WorldWideScience

Sample records for survey nps 2007-2008

  1. The Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008 (DANHES 2007-2008)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Louise; Grønbæk, Morten; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2011-01-01

    AIMS: The Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES 2007-2008) was carried out by the National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, in 13 Danish municipalities in 2007-2008. The focus of the survey was diet, smoking, alcohol, and physical activity. The aim of the survey......, and living conditions, and a supplementary food frequency questionnaire. The health examination contained measurements of blood pressure, resting heart rate, height, weight, fat percentage, waist and hip circumference, blood and hair samples, spirometry, bone mineral density, physical performance, muscle...

  2. Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus 2 among Hispanics in the USA: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, M; Romaguera, R A; Valentine, J; Tao, G

    2011-07-01

    To examine the seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) among Hispanics in the USA, we used the cross-sectional, nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to compare the seroprevalence of HSV-2 between Hispanic persons of Mexican heritage and non-Mexican heritage aged 14-44 years, from survey years 2007-2008. The overall HSV-2 seroprevalence among Hispanics aged 14-44 years was 17.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.2, 20.1) in the USA. HSV-2 seroprevalence was significantly lower among Mexican Americans than among other Hispanics (11.7% vs. 27.8%, P heritage and non-Mexican heritage suggested that targeting specific subgroups of Hispanics for preventive interventions may be a strategy to reduce the transmission of HSV-2 and HIV among Hispanics in the USA.

  3. Design and operation of the national home health aide survey: 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovitz, Anita; Moss, Abigail J; Sengupta, Manisha; Harris-Kojetin, Lauren D; Squillace, Marie R; Emily, Rosenoff; Branden, Laura

    2010-03-01

    This report provides an overview of the National Home Health Aide Survey (NHHAS), the first national probability survey of home health aides. NHHAS was designed to provide national estimates of home health aides who provided assistance in activities of daily living (ADLs) and were directly employed by agencies that provide home health and/or hospice care. This report discusses the need for and objectives of the survey, the design process, the survey methods, and data availability. METHODS NHHAS, a multistage probability sample survey, was conducted as a supplement to the 2007 National Home and Hospice Care Survey (NHHCS). Agencies providing home health and/or hospice care were sampled, and then aides employed by these agencies were sampled and interviewed by telephone. Survey topics included recruitment, training, job history, family life, client relations, work-related injuries, and demographics. NHHAS was virtually identical to the 2004 National Nursing Assistant Survey of certified nursing assistants employed in sampled nursing homes with minor changes to account for differences in workplace environment and responsibilities. RESULTS From September 2007 to April 2008, interviews were completed with 3,416 aides. A public-use data file that contains the interview responses, sampling weights, and design variables is available. The NHHAS overall response rate weighted by the inverse of the probability of selection was 41 percent. This rate is the product of the weighted first-stage agency response rate of 57 percent (i.e., weighted response rate of 59 percent for agency participation in NHHCS times the weighted response rate of 97 percent for agencies participating in NHHCS that also participated in NHHAS) and the weighted second-stage aide response rate of 72 percent to NHHAS.

  4. Teaching nursing's history: a national survey of Australian Schools of Nursing, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Margaret; Madsen, Wendy; Godden, Judith; Greenhill, Jennene; Reed, Rachel

    2010-05-01

    This paper reports on a survey of Australian Schools of Nursing that took place over an 8months period between 2007 and 2008. This study was implemented to extend understanding of effective teaching of nursing history, an area not previously researched in Australia. A critical interpretive method enabled us to problematise the issue, to highlight what was said about the importance of history teaching as well as ad hoc practices and barriers. The study found that participants value history of nursing teaching, but the crowded curriculum is erasing history's place and potential. It revealed ideological tensions shaping and constraining history of nursing teaching. In Australia, the way nursing's history is taught varies and teaching content, strategies and resources utilised are not evenly available. Pedagogical innovations are not effectively disseminated. Our recommendations for Australian Schools of Nursing that have more general applicability are: (1) Nursing curriculum needs to be developed from a set of principles and standards that define the attributes of the professional nurse, not in response to interest groups and (2) History of nursing pedagogy should be systematically developed and disseminated through a national virtual centre, linked to international centres, to enhance teachers' understanding of the discipline area and to support their teaching practice. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Teatriankeet 2007/2008

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Teatrihooaega 2007/2008 hindavad teatrikriitikud, -loolased, -uurijad. Nimetatud ka parimad lavastused 2007/2008 - A. H. Tammsaare / Urmas Lennuk "Wargamäe Wabariik" (Tallinna Linnateater, lav. Elmo Nüganen), Tiit Ojasoo ja Ene-Liis Semper "Ruja" (Vanemuine, lav. Tiit Ojasoo), Veljo Tormis "Eesti meeste laulud" (Von Krahli Teater ja Nargen Opera, lav. Peeter Jalaks, muusikaline juht Tõnu Kaljuste), Anton Tshehhov "Kajakas" (Endla, lav. Andres Noormets)

  6. Trends in US home food preparation and consumption: analysis of national nutrition surveys and time use studies from 1965-1966 to 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lindsey P; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M

    2013-04-11

    It has been well-documented that Americans have shifted towards eating out more and cooking at home less. However, little is known about whether these trends have continued into the 21st century, and whether these trends are consistent amongst low-income individuals, who are increasingly the target of public health programs that promote home cooking. The objective of this study is to examine how patterns of home cooking and home food consumption have changed from 1965 to 2008 by socio-demographic groups. This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from 6 nationally representative US dietary surveys and 6 US time-use studies conducted between 1965 and 2008. Subjects are adults aged 19 to 60 years (n= 38,565 for dietary surveys and n=55,424 for time-use surveys). Weighted means of daily energy intake by food source, proportion who cooked, and time spent cooking were analyzed for trends from 1965-1966 to 2007-2008 by gender and income. T-tests were conducted to determine statistical differences over time. The percentage of daily energy consumed from home food sources and time spent in food preparation decreased significantly for all socioeconomic groups between 1965-1966 and 2007-2008 (p ≤ 0.001), with the largest declines occurring between 1965 and 1992. In 2007-2008, foods from the home supply accounted for 65 to 72% of total daily energy, with 54 to 57% reporting cooking activities. The low income group showed the greatest decline in the proportion cooking, but consumed more daily energy from home sources and spent more time cooking than high income individuals in 2007-2008 (p ≤ 0.001). US adults have decreased consumption of foods from the home supply and reduced time spent cooking since 1965, but this trend appears to have leveled off, with no substantial decrease occurring after the mid-1990's. Across socioeconomic groups, people consume the majority of daily energy from the home food supply, yet only slightly more than half spend any time cooking on a given

  7. Prevalence and Characteristics Associated with Breastfeeding Initiation Among Canadian Inuit from the 2007-2008 Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIsaac, Kathryn E; Sellen, Daniel W; Lou, Wendy; Young, Kue

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to determine the prevalence of, and factors associated with, breastfeeding initiation in Canadian Inuit. We used data from the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey, a population-based, cross-sectional survey conducted in the Canadian territory of Nunavut. Inuit children aged 3-5 years in 2007 or 2008 were randomly selected for the survey. Select household, maternal, infant and community characteristics were collected from the child's primary caregiver and entered into logistic regression models as potential predictors of breastfeeding initiation. Analyses were repeated in a subgroup of caregiver reports from biological mothers. The reported prevalence of breastfeeding initiation was 67.6% (95% CI 62.4-72.8) overall and 85.1% (95% CI 80.2-90.1) in a subgroup of caregiver reports from biological mothers. Adjusted prevalence odds ratios (pOR) indicate the primary caregiver was an important determinant of breastfeeding (adopted parent vs. biological mother: pOR = 0.03, 95% CI 0.01-0.07; other vs. biological mother: pOR = 0.33, 95% CI 0.14-0.74). Maternal smoking during pregnancy and having access to a community birthing facility were also potentially important, but not statistically significant (p > 0.05). In conclusion, data from the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey indicate breastfeeding is initiated for more than two-thirds of children, but rates are below the national average and this may be one of several pathways to poor health outcomes documented in many Inuit communities. Considered in the particular context of birthing facilities utilization and postnatal care arrangements in Inuit communities, these results suggest that increasing breastfeeding initiation will require health interventions that effectively engage all types of primary caregivers.

  8. The implementation of crisis resolution home treatment teams in wales: results of the national survey 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard; Jordan, Sue

    2010-02-18

    In mental health nursing, Crisis Resolution and Home Treatment (CRHT) services are key components of the shift from in-patient to community care. CRHT has been developed mainly in urban settings, and deployment in more rural areas has not been examined. We aimed to evaluate CRHT services' progress towards policy targets. All 18 CRHT teams in Wales were surveyed. A service profile questionnaire was distributed to team leaders. Fourteen of 18 teams responded in full. All but one were led by nurses, who formed the main professional group. All teams reported providing an alternative to hospital admission and assisting early discharge. With one exception, teams were 'gatekeeping' hospital beds. There was some divergence in clients seen, perceived impact of the service, operational hours, distances travelled, team structure, input of consultant psychiatrists and caseloads. We found some differences between the 8 urban teams and the 6 teams serving rural or mixed areas: rural teams travelled more, had fewer inpatient beds, and less medical input (0.067 compared to 0.688 whole time equivalents).. Most respondents felt that resource constraints were limiting further developments. Teams met standards for CHRT services in Wales; however, these are less onerous than those in England, particularly in relation to operational hours and staffing complement. As services develop, it will be important to ensure that rural and mixed areas receive the same level of input as urban areas.

  9. Total sitting time, leisure time physical activity and risk of hospitalization due to low back pain: The Danish Health Examination Survey cohort 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balling, Mie; Holmberg, Teresa; Petersen, Christina B; Aadahl, Mette; Meyrowitsch, Dan W; Tolstrup, Janne S

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to test the hypotheses that a high total sitting time and vigorous physical activity in leisure time increase the risk of low back pain and herniated lumbar disc disease. A total of 76,438 adults answered questions regarding their total sitting time and physical activity during leisure time in the Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008. Information on low back pain diagnoses up to 10 September 2015 was obtained from The National Patient Register. The mean follow-up time was 7.4 years. Data were analysed using Cox regression analysis with adjustment for potential confounders. Multiple imputations were performed for missing values. During the follow-up period, 1796 individuals were diagnosed with low back pain, of whom 479 were diagnosed with herniated lumbar disc disease. Total sitting time was not associated with low back pain or herniated lumbar disc disease. However, moderate or vigorous physical activity, as compared to light physical activity, was associated with increased risk of low back pain (HR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.03-1.30 and HR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.15-1.83). Moderate, but not vigorous physical activity was associated with increased risk of herniated lumbar disc disease. The results suggest that total sitting time is not associated with low back pain, but moderate and vigorous physical activity is associated with increased risk of low back pain compared with light physical activity.

  10. Recruiting Trends, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collegiate Employment Research Institute (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the recruiting trends for 2007-2008. This year's report is based on 994 respondents, including 84 K-12 school districts. The researchers focused attention on growing companies, based on lists from Forbes and Inc. magazines, and as a result, they have more small and medium-size employers represented this year. The sample…

  11. Prevalence and patterns of cooking dinner at home in the USA: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virudachalam, Senbagam; Long, Judith A; Harhay, Michael O; Polsky, Daniel E; Feudtner, Chris

    2014-05-01

    To measure the prevalence of cooking dinner at home in the USA and test whether home dinner preparation habits are associated with socio-economic status, race/ethnicity, country of birth and family structure. Cross-sectional analysis. The primary outcome, self-reported frequency of cooking dinner at home, was divided into three categories: 0-1 dinners cooked per week ('never'), 2-5 ('sometimes') and 6-7 ('always'). We used bivariable and multivariable regression analyses to test for associations between frequency of cooking dinner at home and factors of interest. The 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The sample consisted of 10 149 participants. Americans reported cooking an average of five dinners per week; 8 % never, 43 % sometimes and 49 % always cooked dinner at home. Lower household wealth and educational attainment were associated with a higher likelihood of either always or never cooking dinner at home, whereas wealthier, more educated households were more likely to sometimes cook dinner at home (P cooked the fewest dinners at home (mean = 4·4, 95 % CI 4·2, 4·6). Households with foreign-born reference persons cooked more dinners at home (mean = 5·8, 95 % CI 5·7, 6·0) than households with US-born reference persons (mean = 4·9, 95 % CI 4·7, 5·1). Households with dependants cooked more dinners at home (mean = 5·2, 95 % CI 5·1, 5·4) than households without dependants (mean = 4·6, 95 % CI 4·3, 5·0). Home dinner preparation habits varied substantially with socio-economic status and race/ethnicity, associations that likely will have implications for designing and appropriately tailoring interventions to improve home food preparation practices and promote healthy eating.

  12. People with dyslexia and heart, chest, skin, digestive, musculoskeletal, vision, learning, speech and mental disorders were more dissatisfied with neighbourhoods: Scottish Household Survey, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiue, Ivy

    2016-12-01

    Rarely do we know the perception toward neighbourhoods in people specifically with health conditions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to understand the perception toward neighbourhoods among adults with a series of the existing health conditions in a country-wide and population-based setting. Data were retrieved from and analysed in Scottish Household Survey, 2007-2008. Information on demographics, self-reported health conditions and perception toward neighbourhoods and the surrounding facilities was obtained by household interview. Analysis including chi-square test, t test and logistic regression modelling were performed. Of 19,150 Scottish adults (aged 16-80) included in the study cohort, 1079 (7.7 %) people were dissatisfied with their living areas; particularly for those who experienced harassment (15.4 %), did not recycle or with dyslexia, chest, digestive, mental and musculoskeletal problems. Twenty to forty per cent reported common neighbourhood problems including noise, rubbish, disputes, graffiti, harassment and drug misuse. People with heart or digestive problems were more dissatisfied with the existing parks and open space. People with arthritis, chest or hearing problems were more dissatisfied with the waste management condition. People with dyslexia were more dissatisfied with the existing public transportation. People with heart problems were more dissatisfied with the current street cleaning condition. People with hearing, vision, speech, learning problems or dyslexia were also more dissatisfied with sports and recreational facilities. People with heart, chest, skin, digestive, musculoskeletal, vision, learning, speech and mental disorders and dyslexia were more dissatisfied with their current neighbourhood environments. Upgrading neighbourhood planning to tackle social environment injustice and put pleasant life experience as priorty would be suggested. Graphical abstract interrelations of individual health and neighbourhood

  13. A molecular and antigenic survey of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus isolates from smallholder duck farms in Central Java, Indonesia during 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaidi Akhmad

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indonesia is one of the countries most severely affected by H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI virus in terms of poultry and human health. However, there is little information on the diversity of H5N1 viruses circulating in backyard farms, where chickens and ducks often intermingle. In this study, H5N1 virus infection occurring in 96 smallholder duck farms in central Java, Indonesia from 2007-2008 was investigated and the molecular and antigenic characteristics of H5N1 viruses isolated from these farms were analysed. Results All 84 characterised viruses belonged to H5N1 clade 2.1 with three virus sublineages being identified: clade 2.1.1 (1, clade 2.1.3 (80, and IDN/6/05-like viruses (3 that did not belong to any of the present clades. All three clades were found in ducks, while only clade 2.1.3 was isolated from chickens. There were no significant amino acid mutations of the hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA sites of the viruses, including the receptor binding, glycosylation, antigenic and catalytic sites and NA inhibitor targets. All the viruses had polybasic amino acids at the HA cleavage site. No evidence of major antigenic variants was detected. Based on the HA gene, identical virus variants could be found on different farms across the study sites and multiple genetic variants could be isolated from HPAI outbreaks simultaneously or at different time points from single farms. HPAI virus was isolated from both ducks and chickens; however, the proportion of surviving duck cases was considerably higher than in chickens. Conclusions The 2.1.3 clade was the most common lineage found in this study. All the viruses had sequence characteristic of HPAI, but negligible variations in other recognized amino acids at the HA and NA proteins which determine virus phenotypes. Multiple genetic variants appeared to be circulating simultaneously within poultry communities. The high proportion of live duck cases compared to

  14. A molecular and antigenic survey of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus isolates from smallholder duck farms in Central Java, Indonesia during 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibawa, Hendra; Henning, Joerg; Wong, Frank; Selleck, Paul; Junaidi, Akhmad; Bingham, John; Daniels, Peter; Meers, Joanne

    2011-09-07

    Indonesia is one of the countries most severely affected by H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus in terms of poultry and human health. However, there is little information on the diversity of H5N1 viruses circulating in backyard farms, where chickens and ducks often intermingle. In this study, H5N1 virus infection occurring in 96 smallholder duck farms in central Java, Indonesia from 2007-2008 was investigated and the molecular and antigenic characteristics of H5N1 viruses isolated from these farms were analysed. All 84 characterised viruses belonged to H5N1 clade 2.1 with three virus sublineages being identified: clade 2.1.1 (1), clade 2.1.3 (80), and IDN/6/05-like viruses (3) that did not belong to any of the present clades. All three clades were found in ducks, while only clade 2.1.3 was isolated from chickens. There were no significant amino acid mutations of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) sites of the viruses, including the receptor binding, glycosylation, antigenic and catalytic sites and NA inhibitor targets. All the viruses had polybasic amino acids at the HA cleavage site. No evidence of major antigenic variants was detected. Based on the HA gene, identical virus variants could be found on different farms across the study sites and multiple genetic variants could be isolated from HPAI outbreaks simultaneously or at different time points from single farms. HPAI virus was isolated from both ducks and chickens; however, the proportion of surviving duck cases was considerably higher than in chickens. The 2.1.3 clade was the most common lineage found in this study. All the viruses had sequence characteristic of HPAI, but negligible variations in other recognized amino acids at the HA and NA proteins which determine virus phenotypes. Multiple genetic variants appeared to be circulating simultaneously within poultry communities. The high proportion of live duck cases compared to chickens over the study period suggests that ducks are

  15. Biotecnologia alimentaria. Curs 2007-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Universitat de Barcelona. Facultat de Farmàcia

    2007-01-01

    Pla docent de l'assignatura Biotecnologia agroalimentaria de l'Ensenyament de Ciència i Tecnologia dels Aliments.Curs acadèmic 2007-2008. Departament de Productes Naturals, Biologia Vegetal i Edafologia.

  16. Astronomy Degree Recipients: Initial Employment. Data from the Degree Recipient Follow-Up Survey for the Classes of 2007, 2008 and 2009. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Patrick; Shindel, Brandon

    2011-01-01

    Each fall the Statistical Research Center conducts its Survey of Enrollments and Degrees, which asks all degree-granting physics and astronomy departments in the US to provide information concerning the numbers of students they have enrolled and counts of recent degree recipients. In connection with this survey, the authors ask for the names and…

  17. ARL Supplementary Statistics, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Les, Comp.; Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents statistics on how Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries spend money on electronic resources. This report indicates that 109 ARL libraries purchased 32,329,187 electronic books. In 2007-2008, there was a median of 28,319 acquisitions of electronic books by ARL libraries (this includes one institution that…

  18. Hypertriglyceridemic-waist phenotype and glucose intolerance among Canadian Inuit: the International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey for Adults 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeland, Grace M; Cao, Zhirong; Young, T Kue

    2011-06-14

    Inuit have not experienced an epidemic in type 2 diabetes mellitus, and it has been speculated that they may be protected from obesity's metabolic consequences. We conducted a population-based screening for diabetes among Inuit in the Canadian Arctic and evaluated the association of visceral adiposity with diabetes. A total of 36 communities participated in the International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey. Of the 2796 Inuit households approached, 1901 (68%) participated, with 2595 participants. Households were randomly selected, and adult residents were invited to participate. Assessments included anthropometry and fasting plasma lipids and glucose, and, because of survey logistics, only 32% of participants underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. We calculated weighted prevalence estimates of metabolic risk factors for all participants. Participants' mean age was 43.3 years; 35% were obese, 43.8% had an at-risk waist, and 25% had an elevated triglyceride level. Diabetes was identified in 12.2% of participants aged 50 years and older and in 1.9% of those younger than 50 years. A hypertriglyceridemic-waist phenotype was a strong predictor of diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 8.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.1-34.6) in analyses adjusted for age, sex, region, family history of diabetes, education and use of lipid-lowering medications. Metabolic risk factors were prevalent among Inuit. Our results suggest that Inuit are not protected from the metabolic consequences of obesity, and that their rate of diabetes prevalence is now comparable to that observed in the general Canadian population. Assessment of waist circumference and fasting triglyceride levels could represent an efficient means for identifying Inuit at high risk for diabetes.

  19. Socioeconomic status, food security, and dental caries in US children: mediation analyses of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L; Masterson, Erin E; Carle, Adam C; Mancl, Lloyd A; Coldwell, Susan E

    2014-05-01

    We examined associations of household socioeconomic status (SES) and food security with children's oral health outcomes. We analyzed 2007 and 2008 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for children aged 5 to 17 years (n = 2206) to examine the relationship between food security and untreated dental caries and to assess whether food security mediates the SES-caries relationship. About 20.1% of children had untreated caries. Most households had full food security (62%); 13% had marginal, 17% had low, and 8% had very low food security. Higher SES was associated with significantly lower caries prevalence (prevalence ratio [PR] = 0.77; 95% confidence interval = 0.63, 0.94; P = .01). Children from households with low or very low food security had significantly higher caries prevalence (PR = 2.00 and PR = 1.70, respectively) than did children living in fully food-secure households. Caries prevalence did not differ among children from fully and marginally food-secure households (P = .17). Food insecurity did not appear to mediate the SES-caries relationship. Interventions and policies to ensure food security may help address the US pediatric caries epidemic.

  20. Navy-wide Personnel Survey (NPS) 2005: Tabulated Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whittam, Kimberly P

    2007-01-01

    .... The NPS focused on work-life topics, such as job satisfaction, leadership satisfaction, morale, career intentions, career development, advancement and promotion, detailing, TEMPO, gender integration...

  1. Hawaii Small Boat Cost-Earnings Data: 2007-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent a cost-earnings study of the Hawaii small boat fishery in 2007-2008. Data collected include fisher classification, vessel characteristics,...

  2. A comparison of prevalence estimates for selected health indicators and chronic diseases or conditions from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, the National Health Interview Survey, and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaoyang; Balluz, Lina S; Ford, Earl S; Okoro, Catherine A; Zhao, Guixiang; Pierannunzi, Carol

    2012-06-01

    To compare the prevalence estimates of selected health indicators and chronic diseases or conditions among three national health surveys in the United States. Data from adults aged 18 years or older who participated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 2007 and 2008 (n=807,524), the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) in 2007 and 2008 (n=44,262), and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) during 2007 and 2008 (n=5871) were analyzed. The prevalence estimates of current smoking, obesity, hypertension, and no health insurance were similar across the three surveys, with absolute differences ranging from 0.7% to 3.9% (relative differences: 2.3% to 20.2%). The prevalence estimate of poor or fair health from BRFSS was similar to that from NHANES, but higher than that from NHIS. The prevalence estimates of diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke were similar across the three surveys, with absolute differences ranging from 0.0% to 0.8% (relative differences: 0.2% to 17.1%). While the BRFSS continues to provide invaluable health information at state and local level, it is reassuring to observe consistency in the prevalence estimates of key health indicators of similar caliber between BRFSS and other national surveys. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Residential fuelwood assessment, state of Minnesota, 2007-2008 heating season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimi Barzen; Ronald Piva; Chun Yi Wy; Rich. Dahlman

    2009-01-01

    During the spring and summer of 2008, the cooperating partners conducted a survey to determine the volume of residential fuelwood burned during the 2007-2008 heating season. Similar surveys were conducted for the 1960, 1969-1970, 1979-1980, 1984-1985, 1988-1989, 1995-1996, and 2002-2003 heating seasons. These surveys are part of a long-term effort to monitor trends in...

  4. Navy-wide Personnel Survey (NPS) 2003: Summary of Survey Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whittam, Kimberly; Janega, Jessica; Olmsted, Murrey

    2005-01-01

    .... The NPS focuses on work-related issues such as job satisfaction, morale, leadership, advancement, promotion, career progression, and detailing and provides Navy leadership with valuable information...

  5. Navy-Wide Personnel Survey (NPS) 2000: Summary of Survey Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olmsted, Murrey

    2003-01-01

    .... Completed questionnaires were accepted through December 31, 2000. The NPS focuses on such topics as Sailor demographics, gender integration, training/education needs, leadership satisfaction, financial status, detailing, assignment, PERSTEMPO (i.e...

  6. Problems for the seminar, ICTP, 2007-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, V.

    2008-01-01

    The following problems for the ICPT seminar 2007-2008 are specified: topological classification of polynomials; equipartition of indivisible integer vectors; geometrical progressions? fractional parts? equipartitions; statistics of continued fractions of eigenvalues of matrices; growth rate of elements of periodic continued fractions; periods of geometrical progressions of residues; Kolmogorov?s distributions; stochasticity degree of arithmetical progressions of fractional parts; is a generic geometrical progression of fractional parts random?; prime numbers distribution?s randomness; algorithmic unsolvability of problems of higher dimensional continued fractions; periods of continued fractions of roots of quadratic equations; statistics of lengths of periods of continued fractions of quadratic irrational numbers; random matrices? characteristic polynomials distributions

  7. Navy-Wide Personnel Survey (NPS) 2008: Summary of Survey Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    1313–1336. Vroom , V.H. (1982). Work and Motivation . Malabar, FL: Robert E. Krieger Publishing Company. Whittam, K. P., Janega, J. B., Olmsted, M...Bray, Vincus & Bann, 2004; Vroom , 1982). As it is such an important work life variable, it has been tracked on the NPS since its inception...conveyed to over 300,000 Sailors. Effective communication is known to have positive effects upon organizational members by motivating them to work

  8. Pautas de homogamia socio-ocupacional (de clase en Argentina: 2007-2008 Patterns of occupational homogamy in Argentina: 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Rodríguez

    2012-06-01

    contributes to reproduce social inequality, given than it favors the differential transmission of economic, social and cultural resources from one generation to another. The aim of this paper is to analyze patterns of occupational homogamy / heterogamy in legal and consensual couples living in Argentina in 2007-2008. A quantitative methodological strategy it is used, employing descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. Data is taken from a survey on Stratification and social mobility, applied to a probability sample on a national level (2007-2008 by Centro de Estudios de Opinión Pública - Universidad de Buenos Aires. The main findings suggest that the selection between spouses is not at random and that their own social class is a relevant factor in couple formation. Occupational homogamy, in terms of social class, increases between younger couples.

  9. Archaeological excavations at Gamzigrad - Romuliana in 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petković Sofija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Systematical archaeological excavations at the site Gamzigrad - Felix Romuliana continued in 2007-2008 in the south-eastern part of the fortified imperial palace, in the section of the thermae according to the plan of archaeological research for this site (2005-2009. In 2007, squares L'XXIV, M'XXIV, M'XXIH and M'XXII, which were investigated in 2005 to the horizon c, dated to the end of the 5th and the beginning of the 6th centuries, were completely excavated to the level of the porch of the earlier fortification of Romuliana (Plan 1. The stratigraphy of the cultural layers in these squares is as follows (Fig. 1: Below horizon c there is a layer of construction rubble mixed with brownish-yellow, clay like, sandy soil, 50-75 cm thick, comprising the finds dated in the last quarter of the 4th-5th centuries, layer D; The level of layer D is horizon d, where a structure destroyed in a conflagration, house 1/07, was discovered in squares M'XXII and M'XXIII. It could be dated, on the basis of the preserved household (pottery, metal and antler items, coins, etc., from the last quarter of the 4th to the middle of the 5th century; Horizon d 1 is a mortar floor discovered beneath horizon d, which presents the earlier phase of house 1/07; Horizon d 2 is the earliest mortar floor inside the house 1/07, covered with a later mortar floor (horizon d 1 and a levelling layer of yellow sand and gravel, which comprises the finds dating also to the last quarter of the 4th to the middle of the 5th centuries; Layer E, 15-40 cm thick, is below horizon d, comprising dark brown soil with rubble and lenses of soot at the bottom, together with finds dated to the second half of the 4th century; Horizon e is covered with layer E, and spread across all the squares which were investigated to the south and to the east of Galerius' bath, where 8 large postholes, which outlined a space 7 x 3 m large and probably some kind of porch, were found along with two furnaces and two pits

  10. EDZ programme, EDZ studies in ONKALO 2007- 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellanen, S. (ed.) (Genpro Solutions Oy, Helsinki (Finland)); Hellae, P. (Poeyry Environment Oy, Vantaa (Finland)); Loefman, J. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)) (and others)

    2008-03-15

    Penetrating Radar (GPR), measuring of blasting vibration, micro seismic data analysis connected with a drilling campaign were applied and a pilot test of modified Water Loss Measurement was conducted. Studies concerning characterization of EDZ-properties using rock sampling by core drilling and extraction of block samples by sawing for 14C-PMMA and ultrasound tests were done. Studies on sub-horizontal fractures below tunnel floor indicated that to achieve more relevant data with higher resolution on the thickness of EDZ, different measuring configuration has to be applied. The three drilling campaigns and block samples proved effective and useful although some issues were identified for further development. Small scale Water Loss Measurements were conducted as a pilot test to assess feasibility of testing equipment and procedures. Additional measurements are needed to characterise hydraulic conductivity with better confidence. Various GPR measurement configurations were tested to prove, whether GPR is a potential tool for quick, non-destructive surveys. However, more investigations are needed to verify that the interpreted zone around the tunnel is EDZ. Vibration measurements done included uncertainties and the calculated cracking distances the result representing cracking zone in the wall can only be regarded as a rough estimate of EDZ. The studies of 14C-PMMA and ultrasonic studies are still in progress and will be reported in conjunction of consequent EDZ investigations. The results must be considered as preliminary due to the fact that some EDZ interpretations (e.g. GPR) must be further studied to confirm the results. Also the number of samples is too limited to draw reliable conclusions. A consequent investigation project will be necessary to enhance the understanding of potential characterization methods. (orig.)

  11. EDZ programme, EDZ studies in ONKALO 2007- 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellanen, S.; Hellae, P.; Loefman, J.

    2009-03-01

    Penetrating Radar (GPR), measuring of blasting vibration, micro seismic data analysis connected with a drilling campaign were applied and a pilot test of modified Water Loss Measurement was conducted. Studies concerning characterization of EDZ-properties using rock sampling by core drilling and extraction of block samples by sawing for 14 C-PMMA and ultrasound tests were done. Studies on sub-horizontal fractures below tunnel floor indicated that to achieve more relevant data with higher resolution on the thickness of EDZ, different measuring configuration has to be applied. The three drilling campaigns and block samples proved effective and useful although some issues were identified for further development. Small scale Water Loss Measurements were conducted as a pilot test to assess feasibility of testing equipment and procedures. Additional measurements are needed to characterise hydraulic conductivity with better confidence. Various GPR measurement configurations were tested to prove, whether GPR is a potential tool for quick, non-destructive surveys. However, more investigations are needed to verify that the interpreted zone around the tunnel is EDZ. Vibration measurements done included uncertainties and the calculated cracking distances the result representing cracking zone in the wall can only be regarded as a rough estimate of EDZ. The studies of 14 C-PMMA and ultrasonic studies are still in progress and will be reported in conjunction of consequent EDZ investigations. The results must be considered as preliminary due to the fact that some EDZ interpretations (e.g. GPR) must be further studied to confirm the results. Also the number of samples is too limited to draw reliable conclusions. A consequent investigation project will be necessary to enhance the understanding of potential characterization methods. (orig.)

  12. Vital signs: food categories contributing the most to sodium consumption - United States, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    Most of the U.S. population consumes sodium in excess of daily guidelines (consumption raises blood pressure, which is a major risk factor for heart disease and stroke, the nation's first and fourth leading causes of death. Identifying food categories contributing the most to daily sodium consumption can help reduction. Population proportions of sodium consumption from specific food categories and sources were estimated among 7,227 participants aged ≥2 years in the What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008. Mean daily sodium consumption was 3,266 mg, excluding salt added at the table. Forty-four percent of sodium consumed came from 10 food categories: bread and rolls, cold cuts/cured meats, pizza, poultry, soups, sandwiches, cheese, pasta mixed dishes, meat mixed dishes, and savory snacks. For most of these categories, >70% of the sodium consumed came from foods obtained at a store. For pizza and poultry, respectively, 51% and 27% of sodium consumed came from foods obtained at fast food/pizza restaurants. Mean sodium consumption per calorie consumed was significantly greater for foods and beverages obtained from fast food/pizza or other restaurants versus stores. Average sodium consumption is too high, reinforcing the importance of implementing strategies to reduce U.S. sodium intake. Nationwide, food manufacturers and restaurants can strive to reduce excess sodium added to foods before purchase. States and localities can implement policies to reduce sodium in foods served in institutional settings (e.g., schools, child care settings, and government cafeterias). Clinicians can counsel most patients to check food labels and select foods lower in sodium.

  13. Het effect van spuitboombeweging en windvector op de drift : Randvariatie metingen 2007-2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, T.T.; Stallinga, H.; Michielsen, J.G.P.; Velde, van P.; Zande, van de J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Spray drift measurements have been performed to quantify the effect of variations in wind angle and wind speed during application and the sprayer boom movement alongside the sprayed edge of the field on spray drift deposition alongside a sprayed potato field (2007-2008). Results of these spray drift

  14. The 1985 ARI Survey of Army Recruits: Tabular Description of NPS (active) Army Accessions. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    ACTIVE) ARMY ACCESSIONS, VOLUME 2 INTRODUCTION The purpose of this document and a companion volume, The 1985 Survey of Armv Recruits; Tabular...supsnssrket. Stock shelves in a eupenserket Check out goods in a auperserkst 143. 145. Lssrn *out being a chef . Lasrn about being an auto «echenic

  15. Surveillance for waterborne disease outbreaks associated with drinking water---United States, 2007--2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunkard, Joan M; Ailes, Elizabeth; Roberts, Virginia A; Hill, Vincent; Hilborn, Elizabeth D; Craun, Gunther F; Rajasingham, Anu; Kahler, Amy; Garrison, Laurel; Hicks, Lauri; Carpenter, Joe; Wade, Timothy J; Beach, Michael J; Yoder Msw, Jonathan S

    2011-09-23

    or inadequately treated ground water, indicating that contamination of ground water remains a public health problem. The majority of these outbreaks occurred in public water systems that are subject to EPA's new Ground Water Rule (GWR), which requires the majority of community water systems to complete initial sanitary surveys by 2012. The GWR focuses on identification of deficiencies, protection of wells and springs from contamination, and providing disinfection when necessary to protect against bacterial and viral agents. In addition, several drinking water--associated outbreaks that were related to contaminated ground water appeared to occur in systems that were potentially under the influence of surface water. Future efforts to collect data systematically on contributing factors associated with drinking water outbreaks and deficiencies, including identification of ground water under the direct influence of surface water and the criteria used for their classification, would be useful to better assess risks associated with ground water. During 2007--2008, Legionella was the most frequently reported etiology among drinking water--associated outbreaks, following the pattern observed since it was first included in WBDOSS in 2001. However, six (50%) of the 12 drinking water--associated Legionella outbreaks were reported from one state, highlighting the substantial variance in outbreak detection and reporting across states and territories. The addition of published and CDC-investigated legionellosis outbreaks to the WBDOSS database clarifies that Legionella is not a new public health issue. During 2009, Legionella was added to EPA's Contaminant Candidate List for the first time. CDC and EPA use WBDOSS surveillance data to identify the types of etiologic agents, deficiencies, water systems, and sources associated with waterborne disease outbreaks and to evaluate the adequacy of current technologies and practices for providing safe drinking water. Surveillance data also

  16. Marketingová komunikace Hypo stavební spořitelny 2007/2008

    OpenAIRE

    Kratochvíl, Viktor

    2010-01-01

    Diploma thesis " Marketing communication of HYPO building savings bank 2007/2008 " deals with the activities of marketing communication of HYPO building savings bank between March 2007 and March 2008. The purpose of this thesis is to describe individual activities of marketing communication of this subject and to analyze goals of its marketing communication. The thesis evaluates the impact of the communication strategy on the public's perception of the subject.

  17. Przyczyny kryzysu finansowego z lat 2007-2008 na rynku amerykańskim

    OpenAIRE

    Serwach, Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    The 2007-2008 financial crisis is seemed to be biggest economic crisis since the Great Depression of 1929-1933. The root cause of the crisis was the collapse of subprime mortgage market. The reasons of the prior credit boom, however, are not fully understood. The main goal of the paper is to investigate the reasons of precrisis credit boom. Supply- and demand-side determinants of mortgage market are analyzed.

  18. Firms as liquidity providers: Evidence from the 2007-2008 financial crisis

    OpenAIRE

    García-Appendini, Emilia; Montoriol-Garriga, Judit

    2013-01-01

    Using a supplier-client matched sample, we study the effect of the 2007-2008 financial crisis on between-firm liquidity provision. Consistent with a causal effect of a negative shock to bank credit, we find that firms with high pre-crisis liquidity levels increased the trade credit extended to other corporations and subsequently experienced better performance as compared to ex-ante cash-poor firms. Trade credit taken by constrained firms increased during this period. These findings are consis...

  19. 2007-2008 activity report of the Association EURATOM-CEA (Executive summary)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labasse, F.

    2008-01-01

    This document is the executive summary of the full report, summarizing activities performed by EURATOM-CEA association in 2007-2008. The activities are various and have involved different issues like the study of dust generation processes and measurement techniques, ICRH antenna design for heating, integration studies inside the port-plug for diagnostics and in-situ divertor thermography, or the helium cooled lithium lead (HCLL) breeding blanket concept. Activities have been made to study the properties of the line defects governing the plastic behavior of iron base materials. Different options have been investigated for the superconducting magnet system. The measurement of in-vessel tritium inventory by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique has been investigated. 2007-2008 were also dedicated to the manufacture and complete tests of the AIA (Articulated Inspection Arm). AIA is designed to inspect divertor cassettes and the vacuum vessel first wall. Activities based on safety analysis or tests of ITER safety open issues have been carried out using several CEA facilities and expertise

  20. HOME ADVANTAGE ANALYSIS IN ACB LEAGUE IN SEASON 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Garc\\u00EDa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Home advantage was defined as the fact that home teams win more than the 50% of their matches (Courneya & Carron, 1992. The aim of this work was to investigate the home advantage in the ACB league and identify the game-related statistics which best discriminate home and away teams. The data were obtained from the Spanish Basketball Association for the period 2007-2008 ACB league (n= 306. Game related statistics were normalized to 100 ball possessions. In order to compare game related statistics in home and away teams, a discriminative analysis was employed. This analysis identifies the game related statistics that best discriminate between home and away teams. The function obtained was interpreted with the structural canonical coefficients (SC, with values higher than |.30|. In the 2007-2008 ACB league, the home teams won the 55.22% (n=169 of the games. The analysis identifying the two-point field goals made, blocks made, dunks, the defensive rebounds and the assists as common to the mean vectors that discriminate home teams in all games. Blocks received contribute to discriminate away teams in ACB league. These results could be used by the psychologist who works with the team. They must design specific programs to decrease anxiety levels, and to improve motivation and concentration levels in basketball players before a competition.

  1. 2007-2008 activity report of the Association EURATOM-CEA (Full Report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labasse, F.

    2009-01-01

    This document summarizes the activities performed by EURATOM-CEA association in 2007-2008. The activities are various and have involved different issues like the study of dust generation processes and measurement techniques, ICRH antenna design for heating, integration studies inside the port-plug for diagnostics and in-situ divertor thermography, or the helium cooled lithium lead (HCLL) breeding blanket concept. Activities have been made to study the properties of the line defects governing the plastic behavior of iron base materials. Different options have been investigated for the superconducting magnet system. The measurement of in-vessel tritium inventory by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique has been investigated. 2007-2008 were also dedicated to the manufacture and complete tests of the AIA (Articulated Inspection Arm). AIA is designed to inspect divertor cassettes and the vacuum vessel first wall. Activities based on safety analysis or tests of ITER safety open issues have been carried out using several CEA facilities and expertise. This document is divided into 5 sections: 1) physics integration, 2) in-vessel, 3) magnet system and cryogenics, 4) tritium breeding and materials, 5) safety and environment, 6) system studies, 7) design support and procurement, 8) JET technology

  2. Latinamerican Biological Dosimetry Network (LBDNET). International Biological Dosimetry intercomparison Program (exercise 2007-2008)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, Marina; Vallerga, Maria B.; Radl, A.; Taja, Maria R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the International Biological Dosimetry Intercomparison Program (exercise 2007-2008) - developed within the framework of the IAEA regional project - RLA/9/054 (Establishment of national capabilities for response to radiological and nuclear emergency) whose general objectives are: assess reproducibility inter-laboratory; identify problems and provide the necessary modifications for collaborative work in accidental situations requiring activation of mutual assistance mechanisms which will form the basis of the Organization of LBDNET. This exercise involves the laboratories of the region: Argentina (laboratory support), Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay and the laboratory of the Autonomous University of Barcelona-Espana (Joan Francesc Barquinero and staff). Finally, these countries will meet the next time for the drafting of a final report and later publication. (author)

  3. Findings from the oral health study of the Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongstad, Johanne; Ekstrand, Kim; Qvist, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    , carried out in mobile units by three trained and calibrated dental hygienists. The data were processed with descriptive statistics and mono- and bivariate analyses. Results. The mean age was 54.1 years and 60% were women. The mean number of natural teeth was 26.6; the mean DMFT/DMFS values were 18...... rate was more common among females than males (17.7% vs 10.4%) and this was reflected by the reported frequency of dry mouth. Conclusion. This extensive cross-sectional study provides a platform for obtaining future knowledge of the impact of health- and lifestyle-related factors on oral diseases...

  4. Rio Grande Lidar Bank Erosion Monitoring: Preliminary 2007-2008 Results and Survey Design Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    was reexposed by erosion following the initial event (Figure 9). Erosion of the fan toe in the vicinity of the downstream array is primarily...Digitally Capture the Topography of Sand Dunes in High Spatial Resolution. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 29:391-398. Queensland, G. 2008

  5. Update NPS / August 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School (U.S.)

    2017-01-01

    Fleet Forces Commander Encourages Student Body to Embrace Change; NPS Honors Longtime ECE, Space Systems Professor Herschel Loomis; NPS Welcomes Alumnus, Cartoonist Capt. Jeff Bacon; Student-Designed Wave Generator Gives Old Research Tank New Life; NPS Honored With Chief of Naval Operations Safety Award; NPS Faculty Publishes Latest Book on Budgeting in the DOD; NPS Sailor Promotes Through Meritorious Advancement Program; NPS Student Completes DARPA Service Chiefs Fellowship

  6. Human Development report 2007/2008 - Fighting climate change: human solidarity in a divided world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Climate change is the defining human development challenge of the 21. Century. Failure to respond to that challenge will stall and then reverse international efforts to reduce poverty. The poorest countries and most vulnerable citizens will suffer the earliest and most damaging setbacks, even though they have contributed least to the problem. Looking to the future, no country - however wealthy or powerful - will be immune to the impact of global warming. The Human Development Report 2007/2008 shows that climate change is not just a future scenario. Increased exposure to droughts, floods and storms is already destroying opportunity and reinforcing inequality. Meanwhile, there is now overwhelming scientific evidence that the world is moving towards the point at which irreversible ecological catastrophe becomes unavoidable. Business-as-usual climate change points in a clear direction: unprecedented reversal in human development in our lifetime, and acute risks for our children and their grandchildren. There is a window of opportunity for avoiding the most damaging climate change impacts, but that window is closing: the world has less than a decade to change course. Actions taken - or not taken - in the years ahead will have a profound bearing on the future course of human development. The world lacks neither the financial resources nor the technological capabilities to act. What is missing is a sense of urgency, human solidarity and collective interest. As the Human Development Report 2007/2008 argues, climate change poses challenges at many levels. In a divided but ecologically interdependent world, it challenges all people to reflect upon how we manage the environment of the one thing that we share in common: planet Earth. It challenges us to reflect on social justice and human rights across countries and generations. It challenges political leaders and people in rich nations to acknowledge their historic responsibility for the problem, and to initiate deep and

  7. INTEGRASI PASAR SAHAM ASEAN-5: ANALISIS SEBELUM DAN SEPANJANG KRISIS KEUANGAN GLOBAL 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endri Endri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article investigated both the static and dynamic inter dependence of the fivestock markets in the original Association of Southeast Asian Nations countries (ASEAN-5,namely Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand and Philippine. Using data from 2000-2008,the paper employed both correlation and co-integration analysis to describe the behavior ofthe above markets, both before and during 2007-2008 Global financial crisis. Examination ofstock market index, using correlation analysis revealed an increase in the interdependencies(increased correlation across the Southeast Asian stock markets during the crisis. Multivari-ate co-integration tests showed that ASEAN-5 stock markets only had one significant co inte-gration vector along the crisis period. Along the full period there was one vector that signifi-cantly integrated or five common trends. This finding indicated the long time co-integrationamong the ASEAN-5 stock markets. On the other hand, along the global financial crisis noproof of long time co-integration was found among the ASEAN-5.

  8. Multifractal analysis of Asian markets during 2007-2008 financial crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Rashid; Mohammad, Salim M.

    2015-02-01

    2007-2008 US financial crisis adversely affected the stock markets all over the world. Asian markets also came under pressure and were differently affected. As markets under stress could reveal features that remain hidden under normal conditions, we use MF-DFA technique to investigate the multifractal structure of the US and seven Asian stock markets during the crisis period. The overall period of study, from 01 July 2002 to 31 December 2013, is divided into three sub-periods: pre-crisis period, crisis period and post-crisis period. We find during the crisis period markets of the US, Japan, Hong Kong, S. Korea and Indonesia show very strong non-linearity for positive values of the moment q. We calculate the singularity spectra, f(α) for the three sub-periods for all markets. During the crisis period, we observe that the peaks of the f(α) spectra shift to lower values of α and markets of the US, Japan, Hong Kong, Korea and Indonesia exhibit increased long range correlations of large fluctuations in index returns. We also study the impact of the crisis on the power law exponent in the tail region of the cumulative return distribution and find that by excluding the crisis period from the overall data sets, the tail exponent increases across all markets.

  9. Demographic and geographic differences in exposure to secondhand smoke in Missouri workplaces, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jenine K; Geremakis, Caroline; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Carothers, Bobbi J; Kariuki, Barbara; Shelton, Sarah C; Kuhlenbeck, Matthew

    2011-11-01

    African Americans, Hispanics, service and blue-collar workers, and residents of rural areas are among those facing higher rates of workplace secondhand smoke exposure in states without smokefree workplace laws. Consequently, these groups also experience more negative health effects resulting from secondhand smoke exposure. The objective of this study was to examine disparities in workplace secondhand smoke exposure in a state without a comprehensive statewide smokefree workplace law and to use this information in considering a statewide law. We developed a logistic multilevel model by using data from a 2007-2008 county-level study to account for individual and county-level differences in workplace secondhand smoke exposure. We included sex, age, race, annual income, education level, smoking status, and rural or urban residence as predictors of workplace secondhand smoke exposure. Factors significantly associated with increased exposure to workplace secondhand smoke were male sex, lower education levels, lower income, living in a small rural or isolated area, and current smoking. For example, although the overall rate of workplace exposure in Missouri is 11.5%, our model predicts that among young white men with low incomes and limited education living in small rural areas, 40% of nonsmokers and 56% of smokers may be exposed to secondhand smoke at work. Significant disparities exist in workplace secondhand smoke exposure across Missouri. A statewide smokefree workplace law would protect all citizens from workplace secondhand smoke exposure.

  10. Storm related closures of I-5 and I-90 : freight transportation economic impact assessment report, winter 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    This report documents the economic impact analysis undertaken by WSDOTs Freight Systems Division in response to the : storm-related closures of I-5 and I-90 in the winter 2007-2008. The closures were the result of severe weather that : overwhelmed...

  11. Marginal bone level in two Danish cross-sectional population samples in 1997-1998 and 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Golnosh; Vaeth, Michael; Wenzel, Ann; Isidor, Flemming

    2018-04-12

    The aim of this study was to compare the marginal bone level of two randomly selected population samples from 1997/1998 and 2007/2008, with special emphasis on the role of smoking habits and gender. Two cross-sectional randomly selected population samples [1997/1998 (N = 616) and 2007/2008 (N = 396)] were analysed with respect to the marginal bone level. The marginal bone level was measured in full-mouth intraoral radiographs. Information on smoking was gathered using questionnaires. Multiple regression analysis was used in order to adjust for correlating factors (gender, age, smoking habits and number of teeth). After adjusting for confounding factors, the population sample from 2007/2008 had on average a slightly, but statistically significantly, more reduced average marginal bone level (0.15 mm) than the population sample from 1997/1998. Men had more reduced marginal bone level than women (0.12 mm). Smokers in both population samples had more reduced marginal bone level than non-smokers (0.39 mm and 0.12 mm for 1997/1998; 0.65 mm and 0.16 mm for 2007/2008). In these populations, sampled 10 years apart, the 2007/2008 population sample had a slightly more reduced marginal bone level than the 1997/1998 population sample. Men had more reduced marginal bone level than women, and smoking is considered a major risk factor for a reduced marginal bone level.

  12. Assessing Challenges and Opportunities for Education and Communication Activities for International Polar Year 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, M. S.

    2005-05-01

    Considerable planning has gone into identifying ways to maximize International Polar Year 2007-2008 (IPY) as a global event that will facilitate the integration of research and education inherent in IPY, and draw the interest and involvement of people around the world. Documents developed through the IPY planning process, including NRC Reports (2004), and drafts reports on education and outreach from the ICSU IPY Planning Group in the Fall of 2004, and the Bridging the Poles workshop of June, 2004, articulate the tremendous potential for IPY beyond the formal research agenda and goals. With less that two years before the start of IPY and fewer than fours years before the activities are completed, these and emerging opportunities face a number of challenges. In addition to the limited time frame remaining to prepare for these activities, participants involved with IPY education and outreach will also need to consider factors such as: uncertain funding for such activities; the lack of established international networks for geoscience education; the need for high level coordination of IPY education and communication; and the creative and intellectual challenge of making the polar regions relevant to people around the world. The planning process has identified six constituencies as key audiences of IPY communication efforts: i) the scientific/research community, ii) young and potentially new polar researchers, iii) the pre-university education community, iv) arctic communities, iv) the general public, and v) decision-makers. Understanding and meeting these audiences' expectations through on-going evaluation and engagement will be key to successful IPY education and outreach efforts. A number of distinct education and outreach projects have been proposed to the ICSU-WMO IPY planning process, such as courses and workshops on specific aspects of IPY, including efforts to address the social and cultural dimension of Arctic peoples. To help meet the challenges, achieve the

  13. Mental health concerns among Canadian physicians: results from the 2007-2008 Canadian Physician Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Michael T; Frank, Erica

    2011-01-01

    In light of prior reports on the prevalence of stress, depression, and other mental health problems among physicians in training and practice, we examined the mental health concerns of Canadian physicians using data from the 2007-2008 Canadian Physician Health Study. Among 3213 respondents, 5 variables (depressive symptoms during the past year, anhedonia in the past year, mental health concerns making it difficult to handle one's workload in the past month, problems with work-life balance, and poor awareness of resources for mental health problems) were examined in relation to sex, specialty, practice type (solo practice vs group or other practice settings), and practice setting (inner city, urban/suburban, or rural/small town/remote). Nearly one quarter of physicians reported a 2-week period of depressed mood, and depression was more common among female physicians and general practitioners/family physicians. Anhedonia was reported by one fifth; anesthesiologists were most likely to report anhedonia, followed by general practitioners/family physicians. More than one quarter reported mental health concerns making it difficult to handle their workload, which was more common among female physicians and general practitioners/family physicians and psychiatrists. Nearly one quarter reported poor work-life balance. Lack of familiarity with mental health resources was problematic, which was more prominent among female physicians and specialists outside of general practice/family medicine or psychiatry. Mental health concerns are relatively common among Canadian physicians. Training programs and programmatic/policy enhancements should redouble efforts to address depression and other mental health concerns among physicians for the benefit of the workforce and patients served by Canadian physicians. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A cloud on the horizon-a survey into the use of electronic vaping devices for recreational drug and new psychoactive substance (NPS) administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, M; Dargan, P; Wood, D

    2018-01-01

    There is limited published scientific data on vaping recreational drugs other than cannabis. A recent review suggested that 15% of people vaping cannabis have also vaped a synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist (SCRA) and identified over 300 Internet reports of e-liquid manufacture of recreational drugs and/or new psychoactive substances (NPS). To determine the prevalence of use of electronic vaping devices for recreational drug and NPS delivery in the UK. A voluntary online survey using a convenience sample of UK adult participants (aged 16 years old and over) identified by a market research company. Data was collected regarding demographics, smoking history, electronic vaping device history and recreational drug/NPS use and route of administration. There were 2501 respondents. The mean (±SD) age was 46.2 ± 16.8 years old. The commonest lifetime recreational drug used was Cannabis (818, 32.7%). The majority of respondents had smoked (1545, 61.8%) with 731 (29.2%) being current smokers. The most commonly used SCRA product was 'Spice Gold' (173, 6.9%) and SCRA compound was ADB-CHMICA (48, 1.9%). 861 (34.4%) had used an electronic vaping device; 340 (13.6%) having used them for recreational drug administration; 236 (9.4%) reporting current use. The commonest lifetime recreational drug to be vaped was cannabis (155, 65.7%), with electronic cigarettes (230, 48.2%) being the commonest reported route of SCRA compound administration. 9.4% of respondents currently use electronic vaping devices for recreational drug administration with 6.2% reporting lifetime cannabis vaping use. Further larger scale studies are required to help inform the appropriate treatment and primary prevention strategies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Campaign to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning : fall-winter 2007-2008; Campagne de prevention des intoxications au monoxyde de carbone : automne-hiver 2007-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefebvre, B.; Chabot, L.; Gratton, J. [Direction de sante publique de Montreal, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Lacoursiere, D. [Quebec Ministere de la Sante et des Services sociaux du Quebec, Quebec, PQ (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Quebec launched a public health campaign for the Montreal region to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning. The objectives of the campaign were to communicate the dangers of carbon monoxide poisoning, its potential sources, its effects on public health, and the means to prevent poisoning. Its purpose was to inform the public of the risks and strategies to be used in case of carbon monoxide poisoning and to lay out the merits of household carbon monoxide alarms. The communication was done by way of the media, in cooperation with community organizations and school boards. Other tools used in the campaign included the Internet, flyers and press releases. A poll taken in 2008 showed that 59 per cent of the respondents had one or more sources for carbon monoxide in their homes, including fireplaces, and that 28 per cent had a functioning alarm for carbon monoxide detection. A future survey will be held to follow-up on the evolution of the campaign. The development of various activities will help decrease the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning. tabs., figs.

  16. Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary in the Gulf of Mexico, 2007-2008 (NODC Accession 0070125)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks 2007-2008 dataset includes biological and oceanographic measurements collected to satisfy the...

  17. Low-fat Milk Consumption among Children and Adolescents in the United States, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the National Technical Information Service NCHS Low-fat Milk Consumption Among Children and Adolescents in the United ... Survey How frequently do children and adolescents drink milk? During the preceding 30 days, girls reported daily ...

  18. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations: Salmonid Studies Project Progress Report, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Walters, Jody; Maiolie, Melo [Idaho Department of Fish and Game

    2009-04-09

    This research report addresses bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and Redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss redd surveys, population monitoring, trout distribution, and abundance surveys in the Kootenai River drainage of Idaho. The bull trout is one of several sport fish native to the Kootenai River, Idaho that no longer supports a fishery. Because bull trout are listed under the Endangered Species Act, population data will be vital to monitoring status relative to recovery goals. Thirty-three bull trout redds were found in North and South Callahan creeks and Boulder Creek in 2007. This is a decrease from 2006 and 2005 and less than the high count in 2003. However, because redd numbers have only been monitored since 2002, the data series is too short to determine bull trout population trends based on redd counts. Redband trout still provide an important Kootenai River sport fishery, but densities are low, at least partly due to limited recruitment. The redband trout proportional stock density (PSD) in 2007 increased from 2006 for a second year after a two-year decline in 2004 and 2005. This may indicate increased recruitment to or survival in the 201-305 mm length group due to the minimum 406 mm (16 inches) length limit initiated in 2002. We conducted 13 redd surveys and counted 44 redband trout redds from May 7 to June 3, 2007 in a 3.8 km survey reach on Twentymile Creek. We surveyed streams in the Kootenai River valley to look for barriers to trout migration. Man-made barriers, for at least part of the year, were found on Caboose, Debt, Fisher, and Twenty Mile creeks. Removing these barriers would increase spawning and rearing habitat for trout and help to restore trout fisheries in the Kootenai River.

  19. Changing patterns of spatial clustering of schistosomiasis in Southwest China between 1999-2001 and 2007-2008: assessing progress toward eradication after the World Bank Loan Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi; Xiong, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhijie; Luo, Can; Cohen, Ted; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Lijuan; Jiang, Qingwu

    2014-01-03

    We compared changes in the spatial clustering of schistosomiasis in Southwest China at the conclusion of and six years following the end of the World Bank Loan Project (WBLP), the control strategy of which was focused on the large-scale use of chemotherapy. Parasitological data were obtained through standardized surveys conducted in 1999-2001 and again in 2007-2008. Two alternate spatial cluster methods were used to identify spatial clusters of cases: Anselin's Local Moran's I test and Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic. Substantial reductions in the burden of schistosomiasis were found after the end of the WBLP, but the spatial extent of schistosomiasis was not reduced across the study area. Spatial clusters continued to occur in three regions: Chengdu Plain, Yangtze River Valley, and Lancang River Valley during the two periods, and regularly involved five counties. These findings suggest that despite impressive reductions in burden, the hilly and mountainous regions of Southwest China remain at risk of schistosome re-emergence. Our results help to highlight specific locations where integrated control programs can focus to speed the elimination of schistosomiasis in China.

  20. State of Flood Related Modeling Along Middle Rio Grande: Report Documentary 2007-2008 Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Bosque Environment (CBE) Title Prepared By Rio Grande Silvery Minnow Sanctuary Proposed Site, 1-D HEC - RAS Model of Area of Interest Jonathan Acbuchon...Erosion Jennifer G. Duan Case Study: Application of the HEC -6 Model for the Main Stem of the Kankakee River in Illinois Nani G. Bhowmik, D.WRE...1 bank-attached bar HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS One-dimensional HEC - RAS models – Fixed-bed analysis – Calibrated to gauged flow at time of survey and 2005

  1. NPS and Online WOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raassens, Néomie

    2017-01-01

    The Net Promoter Score (NPS) is, according to Reichheld, the single most reliable indicator of company growth, and many companies use this recommendation-based technique for measuring customer loyalty. Despite its widespread adoption by many companies across multiple industries, the debate about NPS goes on. A major concern is that managers treat NPS as being equivalent across customers, which is often very misleading. By using a unique data set that combines customers’ promoter scores and online word-of-mouth (eWOM) behavior, this research studies how individual customers’ promoter scores are related to eWOM, including its relationship with the three categories of customers that are identified by the NPS paradigm (i.e., promoters, passives, and detractors). Based on a sample of 189 customers, their promoter scores and corresponding eWOM, the results show that there is a positive relationship between customers’ promoter scores and the valence of online messages. Further, while detractors and promoters are homogeneous with respect to the valence of the eWOM messages they spread, passives show message valence heterogeneity. Thus, although passives, the largest group of customers, have no weight in calculating the NPS, our results reveal that companies should flag passives for further attention and action. PMID:29046609

  2. GAMBARAN PENGGUNAAN TEMBAKAU/ROKOK PADA TUMOR/KANKER PARU DI INDONESIA, RISET KESEHATAN DASAR 2007/2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Roosihermiatie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: lung cancer is a comm on type of cancers, either in men or women and a leading cause of deaths from cancers. It aimed to determine characteristics and pattern of tobacco use among lung tumor/cancer respondents diagnosed by health workers (doctors/nurses/midwives. Methods: this study further analyzed secondairy data from Basic Health Research or Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas year 2007/2008 Samples were taken from respondents aged 10 year old and above and also used tobacco/smoke every day or sometimes at Riskesdas 2007/2008 among 973,662 househaId members in which 228,416 people (29.7% smoked. It was found that 14 persons were diagnosed lung tumor/cancer by health workers in past year of the research. Data were analyzed by univariat. Results showed that the majority of lung tumor/cancer patients were aged 51-70 years old, all men, tended to increase with higher education and relatively more comm on among informal workers. All the lung tumor/cancer respondents were past tobacco use/smokers, possibly they stopped use tobacco/smoking after diagnosed having lung tumor/cancer. From 3 respondents who answered duration of use tobacco/smoking, the longest was 10 year period. Meanwhile, lung tumor/cancer patients at the average were suffering for 6.9 years. Conclusions: men, higher education with occupation as informal workers tended smoking. Then, duration of use tobacco/smoking likelyassociated with incidence tumor/cancer. It suggests to enhance community knowledge on danger of tobacco use/smoking as duration of tobacco use/smoking associated with tumor/incidence on meetings at the lowest levels as Rukun Tetangga (RT, Rukun Warga (RW to the highest level also lndonesia Islamic Commettee Fatwa on "haram" for smoking among children, teenagers and smoking in public areas should be seriously implemented. Key words: lung tumor/cancer, characteristics, duration of tobacco use/smoking. ABSTRAK Pendahuluan: kanker paru merupakan kanker

  3. Índices de calidad del agua en la microcuenca de la quebrada Victoria, Guanacaste, Costa Rica (2007-2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen-Wu, Bi Yun

    2010-01-01

    Se evaluó, durante el año hidrológico 2007-2008, la calidad del agua de la quebrada Victoria, Costa Rica, mediante la aplicación de los índices de calidad del agua del Reglamento costarricense para la evaluación y clasificación de la calidad de cuerpos de agua superficiales (IHCA-CR) y el de la Fundación Nacional de Sanidad de los Estados Unidos (ICA-U.S.NSF), para establecer una línea base para los programas de seguimiento de su calidad y de los efectos del desarrollo geotérmico. La red de m...

  4. Protect and Restore Red River Watershed, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bransford, Stephanie [Nez Perce Tribe Fisheries/Watershed Program

    2009-05-04

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) and the Nez Perce National Forest (NPNF) have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Red River Watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2001. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through road decommissioning and culvert replacement. From completing a watershed assessment to two NEPA efforts and a final stream restoration design, we will begin the effort of restoring the mainstem channel of Red River to provide spawning and rearing habitat for anadromous and resident fish species. Roads have been surveyed and prioritized for removal or improvement as well as culverts being prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed. Another major, and extremely, important component of this project is the Red River Meadow Conservation Easement. We have begun the process of pursuing a conservation easement on approximately 270 acres of prime meadow habitat (Red River runs through this meadow and is prime spawning and rearing habitat).

  5. Campaign to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning : fall-winter 2007-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefebvre, B.; Chabot, L.; Gratton, J.; Lacoursiere, D.

    2009-01-01

    Quebec launched a public health campaign for the Montreal region to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning. The objectives of the campaign were to communicate the dangers of carbon monoxide poisoning, its potential sources, its effects on public health, and the means to prevent poisoning. Its purpose was to inform the public of the risks and strategies to be used in case of carbon monoxide poisoning and to lay out the merits of household carbon monoxide alarms. The communication was done by way of the media, in cooperation with community organizations and school boards. Other tools used in the campaign included the Internet, flyers and press releases. A poll taken in 2008 showed that 59 per cent of the respondents had one or more sources for carbon monoxide in their homes, including fireplaces, and that 28 per cent had a functioning alarm for carbon monoxide detection. A future survey will be held to follow-up on the evolution of the campaign. The development of various activities will help decrease the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning. tabs., figs.

  6. Springtime Observations of Black Carbon in Arctic Snow across Northern Russia During IPY 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell, T. C.; Warren, S. G.; Radionov, V. F.; Kogan, S. E.

    2008-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) in snow at ppb levels can significantly reduce the visible and near IR albedo. The effect is important for climate in regions where large areas of snow-covered surfaces are exposed to significant sunlight. The initial study of Clarke and Noone (1985) across the western Arctic in 1983-84 indicated albedo reduction of about 0-4 percent due to BC; however, their survey did not include results from the Russian Arctic. During April and May of 2007 and 2008, as part of the International Polar Year Program, two cooperative U.S.-Russian expeditions obtained the first set of BC observations at selected sites near the communities of Naryan Mar, Vorkuta, Dikson, Khatanga, Tiksi, Chersky, Bilibino, and Pevek, spanning almost the entire northern coastal zone of Russia. Samples were also obtained near Yakutsk, a sub-Arctic region of boreal forest with a severe winter climate. This time period was chosen to provide access to the full winter snowpack just prior to the onset of spring melt. This project is a critical component of a repeat and extension of the original 1985 survey, which now includes sites spanning the entire Arctic. A discussion of this work is the topic of an invited presentation by S. G. Warren in session "Snow and Ice Impurities as Climate Forcing Agents and Records" (C04). This project required access to restricted border regions of Russia, which was facilitated by the political prominence of the IPY program in the Russian government. Generous logistical assistance and advice were provided by Dr. V. N. Makarov of the Permafrost Institute in Yakutsk, Dr. Sergei Zimov of the Northeast Scientific Station at Chersky, and the Hydrometeorological Service at Pevek. Commercial air travel to the above-mentioned communities, in conjunction with local transportation, provided access to the observation sites, which were located at distances of 15-100 km from local sources to sample background levels of BC. At each site, snow samples and density profiles

  7. Well Inventory and Geophysical Logging of Selected Wells in Troup County, Georgia, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Michael F.; Leeth, David C.; Hamrick, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) - in cooperation with the Troup County Board of Commissioners - conducted a well inventory to provide information to help evaluate ground-water resources for Troup County, Georgia. In addition, borehole geophysical logs were collected in selected wells to provide a better understanding of the subsurface geologic and water-bearing characteristics in specific areas of interest. This investigation provides information to help guide future ground-water development and water-management decisions for Troup County while enhancing understanding of the hydrogeology of fractured rocks in the Piedmont physiographic province. This report presents well data compiled from USGS files and from site visits to wells during November and December 2007. Data were entered into the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) and made available on the Web at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ga/nwis/inventory. Previous studies of ground-water resources have been conducted in the vicinity, but did not include Troup County. The ground-water resources of Heard and Coweta Counties, located north and northeast, respectively, of Troup County were part of a larger study by Cressler and others (1983) that encompassed the Greater Atlanta Region. That study evaluated the quantity and quality of ground water in the Atlanta region and described the methods that could be used for locating high-yielding wells in the Piedmont Province. The geology underlying the Atlanta area is similar to that underlying Troup County. Clarke and Peck (1990) conducted a similar investigation that included Meriwether and Coweta Counties, located to the east and northeast of Troup County.

  8. Reform in Defence of Sovereignty: South Africa in the UN Security Council, 2007-2008 Reformen zur Verteidigung von Souveränität: Die Republik Südafrika im UN-Sicherheitsrat 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-Henri Bischoff

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available After 1994, South Africa became the sine qua non of an interna¬tionalist state, willing to promote cooperation amongst a plurality of actors, believing common interests to be more important than their differences. This raised the hopes of constitutionalists, and those who believed in the expansion of a liberal democratic peace. South Africa has acted out two seemingly contradictory roles: those of a reformer and those of a conserver. By 2007-2008 she had shifted towards the latter, conservative-reformist position. Thus, South Africa’s voting record at the General Assembly expressed her overriding concern to regionalise African issues and minimise the US and the West shaping political events. This brought her foreign policy into sharper relief. But while in some sense successful, it came at a price: a controversy about her surrendering her internationalism and principles on human rights for African unity and traditional sovereignty. But it also marked the arrival of South Africa in the world of international Realpolitik. Nach 1994 profilierte sich das neue Südafrika zunächst als internationalistischer Staat, gewillt, die Zusammenarbeit zwischen den unterschiedlichen internationalen Akteuren zu fördern – im Glauben, wichtiger als alle Differenzen seien die gemeinsamen Interessen. In der Folgezeit übernahm der Staat in der internationalen politischen Arena zwei gegensätzliche Rollen und zeigte sich zwar reformorientiert, vertrat aber auch konservativere Positionen. Seit den Jahren 2007-2008 überwog zunehmend die konservative Rolle. Bei Abstimmungen in der Generalversammlung der Vereinten Nationen erwies sich deutlich, dass die Republik Südafrika überragendes Interesse an einer Regionalisierung afrikanischer Problembereiche hatte und an einer Minimierung der politischen Gestaltungsmacht der USA beziehungsweise des Westens. Damit erhielt die südafrikanische Außenpolitik ein klares Profil und konnte gewisse Erfolge erzielen

  9. Duck Valley Reservoirs Fish Stocking and O&M, Annual Progress Report 2007-2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellman, Jake; Perugini, Carol [Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Parks, Shoshone-Paiute Tribes

    2009-02-20

    The Duck Valley Reservoirs Fish Stocking and Operations and Maintenance Project (DV Fisheries) is an ongoing resident fish program that serves to partially mitigate the loss of anadromous fish that resulted from downstream construction of the federal hydropower system. The project's goals are to enhance subsistence fishing and educational opportunities for Tribal members of the Shoshone-Paiute Tribes and provide fishing opportunities for non-Tribal members. In addition to stocking rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Mountain View (MVR), Lake Billy Shaw (LBS), and Sheep Creek Reservoirs (SCR), the program is also designed to: maintain healthy aquatic conditions for fish growth and survival, provide superior facilities with wilderness qualities to attract non-Tribal angler use, and offer clear, consistent communication with the Tribal community about this project as well as outreach and education within the region and the local community. Tasks for this performance period fall into three categories: operations and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation, and public outreach. Operation and maintenance of the three reservoirs include maintaining fences, roads, dams and all reservoir structures, feeder canals, water troughs, stock ponds, educational signs, vehicles, equipment, and restroom facilities. Monitoring and evaluation activities include creel, gillnet, wildlife, and bird surveys, water quality and reservoir structures monitoring, native vegetation planting, photo point documentation, and control of encroaching exotic vegetation. Public outreach activities include providing environmental education to school children, providing fishing reports to local newspapers and vendors, updating the website, hosting community environmental events, and fielding numerous phone calls from anglers. The reservoir monitoring program focuses on water quality and fishery success. Sheep Creek Reservoir and Lake Billy Shaw had less than productive trout growth due to water

  10. Socioeconomic and Cultural Correlates of Diet Quality in the Canadian Arctic: Results from the 2007-2008 Inuit Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Tracey; Johnson-Down, Louise; Egeland, Grace M

    2015-09-01

    We examined the impact of socioeconomic and cultural factors on dietary quality in adult Inuit living in the Canadian Arctic. Interviews and a 24-h dietary recall were administered to 805 men and 1292 women from Inuit regions in the Canadian Arctic. We examined the effect of age, sex, education, income, employment, and cultural variables on respondents' energy, macronutrient intake, sodium/potassium ratio, and healthy eating index. Logistic regression was used to assess the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on diet quality indicators. Age was positively associated with traditional food (TF) consumption and greater energy from protein but negatively associated with total energy and fibre intake. Associations between SES and diet quality differed considerably between men and women and there was considerable regional variability in diet quality measures. Age and cultural variables were significant predictors of diet quality in logistic regression. Increased age and use of the Inuit language in the home were the most significant predictors of TF consumption. Our findings are consistent with studies reporting a nutrition transition in circumpolar Inuit. We found considerable variability in diet quality and complex interaction between SES and cultural variables producing mixed effects that differ by age and gender.

