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Sample records for survey mt leona-nancy

  1. SURVEY, SANDERS COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  2. SURVEY, BROADWATER COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  3. SURVEY, LAKE COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  4. SURVEY, CASCADE COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  5. SURVEY, SILVER BOW COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  6. SURVEY, LEWIS AND CLARK COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  7. Magnetotelluric (MT) surveying in the Kakkonda geothermal area; Kakkonda chinetsu chiiki deno MT ho tansa jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Y.; Takakura, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Uchida, T. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    This paper describes the MT surveying conducted at the vicinity of a deep well (WD-1) in the Kakkonda geothermal area. For the MT surveying, the interval between measuring points was 300 m. Electric field dipole with a length of 300 m was given in the direction of traverse line, and that with a length of 50 m was given in the direction perpendicular to the line. Three components of magnetic field were measured using induction coil. Frequency band of the data was between 0.0005 Hz and 300 Hz. Characteristics of specific resistance model obtained from the MT surveying were illustrated. Low specific resistance zone less than 30 ohm-m was observed in the shallow zone below the altitude 0 m. This zone was comparable to the distribution of montmorillonite. High specific resistance anomaly was analyzed at the western half of the traverse line in the altitude between 0 m and -2000 m, which corresponded to the collective part of focuses. The bottom surface of the anomaly agreed well with the upper surface of neo-granite, i.e., the lower limits of earthquakes. Low specific resistance was observed in the altitude below -2000 m. 17 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Gravity survey of the Mt. Toondina impact structure, South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plescia, J. B.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Shoemaker, C. S.

    1991-06-01

    The Mt. Toondina impact structure is located in northern South Australia, about 45 km south of the town of Oodnadatta. Only the central uplift is exposed. The outcrops at Mt. Toondina reveal a remarkable structural anomaly surrounded by a broad expanse of nearly flat-lying beds of the Bulldog Shale of Early Cretaceous age. A gravity survey was undertaken in 1989 to determine the diameter of the impact structure, define the form of the central uplift, and understand the local crustal structure. Data were collected along two orthogonal lines across the structure. In addition to the profiles, a significant number of measurements were made on and around the central uplift. The 1989 gravity data combined with 1963 gravity data and the seismic reflection data provide an excellent data base to interpret the subsurface structure of the Mt. Toondina feature.

  9. SURVEY-Yellowstone River, Sweet Grass County, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  10. The Himalayas and a Survey of Determining the Height of Mt. Everest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljenko Solarić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The introduction to this article describes the Himalayan mountain range, while the next chapter outlines its formation. The article then goes on to describe the early use of trigonometric networks in Europe and India, and the important achievements of Sir George Everest. When his successor, A. S. Waugh, extended the trigonometric network to the foot of the Himalayas, he determined the height of the highest peak of Mt. Everest trigonometrically, by measuring vertical angles only in the direction of Mt. Everest. Later, it became possible to determine the height of the highest peak in the world more precisely, using modern surveying means. The peak was named Mt. Everest in 1865, at the proposal of A. S. Waugh. It is known by other names by the indigenousl populations in China and Nepal. Finally, the earliest attempts to climb Mt. Everest are described.

  11. Remote reference processing in MT survey using GPS clock; MT ho ni okeru GPS wo mochiita jikoku doki system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, K.; Inoue, J.; Takasugi, S. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kosuge, S. [DRICO Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    A report is given about the application of a synchronizing system using clock signals from GPS satellites to a remote reference method which is a technique to reject noise from the MT method. This system uses the C/A code out of the L1 band waves from NAVSTAR/GPS satellites. The new system was operated in MT method-using investigations conducted at China Peninsula, Aichi Prefecture, and Izu Peninsula, Shizuoka Prefecture, with the reference points placed several 100km away in Iwate Prefecture on both occasions. It was found as the result that it is basically possible to catch signals from the GPS at any place, that the signals are accurate enough to be applied to time synchronization for the MT method, and that the signals assure a far remote reference method with a separation of several 100km between the sites involved. The referencing process at high frequencies whose feasibility had been doubted proved a success when highly correlated signals were exchanged between two stations over a distance of several 100km. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  12. Mt. Suhora M dwarf survey - Detection of eight short-period variable stars

    CERN Document Server

    Machado, L Fox; Winiarski, M; Krzesiński, J; Dróżdz, M

    2011-01-01

    The Mt. Suhora M\\,dwarf survey searching for pulsations in low mass main sequence stars has acquired CCD photometry of 46 M\\,dwarf stars during the first year of the project (Baran et al 2011). As a by-product of this search hundreds field stars have been checked for variability. This paper presents our initial result of a search for periodic variables in field stars observed in the course of the survey. On the basis of the periodicity and the shape of the light curves, eight new variables has been detected, among which five are $\\delta$ Scuti stars and three likely RR Lyrae stars. Although variation in one of the stars has been previously detected, it was classified incorrectly. To support our classification, in August 2010, we performed spectroscopic observations to derive spectral types and luminosity classes for all eight variable stars.

  13. Electric and VLF-MT survey of Tegatayama tunnel; Tegatayama tunnel no denki tansa oyobi VLF tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishitani, T. [Akita University, Akita (Japan). Mining College

    1997-05-27

    To survey the structure at the depth between 20 and 30 m, field tests were conducted by means of vertical electric and VFL-MT (magnetotelluric) survey. Tegatayama tunnel has a total length of 276 m, width of 7.5 m, and height of 4.7 m, and the depth from the surface is about 28 m near the top of mountain. Near the tunnel, the thickness of surface soil is about 60 cm, which consists of clay soil including soft mudstone gravel. It was found that terrace deposit is distributed up to the depth of 8 m, and that mudstone is distributed below the depth of 8 m. Weighted four-electrode method was adopted for the vertical electrical survey. Measurements were conducted at the immediately above the tunnel, 10 m apart from the center of tunnel in the right and left, and 20 m apart from the center in the east. For the VLF-MT method, component of frequency 22.2 kHz was used. As a result of the tests, it was difficult to illustrate the existence of tunnel from the vertical electrical survey only at one point. Feature of the tunnel could be well illustrated by means of the VLF-MT method. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  14. Audiomagnetotellurics-Magnetotelluric (AMT-MT) survey of the Campi Flegrei inner caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalchi, Agata; Tripaldi, Simona; Romano, Gerardo; D'Auria, Luca; Improta, Luigi; Petrillo, Zaccaria

    2017-04-01

    In the framework of the EU project MED-SUV, an audiomagnetotellurics-magnetotelluric (AMT-MT) survey in the frequency band 0.1-100kHz was performed in the eastern border of the Campi Flegrei inner caldera comprising the area where seismicity is concentred in the last decade. This survey was aimed to provide new insights on the electrical resistivity structure of the subsoil. Among all the collected MT soundings, twenty-two, on a total of forty-three, were selected along a WSW-ENE alignment that crosses the main fumarole emissions (Solfatara, Pisciarelli and Agnano) and used for 2D regularized inversion. The obtained model is characterized by a quite narrow resistivity range that well matches typical range of enhanced geothermal environment as largely documented in the international literature. In particular focusing on the Solfatara and Pisciarelli districts the resistivity distribution clearly calls to mind the behavior of a high temperature geothermal system with a very conductive cap in the shallower part. Here the presence of gaps in this conductor just in correspondence of the main superficial emissions describes the inflow and outflow pathway of the shallow fluids circulation. A high resistive reservoir appearing at a depth of about 500 m b.s.l.. WithinWithin this region we selected a vertical resistivity profile just in correspondence of a Vp/Vs profile versus depth coming from a passive seismic tomography (Vanorio et al., 2005). The comparison of the two behaviors shows a clear anti-correlation between the two physical parameters (high resistivity and low Vp/Vs) in the depth range 500-1000 m supporting the interpretation that an over-pressurized gas bearing rocks under supercritical conditions constituting the reservoir of the enhanced geothermal system. On the eastern side of this resistive plume up to 2.5 km of depth is present a local relative conductive unit underneath the Pisciarelli area. In the same volume most of the recent (from 2005 up to date

  15. Shallow to intermediate resistivity features of the Colfiorito Fault System inferred by DC and MT survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Siniscalchi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade electromagnetic (EM measurements have provided new constraints on the upper-crustal structure of the major fault zones in the world, both when they act as conduit and as a barrier, due to strong sensitivity of resistivity to fluids circulation and mineralization. On the track of a high impact magnetotelluric (MT study performed across the San Andreas Fault, high resolution EM data were collected in the Colfiorito epicentral area along profiles crossing some main fault lineaments. Being the study focussed both on shallow that on intermediate resistivity distribution in the brittle upper-crust, a MT profile was integrated by several electrical resistivity tomographies (ERT. The latter were successful in locating faults even where the structures are buried by a wide covering of Quaternary deposits and in the recognition of different electrical signatures of the faults. MT resistivity model crossing Mt. Prefoglio normal fault clearly imaged the typical thrust structures of the area and a high conductive zone spatially related to the fault. Seismicity seems to be located outside such conductive area, whose behaviour suggests a fluidised and altered zone incapable of supporting significant stress internally.

  16. Piezomagnetic effects induced by artificial sources at Mt. Vesuvius (Italy: preliminary results of an experimental survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Napoli

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to put new constrains on magnetic effects associated with mechanical stresses, high frequency monitoring of the geomagnetic field was carried out during a seismic tomography experiment (TOMOVES'96 project at Mt. Vesuvius. Eight proton precession and one Cesium magnetometers were installed along a profile on the SW flank of the volcano to observe possible magnetic changes induced by explosions. Measurements were performed at different sampling frequencies (10 Hz, 0.5 Hz and 0.1 Hz. A remarkable change in the intensity of the magnetic field was observed in only one case. The magnetic transient lasted 12-13 min, reaching the maximum amplitude of slightly less than 15 nT.

  17. MT3D-USGS version 1: A U.S. Geological Survey release of MT3DMS updated with new and expanded transport capabilities for use with MODFLOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedekar, Vivek; Morway, Eric D.; Langevin, Christian D.; Tonkin, Matthew J.

    2016-09-30

    MT3D-USGS, a U.S. Geological Survey updated release of the groundwater solute transport code MT3DMS, includes new transport modeling capabilities to accommodate flow terms calculated by MODFLOW packages that were previously unsupported by MT3DMS and to provide greater flexibility in the simulation of solute transport and reactive solute transport. Unsaturated-zone transport and transport within streams and lakes, including solute exchange with connected groundwater, are among the new capabilities included in the MT3D-USGS code. MT3D-USGS also includes the capability to route a solute through dry cells that may occur in the Newton-Raphson formulation of MODFLOW (that is, MODFLOW-NWT). New chemical reaction Package options include the ability to simulate inter-species reactions and parent-daughter chain reactions. A new pump-and-treat recirculation package enables the simulation of dynamic recirculation with or without treatment for combinations of wells that are represented in the flow model, mimicking the above-ground treatment of extracted water. A reformulation of the treatment of transient mass storage improves conservation of mass and yields solutions for better agreement with analytical benchmarks. Several additional features of MT3D-USGS are (1) the separate specification of the partitioning coefficient (Kd) within mobile and immobile domains; (2) the capability to assign prescribed concentrations to the top-most active layer; (3) the change in mass storage owing to the change in water volume now appears as its own budget item in the global mass balance summary; (4) the ability to ignore cross-dispersion terms; (5) the definition of Hydrocarbon Spill-Source Package (HSS) mass loading zones using regular and irregular polygons, in addition to the currently supported circular zones; and (6) the ability to specify an absolute minimum thickness rather than the default percent minimum thickness in dry-cell circumstances.Benchmark problems that implement the new

  18. Canis mtDNA HV1 database: a web-based tool for collecting and surveying Canis mtDNA HV1 haplotype in public database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Quan Ke; Chung, Dung Anh; Tran, Hoang-Dung

    2017-06-26

    Canine and wolf mitochondrial DNA haplotypes, which can be used for forensic or phylogenetic analyses, have been defined in various schemes depending on the region analyzed. In recent studies, the 582 bp fragment of the HV1 region is most commonly used. 317 different canine HV1 haplotypes have been reported in the rapidly growing public database GenBank. These reported haplotypes contain several inconsistencies in their haplotype information. To overcome this issue, we have developed a Canis mtDNA HV1 database. This database collects data on the HV1 582 bp region in dog mitochondrial DNA from the GenBank to screen and correct the inconsistencies. It also supports users in detection of new novel mutation profiles and assignment of new haplotypes. The Canis mtDNA HV1 database (CHD) contains 5567 nucleotide entries originating from 15 subspecies in the species Canis lupus. Of these entries, 3646 were haplotypes and grouped into 804 distinct sequences. 319 sequences were recognized as previously assigned haplotypes, while the remaining 485 sequences had new mutation profiles and were marked as new haplotype candidates awaiting further analysis for haplotype assignment. Of the 3646 nucleotide entries, only 414 were annotated with correct haplotype information, while 3232 had insufficient or lacked haplotype information and were corrected or modified before storing in the CHD. The CHD can be accessed at http://chd.vnbiology.com . It provides sequences, haplotype information, and a web-based tool for mtDNA HV1 haplotyping. The CHD is updated monthly and supplies all data for download. The Canis mtDNA HV1 database contains information about canine mitochondrial DNA HV1 sequences with reconciled annotation. It serves as a tool for detection of inconsistencies in GenBank and helps identifying new HV1 haplotypes. Thus, it supports the scientific community in naming new HV1 haplotypes and to reconcile existing annotation of HV1 582 bp sequences.

  19. MODFLOW-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model : user guide to the LMT6 package, the linkage with MT3DMS for multi-species mass transport modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chunmiao; Hill, Mary Catherine; Hsieh, Paul A.

    2001-01-01

    MODFLOW-2000, the newest version of MODFLOW, is a computer program that numerically solves the three-dimensional ground-water flow equation for a porous medium using a finite-difference method. MT3DMS, the successor to MT3D, is a computer program for modeling multi-species solute transport in three-dimensional ground-water systems using multiple solution techniques, including the finite-difference method, the method of characteristics (MOC), and the total-variation-diminishing (TVD) method. This report documents a new version of the Link-MT3DMS Package, which enables MODFLOW-2000 to produce the information needed by MT3DMS, and also discusses new visualization software for MT3DMS. Unlike the Link-MT3D Packages that coordinated previous versions of MODFLOW and MT3D, the new Link-MT3DMS Package requires an input file that, among other things, provides enhanced support for additional MODFLOW sink/source packages and allows list-directed (free) format for the flow model produced flow-transport link file. The report contains four parts: (a) documentation of the Link-MT3DMS Package Version 6 for MODFLOW-2000; (b) discussion of several issues related to simulation setup and input data preparation for running MT3DMS with MODFLOW-2000; (c) description of two test example problems, with comparison to results obtained using another MODFLOW-based transport program; and (d) overview of post-simulation visualization and animation using the U.S. Geological Survey?s Model Viewer.

  20. The Fourth Geodetic Surveying Campaign on Mt. Everest and its Adjacent Area%珠峰及邻近区域第四次大地测量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张全德; 陈俊勇; 庞尚益; 张骥; 王泽民

    2001-01-01

    The fourth geodetic surveying campaign on Mt. Everest and itsadjacent area was successfully conducted by Chinese surveyors in 1998. Its fieldwork introductions, data acquisitions, data processing methods and the final results achieved were described in this paper. A thoroughly scientific Analyse based on comparing the 4-session geodetic surveying observations which were conducted in 1998, 1992,1975 and 1966-1968 respectively shows that Qinghai-Tibet Block is still moving on its way of northeast horizontally under the motivation caused by Indian Block movement, while relative vertical movement has waving fluctuation during the entire rising process.%叙述了我国大地测量工作者于1998年对珠穆朗玛峰及邻近区域进行的第四次大规模的大地测量外业概况和取得的成果,以及数据处理方法和最终结果。经过对1998、1966-1968、1975、1992年珠峰及邻近区域四次大地测量数据综合分析,从地学方面进行研究,得出青藏块体在印度板块的推动下,仍向北东东方向运动;珠峰地区相对垂直运动在整体抬升的过程中伴有波浪式的起伏等结论。

  1. In search of the genetic footprints of Sumerians: a survey of Y-chromosome and mtDNA variation in the Marsh Arabs of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivieri Anna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For millennia, the southern part of the Mesopotamia has been a wetland region generated by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers before flowing into the Gulf. This area has been occupied by human communities since ancient times and the present-day inhabitants, the Marsh Arabs, are considered the population with the strongest link to ancient Sumerians. Popular tradition, however, considers the Marsh Arabs as a foreign group, of unknown origin, which arrived in the marshlands when the rearing of water buffalo was introduced to the region. Results To shed some light on the paternal and maternal origin of this population, Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA variation was surveyed in 143 Marsh Arabs and in a large sample of Iraqi controls. Analyses of the haplogroups and sub-haplogroups observed in the Marsh Arabs revealed a prevalent autochthonous Middle Eastern component for both male and female gene pools, with weak South-West Asian and African contributions, more evident in mtDNA. A higher male than female homogeneity is characteristic of the Marsh Arab gene pool, likely due to a strong male genetic drift determined by socio-cultural factors (patrilocality, polygamy, unequal male and female migration rates. Conclusions Evidence of genetic stratification ascribable to the Sumerian development was provided by the Y-chromosome data where the J1-Page08 branch reveals a local expansion, almost contemporary with the Sumerian City State period that characterized Southern Mesopotamia. On the other hand, a more ancient background shared with Northern Mesopotamia is revealed by the less represented Y-chromosome lineage J1-M267*. Overall our results indicate that the introduction of water buffalo breeding and rice farming, most likely from the Indian sub-continent, only marginally affected the gene pool of autochthonous people of the region. Furthermore, a prevalent Middle Eastern ancestry of the modern population of the marshes of

  2. Metallothionein (MT)-III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrasco, J; Giralt, M; Molinero, A

    1999-01-01

    Metallothionein-III is a low molecular weight, heavy-metal binding protein expressed mainly in the central nervous system. First identified as a growth inhibitory factor (GIF) of rat cortical neurons in vitro, it has subsequently been shown to be a member of the metallothionein (MT) gene family...... and renamed as MT-III. In this study we have raised polyclonal antibodies in rabbits against recombinant rat MT-III (rMT-III). The sera obtained reacted specifically against recombinant zinc-and cadmium-saturated rMT-III, and did not cross-react with native rat MT-I and MT-II purified from the liver of zinc...... injected rats. The specificity of the antibody was also demonstrated in immunocytochemical studies by the elimination of the immunostaining by preincubation of the antibody with brain (but not liver) extracts, and by the results obtained in MT-III null mice. The antibody was used to characterize...

  3. Welcome to Mt. Huangshan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The newly developed tourist city of Huangshan possesses the extremely beautiful natural scenery of Mt. Huangshan, as well as the splendid culture of its 2,300-year history, providing marvelous enjoyment for both domestic and foreign tourists. The scenery in Mt. Huangshan is lovely all year round, with its "four unique views"—the rocks, the pine trees, the sea of clouds and the hot springs. In the areas around Mt. Huangshan, people can see folk customs as well as ancient architecture in the form of bridges, residences, arch towers, streets and ancestral halls.

  4. Application of remote sensing analysis and MT method for identification geothermal prospect zone in Mt. Endut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, A. M.; Permadi, A. N.; Wildan, D.; Sobirin, R.; Supriyanto

    2017-07-01

    Mount Endut is located at Banten Province, 40 km southward Rangkasbitung City, with geographic UTM position between 9261000-9274000 N and 639000-652000 E. Preliminary survey at Mt. Endut was geological and geochemical survey in 2006, resistivity survey and MT survey in 2007 with 27 measurement point. All survey conducted by Pusat Sumber Daya Geologi (PSDG). According to result of premilinary survey, Mt. Endut is dominated by quartenary volcanic rock produced by Mt. Endut, which breakthrough tertiary sediment layer. NE to SW normal fault produced surface manifestation, namely Cikawah (CKW) hot spring and Handeleum (HDL) hot spring. According to SiO2 and NaK geothermometer, subsurface temperature of Mt Endut is ranging from 162 to 180 °C. Apparent resistivity maps show that thermal manifestation areas coincide with pronounced high anomaly due to resistive intrusion bodies contrast to conductive sedimentary basements. In order to delineate permeability zone, fracture fault density (FFD) analysis from remote sensing image is carry out. FFD analysis from lansdat 7 image shows the area on westward flank of Mt. Endut have high fracture fault density (162-276 m/km2), higher than it's surrounding area and can be assume that area is weak zone and have high permeability. That's structure density anomaly coincide with low resistivity from Magnetotelluric data. Resistivity structure from Magnetotelluric data shows western flank have low permeability layer (14-27 Ohmm) with average thickness 250 m. Below this layer there is layer with higher resistivity (37-100 Ohmm) with ±1000 m depth and interpreted as shallow reservoir. Massive resistif intrusive bodies act controlled the surface manifestation, and act as boundary and bounded the geothermal system in western part of Mt. Endut.

  5. Upper mantle diapers, lower crustal magmatic underplating, and lithospheric dismemberment of the Great Basin and Colorado Plateau regions, Nevada and Utah; implications from deep MT resistivity surveying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannamaker, P. E.; Doerner, W. M.; Hasterok, D. P.

    2005-12-01

    In the rifted Basin and Range province of the southwestern U.S., a common faulting model for extensional basins based e.g. on reflection seismology data shows dominant displacement along master faults roughly coincident with the main topographic scarp. On the other hand, complementary data such as drilling, earthquake focal mechanisms, volcanic occurrences, and trace indicators such as helium isotopes suggest that there are alternative geometries of crustal scale faulting and material transport from the deep crust and upper mantle in this province. Recent magnetotelluric (MT) profiling results reveal families of structures commonly dominated by high-angle conductors interpreted to reflect crustal scale fault zones. Based mainly on cross cutting relationships, these faults appear to be late Cenozoic in age and are of low resistivity due to fluids or alteration (including possible graphitization). In the Ruby Mtns area of north-central Nevada, high angle faults along the margins of the core complex connect from near surface to a regional lower crustal conductor interpreted to contain high-temperature fluids and perhaps melts. Such faults may exemplify the high angle normal faults upon which the major earthquakes of the Great Basin appear to nucleate. A larger-scale transect centered on Dixie Valley shows major conductive crustal-scale structures connecting to conductive lower crust below Dixie Valley, the Black Rock desert in NW Nevada, and in east-central Nevada in the Monitor-Diamond Valley area. In the Great Basin-Colorado Plateau transition of Utah, the main structures revealed are a series of nested low-angle detachment structures underlying the incipient development of several rift grabens. All these major fault zones appear to overlie regions of particularly conductive lower crust interpreted to be caused by recent basaltic underplating. In the GB-CP transition, long period data show two, low-resistivity upper mantle diapirs underlying the concentrated

  6. TOMO-ETNA MED-SUV.ISES an active seismic and passive seismic experiment at Mt. Etna volcano. An integrated marine and onland geophysical survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Jesus. M.; Patane, Domenico; Puglisi, Guisseppe; Zuccarello, Lucciano; Bianco, Francesca; Luehr, Birger; Diaz-Moreno, Alejandro; Prudencio, Janire; Koulakov, Ivan; Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Cocina, Ornella; Coltelli, Mauro; Scarfi, Lucciano; De Gori, Pascuale; Carrion, Francisco

    2014-05-01

    An active seismic experiment to study the internal structure of Etna Volcano is going to carried out on Sicily and Aeolian islands. The main objective of the TOMO-ETNA MED-SUV.ISES experiment, beginning in summer 2014, is to perform a high resolution seismic tomography, in velocity and attenuation, in Southern Italy, by using active and passive seismic data, in an area encompassing outstanding volcanoes as Mt. Etna, and Aeolian volcanoes. The achievement of this objective is based on the integration and sharing of the in-situ marine and land experiments and observations and on the implementation of new instruments and monitoring systems. For the purpose, onshore and offshore seismic stations and passive and active seismic data generated both in marine and terrestrial environment will be used. Additionally, other geophysical data, mainly magnetic and gravimetric data will be considered to obtain a joint Upper Mantle-Crust structure that could permit to make progress in the understanding of the dynamic of the region. This multinational experiment which involves institutions from Spain, Italy, Germany, United Kingdom, Ireland, France, Malta, Portugal, Russia, USA and Mexico. During the experiment more than 6.600 air gun shots performed by the Spanish Oceanographic vessel "Sarmiento de Gamboa" will be recorder on a dense local seismic network consisting of 100 on land non-permanent stations, 70 on land permanent stations and 20-25 OBSs. Contemporaneously other marine geophysical measures will be performed using a marine Gravimeter LaCoste&Romberg Air-Sea Gravity System II and a Marine Magnetometer SeaSPY. The experiments will provide a unique data set in terms of data quantity and quality, and it will provide a detailed velocity and attenuation structural image of volcano edifice. The results will be essential in the development and interpretation of future volcanic models. It is noteworthy that this project is fully transversal, multidisciplinary and crosses several

  7. MT In Business English Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志新

    2009-01-01

    In this article the operational principles of MT in business English translation is briefly introduced with an aim to point out that to improve the MT quality machine study is a key factor to work on.

  8. Investigation of geothermal structures by magnetotellurics (MT): an example from the Mt. Amiata area, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volpi, G. [CNR - Inst. of Geosciences and Earth Resources, Pisa (Italy); ENEL Greenpower, Pisa (Italy); Manzella, A. [CNR - Inst. of Geosciences and Earth Resources, Pisa (Italy); Fiordelisi, A. [ENEL Greenpower, Pisa (Italy)

    2003-04-01

    During 1999 a magnetotelluric (MT) survey was carried out on the southern margin of the Mt. Amiata geothermal region (Tuscany, Italy), with the aim of defining the shallow and deep electric structures related to the local geothermal reservoirs and system heat recharge. Local and remote data were collected along a SW-NE profile and processed with two different robust algorithms. After a detailed study of the EM strike, the data were inverted and two-dimensional (2D) models of electrical resistivity and impedance phase were computed. The interpretation revealed a good correlation between the features of the geothermal field and resistivity distribution at depth. In particular, a shallow conductor (0.5-4 km) detected by the MT survey shows a good correlation with the areal extension of the geothermal reservoirs. (Author)

  9. Negative Magnetic Anomalies Observed in the Central West Antarctica (CWA) Aerogeophysical Survey Over the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS), Whose Sources are Volcanic Centers (e.g. Mt Resnik) at the Base of the ice >780 Ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, J. C.; Finn, C. A.; Morse, D. L.; Blankenship, D. D.

    2005-12-01

    Analysis of a block of coincident aeromagnetic and radar ice-sounding data (from the CWA aerogeophysical survey) over the WAIS reveals ~1000 50->1000-nT, shallow -source, ``volcanic" magnetic anomalies, interpreted as caused by late Cenozoic alkaline magmatism associated with the West Antarctic rift system (WR). About 400 of these anomalies (conservatively selected) have topographic expression at the bed of the WAIS; >80% of these topographic features have Resnik, marked by a complex negative anomaly, is a conical peak 300 m below the surface of the WAIS, and has ~2 km topographic relief. We interpret a magnetic model fit to this anomaly as comprising reversely magnetized (in the present field direction), 0.5-2.5-km thick volcanic flows at the summit overlying normally magnetized flows. Published models (1996) reported for the Hut Point anomaly, at Ross Island, Antarctica, a similar anomaly to Mt. Resnik, also required both normal and reversed magnetizations correlated with drill holes into dated volcanic flows (also part of the late Cenozoic WR) crossing the Brunhes-Matuyama boundary (780 Ka). Because of their form similar to exposed volcanoes in the WAIS area with edifices primarily comprising subaerially-erupted, very magnetic volcanic flows, which have resisted glacial erosion, Behrendt et al. (2004) interpreted that these 18 high-topograpy, high-relief sources are subglacial volcanoes (including the five >780 Ka) erupted subaerially during a period when the WAIS was absent.

  10. Levantamento etnobotânico de plantas popularmente utilizadas como antiúlceras e antiinflamatórias pela comunidade de Pirizal, Nossa Senhora do Livramento-MT, Brasil Ethnobotanical survey of plants popularly used as anti-ulcer and anti-inflammatory in Pirizal, Nossa Senhora do Livramento, MT, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neyres Zínia Taveira de Jesus

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo proceder o levantamento etnobotânico das espécies vegetais utilizadas popularmente no Distrito de Pirizal - MT, no pantanal mato-grossense, como antiúlceras e antiinflamatórias. A entrevista aberta foi realizada através da aplicação de um roteiro base a 38 informantes adultos, na faixa etária de 25 a 75 anos. Indagou-se o nome popular das plantas, partes utilizadas, preparados e vias de administração, e realizou-se a revisão bibliográfica das plantas mais citadas no estudo, utilizando-se as bases de dados convencionais. Foram citadas 49 espécies pertencentes a 47 gêneros e 32 famílias, destacando-se a família Fabaceae. As plantas mais citadas simultaneamente como antiúlceras e antiinflamatórias foram Lafoensia pacari St. Hil. (9,2%, Hyptis crenata Pohl (8,8%, Hyptis suaveolens (L. Poit (6,7%, Stachytarpheta cayenensis (L.C.Rich Vahl (5,8%, Waltheria indica L. (5%, Strychnos pseudoquina St. Hil. (4,2% e Vatairea macrocarpa (Benth. Ducke (3,3%. A parte da planta mais citada foi a folha (57,1%, a via de administração mais utilizada no tratamento das úlceras gástricas foi a oral (100%, com preferência para os chás (75%, enquanto nas inflamações foram os banhos tópicos (60%.. A revisão bibliográfica apontou a necessidade de aprofundar os estudos químico-farmacológicos para Vatairea macrocarpa (Benth. Ducke e Hyptis crenata Pohl.An ethnobotanical survey was conduced to study the vegetal species from Pantanal, in the district of Pirizal-MT, popularly used as anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer. Ethnobotanical data were collected through open interviews and ethnopharmacology questionnaire with 38 local informers, in the age group of 25 to 75 years old. The local name, the part normally used, the mode of preparation and the administration route were asked to them. A bibliographic review of the plants most cited in the study was carried out using the conventional databases. A total of 49 species

  11. Mt. Vesuvius, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This ASTER image of Mt. Vesuvius Italy was acquired September 26, 2000, and covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central Italy. In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. The image is centered at 40.8 degrees north latitude, 14.4 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  12. MT1 and MT2 Melatonin Receptors: A Therapeutic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiabei; Clough, Shannon J; Hutchinson, Anthony J; Adamah-Biassi, Ekue B; Popovska-Gorevski, Marina; Dubocovich, Margarita L

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin, or 5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine, is synthesized and released by the pineal gland and locally in the retina following a circadian rhythm, with low levels during the day and elevated levels at night. Melatonin activates two high-affinity G protein-coupled receptors, termed MT1 and MT2, to exert beneficial actions in sleep and circadian abnormality, mood disorders, learning and memory, neuroprotection, drug abuse, and cancer. Progress in understanding the role of melatonin receptors in the modulation of sleep and circadian rhythms has led to the discovery of a novel class of melatonin agonists for treating insomnia, circadian rhythms, mood disorders, and cancer. This review describes the pharmacological properties of a slow-release melatonin preparation (i.e., Circadin®) and synthetic ligands (i.e., agomelatine, ramelteon, tasimelteon), with emphasis on identifying specific therapeutic effects mediated through MT1 and MT2 receptor activation. Discovery of selective ligands targeting the MT1 or the MT2 melatonin receptors may promote the development of novel and more efficacious therapeutic agents.

  13. MODFLOW-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model--Documentation of the SEAWAT-2000 Version with the Variable-Density Flow Process (VDF) and the Integrated MT3DMS Transport Process (IMT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Christian D.; Shoemaker, W. Barclay; Guo, Weixing

    2003-01-01

    SEAWAT-2000 is the latest release of the SEAWAT computer program for simulation of three-dimensional, variable-density, transient ground-water flow in porous media. SEAWAT-2000 was designed by combining a modified version of MODFLOW-2000 and MT3DMS into a single computer program. The code was developed using the MODFLOW-2000 concept of a process, which is defined as ?part of the code that solves a fundamental equation by a specified numerical method.? SEAWAT-2000 contains all of the processes distributed with MODFLOW-2000 and also includes the Variable-Density Flow Process (as an alternative to the constant-density Ground-Water Flow Process) and the Integrated MT3DMS Transport Process. Processes may be active or inactive, depending on simulation objectives; however, not all processes are compatible. For example, the Sensitivity and Parameter Estimation Processes are not compatible with the Variable-Density Flow and Integrated MT3DMS Transport Processes. The SEAWAT-2000 computer code was tested with the common variable-density benchmark problems and also with problems representing evaporation from a salt lake and rotation of immiscible fluids.

  14. Domain specific MT in use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersgaard, Lene; Povlsen, Claus; Almsten, Lisbeth Kjeldgaard

    2008-01-01

    The paper focuses on domain specific use of MT with a special focus on SMT in the workflow of a Language Service Provider (LSP). We report on the feedback of post-editors using fluency/adequacy evaluation and the evaluation metric ’Usability’, understood in this context as where users on a three ...

  15. Evaluating MT systems with BEER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Miloš

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We present BEER, an open source implementation of a machine translation evaluation metric. BEER is a metric trained for high correlation with human ranking by using learning-to-rank training methods. For evaluation of lexical accuracy it uses sub-word units (character n-grams while for measuring word order it uses hierarchical representations based on PETs (permutation trees. During the last WMT metrics tasks, BEER has shown high correlation with human judgments both on the sentence and the corpus levels. In this paper we will show how BEER can be used for (i full evaluation of MT output, (ii isolated evaluation of word order and (iii tuning MT systems.

  16. WSJointInv2D-MT-DCR: An efficient joint two-dimensional magnetotelluric and direct current resistivity inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatyakul, Puwis; Vachiratienchai, Chatchai; Siripunvaraporn, Weerachai

    2017-05-01

    An efficient joint two-dimensional direct current resistivity (DCR) and magnetotelluric (MT) inversion, referred to as WSJointInv2D-MT-DCR, was developed with FORTRAN 95 based on the data space Occam's inversion algorithm. Our joint inversion software can be used to invert just the MT data or the DCR data, or invert both data sets simultaneously to get the electrical resistivity structures. Since both MT and DCR surveys yield the same resistivity structures, the two data types enhance each other leading to a better interpretation. Two synthetic and a real field survey are used here to demonstrate that the joint DCR and MT surveys can help constrain each other to reduce the ambiguities occurring when inverting the DCR or MT alone. The DCR data increases the lateral resolution of the near surface structures while the MT data reveals the deeper structures. When the MT apparent resistivity suffers from the static shift, the DCR apparent resistivity can serve as a replacement for the estimation of the static shift factor using the joint inversion. In addition, we also used these examples to show the efficiency of our joint inversion code. With the availability of our new joint inversion software, we expect the number of joint DCR and MT surveys to increase in the future.

  17. Patterns in Seismicity at Mt St Helens and Mt Unzen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Oliver; De Angelis, Silvio; Lavallee, Yan

    2014-05-01

    Cyclic behaviour on a range of timescales is a well-documented feature of many dome-forming volcanoes. Previous work on Soufrière Hills volcano (Montserrat) and Volcán de Colima (Mexico) revealed broad-scale similarities in behaviour implying the potential to develop general physical models of sub-surface processes [1]. Using volcano-seismic data from Mt St Helens (USA) and Mt Unzen (Japan) this study explores parallels in long-term behaviour of seismicity at two dome-forming systems. Within the last twenty years both systems underwent extended dome-forming episodes accompanied by large Vulcanian explosions or dome collapses. This study uses a suite of quantitative and analytical techniques which can highlight differences or similarities in volcano seismic behaviour, and compare the behaviour to changes in activity during the eruptive episodes. Seismic events were automatically detected and characterized on a single short-period seismometer station located 1.5km from the 2004-2008 vent at Mt St Helens. A total of 714 826 individual events were identified from continuous recording of seismic data from 22 October 2004 to 28 February 2006 (average 60.2 events per hour) using a short-term/long-term average algorithm. An equivalent count will be produced from seismometer recordings over the later stages of the 1991-1995 eruption at MT Unzen. The event count time-series from Mt St Helens is then analysed using Multi-taper Method and the Short-Term Fourier Transform to explore temporal variations in activity. Preliminary analysis of seismicity from Mt St Helens suggests cyclic behaviour of subannual timescale, similar to that described at Volcán de Colima and Soufrière Hills volcano [1]. Frequency Index and waveform correlation tools will be implemented to analyse changes in the frequency content of the seismicity and to explore their relations to different phases of activity at the volcano. A single station approach is used to gain a fine-scale view of variations in

  18. Melanesian mtDNA complexity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan S Friedlaender

    Full Text Available Melanesian populations are known for their diversity, but it has been hard to grasp the pattern of the variation or its underlying dynamic. Using 1,223 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequences from hypervariable regions 1 and 2 (HVR1 and HVR2 from 32 populations, we found the among-group variation is structured by island, island size, and also by language affiliation. The more isolated inland Papuan-speaking groups on the largest islands have the greatest distinctions, while shore dwelling populations are considerably less diverse (at the same time, within-group haplotype diversity is less in the most isolated groups. Persistent differences between shore and inland groups in effective population sizes and marital migration rates probably cause these differences. We also add 16 whole sequences to the Melanesian mtDNA phylogenies. We identify the likely origins of a number of the haplogroups and ancient branches in specific islands, point to some ancient mtDNA connections between Near Oceania and Australia, and show additional Holocene connections between Island Southeast Asia/Taiwan and Island Melanesia with branches of haplogroup E. Coalescence estimates based on synonymous transitions in the coding region suggest an initial settlement and expansion in the region at approximately 30-50,000 years before present (YBP, and a second important expansion from Island Southeast Asia/Taiwan during the interval approximately 3,500-8,000 YBP. However, there are some important variance components in molecular dating that have been overlooked, and the specific nature of ancestral (maternal Austronesian influence in this region remains unresolved.

  19. MODFLOW-NWT, MODPATH, and MT3DMS models used to study of hypothetical horizontal water-supply well design for New Hampshire and surrounding regions: U.S. Geological Survey data release

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A series of three-dimensional, hypothetical, groundwater models (MODFLOW-NWT) were developed to investigate the effects of a variety of factors on the flow of...

  20. Sport Management Survey. Employment Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quain, Richard J.; Parks, Janet B.

    1986-01-01

    A survey of sport management positions was designed to determine projected vacancy rates in six sport management career areas. Respondents to the survey were also questioned regarding their awareness of college professional preparation programs. Results are presented. (MT)

  1. Integrating Knowledge Bases and Statistics in MT

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, K; Haines, M G; Hatzivassiloglou, V; Hovy, E; Iida, M; Luk, S K; Okumura, A; Whitney, R; Yamada, K; Knight, Kevin; Chander, Ishwar; Haines, Matthew; Hatzivassiloglou, Vasileios; Hovy, Eduard; Iida, Masayo; Luk, Steve K.; Okumura, Akitoshi; Whitney, Richard; Yamada, Kenji

    1994-01-01

    We summarize recent machine translation (MT) research at the Information Sciences Institute of USC, and we describe its application to the development of a Japanese-English newspaper MT system. Our work aims at scaling up grammar-based, knowledge-based MT techniques. This scale-up involves the use of statistical methods, both in acquiring effective knowledge resources and in making reasonable linguistic choices in the face of knowledge gaps.

  2. An integrated magnetotelluric study of the Mt. Etna volcanic structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Siniscalchi

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available he results of a magnetotelluric (MT survey performed at Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy are presented and discussed. The MT interpretation is preceded by the description of the data managing strategy used for the estimate of the impedance tensor and the computation of a rotationally invariant parameter. The 1D Bostick inversion of MT soundings located in the Etnean central area highlights the existence of a wide conductive zone in the depth range 15-30 km. Resistivities of a fewW×m are estimated in the southern part of this zone, while resistivities one order of magnitude higher are estimated in the northern part. In the central sector, the MT soundings are characterized by much higher resistivity values suggesting the presence of an E-W directed resistive barrier separating the two conductive deep zones. A two-feeding system is thus hypothesized as an extension of a previous 3D model deduced from regional earthquakes and teleseisms in the depth range 15-25 km. Moreover, the comparison with previous shallow seismic tomographies from local earthquakes within the first 11 km of depth allows us to distinguish inside the upper portion of the resistive barrier a central high velocity zone. This zone can likely be ascribed to a slowly cooled dike tending to become highly fractured at its western and eastern edges. Finally, the impedivity analysis based on the comparison with previous geoelectric dipole soundings allows us to exclude the existence of a permanent magma chamber within the first 5 km of depth and to argue the existence of a shallowplumbing system consisting of a medium-to-low temperature hydrothermally altered environment.

  3. Geothermal energy resource investigations at Mt. Spurr, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, D.L.; Wescott, E.M. (eds.)

    1986-12-01

    Spurr volcano is a composite Quaternary cone of largely andesitic composition located on the west side of Cook Inlet about 80 miles west of Anchorage and about 40 miles from the Beluga electrical transmission line. Geologic mapping (Plate 1-1) shows that the present summit depression was produced by a Mt. St. Helens-type sector collapse, rather than by a caldera collapse. Geochronologic and previous tephrachronologic studies show that there has been an active magmatic system at Spurr volcano during the late Pleistocene-to-Holocene time interval that is of critical interest for geothermal energy resource assessment. Major effort was devoted to geochemical and geophysical surveys of the accessible area south of Mt. Spurr, in addition to geologic mapping and geochronologic studies. Many coincident mercury and helium anomalies were found, suggesting the presence of geothermal systems at depth. Extremely large electrical self-potential anomalies were also found, together with extensive zones of low resistivity discovered by our controlled-source audiomagnetotelluric survey. The juxtaposition of all of these different types of anomalies at certain areas on the south slope of Crater Peak indicates the presence of a geothermal system which should be accessible by drilling to about 2000 ft depth. It is also evident that there is a strong volcanic hazard to be evaluated in considering any development on the south side of Mt. Spurr. This hazardous situation may require angle drilling of production wells from safer areas and placement of power generation facilities at a considerable distance from hazardous areas.

  4. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...... med surveys. Denne bog gennemgår alle surveyarbejdets faser og giver en praktisk indføring i: • design af undersøgelsen og udvælgelse af stikprøver, • formulering af spørgeskemaer samt indsamling og kodning af data, • metoder til at analysere resultaterne...

  5. MT-CYB mutations in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Christian M; Aidt, Frederik H; Havndrup, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a characteristic of heart failure. Mutations in mitochondrial DNA, particularly in MT-CYB coding for cytochrome B in complex III (CIII), have been associated with isolated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). We hypothesized that MT-CYB mutations might play an important...

  6. The role of MT2-MMP in cancer progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Emiko [Department of Molecular Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yana, Ikuo [Department of Molecular Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Takeda Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Japan Development Center, Osaka 540-8645 (Japan); Fujita, Chisato; Irifune, Aiko; Takeda, Maki; Madachi, Ayako; Mori, Seiji; Hamada, Yoshinosuke; Kawaguchi, Naomasa [Department of Molecular Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Matsuura, Nariaki, E-mail: Matsuura@sahs.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2010-03-05

    The role of MT2-MMP in cancer progression remains to be elucidated in spite of many reports on MT1-MMP. Using a human fibrosarcoma cell, HT1080 and a human gastric cancer cell, TMK-1, endogenous expression of MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP was suppressed by siRNA induction to examine the influence of cancer progression in vitro and in vivo. In HT1080 cells, positive both in MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP, the migration as well as the invasion was impaired by MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP suppression. Also cell proliferation in three dimensional (3D) condition was inhibited by MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP suppression and tumor growth in the nude mice transplanted with tumor cells were reduced either MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP suppression with a prolongation of survival time in vivo. MT2-MMP suppression induces more inhibitory effects on 3D proliferation and in vivo tumor growth than MT1-MMP. On the other hand, TMK-1 cells, negative in MT1-MMP and MMP-2 but positive in MT2-MMP, all the migratory, invasive, and 3D proliferative activities in TMK-1 are decreased only by MT2-MMP suppression. These results indicate MT2-MMP might be involved in the cancer progression more than or equal to MT1-MMP independently of MMP-2 and MT1-MMP.

  7. Mt. Pinatubo, Phillippines - Perspective View

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The effects of the June 15, 1991, eruption of Mt. Pinatubo continue to affect the lives of people living near the volcano on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. The eruption produced a large amount of volcanic debris that was deposited on the flanks of the volcano as part of pyroclastic flows. This perspective view looking toward the east shows the western flank of the volcano where most of these pyroclastic flows were deposited.This debris consists of ash and boulders that mix with water after heavy rains to form volcanic mudflows called lahars. Lahars are moving rivers of concrete slurry that are highly erosive. They can sweep down existing river valleys, carving deep canyons where the slopes are steep, or depositing a mixture of fine ash and larger rocks on the gentler slopes. The deposits left from a lahar soon solidify into a material similar to concrete, but while they are moving, lahars are dynamic features, and in a single river valley the active channel may change locations within a few minutes or hours. These changes represent a significant natural hazard to local communities.The topographic data were collected by NASA's airborne imaging radar AIRSAR instrument on November 29, 1996. Colors are from the French SPOT satellite imaging data in both visible and infrared wavelengths collected in February 1996. Areas of vegetation appear red and areas without vegetation appear light blue. River valleys radiate out from the summit of the volcano (upper center). Since the eruption, lahars have stripped these valleys of any vegetation. The Pasig-Potrero River flows to the northeast off the summit in the upper right of the image.Scientists have been using airborne radar data collected by the AIRSAR instrument in their studies of the aftereffects of the Mt. Pinatubo eruption. AIRSAR collected imaging radar data over the volcano during a mission to the Pacific Rim region in late 1996 and on a follow-up mission to the area in late 2000. These data sets along with

  8. Do the Four Clades of the mtDNA Haplogroup L2 Evolve at Different Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torroni, Antonio; Rengo, Chiara; Guida, Valentina; Cruciani, Fulvio; Sellitto, Daniele; Coppa, Alfredo; Calderon, Fernando Luna; Simionati, Barbara; Valle, Giorgio; Richards, Martin; Macaulay, Vincent; Scozzari, Rosaria

    2001-01-01

    Forty-seven mtDNAs collected in the Dominican Republic and belonging to the African-specific haplogroup L2 were studied by high-resolution RFLP and control-region sequence analyses. Four sets of diagnostic markers that subdivide L2 into four clades (L2a–L2d) were identified, and a survey of published African data sets appears to indicate that these clades encompass all L2 mtDNAs and harbor very different geographic/ethnic distributions. One mtDNA from each of the four clades was completely sequenced by means of a new sequencing protocol that minimizes time and expense. The phylogeny of the L2 complete sequences showed that the two mtDNAs from L2b and L2d seem disproportionately derived, compared with those from L2a and L2c. This result is not consistent with a simple model of neutral evolution with a uniform molecular clock. The pattern of nonsynonymous versus synonymous substitutions hints at a role for selection in the evolution of human mtDNA. Regardless of whether selection is shaping the evolution of modern human mtDNAs, the population screening of L2 mtDNAs for the mutations identified by our complete sequence study should allow the identification of marker motifs of younger age with more restricted geographic distributions, thus providing new clues about African prehistory and the origin and relationships of African ethnic groups. PMID:11595973

  9. Molecular cloning and pharmacological characterization of rat melatonin MT1 and MT2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audinot, Valérie; Bonnaud, Anne; Grandcolas, Line; Rodriguez, Marianne; Nagel, Nadine; Galizzi, Jean-Pierre; Balik, Ales; Messager, Sophie; Hazlerigg, David G; Barrett, Perry; Delagrange, Philippe; Boutin, Jean A

    2008-05-15

    In order to interpret the effects of melatonin ligands in rats, we need to determine their activity at the receptor subtype level in the corresponding species. Thus, the rat melatonin rMT(1) receptor was cloned using DNA fragments for exon 1 and 2 amplified from rat genomic DNA followed by screening of a rat genomic library for the full length exon sequences. The rat rMT(2) receptor subtype was cloned in a similar manner with the exception of exon 1 which was identified by screening a rat genomic library with exon 1 of the human hMT(2) receptor. The coding region of these receptors translates proteins of 353 and 364 amino acids, respectively, for rMT(1) and rMT(2). A 55% homology was observed between both rat isoforms. The entire contiguous rat MT(1) and MT(2) receptor coding sequences were cloned, stably expressed in CHO cells and characterized in binding assay using 2-[(125)I]-Iodomelatonin. The dissociation constants (K(d)) for rMT(1) and rMT(2) were 42 and 130 pM, respectively. Chemically diverse compounds previously characterized at human MT(1) and MT(2) receptors were evaluated at rMT(1) and rMT(2) receptors, for their binding affinity and functionality in [(35)S]-GTPgammaS binding assay. Some, but not all, compounds shared a similar binding affinity and functionality at both rat and human corresponding subtypes. A different pharmacological profile of the MT(1) subtype has also been observed previously between human and ovine species. These in vitro results obtained with the rat melatonin receptors are thus of importance to understand the physiological roles of each subtype in animal models.

  10. 78 FR 44187 - Montana Disaster # MT-00079

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Montana Disaster MT-00079 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... have been determined to be adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Blaine,...

  11. 77 FR 32896 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Billings, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... airspace at Billings Logan International Airport, Billings, MT. Controlled airspace is necessary to... Billings, MT Billings Logan International Airport, MT (Lat. 45 48'28'' N., long. 108 32'34'' W.) That... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Modification of Class E Airspace; Billings, MT AGENCY...

  12. 44 CFR 15.3 - Access to Mt. Weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to Mt. Weather. 15.3... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.3 Access to Mt. Weather. Mt. Weather contains classified material and...

  13. Spectroscopic Classification of SN 2017mt as a Type Ia Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jujia; Xin, Yuxin; Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Wenxiong; Rui, Liming; Xu, Zhijian; Li, Bin; Zhao, Haibin; Wang, Lifan; Tan, Hanjie; Xiao, Feng; Zhang, Tianmeng

    2017-01-01

    We obtained an optical spectrum (range 370-870 nm) of SN 2017mt, discovered by the PMO-Tsinghua Supernova Survey (PTSS), on UT Jan.27.9 2017 with the 2.4 m telescope (LJT + YFOSC) at LiJiang Observatory of Yunnan Observatories (YNAO).

  14. Understanding ecosystem service preferences across residential classifications near Mt. Baker Snoqualmie National Forest, Washington (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine Williams; Kelly Biedenweg; Lee Cerveny

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystem services consistently group together both spatially and cognitively into “bundles”. Understanding socio-economic predictors of these bundles is essential to informing a management approach that emphasizes equitable distribution of ecosystem services. We received 1796 completed surveys from stakeholders of the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest (WA, USA)...

  15. MT2-D inversion analysis in Kakkonda geothermal field; Kakkonda chinetsu chiiki ni okeru MT ho nijigen kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, K.; Takasugi, S. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Miyazaki, S. [Japan Metals and Chemicals Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Uchida, T. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Data, collected from an MT method-assisted survey conducted in the Kakkonda geothermal region in 1987, was re-examined, and a new structure was found. The review was carried out by use of a 2D analysis in the TM mode. According to the 1D analysis of 1987 and the geological data gathered then, it is estimated that the resistivity structure of this region runs in the northwest-southeast direction. A northeast-southwest traverse line was set for this analysis, orthogonal to the strike, and the impedance at each observation spot was caused to rotate to this direction across the whole range of frequency. Furthermore, in 1994-95, surveys were conducted using arrayed CSMT/MT methods. All these sum up to indicate that a high-resistivity region extends northwest in the southwestern part of the Kakkonda river but that there exists a low-resistivity region of several 10 Ohm m centering about the B traverse line. The high-resistivity region deep in the ground being the target of excavation in the Kakkonda region, to collect knowledge about this high-resistivity is important, and here the effectiveness of the 2d analysis has been verified. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  16. Recent introgressive hybridization revealed by exclusive mtDNA transfer from Oreochromis leucostictus (Trewavas, 1933) to Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) in Lake Baringo, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Nyingi, Dorothy W.; Agnèse, Jean-François

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear DNA and mtDNA polymorphisms were surveyed in various species of East African Oreochromis. In Lake Baringo, where only Oreochromis niloticus baringoensis is present, alien mtDNA haplotypes were observed, apparently the result of introgressive hybridization with Oreochromis leucostictus. This introgression is not accompanied by any substantial or recorded transfer of nuclear genes into O. n. baringoensis.

  17. Human gastroenteropancreatic expression of melatonin and its receptors MT1 and MT2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Söderquist

    Full Text Available The largest source of melatonin, according to animal studies, is the gastrointestinal (GI tract but this is not yet thoroughly characterized in humans. This study aims to map the expression of melatonin and its two receptors in human GI tract and pancreas using microarray analysis and immunohistochemistry.Gene expression data from normal intestine and pancreas and inflamed colon tissue due to ulcerative colitis were analyzed for expression of enzymes relevant for serotonin and melatonin production and their receptors. Sections from paraffin-embedded normal tissue from 42 individuals, representing the different parts of the GI tract (n=39 and pancreas (n=3 were studied with immunohistochemistry using antibodies with specificity for melatonin, MT1 and MT2 receptors and serotonin.Enzymes needed for production of melatonin are expressed in both GI tract and pancreas tissue. Strong melatonin immunoreactivity (IR was seen in enterochromaffin (EC cells partially co-localized with serotonin IR. Melatonin IR was also seen in pancreas islets. MT1 and MT2 IR were both found in the intestinal epithelium, in the submucosal and myenteric plexus, and in vessels in the GI tract as well as in pancreatic islets. MT1 and MT2 IR was strongest in the epithelium of the large intestine. In the other cell types, both MT2 gene expression and IR were generally elevated compared to MT1. Strong MT2, IR was noted in EC cells but not MT1 IR. Changes in gene expression that may result in reduced levels of melatonin were seen in relation to inflammation.Widespread gastroenteropancreatic expression of melatonin and its receptors in the GI tract and pancreas is in agreement with the multiple roles ascribed to melatonin, which include regulation of gastrointestinal motility, epithelial permeability as well as enteropancreatic cross-talk with plausible impact on metabolic control.

  18. Plant Community Response in Small Plots One Year after Treatment with Triclopyr and Endothall in Noxon Rapids Reservoir, MT, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    aquatic macrophyte community of Onondaga Lake: Field survey and plant growth bioassays of lake sediments. Lake and Reservoir Management 12:73-79...Plant Community Response in Small Plots One Year after Treatment with Triclopyr and Endothall in Noxon Rapids Reservoir , MT, 2011 Ryan M...Plots One Year after Treatment with Triclopyr and Endothall in Noxon Rapids Reservoir , MT, 2011 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  19. Earthworm Lumbricus rubellus MT-2: Metal Binding and Protein Folding of a True Cadmium-MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory R. Kowald

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms express, as most animals, metallothioneins (MTs—small, cysteine-rich proteins that bind d10 metal ions (Zn(II, Cd(II, or Cu(I in clusters. Three MT homologues are known for Lumbricus rubellus, the common red earthworm, one of which, wMT-2, is strongly induced by exposure of worms to cadmium. This study concerns composition, metal binding affinity and metal-dependent protein folding of wMT-2 expressed recombinantly and purified in the presence of Cd(II and Zn(II. Crucially, whilst a single Cd7wMT-2 species was isolated from wMT-2-expressing E. coli cultures supplemented with Cd(II, expressions in the presence of Zn(II yielded mixtures. The average affinities of wMT-2 determined for either Cd(II or Zn(II are both within normal ranges for MTs; hence, differential behaviour cannot be explained on the basis of overall affinity. Therefore, the protein folding properties of Cd- and Zn-wMT-2 were compared by 1H NMR spectroscopy. This comparison revealed that the protein fold is better defined in the presence of cadmium than in the presence of zinc. These differences in folding and dynamics may be at the root of the differential behaviour of the cadmium- and zinc-bound protein in vitro, and may ultimately also help in distinguishing zinc and cadmium in the earthworm in vivo.

  20. Ancient mtDNA genetic variants modulate mtDNA transcription and replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarit Suissa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the functional consequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA genetic backgrounds (haplotypes, haplogroups have been demonstrated by both disease association studies and cell culture experiments, it is not clear which of the mutations within the haplogroup carry functional implications and which are "evolutionary silent hitchhikers". We set forth to study the functionality of haplogroup-defining mutations within the mtDNA transcription/replication regulatory region by in vitro transcription, hypothesizing that haplogroup-defining mutations occurring within regulatory motifs of mtDNA could affect these processes. We thus screened >2500 complete human mtDNAs representing all major populations worldwide for natural variation in experimentally established protein binding sites and regulatory regions comprising a total of 241 bp in each mtDNA. Our screen revealed 77/241 sites showing point mutations that could be divided into non-fixed (57/77, 74% and haplogroup/sub-haplogroup-defining changes (i.e., population fixed changes, 20/77, 26%. The variant defining Caucasian haplogroup J (C295T increased the binding of TFAM (Electro Mobility Shift Assay and the capacity of in vitro L-strand transcription, especially of a shorter transcript that maps immediately upstream of conserved sequence block 1 (CSB1, a region associated with RNA priming of mtDNA replication. Consistent with this finding, cybrids (i.e., cells sharing the same nuclear genetic background but differing in their mtDNA backgrounds harboring haplogroup J mtDNA had a >2 fold increase in mtDNA copy number, as compared to cybrids containing haplogroup H, with no apparent differences in steady state levels of mtDNA-encoded transcripts. Hence, a haplogroup J regulatory region mutation affects mtDNA replication or stability, which may partially account for the phenotypic impact of this haplogroup. Our analysis thus demonstrates, for the first time, the functional impact of particular mt

  1. 76 FR 47637 - Montana Disaster #MT-00062

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... ADMINISTRATION Montana Disaster MT-00062 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Montana (FEMA..., Fort Worth, TX 76155. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance,...

  2. 77 FR 47907 - Montana Disaster #MT-00067

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION Montana Disaster MT-00067 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of MONTANA dated 08/02/2012. Incident: Ash Creek Fire. Incident Period: 06/25/2012 through 07/22/2012. Effective Date:...

  3. 77 FR 48198 - Montana Disaster #MT-00068

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION Montana Disaster MT-00068 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Montana dated 08/06/2012. Incident: Dahl Fire. Incident Period: 06/26/2012 through 07/06/2012. Effective Date:...

  4. MODFLOW-2005 and MT3DMS models used to design and evaluate a bioremediation experiment at the former Naval Air Warfare Center, West Trenton, NJ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — MODFLOW-2005 groundwater flow models and MT3DMS solute transport models were developed to represent conditions in the vicinity of a bioremediation experiment...

  5. Bruce Medalists at the Mt. Wilson Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenn, J. S.

    2004-12-01

    The institution which succeeded the Mt. Wilson Station of Yerkes Observatory in 1904 has had six names and three sites. From 1948-1980 it was united with Caltech's Palomar Observatory, and since then its main observatory has been in Chile, though still headquartered on Santa Barbara Street in Pasadena. For more than half of the twentieth century it was the leading observatory in the world. One bit of evidence for this is the amazing number of its staff members awarded the Bruce Medal. The Catherine Wolfe Bruce Gold Medal of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific has been awarded for lifetime contributions to astronomy since 1898. It is an international award. It wasn't until 1963 that the number of medalists who had worked primarily in the United States reached half the total. Yet fourteen of the first 87 medalists spent most of their careers at Mt. Wilson, including the period when it was Mt. Wilson and Palomar, and another three were Caltech observers who used the telescopes of the jointly operated observatory. Several more medalists made substantial use of the telescopes on Mt. Wilson and Palomar Mountain. We will discuss highlights of the careers of a number of these distinguished astronomers: directors George Ellery Hale, Walter Adams, Ira Bowen, and Horace Babcock; solar observer and satellite discoverer Seth Nicholson; instrument builder Harold Babcock; galactic and cosmological observers Frederick Seares, Edwin Hubble, Walter Baade, Rudolph Minkowski, and Allan Sandage; and spectroscopists Paul Merrill, Alfred Joy, Olin Wilson, Jesse Greenstein, Maarten Schmidt, and Wallace Sargent. We will touch briefly on others who used Mt. Wilson and/or Palomar, including Harlow Shapley, Joel Stebbins, Charlotte Moore Sitterly, Donald Osterbrock, and Albert Whitford.

  6. Melatonin MT1 and MT2 Receptors in the Ram Reproductive Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Arto, Marta; Aguilar, David; Gaspar-Torrubia, Elena; Gallego, Margarita; Carvajal-Serna, Melissa; Herrera-Marcos, Luis V.; Serrano-Blesa, Edith; Hamilton, Thais Rose dos Santos; Pérez-Pé, Rosaura; Muiño-Blanco, Teresa; Cebrián-Pérez, José A.; Casao, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Some melatonin functions in mammals are exerted through MT1 and MT2 receptors. However, there are no reports of their presence in the reproductive tract of the ram, a seasonal species. Thus, we have investigated their existence in the ram testis, epididymis, accessory glands and ductus deferens. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) revealed higher levels of m-RNA for both receptors in the testis, ampulla, seminal vesicles, and vas deferens, than in the other organs of the reproductive tract (p < 0.05). Western blot analyses showed protein bands compatible with the MT1 in the testis and cauda epididymis, and for the MT2 in the cauda epididymis and deferent duct. Immunohistochemistry analyses revealed the presence of MT1 receptors in spermatogonias, spermatocytes, and spermatids, and MT2 receptors in the newly-formed spermatozoa in the testis, whereas both receptors were located in the epithelial cells of the ampulla, seminal vesicles, and ductus deferens. Indirect immunofluorescence showed significant differences in the immunolocation of both receptors in spermatozoa during their transit in the epididymis. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that melatonin receptors are present in the ram reproductive tract. These results open the way for new studies on the molecular mechanism of melatonin and the biological significance of its receptors. PMID:28335493

  7. The Mt Logan Holocene-late Wisconsinan isotope record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Fisher, David; Osterberg, Erich

    2008-01-01

    Mt Logan • stable isotopes • Holocene • ENSO • peat • N Pacific • sudden change Udgivelsesdato: August......Mt Logan • stable isotopes • Holocene • ENSO • peat • N Pacific • sudden change Udgivelsesdato: August...

  8. Domain Tuning of Bilingual Lexicons for MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    vocabulary—a set of words or terms from a document that indicate the topic or primary content of the text—is nec- essary for many NLP tasks. In monolingual ...specificity impacts the accuracy of text classification (Saku- rai, 1999). In multilingual processing, appropriate translation choices cannot be made...System A statistical MT system has 3 basic components, a language model, a translation model, and a decoder. The language model is a monolingual

  9. A meteorite crater on Mt. Ararat?

    CERN Document Server

    Gurzadyan, V G

    2010-01-01

    We briefly report on a crater on the western slope of Mt.Ararat . It is located in an area closed to foreigners at an altitude around 2100m with geographic coordinates 39\\deg 47' 30"N, 44\\deg 14' 40"E. The diameter of the crater is around 60-70m, the depth is up to 15m. The origin of the crater, either of meteorite impact or volcanic, including the evaluation of its age, will need detailed studies.

