiang; Huang, Chunhui

    2016-03-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have drawn worldwide intense research in recent years. Herein, we have first applied another p-type inorganic hole-selective contact material, CuS nanoparticles (CuS NPs), in an inverted planar heterojunction (PHJ) perovskite solar cell. The CuS NP-modification of indium tin oxide (ITO) has successfully tuned the surface work function from 4.9 to 5.1 eV but not affect the surface roughness and transmittance, which can effectively reduce the interfacial carrier injection barrier and facilitate high hole extraction efficiency between the perovskite and ITO layers. After optimization, the maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) has been over 16% with low J-V hysteresis and excellent stability. Therefore, the low-cost solution-processed and stable CuS NPs would be an alternative interfacial modification material for industrial production in perovskite solar cells.

  18. Fabrication of friction-reducing texture surface by selective laser melting of ink-printed (SLM-IP) copper (Cu) nanoparticles(NPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinjian; Liu, Junyan; Wang, Yang; Fu, Yanan

    2017-02-01

    This paper reports a process of selective laser melting of ink-printed (SLM-IP) copper (Cu) nanoparticles(NPs) for the fabrication of full dense Cu friction-reducing texture on the metallic surface in ambient condition. This technique synthesizes pure Cu by chemical reduction route using an organic solvent during laser melting in the atmosphere environment, and provides a flexible additive manufacture approach to form complex friction-reduction texture on the metallic surface. Microtextures of ring and disc arrays have been fabricated on the stainless steel surface by SLM-IP Cu NPs. The friction coefficient has been measured under the lubricating condition of the oil. Disc texture surface (DTS) has a relatively low friction coefficient compared with ring texture surface (RTS), Cu film surface (Cu-FS) and the untreated substrate. The study suggests a further research on SLM-IP approach for complex microstructure or texture manufacturing, possibly realizing its advantage of flexibility.

  19. Functionalization of Fe3O4 NPs by Silanization: Use of Amine (APTES and Thiol (MPTMS Silanes and Their Physical Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Villa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the results concerning the synthesis of magnetite (Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs, their functionalization using silane derivatives, such as (3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES and (3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS, and their exhaustive morphological and physical characterization by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM with energy dispersion X-ray spectrometer (EDX analysis, AC magnetic susceptibility, UV-VIS and IR spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric (TGA analyses are reported. Two different paths were adopted to achieve the desired functionalization: (1 the direct reaction between the functionalized organo-silane molecule and the surface of the magnetite nanoparticle; and (2 the use of an intermediate silica coating. Finally, the occurrence of both the functionalization with amino and thiol groups has been demonstrated by the reaction with ninhydrin and the capture of Au NPs, respectively.

  20. Mobile measurements of particle composition in the Rhine Valley and Zurich. Winter 2007/2008; Mobile Messungen der Partikelzusammensetzung im Rheintal und in der Stadt Zuerich. Winter 2007/2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, C.; Weimer, S.; Good, C.; Richter, R.; Prevot, A.; Baltensperger, U.

    2009-07-15

    This report issued by the General Energy Research Department and its Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) reports on the results obtained from the measurement of fine-dust quantities and composition in the cantons of eastern Switzerland and the upper Rhine valley during the winter. The PSI analysed the samples on behalf of the Swiss cantons, Vorarlberg (Austria) and the Principality of Liechtenstein. The mobile equipment used and the measurements made in the Rhine Valley between Lake Constance and Chur as well as in the City of Zurich are presented and discussed. The results of the measurements are presented in graphical form and the chemical composition of the pollutants at the different locations are discussed. Details of the instruments used and the routes taken are noted in an appendix.