  11. Liceu 2007 2008

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Ajakirja esikaane siseküljel L Gran Teatre del Liceu reklaamil (R. Wagneri ooper "Tannhäuser" 19., 25., 27., 29. ja 31 märts ning 3., 6., 8, 10., 12., 14., 18. ja 22. apr. 2008) mainitud ka lauljat Lauri Vasarat (vt. www.liceubarcelona.com)

  12. Considering common sources of exposure in association studies - Urinary benzophenone-3 and DEHP metabolites are associated with altered thyroid hormone balance in the NHANES 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sujin; Kim, Sunmi; Won, Sungho; Choi, Kyungho

    2017-10-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that thyroid hormone balances can be disrupted by chemical exposure. However, many association studies have often failed to consider multiple chemicals with possible common sources of exposure, rendering their conclusions less reliable. In the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from the U.S.A., urinary levels of environmental phenols, parabens, and phthalate metabolites as well as serum thyroid hormones were measured in a general U.S. population (≥12years old, n=1829). Employing these data, first, the chemicals or their metabolites associated with thyroid hormone measures were identified. Then, the chemicals/metabolites with possible common exposure sources were included in the analytical model to test the sensitivities of their association with thyroid hormone levels. Benzophenone-3 (BP-3), bisphenol A (BPA), and a metabolite of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were identified as significant determinants of decreased serum thyroid hormones. However, significant positive correlations were detected (p-value<0.05, r=0.23 to 0.45) between these chemicals/metabolites, which suggests that they might share similar exposure sources. In the subsequent sensitivity analysis, which included the chemicals/metabolite with potentially similar exposure sources in the model, we found that urinary BP-3 and DEHP exposure were associated with decreased thyroid hormones among the general population but BPA exposure was not. In association studies, the presence of possible common exposure sources should be considered to circumvent possible false-positive conclusions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. PENGARUH LABA AKUNTANSI DAN ARUS KAS TERHADAP RETURN SAHAM SYARIAH YANG TERDAFTAR DI JAKARTA ISLAMIC INDEX TAHUN 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvina Widowati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Capital market is a financial institution, where investors can invest their funds in securities. Establishment of the Jakarta Islamic Index is expected to improve investor confidence to develop the investment in the securities of the sharia. The one of investing purpose is to get a return as an advantage. The information of earnings and cash flow may cause investors action toward the company's stock. This study aims to determine the effect of accounting earnings and cash flow toward stock return. The data which used are secondary data such as company’s financial reports and stock prices. The population in this study are stocks listed in the Jakarta Islamic Index 2007-2008. The sample which used in this study are 32 companies. Technique of sampling that is used in this study is purposive sampling method. The data analysis that used is multiple regression analysis. The Regression analysis is used to test the effect of accounting earnings variable and cash flows variable toward stock returns. The analysis results shown that both independent variables have simultaneously influence to the dependent variable, and individually only accounting earnings influence significantly to the stock returns. Meanwhile, the total cash flow does not influence the stock return variable.Based on the results, the suggestion for further research is able to extend the period of observation, using other variables are not described in this study.

  14. The complexity of the HANG SENG Index and its constituencies during the 2007-2008 Great Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyroudis, G.; Siokis, F.

    2018-04-01

    We apply the multifractal detrended moving average (MF-DMA) procedure to the daily data from HANG SENG Index (HSI) and two sub-indices, the Properties Index which consists of 10 Real Estate Companies and the Finance Index with 12 companies respectively. Two major events are considered: the 2007 and the 1997 crises. Based on scaling exponents and the singularity spectrum analysis, we show that both events reveal multiscaling and the results are robust across different indices. Furthermore, by dividing the data into two equal sub-samples for prior and after the crisis periods, we reveal that for the 2007-2008 crisis, the complexity of the HSI and Properties index remain the same between periods, while for the Finance Index, the after crisis period exhibits richer multifractality and higher complexity. Especially for the Properties Index, the results indicate that the Real Estate sector was not affected as much, by the transitory shocks of the Great Recession. As for the 1997 event, the HS Index is impacted greatly in the after period crisis exhibiting higher degree of multifractality and heterogeneity.

  15. Determinants of success and sustainability of the WHO multimodal hand hygiene promotion campaign, Italy, 2007-2008 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Maria Luisa; Morsillo, Filomena; Nascetti, Simona; Parenti, Mita; Allegranzi, Benedetta; Pompa, Maria Grazia; Pittet, Didier

    2017-06-08

    A national hand hygiene promotion campaign based on the World Health Organization (WHO) multimodal, Clean Care is Safer Care campaign was launched in Italy in 2007. One hundred seventy-five hospitals from 14 of 20 Italian regions participated. Data were collected using methods and tools provided by the WHO campaign, translated into Italian. Hand hygiene compliance, ward infrastructure, and healthcare workers' knowledge and perception of healthcare-associated infections and hand hygiene were evaluated before and after campaign implementation. Compliance data from the 65 hospitals returning complete data for all implementation tools were analysed using a multilevel approach. Overall, hand hygiene compliance increased in the 65 hospitals from 40% to 63% (absolute increase: 23%, 95% confidence interval: 22-24%). A wide variation in hand hygiene compliance among wards was observed; inter-ward variability significantly decreased after campaign implementation and the level of perception was the only item associated with this. Long-term sustainability in 48 of these 65 hospitals was assessed in 2014 using the WHO Hand Hygiene Self-Assessment Framework tool. Of the 48 hospitals, 44 scored in the advanced/intermediate categories of hand hygiene implementation progress. The median hand hygiene compliance achieved at the end of the 2007-2008 campaign appeared to be sustained in 2014. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  16. The incidence, pathology of trauma and victim profiles of homicidal deaths in Pretoria, South Africa (2007-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocks, Jeannie; Saayman, Gert

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to establish the incidence of homicide, associated pathology of trauma and victim profiles in cases admitted to or managed as homicidal deaths at the Pretoria Medico-Legal Laboratory (PMLL) over the period of 2007-2008. A total of 1088 cases were reviewed. Homicides accounted for 22.7% of all cases admitted to the PMLL. The majority of homicide victims were male individuals (87.0%). The most common cause of death was gunshot wounds (42.6%), followed by blunt force trauma (25.1%). Homicides are most likely to occur at the victim's place of residence (28.5%) and only 37.4% of victims survive long enough to receive hospital care. The results of this study seem to concur with international findings for the most part, with a few interesting deviations. Highlighting at-risk groups, as well as dangerous locations and incident times, creates the potential to decrease the occurrence of unnecessary deaths by generating an awareness of the trends.

  17. Características de los casos de sífilis infecciosa diagnosticados en Instituciones Penitenciarias, 2007-2008 Characteristics of cases of infectious syphilis diagnosed in prisons, 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Garriga

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir las características de los casos de sífilis en internos de prisiones. Material y Método: Estudio descriptivo de los casos confirmados de sífilis primaria, secundaria y latente precoz diagnosticados en prisiones españolas (2007-2008. Se recogieron variables sociodemográficas, clínicas y relacionadas con la transmisión en un cuestionario estandarizado cumplimentado por los médicos de los centros. Se obtuvieron distribuciones de frecuencia de las variables cualitativas y la media y desviación estándar para la edad. Se calculó la tasa de incidencia anual por mil internos. Para evaluar la asociación entre variables cualitativas se utilizaron las pruebas de ji-cuadrado y exacta de Fisher y la de U de Mann-Whitney para las cuantitativas. Resultados: Se identificaron 94 casos de sífilis (35,1% primaria, 20,2% secundaria y 44,7% latente precoz. La tasa de incidencia fue 0,9 y 0,7 casos/1.000 internos en 2007 y 2008, respectivamente. La mayoría de enfermos fueron hombres (90,4%, entre 31 y 40 años (30,9% y extranjeros (52,1%. El 80,9% de los diagnósticos se realizaron por cribaje. Un 5,3% presentó coinfección con el VIH y el 16% refería haber tenido infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS previamente. El mecanismo de transmisión más probable fueron las relaciones heterosexuales (83,0%; la situación de riesgo más común para la adquisición de sífilis fue ser cliente de prostitución (39,4%. Conclusiones: La incidencia de sífilis en prisión es elevada. La oferta de screening de sífilis ha permitido detectar pacientes que no estaban siendo tratados y pone de manifiesto la importancia del sistema penitenciario en el control de las ITS.Objective: To describe the characteristics of cases of syphilis amongst prison inmates. Materials and Methods: Descriptive study. Confirmed cases of primary, secondary and early latent syphilis were identified in prisons in Spain during 2007-2008. Socio-demographic and clinical

  18. Gestión institucional bajo la presión del mercado competitivo en el sistema de salud colombiano, 2007-2008 = Institutional management under the pressure of competitive market within the Colombian health system, 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molina Marin, Gloria

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: comprender la dinámica de las decisiones en salud y su relación con el acceso y la calidad de los servicios, en el contexto del Sistema General de Seguridad Social en Salud Colombiano, durante 2007-2008.Métodos: se optó por una metodología de investigación cualitativa; se hicieron 179 entrevistas en profundidad a médicos, enfermeras y administradores de instituciones de salud, en seis ciudades colombianas; también se realizaron grupos focales con usuarios de los servicios de salud. Se grabaron, transcribieron, sistematizaron y analizaron las entrevistas mediante el método de codificación y categorización, y se generaron mapas conceptuales.Resultados: emergieron 13 categorías relacionadas con las decisiones en salud. Este artículo solo se ocupa de los modelos de gestión de las instituciones de salud, dados en un contexto de mercado competitivo. El propósito de la gestión en dichas instituciones tiene dos tendencias: la mayoría optan por un modelo centrado en obtener rentabilidad financiera, estableciendo mecanismos encaminados a disminuir los costos, lo que afecta el acceso y la calidad de los servicios de salud y las condiciones laborales de los empleados. Una minoría, en contraste, centra la gestión en la defensa de la salud y la vida de los usuarios, con procesos de garantía de calidad de los servicios y condiciones laborales dignas.

  19. NPS transportation innovative finance options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This paper provides a summary of innovative transportation finance techniques and discusses their applicability to the National Park Service (NPS). The primary finding of this analysis is that while NPS is engaging in innovative finance techniques su...

  20. The Antarctic Master Directory - a fundamental data management element for the International Polar Year 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfen, G.; Bauer, R.

    2004-12-01

    A successful International Polar Year (IPY) in 2007-2008 will extend the scientific spirit of international collaboration and exploration first undertaken in earlier IPYs and the 1957/58 International Geophysical Year (IGY) to the current era of advanced collection and analysis technology. The IGY not only led to a number of important scientific achievements; it also established an enduring data system - the World Data Centers - which continues today. Effective utilization of the vast arrays of data which will result from the coming IPY will challenge data managers and scientists alike. Coordinating the collection, assembly, archival and international exchange of disparate and voluminous data sets requires advance planning and the involvement of the relevant science agencies and data managers to utilize and extend existing capabilities. The IPY Planning Group has identified key objectives indicating that data management is an essential part of the IPY planning process including: - Ensure data collected under the IPY are made available in an open and timely manner - Intensify the recovery of relevant historical data and ensure that these also are made openly available - Develop and embrace new technological and logistical capabilities The Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) and Committee of Managers of National Antarctic Programmes (COMNAP) have established the Joint Committee on Antarctic Data Management (JCADM) to develop the Antarctic Master Directory (AMD) to enable scientists to find and access the data sets collected more than 22 countries in the Antarctic. Incorporating concepts developed as part of the AMD and extending them to cover the scope of the IPY is an important part of a successful IPY data management program. This paper identifies major aspects of the AMD and how it can serve the IPY.

  1. Efeito da crise de 2007/2008 na transmissão internacional de volatilidade no mercado de capitais brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Brutti Righi

    Full Text Available Com a crescente globalização, os mercados financeiros do mundo todo passaram a apresentar maior integração. Tal relacionamento entre mercados possui como implicação um termo que vem atraindo a atenção de profissionais e acadêmicos, a transmissão de volatilidade. Dessa forma, o presente trabalho tem como escopo analisar a transmissão internacional de volatilidade no mercado brasileiro. Para tanto, é utilizado um modelo Garch multivariado com parametrização BEKK. Com base nesse modelo, são estimados os relacionamentos bivariados entre o mercado brasileiro, representado pelo índice Ibovespa, e os mercados americano, argentino, mexicano e chinês, utilizando-se de índices representativos de 4 de janeiro de 2000 até 31 de março de 2010, totalizando 2667 cotações. A amostra foi dividida em três partes, representando os períodos anteriores, durante e posteriores à crise do subprime de 2007/2008. Os resultados obtidos permitem concluir que, durante a crise de 2008, de forma geral, houve mudança na direção da transmissão de volatilidade entre o mercado brasileiro e os demais estudados, de forma ao Brasil passar a exercer maior influência na volatilidade condicional desses, por ter sofrido menores consequências com a crise financeira. Além disso, após o período de turbulência causado pela crise de 2008, o relacionamento da volatilidade entre o mercado brasileiro com os demais passou a ser menos assimétrico do que no período anterior a crise.

  2. [The characteristics of epidemic influenza A and B virus strains circulating in Russia during the 2007-2008 season].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, V T; Trushakova, S V; Oskerko, T A; Shevchenko, E S; Kolobukhina, L V; Vartanian, R V; Beliakova, N V; Iatsyshina, S B; Feodoritova, E L; Zueva, N D; Burtseva, E I

    2009-01-01

    In 2007-2008 in Russia, the epidemic upsurge of influenza morbidity was caused by the active circulation of influenza A(H1N1, A(H3N2), and B viruses. The center for Ecology and Epidemiology of Influenza studied 334 epidemic strains. The results of a comparative study of the svirus specificity of commercial test systems (AmpliSens Influenza virus A/B and AmpliSens Influenza virus A/H5N1) for the polymerase chain reaction diagnosis and virological assays, including virus isolation, revealed their high correlation, which confirms that they may be expensively used to monitor the circulation of influenza viruses in the Russian Federation. All the strains were isolated in the MDCK cell culture. Influenza A(H1N1) viruses (n = 127) were antigenic variants of the reference strains A/Solomon Islands/3/06 and A/Brisbane/59107. Influenza A(H3N2) viruses (n = 49) were antigenic variants of the reference strains A/Wisconsin/67/05 and A/Brisbane/10/08. One hundred and fifty seven Influenza B strains were drift variants of the reference strains B/Florida/4/06 and B/Shanghai/361/02 of lineage B/Yamagata/16/88 and one strain, a variant of Malaysia/2506/04 related to lineage B/victoria/2/87. The isolates interacted actively with human 0(I) blood group erythrocytes and much more weakly with chicken ones. All study influenza A(H1N1) viruses (n = 74) preserved their sensitivity to rimantadine while 24 (77%) of the 31 study influenza A(H3N2) virus strains were resistant. A study of the time course of changes in the generation of antibodies in the donor sera obtained in Moscow and the Moscow Region in different periods of the epidemic process revealed an increase in antibodies to the reference influenza A and B virus strains circulating in this period.

  3. Colonoscopic Diagnostic Findings in Patients Undergoing Colonoscopy In Qom Hazrat-e-Masoome Hospital During 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R Ghadir

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: In recent years there have been noticeable changes in diagnosis and treatment of colon disorders by colonoscopy and direct vision. Along with its international development, this useful equipment is being used in Iran to treat various disorders. It should be mentioned that there are no exact statistics of these disorders to date. This study was done with aim of evaluating the diagnostic findings in patients undergoing colonoscopy in Qom during 2007-2008.

     

    Methods: This descriptive-cross sectional study was done on 500 patients having referred to colonoscopy ward of Hazrate-e-Masoome Hospital in Qom. After colonoscopy, patient data were entered into a special questionnaire and then pathologic findings were added to it. The data were taken for statistical analysis.

     

    Results: Out of 500 patients undergoing colonoscopy 279 were male (55.8% and 221 female (44.2%. In all groups and both sexes the most common reason for carrying out colonoscopy was abdominal pain (46.6% rectorrhagia (41%. As regards diagnosis, a total of 199 cases (39.8% of all 500 colonoscopies had normal colonoscopy,124 cases (24.8% had hemorrhoid, 64 cases (12.8% had polyp, 55 cases (11% had inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD, 30 cases (6% had tumor, 17 cases(3.2% had diverticulosis and 12 cases (2.4% had solitary rectal ulcer. There was a significant relationship between abdominal pain and tumor, polyp and diverticulosis. (p<0.001 There was also a significant relationship between age and the aforementioned disorders. (p<0.001

     

    Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, the prevalence of cancer and IBD is higher in men

  4. Results report. Sampling and analyses of gases and microorganisms in the water from MINICAN in 2007, 2008 and 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lydmark, Sara; Hallbeck, Lotta (Microbial Analytics Sweden AB (Sweden))

    2011-04-15

    The MINICAN project is located at the depth of 450 m in the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory and was initiated to study how corrosion of the cast iron insert inside a perforated copper canister would evolve with time. Miniature canisters with different perforations and with and without bentonite buffer in steel cages were installed and monitored. Samples for microbiological and gas composition together with samples for groundwater chemistry have been analysed at three occasions in 2007, 2008 and 2010. The results show how the microbial populations outside the canisters have evolved from a mixture of microorganism able to grow on organic material, like heterotrophic organisms, and acetogens that grow on hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide in 2007, to populations with a large proportion of sulphate-reducing bacteria in 2010. The highest number of sulphate-reducing bacteria was found in MINICAN experiment A02C, canister with one hole at the top of the copper canister, in 2010 with 2.4 x 104 mL-1 followed by 8 x 103 mL-1 in A03 (hole in the bottom of the canister) and 7 x 103 mL-1 in A06 (two holes at the top and no bentonite). The numbers of culturable heterotrophic bacteria were between 200 and 530 mL-1 in the experiments with bentonite in 2007 but below detection in all experiments in 2010. The same trend was shown for acetogenes. Measurable amounts of hydrogen gas were found in all experiments at all sampling occasions. There was no general trend for the amounts of hydrogen but there was an increase in three of the experiments and in the groundwater outside MINICAN. It was found that the water chemistry differed between A06 and A02-A04 experiment by higher sulphate and chloride concentrations in A06 compared to the others. By plotting the concentrations of chloride, sulphate against time, a decrease in sulphate concentration was found in all canister experiments. The chloride concentrations were stable during the same period. On the other hand, an increase in sulphate

  5. Results report. Sampling and analyses of gases and microorganisms in the water from MINICAN in 2007, 2008 and 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lydmark, Sara; Hallbeck, Lotta

    2011-04-01

    The MINICAN project is located at the depth of 450 m in the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory and was initiated to study how corrosion of the cast iron insert inside a perforated copper canister would evolve with time. Miniature canisters with different perforations and with and without bentonite buffer in steel cages were installed and monitored. Samples for microbiological and gas composition together with samples for groundwater chemistry have been analysed at three occasions in 2007, 2008 and 2010. The results show how the microbial populations outside the canisters have evolved from a mixture of microorganism able to grow on organic material, like heterotrophic organisms, and acetogens that grow on hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide in 2007, to populations with a large proportion of sulphate-reducing bacteria in 2010. The highest number of sulphate-reducing bacteria was found in MINICAN experiment A02C, canister with one hole at the top of the copper canister, in 2010 with 2.4 x 10 4 mL -1 followed by 8 x 10 3 mL -1 in A03 (hole in the bottom of the canister) and 7 x 10 3 mL -1 in A06 (two holes at the top and no bentonite). The numbers of culturable heterotrophic bacteria were between 200 and 530 mL-1 in the experiments with bentonite in 2007 but below detection in all experiments in 2010. The same trend was shown for acetogenes. Measurable amounts of hydrogen gas were found in all experiments at all sampling occasions. There was no general trend for the amounts of hydrogen but there was an increase in three of the experiments and in the groundwater outside MINICAN. It was found that the water chemistry differed between A06 and A02-A04 experiment by higher sulphate and chloride concentrations in A06 compared to the others. By plotting the concentrations of chloride, sulphate against time, a decrease in sulphate concentration was found in all canister experiments. The chloride concentrations were stable during the same period. On the other hand, an increase in sulphate

  6. Desarrollo de la motricidad fina para mejorar el aprendizaje en el jardín UNE DEL AZUAY, 2007-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Machuca Tito, Rina Monserrath

    2008-01-01

    El desarrollo de esta tesis intitulada "DESARROLLO DE LA MOTRICIDAD FINA, PARA MEJORAR EL APRENDIZAJE EN EL JARDÍN "UNE” DEL AZUAY", 2007 - 2008", con el afán de obtener mi título de Licenciada en Ciencia de la Educación, mención Parvularia, condujo mi investigación hacia un campo muy amplio de información que la posee la Psicomotricidad, teoría que trate de reducírsela sólo al área de Psicomotricidad Fina, e insertarla dentro de los Ejes de Desarrollo y Bloque de Desarrollo. Para la aplic...

  7. ‘Antarctic biology in the 21st century - Advances in, and beyond the international polar year 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddart, Michael

    2010-08-01

    The International Polar Year 2007-2008 (IPY) has provided an opportunity for biology to show itself as an important part of Antarctic science in a manner in which it was not seen during earlier Polar Years. Of the 15 endorsed biological projects in Antarctica, 7 included more than 20 scientists and could be deemed truly international. Four were conducted in the marine environment, and one each in the fields of biological invasions, microbial ecology, and terrestrial ecology, and one was SCAR’s over-arching ‘Evolution and Biodiversity in the Antarctic’. The marine projects have left a robust legacy of data for future research into the consequences of environmental change, and into future decisions about marine protected areas. Studies on introductions of exotic organisms reveal an ever-present threat to the warmer parts of the high-latitude Southern Ocean, or parts which might become warmer with climate change. Studies on microbial ecology reveal great complexity of ecosystems with high numbers of unknown species. Terrestrial research has shown how vulnerable the Antarctic is to accidental introductions, and how productive the soils can be under changed climate conditions. Antarctic biology has come-of-age during IPY 2007-2008 and the campaign has set the scene for future research.

  8. Flavonoid intake from food and beverages: What We Eat in America, NHANES 2007-2008, Tables 1-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Food Surveys Research Group of the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center has released 4 flavonoid intake data tables that make available, for the first time, nationally representative estimates of the intake of 29 individual flavonoids in six classes (as well as the sum of those flavonoids)...

  9. Beyond the Price Effect in Time-of-Use Programs: Results from a Municipal Utility Pilot, 2007-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutzenhiser, Susan; Peters, Jane; Moezzi, Mithra; Woods, James

    2009-08-12

    This paper discusses results of a two-year collaborative research project between the authors and the Demand Response Research Center focused on behavioral response to a voluntary time-of-use pilot rate offered by the Sacramento Municipal Utilities District (SMUD) under the PowerChoice label. The project had two purposes: one was to assess the potential for increasing demand response through the introduction of enhanced information and real-time consumption feedback; the second was to better understand behavioral response to a TOU rate. Three successive waves of telephone surveys collected details about reasons for participation, actions taken, capacities and constraints to altering behavior, and a range of salient conditions, such as demographics and dwelling characteristics. Pre- and post-program interval meter data for participants and a comparison sample of households were also collected and analyzed to consider initial and season-change price effects of the rate and the effect of supplemental information treatments on response. Over half of surveyed participating households reported that they had made a great deal of effort to adjust their electricity consumption to the rate. Despite this, load data analysis revealed only minimal price effects; and, though households subjected to information treatments seemed to have learned from these treatments, load data analysis again detected only minimal effects on load. Given the currently high hopes for behavioral intervention and residential TOU rates, these unexpected results require explanation. We suggest a number of possibilities and discuss some implications for TOU programs, and for understanding demand response behavior and approaches to experiments with TOU rates.

  10. Characterization of Suspended-Sediment Loading to and from John Redmond Reservoir, East-Central Kansas, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Casey J.; Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2008-01-01

    Storage capacity in John Redmond Reservoir is being lost to sedimentation more rapidly than in other federal impoundments in Kansas. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, initiated a study to characterize suspended-sediment loading to and from John Redmond Reservoir from February 21, 2007, through February 21, 2008. Turbidity sensors were installed at two U.S. Geological Survey stream gages upstream (Neosho River near Americus and the Cottonwood River near Plymouth) and one stream gage downstream (Neosho River at Burlington) from the reservoir to compute continuous, real-time (15-minute) measurements of suspended-sediment concentration and loading. About 1,120,000 tons of suspended-sediment were transported to, and 100,700 tons were transported from John Redmond Reservoir during the study period. Dependent on the bulk density of sediment stored in the reservoir, 5.0 to 1.4 percent of the storage in the John Redmond conservation pool was lost during the study period, with an average deposition of 3.4 to 1.0 inches. Nearly all (98-99 percent) of the incoming sediment load was transported during 9 storms which occurred 25 to 27 percent of the time. The largest storm during the study period (peak-flow recurrence interval of about 4.6-4.9 years) transported about 37 percent of the sediment load to the reservoir. Suspended-sediment yield from the unregulated drainage area upstream from the Neosho River near Americus was 530 tons per square mile, compared to 400 tons per square mile upstream from the Cottonwood River near Plymouth. Comparison of historical (1964-78) to current (2007) sediment loading estimates indicate statistically insignificant (99 percent) decrease in sediment loading at the Neosho River at Burlington. Ninety-percent confidence intervals of streamflow-derived estimates of total sediment load were 7 to 21 times larger than turbidity-derived estimates. Results from this study can be used by natural resource

  11. Introduction of the 2007-2008 JOGMEC/NRCan/Aurora Mallik Gas Hydrate Production Research Program, NWT, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K.; Dallimore, S. R.; Numasawa, M.; Yasuda, M.; Fujii, T.; Fujii, K.; Wright, J.; Nixon, F.

    2007-12-01

    prolonged testing planned in the near future. The authors acknowledge the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan (MH21), the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and NRCan for the support and funding. The Mallik 2002 program was undertaken jointly by JNOC, NRCan, GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ), the United State Geological Survey (USGS), the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), the India Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas (MOPNG)-Gas Authority of India (GAIL), and the BP-Chevron Texaco Mackenzie Delta Joint Venture.

  12. 2007 2008 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 31 March, 1 & 3 April 2008 11:00 hrs.-12:00 hrs. - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Positrons sources for electron-positron colliders. Application to ILC and CLIC Dr. R. CHEHAB, IPNL/IN2P3/CNRS Université de Lyon 1, France The increased demanding qualities for positron sources dedicated to e+e- colliders pushed on investigations oriented on new kinds of e+ sources. The different kinds of positron sources polarized and no polarized are considered. Their main features (intensity, emittance) are described and analysed. Comparison between the different sources is worked out. The characteristics of the positron beam available in the collision point are greatly depending on the capture device and on the positron accelerator. Different kinds of capture systems are considered and their qualities, compared. Intense positron sources which are necessary for the colliders require intense incident beams (electrons or photons). The large number of pairs created in the targe...

  13. 2007 2008 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 14, 15, 17 January 2008 11:00 to 12:00 - Council Chamber, Bldg. 503-1-001 Applications of accelerators to tumour therapy U. AMALDI, TERA Foundation & University of Milano Bicocca The first lecture is devoted to an historical review of the developments of the teletherapy techniques which make use of hadron beams and are collectively called "hadrontherapy". The main emphasis is on the use of protons and light ions, but also neutrons, pions and antiprotons are considered. The second lecture reviews the rationale behind the use of carbon ions in the treatment of radioresistant tumours and the results obtained both with proton and carbon ion beams on the 60 000 patients treated worldwide. The numbers of patients who would profit from hadrontherapy are presented together with the current landscape of running and planned hospital based centres. The main technical challenges set by this therapeutic modality are discussed in the third lecture together with the app...

  14. 2007 2008 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 21, 22, 23, 24, 25 April 2008 11:00 -12:00 – TH Auditorium – Bldg. 4-3-006 Fundamentals of Particle Detectors and Developments in Detector Technologies for future Experiments Dr. Werner RIEGLER, CERN, Geneva This lecture series will first review the elementary processes and techniques on which particle detectors are based. These must always be kept in mind when discussing the limits of existing technologies and motivations for novel developments. Using the examples of LHC detectors, the limits of state of the art detectors will be outlined and the current detector R&D trends for the LHC upgrade and other future experiments will be discussed. This discussion will include micropattern gas detectors, novel solid state detector technologies and trends in microelectronics.

  15. 2007 2008 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 01, 03, 04, 05 October 2007 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Tevatron: The Cinderella Story or The Art Of Collider Commissioning V. SHILTSEV / Fermi National Accelerator Laboraty, Batavia IL, USA The Tevatron Collider at Fermilab (Batavia, IL, USA) is the world’s highest energy particle collider at 1.8TeV c.m.e. The machine was a centerpiece of the US and world’s High Energy Physics for many years. Currently, the Tevatron is in the last years of its operation in so-called Run II which started 2001 and is tentatively scheduled to end in 2010. In this lecture series, we’ll try to learn from the exciting story of the Tevatron Collider Run II: the story of long preparations, great expectations, initial difficulties, years of "blood and sweat", continuous upgrades, exceeding its goals, high emotions, tune-up of accelerator organization for "combat fighting". The lectures will cover Introduction to the Tevatron, its history and Run II; "Plumbing" I...

  16. 2007 2008 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 01, 03, 04, 05 October 2007 11:00-12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Tevatron: The Cinderella Story or The Art Of Collider Commissioning V. SHILTSEV / Fermi National Accelerator Laboraty, Batavia IL, USA The Tevatron Collider at Fermilab (Batavia, IL, USA) is the world’s highest energy particle collider at 1.8TeV c.m.e. The machine was a centerpiece of the US and world’s High Energy Physics for many years. Currently, the Tevatron is in the last years of its operation in so-called Run II which started 2001 and is tentatively scheduled to end in 2010. In this lecture series, we’ll try to learn from the exciting story of the Tevatron Collider Run II: the story of long preparations, great expectations, initial difficulties, years of "blood and sweat", continuous upgrades, exceeding its goals, high emotions, tune-up of accelerator organization for "combat fighting". The lectures will cover Introduction to the Tevatron, its history and Run II; "Plumbing" Issu...

  17. 2007-2008 Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    240 Tactical Operations Center ( TOC ) .......................................................................242 Tactical Unmanned Aerial...4QFY06: CHS-3 contract transferred from AMCOM Acq Ctr to CECOM Acq Ctr as a result of the PD CHS move from PM TOCs /AMDCCS to PM TRCS in FY06...SALES None CONTRACTORS IRB Bays manufacturer: General Dynamics Santa Barbara Sistemas (Kaiserslautern, Germany) Logistic support: AM General (Livonia, MI

  18. Principals' Salaries, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Willa D.; Licciardi, Chris

    2008-01-01

    How do salaries of elementary and middle school principals compare with those of other administrators and classroom teachers? Are increases in salaries of principals keeping pace with increases in salaries of classroom teachers? And how have principals' salaries fared over the years when the cost of living is taken into account? There are reliable…

  19. 2007 2008 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 13 May 2008 11:00 -12:00 – Main Auditorium, bldg. 500-1 LHC Hardware Commissioning - Why LHC Hardware commissioning? Specificity and complexity of the LHC Roberto SABAN, CERN, Geneva The operation of the Large Hadron Collider relies many systems with technologies often beyond the start of the art and in particular on hundreds of superconducting magnets operating in superfluid He at 1.9K powered by more than 1700 power converters. A sophisticated magnet protection system is crucial to detect a quench and safely extract the energy stored in the circuits (about 1GJ only in one of the dipole circuits of each sector) after a resistive transition. In order to ensure safe operation, these systems depend on each other and on the infrastructure systems (controls, electricity distribution, water cooling, ventilation, communication systems, etc.). The commissioning of the technical systems together with the associated infrastructures is therefore mandatory. The complexity of operating this machine s...

  20. 2007 2008 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 27, 28 & 29 May 2008 11:00 -12:00 – Main Auditorium, bldg. 500-1 The biological effects of ionizing radiation M. STREIT-BIANCHI, CERN, Geneva, CH Since the discovery of X-rays the practical use of ionizing radiation and its damaging effects have been a source of concern for occupational health and radiation protection. This led to the introduction of dose limits and strict controls associated with the use of radiation for civil uses. This Academic Training lecture series will discuss the effects of radiation on humans with special emphasis on the health effects of low doses. Radiation risks as assessed from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Chernobyl as well as others accidental and occupational exposures will be presented and discussed. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 June 2008 11:00 -12:00 – Main Auditorium, bldg. 500-1 Technology and applications of high field accelerator magnets Dr. G. AMBROSIO, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, USA Superconducting magnets are an enabling technology for high ene...

  1. 2007 2008 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 18, 19, 20 & 21 February 2008 Main Auditorium, bldg. 500-1: 18, 19, 21 February 2008 - 11:00-12:00 Council Chamber, bldg 503-1-001: 20 February 2008 - 11:00-12:00 Council Chamber, bldg 503-1-001: 21 February 2008 - 14:00-15:00 QCD Phenomenology at High Energy Prof. Bryan WEBBER, Cambridge University, UK Whatever kind of physics may be found at the LHC, strongly-interacting particles will be involved and therefore quantum chromodynamics will play a crucial role. For processes at high energy scales, perturbation theory remains the most powerful approach. These lectures will review the foundations and limitations of perturbative QCD and its application to high-energy processes, including jet production and fragmentation, deep inelastic scattering, and heavy quark and Higgs boson production.

  2. 2007 2008 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 27, 28, 29, 30 November 2007 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, 
bldg. 500 Tevatron Physics Results B. HEINEMANN, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA I will summarize the physics results from the Tevatron experiments with particular emphasis on the experimental methods used in different kinds of analysis. In particular, the Tevatron is a proton-antiproton collider that has now accumulated more than 2 fb-1 of luminosity in the two experiments, called CDF and D0. In this lecture I will review the results on inclusive productions of jets, W- and Z-bosons, the results in the flavor sector, the measurements of top production, searches for Higgs boson production and searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. In each case I will explain the basic experimental concepts and methods needed for making the measurement.

  3. 2007 2008 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 27, 28, 29, 30 November 2007 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Tevatron Physics Results B. HEINEMANN, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA I will summarize the physics results from the Tevatron experiments with particular emphasis on the experimental methods used in different kinds of analysis. In particular, the Tevatron is a proton-antiproton collider that has now accumulated more than 2 fb-1 of luminosity in the two experiments, called CDF and D0. In this lecture I will review the results on inclusive productions of jets, W- and Z-bosons, the results in the flavor sector, the measurements of top production, searches for Higgs boson production and searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. In each case I will explain the basic experimental concepts and methods needed for making the measurement.

  4. 2007 2008 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 6 & 8 May 2008 11:00 -12:00 – Main Auditorium, bldg. 500-1 Energy isn’t Everything: CERN’s Fixed Target Niche Prof. John DAINTON / Cockcroft Institute & Liverpool University, UK Fixed target physics at CERN remains an essential part of the Laboratory’s scientific programme and horizon. In recent years fixed target and decay physics using CERN’s unique accelerator and beam facilities has continued to enable unique experiments to be undertaken. An overview is presented of the status of this physics and, wherever appropriate, of its future. LECTURE SERIES 7 May 2008 11:00 -12:00 – TH Auditorium – Bldg. 4-3-006 A rich revenue from the use of radioactive beams and radioactive targets: recent highlights from the nTOF and ISOLDE facilities 9 May 2008 11:00 -12:00 – Main Auditorium, bldg. 500-1 The fifth decade of ISOLDE: HIE-ISOLDE Professor Mark HUYSE, Leuven University, BE The On-Line Isotope Mass Separator ISOLDE is a facility dedicated to the production of a...

  5. 2007 2008 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Unit

    2008-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 4 September 2008 11:00-12:00: AT Auditorium, Bldg 30-7-018 14:00-15:00: Main Auditorium, bldg. 500-1-001 ITER: Promises unkept ? Dr. Norbert HOLTKAMP / ITER Cadarache, France Fusion power as the source of energy on Earth has been the dream of mankind ever since the principles were understood. ITER, the Latin word for "the way", is the world’s largest Fusion device presently under construction in Cadarache, France. Supported by the People’s Republic of China, the European Atomic Energy Community, India, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation, and the United States of America, an international organization was founded after the signature of the Joint ITER Agreement in October of 2006. The goal is to build a Fusion reactor with a power amplification of 10, a total fusion power of 500 MW or more operating at extended burn times of 400-3000 seconds, with Deuterium and Tritium as its basic fuel. Following a short introduction into fusion science principles, the ...

  6. 2007 2008 Academic Training programme

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 27, 28 & 29 May 2008 11:00 -12:00 – Main Auditorium, bldg. 500-1 The biological effects of ionizing radiation M. STREIT-BIANCHI, CERN, Geneva, CH Since the discovery of X-rays the practical use of ionizing radiation and its damaging effects have been a source of concern for occupational health and radiation protection. This led to the introduction of dose limits and strict controls associated with the use of radiation for civil uses. This Academic Training lecture series will discuss the effects of radiation on humans with special emphasis on the health effects of low doses. Radiation risks as assessed from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Chernobyl as well as others accidental and occupational exposures will be presented and discussed. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 June 2008 11:00 -12:00 – Main Auditorium, bldg. 500-1 Technology and applications of high field accelerator magnets Dr. G. AMBROSIO, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, USA Superconducting magnets are an enabling technology for high ene...

  7. 2007 2008 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 16, 17, 18, 19 June 2008 11:00 -12:00 – Main Auditorium, bldg. 500-1 Multivariate statistical methods and data mining in particle physics Dr. Glen COWAN, London University, Royal Holloway College, UK The lectures will cover multivariate statistical methods and their applications in High Energy Physics. The methods will be viewed in the framework of a statistical test, as used e.g. to discriminate between signal and background events. Topics will include an introduction to the relevant statistical formalism, linear test variables, neural networks, probability density estimation (PDE) methods, kernel-based PDE, decision trees and support vector machines. The methods will be evaluated with respect to criteria relevant to HEP analyses such as statistical power, ease of computation and sensitivity to systematic effects. Simple computer examples that can be extended to more complex analyses will be presented.

  8. 2007 2008 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 14, 15, 17 January 2008 11:00 to 12:00 - Council Chamber, bldg. 503-1-001 Applications of accelerators to tumour therapy U. AMALDI, TERA Foundation & University of Milano Bicocca The first lecture is devoted to an historical review of the developments of the teletherapy techniques which make use of hadron beams and are collectively called "hadrontherapy". The main emphasis is on the use of protons and light ions, but also neutrons, pions and antiprotons are considered. The second lecture reviews the rationale behind the use of carbon ions in the treatment of radioresistant tumours and the results obtained both with proton and carbon ion beams on the 60 000 patients treated worldwide. The numbers of patients who would profit from hadrontherapy are presented together with the current landscape of running and planned hospital based centres. The main technical challenges set by this therapeutic modality are discussed in the third lecture together with the app...

  9. The optical and physical properties of atmospheric aerosols over the Indian Antarctic stations during southern hemispheric summer of the International Polar Year 2007-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaubey, Jai Prakash; Moorthy, K. Krishna; Babu, S. Suresh; Nair, Vijayakumar S. [Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram (India). Space Physics Lab.

    2011-07-01

    The properties of background aerosols and their dependence on meteorological, geographical and human influence are examined using measured spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD), total mass concentration (MT) and derived number size distribution (NSD) over two distinct coastal locations of Antarctica; Maitri (70 S, 12 E, 123 m m.s.l.) and Larsemann Hills (LH; 69 S, 77 E, 48 m m.s.l.) during southern hemispheric summer of 2007-2008 as a part of the 27th Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica (ISEA) during International Polar Year (IPY). Our investigations showed comparable values for the mean columnar AOD at 500 nm over Maitri (0.034{+-}0.005) and LH (0.032{+-}0.006) indicating good spatial homogeneity in the columnar aerosol properties over the coastal Antarctica. Estimation of Angstrom exponent {alpha} showed accumulation mode dominance at Maitri ({alpha}{proportional_to}1.2{+-}0.3) and coarse mode dominance at LH (0.7{+-}0.2). On the other hand, mass concentration (MT) of ambient aerosols showed relatively high values ({approx}8.25{+-}2.87 {mu}g m{sup -3}) at Maitri in comparison to LH (6.03{+-}1.33 {mu}g m{sup -3}). (orig.)

  10. Caracterización de la conducta suicida en el Policlínico "René Ávila Reyes". Holguín 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisy Mercedes Infantes Pérez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aborda un estudio descriptivo, de series de casos sobre el comportamiento de la conducta suicida en el Policlínico ¿René Ávila Reyes¿, Holguín .2007-2008. La muestra estuvo integrada por 52 pacientes con conducta suicida. Para la obtención de información se revisaron Historias Clínicas y discusiones de casos. En el intento suicida hubo un mayor predominio en los adolescentes, las mujeres y amas de casa. Las edades de 31 a 40 años, del sexo masculino y desocupados, se señalaron con mayor comportamiento en el suicidio. Los métodos más empleados para realizar el intento correspondieron a la ingestión de tabletas y el ahorcamiento para al suicidio. Los antecedentes patológicos familiares y personales de conducta suicida se señalaron como factor importante y el problema principal que desencadenó la conducta correspondió a la depresión marcada. Se recomendó el diseño de una estrategia de intervención comunitaria para lograr un impacto en el área de salud.

  11. Prevalence of internal parasites in beef cows in the United States: Results of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's (NAHMS) beef study, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, Bert E; Gasbarre, Louis C; Ballweber, Lora R; Dargatz, David A; Rodriguez, Judith M; Kopral, Christine A; Zarlenga, Dante S

    2015-10-01

    During the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Animal Health Monitoring System's (NAHMS) 2007-2008 beef study, 567 producers from 24 US States were offered the opportunity to collect fecal samples from weaned beef calves and have them evaluated for the presence of parasite eggs (Phase 1). Participating producers were provided with instructions and materials for sample collection. Up to 20 fresh fecal samples were collected from each of the 99 participating operations. Fresh fecal samples were submitted to one of 3 randomly assigned laboratories for evaluation. Upon arrival at the laboratories, all samples were processed for the enumeration of strongyle, Nematodirus, and Trichuris eggs using the modified Wisconsin technique. The presence or absence of coccidian oocysts and tapeworm eggs was also noted. In submissions where the strongyle eggs per gram exceeded 30, aliquots from 2 to 6 animals were pooled for DNA extraction. Extracted DNA was subjected to genus level polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identification for the presence of Ostertagia, Cooperia, Haemonchus, Oesophagostomum, and Trichostrongylus. In this study, 85.6% of the samples had strongyle type, Nematodirus, and Trichuris eggs. Among the samples evaluated, 91% had Cooperia, 79% Ostertagia, 53% Haemonchus, 38% Oesophagostomum, 18% Nematodirus, 7% Trichuris, and 3% Trichostrongylus. The prevalence of coccidia and tapeworm eggs was 59.9% and 13.7%, respectively.

  12. Epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease in Málaga: incidence rate and follow-up of a cohort diagnosed between 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto Torreblanca, Ignacio; Camargo Camero, Raquel; Andrade Bellido, Raúl; Romero Pérez, Eduardo; Alcaín Martínez, Guillermo

    2017-08-01

    The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in Spain has been traditionally lower than in Northern European countries. Recent epidemiological studies have found that these differences are diminishing. This study estimates the incidence of IBD in Málaga (Spain), a city in Southern Spain and relates its results to those found in our neighboring countries. This was a prospective study designed to collect new cases diagnosed during the period from 2007-2008 and follow up these patients. Incidence is expressed as number of patients per 100,000 population per year. The population distribution found in the European Collaborative Study was used to standardize incidence rates. The gross incidence rate of IBD in Málaga is 9/105, the standardized incidence rate is 12.3/105 (9.7-15.6). These data are similar to those found in our surroundings, although a higher incidence rate for Crohn's disease (CD) as compared to ulcerative colitis (UC) was found. The clinical characteristics and outcomes of our patients do not differ significantly from those described for other populations.

  13. Does sitting height ratio affect estimates of obesity prevalence among Canadian Inuit? Results from the 2007-2008 Inuit Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Tracey; Chateau-Degat, Marie-Ludivine; Egeland, Grace M; Young, T Kue

    2011-01-01

    High sitting height ratio (SHR) is a characteristic commonly associated with Inuit morphology. Inuit are described as having short leg lengths and high trunk-to-stature proportions such that cutoffs for obesity derived from European populations may not adequately describe thresholds of disease risk. Further, high SHR may help explain the reduced impact of BMI on metabolic risk factors among Inuit relative to comparison populations. This study investigates the relationship between SHR and body mass index (BMI) in Inuit. Subjects are 2,168 individuals (837 males and 1,331 females) from 36 Inuit communities in the Canadian Arctic. Mean age is 42.63 ± 14.86 years in males and 41.71 ± 14.83 years in females. We use linear regression to examine the association between age, sex, height, sitting height, SHR, waist circumference (WC), and BMI. We then evaluate the efficacy of the relative sitting height adjustment as a method of correcting observed BMI to a population-standardized SHR. Mean BMI is significantly higher than among non-Inuit Canadians. Obesity prevalence is high, particularly among Inuit women. In the regression, only age and WC are significant predictors of BMI. While SHR is significantly greater than that of the US population, there is substantial agreement between overweight and obesity prevalence using observed and corrected BMI. We find no consistent relationship between SHR and BMI and suggest the unique anthropometric and metabolic profile observed in Inuit arise from factors not yet delineated. More complex anthropometric and imaging studies in Inuit are needed. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Screening for Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium ulcerans in patients with upper respiratory tract infections 2007-2008: a multicentre European study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wagner, K S

    2011-04-01

    Diphtheria is now rare in most European countries but, when cases do arise, the case fatality rate is high (5-10%). Because few countries continue to routinely screen for the causative organisms of diphtheria, the extent to which they are circulating amongst different European populations is largely unknown. During 2007-2008, ten European countries each screened between 968 and 8551 throat swabs from patients with upper respiratory tract infections. Six toxigenic strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae were identified: two from symptomatic patients in Latvia (the country with the highest reported incidence of diphtheria in the European Union) and four from Lithuania (two cases, two carriers); the last reported case of diphtheria in Lithuania was in 2002. Carriage rates of non-toxigenic organisms ranged from 0 (Bulgaria, Finland, Greece, Ireland, Italy) to 4.0 per 1000 (95% CI 2.0-7.1) in Turkey. A total of 28 non-toxigenic strains were identified during the study (26 C. diphtheriae, one Corynebacterium ulcerans, one Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis). The non-toxigenic C. ulcerans strain was isolated from the UK, the country with the highest reported incidence of cases due to C. ulcerans. Of the eleven ribotypes detected, Cluj was seen most frequently in the non-toxigenic isolates and, amongst toxigenic isolates, the major epidemic clone, Sankt-Petersburg, is still in circulation. Isolation of toxigenic C. diphtheriae and non-toxigenic C. diphtheriae and C. ulcerans in highly-vaccinated populations highlights the need to maintain microbiological surveillance, laboratory expertise and an awareness of these organisms amongst public health specialists, microbiologists and clinicians.

  15. Two historians in front of the economic crisis of 2007-2008: Hobsbawm and Judt between Marxism and the legacies of 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bresciani Marco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available How did intellectuals react to the economic crisis of 2007-2008 and its long-term backlash? What did they learn from the main twentieth-century political and social experiences, in order to make a new sense of the traditional cultures of the Left? In order to answer these crucial issues, this proposal will analyze the paths of the well-known historians E. Hobsbawm and T. Judt and their apparently similar, but actually different reactions to the crisis. First, I will focus on their respective books: How to Change the World (2011 and Ill Fares the Land (2010. On the one hand, Hobsbawm’s critical approach to the post-1991 world, shaped by his lifelong fidelity to Marxism and his persistent sympathy for the Russian Revolution, was connected to his catastrophic vision of the end of the both conflicting and collaborative dynamics between capitalism and socialism. On the other hand, Judt’s re-thinking of the social-democratic tradition, compelled by the global transformations of the social question, was inspired by his connections with the East Central European dissidents’ anti-totalitarian liberalism and by his critical approach to the engagement of the French intellectuals. Second, I will investigate their different interpretations of the „Golden Age“ of post-1945 Europe (with special regard to the long-term impact of the crisis of 1929 and to the influence of Soviet communism and of the causes of its crisis. Third, I will show how, in spite of their common reference to Marx, late Hobsbawm’s and Judt’s historical visions - respectively combined with determinism and moralism - provide opposite ways of coping with the legacies of the 20th century and of criticizing the language of neoliberal economy within the Left.

  16. NPS-SCAT CONOPS and Radiation Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    flexibility, as well as allows players in the space market who would otherwise not be able to enter due to budgetary limitations. Important to NPS is...commercial market . Although the time frame for completing NPS-SCAT has not been as short as possible due to the nature of the learning environment on its...Program ( STP ) seeks flight opportunities for approved experiments. The current NPS- SCAT launch date offers ample time to finish and test the

  17. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: body mass index and level of overweight among 6-9-year-old children from school year 2007/2008 to school year 2009/2010.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wijnhoven, Trudy Ma

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe has established the Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) to monitor changes in overweight in primary-school children. The aims of this paper are to present the anthropometric results of COSI Round 2 (2009\\/2010) and to explore changes in body mass index (BMI) and overweight among children within and across nine countries from school years 2007\\/2008 to 2009\\/2010.

  18. Value-at-Risk Performances during the 2007-2008 Global Financial Crisis: a comparison of three Value-at-Risk models in the emerging markets of China, India and Philippines.

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Mi

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the world economic outlook was fundamentally changed by the 2007-2008 financial crisis, risk management and reliable risk measurements have been drew much attentions. This thesis selects three Asian emerging markets, that is, China, India, Philippine, as the research targets and evaluates the performances of three different Value-at-Risk (VaR) models (the Historical Simulation, the Monte Carlo Simulation, and the Extreme Value Theory) in these three emerging markets’ stock markets ...

  19. Hierarchically Structured Recommender System for Improving NPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Jieyan

    2016-01-01

    Net Promoter System (NPS) is well known as an evaluation measure of the growth engine of big companies in the business area. The ultimate goal of my research is to build an action rules and meta-actions based recommender system for improving NPS scores of 34 companies (clients) dealing with similar businesses in the US and Canada. With the given…

  20. NPS: Medical Consequences Associated with Their Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifano, Fabrizio; Orsolini, Laura; Papanti, Duccio; Corkery, John

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, the 'traditional' drug scene has been supplemented - but not replaced - by the emergence of a range of novel psychoactive substances (NPS), which are either newly created or existing drugs, including medications, now being used in novel ways. By the end of 2014, in excess of 500 NPS had been reported by a large number of countries in the world. Most recent data show, however, that synthetic cathinones, synthetic cannabinoids, and psychedelics/phenethylamines account for the largest number of NPS.The present chapter aims at providing an overview of the clinical and pharmacological issues relating to these most popular NPS categories. Given the vast range of medical and psychopathological issues associated with the molecules here described, it is crucial for health professionals to be aware of the effects and toxicity of NPS. A general overview of the acute management of NPS adverse events is provided as well, although further studies are required to identify a range of evidence-based, index molecule-focused, treatment strategies. The rapid pace of change in the NPS online market constitutes a major challenge to the provision of current and reliable scientific knowledge on these substances.

  1. Epidemia midiática: produção de sentidos e configuração social da febre amarela na cobertura jornalística, 2007-2008 Media epidemics: sense production and social configuration of yellow fever in the journalistic coverage, 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Malinverni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo, situado no campo da comunicação em saúde, é analisar os sentidos atribuídos discursivamente à febre amarela silvestre durante a cobertura jornalística da epizootia da doença, ocorrida no Brasil no verão 2007-2008. Utilizando o referencial teórico das práticas discursivas e da produção de sentidos no cotidiano e as hipóteses de agendamento (agenda-setting e enquadramento (framing da notícia, foram analisadas todas as matérias sobre febre amarela veiculadas pelo jornal Folha de S. Paulo, no período de 21 de dezembro de 2007 a 29 de fevereiro de 2008, e todos os documentos oficiais sobre a epizootia emitidos pela autoridade brasileira de saúde pública entre 3 de janeiro e 28 de fevereiro de 2008. Os achados indicam que as estratégias discursivas da cobertura jornalística relativizaram o discurso da autoridade de saúde pública; priorizaram a divulgação do número de casos; enfatizaram a vacinação como o limite entre a vida e a morte, omitindo riscos do uso indiscriminado do imunobiológico; e propagaram a iminência de uma epidemia de febre amarela de grandes proporções. Essas estratégias deram novos sentidos à doença, deslocando o evento de sua forma silvestre, espacialmente restrita e de gravidade limitada, para a urbana, de caráter epidêmico e potencialmente mais grave. Secundariamente, o estudo permitiu identificar os impactos desse discurso midiático sobre o sistema nacional de imunização e os riscos a que a população foi exposta em função dos sentidos produzidos: em 2008, foram registrados 8 casos de reação grave à vacina, dos quais 6 foram a óbito.Located in the Field of communication and health, the objective of this article is to analyze the senses attributed in the discourse on yellow fever, during the journalistic coverage of the epizooty of the diseased, occurring in Brazil during the summer 2007-2008. Employing the theoretical reference of discursive practices and

  2. Surveillance of transmitted HIV drug resistance using matched plasma and dried blood spot specimens from voluntary counseling and testing sites in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Nguyen Bui; Hien, Bui Thu; Wagar, Nick; Tram, Tran Hong; Giang, Le Truong; Yang, Chunfu; Wolfe, Mitchell I; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Tuan, Nguyen Anh

    2012-05-01

    During 2007-2008, surveillance of transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance (TDR) was performed following World Health Organization guidance among clients with newly diagnosed HIV infection attending voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) sites in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. Moderate (5%-15%) TDR to nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) was observed among VCT clients aged 18-21 years. Follow-up surveillance of TDR in HCMC and other geographic regions of Vietnam is warranted. Data generated will guide the national HIV drug resistance surveillance strategy and support selection of current and future first-line antiretroviral therapy and HIV prevention programs.

  3. Determinación de los riesgos laborales y su influencia en la salud en el personal que labora en la planta de agua de Uchupucun-Azogues, durante el proceso de potabilización 2007-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera Cárdenas, Susana Virginia

    2008-01-01

    La investigación Determinación de los riesgos laborales y su influencia en la salud en el personal que labora en la planta de agua de Uchupucun- Azogues durante el proceso de Potabilización.2007-2008" se planteó como objetivo identificar los procesos peligrosos o riesgos a los que se encuentra expuesto el personal que labora en la Planta de Agua. DISEÑO METODOLÓGICO. El universo que participó en la investigación fue pequeño de 7 personas, el tipo de estudio fue descriptivo y cualitativo, se...

  4. Prevalência e fatores associados ao excesso de peso em adultos: inquérito populacional em Rio Branco, Acre, Brasil, 2007-2008 Prevalence of overweight and associated factors in adults: a population survey in Rio Branco, Acre State, Brazil, 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Zago Ramos Lino

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudos populacionais no Brasil apontam aumento da prevalência de excesso de peso e obesidade na população adulta, em todas as regiões. O objetivo deste estudo foi estimar a prevalência e identificar os principais fatores associados ao excesso de peso em adultos, em Rio Branco, Acre, Brasil, por meio de um estudo transversal de base populacional com amostra composta de 1.469 adultos. A análise multivariada foi realizada através de regressão de Poisson, adotando-se, como variável dependente, excesso de peso (IMC > 25kg/m². A prevalência de excesso de peso foi observada em 46,9% da amostra, sendo mais elevada entre as mulheres. Observou-se tendência de aumento do excesso de peso com o aumento da idade em ambos os gêneros. Observaram-se associações entre o excesso de peso e variáveis socioeconômicas, demográficas e morbidades como hipertensão arterial e dislipidemias. A alta prevalência de excesso de peso em adultos de ambos os sexos sugere um problema de saúde pública. Tornam-se necessárias medidas de controle e prevenção dos riscos à saúde associados ao excesso de peso.Population studies in Brazil have shown an increased prevalence of overweight and obesity in adult populations in all regions of the country. The objective was to estimate prevalence and identify risk factors associated with overweight among adults in Rio Branco, Acre State, Brazil. The study included a cross-sectional population-based sample of 1,469 adults. Multivariate analysis was performed using Poisson regression, taking overweight (BMI > 25kg/m² as the dependent variable. Prevalence of overweight was 46.9%, higher among women. Overweight tended to increase with age in both men and women. Overweight was associated with socioeconomic, demographic, and morbidity variables such as hypertension and dyslipidemia. The high prevalence of overweight in adults of both sexes suggests a public health problem. Control measures and prevention of health risks associated with excess weight are necessary.

  5. NPS-SCAT (Solar Cell Array Tester), The Construction of NPS' First Prototype CubeSat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bein, Alexander L

    2008-01-01

    .... This Master's Thesis describes the NPS-SCAT (solar cell array tester) project, including the author's experience as program manager of the project, responsible for budget, schedule and technical deliverables...

  6. NPS-SCAT: Electrical Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Postgraduate School thesis, 2009. 5 M.P. Schroer, NPS-SCAT; A Cubesat Communications System Design, Test, and Intergration . Monterey: Naval...AIAA, 2007. 9 production of the 2400 unit. Communication testing of the 2420 unit initially showed great promise. Data rates that would easily...After a review of available products , the Clyde Space EPS was selected based on three major considerations. One, the Clyde Space unit had been flown on

  7. Gresham’s Law of Surveys and Quality Standards in Survey Research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčí, Jindřich

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 8, 7-8 (2010), s. 3-6 ISSN 1214-1720 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA09010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : cross-national comparative research * social survey methods Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography http://www.socioweb.cz/upl/editorial/download/181_pdf%202010%2007%2008.pdf

  8. Markets, jobs, and energetic challenge of activities related to renewable energies and to energy efficiency. Situation in 2007-2008. Perspectives for 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-10-01

    This study proposes an annual evolution survey of markets and jobs related to the development of renewable energies and to the improvement of energy efficiency in the housing and transport sectors. Markets are related to wind energy, thermal and photovoltaic energy, heat pumps, wood, bio-diesel, bio-ethanol, biogas, waste energetic valorization, geothermal energy, and hydro-energy. Energy efficiency improvements in the housing sector are related to energetic improvement of existing dwellings, condensing boilers, energetically performing household electrical appliances, and compact fluorescent lamps. In the transport sector, energy efficiency improvements concern rail transports and tramways as well as individual vehicles. New markets are identified and discussed: research and development for renewable energies, energy consultancy and diagnosis, energy efficiency in the office building sector and in the industrial sector

  9. Reading nutrition labels is associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults: the 2007-2008 Korean NHANES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H-T; Shim, J-Y; Lee, Y-J; Linton, J A; Park, B-J; Lee, H-R

    2013-09-01

    Several studies demonstrated that reading nutrition labels was associated with healthier food choices, despite some controversy. This study investigated the association between the use of nutrition labels and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Korean adults. This cross-sectional study included 7756 individuals who participated in the 2007-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). A self-reported questionnaire was used to determine participant's awareness of nutrition labels. Modified Asian criteria based on a harmonizing definition of MetS were adopted. Individuals in the group that read nutrition labels (the Reading Group) were youngest and leanest, but their daily caloric intake fell between that of the group that did not read nutrition labels (the Non-Reading Group) and the group that did not know about them (the Not-Knowing Group). The prevalence of MetS was 16.8% in the Reading Group, 27.2% in the Non-Reading Group, and 47.3% in the Not-Knowing Group. In comparison to participants in the Reading Group, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for MetS in the participants in the Non-Reading Group and Not-Knowing Group were 1.85 (1.60-2.14) and 4.44 (3.79-5.20), respectively, when not adjusted. The relationship between the use of nutrition labels and MetS remained statistically significant even after adjusting for covariates such as age, sex and socioeconomic status including household income and education level [1.27 (1.05-1.53) in the Non-Reading Group and 1.34 (1.05-1.70) in the Not-Knowing Group]. Reading nutrition labels appeared to be associated with a lower prevalence of MetS in a nationally representative sample of Korean adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hepatitis B virus, syphilis, and HIV seroprevalence in pregnant women and their male partners from six indigenous populations of the Peruvian Amazon Basin, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormaeche, Melvy; Whittembury, Alvaro; Pun, Mónica; Suárez-Ognio, Luis

    2012-10-01

    To assess the seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), syphilis, and HIV and associated risk factors in pregnant women and their male partners from six indigenous populations of the Peruvian Amazon Basin. A cross-sectional study was performed in six indigenous populations from the Peruvian Amazon Basin. Blood samples were obtained and tested for HBV (antibodies to the hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)), for syphilis (rapid plasma reagin and microhemagglutination assay for Treponema pallidum antibodies), and for HIV (ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence test). A survey was also performed to identify associated risk factors. One thousand two hundred and fifty-one pregnant women and 778 male partners were enrolled in the study. The seroprevalence of anti-HBc in pregnant women was 42.06% (95% confidence interval (CI) 39.28-44.85%) and in their male partners was 54.09% (95% CI 50.32-57.86%). The seroprevalence of HBsAg in pregnant women was 2.11% (95% CI 0.78-3.44%) and in their male partners was 3.98% (95% CI 1.87-6.08%). The seroprevalence of syphilis in pregnant women was 1.60% (95% CI 0.86-2.33%) and in their male partners was 2.44% (95% CI 1.22-3.66%). HIV seroprevalence in pregnant women was 0.16% (95% CI 0.02-0.58%) and in their male partners was 0.29% (95% CI 0.04-1.03%). Sexual risk factors were strongly related to blood markers of syphilis and HBV. Hepatitis B was found to be hyperendemic and strongly related to sexual factors, suggesting an important sexual component in the transmission of the disease in the populations studied. Syphilis was found to have an endemicity in pregnant women above the national level and this may be indicative of high mother-to-child transmission. HIV has started to show its presence in indigenous populations of the Amazon Basin and the results suggest the epidemic is concentrated. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  11. NPS National Transit Inventory and Performance Report, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    This document summarizes key highlights and performance measures relating to the National Park Service (NPS) 2016 National Transit Inventory, by presenting data for NPS transit systems and vehicles nationwide. These highlights and performance measure...

  12. The Dynamic Environment of Crypto Markets: The Lifespan of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) and Vendors Selling NPS

    OpenAIRE

    Elle Wadsworth; Colin Drummond; Paolo Deluca

    2018-01-01

    The Internet has played a major role in the distribution of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS), and crypto markets are increasingly used for the anonymous sale of drugs, including NPS. This study explores the availability of individual NPS and vendors on the crypto markets and considers whether crypto markets are a reliable platform for the sale of NPS. Data was collected from 22 crypto markets that were accessed through the hidden web using the Onion Router (Tor). Data collection took place b...

  13. How nutritional risk is assessed and managed in European hospitals: a survey of 21,007 patients findings from the 2007-2008 cross-sectional nutritionDay survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schindler, Karin; Pernicka, Elisabeth; Laviano, Alessandro; Howard, Pat; Schütz, Tatjana; Bauer, Peter; Grecu, Irina; Jonkers, Cora; Kondrup, Jens; Ljungqvist, Olle; Mouhieddine, Mohamed; Pichard, Claude; Singer, Pierre; Schneider, Stéphane; Schuh, Christian; Hiesmayr, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Recognition and treatment of undernutrition in hospitalized patients are not often a priority in clinical practice. We investigated how the nutritional risk of patients is determined and whether such assessment influences daily nutritional care across Europe and in Israeli hospitals. 1217 units from

  14. The Dynamic Environment of Crypto Markets: The Lifespan of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) and Vendors Selling NPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Elle; Drummond, Colin; Deluca, Paolo

    2018-03-16

    The Internet has played a major role in the distribution of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS), and crypto markets are increasingly used for the anonymous sale of drugs, including NPS. This study explores the availability of individual NPS and vendors on the crypto markets and considers whether crypto markets are a reliable platform for the sale of NPS. Data was collected from 22 crypto markets that were accessed through the hidden web using the Onion Router (Tor). Data collection took place bimonthly from October 2015 to October 2016 as part of the CASSANDRA ( C omputer A ssisted S olutions for S tudying the A vailability a N d D ist R ibution of novel psycho A ctive substances) project. In seven snapshots over 12 months, 808 unique vendors were found selling 256 unique NPS. The total number of individual NPS and vendors increased across the data collection period (increase of 93.6% and 71.6%, respectively). Only 24% ( n = 61) of the total number of NPS and 4% ( n = 31) of vendors appeared in every snapshot over the 12 months, whereas 21% ( n = 54) of NPS and 45% ( n = 365) of vendors only appeared once throughout the data collection. The individual NPS and vendors did not remain the same over the 12 months. However, the availability of NPS and vendors selling NPS grew. NPS consistently available on crypto markets could indicate popular substances.

  15. The Dynamic Environment of Crypto Markets: The Lifespan of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS and Vendors Selling NPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elle Wadsworth

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has played a major role in the distribution of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS, and crypto markets are increasingly used for the anonymous sale of drugs, including NPS. This study explores the availability of individual NPS and vendors on the crypto markets and considers whether crypto markets are a reliable platform for the sale of NPS. Data was collected from 22 crypto markets that were accessed through the hidden web using the Onion Router (Tor. Data collection took place bimonthly from October 2015 to October 2016 as part of the CASSANDRA (Computer Assisted Solutions for Studying the Availability aNd DistRibution of novel psychoActive substances project. In seven snapshots over 12 months, 808 unique vendors were found selling 256 unique NPS. The total number of individual NPS and vendors increased across the data collection period (increase of 93.6% and 71.6%, respectively. Only 24% (n = 61 of the total number of NPS and 4% (n = 31 of vendors appeared in every snapshot over the 12 months, whereas 21% (n = 54 of NPS and 45% (n = 365 of vendors only appeared once throughout the data collection. The individual NPS and vendors did not remain the same over the 12 months. However, the availability of NPS and vendors selling NPS grew. NPS consistently available on crypto markets could indicate popular substances.

  16. A perspective of mitochondrial dysfunction in rats treated with silver and titanium nanoparticles (AgNPs and TiNPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Lilian Cristina; Pazin, Murilo; Franco-Bernardes, Mariana Furio; Martins, Airton da Cunha; Barcelos, Gustavo Rafael Mazzaron; Pereira, Márcio Cesar; Mesquita, João Paulo; Rodrigues, Jairo Lisboa; Barbosa, Fernando; Dorta, Daniel Junqueira

    2018-05-01

    Nanotechnology is a growing branch of science that deals with the development of structural features bearing at least one dimension in the nano range. More specifically, nanomaterials are defined as objects with dimensions that range from 1 to 100 nm, which give rise to interesting properties. In particular, silver and titanium nanoparticles (AgNPs and TiNPs, respectively) are known for their biological and biomedical properties and are often used in consumer products such as cosmetics, food additives, kitchen utensils, and toys. This situation has increased environmental and occupational exposure to AgNPs and TiNPs, which has placed demand for the risk assessment of NPs. Indeed, the same properties that make nanomaterials so attractive could also prove deleterious to biological systems. Of particular concern is the effect of NPs on mitochondria because these organelles play an essential role in cellular homeostasis. In this scenario, this work aimed to study how AgNPs and TiNPs interact with the mitochondrial respiration chain and to analyze how this interaction interferes in the bioenergetics and oxidative state of the organelles after sub-chronic exposure. Mitochondria were exposed to the NPs by gavage treatment for 21 days to check whether co-exposure of the organelles to the two types of NPs elicited any mitochondrion-NP interaction. More specifically, male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups. Groups I, II, III, and IV received mineral oil, TiNPs (100 μg/kg/day), AgNPs (100 μg/kg/day), and TiNPs + AgNPs (100 μg/kg/day), respectively, by gavage. The liver was immediately removed, and the mitochondria were isolated and used within 3 h. Exposure of mitochondria to TiNPs + AgNPs lowered the respiratory control ratio, causing an uncoupling effect in the oxidative phosphorylation system. Moreover, both types of NPs induced mitochondrial swelling. Extended exposure of mitochondria to the NPs maintained increased ROS levels and

  17. 2007-2008 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 10 & 11 March 2008 10 March 2008, 11:00-12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500-1 11 March 2008, 11:00-12:00, 14:00-15:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500-1 Warped Extra-Dimensional Opportunities and Signatures Prof. Lisa RANDALL, Harvard University, USA I plan to discuss ways of searching for warped geometry and other extra-dimensional scenarios, with emphasis on the general lessons for search strategies. We will consider RS geometry on the brane and in the bulk, as well as possible black hole or quantum gravity signatures. If time permits, we will also consider fermion masses and/or precision Higgs measurements.