  10. Novel Scalable 3-D MT Inverse Solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuvshinov, A. V.; Kruglyakov, M.; Geraskin, A.

    2016-12-01

    We present a new, robust and fast, three-dimensional (3-D) magnetotelluric (MT) inverse solver. As a forward modelling engine a highly-scalable solver extrEMe [1] is used. The (regularized) inversion is based on an iterative gradient-type optimization (quasi-Newton method) and exploits adjoint sources approach for fast calculation of the gradient of the misfit. The inverse solver is able to deal with highly detailed and contrasting models, allows for working (separately or jointly) with any type of MT (single-site and/or inter-site) responses, and supports massive parallelization. Different parallelization strategies implemented in the code allow for optimal usage of available computational resources for a given problem set up. To parameterize an inverse domain a mask approach is implemented, which means that one can merge any subset of forward modelling cells in order to account for (usually) irregular distribution of observation sites. We report results of 3-D numerical experiments aimed at analysing the robustness, performance and scalability of the code. In particular, our computational experiments carried out at different platforms ranging from modern laptops to high-performance clusters demonstrate practically linear scalability of the code up to thousands of nodes. 1. Kruglyakov, M., A. Geraskin, A. Kuvshinov, 2016. Novel accurate and scalable 3-D MT forward solver based on a contracting integral equation method, Computers and Geosciences, in press.

  11. Modeling the Geologic History of Mt. Sharp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascuzzo, A.; Allen, C.

    2015-01-01

    Gale is an approximately 155 km diameter crater located on the martian dichotomy boundary (5 deg S 138 deg E). Gale is estimated to have formed 3.8 - 3.5 Gya, in the late Noachian or early Hesperian. Mt. Sharp, at the center of Gale Crater, is a crescent shaped sedimentary mound that rises 5.2 km above the crater floor. Gale is one of the few craters that has a peak reaching higher than the rim of the crater wall. The Curiosity rover is currently fighting to find its way across a dune field at the northwest base of the mound searching for evidence of habitability. This study used orbital images and topographic data to refine models for the geologic history of Mt. Sharp by analyzing its morphological features. In addition, it assessed the possibility of a peak ring in Gale. The presence of a peak ring can offer important information to how Mt. Sharp was formed and eroded early in Gale's history.

  12. New magnetotelluric soundings in the Mt. Somma-Vesuvius volcanic complex: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zaja

    2000-06-01

    planning future MT surveys.

  13. Metallothionein (MT -I and MT-II expression are induced and cause zinc sequestration in the liver after brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W Pankhurst

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Experiments with transgenic over-expressing, and null mutant mice have determined that metallothionein-I and -II (MT-I/II are protective after brain injury. MT-I/II is primarily a zinc-binding protein and it is not known how it provides neuroprotection to the injured brain or where MT-I/II acts to have its effects. MT-I/II is often expressed in the liver under stressful conditions but to date, measurement of MT-I/II expression after brain injury has focused primarily on the injured brain itself. In the present study we measured MT-I/II expression in the liver of mice after cryolesion brain injury by quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA with the UC1MT antibody. Displacement curves constructed using MT-I/II knockout (MT-I/II(-/- mouse tissues were used to validate the ELISA. Hepatic MT-I and MT-II mRNA levels were significantly increased within 24 hours of brain injury but hepatic MT-I/II protein levels were not significantly increased until 3 days post injury (DPI and were maximal at the end of the experimental period, 7 DPI. Hepatic zinc content was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy and was found to decrease at 1 and 3 DPI but returned to normal by 7DPI. Zinc in the livers of MT-I/II(-/- mice did not show a return to normal at 7 DPI which suggests that after brain injury, MT-I/II is responsible for sequestering elevated levels of zinc to the liver. CONCLUSION: MT-I/II is up-regulated in the liver after brain injury and modulates the amount of zinc that is sequestered to the liver.

  14. GEOBOTANICAL COMPARISON BETWEEN TWO JAPANESE VOLCANOES: MT. FUJI AND MT. ASAMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. POLI MARCHESE

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Mt. Fuji and Mt. Asama are two of the highest Japanese volcanoes. reaching 3776 and 2542 m a.s.l. respectively. The former is dormant but the latter is an active volcano. This study is based on our own unpublished data, which inc1udes a total of 152 phytosociological relevés. and on previous studies of the vegetation of both volcanoes. On the basis of the data collected al different times a geobotanical comparison between the two vo1canoes as regards their high moutain regions was made. In this region the following belts may be distinguished on both volcanoes: - a subalpinc belt, characterized on its upper zone by shrub communities with some Ericaceae, larch (Larix leptolepis, Salix reinii and other dwarf woody species; - an alpine belt, where there is scattered herbaceous vegetation, mostly dominated by Polygonum weyrichii v. alpinum. In this belt on Mt. Fuji, the following communities may be distinguished: the Arabis serrata-Polygonum alpinum community on the lowest altitudes; the Stellaria nipponica-Polygonum alpinum community and at higher altitudes a very sparse poor community characterized by Cassiope lycopodioides. In the highest region up to the summit there are moss and lichen communities only. On the southeastern side on the 1707 ash and scoria there is pioneer vegetation dominated by Cirsium purpuratum and Campanula hondoensis. On Mt. Asama the high-mountain vegetation is dominated by the Polygonum alpinum community. It occupies a narrower belt. Here the volcanic activity doesn't allow the vegetation to reach the top. In the highest region of the volcano there is a bare sterile zone. The differences found in the altitudinal distribution of vegetation on the two volcanoes can partIy be attributed to the fact that one (Mt. Fuji is dormant, while the other (Mt. Asama is active. On active volcanoes the ecological factors related to the volcanic activity have a strong influence on the vegetation and its distribution.

  15. My Pilgrimage To Mt.Khawah Gepoh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    澤仁平措

    2004-01-01

    Why ethnic Tibetans are never daunted by the hardships they suffer while making pilgrimages to sacred mountains and lakes by walking round them? I put this question to a man who had walked round the sacred Mt. Khawah Gepoh in eastern Tibet 28 times. Here is his answer: "To endure those hardships during the pilgrimages, I mean to punish myself for the sins I have committed, in order to gain freedom from anxiety and increase the virtues in my soul, my inner world." With help from some lamas, I learned by heart the words of prayer pilgrims keep uttering while walking round the sacred mountain:

  16. Carbonate rocks of Mt. Peca, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernarda Bole

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The carbonate massif of Mt. Peca consists of Ladinian-Carnian Wetterstein limestone and dolomite of backreef and reef development. The backreef limestone is bedded and with intrabiomicrite, intrabiopelmicrite and loferite textures. It was deposited in shallow and quiet sedimentation environment with short periodic emergences. The reef facies is characterized by corals, algae, spongians and other reefbuilding organisms. Te larger part of the Peca limestone is slightly dolomitized, and its reef part is in addition strongly recrystallized.With respect to fossil assemblage the reef limestone is attributed to Carnian, mainly to Cordevol.

  17. Complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the endangered frog Odorrana ishikawae (family Ranidae) and unexpected diversity of mt gene arrangements in ranids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Yoshikawa, Natsuhiko; Sato, Naoki; Hayashi, Yoko; Oumi, Shohei; Fujii, Tamotsu; Sumida, Masayuki

    2010-08-01

    We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial (mt) genome of an endangered Japanese frog, Odorrana ishikawae (family Ranidae). We also sequenced partial mt genomes of three other Odorrana and six ranid species to survey the diversity of genomic organizations and elucidate the phylogenetic problems remaining in this frog family. The O. ishikawae mt genome contained the 37 mt genes and single control region (CR) typically found in vertebrate mtDNAs, but the region of Light-strand replication origin (OL) was triplicated in this species. Four protein-encoding genes (atp6, nd2, nd3, and nd5) were found to have high sequence divergence and to be usable for population genetics studies on this endangered species. Among the surveyed ranids, only two species (Rana and Lithobates) manifested the typical neobatrachian-type mt gene arrangement. In contrast, relatively large gene rearrangements were found in Amolops, Babina, and Staurois species; and translocations of single tRNA genes (trns) were observed in Glandirana and Odorrana species. Though the inter-generic and interspecific relationships of ranid taxa remain to be elucidated based on 12S and 16S rrn sequence data, some of the derived mt gene orders were found to have synapomorphic features useful for solving problematic ranid phylogenies. The tandem duplication and random loss (TDRL) model, the traditional model for mt gene rearrangement, failed to easily explain several of the mt gene rearrangements observed here. Indeed, the recent recombination-based gene rearrangement models seemed to be more suitable for this purpose. The high frequency of gene translocations involving a specific trn block (trnH-trnS1) and several single tRNA genes suggest that there may be a retrotranslocation in ranid mt genomes.

  18. 75 FR 43556 - TA-W-73,381, MT Rail Link, Inc., Missoula, MT; TA-W-73,381A, Billings, MT; TA-W-73,381B, Laurel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... Employment and Training Administration TA-W-73,381, MT Rail Link, Inc., Missoula, MT; TA-W-73,381A, Billings, MT; TA-W-73,381B, Laurel, MT; TA-W-73,381C, Livingston, MT; TA-W-73,381D, Helena, MT; Amended... applicable to TA-W-73,381 is hereby issued as follows: All workers of Montana Rail Link, Inc.,...

  19. New magnetotelluric soundings in the Mt. Somma-Vesuvius volcanic complex. Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzella, A.; Volpi, G. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa (Italy). Ist. Internazionale per le Ricerche Geotermiche; Zaja, A. [Padua Univ., Padua (Italy). Dipt. di Geologia, Paleontologia e Geofisica

    2000-04-01

    The work reports the preliminary results of ten magnetotelluric (MT) soundings recorded in single-site mode above the Mt. Somma-Vesuvius volcanic area in 1997. The quality of data decreases going further from the caldera and approaching the sources of electromagnetic incoherent noise such as villages, antennas and repeaters. After a very accurate data analysis, the apparent resistivity and phase curves were interpreted with a 1D modelling instead a 2D one as it seems a more appropriate interpretative approach looking at the morphology of the curves and taking into account the 3 D geological conditions of the area. The results show an extended conductive structure at a depth of 0.3-1.2 km. It could be connected with a change in the physico-chemical characteristics of the volcano-sedimentary define the response MT curves for sites above this particular volcanic structure. This approach seems to be very interesting in view of specific interpretative targets, such as dimension and position of the magma chamber, when planning future MT surveys.

  20. New Radioligands for Describing the Molecular Pharmacology of MT1 and MT2 Melatonin Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Nosjean

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin receptors have been studied for several decades. The low expression of the receptors in tissues led the scientific community to find a substitute for the natural hormone melatonin, the agonist 2-[125I]-iodomelatonin. Using the agonist, several hundreds of studies were conducted, including the discovery of agonists and antagonists for the receptors and minute details about their molecular behavior. Recently, we attempted to expand the panel of radioligands available for studying the melatonin receptors by using the newly discovered compounds SD6, DIV880, and S70254. These compounds were characterized for their affinities to the hMT1 and hMT2 recombinant receptors and their functionality in the classical GTPS system. SD6 is a full agonist, equilibrated between the receptor isoforms, whereas S70254 and DIV880 are only partial MT2 agonists, with Ki in the low nanomolar range while they have no affinity to MT1 receptors. These new tools will hopefully allow for additions to the current body of information on the native localization of the receptor isoforms in tissues.

  1. New Radioligands for Describing the Molecular Pharmacology of MT1 and MT2 Melatonin Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legros, Céline; Matthey, Ulrich; Grelak, Teresa; Pedragona-Moreau, Sandrine; Hassler, Werner; Yous, Saïd; Thomas, Emmanuel; Suzenet, Franck; Folleas, Benoît; Lefoulon, François; Berthelot, Pascal; Caignard, Daniel-Henri; Guillaumet, Gérald; Delagrange, Philippe; Brayer, Jean-Louis; Nosjean, Olivier; Boutin, Jean A.

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin receptors have been studied for several decades. The low expression of the receptors in tissues led the scientific community to find a substitute for the natural hormone melatonin, the agonist 2-[125I]-iodomelatonin. Using the agonist, several hundreds of studies were conducted, including the discovery of agonists and antagonists for the receptors and minute details about their molecular behavior. Recently, we attempted to expand the panel of radioligands available for studying the melatonin receptors by using the newly discovered compounds SD6, DIV880, and S70254. These compounds were characterized for their affinities to the hMT1 and hMT2 recombinant receptors and their functionality in the classical GTPγS system. SD6 is a full agonist, equilibrated between the receptor isoforms, whereas S70254 and DIV880 are only partial MT2 agonists, with Ki in the low nanomolar range while they have no affinity to MT1 receptors. These new tools will hopefully allow for additions to the current body of information on the native localization of the receptor isoforms in tissues. PMID:23698757

  2. The seismic monitoring network of Mt. Vesuvius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Orazi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mt. Vesuvius (southern Italy is one of the most hazardous volcanoes in the world. Its activity is currently characterized by moderate seismicity, with hypocenters located beneath the crater zone with depth rarely exceeding 5 km and magnitudes generally less than 3. The current configuration of the seismic monitoring network of Mt. Vesuvius consists of 18 seismic stations and 7 infrasound microphones. During the period 2006-2010 a seismic array with 48 channels was also operative. The station distribution provides appropriate coverage of the area around the volcanic edifice. The current development of the network and its geometry, under conditions of low seismic noise, allows locating seismic events with M<1. Remote instruments continuously transmit data to the main acquisition center in Naples. Data transmission is realized using different technological solutions based on UHF, Wi-Fi radio links, and TCP/IP client-server applications. Data are collected in the monitoring center of the Osservatorio Vesuviano (Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, Naples section, which is equipped with systems for displaying and analyzing signals, using both real-time automatic and manual procedures. 24-hour surveillance allows to immediately communicate any significant anomaly to the Civil Protection authorities.

  3. On crustal movement in Mt. Qomolangma area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊勇; 王泽民; 庞尚益; 张骥; 张全德

    2002-01-01

    Mt. Qomolangma lies in the collision zone between the fringe of Eurasia plate and Indian plate. The crustal movement there is still very active so far. In the past three decades China carried out five geodetic campaigns in Mt. Qomolangma and its north vicinal area, independently or cooperatively with other countries, including triangulation, leveling, GPS positioning, atmospheric, astronomical and gravity measurements. On the basis of the observation results achieved in the campaigns the crustal movements in the area were studied and explored. A non-stationary phenomenon both in time and space of the crustal vertical movement in the area is found. There seems to be some relevance between the phenomenon of non-stationary in time and seismic episode in China. The phenomenon of non-stationary in space is possibly relevant to the no-homo- geneity of crustal medium and non-uniform absorption of terrestrial stress. The horizontal crustal movement in the area is in the direction of NEE at a speed of 6—7 cm per year, and the trend of strike slip movement is manifested evidently in the collision fringe of Indian plate and Qinghai-Xizang block.

  4. Local magnitude estimate at Mt. Etna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Maiolino

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to verify the duration magnitude MD we calculated local magnitude ML values of 288 earthquakes occurring from October 2002 to April 2003 at Mt. Etna. The analysis was computed at three digital stations of the permanent seismic network of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia of Catania, using the relationship ML = logA+alog?-b, where A is maximum half-amplitude of the horizontal component of the seismic recording measured in mm and the term «+alog?-b» takes the place of the term «-logA0» of Richter relationship. In particular, a = 0.15 for ?<200 km, b=0.16 for ?<200 km. Duration magnitude MD values, moment magnitude MW values and other local magnitude values were compared. Differences between ML and MD were obtained for the strong seismic swarms occurring on October 27, during the onset of 2002-2003 Mt. Etna eruption, characterized by a high earthquake rate, with very strong events (seismogram results clipped in amplitude on drum recorder trace and high level of volcanic tremor, which not permit us to estimate the duration of the earthquakes correctly. ML and MD relationships were related and therefore a new relationship for MD is proposed. Cumulative strain release calculated after the eruption using ML values is about 1.75E+06 J1/2 higher than the one calculated using MD values.

  5. Barley metallothioneins: MT3 and MT4 are localized in the grain aleurone layer and show differential zinc binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Schiller, Michaela; Kichey, Thomas; Hansen, Thomas Hesselhøj; Pedas, Pai; Husted, Søren; Schjoerring, Jan Kofod

    2012-07-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low-molecular-weight, cysteine-rich proteins believed to play a role in cytosolic zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) homeostasis. However, evidence for the functional properties of MTs has been hampered by methodological problems in the isolation and characterization of the proteins. Here, we document that barley (Hordeum vulgare) MT3 and MT4 proteins exist in planta and that they differ in tissue localization as well as in metal coordination chemistry. Combined transcriptional and histological analyses showed temporal and spatial correlations between transcript levels and protein abundance during grain development. MT3 was present in tissues of both maternal and filial origin throughout grain filling. In contrast, MT4 was confined to the embryo and aleurone layer, where it appeared during tissue specialization and remained until maturity. Using state-of-the-art speciation analysis by size-exclusion chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry on recombinant MT3 and MT4, their specificity and capacity for metal ion binding were quantified, showing a strong preferential Zn binding relative to Cu and cadmium (Cd) in MT4, which was not the case for MT3. When complementary DNAs from barley MTs were expressed in Cu- or Cd-sensitive yeast mutants, MT3 provided a much stronger complementation than did MT4. We conclude that MT3 may play a housekeeping role in metal homeostasis, while MT4 may function in Zn storage in developing and mature grains. The localization of MT4 and its discrimination against Cd make it an ideal candidate for future biofortification strategies directed toward increasing food and feed Zn concentrations.

  6. Keeping mtDNA in shape between generations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B Stewart

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the unexpected discovery that mitochondria contain their own distinct DNA molecules, studies of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA have yielded many surprises. In animals, transmission of the mtDNA genome is explicitly non-Mendelian, with a very high number of genome copies being inherited from the mother after a drastic bottleneck. Recent work has begun to uncover the molecular details of this unusual mode of transmission. Many surprising variations in animal mitochondrial biology are known; however, a series of recent studies have identified a core of evolutionarily conserved mechanisms relating to mtDNA inheritance, e.g., mtDNA bottlenecks during germ cell development, selection against specific mtDNA mutation types during maternal transmission, and targeted destruction of sperm mitochondria. In this review, we outline recent literature on the transmission of mtDNA in animals and highlight the implications for human health and ageing.

  7. Keeping mtDNA in Shape between Generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James B.; Larsson, Nils-Göran

    2014-01-01

    Since the unexpected discovery that mitochondria contain their own distinct DNA molecules, studies of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have yielded many surprises. In animals, transmission of the mtDNA genome is explicitly non-Mendelian, with a very high number of genome copies being inherited from the mother after a drastic bottleneck. Recent work has begun to uncover the molecular details of this unusual mode of transmission. Many surprising variations in animal mitochondrial biology are known; however, a series of recent studies have identified a core of evolutionarily conserved mechanisms relating to mtDNA inheritance, e.g., mtDNA bottlenecks during germ cell development, selection against specific mtDNA mutation types during maternal transmission, and targeted destruction of sperm mitochondria. In this review, we outline recent literature on the transmission of mtDNA in animals and highlight the implications for human health and ageing. PMID:25299061

  8. Premature Infants: Perspectives on NICU-MT Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Jayne M Standley

    2014-01-01

    Music research began in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) over 25 years ago. Initially, medical staff resisted the idea that music therapy could impact premature infant medical outcomes. Today NICU-MT is well known in the U.S. with over 300 specially trained Board Certified Music Therapists (MT-BCs), and it is evolving in international settings. Over 50 research studies in refereed journals provide evidence-based methodology for NICU-MT and document important and unique infant benefit...

  9. Static shift correction of MT data in Tohoku district using TEM soundings; TEM ho data wo mochiita Tohoku chiho MT ho data no statistic shift hosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, N.; Kumekawa, Y.; Miura, Y.; Takasugi, S. [GERD Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Fujinawa, Y. [National Research Institute for Disaster Prevention, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    There is a possibility that the wide-band MT observation data obtained in the central part of Tohoku district include the static shift effect. To grasp the static shift effect in the MT data, the TEM soundings were conducted at all the site where the MT data were measured. The TEM sounding system was developed for the shallow survey depth ranging from 5 m to 150 m. When showing the measured results on the histogram, it was found that the static shifts were concentrated in the vicinity of zero. About 70% of the data was below 0.2 decade. Only a slight static shift effect was observed. This means that the results obtained by the two-dimensional analysis are plausible. Especially, the static shift around plain was small. Therefore, the current results around the plain were trustful. On the other hand, the static shift in the mountainous area was rather large. Accordingly, the results around the mountainous area should be carefully treated. 7 refs., 10 figs.

  10. Mountain Residence at Mt.Fuchun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Yuan Dynasty paintings laid stress on landscape with literary interest. Poems, calligraphy and painting were consciously arranged in perfect harmony so as to form the style of mountains-and-water painting with the "scholars’ painting" as its main theme. Huang Gongwang (1269-1354) was learned. Proficient in tonality and good at calligraphy, he began to paint mountains and streams when he was in his 50s. With his magnificent,refined and elegant style, Huang Gongwang’s paintings gained important position among artists of the time. The scroll Mountain Residence at Mt. Fuchun is his most popular piece. As a paper wash painting scroll, it is divided into two sections with the previous section 31.8 cm tall and 51.4 cm long,owned by the Zhejiang Provincial Museum, and the latter section 33 cm tall and 636.9 cm long, owned by the Palace Museum in Taiwan.

  11. WPA Omnibus Award MT Wind Power Outreach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian Spangler, Manager Energy Planning and Renewables

    2012-01-30

    The objective of this grant was to further the development of Montana's vast wind resources for small, medium, and large scale benefits to Montana and the nation. This was accomplished through collaborative work with wind industry representatives, state and local governments, the agricultural community, and interested citizens. Through these efforts MT Dept Environmental Quality (DEQ) was able to identify development barriers, educate and inform citizens, as well as to participate in regional and national dialogue that will spur the development of wind resources. The scope of DEQ's wind outreach effort evolved over the course of this agreement from the development of the Montana Wind Working Group and traditional outreach efforts, to the current focus on working with the state's university system to deliver a workforce trained to enter the wind industry.

  12. The mutation rate of the human mtDNA deletion mtDNA4977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkar, R; Navidi, W; Tavaré, S; Dang, M H; Chomyn, A; Attardi, G; Cortopassi, G; Arnheim, N

    1996-10-01

    The human mitochondrial mutation mtDNA4977 is a 4,977-bp deletion that originates between two 13-bp direct repeats. We grew 220 colonies of cells, each from a single human cell. For each colony, we counted the number of cells and amplified the DNA by PCR to test for the presence of a deletion. To estimate the mutation fate, we used a model that describes the relationship between the mutation rate and the probability that a colony of a given size will contain no mutants, taking into account such factors as possible mitochondrial turnover and mistyping due to PCR error. We estimate that the mutation rate for mtDNA4977 in cultured human cells is 5.95 x 10(-8) per mitochondrial genome replication. This method can be applied to specific chromosomal, as well as mitochondrial, mutations.

  13. The mutation rate of the human mtDNA deletion mtDNA{sup 4977}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenkar, R. [Univ. of Colorado Health Science Center, Denver, CO (United States); Navidi, W. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Tavare, S. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    The human mitochondrial mutation mtDNA{sup 4977} is a 4,977-bp deletion that originates between two 13-bp direct repeats. We grew 220 colonies of cells, each from a single human cell. For each colony, we counted the number of cells and amplified the DNA by PCR to test for the presence of a deletion. To estimate the mutation rate, we used a model that describes the relationship between the mutation rate and the probability that a colony of a given size will contain no mutants, taking into account such factors as possible mitochondrial turnover and mistyping due to PCR error. We estimate that the mutation rate for mtDNA{sup 4977} in cultured human cells is 5.95 x 10{sup {minus}8} per mitochondrial genome replication. This method can be applied to specific chromosomal, as well as mitochondrial, mutations. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. Population structure of Haliotis rubra from South Australia inferred from nuclear and mtDNA analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhongbao; Sharon A Appleyard; Nicholas G Elliott

    2006-01-01

    Microsatellite loci and mtDNA-RFLPs were surveyed in four spatially separated populations of Haliotis rubra and two populations of putative Haliotis conicorpora from South Australia. A high level of microsatellite genetic diversity was observed in all populations although several loci were characterized by homozygote excesses, probably due to null alleles. MtDNA variation was also moderate with an average of 80% haplotype variation across the six populations. Despite the high levels of genetic variation, significant pair-wise spatial differentiation is not detected among the populations. Hierarchical AMOVA analysis revealed very low levels of genetic partitioning on either a spatial or putative species level. Both molecular techniques revealed little genetic differentiation across the six populations, suggesting a panmictic population model for these South Australian abalone populations. Furthermore, no molecular evidence suggests that the putative H. conicorpora individuals sampled from South Australia belong to a separate species.

  15. Construct Validity of the MMPI-2 College Maladjustment (Mt) Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthlow, Deanna L.; Graham, John R.; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.; McNulty, John L

    2004-01-01

    The construct validity of the MMPI-2 (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2) College Maladjustment (Mt) Scale was examined using 376 student clients at a university psychological clinic. A principal components analysis and correlations of Mt scale scores with clients' and therapists' ratings of symptoms and functioning showed that the Mt…

  16. SignMT: An Alternative Language Learning Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditcharoen, Nadh; Naruedomkul, Kanlaya; Cercone, Nick

    2010-01-01

    Learning a second language is very difficult, especially, for the disabled; the disability may be a barrier to learn and to utilize information written in text form. We present the SignMT, Thai sign to Thai machine translation system, which is able to translate from Thai sign language into Thai text. In the translation process, SignMT takes into…

  17. Premature Infants: Perspectives on NICU-MT Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayne M Standley

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Music research began in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU over 25 years ago. Initially, medical staff resisted the idea that music therapy could impact premature infant medical outcomes. Today NICU-MT is well known in the U.S. with over 300 specially trained Board Certified Music Therapists (MT-BCs, and it is evolving in international settings. Over 50 research studies in refereed journals provide evidence-based methodology for NICU-MT and document important and unique infant benefits from music Quality of medical services is evaluated by benchmarks of benefit that are also economical and efficient. NICU-MT is underutilized and improves both medical and developmental outcomes for infants while reducing medical costs. For these reasons, it is an important new benchmark of quality NICU care. It behooves the profession to describe and promulgate specialized NICU-MT treatment techniques. Because of the extreme fragility and unique needs of premature infants still undergoing fetal development, it is also timely that the music therapy profession begins to develop specialized training for clinical treatment in this area. This article offers a perspective on NICU-MT by integrating music research with developmental theory, medical treatment, and MT clinical practice. It also provides suggestions for development of the specialization of NICU-MT.

  18. Interface Symbiotic Membrane Formation in Root Nodules of Medicago truncatula: the Role of Synaptotagmins MtSyt1, MtSyt2 and MtSyt3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrin, Aleksandr; Kulikova, Olga; Bisseling, Ton; Fedorova, Elena E.

    2017-01-01

    Symbiotic bacteria (rhizobia) are maintained and conditioned to fix atmospheric nitrogen in infected cells of legume root nodules. Rhizobia are confined to the asymmetrical protrusions of plasma membrane (PM): infection threads (IT), cell wall-free unwalled droplets and symbiosomes. These compartments rapidly increase in surface and volume due to the microsymbiont expansion, and remarkably, the membrane resources of the host cells are targeted to interface membrane quite precisely. We hypothesized that the change in the membrane tension around the expanding microsymbionts creates a vector for membrane traffic toward the symbiotic interface. To test this hypothesis, we selected calcium sensors from the group of synaptotagmins: MtSyt1, Medicago truncatula homolog of AtSYT1 from Arabidopsis thaliana known to be involved in membrane repair, and two other homologs expressed in root nodules: MtSyt2 and MtSyt3. Here we show that MtSyt1, MtSyt2, and MtSyt3 are expressed in the expanding cells of the meristem, zone of infection and proximal cell layers of zone of nitrogen fixation (MtSyt1, MtSyt3). All three GFP-tagged proteins delineate the interface membrane of IT and unwalled droplets and create a subcompartments of PM surrounding these structures. The localization of MtSyt1 by EM immunogold labeling has shown the signal on symbiosome membrane and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). To specify the role of synaptotagmins in interface membrane formation, we compared the localization of MtSyt1, MtSyt3 and exocyst subunit EXO70i, involved in the tethering of post-Golgi secretory vesicles and operational in tip growth. The localization of EXO70i in root nodules and arbusculated roots was strictly associated with the tips of IT and the tips of arbuscular fine branches, but the distribution of synaptotagmins on membrane subcompartments was broader and includes lateral parts of IT, the membrane of unwalled droplets as well as the symbiosomes. The double silencing of synaptotagmins

  19. Napoli and Volcanism - Vesuvius and Mt. Etna

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    For more than 240 million years the region now known as Italy has been the scene of episodic volcanic activity. East-southeast of Napoli (Naples) stands the imposing cone of Vesuvius, which erupted explosively in 79 A.D. to bury Pompeii and Herculaneum. More recently, when the crew of Space Shuttle mission STS-104 captured this view, Mt. Etna (Sicily, not seen in this image, but photographed the day before) was spewing ash and gas thousands of meters into the air, some of which can be seen as a brownish smear over Isola d' Ischia and the Tyrrhenian Sea. The Appenine ranges extend from northern Italy, down the boot of the peninsula and westward into Sicily. This photograph of the Appenino Napoletano is part of an 18-frame stereophoto mapping strip that spans the entire mountain chain. The almost 1200-km-long belt of volcanoes and folded/faulted mountains is a result of the ongoing collision of Africa and Eurasia, accompanied by the progressive closing of the Mediterranean Sea. Using overlapping pairs of stereophotos, and a special viewer, scientists can get a three-dimensional perspective on the ranges that surpasses any image viewed alone. For more information, see another image of Mt. Vesuvius, taken by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). References: Behncke, Boris, 2000, Vesuvio - The eruption of A.D. 79: Italy's Volcanoes - The Cradle of Volcanology [http://www.geo.mtu.edu/boris/VESUVIO_79.html (accessed 10/18/01)] Doglioni, C., and Flores, G., 1997, Italy, in Moores, E. M., and Fairbridge, R. W., editors, Encyclopedia of European and Asian Regional Geology: London, Chapman and Hall, p. 414-435 Shuttle photograph STS104-710-60 was taken 23 July 2001 from the orbiter Atlantis using a Hasselblad camera with 250-mm lens. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. The entire mapping series (of frames numbered in sequence from 50 through 68) can also be downloaded from the

  20. Napoli and Volcanism - Vesuvius and Mt. Etna

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    For more than 240 million years the region now known as Italy has been the scene of episodic volcanic activity. East-southeast of Napoli (Naples) stands the imposing cone of Vesuvius, which erupted explosively in 79 A.D. to bury Pompeii and Herculaneum. More recently, when the crew of Space Shuttle mission STS-104 captured this view, Mt. Etna (Sicily, not seen in this image, but photographed the day before) was spewing ash and gas thousands of meters into the air, some of which can be seen as a brownish smear over Isola d' Ischia and the Tyrrhenian Sea. The Appenine ranges extend from northern Italy, down the boot of the peninsula and westward into Sicily. This photograph of the Appenino Napoletano is part of an 18-frame stereophoto mapping strip that spans the entire mountain chain. The almost 1200-km-long belt of volcanoes and folded/faulted mountains is a result of the ongoing collision of Africa and Eurasia, accompanied by the progressive closing of the Mediterranean Sea. Using overlapping pairs of stereophotos, and a special viewer, scientists can get a three-dimensional perspective on the ranges that surpasses any image viewed alone. For more information, see another image of Mt. Vesuvius, taken by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). References: Behncke, Boris, 2000, Vesuvio - The eruption of A.D. 79: Italy's Volcanoes - The Cradle of Volcanology [http://www.geo.mtu.edu/boris/VESUVIO_79.html (accessed 10/18/01)] Doglioni, C., and Flores, G., 1997, Italy, in Moores, E. M., and Fairbridge, R. W., editors, Encyclopedia of European and Asian Regional Geology: London, Chapman and Hall, p. 414-435 Shuttle photograph STS104-710-60 was taken 23 July 2001 from the orbiter Atlantis using a Hasselblad camera with 250-mm lens. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. The entire mapping series (of frames numbered in sequence from 50 through 68) can also be downloaded from the

  1. Shear-wave polarization alignment on the eastern flank of Mt. Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vilardo

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, with the improvement of three-component seismic networks, studies revealing anisotropic characteristics in different regions have assumed great interest. In a complex volcanic area like Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy, the existence of both iso-oriented fault systems and intrusive bodies consisting of olivine and clinopyroxene suggest the presence of anisotropic structures. In order to investigate this we analyzed the physical phenomenon of shear-wave splitting since under certain constraints, shear waves are less sensitive to local heterogeneity. The aims of this paper are: 1 to evaluate if in a structural complex situation like that at Mt. Etna the signal crossing an anisotropic volume could be enhanced in spite of effects due to undirectional properties along the source-receiver path; 2 to investigate the correlations, if any, between polarization direction of the leading shear wave and the patterns of compressive stress acting on the investigated area. Therefore we measured time-delays between the S-onsets on the horizontal components of 3D seismograms to reveal the possible seismic anisotropy in the Etnean region; moreover, we analyzed the polarization vector of shear-waves seismic data recorded during a survey carried out in the spring-summer 1988. We found clear evidence of splitting that we attributed to the presence of an anisotropic volume not homogeneously distributed on the eastern slope of Mt. Etna volcano.

  2. Structural and heat-flow implications of infrared anomalies at Mt. Hood, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, J.D.; Frank, D.

    1977-01-01

    Surface thermal features occur in an area of 9700 m/sup 2/ at Mt. Hood, on the basis of an aerial line-scan survey made April 26, 1973. The distribution of the thermal areas below the summit of Mt. Hood, shown on planimetrically corrected maps at 1 : 12,000, suggests structural control by a fracture system and brecciated zone peripheral to a hornblende-dacite plug dome (Crater Rock), and by a concentric fracture system that may have been associated with development of the present crater. The extent and inferred temperature of the thermal areas permits a preliminary estimate of a heat discharge of 10 megawatts, by analogy with similar fumarole and thermal fields of Mt. Baker, Washington. This figure includes a heat loss of 4 megawatts (MW) via conduction, diffusion, evaporation, and radiation to the atmosphere, and a somewhat less certain loss of 6 MW via fumarolic mass transfer of vapor and advective heat loss from runoff and ice melt. The first part of the estimate is based on two-point models for differential radiant exitance and differential flux via conduction, diffusion, evaporation, and radiation from heat balance of the ground surface. Alternate methods for estimating volcanogenic geothermal flux that assume a quasi-steady state heat flow also yield estimates in the 5-11 MW range. Heat loss equivalent to cooling of the dacite plug dome is judged to be insufficient to account for the heat flux at the fumarole fields.

  3. Structural and heat-flow implications of infrared anomalies at Mt. Hood, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jules D.; Frank, David

    1977-01-01

    Surface thermal features occur in an area of 9700 m2 at Mt. Hood, on the basis of an aerial line-scan survey made April 26, 1973. The distribution of the thermal areas below the summit of Mt. Hood, shown on planimetrically corrected maps at 1:12,000, suggests structural control by a fracture system and brecciated zone peripheral to a hornblende-dacite plug dome (Crater Rock), and by a concentric fracture system that may have been associated with development of the present crater. The extent and inferred temperature of the thermal areas permits a preliminary estimate of a heat discharge of 10 megawatts, by analogy with similar fumarole and thermal fields of Mt. Baker, Washington. This figure includes a heat loss of 4 megawatts (MW) via conduction, diffusion, evaporation, and radiation to the atmosphere, and a somewhat less certain loss of 6MW via fumarolic mass transfer of vapor and advective heat loss from runoff and ice melt. The first part of the estimate is based on two-point models for differential radiant exitance and differential flux via conduction, diffusion, evaporation, and radiation from heat balance of the ground surface. Alternate methods for estimating volcanogenic geothermal flux that assume a quasi-steady state heat flow also yield estimates in the 5-11 MW range. Heat loss equivalent to cooling of the dacite plug dome is judged to be insufficient to account for the heat flux at the fumarole fields.

  4. Stoichiometric expression of mtHsp40 and mtHsp70 modulates mitochondrial morphology and cristae structure via Opa1L cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoungchun; Ahn, Younghee; Kang, Sung-Myung; Park, Youngjin; Jeon, You-Jin; Rho, Jong M; Kim, Sung-Woo

    2015-06-15

    Deregulation of mitochondrial heat-shock protein 40 (mtHsp40) and dysfunction of mtHsp70 are associated with mitochondrial fragmentation, suggesting that mtHsp40 and mtHsp70 may play roles in modulating mitochondrial morphology. However, the mechanism of mitochondrial fragmentation induced by mtHsp40 deregulation and mtHsp70 dysfunction remains unclear. In addition, the functional link between mitochondrial morphology change upon deregulated mtHsp40/mtHsp70 and mitochondrial function has been unexplored. Our coimmunoprecipitation and protein aggregation analysis showed that both overexpression and depletion of mtHsp40 accumulated aggregated proteins in fragmented mitochondria. Moreover, mtHsp70 loss and expression of a mtHsp70 mutant lacking the client-binding domain caused mitochondrial fragmentation. Together the data suggest that the molecular ratio of mtHsp40 to mtHsp70 is important for their chaperone function and mitochondrial morphology. Whereas mitochondrial translocation of Drp1 was not altered, optic atrophy 1 (Opa1) short isoform accumulated in fragmented mitochondria, suggesting that mitochondrial fragmentation in this study results from aberration of mitochondrial inner membrane fusion. Finally, we found that fragmented mitochondria were defective in cristae development, OXPHOS, and ATP production. Taken together, our data suggest that impaired stoichiometry between mtHsp40 and mtHsp70 promotes Opa1L cleavage, leading to cristae opening, decreased OXPHOS, and triggering of mitochondrial fragmentation after reduction in their chaperone function.

  5. Two-dimensional inversion of MT (magnetotelluric) data; MT ho no nijigen inversion kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, S.; Okuno, M.; Ushijima, K.; Mizunaga, H. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-05-27

    A program has been developed to conduct inversion analysis of two-dimensional model using MT data, accurately. For the developed program, finite element method (FEM) was applied to the section of sequential analysis. A method in which Jacobian matrix is calculated only one first time and is inversely analyzed by fixing this during the repetition, and a method in which Jacobian matrix is corrected at each repetition of inversion analysis, were compared mutually. As a result of the numerical simulation, it was revealed that the Jacobian correction method provided more stable convergence for the simple 2D model, and that the calculation time is almost same as that of the Jacobian fixation method. To confirm the applicability of this program to actually measured data, results obtained from this program were compared with those from the Schlumberger method analysis by using MT data obtained in the Hatchobara geothermal area. Consequently, it was demonstrated that the both are well coincided mutually. 17 refs., 7 figs.

  6. Porous aerosol in degassing plumes of Mt. Etna and Mt. Stromboli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, Valery; Jourdan, Olivier; Voigt, Christiane; Gayet, Jean-Francois; Chauvigne, Aurélien; Schwarzenboeck, Alfons; Minikin, Andreas; Klingebiel, Marcus; Weigel, Ralf; Borrmann, Stephan; Jurkat, Tina; Kaufmann, Stefan; Schlage, Romy; Gourbeyre, Christophe; Febvre, Guy; Lapyonok, Tatyana; Frey, Wiebke; Molleker, Sergej; Weinzierl, Bernadett

    2016-09-01

    Aerosols of the volcanic degassing plumes from Mt. Etna and Mt. Stromboli were probed with in situ instruments on board the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt research aircraft Falcon during the contrail, volcano, and cirrus experiment CONCERT in September 2011. Aerosol properties were analyzed using angular-scattering intensities and particle size distributions measured simultaneously with the Polar Nephelometer and the Forward Scattering Spectrometer probes (FSSP series 100 and 300), respectively. Aerosols of degassing plumes are characterized by low values of the asymmetry parameter (between 0.6 and 0.75); the effective diameter was within the range of 1.5-2.8 µm and the maximal diameter was lower than 20 µm. A principal component analysis applied to the Polar Nephelometer data indicates that scattering features of volcanic aerosols of different crater origins are clearly distinctive from angular-scattering intensities of cirrus and contrails. Retrievals of aerosol properties revealed that the particles were "optically spherical" and the estimated values of the real part of the refractive index are within the interval from 1.35 to 1.38. The interpretation of these results leads to the conclusion that the degassing plume aerosols were porous with air voids. Our estimates suggest that aerosol particles contained about 18 to 35 % of air voids in terms of the total volume.

  7. Volcanic plume measurements using a UAV for the 2014 Mt. Ontake eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Toshiya; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Terada, Akihiko; Yoshimoto, Mitsuhiro; Kazahaya, Ryunosuke; Shinohara, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Ryo

    2016-03-01

    A phreatic eruption of Mt. Ontake, Japan, started abruptly on September 27, 2014, and caused the worst volcanic calamity in recent 70 years in Japan. We conducted volcanic plume surveys using an electric multirotor unmanned aerial vehicle to elucidate the conditions of Mt. Ontake's plume, which is flowing over 3000 m altitude. A plume gas composition, sulfur dioxide flux and thermal image measurements and a particle sampling were carried out using the unmanned aerial vehicle for three field campaigns on November 20 and 21, 2014, and June 2, 2015. Together with the results of manned helicopter and aircraft observations, we revealed that the plume of Mt. Ontake was not directly emitted from the magma but was influenced by hydrothermal system, and observed SO2/H2S molar ratios were decreasing after the eruption. High SO2 flux of >2000 t/d observed at least until 20 h after the onset of the eruption implies significant input of magmatic gas and the flux quickly decreased to about 130 t/d in 2 months. In contrast, H2S fluxes retrieved using SO2/H2S ratio and SO2 flux showed significantly high level of 700-800 t/d, which continued at least between 2 weeks and 2 months after the eruption. This is a peculiar feature of the 2014 Mt. Ontake eruption. Considering the trends of the flux changes of SO2 and H2S, we presume that majority of SO2 and H2S are supplied, respectively, from high-temperature magmatic fluid of a deep origin and from hydrothermal system. From the point of view of SO2/H2S ratios and fumarolic temperatures, the plume degassing trend after the 2014 eruption is following the similar course as that after the 1979 eruptions, and we speculate the 2014 eruptive activity will cease slowly similar to the 1979 eruption.

  8. Trace elements in scalp hair of children chronically exposed to volcanic activity (Mt. Etna, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varrica, D; Tamburo, E; Dongarrà, G; Sposito, F

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this survey was to use scalp hair as a biomonitor to evaluate the environmental exposure to metals and metalloids of schoolchildren living around the Mt. Etna area, and to verify whether the degree of human exposure to trace elements is subject to changes in local environmental factors. Twenty trace elements were determined in 376 samples of scalp hair from schoolboys (11-13 years old) of both genders, living in ten towns located around the volcanic area of Mt. Etna (Sicily). The results were compared with those (215 samples) from children living in areas of Sicily characterized by a different geological setting (reference site). As, U and V showed much higher concentrations at the volcanic site whereas Sr was particularly more abundant at the reference site. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) indicated an Etna factor, made up of V, U and Mn, and a second factor, concerning the reference site, characterized by Ni and Sr, and to a lesser extent by Mo and Cd. Significant differences in element concentrations were also observed among three different sectors of Mt. Etna area. Young people living in the Mt. Etna area are naturally exposed to enhanced intakes of some metals (V, U, Mn) and non-metals (e.g., As) than individuals of the same age residing in other areas of Sicily, characterized by different lithologies and not influenced by volcanic activity. The petrographic nature of local rocks and the dispersion of the volcanic plume explain the differences, with ingestion of water and local food as the most probable exposure pathways.

  9. Altered MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptors expression in the hippocampus of pilocarpine-induced epileptic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Anna Karynna Alves de Alencar; de Lima, Eliangela; Amaral, Fernanda; Peres, Rafael; Cipolla-Neto, José; Amado, Débora

    2017-06-01

    Clinical and experimental findings show that melatonin may be used as an adjuvant to the treatment of epilepsy-related complications by alleviates sleep disturbances, circadian alterations and attenuates seizures alone or in combination with AEDs. In addition, it has been observed that there is a circadian component on seizures, which cause changes in circadian system and in melatonin production. Nevertheless, the dynamic changes of the melatoninergic system, especially with regard to its membrane receptors (MT1 and MT2) in the natural course of TLE remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 24-hour profile of MT1 and MT2 mRNA and protein expression in the hippocampus of rats submitted to the pilocarpine-induced epilepsy model analyzing the influence of the circadian rhythm in the expression pattern during the acute, silent, and chronic phases. Melatonin receptor MT1 and MT2 mRNA expression levels were increased in the hippocampus of rats few hours after SE, with MT1 returning to normal levels and MT2 reducing during the silent phase. During the chronic phase, mRNA expression levels of both receptors return to levels close to control, however, presenting a different daily profile, showing that there is a circadian change during the chronic phase. Also, during the acute and silent phase it was possible to verify MT1 label only in CA2 hippocampal region with an increased expression only in the dark period of the acute phase. The MT2 receptor was present in all hippocampal regions, however, it was reduced in the acute phase and it was found in astrocytes. In chronic animals, there is a reduction in the presence of both receptors especially in regions where there is a typical damage derived from epilepsy. Therefore, we conclude that SE induced by pilocarpine is able to change melatonin receptor MT1 and MT2 protein and mRNA expression levels in the hippocampus of rats few hours after SE as well as in silent and chronic phases. Copyright © 2017

  10. Schizophrenia: maternal inheritance and heteroplasmy of mtDNA mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Tomoe; Arai, Makoto; Miyashita, Mitsuhiro; Arai, Mayumi; Obata, Nanako; Nohara, Izumi; Oshima, Kenichi; Niizato, Kazuhiro; Okazaki, Yuji; Doi, Nagafumi; Itokawa, Masanari

    2012-01-01

    Role of mitochondrial pathology in schizophrenia has not been fully clarified. We searched for distinctive variants in mtDNA extracted from the gray matter of postmortem brains and from peripheral blood samples. We screened mtDNA region containing 5 genes encoding subunits of cytochrome c oxidase and ATPases. Polymorphisms not already reported in databases are recorded as unregistered rare variants. Four unregistered, non-synonymous rare variants were detected in 4 schizophrenic samples. Seven registered non-synonymous variants were not previously detected in non-psychotic Japanese samples registered in the mtSNP database. These variants may contribute to disease pathophysiology. In one family, compound mutations showed co-segregation with schizophrenia. MtDNA mutations could confer a risk for schizophrenia in the Japanese population, although further analyses are needed.

  11. MT Lajpatrai blow-out studies at Bombay harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fondekar, S.P.

    The area around the tanker MT Lajpatrai was monitored for oil pollution studies. Measurements were carried out on the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in water and sediment samples along with visual observations on oil slicks...

  12. 76 FR 27914 - Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Commission has before it a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking...

  13. Pitfalls in the analysis of ancient human mtDNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The retrieval of DNA from ancient human specimens is not always successful owing to DNA deterioration and contamination although it is vital to provide new insights into the genetic structure of ancient people and to reconstruct the past history. Normally, only short DNA fragments can be retrieved from the ancient specimens. How to identify the authenticity of DNA obtained and to uncover the information it contained are difficult. We employed the ancient mtDNAs reported from Central Asia (including Xinjiang, China) as an example to discern potentially extraneous DNA contamination based on the updated mtDNA phylogeny derived from mtDNA control region, coding region, as well as complete sequence information. Our results demonstrated that many mtDNAs reported are more or less problematic. Starting from a reliable mtDNA phylogeney and combining the available modern data into analysis, one can ascertain the authenticity of the ancient DNA, distinguish the potential errors in a data set, and efficiently decipher the meager information it harbored. The reappraisal of the mtDNAs with the age of more than 2000 years from Central Asia gave support to the suggestion of extensively (pre)historical gene admixture in this region.

  14. Qualitative: Python Tool for MT Quality Estimation Supporting Server Mode and Hybrid MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avramidis Eleftherios

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting the development contributions of the last two years to our Python opensource Quality Estimation tool, a tool that can function in both experiment-mode and online web-service mode. The latest version provides a new MT interface, which communicates with SMT and rule-based translation engines and supports on-the-fly sentence selection. Additionally, we present an improved Machine Learning interface allowing more efficient communication with several state-of-the-art toolkits. Additions also include a more informative training process, a Python re-implementation of QuEst baseline features, a new LM toolkit integration, an additional PCFG parser and alignments of syntactic nodes.

  15. Kinetic evidence for different mechanisms of interaction of black mamba toxins MT alpha and MT beta with muscarinic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolkkonen, M; Oras, A; Toomela, T; Karlsson, E; Järv, J; Akerman, K E

    2001-01-01

    By studying the influence of two toxins from the black mamba Dendroaspis polylepis on the kinetics of [3H]-N-methylscopolamine binding to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors from rat cerebral cortex, it was revealed that these toxins, MT alpha and MT beta, interact with the receptors via kinetically distinct mechanisms. MT beta bound to receptors in a one-step, readily reversible process with the dissociation constant K(d)=5.3 microM. The binding mechanism of MTalpha was more complex, involving at least two consecutive steps. A fast receptor-toxin complex formation (K(T)=3.8 microM) was followed by a slow process of isomerisation of this complex (k(i)=1.8 x 10(-2) s(-1), half-time 39 s). A similar two-step interaction mechanism has been established for a related toxin, MT2 from the green mamba D. angusticeps (K(T)=1.4 microM, k(i)=8.3 x 10(-4) s(-1), half-time 840 s). The slow isomerisation process delays the effect of MT alpha and MT2, but increases their apparent potency compared to toxins unable to induce the isomerisation process.

  16. The Formation and Erosion History of Mt. Sharp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Dapremont, Angela M.

    2014-01-01

    The Curiosity rover is exploring 155 km diameter Gale crater and Mt. Sharp, Gale's 5 km high central mound (Fig. 1). This study addresses the formation and erosion history of Mt. Sharp. Gale lies on the topographic dichotomy between the southern highlands and the northern plains - a drop of over 2 km [1,2]. Altitude differences between the north and south rim reflect this regional slope, as do altitude differences between the deep annulus north of Mt. Sharp and the southern crater floor. Orbiter and rover images demonstrate that most exposed areas on Mt. Sharp consist of thin, sub-parallel units interpreted as sedimentary layers [3]. Gale is typical of the 50 large martian craters that have been totally or partially filled with such layers [4,5]. In many craters these sediments have been deeply eroded. Central Peak and Peak Ring: The highest point on Mt. Sharp, near the crater's center, is interpreted as a central peak [6]. The peak has a massive lower portion and a thin, smooth capping deposit (Fig. 2). Gale's size is transitional between martian craters with single central peaks and craters with peak rings approximately half the crater's diameter [2,6]. The boundaries of Mt. Sharp, as well as an arc of hills to the southeast of the mountain, closely match a circle approximately 80 km in diameter (Fig. 3). This morphology suggests that the Gale impact may have formed both a central peak and a partial peak ring, which is covered by the sediments of Mt. Sharp in the north and possibly exposed in the arc of eroded hills in the southeast quadrant (Figs. 3,4).

  17. 77 FR 20747 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Billings, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... action proposes to modify Class E airspace at Billings Logan International Airport, Billings, MT, to... feet or more above the surface of the earth. * * * * * ANM MT E5 Billings, MT Billings Logan... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Billings, MT AGENCY...

  18. MtDNA mutagenesis impairs elimination of mitochondria during erythroid maturation leading to enhanced erythrocyte destruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahlqvist, K.J.; Leoncini, S.; Pecorelli, A.; Wortmann, S.B.; Ahola, S.; Forsstrom, S.; Guerranti, R.; Felice, C. De; Smeitink, J.; Ciccoli, L.; Hamalainen, R.H.; Suomalainen, A.

    2015-01-01

    Haematopoietic progenitor cells show special sensitivity to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutagenesis, which suggests that increased mtDNA mutagenesis could underlie anemias. Here we show that elevated mtDNA mutagenesis in mice with a proof-reading deficient mtDNA polymerase (PolG) leads to incomplete m

  19. The occurrence of Mt Barca flank eruption in the evolution of the NW periphery of Etna volcano (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branca, S.; Del Carlo, P.; Lo Castro, M. D.; de Beni, E.; Wijbrans, J.

    2009-01-01

    Geological surveys, tephrostratigraphic study, and 40Ar/39Ar age determinations have allowed us to chronologically constrain the geological evolution of the lower NW flank of Etna volcano and to reconstruct the eruptive style of the Mt Barca flank eruption. This peripheral sector of the Mt Etna edifice, corresponding to the upper Simeto valley, was invaded by the Ellittico volcano lava flows between 41 and 29 ka ago when the Mt Barca eruption occurred. The vent of this flank eruption is located at about 15 km away from the summit craters, close to the town of Bronte. The Mt Barca eruption was characterized by a vigorous explosive activity that produced pyroclastic deposits dispersed eastward and minor effusive activity with the emission of a 1.1-km-long lava flow. Explosive activity was characterized by a phreatomagmatic phase followed by a magmatic one. The geological setting of this peripheral sector of the volcano favors the interaction between the rising magma and the shallow groundwater hosted in the volcanic pile resting on the impermeable sedimentary basement. This process produced phreatomagmatic activity in the first phase of the eruption, forming a pyroclastic fall deposit made of high-density, poorly vesicular scoria lapilli and lithic clasts. Conversely, during the second phase, a typical strombolian fall deposit formed. In terms of hazard assessment, the possible occurrence of this type of highly explosive flank eruption, at lower elevation in the densely inhabited areas, increases the volcanic risk in the Etnean region and widens the already known hazard scenario.

  20. Using groundwater age distributions to understand changes in methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE) concentrations in ambient groundwater, northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Bruce; Ayotte, Joseph; Jurgens, Bryant; DeSimone, Leslie

    2017-01-01

    Temporal changes in methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE) concentrations in groundwater were evaluated in the northeastern United States, an area of the nation with widespread low-level detections of MtBE based on a national survey of wells selected to represent ambient conditions. MtBE use in the U.S. peaked in 1999 and was largely discontinued by 2007. Six well networks, each representing specific areas and well types (monitoring or supply wells), were each sampled at 10 year intervals between 1996 and 2012. Concentrations were decreasing or unchanged in most wells as of 2012, with the exception of a small number of wells where concentrations continue to increase. Statistically significant increasing concentrations were found in one network sampled for the second time shortly after the peak of MtBE use, and decreasing concentrations were found in two networks sampled for the second time about 10 years after the peak of MtBE use. Simulated concentrations from convolutions of estimates for concentrations of MtBE in recharge water with age distributions from environmental tracer data correctly predicted the direction of MtBE concentration changes in about 65 percent of individual wells. The best matches between simulated and observed concentrations were found when simulating recharge concentrations that followed the pattern of national MtBE use. Some observations were matched better when recharge was modeled as a plume moving past the well from a spill at one point in time. Modeling and sample results showed that wells with young median ages and narrow age distributions responded more quickly to changes in the contaminant source than wells with older median ages and broad age distributions. Well depth and aquifer type affect these responses. Regardless of the timing of decontamination, all of these aquifers show high susceptibility for contamination by a highly soluble, persistent constituent.

  1. Geothermal resource assessment of Mt. Hood volcano, Oregon, Phase I study. Technical progress report No. 2, October 1, 1977--March 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, D.A.

    1978-05-31

    Several phases of the Mt. Hood geothermal resource assessment project are nearing completion. Most of the field work has been completed for the geologic study, gravity survey, and water sampling portions of the project. Thermal modelling, water analyses, rock analyses and age dating, and preparation of a complete Bouguer gravity map are in progress.

  2. MtDNA haplogroups and elite Korean athlete status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K C; Cho, H I; Kim, W

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation has recently been suggested to have an association with athletic performance or physical endurance. Since mtDNA is haploid and lacks recombination, specific mutations in the mtDNA genome associated with human exercise tolerance or intolerance arise and remain in particular genetic backgrounds referred to as haplogroups. To assess the possible contribution of mtDNA haplogroup-specific variants to differences in elite athletic performance, we performed a population-based study of 152 Korean elite athletes [77 sprint/power athletes (SPA) and 75 endurance/middle-power athletes (EMA)] and 265 non-athletic controls (CON). The overall haplogroup distribution of EMA differed significantly from CON (p<0.01), but that of SPA did not. The EMA have an excess of haplogroups M* (OR 4.38, 95% CI 1.63-11.79, p=0.003) and N9 (OR 2.32, 95% CI 0.92-5.81, p=0.042), but a dearth of haplogroup B (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.09-0.75, p=0.003) compared with the CON. Thus, our data imply that specific mtDNA lineages may provide a significant effect on elite Korean endurance status, although functional studies with larger sample sizes are necessary to further substantiate these findings.

  3. Coevolution of Drosophila melanogaster mtDNA and Wolbachia genotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Ilinsky

    Full Text Available Maternally inherited microorganisms can influence the mtDNA pattern of variation in hosts. This influence is driven by selection among symbionts and can cause the frequency of mitochondrial variants in the population to eventually increase or decrease. Wolbachia infection is common and widespread in Drosophila melanogaster populations. We compared genetic variability of D. melanogaster mitotypes with Wolbachia genotypes among isofemale lines associated with different geographic locations and time intervals to study coevolution of the mtDNA and Wolbachia. Phylogenetic analysis of D. melanogaster mtDNA revealed two clades diverged in Africa, each associated with one of the two Wolbachia genotype groups. No evidence of horizontal transmission of Wolbachia between maternal lineages has been found. All the mtDNA variants that occur in infected isofemale lines are found in uninfected isofemale lines and vice versa, which is indicative of a recent loss of infection from some maternal fly lineages and confirms a significant role of Wolbachia in the D. melanogaster mtDNA pattern of variation. Finally, we present a comparative analysis of biogeographic distribution of D. melanogaster mitotypes all over the world.

  4. mtDNA Mutagenesis Disrupts Pluripotent Stem Cell Function by Altering Redox Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Hämäläinen, Riikka H.; Ahlqvist, Kati J.; Ellonen, Pekka; Lepistö, Maija; Logan, Angela; Otonkoski, Timo; Murphy, Michael P.; Suomalainen, Anu

    2015-01-01

    Summary mtDNA mutagenesis in somatic stem cells leads to their dysfunction and to progeria in mouse. The mechanism was proposed to involve modification of reactive oxygen species (ROS)/redox signaling. We studied the effect of mtDNA mutagenesis on reprogramming and stemness of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) and show that PSCs select against specific mtDNA mutations, mimicking germline and promoting mtDNA integrity despite their glycolytic metabolism. Furthermore, mtDNA mutagenesis is associate...

  5. Nuclear collapse observed during the eruption of Mt. Usu

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, T A

    2002-01-01

    Mt. Usu which was located about 70 km southwest from Sapporo in Hokkaido (the north island of Japan) began to erupt on March 31 in 2000. A nuclear emulsion was placed on a foot of Mt. Usu to catch small atomic clusters which were expected to be emitted during the eruption. Curious atomic clusters and their reaction products were successfully observed on surfaces of the nuclear emulsion. By comparing them with similar products which were obtained in previous experiments of discharge and electrolysis, it was concluded that micro Ball Lightning was really emitted during the eruption of Mt. Usu and that explosive reactions by nuclear collapse could have been involved to contribute to energy of the eruption. (author)

  6. A MT 2D modelling of the Apenninic margin and Bradanic trough after identification of an artificial e.m. wide-band source on the natural MT data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Santarato

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of Italian research project «CROP», a magnetotelluric (MT survey was carried out in Southern Italy, above the Apulian platform, with the aim to investigate its transition beneath the Apennine chain. The MT stations were divided into two areas, the first around Lavello town, the second south of Mount Vulture inactive volcano. The standard processing of MT raw data, collected with the single-site scheme, gave fairly non-plane wave response as concerns data of Lavello area, while the volcano's area data were compatible with a natural plane-wave e.m. field response. The Lavello area results were shown to be heavily affected by a near field effect of a strong wide-band electromagnetic source located several kilometers NE of Lavello. After the identification of this effect and an attempt to interpret these data, a 2D interpretation of the whole survey was then possible and the main result can be summarized as follows: a the «electrical» boundary of the Bradanic trough should be displaced about 4 km toward SW; b in the area south of Melfi town, the carbonatic platform should lie at a depth of about 8 km.

  7. MT-ADRES: Multithreading on Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Kehuai; Kanstein, Andreas; Madsen, Jan;

    2007-01-01

    -ILP architectures achieve only low parallelism when executing partially sequential code segments, which is also known as Amdahl’s law, this paper proposes to extend ADRES to MT-ADRES (Multi-Threaded ADRES) to also exploit thread-level parallelism. On MT-ADRES architectures, the array can be partitioned in multiple...... smaller arrays that can execute threads in parallel. Because the partition can be changed dynamically, this extension provides more flexibility than a multi-core approach. This article presents details of the enhanced architecture and results obtained from an MPEG-2 decoder implementation that exploits...... a mix of thread-level parallelism and instruction-level parallelism....

  8. Pattern Recognition of mtDNA with Associative Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acevedo María Elena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we applied an associative memory for the pattern recognition of mtDNA that can be useful to identify bodies and human remains. In particular, we used both morphological hetroassociative memories: max and min. We process the problem of pattern recognition as a classification task. Our proposal showed a correct recall, we obtained the 100% of recalling of all the learned patterns. We simulated a corrupted sample of mtDNA by adding noise of two types: additive and subtractive. The memory showed a correct recall when we applied less or equal than 55% of both types of noise.

  9. MT6575:Android智能手机平台

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    联发科技股份有限公司推出专为主流智能手机市场而设计的第三代智能手机解决方案MT6575。联发科技MT6575高度整合主频1GHz的ARM Codex-A9处理器和联发科技优越的3G/HSPA Modem,并支持Android4.0新Ice Cream Sandwich操作平台。

  10. Depletion of mtDNA: syndromes and genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberio, Simona; Mineri, Rossana; Tiranti, Valeria; Zeviani, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    Maintenance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) requires the concerted activity of several nuclear-encoded factors that participate in its replication, being part of the mitochondrial replisome or ensuring the balanced supply of dNTPs to mitochondria. In the past decade, a growing number of syndromes associated with dysfunction due to tissue-specific depletion of mtDNA (MDS) have been reported. This article reviews the current knowledge of the genes responsible for these disorders, the impact of different mutations in the epidemiology of MDS and their role in the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the different clinical presentations.