  1. Estrés postraumático y abuso sexual: Estudio descriptivo en víctimas denunciantes, Bucaramanga 2007-2008 Posttraumatic stress disorder and sexual abuse: Descriptive Study in Informing victims, Bucaramanga, Colombia 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Enrique Ochoa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El trastorno de estrés postraumático es la principal perturbación psíquica en víctimas de abuso sexual. Existen asociaciones significativas entre la edad y el género de la víctima, relación con el victimario, la penetración y el trastorno; sin embargo, la evidencia sobre el efecto de la mayoría de factores de riesgo es aún controversial. Este estudio inicial describe dichas características en una población denunciante con y sin este trastorno.Metodología: Estudio descriptivo en 175 víctimas de abuso sexual que acuden a peritaje al la Regional Nororiente Instituto Nacional de Medicina Legal y Ciencias Forenses en Bucaramanga, entrevistados por psiquiatría forense durante 1 año. Se presentan medidas de tendencia central y frecuencia. Resultados: La mayoría de denunciantes eran mujeres entre los 5 y los 14 años. El 79% de los casos provenían de estrato 1 y 2. Solo la tercera parte fueron denunciados desde el primer episodio. El 88% eran menores de edad. El 95% de los abusadores eran conocidos o parientes. Aproximadamente la mitad de los abusos incluyeron acceso carnal. 2 de cada 5 víctimas presentaron Trastorno por estrés postraumático. Discusión: El abuso sexual en nuestra población es denunciado principalmente en niñas y adolescentes, generalmente es de agresor único, y en congruencia con otros estudios, suele ser crónico y con secuelas psíquicas en más de un tercio de las víctimas. El agresor generalmente es un conocido, o un familiar, y rara vez, un desconocido. Hay que tener en cuenta que lo anteriormente descrito sólo caracteriza a la población denunciante. Salud UIS 2010; 42: 25-33Introduction: Posttraumatic stress disorder is the principal psychological diagnosis in sexual abuse victims. Although its significant associations with victims age and gender, parental relationship with the aggressor and the type of sexual intercourse, the evidence regarding the effect of the majority of risk factors is still controversial. This first-step study describes these characteristics in a complainant population with and without the disorder. Methods: Descriptive study in 175 victims of sexual abuse evaluated in a local forensic institute within a one-year period. Tendency and proportional measures were assessed. Results: The majority of victims were women between 5 through 14 years. 79% of them had middle and low social status. Only the third part of abuses was reported since the first episode. 88% of victims were minors. 95% of the perpetrators were family members or acquaintances. About a half of the events included penetrative abuse. Forty percent of cases had posttraumatic stress disorder. Discussion: Sexual abuse in our population is mainly reported by child and teenage females. Usually is done by a single aggressor, rather a family friend or relative than a stranger. Consistently with other findings, the phenomenon tends to be chronic and causes psychopathology in more than a third of the victims. These findings are only applicable to analogous informing populations. Salud UIS 2010; 42: 25-33.

  2. Stop-and-go, stepwise and "ligand-free" nucleation, nanocrystal growth and formation of Au-NPs in ionic liquids (ILs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redel, Engelbert; Walter, Michael; Thomann, Ralf; Hussein, Laith; Krüger, Michael; Janiak, Christoph

    2010-02-21

    Ionic liquids function as a nanosynthetic template for a "ligand-free" stepwise formation of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) which can be stopped and resumed at different color steps and Au-NP sizes (between 2.6 and 200 nm median diameter) and which can be reasoned by the DFT-calculation stabilization order: H(2)O (no Au-NP stabilization) IL anion, e.g. BF(4)(-) approximately = PH(3) < citrate

  3. Non-enzymatic electrochemical biosensor based on Pt NPs/RGO-CS-Fc nano-hybrids for the detection of hydrogen peroxide in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhihao; Li, Guiyin; Liang, Jingtao; Su, Jing; Zhang, Yue; Chen, Huaizhou; Huang, Yong; Sui, Weiguo; Zhao, Yongxiang

    2016-08-15

    A highly sensitive non-enzymatic electrochemical sensor based on platinum nanoparticles/reduced graphene oxide-chitosan-ferrocene carboxylic acid nano-hybrids (Pt NPs/RGO-CS-Fc biosensor) was developed for the measurement of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The RGO-CS-Fc nano-hybrids was prepared and characterized by UV-vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectrometer and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Under optimal experimental conditions, the Pt NPs/RGO-CS-Fc biosensor showed outstanding catalytic activity toward H2O2 reduction. The current response of the biosensor presented a linear relationship with H2O2 concentration from 2.0×10(-8)M to 3.0×10(-6)M with a correlation coefficient of R(2)=0.9968 and with logarithm of H2O2 concentration from 6.0×10(-6)M to 1.0×10(-2)M with a correlation coefficient of R(2)=0.9887, the low detection limit of 20nM was obtained at the signal/noise (S/N) ratio of 3. Moreover, the Pt NPs/RGO-CS-Fc biosensor exhibited excellent anti-interference capability and reproducibility for the detection of H2O2. The biosensor was also successfully applied for the detection of H2O2 from living cells containing normal and cancer cells. All these results prove that the Pt NPs/RGO-CS-Fc biosensor has the potential application in clinical diagnostics to evaluate oxidative stress of different living cells.