  18. 2007-2008 Academic Training Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 28, 29, 30, 31 January 2008 11:00 to 12:00 - TH Auditorium, Bldg. 4 A Dark Universe: Dark Matter and Dark Energy Dr. E.W. KOLB, Chicago University, USA According to the standard cosmological model, 95% of the present mass density of the universe is dark: roughly 70% of the total in the form of dark energy and 25% in the form of dark matter. In a series of four lectures, I will begin by presenting a brief review of cosmology, and then I will review the observational evidence for dark matter and dark energy. I will discuss some of the proposals for dark matter and dark energy, and connect them to high-energy physics. I will also present an overview of an observational program to quantify the properties of dark energy.

  19. Report by the COSSYN 2007 - 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-05-01

    The COSSYN is a French committee for orientation and monitoring of researches for nuclear systems. This report first gives an overview of the context in terms of electronuclear technologies, nuclear revival, development strategies, needs of personnel and training. It gives a large overview of research for the French existing nuclear installations, i.e. in different fields: upstream part of the nuclear cycle, reactors, fuel, downstream part of the cycle, security, numerical simulation, specific researches for third generation reactors and export, experimental tools and transverse actions. It discusses the emergence of nuclear systems for the future through international cooperation and with the six fourth generation systems (sodium cooled fast reactor RNR or SFR, gas-cooled reactor RNR or GFR, thermal reactor with gas-based heat transfer and very high temperature). It proposes an assessment for 2007 (works and perspectives) in the field of sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors, of gas-cooled fast neutrons reactors, of accelerator-driven systems, of fuel cycle, of high and very high temperature reactors, of non electricity-generating nuclear applications, of water reactors. The report finally addresses the research strategy for nuclear fission

  20. 2007-2008 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES QCD Phenomenology at High Energy Prof. Bryan WEBBER, Cambridge University, UK18, 19, 20 & 21 February 2008 Main Auditorium, bldg. 500-1: 18, 19, 21 February 2008 - 11:00-12:00 Council Chamber, bldg 503-1-001: 20 February 2008 - 11:00-12:00 Council Chamber, bldg 503-1-001: 21 February 2008 - 14:00-15:00 Whatever kind of physics may be found at the LHC, strongly-interacting particles will be involved and therefore quantum chromodynamics will play a crucial role. For processes at high energy scales, perturbation theory remains the most powerful approach. These lectures will review the foundations and limitations of perturbative QCD and its application to high-energy processes, including jet production and fragmentation, deep inelastic scattering, and heavy quark and Higgs boson production.

  1. Puksoo auhind 2007/2008 / Tiiu Reimo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reimo, Tiiu, 1953-

    2009-01-01

    23. jaanuaril 2009 Tartu Ülikooli Raamatukogus peetud Friedrich Puksoo 119. sünniaastapäevale pühendatud ettekandepäeval "Raamatust, raamatukogust, raamatukoguhoidjast" kuulutati välja järjekordsed Puksoo auhinna laureaadid. TÜR-i ja ERÜ poolt välja antava auhinna pälvis TÜR-i teaduri, filosoofiadoktor Meelis Friedenthali dissertatsioon "Tallinna Linnaarhiivi Tractatus moralis de oculo", tõsteti esile Jürgen Beyeri ja Larissa Petina tööd

  2. New Jersey 2007 - 2008 High Resolution Orthophotography

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Digital orthographic imagery datasets contain georeferenced images of the Earth's surface, collected by a sensor in which object displacement has been removed for...

  3. Coccidiodomycosis in Arizona 2007-2008

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast looks at the impact of Coccidioidomycosis, or Valley Fever, in Arizona in 2007 and early 2008. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Tom Chiller discusses what researchers learned about this fungal disease.

  4. Coccidiodomycosis in Arizona 2007-2008

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-13

    This podcast looks at the impact of Coccidioidomycosis, or Valley Fever, in Arizona in 2007 and early 2008. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Tom Chiller discusses what researchers learned about this fungal disease.  Created: 10/13/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/27/2010.

  5. Probabilistic safety assessment of the Fugen NPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotsu, Masutake; Iguchi, Yukihiro; Mizuno, Kouichi; Sato, Shinichirou; Shimizu, Miwako

    1999-01-01

    We performed a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) on the Fugen NPS. The main topic of assessment was internal factors. We assessment core damage frequency (level 1 PSA) and containment damage frequency (level 2 PSA) during rated operation, and core damage frequency during shutdown (PSA during shutdowns). Our assessment showed that the core damage frequency of Fugen is well below the IAEA criteria for existing plants, that the conditional containment damage during shutdown is almost the target value of 0.1, and that the core damage frequency during shutdown is almost the same as that assessed during operation. These results confirm that the Fugen plant maintains a sufficient safety margin during shutdowns for regular inspections and for refueling. We developed and verified the effectiveness of an accident management plan incorporating the results of the assessment. (author)

  6. Cinacalcet: AMG 073, Calcimimetics--Amgen/NPS Pharmaceuticals, KRN 1493, NPS 1493.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Cinacalcet [AMG 073, KRN 1493, NPS 1493] is an orally active, second-generation calcimimetic compound licensed by NPS Pharmaceuticals to Amgen in the US for potential treatment of hyperparathyroidism (HPT). Cinacalcet modulates (increases the sensitivity of) calcium receptors on the surface of parathyroid cells thereby inhibiting the oversecretion of parathyroid hormone, which characterises HPT. It also represents a potentially significant advance for chronic kidney disease patients diagnosed with secondary HPT, a common yet serious metabolic disorder where parathyroid hormone levels are elevated. Patients with this disease can suffer from bone disease, bone pain and fractures, soft tissue calcification, vascular calcification and cardiovascular complications. Amgen has rights to develop and sell cinacalcet throughout the world except in Japan, Taiwan and China, where the compound was licensed to Kirin Brewery. Kirin is developing it as KRN 1493 in phase II clinical studies in Japan. In December 2001, commencement of a phase III clinical trial with cinacalcet for the treatment of secondary HPT, triggered a 3 million US dollars milestone payment to NPS Pharmaceuticals. In September 2003, submission of an NDA to the US FDA for cinacalcet for secondary HPT will be followed by a milestone payment of 6 million US dollars to NPS. NPS, Kirin and Amgen were also developing another compound, tecalcet, for HPT, but that project has been discontinued in favour of cinacalcet. In September 2003, Amgen submitted an NDA to the US FDA for secondary HPT in patients with chronic kidney disease. In April 2003, Amgen announced positive results from a phase III clinical trial with cinacalcet in patients with secondary HPT. In a clinical study in patients on dialysis suffering from the effects of chronically elevated levels parathyroid hormone, cinacalcet appeared to be safe and well tolerated and was significantly more effective than placebo. Two more additional efficacy studies with

  7. Patterns of NPS Use and Risk Reduction in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sande, Matej; Paš, Mina; Nahtigal, Klara; Šabić, Simona

    2018-01-15

    The following study presents factors influencing the decision to use/not to use new psychoactive substances (NPS), various patterns of NPS use, the problems experienced by users, and the methods for reducing the risks associated with NPS use. The study seeks to provide an in-depth look into the characteristics of NPS use and support the planning of targeted interventions in the field of NPS. The study involved 19 in-depth interviews carried out with 25 individuals divided into three subsamples in order to gain insight into the various experiences of NPS users. The interviews were conducted in Slovenia between December 2013 and October 2014. The sample was obtained by using the convenience sampling and snowball sampling methods. The main pattern of NPS use determined by the study concerned synthetic cathinones, specifically 3-MMC, with binge use spanning several days being a prominent feature. The main risks involving NPS use were: mixing various drugs, inappropriate dosing, lack of information prior to use, and the use of unknown substances. Several users spoke about effective strategies for reducing risks, such as obtaining information beforehand, using one's own implements and using only small quantities of unknown substances. Conclusions/Importance: The study revealed various factors based on which users decide to use NPS. Furthermore, users reported a number of problems resulting from NPS use, while risk reduction strategies are employed to a much lesser extent. Based on the results obtained, specific intervention efforts concerning NPS use and targeting specific groups of younger users were designed.

  8. NPS-SCAT; Communications System Design, Test and Integration of NPS’ First CubeSat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Batteries..........27  Figure 17.  Temperature Sensors.............................28  Figure 18.  Pumpkin FM430 Flight Module.....................29...system, which used spread spectrum techniques within the UHF amateur band. On a historical day for NPS, October 29, 1998, PANSAT was launched from... spread -spectrum mode of PANSAT used for the messaging system: spacecraft command and control was accomplished with a narrow 78.1 kbps channel that

  9. Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS): a Study on Persian Language Websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigdeli, Imanollah; Corazza, Ornella; Aslanpour, Zoe; Schifano, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    During the past few years, there has been an increasing recognition that Internet is playing a significant role in the synthesis, the distribution and the consumption of Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS).The aim of this study was to assess the online availability of NPS in Persian language websites. The Google search engine was used to carry out an accurate qualitative assessment of information available on NPS in a sample of 104 websites. The monitoring has led to the identification of 14 NPS including herbal, synthetic, pharmaceutical and combination drugs that have been sold online. The availability of online marketing of NPS in Persian language websites may constitute a public health challenge at least across three Farsi-speaking countries in the Middle East. Hence, descriptions of this phenomenon are valuable to clinicians and health professional in this region. Further international collaborative efforts may be able to tackle the growth and expansion of regular offer of NPS.

  10. NPS Solar Cell Array Tester Cubesat Flight Testing and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    with current (I). P V I      (2.1) This is significant because the battery discharge test will not lineup perfectly with Figure 12...accordance with the charging procedures [13]. 3. NPS-SCAT Power Budget A power budget analysis was performed to determine if the NPS-SCAT is self...using procedures developed by Marissa Brummitt, and with the assistance of Adam Hill, NPS-SCAT Program Manager. 1. ELaNa IV Random Vibration Levels

  11. Conformity of pre-gestational weight measurement and agreement of anthropometric data reported by pregnant women and those recorded in prenatal cards, City of Rio de Janeiro, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niquini, Roberta Pereira; Bittencourt, Sonia Azevedo; Leal, Maria do Carmo

    2013-09-01

    To assess the conformity of the weight measurement process in the pre-gestational care offered in the city of Rio de Janeiro by primary units and hospitals of the National Health System, as well as to verify the agreement between the anthropometric data reported by pregnant women and those recorded in prenatal cards. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2007 - 2008 with two cluster samples: one to obtain a sample of pregnant women to be interviewed and another one for the weight measurement procedures to be observed. The conformity of the weight measurement process was evaluated according to the Ministry of Health standards, and the agreement between the two sources of anthropometric data was evaluated using mean differences, Bland-Altman method, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and weighted Kappa. Out of the twelve criteria for weight measurement evaluation (n = 159 observations), three weren't in conformity (conformity), two of them only need to be assessed when the scale is mechanical. For the interviewed pregnant women (n = 2,148), who had the two sources of anthropometric data, there was a tendency of self-reported height overestimation and pre-gestational and current weight and Body Mass Index underestimation. Accordance between the two sources of anthropometric information, according to ICC and weighted Kappa, were high (> 0.80). Studies may use weight and height information reported by pregnant women, in the absence of prenatal cards records, when it is an important economy to their execution, although the improvement of these two sources of information by means of better anthropometric process is necessary.

  12. High proportions of foods recommended for consumption by United States Dietary Guidance contain solid fats and added sugar: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommend that individuals older than one year reduce intakes of solid fats (SoF) and added sugars (AS; together SoFAS). MyPlate, illustrates the proportions of five major food groups to promote healthy eating (Vegetables, Grains, Protein Foods, Fruit...

  13. Probing Interactions between AuNPs/AgNPs and Giant Unilamellar Vesicles (GUVs Using Hyperspectral Dark-field Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Bhat

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Noble metallic nanoparticles (NPs such as gold and silver nanoparticles (AuNPs and AgNPs have been shown to exhibit anti-tumor effect in anti-angiogenesis, photothermal and radio therapeutics. On the other hand, cell membranes are critical locales for specific targeting of cancerous cells. Therefore, NP-membrane interactions need be studied at molecular level to help better understand the underlying physicochemical mechanisms for future applications in cancer nanotechnology. Herein, we report our study on the interactions between citrate stabilized colloidal AuNPs/AgNPs (10 nm in size and giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs using hyperspectral dark-field microscopy. GUVs are large model vesicle systems well established for the study of membrane dynamics. GUVs used in this study were prepared with dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC and doped with cholesterol at various molar concentrations. Both imaging and spectral results support that AuNPs and AgNPs interact very differently with GUVs, i.e., AuNPs tend to integrate in between the lipid bilayer and form a uniform golden-brown crust on vesicles, whereas AgNPs are bejeweled on the vesicle surface as isolated particles or clusters with much varied configurations. The more disruptive capability of AuNPs is hypothesized to be responsible for the formation of golden brown crusts in AuNP-GUV interaction. GUVs of 20 mol% CHOL:DMPC were found to be a most economical concentration for GUVs to achieve the best integrity and the least permeability, consistent with the finding from other phase studies of lipid mixture that the liquid-ordered domains have the largest area fraction of the entire membrane at around 20 mol% of cholesterol.

  14. KONSUMSI ENERGI,PROTEIN DAN LEMAK PADA RUMAH TANGGA YANG MEMPUNYAI ANAK USIA 3-5 TAHUN MENURUT PEDOMAN UMUM GIZI SEIMBANG (PUGS DAN TINGKAT SOSIAL EKONOMI (ANALISIS DATA SEKUNDER RISKESDAS TAHUN 2007/2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Muljati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Household consumption is one of factors that play impotant role in creating a healthy family.Balanced diet be it in amount or variation is highly needed because there is no food that consist of-nor dothey have enough amount-every nutrition that are needed by body. To get used to consume foods thatcontain balanced diet is one of the ways to overcome double nutrition problems, be it malnutrition oroverweight that the Indonesian government faced. Foods for child 3-5 years old are still depend on foodthat are prepared by nannies, which are the same with food prepared for adults. It is interesting to studyhow energy, protein, and fat consumption on households that have child age 3-5 years old, considering thisgroup of age is the age of pre-school so they need to have the ultimate health. Objective: this analysis studyhow energy, protein, and fat consumption on households that have children age 3-5 years old according toPUGS and also social economic status. Method: Sample that are being analyzed are as much as 16348households that have children age 3-5 years old that derived from RISKESDAS year 2007/2008 data.Result: 46,7% of households are according to PUGS advices. Social factor economic, education of theleader of household, and the amount of member of the household are related to household's ability toprovide energy, protein and fat consumption according to PUGS. The socio economic, head of householdeducation level, and also amount of family member, are factors that related to the ability of household toprovide consumption of energy, protein, and fat according to PUGS advices. This is shown byOR:1.25(1.18-1.34 for household with socio economic level in kuintil 1-3, OR:1.12(1.05-1.20 foreducation level of household graduate from junior high school or lower. OR:1.16(1.19-1.24 for member ofhousehold more than four persons. Conclusion: Most of households that have children age 3-5 years old(53.3% not yet have energy, protein and fat

  15. GKSS. Annual report 2007/2008. Science use; GKSS. Jahresbericht 2007/2008. Wissenschaft nutzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-06-15

    The following topics are dealt with: Titanium aluminide alloys, microscopy in materials research, a new generation of membranes based on nanostructured polymers, the GKSS Engineering Materials Science Synchrotron, regenerativ medicine, the colour of the coastal sea, news from the North German Climate Office, the climate change for the Baltic sea basin, polyfluorinated compounds as pollutant in the coastal environment, the FRG 1 research reactor. (HSI)

  16. LCF data for aging of Cu NPs in soil

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Linear combination fitting data for Cu NPs in five soils as a function of aging time. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Sekine, R., E....

  17. Leveraging the NPS Femto Satellite for Alternative Satellite Communication Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    programmed for eventual integration with the Iridium Network , which is then tested. C. THESIS ORGANIZATION The thesis addresses these questions...NPS FEMTO SATELLITE FOR ALTERNATIVE SATELLITE COMMUNICATION NETWORKS by Faisal S. Alshaya September 2017 Co-Advisors: Steven J. Iatrou...TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE LEVERAGING THE NPS FEMTO SATELLITE FOR ALTERNATIVE SATELLITE COMMUNICATION NETWORKS 5

  18. Difficulty in assessing low 3H, 14C and 36Cl concentrations in old groundwaters and its implication for groundwater dating - ANDRA 2007/2008 drilling program (Meuse/Haute-Marne)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean-Baptiste, P.; Fourre, E.; Dapoigny, A.; Michelot, J.L.; Massault, M.; Noret, A.; Rebeix, R.; Le Gal La Salle, C.; Aquilina, L.; Labasque, T.; Vinsot, A.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In 2007-2008, the French Nuclear Waste Agency (Andra) carried out a drilling campaign in the vicinity of its underground laboratory of Bure (Meuse/Haute-Marne), over an area of ∼400 km 2 . The objective was to obtain a detailed description of the geophysical, geological and transport properties of the 150 m thick Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) clay layer in order to check the homogeneity of this geological formation which is potentially suitable for establishing a nuclear waste deep repository. As part of this program, water samples were taken from the two limestone formations adjacent to the COx, to analyse the geochemical and isotopic characteristics of these two deep aquifers and investigate their interactions with the COx layer. Multiple permeable layers were identified in the thickness of the carbonate formations which offered the very interesting opportunity to investigate groundwater circulation in individual permeable layers within the aquifer. As the age of these groundwaters is clearly beyond the detection limit for tritium and also presumably for radiocarbon, the analysis of both tracers was designed as a check of the quality of the samples and possible mixing with younger waters within the boreholes. Besides, CFC and SF 6 samples were collected in the same purpose. Tritium was measured at the LSCE-Saclay noble gas facility using helium-3 mass spectrometry, with a limit of detection limit of 0.1 TU (the detection limit is defined as the minimum concentration of a substance being analyzed that has a 99 percent probability of being identified, thus corresponding to 3-sigma at the blank level). The radiocarbon samples were prepared at IDES (Orsay) and measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at LMC14 (Saclay, Artemis facility, INSU national service). The detection limit was usually lower than 0.2 pmC, corresponding to a radiocarbon apparent age of ∼50 Kyr. CFC and SF 6 were measured at Geosciences

  19. Noble silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesis and characterization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nanotechnology is rapidly growing with nanoparticles produced and utilized in a wide range of pharmaceutical and commercial products throughout the world. In this study, fig (Ficus carica) leaf extracts were used for ecofriendly extracellular synthesis of stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by treating an aqueous silver ...

  20. The Growing Problem of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madras, Bertha K

    The term "new psychoactive substances" (NPS) can be defined as individual drugs in pure form or in complex preparations that are not scheduled under the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs (1961) or the Convention on Psychotropic Substances (1971). NPS may be categorized by chemical structure, by psychoactive properties, by biological targets, or by source (plant, synthetic, or combined). The emergence of hundreds of NPS in the past decade is challenging for public health and drug policies globally. The novelty of NPS, their ambiguous legal status, ability to evade toxicological tests, swift adaptation to legal restrictions, global Internet marketing, and scant public knowledge of their adverse effects are among the key drivers of this twenty-first century phenomenon. Multi-disciplinary research in areas of biology, epidemiology, prevention, and web analytics are needed to develop effective responses in a domain capable of overwhelming current international conventions and national drug control policies. Ultimately, research-guided prevention education will fortify societies against this tidal wave.

  1. CMAQ and NPS : exploring the applicability of the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement program to NPS transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-06

    The Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement (CMAQ) Program is a funding program that was most recently : re-authorized in Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century. CMAQ offers a potential funding opportunity for NPS park units : with e...

  2. Navy-wide Personnel Survey (NPS) 2005: Summary of Survey Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Human Relations, 52 (10), 1313-1336. Vroom , V.H. (1982). Work and Motivation . Malabar, FL: Robert E. Krieger Publishing Company. Whittam, K. P...is known to have positive effects upon organizational members by motivating them to work harder (Argenti, 1998). It is also important that...shipmates g. Immediate supervisor h . Command leadership i. Pace of work j. Workload k. Unit/workgroup manning

  3. Navy Personnel Survey (NPS) 1990 Survey Report, Statistical Tables. Volume 1. Enlisted Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    Respondents were asked to provide demographic data and to indicate their attitudes or opinions on rotation/ permanent change of station (PCS) moves...and measured military members attitudes and opinions in various areas, including rotation/permanent change of station moves, recruiting duty, pay and...about: the 0rganizaional Clmate Use the spac below to make any comments you wish about the organizational climate, including EQ is- and sexual3 harassment

  4. NPS-SCAT: Systems Engineering and Payload Subsystem Design, Integration, and Testing of NPS’ First CubeSat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    uses the photovoltaic (PV) effect to produce electrical power . Discovered in 1839, the PV effect “is the direct conversion of light into electricity...electrical power subsystem (EPS) of the NPS-SCAT satellite is used to provide, store, distribute, and control the spacecraft electrical power [52]. The...current not to exceed 0.5 A; the solar panels must be designed to meet this specification. The BCRs use a maximum power point tracker ( MPPT ) to

  5. Design and assembly of ternary Pt/Re/SnO2 NPs by controlling the zeta potential of individual Pt, Re, and SnO2 NPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzymała, Elżbieta; Gruzeł, Grzegorz; Pajor-Świerzy, Anna; Depciuch, Joanna; Socha, Robert; Kowal, Andrzej; Warszyński, Piotr; Parlinska-Wojtan, Magdalena

    2018-05-01

    In this study Pt, Re, and SnO2 nanoparticles (NPs) were combined in a controlled manner into binary and ternary combinations for a possible application for ethanol oxidation. For this purpose, zeta potentials as a function of the pH of the individual NPs solutions were measured. In order to successfully combine the NPs into Pt/SnO2 and Re/SnO2 NPs, the solutions were mixed together at a pH guaranteeing opposite zeta potentials of the metal and oxide NPs. The individually synthesized NPs and their binary/ternary combinations were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. FTIR and XPS spectroscopy showed that the individually synthesized Pt and Re NPs are metallic and the Sn component was oxidized to SnO2. STEM showed that all NPs are well crystallized and the sizes of the Pt, Re, and SnO2 NPs were 2.2, 1.0, and 3.4 nm, respectively. Moreover, EDS analysis confirmed the successful formation of binary Pt/SnO2 and Re/SnO2 NP, as well as ternary Pt/Re/SnO2 NP combinations. This study shows that by controlling the zeta potential of individual metal and oxide NPs, it is possible to assemble them into binary and ternary combinations. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Comparative Study of Antimicrobial Activity of AgBr and Ag Nanoparticles (NPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchomel, Petr; Kvitek, Libor; Panacek, Ales; Prucek, Robert; Hrbac, Jan; Vecerova, Renata; Zboril, Radek

    2015-01-01

    The diverse mechanism of antimicrobial activity of Ag and AgBr nanoparticles against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and also against several strains of candida was explored in this study. The AgBr nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by simple precipitation of silver nitrate by potassium bromide in the presence of stabilizing polymers. The used polymers (PEG, PVP, PVA, and HEC) influence significantly the size of the prepared AgBr NPs dependently on the mode of interaction of polymer with Ag+ ions. Small NPs (diameter of about 60–70 nm) were formed in the presence of the polymer with low interaction as are PEG and HEC, the polymers which interact with Ag+ strongly produce nearly two times bigger NPs (120–130 nm). The prepared AgBr NPs were transformed to Ag NPs by the reduction using NaBH4. The sizes of the produced Ag NPs followed the same trends – the smallest NPs were produced in the presence of PEG and HEC polymers. Prepared AgBr and Ag NPs dispersions were tested for their biological activity. The obtained results of antimicrobial activity of AgBr and Ag NPs are discussed in terms of possible mechanism of the action of these NPs against tested microbial strains. The AgBr NPs are more effective against gram-negative bacteria and tested yeast strains while Ag NPs show the best antibacterial action against gram-positive bacteria strains. PMID:25781988

  7. NPS and the methadone queue: Spillages of space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrescu, Liviu

    2017-02-01

    Between 2008 and 2013, powder-stimulants sold by 'head shops' as novel psychoactive substances (NPS) or 'legal highs' have displaced heroin among groups of injecting substance users in Bucharest, Romania. Rising HIV-infection rates and other medical or social harms have been reported to follow this trend. The study builds on two sets of original (N=30) and existing (N=20) interview data and on observations collected mainly at the site of a methadone substitution treatment facility. By disentangling the space-time continuum of the methadone queue, this paper argues that injecting drug users' (IDUs) passage from opiates to amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) can be understood as 'spillages' of space and time. IDUs thus 'spill' out of the disciplinary flows of methadone treatment in two ways. The first is that of space and materiality. Drawing on actor-network theory (ANT), ATS/NPS appear embedded in reconfigured practices and rituals of injecting use. Such spillages see the pleasure-seeking self being fluidised in forming connections with, or spilling into, nonhuman actants such as substances, settings or objects. The second dimension of spilling is that of time. In this sense, heroin use is a 'cryogenic strategy' of inhabiting history and facing the transition to the market society that Romanian opiate injectors spill out of, not able to appropriate choice and legitimate consumption. The phenomenological qualities of stimulants that seem to accelerate lived time and generalise desire thus present them with an opportunity to alleviate a form of what a post-communist moral imaginary of transition frames as debilitating nostalgia. ATS/NPS are revealed as fluid entities that do not only shape risk conditions but also alter shared meanings and contextual configurations of bodies, substances and disciplinary regimes in unpredictable ways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Improving cardiovascular disease management in Australia: NPS MedicineWise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzhanova, Svetla V; Roughead, Elizabeth E; Bartlett, Mark J

    2013-08-05

    To determine the impact of four NPS MedicineWise programs targeting quality use of medicines in cardiovascular management in primary care. Interrupted time-series analysis using the Department of Veterans' Affairs (DVA) claims dataset from 1 January 2002 to 31 August 2010. We examined the use of antithrombotics in people with atrial fibrillation and in those who had had a stroke, and the use of echocardiography and spironolactone in the population with heart failure. All veterans and their dependants in Australia who had received cardiovascular medicines or health services related to the targeted intervention. NPS MedicineWise national programs to improve cardiovascular management in primary care, which included prescriber feedback, academic detailing, case studies and audits as well as printed educational materials. Changes in medication and health service use before and after the interventions. All national programs were positively associated with significant improvements in related prescribing or test request practice. The interventions to improve the use of antithrombotics resulted in a 1.27% (95% CI, 1.26%-1.28%) and 0.63% (95% CI, 0.62%-0.64%) relative increase in the use of aspirin or warfarin in the population with atrial fibrillation 6 and 12 months after the program, respectively, and in a 1.51% (95% CI, 1.49%-1.53%) relative increase in the use of aspirin as monotherapy for secondary stroke prevention 12 months after the intervention. The heart failure programs resulted in a 3.69% (95% CI, 3.67%-3.71%) relative increase in the use of low-dose spironolactone and a 4.31% (95% CI, 4.27%-4.35%) relative increase in the use of echocardiogram tests 12 months after the intervention. NPS MedicineWise programs were effective in achieving positive changes in medicine and health service use for patients with cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Connecting the dots: a collaborative USGS-NPS effort to expand the utility of monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, James B.; Schoolmaster, Donald R.; Schweiger, E. William; Mitchell, Brian R.; Miller, Kathryn; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.

    2014-01-01

    The Natural Resource Challenge (National Park Service 1999) was a call to action. It constituted a mandate for monitoring based on the twin premises that (1) natural resources in national parks require active management and stewardship if we are to protect them from gradual degradation, and (2) we cannot protect what we do not understand. The intent of the challenge was embodied in its original description: We must expand existing inventory programs and develop efficient ways to monitor the vital signs of natural systems. We must enlist others in the scientific community to help, and also facilitate their inquiry. Managers must have and apply this information to preserve our natural resources. In this article, we report on ongoing collaborative work between the National Park Service (NPS) and the US Geological Survey (USGS) that seeks to add to our scientific understanding of the ecological processes operating behind vital signs monitoring data. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide insights that can facilitate an understanding of the systems and identify potential opportunities for active stewardship by NPS managers (Bennetts et al. 2007; Mitchell et al. 2014). The bulk of the work thus far has involved Acadia and Rocky Mountain national parks, but there are plans for extending the work to additional parks. Our story stats with work designed to consider ways of assessing the status and condition of natural resources and the potential for historical or ongoing influences of human activities. In the 1990s, the concept of "biotic integrity" began to take hold as an aspiration for developing quantitative indices describing how closely the conditions at a site resemble those found at pristine, unimpacted sites. Quantitative methods for developing indices of biotic integrity (IBIs) and elaborations of that idea (e.g., ecological integrity) have received considerable attention and application of these methods to natural resources has become widespread (Karr 1991

  10. Evaluation of the Biological Effects of the Northwest Power Conservation Council's Mainstem Amendment on the Fisheries Upstream and Downstream of Libby Dam, Montana, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sylvester, Ryan; Stephens, Brian; Tohtz, Joel [Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks

    2009-04-03

    A new project began in 2005 to monitor the biological and physical effects of improved operations of Hungry Horse and Libby Dams, Montana, called for by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC) Mainstem Amendment. This operating strategy was designed to benefit resident fish impacted by hydropower and flood control operations. Under the new operating guidelines, July through September reservoir drafts will be limited to 10 feet from full pool during the highest 80% of water supply years and 20 feet from full pool during the lowest 20% of water supply (drought) years. Limits were also established on how rapidly discharge from the dams can be increased or decreased depending on the season. The NPCC also directed the federal agencies that operate Libby and Hungry Horse Dams to implement a new flood control strategy (VARQ) and directed Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks to evaluate biological responses to this operating strategy. The Mainstem Amendment operating strategy has not been fully implemented at the Montana dams as of June 2008 but the strategy will be implemented in 2009. This report highlights the monitoring methods used to monitor the effects of the Mainstem Amendment operations on fishes, habitat, and aquatic invertebrates upstream and downstream of Libby Dam. We also present initial assessments of data and the effects of various operating strategies on physical and biological components of the systems upstream and downstream of Libby Dam. Annual electrofishing surveys in the Kootenai River and selected tributaries, along with gill net surveys in the reservoir, are being used to quantify the impacts of dam operations on fish populations upstream and downstream of Libby Dam. Scales and otoliths are being used to determine the age structure and growth of focal species. Annual population estimates and tagging experiments provide estimates of survival and growth in the mainstem Kootenai River and selected tributaries. Radio telemetry will be used to

  11. The preparation and antibacterial effects of dopa-cotton/AgNPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hong; Shi Xue; Ma Hui; Lv Yihang; Zhang Linping; Mao Zhiping

    2011-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been known to have powerful antibacterial activity. In this paper, in situ generation of AgNPs on the surface of dopamine modified cotton fabrics (dopa-cotton/AgNPs) in aqueous solution under room temperature is presented. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) were used to analyze the surface chemical composition and the morphology of the modified cotton fabrics, respectively. The results indicated that the surface of cotton fabrics was successfully coated with polydopamine and AgNPs. The cotton fabrics with AgNPs showed durable antibacterial activity.

  12. Synthesis of Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with Antibacterial Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campillo Gloria, E.; Ederley, Vélez; Gladis, Morales; César, Hincapié; Jaime, Osorio; Oscar, Arnache; Uribe José, Ignacio; Franklin, Jaramillo

    2017-06-01

    The synthesis of nanomaterials is currently one of the most active in nanoscience branches; especially those help improve the human quality life. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are an example of this as it is known to have inhibitory and bactericidal effects. In this work, we report the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by chemical reduction method of silver nitrate (AgNO3) from aqueous solution, using a mix of polivinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) - Aloe Vera as reducing agent and for stabilization and control of particle size. Silver nanoparticles obtained were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), UV-visible spectroscopy and measurements using Zetasizer Nano ZS were applied to size estimation. The existence of surface plasmon resonance peak at λmax ~ 420 nm is evidence of silver nanoparticles formation. It was possible to standardize an appropriate protocol for the evaluation of bactericidal activity of the nanoparticles, for mesophilic microorganisms. Bactericidal activity above 90% against these kinds of bacteria was demonstrated.

  13. Synthesis of Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with Antibacterial Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloria, E. Campillo; Ederley, Vélez; César, Hincapié; Gladis, Morales; Jaime, Osorio; Oscar, Arnache; José, Ignacio Uribe; Franklin, Jaramillo

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis of nanomaterials is currently one of the most active in nanoscience branches; especially those help improve the human quality life. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are an example of this as it is known to have inhibitory and bactericidal effects. In this work, we report the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by chemical reduction method of silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ) from aqueous solution, using a mix of polivinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) – Aloe Vera as reducing agent and for stabilization and control of particle size. Silver nanoparticles obtained were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), UV–visible spectroscopy and measurements using Zetasizer Nano ZS were applied to size estimation. The existence of surface plasmon resonance peak at λ max ∼ 420 nm is evidence of silver nanoparticles formation. It was possible to standardize an appropriate protocol for the evaluation of bactericidal activity of the nanoparticles, for mesophilic microorganisms. Bactericidal activity above 90% against these kinds of bacteria was demonstrated. (paper)

  14. Groundwater-quality data in seven GAMA study units: results from initial sampling, 2004-2005, and resampling, 2007-2008, of wells: California GAMA Program Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Robert; Belitz, Kenneth; Fram, Miranda S.

    2014-01-01

    The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The GAMA-PBP began sampling, primarily public supply wells in May 2004. By the end of February 2006, seven (of what would eventually be 35) study units had been sampled over a wide area of the State. Selected wells in these first seven study units were resampled for water quality from August 2007 to November 2008 as part of an assessment of temporal trends in water quality by the GAMA-PBP. The initial sampling was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within the seven study units. In the 7 study units, 462 wells were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area. Wells selected this way are referred to as grid wells or status wells. Approximately 3 years after the initial sampling, 55 of these previously sampled status wells (approximately 10 percent in each study unit) were randomly selected for resampling. The seven resampled study units, the total number of status wells sampled for each study unit, and the number of these wells resampled for trends are as follows, in chronological order of sampling: San Diego Drainages (53 status wells, 7 trend wells), North San Francisco Bay (84, 10), Northern San Joaquin Basin (51, 5), Southern Sacramento Valley (67, 7), San Fernando–San Gabriel (35, 6), Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins (91, 11), and Southeast San Joaquin Valley (83, 9). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides, and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N

  15. GKSS. Annual report 2007/2008. Science use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-06-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Titanium aluminide alloys, microscopy in materials research, a new generation of membranes based on nanostructured polymers, the GKSS Engineering Materials Science Synchrotron, regenerativ medicine, the colour of the coastal sea, news from the North German Climate Office, the climate change for the Baltic sea basin, polyfluorinated compounds as pollutant in the coastal environment, the FRG 1 research reactor. (HSI)

  16. Overview of global space activities in 2007/2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Nicolas; Delmotte, Raphaëlle

    2009-08-01

    The period ranging from July 2007 to June 2008 has been marked by significant trends and issues in the space sector, particularly under the impulsion of space-faring countries. The internationalisation and globalisation of the space sector which started a few years ago have been gaining momentum as well. As a consequence, the size of the space sector has been growing, as well as the global competition for market shares.

  17. Canadian Council for Area Studies Learned Societies - 2007-2008 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CCASLS) ... for four area studies associations: the Canadian Association of African Studies (CAAS); the ... IDRC invites applications for the IDRC Doctoral Research Awards ... Canada can learn from Uganda's gender budgeting experience.

  18. Neutron data experiments for transmutation. Annual Report 2007/2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.; Al-Adili, A.; Andersson, P.; Bevilacqua, R.; Nilsson, L.; Pomp, S.; Simutkin, V.; Oehrn, A.; Oesterlund, M.

    2008-08-01

    The project NEXT, Neutron data Experiments for Transmutation, is performed within the nuclear reactions group of the Dept. of Physics and Astronomy. The activities of the group are directed towards experimental studies of nuclear reaction probabilities of importance for various applications, like transmutation of nuclear waste, biomedical effects and electronics reliability. The experimental work is primarily undertaken at the The Svedberg Laboratory (TSL) in Uppsala, where the group is operating two world-unique instruments, MEDLEY and SCANDAL. Highlights from the past year: - The SCANDAL facility has been upgraded. - One PhD student has successfully defended her thesis. - Two PhD students have been accepted. - Vasily Simutkin has been selected as one of the top 12 PhD students within the European Nuclear Education Network. He has accordingly been invited to present his work at the ENEN PhD event held in connection with the PHYSOR conference in Interlaken, Switzerland, September 2008. - A research collaboration with the dedicated EU laboratory for nuclear data research has been established. - A well-attended workshop on nuclear data for ADS and Gen-IV has been organized as part of the EU project CANDIDE (Coordination Action on Nuclear Data for Industrial Development in Europe), coordinated by Jan Blomgren. - Several experiments have been performed at TSL, with beamtime funded through the EU project EFNUDAT (European Facilities for Nuclear Data research), partly coordinated by Jan Blomgren. - Nuclear power education has reached all-time high at Uppsala University. In particular, industry education has increased significantly. - IAEA has visited Uppsala University to investigate the industry-related nuclear power education, as part of a safety culture review of the Forsmark nuclear power plant

  19. Progress Report 2007/2008 and 2008/2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-11-01

    In the year 2009, we celebrate 90 years of electrical engineering education in Croatia, which started in 1919 with the Electrical engineering department within the Technical faculty of the University of Zagreb. A lot has changed since then. Governments, regimes, country names: Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Republic of Croatia. Our institution changed names too: Electrical engineering department in 1919, Faculty of Electrical Engineering in 1956, Faculty of electrical engineering and computing in 1994, but it has never changed its aim towards excellence. Always independent of the politics, even in the most turbulent times, we have been able to attract brightest and most capable students in the region and graduate more than 15000 engineers who were constantly highly appreciated at all labour markets, foreign and domestic. The regional leading role of our Faculty in the research and education in the fields of electrical engineering and later in computing and information and communication technology, has remained undisputed through almost a century. Keeping pace with ever-changing state of technology, in the area of science which was progressing like no other, particularly throughout recent decades, the Faculty has been adopting and enhancing itself, for the benefit of our students, faculty, staff and community, making a major contribution to the economic, social and cultural life of our city and the region. At all times ahead of the others, sometimes too avant-garde for the rest of the regional academic community, we have been persistently but gradually reforming an archaic higher education system. I am highly confident that, in the countless years to come, the Faculty of electrical engineering and computing will continue to advance and adapt, changing only to the better. This will require a considerable effort of all the involved, but, being aware of the devotion of our employees and students to our institution, I have no doubt that they will do their best. This Progress Report in front of you is slightly different from the previous versions. They used to include complete lists of publications which scientists of our Faculty had published during the previous two years. Now, this list has simply become too long, and therefore it is included on an accompanying disk. Even without that list, limiting ourselves to the most basic facts, we have not been able to reduce the size under hundred pages. This sole fact can give you an idea about the size and complexity of our institution. I hope that you would enjoy browsing through this publication.(author)

  20. Research and Technology Capabilities Available for Partnership, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    PZT ). Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy (MRFM) This system enables nondestructive analysis of semiconductor and biological materials and devices...enables ARL to conduct detailed measurements of the properties of ceramics , polymers, glasses and composites. It features instrumentation for analyzing...and textural characterization of food/food components and chemical heating technologies to facilitate state-of-the-art ration development. The

  1. Neutron data experiments for transmutation. Annual Report 2007/2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomgren, J.; al-Adili, A.; Andersson, P.; Bevilacqua, R.; Nilsson, L.; Pomp, S.; Simutkin, V.; Oehrn, A.; Oesterlund, M. (Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Div. of Applied Nuclear Physics)

    2008-08-15

    The project NEXT, Neutron data Experiments for Transmutation, is performed within the nuclear reactions group of the Dept. of Physics and Astronomy. The activities of the group are directed towards experimental studies of nuclear reaction probabilities of importance for various applications, like transmutation of nuclear waste, biomedical effects and electronics reliability. The experimental work is primarily undertaken at the The Svedberg Laboratory (TSL) in Uppsala, where the group is operating two world-unique instruments, MEDLEY and SCANDAL. Highlights from the past year: - The SCANDAL facility has been upgraded. - One PhD student has successfully defended her thesis. - Two PhD students have been accepted. - Vasily Simutkin has been selected as one of the top 12 PhD students within the European Nuclear Education Network. He has accordingly been invited to present his work at the ENEN PhD event held in connection with the PHYSOR conference in Interlaken, Switzerland, September 2008. - A research collaboration with the dedicated EU laboratory for nuclear data research has been established. - A well-attended workshop on nuclear data for ADS and Gen-IV has been organized as part of the EU project CANDIDE (Coordination Action on Nuclear Data for Industrial Development in Europe), coordinated by Jan Blomgren. - Several experiments have been performed at TSL, with beamtime funded through the EU project EFNUDAT (European Facilities for Nuclear Data research), partly coordinated by Jan Blomgren. - Nuclear power education has reached all-time high at Uppsala University. In particular, industry education has increased significantly. - IAEA has visited Uppsala University to investigate the industry-related nuclear power education, as part of a safety culture review of the Forsmark nuclear power plant

  2. Inflation Experiences in Latin America, 2007-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Weisbrot; David Rosnick

    2009-01-01

    This paper looks briefly at the recent inflation experiences of ten Latin American countries: Brazil, Mexico, Venezuela, Colombia, Chile, Peru, Ecuador, Guatemala, the Dominican Republic, and Bolivia. The authors construct a core inflation index (excluding food and energy), and look at three-month changes in both headline and core inflation. The paper focuses on the increase in inflation from April 2007 to July 2008, driven by a surge in food and energy prices worldwide. These prices have sin...

  3. School Empowerment Surges Ahead in 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    School empowerment and weighted student formula programs continue to grow across the United States. This article explores the key components of school empowerment programs and describes several existing programs from Baltimore to San Francisco. The article examines some of the anecdotal outcomes for these types of public school choice programs.…

  4. End-Of-Year Closure 2007/2008

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    As announced in Weekly Bulletin No. 3-4/2007, the Laboratory will be closed from Saturday 22 December 2007 to Sunday 6 January 2008 inclusive. This period consists of 15 days: • 4 days of official holiday, i.e. 24, 25 and 31 December 2007 and 1 January 2008; • 6 days of special paid leave in accordance with Article R II 4.38 of the Staff Regulations, i.e. 26, 27, 28, December 2007 and 2, 3, 4 January 2008; • 3 Saturdays, i.e. 22, 29 December 2007 and 5 January 2008; • 3 Sundays, i.e. 23, 30 December 2007 and 6 January 2008. The first working day in the New Year will be Monday 7 January 2008. Further information is available from Department Secretariats, specifically concerning the conditions applicable to members of the personnel who are required to work during this period. Human Resources Department Tel. 73903

  5. End-Of-Year Closure 2007/2008

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    As announced in Weekly Bulletin No. 3-4/2007, the Laboratory will be closed from Saturday 22 December 2007 to Sunday 6 January 2008 inclusive. This period consists of 15 days: 4 days of official holiday, i.e. 24, 25 and 31 December 2007 and 1 January 2008; 6 days of special paid leave in accordance with Article R II 4.38 of the Staff Regulations, i.e. 26, 27, 28, December 2007 and 2, 3, 4 January 2008; 3 Saturdays, i.e. 22, 29 December 2007 and 5 January 2008; 3 Sundays, i.e. 23, 30 December 2007 and 6 January 2008. The first working day in the New Year will be Monday 7 January 2008. Further information is available from Department Secretariats, specifically concerning the conditions applicable to members of the personnel who are required to work during this period. Human Resources Department Tel. 73903

  6. The Consumption Effects of the 2007-2008 Financial Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thais Lærkholm; Johannesen, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Did the financial crisis in 2007–2008 spread from distressed banks to households through a contraction of the credit supply? We study this question with a dataset that contains observations on all accounts in Danish banks as well as comprehensive information about individual account holders...... and banks. We document that banks exposed to the financial crisis reduced their lending relative to nonexposed banks, which in turn caused a significant decrease in the borrowing and spending of their customers. The effects were persistent: borrowing remained lower through the postcrisis years and spending...

  7. Journalism and School Shootings in Finland 2007 -2008

    OpenAIRE

    Raittila, Pentti; Koljonen, Kari; Väliverronen, Jari

    2010-01-01

    Two school shootings in Finland (Jokela in 2007 and Kauhajoki in 2008) resulted in the death of 20 people, and they shook not only the foundations of Finnish society but also of the profession that reported about the tragedies. This report is based on research conducted on school shootings at the University of Tampere Journalism Research and Development Centre between 2008 and 2009. The analysis concentrates on both the journalistic texts published on the shootings and journalists' actions...

  8. Shillapoo Wildlife Area, Annual Report 2007-2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calkins, Brian

    2007-10-01

    This report summarizes accomplishments, challenges and successes on WDFW's Shillapoo Wildlife Area funded under Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Wildlife Mitigation Program (BPA project No.2003-012-00) during the Fiscal Year 08 contract period October 1, 2007-September 30, 2008. The information presented here is intended to supplement that contained in BPA's PISCES contract development and reporting system. The organization below is by broad categories of work but references are made to individual work elements in the PISCES Statement of Work as appropriate. Significant progress was realized in almost all major work types. Of particular note was progress made in tree plantings and pasture rehabilitation efforts. This year's tree planting effort included five sites detailed below and in terms of the number of plants was certainly the largest effort on the wildlife area to date in one season. The planting itself took a significant amount of time, which was anticipated. However, installation of mats and tubes took much longer than expected which impacted planned fence projects in particular. Survival of the plantings appears to be good. Improvement to the quality of waterfowl pasture habitats is evident on a number of sites due to replanting and weed control efforts. Continuing long-term weed control efforts will be key in improving this particular type of habitat. A prolonged cold, wet spring and a number of equipment breakdowns presented stumbling blocks that impacted schedules and ultimately progress on planned activities. The unusual spring weather delayed fieldwork on pasture planting projects as well as weed control and slowed the process of maintaining trees and shrubs. This time lag also caused the continued deferral of some of our fencing projects. The large brush hog mower had the driveline break twice and the smaller tractor had an engine failure that caused it to be down for over a month. We have modified our budget plan for next year to include a temporary employee that will work primarily on tree maintenance and fencing projects to make sure that we make progress in these areas and we will be investigating whether a heavier duty driveline can be obtained for the mower.

  9. Drought Analysis for 2007-2008 Agricultural Year of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    B.Cakmak., O.Simsek and

    2010-01-01

    contributions were tried to be made for future production activities. The drought was evaluated by using Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Percent of Normal Index (PNI) and the analyses of precipitation and temperature analysis

  10. Study of energy transfer between riboflavin (vitamin B2) and AgNPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokashi, Vidya V.; Walekar, Laxman S.; Anbhule, Prashant V.; Lee, Sang Hak; Patil, Shivajirao R.; Kolekar, Govind B.

    2014-03-01

    Here, we report the studies on the interaction and formation of nanobiocomplex between silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) and vitamin B2, i.e., riboflavin (RF). The binding study of AgNP to RF was studied by fluorescence, UV-Vis, and TEM techniques. AgNPs were prepared by reducing AgNO3 with trisodium citrate. Prepared nanoparticles size obtained at 20 nm having surface Plasmon resonance band at 426 nm. The absorbance band of RF at 264, 374, and 444 nm changes significantly in the presence of AgNPs suggests that there is change in the chemical environment surrounding AgNPs. A fluorescence spectral change for a solution of RF upon the addition of AgNPs and rapid quenching is suggestive of a rapid adsorption of RF on AgNPs.

  11. SITREP: The NPS Maritime Defense and Security Research Program Newsletter ; v. 48 (July-August 2010)

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This issue of The NPS Maritime Domain Protection Newsletter includes information on The Technology Cooperation Program (TTCP) Maritime (MAR), RAND Corporation Maritime Programs, Librarians Corner, and Future Events.

  12. NPS Adds Another Astronaut Alumnus With NASA’s Newest Class

    OpenAIRE

    Kuska, Dale M.

    2013-01-01

    Article taken from the NPS website: http://www.nps.edu/About/News/NPS-Adds-Another-Astronaut-Alumnus-With-NASAs-Newest-Class.html When NASA Administrator Charles Bolden announced the latest class of NASA’s eight astronaut candidates, June 17, the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) was able to add yet another space-traveling alumnus to its ranks, now totaling 41 and counting. Lt. Cmdr. Victor Glover, an F/A-18 combat pilot currently serving as a Legislative Fellow in the office of Senat...

  13. Bulk material engineering and procurement management of NPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Sanhong; Fan Kai

    2005-01-01

    In a nuclear power project, bulk material is often not in an outstanding position, compared to equipment, yet bulk material is one of most difficult part in engineering and procurement management. If the schedule is not in good control, it will seriously hamper the progress of the whole project. The article explores bulk material engineering and procurement management of NPS, illustrated with tables and graphs. First, major difficult aspects of bulk material procurement are described. On one hand, bulk material is really bulky in kind. We must have detail information of manufacturers, manufacture duration, and take good control of bidding schedule. On the other hand, when an order is placed, we need to make clear everything in the procurement package, such as material types, delivery batches, quantity of each batch and delivery schedule, which is a tremendous work. Then, a schedule conflict is analyzed: when an order is placed, the detail type and quantity cannot be defined (since the construction design is not finished yet). To settle this conflict, the concept 'Requirement Schedule Curve' is brought forward, along with the calculation method. To get this curve, we need to make use of the technical data of the reference power station, along with the site construction schedule, to produce a site quantity requirement curve varying from time, for each type of material. Last, based on the 'Requirement Schedule Curve', we are able to build a unified database to control the engineering, procurement, manufacturing and delivery schedule, so as to procure precisely, manufacture on time, and optimize the storage. In this way, the accurate control of bulk material engineering and procurement schedule can be achieved. (authors)

  14. Automatic reactor for solid-phase synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymeric nanoparticles (MIP NPs) in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poma, Alessandro; Guerreiro, Antonio; Caygill, Sarah; Moczko, Ewa; Piletsky, Sergey

    We report the development of an automated chemical reactor for solid-phase synthesis of MIP NPs in water. Operational parameters are under computer control, requiring minimal operator intervention. In this study, "ready for use" MIP NPs with sub-nanomolar affinity are prepared against pepsin A, trypsin and α-amylase in only 4 hours.

  15. Automatic reactor for solid-phase synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymeric nanoparticles (MIP NPs) in water

    OpenAIRE

    Poma, Alessandro; Guerreiro, Antonio; Caygill, Sarah; Moczko, Ewa; Piletsky, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    We report the development of an automated chemical reactor for solid-phase synthesis of MIP NPs in water. Operational parameters are under computer control, requiring minimal operator intervention. In this study, “ready for use” MIP NPs with sub-nanomolar affinity are prepared against pepsin A, trypsin and α-amylase in only 4 hours.

  16. NPS and online WOM investigating the relationship between customers’ promoter scores and eWOM behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raassens, N.; Haans, Hans

    The Net Promoter Score (NPS) is, according to Reichheld, the single most reliable indicator of company growth, and many companies use this recommendation-based technique for measuring customer loyalty. Despite its widespread adoption by many companies across multiple industries, the debate about NPS

  17. Immunotoxicity of Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) on the Leukocytes of Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Ta; Chang, Hui-Wen; Yang, Wei-Cheng; Lo, Chieh; Wang, Lei-Ya; Pang, Victor Fei; Chen, Meng-Hsien; Jeng, Chian-Ren

    2018-04-04

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been extensively used and are considered as an emerging contaminant in the ocean. The environmental contamination of AgNPs is expected to increase greatly over time, and cetaceans, as the top ocean predators, will suffer the negative impacts of AgNPs. In the present study, we investigate the immunotoxicity of AgNPs on the leukocytes of cetaceans using several methods, including cytomorphology, cytotoxicity, and functional activity assays. The results reveal that 20 nm Citrate-AgNPs (C-AgNP 20 ) induce different cytomorphological alterations and intracellular distributions in cetacean polymorphonuclear cells (cPMNs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (cPBMCs). At high concentrations of C-AgNP 20 (10 and 50 μg/ml), the time- and dose-dependent cytotoxicity in cPMNs and cPBMCs involving apoptosis is demonstrated. C-AgNP 20 at sub-lethal doses (0.1 and 1 μg/ml) negatively affect the functional activities of cPMNs (phagocytosis and respiratory burst) and cPBMCs (proliferative activity). The current study presents the first evidence of the cytotoxicity and immunotoxicity of AgNPs on the leukocytes of cetaceans and improves our understanding of environmental safety concerning AgNPs. The dose-response data of AgNPs on the leukocytes of cetaceans are invaluable for evaluating the adverse health effects in cetaceans and for proposing a conservation plan for marine mammals.

  18. PSP toxin levels and plankton community composition and abundance in size-fractionated vertical profiles during spring/summer blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense in the Gulf of Maine and on Georges Bank, 2007, 2008, and 2010: 2. Plankton community composition and abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitpas, Christian M; Turner, Jefferson T; Deeds, Jonathan R; Keafer, Bruce A; McGillicuddy, Dennis J; Milligan, Peter J; Shue, Vangie; White, Kevin D; Anderson, Donald M

    2014-05-01

    As part of the Gulf of Maine Toxicity (GOMTOX) project, we determined Alexandrium fundyense abundance, paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin levels in various plankton size fractions, and the community composition of potential grazers of A. fundyense in plankton size fractions during blooms of this toxic dinoflagellate in the coastal Gulf of Maine and on Georges Bank in spring and summer of 2007, 2008, and 2010. PSP toxins and A. fundyense cells were found throughout the sampled water column (down to 50 m) in the 20-64 μm size fractions. While PSP toxins were widespread throughout all size classes of the zooplankton grazing community, the majority of the toxin was measured in the 20-64 μm size fraction. A. fundyense cellular toxin content estimated from field samples was significantly higher in the coastal Gulf of Maine than on Georges Bank. Most samples containing PSP toxins in the present study had diverse assemblages of grazers. However, some samples clearly suggested PSP toxin accumulation in several different grazer taxa including tintinnids, heterotrophic dinoflagellates of the genus Protoperidinium , barnacle nauplii, the harpacticoid copepod Microsetella norvegica , the calanoid copepods Calanus finmarchicus and Pseudocalanus spp., the marine cladoceran Evadne nordmanni , and hydroids of the genus Clytia . Thus, a diverse assemblage of zooplankton grazers accumulated PSP toxins through food-web interactions. This raises the question of whether PSP toxins pose a potential human health risk not only from nearshore bivalve shellfish, but also potentially from fish and other upper-level consumers in zooplankton-based pelagic food webs.

  19. Antifungal Effects of Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) against Various Plant Pathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Woo; Jung, Jin Hee; Lamsal, Kabir; Kim, Yun Seok; Min, Ji Seon; Lee, Youn Su

    2012-03-01

    This research is concerned with the fungicidal properties of nano-size silver colloidal solution used as an agent for antifungal treatment of various plant pathogens. We used WA-CV-WA13B, WA-AT-WB13R, and WA-PR-WB13R silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) at concentrations of 10, 25, 50, and 100 ppm. Eighteen different plant pathogenic fungi were treated with these AgNPs on potato dextrose agar (PDA), malt extract agar, and corn meal agar plates. We calculated fungal inhibition in order to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of silver nanoparticles against pathogens. The results indicated that AgNPs possess antifungal properties against these plant pathogens at various levels. Treatment with WA-CV-WB13R AgNPs resulted in maximum inhibition of most fungi. Results also showed that the most significant inhibition of plant pathogenic fungi was observed on PDA and 100 ppm of AgNPs.

  20. Exploring the Behavior and Metabolic Transformations of SeNPs in Exposed Lactic Acid Bacteria. Effect of Nanoparticles Coating Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Palomo-Siguero

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The behavior and transformation of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs in living systems such as microorganisms is largely unknown. To address this knowledge gap, we examined the effect of three types of SeNP suspensions toward Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LB-12 using a variety of techniques. SeNPs were synthesized using three types of coating agents (chitosan (CS-SeNPs, hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC-SeNPs and a non-ionic surfactant, surfynol (ethoxylated-SeNPs. Morphologies of SeNPs were all spherical. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM was used to locate SeNPs in the bacteria. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC on line coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS was applied to evaluate SeNP transformation by bacteria. Finally, flow cytometry employing the live/dead test and optical density measurements at 600 nm (OD600 were used for evaluating the percentages of bacteria viability when supplementing with SeNPs. Negligible damage was detected by flow cytometry when bacteria were exposed to HEC-SeNPs or CS-SeNPs at a level of 10 μg Se mL−1. In contrast, ethoxylated-SeNPs were found to be the most harmful nanoparticles toward bacteria. CS-SeNPs passed through the membrane without causing damage. Once inside, SeNPs were metabolically transformed to organic selenium compounds. Results evidenced the importance of capping agents when establishing the true behavior of NPs.

  1. Navy-Wide Personnel Survey (NPS) 1992: Statistical Tables for Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    PERCENTS DO NOT KNOW OPTION OMITTED 440 OFFICER 2693 LUDRSUIP: WORK GROUP LZSTIS AND RZEPCDS TO NY PROULDS Q1 azm KALE FEMALE DONT KNOW 3.0% 3.0% N 97 15...dining facilities make 3.1 Yes, other military service training available fruit, vegetables , 11.8 Yes, civilian (local community) training. low fat meat

  2. The 1985 ARI Survey of Army Recruits: Tabular Description of NPS Army Reserve Accessions. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    NBA basketball 1 2 3 4 102. College besketball 1 2 3 4 103. NHL hockey 1 2 3 4 104. Profesional wrestling 1 2 3 4 1OS. Car reces 1 2 3 4 106. Golf...did you participate in while you were in high school? (CIRCLE ALL THAT APPLY) SFootball ....................... I Basketball ..................... 2... Basketball ..................... 2 Swimming ....................... 3 Baseball ....................... Track ............ 5............ Other (Specify

  3. The 1984 ARI Survey of Army Recruits: Tabular Description of NPS Army Reserve Accessions. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    12 PROB. 0.1867 I 186 T261 — NATCH TV PROG’NBA BASKETBALL NARK ONE LETTER FOR EACH OF THE FOLLOWING PROGRAMS OR PROGRAMMING TYPES ON TV: NBA ...Major league baseball — regular seaaon games 105. Major league baaaball playoffs 106. World Series 107. NBA baaketball 106. College basketball 109...BASEBALL PLAYOFFS HATCH TV PROG:WORLD SERIES HATCH TV PROG:NBA BASKETBALL HATCH TV PROG:COLLEGE BASKETBALL HATCH TV PROG:NHL HOCKEY HATCH TV

  4. The 1984 ARI Survey of Army Recruits: Tabular Description of NPS (active) Army Accessions. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    YOU WATCH ANY OF THE FOLLOWING PROGRAMS OR PROGRAMMING TYPES ON TV? - NBA BASKETBALL 1 - REGULARLY TURN ON THE TV TO WATCH IT 2 - SOMETIMES WATCH IT...league baseball — regular season games 105. Major league baseball playoffs 106. World Series 107. NBA basketball 108. College basketball 109...LAG BASEBALL PLAYOFFS WORLD SERIES MBA BASKETBALL COLLEGE BASKETBALL NHL HOCKEY PROFESSIONAL WRESTLING CAR RACES 154 156 158- 160 162- 164

  5. The 1985 ARI Survey of Army Recruits: Tabular Description of NPS Army Reserve Accessions. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    4 101. NBA baketball 1 2 3 4 102. College basketball 1 2 3 4 103. N4. hckey 1 2 3 4 104. Professional wrestling 1 2 3 4 105. Car roee 1 2 3 4 106...you participate in while you were in high school? (CIRCLE ALL THAT APPLY) Football........................1 Basketball ...................... 2...ALL THAT APPLY) Football ........................ 1 Basketball ..................... 2 Swi ning ........................ 3 Baseball

  6. The 1985 ARI Survey of Army Recruits: Tabular Description of NPS (active) Army Accessions. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    T261 -- WATCH TV PROG:NBA BASKETBALL DO YOU WATCH ANY OF THE FOLLOWING PROGRAMS OR PROGRAMMING TYPES ON REGULAR TV STATIONS? .- NBA BASKETBALL . 1...327𔃻 261 WATCH TV PROG:NBA BASKETBALL 328-329 T262 WATCH TV PROG:COLLEGE BASKETBALL 330-331 T263 WATCH TV PROG:NHL HOCKEY 332-333 T264 WlATCH TV...T262 -- WATCH TV PROG:COLLEGE BASKETBALL DO YOU WATCH ANY OF THE FOLLOWING PROGRAMS OR PROGRAMMING TYPES ON REGULAR TV STATIONS? - COLLEGE BASKETBALL . 1

  7. The 1984 ARI Survey of Army Recruits: Tabular Description of NPS (active) Army Accessions. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    WATCH TV PROG MJR LEAG BASEBALL PLAYOFFS 232-233 WATCH TV PROG WORLD SERIES 23<«-235 WATCH TV PROG NBA BASKETBALL 236-237 WATCH TV PROG COLLEGE...PROG:NBA BASKETBALL DO YOU ’^ATCH ANY OF THE FOLLOWING PROGRAMS OR PROGRAMMING TYPES ON TV? - NBA BASKETBALL , 1 - REGULARLY TURN ON THE TV TO WATCH...107. NBA basketball 108. College basketball 109. NHL hockey 110. Professional wrestling 111. Car r.ices 112. Golf tournaments 113. Tennis

  8. Study on Synthesis and Antibacterial Properties of Ag NPs/GO Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using graphene oxide as substrate and stabilizer for the silver nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles-graphene oxide (Ag NPs/GO composites with different Ag loading were synthesized through a facile solution-phase method. During the synthesis process, AgNO3 on GO matrix was directly reduced by NaBH4. The structure characterization was studied through X-ray diffraction (XRD, atomic force microscopy (AFM, high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis, and selected area electron diffraction (SAED. The results show that Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs with the sizes ranging from 5 to 20 nm are highly dispersed on the surfaces of GO sheets. The shape and size of the Ag NPs are decided by the volume of initial AgNO3 solution added in the GO. The antibacterial activities of Ag NPs/GO nanocomposites were investigated and the result shows that all the produced composites exhibit good antibacterial activities against Gram-negative (G− bacterial strain Escherichia coli (E. coli and Gram-positive (G+ strain Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus. Moreover, the antibacterial activities of Ag NPs/GO nanocomposites gradually increased with the increasing of volume of initial AgNO3 solution added in the GO and this improvement of the antibacterial activities results from the combined action of size effect and concentration effect of Ag NPs in Ag NPs/GO nanocomposites.

  9. Translocation of SiO2-NPs across in vitro human bronchial epithelial monolayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, I; Vranic, S; Boland, S; Borot, M C; Marano, F; Baeza-Squiban, A

    2013-01-01

    Safe development and application of nanotechnologies in many fields require better knowledge about their potential adverse effects on human health. Evidence of abilities of nanoparticles (NPs) to cross epithelial barriers and reach secondary organs via the bloodstream led us to investigate the translocation of SiO 2 NPs of 50 nm (50 nm-SiO 2 -NPs) across human bronchial epithelial cells that are primary targets after exposure to inhaled NPs. We quantified the translocation of fluorescently labelled SiO 2 NPs at non-cytotoxic concentrations (5 and 10 μg/cm 2 ) across Calu-3 epithelial monolayer. After 14 days in culture Calu-3 cells seeded onto 3 μm-polycarbonate Transwell membranes formed an efficient bronchial barrier assessed by measurement of the transepithelial electric resistance and quantification of the permeability of the monolayer. After 24 hours of exposure, we observed a significant translocation of NPs that was more important when the initial NP concentration decreased. Confocal microscopy observations revealed NP uptake by cells and an important NP retention inside the porous membrane. In conclusion, 50 nm-SiO 2 -NPs can cross the human bronchial epithelial barrier without affecting the integrity of the epithelial cell monolayer.

  10. Green synthesized conditions impacting on the reactivity of Fe NPs for the degradation of malachite green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lanlan; Luo, Fang; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra

    2015-02-25

    This study investigates green tea extract synthesized conditions impacting on the reactivity of iron nanoparticles (Fe NPs) used for the degradation of malachite green (MG), including the volume ratio of Fe(2+) and tea extract, the solution pH and temperature. Results indicated that the reactivity of Fe NPs increased with higher temperature, but fell with increasing pH and the volume ratio of Fe(2+) and tea extract. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that Fe NPs were spherical in shape, their diameter was 70-80 nm and they were mainly composed of iron oxide nanoparticles. UV-visible (UV-vis) indicated that reactivity of Fe NPs used in degradation of MG significantly depended on the synthesized conditions of Fe NPs. This was due to their impact on the reactivity and morphology of Fe NPs. Finally, degradation of MG showed that 90.56% of MG was removed using Fe NPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Biosynthesis and Characterization of AgNPs-Silk/PVA Film for Potential Packaging Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Gang; Cai, Rui; Wang, Yejing; Song, Kai; Guo, Pengchao; Zhao, Ping; Zuo, Hua; He, Huawei

    2017-06-17

    Bionanocomposite packaging materials have a bright future for a broad range of applications in the food and biomedical industries. Antimicrobial packaging is one of the bionanocomposite packaging materials. Silver nanoparticle (AgNP) is one of the most attractive antimicrobial agents for its broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against microorganisms. However, the traditional method of preparing AgNPs-functionalized packaging material is cumbersome and not environmentally friendly. To develop an efficient and convenient biosynthesis method to prepare AgNPs-modified bionanocomposite material for packaging applications, we synthesized AgNPs in situ in a silk fibroin solution via the reduction of Ag⁺ by the tyrosine residue of fibroin, and then prepared AgNPs-silk/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) composite film by blending with PVA. AgNPs were synthesized evenly on the surface or embedded in the interior of silk/PVA film. The prepared AgNPs-silk/PVA film exhibited excellent mechanical performance and stability, as well as good antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. AgNPs-silk/PVA film offers more choices to be potentially applied in the active packaging field.

  12. Preparation and characterization of BC/PAM-AgNPs nanocomposites for antibacterial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Wang, Caixia; Hong, Feng; Yang, Xuexia; Cao, Zhangjun

    2015-01-22

    In this work, a bacterial cellulose/polyacrylamide (BC/PAM) double network composite was prepared to act as the template for in situ synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Effects of reaction conditions of the BC/PAM composite were investigated on its microstructure, mechanical properties and thermal stabilities. Both the BC/PAM composite and pure BC were utilized to prepare the corresponding silver impregnated nanocomposites, i.e., BC/PAM-AgNPs and BC-AgNPs, by an environmental friendly method, UV irradiation. The influences of the templates were investigated on the AgNPs formation and the antibacterial activities of the nanocomposites by both the zone of inhibition and dynamic shake flask methods. It was shown that the BC/PAM composite displayed a denser microstructure and higher thermal stabilities than pure BC. The BC/PAM-AgNPs nanocomposite exhibited a bigger particle size and lower mass content of AgNPs than the BC-AgNPs one. For the antibacterial test, two nanocomposites exhibited a close antibacterial effect, with a high log reduction above 3 and killing ratio above 99.9%, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Expected Impact of Agricultural Nonpoint Sources Special Land Treatment (AgNPS-SALT) Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous

    2006-01-01

    This set of reports describes the computer based evaluation of 6 AgNPS-SALT Projects in Missouri and assesses the use of SWAT as an evaluation tool. The analyses estimates nutrient, sediment, and pesticide loading reductions for each project. Titles include: Final Report, Computer Based Evaluation of the AgNPS-SALT Project (19-06); Long Branch Lake Watershed, Computer Based Evaluation of the AgNPS-SALT Project (20-06); Upper and Lower Big Maries River Watersheds Computer Based Evaluation of t...

  14. Structural mechanical and antibacterial properties of HPMC/SF-AgNPs nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harish, K. V.; Rao, B. Lakshmeesha; Asha, S.; Vipin, C.; Sangappa, Y.

    2018-04-01

    In the present study, Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose (HPMC) pure and HPMC/SF-AgNPs biopolymer nanocomposite films were prepared by simple solution casting method. The prepared nanocomposite films were characterized using UV-Visible spectroscopy(UV-Vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The mechanical properties of HPMC/SF-AgNPs nanocomposites were found to be decrease with increase in the AgNP's concentrations. The HPMC/SF-AgNPs nanocomposites showed very good antibacterial activity against human pathogens P. aeruginosa, E.coli, and S.aureus.

  15. The NPs Role of Assessing and Intervening with Older Adult Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamatha Arms

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the silver tsunami continues, assessing and intervening with older adult drivers are becoming an essential aspect of the comprehensive geriatric exam. The current lack of time efficient clinical guidelines is a concern and barrier for NPs. The purpose of this study was to identify strategies currently used by NPs. The critical incident technique was used to obtain data from a convenience sample of NPs. A total of 89 incidents were collected. The perspective of the NP can provide important information for developing clinical guidelines to promote individual and community safety.

  16. A Bottom-Up Assessment of Navy Flagship Schools: The NPS Faculty Critique of CNA's Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gates, William

    1998-01-01

    ... different than their undergraduate major, and higher course-loads. Cost analyses incorporating these benefits indicate that NPS is highly efficient at providing graduate education to naval officers at a low cost per student...

  17. NPS Transit System Passenger Boardings Study: Converting Ticket Sales to Passenger Boardings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report examines the reporting of passenger boardings (unlinked passenger trips) by NPS transit systems that use a ticket sales conversion methodology. By studying and validating the park units' passenger boarding methodology from converting tick...