  11. Passive monitoring of Mt. Etna and Mt. Yasur to probe the upper atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assink, J. D.; Le Pichon, A.; Blanc, E.

    2013-12-01

    We present two case studies in which the influence of atmospheric dynamics on infrasound propagation is studied. We make use of a volcanic infrasound data set that has been recorded at infrasound arrays in the vicinity of Mount Etna, Italy (37 N). In addition, we revisit the Mt. Yasur (22 S) dataset. Respectively, over 6 and 10 years of infrasound observables are compared to theoretical estimates obtained from propagation modeling using existing European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) atmospheric databases. Long-term detail comparisons such as presented in this study have been unprecedented and are useful for atmospheric modeling and infrasound propagation studies. While a first-order agreement is found, we report on significant discrepancies around the equinox period and during intervals during which anomalous detections occur during the winter, such as during Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs). We present an inversion study in which we make use of measured trace velocity estimates to predict effective sound speed model updates in a Bayesian framework. Such estimates will be compared to independent wind and temperature measurements that are available through the Atmospheric dynamics Research InfraStructure in Europe (ARISE) network.

  12. Integrating TDEM and MT methods for characterization and delineation of the Santa Catarina aquifer (Chalco Sub-Basin, Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivochieva, Stefi; Chouteau, Michel

    2003-01-01

    Magnetotelluric (MT) and time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) surveys were undertaken in the region of Santa Catarina, located in the Chalco Sub-Basin of the Mexico Basin. The objective was to constrain the geometry of the fresh water aquifer and confirm the continuity of the basaltic flows between the volcano and the sedimentary basin. In order to define the stratification at depth with an emphasis on the geometry of the main aquifer, 11 MT and 5 TDEM soundings were recorded along a north-south profile. Interpretation of MT soundings show that the bedrock is located at a depth of at least 800-1000 m. Using TDEM apparent resistivity curves to constrain the high frequency MT data, three main layers were defined overlying the bedrock. These layers are, from the surface to bottom, a 20- to 40-m-thick layer of sands, ash and clay, followed by a very conductive 200-m-thick layer of sand and ash, saturated with highly mineralized water and, finally, a zone with gradually increasing resistivities, corresponding to the main aquifer. The TDEM data, the magnetic transfer functions and the 2D MT model also indicate that a shallow resistive structure is dipping, from the northwest, into the lacustrine deposits of the basin. This feature is likely to be highly permeable fractured basaltic flows, evidenced also in one of the water wells. To verify the presence of fractured basalts below the volcano ranges, 38 TDEM soundings were collected on the flanks of the Santa Catarina range. Layered models obtained from the TDEM soundings enabled an assessment of a major conductive zone (1-10 Ω m) at depth. Two hypothesis are envisaged and the nature of this zone is attributed either to a clayey layer or to fractured basaltic flows. If the latter possibility is confirmed, this continuous zone could provide a channel by which the water contaminated by the Santa Catarina landfill may leak into the basin.

  13. Mt. Etna: rationale and implementation of a Supersite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    Mt. Etna is one of the most active volcanoes on Earth and, in the past few decades, has erupted virtually every year. The volcanism of Mt. Etna results from the interaction between magma ascent in the rather complex plumbing feeding system and the local tectonic regime controlled by the volcano edifice's eastern flank instability, whose driving conditions (e.g., structural setting, tectonic forces) and cause-effect relationships are not yet completely understood. At the surface, the combination of the two factors produces eruptions that might consist of either strongly explosive (e.g., 2002; 2011) and produce volcanic ash plumes likely to disrupt air traffic for hours to weeks (e.g., 5 January 2012), including powerful summit paroxysms in the 2012-2013 time span or lava flows capable of invading the populated sectors, that can threat human property and vital infrastructures. Mt. Etna presents many characteristics that make it prone to be a Geohazard Supersite. The volcano consists of an open-vent system characterised by continuous degassing from the volcano summit craters and frequent eruptive summit and flank eruptions. Eruptions can be of different kinds passing from violent short-lasting explosive events to long-lasting lava output, thus producing different kinds of impacts on the surrounding environment, and especially on the large number of people living around the volcano foot. Over time, the frequency and variety of Mt. Etna's eruptive activity have made the volcano one of the most well-studied and monitored worldwide. At Mt. Etna volcanic activity produces a wide spectrum of signals, spanning from seismic and geodetic to geochemical and radiometric signals, which are tracked in continuous and in real-and quasi-real time by the automatic multi-disciplinary monitoring systems deployed by INGV. The huge amount of ground-based collected data sets enforces the vision of Mt. Etna supersite as a Geohazard Supersite where applying the overarching criteria of the

  14. Melatonin influences somatostatin secretion from human pancreatic δ-cells via MT1 and MT2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibolka, Juliane; Mühlbauer, Eckhard; Peschke, Elmar

    2015-03-01

    Melatonin is an effector of the diurnal clock on pancreatic islets. The membrane receptor-transmitted inhibitory influence of melatonin on insulin secretion is well established and contrasts with the reported stimulation of glucagon release from α-cells. Virtually, nothing is known concerning the melatonin-mediated effects on islet δ-cells. Analysis of a human pancreatic δ-cell model, the cell line QGP-1, and the use of a somatostatin-specific radioimmunoassay showed that melatonin primarily has an inhibitory effect on somatostatin secretion in the physiological concentration range. In the pharmacological range, melatonin elicited slightly increased somatostatin release from δ-cells. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is the major second messenger dose-dependently stimulating somatostatin secretion, in experiments employing the membrane-permeable 8-Br-cAMP. 8-Br-cyclic guanosine monophosphate proved to be of only minor relevance to somatostatin release. As the inhibitory effect of 1 nm melatonin was reversed after incubation of QGP-1 cells with the nonselective melatonin receptor antagonist luzindole, but not with the MT2-selective antagonist 4-P-PDOT (4-phenyl-2-propionamidotetraline), an involvement of the MT1 receptor can be assumed. Somatostatin release from the δ-cells at low glucose concentrations was significantly inhibited during co-incubation with 1 nm melatonin, an effect which was less pronounced at higher glucose levels. Transient expression experiments, overexpressing MT1, MT2, or a deletion variant as a control, indicated that the MT1 and not the MT2 receptor was the major transmitter of the inhibitory melatonin effect. These data point to a significant influence of melatonin on pancreatic δ-cells and on somatostatin release.

  15. Thermo Hot Springs: MT and Gravity observations of a producing geothermal field in Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, C.; Chapman, D. S.; Gettings, P.

    2012-12-01

    Thermo Hot Springs, an existing 10 MW geothermal resource in southern Utah, is poorly understood with little constraint on subsurface extent and capacity. In an effort to expand geothermal production, the subsurface extent of the system is being explored by gravity and magnetotelluric (MT) surveys. Since summer of 2010 we have added 108 gravity stations and 90 MT stations in the study area. Complete Bouguer anomaly shows a prominent north-south regional trend of 10 to 15 mGal amplitude which is interpreted as a large Basin-and-Range normal fault. Northeast of the hot springs there is an east-west trending gravity low of 4 mGal amplitude which is interpreted as a fault with down throw to the north. These two trends intersect adjacent to the hot spring, and are interpreted to be the structural control of the fluid flow. Preliminary results from 2-dimensional inversion models of gravity and MT profiles provide depth-to-basement values as shallow as 200 m near the hot spring and as deep as 2 km in the southwest of the study area. We believe that the low resistivities observed in the southwest indicate the existence of hot fluids and/or clay rich sediments at a thickness of more than 1.5 km overlying hot, saturated basement rock. A deep, stratigraphically hosted geothermal system could be present in the southwest and may be connected to the hot springs through a north trending, deeply penetrating fracture zone. With the addition of regional borehole data, thermal gradient wells and water chemistry we aim to constrain the extent of the geothermal system, identify its source and quantify its total production potential.

  16. Microbial communities in dark oligotrophic volcanic ice cave ecosystems of Mt. Erebus, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley M. Tebo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Earth’s crust hosts a subsurface, dark, and oligotrophic biosphere that is poorly understood in terms of the energy supporting its biomass production and impact on food webs at the Earth’s surface. Dark oligotrophic volcanic ecosystems (DOVEs are good environments for investigations of life in the absence of sunlight as they are poor in organics, rich in chemical reactants and well known for chemical exchange with Earth’s surface systems. Ice caves near the summit of Mt. Erebus (Antarctica offer DOVEs in a polar alpine environment that is starved in organics and with oxygenated hydrothermal circulation in highly reducing host rock. We surveyed the microbial communities using PCR, cloning, sequencing and analysis of the small subunit (16S ribosomal and Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase (RubisCO genes in sediment samples from three different caves, two that are completely dark and one that receives snow-filtered sunlight seasonally. The microbial communities in all three caves are composed primarily of Bacteria and fungi; Archaea were not detected. The bacterial communities from these ice caves display low phylogenetic diversity, but with a remarkable diversity of RubisCO genes including new deeply branching Form I clades, implicating the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle as a pathway of CO2 fixation. The microbial communities in one of the dark caves, Warren Cave, which has a remarkably low phylogenetic diversity, were analyzed in more detail to gain a possible perspective on the energetic basis of the microbial ecosystem in the cave. Atmospheric carbon (CO2 and CO, including from volcanic emissions, likely supplies carbon and/or some of the energy requirements of chemoautotrophic microbial communities in Warren Cave and probably other Mt. Erebus ice caves. Our work casts a first glimpse at Mt. Erebus ice caves as natural laboratories for exploring carbon, energy and nutrient sources in the subsurface biosphere and the

  17. Magnetotelluric (MT) data smoothing based on B-Spline algorithm and qualitative spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handyarso, Accep; Grandis, Hendra

    2017-07-01

    Data processing is one of the essential steps to obtain optimum response function of the Earth's subsurface. The MT Data processing is based on the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm which converts the time series data into its frequency domain counterpart. The FFT combined with statistical algorithm constitute the Robust Processing algorithm which is widely implemented in MT data processing software. The Robust Processing has three variants, i.e. No Weight (NW), Rho Variance (RV), and Ordinary Coherency (OC). The RV and OC options allow for denoising the data but in many cases the Robust Processing still results in not so smooth sounding curve due to strong noise presence during measurement, such that the Crosspower (XPR) analysis must be conducted in the data processing. The XPR analysis is very time consuming step within the data processing. The collaboration of B-Spline algorithm and Qualitative Spectral Analysis in the frequency domain could be of advantages as an alternative for these steps. The technique is started by using the best coherency from the Robust Processing results. In the Qualitative Spectral Analysis one can determine which part of the data based on frequency that is more or less reliable, then the next process invokes B-Spline algorithm for data smoothing. This algorithm would select the best fit of the data trend in the frequency domain. The smooth apparent resistivity and phase sounding curves can be considered as more appropriate to represent the subsurface. This algorithm has been applied to the real MT data from several survey and give satisfactory results.

  18. Expression of the MT1 Melatonin Receptor in Ovarian Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Jablonska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer (OC is the leading cause of death among women with genital tract disorders. Melatonin exhibits oncostatic properties which it may effect through binding to its membrane receptor, MT1. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of MT1 in OC cells and to correlate this with clinical and pathological data. Immunohistochemistry was performed on 84 cases of OC. Normal ovarian epithelial (IOSE 364 and OC (SK-OV-3, OVCAR-3 cell lines were used to examine the MT1 expression at protein level using the western blot and immunofluorescence technique. The expression of MT1 was observed as cytoplasmic-membrane (MT1CM and membrane (MT1M reactions. A positive correlation between MT1CM and MT1M was found in all the studied cases. There were no significant differences between the expression of MT1CM, MT1M, and histological type, staging, grading, presence of residual disease, or overall survival time. Immunofluorescence showed both MT1M and MT1CM expression in all the tested cell lines. Western blot illustrated the highest protein level of MT1 in IOSE 364 and the lowest in the OVCAR-3. The results indicate the limited prognostic significance of MT1 in OC cells.

  19. MtDNA T4216C variation in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andalib, Sasan; Emamhadi, Mohammadreza; Yousefzadeh-Chabok, Shahrokh

    2016-01-01

    MtDNA T4216C variation has frequently been investigated in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients; nonetheless, controversy has existed about the evidence of association of this variation with susceptibility to MS. The present systematic review and meta-analysis converge the results of the preceding...

  20. Evidences for higher nocturnal seismic activity at the Mt. Vesuvius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scafetta, Nicola; Mazzarella, Adriano

    2017-04-01

    We analyze hourly seismic data measured at the Osservatorio Vesuviano Ovest (OVO, 1972-2014) and at the Bunker Est (BKE, 1999-2014) stations on the Mt. Vesuvius (Italy). The OVO record is complete for seismic events with magnitude M ≥ 1.9. We demonstrate that before 1996 this record presents a daily oscillation that nearly vanishes afterwards. To determine whether a daily oscillation exists in the seismic activity of the Mt. Vesuvius, we use the higher quality BKE record that is complete for seismic events with magnitude M ≥ 0.2. We demonstrate that BKE confirms that the seismic activity at the Mt. Vesuvius is higher during nighttime than during daytime. The amplitude of the daily oscillation is enhanced during summer and damped during winter. We speculate possible links with the cooling/warming diurnal cycle of the volcanic edifice and with external geomagnetic field. We find that the amplitude of the seismic daily cycle changes in time and has been increasing since 2008. Finally, we propose a seismic activity index to monitor the 24-hour oscillation that could be used to complement other methodologies currently adopted to determine the seismic status of the volcano to prevent the relative hazard. Reference: Mazzarella, A., Scafetta, N., 2016. Evidences for higher nocturnal seismic activity at the Mt. Vesuvius. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 321, 102-113. DOI: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2016.04.026

  1. Measurement of cosmic ray chemical composition at Mt. Chacaltaya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogio, S.; Kakimoto, F.; Harada, D.; Tokunou, H.; Burgoa, O.; Tsunesada, Y. [Institute of Technology, Dept. of Physics, Tokuo (Japan); Shirasaki, Y. [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Gotoh, E.; Nakatani, H.; Shimoda, S.; Nishi, K.; Tajima, N.; Yamada, Y. [The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Kaneko, T. [Okayama University, Dept. of Physics, Oakayama (Japan); Matsubara, Y. [Nagoya University, Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Miranda, P.; Velarde, A. [Universidad Mayor de San Andres, Institute de Investigaciones Fisicas, La Paz (Bolivia); Mizumoto, T. [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan); Yoshii, H.; Morizawa, A. [Ehime University, Dept. of Physics, Matsuyama, Ehime (Japan); Murakami, K. [Nagoya University of Foreign Studies, Nissin, Aichi (Japan); Toyoda, Y. [Fukui University of Technology, Faculty of General Education, Fukui (Japan)

    2001-10-01

    BASJE group has measured the chemical composition of primary cosmic rays with energies around the knee with several methods. These measurements show that the averaged mass number of cosmic ray particles increases with energy up to the knee. In order to measure the chemical composition in much wider energy range, it was started a new experiment at Mt. Chacaltaya in 2000.

  2. 76 FR 9991 - Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT AGENCY: Federal Communications... CFR 1.415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For...

  3. Nitrogen multitemporal monitoring through mosses in urban areas affected by mud volcanoes around Mt. Etna, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Giuseppe

    2013-10-01

    Nitrogen emissions were assessed by using mosses as bioindicators in a densely inhabited area affected by mud volcanoes. Such volcanoes, locally called Salinelle, are phenomena that occur around Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy), and are interpreted as the surface outflow of a hydrothermal system located below Mt. Etna, which releases sedimentary fluids (hydrocarbons and Na-Cl brines) along with magmatic gases (mainly CO2 and He). To date, N emissions from such mud volcanoes have been only quantitatively assessed, and no biomonitoring campaigns are reported about the cumulative effects of these emissions. This study analyzed N concentrations in moss, water and soil samples, collected in a 4-year monitoring campaign. The bryophyte Bryum argenteum, a species widely adopted in surveys of atmospheric pollution, was used as a biological indicator. N concentrations in biomonitors showed relatively low values in the study sites. However, the results of this study suggest that N emissions from Salinelle may have an impact on surrounding ecosystems because N values in moss and water showed a significant correlation. N oxides, in particular, contribute to acidification of ecosystems, thus multitemporal biomonitoring is recommended, especially in those areas where N emitting sources are anthropogenic and natural.

  4. Modeling the 3D Terrain Effect on MT by the Boundary Element Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruan Baiyao; Xu Shizhe; Xu Zhifeng

    2006-01-01

    A numerical method is put forward in this paper, using the boundary element method(BEM) to model 3D terrain effects on magnetotelluric (MT) surveys. Using vector integral theory and electromagnetic field boundary conditions, the boundary problem of two electromagnetic fields in the upper half space (air) and lower half space (earth medium) was transformed into two vector integral equations just related to the topography: one magnetic equation for computing the magnetic field and the other electrical equation for computing the electrical field. The topography integral is decomposed into a series of integrals in a triangle element. For the integral in a triangle element, we suppose that the electromagnetic field in it is the stack of the electromagnetic field in the homogeneous earth and the topography response which is a constant; so the computation becomes simple, convenient and highly accurate. By decomposition and computation, each vector integral equation can be calculated by solving three linear equations that are related to the three Cartesian directions. The matrix of these linear equations is diagonally dominant and can be solved using the Symmetric Successive Over-Relaxation (SSOR) method. The apparent resistivity curve of MT on two 3D terrains calculated by BEM is shown in this paper.

  5. PENGARUH CITRA DAN KEPERCAYAAN MEREK TERHADAP LOYALITAS MEREK: SURVEI PELANGGAN LUX CAIR DI CARREFOUR MT. HARYONO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rizan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Generally, the purposes of this research are: (1 Knowing the description of the brand image, brand trust, and brand loyalty, (2 Determining/Knowing the influence of brand image towards brand loyalty, (3 Determining/Knowing the influence of brand trust towards brand loyalty, (4 Determining/Knowing the influence of brand image and brand trust simultaneously towards brand loyalty. The units of analysis are buyers or users of Lux at Carrefour MT. Haryono. Observation units are 200 respondents who are the visitors of Carrefour MT. Haryono, who have bought or used liquid Lux for one year or more. The research type is descriptive and research method using explanatory causal survey. Descriptive analysis showed: (a benefit dimension is the most dominant dimension in brand image variables, (b company characteristic dimension is the most dominant dimension in brand trust variables, and (c commitment dimension is the most dominant dimension in brand loyalty variables. The results of hypothesis testing are: 1 brand image variable has a significant influence to brand loyalty with beta coefficient of 0.297, T-test of 4.850 with significance level of 0.000; 2 brand trust variable has a significant influence to brand loyalty with beta coefficient of 0.468, T-test of 7.657 with significance level of 0.000; 3 the influence of brand image and brand trust simultaneously towards brand loyalty is 44.5%.

  6. Ecological and Socio-Economic Contribution of Mt. Elgon Forest Park, Eastern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buyinza Mukadasi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the ecological and socio-economic contribution of Mt. Elgon forest park, eastern Uganda. An effort was taken to evaluate the importance of Mt. Elgon forest park resources to the local people by using the local plant knowledge to value the forest park resources. An integrated approach of participatory rural appraisal (PRA, Participatory Resource Valuation (PRV, household survey, group discussions and forest walks were conducted during the months of June to December, 2008 in Mutushet and Kortek Parishes, Kapchorwa District. Using random sampling methods, 120 respondents were selected and interviewed. Ten forest uses were identified with the highest dependence being in the supply of timber for income and domestic building poles, the latter having the highest average annual household value of UGx. 67919 (US$37. The forest use most valued in both Mutushet and Koterk was medicine with an average annual household value of UGx. 60,371 (US$ 33 and UGx. 75,464 (US$ 42 respectively. The forest provision of medicine, domestic building materials, soil conservation, bush meat, charcoal and timber was more valued in Koterk, while provision of firewood, honey and pasture were more valued in Mutushet. The forest’s provision of food was valued equally in the two areas with an average annual value of UGx. 30,186 per household. Forest park resources accounted for 55% of the household income. Participatory valuation approaches are ecommended for estimation of forest park resources’ value in a non-cash economy.

  7. The distribution of vascular plants in Banronsan (Mt. at Jeongseon Gangwon-do, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Won Jang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To study the distribution of vascular plants in Banronsan (Mt. located in Jeongseon-gun, Gangwon-do, Korea. The vascular flora in Banronsan (Mt. were surveyed a total of four times-three times from May 2010 to October 2010, and once in August 2012. This result revealed 447 taxa in total: 89 families, 278 genera, 390 species, four subspecies, 47 varieties, and six form. In the flora of this area, 15 taxa were Korean endemic plants including Aconitum pseudolaeve Nakai, Lysimachia coreana Nakai, and Saussurea macrolepis (Nakai Kitam., and 17 taxa were rare and endangered plants of Korea including Astragalus koraiensis Y.N. Lee, Pseudostellaria japonica Pax, and Paeonia japonica (Makino Miyabe and Takeda. Three taxa were found as a special forest conservation species designated by the Korea Forest Service including Delphinium maackianum Regel and Daphne pseudomezereum var. koreana (Nakai Hamaya. Besides, 76 taxa were found to be specific floristic plants designated by the Ministry of Environment, whereas naturalized plants in this area were 32 taxa. Resource plants were categorized by usage into eight groups: 189 edible, four fiber, 127 medical, 48 ornamental, 150 pasturing, three industrial, 10 dyeing, and eight timber plants.

  8. Moisture Sources for Snowfall to Mt. Logan, Yukon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupper, S. R.; Steig, E. J.

    2002-05-01

    Accumulation and isotopic data from an ice core obtained at Mt. Logan, Yukon Territory (Holdsworth et al, 1992) are used to determine possible sources of precipitation at the site, an important prerequisite to the use of Mt. Logan data as quantitative measures of past North Pacific climate variability. Annual accumulation at Logan is poorly correlated with Gulf of Alaska sea level pressure (SLP), but well correlated with Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. The latter correlation forms a horseshoe pattern of warmer than average SSTs in the eastern North Pacific around colder than average SSTs in the central Pacific similar to the dominant EOF of SSTs (the Pacific Decadal Oscillation). Back-trajectory calculations show that most air reaching Mt. Logan follows a high-altitude pathway along the upper limb of the horseshoe pattern from the western Pacific. However, further analyses suggest that the moisture source changes according to the strength of the Aleutian Low. Mean SSTs are highest along the west coast of North America and lowest in the central North Pacific and Japan during years when the Aleutian Low is strong. During weak Aleutian Low years, accumulation is most highly correlated with SSTs around Japan and the Philippines (r ~ 0.5), while when the Aleutian Low is strong, it is most highly correlated with SSTs along the west coast of North America and the northern most part of the Pacific (r ~ 0.7). Finally, \\delta18O ratios at Mt. Logan are negatively correlated with sea level pressure (SLP) anomalies in the Gulf of Alaska (r ~ -0.4). Together, these results suggest that during years in which the Aleutian Low is weak, the west and central Pacific are the moisture sources for Mt. Logan while advection of local moisture dominates precipitation when the Aleutian Low is strong.

  9. Y-chromosome and mtDNA genetics reveal significant contrasts in affinities of modern Middle Eastern populations with European and African populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle A Badro

    Full Text Available The Middle East was a funnel of human expansion out of Africa, a staging area for the Neolithic Agricultural Revolution, and the home to some of the earliest world empires. Post LGM expansions into the region and subsequent population movements created a striking genetic mosaic with distinct sex-based genetic differentiation. While prior studies have examined the mtDNA and Y-chromosome contrast in focal populations in the Middle East, none have undertaken a broad-spectrum survey including North and sub-Saharan Africa, Europe, and Middle Eastern populations. In this study 5,174 mtDNA and 4,658 Y-chromosome samples were investigated using PCA, MDS, mean-linkage clustering, AMOVA, and Fisher exact tests of F(ST's, R(ST's, and haplogroup frequencies. Geographic differentiation in affinities of Middle Eastern populations with Africa and Europe showed distinct contrasts between mtDNA and Y-chromosome data. Specifically, Lebanon's mtDNA shows a very strong association to Europe, while Yemen shows very strong affinity with Egypt and North and East Africa. Previous Y-chromosome results showed a Levantine coastal-inland contrast marked by J1 and J2, and a very strong North African component was evident throughout the Middle East. Neither of these patterns were observed in the mtDNA. While J2 has penetrated into Europe, the pattern of Y-chromosome diversity in Lebanon does not show the widespread affinities with Europe indicated by the mtDNA data. Lastly, while each population shows evidence of connections with expansions that now define the Middle East, Africa, and Europe, many of the populations in the Middle East show distinctive mtDNA and Y-haplogroup characteristics that indicate long standing settlement with relatively little impact from and movement into other populations.

  10. Structural model of the Northern Latium volcanic area constrained by MT, gravity and aeromagnetic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gasparini

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of about 120 magnetotelluric soundings carried out in the Vulsini, Vico and Sabatini volcanic areas were modeled along with Bouguer and aeromagnetic anomalies to reconstruct a model of the structure of the shallow (less than 5 km of depth crust. The interpretations were constrained by the information gathered from the deep boreholes drilled for geothermal exploration. MT and aeromagnetic anomalies allow the depth to the top of the sedimentary basement and the thickness of the volcanic layer to be inferred. Gravity anomalies are strongly affected by the variations of morphology of the top of the sedimentary basement, consisting of a Tertiary flysch, and of the interface with the underlying Mesozoic carbonates. Gravity data have also been used to extrapolate the thickness of the neogenic unit indicated by some boreholes. There is no evidence for other important density and susceptibility heterogeneities and deeper sources of magnetic and/or gravity anomalies in all the surveyed area.

  11. Advanced magnetic visualization of Mt. Vesuvius shallow plumbing system by probability tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Patella

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available We show the results of the application of a new magnetic probability tomography imaging method to the aeromagnetic dataset collected by AGIP on Mt. Vesuvius in 1978. A magnetic dipole occurrence probability function is defined in such a way as to contain all information about the whole class of equivalent sources compatible with the original survey dataset. An advanced 3D visual system is also applied for the first time to visualise the spacial pattern of the magnetic dipole occurrence probability function. It is shown that in the case of Vesuvius, the shallow plumbing system is characterised by a high probability of occurrence of a dipole at 2 km of depth b.s.l., nearly directed along the present main earth’s magnetic field. This leads to hypothesize that the top terminal portion of the volcanic apparatus is completely filled with magnetised volcanic material.

  12. The Siena Graben: combined interpretation of DES and MT soundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tramacere

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The Siena Graben study area is located in Tuscany, Central Italy. The local geological structures were extensively studied in the frame of the Italian National Research Council (CNR and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC geothermal projects. Axial dipole-dipole geoelectrical soundings (DES were also performed. Recently we carried out 13 broadband magnetotelluric (MT soundings, most of which were located very close to the station sites of the mentioned DES. For six of them we made a DES-MT combined interpretation in order to put in evidence resistivity frequency dispersion effects. Indeed, four sites showed DES-MT anomalous responses, in the frequency range 1 ¸ 102 Hz, which can be properly explained as due to dispersion effects in shallow layers. Three of these anomalous sounding sites are located on the neoautochthonous clayey formation, while the fourth is located on the eastern boundary of the graben over an extensive outcrop of the «Macigno» complex. The dispersion-affected soundings are all located in the northern part of the graben, while there is no evidence of such effects in the southern part. This circumstance, together with the estimate of very low time constants of the fitting Cole-Cole dispersion model, can be tentatively explained as due to local and shallow lithological effects (clay-like membrane polarization rather than to deep geothermal effects (sulphide-like electrode polarization. Moreover, the MT soundings delineated a conductive zone in the upper crust below the resistive geoelectrical basement, located in the northern part of the graben, which appears at present difficult to interpret. Furthermore, the combined analysis of the DES and MT soundings in the same sites has allowed us to resolve one of the most intriguing ambiguities concerning the determination of the depth to the graben basement. The result is a remarkable reduction of the depth to the basement top, especially in the northern part of the

  13. Geomorphological, pedological and dendrochronological signatures of a relict landslide terrain, Mt Garbatka (Kamienne Mts), SW Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migoń, Piotr; Kacprzak, Andrzej; Malik, Ireneusz; Kasprzak, Marek; Owczarek, Piotr; Wistuba, Małgorzata; Pánek, Tomaš

    2014-08-01

    In the Kamienne Mountains the largest concentration of apparently relict landslides in the Sudetes range occurs. On the northern slopes of Mt Garbatka mass movements re-shaped two adjacent slope hollows and a wide depositional area is located down the valley. The main landslide body is nearly 1 km long and 200-300 m wide. Its flattened surface morphology and the occurrence of large dispersed allochtonous boulders in the distal part suggests a flow-like movement, initiated by shallow translational slides in the upper slopes. The thickness of colluvium, determined by an ERT survey, may reach 10 m. Geomorphic signatures of mass movement are subdued, suggesting that considerable time has elapsed since the origin of the landslide and that large-scale mass movements are likely pre-Holocene in age. This is consistent with the results of an extensive soil survey within the landslide body and on the surrounding slopes. Similarity of soil properties and well-developed horizonation of profiles both within the landslide and outside it shows that no major disturbance has taken place during the soil formation period. Dendrogeomorphological research, in turn, yielded evidence of numerous growth disturbances recorded in tree rings of Norway spruce growing on the landslide body. These signals are interpreted that the slope surface is not entirely stable under current environmental conditions. Flow or creep of landslide material is not very likely, given the characteristics of cover materials, and it is hypothesized that dendrochronological signals develop in response to ground deformation through piping and throughflow. Landslide hazard in the valley below Mt Garbatka appears low at present but to claim complete stability would be premature.

  14. An improved method with a wider applicability to isolate plant mitochondria for mtDNA extraction

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Mitochondria perform a principal role in eukaryotic cells. Mutations in mtDNA can cause mitochondrial dysfunction and are frequently associated with various abnormalities during plant development. Extraction of plant mitochondria and mtDNA is the basic requirement for the characterization of mtDNA mutations and other molecular studies. However, currently available methods for mitochondria isolation are either tissue specific or species specific. Extracted mtDNA may contain substant...

  15. Multilingual lexicon design tool and database management system for MT

    CERN Document Server

    Barisevičius, G

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the design and development of English-Lithuanian-English dictionarylexicon tool and lexicon database management system for MT. The system is oriented to support two main requirements: to be open to the user and to describe much more attributes of speech parts as a regular dictionary that are required for the MT. Programming language Java and database management system MySql is used to implement the designing tool and lexicon database respectively. This solution allows easily deploying this system in the Internet. The system is able to run on various OS such as: Windows, Linux, Mac and other OS where Java Virtual Machine is supported. Since the modern lexicon database managing system is used, it is not a problem accessing the same database for several users.

  16. Random Genetic Drift Determines the Level of Mutant mtDNA in Human Primary Oocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, D T; Samuels, D C; Michael, E. M.; Turnbull, D.M.; Chinnery, P F

    2000-01-01

    We measured the proportion of mutant mtDNA (mutation load) in 82 primary oocytes from a woman who harbored the A3243G mtDNA mutation. The frequency distribution of mutation load indicates that random drift is the principal mechanism that determines the level of mutant mtDNA within individual oocytes.

  17. 77 FR 67829 - Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and UL Bend National Wildlife Refuge, MT...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    .... Montana State University- 1500 University Drive, 406-657-2011 Billings. Billings, MT 59101. Montana State... Refuge, MT; Availability of Record of Decision for the Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Final... of the message. U.S. mail: Charles M. Russell NWR, P.O. Box 110, Lewistown, MT 59457....

  18. Plant Hormone Resistance and Agronomic Characteristics of the MT10 Mutant in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The MT10 mutant plants had resistances to auxin. Under light and dark culture,the roots of MT10 seedlings had shown less lateral roots and short lateral roots. In soil ,MT10 seedlings had shown not only no changed agronomic characteristics but also no significant difference with WT.

  19. Numerical modeling of 3-D terrain effect on MT field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐世浙; 阮百尧; 周辉; 陈乐寿; 徐师文

    1997-01-01

    Using the boundary element method, the numerical modeling problem of three-dimensional terrain effect on magnetotelluric (MT) field is solved. This modeling technique can be run on PC in the case of adopting special net division. The result of modeling test for 2-D terrain by this modeling technique is basically coincident with that by 2-D modeling technique, but there is a great difference between the results of 3-D and 2-D modeling for 3-D terrain.

  20. Evidences for higher nocturnal seismic activity at the Mt. Vesuvius

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzarella, Adriano

    2016-01-01

    We analyze hourly seismic data measured at the Osservatorio Vesuviano Ovest (OVO, 1972-2014) and at the Bunker Est (BKE, 1999-2014) stations on the Mt. Vesuvius. The OVO record is complete for seismic events with magnitude M > 1.9. We demonstrate that before 1996 this record presents a daily oscillation that nearly vanishes afterwards. To determine whether a daily oscillation exists in the seismic activity of the Mt. Vesuvius, we use the higher quality BKE record that is complete for seismic events with magnitude M > 0.2. We demonstrate that BKE confirms that the seismic activity at the Mt. Vesuvius is higher during nighttime than during day-time. The amplitude of the daily oscillation is enhanced during summer and damped during winter. We speculate possible links with the cooling/warming diurnal cycle of the volcanic edifice, with external geomagnetic field and with magnetostriction that should also stress the rocks. We find that the amplitude of the seismic daily cycle changes in time and has been increasin...

  1. Evidences for higher nocturnal seismic activity at the Mt. Vesuvius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, Adriano; Scafetta, Nicola

    2016-07-01

    We analyze hourly seismic data measured at the Osservatorio Vesuviano Ovest (OVO, 1972-2014) and at the Bunker Est (BKE, 1999-2014) stations on the Mt. Vesuvius. The OVO record is complete for seismic events with magnitude M ≥ 1.9. We demonstrate that before 1996 this record presents a daily oscillation that nearly vanishes afterwards. To determine whether a daily oscillation exists in the seismic activity of the Mt. Vesuvius, we use the higher quality BKE record that is complete for seismic events with magnitude M ≥ 0.2. We demonstrate that BKE confirms that the seismic activity at the Mt. Vesuvius is higher during nighttime than during daytime. The amplitude of the daily oscillation is enhanced during summer and damped during winter. We speculate possible links with the cooling/warming diurnal cycle of the volcanic edifice, with external geomagnetic field and with magnetostriction, which stress the rocks. We find that the amplitude of the seismic daily cycle changes in time and has been increasing since 2008. Finally, we propose a seismic activity index to monitor the 24-hour oscillation that could be used to complement other methodologies currently adopted to determine the seismic status of the volcano to prevent the relative hazard.

  2. Gas analyses of fumaroles from Mt. Hood, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nehring, N.L.; Wollenberg, H.A.; Johnston, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    The eruptive activity of Mt. St. Helens beginning in March 1980, coupled with earthquake activity on Mt. Hood in early July, has generated increased interest in the fumaroles near the summit of Mt. Hood. These fumaroles are associated with Crater Rock, a hornblende dacite plug, extruded 200 to 300 years ago (Crandell, 1980). A major eruption in about 1700 and lesser eruptions in 1805, 1859, and 1865 (Harris, 1976) were centered near Crater Rock. It is likely that future eruptions will occur in this area. Changes in the surficial characteristics of the fumaroles or changes in the composition of the gas emitted by the fumaroles could precede an eruption by a sufficient length of time to help predict the eruption. In 1935, K.N. Phillips and G.R. Collins collected and analyzed the first samples of gases from the fumaroles (Phillips, 1936). F.D. Ayres and A.E. Creswell (1951) collected and analyzed gas samples from orifices they considered to be equivalent to those sampled by Phillips and Collins, and these (or orifices in the same area) were re-sampled in 1977 and 1978. The results of the 1978 sampling are presented.

  3. Properties of MT2 in the massless limit

    CERN Document Server

    Lally, Colin H

    2012-01-01

    Although numerical methods are required to evaluate the stransverse mass, MT2, for general input momenta, non-numerical methods have been proposed for some special clases of input momenta. One special case, considered in this note, is the so-called `massless limit' in which all four daughter objects (comprising one invisible particle and one visible system from each `side' of the event) have zero mass. This note establishes that it is possible to construct a stable and accurate implementation for evaluating MT2 based on an analytic expression valid in that massless limit. Although this implementation is found to have no significant speed improvements over existing evaluation strategies, it leads to an unexpected by-product: namely a secondary variable, that is found to be very similar to MT2 for much of its input-space and yet is much faster to calculate. This is potentially of interest for hardware applications that require very fast estimation of a mass scale (or QCD background discriminant) based on a hypo...

  4. Chemical compositions of snow from Mt. Yulong, southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hewen Niu; Yuanqing He; Shichang Kang; Xixi Lu; Xiaoyi Shi; Shijin Wang

    2016-03-01

    The snow and ice in Mt. Yulong offer a unique opportunity to investigate changes in climate and large scale atmospheric circulations over Asia. During February and April 2012, surface snow samples were collected from the Baishui Glacier No. 1 at different altitudes along the eastern slope of Mt. Yulong.Two snowpits were also excavated from Mt. Yulong at altitudes of 4780 and 4730 m a.s.l. in February 2012. The concentrations of inorganic ions were higher at an elevation of 4506 m a.s.l. in the glacier with significant contribution of anthropogenic (mainly NH$^{+}_{4}$ , SO$^{2−}_4$ , NO$^{−}_3$) and crustal (mainly Ca$^{2+}$)constituents. Concentration of HCOO$^{−}$ in surface snow exhibited large variability, ranging from 0.04 to 6.8 eq L$^{−1}$, attributed to dominant contribution from biomass burning emissions. Ion balance (C) and Na$^{+}$/Cl$^{−}$ calculations indicated an excess of cations (particularly higher Ca$^{2+}$ concentrations) and Cl$^{−}$ in snow, considering the sea-salt ratio, respectively. Monsoon season (June–September) ion concentrations in snowpit samples were generally two-fold lower than in other seasons. Principal component analysis was used to identify different sources of ions. Three main factors, accounting for more than 80% of the total variance, were related to different sources, including agricultural activities, biomass burning, and crustal aerosols.

  5. The making of the African mtDNA landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Antonio; Richards, Martin; De la Fe, Tomás; Lareu, María-Victoria; Sobrino, Beatriz; Sánchez-Diz, Paula; Macaulay, Vincent; Carracedo, Angel

    2002-11-01

    Africa presents the most complex genetic picture of any continent, with a time depth for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages >100,000 years. The most recent widespread demographic shift within the continent was most probably the Bantu dispersals, which archaeological and linguistic evidence suggest originated in West Africa 3,000-4,000 years ago, spreading both east and south. Here, we have carried out a thorough phylogeographic analysis of mtDNA variation in a total of 2,847 samples from throughout the continent, including 307 new sequences from southeast African Bantu speakers. The results suggest that the southeast Bantu speakers have a composite origin on the maternal line of descent, with approximately 44% of lineages deriving from West Africa, approximately 21% from either West or Central Africa, approximately 30% from East Africa, and approximately 5% from southern African Khoisan-speaking groups. The ages of the major founder types of both West and East African origin are consistent with the likely timing of Bantu dispersals, with those from the west somewhat predating those from the east. Despite this composite picture, the southeastern African Bantu groups are indistinguishable from each other with respect to their mtDNA, suggesting that they either had a common origin at the point of entry into southeastern Africa or have undergone very extensive gene flow since.

  6. Adjusting MtDNA Quantification in Whole Blood for Peripheral Blood Platelet and Leukocyte Counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Roca, Yamilee; Ledesma, Marta; Gonzalez-Lazaro, Monica; Moreno-Loshuertos, Raquel; Fernandez-Silva, Patricio; Enriquez, Jose Antonio; Laclaustra, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) in the blood (mitochondrial to nuclear DNA ratio) appear associated with several systemic diseases, including primary mitochondrial disorders, carcinogenesis, and hematologic diseases. Measuring mtDNAcn in DNA extracted from whole blood (WB) instead of from peripheral blood mononuclear cells or buffy coat may yield different results due to mitochondrial DNA present in platelets. The aim of this work is to quantify the contribution of platelets to mtDNAcn in whole blood [mtDNAcn(WB)] and to propose a correction formula to estimate leukocytes' mtDNAcn [mtDNAcn(L)] from mtDNAcn(WB). Blood samples from 10 healthy adults were combined with platelet-enriched plasma and saline solution to produce artificial blood preparations. Aliquots of each sample were combined with five different platelet concentrations. In 46 of these blood preparations, mtDNAcn was measured by qPCR. MtDNAcn(WB) increased 1.07 (95%CI 0.86, 1.29; p<0.001) per 1000 platelets present in the preparation. We proved that leukocyte count should also be taken into account as mtDNAcn(WB) was inversely associated with leukocyte count; it increased 1.10 (95%CI 0.95, 1.25, p<0.001) per unit increase of the ratio between platelet and leukocyte counts. If hematological measurements are available, subtracting 1.10 the platelets/leukocyte ratio from mtDNAcn(WB) may serve as an estimation for mtDNAcn(L). Both platelet and leukocyte counts in the sample are important sources of variation if comparing mtDNAcn among groups of patients when mtDNAcn is measured in DNA extracted from whole blood. Not taking the platelet/leukocyte ratio into account in whole blood measurements, may lead to overestimation and misclassification if interpreted as leukocytes' mtDNAcn.

  7. Adjusting MtDNA Quantification in Whole Blood for Peripheral Blood Platelet and Leukocyte Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Lazaro, Monica; Moreno-Loshuertos, Raquel; Fernandez-Silva, Patricio; Enriquez, Jose Antonio; Laclaustra, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) in the blood (mitochondrial to nuclear DNA ratio) appear associated with several systemic diseases, including primary mitochondrial disorders, carcinogenesis, and hematologic diseases. Measuring mtDNAcn in DNA extracted from whole blood (WB) instead of from peripheral blood mononuclear cells or buffy coat may yield different results due to mitochondrial DNA present in platelets. The aim of this work is to quantify the contribution of platelets to mtDNAcn in whole blood [mtDNAcn(WB)] and to propose a correction formula to estimate leukocytes' mtDNAcn [mtDNAcn(L)] from mtDNAcn(WB). Blood samples from 10 healthy adults were combined with platelet-enriched plasma and saline solution to produce artificial blood preparations. Aliquots of each sample were combined with five different platelet concentrations. In 46 of these blood preparations, mtDNAcn was measured by qPCR. MtDNAcn(WB) increased 1.07 (95%CI 0.86, 1.29; p<0.001) per 1000 platelets present in the preparation. We proved that leukocyte count should also be taken into account as mtDNAcn(WB) was inversely associated with leukocyte count; it increased 1.10 (95%CI 0.95, 1.25, p<0.001) per unit increase of the ratio between platelet and leukocyte counts. If hematological measurements are available, subtracting 1.10 the platelets/leukocyte ratio from mtDNAcn(WB) may serve as an estimation for mtDNAcn(L). Both platelet and leukocyte counts in the sample are important sources of variation if comparing mtDNAcn among groups of patients when mtDNAcn is measured in DNA extracted from whole blood. Not taking the platelet/leukocyte ratio into account in whole blood measurements, may lead to overestimation and misclassification if interpreted as leukocytes' mtDNAcn. PMID:27736919

  8. Three Alkali-Rich Intrusive Rock Belts Newly Discovered in the Mt. Kunlun-Mt. Altun Region, Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱笑青; 王元龙; 毕华; 王中刚

    2002-01-01

    The newly discovered three alkali-rich intrusive rock belts in the Mt. Kunlun Mt.Altun region of southern Xinjiang are the Lapeiquan-Yitunbulak alkali-rich intrusive rock belt,the Gez-Taxkorgan alkali-rich intrusive rock belt and the Beilisai-Abulash alkali-rich intrusive rock belt. The former two belts were formed during the Yanshanian period, and the third one was formed during the Himalayan period, which is the youngest alkali-rich intrusive rock belt in China. The discovery of the alkali-rich intrusive rock belts is of great significance in shedding light on the history of tectono-magmatic activities in this region.

  9. Three Alkali—Rich Intrusive Rock Belts Bewly Discovered in the Mt.Kunlkun—Mt.Altun Region,Xinjiang,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱笑青; 王元龙; 等

    2002-01-01

    The newly discovered three alkali-rich intrusive rock belts in the Mt.Kunlun Mt.Altun region of southern Xinjiang are the Lapeiquan-Yitunbulak alkali-rich intrusive fock belt, the Gez-Taxkorgan alkali-rich intrusive rock belt and the Beeilisai-Abulash alkali-rich intrusive rock belt.The former two belts were formed during the Yanshanian period,and the third one was formed during the Himalayan period,which is the youngest alkali-rich intrusive rock belt in China.The discovery of the alkali-rich intrusive rock belts is of great significance in shedding light on the history of tectono-magmatic activities in this region.

  10. WWF Kikori Catchment Developmental Project, Papua New Guinea orchid survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clements, M.A.; Harris, W.K.

    2002-01-01

    The World Wildlife Fund (Kikori Catchment Developmental Project, Papua New Guinea) has commenced field surveys of the Orchidaceae in the Lake Kutabu and Mt Bosavi areas of Papua New Guinea. The main purpose of the survey is to get a more accurate assessment of the orchids in the region. In a previou

  11. Melatonin acts through MT1/MT2 receptors to activate hypothalamic Akt and suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, JA; Kinote, A; Ignacio-Souza, LM; de Araujo, TM; Razolli, DS; Doneda, DL; Paschoal, LB; Lellis-Santos, C; Bertolini, GL; Velloso, LA; Bordin, S.; Anhe, GF

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin can contribute to glucose homeostasis either by decreasing gluconeogenesis or by counteracting insulin resistance in distinct models of obesity. However, the precise mechanism through which melatonin controls glucose homeostasis is not completely understood. Male Wistar rats were administered an intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of melatonin and one of following: an icv injection of a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, an icv injection of a melatonin receptor (MT)...

  12. Negative magnetic anomaly over Mt. Resnik, a subaerially erupted volcanic peak beneath the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, John C.; Finn, C.; Morse, D.L.; Blankenship, D.D.

    2006-01-01

    Mt. Resnik is one of the previously reported 18 subaerially erupted volcanoes (in the West Antarctic rift system), which have high elevation and high bed relief beneath the WAIS in the Central West Antarctica (CWA) aerogeophysical survey. Mt. Resnik lies 300 m below the surface of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS); it has 1.6 km topographic relief, and a conical form defined by radar ice-sounding of bed topography. It has an associated complex negative magnetic anomaly revealed by the CWA survey. We calculated and interpreted magnetic models fit to the Mt. Resnik anomaly as a volcanic source comprising both reversely and normally magnetized (in the present field direction) volcanic flows, 0.5-2.5-km thick, erupted subaerially during a time of magnetic field reversal. The Mt. Resnik 305-nT anomaly is part of an approximately 50- by 40-km positive anomaly complex extending about 30 km to the west of the Mt. Resnik peak, associated with an underlying source complex of about the same area, whose top is at the bed of the WAIS. The bed relief of this shallow source complex has a maximum of only about 400 m, whereas the modeled source is >3 km thick. From the spatial relationship we interpret that this source and Mt Resnik are approximately contemporaneous. Any subglacially (older?) erupted edifices comprising hyaloclastite or other volcanic debris, which formerly overlaid the source to the west, were removed by the moving WAIS into which they were injected as is the general case for the ???1000 volcanic centers at the base of the WAIS. The presence of the magnetic field reversal modeled for Mt. Resnik may represent the Bruhnes-Matayama reversal at 780 ka (or an earlier reversal). There are ???100 short-wavelength, steep-gradient, negative magnetic anomalies observed over the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS), or about 10% of the approximately 1000 short-wavelength, shallow-source, high-amplitude (50- >1000 nT) "volcanic" magnetic anomalies in the CWA survey. These

  13. The Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-Associated Protein SWIB5 Influences mtDNA Architecture and Homologous Recombination

    KAUST Repository

    Blomme, Jonas

    2017-04-19

    In addition to the nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplasts in plant cells also contain genomes. Efficient DNA repair pathways are crucial in these organelles to fix damage resulting from endogenous and exogenous factors. Plant organellar genomes are complex compared with their animal counterparts, and although several plant-specific mediators of organelle DNA repair have been reported, many regulators remain to be identified. Here, we show that a mitochondrial SWI/SNF (nucleosome remodeling) complex B protein, SWIB5, is capable of associating with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Gainand loss-of-function mutants provided evidence for a role of SWIB5 in influencing mtDNA architecture and homologous recombination at specific intermediate-sized repeats both under normal and genotoxic conditions. SWIB5 interacts with other mitochondrial SWIB proteins. Gene expression and mutant phenotypic analysis of SWIB5 and SWIB family members suggests a link between organellar genome maintenance and cell proliferation. Taken together, our work presents a protein family that influences mtDNA architecture and homologous recombination in plants and suggests a link between organelle functioning and plant development.

  14. Simplified qPCR method for detecting excessive mtDNA damage induced by exogenous factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gureev, Artem P; Shaforostova, Ekaterina A; Starkov, Anatoly A; Popov, Vasily N

    2017-05-01

    Damage to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a meaningful biomarker for evaluating genotoxicity of drugs and environmental toxins. Existing PCR methods utilize long mtDNA fragments (∼8-10kb), which complicates detecting exact sites of mtDNA damage. To identify the mtDNA regions most susceptible to damage, we have developed and validated a set of primers to amplify ∼2kb long fragments, while covering over 95% of mouse mtDNA. We have modified the detection method by greatly increasing the enrichment of mtDNA, which allows us solving the problem of non-specific primer annealing to nuclear DNA. To validate our approach, we have determined the most damage-susceptible mtDNA regions in mice treated in vivo and in vitro with rotenone and H2O2. The GTGR-sequence-enriched mtDNA segments located in the D-loop region were found to be especially susceptible to damage. Further, we demonstrate that H2O2-induced mtDNA damage facilitates the relaxation of mtDNA supercoiled conformation, making the sequences with minimal damage more accessible to DNA polymerase, which, in turn, results in a decrease in threshold cycle value. Overall, our modified PCR method is simpler and more selective to the specific sites of damage in mtDNA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Improvement and Check on the mtDNA extract techniques for termites%白蚁 mtDNA 提取方法改良及检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜丽红; 邹湘武; 宁涤非; 席在星

    2013-01-01

      利用mtDNA多态性进行种类鉴定是一种分子生物学常用方法,从DNA水平对白蚁进行物种鉴别并探讨物种的进化,其必要前提是提取到一定数量和质量的mtDNA.在分离得到线粒体后,分别采用CTAB、SDS 2种方法提取mtDNA.紫外分光光度计检测DNA纯度及浓度,用mtDNA 特异性引物进行PCR 扩增检测.试验证明2种方法均能成功提取白蚁的mtDNA, SDS法提取效果较好.%Species identification with mtDNA polymorphisms is an usual method in molecular biology. To identify the species and to explore the evolution of the termites from the DNA level, it is necessary to extract the mtDNA with enough quantity and good quality. In this study, mitochondria of termites is firstly isolated, then CTAB and SDS methods were employed for the extraction of mtDNA, respectively. Purity and concentration of mtDNA were determined by UV spectrophotometer. PCR amplification of mtDNA was executed by specific primers. Results shows that both CTAB the SDS methods can successfully extracted termite mtDNA, but SDS method shows better performance than CTAB method.

  16. Monitoring and Inhibiting MT1-MMP during Cancer Initiation and Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Pahwa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP is a zinc-dependent type-I transmembrane metalloproteinase involved in pericellular proteolysis, migration and invasion. Numerous substrates and binding partners have been identified for MT1-MMP, and its role in collagenolysis appears crucial for tumor invasion. However, development of MT1-MMP inhibitors must consider the substantial functions of MT1-MMP in normal physiology and disease prevention. The present review examines the plethora of MT1-MMP activities, how these activities relate to cancer initiation and progression, and how they can be monitored in real time. Examination of MT1-MMP activities and cell surface behaviors can set the stage for the development of unique, selective MT1-MMP inhibitors.

  17. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of human MT+ reduces apparent motion perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyoshi, Daisuke; Hirose, Nobuyuki; Mima, Tatsuya; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2007-12-18

    We investigated the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the human cerebral cortex on apparent motion perception. Previous studies have shown that human extrastriate visual area MT+ (V5) processes not only real but also apparent motion. However, the functional relevance of MT+ on long-range apparent motion perception remains unclear. Here, we show direct evidence for the involvement of MT+ in apparent motion perception using rTMS, which is known to temporarily inhibit a localized region in the cerebral cortex. The results showed that apparent motion perception decreased after applying rTMS over MT+, but not after applying rTMS over the control region (inferior temporal gyrus). The decrease in performance caused by applying rTMS to MT+ suggests that MT+ is a causally responsible region for apparent motion perception, and thus, further supports the idea that MT+ plays a major role in the perception of motion.

  18. A reduced number of mtSNPs saturates mitochondrial DNA haplotype diversity of worldwide population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Antonio; Amigo, Jorge

    2010-05-03

    The high levels of variation characterising the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule are due ultimately to its high average mutation rate; moreover, mtDNA variation is deeply structured in different populations and ethnic groups. There is growing interest in selecting a reduced number of mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs) that account for the maximum level of discrimination power in a given population. Applications of the selected mtSNP panel range from anthropologic and medical studies to forensic genetic casework. This study proposes a new simulation-based method that explores the ability of different mtSNP panels to yield the maximum levels of discrimination power. The method explores subsets of mtSNPs of different sizes randomly chosen from a preselected panel of mtSNPs based on frequency. More than 2,000 complete genomes representing three main continental human population groups (Africa, Europe, and Asia) and two admixed populations ("African-Americans" and "Hispanics") were collected from GenBank and the literature, and were used as training sets. Haplotype diversity was measured for each combination of mtSNP and compared with existing mtSNP panels available in the literature. The data indicates that only a reduced number of mtSNPs ranging from six to 22 are needed to account for 95% of the maximum haplotype diversity of a given population sample. However, only a small proportion of the best mtSNPs are shared between populations, indicating that there is not a perfect set of "universal" mtSNPs suitable for all population contexts. The discrimination power provided by these mtSNPs is much higher than the power of the mtSNP panels proposed in the literature to date. Some mtSNP combinations also yield high diversity values in admixed populations. The proposed computational approach for exploring combinations of mtSNPs that optimise the discrimination power of a given set of mtSNPs is more efficient than previous empirical approaches. In contrast to

  19. Etnobotânica e práticas agroecológicas na comunidade rural Rio dos Couros, Cuiabá, MT, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Ineilian Bruna Correa da [UNESP

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to perform the socioeconomic and cultural survey of the community and of your ethnic knowledge about the plant diversity in the landscape units, as well as identify the agroecological methods applied in productive dimension of rural community Rio dos Couros, Cuiabá, MT. The methodology adopted was the so-called snowball. Data collection occurred through semi-structured interviews, direct observation, field diary and agroecological form, applied during free walk...

  20. Transcriptional response of two metallothionein genes (OcMT1 and OcMT2) and histological changes in Oxya chinensis (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) exposed to three trace metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaoming; Wu, Haihua; Yu, Zhitao; Guo, Yaping; Zhang, Jianzhen; Zhu, Kun Yan; Ma, Enbo

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the transcriptional responses of two metallothionein (MT) genes (OcMT1 and OcMT2) in various tissues (brain, optic lobe, Malpighian tubules, fat bodies, foregut, gastric caeca, midgut and hindgut) of Oxya chinensis (Thunberg) (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) after exposed to the trace metals cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) for 48h. The study revealed that the exposure of O. chinensis to each of the three metals at the median lethal concentration (LC50) or lower concentration(s) up-regulated the transcriptions of both OcMT1 and OCMT2 in the eight tissues except for OcMT1 and OcMT2 with Cd in brain and gastric caeca, respectively, and OcMT2 with Cu in gastric caeca. These results suggested that the exposure of O. chinensis to the metals may enhance MT biosynthesis that protects tissues by binding these metals in various tissues. To examine possible histopathological effect of the metals, we examined the histological changes in the fat bodies after O. chinensis was exposed to each of these metals at LC50. The exposure of Cd significantly reduced the size and number of adipocytes as compared with the control. However, such an effect was not observed in O. chinensis exposed to either Cu or Zn. These results suggested that fat bodies might be either significantly affected by Cd or play a crucial role in detoxification of excessive trace metals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Similar patterns of clonally expanded somatic mtDNA mutations in the colon of heterozygous mtDNA mutator mice and ageing humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Holly L.; Stewart, James B.; Stamp, Craig; Zupanic, Anze; Kirkwood, Thomas B.L.; Larsson, Nils-Göran; Turnbull, Douglass M.; Greaves, Laura C.

    2014-01-01

    Clonally expanded mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations resulting in focal respiratory chain deficiency in individual cells are proposed to contribute to the ageing of human tissues that depend on adult stem cells for self-renewal; however, the consequences of these mutations remain unclear. A good animal model is required to investigate this further; but it is unknown whether mechanisms for clonal expansion of mtDNA mutations, and the mutational spectra, are similar between species. Here we show that mice, heterozygous for a mutation disrupting the proof-reading activity of mtDNA polymerase (PolgA+/mut) resulting in an increased mtDNA mutation rate, accumulate clonally expanded mtDNA point mutations in their colonic crypts with age. This results in focal respiratory chain deficiency, and by 81 weeks of age these animals exhibit a similar level and pattern of respiratory chain deficiency to 70-year-old human subjects. Furthermore, like in humans, the mtDNA mutation spectrum appears random and there is an absence of selective constraints. Computer simulations show that a random genetic drift model of mtDNA clonal expansion can accurately model the data from the colonic crypts of wild-type, PolgA+/mut animals, and humans, providing evidence for a similar mechanism for clonal expansion of mtDNA point mutations between these mice and humans. PMID:24915468

  2. A trans-Amazonian screening of mtDNA reveals deep intraspecific divergence in forest birds and suggests a vast underestimation of species diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Milá

    Full Text Available The Amazonian avifauna remains severely understudied relative to that of the temperate zone, and its species richness is thought to be underestimated by current taxonomy. Recent molecular systematic studies using mtDNA sequence reveal that traditionally accepted species-level taxa often conceal genetically divergent subspecific lineages found to represent new species upon close taxonomic scrutiny, suggesting that intraspecific mtDNA variation could be useful in species discovery. Surveys of mtDNA variation in Holarctic species have revealed patterns of variation that are largely congruent with species boundaries. However, little information exists on intraspecific divergence in most Amazonian species. Here we screen intraspecific mtDNA genetic variation in 41 Amazonian forest understory species belonging to 36 genera and 17 families in 6 orders, using 758 individual samples from Ecuador and French Guiana. For 13 of these species, we also analyzed trans-Andean populations from the Ecuadorian Chocó. A consistent pattern of deep intraspecific divergence among trans-Amazonian haplogroups was found for 33 of the 41 taxa, and genetic differentiation and genetic diversity among them was highly variable, suggesting a complex range of evolutionary histories. Mean sequence divergence within families was the same as that found in North American birds (13%, yet mean intraspecific divergence in Neotropical species was an order of magnitude larger (2.13% vs. 0.23%, with mean distance between intraspecific lineages reaching 3.56%. We found no clear relationship between genetic distances and differentiation in plumage color. Our results identify numerous genetically and phenotypically divergent lineages which may result in new species-level designations upon closer taxonomic scrutiny and thorough sampling, although lineages in the tropical region could be older than those in the temperate zone without necessarily representing separate species. In

  3. A trans-Amazonian screening of mtDNA reveals deep intraspecific divergence in forest birds and suggests a vast underestimation of species diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milá, Borja; Tavares, Erika S; Muñoz Saldaña, Alberto; Karubian, Jordan; Smith, Thomas B; Baker, Allan J

    2012-01-01

    The Amazonian avifauna remains severely understudied relative to that of the temperate zone, and its species richness is thought to be underestimated by current taxonomy. Recent molecular systematic studies using mtDNA sequence reveal that traditionally accepted species-level taxa often conceal genetically divergent subspecific lineages found to represent new species upon close taxonomic scrutiny, suggesting that intraspecific mtDNA variation could be useful in species discovery. Surveys of mtDNA variation in Holarctic species have revealed patterns of variation that are largely congruent with species boundaries. However, little information exists on intraspecific divergence in most Amazonian species. Here we screen intraspecific mtDNA genetic variation in 41 Amazonian forest understory species belonging to 36 genera and 17 families in 6 orders, using 758 individual samples from Ecuador and French Guiana. For 13 of these species, we also analyzed trans-Andean populations from the Ecuadorian Chocó. A consistent pattern of deep intraspecific divergence among trans-Amazonian haplogroups was found for 33 of the 41 taxa, and genetic differentiation and genetic diversity among them was highly variable, suggesting a complex range of evolutionary histories. Mean sequence divergence within families was the same as that found in North American birds (13%), yet mean intraspecific divergence in Neotropical species was an order of magnitude larger (2.13% vs. 0.23%), with mean distance between intraspecific lineages reaching 3.56%. We found no clear relationship between genetic distances and differentiation in plumage color. Our results identify numerous genetically and phenotypically divergent lineages which may result in new species-level designations upon closer taxonomic scrutiny and thorough sampling, although lineages in the tropical region could be older than those in the temperate zone without necessarily representing separate species. In-depth phylogeographic surveys

  4. Peculiar Active-Tectonic Landscape Within the Sanctuary of Zeus at Mt. Lykaion (Peloponnese, Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, G. H.

    2008-12-01

    The Sanctuary of Zeus (Mt. Lykaion) lies in the Peloponnese within the Pindos fold and thrust belt. It is the object of investigation of the Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey (http://lykaionexcavation.org/). Mt. Lykaion is a thrust klippe, on the summit of which is an upper sanctuary marked by an ash altar, temenos, and column bases. Earliest objects recovered from the ash altar go back to 3000 BCE, leading Dr. David Romano (University of Pennsylvania), a principal leader of the project, to conclude that worship of divinities on the summit is ancient. Detailed structural geological mapping reveals one dimension of the "power" of the site. Crisscrossing the upper sanctuary are scree bands that mark the traces of active normal faults, which are expressions of tectonic stretching of the Aegean region. The scree bands, composed of cinder-block-sized limestone blocks, range up to 10 m in outcrop breadth, 100 m in length, and 5 m in thickness. Though discontinuous, most of the scree bands lie precisely on the traces of through-going faults, which cut and displace the sedimentary formations of the Pindos group. Some cut the thrust fault, whose elliptical trace defines the Lykaion klippe. What makes the scree bands of this active-tectonic landscape "peculiar" is that there are no cliffs from which the scree descends. Rather, the bands of scree occur along flanks of smooth, rounded hillslopes and ridges. The scree bands coincide with modest steps in the topography, ranging from tens of centimeters to several tens of meters. The specific bedrock formation where the bands are best developed is an Upper Cretaceous limestone whose average platy-bedding thickness (approximately 20 cm) matches closely the average joint spacing. The limestone has little mechanical integrity. It cannot support itself as a scarp footwall and instead collapses into a pile of scree, whose upper-surface inclination conforms to a stable angle of repose. Evidence of the contemporary nature of this

  5. The Magmatic Structure of Mt. Vesuvius: Isotopic and Thermal Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civetta, L.; D'Antonio, M.; de Lorenzo, S.; Gasparini, P.