  4. Toward Quantifying the Impact of Atmospheric Forcing on Arctic Sea Ice Variability Using the NPS 1/12 Degree Pan-Arctic Coupled Ice-Ocean Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Mode NAME Naval Postgraduate School Modeling Effort NAO North Atlantic Oscillation NAVFOR Navy Forces NPS Naval Postgraduate School NSPD...Iceland, as well as non-Arctic nations, China , Japan, South Korea and the European Union are equally ready to preserve their rights to the resources in the...determining speed and direction of the wind and ice. (Note the North Atlantic Oscillation ( NAO ) is similar to that of the AO, or the Northern Annular

  5. Fabrication of highly sensitive and selective nanocomposite film based on CuNPs/fullerene-C60/MWCNTs: An electrochemical nanosensor for trace recognition of paracetamol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahman, Pradeep Kumar; Suresh, Lakkavarapu; Lokesh, Veeramacheneni; Nizamuddin, Syed

    2016-04-21

    Designing an electrochemical sensor for versatile clinical applications is a sophisticated task and how dedicatedly functionalized composite materials can perform on this stage is a challenge for today and tomorrow's Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. In the present work, we demonstrate a new strategy for the development of novel electrochemical sensor based on catalytic nanocomposite film. Fullerene-C60 and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were dropped on the pre-treated carbon paste electrode (CPE) and copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) electrochemically deposited on the modified CPE to form nanocomposite film of CuNPs/C60/MWCNTs/CPE. In this work, an electrochemical method based on square wave voltammetry (SWV) employing CuNPs/C60/MWCNTs/CPE has been presented for the recognition and determination of paracetamol (PT). Developed electrochemical sensor was characterized using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and chronocoulometry. The composite film made the fabricated sensor to display high sensitivity and good selectivity for PT detection. The influence of the optimization parameters such as pH, accumulation time, deposition potential, scan rate and effect of loading of composite mixture of C60-MWCNTs and CuNPs on the electrochemical performance of the sensor were evaluated. A linear range from 4.0 × 10(-9) to 4.0 × 10(-7) M for PT detection was obtained with a detection limit of 7.3 × 10(-11) M. The fabricated sensor was successfully applied to the detection of PT in biological samples with good recovery ranging from 99.21 to 103%.

  6. A novel electrochemical sensing strategy for rapid and ultrasensitive detection of Salmonella by rolling circle amplification and DNA–AuNPs probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Dan; Yan, Yurong; Lei, Pinhua; Shen, Bo [Key Laboratory of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics (Ministry of Education), College of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Cheng, Wei [Key Laboratory of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics (Ministry of Education), College of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); The Center for Clinical Molecular Medical detection, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Ju, Huangxian [Key Laboratory of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics (Ministry of Education), College of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ding, Shijia, E-mail: dingshijia@163.com [Key Laboratory of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics (Ministry of Education), College of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China)

    2014-10-10

    A novel electrochemical sensing strategy was developed for ultrasensitive and rapid detection of Salmonella by combining the rolling circle amplification with DNA–AuNPs probe. - Highlights: • This paper presented a novel sensing strategy for the rapid and ultrasensitive detection for Salmonella. • Combination of rolling circle amplification and DNA–AuNPs probe is the first time for Salmonella electrochemical detection. • The method displayed excellent sensitivity and specificity for detection of Salmonella. • The fabricated biosensor was successfully applied to detect Salmonella in milk samples. - Abstract: A novel electrochemical sensing strategy was developed for ultrasensitive and rapid detection of Salmonella by combining the rolling circle amplification with DNA–AuNPs probe. The target DNA could be specifically captured by probe 1 on the sensing interface. Then the circularization mixture was added to form a typical sandwich structure. In the presence of dNTPs and phi29 DNA polymerase, the RCA was initiated to produce micrometer-long single-strand DNA. Finally, the detection probe (DNA–AuNPs) could recognize RCA product to produce enzymatic electrochemical signal. Under optimal conditions, the calibration curve of synthetic target DNA had good linearity from 10 aM to 10 pM with a detection limit of 6.76 aM (S/N = 3). The developed method had been successfully applied to detect Salmonella as low as 6 CFU mL{sup −1} in real milk sample. This proposed strategy showed great potential for clinical diagnosis, food safety and environmental monitoring.