  18. Application of integrated GIS and multimedia modeling on NPS pollution evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C E; Kao, C M; Lai, Y C; Shan, W L; Wu, C Y

    2009-11-01

    In Taiwan, nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is one of the major causes of the impairment of surface waters. I-Liao Creek, located in southern Taiwan, flows approximately 90 km and drains toward the Kaoping River. Field investigation results indicate that NPS pollution from agricultural activities is one of the main water pollution sources in the I-Liao Creek Basin. Assessing the potential of NPS pollution to assist in the planning of best management practice (BMP) is significant for improving pollution prevention and control in the I-Liao Creek Basin. In this study, land use identification in the I-Liao Creek Basin was performed by properly integrating the skills of geographic information system (GIS) and global positioning system (GPS). In this analysis, 35 types of land use patterns in the watershed area of the basin are classified with the aid of Erdas Imagine process system and ArcView GIS system. Results indicate that betel palm farms, orchard farms, and tea gardens dominate the farmland areas in the basin, and are scattered around on both sides of the river corridor. An integrated watershed management model (IWMM) was applied for simulating the water quality and evaluating NPS pollutant loads to the I-Liao Creek. The model was calibrated and verified with collected water quality and soil data, and was used to investigate potential NPS pollution management plans. Simulated results indicate that NPS pollution has significant contributions to the nutrient loads to the I-Liao Creek during the wet season. Results also reveal that NPS pollution plays an important role in the deterioration of downstream water quality and caused significant increase in nutrient loads into the basin's water bodies. Simulated results show that source control, land use management, and grassy buffer strip are applicable and feasible BMPs for NPS nutrient loads reduction. GIS system is an important method for land use identification and waste load estimation in the basin. Linking the

  19. NPS Workshop Launches a Continuum of Education, Analysis on the Navy’s Most Challenging Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    All information contained herein has been approved for release by the NPS Public Affairs Officer. Students at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) recently participated in a warfare innovation workshop designed to challenge students to analyze a series of scenarios wherein U.S. forces are drawn into a conflict in the South China Sea. The university’s warfare innovation workshops, led by the Consortium for Robotics and Unmanned Systems Education and Research (CRUSER), explore adv...

  20. Evaluation of genotoxic effect of silver nanoparticles (Ag-Nps) in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Priscila; Balbinot, Fernanda; Martins de Oliveira, Hugo; Elibio Fagundes, Gabriela; Venâncio, Mireli; Vieira Ronconi, João Vitor; Merlini, Aline; Streck, Emílio L.; Marques da Silva, Paula; Moraes de Andrade, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are the most prominent nanoproducts. Due to their antimicrobial activity, they have been incorporated in different materials, such as catheters, clothes, electric home appliance, and many others. The genotoxicity of Ag-NPs (5–45 nm), in different concentrations and times of exposure, was evaluated by the comet assay in in vitro and in vivo conditions, respectively, using human peripheral blood and Swiss mice. The results showed the genotoxic effect of Ag-NPs in vitro, in all the doses tested in the initial hour of exposure, possibly through the reactive oxygen species generation. Nevertheless, the values for this damage decrease with time, indicating that the DNA may have been restored by the repair system. In the in vivo conditions, we found no genotoxicity of Ag-NPs in any hour of exposure and any dose investigated, which can be attributed to the activation of a cellular antioxidant network and the hydrophobic nature of Ag-NPs. Now, it is absolutely necessary to investigate the role of Ag-NPs in different cell lines in vivo.

  1. Antimicrobial and anticancer activity of AgNPs coated with Alphonsea sclerocarpa extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doddapaneni, Suman Joshi D S; Amgoth, Chander; Kalle, Arunasree M; Suryadevara, Surya Narayana; Alapati, Krishna Satya

    2018-03-01

    The synthesis and characterization of an aggregate of AgNPs coated with plant extract (PE) from Alphonsea sclerocarpa and its significant antimicrobial activity and inhibition on K562 (blood cancer) cells have been appended in the article. Synthesis of aggregate [(AgNPs)-(PE)] has been followed by a facile eco-friendly approach without using any harmful chemicals. The morphology of an aggregate [(AgNPs)-(PE)] was confirmed by TEM and SEM microscopic characterizations. Properties like solid state, the presence of functional groups, and elemental composition have been characterized through the XRD, FTIR, and EDAX. The biocompatibility of synthesized aggregate of [(AgNPs)-(PE)] was confirmed by the MTT assay. An in vitro cell (HEK293)-based studies were performed for the biocompatibility tests and it is found that the aggregate [(AgNPs)-(PE)] is not harmful to normal/healthy cells. Even though A. sclerocarpa show the antimicrobial (antibacterial and antifungal) activity, it has been further enhanced with the developed aggregate of [(AgNPs)-(PE)]. Furthermore, it has been extended to examine the cellular inhibition on K562 cells and obtained > 75% cell inhibition for 24 h treated cells.

  2. Evaluation of genotoxic effect of silver nanoparticles (Ag-Nps) in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Priscila; Balbinot, Fernanda; Martins de Oliveira, Hugo; Elibio Fagundes, Gabriela [PPGCS, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Laboratorio de Biologia Celular e Molecular (Brazil); Venancio, Mireli; Vieira Ronconi, Joao Vitor; Merlini, Aline [Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Laboratorio de Sintese de Complexos Multifuncionais (Brazil); Streck, Emilio L. [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Unidade Academica de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Laboratorio de Fisiopatologia Experimental (Brazil); Marques da Silva, Paula [Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Laboratorio de Sintese de Complexos Multifuncionais (Brazil); Moraes de Andrade, Vanessa, E-mail: vmoraesdeandrade@yahoo.com.br [PPGCS, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Laboratorio de Biologia Celular e Molecular (Brazil)

    2012-03-15

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are the most prominent nanoproducts. Due to their antimicrobial activity, they have been incorporated in different materials, such as catheters, clothes, electric home appliance, and many others. The genotoxicity of Ag-NPs (5-45 nm), in different concentrations and times of exposure, was evaluated by the comet assay in in vitro and in vivo conditions, respectively, using human peripheral blood and Swiss mice. The results showed the genotoxic effect of Ag-NPs in vitro, in all the doses tested in the initial hour of exposure, possibly through the reactive oxygen species generation. Nevertheless, the values for this damage decrease with time, indicating that the DNA may have been restored by the repair system. In the in vivo conditions, we found no genotoxicity of Ag-NPs in any hour of exposure and any dose investigated, which can be attributed to the activation of a cellular antioxidant network and the hydrophobic nature of Ag-NPs. Now, it is absolutely necessary to investigate the role of Ag-NPs in different cell lines in vivo.

  3. Effect of AgCl NPs: Physical, thermal, absorption and luminescence properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhafizah, H.; Rohani, M. S.

    2017-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgCl NPs) are embedded in Er3+/Nd3+ co-doped lithium niobate tellurite glasses of the form (68-x)TeO2-15Li2CO3-15Nb2O5-1Er2O3-1Nd2O3-(x)AgCl with x = 1,2 and 3 mol% via conventional melt-quenching technique. The physical properties such as density, ionic packing density, refractive index and electronic polarizability are computed utilizing the usual method. The existence of AgCl NPs with an average size of 3.7 nm is confirmed using TEM analysis. Moreover, the thermal stability and Hruby criterion of the glass decreases as the AgCl NPs content increases. The direct optical band gap are found decrease as the AgCl NPs content increase, but both indirect optical band gap and Urbach energy are found increases as AgCl NPs content increases. The luminescence spectra shows two strong emission which is the purple emission at 436 nm and red emission at 724 nm which also been observed has strong quenching due to the AgCl NPs, Er3+/Nd3+ dopant and modifier, lithium niobate which possessed magnetic penetration. These glass compositions may be potential for various applications such as solid state devices including laser.

  4. Size control of Au NPs supported by pH operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiji, Masumi; Akiba, Hiroko; Hirasawa, Izumi

    2017-07-01

    Au NPs are expected to become useful functional particles, as particle gun used for plant gene transfer and also catalysts. We have studied PSD (particle size distribution) control of Au NPs by reduction crystallization. Previous study found out importance of seeds policy and also feeding profile. In this paper, effect of pH in the reduction crystallization was investigated to clarify the possibility of Au NPs PSD control by pH operation and also their growth process. Au NPs of size range 10-600 nm were obtained in single-jet system using ascorbic acid (AsA) as a reducing agent with adjusting pH of AsA. Au NPs are found to grow in the process of nucleation, agglomeration, agglomeration growth and surface growth. Au NPs tend to grow by agglomeration and become larger size in lower pH regions, and to grow only by surface growth and become smaller size in higher pH regions.

  5. Green synthesis of Pd NPs from Pimpinella tirupatiensis plant extract and their application in photocatalytic activity dye degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasaiah, Palajonna; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Sarada, N. C.

    2017-11-01

    The present report the synthesis of palladium nanoparticles through the green method route offers few advantages over the common chemical and physical procedures, as it is an easy and fast, eco-friendly and does not involve any costly chemicals as well as hazardous chemicals. In this study, we reported synthesis of Pd NPs by using the Pimpinella tirupatiensis plant Extract (PTPE). The synthesized Pd NPs was characterization using different technique such as UV-Visible for the formation of Pd NPs. FT-IR spectroscopy was performed to detect the bio-active molecules liable for reduction and capping of biogenic Pd NPs. Crystallinity of Pd NPs conformed by powder - XRD. In the present study performed photo catalytic activity of synthesized Pd NPs using organic dye such as Congo red (CR). Hence, this study concludes the PTPE aqueous extract produced Pd NPs can be act as promising material for the degradation of organic pollutants.

  6. NiS(NPs)-PEDOT-PSS composite counter electrode for a high efficiency dye sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiaugree, Wasan [Integrated Nanotechnology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Center for Alternative Energy Research and Development, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Pimparue, Pachara; Jarernboon, Wirat [Integrated Nanotechnology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Pimanpang, Samuk [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok 10110 (Thailand); Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya [Integrated Nanotechnology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Swatsitang, Ekaphan, E-mail: ekaphan@kku.ac.th [Integrated Nanotechnology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Center for Alternative Energy Research and Development, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)

    2017-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Figure(a) and (b) represent models depict PEDOT-PSS counter electrodes of DSSC without and with NiS NPs modification, respectively. The active surface area of PEDOT-PSS polymer can be improved by combining with NiS(NPs). The I-V curves in figure (c) show the superior photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 8.18% for NiS(NPs)/PEDOT-PSS DSSC. - Highlights: • Active surface area of PEDOT-PSS CE can be improved by mixing with NiS(NPs). • Electrocatalytic activity of mixed NiS(NPs)/PEDOT-PSS polymer is also improved. • NiS(NPs)/PEDOT-PSS CE shows a very low charge transfer resistance of 0.46 Ω. • In this work, the high photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 8.18% is achieved. - Abstract: Nickel sulfide (NiS) nanoparticles (NPs) (NiS(NPs)) were prepared by the hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate the hexagonal structure of NiS(NPs). SEM micrographs reveal the agglomeration of irregular hexagonal – shaped NiS(NPs) with estimated particle size in the range of 50–150 nm. Counter electrodes (CEs) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were prepared by coating the composite slurry of different NiS(NPs) loadings and Poly (3, 4-Ethylendioxythiophene) – Poly (Styrene Sulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) on fluoride-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates using a doctor blading technique. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) results indicate that the composites of NiS(NPs) and PEDOT-PSS (NiS(NPs)/PEDOT-PSS) films could function as a catalyst for I{sub 3}{sup −} reduction with a maximum cell efficiency of 8.18% for a cell of 0.3 g NiS(NPs) loading.

  7. Histopathological effects of nanosilver (Ag-NPs in liver after dermal exposure during wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saeed Heydarnejad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: With the advent of nanotechnology, significant progress has been made in the area of nanoscale materials such as nanosilver (Ag-Nps. These nanoparticles have a wide range of applications and been used for antimicrobial purposes for more than a century. However, little attention has been paid to the toxicity of nanosilver wound dressing. This study was designed to investigate the possible histopathological toxicity of Ag-NPs in liver of mice during wound healing.     Materials and Methods:   A group of 50 female BALB/c mice of about 8 weeks were randomly divided into two groups: Ag-NPs and control groups (n=25. After creating similar wound on the backs of all animals, the wound bed was treated in Ag-NPs group, with a volume of 50 microliters of the nanosilver solution (10ppm ,and in control group, with the same amount of distilled water. The experiment lasted for 14 days. Histopathaological samplings of liver were conducted on days 2, 7 and 14 of the experiment.   Results: Histopathological studies demonstrated time-dependent changes in mice liver treated with Ag-NPs compared to control group. Some changes include dilation in central venous, hyperemia, cell swelling, increase of Kupffer and inflammatory cells. Conclusion: This study suggests that use of nanosilver for wound healing may cause a mild toxicity, as indicated by time-dependent toxic responses in liver tissue. However, this issue will have to be considered more extensively in further studies.

  8. NPS and Online WOM: Investigating the Relationship Between Customers' Promoter Scores and eWOM Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raassens, Néomie; Haans, Hans

    2017-08-01

    The Net Promoter Score (NPS) is, according to Reichheld, the single most reliable indicator of company growth, and many companies use this recommendation-based technique for measuring customer loyalty. Despite its widespread adoption by many companies across multiple industries, the debate about NPS goes on. A major concern is that managers treat NPS as being equivalent across customers, which is often very misleading. By using a unique data set that combines customers' promoter scores and online word-of-mouth (eWOM) behavior, this research studies how individual customers' promoter scores are related to eWOM, including its relationship with the three categories of customers that are identified by the NPS paradigm (i.e., promoters, passives, and detractors). Based on a sample of 189 customers, their promoter scores and corresponding eWOM, the results show that there is a positive relationship between customers' promoter scores and the valence of online messages. Further, while detractors and promoters are homogeneous with respect to the valence of the eWOM messages they spread, passives show message valence heterogeneity. Thus, although passives, the largest group of customers, have no weight in calculating the NPS, our results reveal that companies should flag passives for further attention and action.

  9. Methodology for agricultural and rural NPS pollution in a typical county of the North China Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yong; Chen Ying; Zhang Xiaolan; Ongley, Edwin; Zhao Lei

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution has been recently identified by the Chinese government as a major source of aquatic pollution. Methodologies commonly used to make basin-wide or area-wide assessments are problematic and regional distinctions have not been made relative to rainfall and runoff. Using a typical agricultural county in the Hai River basin of the North China Plan we developed methodology to estimate potential load and delivered load for crops (field crops + rice), animal production, rural living and from atmospheric N input. We use scenarios to allow for uncertainty in delivery to estimate the relative roles of different rural forms of pollution. Livestock raising is the major source of NPS pollution. Despite a 75% rural population, rural living contributes almost nothing to surface water pollution. While over-fertilization is typical, nutrient runoff from crops is low. Our results have implications for policies now under development for NPS control in China. - Highlights: ► Provides specific methods guidance for agricultural NPS assessment in China. ► Crops do not contribute significant N and P to watercourses in North China Plain. ► Rural living contributes almost no N and P to watercourses. ► Livestock is the only significant agricultural source of COD, N and P. - We address the methodology for agricultural NPS pollution assessment. We show that livestock, not rural living or crops, is the significant pollutant source.

  10. Multifunctional AgNPs@Wool: colored, UV-protective and antioxidant functional textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbir, Mohd; Mohammad, Faqeer

    2018-02-01

    Nanomaterials have great impact on textile industry for multifunctional and smart clothing as per the need of present, and further, green nanotechnology is the current hotspot of research and industrial developments. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are synthesized (in situ) by using natural compounds of plant extracts (naphthoquinones, phenolics/flavonoids, polyphenols) as reducing or stabilizing agents, and simultaneously deposited on wool fabric for coloration, UV protection and antioxidant properties. UV-visible spectroscopy is used to monitor the route of biosynthesis of nanoparticles and transmission electron microscopy for morphological characteristics of synthesized AgNPs. Spherical and almost oval-shaped AgNPs were synthesized by naphthoquinones, polyphenols and flavonoids, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used for the AgNPs@Wool fabrics characterization. SEM-EDX analysis and XRD patterns confirmed the successful deposition of silver nanoparticles on wool. Coloration characteristics in terms of color strength (K/S) and CIEL*a*b*c*h° values, UV protection abilities in terms of UV transmittance and UV protection factor, and % antioxidant activity of AgNPs@Wool are suggestive of good-to-excellent results.

  11. The Interactions between ZnO Nanoparticles (NPs and α-Linolenic Acid (LNA Complexed to BSA Did Not Influence the Toxicity of ZnO NPs on HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwei Zhou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nanoparticles (NPs entering the biological environment could interact with biomolecules, but little is known about the interaction between unsaturated fatty acids (UFA and NPs. Methods: This study used α-linolenic acid (LNA complexed to bovine serum albumin (BSA for UFA and HepG2 cells for hepatocytes. The interactions between BSA or LNA and ZnO NPs were studied. Results: The presence of BSA or LNA affected the hydrodynamic size, zeta potential, UV-Vis, fluorescence, and synchronous fluorescence spectra of ZnO NPs, which indicated an interaction between BSA or LNA and NPs. Exposure to ZnO NPs with the presence of BSA significantly induced the damage to mitochondria and lysosomes in HepG2 cells, associated with an increase of intracellular Zn ions, but not intracellular superoxide. Paradoxically, the release of inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6 was decreased, which indicated the anti-inflammatory effects of ZnO NPs when BSA was present. The presence of LNA did not significantly affect all of these endpoints in HepG2 cells exposed to ZnO NPs and BSA. Conclusions: the results from the present study indicated that BSA-complexed LNA might modestly interact with ZnO NPs, but did not significantly affect ZnO NPs and BSA-induced biological effects in HepG2 cells.

  12. TEA controllable preparation of magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) with excellent magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chengliang; Zhu, Dejie; Wu, Hanzhao; Li, Yao; Cheng, Lu; Hu, Kunhong

    2016-06-01

    A fast and controllable synthesis method for superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) was developed in Fe(III)-triethanolamine (TEA) solution. The phase structure, morphology and particle size of the as-synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the magnetic particles were pure Fe3O4 with mean sizes of approximately 10 nm. The used TEA has key effects on the formation of well dispersing Fe3O4 NPs. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) result indicated that the as-obtained Fe3O4 NPs exhibited superparamagnetic behavior and the saturation magnetization (Ms) was about 70 emu/g, which had potential applications in magnetic science and technology.

  13. Green Synthesis of AgNPs Stabilized with biowaste and their antimicrobial activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakuleshwar Dut Jasuja

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, rapid reduction and stabilization of Ag+ ions with different NaOH molar concentration (0.5 mM, 1.0 mM and 1.5 mM has been carried out in the aqueous solution of silver nitrate by the bio waste peel extract of P.granatum. Generally, chemical methods used for the synthesis of AgNPs are quite toxic, flammable and have adverse effect in medical application but green synthesis is a better option due to eco-friendliness, non-toxicity and safe for human. Stable AgNPs were synthesized by treating 90 mL aqueous solution of 2 mM AgNO3 with the 5 mL plant peels extract (0.4% w/v at different NaOH concentration (5 mL. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, TEM and SEM. Further, antimicrobial activities of AgNPs were performed on Gram positive i.e. Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilius and Gram negative i.e. E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria. The AgNPs synthesized at 1.5 mM NaOH concentration had shown maximum zone of inhibition (ZOI i.e. 49 ± 0.64 in E. coli, whereas Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilius had shown 40 ± 0.29 mm, 28 ± 0.13 and 42 ± 0.49 mm ZOI respectively. The MIC value of 30 g/mL observed for E. coli Whereas, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilius and Pseudomonas aeruginosa had shown 45 µg/mL, 38 µg/mL, 35 µg/mL respectively. The study revealed that AgNPs had shown significant antimicrobial activity as compared to Streptomycin.

  14. Concentration-dependent, size-independent toxicity of citrate capped AuNPs in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Vecchio

    Full Text Available The expected potential benefits promised by nanotechnology in various fields have led to a rapid increase of the presence of engineered nanomaterials in a high number of commercial goods. This is generating increasing questions about possible risks for human health and environment, due to the lack of an in-depth assessment of the physical/chemical factors responsible for their toxic effects. In this work, we evaluated the toxicity of monodisperse citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs of different sizes (5, 15, 40, and 80 nm in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, upon ingestion. To properly evaluate and distinguish the possible dose- and/or size-dependent toxicity of the AuNPs, we performed a thorough assessment of their biological effects, using two different dose-metrics. In the first approach, we kept constant the total surface area of the differently sized AuNPs (Total Exposed Surface area approach, TES, while, in the second approach, we used the same number concentration of the four different sizes of AuNPs (Total Number of Nanoparticles approach, TNN. We observed a significant AuNPs-induced toxicity in vivo, namely a strong reduction of Drosophila lifespan and fertility performance, presence of DNA fragmentation, as well as a significant modification in the expression levels of genes involved in stress responses, DNA damage recognition and apoptosis pathway. Interestingly, we found that, within the investigated experimental conditions, the toxic effects in the exposed organisms were directly related to the concentration of the AuNPs administered, irrespective of their size.

  15. Highly sensitive work function hydrogen gas sensor based on PdNPs/SiO2/Si structure at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Behzadi pour

    Full Text Available In this study, fabrication of highly sensitive PdNPs/SiO2/Si hydrogen gas sensor using experimental and theoretical methods has been investigated. Using chemical method the PdNPs are synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD. The average size of PdNPs is 11 nm. The thickness of the oxide film was 20 nm and the surface of oxide film analyzed using Atomic-force microscopy (AFM. The C-V curve for the PdNPs/SiO2/Si hydrogen gas sensor in 1% hydrogen concentration and at the room temperature has been reported. The response time and recovery time for 1% hydrogen concentration at room temperature were 1.2 s and 10 s respectively. The response (R% for PdNPs/SiO2/Si MOS capacitor hydrogen sensor was 96%. The PdNPs/SiO2/Si MOS capacitor hydrogen sensor showed very fast response and recovery times compared to SWCNTs/PdNPs, graphene/PdNPs, nanorod/PdNPs and nanowire/PdNPs hydrogen gas sensors. Keywords: Sensitive, Oxide film, Capacitive, Resistance

  16. Decommissioning of blocks 1 to 5 of the Greifswald NPS (KGR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, S.; King, A.J.; Koehler, G.; Bernhagen, A.; Friedrich, W.

    1992-01-01

    A study group has prepared a decommissioning and demolition concept for blocks 1 - 5 of the Greifswald NPS. In all, the Greifswald NPS comprises 8 double-blocks (some under construction) of the Russian reactor type WWER 440 (pressure water reactor).After differing operating times, the two oldest double-blocks 1/2 and 3/4 were finally shut down in 1990. The double blocks are almost identical. This document is divided into two parts, i.e. the technical concept which describes the technical procedure for decommissioning and demolishing blocks 1 - 5 and a development concept which contains costs, schedules and estimated manpower requirements. (Author)

  17. Influence of particle coating and matrix constituents on the cloud point extraction efficiency of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) and application for monitoring the formation of Ag-NPs from Ag(+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Georg; Baumgartner, Tanja; Schuster, Michael

    2014-01-07

    For the quantification of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) in environmental samples using cloud point extraction (CPE) for selective enrichment, surface modification of the Ag-NPs and matrix effects can play a key role. In this work we validate CPE with respect to the influence of different coatings and naturally occurring matrix components. The Ag-NPs tested were functionalized with inorganic and organic compounds as well as with biomolecules. Commercially available NPs and NPs synthesized according to methods published in the literature were used. We found that CPE can extract almost all Ag-NPs tested with very good efficiencies (82-105%). Only Ag-NPs functionalized with BSA (bovine serum albumin), which is a protein with the function to keep colloids in solution, cannot be extracted. No or little effect of environmentally relevant salts, organic matter, and inorganic colloids on the CPE of AgNPs was found. Additionally we used CPE to observe the in situ formation of Ag-NPs produced by the reduction of Ag(+) with natural organic matter (NOM).

  18. Monocrystalline solar cells performance coated by silver nanoparticles: Effect of NPs sizes from point of view Mie theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnoby, Rasha M.; Mourad, M. Hussein; Elnaby, Salah L. Hassab; Abou Kana, Maram T. H.

    2018-05-01

    Solar based cells coated by nanoparticles (NPs) acknowledge potential utilizing as a part of photovoltaic innovation. The acquired silicon solar cells (Si-SCs) coated with different sizes of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) as well as uncoated were fabricated in our lab. The sizes and optical properties of prepared NPs were characterized by spectroscopic techniques and Mie theory respectively. The reflectivity of Si-SCs showed reduction of this property as the size of NPs increased. Electrical properties as open circuit current, fill factor and output power density were assessed and discussed depending on point of view of Mie theory for the optical properties of NPs. Also, photostabilities of SCs were assessed using diode laser of wavelength 450 nm and power 300 mW. Coated SCs with the largest Ag NPs size showed the highest Photostability due to its highest scattering efficiency according to Mie theory concept.

  19. NPS and online WOM : investigating the relationship between customers' promoter scores and eWOM behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raassens, N.; Haans, H.

    2017-01-01

    The Net Promoter Score (NPS) is, according to Reichheld (2003), the single most reliable indicator of company growth and many companies use this recommendation-based technique for measuring customer loyalty. Despite its widespread adoption by many companies across multiple industries, the debate

  20. Solid-State synthesis of POPD@AgNPs nanocomposites for electrochemical sensors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paulraj, P

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available techniques. POPD and POPD@AgNPs were characterized using HR-TEM, FE-SEM, XRD, UV-Visible, FT-IR, Micro Raman spectroscopy and those results were confirmed their chemical purity, particle size, shape and its elemental compositions. Moreover, the DPV...

  1. 36 CFR 60.13 - Publication in the Federal Register and other NPS notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Publication in the Federal Register and other NPS notification. 60.13 Section 60.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK...-day commenting period from date of publication will be provided. When necessary to assist in the...

  2. Bio-inspired AgNPs, multilayers reduced graphene oxide and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    69

    Golder*. Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, ..... The dried particles, termed as AgNPs, were kept in an air tight container and used ..... [25] Chelli V R, Bag S S and Golder A K 2017 Environ. Prog.

  3. Bio-inspired AgNPs, multilayers-reduced graphene oxide and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-05-29

    May 29, 2018 ... of H2O2 reduction was found to be −1.373 V with a detection limit of 19.04μM and ... A nafion membrane cast on the rGO–AgNPs prevented the leakage of this ... environment-friendly chemical as it breaks down into water.

  4. 75 FR 51103 - Notice of Public Meetings for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's Subsistence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... SRC and Wrangell-St. Elias SRC plan to meet to develop and continue work on National Park Service (NPS... reconvene on Thursday, October 7, 2010, from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. or until business is completed. This meeting will be held at Fast Eddy's Motel and Restaurant located at Mile 1313 on the Alaska Highway in Tok, AK...

  5. State survey of silviculture nonpoint source programs: a comparison of the 2000 northeastern and national results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela J. Edwards; Gordon W. Stuart

    2002-01-01

    The National Association of State Foresters conducts surveys of silviculture nonpoint source (NPS) pollution control programs to measure progress and identify needs. The 2000 survey results are summarized here for the nation and for the 20-state northeastern region. Current emphasis of NPS pollution programs is on education, training, and monitoring. Educational...

  6. Study of fungicidal properties of colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs on trout egg pathogen, Saprolegnia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Johari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs are known to have bactericidal and fungicidal effects. Since, there is few information available on the interaction of colloidal nanosilver with fish pathogens. Hence, the current study investigated the effects of colloidal AgNPs on the in vitro growth of the fish pathogen Saprolegnia sp.. Before the experiments, various important properties of AgNPs were well-characterized. The antifungal activity of AgNPs was then evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs using two-fold serial dilutions of colloidal nanosilver in a glucose yeast extract agar at 22ºC. The growth of Saprolegnia sp. on the AgNPs agar treatments was compared to that of nanosilver-free agar as controls. The results showed that AgNPs have an inhibitory effect on the in vitro growth of the tested fungi. The MIC of AgNPs for Saprolegnia sp. was calculated at 1800 mg/L, which is equal to 0.18 percent. It seems that AgNPs could be a proper replacement for teratogenic and toxic agents, such as malachite green. In addition, the indirect use of AgNPs could be a useful method for providing new antifungal activity in aquaculture systems.

  7. Monodispersed spherical shaped selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) synthesized by Bacillus subtilis and its toxicity evaluation in zebrafish embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramohan, Subburaman; Sundar, Krishnan; Muthukumaran, Azhaguchamy

    2018-02-01

    Selenium is one of the essential elements involved in antioxidative and antiinflammatory effects in human body. By naturally, selenium ions are metabolised and converted into nano selenium. Now a days there is an increasing attention on applications of nanoparticles in therapeutic field. In the present study Bacillus subtilis was used to convert sodium selenite to SeNPs. The synthesized SeNPs were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with Energy Dispersive X ray spectroscopy (EDX). The presence of SeNPs was confirmed by the formation of red colour. The bands were sharp with broad absorption peaks at 3562 cm-1 and 1678-1 cm in FTIR which showed that the bacterial proteins were responsible for the reduction of sodium selenite to SeNPs. The average size of the SeNPs was 334 nm and were spherical in shape with uniform distribution. The XRD data confirmed that SeNPs were of amorphous in nature. The zeta potential of SeNPs was negative in charge which indicated high stability. In the present study zebrafish embryos were used to study the toxicity of SeNPs and the results showed that the concentration beyond 10 μg ml-1 leads to toxic effects in embryos/hatchlings. The lesser concentration of SeNPs can be useful in various biomedical applications.

  8. Dynorphin-dependent reduction of excitability and attenuation of inhibitory afferents of NPS neurons in the pericoerulear region of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay eJuengling

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Neuropeptide S system, consisting of the 20-amino acid peptide neuropeptide S (NPS and its G-protein coupled receptor (NPSR, modulates arousal, wakefulness, anxiety, and fear-extinction in mice. In addition, recent evidence indicates that the NPS system attenuates stress-dependent impairment of fear extinction, and that NPS-expressing neurons in close proximity to the locus coeruleus (pericoerulear, periLC region are activated by stress. Furthermore, periLC NPS neurons receive afferents from neurons of the centrolateral nucleus of the amygdala (CeL, of which a substantial population expresses the kappa opioid receptor (KOR ligand precursor prodynorphin. This study aims to identify the effect of the dynorphinergic system on NPS neurons in the periLC via pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms. Using electrophysiological recordings in mouse brain slices, we provide evidence that NPS neurons in the periLC region are directly inhibited by dynorphin A via activation of κ-opioid receptor 1 (KOR1 and a subsequent increase of potassium conductances. Thus, the dynorphinergic system is suited to inactivate NPS neurons in the periLC. In addition to this direct, somatic effect, dynorphin A reduces the efficacy of GABAergic synapses on NPS neurons via KOR1 and KOR2. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence for the interaction of the NPS and the kappa opioid system in the periLC. Therefore, the endogenous opioid dynorphin is suited to inhibit NPS neurons with a subsequent decrease in NPS release in putative target regions leading to a variety of physiological consequences such as increased anxiety or vulnerability to stress exposure.

  9. MO-FG-204-04: How Iterative Reconstruction Algorithms Affect the NPS of CT Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, G; Liu, X; Dodge, C; Jensen, C; Rong, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate how the third generation model based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) compares with filtered back-projection (FBP), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR), and the second generation MBIR based on noise power spectrum (NPS) analysis over a wide range of clinically applicable dose levels. Methods: The Catphan 600 CTP515 module, surrounded by an oval, fat-equivalent ring to mimic patient size/shape, was scanned on a GE HD750 CT scanner at 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 19mGy CTDIvol levels with typical patient scan parameters: 120kVp, 0.8s, 40mm beam width, large SFOV, 0.984 pitch and reconstructed thickness 2.5mm (VEO3.0: Abd/Pelvis with Texture and NR05). At each CTDIvol level, 10 repeated scans were acquired for achieving sufficient data sampling. The images were reconstructed using Standard kernel with FBP; 20%, 40% and 70% ASiR; and two versions of MBIR (VEO2.0 and 3.0). For evaluating the effect of the ROI spatial location to the Result of NPS, 4 ROI groups were categorized based on their distances from the center of the phantom. Results: VEO3.0 performed inferiorly comparing to VEO2.0 over all dose levels. On the other hand, at low dose levels (less than 3 mGy), it clearly outperformed ASiR and FBP, in NPS values. Therefore, the lower the dose level, the relative performance of MBIR improves. However, the shapes of the NPS show substantial differences in horizontal and vertical sampling dimensions. These differences may determine the characteristics of the noise/texture features in images, and hence, play an important role in image interpretation. Conclusion: The third generation MBIR did not improve over the second generation MBIR in term of NPS analysis. The overall performance of both versions of MBIR improved as compared to other reconstruction algorithms when dose was reduced. The shapes of the NPS curves provided additional value for future characterization of the image noise/texture features

  10. MO-FG-204-04: How Iterative Reconstruction Algorithms Affect the NPS of CT Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, G; Liu, X; Dodge, C; Jensen, C; Rong, J [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate how the third generation model based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) compares with filtered back-projection (FBP), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR), and the second generation MBIR based on noise power spectrum (NPS) analysis over a wide range of clinically applicable dose levels. Methods: The Catphan 600 CTP515 module, surrounded by an oval, fat-equivalent ring to mimic patient size/shape, was scanned on a GE HD750 CT scanner at 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 19mGy CTDIvol levels with typical patient scan parameters: 120kVp, 0.8s, 40mm beam width, large SFOV, 0.984 pitch and reconstructed thickness 2.5mm (VEO3.0: Abd/Pelvis with Texture and NR05). At each CTDIvol level, 10 repeated scans were acquired for achieving sufficient data sampling. The images were reconstructed using Standard kernel with FBP; 20%, 40% and 70% ASiR; and two versions of MBIR (VEO2.0 and 3.0). For evaluating the effect of the ROI spatial location to the Result of NPS, 4 ROI groups were categorized based on their distances from the center of the phantom. Results: VEO3.0 performed inferiorly comparing to VEO2.0 over all dose levels. On the other hand, at low dose levels (less than 3 mGy), it clearly outperformed ASiR and FBP, in NPS values. Therefore, the lower the dose level, the relative performance of MBIR improves. However, the shapes of the NPS show substantial differences in horizontal and vertical sampling dimensions. These differences may determine the characteristics of the noise/texture features in images, and hence, play an important role in image interpretation. Conclusion: The third generation MBIR did not improve over the second generation MBIR in term of NPS analysis. The overall performance of both versions of MBIR improved as compared to other reconstruction algorithms when dose was reduced. The shapes of the NPS curves provided additional value for future characterization of the image noise/texture features.

  11. Sodium selenite/selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) protect cardiomyoblasts and zebrafish embryos against ethanol induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalishwaralal, Kalimuthu; Jeyabharathi, Subhaschandrabose; Sundar, Krishnan; Muthukumaran, Azhaguchamy

    2015-10-01

    Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is the damage caused to the heart muscles due to high level of alcohol consumption resulting in enlargement and inflammation of the heart. Selenium is an important trace element that is beneficial to human health. Selenium protects the cells by preventing the formation of free radicals in the body. In the present study, protein mediated synthesis of SeNPs was investigated. Two different sizes of SeNPs were synthesized using BSA and keratin. The synthesized SeNPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with elemental composition analysis Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy(EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). This study demonstrates the in vitro and in vivo antioxidative effects of sodium selenite and SeNPs. Further selenium and SeNPs were evaluated for their ability to protect against 1% ethanol induced oxidative stress in H9C2 cell line. The selenium and SeNPs were found to reduce the 1% ethanol-induced oxidative damage through scavenging intracellular reactive oxygen species. The selenium and SeNPs could also prevent pericardial edema induced ethanol treatment and reduced apoptosis and cell death in zebrafish embryos. The results indicate that selenium and SeNPs could potentially be used as an additive in alcoholic beverage industry to control the cardiomyopathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. 75 FR 13264 - Meeting of the Board of Advisors (BOA) to the President, Naval Postgraduate School (NPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Meeting of the Board of Advisors (BOA) to the President, Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice of open... access, information, or to send written comments regarding the NPS BOA, contact Ms. Jaye Panza, Naval...

  13. Facile and eco-friendly fabrication of AgNPs coated silk for antibacterial and antioxidant textiles using honeysuckle extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuyang; Tang, Ren-Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Recently, there is a growing trend towards the functionalization of silk through nanotechnology for the prevention of fiber damage from microbial attack and the enhancement of hygienic aspects. Considering sustainable development and environmental protection, the eco-friendly fabrication of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)-modified silk using natural extracts has currently become a hot research area. This study presents a facile strategy for the fabrication of colorful and multifunctional silk fabric using biogenic AgNPs prepared by honeysuckle extract as natural reductant and stabilizing agents. The influences of pH and reactant concentrations on the AgNPs synthesis were investigated. The color characteristics and functionalities of AgNPs treated silk were evaluated. The results revealed that the particle size of AgNPs decreased with increasing pH. The diameter of AgNPs decreased with increasing amount of honeysuckle extract and reducing amount of silver nitrate. The transmission electron microscopy image showed that the AgNPs were spherical in shape with a narrow size distribution. The treated silk showed excellent antibacterial activities against E. coli and S. aureus, and certain antioxidant activity. Both of the antibacterial and antioxidant activities were well maintained even after 30 washing cycles. This work provides a sustainable and eco-friendly approach to the fabrication of AgNPs coated silk for colorful and long-term multifunctional textiles using honeysuckle extract. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) use in severe mental illness (SMI) patients: Potential changes in the phenomenology of psychiatric diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersani, Giuseppe; Prevete, Elisabeth

    2017-05-01

    Literature is quite poor about the clinical effects of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) and the long-term consequences of NPS use in psychiatric patients. Consequently, it is of the greatest interest to examine which effects NPS can exert in patients with previous severe mental illness (SMI), such as psychotic patients. The aim of this work was a comprehensive review about NPS use in patients with SMI. We searched Medline or PubMed for relevant English-language citations and reviews describing relationships between NPS use and mental disorders, as well as for the main groups of substances and associated psychiatric manifestations. All studies reporting single case or case series of patients were selected. The NPS use in patients with SMI is probably underestimated. The one existing systematic review considers only 14 studies, 12 of which are case reports. Most clinical results report acute symptom exacerbation of preexisting psychosis. Paranoid, mood, and aggression symptoms occur more frequently. NPS use could modify clinical features of SMI, but these conclusions cannot be generalizable. More evidence is needed to establish the causal and effective connection between NPS use and course of illness, type of psychiatric symptoms, and outcome of treatment in terms of adherence or response. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. The effect of biologically and chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on biofilm formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojniak, Joanna; Biedroń, Izabela; Mendrek, Barbara; Płaza, Grażyna

    2017-11-01

    Bionanotechnology has emerged up as integration between biotechnology and nanotechnology for developing biosynthetic and environmental-friendly technology for synthesis of nanomaterials. Different types of nanomaterials like copper, zinc, titanium, magnesium, gold, and silver have applied in the various industries but silver nanoparticles have proved to be most effective against bacteria, viruses and eukaryotic microorganisms. The antimicrobial property of silver nanoparticles are widely known. Due to strong antibacterial property silver nanoparticles are used, e.g. in clothing, food industry, sunscreens, cosmetics and many household and environmental appliances. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized biologically and chemically on the biofilm formation. The biofilm was formed by the bacteria isolated from the water supply network. The commonly used crystal violet assay (CV) was applied for biofilm analysis. In this study effect of biologically synthesized Ag-NPs on the biofilm formation was evaluated.

  16. Preparation of AuNPs/GQDs/SiO2 Composite and Its Catalytic Performance in Oxidation of Veratryl Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoyao Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Composites of gold nanoparticles and graphene quantum dots (AuNPs/GQDs exhibit excellent dispersibility in aqueous solutions. Thus, it is difficult to separate them from wet reaction systems when they are used as catalysts. To resolve this issue, in this study, an AuNPs/GQDs composite was immobilized on silicon dioxide through the hydrothermal method, which involved the formation of an amide bond between the surface GQDs of the AuNPs/GQDs composite and the amino group of the silane. The as-synthesized AuNPs/GQDs/SiO2 composite was found to be suitable for use as a heterogeneous catalyst for the oxidation of veratryl alcohol in water and exhibited catalytic activity comparable to that of bare AuNPs/GQDs as well as better recyclability.

  17. Biochar alleviates the toxicity of imidacloprid and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to Enchytraeus albidus (Oligochaeta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyoka, Ngitheni Winnie-Kate; Kanyile, Sthandiwe Nomthandazo; Bredenhand, Emile; Prinsloo, Godfried Jacob; Voua Otomo, Patricks

    2018-04-01

    The present study investigated the use of biochar for the alleviation of the toxic effects of a nanosilver colloidal dispersion and a chloronicotinyl insecticide. The survival and reproduction of the potworm Enchytraeus albidus were assessed after exposure to imidacloprid and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). E. albidus was exposed to 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg imidacloprid/kg and 0, 5, 25, 125, and 625 mg Ag/kg for 21 days in 10% biochar amended and non-biochar amended OECD artificial soil. In both exposure substrates, the effects of imidacloprid on survival were significant in the two highest treatments (p imidacloprid. In the case of AgNPs, significant mortality was only observed in the highest AgNP treatments in both the amended and non-amended soils (p imidacloprid/kg in the non-amended soil and a higher EC 50  = 46.23 mg imidacloprid/kg in the biochar-amended soil. This indicated a 2-fold decrease in imidacloprid toxicity due to biochar amendment. A similar observation was made in the case of AgNPs where a reproduction EC 50  = 166.70 mg Ag/kg soil in the non-amended soil increased to an EC 50  > 625 mg Ag/kg soil (the highest AgNP treatment) in the amended soil. This indicated at least a 3.7-fold decrease in AgNPs toxicity due to biochar amendment. Although more studies may be needed to optimize the easing effects of biochar on the toxicity of these chemicals, the present results show that biochar could be useful for the alleviation of the toxic effects of imidacloprid and silver nanoparticles in the soil.

  18. NPS-SCAT: A CubeSat Communications System Design, Test, and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    markets the system as a CubeSat Kit. Microhard Systems Inc. manufactures products that are complementary to the Pumpkin structure and the FM430 Flight...NPS CubeSats and leverage COTS technology during that process. With that philosophy in mind, the program chose the Pumpkin Inc. 1U CubeSat...Skeletonized Structure and the FM430 Flight Module that is already integrated within the Pumpkin structure ( Pumpkin Incorporated, 2005, p. 2). Pumpkin

  19. Reactive oxygen species acts as executor in radiation enhancement and autophagy inducing by AgNPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Lin, Jun; Liu, Peidang; Huang, Zhihai; Zhao, Peng; Jin, Haizhen; Ma, Jun; Wen, Longping; Gu, Ning

    2016-09-01

    Malignant glioma is one of the most common intracranial tumor with a dismal prognosis. The radiosensitizing effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on glioma both in vitro and in vivo were demonstrated in the previous studies of our group. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. In this present study, the use of antioxidants is employed for the regulating of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in U251 cells treated with various agents, and the results shows that ROS played an essential role in the autophagy inducing and radiosensitization effect of AgNPs. Moreover, the inhibition of protective autophagy with 3-MA is another way to increase ROS, resulting in the increasing of cell death and apoptosis. Taken together, understanding the relationship between the elevated ROS and autophagy and the effect of ROS should be useful to the clinical applications of AgNPs. These findings could potentially be exploited for new therapeutic strategies in glioma radiotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The method of purification of waste water of NPS from petroleum oil using UV-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulemin, V.V.; Kareta, V.I.

    1993-01-01

    The main methods of concentration and purification of radioactive waste water of russian NPS are distillation and ion exchange. When waste water containing petroleum oil and washing matter is distillated, part of petroleum and washing matters go to the condensate. The purification of this condensate leads to pollution of ion exchange resins by petroleum oil and reduction of the filter cycle number. The purification of condensate of Russian NPS from petroleum oil is carried out using active carbon and polymer filters, but this process is not effective and fails to give pure condensate. Therefore, the authors began to search for more effective methods of purification of waste water from petroleum oil. They found that UV-radiation makes it possible to purify water from petroleum matter to concentration of the organic phase less than 0.5 mg/dm3. In this process of purification the air, contained in the water phase, was used as an oxidant. When purification is carried out in the absence of sorbents, the quantity of radioactive solid waste, which have to be recovered, decreases. During the study of purification of waste water it was found that increasing of the temperature of the process increases the rate of UV-radiation-induced oxidation of organic phase. The increase in the initial concentration of petroleum products also increases the rate of petroleum oil decomposition. The content of ions in water phase decreases the purification rate. The investigations were carried out on the laboratory scale with water and condensate from Tver's NPS

  1. Recent wet storage solutions and costs at NPS sites in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salo, J.P.; Tormala, V.P.

    1987-01-01

    In Finland the power companies have chosen the wet storing method when building the two recent interim spent fuel stores at Olkiluoto and Loviisa NPS sites. These decisions were based on extensive comparison studies of different storing methods and designs. TVO's and IVO's stores started operation F Y 1987 and 1984. One of them was built as an away-from-reactor on the NPS site, the other one as an at-reactor-store, wall-to-wall to the NPS process building. The capacity of the Olkiluoto store will be enough for all the spent fuel arising from the 30 years operation of units TVO I and TVO II, 1270-1400 tHM. The stores are unmanned. The vital process systems of both stores and doubled. The project timetables were kept very well. The investment costs were considerably less than generally mentioned in literature, in spite of the severe climatic conditions of the store sites. The costs of the stores added up to 40 and 50 USD/kgU in 1986 currency, without construction time interest costs. The actual operating and maintenance costs of the Loviisa store have been very low during the first three years of operation. It has been estimated that the operating costs of the independent TVO-KPA-STORE will be less than 1.3 million USD/a

  2. n vivo retention of ingested Au NPs by Daphnia magna: No evidence for trans-epithelial alimentary uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farhan R.; Kennaway, Gabrielle M.; Croteau, Marie-Noële; Dybowska, Agnieszka; Smith, Brian D.; Nogueira, António J.A.; Rainbow, Philip S.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    In vivo studies with Daphnia magna remain inconclusive as to whether engineered nanoparticles (NPs) are internalized into tissues after ingestion. Here we used a three-pronged approach to study the in vivo retention and efflux kinetics of 20 nm citrate stabilized Au NPs ingested by this key aquatic species. Daphnids were exposed to suspended particles (600 μg L−1) for 5 h after which they were depurated for 24 h in clean water containing algae. Light microscopy was used to follow the passage of Au NPs through the gastrointestinal tract, Au body burdens were determined by ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to examine the presence and distribution of Au NPs in tissues. Results revealed that the elimination of Au NPs was bi-phasic. The fast elimination phase lasted −1 (±SE) which accounted for ∼75% of the ingested Au. The remaining ∼25% of the ingested Au NPs was eliminated at a 100-fold slower rate. TEM analysis revealed that Au NPs in the midgut were in close proximity to the peritrophic membrane after 1 and 24 h of depuration. There were no observations of Au NP uptake at the microvilli. Thus, although Au NPs were retained in the gut lumen, there was no observable internalization into the gut epithelial cells. Similar to carbon nanotubes and CuO NPs, our findings indicate that in daphnids the in vivo retention of Au NPs does not necessarily result in their internalization.

  3. Rapid Biosynthesis of AgNPs Using Soil Bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii With Promising Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, Gopalu; Jagathambal, Matheswaran; Gusev, Alexander; Torres, Juan Antonio Lopez; Kolesnikov, Evgeny; Kuznetsov, Denis

    2017-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are applied in various fields from electronics to biomedical applications as a result of their high surface-to-volume ratio. Even though different approaches are available for synthesis of AgNPs, a nontoxic method for the synthesis has not yet been developed. Thus, this study focused on developing an easy and ecofriendly approach to synthesize AgNPs using Azotobacter vinelandii culture extracts. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were further characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), energy-dispersive spectrum, particle size distribution (PSD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). UV absorption noticed at 435 nm showed formation of AgNPs. The XRD pattern showed a face-centered cubic structure with broad peaks of 28.2°, 32.6°, 46.6°, 55.2°, 57.9°, and 67.8°. The FTIR confirmed the involvement of various functional groups in the biosynthesis of AgNPs. The PSD and TEM analyses showed spherical, well-distributed nanoparticles with an average size of 20-70 nm. The elemental studies confirmed the existence of pure AgNPs. The bacterial extract containing extracellular enzyme nitrate reductase converted silver nitrate into AgNPs. AgNPs significantly inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Streptomyces fradiae (National Collection of Industrial Microorganisms (NCIM) 2419), Staphylococcus aureus (NCIM 2127), Escherichia coli (NCIM 2065), and Serratia marcescens (NCIM 2919). In addition, biosynthesized AgNPs were found to possess strong antioxidant activity. Thus, the results of this study revealed that biosynthesized AgNPs could serve as a lead in the development of nanomedicine.

  4. Survey of productivity rates used for highway construction.

    OpenAIRE

    Harber, Michael A.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis document was issued under the authority of another institution, not NPS. At the time it was written, a copy was added to the NPS Library collection for reasons not now known. It has been included in the digital archive for its historical value to NPS. Not believed to be a CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) title. The purpose of this paper was to report on a survey conducted by the University of Florida for the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT). The survey analyzed the pro...

  5. Return on investment of advanced practice medical degrees: NPs vs. PAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Christopher K; Holmes, James H; Carter, Jeffery E

    2017-06-01

    As the United States faces a predicted physician shortage over the next 2 decades, physician assistants (PAs) and NPs are expected to fill the void. At the same time, because education is expensive, student loan and tuition increases have many potential applicants assessing differences in reimbursement and wondering about their return on investment (ROI). An analysis compared PA and NP salaries by incorporating national salary data, federal income tax, and student loans for a comparative analysis of each career pathway. Salaries were abstracted from the 2012 Bureau of Labor Statistics database. The net present value (NPV) of PA and NP salaries was calculated with a 5% discount rate. Principal and interest for student loans was calculated at a 6% interest fixed-rate loan over 30 years. NPVs were then compared with projected ROI at retirement age. Relative career values were also given to each career choice, based on a retirement age of 65 years, which translates to about 41 years of employment for both PAs and NPs. PAs' and NPs' educational loans both equalled $129,484 on total repayment. The median annual salary of a PA was $90,930 and $89,960 for an NP. PA data yielded a 5% NPV of $781,323 compared with $764,348 for NPs. Of note, the 5% NPV of a 4-year nursing degree is $728,436. PAs have a slightly higher ROI compared with NPs. These findings may change due to adjustments in nursing training models. Many PA programs allow matriculation immediately after obtaining a bachelor's degree. NP schools often require nursing experience before entering their program. Some schools are considering an accelerated NP program, allowing immediate matriculation after obtaining a bachelor's degree. Because many NP programs have become doctoral degrees, the increased duration of training, higher tuition, and fewer years worked before retirement lower the overall NP ROI. A similar reduction in ROI was considered marginal in PAs who attend residency programs-though these programs are

  6. The effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on proliferation and apoptosis of in ovo cultured glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbańska, Kaja; Pająk, Beata; Orzechowski, Arkadiusz; Sokołowska, Justyna; Grodzik, Marta; Sawosz, Ewa; Szmidt, Maciej; Sysa, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) provide a unique approach to the treatment of tumors, especially those of neuroepithelial origin. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of AgNPs on proliferation and activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells cultured in an in ovo model. Human GBM cells, line U-87, were placed on chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane. After 8 days, the tumors were divided into three groups: control (non-treated), treated with colloidal AgNPs (40 μg/ml), and placebo (tumors supplemented with vehicle only). At the end of the experiment, all tumors were isolated. Assessment of cell proliferation and cell apoptosis was estimated by histological, immunohistochemical, and Western blot analyses. The results show that AgNPs can influence GBM growth. AgNPs inhibit proliferation of GBM cells and seem to have proapoptotic properties. Although there were statistically significant differences between control and AgNP groups in the AI and the levels of active caspase 9 and active caspase 3, the level of these proteins in GBM cells treated with AgNPs seems to be on the border between the spontaneous apoptosis and the induced. Our results indicate that the antiproliferative properties of silver nanoparticles overwhelm proapoptotic ones. Further research focused on the cytotoxic effect of AgNPs on tumor and normal cells should be conducted.

  7. Investigations of spherical Cu NPs in sodium lauryl sulphate with Tb"3"+ ions dispersed in PVA films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Brijesh; Kaur, Gagandeep; Rai, S.B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Cu NPs were prepared in SDS using 1064 nm laser radiation at fluence 37, 64 and 88 J/cm"2. • Spherical Cu NPs with average diameter varying between 10 and 50 nm atdifferent fluence. • PL of Tb3+ ions in PVA polymer film is maximum with Cu NPS at fluence 37 J/cm"2. • PVA films of Cu NPs displayed a highly temperature-dependent electrical conductivity. • These copper NPs embedded PVA films can be used as novel, low-cost sensor materials. - Abstract: Cu nanoparticles (NPs) have been prepared in SDS solution using 1064 nm laser radiation at different fluence 37 J/cm"2, 64 J/cm"2 and 88 J/cm"2 and structurally characterized. The TEM measurements reveal the presence of nanoparticles of spherical shape with different size. The size of the nanoparticles and their concentration increases with the increase of fluence.The effect of these Cu nanoparticles on the emissive properties of Tb"3"+ ion in polymer films has been studied. It is found that emission intensity of Tb"3"+ first increases and then deceases both with concentration of Cu NPs as well as with sizes. The PL intensity of Tb"3"+ ions is minimum for Cu NPs prepared with highest fluence. It has been explained in term of local field effect. This was also verified by life time measurements. These thin PVA films of copper nanoparticles displayed a highly temperature-dependent electrical conductivity with sensitivity at least comparable to commercial materials which suggest the use of these copper NPs embedded PVA films as novel, low-cost sensor materials.

  8. Nanopulse Stimulation (NPS Induces Tumor Ablation and Immunity in Orthotopic 4T1 Mouse Breast Cancer: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Beebe

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanopulse Stimulation (NPS eliminates mouse and rat tumor types in several different animal models. NPS induces protective, vaccine-like effects after ablation of orthotopic rat N1-S1 hepatocellular carcinoma. Here we review some general concepts of NPS in the context of studies with mouse metastatic 4T1 mammary cancer showing that the postablation, vaccine-like effect is initiated by dynamic, multilayered immune mechanisms. NPS eliminates primary 4T1 tumors by inducing immunogenic, caspase-independent programmed cell death (PCD. With lower electric fields, like those peripheral to the primary treatment zone, NPS can activate dendritic cells (DCs. The activation of DCs by dead/dying cells leads to increases in memory effector and central memory T-lymphocytes in the blood and spleen. NPS also eliminates immunosuppressive cells in the tumor microenvironment and blood. Finally, NPS treatment of 4T1 breast cancer exhibits an abscopal effect and largely prevents spontaneous metastases to distant organs. NPS with fast rise–fall times and pulse durations near the plasma membrane charging time constant, which exhibits transient, high-frequency components (1/time = Hz, induce responses from mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and nucleus. Such effects may be responsible for release of danger-associated molecular patterns, including ATP, calreticulin, and high mobility group box 1 (HMBG1 from 4T1-Luc cells to induce immunogenic cell death (ICD. This likely leads to immunity and the vaccine-like response. In this way, NPS acts as a unique onco-immunotherapy providing distinct therapeutic advantages showing possible clinical utility for breast cancers as well as for other malignancies.

  9. Colorimetric detection of melamine based on p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid-modified AuNPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianfang; Huang, Pengcheng; Wu, Fangying

    2016-06-01

    A highly selective and sensitive method is developed for colorimetric detection of melamine using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functionalized with p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid. The addition of melamine induced the aggregation of AuNPs, as evidenced from the morphological characterizations and the color changed from red wine to blue, which could also be monitored by the UV-visible spectrometer and even naked eyes. This process caused a significant increase in the absorbance ratio (A650nm/A520nm) of p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid-AuNPs. Under optimized conditions, the system exhibited a linear response to melamine in the range of 6.0 × 10-7-1.5 × 10-6 mol L-1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.997, and the limit of detection can even be 2.3 nM, which was much lower than some other methods and the safe limits (20 μM in both the USA and EU, 8.0 μM for infant formula in China, 1.2 μM in the CAC (Codex Alimentarius Commission) review for melamine in liquid infant formula). More importantly, the developed method presented excellent tolerance to coexisting common metal ions such as Ca2+, Zn2+, whose concentration is 1000 times of melamine, so that it had been applied to the analysis of melamine in liquid milk and milk powder with the recovery of 97.0-101 % and 100-103 %, respectively, indicating that the proposed method is quite a highly effective means to determine melamine in milk products.

  10. Colorimetric detection of melamine based on p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid-modified AuNPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jianfang; Huang, Pengcheng; Wu, Fangying

    2016-01-01

    A highly selective and sensitive method is developed for colorimetric detection of melamine using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functionalized with p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid. The addition of melamine induced the aggregation of AuNPs, as evidenced from the morphological characterizations and the color changed from red wine to blue, which could also be monitored by the UV–visible spectrometer and even naked eyes. This process caused a significant increase in the absorbance ratio (A_6_5_0_n_m/A_5_2_0_n_m) of p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid–AuNPs. Under optimized conditions, the system exhibited a linear response to melamine in the range of 6.0 × 10"−"7–1.5 × 10"−"6 mol L"−"1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.997, and the limit of detection can even be 2.3 nM, which was much lower than some other methods and the safe limits (20 μM in both the USA and EU, 8.0 μM for infant formula in China, 1.2 μM in the CAC (Codex Alimentarius Commission) review for melamine in liquid infant formula). More importantly, the developed method presented excellent tolerance to coexisting common metal ions such as Ca"2"+, Zn"2"+, whose concentration is 1000 times of melamine, so that it had been applied to the analysis of melamine in liquid milk and milk powder with the recovery of 97.0–101 % and 100–103 %, respectively, indicating that the proposed method is quite a highly effective means to determine melamine in milk products.

  11. Colorimetric detection of melamine based on p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid-modified AuNPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jianfang; Huang, Pengcheng; Wu, Fangying, E-mail: fywu@ncu.edu.cn [Nanchang University, College of Chemistry (China)

    2016-06-15

    A highly selective and sensitive method is developed for colorimetric detection of melamine using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functionalized with p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid. The addition of melamine induced the aggregation of AuNPs, as evidenced from the morphological characterizations and the color changed from red wine to blue, which could also be monitored by the UV–visible spectrometer and even naked eyes. This process caused a significant increase in the absorbance ratio (A{sub 650nm}/A{sub 520nm}) of p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid–AuNPs. Under optimized conditions, the system exhibited a linear response to melamine in the range of 6.0 × 10{sup −7}–1.5 × 10{sup −6} mol L{sup −1} with a correlation coefficient of 0.997, and the limit of detection can even be 2.3 nM, which was much lower than some other methods and the safe limits (20 μM in both the USA and EU, 8.0 μM for infant formula in China, 1.2 μM in the CAC (Codex Alimentarius Commission) review for melamine in liquid infant formula). More importantly, the developed method presented excellent tolerance to coexisting common metal ions such as Ca{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, whose concentration is 1000 times of melamine, so that it had been applied to the analysis of melamine in liquid milk and milk powder with the recovery of 97.0–101 % and 100–103 %, respectively, indicating that the proposed method is quite a highly effective means to determine melamine in milk products.

  12. Rapid visual detection of quaternary ammonium surfactants using citrate-capped silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) based on hydrophobic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li-Qing; Yu, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a rapid, sensitive and low-cost colorimetric method for detection of quaternary ammonium surfactants using citrate-capped silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) was developed. The quaternary ammonium surfactants induce the aggregation of Ag NPs through the hydrophobic effect, which is a novel aggregation mechanism of Ag NPs. The addition of cationic surfactant results in color change of Ag NPs solution from yellow to red and finally to colorless, which is due to the broadening of the surface plasmon band. The color change was monitored using a UV-vis spectrophotometer. The LOD of different cationic surfactants was in the range of 0.5-5 µM. More importantly, this detection method was successfully utilized to the disinfectant residual sample. Crown Copyright © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The utilization of SiNWs/AuNPs-modified indium tin oxide (ITO) in fabrication of electrochemical DNA sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Jahwarhar Izuan Abdul [Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Chemistry and Biology, Centre for Defense Foundation Studies, National Defense University of Malaysia, Sungai Besi Camp, 57000 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Yusof, Nor Azah, E-mail: azahy@upm.edu.my [Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Abdullah, Jaafar [Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Hashim, Uda [Institute of Nanoelectronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Hajian, Reza, E-mail: rezahajian@upm.edu.my [Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-12-01

    This work describes the incorporation of SiNWs/AuNPs composite as a sensing material for DNA detection on indium tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass slide. The morphology of SiNWs/AuNPs composite as the modifier layer on ITO was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The morphological studies clearly showed that SiNWs were successfully decorated with 20 nm-AuNPs using self-assembly monolayer (SAM) technique. The effective surface area for SiNWs/AuNPs-modified ITO enhanced about 10 times compared with bare ITO electrode. SiNWs/AuNPs nanocomposite was further explored as a matrix for DNA probe immobilization in detection of dengue virus as a bio-sensing model to evaluate its performance in electrochemical sensors. The hybridization of complementary DNA was monitored by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) using methylene blue (MB) as the redox indicator. The fabricated biosensor was able to discriminate significantly complementary, non-complementary and single-base mismatch oligonucleotides. The electrochemical biosensor was sensitive to target DNA related to dengue virus in the range of 9.0–178.0 ng/ml with detection limit of 3.5 ng/ml. In addition, SiNWs/AuNPs-modified ITO, regenerated up to 8 times and its stability was up to 10 weeks at 4 °C in silica gel. - Highlights: • A sensitive biosensor is presented for detection of dengue virus. • SiNWs and AuNPs used as nanocomposite layers on ITO for construction of biosensor • The detection mechanism is based on the interaction of MB with DNA bonded on AuNPs. • The reduction signal of MB decreases upon complementary hybridization.

  14. The utilization of SiNWs/AuNPs-modified indium tin oxide (ITO) in fabrication of electrochemical DNA sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, Jahwarhar Izuan Abdul; Yusof, Nor Azah; Abdullah, Jaafar; Hashim, Uda; Hajian, Reza

    2014-01-01

    This work describes the incorporation of SiNWs/AuNPs composite as a sensing material for DNA detection on indium tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass slide. The morphology of SiNWs/AuNPs composite as the modifier layer on ITO was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The morphological studies clearly showed that SiNWs were successfully decorated with 20 nm-AuNPs using self-assembly monolayer (SAM) technique. The effective surface area for SiNWs/AuNPs-modified ITO enhanced about 10 times compared with bare ITO electrode. SiNWs/AuNPs nanocomposite was further explored as a matrix for DNA probe immobilization in detection of dengue virus as a bio-sensing model to evaluate its performance in electrochemical sensors. The hybridization of complementary DNA was monitored by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) using methylene blue (MB) as the redox indicator. The fabricated biosensor was able to discriminate significantly complementary, non-complementary and single-base mismatch oligonucleotides. The electrochemical biosensor was sensitive to target DNA related to dengue virus in the range of 9.0–178.0 ng/ml with detection limit of 3.5 ng/ml. In addition, SiNWs/AuNPs-modified ITO, regenerated up to 8 times and its stability was up to 10 weeks at 4 °C in silica gel. - Highlights: • A sensitive biosensor is presented for detection of dengue virus. • SiNWs and AuNPs used as nanocomposite layers on ITO for construction of biosensor • The detection mechanism is based on the interaction of MB with DNA bonded on AuNPs. • The reduction signal of MB decreases upon complementary hybridization

  15. Stress-dislocation interaction mechanism in low-temperature thermo-compression sintering of Ag NPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuliang; Tang, Zikai; He, Hu

    2018-04-01

    The sintering of metal nanoparticles (NPs) has been widely studied in the field of nanotechnology, and low-temperature sintering has become the industry standard. In this study, a molecular dynamics (MD) model was established to study the sintering behaviour of silver NPs during low-temperature thermo-compression. Primarily, we studied the sintering process, in which the ratio of neck radius to particle radius (x/r) changes. Under a uniaxial pressure, the maximum ratio in the temperature range 420-425 K was 1. According to the change of x/r, the process can be broken down into three stages: the neck-formation stage, neck-growth stage, and neck-stability stage. In addition, the relationship between potential energy, internal stress, and dislocation density during sintering is discussed. The results showed that cycling internal stress played an important role in sintering. Under the uniaxial pressure, the stress-dislocation interaction was found to be the major mechanism for thermo-compression sintering because the plastic deformation product dislocation intensified the diffusion of atoms. Also, the displacement vector, the mean square displacement, and the changing crystal structure during sintering were studied.

  16. The inhibitory effect of disulfiram encapsulated PLGA NPs on tumor growth: Different administration routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasehee, Hamidreza; Zarrinrad, Ghazaleh; Tavangar, Seyed Mohammad; Ghaffari, Seyed Hamidollah; Faghihi, Shahab

    2016-06-01

    The strong anticancer activity of disulfiram is hindered by its rapid degradation in blood system. A novel folate-receptor-targeted poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) nanoparticle (NP) is developed for encapsulation and delivery of disulfiram into breast cancer tumor using passive (EPR effect) and active (folate receptor) targeting. The anticancer activity of disulfiram and its effect on caspase-3 activity and cell cycle are studied. The administration of encapsulated PLGA NPs using intra-peritoneal, intravenous and intra-tumor routes is investigated using animal model. Disulfiram shows strong cytotoxicity against MCF7 cell line. The activity of caspase-3 inhibited with disulfiram via dose dependent manner while the drug causes cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 and S phase time-dependently. The encapsulated disulfiram shows higher activity in apoptosis induction as compared to free drug. In nontoxic dose of encapsulated disulfiram, the highest and lowest efficacy of NPs in tumor growth inhibition is observed for intravenous injection and intraperitoneal injection. It is suggested that administration of disulfiram by targeted PLGA nanoparticles using intravenous injection would present an alternative therapeutic approach for solid tumor treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of HA/Ag-NPs Composite Coating from Green Process for Hip Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozoya-Rodríguez, Denisse A; de Lima, Renata; Fraceto, Leonardo F; Ledezma Pérez, Antonio; Bazaldua Domínguez, Mercedes; Gómez Batres, Roberto; Reyes Rojas, Armando; Orozco Carmona, Víctor

    2017-08-08

    In the present study, biological hydroxyapatite (HA) was obtained from bovine bones through a thermal process. A total of 0% and 1% of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) synthesized from Opuntia ficus (nopal) were added to the biological hydroxyapatite coatings using an atmospheric plasma spray (APS) on a Ti6Al4V substrate. Following this, its antimicrobial efficiency was evaluated against the following bacterial strains: Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus , and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . This was conducted according to the Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) Z2801:2000 "Antimicrobial Product-Test for Antimicrobial Activity and Efficacy". Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were evenly distributed on the coating surface. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) shows that apatite deposition occurs on a daily basis, maintaining a Ca/P rate between 2.12 and 1.45. Biocompatibility properties were evaluated with osteoblast-like cells (MC3T3-E1) by single-cell gel electrophoresis assay and Tali image cytometry.

  18. Control rod drop accident analysis for the mixed core project in Ling Ao NPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shishun; Zhou Zhou; Xiao Min

    2004-01-01

    AFA-2G assemblies in Ling Ao NPS (LNPS) have been replaced gradually by AFA-3G assemblies from cycle 2 and subsequent cycles. the enrichment of the fuels will be increased from 3.2% to 3.7% from cycle 3 in Ling Ao. Therefore, the study of ling Ao mixed core and increased enrichment have been performed since 2001. Lots of accidents need to be re-analyzed in Ling Ao NPS in order to verify its safety requirements for the new fuel management. Control rod drop accident for LNPS was re-analyzed in 2001 in frame of FRAMATOME ANP analytical methodology. The analytical codes used in the accident analysis include SCIENCE, ESPADON, CINEMA, CANTAL and FLICA III. The control rod drop accident analysis is performed with respect to the 10 reference cycles of the generic fuel management design for Ling Ao mixed core and increased enrichment study. The pre-drop FδH for the first transition cycles and other cycles are 1.52 and 1.55, respectively. For detected dropped rod configurations, the negative flux rate protection system actuates a reactor trip. For the non-detected dropped rod configurations, the minimum DNBR values have been evaluated with conservative analysis methodology and assumptions and the DNBR fuel design limit is respected the analytical results shows that, for all the non-detected dropped rod configurations, the minimum DNB margin is about 2% which occurs in AFA-2G fuel assembly in the first transition cycle. (author)

  19. Controlling the Nanoscale Patterning of AuNPs on Silicon Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris J. Allender

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the effectiveness of vapour-phase deposition for creating sub-monolayer coverage of aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES on silicon in order to exert control over subsequent gold nanoparticle deposition. Surface coverage was evaluated indirectly by observing the extent to which gold nanoparticles (AuNPs deposited onto the modified silicon surface. By varying the distance of the silicon wafer from the APTES source and concentration of APTES in the evaporating media, control over subsequent gold nanoparticle deposition was achievable to an extent. Fine control over AuNP deposition (AuNPs/μm2 however, was best achieved by adjusting the ionic concentration of the AuNP-depositing solution. Furthermore it was demonstrated that although APTES was fully removed from the silicon surface following four hours incubation in water, the gold nanoparticle-amino surface complex was stable under the same conditions. Atomic force microscopy (AFM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS were used to study these affects.

  20. NPS: A Tested Platform for Political Transformation Against Anger & Apathy in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allah Nawaz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Political inaction is a major ‘Barrier’ to the progress of democratic values and systems in a society. It is more critical in the developing countries like Pakistan. A huge body of research on political apathy and anger in Pakistan is reporting over and over on the causes and consequences of this pathetic psychology. All that is true however, rays of hope are always there provided nations continue searching for the opportunities through scientific and rigorous research accompanied with sincerity and sense of responsibility at all the decision making levels of the state. This paper postulates a solution model for the issue in the perspectives of Pakistan by capitalizing on the role of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT in the Instant Political Transformation of the developing countries like Egypt & Lybia. The New Public Sphere (NPS is populated with Global Civil Society (GCS where International Citizens are connected together 24/7 from any corner of the Global Village and involved in use of ICT for Social Activism. Pakistan now has millions of Internet and Cell-users who are the part of GCS and waiting for a ‘Trigger’ to switch from the ‘Informal Activism to Formal & Political Activism’ through NPS.