    2002-12-01

    Mt. Vesuvius is an active volcano famous for the AD 79 eruption that destroyed Pompeii, Herculaneum and Stabiae. Because of the intense urbanization around and on the volcano, the risk today is very high. Therefore, the knowledge of the structure and behavior of the magmatic system is fundamental both for the interpretation of any change in the dynamics of the volcano and for prediction of eruptions. A review of available and new isotopic data on rocks from Mt. Vesuvius, together with mineralogical and geochemical data and recent geophysical results, allow us to constrain a thermal modeling that describes history and present state of Mt. Vesuvius magmatic system. This system is formed by a "deep", complex magmatic reservoir where mantle-derived magmas arrive, stagnate and differentiate. The reservoir extends discontinuously between 10 and 20 km of depth, is hosted in densely fractured crustal rocks, where magmas and crust can interact, and has been fed more than once since 400 ka. The hypothesis of crustal contamination is favored by the high temperatures reached by crustal rocks as a consequence of repetitive intrusions of magma. From the "deep" reservoir magmas of K-basaltic to K-tephritic to K-phonotephritic composition rise to shallow depths where they stagnate at 3-5 km of depth before plinian eruptions, and through crystallization and mixing processes with the residual portion of the feeding systems, generate isotopically and geochemically layered reservoirs. Alternatively, during "open conduit" conditions deep, volatile-rich magma batches rise from the "deep" reservoir to less than 1 km of depth and mix with the crystal-rich, volatile-poor resident magma, triggering eruptions.

  6. Modeling sulfur dioxide concentrations in Mt. Rainier area during prevent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givati, Reuven; Flocchini, Robert G.; Cahill, Thomas A.

    The MATHEW/ADPIC models (a diagnostic wind model and a particle model) which were developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, were used to compute SO 2 concentrations in the Mt Rainier area during PREVENT (Pacific Northwest Regional Visibility Experiment Using Natural Tracers, June to September 1990). The modeled concentrations were compared to measured concentrations at two sampling locations (Tahoma Woods and Paradise near Mt Rainier) which are located in a valley. The SO 2 sources considered are located along the Puget Sound (Everett, Seattle and Tacoma area) and south of it. New formulations were included in the models for the oxidation of SO 2 and the interpolation of the wind field. Because of the paucity of the meteorological data near the sampling points, an estimation was made of the wind values in the valley, based on the phenomena of wind channeling, mountain and valley winds, and historical wind observations near Mt Rainier. The models were run for several non-rainy days during the PREVENT period when large SO 2 concentrations were observed, and for other special cases. Out of 14 days for which the emissions of the previous night were taken into account, for 12 days the ratio of the modeled to the measured SO 2 concentrations at Tahoma Woods during the daytime, was in the interval 0.45-2.00, considered a good agreement. However, the agreement at Tahoma Woods during the night, and at Paradise during the day and the night, were not as good. It seems that the wind flow near Tahoma Woods under the stable conditions at night, and near the steep terrain of Paradise, were not modeled correctly, with the limited input of available meteorological observations.

  7. A miniature VGA SWIR camera using MT6415CA ROIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminoglu, Selim; Yilmaz, S. Gokhan; Kocak, Serhat

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports the development of a new miniature VGA SWIR camera called NanoCAM-6415, which is developed to demonstrate the key features of the MT6415CA ROIC such as high integration level, low-noise, and low-power in a small volume. The NanoCAM-6415 uses an InGaAs Focal Plane Array (FPA) with a format of 640 × 512 and pixel pitch of 15 μm built using MT6415CA ROIC. MT6415CA is a low-noise CTIA ROIC, which has a system-on-chip architecture, allows generation of all the required timing and biases on-chip in the ROIC without requiring any external components or inputs, thus enabling the development of compact and low-noise SWIR cameras, with reduced size, weight, and power (SWaP). NanoCAM-6415 camera supports snapshot operation using Integrate-Then-Read (ITR) and Integrate-While-Read (IWR) modes. The camera has three gain settings enabled by the ROIC through programmable Full-Well-Capacity (FWC) values of 10.000 e-, 20.000 e-, and 350.000 e- in the very high gain (VHG), high-gain (HG), and low-gain (LG) modes, respectively. The camera has an input referred noise level of 10 e- rms in the VHG mode at 1 ms integration time, suitable for low-noise SWIR imaging applications. In order to reduce the size and power of the camera, only 2 outputs out of 8 of the ROIC are connected to the external Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs) in the camera electronics, providing a maximum frame rate of 50 fps through a 26-pin SDR type Camera Link connector. NanoCAM-6415 SWIR camera without the optics measures 32 mm × 32 mm × 35 mm, weighs 45gr, and dissipates less than 1.8 W using a 5 V supply. These results show that MT6415CA ROIC can successfully be used to develop cameras for SWIR imaging applications where SWaP is a concern. Mikro-Tasarim has also developed new imaging software to demonstrate the functionality of this miniature VGA camera. Mikro-Tasarim provides tested ROIC wafers and also offers compact and easy-to-use test electronics, demo cameras, and hardware

  8. Climbing Mt. Sharp: Maximizing Curiosity's Science Over Traversable Terrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraeman, A. A.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bellutta, P.; Sletten, R. S.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    As Curiosity transitions from the plains of Gale Crater to the flanks of Mt. Sharp, the rover will begin to encounter material and terrains that could present greater mobility challenges. These challenges include the presence of significantly steeper slopes and large dunes that have the potential to embed the vehicle. Strategic path planning during this phase of the mission will therefore require carefully selecting a traversable route that is both time-efficient and that will provide access to the most scientifically rewarding targets. We consider possible solutions to this optimization problem by examining multiple orbital data sets in order to locate likely mobility hazards and to select potential science waypoints for future in situ investigation. High resolution HiRISE monochromatic images and digital elevation models show filled craters, rock fields, areas with slopes too steep for the rover to traverse, and other possible mobility obstacles on the northwest flank of Mt. Sharp. Using this context, we review accessibility to scientific targets on Mt. Sharp that have been previously discussed in landing site workshop presentations and peer-reviewed publications. Additionally, we identify new targets using detailed geologic maps combined with oversampled CRISM observations that provide mineralogical information at unprecedented high spatial resolutions (up to 6 m/pixel). For example, the spatially sharpened CRISM spectral data show a localized hematite deposit that is associated with the upper-most stratum of a ridge which is located ~3km from the rover's entry point to Mt. Sharp. This deposit may represent a previously habitable environment and is therefore a high priority target for in situ investigation. In order to study the hematite and also to eventually access the phyllosilicate-bearing trough that is located directly behind the ridge, Curiosity will have to cross this ridge, but the ridge edges are often defined by regions with slopes that are too steep

  9. Spine growth mechanisms: friction and seismicity at Mt. Unzen, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornby, Adrian; Kendrick, Jackie; Hirose, Takehiro; Henton De Angelis, Sarah; De Angelis, Silvio; Umakoshi, Kodo; Miwa, Takahiro; Wadsworth, Fabian; Dingwell, Don; Lavallee, Yan

    2014-05-01

    The final episode of dome growth during the 1991-1995 eruption of Mt. Unzen was characterised by spine extrusion accompanied by repetitive seismicity. This type of cyclic activity has been observed at several dome-building volcanoes and recent work suggests a source mechanism of brittle failure of magma in the conduit. Spine growth may proceed by densification and closure of permeable pathways within the uppermost conduit magma, leading to sealing of the dome and inflation of the edifice. Amplified stresses on the wall rock and plug cause brittle failure near the conduit wall once static friction forces are overcome, and during spine growth these fractures may propagate to the dome surface. The preservation of these features is rare, and the conduit is typically inaccessible; therefore spines, the extruded manifestation of upper conduit material, provide the opportunity to study direct evidence of brittle processes in the conduit. At Mt. Unzen the spine retains evidence for brittle deformation and slip, however mechanical constraints on the formation of these features and their potential impact on eruption dynamics have not been well constrained. Here, we conduct an investigation into the process of episodic spine growth using high velocity friction apparatus at variable shear slip rate (0.4-1.5 m.s-1) and normal stress (0.4-3.5 MPa) on dome rock from Mt. Unzen, generating frictional melt at velocity >0.4 m.s-1 and normal stress >0.7 MPa. Our results show that the presence of frictional melt causes a deviation from Byerlee's frictional rule for rock friction. Melt generation is a disequilibrium process: initial amphibole breakdown leads to melt formation, followed by chemical homogenization of the melt layer. Ultimately, the experimentally generated frictional melts have a similar final chemistry, thickness and comminuted clast size distribution, thereby facilitating the extrapolation of a single viscoelastic model to describe melt-lubricated slip events at Mt

  10. Revisiting Combinatorial Ambiguities at Hadron Colliders with MT2

    CERN Document Server

    Baringer, Philip; McCaskey, Mathew; Noonan, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We present a method to resolve combinatorial issues in multi-particle final states at hadron colliders. The use of kinematic variables such as MT2 and invariant mass significantly reduces combinatorial ambiguities in the signal, but at a cost of losing statistics. We illustrate this idea with gluino pair production leading to 4 jets $+\\met$ in the final state as well as $t\\bar{t}$ production in the dilepton channel. Compared to results in recent studies, our method provides greater efficiency with similar purity

  11. Thirty years of precise gravity measurements at Mt. Vesuvius: an approach to detect underground mass movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Berrino

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 1982, high precision gravity measurements have been routinely carried out on Mt. Vesuvius. The gravity network consists of selected sites most of them coinciding with, or very close to, leveling benchmarks to remove the effect of the elevation changes from gravity variations. The reference station is located in Napoli, outside the volcanic area. Since 1986, absolute gravity measurements have been periodically made on a station on Mt. Vesuvius, close to a permanent gravity station established in 1987, and at the reference in Napoli. The results of the gravity measurements since 1982 are presented and discussed. Moderate gravity changes on short-time were generally observed. On long-term significant gravity changes occurred and the overall fields displayed well defined patterns. Several periods of evolution may be recognized. Gravity changes revealed by the relative surveys have been confirmed by repeated absolute measurements, which also confirmed the long-term stability of the reference site. The gravity changes over the recognized periods appear correlated with the seismic crises and with changes of the tidal parameters obtained by continuous measurements. The absence of significant ground deformation implies masses redistribution, essentially density changes without significant volume changes, such as fluids migration at the depth of the seismic foci, i.e. at a few kilometers. The fluid migration may occur through pre-existing geological structures, as also suggested by hydrological studies, and/or through new fractures generated by seismic activity. This interpretation is supported by the analyses of the spatial gravity changes overlapping the most significant and recent seismic crises.

  12. CrypticspeciescompositionandgeneticdiversitywithinBemisiatabaci complex in soybean in India revealed by mtCOI DNA sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prasanna H C; Kanakala S; Archana K; Jyothsna P; Varma R K; Malathi V G

    2015-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci is a cryptic species complex, causing signiifcant loss on many agricultural y important crops worldwide. Knowledge on species composition and diversity within B. tabaci complex is critical for evolving sustainable pest management strategies. Here we investigate the whitelfy species complex in soybean in major soybean growing states of India. The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene subunit-1 (mtCOI) based phylogenetic relationships established using Bayesian methods indicated the existence of three cryptic species namely Asia I, Asia II 1, and Asia II 7. Al the haplotypes detected in the study could be assigned to these three cryptic species fol owing the species demarcation criteria of 3.5%divergence threshold. Of these, Asia II 1 was found to be predominant with wide spread distribution across the surveyed regions from cool temperate zones to hot and humid tropical plains. On the contrary, cryptic species Asia II 7 showed localized distribu-tion. The Asia II 1 exhibited the highest haplotype diversity and Asia I showed high level of nucleotide diversity. There was a signiifcantly high genetic differentiation among these three cryptic species. The MEAM 1, a dreadful invasive species was not detected in the specimens tested in the current study. The diversity and distribution of three cryptic species is discussed in the light of current knowledge on distribution of whitelfy species in India and yel ow mosaic disease observed during sampling survey.

  13. Functional conservation of yeast mtTFB despite extensive sequence divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrodeguas, J A; Yun, S; Shadel, G S; Clayton, D A; Bogenhagen, D F

    1996-01-01

    Transcription of mtDNA in the yeast S. cerevisiae depends on recognition of a consensus nonanucleotide promoter sequence by mtRNA polymerase acting with a 40-kDa dissociable factor known as mtTFB or Mtflp. mtTFB has been cloned and characterized in S. cerevisiae, but has not been studied in similar detail in any other organism. Although it is known that mitochondrial transcription in the dairy yeast, Kluyveromyces lactis, initiates within the same consensus promoter sequence used in S. cerevisiae, no previous studies have focused on the proteins involved in transcription initiation in K. lactis. In this article, we report the cloning of mtTFB from K. lactis and from a yeast more closely related to S. cerevisiae, S. kluyveri. Both novel mtTFB genes were able to substitute for the MTF1 gene in S. cerevisiae. Both proteins purified following expression in E. coli were able to support specific transcription initiation in vitro with the S. cerevisiae mtRNA polymerase. The S. kluyveri and K. lactis mtTFB proteins share only 56% and 40% identity with S. cerevisiae mtTFB, respectively. Alignments of the three mtTFB sequences did not reveal any regions larger than 30 amino acids with greater than 60% amino acid identity. In particular, regions proposed to show sequence similarity to bacterial sigma factors were not more highly conserved than other regions of the mtTFB proteins. All three yeast mtTFB genes lack conventional amino-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequences, suggesting that all three proteins may be imported into mitochondria by the same unusual mechanism reported for S. cerevisiae mtTFB.

  14. The novel high-performance 3-D MT inverse solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglyakov, Mikhail; Geraskin, Alexey; Kuvshinov, Alexey

    2016-04-01

    We present novel, robust, scalable, and fast 3-D magnetotelluric (MT) inverse solver. The solver is written in multi-language paradigm to make it as efficient, readable and maintainable as possible. Separation of concerns and single responsibility concepts go through implementation of the solver. As a forward modelling engine a modern scalable solver extrEMe, based on contracting integral equation approach, is used. Iterative gradient-type (quasi-Newton) optimization scheme is invoked to search for (regularized) inverse problem solution, and adjoint source approach is used to calculate efficiently the gradient of the misfit. The inverse solver is able to deal with highly detailed and contrasting models, allows for working (separately or jointly) with any type of MT responses, and supports massive parallelization. Moreover, different parallelization strategies implemented in the code allow optimal usage of available computational resources for a given problem statement. To parameterize an inverse domain the so-called mask parameterization is implemented, which means that one can merge any subset of forward modelling cells in order to account for (usually) irregular distribution of observation sites. We report results of 3-D numerical experiments aimed at analysing the robustness, performance and scalability of the code. In particular, our computational experiments carried out at different platforms ranging from modern laptops to HPC Piz Daint (6th supercomputer in the world) demonstrate practically linear scalability of the code up to thousands of nodes.

  15. MT-compatible red VCSEL module for parallel optical interconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hove, An; Van de Putte, Koen; Naessens, Kris; Dhoedt, Bart; Baets, Roel G.; Van Daele, Peter

    2000-04-01

    In this paper we present the design, fabrication and characterization of a module which directly connectorizes a 1 by 8 red VCSEL array to a small diameter polymer optical fiber array, using a standard MT ferrule. The facets of the POF are prepared by a hot knife cutting, followed by a short polishing step. First coupling results show total losses in the range of 1.1 dB/channel for a 30 cm POF link. Optical crosstalk between adjacent channels is below -45 dB. Plastic micromachined parts surrounding the VCSEL chip ensure the correct alignment of the connector, using the connector, using the connector guiding points. The parts themselves are aligned to the chip with a n index-alignment technique, using an excimer laser ablated mastertool. In a deconnectorizable version of the module, a thin, flat glue layer on the chip acts as a window between the VCSEL chip and the MT terminated POF array. Integrated in a standard ceramic package, clear eye diagrams have been measured at 150 MHz for a 10m POF link, coupled to the VCSEL array. Further efforts on higher speed measurements using dedicated drivers, will also be presented.

  16. CLINICAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF DENGUE IN JUSCIMEIRA - MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar Marcos Moreira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Backgound and Objectives: dengue presents itself as a serious public health problem in Brazil and worldwide. Increased morbidity and mortality care managers, civil society and health professionals. To characterize the clinical and epidemiology of dengue in the city of Juscimeira - MT between the years 2009 to 2013. Methods: Retrospective quantitative-descriptive study was conducted from the secondary analysis of the Information System of Notifiable Diseases. Results: 391 cases were registered, with a predominance of males (51.4%, the largest number of cases in 2010 (28.14%, the classic dengue was the most prevalent type. The most affected age group was between 20-34 years. Regarding socioeconomic and geographic variables, the most affected were those living in urban areas and high school. The prevalent diagnostic method was the laboratory. The serotype of DENV-I was the most common in the city and 100% of the sample were autochthonous. Conclusion: Dengue is endemic in Juscimeira - MT. The data come from the epidemiological meeting of the current literature, reflecting the upward condition of this disease not only in the state of Mato Grosso and Brazil. It is recommended that further studies be carried forward to this subject, so that they can contribute to the process of monitoring of this disease in the city, working with the technical teams, health professionals and local managers in planning activities to be undertaken in the medium and long term to reduce the prevalence of this disease. KEYWORDS: Public Health. Epidemiological surveillance. Primary prevention.

  17. DIAGNOSIS OF EGG MARKETING CONDITION IN SINOP - MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ribeiro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The eggs, when manipulated in inadequate sanitary conditions, are considered as ways for development and multiplication of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the microbiological quality of eggs marketed out at Sinop – MT, through the identification of Salmonella spp., count of aerobic mesophile bacteria and enterobacteria. We collected 12 eggs from each establishment, three supermarkets and three fairs. Were not identified Salmonella spp. in egg shells and internal content. Escherichia coli was isolated from the internal contents of eggs come from an street fair. In aerobic mesophilic counts were obtained from eggs supermarkets counts CFU/g/egg shell of 5,8 x 105, 1,21 x 105 e 4,7 x 103. In relation to the fairs, the counts were 7,2 x 104, 5,66 x 104 e 8,7 x 103. The absence of Salmonella spp. the evaluated eggs classifies them as fit for consumption for compliance with current legislation. However, the presence of E. coli and the values of aerobic mesophilic counts and Enterobacteriaceae highlight the need to establish measures to reduce bacterial contamination of shell eggs sold out at Sinop, MT.

  18. Hypocentral Relocations of the 2008 Mt. Carmel, Illinois Aftershock Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, K.; Hamburger, M. W.; Pavlis, G. L.; Horton, S. P.; Withers, M. M.

    2009-12-01

    On April 18, 2008, a moderate sized earthquake (Mw 5.2, hypocentral depth of 16 km) occurred near the Indiana-Illinois state border within 3 km of the Mt. Carmel-New Harmony fault at the northern termination of the Wabash Valley Fault System. A total of 257 aftershocks were recorded over the next month by a fourteen-station temporary network deployed by Indiana University and University of Memphis/Center of Earthquake Research and Information (CERI). The number of recorded aftershocks is greater than aftershocks recorded from previous earthquakes in the WVFS of similar magnitude within the last 50 years. The number and density of local stations allowed the generation of precise hypocentral relocations with the combination of waveform cross-correlation and joint hypocentral techniques. The relocated hypocenters indicate a well-defined near-vertical fault plane striking east-west. The fault orientation is consistent with the focal mechanism of the main shock and nearly orthogonal with respect to the trace of the neighboring Mt. Carmel-New Harmony fault. The interpreted ruptured fault orientation suggests the aftershock sequence occurred on a transfer structure at the fault termination. The structure may be related to the change in deformation styles suggested by the transition from the northeast-trending WVFS to the northwest-trending La Salle anticlinorium.

  19. Impact of land use changes on hydrology of Mt. Kilimanjaro. The case of Lake Jipe catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngugi, Keziah; Ogindo, Harun; Ertsen, Maurits

    2015-04-01

    Mt. Kilimanjaro is an important water tower in Kenya and Tanzania. Land degradation and land use changes have contributed to dwindling surface water resources around Mt. Kilimanjaro. This study focuses on Lake Jipe catchment of about 451Km2 (Ndetei 2011) which is mainly drained by River Lumi, a tributary of river Pangani. River Lumi starts from Mt. Kilimanjaro and flows North east wards to cross the border from Tanzania to Kenya eventually flowing into Lake Jipe which is a trans-boundary lake. The main purpose of this study was to investigate historical land use changes and relate this to reduction in surface water resources. The study will propose measures that could restore the catchment thereby enhancing surface water resources feeding Lake Jipe. A survey was conducted to document community perspectives of historical land use changes. This information was corroborated using Landsat remote sensed images spanning the period 1985-2013 to determine changes in the land cover due to human activities on Lake Jipe Catchment. River Lumi flow data was obtained from Water Resources Management Authority and analyzed for flow trends. The dwindling extent of the Lake was obtained from the community's perspective survey and by Landsat images. Community survey and remote sensing indicated clearing of the forest on the mountain and conversion of the same to crop production fields; damming of river Lumi in Tanzania, conversion of bush land to crop production fields further downstream of river Lumi and irrigation. There is heavy infestation of the invasive species Prosopis juliflora which had aggressively colonized grazing land and blocked irrigation canals. Other land use changes include land fragmentation due to subdivision. Insecure land tenure was blamed for failure by farmers to develop soil and water conservation infrastructure. Available River gauging data showed a general decline in river flow. Heavy flooding occurred during rainy seasons. Towards Lake Jipe after the river

  20. Exercise Intolerance and Myoglobinuria Associated with a Novel Maternally Inherited MT-ND1 Mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafiq, Jabin; Duno, Morten; Østergaard, Elsebet

    2016-01-01

    The most common clinical phenotype caused by a mtDNA mutation in complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain is Leber hereditary optic neuropathy. We report a family with a novel maternally inherited homoplasmic mtDNA m.4087A>G mutation in the ND1 gene (MT-ND1) associated with isolated...... myopathy, recurrent episodes of myoglobinuria, and rhabdomyolysis. DNA from blood in seven family members and muscle from four family members were PCR amplified and sequenced directly and assessed for the m.4087A>G variation in MT-ND1. Mitochondrial enzyme activity in all muscle biopsies was measured. PCR...... myoglobinuria is a rare phenotype of mitochondrial myopathies. We report this phenotype in a family affected by a novel homoplasmic mutation in MT-ND1. It is the first time such a phenotype has been associated with complex I gene mutations and a homoplasmic mutation of mtDNA....

  1. Genetic dysfunction of MT-ATP6 causes axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pitceathly, Robert D S

    2012-09-11

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is the most common inherited neuromuscular disorder, affecting 1 in 2,500 individuals. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are not generally considered within the differential diagnosis of patients with uncomplicated inherited neuropathy, despite the essential requirement of ATP for axonal function. We identified the mtDNA mutation m.9185T>C in MT-ATP6, encoding the ATP6 subunit of the mitochondrial ATP synthase (OXPHOS complex V), at homoplasmic levels in a family with mitochondrial disease in whom a severe motor axonal neuropathy was a striking feature. This led us to hypothesize that mutations in the 2 mtDNA complex V subunit encoding genes, MT-ATP6 and MT-ATP8, might be an unrecognized cause of isolated axonal CMT and distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN).

  2. ER-mitochondria contacts couple mtDNA synthesis with mitochondrial division in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Samantha C; Uchiyama, Lauren F; Nunnari, Jodi

    2016-07-15

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes RNAs and proteins critical for cell function. In human cells, hundreds to thousands of mtDNA copies are replicated asynchronously, packaged into protein-DNA nucleoids, and distributed within a dynamic mitochondrial network. The mechanisms that govern how nucleoids are chosen for replication and distribution are not understood. Mitochondrial distribution depends on division, which occurs at endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondria contact sites. These sites were spatially linked to a subset of nucleoids selectively marked by mtDNA polymerase and engaged in mtDNA synthesis--events that occurred upstream of mitochondrial constriction and division machine assembly. Our data suggest that ER tubules proximal to nucleoids are necessary but not sufficient for mtDNA synthesis. Thus, ER-mitochondria contacts coordinate licensing of mtDNA synthesis with division to distribute newly replicated nucleoids to daughter mitochondria.

  3. Single-cell analysis of intercellular heteroplasmy of mtDNA in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Y.; Sharpe, H.; Brown, N.

    1994-07-01

    The authors have investigated the distribution of mutant mtDNA molecules in single cells from a patient with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). LHON is a maternally inherited disease that is characterized by a sudden-onset bilateral loss of central vision, which typically occurs in early adulthood. More than 50% of all LHON patients carry an mtDNA mutation at nucleotide position 11778. This nucleotide change converts a highly conserved arginine residue to histidine at codon 340 in the NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit 4 (ND4) gene of mtDNA. In the present study, the authors used PCR amplification of mtDNA from lymphocytes to investigate mtDNA heteroplasmy at the single-cell level in a LHON patient. They found that most cells were either homoplasmic normal or homoplasmic mutant at nucleotide position 11778. Some (16%) cells contained both mutant and normal mtDNA.

  4. mtDNA/nDNA ratio in 14484 LHON mitochondrial mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Tomoki; Soemantri, Augustinus; Ishida, Takafumi

    2004-01-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited disease caused by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. In this study, the mtDNA/nuclear DNA ratio was evaluated in 11 LHON patients with the 14484 mutation, 13 asymptomatic carriers and 18 non-carrier relatives as controls, to reveal possible relationships between the disease and mtDNA content. DNAs from peripheral blood lymphocytes were subjected to quantitative PCR. Gender differences and age-dependent changes in the mtDNA content were not observed. Significant increase in the mtDNA content was observed only in the asymptomatic carriers (PLHON development, whereas those whose levels had not, had developed LHON. Since the asymptomatic carriers are the stock of the future LHON patients, monitoring the mtDNA content in patients and their relatives may help to predict the prognosis of the disease.

  5. Regulation of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthesis by Medicago truncatula bHLH transcription factor MtTT8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Penghui; Chen, Beibei; Zhang, Gaoyang; Chen, Longxiang; Dong, Qiang; Wen, Jiangqi; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Zhao, Jian

    2016-05-01

    The MYB- basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-WD40 complexes regulating anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin (PA) biosynthesis in plants are not fully understood. Here Medicago truncatula bHLH MtTT8 was characterized as a central component of these ternary complexes that control anthocyanin and PA biosynthesis. Mttt8 mutant seeds have a transparent testa phenotype with reduced PAs and anthocyanins. MtTT8 restores PA and anthocyanin productions in Arabidopsis tt8 mutant. Ectopic expression of MtTT8 restores anthocyanins and PAs in mttt8 plant and hairy roots and further enhances both productions in wild-type hairy roots. Transcriptomic analyses and metabolite profiling of mttt8 mutant seeds and M. truncatula hairy roots (mttt8 mutant, mttt8 mutant complemented with MtTT8, or MtTT8 overexpression lines) indicate that MtTT8 regulates a subset of genes involved in PA and anthocyanin biosynthesis. MtTT8 is genetically regulated by MtLAP1, MtPAR and MtWD40-1. Combinations of MtPAR, MtLAP1, MtTT8 and MtWD40-1 activate MtTT8 promoter in yeast assay. MtTT8 interacts with these transcription factors to form regulatory complexes. MtTT8, MtWD40-1 and an MYB factor, MtPAR or MtLAP1, interacted and activated promoters of anthocyanidin reductase and anthocyanidin synthase to regulate PA and anthocyanin biosynthesis, respectively. Our results provide new insights into the complex regulation of PA and anthocyanin biosynthesis in M. truncatula.

  6. Characterization of pancreatic lesions from MT-tgf alpha, Ela-myc and MT-tgf alpha/Ela-myc single and double transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Dezhong Joshua; Wang, Yong; Wu, Jiusheng; Adsay, Nazmi Volkan; Grignon, David; Khanani, Fayyaz; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2006-07-05

    In order to identify good animal models for investigating therapeutic and preventive strategies for pancreatic cancer, we analyzed pancreatic lesions from several transgenic models and made a series of novel findings. Female MT-tgf alpha mice of the MT100 line developed pancreatic proliferation, acinar-ductal metaplasia, multilocular cystic neoplasms, ductal adenocarcinomas and prominent fibrosis, while the lesions in males were less severe. MT-tgf alpha-ES transgenic lines of both sexes developed slowly progressing lesions that were similar to what was seen in MT100 males. In both MT100 and MT-tgf alpha-ES lines, TGF alpha transgene was expressed mainly in proliferating ductal cells. Ela-myc transgenic mice with a mixed C57BL/6, SJL and FVB genetic background developed pancreatic tumors at 2-7 months of age, and half of the tumors were ductal adenocarcinomas, similar to what was reported originally by Sandgren et al 1. However, in 20% of the mice, the tumors metastasized to the liver. MT100/Ela-myc and MT-tgf alpha-ES/Ela-myc double transgenic mice developed not only acinar carcinomas and mixed carcinomas as previously reported but also various ductal-originated lesions, including multilocular cystic neoplasms and ductal adenocarcinomas. The double transgenic tumors were more malignant and metastasized to the liver at a higher frequency (33%) compared with the Ela-myc tumors. Sequencing of the coding region of p16ink4, k-ras and Rb cDNA in small numbers of pancreatic tumors did not identify mutations. The short latency for tumor development, the variety of tumor morphology and the liver metastases seen in Ela-myc and MT-tgf alpha/Ela-myc mice make these animals good models for investigating new therapeutic and preventive strategies for pancreatic cancer.

  7. Melatonin acts through MT1/MT2 receptors to activate hypothalamic Akt and suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Juliana A; Kinote, Andrezza; Ignacio-Souza, Letícia M; de Araújo, Thiago M; Razolli, Daniela S; Doneda, Diego L; Paschoal, Lívia B; Lellis-Santos, Camilo; Bertolini, Gisele L; Velloso, Lício A; Bordin, Silvana; Anhê, Gabriel F

    2013-07-15

    Melatonin can contribute to glucose homeostasis either by decreasing gluconeogenesis or by counteracting insulin resistance in distinct models of obesity. However, the precise mechanism through which melatonin controls glucose homeostasis is not completely understood. Male Wistar rats were administered an intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of melatonin and one of following: an icv injection of a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, an icv injection of a melatonin receptor (MT) antagonist, or an intraperitoneal (ip) injection of a muscarinic receptor antagonist. Anesthetized rats were subjected to pyruvate tolerance test to estimate in vivo glucose clearance after pyruvate load and in situ liver perfusion to assess hepatic gluconeogenesis. The hypothalamus was removed to determine Akt phosphorylation. Melatonin injections in the central nervous system suppressed hepatic gluconeogenesis and increased hypothalamic Akt phosphorylation. These effects of melatonin were suppressed either by icv injections of PI3K inhibitors and MT antagonists and by ip injection of a muscarinic receptor antagonist. We conclude that melatonin activates hypothalamus-liver communication that may contribute to circadian adjustments of gluconeogenesis. These data further suggest a physiopathological relationship between the circadian disruptions in metabolism and reduced levels of melatonin found in type 2 diabetes patients.

  8. Metabolic rescue in pluripotent cells from patients with mtDNA disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hong; Folmes, Clifford D L; Wu, Jun; Morey, Robert; Mora-Castilla, Sergio; Ocampo, Alejandro; Ma, Li; Poulton, Joanna; Wang, Xinjian; Ahmed, Riffat; Kang, Eunju; Lee, Yeonmi; Hayama, Tomonari; Li, Ying; Van Dyken, Crystal; Gutierrez, Nuria Marti; Tippner-Hedges, Rebecca; Koski, Amy; Mitalipov, Nargiz; Amato, Paula; Wolf, Don P; Huang, Taosheng; Terzic, Andre; Laurent, Louise C; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2015-08-13

    Mitochondria have a major role in energy production via oxidative phosphorylation, which is dependent on the expression of critical genes encoded by mitochondrial (mt)DNA. Mutations in mtDNA can cause fatal or severely debilitating disorders with limited treatment options. Clinical manifestations vary based on mutation type and heteroplasmy (that is, the relative levels of mutant and wild-type mtDNA within each cell). Here we generated genetically corrected pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) from patients with mtDNA disease. Multiple induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell lines were derived from patients with common heteroplasmic mutations including 3243A>G, causing mitochondrial encephalomyopathy and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), and 8993T>G and 13513G>A, implicated in Leigh syndrome. Isogenic MELAS and Leigh syndrome iPS cell lines were generated containing exclusively wild-type or mutant mtDNA through spontaneous segregation of heteroplasmic mtDNA in proliferating fibroblasts. Furthermore, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) enabled replacement of mutant mtDNA from homoplasmic 8993T>G fibroblasts to generate corrected Leigh-NT1 PSCs. Although Leigh-NT1 PSCs contained donor oocyte wild-type mtDNA (human haplotype D4a) that differed from Leigh syndrome patient haplotype (F1a) at a total of 47 nucleotide sites, Leigh-NT1 cells displayed transcriptomic profiles similar to those in embryo-derived PSCs carrying wild-type mtDNA, indicative of normal nuclear-to-mitochondrial interactions. Moreover, genetically rescued patient PSCs displayed normal metabolic function compared to impaired oxygen consumption and ATP production observed in mutant cells. We conclude that both reprogramming approaches offer complementary strategies for derivation of PSCs containing exclusively wild-type mtDNA, through spontaneous segregation of heteroplasmic mtDNA in individual iPS cell lines or mitochondrial replacement by SCNT in homoplasmic mtDNA-based disease.

  9. Investigation of yeast genes possibly involved in mtDNA stability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phelim Isichei

    function and structure on mtDNA stability in yeast, our results did not support those ... most studied model organism for acquisition of basic ... RNA interference of genes involved in mtDNA replication ... polymerase, results in reduced mtDNA copy number but .... found that RNAi of 4 genes (M01E5.2, T27F6.5, T26A5.6.

  10. Nuclear-like Seq in mt Genome - RMG | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us RMG Nuclear...-like Seq in mt Genome Data detail Data name Nuclear-like Seq in mt Genome Description of data co...t This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Nuclear-like Seq in mt Genome - RMG | LSDB Archive ...

  11. Oxygen isotope geochemistry of mafic magmas at Mt. Vesuvius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallai, Luigi; Raffaello, Cioni; Chiara, Boschi; Claudia, D'oriano

    2010-05-01

    Pumice and scoria from different eruptive layers of Mt. Vesuvius volcanic products contain mafic minerals consisting of High-Fo olivine and Diopsidic Pyroxene. These phases were crystallized in unerupted trachibasaltic to tephritic magmas, and were brought to surface by large phonolitic/tephri-phonolitic (e.g. Avellino and Pompei) and/or of tephritic and phono-tephritic (Pollena) eruptions. A large set of these mm-sized crystals was accurately separated from selected juvenile material and measured for their chemical compositions (EPMA, Laser Ablation ICP-MS) and 18O/16O ratios (conventional laser fluorination) to constrain the nature and evolution of the primary magmas at Mt. Vesuvius. Uncontaminated mantle δ18O values are hardly recovered in Italian Quaternary magmas, mostly due to the widespread occurrence of crustal contamination of the primary melts during their ascent to the surface (e.g. Alban Hills, Ernici Mts., and Aeolian Islands). At Mt. Vesuvius, measured olivine and clinopyroxene share quite homogeneous chemical compositions (Olivine Fo 85-90 ; Diopside En 45-48, respectively), and represent phases crystallized in near primary mafic magmas. Trace element composition constrains the near primary nature of the phases. Published data on volatile content of melt inclusions hosted in these crystals reveal the coexistence of dissolved water and carbon dioxide, and a minimum trapping pressure around 200-300 MPa, suggesting that crystal growth occurred in a reservoir at about 8-10 km depth. Recently, experimental data have suggested massive carbonate assimilation (up to about 20%) to derive potassic alkali magmas from trachybasaltic melts. Accordingly, the δ18O variability and the trace element content of the studied minerals suggest possible contamination of primary melts by an O-isotope enriched, REE-poor contaminant like the limestone of Vesuvius basement. Low, nearly primitive δ18O values are observed for olivine from Pompeii eruption, although still

  12. Decreased Circulating mtDNA Levels in Professional Male Volleyball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasi, Milena; Cristani, Alessandro; Pinti, Marcello; Lamberti, Igor; Gibellini, Lara; De Biasi, Sara; Guazzaloca, Alessandro; Trenti, Tommaso; Cossarizza, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Exercise exerts various effects on the immune system, and evidence is emerging on its anti-inflammatory effects; the mechanisms on the basis of these modifications are poorly understood. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) released from damaged cells acts as a molecule containing the so-called damage-associated molecular patterns and can trigger sterile inflammation. Indeed, high plasma levels of mtDNA are associated to several inflammatory conditions and physiological aging and longevity. The authors evaluated plasma mtDNA in professional male volleyball players during seasonal training and the possible correlation between mtDNA levels and clinical parameters, body composition, and physical performance. Plasma mtDNA was quantified by real-time PCR every 2 mo in 12 professional volleyball players (PVPs) during 2 consecutive seasons. As comparison, 20 healthy nonathlete male volunteers (NAs) were analyzed. The authors found lower levels of mtDNA in plasma of PVPs than in NAs. However, PVPs showed a decrease of circulating mtDNA only in the first season, while no appreciable variations were observed during the second season. No correlation was observed among mtDNA, hematochemical, and anthropometric parameters. Regular physical activity appeared associated with lower levels of circulating mtDNA, further confirming the protective, anti-inflammatory effect of exercise.

  13. No recombination of mtDNA after heteroplasmy for 50 generations in the mouse maternal germline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagström, Erik; Freyer, Christoph; Battersby, Brendan J.; Stewart, James B.; Larsson, Nils-Göran

    2014-01-01

    Variants of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are commonly used as markers to track human evolution because of the high sequence divergence and exclusive maternal inheritance. It is assumed that the inheritance is clonal, i.e. that mtDNA is transmitted between generations without germline recombination. In contrast to this assumption, a number of studies have reported the presence of recombinant mtDNA molecules in cell lines and animal tissues, including humans. If germline recombination of mtDNA is frequent, it would strongly impact phylogenetic and population studies by altering estimates of coalescent time and branch lengths in phylogenetic trees. Unfortunately, this whole area is controversial and the experimental approaches have been widely criticized as they often depend on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of mtDNA and/or involve studies of transformed cell lines. In this study, we used an in vivo mouse model that has had germline heteroplasmy for a defined set of mtDNA mutations for more than 50 generations. To assess recombination, we adapted and validated a method based on cloning of single mtDNA molecules in the λ phage, without prior PCR amplification, followed by subsequent mutation analysis. We screened 2922 mtDNA molecules and found no germline recombination after transmission of mtDNA under genetically and evolutionary relevant conditions in mammals. PMID:24163253

  14. Tomato EF-Ts(mt), a functional mitochondrial translation elongation factor from higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benichou, Mohamed; Li, Zhengguo; Tournier, Barthélémy; Chaves, Ana; Zegzouti, Hicham; Jauneau, Alain; Delalande, Corinne; Latché, Alain; Bouzayen, Mondher; Spremulli, Linda L; Pech, Jean-Claude

    2003-10-01

    Ethylene-induced ripening in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) resulted in the accumulation of a transcript designated LeEF-Ts(mt) that encodes a protein with significant homology to bacterial Ts translational elongation factor (EF-Ts). Transient expression in tobacco and sunflower protoplasts of full-length and truncated LeEF-Ts(mt)-GFP fusion constructs and confocal microscopy observations clearly demonstrated the targeting of LeEF-Ts(mt) to mitochondria and not to chloroplasts and the requirement for a signal peptide for the proper sorting of the protein. Escherichia coli recombinant LeEF-Ts(mt) co-eluted from Ni-NTA resins with a protein corresponding to the molecular weight of the elongation factor EF-Tu of E. coli, indicating an interaction with bacterial EF-Tu. Increasing the GDP concentration in the extraction buffer reduced the amount of EF-Tu in the purified LeEF-Ts(mt) fraction. The purified LeEF-Ts(mt) stimulated the poly(U)-directed polymerization of phenylalanine 10-fold in the presence of EF-Tu. Furthermore, LeEF-Ts(mt) was capable of catalysing the nucleotide exchange reaction with E. coli EF-Tu. Altogether, these data demonstrate that LeEF-Ts(mt) encodes a functional mitochondrial EF-Ts. LeEF-Ts(mt) represents the first mitochondrial elongation factor to be isolated and functionally characterized in higher plants.

  15. REM sleep deprivation promotes a dopaminergic influence in the striatal MT2 anxiolytic-like effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noseda, Ana Carolina D.; Targa, Adriano D.S.; Rodrigues, Lais S.; Aurich, Mariana F.; Lima, Marcelo M.S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible anxiolytic-like effects of striatal MT2 activation, and its counteraction induced by the selective blockade of this receptor. Furthermore, we analyzed this condition under the paradigm of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation (REMSD) and the animal model of Parkinson’s disease (PD) induced by rotenone. Male Wistar rats were infused with intranigral rotenone (12 μg/μL), and 7 days later were subjected to 24 h of REMSD. Afterwards the rats underwent striatal micro-infusions of selective melatonin MT2 receptor agonist, 8-M-PDOT (10 μg/μL) or selective melatonin MT2 receptor antagonist, 4-P-PDOT (5 μg/μL) or vehicle. Subsequently, the animals were tested in the open-field (OP) and elevated plus maze (EPM) tests. Results indicated that the activation of MT2 receptors produced anxiolytic-like effects. In opposite, the MT2 blockade did not show an anxiogenic-like effect. Besides, REMSD induced anxiolytic-like effects similar to 8-M-PDOT. MT2 activation generated a prevalent locomotor increase compared to MT2 blockade in the context of REMSD. Together, these results suggest a striatal MT2 modulation associated to the REMSD-induced dopaminergic supersensitivity causing a possible dopaminergic influence in the MT2 anxiolytic-like effects in the intranigral rotenone model of PD. PMID:27226821

  16. Decoding of visual attention from LFP signals of macaque MT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esghaei, Moein; Daliri, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    The local field potential (LFP) has recently been widely used in brain computer interfaces (BCI). Here we used power of LFP recorded from area MT of a macaque monkey to decode where the animal covertly attended. Support vector machines (SVM) were used to learn the pattern of power at different frequencies for attention to two possible positions. We found that LFP power at both low (<9 Hz) and high (31-120 Hz) frequencies contains sufficient information to decode the focus of attention. Highest decoding performance was found for gamma frequencies (31-120 Hz) and reached 82%. In contrast low frequencies (<9 Hz) could help the classifier reach a higher decoding performance with a smaller amount of training data. Consequently, we suggest that low frequency LFP can provide fast but coarse information regarding the focus of attention, while higher frequencies of the LFP deliver more accurate but less timely information about the focus of attention.

  17. Decoding of visual attention from LFP signals of macaque MT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moein Esghaei

    Full Text Available The local field potential (LFP has recently been widely used in brain computer interfaces (BCI. Here we used power of LFP recorded from area MT of a macaque monkey to decode where the animal covertly attended. Support vector machines (SVM were used to learn the pattern of power at different frequencies for attention to two possible positions. We found that LFP power at both low (<9 Hz and high (31-120 Hz frequencies contains sufficient information to decode the focus of attention. Highest decoding performance was found for gamma frequencies (31-120 Hz and reached 82%. In contrast low frequencies (<9 Hz could help the classifier reach a higher decoding performance with a smaller amount of training data. Consequently, we suggest that low frequency LFP can provide fast but coarse information regarding the focus of attention, while higher frequencies of the LFP deliver more accurate but less timely information about the focus of attention.

  18. A Survey of the Former Champion International Lands in Essex County, VT for Rare, Threatened, and Endangered Reptiles and Amphibians

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this effort was. to perform a herpetological survey of two portions (Conte NWR & West Mt. WMA) of the former lands of Champion International Inc.,...

  19. Ethnobotany of the Samburu of Mt. Nyiru, South Turkana, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussmann Rainer W

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional plant use is of extremely high importance in many societies, and prevalent in African communities. This knowledge is however dwindling rapidly due to changes towards a more Western lifestyle. The influence of modern tourism cannot be neglected in this context. This paper examines the plant use of the Samburu of the Mt. Nyiru area in Northern Kenya. The Samburu pastoralists of Kenya are still amongst the most traditional communities of the country and have retained most of their knowledge about the use of a large part of the plants in their environment for a wide variety of purposes. The results indicate that the local population has a very high knowledge of the plants in their surroundings, and attributes a purpose to a large percentage of the plants found. 448 plant species were collected, identified and their Samburu names and traditional uses recorded. 199 species were reported as of "no use". The high proportion of 249 plant species however had some traditional use: The highest number (180 species was used as fodder, followed by 80 species that had medicinal use. Firewood (59 species, construction (42 species, tools (31 species, food (29 species and ceremonial use (19 species ranked far behind. Traditionally the Samburu attribute most illnesses to the effect of pollutants that block or inhibit digestion. This can include "polluted" food, contagion through sick people as well as witchcraft. In most cases the treatment of illness involves herbal purgatives to cleanse the patient. There are however frequent indications of plant use for common problems like wounds, parasites, body aches and burns. The change from a nomadic to a more sedentary lifestyle, often observed in other areas of the country, has affected the Samburu of remote Mt. Nyiru to a much lesser extent and did so far not lead to a major loss of traditional plant knowledge. However, overgrazing and over-exploitation of plant resources have already led to a

  20. QUALITY CONTROL OF HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE TABLETS MARKETED IN SINOP-MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Órfão

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The thiazide diuretics are of the classes of drugs most frequently used for the treatment of hypertension. Hydrochlorothiazide is the representative of this class and is found in tablet form in doses of 25 and 50 mg. It is marketed in three different categories of drugs: reference, similar and generic. According to the regulator in Brazil, the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA, before pharmaceuticals are released for use, the pharmaceutical industry must meet product quality specifications, but the consumption of counterfeit drugs, contraband or without registration with government laws It is growing in Brazil, which affect the entire drug production chain affecting the health of those who use these medicines. In view of the reported problems about the quality of marketed drugs and being the state of Mato Grosso considered a fake gateway drug, due to its proximity to Bolivia, this study aimed to assess the quality of tablets containing hydrochlorothiazide is already one of the most widely used drugs in the treatment of hypertension in Sinop-MT municipality according local search. Samples from five laboratories that produce hydrochlorothiazide tablets at a dose of 25 mg, and the most market in the municipality of Sinop / MT were analyzed as stablished in the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia. It was found that four of the five samples of drugs in Mato Grosso, performed all the requirements for approval in quality testing, with the exception of a product that has lower hardness values than recommended, which can lead to problems drug presentation as well as directly affect the absorption, bioavailability and action of the therapeutic drug. It was concluded that medicinal products containing hydrochlorothiazide showed adequate quality, ensuring their effectiveness.

  1. Remote Observing with Robotic Telescopes on Mt. Hopkins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, G. W.

    1994-12-01

    Tennessee State University conducts remote, automatic observing with four robotic telescopes located at the Fairborn Observatory site on Mt. Hopkins, 30 miles south of Tucson. These telescopes run completely unattended; a site control computer monitors the time of day and weather conditions, opens the roof at the beginning of the night, informs each telescope's control computer when observations can begin, and shuts down the site when morning twilight or bad weather intervenes. The Automatic Telescope Instruction Set (ATIS) allows us to program the telescopes and to retrieve data via ASCII file transfers over the Internet. ATIS also includes a set of target selection rules that allow the telescopes to operate autonomously for many weeks or months without our intervention. Over the past several years, Tennessee State University has collaborated with Fairborn to develop precision photometers, software, observing techniques and quality control procedures that have culminated in the automatic acquisition and reduction of high volumes of data with millimagnitude precision. The telescopes are being used for a variety long-term monitoring programs that would be difficult or impossible (and prohibitively expensive) to conduct by traditional manual methods. A 10-inch telescope is dedicated to observations of semi-regular variable stars to uncover their multiple periods. A 16-inch telescope is dedicated to long-term observations of chromospherically active (single and binary) stars to search for activity cycles. Solar-type stars are being monitored by 30-inch and 32-inch telescopes to measure the subtle luminosity variations of these stars associated with their long-term magnetic variations as measured by the HK Project at Mt. Wilson Observatory. An additional project in collaboration with the NASA Ames Research Center seeks to apply artificial intelligence techniques to improve the scheduling of the observations on these telescopes and to develop a software package to

  2. Optimized mtDNA Control Region Primer Extension Capture Analysis for Forensically Relevant Samples and Highly Compromised mtDNA of Different Age and Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Eduardoff

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA has proven useful in forensic genetics and ancient DNA (aDNA studies, where specimens are often highly compromised and DNA quality and quantity are low. In forensic genetics, the mtDNA control region (CR is commonly sequenced using established Sanger-type Sequencing (STS protocols involving fragment sizes down to approximately 150 base pairs (bp. Recent developments include Massively Parallel Sequencing (MPS of (multiplex PCR-generated libraries using the same amplicon sizes. Molecular genetic studies on archaeological remains that harbor more degraded aDNA have pioneered alternative approaches to target mtDNA, such as capture hybridization and primer extension capture (PEC methods followed by MPS. These assays target smaller mtDNA fragment sizes (down to 50 bp or less, and have proven to be substantially more successful in obtaining useful mtDNA sequences from these samples compared to electrophoretic methods. Here, we present the modification and optimization of a PEC method, earlier developed for sequencing the Neanderthal mitochondrial genome, with forensic applications in mind. Our approach was designed for a more sensitive enrichment of the mtDNA CR in a single tube assay and short laboratory turnaround times, thus complying with forensic practices. We characterized the method using sheared, high quantity mtDNA (six samples, and tested challenging forensic samples (n = 2 as well as compromised solid tissue samples (n = 15 up to 8 kyrs of age. The PEC MPS method produced reliable and plausible mtDNA haplotypes that were useful in the forensic context. It yielded plausible data in samples that did not provide results with STS and other MPS techniques. We addressed the issue of contamination by including four generations of negative controls, and discuss the results in the forensic context. We finally offer perspectives for future research to enable the validation and accreditation of the PEC MPS

  3. Folate deficiency increases mtDNA and D-1 mtDNA deletion in aged brain of mice lacking uracil-DNA glycosylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Golo; Gertz, Karen; Overall, Rupert W; Harms, Christoph; Klein, Jeanette; Page, Melissa M; Stuart, Jeffrey A; Endres, Matthias

    2011-04-01

    Strong epidemiological and experimental evidence links folate deficiency and resultant hyperhomocysteinemia with cognitive decline and neurodegeneration. Here, we tested the hypothesis that uracil misincorporation contributes to mitochondrial pathology in aged brain following folate deprivation. In a 2 × 2 design, 14-month-old mice lacking uracil DNA glycosylase (Ung-/-) versus wild-type controls were subjected to a folate-deficient versus a regular diet for six weeks. Folate-deficient feeding significantly enhanced mtDNA content and overall abundance of the D-1 mtDNA deletion in brain of Ung-/-, but not of wild-type mice. Independent of folate status, the frequency of the D-1 mtDNA deletion in mtDNA was significantly increased in Ung-/- mice. The rate of mitochondrial biogenesis as assessed at six weeks of the experimental diet by mRNA expression levels of transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator (PGC)-1α and of mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) was not affected by either Ung-/- genotype or short-term folate deficiency. Similarly, citrate synthase (CS) activity in the brain did not differ across experimental groups. By contrast, independent of genotype, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was significantly reduced in folate-deficient animals. Our results suggest that impaired uracil excision repair causes an increase in mitochondrial mutagenesis in aged brain along with a compensatory increase in mtDNA content in response to low folate status. Folate deficiency may contribute to neurodegeneration via mtDNA damage.

  4. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) biogenesis: visualization and duel incorporation of BrdU and EdU into newly synthesized mtDNA in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Stephen I; Edwards, James L; Backus, Carey; McLean, Lisa L; Haines, Kristine M; Feldman, Eva L

    2010-02-01

    Mitochondria are key regulators of cellular energy and are the focus of a large number of studies examining the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics and biogenesis in healthy and diseased conditions. One approach to monitoring mitochondrial biogenesis is to measure the rate of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication. We developed a sensitive technique to visualize newly synthesized mtDNA in individual cells to study mtDNA replication within subcellular compartments of neurons. The technique combines the incorporation of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and/or 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) into mtDNA, together with a tyramide signal amplification protocol. Employing this technique, we visualized and measured mtDNA biogenesis in individual cells. The labeling procedure for EdU allows for more comprehensive results by allowing the comparison of its incorporation with other intracellular markers, because it does not require the harsh acid or enzyme digests necessary to recover the BrdU epitope. In addition, the utilization of both BrdU and EdU permits sequential pulse-chase experiments to follow the intracellular localization of mtDNA replication. The ability to quantify mitochondrial biogenesis provides an essential tool for investigating the alterations in mitochondrial dynamics involved in the pathogenesis of multiple cellular disorders, including neuropathies and neurodegenerative diseases.

  5. Three-dimensional Probabilistic Earthquake Location Applied to 2002-2003 Mt. Etna Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostaccio, A.; Tuve', T.; Zuccarello, L.; Patane', D.; Saccorotti, G.; D'Agostino, M.

    2005-12-01

    Recorded seismicity for the Mt. Etna volcano, occurred during the 2002-2003 eruption, has been relocated using a probabilistic, non-linear, earthquake location approach. We used the software package NonLinLoc (Lomax et al., 2000) adopting the 3D velocity model obtained by Cocina et al., 2005. We applied our data through different algorithms: (1) via a grid-search; (2) via a Metropolis-Gibbs; and (3) via an Oct-tree. The Oct-Tree algorithm gives efficient, faster and accurate mapping of the PDF (Probability Density Function) of the earthquake location problem. More than 300 seismic events were analyzed in order to compare non-linear location results with the ones obtained by using traditional, linearized earthquake location algorithm such as Hypoellipse, and a 3D linearized inversion (Thurber, 1983). Moreover, we compare 38 focal mechanisms, chosen following stricta criteria selection, with the ones obtained by the 3D and 1D results. Although the presented approach is more of a traditional relocation application, probabilistic earthquake location could be used in routinely survey.

  6. Using hydrogeomorphic criteria to classify wetlands on Mt. Desert Island, Maine - approach, classification system, and examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Martha G.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Neckles, Hilary A.

    2005-01-01

    A wetland classification system was designed for Mt. Desert Island, Maine, to help categorize the large number of wetlands (over 1,200 mapped units) as an aid to understanding their hydrologic functions. The classification system, developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Park Service, uses a modified hydrogeomorphic (HGM) approach, and assigns categories based on position in the landscape, soils and surficial geologic setting, and source of water. A dichotomous key was developed to determine a preliminary HGM classification of wetlands on the island. This key is designed for use with USGS topographic maps and 1:24,000 geographic information system (GIS) coverages as an aid to the classification, but may also be used with field data. Hydrologic data collected from a wetland monitoring study were used to determine whether the preliminary classification of individual wetlands using the HGM approach yielded classes that were consistent with actual hydroperiod data. Preliminary HGM classifications of the 20 wetlands in the monitoring study were consistent with the field hydroperiod data. The modified HGM classification approach appears robust, although the method apparently works somewhat better with undisturbed wetlands than with disturbed wetlands. This wetland classification system could be applied to other hydrogeologically similar areas of northern New England.

  7. DESCRIPTIVE STUDY ON AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR IN DOGS FROM SORRISO AND SINOP/MT, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Baréa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to establish and qualify the types of aggressiveness in dogs from Sinop and Sorriso/MT, Brazil, in order to draw a profile of the main breeds raised in these cities. For this purpose, an investigative survey was conducted through interviewing the owners of the animals, to characterize the aggressive behavior of their pets. Five breeds were evaluated (Pit Bull, Doberman, Poodle, Rottweiler and Duchshund, plus one group of mongrel dogs. The concept that the Pitbull is an aggressive dog was put to the test, and breeds like the Poodle and Duchshund showe the highest percentages for almost all forms of aggression assessed. The Rottweiler stood out in the characteristic of aggression toward the owner or family members, and also territorial aggression. The Pitbull had a significant result for aggression toward other animals in the same house. The Poodle and Doberman pinscher breeds, along with Duchshund, proved that are more aggressive that Pitbull and Rottweiler, despite of being small breeds. We could conclude that the behavior study of the breeds, in what concerns to aggressiveness, is of paramount importance to set a breed that best suits the owner’s conditions.

  8. Rampant nuclear insertion of mtDNA across diverse lineages within Orthoptera (Insecta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojun Song

    Full Text Available Nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes (numts are non-functional fragments of mtDNA inserted into the nuclear genome. Numts are prevalent across eukaryotes and a positive correlation is known to exist between the number of numts and the genome size. Most numt surveys have relied on model organisms with fully sequenced nuclear genomes, but such analyses have limited utilities for making a generalization about the patterns of numt accumulation for any given clade. Among insects, the order Orthoptera is known to have the largest nuclear genome and it is also reported to include several species with a large number of numts. In this study, we use Orthoptera as a case study to document the diversity and abundance of numts by generating numts of three mitochondrial loci across 28 orthopteran families, representing the phylogenetic diversity of the order. We discover that numts are rampant in all lineages, but there is no discernable and consistent pattern of numt accumulation among different lineages. Likewise, we do not find any evidence that a certain mitochondrial gene is more prone to nuclear insertion than others. We also find that numt insertion must have occurred continuously and frequently throughout the diversification of Orthoptera. Although most numts are the result of recent nuclear insertion, we find evidence of very ancient numt insertion shared by highly divergent families dating back to the Jurassic period. Finally, we discuss several factors contributing to the extreme prevalence of numts in Orthoptera and highlight the importance of exploring the utility of numts in evolutionary studies.

  9. Pathogenic mitochondrial mt-tRNA(Ala) variants are uniquely associated with isolated myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Diana; Schubert, Kathrin; Joshi, Pushpa R; Hardy, Steven A; Tuppen, Helen A L; Baty, Karen; Blakely, Emma L; Bamberg, Christian; Zierz, Stephan; Deschauer, Marcus; Taylor, Robert W

    2015-12-01

    Pathogenic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations are associated with a wide range of clinical phenotypes, often involving multiple organ systems. We report two patients with isolated myopathy owing to novel mt-tRNA(Ala) variants. Muscle biopsy revealed extensive histopathological findings including cytochrome c oxidase (COX)-deficient fibres. Pyrosequencing confirmed mtDNA heteroplasmy for both mutations (m.5631G>A and m.5610G>A) whilst single-muscle fibre segregation studies (revealing statistically significant higher mutation loads in COX-deficient fibres than in COX-positive fibres), hierarchical mutation segregation within patient tissues and decreased steady-state mt-tRNA(Ala) levels all provide compelling evidence of pathogenicity. Interestingly, both patients showed very high-mutation levels in all tissues, inferring that the threshold for impairment of oxidative phosphorylation, as evidenced by COX deficiency, appears to be extremely high for these mt-tRNA(Ala) variants. Previously described mt-tRNA(Ala) mutations are also associated with a pure myopathic phenotype and demonstrate very high mtDNA heteroplasmy thresholds, inferring at least some genotype:phenotype correlation for mutations within this particular mt-tRNA gene.

  10. Fungi of Mt. Babia Gora. 2: Indicative value of macromycetes in forest associations. A: Initial considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujakiewicz, A.

    1984-01-01

    The role and value of fungi in forest associations of Mt. Babia Gora massif were determined. The general physiographic characteristics of the research terrain, the distribution of the fungi sites, a list of the 618 taxons noted in the subalpine forests of Mt. Babia Gora, and the initial characteristics of the forest mycoflora of this massif are presented.

  11. Palmitoylation at Cys574 is essential for MT1-MMP to promote cell migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anilkumar, Narayanapanicker; Uekita, Takamasa; Couchman, John R

    2005-01-01

    of the palmitoylated cysteine relative to LLY573, a motif that interacts with mu2 subunit of adaptor protein 2, is critical for the cell motility-promoting activity of MT1-MMP and its clathrin-mediated internalization. Taken together, palmitoylation of MT1-MMP is one of the key posttranslational modifications...

  12. To study the relationship between cadmium, zinc and mtDNA copy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. Abhishek

    2016-11-18

    Nov 18, 2016 ... Variation of metals and mtDNA in Prostate cancer. 127 distribution of ... hypothesize that Cd and Zn influence distribution pattern of mtDNA ..... of dioxins and heavy metals in cancer and neurological diseases using ROS-mediated ... biomolecules, modulation of DNA repair and genotoxic consequences.

  13. MT BB: Tomato cultivar for practical classes of plant genetics and breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Angelo Piotto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available MT BB cultivar originated from a backcross program which aimed at adding two recessive mutations that alter leaf architecture(potato leaf – c and flower color (white flower – wf to Micro-Tom cultivar, which is a tomato miniature. MT BB was developedfor use in practical classes of genetics and breeding in both undergraduate and graduate courses.

  14. 76 FR 3569 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Yellowstone, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Yellowstone...). SUMMARY: This action proposes to modify Class E airspace at Yellowstone Airport, West Yellowstone, MT, to... procedures at Yellowstone Airport, West Yellowstone, MT. The FAA is proposing this action to enhance...

  15. 75 FR 30295 - Modification of Class E Airspace; West Yellowstone, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Modification of Class E Airspace; West Yellowstone, MT... Class E airspace at West Yellowstone, MT, to accommodate aircraft using a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) Standard Instrument Approach Procedure (SIAP) at West Yellowstone...

  16. 76 FR 18040 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Yellowstone, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Yellowstone, MT AGENCY... airspace at Yellowstone Airport, West Yellowstone, MT, to accommodate aircraft using Instrument Landing System (ILS) Localizer (LOC) standard instrument approach procedures at Yellowstone Airport. This...