  7. Seroepidemiological survey for Coxiella burnetii antibodies and associated risk factors in Dutch livestock veterinarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Brom, René; Schimmer, Barbara; Schneeberger, Peter M; Swart, Wim A; van der Hoek, Wim; Vellema, Piet

    2013-01-01

    Since 2007, Q fever has become a major public health problem in the Netherlands and goats were the most likely source of the human outbreaks in 2007, 2008 and 2009. Little was known about the consequences of these outbreaks for those professional care providers directly involved. The aim of this survey was to estimate the seroprevalence of antibodies against C. burnetii among Dutch livestock veterinarians and to determine possible risk factors. Single blood samples from 189 veterinarians, including veterinary students in their final year, were collected at a veterinary conference and a questionnaire was filled in by each participant. The blood samples were screened for IgG antibodies against phase I and phase II antigen of C. burnetii using an indirect immunofluorescent assay, and for IgM antibodies using an ELISA. Antibodies against C. burnetii were detected in 123 (65.1%) out of 189 veterinarians. Independent risk factors associated with seropositivity were number of hours with animal contact per week, number of years graduated as veterinarian, rural or sub urban living area, being a practicing veterinarian, and occupational contact with swine. Livestock veterinarians should be aware of this risk to acquire an infection with C. burnetii. Physicians should consider potential infection with C. burnetii when treating occupational risk groups, bearing in mind that the burden of disease among veterinarians remains uncertain. Vaccination of occupational risk groups should be debated.

  8. Probing of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cell using in situ aggregates of Au-NPs as SERS label created by plasmon exciting hybrid- TEM*11 laser mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R.; Mehta, D. S.; Saraswati, S.; Shakher, C.

    2012-02-01

    Apart from commonly employed target-specific labeling/adsorption of antibodies over Au-NPs surface for the creation of localized aggregates, an alternative approach using optical tweezers (OT) driven by hybrid-TEM*11 mode has been devised and exploited for in vitro detection of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells (EAC) relying on enhanced scattering. Intra-cavity generated spatially featured asymmetric (SFA) laser beam (λ = 532 nm) has effected simultaneous trapping of mice-EAC cells and in-situ crowd/assembly of incubated Au-NPs/small gold nano-aggregates (created from two or more individual Au-NPs). Relatively larger focus spot created by tightly focused SFA beam than frequently employed Gaussian-mode in OT has offered an extended working area and hence dilute heating has taken care of EAC cells. GNA improves significantly the sensitivity of diagnostics relying on scattered light and the safety and efficacy of therapeutic nanotechnologies for the diseases of cancer and vascular system in medicine.

  9. Antioxidant and antigenotoxic properties of CeO2 NPs and cerium sulphate: Studies with Drosophila melanogaster as a promising in vivo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaraby, Mohamed; Hernández, Alba; Annangi, Balasubramanyam; Demir, Esref; Bach, Jordi; Rubio, Laura; Creus, Amadeu; Marcos, Ricard

    2015-01-01

    Although in vitro approaches are the most used for testing the potential harmful effects of nanomaterials, in vivo studies produce relevant information complementing in vitro data. In this context, we promote the use of Drosophila melanogaster as a suitable in vivo model to characterise the potential risks associated to nanomaterials exposure. The main aim of this study was to evaluate different biological effects associated to cerium oxide nanoparticles (Ce-NPs) and cerium (IV) sulphate exposure. The end-points evaluated were egg-to-adult viability, particles uptake through the intestinal barrier, gene expression and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by haemocytes, genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity. Transmission electron microscopy images showed internalisation of Ce-NPs by the intestinal barrier and haemocytes, and significant expression of Hsp genes was detected. In spite of these findings, neither toxicity nor genotoxicity related to both forms of cerium were observed. Interestingly, Ce-NPs significantly reduced the genotoxic effect of potassium dichromate and the intracellular ROS production. No morphological malformations were detected after larvae treatment. This study highlights the importance of D. melanogaster as animal model in the study of the different biological effects caused by nanoparticulated materials, at the time that shows its usefulness to study the role of the intestinal barrier in the transposition of nanomaterials entering via ingestion.