  1. Stress-dislocation interaction mechanism in low-temperature thermo-compression sintering of Ag NPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuliang Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The sintering of metal nanoparticles (NPs has been widely studied in the field of nanotechnology, and low-temperature sintering has become the industry standard. In this study, a molecular dynamics (MD model was established to study the sintering behaviour of silver NPs during low-temperature thermo-compression. Primarily, we studied the sintering process, in which the ratio of neck radius to particle radius (x/r changes. Under a uniaxial pressure, the maximum ratio in the temperature range 420–425 K was 1. According to the change of x/r, the process can be broken down into three stages: the neck-formation stage, neck-growth stage, and neck-stability stage. In addition, the relationship between potential energy, internal stress, and dislocation density during sintering is discussed. The results showed that cycling internal stress played an important role in sintering. Under the uniaxial pressure, the stress-dislocation interaction was found to be the major mechanism for thermo-compression sintering because the plastic deformation product dislocation intensified the diffusion of atoms. Also, the displacement vector, the mean square displacement, and the changing crystal structure during sintering were studied.

  2. PAs and NPs in an emergency room-linked acute care clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currey, C J

    1984-12-01

    The use of hospital emergency rooms for nonurgent care during evenings hours often strains medical resources and may affect the quality of emergency care. One facility's effective use of an after-hours acute care clinic staffed by PAs and NPs to divert nonurgent problems away from its emergency room is outlined. PAs and NPs work during peak demand hours (evenings and weekends) under the supervision of an emergency room physician, and receive supplementary support from other emergency room personnel. Incoming patients are referred to the emergency room or acute care clinic, depending on the nature of their problems. Acute care clinic patients are then treated by the PA or NP and either released or referred to an emergency room physician, if their conditions warrant additional treatment. As a result, use of the acute care clinic has greatly reduced the amount of non-urgent medical treatment in the emergency room and has provided other advantages to both patients and staff as well. These advantages and the encouraging statistics following six months of the clinic's operation are discussed.

  3. The utilization of SiNWs/AuNPs-modified indium tin oxide (ITO) in fabrication of electrochemical DNA sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Jahwarhar Izuan Abdul; Yusof, Nor Azah; Abdullah, Jaafar; Hashim, Uda; Hajian, Reza

    2014-12-01

    This work describes the incorporation of SiNWs/AuNPs composite as a sensing material for DNA detection on indium tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass slide. The morphology of SiNWs/AuNPs composite as the modifier layer on ITO was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The morphological studies clearly showed that SiNWs were successfully decorated with 20 nm-AuNPs using self-assembly monolayer (SAM) technique. The effective surface area for SiNWs/AuNPs-modified ITO enhanced about 10 times compared with bare ITO electrode. SiNWs/AuNPs nanocomposite was further explored as a matrix for DNA probe immobilization in detection of dengue virus as a bio-sensing model to evaluate its performance in electrochemical sensors. The hybridization of complementary DNA was monitored by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) using methylene blue (MB) as the redox indicator. The fabricated biosensor was able to discriminate significantly complementary, non-complementary and single-base mismatch oligonucleotides. The electrochemical biosensor was sensitive to target DNA related to dengue virus in the range of 9.0-178.0 ng/ml with detection limit of 3.5 ng/ml. In addition, SiNWs/AuNPs-modified ITO, regenerated up to 8 times and its stability was up to 10 weeks at 4°C in silica gel. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evolution of Self-Assembled Au NPs by Controlling Annealing Temperature and Dwelling Time on Sapphire (0001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihoon; Pandey, Puran; Sui, Mao; Li, Ming-Yu; Zhang, Quanzhen; Kunwar, Sundar

    2015-12-01

    Au nanoparticles (NPs) have been utilized in a wide range of device applications as well as catalysts for the fabrication of nanopores and nanowires, in which the performance of the associated devices and morphology of nanopores and nanowires are strongly dependent on the size, density, and configuration of the Au NPs. In this paper, the evolution of the self-assembled Au nanostructures and NPs on sapphire (0001) is systematically investigated with the variation of annealing temperature (AT) and dwelling time (DT). At the low-temperature range between 300 and 600 °C, three distinct regimes of the Au nanostructure configuration are observed, i.e., the vermiform-like Au piles, irregular Au nano-mounds, and Au islands. Subsequently, being provided with relatively high thermal energy between 700 and 900 °C, the round dome-shaped Au NPs are fabricated based on the Volmer-Weber growth model. With the increased AT, the size of the Au NPs is gradually increased due to a more favorable surface diffusion while the density is gradually decreased as a compensation. On the other hand, with the increased DT, the size and density of Au NPs decrease due to the evaporation of Au at relatively high annealing temperature at 950 °C.

  5. RGO/Au NPs/N-doped CNTs supported on nickel foam as an anode for enzymatic biofuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, He; Zhang, Lingling; Han, Yujie; Yu, You; Xu, Miao; Zhang, Xueping; Huang, Liang; Dong, Shaojun

    2017-11-15

    In this study, three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide/Au NPs/nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (RGO/Au NPs/N-doped CNTs) assembly supported on nickel foam was utilized as an anode for enzymatic biofuel cells (EBFCs). 3D RGO/Au NPs was obtained by electrodepositing reduced graphene oxide on nickel foam (Ni foam), while Au NPs were co-deposited during the process. Afterwards, nitrogen doped CNTs (N-CNTs) were allowed to grow seamlessly on the surfaces of 3D RGO/Au NPs via a simple chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. In this nanostructure, Au NPs co-deposition and nitrogen doping offer more active sites for bioelectrocatalysis. Additionally, N-CNTs were demonstrated providing high specific surface area for enzyme immobilization and facilitating the electron transfer between glucose oxidase (GOx) and electrode. The resulting bioanode achieved efficient glucose oxidation with high current densities of 7.02mAcm -2 (0.3V vs. Ag/AgCl). Coupling with a Pt cathode, the fabricated glucose/air biofuel cell exhibited an open-circuit potential of 0.32V and generated a maximum power density 235µWcm -2 at 0.15V. This novel electrode substrate achieved high performance in current density at bioelectrochemical systems and could be useful for further exploiting the application of three dimensional carbon-based nanomaterials in EBFCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Facile biosynthesis of Ag-NPs using Otostegia limbata plant extract: Physical characterization and auspicious biological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Kausar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs synthesized through reduction by Otostegia limbata green extract are, hereby, reported for the first time. It is very interesting to observe that in this case, O. limbata plant extract acts as a strong chelating agent in Ag-NPs formation through AgNO3. Scanning electron microscope (SEM studies expose that Ag-NPs formation is highly homogenous and spherical with mean particle size of 32±0.8 nm. A typical Ag absorption peak has been observed at 419 nm by ultra violet (UV-visible spectroscopy which have endorsed the successful formation of single phase Ag-NPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR examination further validates the crystalline pure phase structure of Ag-NPs. Promising results have been recorded against protein kinase inhibition assay and antibacterial assay having prominent pathogenic strains. Our present study explores that biosynthesized eco-friendly Ag-NPs have great potential, in the future, for anticancer drug development with wide range pharmaceutical applications.

  7. Verein der Kohlenimporteure. Annual report 2008. Facts and trends 2007/2008; Verein der Kohlenimporteure. Jahresbericht 2008. Fakten und Trends 2007/2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Energy economy developments of the world, the European Union and the Federal Republic of Germany are gone into. The main aspects discussed are the coal market and trade which depends on political decisions and concepts, but also on the availability of other primary energy sources such as oil and nuclear power. The situation of the various countries in the field of coal is illustrated by so-called country reports.

  8. Trophic transfer potential of two different crystalline phases of TiO2 NPs from Chlorella sp. to Ceriodaphnia dubia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iswarya, V; Bhuvaneshwari, M; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2018-04-01

    Owing to the increase in the usage of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 NPs), their release into the aquatic environment is inevitable. In the aquatic ecosystem, TiO 2 NPs can bio-magnify at various trophic levels in the food chain through dietary exposure. In the current study, the trophic transfer potential of two crystalline phases of TiO 2, anatase and rutile nanoparticles (individual as well as a binary mixture) has been evaluated in the lake water matrix using algae-daphnia system. Chlorella sp. and Ceriodaphnia dubia were used as test organisms to represent the algae-daphnia food chain of the freshwater ecosystem. Other than crystallinity, the effect of irradiation (visible and UV-A) was also investigated at the test concentrations, 75, 300, and 1200 μM. TiO 2 NPs treated algal diet produced significant mortality only at the test concentrations, 300 and 1200 μM. The type of irradiation and crystallinity doesn't have any impact on the mortality of daphnids through the dietary exposure of TiO 2 NPs. Comparing the mixture with individual NPs, binary mixture induced less mortality on C. dubia which signifies the antagonistic effect of NPs when they coexist. Statistical modeling confirmed the antagonistic effect of the binary mixture on C. dubia. As individual NPs, anatase and rutile forms showed a maximum Ti accumulation under UV-A and visible irradiation, respectively. BMF of TiO 2 NPs has been in validation with the bioaccumulation noted in C. dubia. Individual NPs (75 μM) showed higher BMF value of ∼23 under both UV-A (anatase) and visible (rutile) irradiation. Individual NPs showing higher BMF confirmed their trophic transfer potential in the aquatic food chain, primarily through the diet. In contrast, the binary mixture obtained a higher BMF of 1.9 and 0.79 at 75 and 300 μM under visible and UV-A irradiation, respectively. The plausible reason behind this decrement was the antagonistic effect of the mixture which significantly reduced

  9. The 1986 ARI Survey of U.S. Army Recruits: Tabular Descriptions of NPS Army Reserve Accessions. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    channels. 0... C 0 ON 0C NCAA Basketball playoffs . 0..0-0. 0.0 C Movies with commercials ON R NBA - regular season on cable only channels C .0 0 3 0...high school? ONLY ONCE.) as’ (MARK ALL THAT APPLY) m 0 Football mn 0 Basketball m 0 Swimming EN "- Baseball - 0 Track m 0 Soccer "- This Is not a test...SFL Football . .0 0C 0 0 cable only channels. 0 ,. P NCAA Basketball - B Movies without commeicials regular season games . ... 0 0, . G on cable only

  10. The 1986 ARI Survey of U.S. Army Recruits: Tabular Descriptions of NPS National Guard Accessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    commelcials Opl regular season games 0 G0 0 G on cable only channels. . 0 0 0 C m 0 NCAA Basketball playoffs 0 00.C.0 C Movies with commercials R NBA ...0 0 0. 0 A Sports programming on jol 1,. T.c. N-.r 0 USFL Football 0 0 0 0cable only channels0 0 0 C -m P NCAA Basketball - B Movies without...regular season on cable only channels . 0. 0 3 C games 0 . 0 0) 0D Reruns of old programs - S NBA pla,,offs. .. . 0 C00 0 C on cable only channels 00C T

  11. The 1984 ARI Survey of Army Recruits: Tabular Description of NPS Army Reserve Guard Accessions. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    SERIES NBA BASKETBALL COLLEGE BASKETBALL NHL HOCKEY PROFESSIONAL WRESTLING CAR RACES GOLF TOURNAMENTS TENNIS TOURNAMENTS WKEND SPORTS SH/WIDE...TV PROG* NBA BASKETBALL MARK ONE LETTER FOR EACH OF THE FOLLOWING PROGRAMS OR PROGRAMMING TYPES ON TV: NBA BASKETBALL . 1 - REGULARLY TURN ON THE TV...188 T262 — WATCH TV PROG:COLLEGE BASKETBALL MARK ONE LETTER FOR EACH OF THE FOLLOWING PROGRAMS OR PROGRAMMING TYPES ON TV: COLLEGE BASKETBALL

  12. The 1986 ARI Survey of U.S. Army Recruits: Tabular Descriptions of NPS (Active) Army Accessions. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    Basketball — regular season games Q NCAA Basketball playoffs . . . . R NBA — regular season games S NBA ...season games O 0 NCAA Basketball olayoffs O R NBA — regular season games . O S NBA playoffs O T Newhart O U Who s the Boss O V The...NCAA Basketball — regular season games O Q NCAA Basketball playoffs O R NBA — regular season games . O S NBA playoffs O T Newhart Q U Who

  13. Effects of computing parameters and measurement locations on the estimation of 3D NPS in non-stationary MDCT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miéville, Frédéric A; Bolard, Gregory; Bulling, Shelley; Gudinchet, François; Bochud, François O; Verdun, François R

    2013-11-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of computing parameters and the location of volumes of interest (VOI) on the calculation of 3D noise power spectrum (NPS) in order to determine an optimal set of computing parameters and propose a robust method for evaluating the noise properties of imaging systems. Noise stationarity in noise volumes acquired with a water phantom on a 128-MDCT and a 320-MDCT scanner were analyzed in the spatial domain in order to define locally stationary VOIs. The influence of the computing parameters in the 3D NPS measurement: the sampling distances bx,y,z and the VOI lengths Lx,y,z, the number of VOIs NVOI and the structured noise were investigated to minimize measurement errors. The effect of the VOI locations on the NPS was also investigated. Results showed that the noise (standard deviation) varies more in the r-direction (phantom radius) than z-direction plane. A 25 × 25 × 40 mm(3) VOI associated with DFOV = 200 mm (Lx,y,z = 64, bx,y = 0.391 mm with 512 × 512 matrix) and a first-order detrending method to reduce structured noise led to an accurate NPS estimation. NPS estimated from off centered small VOIs had a directional dependency contrary to NPS obtained from large VOIs located in the center of the volume or from small VOIs located on a concentric circle. This showed that the VOI size and location play a major role in the determination of NPS when images are not stationary. This study emphasizes the need for consistent measurement methods to assess and compare image quality in CT. Copyright © 2012 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. NaNO3/NaCl Oxidant and Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Capped Gold Nanoparticles (AuNPs) as a Novel Green Route for AuNPs Detection in Electrochemical Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Marzo, Adaris M; Hoyos-de-la-Torre, Raquel; Baldrich, Eva

    2018-03-20

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been exploited as signal-producing tags in electrochemical biosensors. However, the electrochemical detection of AuNPs is currently performed using corrosive acid solutions, which may raise health and environmental concerns. Here, oxidant salts, and specifically the environmentally friendly and occupational safe NaNO 3 /NaCl mixture, have been evaluated for the first time as potential alternatives to the acid solutions traditionally used for AuNPs electrooxidation. In addition, a new strategy to improve the sensitivity of the biosensor through PEG-based ligand exchange to produce less compact and easier to oxidize AuNPs immunoconjugates is presented too. As we show, the electrochemical immunosensor using NaNO 3 /NaCl measurement solution for AuNPs electrooxidation and detection, coupled to the employment of PEG-capped nanoimmunoconjugates, produced results comparable to classical HCl detection. The procedure developed was next tested for human matrix metallopeptidase-9 (hMMP9) analysis, exhibiting a 0.18-23 ng/mL linear range, a detection limit of 0.06 ng/mL, and recoveries between 95 and 105% in spiked human plasma. These results show that the procedure developed is applicable to the analysis of protein biomarkers in blood plasma and could contribute to the development of more environmentally friendly AuNP-based electrochemical biosensors.

  15. Fuel handling at Cernavoda 1 N.P.S. - commissioning and training philosophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Standen, G W [AECL-Ansaldo Consortium, Cernavoda (Romania); Tiron, C; Marinescu, S [Regia Nationala de Electricitate (RENEL), Cernavoda (Romania); [Filiala Centrala Nuclearo Electrica (FCNE), Cernavoda (Romania)

    1997-12-31

    Efficient operation of a Candu nuclear power plant depends greatly on the reliable and safe operation of the fuel handling system. Successful commissioning of the system is obviously a key aspect of the reliability of the system and this coupled with a rigorous training programme for the fuel handling staff will ensure the system`s safe operation. This paper describes the philosophy used at Cernavoda 1 N.P.S. for the commissioning of the fuel handling systems and for the training of staff for operation and maintenance of these systems. The paper also reviews the commissioning programme, describing the milestones achieved and discussing some of the more interesting technical aspects which includes some unique Romanian input. In conclusion the paper looks at the organization of the mature fuel handling department from the operations, maintenance and technical support points of view and the long term plans for the future. (author). 1 fig.

  16. Fuel handling at Cernavoda 1 N.P.S. - commissioning and training philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standen, G.W.; Tiron, C.; Marinescu, S.

    1996-01-01

    Efficient operation of a Candu nuclear power plant depends greatly on the reliable and safe operation of the fuel handling system. Successful commissioning of the system is obviously a key aspect of the reliability of the system and this coupled with a rigorous training programme for the fuel handling staff will ensure the system's safe operation. This paper describes the philosophy used at Cernavoda 1 N.P.S. for the commissioning of the fuel handling systems and for the training of staff for operation and maintenance of these systems. The paper also reviews the commissioning programme, describing the milestones achieved and discussing some of the more interesting technical aspects which includes some unique Romanian input. In conclusion the paper looks at the organization of the mature fuel handling department from the operations, maintenance and technical support points of view and the long term plans for the future. (author). 1 fig

  17. Abuse of Prescription Drugs in the Context of Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS): A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifano, Fabrizio; Chiappini, Stefania; Corkery, John M; Guirguis, Amira

    2018-04-22

    Recently, a range of prescription and over-the-counter drugs have been reportedly used as Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS), due to their potential for abuse resulting from their high dosage/idiosyncratic methods of self-administration. This paper provides a systematic review of the topic, focusing on a range of medications which have emerged as being used recreationally, either on their own or in combination with NPS. Among gabapentinoids, pregabalin may present with higher addictive liability levels than gabapentin, with pregabalin being mostly identified in the context of opioid, polydrug intake. For antidepressants, their dopaminergic, stimulant-like, bupropion activities may explain their recreational value and diversion from the therapeutic intended use. In some vulnerable clients, a high dosage of venlafaxine (‘baby ecstasy’) is ingested for recreational purposes, whilst the occurrence of a clinically-relevant withdrawal syndrome may be a significant issue for all venlafaxine-treated patients. Considering second generation antipsychotics, olanzapine appears to be ingested at very large dosages as an ‘ideal trip terminator’, whilst the immediate-release quetiapine formulation may possess proper abuse liability levels. Within the image- and performance- enhancing drugs (IPEDs) group, the beta-2 agonist clenbuterol (‘size zero pill’) is reported to be self-administered for aggressive slimming purposes. Finally, high/very high dosage ingestion of the antidiarrhoeal loperamide has shown recent increasing levels of popularity due to its central recreational, anti-withdrawal, opiatergic effects. The emerging abuse of prescription drugs within the context of a rapidly modifying drug scenario represents a challenge for psychiatry, public health and drug-control policies.

  18. Rapid detection of NBOME's and other NPS on blotter papers by direct ATR-FTIR spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho Neto, José

    2015-07-01

    Blotter paper is among the most common forms of consumption of new psychotropic substances (NPS), formerly referred as designer drugs. In many cases, users are misled to believe they are taking LSD when, in fact, they are taking newer and less known drugs like the NBOMEs or other substituted phenethylamines. We report our findings in quick testing of blotter papers for illicit substances like NBOMEs and other NPS by taking ATR-FTIR spectra directly from blotters seized on the streets, without any sample preparation. Both sides (front and back) of each blotter were tested. Collected data were analyzed by single- and multi-component spectral matching and submitted to chemometric discriminant analysis. Our results showed that, on 66.7% of the cases analyzed, seized blotters contained one or more types of NBOMEs, confirming the growing presence of this novel substances on the market. Matching IR signals were detected on both or just one side of the blotters and showed variable strength. Although no quantitative analysis was made, detection of these substances by the proposed approach serves as indication of variable and possibly higher dosages per blotter when compared to LSD, which showed to be below the detection limit of the applied method. Blotters containing a mescaline-like compound, later confirmed by GC-MS and LC-MS to be MAL (methallylescaline), a substance very similar to mescaline, were detected among the samples tested. Validity of direct ATR-FTIR testing was confirmed by checking the obtained results against independent GC-MS or LC-MS results for the same cases/samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Neuropharmacology of new psychoactive substances (NPS: focus on the rewarding and reinforcing properties of cannabimimetics and amphetamine-like stimulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eMiliano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available New psychoactive substances (NPS are a heterogeneous and rapidly evolving class of molecules available on the global illicit drug market (e.g smart shops, internet, dark net as a substitute for controlled substances. The use of NPS, mainly consumed along with other drugs of abuse and/or alcohol, has resulted in a significantly growing number of mortality and emergency admissions for overdoses, as reported by several poison centers from all over the world. The fact that the number of NPS have more than doubled over the last 10 years, is a critical challenge to governments, the scientific community, and civil society (UNODC, World Drug Report, 2014; EMCDDA, European Drug Report 2014: Trends and developments. The chemical structure (phenethylamines, piperazine, cathinones, tryptamines, synthetic cannabinoids of NPS and their pharmacological and clinical effects (hallucinogenic, anesthetic, dissociative, depressant help classify them into different categories. In the recent past, 50% of newly identified NPS have been classified as synthetic cannabinoids followed by new phenethylamines (17%(WDR, 2014. Besides peripheral toxicological effects, many NPS seem to have addictive properties. Behavioral, neurochemical, and electrophysiological evidence can help in detecting them. This manuscript will review existing literature about the addictive and rewarding properties of the most popular NPS classes: cannabimimetics (JWH, HU, CP series and amphetamine-like stimulants (amphetamine, methamphetamine, methcathinone and MDMA analogues. Moreover, the review will include recent data from our lab which links JWH-018, a CB1 and CB2 agonist more potent than Δ9-THC, to other cannabinoids with known abuse potential, and to other classes of abused drugs that increase dopamine signaling in the Nucleus Accumbens (NAc shell. Thus the neurochemical mechanisms that produce the rewarding properties of JWH-018, which most likely contributes to the greater incidence of

  20. Preparation of reduced graphene oxide/meso-TiO_2/AuNPs ternary composites and their visible-light-induced photocatalytic degradation n of methylene blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yongfang; Ma, Zheng; Xu, Lidong; Wang, Hefang; Fu, Nian

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Reduced graphene oxide/meso-TiO_2/AuNPs (RGO/meso-TiO_2/AuNPs) ternary composites were prepared via the addition of graphene oxide to the dispersion of meso-TiO_2/AuNPs under a hydrothermal condition. The RGO/meso-TiO_2/AuNPs ternary composites show high photocatalytic activity toward MB. - Highlights: • RGO/meso-TiO_2/AuNPs were obtained by addition of graphene oxide to meso-TiO_2/AuNPs. • Au NPs in the mesopores of meso-TiO_2 reduce the recombination of charge carriers. • RGO covered with the surface of the meso-TiO_2 enhance the adsorption of MB. • RGO/meso-TiO_2/AuNPs composites show high photocatalytic performance toward MB. - Abstract: Reduced graphene oxide/meso-TiO_2/AuNPs (RGO/meso-TiO_2/AuNPs) ternary composites were prepared via the addition of graphene oxide to the dispersion of meso-TiO_2/AuNPs under hydrothermal conditions. The structure and the morphology of the RGO/meso-TiO_2/AuNPs materials were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic activity of RGO/meso-TiO_2/AuNPs was evaluated by degradation of methyl blue (MB) under visible-light illumination. The ternary composites present an extended light absorption range, efficient charge separation properties, high adsorption ability for MB and high photocatalytic degradation activity of MB compared to the meso-TiO_2 and meso-TiO_2/AuNPs.

  1. Preparation of reduced graphene oxide/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs ternary composites and their visible-light-induced photocatalytic degradation n of methylene blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yongfang; Ma, Zheng; Xu, Lidong [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Wang, Hefang, E-mail: whf0618@163.com [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Fu, Nian, E-mail: funian3678@163.com [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); College of Physics Science and Technology of Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China)

    2016-04-30

    Graphical abstract: Reduced graphene oxide/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs (RGO/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs) ternary composites were prepared via the addition of graphene oxide to the dispersion of meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs under a hydrothermal condition. The RGO/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs ternary composites show high photocatalytic activity toward MB. - Highlights: • RGO/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs were obtained by addition of graphene oxide to meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs. • Au NPs in the mesopores of meso-TiO{sub 2} reduce the recombination of charge carriers. • RGO covered with the surface of the meso-TiO{sub 2} enhance the adsorption of MB. • RGO/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs composites show high photocatalytic performance toward MB. - Abstract: Reduced graphene oxide/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs (RGO/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs) ternary composites were prepared via the addition of graphene oxide to the dispersion of meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs under hydrothermal conditions. The structure and the morphology of the RGO/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs materials were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic activity of RGO/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs was evaluated by degradation of methyl blue (MB) under visible-light illumination. The ternary composites present an extended light absorption range, efficient charge separation properties, high adsorption ability for MB and high photocatalytic degradation activity of MB compared to the meso-TiO{sub 2} and meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs.

  2. TEA controllable preparation of magnetite nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs) with excellent magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Chengliang, E-mail: clhan@issp.ac.cn [Department of Chemical and Material Engineering, Hefei University, Hefei 230601 (China); Zhu, Dejie [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Wu, Hanzhao; Li, Yao; Cheng, Lu; Hu, Kunhong [Department of Chemical and Material Engineering, Hefei University, Hefei 230601 (China)

    2016-06-15

    A fast and controllable synthesis method for superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs) was developed in Fe(III)-triethanolamine (TEA) solution. The phase structure, morphology and particle size of the as-synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the magnetic particles were pure Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} with mean sizes of approximately 10 nm. The used TEA has key effects on the formation of well dispersing Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) result indicated that the as-obtained Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs exhibited superparamagnetic behavior and the saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) was about 70 emu/g, which had potential applications in magnetic science and technology. - Highlights: • The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs are synthesized by a simple and low-cost hydrothermal approach. • The triethanolamine (TEA) played vital roles in the formation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs. • Our samples exhibited superparamagnetic and excellent dispersing properties in water.

  3. High-performance SERS substrate based on hybrid structure of graphene oxide/AgNPs/Cu film@pyramid Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Xu, Shi Cai; Zhang, Chao; Liu, Xiao Yun; Gao, Sai Sai; Hu, Li Tao; Guo, Jia; Ma, Yong; Jiang, Shou Zhen; Si, Hai Peng

    2016-12-01

    We present a novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate based on graphene oxide/silver nanoparticles/copper film covered silicon pyramid arrays (GO/AgNPs/PCu@Si) by a low-cost and simple method. The GO/AgNPs/PCu@Si substrate presents high sensitivity, good homogeneity and well stability with R6G molecules as a probe. The detected concentration of Rhodamine 6 G (R6G) is as low as 10-15 M. These sensitive SERS behaviors are also confirmed in theory via a commercial COMSOL software, the electric field enhancement is not only formed between the AgNPs, but also formed between the AgNPs and Cu film. And the GO/AgNPs/PCu@Si substrates also present good property on practical application for the detection of methylene blue (MB) and crystal violet (CV). This work may offer a novel and practical method to facilitate the SERS applications in areas of medicine, food safety and biotechnology.

  4. Structural and optical properties of colloidal InZnO NPs prepared by laser ablation in liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    khlewee, Maryam M.; Khashan, Khawla S.

    2018-05-01

    In the current work, colloidal of InZnO NPs were produced by pulsed laser ablation in liquid (PLAL) method. The effect of indium content on the structural, morphological and optical of the InZnO NPs was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy, and UV-visible spectroscopy. The FTIR spectra showed the presence of the metal-oxide bond. The SEM exhibit different morphological aspects according to the (In/Zn) ratio. The optical transmittance of InZnO NPs has high value around 70 % in the visible region and the band gap value was varied between 3.29 to 3.25 eV.

  5. Self-reported use of novel psychoactive substances in a US nationally representative survey: Prevalence, correlates, and a call for new survey methods to prevent underreporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamar, Joseph J; Martins, Silvia S; Su, Mark K; Ompad, Danielle C

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in emergence and use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) in the US and worldwide. However, there is little published epidemiological survey data estimating the prevalence of use in the US. Data on self-reported NPS use came from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (2009-2013), a national representative sample of non-institutionalized individuals in the US. Subjects were asked to provide names of (non-traditional) drugs they used that they were not specifically asked about. We examined lifetime prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of self-reported use of new and uncommon synthetic drugs (NPS) among subjects ages 12-34-years-old. 1.2% of subjects self-reported any use of the 57 NPS we examined. Use of psychedelic tryptamines (primarily DMT) was most common, followed by psychedelic phenethylamines (e.g., 2C series) and synthetic cannabinoids. Prevalence of self-reported use of NPS increased from 2009 to 2013 and use was most common among males, whites, older subjects, those of lower income, and among those residing in cities. Lifetime use of various other illicit drugs (e.g., LSD, cocaine, ecstasy/MDMA) was highly prevalent among NPS users. This the first study reporting on use of a variety of NPS in a nationally representative US sample; however, use appears to be underreported as other national data suggest higher rates of NPS (e.g., synthetic cannabinoid) use. Developing more adaptable survey tools and systematically assessing NPS use would allow researchers to ask about hundreds of NPS and improve reporting as new drugs continue to rapidly emerge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Electrochemical studies of Pu on prussian blue (PB)-gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functionalized glassy carbon (GC) electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Manoj K.; Ambolikar, Arvind S.; Aggarwal, Suresh K.

    2011-01-01

    In electrochemical processes, electron transfer across the solid-liquid interface is the elementary step and electron transfer kinetics is significantly influenced by the interfacial properties. Therefore, preparation of well-defined electrochemical interface with highly controllable properties - larger effective surface area, increased mass transport, and better electronic interaction between the analyte and electrode - is significant for both fundamental and applied studies in electrochemistry. In the present work electrochemistry of Pu(IV)/Pu(III) is studied on multilayered AuNPs-PB-AuNPs functionalized electrode

  7. Key regulatory and safety issues emerging NEA activities. Lessons Learned from Fukushima Dai-ichi NPS Accident - Key Regulatory and Safety Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakoski, John

    2013-01-01

    intervention and performance under extreme conditions; evaluations of metallic components and structures under high-seismic loads; risks assessments for natural external initiating events; and defence-in-depth, including the robustness of electrical systems. A recent joint research project has also been started that will include a benchmarking study of accident codes and the collection of data from the damaged reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi NPS. CRPPH activities in response to the Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident include an update of report on Short-term Countermeasures in Case of a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency that was last updated in 2003; the performance of a survey on emergency management lessons learned; developing lesson learned in the management of occupational exposure in high-radiation areas; and providing support to the Japanese Government by co-ordination and participation in workshops on decontamination and recovery and other technical topics

  8. Experimental stress analysis of four machined 10-in. NPS piping elbows with specified geometric distortions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, S.E.; Dodge, W.G.; Bolt, S.E.

    1983-09-01

    Four specially fabricated nominal 10-in. NPS, 90 0 , long-radius, schedule 40, carbon-steel piping elbows, welded to short lengths of straight pipe, were stress analyzed both experimentally and analytically. One elbow had a circular cross section and a uniform wall thickness, while the other three had either a circular or elliptical cross section with either a uniform or variable wall thickness. The objectives of the tests were primarily to study the influence of out of roundness and wall-thickness variations on the stresses in piping elbows under internal pressure and/or applied moment loadings. Analytical studies were made to isolate the various effects by comparing the experimental data with theoretical baseline solutions. Results of the studies showed that analytical solutions based on no-end-effects (NEE) theory capture the major characteristics of the stress distributions for elbows loaded with pressure and/or in-plane, out-of-plane, or torsional moment loadings. Of the four second-order effects addressed in this study, and effects had the most influence on the stresses, followed in order by out of roundness, wall-thickness variations, and pressure-moment interactions. Of these, the only significant increase in maximum stresses above those predicted by NEE theory was for the case of out of roundness with internal-pressure loading

  9. Chemical aspects of the treatment of radioactive concentrates at the nps Biblis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paffrath, G.; Schroeder, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    The methods of waste treatment in the Federal Republic of Germany can be separated in two periods and pathways. (1) Treatment of liquid waste by cementation and packing due to the doserate on the surface in drums of 400 litres, in drums of 200 litres put in drums of 400 litres and grout the space between the drums with cement. For higher doserates on the surface 200 litre drums could also be shielded by additional concrete shieldings. The limiting factors for this method of waste treatment were defined in the ASSE regulations. The treatment took place in transportable units at the reactor site. (2) Drying the concentrate and packing the product in thick-walled drums of cast-iron. This treatment, known as 'volume reducing' methods, was first practised in 1981 at the nps Biblis and took into account that: (1) at the reactor site exists only a storage capacity for liquid concentrates for one year and (2) after the closing of the experimental storage ASSE there was no prospect of an early final storage assembly in Germany. The methods are discussed. (author)

  10. Radiation protection lessons learned from the TEPCO Fukushima No.1 NPS accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urabe, Itsumasa; Hattori, Takatoshi; Iimoto, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Sumi

    2014-01-01

    Lessons learned from the TEPCO Fukushima No.1 NPS accident are discussed from the viewpoint of radiation protection in the situation of nuclear emergency. It became clear from the discussion that the protective measures should be practiced by taking into account the time profiles of the radiological disaster after the nuclear accident and that the land and coastal sea areas monitoring had to be practiced immediately after the nuclear accident and the communication methods to tell the public about the radiation information and the meaning of protective measures should be developed for mitigation of the sociological aspects of disaster impacts. And it was pointed out from the view point of practicing countermeasures that application of the reference levels, above which it was judged to be inappropriate to plan to allow exposure to occur, played an important role for practicing protective measures in an optimized way and that the quantities and units used for quantifying radiation exposure of individuals in terms of radiation doses have caused considerable communication problems. Finally, the occupational exposures and the public exposures that have been reported so far are shown, and it is concluded that there is no conclusive evidence on low dose exposures that would justify a modification of the radiation risk recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (author)

  11. Facile preparation of surfactant-free Au NPs/RGO/Ni foam for degradation of 4-nitrophenol and detection of hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. Y.; Guo, X. L.; Zhao, L.; Zhu, L.; Chen, Z. T.; Chen, J.; Zhang, Y.; Sun, L. T.; Zhao, Y. H.

    2018-06-01

    The application of Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) often requires surface modification with chemical surfactants, which dramatically reduce the surface activity and increase the chemical contamination and cost of Au NPs. In this research, we have developed a novel Au NPs/reduced graphene oxide/Ni foam hybrid (Au NPs/RGO/NiF) by in situ reduction through ascorbic acid and replacement reaction. This method is green, facile and efficient. The Au NPs are free of chemical surfactants and are homogeneously distributed on the surface of the RGO/NiF. The as-prepared Au NPs/RGO/NiF hybrid is uniform, stable and exhibits not only a high reduction efficiency for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol with a catalytic kinetic constant of up to 0.46 min‑1 (0.15 cm3 catalysis) but also a sensitive and selective detection of H2O2 with a detection limit of ∼1.60 μM.

  12. Gold nanoparticle plasmon resonance in near-field coupled Au NPs layer/Al film nanostructure: Dependence on metal film thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshchenko, Oleg A.; Kozachenko, Viktor V.; Naumenko, Antonina P.; Berezovska, Nataliya I.; Kutsevol, Nataliya V.; Chumachenko, Vasyl A.; Haftel, Michael; Pinchuk, Anatoliy O.

    2018-05-01

    We study the effects of coupling between plasmonic metal nanoparticles and a thin metal film by using light extinction spectroscopy. A planar monolayer of gold nanoparticles located near an aluminum thin film (thicknesses within the range of 0-62 nm) was used to analyze the coupling between the monolayer and the thin metal film. SPR peak area increase for polymer coated Au NPs, non-monotonical behavior of the peak area for bare Au NPs, as well as red shift and broadening of SPR at the increase of the Al film thickness have been observed. These effects are rationalized as a result of coupling of the layer of Au NPs with Al film through the field of localized surface plasmons in Au NPs that causes the excitation of collective plasmonic gap mode in the nanostructure. An additional mechanism for bare Au NPs is the non-radiative damping of SPR that is caused by the electrical contact between metal NPs and film.

  13. Improved adhesion of Ag NPs to the polyethylene terephthalate surface via atmospheric plasma treatment and surface functionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Tao [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, 253 Xuefu Rd, Kunming, Yunnan, 650093 (China); Liu, Yong [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, 253 Xuefu Rd, Kunming, Yunnan, 650093 (China); Solmont Technology Wuxi Co., Ltd. 228 Linghu Blvd. Tianan Tech Park, A1-602, Xinwu District, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214135 (China); Zhu, Yan, E-mail: zhuyan@kmust.edu.cn [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, 253 Xuefu Rd, Kunming, Yunnan, 650093 (China); Yang, De-Quan, E-mail: dequan.yang@gmail.com [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, 253 Xuefu Rd, Kunming, Yunnan, 650093 (China); Solmont Technology Wuxi Co., Ltd. 228 Linghu Blvd. Tianan Tech Park, A1-602, Xinwu District, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214135 (China); Sacher, Edward [Regroupement Québécois de Matériaux de Pointe, Department of Engineering Physics, École Polytechnique de Montréal, Case Postale 6079, succursale Centre-Ville, Montréal, Québec H3C 3A7 (Canada)

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • A two-step process has been developed to enhance the adhesion of immobilized Ag NPs to the PET surface. • The method is simple, easy to use and low-cost for mass production. • The increased density of active sites (−OH, −CH=O and COOH) at the PET surface, after plasma treatment, permits increased reaction with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). • The presence of APTES with high surface density permits −NH{sub 2}-Ag complex formation, increasing the adhesion of the Ag NPs. - Abstract: Ag nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely applied, as important antibacterial materials, on textile and polymer surfaces. However, their adhesion to nonreactive polymer surfaces is generally too weak for many applications. Here, we propose a two-step process, atmospheric plasma treatment followed by a surface chemical modification process, which enhances their adhesion to polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surfaces. We found that, compared to either plasma treatments or surface chemical functionalizations, alone, this combination greatly enhanced their adhesion. The plasma treatment resulted in an increase of active sites (−OH, −CH=O and COOH) at the PET surface, permitting increased bonding to 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), whose −NH{sub 2} groups were then able to form a bonding complex with the Ag NPs.

  14. Both released silver ions and particulate Ag contribute to the toxicity of AgNPs to earthworm Eisenia fetida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, L.; , van, Gestel C.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    To disentangle the contribution of ionic and nanoparticulate Ag to the overall toxicity to the earthworm Eisenia fetida, a semi-permeable membrane strategy was used to separate Ag+ released from silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in an aqueous exposure. Internal Ag fractionation, activities of antioxidant

  15. Cocos nucifera coir-mediated green synthesis of Pd NPs and its investigation against larvae and agricultural pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elango, Ganesh; Mohana Roopan, Selvaraj; Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Naif; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Irukatla Damodharan, Kasinathan; Elumalai, Kuppuswamy

    2017-12-01

    In recent decades, several scientists focused their process towards nanoparticles synthesis by using various sustainable approaches. Cocos nucifera (C. nucifera) was one of the versatile trees in tropical regions which also can act as a thrust quencher in all over the world. Cocos nucifera coir was one of the waste by-products in all coconut-refining industries and with the help C. nucifera coir, Palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) were synthesized. Green-synthesized spherical-shape Pd NPs were over layered by secondary metabolites from C. nucifera coir extract and with an average particle size of 62 ± 2 nm, which were confirmed by morphological analysis. Eco-friendly mediated Pd NPs were further subjected to several biological applications like larvicidal against Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti) and anti-feedent, ovicidal, and oviposition deterrent against agricultural pest Callasobruchus maculates (C. maculates) and compared with C. nuciferacoir methanolic extract, which results in LC 50 value of 288.88 ppm and LC 90 value of 483.06 ppm using LSD-Tukey's test against dengue vector (A. aegypti). Cocos nucifera coir methanolic extract shows significant output while compared with Pd NPs towards anti-feedent assays; ovicidal activity and oviposition deterrent were discussed here.

  16. Synthesis of stable nanosilver particles (AgNPs) by the proteins of seagrass Syringodium isoetifolium and its biomedicinal properties

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ahila, N.K.; Ramkumar, V.S.; Prakash, S.; Manikandan, B.; Ravindran, J.; Dhanalakshmi, P.K.; Kannapirana, E.

    A simple eco-friendly approach for the hasty synthesis of stable, potent and benign silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using seagrass, Syringodium isoetifolium was proposed and described here. The UV–Vis, DLS, XRD, AFM, FESEM, EDX and HRTEM analysis...

  17. FRET based integrated pyrene-AgNPs system for detection of Hg (II) and pyrene dimer: Applications to environmental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walekar, Laxman S.; Hu, Peidong; Vafaei Molamahmood, Hamed; Long, Mingce

    2018-06-01

    The integrated system of pyrene and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with a distance (r) of 2.78 nm has been developed for the detection of Hg (II) and pyrene dimer. The interaction between pyrene and AgNPs results in the fluorescence quenching of pyrene due to the energy transfer, whose mechanism can be attributed to the Forster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) supported by experimental observation and theoretical calculations. The developed probe shows a highly selective and sensitive response towards Hg (II) probably due to the amalgam formation, which results in the fluorescence recovery (90%) of pyrene and color change of solution from yellowish brown to colorless. The addition of Hg (II) may increase the distance between pyrene and AgNPs undergoes the 'FRET OFF' process. This system gives a selective response towards Hg (II) over other competing metal ions. Under the optimal condition, the system offers good linearity between 0.1 and 0.6 μg mL-1 with a detection limit of 62 ng mL-1. In addition, the system also provides an effective platform for detection of pyrene in its dimer form even at very low concentrations (10 ng mL-1) on the surface of AgNPs. Therefore, it could be used as effective alternatives for the detection of Hg (II) as well as pyrene simultaneously.

  18. Zinc (hydr)oxide/graphite oxide/AuNPs composites: role of surface features in H₂S reactive adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakoudakis, Dimitrios A; Bandosz, Teresa J

    2014-12-15

    Zinc hydroxide/graphite oxide/AuNPs composites with various levels of complexity were synthesized using an in situ precipitation method. Then they were used as H2S adsorbents in visible light. The materials' surfaces were characterized before and after H2S adsorption by various physical and chemical methods (XRD, FTIR, thermal analysis, potentiometric titration, adsorption of nitrogen and SEM/EDX). Significant differences in surface features and synergistic effects were found depending on the materials' composition. Addition of graphite oxide and the deposition of gold nanoparticles resulted in a marked increase in the adsorption capacity in comparison with that on the zinc hydroxide and zinc hydroxide/AuNP. Addition of AuNPs to zinc hydroxide led to a crystalline ZnO/AuNP composite while the zinc hydroxide/graphite oxide/AuNP composite was amorphous. The ZnOH/GO/AuNPs composite exhibited the greatest H2S adsorption capacity due to the increased number of OH terminal groups and the conductive properties of GO that facilitated the electron transfer and consequently the formation of superoxide ions promoting oxidation of hydrogen sulfide. AuNPs present in the composite increased the conductivity, helped with electron transfer to oxygen, and prevented the fast recombination of the electrons and holes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The prevalence of novel psychoactive substances (NPS use in non-clinical populations: a systematic review protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma M. Khaled

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Novel psychoactive substances (NPS are new narcotic or psychotropic drugs that are not controlled by the United Nations drug convention that may pose a serious public health threat due to their wide availability for purchase on the internet and in so called “head shops.” Yet, the extent of their global use remains largely unknown. The aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the prevalence of NPS use in non-clinical populations. Methods This is a systematic review of observational studies. Embase, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Lilacs, Scopus, Global Health, PsychINFO, Web of Science, and the World Health Organization (WHO regional databases will be searched for eligible prevalence studies published between 2010 and 2016. Data from cross-sectional studies that report the prevalence of NPS use (one or more types in participants (of any age from censuses or probabilistic or convenience samples will be included. Data will be extracted from eligible publications, using a data extraction tool developed for this study. Visual and statistical approaches will be adopted instead of traditional meta-analytic approaches. Discussion This review will describe the distributions of various types of prevalence estimates of NPS use and explore the impact of different population groups and study-related and tempo-geographical variables on characteristics of these distributions over the period of 2010 to 2016. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42016037020

  20. Rapid colorimetric sensing of gadolinium by EGCG-derived AgNPs: the development of a nanohybrid bioimaging probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rohit Kumar; Mishra, Sourav; Jena, Satyapriya; Panigrahi, Bijayananda; Das, Bhaskar; Jayabalan, Rasu; Parhi, Pankaj Kumar; Mandal, Dindyal

    2018-04-17

    Polyphenol functionalized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been developed and demonstrated as colorimetric sensors for the selective detection of gadolinium. The newly obtained AgNP-Gd3+ conjugates exhibit high aqueous dispersibility and excitation dependent fluorescence emission. The conjugates offer multicolor bioimaging potential owing to their excellent luminescence properties.

  1. Evaluation of Cytotoxic Effects of Different Concentrations of Porous Hollow Au Nanoparticles (PHAuNPs) on Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, S.; Tata, U.; Lin, V.K.; Chiao, J.C.; Huang, Ch.; Hao, Y.; Wu, P.; Arora, N.; Ahn, J.

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been introduced as a suitable alternative in many in vivo bio applications. The risks of utilizing nanoparticles continue to be an ongoing research. Furthermore, the various chemicals used in their synthesis influence the cytotoxic effects of nanoparticles. We have investigated the cytotoxicity of Porous Hollow Au Nanoparticles (PHAuNPs) on cancer cell lines PC-3, PC-3ML, and MDA-MB-231 and the normal cell line PNT1A. Cell proliferation for the different cells in the presence of different concentrations of the PHAuNPs was assessed after 24 hours and 72 hours of incubation using MTT assay. The study also included the cytotoxic evaluation of pegylated PHAuNPs. Identical cell seeding densities, particle concentrations, and incubation times were employed for these two types of Au nanoparticles. Our results indicated that (1) impact on cell proliferation was concentration dependent and was different for the different cell types without cellular necrosis and (b) cellular proliferation might be impacted more based on the cell line.

  2. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) biosynthesized using pod extract of Cola nitida enhances antioxidant activity and phytochemical composition of Amaranthus caudatus Linn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeez, Luqmon; Lateef, Agbaje; Adebisi, Segun A.

    2017-02-01

    This study investigates the influence of different concentrations of AgNPs biologically synthesized using pod extract of Cola nitida on antioxidant activity, phenolic contents, flavonoid contents and compositions of Amaranthus caudatus L. AgNPs of 25, 50, 75, 100 and 150 ppm were utilized in growing A. caudatus while water was used as control. Delayed germination for two days was observed for A. caudatus grown with 150 ppm of AgNPs, while others showed no difference. There were 43.3, 38.7, 26.7 and 6.48% improvements in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) antioxidant activity of A. caudatus grown with 25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm of AgNPs, respectively, compared to control. Antioxidant activity of A. caudatus grown with AgNPs reduced with increase in the concentrations of AgNPs. A. caudatus grown with 50 ppm of AgNPs was the most potent with the least IC50 of 0.67 mg/ml. Significant improvements obtained for phenolic and flavonoid contents grown with AgNPs were concentration dependent. Enhancements of 21.9, 68.19, and 1.98% in phenolic contents were achieved in treatments with 25, 50 and 75 ppm AgNPs, respectively, while 32.58, 35.80, and 7.20% improvement in flavonoids were obtained for 25, 50 and 100 ppm treatments, respectively. Kaempferol and quercetin were the most abundant flavonoids in A. caudatus treated with 50 ppm of AgNPs, showing the highest flavonoid composition. This further confirms A. caudatus grown with 50 ppm of AgNPs as the most potent. This study has shown that concentration-dependent AgNPs can be used to boost antioxidant activity and phytochemical contents of vegetables.

  3. A biodynamic understanding of dietborne and waterborne Ag uptake from Ag NPs in the sediment-dwelling oligochaete, Tubifex tubifex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangaa, Stine Rosendal; Winther-Nielsen, Margrethe; Selck, Henriette; Croteau, Marie-Noele

    2018-01-01

    Metal nanoparticles (Me-NPs) are increasingly used in various products, such as inks and cosmetics, enhancing the likelihood of their release into aquatic environments. An understanding of the mechanisms controlling their bioaccumulation and ecotoxicity in aquatic biota will help support environmental risk assessment. Here we characterized unidirectional parameters for uptake and elimination of silver (Ag) in the sediment-dwelling oligochaete Tubifex tubifex after waterborne (0.01–47 nmol Ag/L) and dietborne (0.4–482 nmol Ag/g dw sed.) exposures to Ag NPs and AgNO3, respectively. Worms accumulated Ag from AgNO3more efficiently than from Ag NPs during waterborne exposure. The Ag uptake rate constants from water were 8.2 L/g/d for AgNO3 and 0.34 L/g/d for Ag NPs. Silver accumulated from both forms was efficiently retained in tissues, as no significant loss of Ag was detected after up to 20 days of depuration in clean media. High mortality (~50%) during depuration (i.e. after 17 days) was only observed for worms exposed to waterborne AgNO3 (3 nmol/L). Sediment exposures to both Ag forms resulted in low accumulation, i.e., the uptake rate constants were 0.002 and 0.005 g/g/d for AgNO3 and Ag NPs, respectively. Avoidance was only observed for worms exposed to sediment amended with AgNO3. Incorporation of the estimated rate constants into a biodynamic model predicted that sediment is likely the most important route of uptake for Ag in both forms in ecologically relevant aquatic environments. However, inference of bioavailability from our estimations of Ag assimilation efficiencies (AE) suggests that Ag (AE: 3–12% for AgNO3 and 0.1–0.8% for Ag NPs) is weakly bioavailable from sediment for this species. Thus, Ag amended to sediment as NPs might not pose greater problems than 'conventional' Ag for benthic organisms such as T. tubifex.

  4. Revelation of susceptibility differences due to Hg(II) accumulation in Streptococcus pyogenes against CX-AgNPs and Cefixime by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Wasia; Shah, Muhammad Raza; Perveen, Samina; Ahmed, Shakil; Uzzaman, Sami

    2018-01-01

    Solution based method for the formation of chemically modified silver nanoparticles (CX-AgNPs) using Cefixime as stabilizing and reducing agent was developed. The CX-AgNPs were characterized by AFM, UV-visible, FT-IR and MALDI-TOF MS. Bactericidal efficiency of CX-AgNPs and Cefixime against Streptococcus pyogenes was evaluated. Afterwards, susceptibility differences of Streptococcus pyogenes due to accumulation of Hg(II) against CX-AgNPs and Cefixime were estimated and validated through Atomic force microscopy. Selectivity and sensitivity of CX-AgNPs against Hg(II) was evaluated in a systematic manner. The CX-AgNPs was titrated against optically silent Hg(II) which induced enhancement in the SPR band of CX-AgNPs. The increase in intensity of SPR band of CX-AgNPs was determined to be proportionate to the concentration of Hg(II) in the range of 33.3-700µM obeying linear regression equation of y = 0.125x + 8.962 with the detection limit of 0.10µM and the coefficient of determination equals to 0.985 (n = 3). The association constant Ka of CX-AgNPs-Hg(II) was found to be 386.0095mol -1 dm 3 by using the Benesi Hildebrand plot. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Neutrophil-Platelet Score (NPS Predicts Survival in Primary Operable Colorectal Cancer and a Variety of Common Cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Watt

    Full Text Available Recent in-vitro studies have suggested that a critical checkpoint early in the inflammatory process involves the interaction between neutrophils and platelets. This confirms the importance of the innate immune system in the elaboration of the systemic inflammatory response. The aim of the present study was to examine whether a combination of the neutrophil and platelet counts were predictive of survival in patients with cancer.Patients with histologically proven colorectal cancer who underwent potentially curative resection at a single centre between March 1999 and May 2013 (n = 796 and patients with cancer from the Glasgow Inflammation Outcome Study, who had a blood sample taken between January 2000 and December 2007 (n = 9649 were included in the analysis.In the colorectal cancer cohort, there were 173 cancer and 135 non-cancer deaths. In patients undergoing elective surgery, cancer-specific survival (CSS at 5 years ranged from 97% in patients with TNM I disease and NPS = 0 to 57% in patients with TNM III disease and NPS = 2 (p = 0.019 and in patients undergoing elective surgery for node-negative colon cancer from 98% (TNM I, NPS = 0 to 65% (TNM II, NPS = 2 (p = 0.004. In those with a variety of common cancers there were 5218 cancer and 929 non-cancer deaths. On multivariate analysis, adjusting for age and sex and stratified by tumour site, incremental increase in the NPS was significantly associated with poorer CSS (p<0.001.The neutrophil-platelet score predicted survival in a variety of common cancers and highlights the importance of the innate immune system in patients with cancer.

  6. Radiation control in the core shroud replacement project of Fukushima-Daiichi NPS Unit no.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokubun, Yasunori; Haraguchi, Kazuyuki; Yoshizawa, Yuji; Yamada, Yasuo

    2000-01-01

    In Fukushima-Daiichi NPS Unit no.2, the core shroud replacement was made following that of Unit no.3. This project involves replacement of wide-ranging equipment, with the project extending over a long period of time. This was expected to increase the dose equivalent of workers. Accordingly, various measures to lower the dose equivalent were planned and implemented. We outline radiation controls implemented during the project period. The shroud replacement project was a preventive maintenance project which consisted of replacing the core shroud and other internals with those less susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. Problems related to radiation control during the replacement project of Unit no.3 the year before last were summarized. We studied, planned, and implemented measures to be reflected in the project for Unit no.2. This was done to lower the dose equivalent as much as possible while paying due attention to safety and economy. For radiation control during the project for Unit no.2, experiments with Unit no.3 were fully exploited and any effective measures taken at that time were adopted in this project. Problems pointed out after that project with Unit no.3 resulted in new or improved measures being taken with Unit no.2. Measures taken over from the project with Unit no.3; a. Daily analysis of difference between expected and actual dose equivalents b. Dose reduction measures, chemical decontamination, temporary shield, flushing, etc.; New or improved measures; a. Dose reduction measures: Mechanical removal of radiation sources, strengthening of shield, etc.; b. Automatic remote control system; c. Use of new protective devices. With measures implemented as described above, the dose equivalent during shroud replacement of Unit no.2 was reduced by about 30% when compared with that (11.5 persons · Sv) in the case of Unit no.3. Implemented radiation controls will be checked and reviewed in future for reflection in projects with other units. (author)

  7. Low-cost mercury (II) ion sensor by biosynthesized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Jet G.; Candano, Gabrielle Jackie; Mendoza, Aileen Nicole; Paderanga, Marciella; Cardino, Krenz John; Locsin, Alessandro; Bibon, Cherilou

    2017-11-01

    Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles has attracted the curiosity of scientists over the past few decades. Nanoparticles have been proven to exhibit enhanced properties and offer a variety of applications in different fields of study. Utilizing nanoparticles instead of bulky equipment and noxious chemicals has become more convenient; reagents needed for synthesis have been proven to be benign (mostly aqueous solutions) and are cost-effective. In this study, gold nanoparticles were biosynthesized using guyabano (Annonamuricata) peel samples as the source of reducing agents. The optimum concentration ratio of gold chloride to guyabano extract was determined to be 1:7. Characterization studies were accomplished using UV Vis Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Electron Microscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Spectroscopic maximum absorbance was found to be at 532 nm thereby confirming the presence of gold nanoparticles. Hydroxyl (O-H stretching), carbonyl (C=O stretching), and amide (N-H stretching) functional groups shown in the FTIR spectra are present on possible reducing agents such as phenols, alkaloids, and saponins found in the plant extract. SEM images revealed spherical shaped nanoparticles with mean diameter of 23.18 nm. It was observed that the bio-synthesized AuNPs were selective to mercury ions through uniform color change from wine red to yellow. A novel smartphone-based mercury (II) ions assay was developed using the gold nanoparticles. A calibration curve correlated the analytical response (Red intensity) to the concentrations of Hg 2+ ions. Around 94% of the variations in the intensity is accounted for by the variations in the concentration of mercury (II) ions suggesting a good linear relationship between the two variables. A relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 1% was achieved at all individual points. The metal sensor displayed a sensitivity of 0.039 R.I./ppm with an LOD of 93.79 ppm. Thus, the bio-fabricated gold nanoparticles

  8. 2007 USGS/NPS/NASA Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL): Naval Live Oaks Area, FL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — ASCII xyz point cloud data were produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  9. Kiezbezogene Proteste für Bibliotheken 2007-2008. Eine Interview-Collage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Schweers

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Die in diesem Text zusammengefassten Interviews mit drei Aktiven, welche sich in verschiedenen Initiativen in Berlin für kleinere Bibliotheken eingesetzt hatten, bieten Einblicke in die grundsätzlichen Annahmen über gesellschaftliche und politischeEntwicklungen und die Aufgaben von Bibliotheken, welche dieses Engagement motivierten. Gleichzeitig dokumentieren sie die sehr unterschiedlich verlaufenden Proteste aus der Sicht der Beteiligten. Für die bibliothekarische Debatte interessant sind zudem dieimpliziten und expliziten Anforderungen, die von den drei Engagierten an Bibliothekenformuliert werden. Sie konkretisieren selten thematisierte gesellschaftlicheAufgabenzuschreibungen an Stadtteilbibliotheken.

  10. Designing smart energy. Final report of the Tekes research project 2007-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltonen, S.; Pakkanen, M.; Pitkaejaervi, S.; Lautamaeki, S.; Oehman, C.; Baang, M.; Peltola, T.; Broms, L.; Gustafsson, M.-L.

    2009-07-01

    The Desme project aimed at analysing the possibilities of changing consumer behaviour in terms of energy efficiency by using industrial design as a tool. Concept and interaction design was used in order to study how consumers react to the concepts of smart energy applications that focus on showing and guiding consumer's energy usage. Several studies of people's attitudes and knowledge related to energy already exist. However, these studies measure people's intentions rather than their actions and actual buying decisions. In order to be effective, segmentation needs to be based not only on consumer attitudes towards energy saving but also on their actual energy behaviour as multiple studies have shown that the correlation between people's attitudes and behaviour is weak. It is important to understand how people use energy in their everyday lives, what kinds of energy saving actions they currently employ and what their general view on energy saving amounts to. Understanding consumers' energy behaviour is important in order to be able to create more specific energy saving solutions for different contexts of everyday life. Several product and service concepts were created during the design phase of the Desme project. When creating the concept ideas, the designers focused on two different but supporting aspects: the everyday life context and consumer lifestyles. The existing knowledge of energy consumer segments was also employed as a framework for the concept ideas. The main purpose was to design products that would relate to some major problem areas concerning energy saving in the home environment and still fit in with the user's lifestyle. The concept ideas were evaluated by companies, designers and a research group. Four concepts were selected for further development and consumer testing: Home display, Shower duck, Key hanger and Energy plant. The concept testing revealed that these four design concepts approached the energy saving issue from a very fresh angle. This new approach was seen as very welcome by both experts and consumers. One of the most valuable findings was the five energy consumer segments that were identified: Passionate ecologists, Active energy savers, Insensitive energy users, Reluctant energy savers and Unaware energy consumers. These five energy consumer segments clearly differ from each other by their actions, awareness, attitudes and intentions regarding energy saving. In conclusion, several lessons were learned during the Desme project. First of all, it is important to realize that in order to be able to influence in the consumers' energy usage behaviour, it is extremely important to deeply understand their awareness, attitudes and current behaviour. Second, it must be understood that consumers are not a heterogeneous group of people and therefore they need to be approached by different ways and to be offered different solutions. Finally, not only communication, education and more energy efficient technology are needed in order to enhance the consumers to behave in a more energy efficient manner; also innovative and desirable products and services are needed. Industrial design can be a very effective tool for encouraging consumers to think about their energy usage more and use energy less. (orig.)

  11. Ebola hemorrhagic fever associated with novel virus strain, Uganda, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamala, Joseph F; Lukwago, Luswa; Malimbo, Mugagga; Nguku, Patrick; Yoti, Zabulon; Musenero, Monica; Amone, Jackson; Mbabazi, William; Nanyunja, Miriam; Zaramba, Sam; Opio, Alex; Lutwama, Julius J; Talisuna, Ambrose O; Okware, Sam I

    2010-07-01

    During August 2007-February 2008, the novel Bundibugyo ebolavirus species was identified during an outbreak of Ebola viral hemorrhagic fever in Bundibugyo district, western Uganda. To characterize the outbreak as a requisite for determining response, we instituted a case-series investigation. We identified 192 suspected cases, of which 42 (22%) were laboratory positive for the novel species; 74 (38%) were probable, and 77 (40%) were negative. Laboratory confirmation lagged behind outbreak verification by 3 months. Bundibugyo ebolavirus was less fatal (case-fatality rate 34%) than Ebola viruses that had caused previous outbreaks in the region, and most transmission was associated with handling of dead persons without appropriate protection (adjusted odds ratio 3.83, 95% confidence interval 1.78-8.23). Our study highlights the need for maintaining a high index of suspicion for viral hemorrhagic fevers among healthcare workers, building local capacity for laboratory confirmation of viral hemorrhagic fevers, and institutionalizing standard precautions.

  12. Self Managed Superannuation Funds and the Bear Market of 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Phillips

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine the bear market performance of self managed superannuation funds(SMSFs. Previous studies have highlighted some problems with the portfolio construction ofSMSFs. This provides a rationale for examining the performance of SMSFs during the recentbear market. Based on data from two independent samples of a total of 141 self managedsuperannuation funds, two archetype SMSF portfolios are constructed in order to generateinsights into the average performance of the funds in the samples. The performance of thesefunds is compared with (1 the unmanaged market index; and (2 the average returnsgenerated by retail (balanced superannuation funds. Interestingly, whilst the SMSFs havegenerated negative returns and problems with the portfolio construction remain, the relativeperformance of the overall portfolios vis-à-vis the market index and professionally managedfunds is reasonably favourable. However, the equity portions of the SMSF portfolios sufferfrom under-diversification and could be more efficiently constructed.

  13. Dropout and Graduation Rates 2007-2008. Research Brief. Volume 0804

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research Services, Miami-Dade County Public Schools, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The District conducts a "cross-sectional" analysis of student dropouts annually; it examines dropout rates among students enrolled in various grades at one point in time. A "longitudinal" analysis, also conducted annually, tracks a group of students in the same grade or cohort over a period of several years. Each method…

  14. 2007 2008 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME: Tevatron: The Cinderella Story or The Art Of Collider Commissioning

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 01, 03, 04, 05 October 2007 Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Tevatron: The Cinderella Story or The Art Of Collider Commissioning V. SHILTSEV / Fermi National Accelerator Laboraty, Batavia IL, USA The Tevatron Collider at Fermilab (Batavia, IL, USA) is the world’s highest energy particle collider at 1.8TeV c.m.e. The machine was a centerpiece of the US and world’s High Energy Physics for many years. Currently, the Tevatron is in the last years of its operation in so-called Run II which started 2001 and is tentatively scheduled to end in 2010. In this lecture series, we’ll try to learn from the exciting story of the Tevatron Collider Run II: the story of long preparations, great expectations, initial difficulties, years of "blood and sweat", continuous upgrades, exceeding its goals, high emotions, tune-up of accelerator organization for "combat fighting". The lectures will cover Introduction to the Tevatron, its history and Run II; "Plumbing"...

  15. Arbobalans 2007/2008 : kwaliteit van de arbeid, effecten en maatregelen in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouw, P.; Hooftman, W.; Bakhuys Roozeboom, M.M.C.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Klein Hesselink, J.

    2008-01-01

    De Arbobalans is een jaarlijks verschijnende publicatie waarin cijfers en gegevens zijn opgenomen die het resultaat zijn van "arbomonitoring", het systematisch verzamelen van gegevens over veiligheids- en gezondheidsrisico's op de werkplek. In deze Arbobalans zijn de meest recente cijfers over de

  16. Snacking patterns of U.S. adults: What We Eat In America, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goals of this study were to track changes in snacking frequency over time, determine whether snacking is associated with food energy intake and weight status, identify foods and beverages that make the largest contributions to calories consumed at snacks, and measure the contribution of snacks t...

  17. European Energy Markets Observatory. 2007 and Winter 2007/2008 Data Set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-11-01

    Launched in 2002, with the primary objective to assess the progress of deregulation in the European Member States, the report now tackles all the major issues faced by the Utilities industry and analyses its main indicators. This allows to monitor the supply and demand balance, measure the progress in establishing a European integrated market and follow the advancement of competition. The report scans all the segments of the value chain and analyses the hot topics of the moment (impact of the crisis on the sector, increase of the energy prices, nuclear, security of supply, renewables, climate change issues, CO2 emissions, end-users' tariffs, etc.), to identify the key trends of the electricity and gas industries. This is the 10th edition.

  18. Demographic and Geographic Differences in Exposure to Secondhand Smoke in Missouri Workplaces, 2007-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Jenine K.; Geremakis, Caroline; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Carothers, Bobbi J.; Shelton, Sarah C.; Kariuki, Barbara; Kuhlenbeck, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Introduction African Americans, Hispanics, service and blue-collar workers, and residents of rural areas are among those facing higher rates of workplace secondhand smoke exposure in states without smokefree workplace laws. Consequently, these groups also experience more negative health effects resulting from secondhand smoke exposure. The objective of this study was to examine disparities in workplace secondhand smoke exposure in a state without a comprehensive statewide smokefree workplace ...

  19. Turning points in nonlinear business cycle theories, financial crisis and the 2007-2008 downturn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Mohammed H I; Singh, Ragiv G

    2009-10-01

    This paper reviews three nonlinear dynamical business cycle theories of which only one (The Goodwin model) reflects the stylized facts of observed business cycles and has a plausible turning point mechanism. The paper then examines the US (and now global) financial crisis of 2008 and the accompanying downturn in the US. The paper argues that a skewed income distribution could not sustain effective demand and that over the 2001-2006 expansion demand was maintained through massive amounts of credit, with more than 50 percent of sales in the US being maintained through credit. A vector autoregression model confirms the crucial role played by credit. However legislative changes that dismantled the restrictions placed on the financial sector after the crash of 1929 and the consequent structural changes in the financial sector after 1980 enabled the growth of new debt instruments and credit. But overexpansion of credit when profits and house prices were declining in 2005/06 led to a nonlinear shift due to a new realization of the poor quality of some of this debt, namely mortgage backed securities. Bankruptcies, followed by retrenchment at the banks, then led to the bursting of the credit bubble, with the possibility of a severe recession.

  20. Women in science & engineering and minority engineering scholarships : year 2 report for 2007-2008 activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    Support will make scholarships available to minority and women students interested in engineering and science and will increase : significantly the number of minority and female students that Missouri S&T can recruit to its science and engineering pr...

  1. Metabolic Syndrome. Diagnosis in women of five doctor's office. North Area. November 2007-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaneisy Triana Toledo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The morbility for Metabolic-Syndrome in five doctor's office of the north health area in the municipality Accomplished a descriptive transverse cut investigation in 151 adult women's probabilistic sign to characterize itself Sancti - Spíritus, among 1ro of Noviembre of the 2007 and the November 30 the 2008. Morbility, the antecedent factors personnels of risk and of chronic illnesses were variables gone into no transmissible, they gathered data in a fill-out form, statistical analysis included percentages calculation, parameters esteem and tests them of proportions difference (x2. The main things aftermaths were Metabolic Syndrome prevalence of 33,3 % In the patients with metabolic syndrome the risk factor of chronic illnesses no transmissible that predominate was in order not to accomplish physical activity (96,1 %, her hiperlipidemia (27,3 %, as well as the obesity (24,4 % in this entity's bearers. The antecedent pathological personals for chronic illnesses no transmissible registered hypertension went with 64,7 %.

  2. AFSC/ABL: Southeast and Prince William Sound, Alaska Herring Microsatellite data, 2007-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Herring is one of the most energy-rich fish in the Alaskan ecosystem, and when populations struggle over time, such as the Lynn Canal population, there is management...

  3. IPY 2007-2008 and Scientists, Science Organisations, and the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, D. J.

    2006-12-01

    An initial burst of enthusiasm resulted in more than 1000 expressions of interest and nearly 500 internationally coordinated proposals for polar research during IPY. An international committee has endorsed more than 200 of these proposals, and most other proposals and nearly all expressions of interest have found ways to join the endorsed programme. Ten nations have announced new IPY science funding totalling in excess of 300M USD for the two years of operations; several nations will make announcements soon. Most on-going funding for polar research, coming from at least 30 nations, approximately 1.6B USD over two years, will also support IPY activities. What should the thousands of scientists hoping to participate expect, personally and collectively? What should the overall science entity expect, during and after IPY? And, finally, what should the public expect, after much attention and the expenditure of 2B USD, not to mention the on-going and future costs of ice breakers and ice-monitoring satellites and polar bases? Many IPY scientists will initially experience disappointment. Funding, even with IPY infusions, will fall short of need, and initial proposal success rates will stay below 50% in almost every nation, far below in some nations. In many nations, however, a catch-up effect will occur, leading to more funds in 2008 or 2009 than in 2006 and 2007. A step-up effect will also occur, leading to increased on-going funds for polar research, although perhaps in smaller steps and in fewer countries than we might hope. Scientists should expect increased public attention to their work and increased demand for their cooperation and contribution to international data management and to public outreach. Individually and collectively, IPY scientists have the opportunity to interact with an amazing array of fellow scientists, exchanging experience and enthusiasm on topics from gravitational variations to genomic sequences to Gwich'in cultures. Science as an entity will feel the impact of IPY. IPY does not fit within any single science organisation, even one so vast as AGU. A true international IPY community will exist beyond existing organisational systems, and a full multidisciplinary IPY assembly will occur in partnership with but separate from existing events. IPY will stimulate and produce new data models and infrastructure that will allow future polar researchers and polar residents to access, share and explore gravitational, genomic, and Gwich'in information. IPY will also necessarily stir up murky issues between scientific research and the environment, including how mega-science programmes should reduce their own environmental impact and how science conducts its assessments of global environmental problems when its partners include commercial energy companies and when its information products might encourage expanded extractive activities. This IPY will inevitably produce an organisational, data and environmental legacy that will impact science and scientists of the future. The public will expect quick answers from IPY, to questions not necessarily of our choosing. We can expect that they will enjoy a wide array of films and programmes and books on polar themes. We will have failed if the global public does not also gain an improved understanding of polar science and of the global consequences of climate change, and an enhanced appreciation of the creativity, challenges, pleasures and disappointments of science and of the energies and enthusiasms of scientists.