  17. Biomarker Validation for Aging: Lessons from mtDNA Heteroplasmy Analyses in Early Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter E. Barker

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The anticipated biological and clinical utility of biomarkers has attracted significant interest recently. Aging and early cancer detection represent areas active in the search for predictive and prognostic biomarkers. While applications differ, overlapping biological features, analytical technologies and specific biomarker analytes bear comparison. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA as a biomarker in both biological models has been evaluated. However, it remains unclear whether mtDNA changes in aging and cancer represent biological relationships that are causal, incidental, or a combination of both. This article focuses on evaluation of mtDNA-based biomarkers, emerging strategies for quantitating mtDNA admixtures, and how current understanding of mtDNA in aging and cancer evolves with introduction of new technologies. Whether for cancer or aging, lessons from mtDNA based biomarker evaluations are several. Biological systems are inherently dynamic and heterogeneous. Detection limits for mtDNA sequencing technologies differ among methods for low-level DNA sequence admixtures in healthy and diseased states. Performance metrics of analytical mtDNA technology should be validated prior to application in heterogeneous biologically-based systems. Critical in evaluating biomarker performance is the ability to distinguish measurement system variance from inherent biological variance, because it is within the latter that background healthy variability as well as high-value, disease-specific information reside.

  18. Homogeneous genetic structure and variation in tree architecture of Larix kaempferi along altitudinal gradients on Mt. Fuji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Masao; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2011-03-01

    Variations in tree architecture and in the genetic structure of Larix kaempferi on Mt. Fuji were surveyed along altitudinal gradients using 11 nSSR loci. In total, 249 individuals from six populations along three trails at altitudes ranging from approximately 1,300 to 2,700 m were investigated. Gradual changes in tree architecture with increasing elevation, from erect trees to flag trees and krummholz mats, were observed in the high-altitude populations (> 2,000 m) on all trails. These findings suggest that tree architecture is correlated with the severe environmental conditions associated with increasing elevation, such as strong winds. In contrast to obvious variations in tree architecture, the genetic diversity of populations along the trails was almost uniform (H (E) = 0.717-0.762) across the altitudinal range. The results of the AMOVA and STRUCTURE analyses, and the analysis for isolation by distance pattern, suggest homogeneous genetic structuring across all populations on Mt. Fuji, while the pairwise F (ST) showed barriers to gene flow between altitudinal populations that were demarcated as high- or low-altitude populations by Abies-Tsuga forest. Although the evergreen coniferous forests on the mountainside may hinder gene flow, this may be explained by the long-distance seed dispersal of the Japanese larch and/or a short population history resulting from eruptions or slush avalanches, although evergreen coniferous forests on the mountainside may hinder gene flow.

  19. Characterization of a Dairy Gyr herd with respect to its mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anibal Eugênio Vercesi Filho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Zebu breeds were introduced in Brazil mainly in the last century by imports from the Indian subcontinent. When the Zebu cattle arrived, the national herd suffered a significative change by backcrossing the national cows of taurine origin with Zebu sires. These processes created a polymorphism in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA in the Zebu animals with are in a major part derived from backcrossing and sharing mtDNA of taurine origin. To verify the maternal origin of cows belonging to the Dairy Gyr herd of APTA, Mococa 60 females were analyzed and 33 presented mtDNA from Bos taurus origin and 27 presented mtDNA from Bos indicus origin. None of these animals presented patterns of both mtDNA origins, indicating absence of heteroplasmy for these mitochondrial genotypes.

  20. Patterns of reptile and amphibian species richness along elevational gradients in Mt. Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malonza, Patrick Kinyatta

    2015-11-18

    Faunal species richness is traditionally assumed to decrease with increasing elevation and decreasing primary productivity. Species richness is reported to peak at mid-elevation. This survey examines the herpetofaunal diversity and distribution in Mt. Kenya (central Kenya) by testing the hypothesis that changes in species richness with elevation relate to elevation-dependent changes in climate. Sampling along transects from an elevation of approximately 1 700 m in Chogoria forest block (wind-ward side) and approximately 2 600 m in Sirimon block (rain shadow zone) upwards in March 2009. This starts from the forest to montane alpine zones. Sampling of reptiles and amphibians uses pitfall traps associated with drift fences, time-limited searches and visual encounter surveys. The results show that herpetofaunal richness differs among three vegetation zones along the elevation gradient. Chogoria has higher biodiversity than Sirimon. More species occur at low and middle elevations and few exist at high elevations. The trends are consistent with expected optimum water and energy variables. The lower alpine montane zone has high species richness but low diversity due to dominance of some high elevations species. Unambiguous data do not support a mid-domain effect (mid-elevation peak) because the observed trend better fits a model in which climatic variables (rainfall and temperature) control species richness, which indirectly measures productivity. It is important to continue protection of all indigenous forests, especially at low to mid elevations. These areas are vulnerable to human destruction yet are home to some endemic species. Firebreaks can limit the spread of the perennial wildfires, especially on the moorlands.

  1. The MT-ND1 and MT-ND5 genes are mutational hotspots for Chinese families with clinical features of LHON but lacking the three primary mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yang; Jia, Xiaoyun; Zhang, A-Mei; Wang, Wen-Zhi; Li, Shiqiang; Guo, Xiangming; Kong, Qing-Peng; Zhang, Qingjiong; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2010-08-20

    LHON is one of the most common and primary causes of acute blindness in young male adults. Over 95% of LHON cases are caused by one of the three primary mutations (m.11778G>A, m.14484T>C, and m.3460G>A). In contrast to these genetically diagnosed LHON patients, there are many patients with clinical features of LHON but without the three primary mutations, and these patients have been insufficiently analyzed. We reported 10 suspected Chinese LHON families without the three primary mutations. The overall penetrance (53.4%) in these families is significantly higher than in those families with m.11778G>A (33.3%) or m.3460G>A (25.6%). Complete mtDNA genome sequencing of the 10 families showed that they belonged to different haplogroups and all identified variants (excluding m.12332A>G in mt-tRNA(Leu)) were previously reported. Eight of 12 private non-synonymous variants in the probands are located in the MT-ND1 and MT-ND5 genes, which is substantially higher than that of individuals from general Chinese populations. Comparison of the private variants in the 10 families and in 10 randomly selected mtDNAs from general Chinese populations using resampling simulation strategy further confirmed this pattern. Our results suggest that the MT-ND1 and MT-ND5 genes are mutational hotspots for Chinese families with suspected LHON lacking the common primary mutations. Variants m.3736G>A (p.V144I) in family Le1235 and m.10680G>A (p.A71T) in Le1107 can be the pathogenic mutations for LHON.

  2. Three Medicago MtFUL genes have distinct and overlapping expression patterns during vegetative and reproductive development and 35S:MtFULb accelerates flowering and causes a terminal flower phenotype in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauren eJaudal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The timing of the transition to flowering is carefully controlled by plants in order to optimise sexual reproduction and the ensuing production of seeds, grains and fruits. The genetic networks that regulate floral induction are best characterised in the temperate eudicot Arabidopsis in which the florigen gene FT plays a major role in promoting the transition to flowering. Legumes are an important plant group, but less is known about the regulation of their flowering time. In the model legume Medicago truncatula (Medicago, a temperate annual plant like Arabidopsis, flowering is induced by prolonged cold (vernalisation followed by long day lengths (LD. Recent molecular-genetic experiments have revealed that a FT-like gene, MtFTa1, is a central regulator of flowering time in Medicago. Here, we characterize the three Medicago FRUITFULL (FUL MADS transcription factors, MtFULa, MtFULb and MtFULc using phylogenetic analyses, gene expression profiling through developmental time courses, and functional analyses in transgenic plants. MtFULa and MtFULb have similarity in sequence and expression profiles under inductive environmental conditions during both vegetative and reproductive development while MtFULc is only up regulated in the apex after flowering in LD conditions. Sustained up regulation of MtFULs requires functional MtFTa1 but their transcript levels are not affected during cold treatment. Overexpression of MtFULa and MtFULb promotes flowering in transgenic Arabidopsis plants with an additional terminal flower phenotype on some 35S:MtFULb plants. An increase in transcript levels of the MtFULs was also observed in Medicago plants overexpressing MtFTa1. Our results suggest that the MtFULs are targets of MtFTa1. Overall, this work highlights the conserved functions of FUL-like genes in promoting flowering and other roles in plant development and thus contributes to our understanding of the genetic control of the flowering process in Medicago.

  3. Multiple essential MT1-MMP functions in tooth root formation, dentinogenesis, and tooth eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H; Snider, T N; Wimer, H F; Yamada, S S; Yang, T; Holmbeck, K; Foster, B L

    2016-01-01

    Membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MT1-MMP) is a transmembrane zinc-endopeptidase that breaks down extracellular matrix components, including several collagens, during tissue development and physiological remodeling. MT1-MMP-deficient mice (MT1-MMP(-/-)) feature severe defects in connective tissues, such as impaired growth, osteopenia, fibrosis, and conspicuous loss of molar tooth eruption and root formation. In order to define the functions of MT1-MMP during root formation and tooth eruption, we analyzed the development of teeth and surrounding tissues in the absence of MT1-MMP. In situ hybridization showed that MT1-MMP was widely expressed in cells associated with teeth and surrounding connective tissues during development. Multiple defects in dentoalveolar tissues were associated with loss of MT1-MMP. Root formation was inhibited by defective structure and function of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS). However, no defect was found in creation of the eruption pathway, suggesting that tooth eruption was hampered by lack of alveolar bone modeling/remodeling coincident with reduced periodontal ligament (PDL) formation and integration with the alveolar bone. Additionally, we identified a significant defect in dentin formation and mineralization associated with the loss of MT1-MMP. To segregate these multiple defects and trace their cellular origin, conditional ablation of MT1-MMP was performed in epithelia and mesenchyme. Mice featuring selective loss of MT1-MMP activity in the epithelium were indistinguishable from wild type mice, and importantly, featured a normal HERS structure and molar eruption. In contrast, selective knock-out of MT1-MMP in Osterix-expressing mesenchymal cells, including osteoblasts and odontoblasts, recapitulated major defects from the global knock-out including altered HERS structure, short roots, defective dentin formation and mineralization, and reduced alveolar bone formation, although molars were able to erupt. These data

  4. OR/MS Applications in Mt. Merapi Disaster Management

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    Farida Hanum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Much of researches on the management of disaster deal with their social aspects such as sociological and psychological effects on communities. Recently there had been a growing credit of the demand for application of the operational research and management science matters in disaster management. This approach commonly utilizes decision theory, dynamical system and optimization technique to minimize the cost and recovery time. Approach: In this study we provide a comprehensive resource allocation model for disaster management, which consists of logistics distribution and humanitarian aid workforce’s assignment problems. The former was formulated in the form of integer linear programming whose objective was to minimize the logistic demand shortage. While the later was framed into goal programming basis to minimize penalty cost. Results: We implement our models in Mt. Merapi disaster operation activities. We first carry out the problem of logistic distribution between affected areas and distribution centers in the city basis. We then organize the assignment of humanitarian workforces in disaster response and recovery actions. Workers from several volunteer communities were assigned regarding their preferences on task and time. Conclusion: Approaches by Operations Research and Management Science (OR/MS not only efficiently and optimally solve the problem of logistic distribution and humanitarian assignment in accelerating disaster responses and recovery processes, but also offer flexibilities in dealing with the problem. In application, the scale of the problem can easily be extended.

  5. Bioindication of volcanic mercury (Hg) deposition around Mt Etna (Sicily)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R.; Witt, M. L.; Sawyer, G. M.; Watt, S.; Bagnato, E.; Calabrese, S.; Aiuppa, A.; Delmelle, P.; Pyle, D. M.; Mather, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    Mt. Etna is a major natural source of Hg to the Mediterranean region. Total mercury concentrations, [Hg]tot, in Castanea sativa (sweet chestnut) leaves sampled 7-13 km from Etna's vents (during six campaigns in 2005-2011) were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. [Hg]tot in C. sativa was greatest on Etna's SE flank reflecting Hg deposition from the typically overhead volcanic plume. When adjusted for leaf age, [Hg]tot in C. sativa also increased with recent eruptive activity. [Hg]tot in C. sativa was not controlled by [Hg]tot in soils, which instead was greatest on the (upwind) NW flank and correlated strongly with soil organic matter (% Org). Our results suggest that at least ~1% of Hg emitted from Etna is deposited proximally, supporting recent measurement and model results which indicate that GEM (Hg0; the dominant form of Hg in high temperature magmatic gases) is oxidised rapidly to RGM and Hgp in ambient temperature volcanic plumes. Samples of C. sativa and soils were also collected in July and September 2012 alongside SO2 and acid gas diffusion tube samples. These new samples will enable us to investigate Hg accumulation over a single growth season with reference to the exposure of vegetation to volcanic gases and particles.

  6. Night-sky brightness and extinction at Mt. Shatdzhatmaz

    CERN Document Server

    Kornilov, V; Voziakova, O; Shatsky, N; Safonov, B; Gorbunov, I; Potanin, S; Cheryasov, D; Senik, V

    2016-01-01

    The photometric sky quality of Mt. Shatdzhatmaz, the site of Sternberg Astronomical Institute Caucasian Observatory 2.5 m telescope, is characterized here by the statistics of the night-time sky brightness and extinction. The data were obtained as a by-product of atmospheric optical turbulence measurements with the MASS (Multi-Aperture Scintillation Sensor) device conducted in 2007--2013. The factors biasing night-sky brightness measurements are considered and a technique to reduce their impact on the statistics is proposed. The single-band photometric estimations provided by MASS are easy to transform to the standard photometric bands. The median moonless night-sky brightness is 22.1, 21.1, 20.3, and 19.0 mag per square arcsec for the $B$, $V$, $R$, and $I$ spectral bands, respectively. The median extinction coefficients for the same photometric bands are 0.28, 0.17, 0.13, and 0.09 mag. The best atmospheric transparency is observed in winter.

  7. Night-sky brightness and extinction at Mt Shatdzhatmaz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornilov, V.; Kornilov, M.; Voziakova, O.; Shatsky, N.; Safonov, B.; Gorbunov, I.; Potanin, S.; Cheryasov, D.; Senik, V.

    2016-11-01

    The photometric sky quality of Mt Shatdzhatmaz, the site of the Sternberg Astronomical Institute Caucasian Observatory 2.5-m telescope, is characterized here by the statistics of the night-time sky brightness and extinction. The data were obtained as a by-product of atmospheric optical turbulence measurements with the MASS (Multi-Aperture Scintillation Sensor) device conducted in 2007-2013. The factors biasing night-sky brightness measurements are considered and a technique to reduce their impact on the statistics is proposed. The single-band photometric estimations provided by MASS are easy to transform to the standard photometric bands. The median moonless night-sky brightness is 22.1, 21.1, 20.3 and 19.0 mag arcsec-2 for the B, V, R and I spectral bands, respectively. The median extinction coefficients for the same photometric bands are 0.28, 0.17, 0.13 and 0.09 mag. The best atmospheric transparency is observed in winter.

  8. Present experiment of BASJE group at Mt. Chacaltaya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshii, H.; Morizawa, A. [Ehime University, Dept. of Physics, Matsuyama, Ehime (Japan); Kakimoto, F.; Ogio, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tokunou, H.; Harada, D.; Burgoa, O. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Dept. of Physics, Meguro, Tokyo (Japan); Tajima, N.; Yamada, Y.; Shimoda, S.; Nishi, K.; Nakatani, H.; Gotoh, E. [The Institute of Physics and Chemistry Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Shirasaki, Y. [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Miranda, P.; Velarde, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Informatica, Universidad Mayor de San Andres, La Paz (Bolivia); Kaneko, T. [Oayama University, Dept. of Physics, Okayama (Japan); Murakami, K. [Nagoya University of Foreign Studies, Nissin, Aichi (Japan); Toyoda, Y. [Fukui University of Technology, Faculty of General Education, Fukui (Japan); Matsubara, Y. [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Mizumoto, Y. [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-10-01

    A compact air shower array to observe primary cosmic rays above a few TeV has been installed at Mt. Chacaltaya in Bolivia since 1996. This array is available to observe the air showers above 6 TeV and the longitudinal development curves above 50 TeV. The purpose of the observations is to study the chemical composition and the energy spectrum of cosmic rays in the energy region including the knee of the energy spectrum. First, the consistency between direct measurements (balloon-borne experiments) and air shower observations in the energy region from 50 TeV to 80 TeV is examined and confirmed. Next, the chemical composition and the energy spectrum are derived from the air shower observations. In the study, the longitudinal developments of shower particles are calculated by Monte Carlo simulations, assuming different chemical compositions above 80 TeV. The characteristics of the present air shower array and the comparison of the preliminary observed results with that of the simulations are presented.

  9. Urania in the Marketplace: The Selling of Mt. Palomar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumstay, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    The 200-inch Hale telescope atop Mt. Palomar is one of the most iconic scientific facilities ever constructed. The world's largest optical telescope for over a quarter-century, it served as a symbol of hope for America during the Great Depression and in the post-war years. In 2016 we celebrate the eightieth anniversaries of the completion of the mirror blank, the start of construction of the dome and mounting, and the beginning of astronomical research at Palomar Observatory by Fritz Zwicky (with the 18-inch Schmidt camera).During its construction, and for many years after "first light" in 1949, the Hale telescope was prominently featured in numerous magazine advertisements. Most of these represented companies directly involved in its construction, notably Corning Glass Works, which was justly proud of its magnificent accomplishment. But companies only vaguely linked to the project, or not at all, also co-opted the mystique of "the World's Largest Eye" to promote their goods or services. Surprisingly, in light of the fact that it bore responsibility for fabricating the complex and innovative mounting, the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company appears to have run only a single advertisement (in The National Geographic Magazine) touting its contribution to the project.Examples of magazine advertisements spanning the period 1936 to 1959 are presented.This work was supported by a faculty scholarship grant from Valdosta State University.

  10. Thermal, radioactive and magnetic properties of the lavas of the Mt Melbourne Volcanic Field (Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidio Armadillo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of measurements of physical properties carried out on mafic lavas from the Mt Melbourne
    Volcanic Field, useful for interpretation of geophysical surveys designed to shed light on the structure of the
    crust. The thermal conductivity is comparable to that of glass and shows a clear negative dependence on porosity.
    The volume heat capacity and the thermal diffusivity are less variable. The concentration of the thermally
    important natural radioactive isotopes was determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Lavas denoted a rather low
    heat-production rate, and the largest concentration of heat-producing elements (potassium, uranium, thorium
    was found in the trachyte samples. The magnetic susceptibility is more variable than the other physical properties
    and, among the several iron-titanium oxides, it appears primarily controlled by the ulvöspinel-magnetite solid
    solution series.

  11. Phylogeography of mtDNA haplogroup R7 in the Indian peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Parul

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human genetic diversity observed in Indian subcontinent is second only to that of Africa. This implies an early settlement and demographic growth soon after the first 'Out-of-Africa' dispersal of anatomically modern humans in Late Pleistocene. In contrast to this perspective, linguistic diversity in India has been thought to derive from more recent population movements and episodes of contact. With the exception of Dravidian, which origin and relatedness to other language phyla is obscure, all the language families in India can be linked to language families spoken in different regions of Eurasia. Mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome evidence has supported largely local evolution of the genetic lineages of the majority of Dravidian and Indo-European speaking populations, but there is no consensus yet on the question of whether the Munda (Austro-Asiatic speaking populations originated in India or derive from a relatively recent migration from further East. Results Here, we report the analysis of 35 novel complete mtDNA sequences from India which refine the structure of Indian-specific varieties of haplogroup R. Detailed analysis of haplogroup R7, coupled with a survey of ~12,000 mtDNAs from caste and tribal groups over the entire Indian subcontinent, reveals that one of its more recently derived branches (R7a1, is particularly frequent among Munda-speaking tribal groups. This branch is nested within diverse R7 lineages found among Dravidian and Indo-European speakers of India. We have inferred from this that a subset of Munda-speaking groups have acquired R7 relatively recently. Furthermore, we find that the distribution of R7a1 within the Munda-speakers is largely restricted to one of the sub-branches (Kherwari of northern Munda languages. This evidence does not support the hypothesis that the Austro-Asiatic speakers are the primary source of the R7 variation. Statistical analyses suggest a significant correlation between

  12. Use of gravity potential field methods for defining a shallow magmatic intrusion: the Mt. Amiata case history (Tuscany, Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolami, Chiara; Rinaldo Barchi, Massimiliano; Pauselli, Cristina; Heyde, Ingo

    2016-04-01

    We analyzed the Bouguer gravity anomaly signal beneath the Mt. Amiata area in order to reconstruct the subsurface setting. The study area is characterized by a pronounced gravity minimum, possibly correlated with the observed anomalous heat flow and hydrothermal activity. Using different approaches, previous authors defined a low density body (generally interpreted as a magmatic intrusion) beneath this area, which could explain the observed gravity anomaly minimum. However the proposed geologic models show different geometries and densities for the batholith. The gravity data used in this study (kindly provided by eni) were acquired from different institutions (eni, OGS, USDMA and Servizio Geologico d'Italia) and collected in a unique dataset, consisting of about 50000 stations, randomly distributed, which cover Central Italy, with a spacing of less than 1 km. For each station the elevation and the Bouguer gravity anomaly data are given. From this dataset, we created two maps of the Bouguer gravity anomaly and the topography, using the Minimum Curvature gridding method considering a grid cell size of 500m x 500m. The Bouguer gravity anomaly has been computed using a density of 2.67 g/cm3. From these maps we extracted a window of about 240 km2 (12x20 km) for the study area, which includes the Mt. Amiata region and the adjacent Radicofani sedimentary basin. The first part of this study was focused on calculating the first order vertical derivative and the power spectra analysis of the Bouguer gravity anomaly to enhance the effect of shallow bodies and estimating the source depth respectively. The second part of this study was focused on constructing a 3D geological density model of the subsurface setting of the studied area, implementing a forward modelling approach. The stratigraphy of the study area's upper crust schematically consists of six litho-mechanical units, whose density was derived from velocity data collected by active seismic surveys. A preliminary

  13. 拟南芥MtN3/saliva基因家族分析%Genome-wide analysis of MtN3/saliva protein family in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何佳; 黄学勇; 关跃峰; 孙铭希; 朱骏; 杨仲南

    2010-01-01

    MtN3/saliva基因家族是含有2个MtN3/saliva跨膜结构域的膜整合蛋白,其成员广泛存在于真核生物中.目前对该家族功能研究较少,对其跨膜结构域的分子功能还不清楚.在拟南芥中该家族有18个成员,除了最近克隆的RPGl以外其他MtN3/saliva基因的功能均不清楚.对拟南芥MtN3/saliva基因家族进行了较为全面的分析,包括基因结构、染色体分布、蛋白结构域、系统进化关系、基因表达谱等.对其中预测在花药中高表达的4个基因进行了实时定量PCR分析,证实有3个基因在花中高效表达.这些结果促进了对MtN3/saliva基因家族的深入了解.

  14. Fission track evidence for the Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic uplift of Mt. Bogda, Xinjiang, Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Chuanbo; MEI Lianfu; PENG Lei; ZHANG Shiwan; LIU Lin; TANG Jiguang

    2006-01-01

    Fission-track dating evidence from 5apatite samples and 4 zircon samples, and modeled time-temperature thermal history indicate that since Late Jurassic-Cretaceous (150 -106 Ma), the uplift process of Mt. Bogda can be divided into four stages of thermal evolution: 150 - 106, 75 -65, 44 -24and 13 -9 Ma. Before 44- 24 Ma, the cooling rate and uplifting rate of the southern and northern segments of Mt. Bogda are almost the same, showing that the uplifting of Mt. Bogda is an overall process.Since 44 - 24 Ma, the uplifting of the southern and northern segments of Mt. Bogda has shown differences. During 42 - 11 Ma, the northern segment of Mt. Bogda was at a steady stage, with the cooling rate being 0.03℃/Ma and the uplifting rate being 0. 001 mm/a. From 11 Ma to the present, the northern segment of Mt. Bogda was at a rapid cooling and uplifting stage, with the cooling rate being 5.72℃/Ma and the uplifting rate being 0.19 mm/a. However, the southern segment of Mt. Bogda has been at a rapid cooling and uplifting stage since 26 Ma, with the cooling rate being 1.24℃/Ma and the uplifting rate being 0.041 mm/a during 26 -9 Ma; 4.88℃/Ma and 0. 163 mm/a from 9 Ma till now.

  15. High level of MT-MMP expression is associated with invasiveness of cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, C; Polette, M; Piette, J; Munaut, C; Thompson, E W; Birembaut, P; Foidart, J M

    1996-01-17

    MMP-2 (gelatinase A) has been associated with the invasive potential of many cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. It is now becoming clear that the activation of this enzyme might be a key step in tumor invasion. This activation process has been shown to be a membrane-associated pathway inducible by various agents such as collagen type I, concanavalin A or TGF-beta, but its physiological regulation is still largely unresolved. MT-MMP was recently discovered and described as a potential gelatinase-A activator. In the present study, we investigated the expression of MT-MMP (membrane-type metalloproteinase) in cervical cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Comparing several in vitro-transformed cervical cell lines, previously shown to display different invasive potentials, our results showed that the ability of cells to overexpress MT-MMP mRNA following ConA induction correlated with their ability to activate gelatinase A and with a highly invasive behavior. Moreover, using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, we found a higher level of MT-MMP expression in invasive cervical carcinoma and lymph node metastases compared to its expression in non-invasive CIN III lesions. Our in vivo observations also clearly demonstrated a cooperation between stromal and tumor cells for the production of MT-MMP. Taken together, our results clearly correlated high level MT-MMP expression with invasiveness, and thus suggested that MT-MMP might play a crucial role in cervical tumor invasion.

  16. Fine mapping and cloning of MT1,a novel allele of D10

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Zhou; Jinyan Zhu; Zhengyi Li; Fei Gu; Honggen Zhang; Shuzhu Tang; Minghong Gu; Guohua Liang

    2009-01-01

    Rice tillering is an important determinant for grain production.To investigate the mechanism of tillering,we characterized a multiple tillering mutant (mt1) identified from the japonica variety,Zhonghua 11,treated with EMS.This mutant exhibits advanced tillering development and dwarfed compared with wild-type plants.Genetic analysis and fine gene mapping indicated that the mt1 mutant was controlled by a recessive gene,residing on a 29-kb window on AP003376 of chromosome 1.One putative gene in this region,encoding a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 8 (CCD8),was allelic to D10.The mt1 mutant phenotype was complemented by introduction of wild-type MT1,and knockdown of MT1 in wild-type rice mimicked the mutant phenotype.Real-time PCR analysis indicated that the MT1 gene is expressed highly in stems and at a low level in axillary buds,panicles,leaves,and roots.In addition,MT1 expression is clearly under feedback regulation.

  17. Study on the Penetrability of PEP-1-P27mt for Cell Membranes in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shirong; ZHU Minglei; QIU Fangcheng; WANG Lilin; QU Shen

    2007-01-01

    Double-stranded oligomeric nucleotide encoding PEP-1 peptides was synthesized, prokaryotic expression pET15b-pep-1-p27mt recombinant constructed, E. coli BL21 (DE3)pLysS transformed and induced with IPTG to highly express fusion protein PEP-1-P27mt. Fusion protein with an N-terminal His-tag could be purified by Ni2+-resin affinity chromatography and identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Cultured EC9706 cells treated with PEP-1-P27mt revealed that PEP-1-P27mt was transduced into cells after 15 min and reached maximal intracellular concentrations in 2 h. PEP-1-P27mt of 1 μmol/L final concentration could most strongly suppress the growth. It was suggested that PEP-1 can carry P27mt across membrane, which provides a new biological protocol for using cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p27mt in suppressing the growth of tumor cells.

  18. Intracellular evolution of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the tragedy of the cytoplasmic commons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, David

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondria exist in large numbers per cell. Therefore, the strength of natural selection on individual mtDNAs for their contribution to cellular fitness is weak whereas the strength of selection in favor of mtDNAs that increase their own replication without regard for cellular functions is strong. This problem has been solved for most mitochondrial genes by their transfer to the nucleus but a few critical genes remain encoded by mtDNA. Organisms manage the evolution of mtDNA to prevent mutational decay of essential services mitochondria provide to their hosts. Bottlenecks of mitochondrial numbers in female germlines increase the homogeneity of mtDNAs within cells and allow intraorganismal selection to eliminate cells with low quality mitochondria. Mechanisms of intracellular "quality control" allow direct selection on the competence of individual mtDNAs. These processes maintain the integrity of mtDNAs within the germline but are inadequate to indefinitely maintain mitochondrial function in somatic cells. © 2016 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Visual area MT in the Cebus monkey: location, visuotopic organization, and variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorani, M; Gattass, R; Rosa, M G; Sousa, A P

    1989-09-01

    The representation of the visual field in the dorsal portion of the superior temporal sulcus (ST) was studied by multiunit recordings in eight Cebus apella, anesthetized with N2O and immobilized with pancuronium bromide, in repeated recording sessions. On the basis of visuotopic organization, myeloarchitecture, and receptive field size, area MT was distinguished from its neighboring areas. MT is an oval area of about 70 mm2 located mainly in the posterior bank of the superior temporal sulcus. It contains a visuotopically organized representation of at least the binocular visual field. The representation of the vertical meridian forms the dorsolateral, lateral, and ventrolateral borders of MT and that of the horizontal meridian runs across the posterior bank of ST. The fovea is represented at the lateralmost portion of MT, while the retinal periphery is represented medially. The representation of the central visual field is magnified relative to that of the periphery in MT. The cortical magnification factor in MT decreases with increasing eccentricity following a negative power function. Receptive field size increases with increasing eccentricity. A method to evaluate the scatter of receptive field position in multiunit recordings based on the inverse of the magnification factor is described. In MT, multiunit receptive field scatter increases with increasing eccentricity. As shown by the Heidenhain-Woelcke method, MT is coextensive with two myeloarchitectonically distinct zones: one heavily myelinated, located in the posterior bank of ST, and another, less myelinated, located at the junction of the posterior bank with the anterior bank of ST. At least three additional visual zones surround MT: DZ, MST, and FST. The areas of the dorsal portion of the superior temporal sulcus in the diurnal New World monkey Cebus are comparable to those described for the diurnal Old World monkey, Macaca. This observation suggests that these areas are ancestral characters of the simian

  20. Reservoir uncertainty, Precambrian topography, and carbon sequestration in the Mt. Simon Sandstone, Illinois Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leetaru, H.E.; McBride, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Sequestration sites are evaluated by studying the local geological structure and confirming the presence of both a reservoir facies and an impermeable seal not breached by significant faulting. The Cambrian Mt. Simon Sandstone is a blanket sandstone that underlies large parts of Midwest United States and is this region's most significant carbon sequestration reservoir. An assessment of the geological structure of any Mt. Simon sequestration site must also include knowledge of the paleotopography prior to deposition. Understanding Precambrian paleotopography is critical in estimating reservoir thickness and quality. Regional outcrop and borehole mapping of the Mt. Simon in conjunction with mapping seismic reflection data can facilitate the prediction of basement highs. Any potential site must, at the minimum, have seismic reflection data, calibrated with drill-hole information, to evaluate the presence of Precambrian topography and alleviate some of the uncertainty surrounding the thickness or possible absence of the Mt. Simon at a particular sequestration site. The Mt. Simon is thought to commonly overlie Precambrian basement granitic or rhyolitic rocks. In places, at least about 549 m (1800 ft) of topographic relief on the top of the basement surface prior to Mt. Simon deposition was observed. The Mt. Simon reservoir sandstone is thin or not present where basement is topographically high, whereas the low areas can have thick Mt. Simon. The paleotopography on the basement and its correlation to Mt. Simon thickness have been observed at both outcrops and in the subsurface from the states of Illinois, Ohio, Wisconsin, and Missouri. ?? 2009. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  1. 75 FR 11511 - Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest; Mt. Ashland Ski Area Expansion, Jackson County, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... Forest Service Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest; Mt. Ashland Ski Area Expansion, Jackson County, OR...-03004-PA, to conditionally authorize expansion of the Mt. Ashland Ski Area. SUMMARY: In September 2004, the Forest Service issued a Record of Decision (ROD) for the Mt. Ashland Ski Area (MASA)...

  2. Functional characterization of cadmium-responsive garlic gene AsMT2b: A new member of metallothionein family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new gene of metallothionein (MT) family was cloned from garlic (Allium sativum) seedlings using RACE method and designated AsMT2b. The full length of AsMT2b cDNA was 520 bp encoding 80 amino acids. The deduced amino acids of AsMT2b showed that AsMT2b contained the characteristic structure of type 2 MT proteins, but the number and arrangement of the cysteine residues in the N- and C-terminal domains was different from other type 2 MT proteins. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR showed that transcript levels of AsMT2b were enhanced only in response to higher concentrations or longer incubation time of Cd. Such an expression pattern of AsMT2b greatly differed from that of other type 2 MT genes. Yeast cells transformed with this gene had improved resistance to Cd. AsMT2b overexpressing Arabidopsis showed stronger Cd tolerance and higher Cd accumulation compared with wild-type plants. These results suggest that AsMT2b should be useful in phytoremediation of Cd-polluted soil in the future.

  3. Cytonuclear conflict in interpopulation hybrids: the role of RNA polymerase in mtDNA transcription and replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, C K; Burton, R S

    2010-03-01

    Organismal fitness requires functional integration of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Structural and regulatory elements coevolve within lineages and several studies have found that interpopulation hybridization disrupts mitonuclear interactions. Because mitochondrial RNA polymerase (mtRPOL) plays key roles in both mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication and transcription, the interaction between mtRPOL and coevolved regulatory sites in the mtDNA may be central to mitonuclear integration. Here, we generate interpopulation hybrids between divergent populations of the copepod Tigriopus californicus to obtain lines having different combinations of mtRPOL and mtDNA. Lines were scored for mtDNA copy number and ATP6 (mtDNA) gene expression. We find that there is a genotype-dependent negative association between mitochondrial transcriptional response and mtDNA copy number. We argue that an observed increase in mtDNA copy number and reduced mtDNA transcription in hybrids reflects the regulatory role of mtRPOL; depending on the mitonuclear genotype, hybridization may disrupt the normal balance between transcription and replication of the mitochondrial genome.

  4. 75 FR 70691 - World Color Mt. Morris, IL LLC, Premedia Chicago Division, Currently Known as Quad/Graphics, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... Employment and Training Administration World Color Mt. Morris, IL LLC, Premedia Chicago Division, Currently..., applicable to workers of World Color Mt. Morris, IL LLC, Premedia Chicago Division, including on-site leased.... New information shows that on July 2, 2010, World Color Mt. Morris, IL LLC was purchased by...

  5. Monoclonal Anti—CD4 Antibody MT310 Binds HIV-1 gp120 Binding Site on CD4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Tests show the monoclonal anti—CD4 antibody (mAb) MT310 recognizes the gp120-binding site on CD4 as part of its mechanism for strongly inhibiting human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of CD4+ T cells. In competition tests, mAb MT310 and mAb Leu3a (an anti-CD4 mAb recognizing the gp120-binding site) all inhibited gp120-binding to CD4+ T lymphocytes, while mAb MT405 did not. This result suggests that MT310, like Leu3a, recognizes the gp120-binding site on CD4. To further confirm whether MT310 recognizes the gp120-binding site on CD4, we prepared rabbit anti-idiotypic antisera (Ab2) against MT310 (Ab1). The anti-idiotypic antisera against MT310 inhibited binding of MT310 and Leu3a to human CD4+ T lymphocytes, but did not block binding of MT151 with the second domain of CD4, while rabbit anti-idiotypic antisera to MT151 could block binding of itself to these cells, but could not inhibit the binding of MT310 and Leu3a, further indicating that MT310 recognized the gp120-binding site on CD4.

  6. The 1981 eruptive fissure on Mt. Etna: considerations on its exploration and genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Leotta

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is targeted to an analysis of features common to various fissure caves on Mt. Etna, Sicily. The Authors report the preliminary results of the exploration carried out in the 1981 eruptive fissure, the technical problems met during the exploration, the flow trends and the different courses of the molten material inside the fissure, the particular morphologies. A genetic model is proposed, different from those characterising the lava tube cave genesis, and links are suggested between the various fissures and the main tectonic stress systems operating on Mt. Etna, as well as the morpho-structural conditions of the volcanic edifice of Mt. Etna.

  7. A Linguistic Evaluation of Rule-Based, Phrase-Based, and Neural MT Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burchardt Aljoscha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report an analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of several Machine Translation (MT engines implementing the three most widely used paradigms. The analysis is based on a manually built test suite that comprises a large range of linguistic phenomena. Two main observations are on the one hand the striking improvement of an commercial online system when turning from a phrase-based to a neural engine and on the other hand that the successful translations of neural MT systems sometimes bear resemblance with the translations of a rule-based MT system.

  8. A faster, high precision algorithm for calculating symmetric and asymmetric $M_{T2}$

    CERN Document Server

    Lally, Colin H

    2015-01-01

    A new algorithm for calculating the stransverse mass, $M_{T2}$, in either symmetric or asymmetric situations has been developed which exhibits good stability, high precision and quadratic convergence for the majority of the $M_{T2}$ parameter space, leading to up to a factor of ten increase in speed compared to other $M_{T2}$ calculators of comparable precision. This document describes and validates the methodology used by the algorithm, and provides comparisons both in terms of accuracy and speed with other existing implementations.

  9. Episodic growth of Mt. Shasta, CA, documented by argon geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, A. T.; Christiansen, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    Mt. Shasta is the largest stratovolcano along the high Cascade arc, surpassed in volume only by the rear-arc Medicine Lake and Newberry volcanoes. Currently >4300 m high and >350 km3 in volume, it grew episodically from overlapping vents and was partially destroyed by a major debris avalanche >300 ka. The area has been a long-lived eruptive focus; prior to 700 ka a similar-sized andesite stratocone sat 15-25 km E along the arc axis, but is now deeply eroded. Approximately 700 ka, the center moved ~20 km to its current location west of the arc axis. Good preservation and minor northward migration (3-5 km) of Mount Shasta's eruptive focus enables access to the older portions of the edifice. Lavas throughout Shasta's history have been dominantly intermediate in composition, typically having 60-64%wt. SiO2, though more mafic (basaltic andesite, 53-54%wt. SiO2) and more silicic (dacite, 64-69% wt. SiO2) lavas are also present. Most units erupted from central vents, but a N-S trend of domes and lava vents bisects the summit. No flank vents lie east of that N-S line, but they are numerous to the west. The oldest (~700-600 ka) Mt. Shasta eruptive focus is partly preserved on the SW flank up to 2,000 m elevation (Sand Flat) and as blocks in the massive (~45 km3) debris avalanche deposit in Shasta Valley. The avalanche is bracketed as younger than a 696 ± 3 ka included block and older than an overlapping 318 ± 29 ka lava. Several domes erupted 475-350 ka, but don't provide age constraints on the debris avalanche. Between 300 ka and 100 ka voluminous lavas issued from an eruptive focus (Sargents Ridge cone) ~2 km south of the present summit in at least six episodes spaced 10-30 kyr apart. The core of this eruptive focus has been removed by stream and glacial erosion in and above Mud Creek. High-Mg basaltic andesites erupted high on the S flank at 131 ka and low on the NW flank at 84 ka. No lavas have been identified as erupting from the summit area between 100-50 ka. The

  10. Evapotranspiration dynamics along elevational and disturbance gradients at Mt. Kilimanjaro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detsch, Florian; Otte, Insa; Appelhans, Tim; Nauß, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Future climate characteristics of the Mt. Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania, will be governed by two superior processes: (i) global climate change and (ii) local land cover transformation. Whilst precipitation amounts remained stable throughout the last climate normals, recent studies revealed distinctly increasing air temperatures in the study region between 1973 and 2013, resulting in a gradual reduction of available moisture. In addition, climate predictions show rising temperatures over East Africa throughout the 21st century. Modifications of the local hydrological cycle resulting from land cover transformation will either favor or counteract the thus induced, increasing dryness. Considering that the local-scale climate is a key parameter for ecosystem processes and biodiversity, quantifying the driving components on the credit (precipitation, through-fall, fog) and debit side of the local-scale water balance is of outstanding (biogeo-)scientific importance. In this context, a multidisciplinary German research unit investigates the interrelationship between climate, land use and biodiversity along the southern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro. A total of 65 climate stations have been installed to record rainfall and estimate potential evaporation across different land cover types ranging from savanna (880 m a.s.l.) to the upper mountain Helichrysum sites (4,550 m a.s.l.). The associated data is used for both the area-wide interpolation of meteorological parameters and as input for satellite-based retrievals of rainfall and evapotranspiration (ET). We conducted an extensive field campaign employing a surface-layer scintillometer in order to gain insights into ET dynamics over different land cover types following elevational and disturbance gradients. Scintillometer measurements are available for study sites below (savanna, maize, grassland, coffee plantations) and above the forest belt (natural and disturbed ericaceous forest, Helichrysum), covering a period of 4-7 days

  11. Mt. Pinatubo, Phillipines - Comparison of November, 1996 and September, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The effects of the June 15, 1991, eruption of Mt. Pinatubo continue to affect the lives of people living near the volcano on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. The eruption produced a large amount of volcanic debris that was deposited on the flanks of the volcano as part of pyroclastic flows. This debris consists of unconsolidated ash and boulders, and following heavy rains, it mixes with the rain run-off to form volcanic mudflows called lahars. Lahars are moving rivers of concrete slurry that are highly erosive. They can sweep down existing river valleys, carving deep canyons where the slopes are steep, or depositing a mixture of fine ash and larger rocks on the gentler slopes. The deposits left from a lahar soon solidify into a material similar to concrete, but while they are moving, lahars are dynamic features, and in a single river valley, the active channel may change locations within a few minutes or hours. These changes represent a significant natural hazard to local communities.These images from the NASA's airborne imaging radar AIRSAR instrument show two snapshots in the evolution of the lahars in the lower Pasig-Potrero River, just north of the town of Bacalor, east of the summit of the volcano. These images were collected on November 29, 1996 and September 25, 2000. The radar is particularly good at picking out spatial variations in the average particle size of the lahar deposits, which show up as a variety of different colored units at lower right. The active river channel is dark in both images, and is particularly well-defined in the September 2000 image. In the November 1996 image, the area of the flooded channel is much wider, so that the radar images are quite effective at showing where the drier surface materials are located.Also visible as a series of linear features in both images is a series of concrete dikes that have been constructed to protect the adjacent agricultural land from the lahar deposits. Some of this land has recently been

  12. Black Carbon at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffe, Dan A. [Univ. of Washington, Bothell, WA (United States); Sedlacek, Arthur [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Laing, James R. [Univ. of Washington, Bothell, WA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This campaign was initiated to measure refractory black carbon (rBC, as defined in Schwarz et al. (2010)) at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory (MBO) using the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility single-particle soot photometer (SP2; unit 54). MBO is a high-elevation site located on the summit of Mt. Bachelor in central Oregon, USA (43.979°N, 121.687°W, 2,763 meters ASL). This site is operated by Professor Dan Jaffe’s group at the University of Washington Bothell and has been used continuously as an atmospheric observatory for the past 12 years (Jaffe et al., 2005; Gratz et al., 2014). The location of MBO allows frequent sampling of the free troposphere along with a wide array of plumes from regional and distant sources. MBO is currently supported with funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF) to the Principal Investigator (PI; D. Jaffe) via the project “Influence of Free Tropospheric Ozone and PM on Surface Air Quality in the Western U.S.” (#1447832) covering the period 03/15/2015 to 02/28/2018. The SP2 instrument from Droplet Measurement Technologies provides particle-resolved measurements of rBC mass loading, size and mass distributions, and mixing state. The SP2 was installed at MBO on 6/27/2016 and ran through 9/23/2016. Additional measurements at MBO during this campaign included carbon monoxide (CO), fine particulate matter (PM1), aerosol light scattering coefficients (σscat) at three wavelengths using a TSI nephelometer, aerosol absorption coefficients (σabs) with the Brechtel tricolor absorption photometer (TAP), aerosol number size distributions with a scanning mobility particle sizer spectrometer (SMPS), and black carbon (eBC) with an aethalometer. BC data from this campaign have been submitted to the ARM Data Archive. Black carbon (BC) is the predominant light-absorbing aerosol constituent in the atmosphere, and is estimated to exert a positive radiative forcing second only to CO

  13. Afro-alpine forest cover change on Mt. Guna (Ethiopia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birhanu, Adugnaw; Frankl, Amaury; Jacob, Miro; Lanckriet, Sil; Hendrickx, Hanne; Nyssen, Jan

    2016-04-01

    afro-alpine vegetation on the other parts of Mt. Guna.

  14. Using MT2 to distinguish dark matter stabilization symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Kim, Doojin; Walker, Devin G. E.; Zhu, Lijun

    2011-09-01

    We examine the potential of using colliders to distinguish models with parity (Z2) stabilized dark matter (DM) from models in which the DM is stabilized by other symmetries, taking the latter to be a Z3 symmetry for illustration. The key observation is that a heavier mother particle charged under a Z3 stabilization symmetry can decay into one or two DM particles along with standard model particles. This can be contrasted with the decay of a mother particle charged under a parity symmetry; typically, only one DM particle appears in the decay chain. The arXiv:1003.0899 studied the distributions of visible invariant mass from the decay of a single such mother particle in order to highlight the resulting distinctive signatures of Z3 symmetry versus parity symmetry stabilized dark matter candidates. We now describe a complementary study which focuses on decay chains of the two mother particles which are necessarily present in these events. We also include in our analysis the missing energy/momentum in the event. For the Z3 symmetry stabilized mothers, the resulting inclusive final state can have two, three or four DM particles. In contrast, models with Z2 symmetry can have only two. We show that the shapes and edges of the distribution of MT2-type variables, along with ratio of the visible momentum/energy on the two sides of the event, are powerful in distinguishing these different scenarios. Finally we conclude by outlining future work which focuses on reducing combinatoric ambiguities from reconstructing multijet events. Increasing the reconstruction efficiency can allow better reconstruction of events with two or three dark matter candidates in the final state.

  15. Metallothionein (MT)-III: generation of polyclonal antibodies, comparison with MT-I+II in the freeze lesioned rat brain and in a bioassay with astrocytes, and analysis of Alzheimer's disease brains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrasco, J; Giralt, M; Molinero, A;

    1999-01-01

    Metallothionein-III is a low molecular weight, heavy-metal binding protein expressed mainly in the central nervous system. First identified as a growth inhibitory factor (GIF) of rat cortical neurons in vitro, it has subsequently been shown to be a member of the metallothionein (MT) gene family...... that MT-III immunoreactivity was also present in microglia, monocytes and/or macrophages in the leptomeninges and lying adjacent to major vessels. In freeze lesioned rats, both MT-I+II and MT-III immunoreactivities increased in the ipsilateral cortex. The pattern of MT-III immunoreactivity significantly...

  16. Application of CODEC MT8965 in ALU%语音编解码芯片MT8965在ALU中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高思行; 汪小燕; 高萍

    2002-01-01

    MT8965是一种功能较强的语音编解码芯片,它采用 A律编码,可通过控制总线接收从处理器发出的控制信号来写控制寄存器,从而控制驱动输出信号 . 文章介绍了 MT8965的性能特点及其在 ALU中的应用 .

  17. Targeting a single function of the multifunctional matrix metalloprotease MT1-MMP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvarsen, Signe; Porse, Astrid; Erpicum, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    the enzyme ability to activate proMMP-2 without interfering with the collagenolytic function or the general proteolytic activity of MT1-MMP. Using this antibody, we have shown that the MT1-MMP-catalyzed activation of proMMP-2 is involved in the outgrowth of cultured lymphatic endothelial cells in a collagen......-documented importance in matrix degradation but which takes part in more than one pathway in this regard. In this report, we describe the selective targeting of a single function of this enzyme by means of a specific monoclonal antibody against MT1-MMP, raised in an MT1-MMP knock-out mouse. The antibody blocks...... matrix in vitro, as well as in lymphatic vessel sprouting assayed ex vivo. This is the first example of the complete inactivation of a single function of a multifunctional MMP and the use of this strategy to pursue its role....

  18. Identification and Correction for MT Static Shift Using TEM Inversion Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The inversion of TEM data, using the observed magnetic fields instead of that of apparent resistivities data in this paper, avoids the errors caused by the definition of the apparent resistivity. The inversed results by fitting the magnetic fields of the transmitter sources image with the observed magnetic fields are relalively less affected by the conductivity inhomogeneity. The MT apparent curve is calculated on the basis of the conductivity model constructed from the TEM inversion results. This curve is used as a reference curve for the correction of MT static shift, which makes the correction more reliable.Meanwhile, the domain transformation is also achieved from time to frequency between the two kinds of electromaguetic data. Therefore, the correction of the MT static shift is actualized using TEM inversion method, The corresponding application research shows that this method is very effective for the identification and correction of the MT static shift.``

  19. 76 FR 36571 - Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge Complex, Malta, MT; Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge Complex, Malta, MT; Comprehensive Conservation Plan AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for... conservation plan (CCP) and environmental assessment (EA) for Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge Complex...

  20. 75 FR 20321 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bozeman, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... aircraft using a new VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range (VOR) Standard Instrument Approach Procedure (SIAP... necessary to accommodate aircraft using the new VOR SIAP's at Gallatin Field Airport, Bozeman, MT....

  1. 7Be and 210Pb radioactivity and implications on sources of surface ozone at Mt. Waliguan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Xiangdong; WANG Guojiang; TANG Jie; ZHANG Xiaochun; YANG Wei; H. N. Lee; WANG Changsheng

    2005-01-01

    Beryllium-7 (7Be) and lead-210 (210Pb) radioac- tivity in aerosols collected, from October 2002 to January 2004 at Mt. Waliguan, by the Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) Station, Qinghai Province is presented. The data were analyzed together with simultaneously measured surface ozone concentrations. We found that short time variations of 7Be and 210Pb were linked to alternations of synoptic weather around the Mt. Waliguan region. 210Pb showed the lowest concentration in summer while 7Be showed no obvious sea- sonal changes. Relatively high 7Be and 210Pb radioactivity was observed at Mt. Waliguan when compared with the ob- servations at other mountain sites in other parts of the world. Surface ozone and 7Be showed a consistent seasonal variation. Surface ozone correlated fairly well with 7Be/210Pb ratio. This suggested that vertical transport from higher altitudes of the atmosphere has predominant effects on the budget of surface ozone at Mt. Waliguan.

  2. Peak ground acceleration produced by local earthquakes in volcanic areas of Campi Flegrei and Mt. Vesuvius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Petrosino

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The scaling law of the seismic spectrum experimentally calculated at Mt. Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei is used to constrain the estimate of the maximum expected peak acceleration of ground motion.

  3. Synthetic Modeling of A Geothermal System Using Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) and Magnetotelluric (MT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mega Saputra, Rifki; Widodo

    2017-04-01

    Indonesia has 40% of the world’s potential geothermal resources with estimated capacity of 28,910 MW. Generally, the characteristic of the geothermal system in Indonesia is liquid-dominated systems, which driven by volcanic activities. In geothermal exploration, electromagnetic methods are used to map structures that could host potential reservoirs and source rocks. We want to know the responses of a geothermal system using synthetic data of Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) and Magnetotelluric (MT). Due to frequency range, AMT and MT data can resolve the shallow and deeper structure, respectively. 1-D models have been performed using AMT and MT data. The results indicate that AMT and MT data give detailed conductivity distribution of geothermal structure.

  4. Alternative paradigms of volcanic risk perception: The case of Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Jean-Christophe

    2008-05-01

    The literature on people's response to volcanic hazards tends to be split between two paradigms. The first argues that the choice of adjustment depends on how people perceive rare and extreme volcanic phenomena and the associated risk. The second considers that people's behavior in the face of natural hazards is constrained by social, economic and political forces beyond their control. The present paper addresses both paradigms and demonstrates that, in order to understand people's behavior in the face of volcanic threats, volcanic risk perception has to be balanced with non-hazard related factors and structural constraints. These conclusions are based on a case study of Mt. Pinatubo and the lingering threat of lahars from the 1991 eruption. Drawing on the results of a questionnaire-based survey and additional interviews with key informants, it is shown that a high perception of risk does not stop people from choosing to forms of living that put them at high threat from lahars. Furthermore, the paper argues that insufficient opportunity for making a livelihood in resettlement centers and strong attachment to native villages push people back to the banks of lahar channels. Everyday hazards of poverty and the threat to cultural heritage weighed heavier than this seasonal natural hazard. In other words, in a context of economic and social hardship, risk perception of volcanic hazards is necessarily balanced with other risk perceptions. This study does not argue that risk perception is unimportant for understanding people's adjustment to volcanic environments but rather stresses the need for placing it in its larger and daily contexts which are independent of volcanic hazards.

  5. In vivo levels of mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide increase with age in mtDNA mutator mice

    OpenAIRE

    Logan, Angela; Shabalina, Irina G.; Prime, Tracy A.; Rogatti, Sebastian; Kalinovich, Anastasia V.; Hartley, R. C.; Budd, Ralph C.; Cannon, Barbara; Murphy, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    In mtDNA mutator mice, mtDNA mutations accumulate leading to a rapidly aging phenotype. However, there is little evidence of oxidative damage to tissues, and when analyzed ex vivo, no change in production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) superoxide and hydrogen peroxide by mitochondria has been reported, undermining the mitochondrial oxidative damage theory of aging. Paradoxically, interventions that decrease mitochondrial ROS levels in vivo delay onset of aging. To reconcile these findin...

  6. Reduced mtDNA copy number increases the sensitivity of tumor cells to chemotherapeutic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, H; Sun, S; Bai, Y; Chen, Y; Chai, R; Li, H

    2015-04-02

    Many cancer drugs are toxic to cells by activating apoptotic pathways. Previous studies have shown that mitochondria have key roles in apoptosis in mammalian cells, but the role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number variation in the pathogenesis of tumor cell apoptosis remains largely unknown. We used the HEp-2, HNE2, and A549 tumor cell lines to explore the relationship between mtDNA copy number variation and cell apoptosis. We first induced apoptosis in three tumor cell lines and one normal adult human skin fibroblast cell line (HSF) with cisplatin (DDP) or doxorubicin (DOX) treatment and found that the mtDNA copy number significantly increased in apoptotic tumor cells, but not in HSF cells. We then downregulated the mtDNA copy number by transfection with shRNA-TFAM plasmids or treatment with ethidium bromide and found that the sensitivity of tumor cells to DDP or DOX was significantly increased. Furthermore, we observed that levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased significantly in tumor cells with lower mtDNA copy numbers, and this might be related to a low level of antioxidant gene expression. Finally, we rescued the increase of ROS in tumor cells with lipoic acid or N-acetyl-L-cysteine and found that the apoptosis rate decreased. Our studies suggest that the increase of mtDNA copy number is a self-protective mechanism of tumor cells to prevent apoptosis and that reduced mtDNA copy number increases ROS levels in tumor cells, increases the tumor cells' sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs, and increases the rate of apoptosis. This research provides evidence that mtDNA copy number variation might be a promising new therapeutic target for the clinical treatment of tumors.

  7. Reduced mtDNA copy number increases the sensitivity of tumor cells to chemotherapeutic drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, H; Sun, S; Bai, Y; Chen, Y; Chai, R; Li, H

    2015-01-01

    Many cancer drugs are toxic to cells by activating apoptotic pathways. Previous studies have shown that mitochondria have key roles in apoptosis in mammalian cells, but the role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number variation in the pathogenesis of tumor cell apoptosis remains largely unknown. We used the HEp-2, HNE2, and A549 tumor cell lines to explore the relationship between mtDNA copy number variation and cell apoptosis. We first induced apoptosis in three tumor cell lines and one normal adult human skin fibroblast cell line (HSF) with cisplatin (DDP) or doxorubicin (DOX) treatment and found that the mtDNA copy number significantly increased in apoptotic tumor cells, but not in HSF cells. We then downregulated the mtDNA copy number by transfection with shRNA-TFAM plasmids or treatment with ethidium bromide and found that the sensitivity of tumor cells to DDP or DOX was significantly increased. Furthermore, we observed that levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased significantly in tumor cells with lower mtDNA copy numbers, and this might be related to a low level of antioxidant gene expression. Finally, we rescued the increase of ROS in tumor cells with lipoic acid or N-acetyl-L-cysteine and found that the apoptosis rate decreased. Our studies suggest that the increase of mtDNA copy number is a self-protective mechanism of tumor cells to prevent apoptosis and that reduced mtDNA copy number increases ROS levels in tumor cells, increases the tumor cells' sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs, and increases the rate of apoptosis. This research provides evidence that mtDNA copy number variation might be a promising new therapeutic target for the clinical treatment of tumors. PMID:25837486

  8. Genetic Control over mtDNA and Its Relationship to Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Na; Li, Yihan; Chang, Simon; Liang, Jieqin; Lin, Chongyun; Zhang, Xiufei; Liang, Lu; Hu, Jingchu; Chan, Wharton; Kendler, Kenneth S; Malinauskas, Tomas; Huang, Guo-Jen; Li, Qibin; Mott, Richard; Flint, Jonathan

    2015-12-21

    Control over the number of mtDNA molecules per cell appears to be tightly regulated, but the mechanisms involved are largely unknown. Reversible alterations in the amount of mtDNA occur in response to stress suggesting that control over the amount of mtDNA is involved in stress-related diseases including major depressive disorder (MDD). Using low-coverage sequence data from 10,442 Chinese women to compute the normalized numbers of reads mapping to the mitochondrial genome as a proxy for the amount of mtDNA, we identified two loci that contribute to mtDNA levels: one within the TFAM gene on chromosome 10 (rs11006126, p value = 8.73 × 10(-28), variance explained = 1.90%) and one over the CDK6 gene on chromosome 7 (rs445, p value = 6.03 × 10(-16), variance explained = 0.50%). Both loci replicated in an independent cohort. CDK6 is thus a new molecule involved in the control of mtDNA. We identify increased rates of heteroplasmy in women with MDD, and show from an experimental paradigm using mice that the increase is likely due to stress. Furthermore, at least one heteroplasmic variant is significantly associated with changes in the amount of mtDNA (position 513, p value = 3.27 × 10(-9), variance explained = 0.48%) suggesting site-specific heteroplasmy as a possible link between stress and increase in amount of mtDNA. These findings indicate the involvement of mitochondrial genome copy number and sequence in an organism's response to stress.

  9. Environmental evaluation of the forest of Mt. Fuji, based on multiple satellite data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiosaka, K.; Konta, F.; Nishikawa, H. (The Inst. of Regional Environ. Planning, Shizuoka (Japan) Shizuoka Univ., Shizuoka (Japan) Nippon Univ., Narashino (Japan))

    1994-03-01

    Evaluation of environmental roles of the forest of Mt. Fuji and estimation of deposition of sulfur dioxide on the leaves of Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) were done based on satellite data. The evaluation suggests that artificial Japanese cypress forests, which occupy the largest area among vegetations of Mt. Fuji, have problems concerning environmental role of storing of soil water, and that the result of the estimation indicates an uneven distribution of sulfur dioxide deposition.

  10. Environmental evaluation of the forest of MT Fuji, based on multiple satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiosaka, K.; Konta, F.; Nishikawa, H.

    1994-03-01

    Evaluation of environmental roles of the forest of Mt. Fuji and estimation of deposition of sulfur dioxide on the leaves of Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) weere done based on satellite data. The evaluation suggests that artificial Japanese cypress forests, which occupy the largest area among vegetations of Mt. Fuji have problems concerning environmental role of storing of soil water, and that the result of the estimation indicates an uneven distribution of sulfur dioxide deposition.

  11. Diurnal and circadian regulation of a melatonin receptor, MT1, in the golden rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Ju; Park, Ji-Gweon; Hiyakawa, Nanae; Lee, Young-Don; Kim, Se-Jae; Takemura, Akihiro

    2007-01-15

    The golden rabbitfish Siganus guttatus is a reef fish with a restricted lunar-synchronized spawning rhythmicity and releases gametes simultaneously around the first quarter moon period during the spawning season. In order to understand the molecular aspects of the "circa" rhythms in this species, the full-length melatonin receptor (MT1) cDNA was cloned, and its diurnal/circadian regulation was examined. The full-length MT1 cDNA (1257 bp) contained an open reading frame that encodes a protein of 350 amino acids; this protein is highly homologous to MT1 of nonmammalian species. A high expression of MT1 mRNA with a day-night difference was observed in the whole brain, retina, liver, and kidney. When diurnal variations in MT1 mRNA expression in the retina and whole brain were examined using real-time quantitative RT-PCR, an increase in the mRNA expression was observed during nighttime in both tissues under conditions of light/dark, constant darkness, and constant light. This suggests that MT1 mRNA expression is under circadian regulation. The expression of MT1 mRNA in the cultured pineal gland also showed diurnal variations with high expression levels during nighttime; this suggests that the increased expression level observed in the whole brain is partially of pineal origin. Alternation of light conditions in the pineal gland cultures resulted in the changes in melatonin release into the culture medium as well as MT1 mRNA expression in the pineal gland. The present results suggest that melatonin and its receptors play an important role in the exertion of daily and circadian variations in the neural tissues.

  12. Mutation patterns of mtDNA: Empirical inferences for the coding region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez Luis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA has been extensively used in population and evolutionary genetics studies. Thus, a valid estimate of human mtDNA evolutionary rate is important in many research fields. The small number of estimations performed for the coding region of the molecule, showed important differences between phylogenetic and empirical approaches. We analyzed a portion of the coding region of mtDNA (tRNALeu, ND1 and tRNAIle genes, using individuals belonging to extended families from the Azores Islands (Portugal with the main aim of providing empirical estimations of the mutation rate of the coding region of mtDNA under different assumptions, and hence to better understand the mtDNA evolutionary process. Results Heteroplasmy was detected in 6.5% (3/46 of the families analyzed. In all of the families the presence of mtDNA heteroplasmy resulted from three new point mutations, and no cases of insertions or deletions were identified. Major differences were found in the proportion and type of heteroplasmy found in the genes studied when compared to those obtained in a previous report for the D-loop. Our empirical estimation of mtDNA coding region mutation rate, calculated taking into account the sex of individuals carrying new mutations, the probability of intra-individual fixation of mutations present in heteroplasmy and, to the possible extent, the effect of selection, is similar to that obtained using phylogenetic approaches. Conclusion Based on our results, the discrepancy previously reported between the human mtDNA coding region mutation rates observed along evolutionary timescales and estimations obtained using family pedigrees can be resolved when correcting for the previously cited factors.

  13. The use of the Electrical Resistivity Tomography to image deep volcanic structures: a methodological study applied to Mt. Vesuvius (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiano, Antonio; Giulia Di Giuseppe, Maria; Somma, Renato; Brandi, Giuseppe; Troise, Claudia; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    increasing of the information overlapping. We present a study concerning this capability, applying the deep ERT imaging to the Mt. Vesuvius (Italy), that is among the most surveyed active volcanoes in the world for the great concern due to the high level of urbanization existing all around its slopes. 12 wireless ERT stations has been distributed along a nearly straight NW-SE transect, about 7 km long and passing about 2 km south of the Vesuvius crater. Despite several recent works present various MT imaging of the same area, a strong degree of uncertainty still persist due to contrasting results. Deep ERT imaging could furnish useful elements to resolve such ambiguity. An accurate analysis of the coherence degree of the artificial ERT source signals has been performed up to a several km distance. Performance of different statistical estimator has been evaluated and a deep imaging has been tested in order to resolve structures up to a few km depths.