  10. Dairy Streptococcus thermophilus improves cell viability of Lactobacillus brevis NPS-QW-145 and its γ-aminobutyric acid biosynthesis ability in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinglong; Law, Yee-Song; Shah, Nagendra P

    2015-08-06

    Most high γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) producers are Lactobacillus brevis of plant origin, which may be not able to ferment milk well due to its poor proteolytic nature as evidenced by the absence of genes encoding extracellular proteinases in its genome. In the present study, two glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) genes, gadA and gadB, were found in high GABA-producing L. brevis NPS-QW-145. Co-culturing of this organism with conventional dairy starters was carried out to manufacture GABA-rich fermented milk. It was observed that all the selected strains of Streptococcus thermophilus, but not Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, improved the viability of L. brevis NPS-QW-145 in milk. Only certain strains of S. thermophilus improved the gadA mRNA level in L. brevis NPS-QW-145, thus enhanced GABA biosynthesis by the latter. These results suggest that certain S. thermophilus strains are highly recommended to co-culture with high GABA producer for manufacturing GABA-rich fermented milk.

  11. Various types of semiconductor photocatalysts modified by CdTe QDs and Pt NPs for toluene photooxidation in the gas phase under visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchelek, M.; Grabowska, E.; Klimczuk, T.; Lisowski, W.; Zaleska-Medynska, A.

    2017-01-01

    A novel synthesis process was used to prepare TiO2 microspheres, TiO2 P-25, SrTiO3 and KTaO3 decorated by CdTe QDs and/or Pt NPs. The effect of semiconductor matrix, presence of CdTe QDs and/or Pt NPs on the semiconductor surface as well as deposition technique of Pt NPs (photodeposition or radiolysis) on the photocatalytic activity were investigated. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence spectrometry (PL), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectra, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and BET surface area analysis. The photocatalytic decomposition of toluene in gas phase, activated by light-emitting diodes (LEDs), with the CdTe/Pt nanoparticles-modified TiO2 microspheres, P25, SrTiO3 and KTaO3 semiconductors was investigated under UV-vis and visible irradiation.The results showed that the photoactivity depends on semiconductor matrix. The highest photoactivity under Vis light was observed for KTaO3/CdTe-Pt(R) sample (56% of toluene was decompose after 30 min of irradiation). The efficiency of the most active sample was 3 times higher than result for P25 and two times higher than for unmodified KTaO3.

  12. Apoferritin-templated biosynthesis of manganese nanoparticles and investigation of direct electron transfer of MnNPs-HsAFr at modified glassy carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafipour, Ronak; Kashanian, Soheila; Hashemi, Sadegh; Omidfar, Kobra; Ezzati Nazhad Dolatabadi, Jafar

    2017-01-01

    Manganese nanoparticles (MnNPs) were created within horse spleen apoferritin (HsAFr) cavity nanotemplates. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the particle size to be 6 nm. Intrinsic fluorescence data showed that the mineralization acted as a quencher of the HsAFr fluorescence, and extrinsic fluorescence data revealed that the hydrophobic binding site at the surface of HsAFr was not changed. Finally, the MnNP-HsAFr was immobilized onto multiwalled carbon nanotubes entrapped into chitosan (CS) matrices by through sequential 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide-N-hydroxysuccinimide and glutaraldehyde coupling. The MnNPs-HsAFr immobilized on CNT-CS/GC electrode was characterized by cyclic voltammetry. This charge transfer coefficient (α) and the exchange current (i0 ) of MnNPs-HsAFr immobilized on modified electrode in 0.1 M phosphate solution (pH 7.5) were found to be 0.57 and 0.48 μA, respectively. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Understanding the risks associated with the use of new psychoactive substances (NPS): high variability of active ingredients concentration, mislabelled preparations, multiple psychoactive substances in single products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamengo, Luca; Frison, Giampietro; Bettin, Chiara; Sciarrone, Rocco