  4. Investigating Groundwater/Surface Water Interaction at the Diversion Dam Site: Report Documentary 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Particle Size Distribution Analysis (ASTM D2487), the Hydrometer Analysis (ASTM D422-63) and the Atterberg Limits Analysis (ASTM D4318-98). The...Size Distribution (ASTM D2487) and Hydrometer Analysis (ASTM D422-63) Methods. Both methods cover the quantitative determination of the distribution...retained on the No. 200 sieve). Soil samples having 5 percent or greater passing the No. 200 sieve were tested with a hydrometer analysis. The

  5. Seguridad y salud ocupacional en una empresa maderera peruana: 2007-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Fartolino Ushinahua, Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    Objetivo: Conocer la situación de la seguridad y salud ocupacional en una empresa maderera ubicada en la provincia de Loreto, Amazonía peruana, a fin de generar información para tomar medidas correctivas. Método: Para conocer la percepción de los trabajadores se utilizó la técnica de la en-cuesta, aplicando 157 cuestionarios al personal de planta. La información de casos de accidentes y enfermedades fue tomada de las fichas de accidentes de trabajo y los descansos médicos de la oficina de per...

  6. AY 2007-2008 Achieving U.S. Energy Security: Energy Industry Sector Report Seminar 8

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    ...; the ability to generate and exploit inexpensive energy underpins that strength. Therefore, the United States has a vital interest in ensuring the viability and stability of the global energy system and securing its energy security...

  7. Official holidays in 2007 and end-of-year closure 2007/2008

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    (Application of Articles R II 4.38 and R II 4.39 of the Staff Regulations) Official holidays in 2007 (in addition to the end-of-year holidays): Friday, 6th April (Good Friday) Monday, 9th April (Easter Monday) Tuesday, 1st May (1st May) Thursday, 17th May (Ascension Day) Monday, 28th May (Whit Monday) Thursday, 6th September ('Jeûne genevois') Annual closure of the site of the Organization during the Christmas holidays and days of special leave granted by the Director-General: The Laboratory will be closed from Saturday, 22nd December 2007 to Sunday, 6th January 2008 inclusive (without deduction of annual leave). The first working day in the New Year will be Monday, 7th January 2008. Human Resources Department Tel. 74128

  8. Official holidays in 2007 and end-of-year closure 2007/2008

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    (Application of Articles R II 4.38 and R II 4.39 of the Staff Regulations) Official holidays in 2007 (in addition to the end-of-year holidays) : - Friday, 6th April (Good Friday) - Monday, 9th April (Easter Monday) - Tuesday, 1st May (1st May) - Thursday, 17th May (Ascension Day) - Monday, 28th May (Whit Monday) - Thursday, 6th September ("Jeûne genevois") Annual closure of the site of the Organization during the Christmas holidays and days of special leave granted by the Director-General : The Laboratory will be closed from Saturday, 22nd December 2007 to Sunday, 6th January 2008 inclusive (without deduction of annual leave). The first working day in the New Year will be Monday, 7th January 2008. Human Resources Department Tel. 74128

  9. Seroprevalence of HTLV1,2 Virus Among Injection Drug Addicts in Isfahan, 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Farzaneh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV, is a member of the retroviridae family. Infection with this virus leads to adult T-cell leukemia (ATL and tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP. HTLV is endemic in Japan, parts of central Africa, Caribbean basin and Iran (Mashhad. Transmission routes of HTLV are believed to be from mother to child, especially during breastfeeding, sexual contact, and through blood transfusion or needle sharing. Considering the risk of HTLV infection among injection drug addicts, the authors evaluated the seroprevalence of HTLV1,2 infection among injection drug addicts in Isfahan Methods: This cross sectional study included a total of 150 injection drug users who were recruited at the drug abuse treatment clinic and the infectious diseases department of Alzahra university Hospital. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Epidemiologic data were recorded and their blood samples were tested for HBs Ag and antibodies against HTLV1,2, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis C (HCV by Elisa method . Results were analyzed by SPSS software version 13. Results: Seroprevalence of HTLV1,2, HBV(HBs Ag, HCV and HIV was 2.7%, 1.3% 23.3% and 2.7%, respectively. Some of the subjects were co infected with two viruses. One patient was infected with both HCV Ab and HBs Ag , while another was positive for HIV Ab plus HBs Ag . Three were co infected with HCV and HIV. Among those with HTLV1,2, only one was HCV Ab positive. Only in one person with HTLV1,2 Ab had a positive history of blood transfusion. Conclusion: This study shows that this virus is present in injection drug users community of Isfahan and can be a potential source for transmission. But proposal of screening of HTLV1,2 among injection drug users in Isfahan requires further investigations.

  10. Diabetes self-management education in South Auckland, New Zealand, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Martha; Clinton, Janet; Appleton, Sarah; Flanagan, Pat

    2011-03-01

    Self-management education programs seek to help patients realize that they are their own principal caregivers and that health care professionals are consultants who support them in this role. The aim of this study was to evaluate a diabetes self-management education program implemented as part of a district-wide approach in South Auckland, New Zealand, which has some of the highest prevalence rates for diabetes and is one of the most ethnically diverse and deprived regions of New Zealand. Self-management attitudes and behaviors were monitored with the use of questionnaires before and after program implementation. Clinical outcomes such as hemoglobin A1c, body mass index, and blood pressure were also tracked before the program began and 3 months after the program ended. Participant focus groups and facilitator interviews were conducted to explore perceptions of the program. Participants showed improvement in attitudes toward their own ability to manage their diabetes; in diet, physical activity, and foot care; and in hemoglobin A1c levels 3 months after the end of participation. Participants also reduced their sense of isolation when dealing with their diabetes. However, catering to the needs of a multiethnic community is extremely resource-intensive because of the need to provide adequate language and cultural interpretation. Self-management education can work in multiethnic, high-needs communities in New Zealand. Programs must ensure they enable the appropriate mechanisms and have appropriate resources to support the community's needs.

  11. Unemployment and inflation dynamics prior to the economic downturn of 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastello, Stephen J; Myers, Adam

    2009-10-01

    This article revisits a long-standing theoretical issue as to whether a "natural rate" of unemployment exists in the sense of an exogenously driven fixed-point Walrasian equilibrium or attractor, or whether more complex dynamics such as hysteresis or chaos characterize an endogenous dynamical process instead. The same questions are posed regarding a possible natural rate of inflation along with an investigation of the actual relationship between inflation and unemployment for which extent theories differ. Time series of unemployment and inflation for US data - were analyzed using the exponential model series and nonlinear regression for capturing Lyapunov exponents and transfer effects from other variables. The best explanation for unemployment was that it is a chaotic variable that is driven in part by inflation. The best explanation for inflation is that it is also a chaotic variable driven in part by unemployment and the prices of treasury bills. Estimates of attractors' epicenters were calculated in lieu of classical natural rates.

  12. CCD SPECKLE OBSERVATIONS OF BINARY STARS WITH THE WIYN TELESCOPE. VI. MEASURES DURING 2007-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horch, Elliott P.; Anderson, Lisa M.; DeSousa, Michael D.; Miniter, Craig M.; Ahmed, Tasmia; Falta, David; Van Altena, William F.

    2010-01-01

    Results of 974 speckle observations of 546 binary stars are presented. Observations were obtained at the WIYN 3.5 m Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory during the time interval from 2007 January to 2008 June. In all cases, the relative separation and position angle of the components are measured, and the magnitude difference is determined in 809 cases. The precision of the results as judged from repeat observations and objects with very well-determined orbits is similar to previous papers in this series, namely ∼3 mas in separation and <1 deg. in position angle in most cases. Similarly, the photometric precision remains consistent with previous WIYN speckle data, on average ∼0.1 mag per observation. Six systems of special interest are discussed.

  13. Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudel, Marc; Tucker, Strahan; Morris, John

    2009-03-09

    Historically, salmon stocks from the Columbia River and Snake River formed one of the most valuable fisheries on the west coast of North America. However, salmon and steelhead returns sharply declined during the 1980s and 1990s to reach nearly 1 million fish. Although several factors may be responsible for the decline of Columbia River salmon and steelhead, there is increasing evidence that these drastic declines were primarily attributable to persistently unfavorable ocean conditions. Hence, an understanding of the effects of ocean conditions on salmon production is required to forecast the return of salmon to the Columbia River basin and to assess the efficacy of mitigation measures such as flow regulation on salmon resources in this system. The Canadian Program on High Seas Salmon has been collecting juvenile salmon and oceanographic data off the west coast of British Columbia and Southeast Alaska since 1998 to assess the effects of ocean conditions on the distribution, migration, growth, and survival of Pacific salmon. Here, we present a summary of the work conducted as part of the Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study during the 2008 fiscal year and compare these results with those obtained from previous years. The working hypothesis of this research is that fast growth enhances the marine survival of salmon, either because fast growing fish quickly reach a size that is sufficient to successfully avoid predators, or because they accumulate enough energy reserves to better survive their first winter at sea, a period generally considered critical in the life cycle of salmon. Sea surface temperature decreased from FY05 to FY08, whereas, the summer biomass of phytoplankton increased steadily off the west coast of Vancouver Island from FY05 to FY08. As in FY07, zooplankton biomass was generally above average off the west coast of Vancouver Island in FY08. Interestingly, phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass were higher in FY08 than was expected from the observed nutrient concentration that year. This suggests nutrients were more effectively by phytoplankton in FY08. In addition, the abundance of lipid-rich northern copepods increased from FY05 to FY08, whereas lipid-poor southern copepods showed the opposite pattern, suggesting that growth conditions were more favorable to juvenile salmon in FY08 than in previous years. However, growth indices for juvenile coho salmon were near the 1998-2008 average, both off the west coast of Vancouver Island and Southeast Alaska, indicating that additional factors beside prey quality affect juvenile salmon growth in the marine environment. Catches of juvenile Chinook, sockeye and chum salmon off the west coast of Vancouver Island in June-July 2008 were the highest on record during summer since 1998, suggesting that early marine survival for the 2008 smolt year was high. Interestingly, the proportion of hatchery fish was high (80-100%) among the juvenile Columbia River Chinook salmon caught off the British Columbia coast during summer, suggest that relatively few wild Chinook salmon are produced in the Columbia River Chinook. In addition, we also recovered two coded-wire tagged juvenile Redfish Lake sockeye salmon in June 2008 off the west coast of British Columbia. As relatively few Redfish Lake sockeye smolts are tagged each year, this also suggests that early marine survival was high for these fish, and may result in a high return in 2009 if they mature at age three, or in 2010 if they mature at age four. To date, our research shows that different populations of Columbia River salmon move to different locations along the coastal zone where they establish their ocean feeding grounds and overwinter. We further show that ocean conditions experienced by juvenile Columbia River salmon vary among regions of the coast, with higher plankton productivity and temperatures off the west coast of Vancouver Island than in Southeast Alaska. Hence, different stocks of juvenile salmon originating from the Columbia River and Snake River are exposed to different ocean conditions and may respond differently to climate changes. In particular, our work shows that the growth and fat content of Chinook and coho salmon vary along different parts of the coast and among years. These growth differences appear to be associated with differences in prey quality rather than by a direct effect of temperature on salmon growth or prey quantity, indicating that changes in ocean conditions and circulation affect salmon production indirectly through changes in prey community composition and quality. Taken together, our analyses indicate that the relative survival of different stocks of salmon in the ocean will depend on where they migrate in the ocean, and that changes at the base of the food chain must be taken into consideration to understand the effects of ocean conditions on salmon growth, and hence, on salmon survival.

  14. 2007-2008 Annual Progress Report for BPA Grant Exp Restore Walla Walla River Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, Bob [WWBWC (Walla Walla Basin Watershed Council)

    2009-07-10

    WWBWC and its partners have been working on a wide variety of conservation and aquifer recharge related activities including: monitoring groundwater and surface water conditions, creating a geospatial database for the Walla Walla River valley (project focal area), expanding aquifer recharge testing at the HBDIC site and conducting an extensive outreach/education program by which to share the information, ideas and potential solutions to our current water management issues in this basin. This report is an outline of those activities and is accompanied by individual program-component (attached as appendices) reports for the areas that BPA is assisting to fund these on-the-ground projects along with the innovative research and monitoring being done to further aquifer recharge as a water management tool for the Pacific Northwest.

  15. Kootenai River Floodplain Ecosystem Operational Loss Assessment, Protection, Mitigation and Rehabilitation, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, Norm [Kootenai Tribe of Idaho

    2009-02-18

    The overarching goals of the 'Kootenai River Floodplain Ecosystem Operational Loss Assessment, Protection, Mitigation and Rehabilitation' Project (BPA Project No.2002-011-00) are to: (1) assess abiotic and biotic factors (i.e., geomorphologic, hydrological, aquatic and riparian/floodplain communities) in determining a definitive composition of ecological integrity, (2) develop strategies to assess and mitigate losses of ecosystem functions, and (3) produce a regional operational loss assessment framework. To produce a scientifically defensible, repeatable, and complete assessment tool, KTOI assembled a team of top scientists in the fields of hydrology, hydraulics, ornithology, entomology, statistics, and river ecology, among other expertise. This advisory team is known as the Research Design and Review Team (RDRT). The RDRT scientists drive the review, selection, and adaptive management of the research designs to evaluate the ecologic functions lost due to the operation of federal hydropower facilities. The unique nature of this project (scientific team, newest/best science, adaptive management, assessment of ecological functions, etc.) has been to work in a dynamic RDRT process. In addition to being multidisciplinary, this model KTOI project provides a stark contrast to the sometimes inflexible process (review, re-review, budgets, etc.) of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The project RDRT is assembled annually, with subgroups meeting as needed throughout the year to address project issues, analyses, review, and interpretation. Activities of RDRT coordinated and directed the selection of research and assessment methodologies appropriate for the Kootenai River Watershed and potential for regional application in the Columbia River Basin. The entire RDRT continues to meet annually to update and discuss project progress. RDRT Subcontractors work in smaller groups throughout the year to meet project objectives. Determining the extent to which ecological systems are experiencing anthropogenic disturbance and change in structure and function is critical for long term conservation of biotic diversity in the face of changing landscapes and land use. KTOI and the RDRT propose a concept based on incorporating hydrologic, aquatic, and terrestrial components into an operations-based assessment framework to assess ecological losses as shown in Figure E-1.

  16. The role of institutional investors in propagating the crisis of 2007-2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manconi, A.; Massa, M.; Yasuda, A.

    2012-01-01

    Using novel data on investors' bond portfolios, we study the contagion of the crisis from securitized bonds to corporate bonds. When securitized bonds became “toxic” in August 2007, mutual funds retained the now illiquid securitized bonds and sold corporate bonds. Funds with negative flows or high

  17. 78 FR 50113 - Distribution of 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 Cable Royalty Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, LM-401, 101 Independence Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20559- 6000... addressed to: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, LM-403, 101... categories of copyrightable content (movies, sports programming, music, etc.). For broadcast years 2006...

  18. Water Quality Trends in the Entiat River Subbasin: 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andy Bookter; Richard D. Woodsmith; Frank H. McCormick; Karl M. Polivka

    2009-01-01

    Production of high-quality water is a vitally important ecosystem service in the largely semiarid interior Columbia River basin (ICRB). Communities, tribal governments, and various agencies are concerned about maintenance of this water supply for domestic, agricultural, industrial, recreational, and ecosystem uses. Water quantity and...

  19. Core drilling of deep drillhole OL-KR47 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2007-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toropainen, V.

    2008-02-01

    As a part of the confirming site investigations for ONKALO rock characterisation facility, Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled 1008.76 m and 44.31 m deep drillholes with a diameter of 75.7 mm at Olkiluoto in October 2007 - January 2008. The identification numbers of the drillholes are OL-KR47 and OL-KR47B, respectively. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the returning and drilling waters were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and during drilling the computer recorded drilling parameters. The objective of all these measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The total volumes of the used drilling and flushing water were 1229 m 3 and 13.6 m 3 in drillholes OL-KR47 and OL-KR47B, respectively. Measured volume of the returning water in drillhole OL-KR47 was 1125 m 3 , water did not return in drillhole OL-KR47B. The deviation of the drillholes was measured with the deviation measuring instruments EMS and Maxibor II. Uniaxial compressive strength, Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio were measured from the core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength is 92.1 MPa, the average Young's Modulus is 32.5 GPa and the average Poisson's ratio is 0.33. The main rock types are diatexitic and veined gneisses, pegmatitic granite and tonaliticgranodioritic- granitic gneiss. The average fracture frequency is 2.2 pcs / m in drillhole OL-KR47 and 3.4 pcs / m in drillhole OL-KR47B. The average RQD values were 95.3 % and 94.1 %. In drillhole OL-KR47 46 fractured zones and in drillhole OL-KR47B two fractured zones were penetrated during drilling work. (orig.)

  20. Detecting early signs of the 2007-2008 crisis in the world trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracco, Fabio; di Clemente, Riccardo; Gabrielli, Andrea; Squartini, Tiziano

    2016-07-01

    Since 2007, several contributions have tried to identify early-warning signals of the financial crisis. However, the vast majority of analyses has focused on financial systems and little theoretical work has been done on the economic counterpart. In the present paper we fill this gap and employ the theoretical tools of network theory to shed light on the response of world trade to the financial crisis of 2007 and the economic recession of 2008-2009. We have explored the evolution of the bipartite World Trade Web (WTW) across the years 1995-2010, monitoring the behavior of the system both before and after 2007. Our analysis shows early structural changes in the WTW topology: since 2003, the WTW becomes increasingly compatible with the picture of a network where correlations between countries and products are progressively lost. Moreover, the WTW structural modification can be considered as concluded in 2010, after a seemingly stationary phase of three years. We have also refined our analysis by considering specific subsets of countries and products: the most statistically significant early-warning signals are provided by the most volatile macrosectors, especially when measured on developing countries, suggesting the emerging economies as being the most sensitive ones to the global economic cycles.

  1. Differential Phytotoxic Impact of Plant Mediated Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) and Silver Nitrate (AgNO3) on Brassica sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Kanchan; Shweta; Upadhyay, Neha; Singh, Jaspreet; Liu, Shiliang; Singh, Vijay P; Prasad, Sheo M; Chauhan, Devendra K; Tripathi, Durgesh K; Sharma, Shivesh

    2017-01-01

    Continuous formation and utilization of nanoparticles (NPs) have resulted into significant discharge of nanosized particles into the environment. NPs find applications in numerous products and agriculture sector, and gaining importance in recent years. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were biosynthesized from silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ) by green synthesis approach using Aloe vera extract. Mustard ( Brassica sp.) seedlings were grown hydroponically and toxicity of both AgNP and AgNO 3 (as ionic Ag + ) was assessed at various concentrations (1 and 3 mM) by analyzing shoot and root length, fresh mass, protein content, photosynthetic pigments and performance, cell viability, oxidative damage, DNA degradation and enzyme activities. The results revealed that both AgNPs and AgNO 3 declined growth of Brassica seedlings due to enhanced accumulation of AgNPs and AgNO 3 that subsequently caused severe inhibition in photosynthesis. Further, the results showed that both AgNPs and AgNO 3 induced oxidative stress as indicated by histochemical staining of superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide that was manifested in terms of DNA degradation and cell death. Activities of antioxidants, i.e., ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT) were inhibited by AgNPs and AgNO 3. Interestingly, damaging impact of AgNPs was lesser than AgNO 3 on Brassica seedlings which was due to lesser accumulation of AgNPs and better activities of APX and CAT, which resulted in lesser oxidative stress, DNA degradation and cell death. The results of the present study showed differential impact of AgNPs and AgNO 3 on Brassica seedlings, their mode of action, and reasons for their differential impact. The results of the present study could be implied in toxicological research for designing strategies to reduce adverse impact of AgNPs and AgNO 3 on crop plants.

  2. Differential Phytotoxic Impact of Plant Mediated Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs and Silver Nitrate (AgNO3 on Brassica sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchan Vishwakarma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Continuous formation and utilization of nanoparticles (NPs have resulted into significant discharge of nanosized particles into the environment. NPs find applications in numerous products and agriculture sector, and gaining importance in recent years. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs were biosynthesized from silver nitrate (AgNO3 by green synthesis approach using Aloe vera extract. Mustard (Brassica sp. seedlings were grown hydroponically and toxicity of both AgNP and AgNO3 (as ionic Ag+ was assessed at various concentrations (1 and 3 mM by analyzing shoot and root length, fresh mass, protein content, photosynthetic pigments and performance, cell viability, oxidative damage, DNA degradation and enzyme activities. The results revealed that both AgNPs and AgNO3 declined growth of Brassica seedlings due to enhanced accumulation of AgNPs and AgNO3 that subsequently caused severe inhibition in photosynthesis. Further, the results showed that both AgNPs and AgNO3 induced oxidative stress as indicated by histochemical staining of superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide that was manifested in terms of DNA degradation and cell death. Activities of antioxidants, i.e., ascorbate peroxidase (APX and catalase (CAT were inhibited by AgNPs and AgNO3. Interestingly, damaging impact of AgNPs was lesser than AgNO3 on Brassica seedlings which was due to lesser accumulation of AgNPs and better activities of APX and CAT, which resulted in lesser oxidative stress, DNA degradation and cell death. The results of the present study showed differential impact of AgNPs and AgNO3 on Brassica seedlings, their mode of action, and reasons for their differential impact. The results of the present study could be implied in toxicological research for designing strategies to reduce adverse impact of AgNPs and AgNO3 on crop plants.

  3. Fabrication of an electrochemical nanoaptasensor based on AuNPs for ultrasensitive determination of cocaine in serum sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushani, Mahmoud; Shahdost-fard, Faezeh

    2016-01-01

    Herein we describe an ultrasensitive electrochemical nanoaptasensor for the detection of one of the most dangerous narcotic drugs available, cocaine. The nanoaptasensor was constructed by the covalent attachment of a 5′-NH 2 -3′-gold nanoparticles terminated aptamer on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode which was deposited with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs/GCE). It is worth noting that the interaction of the cysteamine stable self-assembled monolayer on the AuNPs/GCE surface and the covalent attachment of terephthalaldehyde via amide coupling with the amine groups in the cysteamine and aptamer, respectively, resulted in the covalent attachment of the aptamer to AuNPs/GCE. The presence of gold nanoparticles both on surface of the glassy carbon electrode and in the end of the aptamer, can provide advantages such as increase of active surface area, high acceleration of the electron transfer and improved electrochemical signal, respectively. The decrease in the peak current of [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3−/4− as the probe redox with increase of cocaine concentration, in differential pulse voltammetry as the measuring technique, from 5 pM up to 5 nM was linear and an unprecedented detection limit of 0.5 pM was yielded. Furthermore, the effect of some common analgesic drugs as the potential interferents were investigated and also, to evaluate practical application of the proposed nanoaptasensor human blood serum sample as a real sample was used. Simple preparation, low operation cost, speed and validity are the decisive factors of this method motivating its application to biosensing investigation. - Highlights: • An electrochemical nanoaptasensor for the detection of cocaine is presented. • An AuNPs terminated aptamer was covalent bonded on the surface of the AuNPs/GCE. • The presence of AuNPs has many advantages and improved electrochemical signal. • Two linear ranges from 5 pM up to 5 nM and an unprecedented LOD of 0.5 pM were yielded. • It will shed light on new

  4. Fabrication of an electrochemical nanoaptasensor based on AuNPs for ultrasensitive determination of cocaine in serum sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roushani, Mahmoud, E-mail: mahmoudroushani@yahoo.com; Shahdost-fard, Faezeh

    2016-04-01

    Herein we describe an ultrasensitive electrochemical nanoaptasensor for the detection of one of the most dangerous narcotic drugs available, cocaine. The nanoaptasensor was constructed by the covalent attachment of a 5′-NH{sub 2}-3′-gold nanoparticles terminated aptamer on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode which was deposited with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs/GCE). It is worth noting that the interaction of the cysteamine stable self-assembled monolayer on the AuNPs/GCE surface and the covalent attachment of terephthalaldehyde via amide coupling with the amine groups in the cysteamine and aptamer, respectively, resulted in the covalent attachment of the aptamer to AuNPs/GCE. The presence of gold nanoparticles both on surface of the glassy carbon electrode and in the end of the aptamer, can provide advantages such as increase of active surface area, high acceleration of the electron transfer and improved electrochemical signal, respectively. The decrease in the peak current of [Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3−/4−} as the probe redox with increase of cocaine concentration, in differential pulse voltammetry as the measuring technique, from 5 pM up to 5 nM was linear and an unprecedented detection limit of 0.5 pM was yielded. Furthermore, the effect of some common analgesic drugs as the potential interferents were investigated and also, to evaluate practical application of the proposed nanoaptasensor human blood serum sample as a real sample was used. Simple preparation, low operation cost, speed and validity are the decisive factors of this method motivating its application to biosensing investigation. - Highlights: • An electrochemical nanoaptasensor for the detection of cocaine is presented. • An AuNPs terminated aptamer was covalent bonded on the surface of the AuNPs/GCE. • The presence of AuNPs has many advantages and improved electrochemical signal. • Two linear ranges from 5 pM up to 5 nM and an unprecedented LOD of 0.5 pM were yielded. • It will shed

  5. Dose-dependent effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs on fertility and survival of Drosophila: An in-vivo study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha Raj

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs containing consumer products have been proliferating in the market due to its unique antimicrobial property, however, lack of in-depth knowledge about their potential effect on human health in a longer run is of great concern. Therefore, we investigated dose-dependent in vivo effect of AgNPs using Drosophila as a model system. Drosophila, a genetically tractable organism with distinct developmental stages, short life cycle and significant homology with human serves as an ideal organism to study nanomaterial-mediated toxicity. Our studies suggest that ingestion of AgNPs in Drosophila during adult stage for short and long duration significantly affects egg laying capability along with impaired growth of ovary. Additionally, dietary intake of AgNPs from larval stage has more deleterious effects that result in reduced survival, longevity, ovary size and egg laying capability at a further lower dosage. Interestingly, the trans-generational effect of AgNPs was also observed without feeding progeny with AgNPs, thereby suggesting its impact from previous generation. Our results strongly imply that higher doses of AgNPs and its administration early during development is detrimental to the reproductive health and survival of Drosophila that follows in generations to come without feeding them to AgNPs.

  6. Significant promotion effect of carbon nanotubes on the electrocatalytic activity of supported Pd NPs for ethanol oxidation reaction of fuel cells: the role of inner tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Cheng, Yi; Lu, Shanfu; Jia, Lichao; Shen, Pei Kang; Jiang, San Ping

    2014-11-18

    The inner tubes of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a significant promotion effect on the electrocatalytic activity of Pd nanoparticles (NPs) for the ethanol oxidation of direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs) and Pd NPs supported on CNTs with 3-7 walls show a much higher activity as compared to that supported on typical single-walled and multi-walled CNTs.

  7. Development and characterisation of chitosan films impregnated with insulin loaded PEG-b-PLA nanoparticles (NPs): a potential approach for buccal delivery of macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovino, Concetta; Ayensu, Isaac; Tetteh, John; Boateng, Joshua S

    2012-05-30

    Mucoadhesive chitosan based films, incorporated with insulin loaded nanoparticles (NPs) made of poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether-block-polylactide (PEG-b-PLA) have been developed and characterised. Blank-NPs were prepared by double emulsion solvent evaporation technique with varying concentrations of the copolymer (5 and 10%, w/v). The optimised formulation was loaded with insulin (model protein) at initial loadings of 2, 5 and 10% with respect to copolymer weight. The developed NPs were analysed for size, size distribution, surface charge, morphology, encapsulation efficiency and drug release. NPs showing negative (ζ)-potential ( 300 nm and a polydispersity index (P.I.) of ≈ 0.2, irrespective of formulation process, were achieved. Insulin encapsulation efficiencies of 70% and 30% for NPs-Insulin-2 and NPs-Insulin-5 were obtained, respectively. The in vitro release behaviour of both formulations showed a classic biphasic sustained release of protein over 5 weeks which was influenced by pH of the release medium. Optimised chitosan films embedded with 3mg of insulin loaded NPs were produced by solvent casting with homogeneous distribution of NPs in the mucoadhesive matrix, which displayed excellent physico-mechanical properties. The drug delivery system has been designed as a novel platform for potential buccal delivery of macromolecules. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Piezoresistive Sensor with High Elasticity Based on 3D Hybrid Network of Sponge@CNTs@Ag NPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Liu, Nishuang; Shi, Yuling; Liu, Weijie; Yue, Yang; Wang, Siliang; Ma, Yanan; Wen, Li; Li, Luying; Long, Fei; Zou, Zhengguang; Gao, Yihua

    2016-08-31

    Pressure sensors with high elasticity are in great demand for the realization of intelligent sensing, but there is a need to develope a simple, inexpensive, and scalable method for the manufacture of the sensors. Here, we reported an efficient, simple, facile, and repeatable "dipping and coating" process to manufacture a piezoresistive sensor with high elasticity, based on homogeneous 3D hybrid network of carbon nanotubes@silver nanoparticles (CNTs@Ag NPs) anchored on a skeleton sponge. Highly elastic, sensitive, and wearable sensors are obtained using the porous structure of sponge and the synergy effect of CNTs/Ag NPs. Our sensor was also tested for over 2000 compression-release cycles, exhibiting excellent elasticity and cycling stability. Sensors with high performance and a simple fabrication process are promising devices for commercial production in various electronic devices, for example, sport performance monitoring and man-machine interfaces.

  9. Aggregation-based colorimetric sensor for determination of prothioconazole fungicide using colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivrigh, Zahra Jafar-Nezhad; Fahimi-Kashani, Nafiseh; Hormozi-Nezhad, M. Reza

    2017-12-01

    There is a growing interest in developing high-performance sensors monitoring fungicides, due to their broadly usage and their adverse effects on humans and wildlife. In the present study, a colorimetric probe has been proposed for detection of prothioconazole based on aggregation of unmodified silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Under optimized condition, linear relationships between the concentration of prothioconazole and the absorbance ratio of A500/A395 were found over the range of 0.01 μg·mL- 1 to 0.4 μg·mL- 1 with quantification limit as low as 1.7 ng·mL- 1. Furthermore, AgNPs color change from yellow to pink-orange in presence of prothioconazole, indicates highly sensitive naked-eye colorimetric assay for quantifying prothioconazole in real applications. The proposed approach was successfully used for the determination of prothioconazole in wheat flour and paddy water sample.

  10. Improved adhesion of Ag NPs to the polyethylene terephthalate surface via atmospheric plasma treatment and surface functionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tao; Liu, Yong; Zhu, Yan; Yang, De-Quan; Sacher, Edward

    2017-07-01

    Ag nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely applied, as important antibacterial materials, on textile and polymer surfaces. However, their adhesion to nonreactive polymer surfaces is generally too weak for many applications. Here, we propose a two-step process, atmospheric plasma treatment followed by a surface chemical modification process, which enhances their adhesion to polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surfaces. We found that, compared to either plasma treatments or surface chemical functionalizations, alone, this combination greatly enhanced their adhesion. The plasma treatment resulted in an increase of active sites (sbnd OH, sbnd CHdbnd O and COOH) at the PET surface, permitting increased bonding to 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), whose sbnd NH2 groups were then able to form a bonding complex with the Ag NPs.

  11. Investigation on the Effect of Addition of Fe3+ Ion into the Colloidal AgNPs in PVA Solution and Understanding Its Reaction Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roto Roto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of Fe3+ ion present in aqueous solutions is always of interests. Recently, this ion has been analyzed by colorimetric methods using colloid of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs in capping agents of polymers. The reaction mechanism between AgNPs and Fe3+ is still subject to the further investigation. In this work, 1,10-phenanthroline was used to probe the reaction mechanism between AgNPs and Fe3+ ion in the solution. The colloids of AgNPs were prepared in the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA solution and reacted with Fe3+. The colloid surface plasmon absorbance decreases linearly along with the increase in Fe3+ concentration. The addition of 1,10-phenanthroline to mixture changes the solution to red, indicating that the reaction produces Fe2+. This suggests that the reduction of the AgNPs absorbance is the result of oxidation of the Ag nanoparticles along with the reduction of Fe3+.

  12. MO-F-CAMPUS-J-04: One-Year Analysis of Elekta CBCT Image Quality Using NPS and MTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, S; Tachibana, M; Watanabe, Y

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To compare quantitative image quality (IQ) evaluation methods using Noise Power Spectrum (NPS) and Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) with standard IQ analyses for minimizing the observer subjectivity of the standard methods and maximizing the information content. Methods: For our routine IQ tests of Elekta XVI Cone-Beam CT, image noise was quantified by the standard deviation of CT number (CT#) (Sigma) over a small area in an IQ test phantom (CatPhan), and the high spatial resolution (HSR) was evaluated by the number of line-pairs (LP#) visually recognizable on the image. We also measured the image uniformity, the low contrast resolution ratio, and the distances of two points for geometrical accuracy. For this study, we did additional evaluation of the XVI data for 12 monthly IQ tests by using NPS for noise, MTF for HSR, and the CT#-to-density relationship. NPS was obtained by applying Fourier analysis in a small area on the uniformity test section of CatPhan. The MTF analysis was performed by applying the Droege-Morin (D-M) method to the line pairs on the phantom. The CT#-to-density was obtained for inserts in the low-contrast test section of the phantom. Results: All the quantities showed a noticeable change over the one-year period. Especially the noise level changed significantly after a repair of the imager. NPS was more sensitive to the IQ change than Sigma. MTF could provide more quantitative and objective evaluation of the HSR. The CT# was very different from the expected CT#; but, the CT#-to-density curves were constant within 5% except two months. Conclusion: Since the D-M method is easy to implement, we recommend using MTF instead of the LP# even for routine periodic QA. The month-to-month variation of IQ was not negligible; hence a routine IQ test must be performed, particularly after any modification of hardware including detector calibration

  13. MO-F-CAMPUS-J-04: One-Year Analysis of Elekta CBCT Image Quality Using NPS and MTF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahara, S; Tachibana, M [Hiroshima International University, Hiroshma, Hiroshima (Japan); Watanabe, Y [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To compare quantitative image quality (IQ) evaluation methods using Noise Power Spectrum (NPS) and Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) with standard IQ analyses for minimizing the observer subjectivity of the standard methods and maximizing the information content. Methods: For our routine IQ tests of Elekta XVI Cone-Beam CT, image noise was quantified by the standard deviation of CT number (CT#) (Sigma) over a small area in an IQ test phantom (CatPhan), and the high spatial resolution (HSR) was evaluated by the number of line-pairs (LP#) visually recognizable on the image. We also measured the image uniformity, the low contrast resolution ratio, and the distances of two points for geometrical accuracy. For this study, we did additional evaluation of the XVI data for 12 monthly IQ tests by using NPS for noise, MTF for HSR, and the CT#-to-density relationship. NPS was obtained by applying Fourier analysis in a small area on the uniformity test section of CatPhan. The MTF analysis was performed by applying the Droege-Morin (D-M) method to the line pairs on the phantom. The CT#-to-density was obtained for inserts in the low-contrast test section of the phantom. Results: All the quantities showed a noticeable change over the one-year period. Especially the noise level changed significantly after a repair of the imager. NPS was more sensitive to the IQ change than Sigma. MTF could provide more quantitative and objective evaluation of the HSR. The CT# was very different from the expected CT#; but, the CT#-to-density curves were constant within 5% except two months. Conclusion: Since the D-M method is easy to implement, we recommend using MTF instead of the LP# even for routine periodic QA. The month-to-month variation of IQ was not negligible; hence a routine IQ test must be performed, particularly after any modification of hardware including detector calibration.

  14. Enhanced corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of AZ31 Mg alloy using PCL/ZnO NPs via electrospinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jinwoo [Department of Bionanosystem Engineering, Graduate School, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Mousa, Hamouda M. [Department of Bionanosystem Engineering, Graduate School, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Engineering Materials and Mechanical Design, Faculty of Engineering, South Valley University, Qena 83523 (Egypt); Park, Chan Hee, E-mail: biochan@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Bionanosystem Engineering, Graduate School, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Division of Mechanical Design Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Cheol Sang, E-mail: chskim@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Bionanosystem Engineering, Graduate School, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Division of Mechanical Design Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • PCL/ZnO composite coating layer by electrospinning techniques showed the nano-scaled and porous surface structure. • Addition of zinc oxide NPs in the PCL fibers led to enhanced coating adhesion and corrosion resistance. • The composite coated surfaces on Mg substrates improved cell attachment and proliferation. - Abstract: In the efforts to improve corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of magnesium alloys, polycarprolactone (PCL) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) composite coatings were applied onto AZ31 Mg alloys via electrospinning technique in this study. The PCL/ZnO composite coatings on Mg alloys were characterized by using FE-SEM, EDX, XPS, and FT-IR. Moreover, coating adhesion test, electrochemical corrosion test, and biocompatibility test in vitro were performed to measure coating performance. Our results revealed that the increase in the content of ZnO NPs in the composite coatings not only improved the coating adhesion of composite coatings on Mg alloys, but also increased the corrosion resistance. Furthermore, the biocompatibility of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts of the PCL/ZnO composite coated samples was superior to the biocompatibility of the bare samples. Such data suggest that applying PCL/ZnO composite coating to the magnesium alloys has suitable potential in biomedical applications.

  15. Enhanced corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of AZ31 Mg alloy using PCL/ZnO NPs via electrospinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jinwoo; Mousa, Hamouda M.; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • PCL/ZnO composite coating layer by electrospinning techniques showed the nano-scaled and porous surface structure. • Addition of zinc oxide NPs in the PCL fibers led to enhanced coating adhesion and corrosion resistance. • The composite coated surfaces on Mg substrates improved cell attachment and proliferation. - Abstract: In the efforts to improve corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of magnesium alloys, polycarprolactone (PCL) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) composite coatings were applied onto AZ31 Mg alloys via electrospinning technique in this study. The PCL/ZnO composite coatings on Mg alloys were characterized by using FE-SEM, EDX, XPS, and FT-IR. Moreover, coating adhesion test, electrochemical corrosion test, and biocompatibility test in vitro were performed to measure coating performance. Our results revealed that the increase in the content of ZnO NPs in the composite coatings not only improved the coating adhesion of composite coatings on Mg alloys, but also increased the corrosion resistance. Furthermore, the biocompatibility of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts of the PCL/ZnO composite coated samples was superior to the biocompatibility of the bare samples. Such data suggest that applying PCL/ZnO composite coating to the magnesium alloys has suitable potential in biomedical applications.

  16. Pathway and mechanism of nitrogen transformation during composting: Functional enzymes and genes under different concentrations of PVP-AgNPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Guangming; Zhang, Lihua; Dong, Haoran; Chen, Yaoning; Zhang, Jiachao; Zhu, Yuan; Yuan, Yujie; Xie, Yankai; Fang, Wei

    2018-04-01

    Polyvinylpyrrolidone coated silver nanoparticles (PVP-AgNPs) were applied at different concentrations to reduce total nitrogen (TN) losses and the mechanisms of nitrogen bio-transformation were investigated in terms of the nitrogen functional enzymes and genes. Results showed that mineral N in pile 3 which was treated with AgNPs at a concentration of 10 mg/kg compost was the highest (6.58 g/kg dry weight (DW) compost) and the TN loss (47.07%) was the lowest at the end of composting. Correlation analysis indicated that TN loss was significantly correlated with amoA abundance. High throughput sequencing showed that the dominant family of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was Nitrosomonadaceae, and the number of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) reduced after the beginning of composting when compared with day 1. In summary, treatment with AgNPs at a concentration of 10 mg/kg compost was considerable to reduce TN losses and reserve more mineral N during composting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. AuNPs Hybrid Black ZnO Nanorods Made by a Sol-Gel Method for Highly Sensitive Humidity Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A highly sensitive self-powered humidity sensor has been realized from AuNPs hybrid black zinc oxide (ZnO nanorods prepared through a sol-gel method. XRD pattern reveals that both ZnO and ZnO/AuNPs exhibit a wurtzite structure. ZnO/AuNPs nanorods grow in a vertical alignment, which possesses high uniformity and forms dense arrays with a smaller diameter than that of ZnO nanoparticles. All ZnO/AuNPs and pure black ZnO show lower band gap energy than the typically reported 3.34 eV of pure ZnO. Furthermore, the band gap of ZnO/AuNPs nanocomposites is effectively influenced by the amount of AuNPs. The humidity sensing tests clearly prove that all the ZnO/AuNPs humidity sensors exhibit much higher response than that of ZnO sensors, and the sensitivity of such ZnO/AuNPs nanorods (6 mL AuNPs display a change three orders higher than that of pure ZnO with relative humidity (RH ranging from 11% to 95% at room temperature. The response and recovery time of the ZnO/AuNPs are 5.6 s and 32.4 s, respectively. This study of the construction of semiconductor/noble metal sensors provides a rational way to control the morphology of semiconductor nanomaterials and to design a humidity sensor with high performance.

  18. Dynamic equilibrium of endogenous selenium nanoparticles in selenite-exposed cancer cells: a deep insight into the interaction between endogenous SeNPs and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Peng; Chen, Song-Can; Xiao, Ke-Qing

    2015-12-01

    Elemental selenium (Se) was recently found to exist as endogenous nanoparticles (i.e., SeNPs) in selenite-exposed cancer cells. By sequestrating critical intracellular proteins, SeNPs appear capable of giving rise to multiple cytotoxicity mechanisms including inhibition of glycolysis, glycolysis-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction, microtubule depolymerization and inhibition of autophagy. In this work, we reveal a dynamic equilibrium of endogenous SeNP assembly and disassembly in selenite-exposed H157 cells. Endogenous SeNPs are observed both in the cytoplasm and in organelles. There is an increase in endogenous SeNPs between 24 h and 36 h, and a decrease between 36 h and 72 h according to transmission electron microscopy results and UV-Vis measurements. These observations imply that elemental Se in SeNPs could be oxidized back into selenite by scavenging superoxide radicals and ultimately re-reduced into selenide; then the assembly and disassembly of SeNPs proceed simultaneously with the sequestration and release of SeNP high-affinity proteins. There is also a possibility that the reduction of elemental Se to selenide pathway may lie in selenite-exposed cancer cells, which results in the assembly and disassembly of endogenous SeNPs. Genome-wide expression analysis results show that endogenous SeNPs significantly altered the expression of 504 genes, compared to the control. The endogenous SeNPs induced mitochondrial impairment and decreasing of the annexin A2 level can lead to inhibition of cancer cell invasion and migration. This dynamic flux of endogenous SeNPs amplifies their cytotoxic potential in cancer cells, thus provide a starting point to design more efficient intracellular self-assembling systems for overcoming multidrug resistance.

  19. SU-G-TeP3-15: Radiation Dose Enhancement by Anatase TiO2NPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youkhana, E; Geso, M; Feltis, B [RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: This work investigates radiation dose enhancement caused by TiO2 nanoparticles covering entire X-ray energy ranges used in radiation therapy. Methods: Anatase TiO2NPs crystal were synthesised and modified as hydrophilic and hydrophobic to disperse in culture-medium and halocarbons (PRESAGE chemical composition) respectively. TiO2NPs were characterised using TEM, XPS, XRD, TGA and FTIR. Various Concentrations have been utilised for determination of radiation-dose enhancement. This investigation is carried out in two ways; one using PRESAGE dosimeter/phantom and the other is radiobiological and based on in vitro study using two types of cell lines, Human Keratinocyte (HaCaT) and prostate cancer cell lines. The x-ray used are both kilovoltage and megavoltage separately. The prepared PRESAGE dosimeters were scanned using optical CT scanner. Clonogenic and MTS assays were employed for cell cytotoxicity and viability measurements for determination of the levels of dose enhancement. Results: Significant about (50%, 45%) dose enhancement by TiO2-NPs for kV x-rays is measured in both ways (Presage and Cells study). Slightly more is detected with the cells. However, the dose enhancement with megavoltage beams was insignificant using Presage and under same conditions the cells survival curves indicates around 20% which is relatively high. This difference can only be attributed to some biochemical effects. Such as generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), this can affect the cells while it can’t be detected by Presage. Elevation of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) of many orders is observed with the inclusion of TiO2-NPs in cells-medium. Conclusion: Dose enhancement inflicted by TiO2-NPs is proven to be significant with megavoltage beams and minimal with kV. The high dose enhancements obtained can be attributed to higher levels of ROS generated. Since MV beams are most commonly used, this research proves potential value for more efficient beam delivery. This has

  20. A comparative analysis of OTF, NPS, and DQE in energy integrating and photon counting digital x-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acciavatti, Raymond J.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: One of the benefits of photon counting (PC) detectors over energy integrating (EI) detectors is the absence of many additive noise sources, such as electronic noise and secondary quantum noise. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate that thresholding voltage gains to detect individual x rays actually generates an unexpected source of white noise in photon counters. Methods: To distinguish the two detector types, their point spread function (PSF) is interpreted differently. The PSF of the energy integrating detector is treated as a weighting function for counting x rays, while the PSF of the photon counting detector is interpreted as a probability. Although this model ignores some subtleties of real imaging systems, such as scatter and the energy-dependent amplification of secondary quanta in indirect-converting detectors, it is useful for demonstrating fundamental differences between the two detector types. From first principles, the optical transfer function (OTF) is calculated as the continuous Fourier transform of the PSF, the noise power spectra (NPS) is determined by the discrete space Fourier transform (DSFT) of the autocovariance of signal intensity, and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) is found from combined knowledge of the OTF and NPS. To illustrate the calculation of the transfer functions, the PSF is modeled as the convolution of a Gaussian with the product of rect functions. The Gaussian reflects the blurring of the x-ray converter, while the rect functions model the sampling of the detector. Results: The transfer functions are first calculated assuming outside noise sources such as electronic noise and secondary quantum noise are negligible. It is demonstrated that while OTF is the same for two detector types possessing an equivalent PSF, a frequency-independent (i.e., ''white'') difference in their NPS exists such that NPS PC ≥NPS EI and hence DQE PC ≤DQE EI . The necessary and sufficient condition for equality is that the PSF

  1. Fabrication of ITO-rGO/Ag NPs nanocomposite by two-step chronoamperometry electrodeposition and its characterization as SERS substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Rong [Chemistry and Chemical Engineering College, Chongqing University, Shapingba, Chongqing 400044 (China); Key Disciplines Lab of Novel Micro-Nano Devices and System Technology, and School of Optoelectronics Engineering, Chongqing University, Shapingba, Chongqing 400044 (China); Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University of Science & Engineering, Zigong, Sichuan 643000 (China); Xu, Yi [Chemistry and Chemical Engineering College, Chongqing University, Shapingba, Chongqing 400044 (China); Key Disciplines Lab of Novel Micro-Nano Devices and System Technology, and School of Optoelectronics Engineering, Chongqing University, Shapingba, Chongqing 400044 (China); Wang, Chunyan [Key Disciplines Lab of Novel Micro-Nano Devices and System Technology, and School of Optoelectronics Engineering, Chongqing University, Shapingba, Chongqing 400044 (China); School of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, Shapingba, Chongqing 400044 (China); Zhao, Huazhou; Wang, Renjie; Liao, Xin [Chemistry and Chemical Engineering College, Chongqing University, Shapingba, Chongqing 400044 (China); Key Disciplines Lab of Novel Micro-Nano Devices and System Technology, and School of Optoelectronics Engineering, Chongqing University, Shapingba, Chongqing 400044 (China); Chen, Li; Chen, Gang [Key Disciplines Lab of Novel Micro-Nano Devices and System Technology, and School of Optoelectronics Engineering, Chongqing University, Shapingba, Chongqing 400044 (China); School of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, Shapingba, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • A novel structure of ITO-rGO/Ag NPs substrate was developed for SERS application. • Two-step chronoamperometry deposition method was used to prepare SERS substrate. • The SERS substrate had high SERS activity, good uniformity and reproducibility. - Abstract: A novel composite structure of reduced graphene oxide (rGO)–Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) nanocomposite, which was integrated on the indium tin oxide (ITO) glass by a facile and rapid two-step chronoamperometry electrodeposition route, was proposed and developed in this paper. SERS-activity of the rGO/Ag NPs nanocomposite was mainly affected by the structure and size of the fabricated rGO/Ag NPs nanocomposite. In the experiments, the operational conditions of electrodeposition process were studied in details. The electrodeposited time was the important controllable factor, which decided the particle size and surface coverage of the deposited Ag NPs on ITO glass. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limit for rhodamine6G (R6G) was as low as 10{sup −11} M and the Raman enhancement factor was as large as 5.9 × 10{sup 8}, which was 24 times higher than that for the ITO–Ag NPs substrate. Apart from this higher enhancement effect, it was also illustrated that extremely good uniformity and reproducibility with low standard deviation could be obtained by the prepared ITO-rGO/Ag NPs nanocomposite for SRES detection.

  2. Fabrication of ITO-rGO/Ag NPs nanocomposite by two-step chronoamperometry electrodeposition and its characterization as SERS substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Rong; Xu, Yi; Wang, Chunyan; Zhao, Huazhou; Wang, Renjie; Liao, Xin; Chen, Li; Chen, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel structure of ITO-rGO/Ag NPs substrate was developed for SERS application. • Two-step chronoamperometry deposition method was used to prepare SERS substrate. • The SERS substrate had high SERS activity, good uniformity and reproducibility. - Abstract: A novel composite structure of reduced graphene oxide (rGO)–Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) nanocomposite, which was integrated on the indium tin oxide (ITO) glass by a facile and rapid two-step chronoamperometry electrodeposition route, was proposed and developed in this paper. SERS-activity of the rGO/Ag NPs nanocomposite was mainly affected by the structure and size of the fabricated rGO/Ag NPs nanocomposite. In the experiments, the operational conditions of electrodeposition process were studied in details. The electrodeposited time was the important controllable factor, which decided the particle size and surface coverage of the deposited Ag NPs on ITO glass. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limit for rhodamine6G (R6G) was as low as 10 −11 M and the Raman enhancement factor was as large as 5.9 × 10 8 , which was 24 times higher than that for the ITO–Ag NPs substrate. Apart from this higher enhancement effect, it was also illustrated that extremely good uniformity and reproducibility with low standard deviation could be obtained by the prepared ITO-rGO/Ag NPs nanocomposite for SRES detection

  3. An investigation on cytotoxic effect of bioactive AgNPs synthesized using Cassia fistula flower extract on breast cancer cell MCF-7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Remya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A single step protocol to produce biofunctionalized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using the aqueous extract of Cassia fistula flower as “natural factory” was investigated. The reaction between silver ions and aqueous flower extract after the bioreduction process has resulted in the formation of reddish brown color colloidal solution. XRD pattern showed the face centered cubic crystalline structure of AgNPs and exhibited spherical morphology as characterized by FE-SEM. FTIR studies identified different functional groups involved in effective capping of AgNPs. The zeta potential affirmed the phytoreduced AgNPs possess good stability and the size of the particle was measured by DLS. The synthesized AgNPs displayed effective cytotoxic potential against MCF7 and the inhibitory concentration (IC50 was recorded at 7.19 μg/mL. The apoptotic effects of the AgNPs were also confirmed by AO/EB staining. The investigation presents preliminary evidence that biosynthesized AgNPs can be used in the development of novel anticancer drugs.

  4. In situ detection of the Zn(2+) release process of ZnO NPs in tumour cells by confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenshuang; Tang, Xiaoling; Li, Yong; Sun, Yang; Kong, Jilie; Qingguang, Ren

    2016-08-01

    The use of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) for cancer is not yet clear for human clinical applications, which is primarily due to the lack of a better understanding of the action mechanisms and cellular consequences of the direct exposure of cells to these NPs. In this work, the authors have selected zinquin ethyl ester, a Zn(2+)-specific fluorescent molecular probe, to efficiently differentiate ZnO NPs and Zn(2+), and combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to in situ study the Zn(2+) release process of ZnO NPs in cancer cell system through detecting the change of Zn(2+) level over time. During the experiments, the authors have designed the test group ZnO-2 in addition to assess the influence of a long-term storage on the characteristics of ZnO NPs in aqueous solution, and the Zn(2+) release process of ZnO NPs in cancer cell system. After three-month storage at room temperature, the release process became earlier and faster, which was consistent with previous results of transmission electron microscope, UV-Vis and PL spectra. It is a good detection method that combination of Zn(2+)-specific fluorescent molecular probe and CLSM, which will be helpful for ZnO NPs using in clinical research.

  5. Synthesized zinc peroxide nanoparticles (ZnO2-NPs): a novel antimicrobial, anti-elastase, anti-keratinase, and anti-inflammatory approach toward polymicrobial burn wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sameh Samir; Morsy, Reda; El-Zawawy, Nessma Ahmed; Fareed, Mervat F; Bedaiwy, Mohamed Yaser

    2017-01-01

    Increasing of multidrug resistance (MDR) remains an intractable challenge for burn patients. Innovative nanomaterials are also in high demand for the development of new antimicrobial biomaterials that inevitably have opened new therapeutic horizons in medical approaches and lead to many efforts for synthesizing new metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) for better control of the MDR associated with the polymicrobial burn wounds. Recently, it seems that metal oxides can truly be considered as highly efficient inorganic agents with antimicrobial properties. In this study, zinc peroxide NPs (ZnO 2 -NPs) were synthesized using the co-precipitation method. Synthesized ZnO 2 -NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed infrared, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The characterization techniques revealed synthesis of the pure phase of non-agglomerated ZnO 2 -NPs having sizes in the range of 15-25 nm with a transition temperature of 211°C. Antimicrobial activity of ZnO 2 -NPs was determined against MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) and Aspergillus niger (AN) strains isolated from burn wound infections. Both strains, PA6 and AN4, were found to be more susceptible strains to ZnO 2 -NPs. In addition, a significant decrease in elastase and keratinase activities was recorded with increased concentrations of ZnO 2 -NPs until 200 µg/mL. ZnO 2 -NPs revealed a significant anti-inflammatory activity against PA6 and AN4 strains as demonstrated by membrane stabilization, albumin denaturation, and proteinase inhibition. Moreover, the results of in vivo histopathology assessment confirmed the potential role of ZnO 2 -NPs in the improvement of skin wound healing in the experimental animal models. Clearly, the synthesized ZnO 2 -NPs have demonstrated a competitive capability as antimicrobial, anti-elastase, anti-keratinase, and anti-inflammatory candidates, suggesting that the

  6. Safety evaluation of green synthesized Cola nitida pod, seed and seed shell extract-mediated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using an Allium cepa assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taofeek A. Yekeen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the use of nanoparticles in various fields of human endeavours calls for the need to understand the toxic potential of green synthesized nanoparticles. Cytogenotoxic potentials of green synthesized Cola pod (Cp-AgNPs, seed (Cs-AgNPs and seed shell (Css-AgNPs silver nanoparticles and silver nitrate salts (Ags were evaluated using an A. cepa assay. Twenty onion bulbs were exposed to 0.01, 0.10, 1.0, 10.0, and 100.0 μg/ml AgNPs and Ags solutions. Microscopic evaluation was performed at 24, 48 and 72 h with 5000 cells per concentration scored for chromosomal aberrations, while the effects on the root growth were evaluated at 72 h. The observed dividing cells and mitotic inhibition were dose-dependent for the three AgNPs and Ags at 24, 48 and 72 h. Mitotic index obtained for 1.0, 10 and 100 μg/mL at all times of evaluation were less than half the value of the negative control, while cell arrest was only observed at 72 h at a concentration of 100 μg/mL for the three AgNPs. The chromosomal aberrations observed were c-mitosis, a chromosome bridge, a vagrant chromosome, and a sticky chromosome, which indicate the potential of AgNPs for genotoxicity. The mean root length of A. cepa treated with AgNPs showed a dose-dependent significant decrease compared to the control, indicating their inhibitory potential, but the mean root lengths were found to be lower at all concentrations compared to those treated with Ags, thus showing the attenuation of growth inhibition. The EC50 values revealed the order of growth inhibition as Ags>Cp-AgNPs>Css-AgNPs>Cs-AgNPs. The cytogenotoxic potential of the AgNPs suggests that caution should be exercised in their usage to prevent environmental pollution. Keywords: Green synthesis, Nanoparticles, Silver, Aberration, Allium cepa, Cola nitida

  7. Effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) on the expression of mucin genes in human airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gui Ok; Choi, Yoon Seok; Bae, Chang Hoon; Song, Si-Youn; Kim, Yong-Dae

    2017-01-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 NPs) are utilized with growing frequency for a wide variety of industrial applications. Recently, acute and chronic exposures to TiO 2 NPs have been found to induce inflammatory response in the human respiratory tract. However, the effect and mechanism underlying the induction of major airway mucins by TiO 2 NPs have not been elucidated. This study was conducted to characterize the effect of TiO 2 NPs, and the mechanism involved, on the expressions of airway mucins in human airway epithelial cells. In NCI-H292 cells and primary cultures of normal nasal epithelial cells, the effects of TiO 2 NPs and signaling pathway for airway mucin genes were investigated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), real-time PCR, enzyme immunoassays and immunoblot analysis using several specific inhibitors and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). TiO 2 NPs increased MUC5B expression and activated the phosphorylations of extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). U0126 (an ERK1/2 MAPK inhibitor) and SB203580 (a p38 MAPK inhibitor) inhibited TiO 2 NPs-induced MUC5B expression. And knockdown of ERK1, ERK2 and p38 MAPK using siRNAs significantly blocked TiO 2 NPs-induced MUC5B mRNA expression. Furthermore, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mRNA expression was increased by TiO 2 NPs, and knockdown by TLR4 siRNA significantly attenuated TiO 2 NPs-induced MUC5B mRNA expression and the TiO 2 NPs-induced phosphorylations of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK. These results demonstrate for the first time that TiO 2 NPs induce MUC5B expression via TLR4-dependent ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways in respiratory epithelium.

  8. Investigation of the cytotoxic and antileishmanal effects of fagonia indica l. extract and extract mediated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, I.; Shinwari, Z. K.; Khalil, A. T.

    2017-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is one of the globally neglected tropical disease cause by protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania. In Pakistan, cutaneous leishmaniasis is more sporadic in the Afghan refugee camps, which is concern for the local villager and Pakistani population. In the current study an approache was made to synthesise biogenic silver nanoparticles using Fagonia indica leaf extract. Furthermore, the antileishmanial activity of the nanoparticles was evaluated compared to the crude extracts against Leishmania tropica which is the causative agent of cutenious leishmaniasis. MTT cell viability assay was used to determine the non toxicological concentration of the extract and nanoparticle in macrophage cell lines (J774), and the antileishmanial activity. We found that silver nanoparticles are not toxic to macropage cell above 30 μg/ml. where as the IC/sub 50/ against leishmania parsites was calculated as 8.16+-0.63 μg/ml and 4.8+-0.819 μg/ml for extract and AgNPs respectively. We also determine the infection index of the parasite in the macrophage cell. The infectivity of parasites also decreases as compared to control group after activation of macrophages. We further, evaluate the mechanism of growth inhibition using Griess reagent for the estimation of nitrogen oxide. We found that both the extract and AgNPs produce an elevated level of nitrogen oxide free radical. These radical produce oxidative stress in the cell that lead to the reduced metabolic activities of the parasites and ultimate death. Overall, the results indicate that Fagonia indica leves extract and AgNPs are potent antileishmanial agents. (author)

  9. ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) and their antifungal activity against coffee fungus Erythricium salmonicolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciniegas-Grijalba, P. A.; Patiño-Portela, M. C.; Mosquera-Sánchez, L. P.; Guerrero-Vargas, J. A.; Rodríguez-Páez, J. E.

    2017-06-01

    In this work, a methodology of synthesis was designed to obtain ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) in a controlled and reproducible manner. The nanoparticles obtained were characterized using infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Also, we determined the antifungal capacity in vitro of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized, examining their action on Erythricium salmonicolor fungy causal of pink disease. To determine the effect of the quantity of zinc precursor used during ZnO NPs synthesis on the antifungal capacity, 0.1 and 0.15 M concentrations of zinc acetate were examined. To study the inactivation of the mycelial growth of the fungus, different concentrations of ZnO NPs of the two types of synthesized samples were used. The inhibitory effect on the growth of the fungus was determined by measuring the growth area as a function of time. The morphological change was observed with high-resolution optical microscopy (HROM), while TEM was used to observe changes in its ultrastructure. The results showed that a concentration of 9 mmol L-1 for the sample obtained from the 0.15 M and at 12 mmol L-1 for the 0.1 M system significantly inhibited growth of E. salmonicolor. In the HROM images a deformation was observed in the growth pattern: notable thinning of the fibers of the hyphae and a clumping tendency. The TEM images showed a liquefaction of the cytoplasmic content, making it less electron-dense, with the presence of a number of vacuoles and significant detachment of the cell wall.

  10. Understanding the development of a regulated market approach to new psychoactive substances (NPS) in New Zealand using Punctuated Equilibrium Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychert, Marta; Wilkins, Chris

    2018-05-09

    The short-lived regulated legal market for new psychoactive substances (NPS) in New Zealand marked a radical departure from the traditional prohibition-based approach to drugs. This paper aimed to enhance understanding of this policy change using Punctuated Equilibrium Theory (PET). The analysis draws on 3 years of evaluative research, including interviews with key stakeholders, analysis of legislation and policy documents and academic and grey literature. The reframing of the NPS issue from one of drug control to the need for stricter market regulation was achieved by the efforts of strategic policy entrepreneurs, including the legal high industry, drug law reform advocates, influential politicians and an independent legal advisory institution. This reframing was aided by the perceived saliency of the NPS problem and ineffectiveness of previous prohibition-based responses. In the absence of any political opposition to the regulatory approach, the Psychoactive Substances Act rapidly progressed through the Parliament. However, once the interim legal market was established, portrayal of the issues shifted away from experts and lobbyists to critique from local communities, local government, animal rights activists and the media, who viewed the new regime as a source of social and health problems. The mobilization of criticism ('Schattschneider mobilization') drew on ideas of animal welfare and community safety. With a looming national election, the government responded by ending the interim market with the urgent passage of amendment legislation. Punctuated Equilibrium Theory (PET) helps explain how New Zealand's Psychoactive Substances Act (PSA) policy first emerged on the political agenda and how the initial positive tone of expert support for reform shifted to a tide of popular criticism during the interim regime. However, with its emphasis on explaining agenda-setting, PET does not account for the legislative design shortcomings of the PSA. © 2018 Society for

  11. Significantly improved efficiency of organic solar cells incorporating Co3O4 NPs in the active layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, S. Amber; Ikram, M.; Ali, S.

    2018-03-01

    Effect of various concentrations of fabricated cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nanoparticles (NPs) in the active layer of different donors and acceptors based hybrid organic bulk heterojunction-BHJ devices were investigated using inverted architecture. The organic active layer comprising different donors P3HT (poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) and PTB7 (Poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b] thiophenediyl

  12. Surveying Future Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstrom, John E.

    2016-06-01

    The now standard model of cosmology has been tested and refined by the analysis of increasingly sensitive, large astronomical surveys, especially with statistically significant millimeter-wave surveys of the cosmic microwave background and optical surveys of the distribution of galaxies. This talk will offer a glimpse of the future, which promises an acceleration of this trend with cosmological information coming from new surveys across the electromagnetic spectrum as well as particles and even gravitational waves.

  13. Bathymetry of NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (Inshore), St. John, US Virgin Islands 2005, 1M Grid, UTM 20 NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Grid with 1 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of an inshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument,...

  14. Bathymetry 2M Grid of NPS's Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Reserve, St. Croix, US Virgin Islands, 2005, UTM 20 NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Grid with 2 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of the a portion of the NPS's Salt River Bay National Historical Park and...

  15. Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA) with Industry as a Value Enhancing Asset in the Academic/Research Environment. A Case Study at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferraris, Guillermo L

    2005-01-01

    .... Although not technically a research laboratory, the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) is a federally funded research university that has developed an extensive sponsored program of Technology Transfer (T2...

  16. Cytotoxicity of ZnO NPs towards fresh water algae Scenedesmus obliquus at low exposure concentrations in UV-C, visible and dark conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhuvaneshwari, M.; Iswarya, V. [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore 632014 (India); Archanaa, S. [Department of Biotechnology, IIT Madras (India); Madhu, G.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, M.S. Ramaiah Institute of Technology, Bangalore (India); Kumar, G.K. Suraish [Department of Biotechnology, IIT Madras (India); Nagarajan, R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, IIT Madras (India); Chandrasekaran, N. [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore 632014 (India); Mukherjee, Amitava, E-mail: amit.mookerjea@gmail.com [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore 632014 (India)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • The cytotoxicity of ZnO NPs with two hydrodynamic sizes towards freshwater algae. • Size dependent toxicity under UV-C, dark and visible light conditions. • Cytotoxicity principally due to ZnO NPs not the released Zn{sup 2+} ions. • The internalization of ZnO NPs leads to membrane damage and ROS production. - Abstract: Continuous increase in the usage of ZnO nanoparticles in commercial products has exacerbated the risk of release of these particles into the aquatic environment with possible harmful effects on the biota. In the current study, cytotoxic effects of two types of ZnO nanoparticles, having different initial effective diameters in filtered and sterilized lake water medium [487.5 ± 2.55 nm for ZnO-1 NPs and 616.2 ± 38.5 nm for ZnO-2 NPs] were evaluated towards a dominant freshwater algal isolate Scenedesmus obliquus in UV-C, visible and dark conditions at three exposure concentrations: 0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/L. The toxic effects were found to be strongly dependent on the initial hydrodynamic particle size in the medium, the exposure concentrations and the irradiation conditions. The loss in viability, LDH release and ROS generation were significantly enhanced in the case of the smaller sized ZnO-1 NPs than in the case of ZnO-2 NPs under comparable test conditions. The toxicity of both types of ZnO NPs was considerably elevated under UV-C irradiation in comparison to that in dark and visible light conditions, the effects being more enhanced in case of ZnO-1 NPs. The size dependent dissolution of the ZnO NPs in the test medium and possible toxicity due to the released Zn{sup 2+} ions was also noted. The surface adsorption of the nanoparticles was substantiated by scanning electron microscopy. The internalization/uptake of the NPs by the algal cells was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and elemental analyses.

  17. Cytotoxicity of ZnO NPs towards fresh water algae Scenedesmus obliquus at low exposure concentrations in UV-C, visible and dark conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuvaneshwari, M.; Iswarya, V.; Archanaa, S.; Madhu, G.M.; Kumar, G.K. Suraish; Nagarajan, R.; Chandrasekaran, N.; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The cytotoxicity of ZnO NPs with two hydrodynamic sizes towards freshwater algae. • Size dependent toxicity under UV-C, dark and visible light conditions. • Cytotoxicity principally due to ZnO NPs not the released Zn 2+ ions. • The internalization of ZnO NPs leads to membrane damage and ROS production. - Abstract: Continuous increase in the usage of ZnO nanoparticles in commercial products has exacerbated the risk of release of these particles into the aquatic environment with possible harmful effects on the biota. In the current study, cytotoxic effects of two types of ZnO nanoparticles, having different initial effective diameters in filtered and sterilized lake water medium [487.5 ± 2.55 nm for ZnO-1 NPs and 616.2 ± 38.5 nm for ZnO-2 NPs] were evaluated towards a dominant freshwater algal isolate Scenedesmus obliquus in UV-C, visible and dark conditions at three exposure concentrations: 0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/L. The toxic effects were found to be strongly dependent on the initial hydrodynamic particle size in the medium, the exposure concentrations and the irradiation conditions. The loss in viability, LDH release and ROS generation were significantly enhanced in the case of the smaller sized ZnO-1 NPs than in the case of ZnO-2 NPs under comparable test conditions. The toxicity of both types of ZnO NPs was considerably elevated under UV-C irradiation in comparison to that in dark and visible light conditions, the effects being more enhanced in case of ZnO-1 NPs. The size dependent dissolution of the ZnO NPs in the test medium and possible toxicity due to the released Zn 2+ ions was also noted. The surface adsorption of the nanoparticles was substantiated by scanning electron microscopy. The internalization/uptake of the NPs by the algal cells was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and elemental analyses

  18. Neurite outgrowth stimulatory effects of myco synthesized AuNPs from Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr.) Pers. on pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Jegadeesh; Lakshmanan, Hariprasath; John, Priscilla A; Zhijian, Chan; Periasamy, Vengadesh; David, Pamela; Naidu, Murali; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2015-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus has been reported to have a wide range of medicinal properties such as stimulation of neurite outgrowth, promotion of functional recovery of axonotmetic peroneal nerve injury, antioxidant, antihypertensive, and antidiabetic properties. In recent years, the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has attracted intense interest due to the potential use in biomedical applications. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AuNPs from aqueous extract of H. erinaceus on neurite outgrowth of rat pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells. The formation of AuNPs was characterized by UV-visible spectrum, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), particle size distribution, and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Furthermore, the neurite extension study of synthesized AuNPs was evaluated by in vitro assay. The AuNPs exhibited maximum absorbance between 510 and 600 nm in UV-visible spectrum. FESEM and TEM images showed the existence of nanoparticles with sizes of 20-40 nm. FTIR measurements were carried out to identify the possible biomolecules responsible for capping and efficient stabilization of the nanoparticles. The purity and the crystalline properties were confirmed by EDX diffraction analysis, which showed strong signals with energy peaks in the range of 2-2.4 keV, indicating the existence of gold atoms. The synthesized AuNPs showed significant neurite extension on PC-12 cells. Nerve growth factor 50 ng/mL was used as a positive control. Treatment with different concentrations (nanograms) of AuNPs resulted in neuronal differentiation and neuronal elongation. AuNPs induced maximum neurite outgrowth of 13% at 600 ng/mL concentration. In this study, the AuNPs synthesis was achieved by a simple, low-cost, and rapid bioreduction approach. AuNPs were shown to have potential neuronal differentiation and stimulated neurite outgrowth. The water

  19. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro study of biocompatible cinnamaldehyde functionalized magnetite nanoparticles (CPGF Nps for hyperthermia and drug delivery applications in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirtee D Wani

    Full Text Available Cinnamaldehyde, the bioactive component of the spice cinnamon, and its derivatives have been shown to possess anti-cancer activity against various cancer cell lines. However, its hydrophobic nature invites attention for efficient drug delivery systems that would enhance the bioavailability of cinnamaldehyde without affecting its bioactivity. Here, we report the synthesis of stable aqueous suspension of cinnamaldehyde tagged Fe3O4 nanoparticles capped with glycine and pluronic polymer (CPGF NPs for their potential application in drug delivery and hyperthermia in breast cancer. The monodispersed superparamagnetic NPs had an average particulate size of ∼ 20 nm. TGA data revealed the drug payload of ∼ 18%. Compared to the free cinnamaldehyde, CPGF NPs reduced the viability of breast cancer cell lines, MCF7 and MDAMB231, at lower doses of cinnamaldehyde suggesting its increased bioavailability and in turn its therapeutic efficacy in the cells. Interestingly, the NPs were non-toxic to the non-cancerous HEK293 and MCF10A cell lines compared to the free cinnamaldehyde. The novelty of CPGF nanoparticulate system was that it could induce cytotoxicity in both ER/PR positive/Her2 negative (MCF7 and ER/PR negative/Her2 negative (MDAMB231 breast cancer cells, the latter being insensitive to most of the chemotherapeutic drugs. The NPs decreased the growth of the breast cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner and altered their migration through reduction in MMP-2 expression. CPGF NPs also decreased the expression of VEGF, an important oncomarker of tumor angiogenesis. They induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells through loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspase-3. Interestingly, upon exposure to the radiofrequency waves, the NPs heated up to 41.6 °C within 1 min, suggesting their promise as a magnetic hyperthermia agent. All these findings indicate that CPGF NPs prove to be potential nano-chemotherapeutic agents in breast cancer.