  14. Chuva de sementes em remanescentes florestais de Campo Verde, MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Pietro-Souza

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho consistiu em avaliar sazonalmente a produção de sementes provenientes de fragmentos florestais presentes na zona rural de Campo Verde, MT. Essa caracterização ocorreu em termos de produção de sementes e riqueza de espécies vegetais. Foram selecionados três fragmentos florestais caracterizados como Floresta Estacional Semidecidual. Em cada fragmento, cinco coletores foram instalados e confeccionados com canos de PVC (1 m²; malha de náilon de 0,001 m e 0,15 m de profundidade do bojo. O material foi coletado mensalmente, cujas sementes foram quantificadas e separadas conforme a síndrome de dispersão, etapa sucessional e forma de vida. Houve a determinação da densidade, frequência absoluta, índice de diversidade e equitabilidade. Ao todo, foram obtidas 3.622 sementes, pertencentes a 74 táxons. Maiores densidades de sementes foram observadas durante os meses de setembro, outubro e novembro. As lianas Gouania sp., Fridericia speciosa, Heteropterys sp. e Distictella sp. responderam com 55,95% do total de sementes aportadas. Das espécies que compuseram a chuva de sementes, 74% não são dispersas pelo vento. Todavia, quando se verificou a quantidade de diásporos coletados, formas dispersas pelo vento foram predominantes, representando 76% do total. Citam-se como táxons arbóreos importantes para a recomposição florestal na região de Campo Verde, situada no Sudeste de Mato Grosso: Tachigali rubiginosa, Siparuna guianensis, Nectandra sp., Cordia alliodora, Alibertia sp., Terminalia brasiliensis e Myrcia sp. Essas espécies devem ser alvo de estudos mais específicos relacionados ao seu potencial para recuperação de ambientes degradados, considerando-se as Áreas de Preservação Permanente e Reservas Legais.

  15. Overview of the 2006 eruption of Mt. Merapi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratdomopurbo, Antonius; Beauducel, Francois; Subandriyo, Joko; Agung Nandaka, I. G. Made; Newhall, Christopher G.; Suharna; Sayudi, Dewi Sri; Suparwaka, Heru; Sunarta

    2013-07-01

    In the last part of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century, Mt. Merapi in Central-Java Indonesia erupted about every 2-5 years. Most of the eruptions were low in explosivity, with VEI-3 or less. Eruptions usually involve the formation of a lava dome, either in the beginning or in the end of the eruptive episode. For the 2006 eruption, the precursory signal was first observed in the middle of the year 2005 with a decrease in EDM slope distances to points on the rim, an increase of seismicity and a possible increase of SO2 emissions. Those early events marked the beginning of a more continuous period of inflation, which led to the eruption. In total, the pre-eruption displacement of the southern rim reached at least 2.4 m toward the measuring station in Kaliurang (KAL). From late April until June 2006, a lava dome grew on the summit with a volume that gradually increased until it reached about 4.1 million m3 in 38 days. The total of erupted magma was about 5.3 million m3 dense-rock-equivalent (DRE). The dome subsequently collapsed in three steps from June 4 to June 14, leaving an open scar on its southeast side. In this paper we detail the changes of dome morphology that were monitored by taking successive photographs from similar positions. The eruption in 2006 marked a significant change in summit morphology, from west-southwestward opening during the 20th century to the currently southeast orientation. Also, an Mw 6.4 earthquake occurred on 26 May, midway through the eruption, which adds interesting questions about the relationship of the eruption and the earthquake. EDM data from 2006 and previous eruptions show that the summit remains inflated after each eruption, i.e., no significant deflation occurs following eruptions. The lack of post-eruption deflation suggests that magma remains in the shallow parts of the edifice after the eruption. As a result, the complex of summit lava domes and their intrusive roots grow with time and Merapi's rim and

  16. The geochemical evolution of the Mt. Somma-Vesuvius volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paone, A.

    2006-05-01

    This work integrates new geochemical data with the numerous published analyses on rocks from the Mt. Somma-Vesuvius volcano. New quantitative models for the evolution of magma source regions and magma at different depths are proposed. The origin of the Somma-Vesuvius parental magma is modeled as 0.05-0.1 melt fractions of a MORB-type source composed of 54% olivine, 30% orthopyroxene, 10% clinopyroxene, 1% garnet, and 4% amphibole, and 1-5% sediment introduced through the adjacent arc system. The excess concentrations of Rb, Ba, K, and Sr are attributed to a subduction-related fluid phase. Major and trace element concentrations, coupled with Sr-Nd-Pb isotope signatures suggest that the bulk composition of sediments being subducted below southern Italy is similar to that of the carbonate rich sediment columns described by Plank and Langmuir (1998) and Vroon et al. (1995). Furthermore, it appears that the sediment contribution was introduced as a partial melt, which would account for some geochemical patterns, such as 143Nd/144Nd versus Th/Ce. The EC-AFC model ( Spera and Bohrson, 2001) is then used to track the evolution of Somma-Vesuvius magmas. The results are consistent with the melting of crustal Hercynian basement at depths of 12 and >20 km ( De Natale et al., 2001). Such a model is also consistent with the thermal model of Annen and Sparks (2002) for the evolution of magmatic provinces. Here, magmas from the upper mantle form a melt intrusion and storage zone at 12 to >20 km allowing for crustal melting to take place. At Vesuvius, Plinian eruptions involve the first magma withdrawn from a deep magma reservoir. Interplinian eruptions involve reduced volumes of magma stored over a larger depth range until the volcanic activity stops. This suggests that little magma is left in the melt intrusion and storage zone. A new cycle is started by a Plinian event when new magma rises from the upper mantle and is emplaced in the lower crust.

  17. Hydrothermal Alteration of the Mt Unzen Conduit (Shimabara/Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, T. I.; Mayer, K.; Hess, K. U.; Janots, E.; Gilg, H. A.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2016-12-01

    Investigations were carried out on hydrothermally altered coherent dacitic dykes samples from (USDP-4) drill core at Mt Unzen stratovolcano (Shimabara/Japan). XRF, XRD, EMPA, and C-O-isotope analysis led to insights concerning chemistry, mineralogy, and intensity of alteration as well as the origin of carbonate-precipitating fluids. Additionally a textural characterization of the occurring replacement features in the magma conduit zone was performed. The occurrence of the main secondary phases such as chlorite, pyrite, carbonates, and R1 (Reichweite parameter) illite-smectite indicate a weak to moderate propylitic to phyllic hydrothermal alteration. The dacitic samples of the dykes show different hydrothermal alteration features: (i) carbonate pseudomorphs after hornblende as well as core and zonal textures due to replacement of plagioclase by R1 illite-smectite, (ii) colloform banded fracture fillings and fillings in dissolution vugs, and (iii) chlorite and R1 illite-smectite in the groundmass. Carbonates in fractures comprise iron-rich dolomite solid solutions ("ankerite") and calcite. Isotopic values of d13Cvpdb = -4.59 ± 0.6‰ and d18Ovpdb = -21.73 ± 0.5‰ indicate a hydrothermal-magmatic origin for the carbonate formation. The chlorite-carbonate-pyrite index (CCPI) and the Ishikawa alteration index (AI), applied to the investigated samples show significant differences (CCPI=52.7-57.8; AI=36.1-40.6) indicating their different degree of alteration. According to Nakada et al., 2005, the C13 to C16 dykes represent the feeder dyke from the latest eruption (1991-1995) whereas C8 represents an earlier dyke feeder dyke from an older eruption. Weakest conduit alteration, which was obtained in samples C16-1-5 and C13-2-5, correlates with the alteration degree of the pristine dome rocks. Highest CCPI value was determined for sample C14-1-5 and the highest AI value was determined for sample C15-2-6. The degrees of alteration do not indicate highest alteration of the

  18. Nanoscale surface modification of Mt. Etna volcanic ashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, G.; Mazzoleni, P.; Corsaro, R. A.; Costagliola, P.; Di Benedetto, F.; Ciliberto, E.; Gimeno, D.; Bongiorno, C.; Spinella, C.

    2016-02-01

    Ashes emitted during volcanic explosive activity present peculiar surface chemical and mineralogical features related in literature to the interaction in the plume of solid particles with gases and aerosols. The compositional differences of magmas and gases, the magnitude, intensity and duration of the emission and the physical condition during the eruption, strongly influence the results of the modification processes. Here we report the characterization of the products emitted during the 2013 paroxysmal activity of Mt. Etna. The surface features of the ash particles were investigated through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) allowing the analysis at nanometer scale. TEM images showed on the surface the presence of composite structures formed by Ca, Mg and Na sulphates and halides and of droplets and crystals of chlorides; nanometric magnesioferrite and metallic iron dendrites are observable directly below the surface. From the chemical point of view, the most external layer of the volcanic glassy particles (XPS, presents depletion in Si, Mg, Ca, Na and K and strong enrichment in volatile elements especially F and S, with respect to the inner zone, which represents the unaltered counterpart. Below this external layer, a transition glassy shell (thick 50-100 nm) is characterized by Fe, Mg and Ca enrichments with respect to the inner zone. We propose that the ash particle surface composition is the result of a sequence of events which start at shallow depth, above the exsolution surface, where gas bubbles nucleate and the interfaces between bubbles and melt represent proto-surfaces of future ash particles. Enrichment of Ca, Mg and Fe and halides may be due to the early partition of F and Cl in the gas phase and their interaction with the melt layer located close to the bubbles. Furthermore the formation of volatile SiF4 and KF explain the observed depletion of Si and K. The F enrichment in the external ∼50 nm thick

  19. Clast comminution during pyroclastic density current transport: Mt St Helens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, B.; Brand, B. D.; Dufek, J.

    2011-12-01

    Volcanic clasts within pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) tend to be more rounded than those in fall deposits. This rounding reflects degrees of comminution during transport, which produces an increase in fine-grained ash with distance from source (Manga, M., Patel, A., Dufek., J. 2011. Bull Volcanol 73: 321-333). The amount of ash produced due to comminution can potentially affect runout distance, deposit sorting, the volume of ash lofted into the upper atmosphere, and increase internal pore pressure (e.g., Wohletz, K., Sheridan, M. F., Brown, W.K. 1989. J Geophy Res, 94, 15703-15721). For example, increased pore pressure has been shown to produce longer runout distances than non-comminuted PDC flows (e.g., Dufek, J., and M. Manga, 2008. J. Geophy Res, 113). We build on the work of Manga et al., (2011) by completing a pumice abrasion study for two well-exposed flow units from the May 18th, 1980 eruption of Mt St Helens (MSH). To quantify differences in comminution from source, sampling and the image analysis technique developed in Manga et al., 2010 was completed at distances proximal, medial, and distal from source. Within the units observed, data was taken from the base, middle, and pumice lobes within the outcrops. Our study is unique in that in addition to quantifying the degree of pumice rounding with distance from source, we also determine the possible range of ash sizes produced during comminution by analyzing bubble wall thickness of the pumice through petrographic and SEM analysis. The proportion of this ash size is then measured relative to the grain size of larger ash with distance from source. This allows us to correlate ash production with degree of rounding with distance from source, and determine the fraction of the fine ash produced due to comminution versus vent-fragmentation mechanisms. In addition we test the error in 2D analysis by completing a 3D image analysis of selected pumice samples using a Camsizer. We find that the roundness of PDC

  20. Data Mining in the Context of Monitoring Mt Etna, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliotta, Marco; Cassisi, Carmelo; D'Agostino, Marcello; Falsaperla, Susanna; Ferrari, Ferruccio; Langer, Horst; Messina, Alfio; Montalto, Placido; Reitano, Danilo; Spampinato, Salvatore

    2015-04-01

    The persistent volcanic activity of Mt Etna makes the continuous monitoring of multidisciplinary data a first-class issue. Indeed, the monitoring systems rapidly accumulate huge quantity of data, arising specific problems of andling and interpretation. In order to respond to these problems, the INGV staff has developed a number of software tools for data mining. These tools have the scope of identifying structures in the data that can be related to volcanic activity, furnishing criteria for the identification of precursory scenarios. In particular, we use methods of clustering and classification in which data are divided into groups according to a-priori-defined measures of similarity or distance. Data groups may assume various shapes, such as convex clouds or complex concave bodies.The "KKAnalysis" software package is a basket of clustering methods. Currently, it is one of the key techniques of the tremor-based automatic alarm systems of INGV Osservatorio Etneo. It exploits both Self-Organizing Maps and Fuzzy Clustering. Beside seismic data, the software has been applied to the geochemical composition of eruptive products as well as a combined analysis of gas-emission (radon) and seismic data. The "DBSCAN" package exploits a concept based on density-based clustering. This method allows discovering clusters with arbitrary shape. Clusters are defined as dense regions of objects in the data space separated by regions of low density. In DBSCAN a cluster grows as long as the density within a group of objects exceeds some threshold. In the context of volcano monitoring, the method is particularly promising in the recognition of ash particles as they have a rather irregular shape. The "MOTIF" software allows us to identify typical waveforms in time series, outperforming methods like cross-correlation that entail a high computational effort. MOTIF can recognize the non-imilarity of two patterns on a small number of data points without going through the whole length of

  1. GEANT4-MT : bringing multi-threading into GEANT4 production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sunil; Apostolakis, John; Asai, Makoto; Brandt, Daniel; Cooperman, Gene; Cosmo, Gabriele; Dotti, Andrea; Dong, Xin; Jun, Soon Yung; Nowak, Andrzej

    2014-06-01

    GEANT4-MT is the multi-threaded version of the GEANT4 particle transport code.(1, 2) The key goals for the design of GEANT4-MT have been a) the need to reduce the memory footprint of the multi-threaded application compared to the use of separate jobs and processes; b) to create an easy migration of the existing applications; and c) to use efficiently many threads or cores, by scaling up to tens and potentially hundreds of workers. The first public release of a GEANT4-MT prototype was made in 2011. We report on the revision of GEANT4-MT for inclusion in the production-level release scheduled for end of 2013. This has involved significant re-engineering of the prototype in order to incorporate it into the main GEANT4 development line, and the porting of GEANT4-MT threading code to additional platforms. In order to make the porting of applications as simple as possible, refinements addressed the needs of standalone applications. Further adaptations were created to improve the fit with the frameworks of High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. We report on performances measurements on Intel Xeon™, AMD Opteron™ the first trials of GEANT4-MT on the Intel Many Integrated Cores (MIC) architecture, in the form of the Xeon Phi™ co-processor.(3) These indicate near-linear scaling through about 200 threads on 60 cores, when holding fixed the number of events per thread.

  2. MT1-MMP-dependent invasion is regulated by TI-VAMP/VAMP7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Anika; Le Dez, Gaëlle; Poincloux, Renaud; Recchi, Chiara; Nassoy, Pierre; Rottner, Klemens; Galli, Thierry; Chavrier, Philippe

    2008-06-24

    Proteolytic degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is one intrinsic property of metastatic tumor cells to breach tissue barriers and to disseminate into different tissues. This process is initiated by the formation of invadopodia, which are actin-driven, finger-like membrane protrusions. Yet, little is known on how invadopodia are endowed with the functional machinery of proteolytic enzymes [1, 2]. The key protease MT1-MMP (membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase) confers proteolytic activity to invadopodia and thus invasion capacity of cancer cells [3-6]. Here, we report that MT1-MMP-dependent matrix degradation at invadopodia is regulated by the v-SNARE TI-VAMP/VAMP7, hence providing the molecular inventory mediating focal degradative activity of cancer cells. As observed by TIRF microscopy, MT1-MMP-mCherry and GFP-VAMP7 were simultaneously detected at proteolytic sites. Functional ablation of VAMP7 decreased the ability of breast cancer cells to degrade and invade in a MT1-MMP-dependent fashion. Moreover, the number of invadopodia was dramatically decreased in VAMP7- and MT1-MMP-depleted cells, indicative of a positive-feedback loop in which the protease as a cargo of VAMP7-targeted transport vesicles regulates maturation of invadopodia. Collectively, these data point to a specific role of VAMP7 in delivering MT1-MMP to sites of degradation, maintaining the functional machinery required for invasion.

  3. Automatic Grader of MT Outputs in Colloquial Style by Using Multiple Edit Distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, Yasuhiro; Imamura, Kenji; Sumita, Eiichiro; Nakaiwa, Hiromi; Yamamoto, Seiichi; Okuno, Hiroshi G.

    This paper addresses the challenging problem of automating the human's intelligent ability to evaluate output from machine translation (MT) systems, which are subsystems of Speech-to-Speech MT (SSMT) systems. Conventional automatic MT evaluation methods include BLEU, which MT researchers have frequently used. BLEU is unsuitable for SSMT evaluation for two reasons. First, BLEU assesses errors lightly at the beginning or ending of translations and heavily in the middle, although the assessments should be independent from the positions. Second, BLEU lacks tolerance in accepting colloquial sentences with small errors, although such errors do not prevent us from continuing conversation. In this paper, the authors report a new evaluation method called RED that automatically grades each MT output by using a decision tree (DT). The DT is learned from training examples that are encoded by using multiple edit distances and their grades. The multiple edit distances are normal edit dista nce (ED) defined by insertion, deletion, and replacement, as well as extensions of ED. The use of multiple edit distances allows more tolerance than either ED or BLEU. Each evaluated MT output is assigned a grade by using the DT. RED and BLEU were compared for the task of evaluating SSMT systems, which have various performances, on a spoken language corpus, ATR's Basic Travel Expression Corpus (BTEC). Experimental results showed that RED significantly outperformed BLEU.

  4. No evidence of Neandertal mtDNA contribution to early modern humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Serre

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The retrieval of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequences from four Neandertal fossils from Germany, Russia, and Croatia has demonstrated that these individuals carried closely related mtDNAs that are not found among current humans. However, these results do not definitively resolve the question of a possible Neandertal contribution to the gene pool of modern humans since such a contribution might have been erased by genetic drift or by the continuous influx of modern human DNA into the Neandertal gene pool. A further concern is that if some Neandertals carried mtDNA sequences similar to contemporaneous humans, such sequences may be erroneously regarded as modern contaminations when retrieved from fossils. Here we address these issues by the analysis of 24 Neandertal and 40 early modern human remains. The biomolecular preservation of four Neandertals and of five early modern humans was good enough to suggest the preservation of DNA. All four Neandertals yielded mtDNA sequences similar to those previously determined from Neandertal individuals, whereas none of the five early modern humans contained such mtDNA sequences. In combination with current mtDNA data, this excludes any large genetic contribution by Neandertals to early modern humans, but does not rule out the possibility of a smaller contribution.

  5. MT-Stabilizer, Dictyostatin, Exhibits Prolonged Brain Retention and Activity: Potential Therapeutic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Inclusions comprising the microtubule (MT)-stabilizing protein, tau, are found within neurons in the brains of patients with Alzheimer’s disease and related neurodegenerative disorders that are broadly referred to as tauopathies. The sequestration of tau into inclusions is believed to cause a loss of tau function, such that MT structure and function are compromised, leading to neuronal damage. Recent data reveal that the brain-penetrant MT-stabilizing agent, epothilone D (EpoD), improves cognitive function and decreases both neuron loss and tau pathology in transgenic mouse models of tauopathy. There is thus a need to identify additional MT-stabilizing compounds with blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability and slow brain clearance, as observed with EpoD. We report here that the MT-stabilizing natural product, dictyostatin, crosses the BBB in mice and has extended brain retention. Moreover, a single administration of dictyostatin to mice causes prolonged stabilization of MTs in the brain. In contrast, the structurally related MT-stabilizer, discodermolide, shows significantly less brain exposure. Thus, dictyostatin merits further investigation as a potential tauopathy therapeutic. PMID:24900764

  6. MT-Stabilizer, Dictyostatin, Exhibits Prolonged Brain Retention and Activity: Potential Therapeutic Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunden, Kurt R; Gardner, Nicola M; James, Michael J; Yao, Yuemang; Trojanowski, John Q; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Paterson, Ian; Ballatore, Carlo; Smith, Amos B

    2013-09-12

    Inclusions comprising the microtubule (MT)-stabilizing protein, tau, are found within neurons in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease and related neurodegenerative disorders that are broadly referred to as tauopathies. The sequestration of tau into inclusions is believed to cause a loss of tau function, such that MT structure and function are compromised, leading to neuronal damage. Recent data reveal that the brain-penetrant MT-stabilizing agent, epothilone D (EpoD), improves cognitive function and decreases both neuron loss and tau pathology in transgenic mouse models of tauopathy. There is thus a need to identify additional MT-stabilizing compounds with blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and slow brain clearance, as observed with EpoD. We report here that the MT-stabilizing natural product, dictyostatin, crosses the BBB in mice and has extended brain retention. Moreover, a single administration of dictyostatin to mice causes prolonged stabilization of MTs in the brain. In contrast, the structurally related MT-stabilizer, discodermolide, shows significantly less brain exposure. Thus, dictyostatin merits further investigation as a potential tauopathy therapeutic.

  7. MT1-MMP-mediated basement membrane remodeling modulates renal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riggins, Karen S.; Mernaugh, Glenda [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Su, Yan; Quaranta, Vito [Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Koshikawa, Naohiko; Seiki, Motoharu [Division of Cancer Cell Research, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Pozzi, Ambra [Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Research Medicine, Veterans Affairs Hospital, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Zent, Roy, E-mail: roy.zent@vanderbilt.edu [Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Research Medicine, Veterans Affairs Hospital, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling regulates multiple cellular functions required for normal development and tissue repair. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key mediators of this process and membrane targeted MMPs (MT-MMPs) in particular have been shown to be important in normal development of specific organs. In this study we investigated the role of MT1-MMP in kidney development. We demonstrate that loss of MT1-MMP leads to a renal phenotype characterized by a moderate decrease in ureteric bud branching morphogenesis and a severe proliferation defect. The kidneys of MT1-MMP-null mice have increased deposition of collagen IV, laminins, perlecan, and nidogen and the phenotype is independent of the MT-1MMP target, MMP-2. Utilizing in vitro systems we demonstrated that MTI-MMP proteolytic activity is required for renal tubule cells to proliferate in three dimensional matrices and to migrate on collagen IV and laminins. Together these data suggest an important role for MT1-MMP in kidney development, which is mediated by its ability to regulate cell proliferation and migration by proteolytically cleaving kidney basement membrane components.

  8. The Current State and Historico-geographical Background of Mt. Chirisan Region Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungho Kang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the historico-geographical background and current state of immigrants in the area designated as the “Mt. Chirisan Region,” their characteristics, and related integration issues. This article defines the Mt. Chirisan Region as the 7 cities/kuns of Namwŏn-si, Changsu-kun, Koksŏng-kun, Kurye-kun, Hadong-kun, Sanchŏng-kun, and Hamyang-kun. As the Mt. Chirisan Region mainly consists of mountainous and agricultural areas, the immigrant induction effect socio-economically was low relative to urban and industrial areas. It was also noted that, as the percentage of marriage immigration in Mt. Chirisan was high relative to urban or industrial areas, the female foreigner ratio was higher than that of male foreigners. In regard to the home countries of immigrants, women from South-East Asia and North-East Asia accounted for the majority. Also, this article examines the current situation of support programs of 7 local Multicultural Family Support Centers in the Mt. Chirisan Region, their problems, and probably solutions. Based on the historical development of the region and recent social changes, our society and government need to actively develop a higher level of social integration and employment education support programs, and carry out policies that will protect the diverse cultural identities of immigrants. In addition, differentiated multicultural family support programs appropriate for Mt. Chirisan, an inland mountain region, need to be developed.

  9. Evolution of sex-dependent mtDNA transmission in freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Davide; Plazzi, Federico; Stewart, Donald T; Bogan, Arthur E; Hoeh, Walter R; Breton, Sophie

    2017-05-08

    Doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI) describes a mode of mtDNA transmission widespread in gonochoric freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Palaeoheterodonta: Unionida). In this system, both female- and male-transmitted mtDNAs, named F and M respectively, coexist in the same species. In unionids, DUI is strictly correlated to gonochorism and to the presence of the atypical open reading frames (ORFans) F-orf and M-orf, respectively inside F and M mtDNAs, which are hypothesized to participate in sex determination. However, DUI is not found in all three Unionida superfamilies (confirmed in Hyrioidea and Unionoidea but not in Etherioidea), raising the question of its origin in these bivalves. To reconstruct the co-evolution of DUI and of ORFans, we sequenced the mtDNAs of four unionids (two gonochoric with DUI, one gonochoric and one hermaphroditic without DUI) and of the related gonochoric species Neotrigonia margaritacea (Palaeoheterodonta: Trigoniida). Our analyses suggest that rearranged mtDNAs appeared early during unionid radiation, and that a duplicated and diverged atp8 gene evolved into the M-orf associated with the paternal transmission route in Hyrioidea and Unionoidea, but not in Etherioidea. We propose that novel mtDNA-encoded genes can deeply influence bivalve sex determining systems and the evolution of the mitogenomes in which they occur.

  10. The occurrence of mtDNA heteroplasmy in multiple cetacean species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Nicole L; Viricel, Amélia; Wilcox, Lynsey; Katherine Moore, M; Rosel, Patricia E

    2011-04-01

    In population genetics and phylogenetic studies, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is commonly used for examining differences both between and within groups of individuals. For these studies, correct interpretation of every nucleotide position is crucial but can be complicated by the presence of ambiguous bases resulting from heteroplasmy. Particularly for non-model taxa, the presence of heteroplasmy in mtDNA is rarely reported, therefore, it is unclear how commonly it occurs and how it can affect phylogenetic relationships among taxa and the overall understanding of evolutionary processes. We examined the occurrence of both site and length heteroplasmy within the mtDNA of ten marine mammal species, for most of which mtDNA heteroplasmy has never been reported. After sequencing a portion of the mtDNA control region for 5,062 individuals, we found heteroplasmy in at least 2% of individuals from seven species, including Stenella frontalis where 58.9% were heteroplasmic. We verified the presence of true heteroplasmy, ruling out artifacts from amplification and sequencing methods and the presence of nuclear copies of mitochondrial genes. We found no evidence that mtDNA heteroplasmy influenced phylogenetic relationships, however, its occurrence does have the potential to increase the genetic diversity for all species in which it is found. This study stresses the importance of both detecting and reporting the occurrence of heteroplasmy in wild populations in order to enhance the knowledge of both the introduction and the persistence of mutant mitochondrial haplotypes in the evolutionary process.

  11. Mitochondria Retrograde Signaling and the UPR mt: Where Are We in Mammals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, Thierry; Michel, Sébastien; Renard, Patricia

    2015-08-06

    Mitochondrial unfolded protein response is a form of retrograde signaling that contributes to ensuring the maintenance of quality control of mitochondria, allowing functional integrity of the mitochondrial proteome. When misfolded proteins or unassembled complexes accumulate beyond the folding capacity, it leads to alteration of proteostasis, damages, and organelle/cell dysfunction. Extensively studied for the ER, it was recently reported that this kind of signaling for mitochondrion would also be able to communicate with the nucleus in response to impaired proteostasis. The mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)) is activated in response to different types and levels of stress, especially in conditions where unfolded or misfolded mitochondrial proteins accumulate and aggregate. A specific UPR(mt) could thus be initiated to boost folding and degradation capacity in response to unfolded and aggregated protein accumulation. Although first described in mammals, the UPR(mt) was mainly studied in Caenorhabditis elegans, and accumulating evidence suggests that mechanisms triggered in response to a UPR(mt) might be different in C. elegans and mammals. In this review, we discuss and integrate recent data from the literature to address whether the UPR(mt) is relevant to mitochondrial homeostasis in mammals and to analyze the putative role of integrated stress response (ISR) activation in response to the inhibition of mtDNA expression and/or accumulation of mitochondrial mis/unfolded proteins.

  12. High-quality mtDNA control region sequences from 680 individuals sampled across the Netherlands to establish a national forensic mtDNA reference database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.C. Chaitanya (Lakshmi); M. van Oven (Mannis); S. Brauer (Silke); B. Zimmermann (Bettina); G. Huber (Gabriela); C. Xavier (Catarina); W. Parson (Walther); P. de Knijff (Peter); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe use of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) for maternal lineage identification often marks the last resort when investigating forensic and missing-person cases involving highly degraded biological materials. As with all comparative DNA testing, a match between evidence and reference sample req

  13. Searching for Warm Waters at the Mt. Cobb Sai Sho Zen-ji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, L.; Schnabel, G. R.; Schnabel, E.; Moscoso, K. M.; Brophy, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Mt. Cobb Sai Sho Zen-ji is a Zen Center located in Lake County, CA about 2 km east of the Geysers Geothermal plant. The well-known Geysers geothermal system is a deep, hot system spanning an area of approximately 78 square km that provides electricity for ~60% of the power demand for coastal California north of the Golden Gate Bridge. Not surprisingly this region also is rich in hot springs used for bathing and spas. This study was undertaken to locate shallow, warm waters to be used at the Zen Center. The 300-acre Zen Center is situated on the Franciscan Formation, complex and typically chaotic assemblage of metasedimentary and volcanic rocks that dominate the geology of the California Pacific Coast Ranges. The principal water source at the Center flows at 20-25 l/min, at a temperature of 21 degree C, and a pH of 7.7. This spring has a mineral profile that corresponds to exposures to temperatures of approximately 65 degree C. A seep excavated into a slope about 4.5 m below the level of an adjacent meadow, revealed an increase in water temperature to 24 degrees C. This moderate temperature increase is consistent with deep, warm water mixing with cooler surface waters. Another source of warm water was identified at a seasonally productive seep producing up to about 50 l/min in the winter months, but dry in the summer. A well drilled on the basis of a low-resistivity anomaly revealed by an electrical resistivity survey produced 21 degree C water at a rate of~90 l/min, but was only drilled to a depth of 45 m upon encountering basalt. A second well, located nearby (15 m distant) and drilled to 260 m, was dry. Due to the ambiguous nature of the initial exploration program a detailed audiomagnetotelluric survey was undertaken using the Geometrics Stratagem system to aid in finding a stable source of warm water. Two-dimensional inverse models derived from these AMT soundings delineated several local structures. These models, interpreted in conjunction with surficial

  14. Resistivity structure and geochemistry of the Jigokudani Valley hydrothermal system, Mt. Tateyama, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Kaori; Kanda, Wataru; Tanbo, Toshiya; Ohba, Takeshi; Ogawa, Yasuo; Takakura, Shinichi; Nogami, Kenji; Ushioda, Masashi; Suzuki, Atsushi; Saito, Zenshiro; Matsunaga, Yasuo

    2016-10-01

    This study clarifies the hydrothermal system of Jigokudani Valley near Mt. Tateyama volcano in Japan by using a combination of audio-frequency magnetotelluric (AMT) survey and hot-spring water analysis in order to assess the potential of future phreatic eruptions in the area. Repeated phreatic eruptions in the area about 40,000 years ago produced the current valley morphology, which is now an active solfatara field dotted with hot springs and fumaroles indicative of a well-developed hydrothermal system. The three-dimensional (3D) resistivity structure of the hydrothermal system was modeled by using the results of an AMT survey conducted at 25 locations across the valley in 2013-2014. The model suggests the presence of a near-surface highly conductive layer of < 50 m in thickness across the entire valley, which is interpreted as a cap rock layer. Immediately below the cap rock is a relatively resistive body interpreted as a gas reservoir. Field measurements of temperature, pH, and electrical conductivity (EC) were taken at various hot springs across the valley, and 12 samples of hot-spring waters were analyzed for major ion chemistry and H2O isotopic ratios. All hot-spring waters had low pH and could be categorized into three types on the basis of the Cl-/SO 42 - concentration ratio, with all falling largely on a mixing line between magmatic fluids and local meteoric water (LMW). The geochemical analysis suggests that the hydrothermal system includes a two-phase zone of vapor-liquid. A comparison of the resistivity structure and the geochemically inferred structure suggests that a hydrothermal reservoir is present at a depth of approximately 500 m, from which hot-spring water differentiates into the three observed types. The two-phase zone appears to be located immediately beneath the cap rock structure. These findings suggest that the hydrothermal system of Jigokudani Valley exhibits a number of factors that could trigger a future phreatic eruption.

  15. Targeting MT1-MMP as an ImmunoPET-Based Strategy for Imaging Gliomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A G de Lucas

    Full Text Available A critical challenge in the management of Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM tumors is the accurate diagnosis and assessment of tumor progression in a noninvasive manner. We have identified Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP as an attractive biomarker for GBM imaging since this protein is actively involved in tumor growth and progression, correlates with tumor grade and is closely associated with poor prognosis in GBM patients. Here, we report the development of an immunoPET tracer for effective detection of MT1-MMP in GBM models.An anti-human MT1-MMP monoclonal antibody (mAb, LEM2/15, was conjugated to p-isothiocyanatobenzyl-desferrioxamine (DFO-NCS for 89Zr labeling. Biodistribution and PET imaging studies were performed in xenograft mice bearing human GBM cells (U251 expressing MT1-MMP and non-expressing breast carcinoma cells (MCF-7 as negative control. Two orthotopic brain GBM models, patient-derived neurospheres (TS543 and U251 cells, with different degrees of blood-brain barrier (BBB disruption were also used for PET imaging experiments.89Zr labeling of DFO-LEM2/15 was achieved with high yield (>90% and specific activity (78.5 MBq/mg. Biodistribution experiments indicated that 89Zr-DFO-LEM2/15 showed excellent potential as a radiotracer for detection of MT1-MMP positive GBM tumors. PET imaging also indicated a specific and prominent 89Zr-DFO-LEM2/15 uptake in MT1-MMP+ U251 GBM tumors compared to MT1-MMP- MCF-7 breast tumors. Results obtained in orthotopic brain GBM models revealed a high dependence of a disrupted BBB for tracer penetrance into tumors. 89Zr-DFO-LEM2/15 showed much higher accumulation in TS543 tumors with a highly disrupted BBB than in U251 orthotopic model in which the BBB permeability was only partially increased. Histological analysis confirmed the specificity of the immunoconjugate in all GBM models.A new anti MT1-MMP-mAb tracer, 89Zr-DFO-LEM2/15, was synthesized efficiently. In vivo validation showed high

  16. ALS-based hummock size-distance relationship assessment of Mt Shasta debris avalanche deposit, Northern California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortini, Riccardo; Carn, Simon; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    The failure of destabilized volcano flanks is a likely occurrence during the lifetime of a stratovolcano, generating large debris avalanches and drastically changing landforms around volcanoes. The significant hazards associated with these events in the Cascade range were demonstrated, for example, by the collapse of Mt St Helens (WA), which triggered its devastating explosive eruption in 1980. The rapid modification of the landforms due to these events makes it difficult to estimate the magnitude of prehistoric avalanches. However, the widespread preservation of hummocks along the course of rockslide-debris avalanches is highly significant for understanding the physical characteristics of these landslides. Mt Shasta is a 4,317 m high, snow-capped, steep-sloped stratovolcano located in Northern California. The current edifice began forming on the remnants of an ancestral Mt Shasta that collapsed ~300-380k years ago producing one of the largest debris avalanches known on Earth. The debris avalanche deposit (DAD) covers a surface of ~450 km2 across the Shasta valley, with an estimated volume of ~26 km3. We analyze ALS data on hummocks from the prehistoric Shasta valley DAD in northern California (USA) to derive the relationship between hummock size and distance from landslide source, and interpret the geomorphic significance of the intercept and slope coefficients of the observed functional relationships. Given the limited extent of the ALS survey (i.e. 40 km2), the high-resolution dataset is used for validation of the morphological parameters extracted from freely available, broader coverage DTMs such as the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The ALS dataset also permits the identification of subtle topographic features not apparent in the field or in coarser resolution datasets, including a previously unmapped fault, of crucial importance for both seismic and volcanic hazard assessment in volcanic areas. We present evidence from the Shasta DAD of neotectonic

  17. Archaeological elements of Mt. Lykaion Sanctuary of Zeus (southern Peloponnesus) in relation to tectonics and structural geology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, G H [Regents Professor, University of Arizona, Department of Geosciences, 326 Gould-Simpson Building, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)], E-mail: gdavis@u.arizona.edu

    2008-07-01

    The Sanctuary of Zeus is the focus of the Mt. Lykaion Excavation/Survey (University of Pennsylvania, University of Arizona, and 39th Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities). It was described by Pausanias as a sacred place of pan-Hellenic significance, with stadium and hippodrome in which athletic games were held, a sanctuary of Pan, and a formidable temenos and altar of Lykaion Zeus. In picturing human activity on this mountain during ancient times, it is not adequate to treat the mountain as if it were simply a tall, symmetrical, and handy edifice within which rock contents are irrelevant, for the geology within Mt. Lykaion significantly influenced what was built on it, and where{exclamation_point} There are contemporary reminders of the 'power' of the site, including the devastating April, 1965, Megalopolis earthquake, the epicenter of which was merely 4 km away. In fact, there are active normal faults within the sanctuary. However the primary geoarchitecture is that of the Pindos fold and thrust belt, fashioned largely in Cretaceous through Eocene. Mt. Lykaion's dome-like summit is a thrust klippe separated from underlying nappes by a major thrust fault (Lykaion thrust), the subhorizontal trace of which encircles the mountain creating a subtle bench in the landscape coinciding closely with archaeological and natural elements important to the sanctuary (e.g., stoa, seatwall, fountains, trails). Late Jurassic through Eocene 'Pindos Group' formations are stacked and repeated by the thrusting. Inter-relationships between bedrock, structure, and archaeology are revealed in a 'geoarchaeological column,' which displays positioning of elements in relation to the thrust, and orientations of rock formations in relation to flat patches in otherwise steep, rocky country, which became sites suitable for placement of hippodrome, baths, temenos, horse pasturing areas, etc. Worked limestone blocks are locally derived and can be

  18. Archaeological elements of Mt. Lykaion Sanctuary of Zeus (southern Peloponnesus) in relation to tectonics and structural geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, G. H.

    2008-07-01

    The Sanctuary of Zeus is the focus of the Mt. Lykaion Excavation/Survey (University of Pennsylvania, University of Arizona, and 39th Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities). It was described by Pausanias as a sacred place of pan-Hellenic significance, with stadium and hippodrome in which athletic games were held, a sanctuary of Pan, and a formidable temenos and altar of Lykaion Zeus. In picturing human activity on this mountain during ancient times, it is not adequate to treat the mountain as if it were simply a tall, symmetrical, and handy edifice within which rock contents are irrelevant, for the geology within Mt. Lykaion significantly influenced what was built on it, and where! There are contemporary reminders of the 'power' of the site, including the devastating April, 1965, Megalopolis earthquake, the epicenter of which was merely 4 km away. In fact, there are active normal faults within the sanctuary. However the primary geoarchitecture is that of the Pindos fold and thrust belt, fashioned largely in Cretaceous through Eocene. Mt. Lykaion's dome-like summit is a thrust klippe separated from underlying nappes by a major thrust fault (Lykaion thrust), the subhorizontal trace of which encircles the mountain creating a subtle bench in the landscape coinciding closely with archaeological and natural elements important to the sanctuary (e.g., stoa, seatwall, fountains, trails). Late Jurassic through Eocene 'Pindos Group' formations are stacked and repeated by the thrusting. Inter-relationships between bedrock, structure, and archaeology are revealed in a 'geoarchaeological column,' which displays positioning of elements in relation to the thrust, and orientations of rock formations in relation to flat patches in otherwise steep, rocky country, which became sites suitable for placement of hippodrome, baths, temenos, horse pasturing areas, etc. Worked limestone blocks are locally derived and can be matched with formations. The compelling high elevation of

  19. Geoid of Nepal from airborne gravity survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Einarsson, Indriði

    2011-01-01

    An airborne gravity survey of Nepal was carried out December 2010 in a cooperation between DTU-Space, Nepal Survey Department, and NGA, USA. The entire country was flown with survey lines spaced 6 nm with a King Air aircraft, with a varying flight altitude from 4 to 10 km. The survey operations...... were a major challenge due to excessive jet streams at altitude as well as occasional excessive mountain waves. Despite the large 400 mGal+ range of gravity anomaly changes from the Indian plains to the Tibetan Plateau, results appear accurate to a few mGal, with proper evaluation from cross...... as well as recent GPS-heights of Mt. Everest. The new airborne data also provide an independent validation of GOCE gravity field results at the local ~100 km resolution scale....

  20. Identification of mtDNA lineages of Sus scrofa by multiplex single base extension for the authentication of processed food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asch, Barbara; Silva Santos, Liliana; Carneiro, Joao; Pereira, Filipe; Amorim, Antonio

    2011-07-13

    A genetic method to identify the breed of origin could serve as a useful tool for inspecting the authenticity of the increasing number of monobreed foodstuffs, such as those derived from small local European pig breeds. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is practically the only reliable genomic target for PCR in processed products, and its haploid nature and strict maternal inheritance greatly facilitate genetic analysis. As a result of strategies that sought to improve the production traits of European pigs, most industrial breeds presently show a high frequency of Asian alleles, while the absence or low frequency of such Asian alleles has been observed in small rustic breeds from which highly prized dry-cured and other traditional products are derived. Therefore, the detection of Asian ancestry would indicate nonconformity in Protected Denomination of Origin products. This study presents a single base extension assay based on 15 diagnostic mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms to discriminate between Asian and European Sus scrofa lineages. The test was robust, sensitive and accurate in a wide range of processed foodstuffs and allowed accurate detection of pig genetic material and identification of maternal ancestry. A market survey suggested that nonconformity of products derived from Portuguese breeds is an unusual event at present, but regular surveys both in the local populations and in commercial products would be advisible. Taking into consideration the limitations presented by other methodologies, this mtDNA-based test probably attains the highest resolution for the direct genetic test for population of origin in Sus scrofa food products.

  1. Early Holocenic and Historic mtDNA African Signatures in the Iberian Peninsula: The Andalusian Region as a Paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candela L Hernández

    Full Text Available Determining the timing, identity and direction of migrations in the Mediterranean Basin, the role of "migratory routes" in and among regions of Africa, Europe and Asia, and the effects of sex-specific behaviors of population movements have important implications for our understanding of the present human genetic diversity. A crucial component of the Mediterranean world is its westernmost region. Clear features of transcontinental ancient contacts between North African and Iberian populations surrounding the maritime region of Gibraltar Strait have been identified from archeological data. The attempt to discern origin and dates of migration between close geographically related regions has been a challenge in the field of uniparental-based population genetics. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA studies have been focused on surveying the H1, H3 and V lineages when trying to ascertain north-south migrations, and U6 and L in the opposite direction, assuming that those lineages are good proxies for the ancestry of each side of the Mediterranean. To this end, in the present work we have screened entire mtDNA sequences belonging to U6, M1 and L haplogroups in Andalusians--from Huelva and Granada provinces--and Moroccan Berbers. We present here pioneer data and interpretations on the role of NW Africa and the Iberian Peninsula regarding the time of origin, number of founders and expansion directions of these specific markers. The estimated entrance of the North African U6 lineages into Iberia at 10 ky correlates well with other L African clades, indicating that U6 and some L lineages moved together from Africa to Iberia in the Early Holocene. Still, founder analysis highlights that the high sharing of lineages between North Africa and Iberia results from a complex process continued through time, impairing simplistic interpretations. In particular, our work supports the existence of an ancient, frequently denied, bridge connecting the Maghreb and Andalusia.

  2. Intergroup interactions in Tibetan macaques at Mt. Emei, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Q K

    1997-12-01

    Data on intergroup-interactions (I-I) were collected in 5 seasonally provisioned groups (A, B, D, D1, and E) of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Mt. Emei in three 70-day periods between 1991 April-June (P1), September-November (P2), December-1992 February (P3). The I-I were categorized as forewarning made by high-ranking males (including Branch Shaking and/or Loud Calls), long-distance interactions in space (specified by changes in their foraging movements), and close encounters (with Affinitive Behavior, Male's Herding Female, Sexual Interaction, Severe Conflict, Adult Male-male Conflict, Opportunistic Advance and Retreat, etc. performed by different age-sex classes). From periods P1 to P3, the I-I rate decreased with reduction in population density as a positive correlate of food clumpedness or the number of potential feeders along a pedestrian trail. On the other hand, from the birth season (BS, represented by P1 and P3) to the mating season (MS, represented by P2) the dominance relation between groups, which produced a winner and a loser in the encounters, became obscure; the proportion of close encounters in the I-I increased; the asymmetry (local groups over intruders) of forewarning signals disappeared; the rate of branch shaking decreased; and sometimes intergroup cohesion appeared. Considering that sexual interactions also occurred between the encountering groups, above changes in intergroup behaviors may be explained with a model of the way in which the competition for food (exclusion) and the sexual attractiveness between opposite sexes were in a dynamic equilibrium among the groups, with the former outweighing the latter in the BS, and conversely in the MS. Females made 93% of severe conflicts, which occurred in 18% of close encounters. Groups fissioned in the recent past shared the same home range, and showed the highest hostility to each other by females. In conspicuous contrast with females' great interest in intergroup food/range competition

  3. Analogue Models Of Volcanic Spreading At Mt. Vesuvius

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Matteo, Ada; Castaldo, Raffaele; D'Auria, Luca; James, Michael; Lane, Steve; Massa, Bruno; Pepe, Susi; Tizzani, Pietro

    2015-04-01

    Somma-Vesuvius is a quiescent strato-volcano of the Neapolitan district, southern Italy, for which various geophysical and geological evidences (e.g. geodetic measurements, geological and structural data, seismic profiles interpretations and surface deformation analysis with Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR)) indicate ongoing spreading deformation. In this research we investigate the spreading deformation and associated surface deformation pattern by performing analogue experiments and comparing the results with actual ground deformation as measured using DInSAR data recorded between 1992 and 2010. Somma-Vesuvius consists of a volcanic cone (Gran Cono) lying within an asymmetric caldera (Somma). The Somma caldera is the result of at least 7 Plinian eruptions, the last of which was the 79 CE. Pompeii eruption. The current cone of Mt. Vesuvius grew within the caldera in the following centuries as the effect of continued explosive and effusive activity of the volcano. The volcano lies on a substratum consisting of a Mesozoic carbonatic basement, overlapped by Holocene clastic sediments and volcanic rocks. Our analogue models were built to simulate the shape of the Somma-Vesuvius top a scale of about 1:100000, emplaced on a sand layer (brittle behaviour) laid on a silicone layer (ductile behaviour). Models are based on the Fluid-dynamics Dimensionless Analysis (FDA), according to the Buckingham-Π theorem. In this context, we considered few dimensionless parameters that allowed the setting of a reliable scaled model. To represent the complex Somma-Vesuvius geometry, an asymmetric model was built by setting a truncated cone (mimicking the topography of Somma edifice) topped by another small cone (mimicking the Gran Cono) shifted off the axis of the main cone. Different experiments were carried out in which the thickness of the basal sand layer and of the silicone one were varied. To quantify the vertical and horizontal displacements the

  4. "Suntelligence" Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the American Academy of Dermatology's "Suntelligence" sun-smart survey. Please answer the following questions to measure ... be able to view a ranking of major cities suntelligence based on residents' responses to this survey. ...

  5. Activation of the Human MT Complex by Motion in Depth Induced by a Moving Cast Shadow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuyama, Narumi; Usui, Nobuo; Taira, Masato

    2016-01-01

    A moving cast shadow is a powerful monocular depth cue for motion perception in depth. For example, when a cast shadow moves away from or toward an object in a two-dimensional plane, the object appears to move toward or away from the observer in depth, respectively, whereas the size and position of the object are constant. Although the cortical mechanisms underlying motion perception in depth by cast shadow are unknown, the human MT complex (hMT+) is likely involved in the process, as it is sensitive to motion in depth represented by binocular depth cues. In the present study, we examined this possibility by using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique. First, we identified the cortical regions sensitive to the motion of a square in depth represented via binocular disparity. Consistent with previous studies, we observed significant activation in the bilateral hMT+, and defined functional regions of interest (ROIs) there. We then investigated the activity of the ROIs during observation of the following stimuli: 1) a central square that appeared to move back and forth via a moving cast shadow (mCS); 2) a segmented and scrambled cast shadow presented beside the square (sCS); and 3) no cast shadow (nCS). Participants perceived motion of the square in depth in the mCS condition only. The activity of the hMT+ was significantly higher in the mCS compared with the sCS and nCS conditions. Moreover, the hMT+ was activated equally in both hemispheres in the mCS condition, despite presentation of the cast shadow in the bottom-right quadrant of the stimulus. Perception of the square moving in depth across visual hemifields may be reflected in the bilateral activation of the hMT+. We concluded that the hMT+ is involved in motion perception in depth induced by moving cast shadow and by binocular disparity.

  6. A Statistical Framework for the Interpretation of mtDNA Mixtures: Forensic and Medical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeland, Thore; Salas, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation is commonly analyzed in a wide range of different biomedical applications. Cases where more than one individual contribute to a stain genotyped from some biological material give rise to a mixture. Most forensic mixture cases are analyzed using autosomal markers. In rape cases, Y-chromosome markers typically add useful information. However, there are important cases where autosomal and Y-chromosome markers fail to provide useful profiles. In some instances, usually involving small amounts or degraded DNA, mtDNA may be the only useful genetic evidence available. Mitochondrial DNA mixtures also arise in studies dealing with the role of mtDNA variation in tumorigenesis. Such mixtures may be generated by the tumor, but they could also originate in vitro due to inadvertent contamination or a sample mix-up. Methods/Principal Findings We present the statistical methods needed for mixture interpretation and emphasize the modifications required for the more well-known methods based on conventional markers to generalize to mtDNA mixtures. Two scenarios are considered. Firstly, only categorical mtDNA data is assumed available, that is, the variants contributing to the mixture. Secondly, quantitative data (peak heights or areas) on the allelic variants are also accessible. In cases where quantitative information is available in addition to allele designation, it is possible to extract more precise information by using regression models. More precisely, using quantitative information may lead to a unique solution in cases where the qualitative approach points to several possibilities. Importantly, these methods also apply to clinical cases where contamination is a potential alternative explanation for the data. Conclusions/Significance We argue that clinical and forensic scientists should give greater consideration to mtDNA for mixture interpretation. The results and examples show that the analysis of mtDNA mixtures contributes

  7. Full-wave Ambient Noise Tomography of Mt Rainier volcano, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinders, Ashton; Shen, Yang

    2015-04-01

    Mount Rainier towers over the landscape of western Washington (USA), ranking with Fuji-yama in Japan, Mt Pinatubo in the Philippines, and Mt Vesuvius in Italy, as one of the great stratovolcanoes of the world. Notwithstanding its picturesque stature, Mt Rainier is potentially the most devastating stratovolcano in North America, with more than 3.5 million people living beneath is shadow in the Seattle-Tacoma area. The primary hazard posed by the volcano is in the form of highly destructive debris flows (lahars). These lahars form when water and/or melted ice erode away and entrain preexisting volcanic sediment. At Mt Rainier these flows are often initiated by sector collapse of the volcano's hydrothermally rotten flanks and compounded by Mt Rainier's extensive snow and glacial ice coverage. It is therefore imperative to ascertain the extent of the volcano's summit hydrothermal alteration, and determine areas prone to collapse. Despite being one of the sixteen volcanoes globally designated by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior as warranting detailed and focused study, Mt Rainier remains enigmatic both in terms of the shallow internal structure and the degree of summit hydrothermal alteration. We image this shallow internal structure and areas of possible summit alteration using ambient noise tomography. Our full waveform forward modeling includes high-resolution topography allowing us to accuratly account for the effects of topography on the propagation of short-period Rayleigh waves. Empirical Green's functions were extracted from 80 stations within 200 km of Mt Rainier, and compared with synthetic greens functions over multiple frequency bands from 2-28 seconds.

  8. Presequence-Independent Mitochondrial Import of DNA Ligase Facilitates Establishment of Cell Lines with Reduced mtDNA Copy Number.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Spadafora

    Full Text Available Due to the essential role played by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA in cellular physiology and bioenergetics, methods for establishing cell lines with altered mtDNA content are of considerable interest. Here, we report evidence for the existence in mammalian cells of a novel, low- efficiency, presequence-independent pathway for mitochondrial protein import, which facilitates mitochondrial uptake of such proteins as Chlorella virus ligase (ChVlig and Escherichia coli LigA. Mouse cells engineered to depend on this pathway for mitochondrial import of the LigA protein for mtDNA maintenance had severely (up to >90% reduced mtDNA content. These observations were used to establish a method for the generation of mouse cell lines with reduced mtDNA copy number by, first, transducing them with a retrovirus encoding LigA, and then inactivating in these transductants endogenous Lig3 with CRISPR-Cas9. Interestingly, mtDNA depletion to an average level of one copy per cell proceeds faster in cells engineered to maintain mtDNA at low copy number. This makes a low-mtDNA copy number phenotype resulting from dependence on mitochondrial import of DNA ligase through presequence-independent pathway potentially useful for rapidly shifting mtDNA heteroplasmy through partial mtDNA depletion.

  9. Presequence-Independent Mitochondrial Import of DNA Ligase Facilitates Establishment of Cell Lines with Reduced mtDNA Copy Number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadafora, Domenico; Kozhukhar, Natalia; Alexeyev, Mikhail F

    2016-01-01

    Due to the essential role played by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in cellular physiology and bioenergetics, methods for establishing cell lines with altered mtDNA content are of considerable interest. Here, we report evidence for the existence in mammalian cells of a novel, low- efficiency, presequence-independent pathway for mitochondrial protein import, which facilitates mitochondrial uptake of such proteins as Chlorella virus ligase (ChVlig) and Escherichia coli LigA. Mouse cells engineered to depend on this pathway for mitochondrial import of the LigA protein for mtDNA maintenance had severely (up to >90%) reduced mtDNA content. These observations were used to establish a method for the generation of mouse cell lines with reduced mtDNA copy number by, first, transducing them with a retrovirus encoding LigA, and then inactivating in these transductants endogenous Lig3 with CRISPR-Cas9. Interestingly, mtDNA depletion to an average level of one copy per cell proceeds faster in cells engineered to maintain mtDNA at low copy number. This makes a low-mtDNA copy number phenotype resulting from dependence on mitochondrial import of DNA ligase through presequence-independent pathway potentially useful for rapidly shifting mtDNA heteroplasmy through partial mtDNA depletion.

  10. Efficient inhibition of heavy metal release from mine tailings against acid rain exposure by triethylenetetramine intercalated montmorillonite (TETA-Mt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Beini; Wu, Pingxiao; Huang, Zhujian; Li, Yuanyuan; Yang, Shanshan; Dang, Zhi; Ruan, Bo; Kang, Chunxi

    2016-11-15

    The potential application of triethylenetetramine intercalated montmorillonite (TETA-Mt) in mine tailings treatment and AMD (acid mine drainage) remediation was investigated with batch experiments. The structural and morphological characteristics of TETA-Mt were analyzed with XRD, FTIR, DTG-TG and SEM. The inhibition efficiencies of TETA-Mt against heavy metal release from mine tailings when exposed to acid rain leaching was examined and compared with that of triethylenetetramine (TETA) and Mt. Results showed that the overall inhibition by TETA-Mt surpassed that by TETA or Mt for various heavy metal ions over an acid rain pH range of 3-5.6 and a temperature range of 25-40°C. When mine tailings were exposed to acid rain of pH 4.8 (the average rain pH of the mining site where the mine tailings were from), TETA-Mt achieved an inhibition efficiency of over 90% for Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+) and Mn(2+) release, and 70% for Pb(2+) at 25°C. It was shown that TETA-Mt has a strong buffering capacity. Moreover, TETA-Mt was able to adsorb heavy metal ions and the adsorption process was fast, suggesting that coordination was mainly responsible. These results showed the potential of TETA-Mt in AMD mitigation, especially in acid rain affected mining area.

  11. Determination of the serum metallothionein (MT)1/2 concentration in patients with Wilson's disease and Menkes disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazato, Kyoumi; Tomioka, Satoru; Nakajima, Katsuyuki; Saito, Hidetoshi; Kato, Mihoko; Kodaira, Tsukasa; Yatsuzuka, Shin-ichi; Shimomura, Younosuke; Hiroki, Tomoko; Motoyama, Kahoko; Kodama, Hiroko; Nagamine, Takeaki

    2014-10-01

    We have developed an easy and specific enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) for the simultaneous determination of serum metallothinein-1 (MT-1) and 2 (MT-2) in both humans and experimental animals. A competitive ELISA was established using a specific polyclonal antibody against rat MT-2. The antibody used for this ELISA had exhibited the same cross-reactivity with MT in humans and experimental animals. The NH2 terminal peptide of MT containing acetylated methionine was shown to be the epitope of this antibody. The reactivity of this ELISA system with the liver, kidney and brain in MT1/2 knock-out mice was significantly low, but was normal in an MT-3 knock-out mouse. The lowest detection limit of this ELISA was 0.6ng/ml and the spiked MT-1was fully recovered from the plasma. We investigated the normal range of MT1/2 (25-75%tile) in 200 healthy human serum and found it to be 27-48ng/ml, and this was compared with the serum levels in various liver diseases. The serum MT1/2 levels in chronic hepatitis C (HCV) patients were significantly lower than healthy controls and also other liver diseases. In the chronic hepatitis cases, the MT1/I2 levels increased gradually, followed by the progression of the disease to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In particular, we found significantly elevated MT1/2 plasma levels in Wilson's disease patients, levels which were very similar to those in the Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat (model animal of Wilson's disease). Furthermore, a significantly elevated MT1/2 level was found in patients with Menkes disease, an inborn error of copper metabolism such as Wilson's disease.

  12. Survey Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    Survey Says is a lesson plan designed to teach college students how to access Internet resources for valid data related to the sexual health of young people. Discussion questions based on the most recent available data from two national surveys, the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance-United States, 2003 (CDC, 2004) and the National Survey of…

  13. RFLP ANALYSIS OF mtDNA OF FOUR SPECIES OF SNAPPERS (LUTJANUS)%4种笛鲷属鱼类mtDNA的RFLP研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖翔; 刘楚吾

    2005-01-01

    用RFLP(限制性片段长度多态性,Restriction fragment length polymorphism)技术研究了红鳍笛鲷Lutjanus erythropterus Bloch、紫红笛鲷Lutjanus argentimaculatus Forsk(a)l 、勒氏笛鲷Lutjanus russelli Bleeker和约氏笛鲷Lutjanus johni Bloch的遗传多样性关系,检测到4种笛鲷的分子标记.通过差速离心、核酸酶消化、苯酚抽提,从4种笛鲷肝脏组织中分离纯化线粒体DNA(mtDNA),用19种5到6碱基对的限制性内切酶进行单酶、双酶和部分酶切,琼脂糖凝胶电泳,进行了RFLP分析,构建了4种笛鲷mtDNA的物理图谱.红鳍笛鲷、紫红笛鲷、勒氏笛鲷和约氏笛鲷的mtDNA大小分别为17.36±0.09kb、17.58±0.08kb、17.50±0.18kb和17.56±0.12kb.红鳍笛鲷和紫红笛鲷种群间平均mtDNA多态度π为0.1062,红鳍笛鲷和勒氏笛鲷群体间平均mtDNA多态度π为0.1305,红鳍笛鲷和约氏笛鲷群体间平均mtDNA多态度π为0.1515,紫红笛鲷和勒氏笛鲷群体间平均mtDNA多态度π为0.1303,紫红笛鲷和约氏笛鲷群体间平均mtDNA多态度π为0.1195,勒氏笛鲷和约氏笛鲷群体间平均mtDNA多态度π为0.1394.红鳍笛鲷和紫红笛鲷种群间净遗传距离Pnet为0.1020,红鳍笛鲷和勒氏笛鲷群体间净遗传距离Pnet为0.1285,红鳍笛鲷和约氏笛鲷群体间净遗传距离Pnet为0.1491,紫红笛鲷和勒氏笛鲷群体间净遗传距离Pnet为0.1270,紫红笛鲷和约氏笛鲷群体间净遗传距离Pnet为0.1157,勒氏笛鲷和约氏笛鲷群体间净遗传距离Pnet为0.1378.

  14. Application of the MT6070iH to the Battery Management System%MT6070iH在电池管理系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻超

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces touch-sensitive screen MT6000, and describes the battery management system. In order to design human-machine interface (HMI) of battery management system, touch-sensitive screen MT6070iH is used. The design method of MT6070iH is discussed through the example.%本文对触摸屏MT6000系列进行了介绍,并描述了电池管理系统组成及触摸屏MT6070iH在该系统中的应用,通过实例讨论了MT6070iH的设计开发方法。

  15. Do mtDNA Deletions Play a Role in the Development of Nasal Polyposis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Tatar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Nasal polyposis (NP is an inflammatory disease of the nasal mucosa and paranasal sinuses. Mitochondria are the cellular organelles which produce cellular energy by Oxidative Phosphorylation (OXPHOS, and they have own inheritance material, mtDNA. mtDNA is affected by reactive oxygen samples (ROS which are produced by both OXPHOS and the inflammatory process. The aim of this study was to investigate the 4977 bp and 7400 bp deletions of mtDNA in nasal polyposis tissue, and to indicate the possible association of mtDNA deletions with NP. Methods:Thirty-three patients, aged 15 to 65 years, with nasal polyposis were selected to be assessed for mitochondrial DNA deletions. The patients with possible mtDNA mutations due to mitochondrial disease, being treated with radiotherapy, of advanced age, with a familiar history, aspirin hypersensitivity, or a history of asthma, were excluded. Polyp excision surgery was applied to the treatment of the NP, and after histopathological diagnosis 1x1 cm of polyp tissue samples were used to isolate mtDNA. The 4977 bp and 7400 bp deletion regions, and two control regions of mtDNA were assessed by using four pairs of primers. DNA extractions from the NP tissues and peripheral blood samples of the patients were made, and then Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR were made. PCR products were separated in 2% agarose gel.Results:No patient had either the 4977 bp deletion or the 7400 bp deletion in their NP tissue, and neither were these deletions evident in their peripheral blood. Two control sequences, one of them from a non-deleted region, and the other from a possible deletion region, were detected in the NP tissues and peripheral blood of all the patients.Conclusions:We had anticipated that some mtDNA deletion might have occurred in NP tissue due to the increased ROS levels caused by chronic inflammation, but we did not detect any deletion. Probably, the duration of inflammation in NP is insufficient to form mt

  16. 吗啡依赖和戒断小鼠海马MTl、MT2基因表达的变化%Effect of morphine dependence and withdrawal on the expression of MT1 mRNA and MT2 mRNA in hippocampus of mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴胜吉; 刘亚华; 李积胜; 王延坤; 张珩; 陈义鹏; 刁秋霞

    2008-01-01

    [目的]探讨吗啡依赖和戒断小鼠海马金属硫蛋白(metauothionein,MT)MT1、MT2 mRNA表达的变化.[方法]剂量递增法皮下注射吗啡建立吗啡依赖小鼠模型,腹腔注射盐酸纳络酮诱发戒断症状.根据小鼠戒断反应中出现的跳跃次数、体重下降等指标评定戒断反应的强度.采用半定量逆转录.聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)方法,观察实验小鼠海马MT1、MT2 mRNA的变化情况.[结果]吗啡依赖组MT1、MT2 mBNA表达水平高于对照组和吗啡戒断组(P<0.05),吗啡戒断组MT1、MT2 mRNA表达水平高于对照组(P<0.05).[结论]吗啡依赖小鼠海马MT1、MT2 mRNA表达增加,纳络酮戒断能够抑制吗啡依赖引起的MT1、MT2表达增加,表明海马MT的表达变化参与了吗啡依赖和戒断过程.