    2014-08-17

    New psychoactive substances (NPS), are now a large group of substances of abuse not yet completely controlled by international drug conventions, which may pose a public health threat. Anxiety, paranoia, hallucinations, seizures, hyperthermia and cardiotoxicity are some of the common adverse effects associated with these compounds. In this paper, three case reports taken from the archive of processed cases of the authors' laboratory are presented and discussed to stress the risks of possible adverse consequences for NPS users: in particular, (i) the risk deriving from the difficulty of predicting the actual consumed dose, due to variability of active ingredients concentration in consumed products, (ii) the risk deriving from the difficulty of predicting the actual active ingredients present in consumed products, as opposed to those claimed by the manufacturer, and (iii) the risk deriving from the difficulty of predicting the actual pharmacological and toxicological effects related to the simultaneous consumption of different psychoactive ingredients contained in single products, whose interactions are mostly unknown. Each of them individually provide a source of concern for possible serious health related consequences. However, they should be considered in conjunction with each others, with the worldwide availability of NPS through the web and also with the incessantly growing business derived from the manipulation and synthesis of new substances. The resulting scenario is that of a cultural challenge which demands a global approach from different fields of knowledge.

  14. Cr(OH)3-NPs-CNC hybrid nanocomposite: a sorbent for adsorptive removal of methylene blue and malachite green from solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekouei, Farzin; Nekouei, Shahram; Keshtpour, Farzaneh; Noorizadeh, Hossein; Wang, Shaobin

    2017-09-20

    In this article, Cr(OH)3 nanoparticle-modified cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) as a novel hybrid nanocomposite (Cr(OH)3-NPs-CNC) was prepared by a simple procedure and used as a sorbent for adsorptive removal of methylene blue (MB) and malachite green (MG) from aqueous solution. Different kinetic models were tested, and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model was found more suitable for the MB and MG adsorption processes. The BET and Langmuir models were more suitable for the adsorption processes of MB and MG. Thermodynamic studies suggested that the adsorption of MB and MG onto Cr(OH)3-NPs-CNC nanocomposite was a spontaneous and endothermic process. The maximum adsorption capacities for MB and MG were reached 106 and 104 mg/g, respectively, which were almost two times higher than unmodified CNC. The chemical stability and leaching tests of the Cr(OH)3-NPs-CNC hybrid nanocomposite showed that only small amounts of chromium were leached into the solution.

  15. Ultrasensitive electrochemical aptasensor for the detection of thrombin based on dual signal amplification strategy of Au@GS and DNA-CoPd NPs conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaoguang; Zhang, Yong; Yan, Tao; Fan, Dawei; Du, Bin; Ma, Hongmin; Wei, Qin

    2016-06-15

    In this work, an ultrasensitive electrochemical aptasensor for the detection of thrombin was developed based on Au nanoparticles decorated graphene sheet (Au@GS) and CoPd binary nanoparticles (CoPd NPs). A sulfydryl-labeled thrombin capture probe (Apt1) and a biotin-labeled thrombin reporter probe (Apt2) were designed to achieve a sandwich-type strategy. Au@GS was used as a sensing platform for the facile immobilization of Apt1 through Au-S bond, forming a sensing interface for thrombin. The specific recognition of thrombin induced the attachment of Apt2-CoPd NPs to the electrode. The labeled CoPd NPs showed good catalytic properties toward the reduction of H2O2, resulting in an amperometric signal. The amperometric response was correlated to the thrombin concentration in sample solutions. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) confirmed the successful fabrication of the aptasensor. A linear response to thrombin in the range of 0.01-2.00 ng mL(-1) with a low detection limit (5 pg mL(-1)) was achieved. The proposed aptasensor showed good selectivity, good reproducibility and acceptable stability. This proposed strategy may find many potential applications in the detection of other biomolecules.