  20. Toxicity and trophic transfer of P25 TiO2 NPs from Dunaliella salina to Artemia salina: Effect of dietary and waterborne exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneshwari, M; Thiagarajan, Vignesh; Nemade, Prateek; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2018-01-01

    The recent increase in nanoparticle (P25 TiO 2 NPs) usage has led to concerns regarding their potential implications on environment and human health. The food chain is the central pathway for nanoparticle transfer from lower to high trophic level organisms. The current study relies on the investigation of toxicity and trophic transfer potential of TiO 2 NPs from marine algae Dunaliella salina to marine crustacean Artemia salina. Toxicity was measured in two different modes of exposure such as waterborne (exposure of TiO 2 NPs to Artemia) and dietary exposure (NP-accumulated algal cells are used to feed the Artemia). The toxicity and accumulation of TiO 2 NPs in marine algae D. salina were also studied. Artemia was found to be more sensitive to TiO 2 NPs (48h LC 50 of 4.21mgL -1 ) as compared to marine algae, D. salina (48h LC 50 of 11.35mgL -1 ). The toxicity, uptake, and accumulation of TiO 2 NPs were observed to be more in waterborne exposure as compared to dietary exposure. Waterborne exposure seemed to cause higher ROS production and antioxidant enzyme (SOD and CAT) activity as compared to dietary exposure of TiO 2 NPs in Artemia. There were no observed biomagnification (BMF) and trophic transfer from algae to Artemia through dietary exposure. Histopathological studies confirmed the morphological and internal damages in Artemia. This study reiterates the possible effects of the different modes of exposure on trophic transfer potential of TiO 2 NPs and eventually the consequences on aquatic environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of reducibility of graphene oxide nanosheets on preparation of AgNPs/GO nanocomposites and their electrocatalytic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou, Yanpeng; Peng, Junjun, E-mail: john-peng@whu.edu.cn; Li, Wei; Li, Ming; Liu, Huihong; Zhang, Hanmin [Wuhan Textile University, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2015-12-15

    Silver nanoparticles/graphene oxide (AgNPs/GO) nanocomposites were prepared in a solution of AgNO{sub 3} and GO. The GO serves not only as a reductant but also as a substrate to support the as-reduced silver nanoparticles. The reducibility of GO was investigated by analyzing the influence factors such as pH, duration, the reaction temperature, and the weight ratio of AgNO{sub 3} and GO in the AgNP/GO nanocomposite mixture, which were evaluated by the UV–vis absorption spectroscopy. The results demonstrated that Ag nanoparticles with an average diameter of 5–10 nm were uniformly dispersed on the surface of GO nanosheets under the optimum synthesis conditions of pH between 8 and 11, weight ratio of AgNO{sub 3} and GO between 55 % and 60 %, and at 80 °C for 6 h. Moreover, the obtained AgNPs/GO nanocomposites exhibit good electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of p-nitrophenol to 4-(hydroxyamino) phenol.

  2. Preparation and characterization of AuNPs/CNTs-ErGO electrochemical sensors for highly sensitive detection of hydrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenting; Sun, Yongjiao; Li, Pengwei; Zhang, Wendong; Lian, Kun; Hu, Jie; Chen, Yong

    2016-09-01

    A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor of hydrazine has been fabricated by Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) coating of carbon nanotubes-electrochemical reduced graphene oxide composite film (CNTs-ErGO) on glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Cyclic voltammetry and potential amperometry have been used to investigate the electrochemical properties of the fabricated sensors for hydrazine detection. The performances of the sensors were optimized by varying the CNTs to ErGO ratio and the quantity of Au nanoparticles. The results show that under optimal conditions, a sensitivity of 9.73μAμM(-1)cm(-2), a short response time of 3s, and a low detection limit of 0.065μM could be achieved with a linear concentration response range from 0.3μM to 319μM. The enhanced electrochemical performances could be attributed to the synergistic effect between AuNPs and CNTs-ErGO film and the outstanding catalytic effect of the Au nanoparticles. Finally, the sensor was successfully used to analyse the tap water, showing high potential for practical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Amperometric Immunosensor for Carbofuran Detection Based on MWCNTs/GS-PEI-Au and AuNPs-Antibody Conjugate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyou Wang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an amperometric immunosensor for the detection of carbofuran was developed. Firstly, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs and graphene sheets-ethyleneimine polymer-Au (GS-PEI-Au nanocomposites were modified onto the surface of a glass carbon electrode (GCE via self-assembly. The nanocomposites can increase the surface area of the GCE to capture a large amount of antibody, as well as produce a synergistic effect in the electrochemical performance. Then the modified electrode was coated with gold nanoparticles-antibody conjugate (AuNPs-Ab and blocked with BSA. The monoclonal antibody against carbofuran was covalently immobilized on the AuNPs with glutathione as a spacer arm. The morphologies of the GS-PEI-Au nanocomposites and the fabrication process of the immunosensor were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, respectively. Under optimal conditions, the immunosensor showed a wide linear range, from 0.5 to 500 ng/mL, with a detection limit of 0.03 ng/mL (S/N = 3. The as-constructed immunosensor exhibited notable performance features such as high specificity, good reproducibility, acceptable stability and regeneration performance. The results are mainly due to the excellent properties of MWCNTs, GS-PEI-Au nanocomposites and the covalent immobilization of Ab with free hapten binding sites for further immunoreaction. It provides a new avenue for amperometric immunosensor fabrication.

  4. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a contrast agent for imaging of animal tissue using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Indranil; Raj, Shipra; Roy, Poulomi; Poddar, Raju

    2018-01-01

    We present noninvasive three-dimensional depth-resolved imaging of animal tissue with a swept-source optical coherence tomography system at 1064 nm center wavelength and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a potential contrast agent. A swept-source laser light source is used to enable an imaging rate of 100 kHz (100 000 A-scans s-1). Swept-source optical coherence tomography is a new variant of the optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique, offering unique advantages in terms of sensitivity, reduction of motion artifacts, etc. To enhance the contrast of an OCT image, AgNPs are utilized as an exogeneous contrast agent. AgNPs are synthesized using a modified Tollens method and characterization is done by UV-vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. In vitro imaging of chicken breast tissue, with and without the application of AgNPs, is performed. The effect of AgNPs is studied with different exposure times. A mathematical model is also built to calculate changes in the local scattering coefficient of tissue from OCT images. A quantitative estimation of scattering coefficient and contrast is performed for tissues with and without application of AgNPs. Significant improvement in contrast and increase in scattering coefficient with time is observed.

  5. Biogenic SeNPs from Bacillus mycoides SelTE01 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SelTE02: Characterization with reference to their associated organic coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacenza, Elena; Bulgarini, Alessandra; Lampis, Silvia; Vallini, Giovanni; Turner, Raymond J.

    2017-08-01

    The exploitation of biological systems (i.e. plants, fungi and bacteria) for the production of nanomaterials relies on their ability to bioconvert toxic metal(loid) ions into their less toxic and bioavailable elemental states forming mainly nanoparticles (NPs) or nanorods (NRs). Further, these methods of nanomaterial production are nowadays recognized as eco-friendly alternatives to the chemical synthesis processes. A common feature among the so-called biogenic nanomaterials is the presence of an organic layer surrounding them. However, we are just learning the existing relation between biogenic nanostructures and their organic material. Our work is focused on the study of bacterial strains for the production of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) as end product of selenite (SeO32 -) bioconversion. In this context, our previous reports described the ability of two bacteria, namely Bacillus mycoides SelTE01 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SelTE02, to generate SeNPs, which were surrounded by organic material. Here, the potential role of this organic material as stabilizing agent of SeNPs was investigated altering both the bacteria cells culturing and the SeNPs extraction procedure, in order to understand the interaction between these two elements in suspension. As a result, SeNPs produced by both bacterial strains showed the tendency to aggregate when subjected to the treatments tested, suggesting an involvement of the surrounding organic material in their stabilization in suspension.

  6. Climate Change Education in Protected Areas: Highlights from the Earth to Sky NASA-NPS-USFWS Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A.; Morris, J.; Paglierani, R.

    2009-12-01

    National Parks, Hatcheries, Refuges, and other protected lands provide ideal settings for communicating the immediate and obvious effects of climate change, from rapidly melting glaciers, increased intensity and length of fire seasons, to flooding of archeological and historical treasures. Our nation's protected areas demonstrate clearly that climate change is happening now, and the impacts are affecting us all. Highlights of interpretive, educational and informational products presented in these sites, and developed through the Earth to Sky (ETS) partnership are described. The visiting public in our nation's parks, refuges, cultural sites and other protected lands wants to learn more about climate change, and is asking questions—often, complex questions. A broad array of educational programs and media are delivered in these unique settings, to diverse audiences. To be good "honest brokers" of the best information, staff needs access to accurate, up-to-date data, descriptions, analysis, and imagery that make the issues understandable. Pairing real world experiences of climate effects such as glacial retreat or beetle infestations, with NASA’s unique planetary perspective provides opportunities to link local, regional, and global effects in the minds and hearts of the public and students. The perspective afforded by such linkages can create powerful and long lasting impressions, and will likely provoke further learning about this topic. About Earth to Sky Earth to Sky is a partnership between NASA's Space and Earth Science disciplines, the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and the National Park Service (NPS). The partnership actively fosters collaborative work between the science and interpretation/education communities of NPS, USFWS, and NASA, centering around a series of professional development workshops aimed at informal educators. The workshops weave NASA content with NPS and USFWS interpretation and environmental education methodology, and use best

  7. Eczema Is Associated with Childhood Speech Disorder: A Retrospective Analysis from the National Survey of Children's Health and the National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Mark A; Silverberg, Jonathan I

    2016-01-01

    To determine if eczema is associated with an increased risk of a speech disorder. We analyzed data on 354,416 children and adolescents from 19 US population-based cohorts: the 2003-2004 and 2007-2008 National Survey of Children's Health and 1997-2013 National Health Interview Survey, each prospective, questionnaire-based cohorts. In multivariate survey logistic regression models adjusting for sociodemographics and comorbid allergic disease, eczema was significantly associated with higher odds of speech disorder in 12 of 19 cohorts (P speech disorder in children with eczema was 4.7% (95% CI 4.5%-5.0%) compared with 2.2% (95% CI 2.2%-2.3%) in children without eczema. In pooled multivariate analysis, eczema was associated with increased odds of speech disorder (aOR [95% CI] 1.81 [1.57-2.05], P speech disorder. History of eczema was associated with moderate (2.35 [1.34-4.10], P = .003) and severe (2.28 [1.11-4.72], P = .03) speech disorder. Finally, significant interactions were found, such that children with both eczema and attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity or sleep disturbance had vastly increased risk of speech disorders than either by itself. Pediatric eczema may be associated with increased risk of speech disorder. Further, prospective studies are needed to characterize the exact nature of this association. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Amplified amperometric aptasensor for selective detection of protein using catalase-functional DNA-PtNPs dendrimer as a synergetic signal amplification label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Yuan, Yali; biXie, Shun; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Ruo

    2014-10-15

    In this work, we present a new strategy to construct an electrochemical aptasensor for sensitive detection of platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) based on the synergetic amplification of a three-dimensional (3D) nanoscale catalase (CAT) enzyme-functional DNA-platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) dendrimer through autonomous layer-by-layer assembly. Firstly, polyamidoaminedendrimer (PAMAM) with a hyper-branched and three-dimensional structure was served as nanocarriers to coimmobilize a large number of PDGF-BB binding aptamer (PBA II) and ssDNA 1 (S1) to form PBA II-PAMAM-S1 bioconjugate. In the presence of PDGF-BB, the bioconjugate was self-assembled on the electrode by sandwich assay. Following that, the carried S1 propagated a chain reaction of hybridization events between CAT-PtNPs-S1 and CAT-PtNPs-ssDNA 2 (S2) to form a 3D nanoscale CAT-functional PtNPs-DNA dendrimer, which successfully immobilized substantial CAT enzyme and PtNPs with superior catalysis activity. In this process, the formed negatively charged double-helix DNA could cause the intercalation of hexaammineruthenium(III) chloride (RuHex) into the groove via electrostatic interactions. Thus, numerous RuHex redox probes and CAT were decorated inside/outside of the dendrimer. In the presence of H2O2 in electrolytic cell, the synergistic reaction of CAT and PtNPs towards electrocatalysis could further amplify electrochemical signal. Under optimal condition, the CAT-PtNPs-DNA dendrimer-based sensing system presented a linear dependence between the reduction peak currents and logarithm of PDGF-BB concentrations in the range of 0.00005-35 nM with a relatively low detection limit of 0.02 pM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. First data on canids depredation on livestock in an area of recent recolonization by wolf in central Italy : considerations on conflict survey and prevention methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magrini Caterina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Wolf and dog depredation on livestock in the province of Rieti, central Italy, in 2007-2008, was studied. The study area was characterized by a high degree of human disturbance, widespread presence of free ranging dogs and a recent wolf recolonization. Because of the ineffectiveness of compensation programmes, it was not possible to use the official statistics to investigate the extent of the conflict, but sample interviews and surveys of farmers were used. Also, the farming protection tecniques adopted for different livestock species were analysed; the most utilized husbandry method was stabling for cattle and pigs, annual fenced grazing for horses and sheeps, and annual open grazing only for goats. Although sheep farms were the most attacked because of their availability (33.6% of the whole farms, goat farms were the most selected by predators because of their accessibility (40% of farms kept goats in annual open grazing. Management implications to mitigate livestock depredation were discussed.

  10. Dynamics of health status of residents in the Lugyny district after the accident at the ChNPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godlevsky, I.; Nasvit, O.

    1998-01-01

    The Lugyny district lies in the northern part of the Zhytomyr region of Ukraine within 110-150 km from the Chernobyl nuclear power station (ChNPS). Its territory is crossed by the southern and south-western tracks that were formed by the Chernobyl accident in April 1986. The total territory of the district constitutes approximately 900 km 2 , the territory of agricultural land - more than 300 km 2 , and about 190 km 2 of them arable land. Practically all agricultural land in the district have the 137 Cs contamination density higher than 1 Ci/km 2 . Prior to the Chernobyl accident about 30 thousand residents were living in the Lugyny district. By the present moment the population of the district has dropped to approximately 22 thousand people due to resettlement from the most contaminated territories and the decrease in the birth-rate. (J.P.N.)

  11. Fallout and drinking water contamination by I-131 and Cs-134, 137 in Japan, from the Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelecom, Alphonse; Miyashita, Erika; Kelecom, Patrick Vicent

    2011-01-01

    The earthquake followed by a tsunami in Japan, on last March 11, seriously damaged four of the six reactors of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station (NPS). Radioactive smokes and highly contaminated water were released for weeks to the environment. Since March 12, when the plant operator TEPCO and Japan's nuclear agency (NISA) confirmed the presence of radionuclides near the NPS, a giant environmental monitoring operation was set up, covering the entire Japanese territory. Daily thousands measurements are realized. We here analyze data released during 60 days on I-131 and Cs-134,137 radioactive concentrations in drinking water and fallout for 45 prefectures. Miyagi and Fukushima, that requires a separate study, are not considered here. Drinking water contamination by I-131 was observed in 13 prefectures, including Tokyo. The most impacted one was Tochigi (maximum of 110 Bq/l, March 24). This value turned water not drinkable for infants and babies. Cs-137 was detected in drinking water in 8 prefectures, with a maximum level of 18 Bq/l in Ibaraki. These levels do not affect potability of tap water. I-131 was observed in fallout in 27 prefectures, with level reaching 93 kBq/m2 in Ibaraki and 36 kBq/m 2 in Tokyo on March 21 and 23 respectively. Fallout of Cs-137 was observed in 19 prefectures. The maximum deposition occurred again in Ibaraki (13kBq/m 2 , March 21) and in Tokyo (5.3 kBq/m2, March 22). Since mid April, only trace contamination has been observed for both radionuclides in drinking water. Sporadically medium levels of Cs-137 are still observed in fallout. (author)

  12. Fallout and drinking water contamination by I-131 and Cs-134, 137 in Japan, from the Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelecom, Alphonse; Miyashita, Erika; Kelecom, Patrick Vicent [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The earthquake followed by a tsunami in Japan, on last March 11, seriously damaged four of the six reactors of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station (NPS). Radioactive smokes and highly contaminated water were released for weeks to the environment. Since March 12, when the plant operator TEPCO and Japan's nuclear agency (NISA) confirmed the presence of radionuclides near the NPS, a giant environmental monitoring operation was set up, covering the entire Japanese territory. Daily thousands measurements are realized. We here analyze data released during 60 days on I-131 and Cs-134,137 radioactive concentrations in drinking water and fallout for 45 prefectures. Miyagi and Fukushima, that requires a separate study, are not considered here. Drinking water contamination by I-131 was observed in 13 prefectures, including Tokyo. The most impacted one was Tochigi (maximum of 110 Bq/l, March 24). This value turned water not drinkable for infants and babies. Cs-137 was detected in drinking water in 8 prefectures, with a maximum level of 18 Bq/l in Ibaraki. These levels do not affect potability of tap water. I-131 was observed in fallout in 27 prefectures, with level reaching 93 kBq/m2 in Ibaraki and 36 kBq/m{sup 2} in Tokyo on March 21 and 23 respectively. Fallout of Cs-137 was observed in 19 prefectures. The maximum deposition occurred again in Ibaraki (13kBq/m{sup 2}, March 21) and in Tokyo (5.3 kBq/m2, March 22). Since mid April, only trace contamination has been observed for both radionuclides in drinking water. Sporadically medium levels of Cs-137 are still observed in fallout. (author)

  13. [Evaluation of asthma management from the surveys in 30 provinces of China in 2015-2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W Q; Lin, J T; Zhou, X; Wang, C Z; Huang, M; Cai, S X; Chen, P; Lin, Q C; Zhou, J Y; Gu, Y H; Yuan, Y D; Sun, D J; Yang, X H; Yang, L; Huo, J M; Chen, Z C; Jiang, P; Zhang, J; Ye, X W; Liu, H G; Tang, H P; Liu, R Y; Liu, C T; Zhang, W; Hu, C P; Chen, Y Q; Liu, X J; Dai, L M; Zhou, W; Huang, Y J; Xu, J Y

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the general level of asthma management in urban areas of China and further promote the national asthma management plan. Methods: A multi-center, cross-sectional survey was carried out in 30 provinces of China (except for Tibet) during Oct 2015 to May 2016. It's a questionnaire-based face-to-face survey which included asthma management using peak flow meter (PFM) and pulmonary function test, medication choice of maintenance therapy and asthma education. Results: A total of 3 875 asthmatic outpatients were recruited including 2 347(60.6%) females and 1 528(39.4%) males. The mean age was (50.7±16.7) years ranging from 14 to 99. Only 10.1%(388/3 837) patients used PFM as monitoring, whereas 62.1%(2 405/3 874) patients underwent pulmonary function test during the past year. There were 57.4%(2 226/3 875) patients treated with inhaled cortical steroid plus long-acting β(2)-agonist combinations (ICS+LABA) as daily medication. 43.3%(1 661/3 836) patients were followed up by physicians. Among this population, 1 362 asthmatic outpatients were recruited, who also took part in the asthma control survey in 2007-2008 in 10 cities. In this subgroup, 17.9%(244/1 360) were tested by PFM and 66.6%(907/1 362) by pulmonary function test during last year. As to the medication, 63.1%(860/1 362) selected ICS+LABA for daily control. There were 50.4%(685/1 359) patients in the follow-up cohort by physicians. Compared to the similar survey conducted in 2007-2008, the proportion of patients with ICS+LABA regimen and follow-up by physicians were markedly higher, while the rate of PFM use did not have significant improvement. Conclusion: Although the present level of asthma management in China is still far from ideal, asthma management has improved compared to 8 years ago. Yet the use of PFM does not significantly improve. Asthma action plan and application of PFM should be further promoted to improve the level of asthma management.

  14. Selective colorimetric sensors based on the monitoring of an unmodified silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) reduction for a simple and rapid determination of mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarujamrus, Purim; Amatatongchai, Maliwan; Thima, Araya; Khongrangdee, Thatsanee; Mongkontong, Chakrit

    2015-05-01

    In this work, selective colorimetric sensors for simple and rapid detection of Hg(II) ions based on the monitoring of an unmodified silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) reduction were developed. The average diameter of synthesized AgNPs was 8.3 ± 1.4 nm which was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The abrupt change in absorbance of the unmodified AgNPs was observed which progressively decreased and slightly shifted to the blue wavelength as the concentration of Hg(II) increased, indicating the oxidation of Ag(0) to Ag(I) occurred. It appears that the AgNPs were oxidized by Hg(II), resulting in disintegration of the AgNPs into smaller particles as well as mediating the reduction of Hg(II) to Hg(0) adsorbed onto the surface of AgNPs. The adsorption of Hg(0) resulted in the lack of sufficient charges on AgNPs surfaces due to the decrease in the surface coverage of negatively charged citrate molecules, which then leaded to enlargement of AgNPs. The calibration curve of this technique was demonstrated from 0.5 to 7 ppm (r2 = 0.995), the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.06 ppm (SDblank/slope of calibration curve) with the precision (RSD, n = 4) of 3.24-4.53. Interestingly, the results show a significant enhance in the Hg(II) analytical sensitivity when Cu(II) is doped onto the unmodified AgNPs, which improves the quantitative detection limit to 0.008 ppm. In addition, greater selectivity toward Hg(II) compared with the other metal ions tested was observed. Furthermore, the percentage recoveries of spiked drinking water, tap water and SRM1641d (mercury in water) were in acceptable range with a good precision (RSD) which were in agreement with the values obtained from graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (GFAAS). The technique proposed in this study provides a rapid, simple, sensitive and selective detection method for Hg(II) in water samples.

  15. Enhancement of TiO2 NPs Activity by Fe3O4 Nano-Seeds for Removal of Organic Pollutants in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Villa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The enhancement of the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs, synthesized in the presence of a very small amount of magnetite (Fe3O4 nanoparticles, is here presented and discussed. From X-ray diffraction (XRD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analyses, the crystallinity of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs seems to be affected by Fe3O4, acting as nano-seeds to improve the tetragonal TiO2 anatase structure with respect to the amorphous one. Photocatalytic activity data, i.e., the degradation of methylene blue and the Ofloxacin fluoroquinolone emerging pollutant, give evidence that the increased crystalline structure of the NPs, even if correlated to a reduced surface to mass ratio (with respect to commercial TiO2 NPs, enhances the performance of this type of catalyst. The achievement of a relatively well-defined crystal structure at low temperatures (Tmax = 150 °C, preventing the sintering of the TiO2 NPs and, thus, preserving the high density of active sites, seems to be the keystone to understand the obtained results.

  16. Coupling a universal DNA circuit with graphene sheets/polyaniline/AuNPs nanocomposites for the detection of BCR/ABL fusion gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xueping [Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medical Diagnostics of Education, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Wang, Li [Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medical Diagnostics of Education, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Department of Medical Laboratory, Chongqing Emergency Medical Center (Chongqing The Fourth Hospital), Chongqing, 400016 (China); Sheng, Shangchun [The No.2 Peoples' Hospital of Yibin, Sichuan, 644000 (China); Wang, Teng; Yang, Juan [Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medical Diagnostics of Education, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Xie, Guoming, E-mail: guomingxie@cqmu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medical Diagnostics of Education, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Feng, Wenli, E-mail: fengwlcqmu@sina.com [Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medical Diagnostics of Education, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China)

    2015-08-19

    This article described a novel method by coupling a universal DNA circuit with graphene sheets/polyaniline/AuNPs nanocomposites (GS/PANI/AuNPs) for highly sensitive and specific detection of BCR/ABL fusion gene (bcr/abl) in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). DNA circuit known as catalyzed hairpin assembly (CHA) is enzyme-free and can be simply operated to achieve exponential amplification, which has been widely employed in biosensing. However, application of CHA has been hindered by the need of specially redesigned sequences for each single-stranded DNA input. Herein, a transducer hairpin (HP) was designed to obtain a universal DNA circuit with favorable signal-to-background ratio. To further improve signal amplification, GS/PANI/AuNPs with excellent conductivity and enlarged effective area were introduced into this DNA circuit. Consequently, by combining the advantages of CHA and GS/PANI/AuNPs, bcr/abl could be detected in a linear range from 10 pM to 20 nM with a detection limit of 1.05 pM. Moreover, this protocol showed excellent specificity, good stability and was successfully applied for the detection of real sample, which demonstrated its great potential in clinical application. - Highlights: • A transducer hairpin was designed to improve the versatility of DNA circuit. • GS/PANI/AuNPs were introduced to the DNA circuit for further signal amplification. • The established biosensor displayed high sensitivity and good specificity.

  17. DNA sensors and aptasensors based on the hemin/G-quadruplex-controlled aggregation of Au NPs in the presence of L-cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazov-Elkan, Angelica; Golub, Eyal; Sharon, Etery; Balogh, Dora; Willner, Itamar

    2014-07-23

    L-cysteine induces the aggregation of Au nanoparticles (NPs), resulting in a color transition from red to blue due to interparticle plasmonic coupling in the aggregated structure. The hemin/G-quadruplex horseradish peroxidase-mimicking DNAzyme catalyzes the aerobic oxidation of L-cysteine to cystine, a process that inhibits the aggregation of the NPs. The degree of inhibition of the aggregation process is controlled by the concentration of the DNAzyme in the system. These functions are implemented to develop sensing platforms for the detection of a target DNA, for the analysis of aptamer-substrate complexes, and for the analysis of L-cysteine in human urine samples. A hairpin DNA structure that includes a recognition site for the DNA analyte and a caged G-quadruplex sequence, is opened in the presence of the target DNA. The resulting self-assembled hemin/G-quadruplex acts as catalyst that controls the aggregation of the Au NPs. Also, the thrombin-binding aptamer folds into a G-quadruplex nanostructure upon binding to thrombin. The association of hemin to the resulting G-quadruplex aptamer-thrombin complex leads to a catalytic label that controls the L-cysteine-mediated aggregation of the Au NPs. The hemin/G-qaudruplex-controlled aggregation of Au NPs process is further implemented for visual and spectroscopic detection of L-cysteine concentration in urine samples. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. A novel surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on the PDA-AgNPs-PDA-Au film sensing platform for horse IgG detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Zhang, Di; Deng, Xinyu; Sun, Ying; Wang, Xinghua; Ma, Pinyi; Song, Daqian

    2018-02-01

    Herein we report a novel polydopamine-silver nanoparticle-polydopamine-gold (PDA-AgNPs-PDA-Au) film based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor for horse IgG detection. The PDA-AgNPs-PDA-Au film sensing platform was built on Au-film via layer-by-layer self-assembly. Ag ion was reduced in situ to AgNPs in presence of PDA. The top PDA layer can prevent AgNPs from being oxidized and connect with antibody via Schiff alkali reaction directly. The morphology and thickness of the modified gold film were characterized using scanning electron microscope and Talystep. Experimental results show that the PDA-AgNPs-PDA-Au film sensing platform is stable, regenerative and sensitive for horse IgG detection. The detection limit of horse IgG obtained with the present biosensor is 0.625 μg mL- 1, which is 2-fold and 4-fold lower than that obtained with biosensor based on PDA modified Au film and conventional biosensor based on MPA, respectively. Furthermore, when challenged to real serum samples, our sensor exhibited excellent specificity to horse IgG, suggesting its potential for industrial application.

  19. An Evaluation on Transfection Efficiency of pHRE-Egr1-EGFP in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells Bel-7402 Mediated by PEI-MZF-NPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve transfection and expression efficiency of target gene, especially under cancer anoxic microenvironment, we have developed pHRE-Egr1-EGFP/PEI-MZF-NPs nanosystem, in which pHRE-Egr1-EGFP, eukaryotic gene expression plasmid, is constructed by combining radiation promoter Egr1 with anoxia induction components (HRE, forming anoxic radiation double sensitive HRE/Egr1 promoter to activate reporter gene EGFP expression. MZF-NPs (Mn0.5 Zn0.5 Fe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles, obtained by coprecipitation method, are coated with cation poly(ethylenimine (PEI. We transferred pHRE-Egr1-EGFP into hepatocellular carcinoma Bel-7402 cells, using PEI-MZF-NPs as the carrier and tested some relevant efficacy. The results show that PEI-MZF-NPs have good DNA-binding ability, protection ability, release ability, little toxicity, and high transfection efficiency, obviously superior to those of the liposome method and electricity perforation method. Moreover, the expression level of EGFP gene induced by anoxia and radiation was significantly higher than that of single radiation activation. It is therefore concluded that HRE/Egr1 can induce and improve target gene expression efficiency in cancer anoxic microenvironment, and that PEI-MZF-NPs can be used as a novel nonviral gene vector which offers a viable approach to the mediated radiation gene therapy of cancer.

  20. Effect of Au-dextran NPs as anti-tumor agent against EAC and solid tumor in mice by biochemical evaluations and histopathological investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhat, Dalia; Hussein, Jihan; El-Naggar, Mehrez E; Attia, Mohamed F; Anwar, Mona; Latif, Yasmine Abdel; Booles, Hoda F; Morsy, Safaa; Farrag, Abdel Razik; Khalil, Wagdy K B; El-Khayat, Zakaria

    2017-07-01

    Dextran-capped gold nanoparticles (Au-dextran NPs) were prepared exploiting the natural polysaccharide polymer as both reducing and stabilizing agent in the synthesis process, aiming at studying their antitumor effect on solid carcinoma and EAC-bearing mice. To this end, Au-dextran NPs were designed via simple eco-friendly chemical reaction and they were characterized revealing the monodispersed particles with narrow distributed size of around 49nm with high negative charge. In vivo experiments were performed on mice. Biochemical analysis of liver and kidney functions and oxidation stress ratio in addition to histopathological investigations of such tumor tissues were done demonstrating the potentiality of Au-dextran NPs as antitumor agent. The obtained results revealed that EAC and solid tumors caused significant increase in liver and kidney functions, liver oxidant parameters, alpha feto protein levels and diminished liver antioxidant accompanied by positive expression of tumor protein p53 of liver while the treatment with Au-dextran NPs for both types caused improvement in liver and kidney functions, increased liver antioxidant, increased the expression level of B-cell lymphoma 2 gene and subsequently suppressed the apoptotic pathway. As a result, the obtained data provides significant antitumor effects of the Au-dextran NPs in both Ehrlich ascites and solid tumor in mice models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Facile Synthesis of Highly Water-Soluble Lanthanide-Doped t-LaVO4 NPs for Antifake Ink and Latent Fingermark Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Cailing

    2017-11-08

    In the information age, it is important to protect the security and integrity of the information. As a result, the fluorescent ink as an antifake technology and the fingermark as an information carrier have aroused great interest. In this work, highly water-soluble lanthanide (Ln3+ )-doped tetragonal phase (t-) LaVO4 nanoparticles (NPs) are successfully obtained via a simple, fast, and green microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The average size of t-LaVO4 NPs is about 43 nm. The aqueous solutions of Ln3+ -doped t-LaVO4 exhibit excellent fluorescence properties under ultraviolet light (UV) excitation (t-LaVO4 :10%Eu is bright red and t-LaVO4 :0.5%Dy is close to white). Some superb antifake fluorescent patterns are printed using Ln3+ -doped t-LaVO4 aqueous solution as ink, which indicates the as-prepared Ln3+ -doped t-LaVO4 NPs as fluorescent ink can meet the various antifake requirements. Notably, the designed convenient antifake fluorescent codes with improved security could be directly scanned and decoded by a smart phone. What\\'s more, the as-prepared NPs can be used for the development of latent fingermark on various substrates and the second-level detail information can be clearly obtained from the magnification of a fingermark. These results indicate that the as-prepared Ln3+ -doped t-LaVO4 fluorescent NPs have great potential in security application.

  2. Facile Synthesis of Highly Water-Soluble Lanthanide-Doped t-LaVO4 NPs for Antifake Ink and Latent Fingermark Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Cailing; Yu, Ying; Li, Chunguang; Liu, Dan; Huang, He; Liang, Chen; Lou, Yue; Han, Yu; Shi, Zhan; Feng, Shouhua

    2017-01-01

    In the information age, it is important to protect the security and integrity of the information. As a result, the fluorescent ink as an antifake technology and the fingermark as an information carrier have aroused great interest. In this work, highly water-soluble lanthanide (Ln3+ )-doped tetragonal phase (t-) LaVO4 nanoparticles (NPs) are successfully obtained via a simple, fast, and green microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The average size of t-LaVO4 NPs is about 43 nm. The aqueous solutions of Ln3+ -doped t-LaVO4 exhibit excellent fluorescence properties under ultraviolet light (UV) excitation (t-LaVO4 :10%Eu is bright red and t-LaVO4 :0.5%Dy is close to white). Some superb antifake fluorescent patterns are printed using Ln3+ -doped t-LaVO4 aqueous solution as ink, which indicates the as-prepared Ln3+ -doped t-LaVO4 NPs as fluorescent ink can meet the various antifake requirements. Notably, the designed convenient antifake fluorescent codes with improved security could be directly scanned and decoded by a smart phone. What's more, the as-prepared NPs can be used for the development of latent fingermark on various substrates and the second-level detail information can be clearly obtained from the magnification of a fingermark. These results indicate that the as-prepared Ln3+ -doped t-LaVO4 fluorescent NPs have great potential in security application.

  3. A survey of honey bee colony losses in the U.S., fall 2007 to spring 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis van Engelsdorp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Honey bees are an essential component of modern agriculture. A recently recognized ailment, Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD, devastates colonies, leaving hives with a complete lack of bees, dead or alive. Up to now, estimates of honey bee population decline have not included losses occurring during the wintering period, thus underestimating actual colony mortality. Our survey quantifies the extent of colony losses in the United States over the winter of 2007-2008. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Surveys were conducted to quantify and identify management factors (e.g. operation size, hive migration that contribute to high colony losses in general and CCD symptoms in particular. Over 19% of the country's estimated 2.44 million colonies were surveyed. A total loss of 35.8% of colonies was recorded; an increase of 11.4% compared to last year. Operations that pollinated almonds lost, on average, the same number of colonies as those that did not. The 37.9% of operations that reported having at least some of their colonies die with a complete lack of bees had a total loss of 40.8% of colonies compared to the 17.1% loss reported by beekeepers without this symptom. Large operations were more likely to have this symptom suggesting that a contagious condition may be a causal factor. Sixty percent of all colonies that were reported dead in this survey died without dead bees, and thus possibly suffered from CCD. In PA, losses varied with region, indicating that ambient temperature over winter may be an important factor. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Of utmost importance to understanding the recent losses and CCD is keeping track of losses over time and on a large geographic scale. Given that our surveys are representative of the losses across all beekeeping operations, between 0.75 and 1.00 million honey bee colonies are estimated to have died in the United States over the winter of 2007-2008. This article is an extensive survey of U.S. beekeepers

  4. One-pot synthesis of polyamines improved magnetism and fluorescence Fe3O4-carbon dots hybrid NPs for dual modal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Wang, Xudong; Guo, Yali; Iqbal, Anam; Dong, Yaping; Li, Wu; Liu, Weisheng; Qin, Wenwu; Chen, Shizhen; Zhou, Xin; Yang, Yunhuang

    2016-04-07

    A one-step hydrothermal method was developed to fabricate Fe3O4-carbon dots (Fe3O4-CDs) magnetic-fluorescent hybrid nanoparticles (NPs). Ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) was used as a cheap and nontoxic iron precursor and as the carbon source. Moreover, triethylenetetramine (TETA) was used to improve the adhesive strength of CDs on Fe3O4 and the fluorescence intensity of CDs. The prepared water-soluble hybrid NPs not only exhibit excellent superparamagnetic properties (Ms = 56.8 emu g(-1)), but also demonstrate excitation-independent photoluminescence for down-conversion and up-conversion at 445 nm. Moreover, the prepared water-soluble Fe3O4-CDs hybrid NPs have a dual modal imaging ability for both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorescence imaging.

  5. Fluorescent probe for turn-on sensing of L-cysteine by ensemble of AuNCs and polymer protected AuNPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaozhe; Qiao, Juan; Li, Nan; Qi, Li; Zhang, Shufeng

    2015-06-16

    A new fluorescent probe based on ensemble of gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) and polymer protected gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for turn-on sensing of L-cysteine was designed and prepared. The AuNCs were protected by bovine serum albumin and had strong fluorescence. The polymer protected AuNPs were synthesized by a facile in situ strategy at room temperature and could quench the fluorescence of AuNCs due to the Förster resonance energy transfer. Interestingly, it has been observed that the quenched fluorescence of AuNCs was recovered by L-cysteine, which could induce the aggregation of polymer protected AuNPs by sulfur group. Then the prepared fluorescent probe was successfully used for determination of L-Cys in human urines, which would have an evolving aspect and promote the subsequent exploration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Neurite outgrowth stimulatory effects of myco­synthesized AuNPs from Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr. Pers. on pheochromocytoma (PC-12 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman J

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Jegadeesh Raman,1 Hariprasath Lakshmanan,1 Priscilla A John,1,2 Chan Zhijian,3 Vengadesh Periasamy,3 Pamela David,1,4 Murali Naidu,1,4 Vikineswary Sabaratnam1,2 1Mushroom Research Centre, 2Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 3Low Dimensional Materials Research Center (LDMRC, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, 4Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Background: Hericium erinaceus has been reported to have a wide range of medicinal properties such as stimulation of neurite outgrowth, promotion of functional recovery of axonotmetic peroneal nerve injury, antioxidant, antihypertensive, and antidiabetic properties. In recent years, the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs has attracted intense interest due to the potential use in biomedical applications. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AuNPs from aqueous extract of H. erinaceus on neurite outgrowth of rat pheochromocytoma (PC-12 cells. Methods: The formation of AuNPs was characterized by UV–visible spectrum, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX, field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, particle size distribution, and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Furthermore, the neurite extension study of synthesized AuNPs was evaluated by in vitro assay. Results: The AuNPs exhibited maximum absorbance between 510 and 600 nm in UV–visible spectrum. FESEM and TEM images showed the existence of nanoparticles with sizes of 20–40 nm. FTIR measurements were carried out to identify the possible biomolecules responsible for capping and efficient stabilization of the nanoparticles. The purity and the crystalline properties were confirmed by EDX diffraction analysis, which showed strong signals with energy peaks in the range of 2–2.4 keV, indicating the existence of gold atoms. The synthesized AuNPs showed significant neurite

  7. Trends in the use of illicit substances in Thailand: Results from national household surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angkurawaranon, Chaisiri; Jiraporncharoen, Wichuda; Likhitsathian, Surinporn; Thaikla, Kanittha; Kanato, Manop; Perngparn, Usaneya; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Aramrattana, Apinun

    2018-02-27

    Thailand borders some of the world's largest methamphetamine and opioid producing countries and trafficking routes. Thailand's 'War on Drugs' campaign was launched in 2003. This study reports trends in illicit substance use in Thailand over the period 2001-2011. National Household surveys on illicit drug use were conducted in 2001, 2003, 2007, 2008 and 2011. A stratified multi-stage cluster random sampling technique was implemented for each survey. Provinces in four regions were systematically selected using a probability proportionate to the size of the targeted population. Participants were interviewed using structured questionnaires on their history of substance use. The prevalence of illicit drug use within the past drastically decreased from 4.5% in 2001 to 1.0% in 2003 (P survey. Other types of illicit drugs were less commonly used in Thailand. There was a decrease in prevalence of illicit drug use within the past year between 2001 and 2003 in Thailand. Since 2003, the past year prelavence of illicit drug use has remained relatively stable. From 2001 to 2011, cannabis, kratom and yaba have remained the three most commonly reported types of illicit drugs used in Thailand. © 2018 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  8. Anisotropic In Situ-Coated AuNPs on Screen-Printed Carbon Surface for Enhanced Prostate-Specific Antigen Impedimetric Aptasensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Tram T. N.; Van Phi, Toan; Nguy, Tin Phan; Wagner, Patrick; Eersels, Kasper; Vestergaard, Mun'delanji C.; Truong, Lien T. N.

    2017-06-01

    An impedimetric aptasensor has been used to study the effect of charge transfer on the binding of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) to its aptamer. Full understanding of this mechanism will be beneficial to further improve its sensitivity for PSA detection in human semen at physiologically relevant concentrations. Bare gold electrodes (SPAuEs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)-coated screen-printed carbon ink electrodes (AuNPs/SPCEs) were coated with aptamer solution at various concentrations and the sensor response to increasing PSA concentration in buffer solution examined. AuNPs were deposited onto carbon electrodes in 10 cycles. AuNPs/SPCEs were then coated with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid prior to aptamer immobilization at dose of 5 μg mL-1. The results indicate that anisotropic AuNPs/SPCEs outperform bare gold electrodes in terms of decreased amount of aptamer bunches as well as the number of intermediate PSA-aptamer complexes formed on the electrode surface. The key finding is that the fabricated aptasensor is sensitive enough [limit of detection (LoD) 1.95 ng mL-1] for early diagnosis of prostate cancer and displays linear response in the physiologically relevant concentration range (0 ng mL-1 to 10 ng mL-1), as shown by the calibration curve of the relative change in electron transfer resistance (Δ R CT) versus PSA concentration when aptamer/SAM/AuNPs/SPCEs were exposed to buffer containing PSA at different concentrations.

  9. In-situ growth of AuNPs on WS2@U-bent optical fiber for evanescent wave absorption sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suzhen; Zhao, Yuefeng; Zhang, Chao; Jiang, Shouzhen; Yang, Cheng; Xiu, Xianwu; Li, Chonghui; Li, Zhen; Zhao, Xiaofei; Man, Baoyuan

    2018-05-01

    The sensitivity of the evanescent wave absorption sensor is always a hot topic which has been attracted researchers' discussion. It is still a challenge for developing the effective sensor to sensitively detect some biochemical molecules solution in a simple and low-cost way. In this paper, an evanescent wave absorption (EWA) sensor has been presented based on the U-bent multimode fiber coated with tungsten disulfide (WS2) film and in-situ growth of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for the detection of ethanol solution and sodium chloride (NaCl) solution. Benefitted from the effective light coupling produced between U-bent probe and AuNPs, we attained the optimal size of the AuNPs by changing the reaction time between WS2 and tetrachloroauric acid (HAuCl4). With the AuNPs/WS2@U-bent optical fiber, we discussed the behaviors of EWA sensor, such as sensitivity, reproducibility, fast response-recovery time and stability. The sensitivity (△A/△C) of the proposed AuNPs/WS2@U-bent optical fiber EWA sensor is 0.65 for the detection of the ethanol solution. Besides, the AuNPs/WS2@U-bent optical fiber EWA sensor exhibits high sensitivity in detection of the sodium chloride (NaCl), which can reach 1.5 when the proposed sensor was immersed into NaCl solution. Our work demonstrates that the U-bent optical fiber EWA sensor may have promising applications in testing the solution of concentration.

  10. Structural properties of perovskite films on zinc oxide nanoparticles-reduced graphene oxide (ZnO-NPs/rGO) prepared by electrophoretic deposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahtiar, Ayi; Nurazizah, Euis Siti; Latiffah, Efa; Risdiana, Furukawa, Yukio

    2018-02-01

    Perovskite solar cells highly believed as next generation solar cells to replace currently available inorganic silicon solar cells due to their high power conversion efficiency and easy processing to thin films using solution processing techniques. Performance and stability, however still need to be improved for mass production and widely used for public electricity generation. Perovskite solar cells are commonly deposited on Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) film as an effective electron transport layer (ETL). We used Zinc Oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) as ETL in perovskite solar cells due to the low temperature required for crystallization and can be formed into different shapes of nanostructures. However, perovskite film can easily degrade into insulating lead iodide due to deprotonation of the methylammoniumcation at the surface of ZnO-NPs, in particular when it stored in ambient air with high relative humidity. The degradation of perovskite layer is therefore needed to be overcome. Here, we capped ZnO-NPs with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) to overcome the degradation of perovskite film where ZnO-NPs is synthesized by sol-gel method. The average nanoparticle size of ZnO is 15 nm. ZnO-NPs and ZnO-NPs-rGO films are prepared using electrophoretic deposition technique, which can produce large area with good homogeneity and high reproducibility. The stability of perovskite layer can significantly be improved by capping ZnO with rGO, which is indicated by absence of color change of perovskite after storage for 5 (five) days in ambient air with relative humidity above 95%. Moreover, the X-Ray Diffaction peaks of perovskite film are more preserved when deposited on ZnO/rGO film than using only ZnO film. We strongly believe, by capping ZnO film with rGO, both the performance and stability of perovskite solar cells can be improved significantly.

  11. Solution-Processed rGO/AgNPs/rGO Sandwich Structure as a Hole Extraction Layer for Polymer Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quang Trung Tran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We found that inserting silver nanoparticles (AgNPs between two layers of reduced grapheme oxide (rGO has an effect on tailoring the work function of rGO. The utilization of rGO/AgNPs/rGO sandwich structure as the hole extraction layer in polymer solar cells is demonstrated. Solution-processable fabrication of this sandwich structure at the ITO/active layer interface facilitates the extraction of hole from active layer into ITO anode because of lowering the barrier level alignment at the interface. It results in an improvement of the short circuit current density and the overall photovoltaic performance.

  12. AgNPs-3D nanostructure enhanced electrochemiluminescence of CdSe quantum dot coupled with strand displacement amplification for sensitive biosensing of DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Meng; Jie, Guifen; Tan, Lu; Niu, Shuyan

    2017-01-01

    A novel strategy using Ag nanoparticles-3D (AgNPs-3D) nanostructure enhanced electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) coupled with strand displacement amplification (SDA) for sensitive biosensing of DNA was successfully designed. The prepared CdSe QDs with intense ECL were assembled on the poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites modified electrode, then gold nanoparticles (NPs) as the quenching probe was conjugated to the QDs, ECL signal was efficiently quenched. The target DNA induced cycling SDA and generated a large number of DNA s1. The released DNA s1 could open the hairpin DNA with quenching probe. So the presence of low levels of target DNA can potentially result in a significant enhancement of ECL signal. Furthermore, large number of AgNPs were then in situ reduced in the 3D DNA skeleton on the electrode, which dramaticlly enhanced ECL signal of QDs owing to the excellent electrical conductivity, and the much amplified ECL signal change has a quantitative relation with the target DNA. So by combining the AgNPs-3D nanostructure and cycling SDA to achieve greatly amplified detection of DNA, the promising ECL strategy could provide a highly sensitive platform for various biomolecules and has a good prospect for clinical diagnosis in the future. - Graphical abstract: A novel strategy using AgNPs-3D nanostructure enhanced electrochemiluminescence of CdSe quantum dot coupled with DNA strand displacement amplification for sensitive biosensing of DNA was successfully designed, the proposed biosensor can be expected to be an emerging alternative for straightforward nucleic acid detection in complex samples with an easy and rapid way. - Highlights: • AgNPs-3D nanostructure for enhancing ECL signal of CdSe QDs was successfully designed. • A new dual amplification strategy for detection of DNA by using AgNPs-3D nanostructure coupled with SDA was developed. • It is for the first time AgNPs-3D nanostructure

  13. Engineering molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for the selective extraction and quantification of the novel psychoactive substance (NPS) methoxphenidine and its regioisomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowdon, J W; Alkirkit, S M O; Mewis, R E; Fulton, D; Banks, C E; Sutcliffe, O B; Peeters, M

    2018-04-30

    In this communication, we present the first developed Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs) for the specific detection of a New Psychoactive Substance (NPS); namely, methoxphenidine (MXP) and its regioisomers. Selectivity of the MIP towards MXP is studied by analysing mixtures and an acquired street sample with High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to UV detection. The study demonstrates that the engineered polymers selectively extract MXP from heterogeneous samples, which makes for a very powerful diagnostic tool that can detect traces of MXP in complicated NPS samples.

  14. Alcohol consumption trends in Australia: Comparing surveys and sales-based measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Michael; Callinan, Sarah; Raninen, Jonas; Pennay, Amy; Dietze, Paul M

    2018-04-01

    Survey data remain a crucial means for monitoring alcohol consumption, but there has been limited work done to ensure that surveys adequately capture changes in per-capita consumption in Australia. In this study, we explore how trends in consumption from two major Australian surveys compare with an official measure of per-capita consumption between 2001 and 2014 and examine age-specific trends in drinking. Data were from five waves of the cross-sectional National Health Survey (total n = 113 279) and 12 waves of the longitudinal Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Study (average n = 12 347). Overall and age-specific estimates of annual alcohol consumption were derived and compared with official per-capita consumption and previous analyses of the National Drug Strategy Household Survey. In terms of overall consumption, both surveys broadly reflected trends in per-capita consumption, especially the decline that has been observed since 2007/2008. Age-specific trends were broadly similar, with the recent decline in consumption clearly concentrated among teenagers and young adults. The main Australian monitoring surveys remain useful monitoring tools for alcohol consumption in Australia. There is consistent evidence that the recent declines in Australian per-capita consumption have been driven by sharp falls in drinking among young people, a trend that requires further study. [Livingston M, Callinan S, Raninen J, Pennay A, Dietze PM. Alcohol consumption trends in Australia: Comparing surveys and sales-based measures. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  15. Proteomic response of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to CuO NPs and Cu{sup 2+}: An exploratory biomarker discovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Tânia, E-mail: tania.gomes@niva.no; Chora, Suze; Pereira, Catarina G.; Cardoso, Cátia; Bebianno, Maria João

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Different protein expression patterns, tissue and Cu form dependent. • Different cellular mechanisms involved in CuO NPs and Cu{sup 2+} toxicity. • CuO NPs toxicity mediated by cell signalling cascades that result in apoptosis. • Caspase 3/7–1, catL, Zn-finger, precol-D as new molecular targets for both Cu forms in mussels. - Abstract: CuO NPs are one of the most used metal nanomaterials nowadays with several industrial and other commercial applications. Nevertheless, less is known about the mechanisms by which these NPs inflict toxicity in mussels and to what extent it differs from Cu{sup 2+}. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in protein expression profiles in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed for 15 days to CuO NPs and Cu{sup 2+} (10 μg L{sup −1}) using a proteomic approach. Results demonstrate that CuO NPs and Cu{sup 2+} induced major changes in protein expression in mussels’ showing several tissue and metal-dependent responses. CuO NPs showed a higher tendency to up-regulate proteins in the gills and down-regulate in the digestive gland, while Cu{sup 2+} showed the opposite tendency. Distinctive sets of differentially expressed proteins were found, either common or specific to each Cu form and tissue, reflecting different mechanisms involved in their toxicity. Fifteen of the differentially expressed proteins from both tissues were identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF. Identified proteins indicate common response mechanisms induced by CuO NPs and Cu{sup 2+}, namely in cytoskeleton and cell structure (actin, α-tubulin, paramyosin), stress response (heat shock cognate 71, putative C1q domain containing protein), transcription regulation (zinc-finger BED domain-containing protein 1, nuclear receptor subfamily 1G) and energy metabolism (ATP synthase F0 subunit 6). CuO NPs alone also had a marked effect on other biological processes, namely oxidative stress (GST), proteolysis (cathepsin L) and apoptosis (caspase 3/7-1). On

  16. NPS TINYSCOPE program management

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Christopher Gordon.

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This master's thesis introduces the program management and concept of operations of the TINYSCOPE Program. TINYSCOPE is a 6U CubeSat designed as a low-cost and easily replaceable imaging spacecraft that can produce tactically relevant imagery data. Tactical requirements in this context would emphasize "good enough" image resolution with a rapid-response tasking loop and high revisit rate. The TINYSCOPE project intends to demonstra...

  17. Spatial and Seasonal Variations of Heavy Metal Loads in Uyo Urban Drainage Stream under PS and NPS Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Essien

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of heavy metals (HM in the 4km urban drainage stream in Uyo was studied using grab and composite sampling of water from six stations on the stream, and analyzed by a multipurpose atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 17 software arid correlated between stations and among samples. HM contamination was evaluated with the coefficient and rate of dispersion between stations and the Normalized Scatter Coefficient (NSC. The seasonal distribution of metal pollution varied individually amongst metals at stations. The Fe and Pb concentrations exceeded the safe drinking water standard, rendering the water quality not acceptable for drinking; however, the quality was within the safe limit for crop production along the river bank. The relative.dominance of heavy metals followed a different sequence in upstream leachate effluent from all downstream stations. The NSC in dry-wet season was higher than in wet season, and was in the order: Fe>Cu>Zn>Pb, showing that large but variable concentration of Fe from PS and NPS contaminated the stream at faster rate in the wet season while Pb contaminated at nearly constant rate. However, in the dry season, Fe and Pb depleted at downstream at rates far higher than Zn as Cu was increasing. Fe and Pb could be good pollution monitor for total maximum daily load (TMDL pollution monitoring programme.

  18. "Marvin, the Paranoid Android": The Case of an Alpha-PVP User in the Expanding Galaxy of NPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierluigi, Simonato; Laura, Bulsis; Attilio, Negri; Gurjeet K, Bansal; Gloria, Pessa; Davide, Mioni; Borgherini, Giuseppe; Giovanni, Martinotti; Fabrizio, Schifano; Perini, Giulia; Ornella, Corazza

    2018-05-16

    Alpha-PVP can be defined as a novel psychoactive substance (NPS)-more specifically, a novel synthetic cathinone with unpredictable stimulant effects in humans. "Marvin" arrived at a Dual Diagnosis Unit at Parco dei Tigli, Italy. He underwent a 30-day rehabilitation program to overcome his problematic Alpha-PVP use as a psychonaut. We conducted an online search to understand the properties of Alpha-PVP and its presence in scientific literature, reviewing official reports and the online drug market (e.g., fora, webpages). In the Dual Diagnosis Unit, Marvin completed the 30-day rehabilitation program that included assessments and group and individual cognitive behavioral therapy. Alpha-PVP is a synthetic cathinone with stimulant properties, available in the online market but with unpredictable effects in humans. The present case reports an important risk of psychosis in a psychonaut patient who arrived and declared its intense use before admission to our Unit. This article describes the psychopathological effects of the novel compound Alpha-PVP in a psychonaut patient. Patients attending clinics that have used Alpha-PVP pose a new challenge for traditional services of mental health and addiction.

  19. Role of Carboxylate ligands in the Synthesis of AuNPs: Size Control, Molecular Interaction and Catalytic Activity

    KAUST Repository

    Aljohani, Hind Abdullah

    2016-05-22

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are the basis of nanotechnology and finding numerous applications in various fields such as health, electronics, environment, personal care products, transportation, and catalysis. To fulfill these functions, the nanoparticles must be synthesized, passivated to control their chemical reactivity, stabilized against aggregation and functionalized to achieve specific performances. The chemistry of metal nanoparticles especially that of noble metals (Gold, Platinum…) is a growing field. The nanoparticles have indeed different properties from those of the corresponding bulk material. These properties are largely influenced by several parameters; the most important are the size, shape, and the local environment of the nanoparticles. One of the most common synthetic methods for the preparation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) is based on stabilization by citrate. Since it was reported first by Turkevich et al. in 1951, this synthetic scheme has been widely used, studied and a substantial amount of important information regarding this system has been reported in the literature. The most popular method developed by Frens for controlling the size of the noble gold nanoparticles based on citrate was achieved by varying the concentration of sodium citrate. Despite a large number of investigations focused on utilizing Cit-AuNPs, the structural details of citrate anions adsorbed on the AuNP surface are still unknown. It is known only that citrate anions “coordinate” to the metal surface by inner sphere complexation of the carboxylate groups and there are trace amounts of AuCl4−, Cl−, and OH− on the metal surface. Moreover, it is generally accepted that the ligand shell morphology of Au nanoparticles can be partly responsible for important properties such as oxidation of carbon monoxide. The use of Au-NPs in heterogeneous catalysis started mostly with Haruta who discovered the effect of particle size on the activity for carbon monoxide oxidation at

  20. Research activity about the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl NPS accident and social activity to assist its sufferers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Koide, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Keiji

    1998-01-01

    Due to the Chernobyl Accident in April 1986, a series of serious radiological consequences were brought in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. The former Soviet Union and the authorities in the world such as IAEA, however, have been denying serious health consequences among the people around Chernobyl since the beginning of the accident. On the other hand, a lot of works indicating serious health effects of the accident have been reported by scientists in these affected countries although they are not well known in the western countries. Since 1993, under the research grant of the Toyota foundation, we have continued a cooperative program to investigate research activities in these countries about the Chernobyl accident and to look into data and information that were not known so far. The information concerning the social system and activity to assist the sufferers from the accident has been also overviewed, including legal aspects of the Chernobyl problem. Here we are presenting an outline of our cooperation activity and our work concerning dose estimation for the inhabitants around the Chernobyl NPS at the first stage after the accident. The results of our estimation suggest that at least several hundreds of inhabitants received radiation dose exceeding 1 Sv before their evacuation. The whole reports of our cooperation program will be published in English and in Japanese in the next year. (author)

  1. Dumbbell DNA-templated CuNPs as a nano-fluorescent probe for detection of enzymes involved in ligase-mediated DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Taiping; He, Xiaoxiao; He, Dinggeng; Ye, Xiaosheng; Shangguan, Jingfang; Liu, Jinquan; Yuan, Baoyin; Wang, Kemin

    2017-08-15

    DNA repair processes are responsible for maintaining genome stability. Ligase and polynucleotide kinase (PNK) have important roles in ligase-mediated DNA repair. The development of analytical methods to monitor these enzymes involved in DNA repair pathways is of great interest in biochemistry and biotechnology. In this work, we reported a new strategy for label-free monitoring PNK and ligase activity by using dumbbell-shaped DNA templated copper nanoparticles (CuNPs). In the presence of PNK and ligase, the dumbbell-shaped DNA probe (DP) was locked and could resist the digestion of exonucleases and then served as an efficient template for synthesizing fluorescent CuNPs. However, in the absence of ligase or PNK, the nicked DP could be digested by exonucleases and failed to template fluorescent CuNPs. Therefore, the fluorescence changes of CuNPs could be used to evaluate these enzymes activity. Under the optimal conditions, highly sensitive detection of ligase activity of about 1U/mL and PNK activity down to 0.05U/mL is achieved. To challenge the practical application capability of this strategy, the detection of analyte in dilute cells extracts was also investigated and showed similar linear relationships. In addition to ligase and PNK, this sensing strategy was also extended to the detection of phosphatase, which illustrates the versatility of this strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. From concept(ion) to life after death/the grave: The 'natural' history and life cycle(s) of novel psychoactive substances (NPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corkery, John Martin; Orsolini, Laura; Papanti, Duccio; Schifano, Fabrizio

    2017-05-01

    A range of information needs should be met in order to better understand and predict the longevity/existence of novel psychoactive substances (NPS). This conceptual paper argues that one way of assessing how long a molecule may be around is to document how the life cycles or natural histories of 'traditional' drugs and NPS evolve. The earliest indication of the possible appearance of a new substance might be evidenced on the DeepWeb. However, this means they are less visible, in line with the clandestine nature of drug use and supply. Therefore, monitoring discussion groups/fora needs the development of new methods compared to those used in the Surface Net. Issues needing consideration in establishing NPS life cycles are outlined here, together with the probable outcomes that could result. The approach advocated means that it should be easier to identify which NPS are likely to come up or are emerging in real time, and, therefore, pre-empt/prevent their supply. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for the determination of methanol based on PdNPs@SBA-15-PrEn modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Ziba; Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Tabrizi, Mahmoud Amouzadeh; Rostamnia, Sadegh

    2018-05-01

    In this study, a novel electrochemical sensor for the determination of methanol based on palladium nanoparticles supported on Santa barbara amorphous-15- PrNHEtNH 2 (PdNPs@SBA-15-PrEn) as nanocatalysis platform is presented. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electrochemical methods are employed to characterize the PdNPs@SBA-15-PrEn nanocomposite. The Nafion-Pd@SBA-15-PrEn modified glassy carbon electrode (Nafion-PdNPs@SBA-15-PrEn/GCE) displayed the high electrochemical activity and excellent catalytic characteristic for electro-oxidation of methanol in an alkaline solution. The electro-oxidation performance of the proposed sensor was investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry. The sensor exhibits a good sensitivity of 0.0905 Amol -1 Lcm -2 , linear range of 20-1000 μM and the corresponding detection limit of 12 μM (3σ). The results demonstrate that the Nafion-PdNPs@SBA-15-PrEn/GCE has potential as an efficient and integrated sensor for methanol detection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative effects on rat primary astrocytes and C6 rat glioma cells cultures after 24-h exposure to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar-García, Samuel; Silva-Ramírez, Ana Sonia; Ramirez-Lee, Manuel A.; Rosas-Hernandez, Hector [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas (Mexico); Rangel-López, Edgar [Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia Manuel Velasco Suárez, Laboratorio de Aminoacidos Excitadores (Mexico); Castillo, Claudia G. [Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Santamaría, Abel [Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia Manuel Velasco Suárez, Laboratorio de Aminoacidos Excitadores (Mexico); Martinez-Castañon, Gabriel A. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Facultad de Estomatologia (Mexico); Gonzalez, Carmen, E-mail: cgonzalez.uaslp@gmail.com, E-mail: gonzalez.castillocarmen@fcq.uaslp.mx [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas (Mexico)

    2015-11-15

    The aim of this work was to compare the effects of 24-h exposure of rat primary astrocytes and C6 rat glioma cells to 7.8 nm AgNPs. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor and current treatments lead to diverse side-effects; for this reason, it is imperative to investigate new approaches, including those alternatives provided by nanotechnology, like nanomaterials (NMs) such as silver nanoparticles. Herein, we found that C6 rat glioma cells, but no primary astrocytes, decreased cell viability after AgNPs treatment; however, both cell types diminished their proliferation. The decrease of glioma C6 cells proliferation was related with necrosis, while in primary astrocytes, the decreased proliferation was associated with the induction of apoptosis. The ionic control (AgNO{sub 3}) exerted a different profile than AgNPs; the bulk form did not modify the basal effect in each determination, whereas cisplatin, a well-known antitumoral drug used as a comparative control, promoted cytotoxicity in both cell types at specific concentrations. Our findings prompt the need to determine the fine molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the differential biological responses to AgNPs in order to develop new tools or alternatives based on nanotechnology that may contribute to the understanding, impact and use of NMs in specific targets, like glioblastoma cells.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of manganese diselenide nanoparticles (MnSeNPs): Determination of capsaicin by using MnSeNP-modified glassy carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukanya, Ramaraj; Sakthivel, Mani; Chen, Shen-Ming; Chen, Tse-Wei; Al-Hemaid, Fahad M A; Ajmal Ali, M; Elshikh, Mohamed Soliman

    2018-06-02

    A new type of manganese diselenide nanoparticles (MnSeNPs) was synthesized by using a hydrothermal method. Their surface morphology, crystallinity and elemental distribution were characterized by using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy which scrutinize the formation of the NPs. The NPs were coated on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry were applied to study the electroanalytical properties towards the oxidation of the food additive capsaicin. The modified GCE displays lower charge transfer resistance (R ct  = 29.52 Ω), a larger active surface area (0.089 cm 2 /g, and more efficient electrochemical oxidation of capsaicin compared to a MnS 2 /GCE and a bare GCE. The oxidation peak potential is 0.43 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) which is lower than that of previously reported GCEs. The sensor has a detection limit as low as 0.05 μM and an electrochemical sensitivity of 2.41 μA μM -1  cm -2 . The method was applied to the determination of capsaicin in pepper samples. Graphical abstract Electrochemical determination of capsaicin in pepper extract by using MnSeNPs modified electrode.

  6. Comparative effects on rat primary astrocytes and C6 rat glioma cells cultures after 24-h exposure to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-García, Samuel; Silva-Ramírez, Ana Sonia; Ramirez-Lee, Manuel A.; Rosas-Hernandez, Hector; Rangel-López, Edgar; Castillo, Claudia G.; Santamaría, Abel; Martinez-Castañon, Gabriel A.; Gonzalez, Carmen

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the effects of 24-h exposure of rat primary astrocytes and C6 rat glioma cells to 7.8 nm AgNPs. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor and current treatments lead to diverse side-effects; for this reason, it is imperative to investigate new approaches, including those alternatives provided by nanotechnology, like nanomaterials (NMs) such as silver nanoparticles. Herein, we found that C6 rat glioma cells, but no primary astrocytes, decreased cell viability after AgNPs treatment; however, both cell types diminished their proliferation. The decrease of glioma C6 cells proliferation was related with necrosis, while in primary astrocytes, the decreased proliferation was associated with the induction of apoptosis. The ionic control (AgNO3) exerted a different profile than AgNPs; the bulk form did not modify the basal effect in each determination, whereas cisplatin, a well-known antitumoral drug used as a comparative control, promoted cytotoxicity in both cell types at specific concentrations. Our findings prompt the need to determine the fine molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the differential biological responses to AgNPs in order to develop new tools or alternatives based on nanotechnology that may contribute to the understanding, impact and use of NMs in specific targets, like glioblastoma cells.

  7. Comparative effects on rat primary astrocytes and C6 rat glioma cells cultures after 24-h exposure to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar-García, Samuel; Silva-Ramírez, Ana Sonia; Ramirez-Lee, Manuel A.; Rosas-Hernandez, Hector; Rangel-López, Edgar; Castillo, Claudia G.; Santamaría, Abel; Martinez-Castañon, Gabriel A.; Gonzalez, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the effects of 24-h exposure of rat primary astrocytes and C6 rat glioma cells to 7.8 nm AgNPs. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor and current treatments lead to diverse side-effects; for this reason, it is imperative to investigate new approaches, including those alternatives provided by nanotechnology, like nanomaterials (NMs) such as silver nanoparticles. Herein, we found that C6 rat glioma cells, but no primary astrocytes, decreased cell viability after AgNPs treatment; however, both cell types diminished their proliferation. The decrease of glioma C6 cells proliferation was related with necrosis, while in primary astrocytes, the decreased proliferation was associated with the induction of apoptosis. The ionic control (AgNO 3 ) exerted a different profile than AgNPs; the bulk form did not modify the basal effect in each determination, whereas cisplatin, a well-known antitumoral drug used as a comparative control, promoted cytotoxicity in both cell types at specific concentrations. Our findings prompt the need to determine the fine molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the differential biological responses to AgNPs in order to develop new tools or alternatives based on nanotechnology that may contribute to the understanding, impact and use of NMs in specific targets, like glioblastoma cells

  8. Solid-state electrochemiluminescence sensor through the electrodeposition of Ru(bpy)32+/AuNPs/chitosan composite film onto electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun Wen; Xu Ying; Dong Ping; Ma Xiongxiong; He Pingang; Fang Yuzhi

    2009-01-01

    Tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) (Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ) has been successfully immobilized onto electrode through the electrodeposition of Ru(bpy) 3 2+ /AuNPs/chitosan composite film. In the experiments, chitosan solution was first mixed with Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) and Ru(bpy) 3 2+ . Then, during chronopotentiometry experiments in this mixed solution, a porous 3D network structured film containing Ru(bpy) 3 2+ , AuNPs and chitosan has been electrodeposited onto cathode due to the deposition of chitosan when pH value is over its pK a (6.3). The applied current density is crucial to the film thickness and the amount of the entrapped Ru(bpy) 3 2+ . Additionally, these doping Ru(bpy) 3 2+ in the composite film maintained their intrinsic electrochemical and electrochemiluminescence activities. Consequently, this Ru(bpy) 3 2+ /AuNPs/chitosan modified electrode has been used in ECL to detect tripropylamine, and the detection limit was 5 x 10 -10 M

  9. Solid-state electrochemiluminescence sensor through the electrodeposition of Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}/AuNPs/chitosan composite film onto electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun Wen; Xu Ying; Dong Ping; Ma Xiongxiong [Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, ZhongShan Road North 3663, Shanghai 20062 (China); He Pingang [Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, ZhongShan Road North 3663, Shanghai 20062 (China)], E-mail: pghe@chem.ecnu.edu.cn; Fang Yuzhi [Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, ZhongShan Road North 3663, Shanghai 20062 (China)], E-mail: yuzhi@online.sh.cn

    2009-03-02

    Tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) (Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}) has been successfully immobilized onto electrode through the electrodeposition of Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}/AuNPs/chitosan composite film. In the experiments, chitosan solution was first mixed with Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) and Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}. Then, during chronopotentiometry experiments in this mixed solution, a porous 3D network structured film containing Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}, AuNPs and chitosan has been electrodeposited onto cathode due to the deposition of chitosan when pH value is over its pK{sub a} (6.3). The applied current density is crucial to the film thickness and the amount of the entrapped Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}. Additionally, these doping Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} in the composite film maintained their intrinsic electrochemical and electrochemiluminescence activities. Consequently, this Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}/AuNPs/chitosan modified electrode has been used in ECL to detect tripropylamine, and the detection limit was 5 x 10{sup -10} M.