  17. Mt. Logan Ice Core Record of North Pacific Holocene Climate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterberg, E. C.; Mayewski, P. A.; Fisher, D. A.; Kreutz, K. J.; Handley, M. J.; Sneed, S. B.

    2006-12-01

    A >12,000 year-long, continuous, high-resolution (sub-annual to multi-decadal) ice core record from the summit plateau (5300 m asl) of Mt. Logan, Yukon, Canada, reveals large, abrupt fluctuations in North Pacific climate throughout the Holocene with a 1-2 ky periodicity. Co-registered major ion, trace element and stable isotope time series reveal a strong inverse relationship between precipitation δ18O and atmospheric seasalt and dust concentrations over multi-decadal to millennial periods (rMt. Logan represent changes in moisture source region between dominantly cold North Pacific waters (more zonal circulation; enriched stable isotope values) and warmer subtropical waters (more meridional circulation; depleted stable isotope values). Consequently, Holocene millennial-scale stable isotope fluctuations in the Mt. Logan core have a larger amplitude (6-9‰ for δ18O) than those found in Greenland and Canadian Arctic ice core records (e.g. 2-3‰ for GISP2 δ18O). Over the instrumental period (1948-1998), higher Mt. Logan dust concentrations are strongly associated with enhanced springtime cyclonic activity over East Asian desert source regions (rMt. Logan seasalt aerosol concentrations are related to the wintertime strength of the Aleutian Low pressure center (r<-0.45, p<0.001). We use these calibrated proxy relationships to propose a conceptual model of North Pacific atmospheric circulation during the Holocene.

  18. ELK3 suppresses angiogenesis by inhibiting the transcriptional activity of ETS-1 on MT1-MMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Sun-Hee; Cho, Je-Yoel

    2014-01-01

    Ets transcription factors play important roles in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Knockout of the Ets gene family members in mice resulted in disrupted angiogenesis and malformed vascular systems. In this study, the role and mechanism of ELK3, an Ets factor, in angiogenesis was investigated using ELK3-specific siRNA in human vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) and in vivo implantation assay. The suppression of ELK3 expression resulted in the reinforcement of VEGF-induced tube formation in HUVECs. The in vivo Matrigel plug assay also showed that ELK3 knockdown resulted in increased angiogenesis. Luciferase activity of the MT1-MMP promoter induced by ETS-1 factor was attenuated ELK3 co-transfection. CHIP assay showed the binding of ELK3 on the MT1-MMP promoter. MT1-MMP knockdown in the ELK3 knockdowned cells resulted in the decrease of tube formation suggesting that MT1-MMP transcriptional repression is required for ELK3-mediated anti-angiogenesis effect. Our data also showed that the suppressive effect of ELK3 on the angiogenesis was partly due to the inhibitory effect of ELK3 to the ETS-1 transcriptional activity on the MT1-MMP promoter rather than direct suppression of ELK3 on the target gene, since the expression level of co-repressor Sin3A is low in endothelial cells. Our results suggest that ELK3 plays a negative role of VEGF-induced angiogenesis through indirectly inhibiting ETS-1 function.

  19. Inspecting close maternal relatedness: Towards better mtDNA population samples in forensic databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, Martin; Irwin, Jodi A.; Coble, Michael D.; Parson, Walther

    2011-01-01

    Reliable data are crucial for all research fields applying mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as a genetic marker. Quality control measures have been introduced to ensure the highest standards in sequence data generation, validation and a posteriori inspection. A phylogenetic alignment strategy has been widely accepted as a prerequisite for data comparability and database searches, for forensic applications, for reconstructions of human migrations and for correct interpretation of mtDNA mutations in medical genetics. There is continuing effort to enhance the number of worldwide population samples in order to contribute to a better understanding of human mtDNA variation. This has often lead to the analysis of convenience samples collected for other purposes, which might not meet the quality requirement of random sampling for mtDNA data sets. Here, we introduce an additional quality control means that deals with one aspect of this limitation: by combining autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) marker with mtDNA information, it helps to avoid the bias introduced by related individuals included in the same (small) sample. By STR analysis of individuals sharing their mitochondrial haplotype, pedigree construction and subsequent software-assisted calculation of likelihood ratios based on the allele frequencies found in the population, closely maternally related individuals can be identified and excluded. We also discuss scenarios that allow related individuals in the same set. An ideal population sample would be representative for its population: this new approach represents another contribution towards this goal. PMID:21067986

  20. Re-interpreting the Oxbridge stransverse mass variable MT2 in general cases

    CERN Document Server

    Mahbubani, Rakhi; Park, Myeonghun

    2013-01-01

    We extend the range of possible applications of MT2 type analyses to decay chains with multiple invisible particles, as well as to asymmetric event topologies with different parent and/or different children particles. We advocate two possible approaches. In the first, we introduce suitably defined 3+1-dimensional analogues of the MT2 variable, which take into account all relevant on-shell kinematic constraints in a given event topology. The second approach utilizes the conventional MT2 variable, but its kinematic endpoint is suitably reinterpreted on a case by case basis, depending on the specific event topology at hand. We provide the general prescription for this reinterpretation, including the formulas relating the measured MT2 endpoint (as a function of the test masses of all the invisible particles) to the underlying physical mass spectrum. We also provide analytical formulas for the shape of the differential distribution of the doubly projected MT2(perp) variable for the ten possible event topologies wi...

  1. Inspecting close maternal relatedness: Towards better mtDNA population samples in forensic databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, Martin; Irwin, Jodi A; Coble, Michael D; Parson, Walther

    2011-03-01

    Reliable data are crucial for all research fields applying mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as a genetic marker. Quality control measures have been introduced to ensure the highest standards in sequence data generation, validation and a posteriori inspection. A phylogenetic alignment strategy has been widely accepted as a prerequisite for data comparability and database searches, for forensic applications, for reconstructions of human migrations and for correct interpretation of mtDNA mutations in medical genetics. There is continuing effort to enhance the number of worldwide population samples in order to contribute to a better understanding of human mtDNA variation. This has often lead to the analysis of convenience samples collected for other purposes, which might not meet the quality requirement of random sampling for mtDNA data sets. Here, we introduce an additional quality control means that deals with one aspect of this limitation: by combining autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) marker with mtDNA information, it helps to avoid the bias introduced by related individuals included in the same (small) sample. By STR analysis of individuals sharing their mitochondrial haplotype, pedigree construction and subsequent software-assisted calculation of likelihood ratios based on the allele frequencies found in the population, closely maternally related individuals can be identified and excluded. We also discuss scenarios that allow related individuals in the same set. An ideal population sample would be representative for its population: this new approach represents another contribution towards this goal. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. mtDNA Mutagenesis Disrupts Pluripotent Stem Cell Function by Altering Redox Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riikka H. Hämäläinen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available mtDNA mutagenesis in somatic stem cells leads to their dysfunction and to progeria in mouse. The mechanism was proposed to involve modification of reactive oxygen species (ROS/redox signaling. We studied the effect of mtDNA mutagenesis on reprogramming and stemness of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs and show that PSCs select against specific mtDNA mutations, mimicking germline and promoting mtDNA integrity despite their glycolytic metabolism. Furthermore, mtDNA mutagenesis is associated with an increase in mitochondrial H2O2, reduced PSC reprogramming efficiency, and self-renewal. Mitochondria-targeted ubiquinone, MitoQ, and N-acetyl-L-cysteine efficiently rescued these defects, indicating that both reprogramming efficiency and stemness are modified by mitochondrial ROS. The redox sensitivity, however, rendered PSCs and especially neural stem cells sensitive to MitoQ toxicity. Our results imply that stem cell compartment warrants special attention when the safety of new antioxidants is assessed and point to an essential role for mitochondrial redox signaling in maintaining normal stem cell function.

  3. Novel mtDNA mutations and oxidative phosphorylation dysfunction in Russian LHON families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M D; Zhadanov, S; Allen, J C; Hosseini, S; Newman, N J; Atamonov, V V; Mikhailovskaya, I E; Sukernik, R I; Wallace, D C

    2001-07-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is characterized by maternally transmitted, bilateral, central vision loss in young adults. It is caused by mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encoded genes that contribute polypeptides to NADH dehydrogenase or complex I. Four mtDNA variants, the nucleotide pair (np) 3460A, 11778A, 14484C, and 14459A mutations, are known as "primary" LHON mutations and are found in most, but not all, of the LHON families reported to date. Here, we report the extensive genetic and biochemical analysis of five Russian families from the Novosibirsk region of Siberia manifesting maternally transmitted optic atrophy consistent with LHON. Three of the five families harbor known LHON primary mutations. Complete sequence analysis of proband mtDNA in the other two families has revealed novel complex I mutations at nps 3635A and 4640C, respectively. These mutations are homoplasmic and have not been reported in the literature. Biochemical analysis of complex I in patient lymphoblasts and transmitochondrial cybrids demonstrated a respiration defect with complex-I-linked substrates, although the specific activity of complex I was not reduced. Overall, our data suggests that the spectrum of mtDNA mutations associated with LHON in Russia is similar to that in Europe and North America and that the np 3635A and 4640C mutations may be additional mtDNA complex I mutations contributing to LHON expression.

  4. Decreased mtDNA Copy Number of Gastric Cancer: a New Tumor Marker?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FanLi; XiaosongWang; ChengboHan; JieLin

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the relationship between mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) and gastric cancer by comparing the difference of mtDNA copy number in gastric cancers and paracancerous tissues.METHODS The HV1 (hypervariable region) and HV2 of the mitochondrial Dloop region from 20 cases of gastric cancer and 20 paracancerous tissues were amplified by PCR with 13-actin serving as a quantitative standard marker. The products were separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and silver stained in order to compare the difference in mtDNA copy number between gastric cancers and paracancerous tissues. The mtDNA copy number was determined for gastric cancer shaving various pathological characteristics and the results compared with previous immunohistochemical staininq of the tumors,RESULTS There was a significantly quantitative difference in HV1, HV2 (standardized with β-actin) between gastric cancers and paracancerous tissues (P0.05).CONCLUSION The occurrence of gastric cancer was closely associated with decreased mtDNA copy number, which may be a new tumor marker.

  5. Three-dimensional interpretation of MT data in volcanic environments (computer simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Spichak

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The research is aimed, first, to find components of MT-fields and their transforms, which facilitate the imaging of the internal structure of volcanoes and, second, to study the detectability of conductivity variations in a magma chamber due to alterations of other physical parameters. The resolving power of MT data with respect to the electric structure of volcanic zones is studied using software developed by the author for three-dimensional (3D numerical modeling, analysis and imaging. A set of 3D volcano models are constructed and synthetic MT data on the relief Earth's surface are analysed. It is found that impedance phases as well as in-phase and quadrature parts of the electric field type transforms enable the best imaging of the volcanic interior. The impedance determinant is, however, the most suitable for adequate interpretation of measurements carried out for the purpose of monitoring conductivity variations in a magma chamber. The way of removing the geological noise from the MT data by means of its upward analytical continuation to the artificial reference plane is discussed. Interpretation methodologies are suggested aimed at 3D imaging and monitoring volcanic interiors by MT data.

  6. Tissue expression analysis of FeMT3, a drought and oxidative stress related metallothionein gene from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samardzić, Jelena T; Nikolić, Dragana B; Timotijević, Gordana S; Jovanović, Zivko S; Milisavljević, Mira Đ; Maksimović, Vesna R

    2010-11-01

    Metallothionein type 3 (MT3) expression has previously been detected in leaves, fruits, and developing somatic embryos in different plant species. However, specific tissular and cellular localization of MT3 transcripts have remained unidentified. In this study, in situ RNA-RNA analysis revealed buckwheat metallothionein type 3 (FeMT3) transcript localization in vascular elements, mesophyll and guard cells of leaves, vascular tissue of roots and throughout the whole embryo. Changes in FeMT3 mRNA levels in response to drought and oxidative stress, as well as ROS scavenging abilities of the FeMT3 protein in yeast were also detected, indicating possible involvement of FeMT3 in stress defense and ROS related cellular processes.

  7. Membrane-type-3 matrix metalloproteinase (MT3-MMP functions as a matrix composition-dependent effector of melanoma cell invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Tatti

    Full Text Available In primary human melanoma, the membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase, MT3-MMP, is overexpressed in the most aggressive nodular-type tumors. Unlike MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP, which promote cell invasion through basement membranes and collagen type I-rich tissues, the function of MT3-MMP in tumor progression remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that MT3-MMP inhibits MT1-MMP-driven melanoma cell invasion in three-dimensional collagen, while yielding an altered, yet MT1-MMP-dependent, form of expansive growth behavior that phenocopies the formation of nodular cell colonies. In melanoma cell lines originating from advanced primary or metastatic lesions, endogenous MT3-MMP expression was associated with limited collagen-invasive potential. In the cell lines with highest MT3-MMP expression relative to MT1-MMP, collagen-invasive activity was increased following stable MT3-MMP gene silencing. Consistently, MT3-MMP overexpression in cells derived from less advanced superficially spreading melanoma lesions, or in the MT3-MMP knockdown cells, reduced MT1-MMP-dependent collagen invasion. Rather than altering MT1-MMP transcription, MT3-MMP interacted with MT1-MMP in membrane complexes and reduced its cell surface expression. By contrast, as a potent fibrinolytic enzyme, MT3-MMP induced efficient invasion of the cells in fibrin, a provisional matrix component frequently found at tumor-host tissue interfaces and perivascular spaces of melanoma. Since MT3-MMP was significantly upregulated in biopsies of human melanoma metastases, these results identify MT3-MMP as a matrix-dependent modifier of the invasive tumor cell functions during melanoma progression.

  8. Research Progress on Mitochondrial DNA%线粒体DNA(mtDNA)的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王存芳; 曾勇庆; 杜立新; 高秀华

    2001-01-01

    本文概述了mtDNA的基本特征和研究方法;介绍了人及各种畜禽mtDNA的研究现状,并对mtDNA的研究作了展望。%This contribution briefly represented fundamental properties and methods of studies on mitochondrial DNA. The pre sent condition of studies among humans and animals were presented respectively. The studies on mitochondrial DNA were also forcasted.

  9. Antineoplastic Activities of MT81 and Its Structural Analogue in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma-Bearing Swiss Albino Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sujata Maiti Choudhury; Malaya Gupta; Upal Kanti Majumder

    2010-01-01

    Many fungal toxins exhibit in vitro and in vivo antineoplastic effects on various cancer cell types. Luteoskyrin, a hydroxyanthraquinone has been proved to be a potent inhibitor against Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. The comparative antitumor activity and antioxidant status of MT81 and its structural analogue [Acetic acid-MT81 (Aa-MT81)] having polyhydroxyanthraquinone structure were assessed against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC ) tumor in mice. The in vitro cytotoxicity was measured by the v...

  10. Evidence of animal mtDNA recombination between divergent populations of the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoolahan, Angelique H; Blok, Vivian C; Gibson, Tracey; Dowton, Mark

    2012-03-01

    Recombination is typically assumed to be absent in animal mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA). However, the maternal mode of inheritance means that recombinant products are indistinguishable from their progenitor molecules. The majority of studies of mtDNA recombination assess past recombination events, where patterns of recombination are inferred by comparing the mtDNA of different individuals. Few studies assess contemporary mtDNA recombination, where recombinant molecules are observed as direct mosaics of known progenitor molecules. Here we use the potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida, to investigate past and contemporary recombination. Past recombination was assessed within and between populations of G. pallida, and contemporary recombination was assessed in the progeny of experimental crosses of these populations. Breeding of genetically divergent organisms may cause paternal mtDNA leakage, resulting in heteroplasmy and facilitating the detection of recombination. To assess contemporary recombination we looked for evidence of recombination between the mtDNA of the parental populations within the mtDNA of progeny. Past recombination was detected between a South American population and several UK populations of G. pallida, as well as between two South American populations. This suggests that these populations may have interbred, paternal mtDNA leakage occurred, and the mtDNA of these populations subsequently recombined. This evidence challenges two dogmas of animal mtDNA evolution; no recombination and maternal inheritance. No contemporary recombination between the parental populations was detected in the progeny of the experimental crosses. This supports current arguments that mtDNA recombination events are rare. More sensitive detection methods may be required to adequately assess contemporary mtDNA recombination in animals.

  11. Elemental composition in surface snow from the ultra-high elevation area of Mt. Qomolangma (Everest)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A total of 14 surface snow (0-10 cm) samples were collected along the climbing route (6500-8844 m a.s.l.) on the northern slope of Mt. Qomolangma in May, 2005. Analysis of elemental concentrations in these samples showed that there are no clear trends for element variations with elevation due to redistribution of surface snow by strong winds during spring. In addition, local crustal aerosol inputs also have an influence on elemental composition of surface snow. Comparison between elemental concentration datasets of 2005 and 1997 indicated that data from 2005 were of higher quality. Elemental concentrations (especially for heavy metals) at Mt. Qomolangma are comparable with polar sites, and far lower than large cities. This indicates that anthropogenic activities and heavy metal pollution have little effect on the Mt. Qomolangma atmospheric environment, which can be representative of the background atmospheric environment.

  12. MtDNA mutation pattern in tumors and human evolution are shaped by similar selective constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhidkov, Ilia; Livneh, Erez A; Rubin, Eitan; Mishmar, Dan

    2009-04-01

    Multiple human mutational landscapes of normal and cancer conditions are currently available. However, while the unique mutational patterns of tumors have been extensively studied, little attention has been paid to similarities between malignant and normal conditions. Here we compared the pattern of mutations in the mitochondrial genomes (mtDNAs) of cancer (98 sequences) and natural populations (2400 sequences). De novo mtDNA mutations in cancer preferentially colocalized with ancient variants in human phylogeny. A significant portion of the cancer mutations was organized in recurrent combinations (COMs), reaching a length of seven mutations, which also colocalized with ancient variants. Thus, by analyzing similarities rather than differences in patterns of mtDNA mutations in tumor and human evolution, we discovered evidence for similar selective constraints, suggesting a functional potential for these mutations.

  13. Seismic studies at the Mt. Hood Volcano, northern Cascade Range, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Susan Molly; Weaver, Craig S.; Iyer, Hariharaiyer Mahadeva

    1979-01-01

    A sixteen station telemetered seismic network was established in the Mt. Hood, Oregon area to monitor local seismicity and to study crustal and upper mantle structure. The network was in operation 13 months, and recorded 10 local earthquakes, 25 regional events, and 300 teleseisms. A series of construction blasts were recorded and used to define an average upper crustal velocity of 5.4 km/s in the region. All local earthquakes occurred beneath Mt. Hood at shallow depths and roughly define a zone striking north-northwest beneath the mountain. The largest earthquake was a magnitude 3.4 event which had a strike-slip focal mechanism. The other events had magnitudes (ML) less than 2.0. P-wave travel time residuals from teleseismic events show a 0.5 second decrease in travel time from east to west across the Cascade Range. No travel time anomalies are associated directly with Mt. Hood.

  14. Metallogeny, exploitation and environmental impact of the Mt. Amiata mercury ore district (Southern Tuscany, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimondi, V.; Chiarantini, L.; Lattanzi, P.; Benvenuti, M.; Beutel, M.; Colica, A.; Costagliola, P.; Di Benedetto, F.; Gabbani, G.; Gray, John E.; Pandeli, E.; Pattelli, G.; Paolieri, M.; Ruggieri, G.

    2015-01-01

    The Mt. Amiata mining district (Southern Tuscany, Italy) is a world class Hg district, with a cumulate production of more than 100,000 tonnes of Hg, mostly occurring between 1870 and 1980. The Hg mineralization at Mt. Amiata is younger than 0.3 Ma, and is directly related to shallow hydrothermal systems similar to present-day geothermal fields of the region. There is likely a continuum of Hg deposition to present day, because Hg emission from geothermal power plants is on-going. In this sense, the Mt. Amiata deposits present some analogies with “hot-spring type” deposits of western USA, although an ore deposit model for the district has not been established. Specifically, the source of Hg remains highly speculative. The mineralizing hydrothermal fluids are of low temperature, and of essentially meteoric origin.

  15. A novel polymer based on MtCu2+/cellulose acetate with antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruna, J E; Galotto, M J; Guarda, A; Rodríguez, F

    2014-02-15

    Cellulose acetate (CA)/copper montmorillonite modified (MtCu(2+)) antimicrobial nanocomposites for food packaging containing 1, 3 and 5 wt.% nanoparticles were prepared by solution casting technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy revealed the existence of intercalated and no intercalated clay form in the CA matrix. The thermal stability of the MtCu(2+)/CA nanocomposites was measured by TGA and DSC, which indicated that the nanocomposites were less thermally stable in comparison to CA pure. Mechanical testing of material did not show differences when MtCu(2+) was added in CA. On the other hand, antimicrobial effect was observed for nanocomposites films, obtaining a 98% reduction against Escherichia coli. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evolution of drainage systems and its developing trend in connection with tectonic uplift of Eastern Kunlun Mt.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The Eastern Kunlun Mt. had been subjected to uplift together with the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau before the Early Pleistocene, but yet the Mt. did not protrude out of the Plateau surface. During that period lakes spread all over the studied region, with the drainage systems being all short rivers flowing into the lakes. At the end of the Early Pleistocene, intensive tectonic uplift led to the rising of the Eastern Kunlun Mt. and made the Mt. protrude onto the Plateau surface. As a result, a fault depression valley formed extending nearly from west to east along the fault belt of the Southern Kunlun Mt. Lakes in this region died out, surface runoffs joined into the valley of the Southern Kunlun Mt. resulting in a large river streaming nearly from west to east. Around 150 kaBP, because of the strong differential movement, rivers, such as the Jialu River and the Golmud River, retrogressively eroded seriously, cutting through the Burhan Budai Mt. Then they pirated the large river and divided it into four portions. Owing to the uplift of the Eastern Kunlun Mt., strongly retrogressive erosion of the upper reaches of the Jialu River has made the watershed of the Buqingshan Mt. migrate 6-10 km southward since Holocene. At present, it still remains a stronger trend of retrogressive erosion developing upward to the basin of the Yellow River Source and it seems that the Jialu River is scrambling for the streamhead of the Yellow River.

  17. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial transcription factor, sc-mtTFB, shares features with sigma factors but is functionally distinct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadel, G S; Clayton, D A

    1995-04-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria, sc-mtTFB is a 341-amino-acid transcription factor required for initiation of transcription from mitochondrial DNA promoters. Specific transcription in vitro requires only sc-mtTFB and the bacteriophage-related core sc-mtRNA polymerase. Mutational analysis of sc-mtTFB has defined two regions of the protein that are important for normal function both in vivo and in vitro. These regions overlap portions of the protein that exhibit similarity to conserved region 2 of bacterial sigma factors. One mutation in this region of sc-mtTFB (tyrosine 108 to arginine [Y108R]) has a defective phenotype that matches that observed for mutations in the corresponding residue of Bacillus subtilis sigma A and sigma E proteins. However, mutations in the sigma 2.4-like region, including a 5-amino-acid deletion corresponding to crucial promoter-contacting amino acids of sigma factors, did not eliminate the ability of sc-mtTFB to initiate transcription specifically in vitro. This suggests a mechanism of promoter recognition for sc-mtRNA polymerase different from that used by bacterial RNA polymerases. Two mutations in a basic region of sc-mtTFB resulted in defective proteins that were virtually dependent on supercoiled DNA templates in vitro. These mutations may have disrupted a DNA-unwinding function of sc-mtTFB that is only manifested in vitro and is partially rescued by DNA supercoiling.

  18. Aspects of historical eruptive activity and volcanic unrest at Mt. Tongariro, New Zealand: 1846-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Bradley J.; Potter, Sally H.

    2014-10-01

    The 6 August and 21 November 2012 eruptions from Upper Te Maari crater have heightened interest in past activity at Mt. Tongariro, New Zealand. Risks caused by volcanic hazards are increasingly being quantified by using probability estimates through expert elicitation, partly based on the frequency of past eruptions. To maximise the accuracy of these risk values at Mt. Tongariro, a historical eruption catalogue is required. This paper presents the findings of a detailed historical chronology of unrest and eruptions at Mt. Tongariro between 1846 AD and 2013 AD. It builds on the findings of previous researchers, highlighting that volcanic eruptions and unrest have occurred frequently from this volcano. Eruptions are now thought to have occurred at Mt. Tongariro in 1869, 1892, 1896-97, 1899, 1926, 1927, 1934 and 2012. Eruptions also potentially occurred in 1846, 1855, 1886, and 1928, in addition to frequent eruptions from neighbouring Mt. Ngauruhoe. The number of recognised eruptions during the 1896-97 episode has increased to 18, and the Red Crater area has been found to be more active than previously appreciated. Multiple episodes of unrest not resulting in eruptions have also been identified. New eruption recurrence rates are derived from this catalogue, with the baseline probability of the onset of an eruption episode calculated to be 0.07 per year (if 1896-97 and 2012 are considered as one episode each, and all others separately), and the maximum eruption rate within an eruption episode is 18 per year. These new data contribute towards risk assessments for future eruptions at Mt. Tongariro.

  19. DNA methyltransferase 1 mutations and mitochondrial pathology: is mtDNA methylated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra eMaresca

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia, deafness and narcolepsy (ADCA-DN and Hereditary sensory neuropathy with dementia and hearing loss (HSN1E are two rare, overlapping neurodegenerative syndromes that have been recently linked to allelic dominant pathogenic mutations in the DNMT1 gene, coding for DNA (cytosine-5-methyltransferase 1. DNMT1 is the enzyme responsible for maintaining the nuclear genome methylation patterns during the DNA replication and repair, thus regulating gene expression. The mutations responsible for ADCA-DN and HSN1E affect the replication foci targeting sequence domain, which regulates DNMT1 binding to chromatin. DNMT1 dysfunction is anticipated to lead to a global alteration of the DNA methylation pattern with predictable downstream consequences on gene expression. Interestingly, ADCA-DN and HSN1E phenotypes share some clinical features typical of mitochondrial diseases, such as optic atrophy, peripheral neuropathy and deafness, and some biochemical evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction. The recent discovery of a mitochondrial isoform of DNMT1 and its proposed role in methylating mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA suggests that DNMT1 mutations may directly affect mtDNA and mitochondrial physiology. On the basis of this latter finding the link between DNMT1 abnormal activity and mitochondrial dysfunction in ADCA-DN and HSN1E appears intuitive, however mtDNA methylation remains highly debated. In the last years several groups demonstrated the presence of 5-methylcytosine in mtDNA by different approaches, but, on the other end, the opposite evidence that mtDNA is not methylated has also been published. Since over 1500 mitochondrial proteins are encoded by the nuclear genome, the altered methylation of these genes may well have a critical role in leading to the mitochondrial impairment observed in ADCA-DN and HSN1E. Thus, many open questions still remain unanswered, such as why mtDNA should be methylated, and how this process is

  20. Phylogenetic star contraction applied to Asian and Papuan mtDNA evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, P; Torroni, A; Renfrew, C; Röhl, A

    2001-10-01

    In the past decade, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 826 representative East Asians and Papuans has been typed by high-resolution (14-enzyme) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Compared with mtDNA control region sequencing, RFLP typing of the complete human mitochondrial DNA generally yields a cleaner phylogeny, the nodes of which can be dated assuming a molecular clock. We present here a novel star contraction algorithm which rigorously identifies starlike nodes (clusters) diagnostic of prehistoric demographic expansions. Applied to the Asian and Papuan data, we date the out-of-Africa migration of the ancestral mtDNA types that founded all Eurasian (including Papuan) lineages at 54,000 years. While the proto-Papuan mtDNA continued expanding at this time along a southern route to Papua New Guinea, the proto-Eurasian mtDNA appears to have drifted genetically and does not show any comparable demographic expansion until 30,000 years ago. By this time, the East Asian, Indian, and European mtDNA pools seem to have separated from each other, as postulated by the weak Garden of Eden model. The east Asian expansion entered America about 25,000 years ago, but was then restricted on both sides of the Pacific to more southerly latitudes during the Last Glacial Maximum around 20,000 years ago, coinciding with a chronological gap in our expansion dates. Repopulation of northern Asian latitudes occurred after the Last Glacial Maximum, obscuring the ancestral Asian gene pool of Amerinds.

  1. The explosive activity of the 1669 Monti Rossi eruption at Mt. Etna (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulas, Maurizio; Cioni, Raffaello; Andronico, Daniele; Mundula, Filippo

    2016-12-01

    Preceded by 14 days of intense seismic activity, a new eruption started on the south flank of Mt. Etna, Sicily (Italy) early in the morning of 11 March 1669 opening up a series of NS eruptive fissures. The eruption is one of the most destructive flank eruptions of Etna in historical times; it lasted until 11 July, and was characterized by simultaneous explosive and effusive activity during the first three months, while only lava flow output in the last month. The activity built up the large composite cone of the "Monti Rossi" at the lower end of the eruptive fissures, and caused severe damage to the nearby inhabited areas. The prolonged effusive activity generated lava flows for > 15 km, which destroyed several villages and the western part of the town of Catania before reaching the coastline and entering the sea. In this paper, we examine the tephro-stratigraphy of the products of the explosive activity. An in-depth analysis of historical accounts was used to define the chronology of the main eruptive phases (precursors, explosive activity and initial effusive phenomena). The geology of the cone and of the fallout deposits were defined through a field survey over a distance of 5 km from the Monti Rossi. Textural (grain-size, morphological, componentry), density and petrological analyses of tephra samples provided a sedimentological, physical and geochemical characterization of erupted products. Integrating ground and historical data enabled defining the evolution of the cone, identifying and correlating four main cone-forming units. By tracing the dispersal map of the main distal tephra beds (the finer ash being dispersed mainly to the NE as far as Calabria and to the south of Sicily and the 10-cm isopach of the total deposit covering an area up to 53 km2), we estimated a total tephra fallout volume, including the Monti Rossi cone, of about 6.6 × 107 m3 (about 3.2 × 107 m3 DRE). The 1669 event can be considered an archetype of the most hazardous expected

  2. MT-ADRES: multi-threading on coarse-grained reconfigurable architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Kehuai; Kanstein, Andreas; Madsen, Jan;

    2008-01-01

    -ILP architectures achieve only low parallelism when executing partially sequential code segments, which is also known as Amdahl's law, this article proposes to extend ADRES to MT-ADRES (multi-threaded ADRES) to also exploit thread-level parallelism. On MT-ADRES architectures, the array can be partitioned...... in multiple smaller arrays that can execute threads in parallel. Because the partition can be changed dynamically, this extension provides more flexibility than a multi-core approach. This article presents details of the enhanced architecture and results obtained from an MPEG-2 decoder implementation...... that exploits a mix of thread-level parallelism and instruction-level parallelism....

  3. RESPONSIBLE OWNERSHIP OF DOGS AND CATS FROM SINOP-MT: DESCRIPTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. B. De Carli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to raise information on the relationship among owners from Sinop/MT and their pets, and also to diagnose the practice of responsible ownership. For this purpose, we developed a questionnaire, which was applied to 77 dog’s and cat’s owners, attended at the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Mato Grosso – Sinop, MT. The obtained results showed the majority of the owners miss information and knowledge about how to take good care of their pets. Most of them foster animals for emotional reasons but, despite this, we can’t conclude they are able to practice responsible ownership.

  4. Advances in Human Mitochondrial Diseases Molecular Genetic Analysis of Pathogenic mtDNA Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, E; King, M P

    1997-01-01

    The mitochondrial diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders that have been defined by specific morphological alterations in muscle and by deficits of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The morphological hallmarks of these diseases include ragged-red fibers (an extensive proliferation of mitochondria in muscle fibers) and abnormal paracrystalline inclusions and membrane structures in mitochondria. The identification of pathogenic mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has resulted in a genetic classification of mitochondrial diseases. Investigations are being conducted to understand the molecular basis for the biochemical and morphological alterations of mitochondria associated with mtDNA mutations. © 1997, Elsevier Science Inc. (Trends Cardiovasc Med 1997;7:16-24).

  5. Mt. Agung eruption as a confirmation of the effect of atmospheric radiative perturbations on climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J. E.; Wang, W. C.; Lacis, A. A.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of the 1963 Mt. Agung (Bali) volcanic eruption are studied with respect to the response of the climate system to global radiative perturbations. Volcanic aerosols, spread globally by stratospheric winds, cause a perturbation characterized by a reasonably well known forcing function. Since the climatic response to a large eruption should be pronounced, these phenomena might provide a means to test the validity of climate models. The Mt. Agung eruption is described, and the atmospheric thermal response is calculated. The magnitude, sign, and time delay of temperature changes computed with a simple one-dimensional climate model for both the stratosphere and troposphere are in agreement with the observed temperature changes.

  6. Transcriptional requirements of the distal heavy-strand promoter of mtDNA

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The heavy strand of mtDNA contains two promoters with nonoverlapping functions. The role of the minor heavy-strand promoter (HSP2) is controversial, because the promoter has been difficult to activate in an in vitro system. We have isolated HSP2 by excluding its interaction with the more powerful HSP1 promoter, and we find that it is transcribed efficiently by recombinant mtRNA polymerase and mitochondrial transcription factor B2. The mitochondrial transcription factor A is not required for i...

  7. Inventory Model (M,T) With Quadratic Backorder Costs And Continuous Lead Time Series 1

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Martin Osawaru Omorodion

    2014-01-01

    We have assumed in this paper that demand follows a normal distribution, and lead times follow a gamma distribution and backorder costs is quadratic. The (M, T) Model an order is made to bring it to M at review time. The model is derived from the (nQ,R,T) model which at review time an integral multiple Q is ordered. After deriving the inventory costs for (nQ, R,T) we set Q 0 to obtain the (M,T) inventory costs by making use of the differentiation of the (nQ,R,T) model. The (M,T) inventory cos...

  8. A collaborative EDNAP exercise on SNaPshot™-based mtDNA control region typing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiler, NEC; Baca, K; Ballard, D

    2017-01-01

    laboratories had no previous experience with the typing technology and/or mtDNA analysis. The majority of the participants proceeded to haplotype inference to assess the feasibility of assigning a haplogroup and checking phylogenetic consistency when only 18 SNPs are typed. To mimic casework procedures......, the participants compared the SNP typing data of all 13 samples to a set of eight mtDNA reference profiles that were described according to standard nomenclature (Parson et al., 2014) [2], and indicated whether these references matched each sample or not. Incorrect scorings were obtained for 2% of the comparisons...

  9. A Simulating Experiment in the Process of Soil Erosion on Bare Land in Mt. Tanakami

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wei; HU Ke; WANG Xikui; Akitsu KIMOTO; Takahisa MIZUYAMA

    2001-01-01

    In order to understand the process of surface erosion and acquire basic data of conditions on hillslope without vege tation, a sprinkling experiment is conducted on a bare slope in Mt. Tanakami in the central part of Japan. Based on the mea surements of runoff, mean soil erosion depth, and sediment yield, etc. , the results suggest the following characteristics in the process of surface erosion in the experimental area. (1) The occurrence of sediment discharge is interrupted; (2) Surface runoff is a saturated overland flow; (3) The mean soil erosion depth is thick compared with other areas in Mt. Tanakami;(4) Sediment discharge process is detachment- limited.

  10. Typing of 24 mtDNA SNPs in a Chinese Population Using SNaPshot Minisequencing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄代新; 桂程; 易少华; 杨庆恩; 杨荣芝; 梅焜

    2010-01-01

    Three SNaPshot multiplex assays were developed to test 23 coding region single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPs) and one control region SNP outside hypervariable regions(HVR)Ⅰand Ⅱ,which was aimed at increasing the discrimination power of the mitochondrial DNA(mtDNA) typing in forensic casework,and confirming haplogroup assignments of mtDNA profiles in both human population studies and medical research.The selected SNPs targeted the East Asian phylogeny.These multiplex assays were validated by comparing with t...

  11. Assessing the Quality of MT Systems for Hindi to English Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyani, Aditi; Kumud, Hemant; Pal Singh, Shashi; Kumar, Ajai

    2014-03-01

    Evaluation plays a vital role in checking the quality of MT output. It is done either manually or automatically. Manual evaluation is very time consuming and subjective, hence use of automatic metrics is done most of the times. This paper evaluates the translation quality of different MT Engines for Hindi-English (Hindi data is provided as input and English is obtained as output) using various automatic metrics like BLEU, METEOR etc. Further the comparison automatic evaluation results with Human ranking have also been given.

  12. Intermediate-Term Declines in Seismicity at Mt. Wrangell and Mt. Veniaminof Volcanoes, Alaska, Following the November 3, 2002 Mw 7.9 Denali Fault Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, J. J.; McNutt, S. R.

    2003-12-01

    On November 3, 2002 a Mw 7.9 earthquake ruptured segments of the Denali Fault and adjacent faults in interior Alaska providing a unique opportunity to look for intermediate-term (days to weeks) responses of Alaskan volcanoes to shaking from a large regional earthquake. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) monitors 24 volcanoes with seismograph networks. We examined one station per volcano, generally the closest to the vent (typically within 5 km) unless noise, or other factors made the data unusable. Data were digitally filtered between 0.8 and 5 Hz to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio. Data for the period four weeks before to four weeks after the Mw 7.9 earthquake were then plotted at a standard scale used for AVO routine monitoring. Mt. Veniaminof volcano, which has had recent mild eruptions and a rate of ten earthquakes per day on station VNNF, suffered a drop in seismicity by a factor of two after the earthquake; this lasted for 15 days. Wrangell, the closest volcano to the epicenter, had a background rate of about 16 earthquakes per day. Data from station WANC could not be measured for 3 days after the Mw 7.9 earthquake because the large number and size of aftershocks impeded identification of local earthquakes. For the following 30 days, however, its seismicity rate dropped by a factor of two. Seismicity then remained low for an additional 4 months at Wrangell, whereas that at Veniaminof returned to normal within weeks. The seismicity at both Mt. Veniaminof and Mt. Wrangell is dominated by low-frequency volcanic events. The detection thresholds for both seismograph networks are low and stations VNNF and WANC operated normally during the time of our study, thus we infer that the changes in seismicity may be related to the earthquake. It is known that Wrangell increased its heat output after the Mw 9.2 Alaska earthquake of 1964 and again after the Ms 7.1 St.Elias earthquake of 1979. The other volcanoes showed no changes in seismicity that can be attributable to

  13. Hybridization and massive mtDNA unidirectional introgression between the closely related Neotropical toads Rhinella marina and R. schneideri inferred from mtDNA and nuclear markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Horacio

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The classical perspective that interspecific hybridization in animals is rare has been changing due to a growing list of empirical examples showing the occurrence of gene flow between closely related species. Using sequence data from cyt b mitochondrial gene and three intron nuclear genes (RPL9, c-myc, and RPL3 we investigated patterns of nucleotide polymorphism and divergence between two closely related toad species R. marina and R. schneideri. By comparing levels of differentiation at nuclear and mtDNA levels we were able to describe patterns of introgression and infer the history of hybridization between these species. Results All nuclear loci are essentially concordant in revealing two well differentiated groups of haplotypes, corresponding to the morphologically-defined species R. marina and R. schneideri. Mitochondrial DNA analysis also revealed two well-differentiated groups of haplotypes but, in stark contrast with the nuclear genealogies, all R. schneideri sequences are clustered with sequences of R. marina from the right Amazon bank (RAB, while R. marina sequences from the left Amazon bank (LAB are monophyletic. An Isolation-with-Migration (IM analysis using nuclear data showed that R. marina and R. schneideri diverged at ≈ 1.69 Myr (early Pleistocene, while R. marina populations from LAB and RAB diverged at ≈ 0.33 Myr (middle Pleistocene. This time of divergence is not consistent with the split between LAB and RAB populations obtained with mtDNA data (≈ 1.59 Myr, which is notably similar to the estimate obtained with nuclear genes between R. marina and R. schneideri. Coalescent simulations of mtDNA phylogeny under the speciation history inferred from nuclear genes rejected the hypothesis of incomplete lineage sorting to explain the conflicting signal between mtDNA and nuclear-based phylogenies. Conclusions The cytonuclear discordance seems to reflect the occurrence of interspecific hybridization between these

  14. Comparisons of host mitochondrial, nuclear and endosymbiont bacterial genes reveal cryptic fig wasp species and the effects of Wolbachia on host mtDNA evolution and diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Gui

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Figs and fig-pollinating wasp species usually display a highly specific one-to-one association. However, more and more studies have revealed that the "one-to-one" rule has been broken. Co-pollinators have been reported, but we do not yet know how they evolve. They may evolve from insect speciation induced or facilitated by Wolbachia which can manipulate host reproduction and induce reproductive isolation. In addition, Wolbachia can affect host mitochondrial DNA evolution, because of the linkage between Wolbachia and associated mitochondrial haplotypes, and thus confound host phylogeny based on mtDNA. Previous research has shown that fig wasps have the highest incidence of Wolbachia infection in all insect taxa, and Wolbachia may have great influence on fig wasp biology. Therefore, we look forward to understanding the influence of Wolbachia on mitochondrial DNA evolution and speciation in fig wasps. Results We surveyed 76 pollinator wasp specimens from nine Ficus microcarpa trees each growing at a different location in Hainan and Fujian Provinces, China. We found that all wasps were morphologically identified as Eupristina verticillata, but diverged into three clades with 4.22-5.28% mtDNA divergence and 2.29-20.72% nuclear gene divergence. We also found very strong concordance between E. verticillata clades and Wolbachia infection status, and the predicted effects of Wolbachia on both mtDNA diversity and evolution by decreasing mitochondrial haplotypes. Conclusions Our study reveals that the pollinating wasp E. verticillata on F. microcarpa has diverged into three cryptic species, and Wolbachia may have a role in this divergence. The results also indicate that Wolbachia strains infecting E. verticillata have likely resulted in selective sweeps on host mitochondrial DNA.

  15. Perceptual learning of motion direction discrimination with suppressed and unsuppressed MT in humans: an fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Thompson

    Full Text Available The middle temporal area of the extrastriate visual cortex (area MT is integral to motion perception and is thought to play a key role in the perceptual learning of motion tasks. We have previously found, however, that perceptual learning of a motion discrimination task is possible even when the training stimulus contains locally balanced, motion opponent signals that putatively suppress the response of MT. Assuming at least partial suppression of MT, possible explanations for this learning are that 1 training made MT more responsive by reducing motion opponency, 2 MT remained suppressed and alternative visual areas such as V1 enabled learning and/or 3 suppression of MT increased with training, possibly to reduce noise. Here we used fMRI to test these possibilities. We first confirmed that the motion opponent stimulus did indeed suppress the BOLD response within hMT+ compared to an almost identical stimulus without locally balanced motion signals. We then trained participants on motion opponent or non-opponent stimuli. Training with the motion opponent stimulus reduced the BOLD response within hMT+ and greater reductions in BOLD response were correlated with greater amounts of learning. The opposite relationship between BOLD and behaviour was found at V1 for the group trained on the motion-opponent stimulus and at both V1 and hMT+ for the group trained on the non-opponent motion stimulus. As the average response of many cells within MT to motion opponent stimuli is the same as their response to non-directional flickering noise, the reduced activation of hMT+ after training may reflect noise reduction.

  16. Extreme mitochondrial evolution in the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi: Insight from mtDNA and the nuclear genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pett, Walker; Ryan, Joseph F; Pang, Kevin; Mullikin, James C; Martindale, Mark Q; Baxevanis, Andreas D; Lavrov, Dennis V

    2011-08-01

    Recent advances in sequencing technology have led to a rapid accumulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences, which now represent the wide spectrum of animal diversity. However, one animal phylum--Ctenophora--has, to date, remained completely unsampled. Ctenophores, a small group of marine animals, are of interest due to their unusual biology, controversial phylogenetic position, and devastating impact as invasive species. Using data from the Mnemiopsis leidyi genome sequencing project, we Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplified and analyzed its complete mitochondrial (mt-) genome. At just over 10 kb, the mt-genome of M. leidyi is the smallest animal mtDNA ever reported and is among the most derived. It has lost at least 25 genes, including atp6 and all tRNA genes. We show that atp6 has been relocated to the nuclear genome and has acquired introns and a mitochondrial targeting presequence, while tRNA genes have been genuinely lost, along with nuclear-encoded mt-aminoacyl tRNA synthetases. The mt-genome of M. leidyi also displays extremely high rates of sequence evolution, which likely led to the degeneration of both protein and rRNA genes. In particular, encoded rRNA molecules possess little similarity with their homologs in other organisms and have highly reduced secondary structures. At the same time, nuclear encoded mt-ribosomal proteins have undergone expansions, likely to compensate for the reductions in mt-rRNA. The unusual features identified in M. leidyi mtDNA make this organism an interesting system for the study of various aspects of mitochondrial biology, particularly protein and tRNA import and mt-ribosome structures, and add to its value as an emerging model species. Furthermore, the fast-evolving M. leidyi mtDNA should be a convenient molecular marker for species- and population-level studies.

  17. Extreme Mitochondrial Evolution in the Ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi: Insights from mtDNA and the Nuclear Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pett, Walker; Ryan, Joseph F.; Pang, Kevin; Mullikin, James C.; Martindale, Mark Q.; Baxevanis, Andreas D.; Lavrov, Dennis V.

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in sequencing technology have led to a rapid accumulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences, which now represent the wide spectrum of animal diversity. However, one animal phylum – Ctenophora – has, to date, remained completely unsampled. Ctenophores, a small group of marine animals, are of interest due to their unusual biology, controversial phylogenetic position, and devastating impact as an invasive species. Using data from the Mnemiopsis leidyi genome sequencing project, we PCR amplified and analyzed its complete mitochondrial (mt-) genome. At just over 10kb, the mt-genome of M. leidyi is the smallest animal mtDNA ever reported and is among the most derived. It has lost at least 25 genes, including atp6 and all tRNA genes. We show that atp6 has been relocated to the nuclear genome and has acquired introns and a mitochondrial targeting presequence, while tRNA genes have been genuinely lost, along with nuclear-encoded mt-aminoacyl tRNA synthetases. The mt-genome of M. leidyi also displays extremely high rates of sequence evolution, which likely led to the degeneration of both protein and rRNA genes. In particular, encoded rRNA molecules possess little similarity with their homologues in other organisms and have highly reduced secondary structures. At the same time, nuclear encoded mt-ribosomal proteins have undergone expansions, probably to compensate for the reductions in mt-rRNA. The unusual features identified in M. leidyi mtDNA make this organism an interesting system for the study of various aspects of mitochondrial biology, particularly protein and tRNA import and mt-ribosome structures, and add to its value as an emerging model species. Furthermore, the fast-evolving M. leidyi mtDNA should be a convenient molecular marker for species- and population-level studies. PMID:21985407

  18. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2001-01-01

    The aim of Engineering Surveying has always been to impart and develop a clear understanding of the basic topics of the subject. The author has fully revised the book to make it the most up-to-date and relevant textbook available on the subject.The book also contains the latest information on trigonometric levelling, total stations and one-person measuring systems. A new chapter on satellites ensures a firm grasp of this vitally important topic.The text covers engineering surveying modules for civil engineering students on degree courses and forms a reference for the engineering surveying module in land surveying courses. It will also prove to be a valuable reference for practitioners.* Simple clear introduction to surveying for engineers* Explains key techniques and methods* Details reading systems and satellite position fixing

  19. 改良蔗糖衬垫法提取苎麻mtDNA%Optimized Protocol for Ramie mtDNA Extraction Based on Sucrose-mediated Sedimentation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯思名; 翟书华; 岑晓江; 杨晓虹; 窦玉敏; 曾黎琼; 刘飞虎

    2010-01-01

    苎麻组织中含有较多的酚类、粘状物及黄酮类等次生代谢物质,其mtDNA的提取比较困难.本实验中采用蔗糖衬垫法提取苎麻mtDNA.提取过程中往缓冲液中加入抗氧化性物质来减轻DNA 的褐变;同时在酚-氯仿/异戊醇抽提过程中加入高盐溶液,用以去除多糖;且采用擦镜纸而不是纱布过滤可提高mtDNA的得率.mtDNA的ISSR检测结果表明,蔗糖衬垫法提取mtDNA时,辅助加入抗氧化剂和高盐溶液效果较好.

  20. A collaborative EDNAP exercise on SNaPshot™-based mtDNA control region typing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiler, NEC; Baca, K; Ballard, D;

    2017-01-01

    ) DNA control region and allows for discrimination of major European mtDNA haplogroups. Besides the organising laboratory, 14 forensic genetics laboratories were involved in the analysis of 13 samples, which were centrally prepared and thoroughly tested prior to shipment. The samples had a variable...

  1. Observing Deformation at Mt. Raung East Java Based on PALSAR-2 Imagery by Using Interferometric SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbad, Arliandy P.; Ardy, Achmad; Ashari, Ridwan A.

    2016-11-01

    In August 2015, Indonesia Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM) recorded of tectonic activities at Mt. Raung with maximum amplitude 2-32 mm and continuing the tremor quakes until the beginning of the 2016 eruption period. Mt. Raung is located at East Java Province, one of most active stratovolcano in Indonesia, typically erupt with explosive eruptions and another deadly hazards such as pyroclastic flow, lahar and volcanic gases. Radar imagery consequently proposes of value device for mapping and assessing of volcano oppurtunities. By this study, we propose InSAR method to observe deformation in Mt. Raung. Interferometric SAR derives the phase difference based on two images of PALSAR-2 observations taken in January 2015 and January 2016. According to the processing of interferometric SAR, those images must be coregistered into a stack, and we selected 2015 imagery as master and the other imagery as slave. We estimate the interferogram result to know the line-of-sight then be flattened by removing the topographic phase an inflating volcano (or any other landform) produces a pattern of concentric fringes in a radar interferogram from which the ffects of viewing geometry and topography have been removed. Finally, we expect the result ofInSAR processing technique to investigate ground deformation of Mt. Raung. It would be a capable and cost-effective way of enhancing the techniques normally used in geodetic monitoring to assess the next eruptive events.

  2. Dystopian Visions of Global Capitalism: Philip Reeve's "Mortal Engines" and M.T Anderson's "Feed"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullen, Elizabeth; Parsons, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This article examines Philip Reeve's novel for children, "Mortal Engines", and M.T. Anderson's young adult novel, "Feed", by assessing these dystopias as prototypical texts of what Ulrich Beck calls risk society. Through their visions of a fictional future, the two narratives explore the hazards created by contemporary techno-economic progress,…

  3. 76 FR 41192 - Mines Management Inc. Montanore Project, Kootenai National Forest, Lincoln County, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... Forest Service Mines Management Inc. Montanore Project, Kootenai National Forest, Lincoln County, MT.../goto/kootenai/projects . Mines Management Inc. owns two patented mining claims (HR 133 & HR 134) with... Environmental Impact Statement for the Montanore Project. In response to public comment, the agencies...

  4. Vestibular activation differentially modulates human early visual cortex and V5/MT excitability and response entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemungal, Barry M; Guzman-Lopez, Jessica; Arshad, Qadeer; Schultz, Simon R; Walsh, Vincent; Yousif, Nada

    2013-01-01

    Head movement imposes the additional burdens on the visual system of maintaining visual acuity and determining the origin of retinal image motion (i.e., self-motion vs. object-motion). Although maintaining visual acuity during self-motion is effected by minimizing retinal slip via the brainstem vestibular-ocular reflex, higher order visuovestibular mechanisms also contribute. Disambiguating self-motion versus object-motion also invokes higher order mechanisms, and a cortical visuovestibular reciprocal antagonism is propounded. Hence, one prediction is of a vestibular modulation of visual cortical excitability and indirect measures have variously suggested none, focal or global effects of activation or suppression in human visual cortex. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced phosphenes to probe cortical excitability, we observed decreased V5/MT excitability versus increased early visual cortex (EVC) excitability, during vestibular activation. In order to exclude nonspecific effects (e.g., arousal) on cortical excitability, response specificity was assessed using information theory, specifically response entropy. Vestibular activation significantly modulated phosphene response entropy for V5/MT but not EVC, implying a specific vestibular effect on V5/MT responses. This is the first demonstration that vestibular activation modulates human visual cortex excitability. Furthermore, using information theory, not previously used in phosphene response analysis, we could distinguish between a specific vestibular modulation of V5/MT excitability from a nonspecific effect at EVC.

  5. Antitumor bioactivity of adenovirus-mediated p27mt in colorectal cancer cell line SW480

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ze-Qun sun; Chang-Sheng Deng; Shao-Yong Xu; Yong Du

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To explore the antitumor bioactivity of adenovirus-mediated mutant type p27kip1 gene in a colorectal cancer cell line SW480.METHODS: We constructed recombinant adenovirus vector expressing a mutant type p27kip1 gene (ad-p27mt), with mutation of Thr-187/Pro-188 (ACGCCC) to Met-187/Ile-188 (ATGATC), and transduced into SW480 cells. Then we detected expression of p27, Bcl-2 and Bax protein in the transductants by Western blotting, cell cycle of transductants by a digital flow cytometric system, migrating potential with Boyden Chamber end SW480 tumor cell growth inhibition in vitro and in vivo.RESULTS: We found that a recombinant adenovirus vector of expressing ad-p27mt, with mutation of Thr-187/Pro-188 (ACGCCC) to Met-187/Ile-188 (ATGATC) has potent inhibition of SW480 tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, ed-p27mt induced cell apoptosis via regulating bax and bcl-2 expressions, and G1/S arrest in SW480 cells and inhibited celt migration.CONCLUSION: ad-p27mt has a strong anti-tumor bioactivity and has the potential to develop into new therapeutic agents for colorectal cancer.

  6. 75 FR 54381 - Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and UL Bend National Wildlife Refuge, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and UL Bend National Wildlife Refuge, MT AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability: Draft...; request for comments. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce the...

  7. Cells Lacking mtDNA Display Increased dNTP Pools upon DNA Damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Tine; Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Munch-Petersen, Birgitte

    and mitochondrial function we have examined the effect of DNA damage on dNTP pools in cells deficient of mtDNA. We show that DNA damage induced by UV irradiation, in a dose corresponding to LD50, induces cell cycle synchronization in different human osteosarcoma cell lines. The UV pulse also has a destabilizing...

  8. Cells Lacking mtDNA Display Increased dNTP Pools upon DNA Damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Tine; Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Munch-Petersen, Birgitte

    and mitochondrial function we have examined the effect of DNA damage on dNTP pools in cells deficient of mtDNA. We show that DNA damage induced by UV irradiation, in a dose corresponding to LD50, induces an S phase delay in different human osteosarcoma cell lines. The UV pulse also has a destabilizing effect...

  9. The effect of visual experience on the development of functional architecture in hMT+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Emiliano; Vanello, Nicola; Sani, Lorenzo; Gentili, Claudio; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale; Landini, Luigi; Guazzelli, Mario; Bicchi, Antonio; Haxby, James V; Pietrini, Pietro

    2007-12-01

    We investigated whether the visual hMT+ cortex plays a role in supramodal representation of sensory flow, not mediated by visual mental imagery. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure neural activity in sighted and congenitally blind individuals during passive perception of optic and tactile flows. Visual motion-responsive cortex, including hMT+, was identified in the lateral occipital and inferior temporal cortices of the sighted subjects by response to optic flow. Tactile flow perception in sighted subjects activated the more anterior part of these cortical regions but deactivated the more posterior part. By contrast, perception of tactile flow in blind subjects activated the full extent, including the more posterior part. These results demonstrate that activation of hMT+ and surrounding cortex by tactile flow is not mediated by visual mental imagery and that the functional organization of hMT+ can develop to subserve tactile flow perception in the absence of any visual experience. Moreover, visual experience leads to a segregation of the motion-responsive occipitotemporal cortex into an anterior subregion involved in the representation of both optic and tactile flows and a posterior subregion that processes optic flow only.

  10. 77 FR 18852 - Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuge, Stevensville, MT; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuge, Stevensville, MT; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for comments; announcement of public meeting SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and...

  11. 75 FR 9924 - Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan for the Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan for the Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, MT AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce that our final Comprehensive...

  12. MT71x: Multi-Temperature Library Based on ENDF/B-VII.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlin, Jeremy Lloyd [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parsons, Donald Kent [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gray, Mark Girard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lee, Mary Beth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); White, Morgan Curtis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-16

    The Nuclear Data Team has released a multitemperature transport library, MT71x, based upon ENDF/B-VII.1 with a few modifications as well as additional evaluations for a total of 427 isotope tables. The library was processed using NJOY2012.39 into 23 temperatures. MT71x consists of two sub-libraries; MT71xMG for multigroup energy representation data and MT71xCE for continuous energy representation data. These sub-libraries are suitable for deterministic transport and Monte Carlo transport applications, respectively. The SZAs used are the same for the two sub-libraries; that is, the same SZA can be used for both libraries. This makes comparisons between the two libraries and between deterministic and Monte Carlo codes straightforward. Both the multigroup energy and continuous energy libraries were verified and validated with our checking codes checkmg and checkace (multigroup and continuous energy, respectively) Then an expanded suite of tests was used for additional verification and, finally, verified using an extensive suite of critical benchmark models. We feel that this library is suitable for all calculations and is particularly useful for calculations sensitive to temperature effects.

  13. Decay spectroscopy of element 115 daughters:280Rg→276Mt and 276Mt→272Bh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, J. M.; Gregorich, K. E.; Gothe, O. R.; Uribe, E. C.; Pang, G. K.; Bleuel, D. L.; Block, M.; Clark, R. M.; Campbell, C. M.; Crawford, H. L.; Cromaz, M.; Di Nitto, A.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Esker, N. E.; Fahlander, C.; Fallon, P.; Farjadi, R. M.; Forsberg, U.; Khuyagbaatar, J.; Loveland, W.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; May, E. M.; Mudder, P. R.; Olive, D. T.; Rice, A. C.; Rissanen, J.; Rudolph, D.; Sarmiento, L. G.; Shusterman, J. A.; Stoyer, M. A.; Wiens, A.; Yakushev, A.; Nitsche, H.

    2015-08-01

    Forty-six decay chains, assigned to the decay of 288115 , were produced using the 243Am(48Ca,3 n )288115 reaction at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 88-in. cyclotron. The resulting series of α decays were studied using α -photon and α -x-ray spectroscopies. Multiple α -photon coincidences were observed in the element 115 decay chain members, particularly in the third- and fourth-generation decays (presumed to be 280Rg and 276Mt , respectively). Upon combining these data with those from 22 288115 decay chains observed in a similar experiment, updated level schemes in 276Mt and 272Bh (populated by the α decay of 280Rg and 276Mt , respectively) are proposed. Photons were observed in the energy range expected for K x rays coincident with the α decay of both 280Rg and 276Mt . However, Compton scattering of higher-energy γ rays and discrete transitions are present in the K x-ray region preventing a definitive Z identification to be made based on observation of characteristic K x-ray energies.

  14. Design of 8.0Mt/a Atmospheric and Vacuum Distillation Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hejie

    2003-01-01

    The design features of 8 Mt/a atmospheric and vacuum distillation unit (Ⅲ) in Zhenhai Refiningand Chemical Company are presented and various process schemes are compared. Production practice hasproved that the main process design is advanced and reasonable and the process parameters basicallyreached design requirements.

  15. Preliminary investigation into landslide in the national park Mt. Seorak in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.-K.; Choi, S.-Y.; Park, K.; Park, H.-D.

    2003-04-01

    There are 20 national parks with a site of superb scenic beauty in Korea. Total area covered by Mt. Seorak of Korean national parks is 354.6 km^2, which is of great value to be preserved naturally. Mt. Seorak is composed of granite, granitic gneiss and porphyroblastic gneiss. Mt. Seorak has been appointed as preservation area by IUCN(International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) from early 1960's. Although a great number of people have visited to enjoy the beautiful panorama of Mt. Seorak, visitors are exposed to natural hazards, such as rock-fall, rockslide and debris flow. Based on preliminary investigation for total 68 sites on tracking routes, 7 sites were determined to be dangerous for visitors. Recently, rock-fall has occurred at 2 sites and debris flow happened at another 2 sites, where roads and tracking routes have been destroyed completely. In others, there is potential danger of rock-fall and debris flow. In 61 sites except the above sites, though there is no apparent danger, visitors need to be notified whether they pass through potential dangerous site. From future working using GIS technology and continuous monitoring for dangerous sites, small natural hazards can be predicted.

  16. The rediscovery of Astragalus autranii (Fabaceae) on Mt Tomor, south central Albania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Shuka, Lulezim; Gjeta, Ermelinda

    2015-01-01

    collected by Baldacci in 1892 on Mt Tomor in south central Albania and rediscovered by Markgraf at the locus classicus in June 1928. A complete and amended description of the species is here provided as corolla features were not available in the type material and the flower colour was incorrectly described...