  16. Prevalence and Management of Dyslipidemia in Korea: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 1998 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Roh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDyslipidemia is a major risk factor of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the changing trends in the prevalence and management status of dyslipidemia among Korean adults.MethodsThe prevalence of dyslipidemia and the rates of awareness, treatment, and control of dyslipidemia were investigated in adults aged ≥20 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Surveys (KNHANES 1998 to 2010. The updated National Cholesterol Education Program criteria was used, which define dyslipidemia as having one or more of the following lipid abnormalities: hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol ≥240 mg/dL or diagnosis of dyslipidemia or use of lipid-lowering drugs, hypertriglyceridemia (≥150 mg/dL, hyper-low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterolemia (≥160 mg/dL or diagnosis of dyslipidemia or use of lipid-lowering drugs, and hypo-high density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterolemia (<40 mg/dL in men and <50 mg/dL in women.ResultsThe number of participants was 6,921, 4,894, 5,312, 2,733, 6,295, 6,900, and 5,738 in KNHANES 1998, 2001, 2005, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010, respectively. Age-standardized prevalence rates of dyslipidemia were 54.0%, 65.8%, 66.5%, 60.6%, 58.7%, 58.9%, and 59.0% in 1998, 2001, 2005, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010, respectively. Hypertriglyceridemia and hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia were the two most frequent lipid abnormalities. The overall prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and hyper-LDL-cholesterolemia increased by 1.36- and 1.35-fold in 2010 compared with 2007, respectively. Awareness, treatment, and control rates of dyslipidemia improved over the period of surveys in both sexes. In 2010, about 30% of dyslipidemic patients who received lipid-lowering treatment reached target levels.ConclusionAlthough the management status of dyslipidemia has improved during recent years, effective strategy is required for achieving better prevention, treatment, and control of dyslipidemia.

  17. Emergence of oseltamivir resistant influenza A (H1N1) viruses in the Netherlands during the winter 2007/2008.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A.; Dijkstra, F.; Donker, G.; Beek, R. van; Jonges, M.; Sande, M. van der; Boucher, C.; Koopmans, M.; Osterhaus, A.; Rimmelzwaan, G.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Continuous monitoring of influenza antiviral susceptibility has become more important since the introduction of the neuraminidase inhibitors (NAI) in 1999, in addition to the existing adamantane M2 channel inhibitors (M2I). Since the 2005/2006 winter season the Dutch National Influenza C

  18. Influenza A(H1N1) oseltamivir resistant viruses in the Netherlands during the winter 2007/2008.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, F.; Jonges, M.; Beek, R. van; Donker, G.A.; Schellevis, F.G.; Koopmans, M.; Sande, M.A.B. van der; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E.; Boucher, C.A.B.; Rimmelzwaan, G.F.; Meijer, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Antiviral susceptibility surveillance in the Netherlands was intensified after the first reports about the emergence of influenza A(H1N1) oseltamivir resistant viruses in Norway in January, 2008. Methods: Within the existing influenza surveillance an additional questionnaire study was pe

  19. Neurologic illness associated with occupational exposure to the solvent 1-bromopropane--New Jersey and Pennsylvania, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-05

    1-Bromopropane (1-BP) (n-propyl bromide) is a solvent increasingly used as a substitute for ozone-depleting chloro-fluorocarbons and similar regulated compounds. 1-BP is used in vapor and immersion degreasing operations and other manufacturing processes, and as a solvent in industries using aerosol-applied adhesives. In some states, 1-BP is used as a solvent in dry cleaning because of restrictions on use of perchloroethylene (tetrachloroethylene), a possible human carcinogen. Published studies of workers exposed to 1-BP have raised concerns about occupational health risks associated with exposure. This report describes two cases involving workers exposed to 1-BP and diagnosed with clinical manifestations of neurotoxicity. The cases, when coupled with previously reported studies of workers exposed to 1-BP, illustrate potential health risks of 1-BP exposure. Clinicians and public health professionals should be alert to potential health effects among workers exposed to 1-BP, particularly in dry cleaning and other workplaces where 1-BP use might be increasing, and effective control methods to limit exposure to 1-BP should be implemented at worksites.

  20. U.S. Department of Energy & Nuclear Regulatory Commission Advanced Fuel Cycle Research & Development Seminar Series FY 2007 & 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandy, Christopher [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2008-08-01

    In fiscal year 2007, the Advanced Burner Reactor project initiated an educational seminar series for the Department of Energy (DOE) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel on various aspects of fast reactor fuel cycle closure technologies. This important work was initiated to inform DOE and NRC personnel on initial details of sodium-cooled fast reactor, separations, waste form, and safeguard technologies being considered for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Research and Development program, and to learn the important lesson from the licensing process for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant that educating the NRC staff early in the regulatory process is very important and critical to a project success.