  10. Assessment of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) and copper (II) oxide (CuO) induced hemato- and hepatotoxicity in Cyprinus carpio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noureen, Aasma; Jabeen, Farhat; Tabish, Tanveer A.; Yaqub, Sajid; Ali, Muhammad; Shakoor Chaudhry, Abdul

    2018-04-01

    Recently, Cu-based nanoparticles have drawn considerable attention for their various fascinating roles in multiple biological systems. It is recognized that their frequent use can create compatibility challenges for the recipient systems. Nevertheless, it is unclear how various biological interactions affect the compatibility of Cu oxide II (CuO) and Cu oxide nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) for different organisms. Consequently, it has been difficult to perform structured risk assessments for their use in biological systems. Therefore, this study compared the effects of different doses of waterborne Cu-NPs and CuO on the blood and liver of selected groups of Cyprinus (C) carpio. These fish while housed in suitable water tanks were exposed to one of the following treatments for 14 d: control (no added Cu) or 0.5 or 1 or 1.5 mg Cu as Cu-NPs or CuO l-1 of water. We found significant changes in all assessed blood parameters of fish in response to increasing doses from 0 to 1.5 mg of Cu-NPs or CuO. Similarly, increased levels of lipid peroxide and reduced glutathione (GSH) were also observed in the livers of C. carpio in Cu-NPs or CuO treated groups. Enhanced levels of lipid peroxidation and GSH were also recorded in the Cu-NP treated groups compared with the CuO treated groups in a dose dependent manner. The lowest catalase activity was observed in the liver of C. carpio treated with the higer dose of Cu-NPs. Cu-NP or CuO exposure induced significant histological alterations in the liver of C. carpio including focal necrosis, cloudy swelling of hepatocytes, degenerative hepatocytes, vacuolization, pyknotic nuclei, damaged central vein, nuclear hypertrophy, dilated sinusoid, vacuolated degeneration, congestion, and complete degeneration in a dose dependent manner. Substantial alterations in blood and liver specimens were observed in the Cu-NP treated fish when compared with the CuO treated fish. It appeared that the Cu-NPs were more toxic than the CuO as shown by the hemato- and

  11. Nanoparticulate anatase TiO2 (TiO2 NPs) upregulates the expression of silkworm (Bombyx mori) neuropeptide receptor and promotes silkworm feeding, growth, and silking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Min; Zhang, Hua; Li, Fan Chi; Wang, Bin Bin; Xu, Kai Zun; Shen, Wei De; Li, Bing

    2015-06-01

    Bombyx mori orphan G protein-coupled receptor, BNGR-A4, is the specific receptor of B. mori neuropeptide F (BmNPFR, neuropeptide F designated NPF). BmNPFR binds specifically and efficiently to B. mori neuropeptides BmNPF1a and BmNPF1b, which activates the ERK1/2 signaling pathway to regulate B. mori food intake and growth. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) can promote B. mori growth. However, whether the mechanisms of TiO2 NPs' effects are correlated with BmNPFR remains unknown. In this study, the effects of TiO2 NPs (5mg/L) feeding and BmNPFR-dsRNA injection on B. mori food intake and growth were investigated; after TiO2 NPs treatments, B. mori food intake, body weight, and cocoon shell weight were 5.82%, 4.64%, and 9.30% higher, respectively, than those of controls. The food intake, body weight, and cocoon shell weight of the BmNPFR-dsRNA injection group were reduced by 8.05%, 6.28%, and 6.98%, respectively, compared to the control. After TiO2 NPs treatment for 72h, the transcriptional levels of BmNPFR, BmNPF1a, and BmNPF1b in the midgut were 1.58, 1.43, and 1.34-folds, respectively, of those of the control, but 1.99, 2.26, and 2.19-folds, respectively, of the BmNPFR-dsRNA injection group; the phosphorylation level of MAPK was 24.03% higher than the control, while the phosphorylation level of BmNPFR-dsRNA injection group was 71.00% of control. The results indicated that TiO2 NPs affect B. mori feeding and growth through increasing the expression of BmNPFR. This study helps clarify the roles of BmNPF/BmNPFR system in TiO2 NPs' effects on B. mori feeding, growth, and development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Promising biocidal activity of thymol loaded chitosan silver nanoparticles (T-C@AgNPs) as anti-infective agents against perilous pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manukumar, H M; Umesha, S; Kumar, H N Naveen

    2017-09-01

    The advent of biodegradable polymer-encapsulated drug nanoparticles has made an exciting area of drug delivery research. The present study investigated novel and simple route for synthesis of thymol loaded chitosan silver nanoparticles (T-C@AgNPs) using chitosan and thymol as reducing, capping agent respectively to understand the therapeutic efficacy. The UV-vis spectroscopy, DLS, FT-IR, SEM, EDS, XRD used for characterization and radical scavenging activity, anti-microbial and biocompatibility was taken to ascertain an efficacy of novel T-C@AgNPs. The T-C@AgNPs intense peak at 490nm indicates the formation of nanoparticles and had average particle size of 28.94nm with spherical shape, monodisperse state in water, also exhibited excellent biocompatibility of cubic shaped pure silver element containing T-C@AgNPs. The antibacterial activity was studied for gram positive and gram negative food-borne pathogens and effective inhibition at 100μgmL -1 to S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus (10.08, 10.00, 11.23mm) and S. typhimurium, P. aeruginosa and S. flexneri (9.28, 9.33, 12.03mm) compared to antibiotic Streptomycin. This study revealed the efficacy against multiple food-borne pathogens and therapeutic efficacy of T-C@AgNPs offers a valuable contribution in the area of nanotechnology. This proved to be a first-class novel antimicrobial material for the first time in this study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of sensitive amperometric hydrogen peroxide sensor using a CuNPs/MB/MWCNT-C_6_0-Cs-IL nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushani, Mahmoud; Bakyas, Kobra; Zare Dizajdizi, Behruz

    2016-01-01

    A sensitive hydrogen peroxide (H_2O_2) sensor was constructed based on copper nanoparticles/methylene blue/multiwall carbon nanotubes–fullerene–chitosan–ionic liquid (CuNPs/MB/MWCNTs–C_6_0–Cs–IL) nanocomposites. The MB/MWCNTs–C_6_0–Cs–IL and CuNPs were modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by the physical adsorption and electrodeposition of copper nitrate solution, respectively. The physical morphology and chemical composition of the surface of modified electrode was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. The electrochemical properties of CuNPs/MB/MWCNTs–C_6_0–Cs–IL/GCE were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry techniques and the sensor exhibited remarkably strong electrocatalytic activities toward the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. The peak currents possess a linear relationship with the concentration of H_2O_2 in the range of 0.2 μM to 2.0 mM, and the detection limit is 55.0 nM (S/N = 3). In addition, the modified electrode was used to determine H_2O_2 concentration in human blood serum sample with satisfactory results. - Highlights: • CuNPs/MB/MWCNT-C_6_0-Cs-IL/GC electrode was constructed by layer-by-layer method. • The catalytic performance of the sensor was studied with the use of amperometric technique. • The constructed sensor showed enhanced electrocatalytic activity toward the reduction of H_2O_2. • The CuNPs/MB/MWCNT-C_6_0-Cs-IL/GC electrode demonstrated high stability for the detection of H_2O_2.

  14. Various types of semiconductor photocatalysts modified by CdTe QDs and Pt NPs for toluene photooxidation in the gas phase under visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchelek, M. [Department of Environmental Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdansk Wita Stwosza 63, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Grabowska, E., E-mail: ewelina.grabowska@ug.edu.pl [Department of Environmental Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdansk Wita Stwosza 63, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Klimczuk, T. [Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, G. Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdansk (Poland); Lisowski, W. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44-52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Zaleska-Medynska, A. [Department of Environmental Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdansk Wita Stwosza 63, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • Novel semiconductors decorated by CdTe QDs and/or Pt NPs were synthesized. • Photodeposition and radiolysis is an effective method to obtaining Pt NPs. • CdTe decorated samples were prepared by absorption of QDs on matrix surface. • KTaO{sub 3}/CdTe-Pt{sub (R)} showed highest photocatalytic performance. • The enhanced performance was associated with electron trap mechanism. - Abstract: A novel synthesis process was used to prepare TiO{sub 2} microspheres, TiO{sub 2} P-25, SrTiO{sub 3} and KTaO{sub 3} decorated by CdTe QDs and/or Pt NPs. The effect of semiconductor matrix, presence of CdTe QDs and/or Pt NPs on the semiconductor surface as well as deposition technique of Pt NPs (photodeposition or radiolysis) on the photocatalytic activity were investigated. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence spectrometry (PL), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectra, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and BET surface area analysis. The photocatalytic decomposition of toluene in gas phase, activated by light-emitting diodes (LEDs), with the CdTe/Pt nanoparticles-modified TiO{sub 2} microspheres, P25, SrTiO{sub 3} and KTaO{sub 3} semiconductors was investigated under UV–vis and visible irradiation.The results showed that the photoactivity depends on semiconductor matrix. The highest photoactivity under Vis light was observed for KTaO{sub 3}/CdTe-Pt{sub (R)} sample (56% of toluene was decompose after 30 min of irradiation). The efficiency of the most active sample was 3 times higher than result for P25 and two times higher than for unmodified KTaO{sub 3}.

  15. Development of sensitive amperometric hydrogen peroxide sensor using a CuNPs/MB/MWCNT-C{sub 60}-Cs-IL nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roushani, Mahmoud, E-mail: mahmoudroushani@yahoo.com; Bakyas, Kobra; Zare Dizajdizi, Behruz

    2016-07-01

    A sensitive hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) sensor was constructed based on copper nanoparticles/methylene blue/multiwall carbon nanotubes–fullerene–chitosan–ionic liquid (CuNPs/MB/MWCNTs–C{sub 60}–Cs–IL) nanocomposites. The MB/MWCNTs–C{sub 60}–Cs–IL and CuNPs were modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by the physical adsorption and electrodeposition of copper nitrate solution, respectively. The physical morphology and chemical composition of the surface of modified electrode was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. The electrochemical properties of CuNPs/MB/MWCNTs–C{sub 60}–Cs–IL/GCE were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry techniques and the sensor exhibited remarkably strong electrocatalytic activities toward the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. The peak currents possess a linear relationship with the concentration of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the range of 0.2 μM to 2.0 mM, and the detection limit is 55.0 nM (S/N = 3). In addition, the modified electrode was used to determine H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration in human blood serum sample with satisfactory results. - Highlights: • CuNPs/MB/MWCNT-C{sub 60}-Cs-IL/GC electrode was constructed by layer-by-layer method. • The catalytic performance of the sensor was studied with the use of amperometric technique. • The constructed sensor showed enhanced electrocatalytic activity toward the reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. • The CuNPs/MB/MWCNT-C{sub 60}-Cs-IL/GC electrode demonstrated high stability for the detection of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

  16. Influence of CeO2 NPs on biological phosphorus removal and bacterial community shifts in a sequencing batch biofilm reactor with the differential effects of molecular oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yi; Wang, Chao; Hou, Jun; Wang, Peifang; You, Guoxiang; Miao, Lingzhan; Lv, Bowen; Yang, Yangyang

    2016-01-01

    The effects of CeO 2 nanoparticles (CeO 2 NPs) on a sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) with established biological phosphorus (P) removal were investigated from the processes of anaerobic P release and aerobic P uptake. At low concentration (0.1 mg/L), no significant impact was observed on total phosphorus (TP) removal after operating for 8 h. However, at a concentration of 20 mg/L, TP removal efficiency decreased from 83.68% to 55.88% and 16.76% when the CeO 2 NPs were added at the beginning of the anaerobic and aerobic periods, respectively. Further studies illustrated that the inhibition of the specific P release rate was caused by the reversible states of Ce 3+ and Ce 4+ , which inhibited the activity of exopolyphosphatase (PPX) and transformation of poly-β-hydoxyalkanoates (PHA) and glycogen, as well as the uptake of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). The decrease in the specific P uptake rate was mainly attributed to the significantly suppressed energy generation and decreased abundance of Burkholderia caused by excess reactive oxygen species. The removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was not influenced by CeO 2 NPs under aerobic conditions, due to the increased abundance of Acetobacter and Acidocella after exposure. The inhibitory effects of CeO 2 NPs with molecular oxygen were reduced after anaerobic exposure due to the enhanced particle size and the presence of Ce 3+ . - Highlights: • CeO 2 NPs (20 mg/L) had a notable toxicity effect on P removal in SBBR system. • The deteriorated SPRR was caused by the inhibited key enzyme activity (PPX). • The decreased SPUR was caused by the bacterial community shifts. • Ce ions converting and excess ROS generation are related toxicity mechanisms.

  17. Mobile measurements of particle composition in the Rhine Valley and Zurich. Winter 2007/2008; Mobile Messungen der Partikelzusammensetzung im Rheintal und in der Stadt Zuerich. Winter 2007/2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, C.; Weimer, S.; Good, C.; Richter, R.; Prevot, A.; Baltensperger, U.

    2009-07-15

    This report issued by the General Energy Research Department and its Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) reports on the results obtained from the measurement of fine-dust quantities and composition in the cantons of eastern Switzerland and the upper Rhine valley during the winter. The PSI analysed the samples on behalf of the Swiss cantons, Vorarlberg (Austria) and the Principality of Liechtenstein. The mobile equipment used and the measurements made in the Rhine Valley between Lake Constance and Chur as well as in the City of Zurich are presented and discussed. The results of the measurements are presented in graphical form and the chemical composition of the pollutants at the different locations are discussed. Details of the instruments used and the routes taken are noted in an appendix.

  18. Estrés postraumático y abuso sexual: Estudio descriptivo en víctimas denunciantes, Bucaramanga 2007-2008 Posttraumatic stress disorder and sexual abuse: Descriptive Study in Informing victims, Bucaramanga, Colombia 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Enrique Ochoa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El trastorno de estrés postraumático es la principal perturbación psíquica en víctimas de abuso sexual. Existen asociaciones significativas entre la edad y el género de la víctima, relación con el victimario, la penetración y el trastorno; sin embargo, la evidencia sobre el efecto de la mayoría de factores de riesgo es aún controversial. Este estudio inicial describe dichas características en una población denunciante con y sin este trastorno.Metodología: Estudio descriptivo en 175 víctimas de abuso sexual que acuden a peritaje al la Regional Nororiente Instituto Nacional de Medicina Legal y Ciencias Forenses en Bucaramanga, entrevistados por psiquiatría forense durante 1 año. Se presentan medidas de tendencia central y frecuencia. Resultados: La mayoría de denunciantes eran mujeres entre los 5 y los 14 años. El 79% de los casos provenían de estrato 1 y 2. Solo la tercera parte fueron denunciados desde el primer episodio. El 88% eran menores de edad. El 95% de los abusadores eran conocidos o parientes. Aproximadamente la mitad de los abusos incluyeron acceso carnal. 2 de cada 5 víctimas presentaron Trastorno por estrés postraumático. Discusión: El abuso sexual en nuestra población es denunciado principalmente en niñas y adolescentes, generalmente es de agresor único, y en congruencia con otros estudios, suele ser crónico y con secuelas psíquicas en más de un tercio de las víctimas. El agresor generalmente es un conocido, o un familiar, y rara vez, un desconocido. Hay que tener en cuenta que lo anteriormente descrito sólo caracteriza a la población denunciante. Salud UIS 2010; 42: 25-33Introduction: Posttraumatic stress disorder is the principal psychological diagnosis in sexual abuse victims. Although its significant associations with victims age and gender, parental relationship with the aggressor and the type of sexual intercourse, the evidence regarding the effect of the majority of risk factors is still controversial. This first-step study describes these characteristics in a complainant population with and without the disorder. Methods: Descriptive study in 175 victims of sexual abuse evaluated in a local forensic institute within a one-year period. Tendency and proportional measures were assessed. Results: The majority of victims were women between 5 through 14 years. 79% of them had middle and low social status. Only the third part of abuses was reported since the first episode. 88% of victims were minors. 95% of the perpetrators were family members or acquaintances. About a half of the events included penetrative abuse. Forty percent of cases had posttraumatic stress disorder. Discussion: Sexual abuse in our population is mainly reported by child and teenage females. Usually is done by a single aggressor, rather a family friend or relative than a stranger. Consistently with other findings, the phenomenon tends to be chronic and causes psychopathology in more than a third of the victims. These findings are only applicable to analogous informing populations. Salud UIS 2010; 42: 25-33.

  19. Radiation protection of patients in medical exposures: regional project IAEA 2007-2008 RLA/9/57;Proteccion radiologica de pacientes en exposiciones medicas: proyecto regional IAEA 2007-2008 RLA/9/57

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The radiation protection of patients in medical exposures as a project is composed of 5 regional covers some 80 countries, 94 hospitals and 120 activities related to radiology and radiation. A workshop was developed with the following objectives: to provide theoretical and practical elements for professionals in radiation protection of patients developing tasks assigned, to identify the methodology by measurement through sheets for data collection and interpretation of the same, to perform practical exercises of the procedures to apply in radiology, mammography, computed tomography and interventionism. The workshop was divided into theoretical and practical sections, sections for analysis and interpretation of data and a final exam. This project aims to identify strengths and weaknesses, simple primary objectives with fast results, involvement of doctors, institutional commitment to see results after more complex stages, technique stiffness, sustainability. Among the goals of the member states are: To prevent radioinjury in interventional procedures and reduce the probability of stochastic effect, especially in pediatrics; dose reduction changing of rare earth in countries that have not yet made, optimization in mammography, optimization of protection in CT, with emphasis in pediatrics; protection of family and the public to give discharge the patient, after therapy with radiopharmaceuticals; to prevent accidental exposures in radiotherapy and pediatric radiology. The content is divided into four parts which include different forms to collect information constituted on the following topics: Intervention, with information over Uncertainties in calibration of the meter P{sub K}A, Evaluation of dose with radiochromatic movie, Data processing and radiation protection, Measurements of kerma-area product, Practice: Exposure assessment of the patient in interventional radiology, Determination of the Hemi reducer layer, Recalibration and use of a meter of Kerma-area product (Pk, a); Mammography theme contains: Application and criteria for image quality: a study of the mammography - skull flow, Sheet for data collection in patients CC and MLO, Sheet for data collection in mammography practices, include equipment description, determination of yields, Hemi reducer thickness, determination of {sup c,} data from the patient and glandular dose; Tomography theme contains: General data about computed tomography services in the Hospital Max Peralta which include report of tests and dosimetry in phantom, in air, information from used scanners; Radiology theme contains: Dosimetry of patients in general radiology where shows forms for determining the performance of x-ray tube; Minimum values, maximum and Kerma in air average in surface of entry for PA Chest radiographs; Measures to generate the yield curve; Patient data, the technical parameters and image quality; Forms by country; Kerma in air at the entrance to the PA Chest skin, the dosimetry in general radiology is included with practices and methodology for the measurement and evaluation, also shows forms with protocols for measurements with TLDS;La proteccion radiologica de pacientes en exposiciones medicas como proyecto esta integrado por 5 regionales que abarcan unos 80 paises, 94 hospitales y 120 actividades relacionadas con radiologia y radiacion. Un taller fue desarrollado con los siguientes objetivos: proporcionar los elementos teoricos y practicos para que los profesionales en proteccion radiologica de pacientes desarrollen tareas encomendadas, identificar la metodologia de medicion mediante hojas para la captura de datos e interpretacion de los mismos, realizar ejercicios practicos de los procedimientos a aplicar en radiologia, mamografia, tomografia computarizada e intervencionismo. Dicho taller se dividio en secciones teoricas y practicas, secciones de analisis e interpretacion de datos y un examen final. Este proyecto pretende identificar fortalezas y debilidades, objetivos primarios simples con resultados rapidos, involucramiento de los medicos, compromiso institucional al ver resultados posteriores a etapas mas complejas, rigidez tecnica, sostenibilidad. Entre las metas de los estados miembros estan: evitar radiolesiones en procedimientos intervencionistas y reducir la probabilidad de efectos estocasticos, especialmente en pediatria; reduccion de dosis cambiando a tierras raras en paises que aun no lo han hecho, optimizacion en mamografia, optimizacion de la proteccion en TAC, con enfasis en pediatria; proteccion de familiares y del publico al dar de alta al paciente, despues de una terapia con radiofarmacos; evitar exposiciones accidentales en radioterapia y radiologia pediatrica. El contenido esta dividido en cuatro partes que incluyen diferentes formularios para recopilar informacion constituidos en los siguientes temas: Intervencion, con informacion sobre Incertidumbres en la calibracion del medidor de P{sub K}A, Evaluacion de dosis con pelicula radiocromica, Datos de procesamientos y proteccion radiologica, Mediciones de producto kerma-area, Practica: Valoracion de la exposicion del paciente en radiologia intervencionista, Determinacion de la capa Hemi reductora, Recalibracion y uso de un medidor del producto kerma - area (Pk, a); El tema Mamografia contiene: Aplicacion y criterios de calidad de la imagen: estudio de la mamografia - craneo caudal, Hoja para la captura de datos en pacientes CC y MLO, Hojas para la captura de datos en las practicas de mamografia, incluye descripcion del equipo, determinacion de rendimientos, de espesor Hemi reductor, determinacion de {sup c,} datos de la paciente y dosis glandular; El tema Tomografia contiene: Datos generales de servicios de tomografia computada en el Hospital Max Peralta que incluye reporte de examenes y dosimetria en fantoma, en aire, informacion de scaners usados; El tema Radiologia contiene: Dosimetria de pacientes en radiologia general donde muestra formularios para la determinacion del rendimiento del tubo de rayos x; Valores minimos, maximos y promedios de Kerma en Aire en superficie de entrada para radiografias de Torax PA; Medidas para generar la curva de rendimiento; Datos del paciente, parametros de la tecnica y calidad de imagen; Formularios por pais; Kerma en aire a la entrada de la piel del Torax PA, la dosimetria en radiologia general es incluida con practicas y metodologia para la medicion y evaluacion, ademas muestra formularios con protocolos para las mediciones con los TLDS

  20. Radiation protection of patients in medical exposures: regional project IAEA 2007-2008 RLA/9/57; Proteccion radiologica de pacientes en exposiciones medicas: proyecto regional IAEA 2007-2008 RLA/9/57

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The radiation protection of patients in medical exposures as a project is composed of 5 regional covers some 80 countries, 94 hospitals and 120 activities related to radiology and radiation. A workshop was developed with the following objectives: to provide theoretical and practical elements for professionals in radiation protection of patients developing tasks assigned, to identify the methodology by measurement through sheets for data collection and interpretation of the same, to perform practical exercises of the procedures to apply in radiology, mammography, computed tomography and interventionism. The workshop was divided into theoretical and practical sections, sections for analysis and interpretation of data and a final exam. This project aims to identify strengths and weaknesses, simple primary objectives with fast results, involvement of doctors, institutional commitment to see results after more complex stages, technique stiffness, sustainability. Among the goals of the member states are: To prevent radioinjury in interventional procedures and reduce the probability of stochastic effect, especially in pediatrics; dose reduction changing of rare earth in countries that have not yet made, optimization in mammography, optimization of protection in CT, with emphasis in pediatrics; protection of family and the public to give discharge the patient, after therapy with radiopharmaceuticals; to prevent accidental exposures in radiotherapy and pediatric radiology. The content is divided into four parts which include different forms to collect information constituted on the following topics: Intervention, with information over Uncertainties in calibration of the meter P{sub K}A, Evaluation of dose with radiochromatic movie, Data processing and radiation protection, Measurements of kerma-area product, Practice: Exposure assessment of the patient in interventional radiology, Determination of the Hemi reducer layer, Recalibration and use of a meter of Kerma-area product (Pk, a); Mammography theme contains: Application and criteria for image quality: a study of the mammography - skull flow, Sheet for data collection in patients CC and MLO, Sheet for data collection in mammography practices, include equipment description, determination of yields, Hemi reducer thickness, determination of {sup c,} data from the patient and glandular dose; Tomography theme contains: General data about computed tomography services in the Hospital Max Peralta which include report of tests and dosimetry in phantom, in air, information from used scanners; Radiology theme contains: Dosimetry of patients in general radiology where shows forms for determining the performance of x-ray tube; Minimum values, maximum and Kerma in air average in surface of entry for PA Chest radiographs; Measures to generate the yield curve; Patient data, the technical parameters and image quality; Forms by country; Kerma in air at the entrance to the PA Chest skin, the dosimetry in general radiology is included with practices and methodology for the measurement and evaluation, also shows forms with protocols for measurements with TLDS;La proteccion radiologica de pacientes en exposiciones medicas como proyecto esta integrado por 5 regionales que abarcan unos 80 paises, 94 hospitales y 120 actividades relacionadas con radiologia y radiacion. Un taller fue desarrollado con los siguientes objetivos: proporcionar los elementos teoricos y practicos para que los profesionales en proteccion radiologica de pacientes desarrollen tareas encomendadas, identificar la metodologia de medicion mediante hojas para la captura de datos e interpretacion de los mismos, realizar ejercicios practicos de los procedimientos a aplicar en radiologia, mamografia, tomografia computarizada e intervencionismo. Dicho taller se dividio en secciones teoricas y practicas, secciones de analisis e interpretacion de datos y un examen final. Este proyecto pretende identificar fortalezas y debilidades, objetivos primarios simples con resultados rapidos, involucramiento de los medicos, compromiso institucional al ver resultados posteriores a etapas mas complejas, rigidez tecnica, sostenibilidad. Entre las metas de los estados miembros estan: evitar radiolesiones en procedimientos intervencionistas y reducir la probabilidad de efectos estocasticos, especialmente en pediatria; reduccion de dosis cambiando a tierras raras en paises que aun no lo han hecho, optimizacion en mamografia, optimizacion de la proteccion en TAC, con enfasis en pediatria; proteccion de familiares y del publico al dar de alta al paciente, despues de una terapia con radiofarmacos; evitar exposiciones accidentales en radioterapia y radiologia pediatrica. El contenido esta dividido en cuatro partes que incluyen diferentes formularios para recopilar informacion constituidos en los siguientes temas: Intervencion, con informacion sobre Incertidumbres en la calibracion del medidor de P{sub K}A, Evaluacion de dosis con pelicula radiocromica, Datos de procesamientos y proteccion radiologica, Mediciones de producto kerma-area, Practica: Valoracion de la exposicion del paciente en radiologia intervencionista, Determinacion de la capa Hemi reductora, Recalibracion y uso de un medidor del producto kerma - area (Pk, a); El tema Mamografia contiene: Aplicacion y criterios de calidad de la imagen: estudio de la mamografia - craneo caudal, Hoja para la captura de datos en pacientes CC y MLO, Hojas para la captura de datos en las practicas de mamografia, incluye descripcion del equipo, determinacion de rendimientos, de espesor Hemi reductor, determinacion de {sup c,} datos de la paciente y dosis glandular; El tema Tomografia contiene: Datos generales de servicios de tomografia computada en el Hospital Max Peralta que incluye reporte de examenes y dosimetria en fantoma, en aire, informacion de scaners usados; El tema Radiologia contiene: Dosimetria de pacientes en radiologia general donde muestra formularios para la determinacion del rendimiento del tubo de rayos x; Valores minimos, maximos y promedios de Kerma en Aire en superficie de entrada para radiografias de Torax PA; Medidas para generar la curva de rendimiento; Datos del paciente, parametros de la tecnica y calidad de imagen; Formularios por pais; Kerma en aire a la entrada de la piel del Torax PA, la dosimetria en radiologia general es incluida con practicas y metodologia para la medicion y evaluacion, ademas muestra formularios con protocolos para las mediciones con los TLDS

  1. 77 FR 39733 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: Appalachian Trail Management Partner Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [WASO-NRSS-10750; 2490-STC] Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: Appalachian Trail Management Partner Survey AGENCY: National Park Service (NPS), Interior. ACTION: Notice of an extension of a currently approved information collection (1024-0259...

  2. Fabrication of friction-reducing texture surface by selective laser melting of ink-printed (SLM-IP) copper (Cu) nanoparticles(NPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinjian; Liu, Junyan; Wang, Yang; Fu, Yanan

    2017-02-01

    This paper reports a process of selective laser melting of ink-printed (SLM-IP) copper (Cu) nanoparticles(NPs) for the fabrication of full dense Cu friction-reducing texture on the metallic surface in ambient condition. This technique synthesizes pure Cu by chemical reduction route using an organic solvent during laser melting in the atmosphere environment, and provides a flexible additive manufacture approach to form complex friction-reduction texture on the metallic surface. Microtextures of ring and disc arrays have been fabricated on the stainless steel surface by SLM-IP Cu NPs. The friction coefficient has been measured under the lubricating condition of the oil. Disc texture surface (DTS) has a relatively low friction coefficient compared with ring texture surface (RTS), Cu film surface (Cu-FS) and the untreated substrate. The study suggests a further research on SLM-IP approach for complex microstructure or texture manufacturing, possibly realizing its advantage of flexibility.

  3. HighResNPS.com – an Internet Database for Liquid Chromatography - High Resolution Mass Spectrometry Screening for New Psychoactive Substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Petur Weihe; Mollerup, Christian Brinch; Mardal, Marie

    /Discussions: . The overlapping entries of the database verify that similar fragment ions can be observed from identical compounds across different LC-HRMS systems. The inclusion of fragment ions from other labs can reduce false positive identifications, when no reference standard is available in-house. HighResNPS can serve......Background/Introduction: The number of new psychoactive substances (NPS) is constantly increasing which makes it challenging to keep the screening libraries updated with the relevant analytical targets. Liquid chromatography coupled High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LC-HRMS) screening methods...... with most screening platforms after minor formatting. Results: Currently, 11 users from 9 laboratories in 7 counties have contributed with 318 entries to the database with experimental data containing at least one fragment ion. 66% of the uploaded data were based on reference standards. Synthetic...

  4. Real time imaging and infrared background scene analysis using the Naval Postgraduate School infrared search and target designation (NPS-IRSTD) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Jean D.

    1991-09-01

    The imaging in real time of infrared background scenes with the Naval Postgraduate School Infrared Search and Target Designation (NPS-IRSTD) System was achieved through extensive software developments in protected mode assembly language on an Intel 80386 33 MHz computer. The new software processes the 512 by 480 pixel images directly in the extended memory area of the computer where the DT-2861 frame grabber memory buffers are mapped. Direct interfacing, through a JDR-PR10 prototype card, between the frame grabber and the host computer AT bus enables each load of the frame grabber memory buffers to be effected under software control. The protected mode assembly language program can refresh the display of a six degree pseudo-color sector in the scanner rotation within the two second period of the scanner. A study of the imaging properties of the NPS-IRSTD is presented with preliminary work on image analysis and contrast enhancement of infrared background scenes.

  5. Functionalization of Fe3O4 NPs by Silanization: Use of Amine (APTES and Thiol (MPTMS Silanes and Their Physical Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Villa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the results concerning the synthesis of magnetite (Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs, their functionalization using silane derivatives, such as (3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES and (3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS, and their exhaustive morphological and physical characterization by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM with energy dispersion X-ray spectrometer (EDX analysis, AC magnetic susceptibility, UV-VIS and IR spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric (TGA analyses are reported. Two different paths were adopted to achieve the desired functionalization: (1 the direct reaction between the functionalized organo-silane molecule and the surface of the magnetite nanoparticle; and (2 the use of an intermediate silica coating. Finally, the occurrence of both the functionalization with amino and thiol groups has been demonstrated by the reaction with ninhydrin and the capture of Au NPs, respectively.

  6. SOHO-Ulysses Coordinated Studies During the Two Extended Quadratures and the Radial Alignment of 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, S. T.; Poletto, G.

    2007-01-01

    During quadrature, plasma seen on the limb of the Sun, along the radi al direction to Ulysses, by SOHO or STEREO can be sampled in situ as lt later passes Ulysses. A figure shows a coronagraph image, the rad ial towards Ulysses at 58 deg. S. and the SOHO/UVCS slit positions d uring one set of observations. A CME subsequently occurred and passed Ulysses (at 3/4 AU) 15 days later.

  7. SOHO-Ulysses Coordinated Studies During the Two Extended Quadratures and the Alignment of 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, S. T.; Poletto, G.

    2007-01-01

    During SOHO-Sun-Ulysses quadratures the geometry of the configuration makes it possible to sample "in situ" the plasma parcels that are remotely observed in the corona. Although the quadrature position occurs at a well defined instant in time, we typically take data while Ulysses is within +/- 5 degrees of the limb, with the understanding that plasma sampled by Ulysses over this time interval can all be traced to its source in the corona. The relative positions of SOHO and Ulysses in winter 2007 (19 Dec 2006-28 May 2007) are unusual: the SOHO-Sun-Ulysses included angle is always between 85 and 95 degrees - the quadrature lasts for 5 months! This provides an opportunity for extended observations of specific observing objectives. In addition, in summer 2007, Ulysses (at 1.34 AU) is in near-radial alignment with Earth/ACE/Wind and SOHO, allowing us to analyze radial gradients and propagation in the solar wind and inner heliosphere. Our own quadrature campaigns rely heavily on LASCO and UVCS coronal observations: LASCO giving the overall context above 2 solar radii while the UVCS spectrograph acquired data from - 1.5 to, typically, 4-5 solar radii. In the past, coronal parameters have been derived from data acquired by these two experiments and compared with "in situ" data of Ulysses' SWOOPS and SWICS. Data from other experiments like EIT, CDS, SUMER, Sac Peak Fe XIV maps, magnetic field maps from the Wilcox solar magnetograph, MLSO, from MDI, and from the Ulysses magnetograph experiment have been, and will be, used to complement LASCO/UVCS/SWOOPS and SWICS data. We anticipate that observations by ACE/WIND/STEREO/Hinode and other missions will be relevant as well. During the IHY campaigns, Ulysses will be 52-80 degrees south in winter 2007, near sunspot minimum. Hence, our own scientific objective will be to sample high speed wind or regions of transition between slow and fast wind. This might be a very interesting situation - not met in previous quadratures - allowing us to study the variation of element abundances across streamer borders in the corona and,correspondingly, "in situ". Also, observing plasma over prolonged time intervals and at different latitudes, we may examine the latitude variation of the fractionation effect (e.g. Yon Steiger, 2002) and its dependence on time (e.g. Woo, 2004). For instance, if the FIP bias is dictated by the duration of plasma confinement in solar loops, its value in streamers should depend on the streamer age. Analogous variations should be found in the abundances of "in situ" plasma released by the streamer. All Ulysses and SOHO data is in the public domain and accessible so different objectives could be addressed by others. The winter 2008 quadrature will be well into the next sunspot cycle and there might be significant high mid-latitude activity. Ulysses will be up to 80 degrees in the northern hemisphere at this time and able to detect the resulting ICMEs and ejecta, allowing us to study the physical parameters of the propagating CME bubble/core/front, and/or to study the coronal and "in situ" characteristics of the current sheet associated with the event (e.g. Bemporad et al. 2005), so far still vaguely defined.

  8. California Library Statistics, 2009: Fiscal Year 2007-2008 from Public, Academic, Special and County Law Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Ira, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Each year the State Library sends annual report forms to California's public, academic, special, state agency, and county law libraries. Statistical data from those reports are tabulated in this publication, with directory listings published in the companion volume, "California Library Directory." For this fiscal year, 389 libraries of…

  9. Máster Online en Buscadores: Selección de Unidades didácticas 2007-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Rovira, Cristòfol; Codina, Lluís; Marcos, Mari Carmen; Pedraza, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    Six topics related to search engines and web positioning such as: -- Structure and functions of a search engine -- The life cycle of a web campaign positioning -- Fundamentals of Marketing in search engines -- Technological monitoring and competitive intelligence for SEO-SEM -- Search engines and presentation of results in group -- Looking for maps are available in a unique document (82 pages) that presents and discusses the above items, presents proposals for activ...

  10. Analysis of data related to the updating of diagnosis reference levels in radiology and nuclear medicine. Assessment 2007-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the results of the analysis of 'patient' dosimetric data which radiology and nuclear medicine establishments must supply every year to the IRSN (the French Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety Institute) according to a decree related to diagnosis reference levels in radiology and nuclear medicine. The analysed dosimetric data concern assessments performed during 2007 and 2008. For the different concerned practices (radiology, scanography, nuclear medicine), the report proposes a presentation and a discussion of global data, and then a presentation of data either for different types of examination on adults and on children, or for the different parts of the body

  11. Abolition of set-aside schemes and its impacts on habitat styructure in Denmark from 2007-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture accounts for 65% of the Danish land area. Habitats for wild species are characterized by small patches, surrounded by intensive agriculture. Due to extensive management, set-aside land can if located close to habitats, improve habitat structure in terms of patch size and connectivity....... In 2008 set-aside schemes were abolished, leading to a decline in the area of set-aside land from 6% of all agricultural land in 2007 to 3% in 2008. We developed an indicator aiming to measure the effect of the reduced area of set-aside land on habitat structure. The indicator combines distance...... to habitats, potential corridors between habitats and area percentage of set-aside land. Analyses show that the halving of the area of set-aside land has led to a 55% reduction of the effect of set-aside land on habitat structure....

  12. Abolition of set-aside schemes and its impact on habitat connectivity in Denmark from 2007 - 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Gregor

    In Denmark, agriculture occupies 28,000 km² or 65% of the land. As a consequence, habitats for wild species are mainly characterized by small patches, surrounded by intensive agriculture. Due to extensive agricultural management, set-aside land can spatially connect habitats and thus positively...... affect habitat connectivity, which is of importance to the survival of wild species. In 2008 set-aside schemes were abolished, leading to a considerable re-cultivation of former set-aside land and consequently to a decline in the area of set-aside land from 6% of all agricultural land in 2007 to 3......% in 2008. The main argument against regulations of the re-cultivation of set-aside land with the aim to minimize declines in habitat-connectivity was that re-cultivation would primarily occur on highly productive land at a long distance from habitats, while set-aside land located on marginal land, close...

  13. Biofuel policies and the impact of developing countries' policy responses to the 2007-2008 food price boom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, de Harry; Drabik, D.

    2016-01-01

    Economists have been unanimous that developing countries’ policy responses to high food grain prices in 2007–2008 in restricting exports and promoting imports increased both world food grain price levels and volatility. Furthermore, the literature emphasizes the self-defeating aspects of policy

  14. Dynamic communities in multichannel data: an application to the foreign exchange market during the 2007-2008 credit crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Daniel J; Porter, Mason A; McDonald, Mark; Williams, Stacy; Johnson, Neil F; Jones, Nick S

    2009-09-01

    We study the cluster dynamics of multichannel (multivariate) time series by representing their correlations as time-dependent networks and investigating the evolution of network communities. We employ a node-centric approach that allows us to track the effects of the community evolution on the functional roles of individual nodes without having to track entire communities. As an example, we consider a foreign exchange market network in which each node represents an exchange rate and each edge represents a time-dependent correlation between the rates. We study the period 2005-2008, which includes the recent credit and liquidity crisis. Using community detection, we find that exchange rates that are strongly attached to their community are persistently grouped with the same set of rates, whereas exchange rates that are important for the transfer of information tend to be positioned on the edges of communities. Our analysis successfully uncovers major trading changes that occurred in the market during the credit crisis.

  15. Influenza in outpatient ILI case-patients in national hospital-based surveillance, Bangladesh, 2007-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Uz Zaman

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent population-based estimates in a Dhaka low-income community suggest that influenza was prevalent among children. To explore the epidemiology and seasonality of influenza throughout the country and among all age groups, we established nationally representative hospital-based surveillance necessary to guide influenza prevention and control efforts.We conducted influenza-like illness and severe acute respiratory illness sentinel surveillance in 12 hospitals across Bangladesh during May 2007-December 2008. We collected specimens from 3,699 patients, 385 (10% which were influenza positive by real time RT-PCR. Among the sample-positive patients, 192 (51% were type A and 188 (49% were type B. Hemagglutinin subtyping of type A viruses detected 137 (71% A/H1 and 55 (29% A/H3, but no A/H5 or other novel influenza strains. The frequency of influenza cases was highest among children aged under 5 years (44%, while the proportions of laboratory confirmed cases was highest among participants aged 11-15 (18%. We applied kriging, a geo-statistical technique, to explore the spatial and temporal spread of influenza and found that, during 2008, influenza was first identified in large port cities and then gradually spread to other parts of the country. We identified a distinct influenza peak during the rainy season (May-September.Our surveillance data confirms that influenza is prevalent throughout Bangladesh, affecting a wide range of ages and causing considerable morbidity and hospital care. A unimodal influenza seasonality may allow Bangladesh to time annual influenza prevention messages and vaccination campaigns to reduce the national influenza burden. To scale-up such national interventions, we need to quantify the national rates of influenza and the economic burden associated with this disease through further studies.

  16. 76 FR 2883 - Folding Metal Tables and Chairs From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of 2007-2008...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... the chair component of Staples' ``Complete Office-To-Go,'' a folding chair with a tubular steel frame... steel seat frame with screws, and has cross-braces affixed to its legs. On May 1, 2006, the Department... folding tables and folding chairs made primarily or exclusively from steel or other metal, as described...

  17. Tijdstip van MH-bespuiting in uien en effect van stikstof op kale uien : proeven 2007/2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den L.

    2008-01-01

    In 2007 zijn in Lelystad, als vervolg op de literatuurstudie “Het optreden van spruitvorming en kale uien tijdens de bewaring” twee veldproeven uitgevoerd: 1) een proef waarin bij twee rassen en bij twee verschillende stikstofbemestingsniveaus op verschillende momenten met MH is gespoten.

  18. U.S. Department of Energy & Nuclear Regulatory Commission Advanced Fuel Cycle Research & Development Seminar Series FY 2007 & 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandy, Christopher [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2008-08-01

    In fiscal year 2007, the Advanced Burner Reactor project initiated an educational seminar series for the Department of Energy (DOE) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel on various aspects of fast reactor fuel cycle closure technologies. This important work was initiated to inform DOE and NRC personnel on initial details of sodium-cooled fast reactor, separations, waste form, and safeguard technologies being considered for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Research and Development program, and to learn the important lesson from the licensing process for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant that educating the NRC staff early in the regulatory process is very important and critical to a project success.

  19. Spa-typing av stammer av Staphylococcus aureus fra blodkulturer analysert ved UNN Tromsø 2007-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Midtgard, Anette

    2011-01-01

    Bakgrunn: Staphylococcus aureus er et av de vanligste patogenene som kan skape sykdom hos mennesket. Mange av oss er bærere av bakterien i nese eller hals, og det er vist at persisterende bærere har høyere risiko for å utvikle S. aureus-infeksjoner enn andre. De fleste S. aureus-infeksjonene blant bærere er forårsaket av pasientens egen bakteriestamme. Materiale og metode: 140 blodkulturisolater fra pasienter med S. aureus bakteriemi analysert ved Avdeling for mikrobiologi og smitte...

  20. 78 FR 50114 - Distribution of 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 Satellite...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, LM-401, 101 Independence Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20559-6000... addressed to: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, LM-403, 101... categories of copyrightable content (e.g., movies, music, and sports programming). At Phase II, the royalties...

  1. BESAR MASALAH DAN HUBUNGAN DISABILITAS DENGAN PENYAKIT KRONIS DAN GANGGUAN MENTAL EMOSIONAL BERDASARKAN SURVEI KESEHATAN NASIONAL RISKESDAS 2007 - 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Isfandari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Information about prevalence, mortality and disability is necessary for resource allocation in health sectors. This analysis focuses on the magnitude of disability and its association with chronic disease and emotional distress. There are 664197 records can be analyzed. Prevalence of disability is 31.2% (95% CI = 30.9 -31.5. The results showed that age is the strongest contributors of disability, followed by psychological distress and stroke. This result pointed out the importance that health service sector should pay attention on the psychological aspects of patients. Key words : Disability, Emotional, Prevalence

  2. Radiation protection of patients in medical exposures: regional project IAEA 2007-2008 RLA/9/57

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The radiation protection of patients in medical exposures as a project is composed of 5 regional covers some 80 countries, 94 hospitals and 120 activities related to radiology and radiation. A workshop was developed with the following objectives: to provide theoretical and practical elements for professionals in radiation protection of patients developing tasks assigned, to identify the methodology by measurement through sheets for data collection and interpretation of the same, to perform practical exercises of the procedures to apply in radiology, mammography, computed tomography and interventionism. The workshop was divided into theoretical and practical sections, sections for analysis and interpretation of data and a final exam. This project aims to identify strengths and weaknesses, simple primary objectives with fast results, involvement of doctors, institutional commitment to see results after more complex stages, technique stiffness, sustainability. Among the goals of the member states are: To prevent radioinjury in interventional procedures and reduce the probability of stochastic effect, especially in pediatrics; dose reduction changing of rare earth in countries that have not yet made, optimization in mammography, optimization of protection in CT, with emphasis in pediatrics; protection of family and the public to give discharge the patient, after therapy with radiopharmaceuticals; to prevent accidental exposures in radiotherapy and pediatric radiology. The content is divided into four parts which include different forms to collect information constituted on the following topics: Intervention, with information over Uncertainties in calibration of the meter P K A, Evaluation of dose with radiochromatic movie, Data processing and radiation protection, Measurements of kerma-area product, Practice: Exposure assessment of the patient in interventional radiology, Determination of the Hemi reducer layer, Recalibration and use of a meter of Kerma-area product (Pk, a); Mammography theme contains: Application and criteria for image quality: a study of the mammography - skull flow, Sheet for data collection in patients CC and MLO, Sheet for data collection in mammography practices, include equipment description, determination of yields, Hemi reducer thickness, determination of c, data from the patient and glandular dose; Tomography theme contains: General data about computed tomography services in the Hospital Max Peralta which include report of tests and dosimetry in phantom, in air, information from used scanners; Radiology theme contains: Dosimetry of patients in general radiology where shows forms for determining the performance of x-ray tube; Minimum values, maximum and Kerma in air average in surface of entry for PA Chest radiographs; Measures to generate the yield curve; Patient data, the technical parameters and image quality; Forms by country; Kerma in air at the entrance to the PA Chest skin, the dosimetry in general radiology is included with practices and methodology for the measurement and evaluation, also shows forms with protocols for measurements with TLDS [es

  3. Dynamic communities in multichannel data: An application to the foreign exchange market during the 2007-2008 credit crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Daniel J.; Porter, Mason A.; McDonald, Mark; Williams, Stacy; Johnson, Neil F.; Jones, Nick S.

    2009-09-01

    We study the cluster dynamics of multichannel (multivariate) time series by representing their correlations as time-dependent networks and investigating the evolution of network communities. We employ a node-centric approach that allows us to track the effects of the community evolution on the functional roles of individual nodes without having to track entire communities. As an example, we consider a foreign exchange market network in which each node represents an exchange rate and each edge represents a time-dependent correlation between the rates. We study the period 2005-2008, which includes the recent credit and liquidity crisis. Using community detection, we find that exchange rates that are strongly attached to their community are persistently grouped with the same set of rates, whereas exchange rates that are important for the transfer of information tend to be positioned on the edges of communities. Our analysis successfully uncovers major trading changes that occurred in the market during the credit crisis.

  4. Microarray-based bioinformatics analysis of the combined effects of SiNPs and PbAc on cardiovascular system in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hejing; Zhang, Yannan; Shi, Yanfeng; Feng, Lin; Duan, Junchao; Sun, Zhiwei

    2017-10-01

    With rapid development of nanotechnology and growing environmental pollution, the combined toxic effects of SiNPs and pollutants of heavy metals like lead have received global attentions. The aim of this study was to explore the cardiovascular effects of the co-exposure of SiNPs and lead acetate (PbAc) in zebrafish using microarray and bioinformatics analysis. Although there was no other obvious cardiovascular malformation except bleeding phenotype, bradycardia, angiogenesis inhibition and declined cardiac output in zebrafish co-exposed of SiNPs and PbAc at NOAEL level, significant changes were observed in mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression patterns. STC-GO analysis indicated that the co-exposure might have more toxic effects on cardiovascular system than that exposure alone. Key differentially expressed genes were discerned out based on the Dynamic-gene-network, including stxbp1a, ndfip2, celf4 and gsk3b. Furthermore, several miRNAs obtained from the miRNA-Gene-Network might play crucial roles in cardiovascular disease, such as dre-miR-93, dre-miR-34a, dre-miR-181c, dre-miR-7145, dre-miR-730, dre-miR-129-5p, dre-miR-19d, dre-miR-218b, dre-miR-221. Besides, the analysis of miRNA-pathway-network indicated that the zebrafish were stimulated by the co-exposure of SiNPs and PbAc, which might cause the disturbance of calcium homeostasis and endoplasmic reticulum stress. As a result, cardiac muscle contraction might be deteriorated. In general, our data provide abundant fundamental research clues to the combined toxicity of environmental pollutants and further in-depth verifications are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A novel electrochemical sensing strategy for rapid and ultrasensitive detection of Salmonella by rolling circle amplification and DNA–AuNPs probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Dan; Yan, Yurong; Lei, Pinhua; Shen, Bo [Key Laboratory of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics (Ministry of Education), College of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Cheng, Wei [Key Laboratory of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics (Ministry of Education), College of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); The Center for Clinical Molecular Medical detection, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Ju, Huangxian [Key Laboratory of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics (Ministry of Education), College of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ding, Shijia, E-mail: dingshijia@163.com [Key Laboratory of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics (Ministry of Education), College of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China)

    2014-10-10

    A novel electrochemical sensing strategy was developed for ultrasensitive and rapid detection of Salmonella by combining the rolling circle amplification with DNA–AuNPs probe. - Highlights: • This paper presented a novel sensing strategy for the rapid and ultrasensitive detection for Salmonella. • Combination of rolling circle amplification and DNA–AuNPs probe is the first time for Salmonella electrochemical detection. • The method displayed excellent sensitivity and specificity for detection of Salmonella. • The fabricated biosensor was successfully applied to detect Salmonella in milk samples. - Abstract: A novel electrochemical sensing strategy was developed for ultrasensitive and rapid detection of Salmonella by combining the rolling circle amplification with DNA–AuNPs probe. The target DNA could be specifically captured by probe 1 on the sensing interface. Then the circularization mixture was added to form a typical sandwich structure. In the presence of dNTPs and phi29 DNA polymerase, the RCA was initiated to produce micrometer-long single-strand DNA. Finally, the detection probe (DNA–AuNPs) could recognize RCA product to produce enzymatic electrochemical signal. Under optimal conditions, the calibration curve of synthetic target DNA had good linearity from 10 aM to 10 pM with a detection limit of 6.76 aM (S/N = 3). The developed method had been successfully applied to detect Salmonella as low as 6 CFU mL{sup −1} in real milk sample. This proposed strategy showed great potential for clinical diagnosis, food safety and environmental monitoring.

  6. A novel electrochemical sensing strategy for rapid and ultrasensitive detection of Salmonella by rolling circle amplification and DNA–AuNPs probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Dan; Yan, Yurong; Lei, Pinhua; Shen, Bo; Cheng, Wei; Ju, Huangxian; Ding, Shijia

    2014-01-01

    A novel electrochemical sensing strategy was developed for ultrasensitive and rapid detection of Salmonella by combining the rolling circle amplification with DNA–AuNPs probe. - Highlights: • This paper presented a novel sensing strategy for the rapid and ultrasensitive detection for Salmonella. • Combination of rolling circle amplification and DNA–AuNPs probe is the first time for Salmonella electrochemical detection. • The method displayed excellent sensitivity and specificity for detection of Salmonella. • The fabricated biosensor was successfully applied to detect Salmonella in milk samples. - Abstract: A novel electrochemical sensing strategy was developed for ultrasensitive and rapid detection of Salmonella by combining the rolling circle amplification with DNA–AuNPs probe. The target DNA could be specifically captured by probe 1 on the sensing interface. Then the circularization mixture was added to form a typical sandwich structure. In the presence of dNTPs and phi29 DNA polymerase, the RCA was initiated to produce micrometer-long single-strand DNA. Finally, the detection probe (DNA–AuNPs) could recognize RCA product to produce enzymatic electrochemical signal. Under optimal conditions, the calibration curve of synthetic target DNA had good linearity from 10 aM to 10 pM with a detection limit of 6.76 aM (S/N = 3). The developed method had been successfully applied to detect Salmonella as low as 6 CFU mL −1 in real milk sample. This proposed strategy showed great potential for clinical diagnosis, food safety and environmental monitoring

  7. NPS-NRL-Rice-UIUC Collaboration on Navy Atmosphere-Ocean Coupled Models on Many-Core Computer Architectures Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Distribution approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. NPS-NRL- Rice -UIUC Collaboration on Navy Atmosphere...portability. There is still a gap in the OCCA support for Fortran programmers who do not have accelerator experience. Activities at Rice /Virginia Tech are...for automated data movement and for kernel optimization using source code analysis and run-time detective work. In this quarter the Rice /Virginia

  8. The nonenzyme ethanol sensor based on pt nps and fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ mnps modified au electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, J.; Ma, X.; Yin, G.

    2013-01-01

    The none enzyme ethanol sensor was prepared using Pt nanoparticles (NPs) and Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) modified Au electrode. Pt NPs were deposited on the gold plated electrode through the method of potentiostatic deposition. Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ magnetic nanoparticles were added to the surface of Pt NPs modified Au electrode to obtain the Au/Pt/ Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ MNPs electrode. The as-prepared Au/Pt/Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ MNPs electrode was used for the detection of liquid ethanol without using enzyme. Cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry were used to study the behavior of ethanol electro-catalytic oxidation on Pt/Au/Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ electrode. It was found that Pt NPs played strong catalytic oxidation role of ethanol with the presence of Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ MNPs. The linear range of Au/Pt/Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ MNPs electrode for the detection of ethanol was of 2 x 10 /sup -5/ 1.1 x 10/sup -4/ mol L/sup -1/ and the detection limit was of 3.2 x 10/sup -6/ mol L/sup -5/ when signal to noise ratio was 3sigma. The sensibility of the sensor is 420.4 microA mmol/sup -1/ /sup -2cm/. The simple method provided an effective means for fabricating the novel sensors. (author)

  9. High-throughput screening for new psychoactive substances (NPS) in whole blood by DLLME extraction and UHPLC-MS/MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoardi, Sara; Fisichella, Marco; Romolo, Francesco Saverio; Strano-Rossi, Sabina

    2015-09-01

    The increasing number of new psychoactive substances (NPS) present in the illicit market render their identification in biological fluids/tissues of great concern for clinical and forensic toxicology. Analytical methods able to detect the huge number of substances that can be used are sought, considering also that many NPS are not detected by the standard immunoassays generally used for routine drug screening. The aim of this work was to develop a method for the screening of different classes of NPS (a total of 78 analytes including cathinones, synthetic cannabinoids, phenethylamines, piperazines, ketamine and analogues, benzofurans, tryptamines) from blood samples. The simultaneous extraction of analytes was performed by Dispersive Liquid/Liquid Microextraction DLLME, a very rapid, cheap and efficient extraction technique that employs microliters amounts of organic solvents. Analyses were performed by a target Ultrahigh Performance Liquid Chromatography tandem Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The method allowed the detection of the studied analytes with limits of detection (LODs) ranging from 0.2 to 2ng/mL. The proposed DLLME method can be used as an alternative to classical liquid/liquid or solid-phase extraction techniques due to its rapidity, necessity to use only microliters amounts of organic solvents, cheapness, and to its ability to extract simultaneously a huge number of analytes also from different chemical classes. The method was then applied to 60 authentic real samples from forensic cases, demonstrating its suitability for the screening of a wide number of NPS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Construction of a non-enzymatic sensor based on the poly(o-phenylenediamine)/Ag-NPs composites for detecting glucose in blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jinxiang; Wang, Meirong [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Environmental Engineering and Monitoring, Yangzhou University, 180 Si–Wang–Ting Road, Yangzhou 225002 (China); Guan, Jun [Clinical Medical College of Yangzhou University, Subei People' s Hospital of Jiangsu Province, Yangzhou 225002 (China); Wang, Chengyin, E-mail: wangcy@yzu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Environmental Engineering and Monitoring, Yangzhou University, 180 Si–Wang–Ting Road, Yangzhou 225002 (China); Wang, Guoxiu [School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, City Campus, Broadway, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2017-02-01

    A non-enzymatic glucose sensor, based on the silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs)/poly (o-phenylenediamine) (PoPD) composites, is developed by the electrochemical polymerization of o-phenylenediamine and electrodeposition of silver nanoparticles on an indium tin oxide electrode. The Ag-NPs/PoPD composites are characterized by atomic force microscopy, scanning electronic microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometer. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the proposed glucose sensor demonstrates a wide linear range from 0.15 to 13 mmol L{sup −1} with a correlation coefficient of 0.998. The proposed glucose sensor can be used to detect glucose in blood sample with a satisfactory result. In addition, the proposed sensor presents the advantages, such as facile preparation, low cost, high sensitivity and fast response time. It also exhibits good anti-interference performance and stability. - Highlights: • A facile AgNPs/PoPD/ITO modified sensor was developed for the first time. • The non-enzymatic sensor can detect glucose in human blood directly with a wide detection range. • This sensor is of rapid response, low cost, high sensitivity, and long-time stability.

  11. Red light emitting nano-PVP fibers that hybrid with Ag@SiO2@Eu(tta)3phen-NPs by electrostatic spinning method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolin; Tang, Jianguo; Li, Haidong; Wang, Yao; Wang, Xinzhi; Wang, Yanxin; Huang, Linjun; Belfiore, Laurence A.

    2018-04-01

    This work demonstrated red light emitting nano-PVP fibers that incorporated with novel three-layer nanostructure of Ag@SiO2@Eu(tta)3phen nanoparticles (Ag@SiO2@Eu(tta)3phen-NPs), and the hybrid nano-PVP fibers were fabricated via a remarkably simple electrostatic spinning method. For Ag@SiO2@Eu(tta)3phen-NPs, the thickness of SiO2 is optimized to obtain the maximum luminescent intensity, as results, the optimized thickness of SiO2 is 20 nm. And the corresponding luminescent intensity (612 nm) of the Ag@SiO2@Eu(tta)3phen-NPs is enhanced up to 10 times compared with the pure Eu(tta)3phen complex, which indicates that with 20 nm SiO2 thickness, the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect of Ag@SiO2 exhibits highest performance for enhancing luminescence. Moreover, the luminescent PVP fibers emit bright red light under the fluorescence microscope, which definitely confirms that the microenvironment provided by PVP polymer is absolutely suitable for the fluorescent composites.

  12. Dairy Streptococcus thermophilus improves cell viability of Lactobacillus brevis NPS-QW-145 and its γ-aminobutyric acid biosynthesis ability in milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinglong; Law, Yee-Song; Shah, Nagendra P.

    2015-01-01

    Most high γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) producers are Lactobacillus brevis of plant origin, which may be not able to ferment milk well due to its poor proteolytic nature as evidenced by the absence of genes encoding extracellular proteinases in its genome. In the present study, two glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) genes, gadA and gadB, were found in high GABA-producing L. brevis NPS-QW-145. Co-culturing of this organism with conventional dairy starters was carried out to manufacture GABA-rich fermented milk. It was observed that all the selected strains of Streptococcus thermophilus, but not Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, improved the viability of L. brevis NPS-QW-145 in milk. Only certain strains of S. thermophilus improved the gadA mRNA level in L. brevis NPS-QW-145, thus enhanced GABA biosynthesis by the latter. These results suggest that certain S. thermophilus strains are highly recommended to co-culture with high GABA producer for manufacturing GABA-rich fermented milk. PMID:26245488

  13. Dairy Streptococcus thermophilus improves cell viability of Lactobacillus brevis NPS-QW-145 and its γ-aminobutyric acid biosynthesis ability in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinglong; Law, Yee-Song; Shah, Nagendra P

    2015-08-06

    Most high γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) producers are Lactobacillus brevis of plant origin, which may be not able to ferment milk well due to its poor proteolytic nature as evidenced by the absence of genes encoding extracellular proteinases in its genome. In the present study, two glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) genes, gadA and gadB, were found in high GABA-producing L. brevis NPS-QW-145. Co-culturing of this organism with conventional dairy starters was carried out to manufacture GABA-rich fermented milk. It was observed that all the selected strains of Streptococcus thermophilus, but not Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, improved the viability of L. brevis NPS-QW-145 in milk. Only certain strains of S. thermophilus improved the gadA mRNA level in L. brevis NPS-QW-145, thus enhanced GABA biosynthesis by the latter. These results suggest that certain S. thermophilus strains are highly recommended to co-culture with high GABA producer for manufacturing GABA-rich fermented milk.

  14. Cr(OH)3-NPs-CNC hybrid nanocomposite: a sorbent for adsorptive removal of methylene blue and malachite green from solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekouei, Farzin; Nekouei, Shahram; Keshtpour, Farzaneh; Noorizadeh, Hossein; Wang, Shaobin

    2017-11-01

    In this article, Cr(OH) 3 nanoparticle-modified cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) as a novel hybrid nanocomposite (Cr(OH) 3 -NPs-CNC) was prepared by a simple procedure and used as a sorbent for adsorptive removal of methylene blue (MB) and malachite green (MG) from aqueous solution. Different kinetic models were tested, and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model was found more suitable for the MB and MG adsorption processes. The BET and Langmuir models were more suitable for the adsorption processes of MB and MG. Thermodynamic studies suggested that the adsorption of MB and MG onto Cr(OH) 3 -NPs-CNC nanocomposite was a spontaneous and endothermic process. The maximum adsorption capacities for MB and MG were reached 106 and 104 mg/g, respectively, which were almost two times higher than unmodified CNC. The chemical stability and leaching tests of the Cr(OH) 3 -NPs-CNC hybrid nanocomposite showed that only small amounts of chromium were leached into the solution.

  15. Understanding the risks associated with the use of new psychoactive substances (NPS): high variability of active ingredients concentration, mislabelled preparations, multiple psychoactive substances in single products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamengo, Luca; Frison, Giampietro; Bettin, Chiara; Sciarrone, Rocco

    2014-08-17

    New psychoactive substances (NPS), are now a large group of substances of abuse not yet completely controlled by international drug conventions, which may pose a public health threat. Anxiety, paranoia, hallucinations, seizures, hyperthermia and cardiotoxicity are some of the common adverse effects associated with these compounds. In this paper, three case reports taken from the archive of processed cases of the authors' laboratory are presented and discussed to stress the risks of possible adverse consequences for NPS users: in particular, (i) the risk deriving from the difficulty of predicting the actual consumed dose, due to variability of active ingredients concentration in consumed products, (ii) the risk deriving from the difficulty of predicting the actual active ingredients present in consumed products, as opposed to those claimed by the manufacturer, and (iii) the risk deriving from the difficulty of predicting the actual pharmacological and toxicological effects related to the simultaneous consumption of different psychoactive ingredients contained in single products, whose interactions are mostly unknown. Each of them individually provide a source of concern for possible serious health related consequences. However, they should be considered in conjunction with each others, with the worldwide availability of NPS through the web and also with the incessantly growing business derived from the manipulation and synthesis of new substances. The resulting scenario is that of a cultural challenge which demands a global approach from different fields of knowledge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Antioxidant and antigenotoxic properties of CeO2 NPs and cerium sulphate: Studies with Drosophila melanogaster as a promising in vivo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaraby, Mohamed; Hernández, Alba; Annangi, Balasubramanyam; Demir, Esref; Bach, Jordi; Rubio, Laura; Creus, Amadeu; Marcos, Ricard

    2015-01-01

    Although in vitro approaches are the most used for testing the potential harmful effects of nanomaterials, in vivo studies produce relevant information complementing in vitro data. In this context, we promote the use of Drosophila melanogaster as a suitable in vivo model to characterise the potential risks associated to nanomaterials exposure. The main aim of this study was to evaluate different biological effects associated to cerium oxide nanoparticles (Ce-NPs) and cerium (IV) sulphate exposure. The end-points evaluated were egg-to-adult viability, particles uptake through the intestinal barrier, gene expression and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by haemocytes, genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity. Transmission electron microscopy images showed internalisation of Ce-NPs by the intestinal barrier and haemocytes, and significant expression of Hsp genes was detected. In spite of these findings, neither toxicity nor genotoxicity related to both forms of cerium were observed. Interestingly, Ce-NPs significantly reduced the genotoxic effect of potassium dichromate and the intracellular ROS production. No morphological malformations were detected after larvae treatment. This study highlights the importance of D. melanogaster as animal model in the study of the different biological effects caused by nanoparticulated materials, at the time that shows its usefulness to study the role of the intestinal barrier in the transposition of nanomaterials entering via ingestion.

  17. Temperature and Vibration Dependence of the Faraday Effect of Gd₂O₃ NPs-Doped Alumino-Silicate Glass Optical Fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Seongmin; Kim, Jihun; Linganna, Kadathala; Watekar, Pramod R; Kang, Seong Gu; Kim, Bok Hyeon; Boo, Seongjae; Lee, Youjin; An, Yong Ho; Kim, Cheol Jin; Han, Won-Taek

    2018-03-27

    All-optical fiber magnetic field sensor based on the Gd₂O₃ nano-particles (NPs)-doped alumino-silicate glass optical fiber was developed, and its temperature and vibration dependence on the Faraday Effect were investigated. Uniformly embedded Gd₂O₃ NPs were identified to form in the core of the fiber, and the measured absorption peaks of the fiber appearing at 377 nm, 443 nm, and 551 nm were attributed to the Gd₂O₃ NPs incorporated in the fiber core. The Faraday rotation angle (FRA) of the linearly polarized light was measured at 650 nm with the induced magnetic field by the solenoid. The Faraday rotation angle was found to increase linearly with the magnetic field, and it was about 18.16° ± 0.048° at 0.142 Tesla (T) at temperatures of 25 °C-120 °C, by which the estimated Verdet constant was 3.19 rad/(T∙m) ± 0.01 rad/(T∙m). The variation of the FRA with time at 0.142 T and 120 °C was negligibly small (-9.78 × 10 -4 °/min). The variation of the FRA under the mechanical vibration with the acceleration below 10 g and the frequency above 50 Hz was within 0.5°.

  18. Sources of information used to support quality use of medicines: findings from a national survey of nurse practitioners in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Thomas; Stasa, Helen; Cashin, Andrew; Stuart, Meg; Dunn, Sandra V

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the sources, both print and electronic formats, which Australian nurse practitioners (NPs) currently use to obtain information regarding quality use of medicines (QUM). An additional aim was to document NPs' preferences for continuing education in relation to QUM. A national electronic survey of Australian NPs was conducted in 2007 and again in 2010. Eighty percent of respondents accessed information on QUM from professional literature, which may include scholarly journal articles, reports, and independent publications. There was a decrease in the percentage of respondents who obtained information from drug industry representatives. NPs prefer to receive medicines information in an electronic form, rather than a paper-based version, and over the time period more NPs are utilizing electronic sources rather than paper. These findings provide important insights into medical information products for the developers who may be able to use these results to ensure that their products meet the needs of NP clinicians. Additionally, the finding that NPs prefer to receive their continuing information related to medicines in electronic format, but also highly value conference proceedings, may help to inform future planning of NP education needs in relation to QUM. ©2014 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  19. ALX 111: ALX1-11, parathyroid hormone (1-84) - NPS Allelix, PREOS, PTH, recombinant human parathyroid hormone, rhPTH (1-84).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    ALX 111 [parathyroid hormone (1-84) - NPS Allelix, recombinant human parathyroid hormone, rhPTH (1-84), PREOS] is a full-length, recombinant human parathyroid hormone. It has potential as an anti-osteoporotic agent, due to its properties as a bone formation stimulant. This profile has been selected from R&D Insight, a pharmaceutical intelligence database produced by Adis International Ltd. It has been recommended that ALX 111 should be given for 1 to 2 years and may be given in combination with an antiresorptive agent, such as estrogen or a bisphosphonate. In December 1999, Allelix Biopharmaceuticals merged with NPS Pharmaceuticals. This combined company is operating as NPS Pharmaceuticals in the US and as NPS Allelix in Canada. The merger has enabled a phase III study of ALX 111 to begin in the US, Europe and South America. NPS harmaceuticals has signed an agreement with Bio-Imaging Technologies, which will provide all image handling and analysis for this trial. Until 1994, Allelix Biopharmaceuticals and Glaxo in Canada were involved in a joint venture to investigate the efficacy of ALX 111 in osteoporosis. Allelix was subsequently, until September 1998, collaborating with Astra of Sweden in developing ALX 111. Astra had acquired exclusive worldwide rights to ALX 111 and was responsible for development of the agent. However, Astra returned all rights to ALX 111 to Allelix as a result of its merger with Zeneca to form AstraZeneca. In December 1999, Allelix Biopharmaceuticals merged with NPS Pharmaceuticals. This combined company is operating as NPS Pharmaceuticals in the US and as NPS Allelix in Canada. The merger has enabled a phase III study of ALX 111 to begin in the US, Europe and South America. The phase III trial of ALX 111 for the treatment of osteoporosis has completed patient enrolment, and phase II trials have been completed in Canada and the Netherlands. The 18-month, phase III, multicentre, placebo-controlled trial (Treatment of Osteoporosis with

  20. "Suntelligence" Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the American Academy of Dermatology's "Suntelligence" sun-smart survey. Please answer the following questions to measure ... be able to view a ranking of major cities suntelligence based on residents' responses to this survey. ...