  17. Dystopian Visions of Global Capitalism: Philip Reeve's "Mortal Engines" and M.T Anderson's "Feed"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullen, Elizabeth; Parsons, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This article examines Philip Reeve's novel for children, "Mortal Engines", and M.T. Anderson's young adult novel, "Feed", by assessing these dystopias as prototypical texts of what Ulrich Beck calls risk society. Through their visions of a fictional future, the two narratives explore the hazards created by contemporary techno-economic progress,…

  18. Characterization of mtDNA haplogroups in 14 Mexican indigenous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaloza-Espinosa, Rosenda I; Arenas-Aranda, Diego; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Buentello-Malo, Leonor; González-Valencia, Gerardo; Torres, Javier; Alvarez, Berenice; Mendoza, Irma; Flores, Mario; Sandoval, Lucila; Loeza, Francisco; Ramos, Irma; Muñoz, Leopoldo; Salamanca, Fabio

    2007-06-01

    In this descriptive study we investigated the genetic structure of 513 Mexican indigenous subjects grouped in 14 populations (Mixteca-Alta, Mixteca-Baja, Otomi, Purépecha, Tzeltal, Tarahumara, Huichol, Nahua-Atocpan, Nahua-Xochimilco, Nahua-Zitlala, Nahua-Chilacachapa, Nahua-Ixhuatlancillo, Nahua-Necoxtla, and Nahua-Coyolillo) based on mtDNA haplogroups. These communities are geographically and culturally isolated; parents and grandparents were born in the community. Our data show that 98.6% of the mtDNA was distributed in haplogroups A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, C2, D1, and D2. Haplotype X6 was present in the Tarahumara (1/53) and Huichol (3/15), and haplotype L was present in the Nahua-Coyolillo (3/38). The first two principal components accounted for 95.9% of the total variation in the sample. The mtDNA haplogroup frequencies in the Purépecha and Zitlala were intermediate to cluster 1 (Otomi, Nahua-Ixhuatlancillo, Nahua-Xochimilco, Mixteca-Baja, and Tzeltal) and cluster 2 (Nahua-Necoxtla, Nahua-Atocpan, and Nahua-Chilacachapa). The Huichol, Tarahumara, Mixteca-Alta, and Nahua-Coyolillo were separated from the rest of the populations. According to these findings, the distribution of mtDNA haplogroups found in Mexican indigenous groups is similar to other Amerindian haplogroups, except for the African haplogroup found in one population.

  19. [Genetic ecological monitoring in human populations: heterozygosity, mtDNA haplotype variation, and genetic load].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanovskiĭ, O P; Koshel', S M; Zaporozhchenko, V V; Pshenichnov, A S; Frolova, S A; Kuznetsova, M A; Baranova, E E; Teuchezh, I E; Kuznetsova, A A; Romashkina, M V; Utevskaia, O M; Churnosov, M I; Villems, R; Balanovskaia, E V

    2011-11-01

    Yu. P. Altukhov suggested that heterozygosity is an indicator of the state of the gene pool. The idea and a linked concept of genetic ecological monitoring were applied to a new dataset on mtDNA variation in East European ethnic groups. Haplotype diversity (an analog of the average heterozygosity) was shown to gradually decrease northwards. Since a similar trend is known for population density, interlinked changes were assumed for a set of parameters, which were ordered to form a causative chain: latitude increases, land productivity decreases, population density decreases, effective population size decreases, isolation of subpopulations increases, genetic drift increases, and mtDNA haplotype diversity decreases. An increase in genetic drift increases the random inbreeding rate and, consequently, the genetic load. This was confirmed by a significant correlation observed between the incidence of autosomal recessive hereditary diseases and mtDNA haplotype diversity. Based on the findings, mtDNA was assumed to provide an informative genetic system for genetic ecological monitoring; e.g., analyzing the ecology-driven changes in the gene pool.

  20. Digital compilation bedrock geologic map of the Mt. Ellen quadrangle, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital Data from VG95-6A Stanley, RS, Walsh, G, Tauvers, PR, DiPietro, JA, and DelloRusso, V, 1995,�Digital compilation bedrock geologic map of the Mt. Ellen...

  1. Monument of nature? An ethnography of the world heritage of Mt. Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akker, van den M.L.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation examines the World Heritage status of Mt. Kenya, an alpine area in Central Kenya. The mountain joined the World Heritage List in 1997 and in 2013 the original designation expanded to cover a larger area. Both events were formulated exclusively in natural scientific language. This p

  2. Dark Matter Particle Spectroscopy at the LHC: Generalizing MT2 to Asymmetric Event Topologies

    CERN Document Server

    Konar, Partha; Matchev, Konstantin T; Park, Myeonghun

    2009-01-01

    We consider SUSY-like missing energy events at hadron colliders and critically examine the common assumption that the missing energy is the result of two identical missing particles. In order to experimentally test this hypothesis, we generalize the subsystem MT2 variable to the case of asymmetric event topologies, where the two SUSY decay chains terminate in different "children" particles. In this more general approach, the endpoint MT2max of the MT2 distribution now gives the mass Mp(Mc(a),Mc(b)) of the parent particle as a function of two input children masses Mc(a) and Mc(b). We propose two methods for an independent determination of the individual children masses Mc(a) and Mc(b). First, in the presence of upstream transverse momentum P(UTM) the corresponding function Mp(Mc(a),Mc(b),P(UTM)) is independent of P(UTM) at precisely the right values of the children masses. Second, the previously discussed MT2 "kink" is now generalized to a "ridge" on the 2-dimensional surface Mp(Mc(a),Mc(b)). As we show in sev...

  3. Conservation Education and the Attitudes of Local Communities Living Adjacent to Mt. Elgon National Park, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonyu, Joseph C.

    2009-01-01

    A study of attitudes of 328 people living around Mt. Elgon National Park showed that more than three-quarters had favorable attitudes toward the conservation of the Park's forest and wildlife resources. They also had favorable attitudes toward the conservation education efforts of various agencies that operated in the area, particularly those of…

  4. MT1 melatonin receptors and their role in the oncostatic action of melatonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Danielczyk

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin, the main hormone produced by the pineal gland, strongly inhibits the growth of cancer cells [i]in vitro[/i] and [i]in vivo[/i]. Some publications indicate that the addition of melatonin to culture medium slows the proliferation of some cancer cell lines. It is also suggested that melatonin used as an adjuvant benefits the effectiveness and tolerance of chemotherapy. The mechanisms of this are not fully understood, but melatonin receptors might be one of the most important elements. Two distinct types of membrane-bound melatonin receptors have been identified in humans: MT1 (Mel1a and MT2 (Mel1b receptors. These subtypes are 60�0homologous at the amino-acid level. MT1 receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors. Through the α subunit of G protein, melatonin receptors stimulate an adenylate cyclase and decrease the level of cAMP. This has a significant influence on cell proliferation and has been confirmed in many tests on different cell lines, such as S-19, B-16 murine melanoma cells, and breast cancer cells. It seems that expression of the MT1 melatonin receptors benefits the efficacy of melatonin treatment. Melatonin and its receptors may provide a promising way to establish new alternative therapeutic approaches in human cancer prevention.

  5. Use of Modality and Negation in Semantically-Informed Syntactic MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    for combining MT and semantics (termed distillation) to answer the informa- tion needs of monolingual speakers using multilingual sources. Proper...Mining wiki resources for multilingual named entity recognition. 437 Computational Linguistics Volume 38, Number 2 In Proceedings of ACL-08: HLT, pages

  6. Analysis of mtDNA hypervariable region II for increasing the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2015-03-11

    Mar 11, 2015 ... genome located within the mitochondria in the cytoplasm of the cell. .... noncoding region of mtDNA of human populations from. Iraq. The study ..... from the Institution of medico-legal for all time put in to discuss the project and ...

  7. Forensic and phylogeographic characterisation of mtDNA lineages from Somalia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Martin; Fendt, Liane; Röck, Alexander W;

    2012-01-01

    The African mitochondrial (mt) phylogeny is coarsely resolved but the majority of population data generated so far is limited to the analysis of the first hypervariable segment (HVS-1) of the control region (CR). Therefore, this study aimed on the investigation of the entire CR of 190 unrelated S...

  8. Mt. Druitt Early Childhood Project. Third, Fourth, and Fifth Annual Reports to Bernard Van Leer Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macquarie Univ., North Ryde (Australia). School of Education.

    This series of the third, fourth, and fifth annual reports to the Bernard Van Leer Foundation on the Mt. Druitt Early Childhood Project of Macquarie University, Australia, describes the general activities, program developments, and research activities of the project for the period 1977-1979. The main objective of the project is to develop,…

  9. Advances Achieved on Studies of East Asian mtDNA Phylogeny

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Agroup of geneticists at the CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology (KIZ)succeeded in advancing out knowledge on the East Asian phylogeny of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Their work, which was finished by Dr. Kong Qingpeng under the guidance of ZHANG Yaping, was published by the journal Human Molecular Genetics.

  10. mtDNA sequence diversity of Hazara ethnic group from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakha, Allah; Fatima; Peng, Min-Sheng; Adan, Atif; Bi, Rui; Yasmin, Memona; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2017-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences of Hazaras from Pakistan, so as to generate mtDNA reference database for forensic casework in Pakistan and to analyze phylogenetic relationship of this particular ethnic group with geographically proximal populations. Complete mtDNA control region (nt 16024-576) sequences were generated through Sanger Sequencing for 319 Hazara individuals from Quetta, Baluchistan. The population sample set showed a total of 189 distinct haplotypes, belonging mainly to West Eurasian (51.72%), East & Southeast Asian (29.78%) and South Asian (18.50%) haplogroups. Compared with other populations from Pakistan, the Hazara population had a relatively high haplotype diversity (0.9945) and a lower random match probability (0.0085). The dataset has been incorporated into EMPOP database under accession number EMP00680. The data herein comprises the largest, and likely most thoroughly examined, control region mtDNA dataset from Hazaras of Pakistan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Stratigraphy and Characterization of Volcanic Deposits on the Northwestern Flanks of Mt. Makiling, Laguna, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybanez, R. L.; Bonus, A. A. B.; Judan, J. M.; Racoma, B. A.; Morante, K. A. M.; Balangue, M. I. R. D.

    2014-12-01

    Mt. Makiling is an inactive stratovolcano located in the province of Laguna. Semi-detailed geologic field mapping on the northwestern low-level flanks and apron of the volcano was conducted. Exposures reveal a volcanic terrain hosting a wide variety of volcanic rocks: lava flows, pyroclastic surges, pyroclastic flows, and tuff deposits. Stratigraphic logging of the volcanic deposits showed differences in occurrence of the deposit types as well as their characteristics. The pyroclastic flow deposits are found at the base of the column overlain by pyroclastic surges which were more common in the area. Capping the pyroclastic surges is a thin layer of tuffaceous units. Isolated deposits of lava flows of andesitic composition were mapped in the western flank of Mt. Makiling. These varying volcanic deposits are derived from different eruptive activities of Mt. Makiling, with at least three separate eruptive episodes indicated by the exposed deposits. Two separate explosive eruptions are marked by two different pyroclastic deposits, while an effusive episode, marked by andesitic lava flows, can also be identified. The pyroclastic surge deposit is uncharacteristically thick, around a hundred meters or more exposed, providing further questions as to the magnitude of past eruptions or the mechanism of pyroclastic material deposition around the volcano. Mt. Makiling, thus, has historically undergone different eruption types, but still releases generally the same material composition across varying deposits: intermediate or andesitic composition. This is consistent with the trend of Philippine volcanoes, and with the Macolod corridor which hosts this volcanic system.

  12. Comparison of the ELF-MT resistivity structure and the thermal structure in Takenoyu geothermal area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogi, Toru; Ehara, Sachio; Yuhara, Kozo; Asoshina, Keishi; Fujimitsu, Yasuhiro

    1987-07-01

    Takenoyu goethermal area locates in the north-eastern part of Kumamoto Prefecture, extending at the western foot of Mt. Togai-san. Compression of specific resistance structure and thermal structure by means of ELF-MT method was made for the exploration of the geothermal areas. The results are as follows. (1) Distribution of apparent specific resistance well corresponds with the temperature distribution of the shallow zones and the distribution of the altered zone, but does not so much correspond to the temperature distribution of the deep zones. (2) ELF-MT method has only 300 m detectable depth for the low specific resistance zone with 5 ohm-cm. Its breadth into the deep zones is not known. (3) For the high specific resistance zone with 500 ohm-m, the detectable depth is as deep as 3 km. Low specific resistance layer does not exist where such a layer as above continues to the deep zone. (4) In the case when underground structure contains a low specific resistance layer in a high specific resistance layer, MT method excels in its detecting ability. It can often detect the low specific resistance layer even when the measuring frequency is wide. (10 figs, 4 refs)

  13. Absence of mtDNA mutations in leukocytes of CADASIL patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellani Ali

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ultrastructural and biochemical abnormalities of mitochondria have been reported in skeletal muscle biopsies of CADASIL patients with mutations in the NOTCH3 nuclear gene. Additionally, it was proposed that NOTCH3 gene mutations may predispose the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA to mutations. Methods We sequenced the entire mitochondrial genome in five Arab patients affected by CADASIL. Results The mean number of mtDNA sequence variants (synonymous and nonsynonymous in CADASIL patients was not statistically significantly different from that in controls (p = 0.378. After excluding haplogroup specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and proved silent polymorphisms, no known or novel pathologic mtDNA mutation(s could be detected in any patient. Additionally, there was no difference in the prevalence of different mitochondrial haplogroups between patients and controls. Conclusion Our study group is too small for any valid conclusion to be made. However, if our observation is confirmed in larger study group, then mtDNA mutations or mitochondrial haplogroups may not be important in the pathogenesis of CADASIL.

  14. Somatic mtDNA mutation spectra in the aging human putamen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siôn L Williams

    Full Text Available The accumulation of heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA deletions and single nucleotide variants (SNVs is a well-accepted facet of the biology of aging, yet comprehensive mutation spectra have not been described. To address this, we have used next generation sequencing of mtDNA-enriched libraries (Mito-Seq to investigate mtDNA mutation spectra of putamen from young and aged donors. Frequencies of the "common" deletion and other "major arc" deletions were significantly increased in the aged cohort with the fold increase in the frequency of the common deletion exceeding that of major arc deletions. SNVs also increased with age with the highest rate of accumulation in the non-coding control region which contains elements necessary for translation and replication. Examination of predicted amino acid changes revealed a skew towards pathogenic SNVs in the coding region driven by mutation bias. Levels of the pathogenic m.3243A>G tRNA mutation were also found to increase with age. Novel multimeric tandem duplications that resemble murine control region multimers and yeast ρ(- mtDNAs, were identified in both young and aged specimens. Clonal ∼50 bp deletions in the control region were found at high frequencies in aged specimens. Our results reveal the complex manner in which the mitochondrial genome alters with age and provides a foundation for studies of other tissues and disease states.

  15. Amide Proton Transfer (APT) MR imaging and Magnetization Transfer (MT) MR imaging of pediatric brain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hong; Kang, Huiying; Peng, Yun [Beijing Children' s Hospital, Capital Medical University, Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Zhao, Xuna [Philips Healthcare, Beijing (China); Jiang, Shanshan; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Jinyuan [Johns Hopkins University, Division of MR Research, Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-10-15

    To quantify the brain maturation process during childhood using combined amide proton transfer (APT) and conventional magnetization transfer (MT) imaging at 3 Tesla. Eighty-two neurodevelopmentally normal children (44 males and 38 females; age range, 2-190 months) were imaged using an APT/MT imaging protocol with multiple saturation frequency offsets. The APT-weighted (APTW) and MT ratio (MTR) signals were quantitatively analyzed in multiple brain areas. Age-related changes in MTR and APTW were evaluated with a non-linear regression analysis. The APTW signals followed a decreasing exponential curve with age in all brain regions measured (R{sup 2} = 0.7-0.8 for the corpus callosum, frontal and occipital white matter, and centrum semiovale). The most significant changes appeared within the first year. At maturation, larger decreases in APTW and lower APTW values were found in the white matter. On the contrary, the MTR signals followed an increasing exponential curve with age in the same brain regions measured, with the most significant changes appearing within the initial 2 years. There was an inverse correlation between the MTR and APTW signal intensities during brain maturation. Together with MT imaging, protein-based APT imaging can provide additional information in assessing brain myelination in the paediatric population. (orig.)

  16. MT_RAYOR: a versatile raytracing tool for x-ray telescopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt

    2011-01-01

    for detecting celestial X-ray sources. Monte-Carlo raytracing systems have been used in all X-ray telescope missions. MT RAYOR is a system that can be used to analyze any Wolter-1 optics including simulation of extended sources, celestial or in the laboratory, with position dependent spectral properties...

  17. MT1-MMP-dependent remodeling of cardiac extracellular matrix structure and function following myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Gerald C; Rowe, R Grant; Day, Sharlene M; Sabeh, Farideh; Atkinson, Jeffrey J; Cooke, Kenneth R; Weiss, Stephen J

    2012-05-01

    The myocardial extracellular matrix (ECM), an interwoven meshwork of proteins, glycoproteins, proteoglycans, and glycosaminoglycans that is dominated by polymeric fibrils of type I collagen, serves as the mechanical scaffold on which myocytes are arrayed for coordinated and synergistic force transduction. Following ischemic injury, cardiac ECM remodeling is initiated via localized proteolysis, the bulk of which has been assigned to matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family members. Nevertheless, the key effector(s) of myocardial type I collagenolysis both in vitro and in vivo have remained unidentified. In this study, using cardiac explants from mice deficient in each of the major type I collagenolytic MMPs, including MMP-13, MMP-8, MMP-2, MMP-9, or MT1-MMP, we identify the membrane-anchored MMP, MT1-MMP, as the dominant collagenase that is operative within myocardial tissues in vitro. Extending these observations to an in vivo setting, mice heterozygous for an MT1-MMP-null allele display a distinct survival advantage and retain myocardial function relative to wild-type littermates in an experimental model of myocardial infarction, effects associated with preservation of the myocardial type I collagen network as a consequence of the decreased collagenolytic potential of cardiac fibroblasts. This study identifies MT1-MMP as a key MMP responsible for effecting postinfarction cardiac ECM remodeling and cardiac dysfunction.

  18. 75 FR 62755 - Mt. Hood National Forest, Oregon; Cooper Spur-Government Camp Land Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Mt. Hood National Forest, Oregon; Cooper Spur-Government Camp Land Exchange AGENCY: Forest... land. The acquisition of the wetlands at Cooper Spur and the easement on the wetlands at...

  19. Implied Motion Activation in Cortical Area MT Can Be Explained by Visual Low-level Features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorteije, Jeannette A.M.; Barraclough, Nick E.; Jellema, Tjeerd; Raemaekers, Mathijs; Duijnhouwer, Jacob; Xiao, Dengke; Oram, Mike W.; Lankheet, Martin J.M.; Perrett, David I.; van Wezel, Richard Jack Anton

    To investigate form-related activity in motion-sensitive cortical areas, we recorded cell responses to animate implied motion in macaque middle temporal (MT) and medial superior temporal (MST) cortex and investigated these areas using fMRI in humans. In the single-cell studies, we compared responses

  20. The 2001 Mt. Etna eruption: new constraints on the intrusive mechanism from ground deformation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palano, Mimmo; González, Pablo J.

    2013-04-01

    The occurrence of seismic swarms beneath the SW flank of Mt. Etna, often observed just a few months before an eruption, has been considered as the fragile response to a magma intrusion (Bonanno et al., 2011 and reference therein). These intrusions and/or pressurization of deep magmatic bodies, have been able to significantly affect the seismic pattern within the volcano edifice, leading to a changes in the local stress field. For example, during the months preceding the 1991-1993 Mt. Etna eruption, shallow intense seismic swarms (4-6 km deep) occurring in the SW flank (e.g. Cocina et al., 1998), related to the magma intrusion before the eruption onset, were observed contemporaneously with a rotation of stress field of about 90°. A similar scenario was observed during January 1998, when a magma recharging phases induced a local rotation of stress tensor, forcing a buried fault zone located beneath the SW flank of Mt. Etna to slip as a right-lateral strike-slip fault (Bonanno et al., 2011). This fault system was forced to slip again, during late April 2001 (more than 200 events in less than 5 days; maximum Magnitude = 3.6) by the pressurization of the magmatic bodies feeding the July-August 2001 Mt. Etna eruption. Here we analyzed in detail the July-August 2001 Mt. Etna eruption as well as the dynamics preceding this event, by using a large dataset of geodetic data (GPS and synthetic aperture radar interferometry) collected between July 2000 and August 2001. References Cocina, O., Neri, G., Privitera, E. and Spampinato S., 1998. Seismogenic stress field beneath Mt. Etna South Italy and possible relationships with volcano-tectonic features. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 83, 335-348. Bonanno A., Palano M., Privitera E., Gresta S., Puglisi G., 2011. Magma intrusion mechanisms and redistribution of seismogenic stress at Mt. Etna volcano (1997-1998). Terra Nova, 23, 339-348, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3121.2011.01019.x, 2011.

  1. Seventeen new complete mtDNA sequences reveal extensive mitochondrial genome evolution within the Demospongiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujuan Wang

    Full Text Available Two major transitions in animal evolution--the origins of multicellularity and bilaterality--correlate with major changes in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA organization. Demosponges, the largest class in the phylum Porifera, underwent only the first of these transitions and their mitochondrial genomes display a peculiar combination of ancestral and animal-specific features. To get an insight into the evolution of mitochondrial genomes within the Demospongiae, we determined 17 new mtDNA sequences from this group and analyzing them with five previously published sequences. Our analysis revealed that all demosponge mtDNAs are 16- to 25-kbp circular molecules, containing 13-15 protein genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 2-27 tRNA genes. All but four pairs of sampled genomes had unique gene orders, with the number of shared gene boundaries ranging from 1 to 41. Although most demosponge species displayed low rates of mitochondrial sequence evolution, a significant acceleration in evolutionary rates occurred in the G1 group (orders Dendroceratida, Dictyoceratida, and Verticillitida. Large variation in mtDNA organization was also observed within the G0 group (order Homosclerophorida including gene rearrangements, loss of tRNA genes, and the presence of two introns in Plakortis angulospiculatus. While introns are rare in modern-day demosponge mtDNA, we inferred that at least one intron was present in cox1 of the common ancestor of all demosponges. Our study uncovered an extensive mitochondrial genomic diversity within the Demospongiae. Although all sampled mitochondrial genomes retained some ancestral features, including a minimally modified genetic code, conserved structures of tRNA genes, and presence of multiple non-coding regions, they vary considerably in their size, gene content, gene order, and the rates of sequence evolution. Some of the changes in demosponge mtDNA, such as the loss of tRNA genes and the appearance of hairpin-containing repetitive elements

  2. Seventeen New Complete mtDNA Sequences Reveal Extensive Mitochondrial Genome Evolution within the Demospongiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiujuan; Lavrov, Dennis V.

    2008-01-01

    Two major transitions in animal evolution–the origins of multicellularity and bilaterality–correlate with major changes in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) organization. Demosponges, the largest class in the phylum Porifera, underwent only the first of these transitions and their mitochondrial genomes display a peculiar combination of ancestral and animal-specific features. To get an insight into the evolution of mitochondrial genomes within the Demospongiae, we determined 17 new mtDNA sequences from this group and analyzing them with five previously published sequences. Our analysis revealed that all demosponge mtDNAs are 16- to 25-kbp circular molecules, containing 13–15 protein genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 2–27 tRNA genes. All but four pairs of sampled genomes had unique gene orders, with the number of shared gene boundaries ranging from 1 to 41. Although most demosponge species displayed low rates of mitochondrial sequence evolution, a significant acceleration in evolutionary rates occurred in the G1 group (orders Dendroceratida, Dictyoceratida, and Verticillitida). Large variation in mtDNA organization was also observed within the G0 group (order Homosclerophorida) including gene rearrangements, loss of tRNA genes, and the presence of two introns in Plakortis angulospiculatus. While introns are rare in modern-day demosponge mtDNA, we inferred that at least one intron was present in cox1 of the common ancestor of all demosponges. Our study uncovered an extensive mitochondrial genomic diversity within the Demospongiae. Although all sampled mitochondrial genomes retained some ancestral features, including a minimally modified genetic code, conserved structures of tRNA genes, and presence of multiple non-coding regions, they vary considerably in their size, gene content, gene order, and the rates of sequence evolution. Some of the changes in demosponge mtDNA, such as the loss of tRNA genes and the appearance of hairpin-containing repetitive elements, occurred in

  3. Pedestrian and bicyclist motivation: an assessment of influences on pedestrians’ and bicyclists’ mode choice in Mt. Pleasant, Vancouver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery M. Guinn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of short distance travel in North America is completed by single occupancy vehicles. Substituting walking and bicycling for these trips would reduce energy use and environmental pollution, while improving quality of life. Therefore, understanding influences on non-automotive travel behavior is crucial. Researchers and planners have touted specific factors for encouraging walking and biking, but the body of work remains fragmented. Previous studies have focused on a smaller number of factors and most of them relate to physical design. This study tests the relative importance of a range of factors, both physical and perceptual that could influence one’s choice to walk or bike. The Mt. Pleasant neighborhood in Vancouver, B.C., Canada was chosen as the location for this study as all of the pedestrian-motivating factors identified in a literature review were present. A questionnaire-based survey addressing distance, sidewalks/bike lanes, pedestrian/bicycle traffic signals, buffering from auto traffic, sense of security, cleanliness, opportunities to talk with others, enforcement of traffic laws, concern for the environment, weather, terrain, saving money, opportunities for exercise, and a visually appealing environment as influential factors was administered in person and online yielding 774 responses. All factors were shown to influence the decision to walk or bike, but some proved more significant than others, especially opportunities for exercise.

  4. Mapping the main Leishmania phlebotomine vector in the endemic focus of the Mt. Vesuvius in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Rossi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Geographical information systems and remote sensing were used to analyze the distribution of the Leishmania infantum-Phlebotomus perniciosus parasite-vector system in relation to environmental features of two opposite sides (coastal and Apennine of Mt. Vesuvius, an area of intense transmission of human and canine leishmaniasis in southern Italy. Weekly phlebotomine collections were carried out during two consecutive warm seasons (2004- 2005 in 24 and 25 sites of the coastal and Apennine sides, respectively. Sandflies were caught using over one-thousand and seven hundred 20 x 20 cm-sticky traps placed in different environments. A total of 873 sandflies were collected, of which 284 (32.5% were identified as P. perniciosus. The cumulative density (number of specimens/m2 of sticky trap/two nights of this vector species was 3.9. P. perniciosus was significantly more abundant in the coastal side (5.8 as compared to the Apennine side (1.4. The main environmental differences between the two sides were the aspect (south-west for the coastal and north-east for the Apennine side and land use. The predominance of green vegetated environments (forest, semi-natural and agricultural areas in the coastal side, in contrast with the predominance of artificial surfaces (namely urban environment in the Apennine side, could be responsible for the different P. perniciosus densities between the two surveyed areas.

  5. Mt. Wendelstein Imaging of the Post-Perihelion Dust Coma of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2015/2016

    CERN Document Server

    Boehnhardt, Hermann; Kluge, Matthias; Ries, Christoph; Schmidt, Michael; Hopp, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) was imaged with the 2m telescope at Mt. Wendelstein Observatory in the Alps. Coma and tail monitoring was performed during 51 nights between 22 August 2015 and 9 May 2016. The images through r and i Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) filters show the dust distribution around the comet, while images in the SDSS g filter indicate also the presence of coma gas in early September 2015. The dust color of 67P implies intrinsic reddening of 9 %/100nm. After maximum shortly after perihelion passage the dust activity decreased with a heliocentric exponent of 4.1 to 4.2 from late September 2015 until May 2016. The opposition surge during early 2016 can be explained by a linear light scattering phase function (beta ~ 0.04) or an asteroid-like HG-type phase function (G ~ 0.15). The radial brightness profile indicates a 'quasi-steady-state' dust coma from late September to the end of 2015. Dust fragmentation during about a month after perihelion may be responsible for radial coma profile...

  6. Spatial and temporal distribution of vertical ground movements at Mt. Vesuvius in the period 1973-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folco Pingue

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the early ’70s vertical ground movements at Mount Vesuvius area have been investigated and monitored by the Osservatorio Vesuviano (Isti-tuto Nazionale di Geofisica Vulcanologia - Osservatorio Vesuviano since 2001. This monitoring began with the installation of a high-precision leveling line in the region at medium-high elevations on the volcano. The deformation pattern and expected strain field assessment methods in the volcanic structure induced by inner sources has demanded in subsequent years the expansion of the leveling network up to cover the whole volcanic area, enclosing part of leveling lines of other institutions. As a result of this expansion, the Mt. Vesuvius Area Leveling Network (VALN has today reached a length of about 270 km and consists of 359 benchmarks. It is configured in 21 circuits and is connected, westward, to the Campi Flegrei leveling network and, northward, to the Campania Plain leveling network. The data collected have been carefully re-analyzed for random and systematic errors and for error propagation along the leveling lines to identify the areas affected by significant ground movements. For each survey, the data were rigorously adjusted and vertical ground movements were evaluated by differentiating the heights calculated by the various measurements conducted by the Osservatorio Vesuviano from 1973 to 2009.

  7. Minor shallow gravitational component on the Mt. Vettore surface ruptures related to MW 6, 2016 Amatrice earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Albano

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available On 24th August 2016 a ML 6.0 earthquake occurred near Amatrice (central Italy causing nearly 300 fatalities. The mainshock ruptured a NNW-SSE striking, WSW dipping normal fault. The earthquake produced several coseismic effects at ground, including landslides and ground ruptures. In particular, ground surveys identified a 5.2 km long continuous fracture along the Mt. Vettore flank, both on rock and slope deposits, along one of the active normal fault segments bounding the relief to the west. In this work, we evaluated the contribution of seismically-induced surface instabilities to the observed ground fractures by means of a permanent-displacement approach. The results of a parametric analysis show that the computed seismically-induced gravitational displacements (about 2-10 cm are not enough to explain field observations, testifying to a mean 20-25cm vertical offset. Thus, the observed ground fractures are the result of primary faulting related to tectonics, combined with gravitational phenomena.

  8. FIVE FREEDOMS OF ANIMAL WELLFARE APPLIED TO DOGS: PERCEPTION, KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE OF THE POPULATION FROM SINOP - MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Pereira

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The term animal welfare, although is frequently used, does not have a precise definition. The scientific community is increasingly accepting that vertebrate animals indeed have consciousness and feelings, with emphasis on the genetic similarities between animal species, including humans. In order to facilitate the identification of the factors that affect and assist, respectively, the animal well being and defense, the Five Freedoms that outline animal welfare was created. This study aimed to assess the level of awareness, knowledge and practice about the welfare factors of dogs in different strata of Sinop city of Mato Grosso State population. Thus, a descriptive qualitative and quantitative study was performed in which 130 dog owners, older than 18 years of age, answered a semi-structured survey with 20 objective and multiple-choice questions. The people that answer the study tried to meet the needs of their animals, even those people who have never heard of animal welfare. Therefore, information related to animal rights and animal welfare need to be provided to the population of Sinop-MT.

  9. Differences in Strength and Timing of the mtDNA Bottleneck between Zebrafish Germline and Non-germline Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auke B.C. Otten

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We studied the mtDNA bottleneck in zebrafish to elucidate size, timing, and variation in germline and non-germline cells. Mature zebrafish oocytes contain, on average, 19.0 × 106 mtDNA molecules with high variation between oocytes. During embryogenesis, the mtDNA copy number decreases to ∼170 mtDNA molecules per primordial germ cell (PGC, a number similar to that in mammals, and to ∼50 per non-PGC. These occur at the same developmental stage, implying considerable variation in mtDNA copy number in (non-PGCs of the same female, dictated by variation in the mature oocyte. The presence of oocytes with low mtDNA numbers, if similar in humans, could explain how (de novo mutations can reach high mutation loads within a single generation. High mtDNA copy numbers in mature oocytes are established by mtDNA replication during oocyte development. Bottleneck differences between germline and non-germline cells, due to early differentiation of PGCs, may account for different distribution patterns of familial mutations.

  10. Matriptase/MT-SP1 is required for postnatal survival, epidermal barrier function, hair follicle development, and thymic homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Karin; Haudenschild, Christian C; Szabo, Roman

    2002-01-01

    development and neoplasia. Matriptase/MT-SP1-deficient mice developed to term but uniformly died within 48 h of birth. All epidermal surfaces of newborn mice were grossly abnormal with a dry, red, shiny, and wrinkled appearance. Matriptase/MT-SP1-deficiency caused striking malformations of the stratum corneum...

  11. Abnormal Skeletal Growth in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Is Associated with Abnormal Quantitative Expression of Melatonin Receptor, MT2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Moreau

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The defect of the melatonin signaling pathway has been proposed to be one of the key etiopathogenic factors in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS. A previous report showed that melatonin receptor, MT2, was undetectable in some AIS girls. The present study aimed to investigate whether the abnormal MT2 expression in AIS is quantitative or qualitative. Cultured osteoblasts were obtained from 41 AIS girls and nine normal controls. Semi-quantification of protein expression by Western blot and mRNA expression by TaqMan real-time PCR for both MT1 and MT2 were performed. Anthropometric parameters were also compared and correlated with the protein expression and mRNA expression of the receptors. The results showed significantly lower protein and mRNA expression of MT2 in AIS girls compared with that in normal controls (p = 0.02 and p = 0.019, respectively. No differences were found in the expression of MT1. When dichotomizing the AIS girls according to their MT2 expression, the group with low expression was found to have a significantly longer arm span (p = 0.036. The results of this study showed for the first time a quantitative change of MT2 in AIS that was also correlated with abnormal arm span as part of abnormal systemic skeletal growth.

  12. Identification of an mtDNA mutation hot spot in UV-induced mouse skin tumors producing altered cellular biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandova, Jana; Eshaghian, Alex; Shi, Mingjian; Li, Meiling; King, Lloyd E; Janda, Jaroslav; Sligh, James E

    2012-02-01

    There is increasing awareness of the role of mtDNA alterations in the development of cancer, as mtDNA point mutations are found at high frequency in a variety of human tumors. To determine the biological effects of mtDNA mutations in UV-induced skin tumors, hairless mice were irradiated to produce tumors, and the tumor mtDNAs were screened for single-nucleotide changes using temperature gradient capillary electrophoresis (TGCE), followed by direct sequencing. A mutation hot spot (9821insA) in the mitochondrially encoded tRNA arginine (mt-Tr) locus (tRNA(Arg)) was discovered in approximately one-third of premalignant and malignant skin tumors. To determine the functional relevance of this particular mutation in vitro, cybrid cell lines containing different mt-Tr (tRNA(Arg)) alleles were generated. The resulting cybrid cell lines contained the same nuclear genotype and differed only in their mtDNAs. The biochemical analysis of the cybrids revealed that the mutant haplotype is associated with diminished levels of complex I protein (CI), resulting in lower levels of baseline oxygen consumption and lower cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. We hypothesize that this specific mtDNA mutation alters cellular biochemistry, supporting the development of keratinocyte neoplasia.

  13. Mesotocin gene expression in the diencephalon of domestic fowl: cloning and sequencing of the MT cDNA and distribution of MT gene expressing neurons in the chicken hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, S W; Bathgate, R A; Mess, A; Parry, L J; Ivell, R; Grossmann, R

    1997-10-01

    This study focuses on the structure and expression of the mesotocin (MT) gene in the chicken hypothalamus. Using an anchored and nested RT-PCR strategy, combined with circular RACE-PCR, the full length sequence of the chicken MT cDNA was obtained. The cDNA and derived amino acid sequences conformed to the structure of the oxytocin-like gene family. However, unlike most mammalian species, there does not appear to be frequent gene conversion between the MT and AVT cDNA sequences. A single specific hybridization signal of 1.2 kb was detected by Southern analysis of chicken genomic DNA, indicating only a single gene copy in the chicken genome. Northern analysis of hypothalamic RNA revealed a single band at approximately 0.6 kb. Using the same probe for in situ hybridization histochemistry, MT-mRNA was demonstrated to be predominantly localized in the parvocellular, magnocellular and periventricular subgroups of the paraventricular nucleus and, when compared to the distribution of neurons containing arginine-vasotocin (AVT)-mRNA in the same region, with far fewer neurons expressing the MT gene in the lateral subgroups. Only few and scattered neurons expressing the MT gene were found in the ventral and external subgroups of the supraoptic nucleus in which many neurons contain AVT transcripts, as demonstrated in consecutive sections. In all nuclei investigated, the intensity of AVT and MT hybridization signals per cell was approximately equal. No specific labelling for MT-mRNA was found in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, nor the nucleus accumbens. Using immunocytochemical detection of AVT and in situ hybridization for neurons expressing MT-mRNA, some neurons were found to contain both AVT and MT gene products in the paraventricular nucleus but not in the supraoptic nucleus.

  14. Full characterization of the Cu-, Zn-, and Cd-binding properties of CnMT1 and CnMT2, two metallothioneins of the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans acting as virulence factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Òscar; Espart, Anna; Espín, Jordi; Ding, Chen; Thiele, Dennis J.; Atrian, Sílvia; Capdevila, Mercè

    2014-01-01

    We report here the full characterization of the metal binding abilities of CnMT1 and CnMT2, two Cryptococcus neoformans proteins recently identified as metallothioneins (MTs), which have been shown to perform a crucial role for the virulence and pathogenicity of this human-infecting fungus. In this work, we first performed a thorough in silico study of the CnMT1 and CnMT2 genes, cDNAs and corresponding encoded products. Subsequently, the Zn(II)-, Cd(II)- and Cu(I) binding abilities of both proteins were fully determined through the analysis of the metal-to-protein stoichiometries and the structural features (determined by ESI-MS, CD, ICP-AES and UV-vis spectroscopies) of the corresponding recombinant Zn-, Cd- and Cu-MT preparations synthesized in metal-enriched media. Finally, the analysis of the Zn/Cd and Zn/Cu replacement processes undertaken by the respective Zn-MT complexes when allowed to react with Cd(II) or Cu(I) aqueous solutions completed the analysis. Comprehensive consideration of all gathered results allow us to consider both isoforms as genuine copper-thioneins, and led to the identification of unprecedented Cu5-core clusters in MTs. CnMT1 and CnMT2 polypeptides appear as evolutionary related to the small fungal MTs, probably by ancient tandem-duplication events responding to a high selective pressure to chelate copper, and far from the properties of Zn- and Cd-thioneins. Finally, we propose a modular structure of the Cu-CnMT1 and Cu-CnMT2 complexes basically built on the three and five-fold presence of 7-Cys units, each one yielding a Cu5-core cluster. PMID:24317230

  15. Stability analysis of the Ischia Mt. Nuovo block, Italy, under extreme seismic shaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausilia Paparo, Maria; Tinti, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    In this work we investigate the equilibrium conditions of the Mt. Nuovo block, a unit that is found on the northwestern flank of Mt. Epomeo in the Ischia Island, Italy, using the Minimum Lithostatic Deviation Method (Tinti and Manucci 2006, 2008; Paparo et al. 2013). The block, involved in a deep-seated gravitational slope deformation (DSGSD, Della Seta et al., 2012) process, forms an interesting scenario to study earthquake-induced instability because i) Ischia is a seismically active volcanic island; ii) the slopes of Mt. Epomeo are susceptible to mass movements; iii) there exist an abundant literature on historical local seismicity and on slope geology. In our slope stability analysis, we account for seismic load by means of peak ground acceleration (PGA) values taken from Italian seismic hazard maps (Gruppo di Lavoro MPS, 2004), and integrated with estimates based on local seismicity and suitable (MCS) I - PGA regression laws. We find that the Mt Nuovo block could not be destabilised by the 1883 Casamicciola earthquake (that is the largest known historical earthquake in the island taking place on a fault to the north of the block), but we find also that if an earthquake of the same size occurred in the Mt. Nuovo zone, the block would be mobilised and therefore generate a tsunami (Zaniboni et al, 2013), with disastrous consequences not only for Ischia, but also for the surrounding region. This work was carried out in the frame of the EU Project called ASTARTE - Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe (Grant 603839, 7th FP, ENV.2013.6.4-3)

  16. Effect of feature-selective attention on neuronal responses in macaque area MT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Hoffmann, K-P; Albright, T D; Thiele, A

    2012-03-01

    Attention influences visual processing in striate and extrastriate cortex, which has been extensively studied for spatial-, object-, and feature-based attention. Most studies exploring neural signatures of feature-based attention have trained animals to attend to an object identified by a certain feature and ignore objects/displays identified by a different feature. Little is known about the effects of feature-selective attention, where subjects attend to one stimulus feature domain (e.g., color) of an object while features from different domains (e.g., direction of motion) of the same object are ignored. To study this type of feature-selective attention in area MT in the middle temporal sulcus, we trained macaque monkeys to either attend to and report the direction of motion of a moving sine wave grating (a feature for which MT neurons display strong selectivity) or attend to and report its color (a feature for which MT neurons have very limited selectivity). We hypothesized that neurons would upregulate their firing rate during attend-direction conditions compared with attend-color conditions. We found that feature-selective attention significantly affected 22% of MT neurons. Contrary to our hypothesis, these neurons did not necessarily increase firing rate when animals attended to direction of motion but fell into one of two classes. In one class, attention to color increased the gain of stimulus-induced responses compared with attend-direction conditions. The other class displayed the opposite effects. Feature-selective activity modulations occurred earlier in neurons modulated by attention to color compared with neurons modulated by attention to motion direction. Thus feature-selective attention influences neuronal processing in macaque area MT but often exhibited a mismatch between the preferred stimulus dimension (direction of motion) and the preferred attention dimension (attention to color).

  17. Range-wide mtDNA phylogeography yields insights into the origins of Asian elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidya, T N C; Sukumar, Raman; Melnick, Don J

    2009-03-07

    Recent phylogeographic studies of the endangered Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) reveal two highly divergent mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages, an elucidation of which is central to understanding the species's evolution. Previous explanations for the divergent clades include introgression of mtDNA haplotypes between ancestral species, allopatric divergence of the clades between Sri Lanka or the Sunda region and the mainland, historical trade of elephants, and retention of divergent lineages due to large population sizes. However, these studies lacked data from India and Myanmar, which host approximately 70 per cent of all extant Asian elephants. In this paper, we analyse mtDNA sequence data from 534 Asian elephants across the species's range to explain the current distribution of the two divergent clades. Based on phylogenetic reconstructions, estimates of times of origin of clades, probable ancestral areas of origin inferred from dispersal-vicariance analyses and the available fossil record, we believe both clades originated from Elephas hysudricus. This probably occurred allopatrically in different glacial refugia, the alpha clade in the Myanmar region and the beta clade possibly in southern India-Sri Lanka, 1.6-2.1Myr ago. Results from nested clade and dispersal-vicariance analyses indicate a subsequent isolation and independent diversification of the beta clade in both Sri Lanka and the Sunda region, followed by northward expansion of the clade. We also find more recent population expansions in both clades based on mismatch distributions. We therefore suggest a contraction-expansion scenario during severe climatic oscillations of the Quaternary, with range expansions from different refugia during warmer interglacials leading to the varying geographical overlaps of the two mtDNA clades. We also demonstrate that trade in Asian elephants has not substantially altered the species's mtDNA population genetic structure.

  18. Auditory Pathology in a Transgenic mtTFB1 Mouse Model of Mitochondrial Deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Sharen E; Yan, Wayne; Nouws, Jessica; Thormann, Maximilian J; Raimundo, Nuno; Khan, Abdul; Santos-Sacchi, Joseph; Song, Lei; Shadel, Gerald S

    2015-12-01

    The A1555G mutation in the 12S rRNA gene of human mitochondrial DNA causes maternally inherited, nonsyndromic deafness, an extreme case of tissue-specific mitochondrial pathology. A transgenic mouse strain that robustly overexpresses the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA methyltransferase TFB1M (Tg-mtTFB1 mice) exhibits progressive hearing loss that we proposed models aspects of A1555G-related pathology in humans. Although our previous studies of Tg-mtTFB1 mice implicated apoptosis in the spiral ganglion and stria vascularis because of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species-mediated activation of AMP kinase (AMPK) and the nuclear transcription factor E2F1, detailed auditory pathology was not delineated. Herein, we show that Tg-mtTFB1 mice have reduced endocochlear potential, indicative of significant stria vascularis dysfunction, but without obvious signs of strial atrophy. We also observed decreased auditory brainstem response peak 1 amplitude and prolonged wave I latency, consistent with apoptosis of spiral ganglion neurons. Although no major loss of hair cells was observed, there was a mild impairment of voltage-dependent electromotility of outer hair cells. On the basis of these results, we propose that these events conspire to produce the progressive hearing loss phenotype in Tg-mtTFB1 mice. Finally, genetically reducing AMPK α1 rescues hearing loss in Tg-mtTFB1 mice, confirming that aberrant up-regulation of AMPK signaling promotes the observed auditory pathology. The relevance of these findings to human A1555G patients and the potential therapeutic value of reducing AMPK activity are discussed.

  19. High-altitude adaptation of Tibetan chicken from MT-COI and ATP-6 perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoling; Wu, Nan; Zhu, Qing; Gaur, Uma; Gu, Ting; Li, Diyan

    2016-09-01

    The problem of hypoxia adaptation in high altitudes is an unsolved brainteaser in the field of life sciences. As one of the best chicken breeds with adaptability to highland environment, the Tibetan chicken, is genetically different from lowland chicken breeds. In order to gain a better understanding of the mechanism of hypoxic adaptability in high altitude, in the present study, we focused on the MT-COI together with ATP-6 gene to explore the regulatory mechanisms for hypoxia adaptability in Tibet chicken. Here, we sequenced MT-COI of 29 Tibetan chickens and 30 Chinese domestic chickens and ATP-6 gene of 28 Tibetan chickens and 29 Chinese domestic chickens. In MT-COI gene, 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected though none of these was a missense mutation, confirming the fact that MT-COI gene is a largely conservative sequence. In ATP-6 gene, 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected and we found a missense mutation (m.9441G > A) in the ATP-6 gene of Tibetan chicken resulting in an amino acid substitution. Due to the critical role of ATP-6 gene in the proton translocation and energy metabolism, we speculated the possibility of this mutation playing an important role in easier energy conversion and metabolism in Tibetan chickens than Chinese domestic chickens so as to better adapt to the harsh environment of the high-altitude areas. The Median-joining profile also suggested that haplotype Ha2 has the ancestral position to the other haplotypes and has significant relationship with high-altitude adaptation in ATP-6 gene. Therefore, we considered that the polymorphism (m.9441G > A) in the ATP-6 gene may affect the specific functions of ATP-6 enzyme relating to high-altitude adaptation of Tibetan chicken and MT-COI gene is a largely conservative sequence.

  20. Pivotal role of hMT+ in long-range disambiguation of interhemispheric bistable surface motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, João Valente; Costa, Gabriel Nascimento; Martins, Ricardo; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2017-10-01

    It remains an open question whether long-range disambiguation of ambiguous surface motion can be achieved in early visual cortex or instead in higher level regions, which concerns object/surface segmentation/integration mechanisms. We used a bistable moving stimulus that can be perceived as a pattern comprehending both visual hemi-fields moving coherently downward or as two widely segregated nonoverlapping component objects (in each visual hemi-field) moving separately inward. This paradigm requires long-range integration across the vertical meridian leading to interhemispheric binding. Our fMRI study (n = 30) revealed a close relation between activity in hMT+ and perceptual switches involving interhemispheric segregation/integration of motion signals, crucially under nonlocal conditions where components do not overlap and belong to distinct hemispheres. Higher signal changes were found in hMT+ in response to spatially segregated component (incoherent) percepts than to pattern (coherent) percepts. This did not occur in early visual cortex, unlike apparent motion, which does not entail surface segmentation. We also identified a role for top-down mechanisms in state transitions. Deconvolution analysis of switch-related changes revealed prefrontal, insula, and cingulate areas, with the right superior parietal lobule (SPL) being particularly involved. We observed that directed influences could emerge either from left or right hMT+ during bistable motion integration/segregation. SPL also exhibited significant directed functional connectivity with hMT+, during perceptual state maintenance (Granger causality analysis). Our results suggest that long-range interhemispheric binding of ambiguous motion representations mainly reflect bottom-up processes from hMT+ during perceptual state maintenance. In contrast, state transitions maybe influenced by high-level regions such as the SPL. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4882-4897, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley

  1. 常见嗜尸性昆虫mtDNA提取方法的比较%Comparison of mtDNA Extracting Methods for Common Sarcosaphagous Insects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈瑶清; 郭亚东; 李茂枝; 熊枫; 李剑波; 蔡继峰

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较十六烷基三甲基溴化铵(cetyl triethyl ammonium bromide,CTAB)法、十二烷基硫酸钠-醋酸钾(sodium dodecyl sulfate-potassium acetate,SDS-KAc)法和十二烷基硫酸钠-蛋白酶K(sodium dodecyl sulfate-protein K,SDS-PK)法对法医学常见嗜尸性昆虫mtDNA的提取效果.方法 随机采集放置在长沙地区室外草地家兔尸体上的大头金蝇、双色葬甲、金龟科、墨胸胡蜂4种72只常见嗜尸性昆虫,分别采用CTAB、SDS-KAc、SDS-PK 3种方法提取总DNA.核酸蛋白测定仪检测DNA纯度及浓度,用mtDNA特异性引物进行PCR扩增,琼脂糖凝胶电泳检测PCR产物,对PCR产物进行序列测定,将测序结果上传到GenBank.结果 3种方法均能成功提取4种嗜尸性昆虫的mtDNA,SDS-PK法提取效果最好,CTAB法对陈旧性样本提取效果优于另两种方法,SDS-KAc法对各类样本的提取效果相近.结论 实验中应根据不同情况,选择最恰当的提取方法.制备高质量DNA推荐使用SDS-PK法,陈旧性样本推荐使用CTAB法,在各类预实验中可采取低成本的SDS-KAc法.%Objective To compare effects of three different methods for mtDNA extraction from common sarcosaphagous insects including cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) method, sodium dodecyl sul-fate-potassium acetate (SDS-Kac) method and sodium dodecyl sulfate-proteinase K (SDS-PK) method. Methods Seventy-two insects from four species [Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1784), Eusilpha bi-color (Fairmaire, 1896), Paraeutrichopus pecoudi (Mateu, 1954), Vespa velutina (Lepeletier, 1836)] were collected from the corpses of the rabbits in Changsha district. The total DNA of above samples was extracted by CTAB, SDS-Kac and SDS-PK methods. The purity and concentration of DNA were examined by protein-nucleic acid spectrophotometry, and mtDNA were amplified by specific primers and PCR products were detected by agarose gel electrophoresis. Then PCR products were sequenced and subsequently uploaded to

  2. Respiratory function in cybrid cell lines carrying European mtDNA haplogroups: implications for Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carelli, Valerio; Vergani, Lodovica; Bernazzi, Barbara; Zampieron, Claudia; Bucchi, Laura; Valentino, Maria; Rengo, Chiara; Torroni, Antonio; Martinuzzi, Andrea

    2002-10-09

    The possibility that some combinations of mtDNA polymorphisms, previously associated with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), may affect mitochondrial respiratory function was tested in osteosarcoma-derived transmitochondrial cytoplasmic hybrids (cybrids). In this cellular system, in the presence of the same nuclear background, different exogenous mtDNAs are used to repopulate a parental cell line previously devoid of its original mtDNA. No detectable differences in multiple parameters exploring respiratory function were observed when mtDNAs belonging to European haplogroups X, H, T and J were used. Different possible explanations for the previously established association between haplogroup J and LHON 11778/ND4 and 14484/ND6 pathogenic mutations are discussed, including the unconventional proposal that mtDNA haplogroup J may exert a protective rather than detrimental effect.

  3. Analysis of mtDNA variant segregation during early human embryonic development: a tool for successful NARP preimplantation diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffann, J; Frydman, N; Gigarel, N; Burlet, P; Ray, P F; Fanchin, R; Feyereisen, E; Kerbrat, V; Tachdjian, G; Bonnefont, J‐P; Frydman, R; Munnich, A

    2006-01-01

    Background Diseases arising from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are usually serious pleiotropic disorders with maternal inheritance. Owing to the high recurrence risk in the progeny of carrier females, “at‐risk” couples often ask for prenatal diagnosis. However, reliability of such practices remains under debate. Preimplantation diagnosis (PGD), a theoretical alternative to conventional prenatal diagnosis, requires that the mutant load measured in a single cell from an eight cell embryo accurately reflects the overall heteroplasmy of the whole embryo, but this is not known to be the case. Objective To investigate the segregation of an mtDNA length polymorphism in blastomeres of 15 control embryos from four unrelated couples, the NARP mutation in blastomeres of three embryos from a carrier of this mutation. Results Variability of the mtDNA polymorphism heteroplasmy among blastomeres from each embryo was limited, ranging from zero to 19%, with a mean of 7%. PGD for the neurogenic ataxia retinitis pigmentosa (NARP) mtDNA mutation (8993T→G) was therefore carried out in the carrier mother of an affected child. One of three embryos was shown to carry 100% of mutant mtDNA species while the remaining two were mutation‐free. These two embryos were transferred, resulting in a singleton pregnancy with delivery of a healthy child. Conclusions This PGD, the first reported for a mtDNA mutation, illustrates the skewed meiotic segregation of the NARP mtDNA mutation in early human development. However, discrepancies between the segregation patterns of the NARP mutation and the HV2 polymorphism indicate that a particular mtDNA nucleotide variant might differentially influenced the mtDNA segregation, precluding any assumption on feasibility of PGD for other mtDNA mutations. PMID:16155197

  4. Antineoplastic Activities of MT81 and Its Structural Analogue in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma-Bearing Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Maiti Choudhury

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many fungal toxins exhibit in vitro and in vivo antineoplastic effects on various cancer cell types. Luteoskyrin, a hydroxyanthraquinone has been proved to be a potent inhibitor against Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. The comparative antitumor activity and antioxidant status of MT81 and its structural analogue [Acetic acid-MT81 (Aa-MT81] having polyhydroxyanthraquinone structure were assessed against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC tumor in mice. The in vitro cytotoxicity was measured by the viability of EAC cells after direct treatment of the said compounds. In in vivo study, MT81 and its structural analogue were administered (i.p. at the two different doses (5, 7 mg MT81; 8.93, 11.48 mg Aa-MT81/kg body weight for 7 days after 24 hrs. of tumor inoculation. The activities were assessed using mean survival time (MST, increased life span (ILS, tumor volume, viable tumor cell count, peritoneal cell count, protein percentage and hematological parameters. Antioxidant status was determined by malondialdehyde (MDA and reduced glutathione (GSH content, and by the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CA T. MT81 and its structural analogues increased the mean survival time, normal peritoneal cell count. They decreased the tumor volume, viable tumor cell count, hemoglobin percentage and packed cell volume. Differential counts of WBC, total counts of RBC & WBC that altered by EAC inoculation, were restored in a dose-dependent manner. Increased MDA and decreased GSH content and reduced activity of SOD, and catalase in EAC bearing mice were returned towards normal after the treatment of MT81 and its structural analogue. Being less toxic than parent toxin MT81, the structural analogue showed more prominent antineoplastic activities against EAC cells compared to MT81. At the same time, both compounds exhibit to some extent antioxidant potential for the EAC-bearing mice.

  5. Evaluation of next generation mtGenome sequencing using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM)☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parson, Walther; Strobl, Christina; Huber, Gabriela; Zimmermann, Bettina; Gomes, Sibylle M.; Souto, Luis; Fendt, Liane; Delport, Rhena; Langit, Reina; Wootton, Sharon; Lagacé, Robert; Irwin, Jodi

    2013-01-01

    Insights into the human mitochondrial phylogeny have been primarily achieved by sequencing full mitochondrial genomes (mtGenomes). In forensic genetics (partial) mtGenome information can be used to assign haplotypes to their phylogenetic backgrounds, which may, in turn, have characteristic geographic distributions that would offer useful information in a forensic case. In addition and perhaps even more relevant in the forensic context, haplogroup-specific patterns of mutations form the basis for quality control of mtDNA sequences. The current method for establishing (partial) mtDNA haplotypes is Sanger-type sequencing (STS), which is laborious, time-consuming, and expensive. With the emergence of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies, the body of available mtDNA data can potentially be extended much more quickly and cost-efficiently. Customized chemistries, laboratory workflows and data analysis packages could support the community and increase the utility of mtDNA analysis in forensics. We have evaluated the performance of mtGenome sequencing using the Personal Genome Machine (PGM) and compared the resulting haplotypes directly with conventional Sanger-type sequencing. A total of 64 mtGenomes (>1 million bases) were established that yielded high concordance with the corresponding STS haplotypes (<0.02% differences). About two-thirds of the differences were observed in or around homopolymeric sequence stretches. In addition, the sequence alignment algorithm employed to align NGS reads played a significant role in the analysis of the data and the resulting mtDNA haplotypes. Further development of alignment software would be desirable to facilitate the application of NGS in mtDNA forensic genetics. PMID:23948325

  6. Isolation and characterization of a novel cold-adapted esterase, MtEst45, from Microbulbifer thermotolerans DAU221

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Suk eLee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel esterase, MtEst45, was isolated from a fosmid genomic library of Microbulbifer thermotolerans DAU221. The encoding gene is predicted to have a mass of 45,564 Da and encodes 495 amino acids, excluding a 21 amino acid signal peptide. MtEst45 showed a low amino acid identity (approximately 23–24% compared with other lipolytic enzymes belonging to Family III, a closely related bacterial lipolytic enzyme family. MtEst45 also showed a conserved GXSXG motif, G131IS133YG135, which was reported as active site of known lipolytic enzymes, and the putative catalytic triad composed of D237 and H265. Because these mutants of MtEst45, which was S133A, D237N, and H265L, had no activity, these catalytic triad essential for the enzyme catalysis. MtEst45 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3 and purified via His-tag affinity chromatography. The optimal pH and temperature of MtEst45 were estimated to be 8.17 and 46.27°C by response surface methodology, respectively. Additionally, MtEst45 was also active between 1–15°C. The optimal hydrolysis substrate for MtEst45 among p-nitrophenyl esters (C2–C18 was p-nitrophenyl butyrate, and the Km and Vmax values were 0.0998 mM and 550 μmol/min/mg of protein, respectively. MtEst45 was strongly inhibited by Hg2+, Zn2+, and Cu2+ ions; by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride; and by β-mercaptoethanol. Ca2+ did not affect the enzyme’s activity. These biochemical properties, sequence identity, and phylogenetic analysis suggest that MtEst45 represents a novel and valuable bacterial lipolytic enzyme family and is useful for biotechnological applications.

  7. Music Tags Topic Retrieval Based on MT-LDA%基于MT-LDA的音乐标签主题检索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐芸芝; 邵曦

    2016-01-01

    Music sharing systems with collaboratively tagging function have been important parts on the Internet. They make the system users annotate and categorize their own interests and thoughts about the resources possible. Considering the characteristics of social tagging and its influence on Music Information Retrieval ( MIR) system,MT-LDA method by jointly considering lyrics,tags and searching be-havior can be used to analyze collaboratively generated tags and the topic category of tags to catch the retrieval topic,so as to improve the efficiency and performance of MIR system. The experiment shows that MT-LDA retrieval model based on tags topic performs better than keywords retrieval model based on tags into improving the MIR system performance especially tags for tracks are extremely sparse and in-formal,when retrieval information have no attribute data.%随着协同标注功能的普及,用户可以通过对自己感兴趣的音乐进行标注从而实现个性化的分类管理,因此音乐共享系统中的社会化标签已成为互联网的重要资源。考虑到社会化标签的特性及其对音乐信息检索系统的影响并综合考虑了用户的检索行为、歌词和音乐标签,利用MT-LDA方法对标签进行聚类以获取主题类别,从而进行分析得出检索主题,提高音乐信息检索系统的效率和性能。实验结果表明:在没有属性数据信息的检索情况下,基于标签主题的MT-LDA检索模型相比于基于标签关键词检索模型,尤其是在音乐标签稀疏和非正规的情况下,在一定程度上更能够提高音乐信息检索性能。

  8. The nucleotide sequence of metallothioneins (MT) in liver of the Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) and their potential as biomarkers of heavy metal pollution of the Kafue River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'kandawire, Ethel; Syakalima, Michelo; Muzandu, Kaampwe; Pandey, Girja; Simuunza, Martin; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Kawai, Yusuke K; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2012-09-15

    The study determined heavy metal concentrations and MT1 nucleotide sequence [phylogeny] in liver of the Kafue lechwe. Applicability of MT1 as a biomarker of pollution was assessed. cDNA-encoding sequences for lechwe MT1 were amplified by RT-PCR to characterize the sequence of MT1 which was subjected to BLAST searching at NCBI. Phylogenetic relationships were based on pairwise matrix of sequence divergences calculated by Clustal W. Phylogenetic tree was constructed by NJ method using PHILLIP program. Metals were extracted by acid digestion and concentrations of Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, and Ni were determined using an AAS. MT1 mRNA expression levels were measured by quantitative comparative real-time RT-PCR. Lechwe MT1 has a length of 183bp, which encode for MT1 proteins of 61AA, which include 20 cysteines. Nucleotide sequence of lechwe MT1 showed identity with sheep MT (97%) and cattle MT1E (97%). Phylogenetic tree revealed that lechwe MT1 was clustered with sheep MT and cattle MT1E. Cu and Ni concentrations and MT1 mRNA expression levels of lechwe from Blue Lagoon were significantly higher than those from Lochinvar (p<0.05). Concentrations of Cd and Cu, Co and Cu, Co and Pb, Ni and Cu, and Ni and Cr were positively correlated. Spearman's rank correlations also showed positive correlations between Cu and Co concentrations and MT mRNA expression. PCA further suggested that MT mRNA expression was related to Zn and Cd concentrations. Hepatic MT1 mRNA expression in lechwe can be used as biomarker of heavy metal pollution.

  9. Parallel loss of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and mtDNA-encoded tRNAs in Cnidaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haen, Karri M; Pett, Walker; Lavrov, Dennis V

    2010-10-01

    Unlike most animal mitochondrial (mt) genomes, which encode a set of 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs) sufficient for mt protein synthesis, those of cnidarians have only retained one or two tRNA genes. Whether the missing cnidarian mt-tRNA genes relocated outside the main mt chromosome or were lost remains unclear. It is also unknown what impact the loss of tRNA genes had on other components of the mt translational machinery. Here, we explored the nuclear genome of the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis for the presence of mt-tRNA genes and their corresponding mt aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (mt-aaRS). We detected no candidates for mt-tRNA genes and only two mt-aaRS orthologs. At the same time, we found that all but one cytosolic aaRS appear to be targeted to mitochondria. These results indicate that the loss of mt-tRNAs in Cnidaria is genuine and occurred in parallel with the loss of nuclear-encoded mt-aaRS. Our phylogenetic analyses of individual aaRS revealed that although the nearly total loss of mt-aaRS is rare, aaRS gene deletion and replacement have occurred throughout the evolution of Metazoa.

  10. Surveying Humaness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Randi; Gad, Christopher

    Christopher Gad. Ph.d. Dept. of Information and Media Studies Randi Markussen. Associate Professor, Dept. of Information and Media Studies. rmark@imv.au.dk   Abstract:   Surveying humanness -politics of care improvement   For various reasons we both were subjected to a specific survey procedure...... and development of a large collection of biological and psychological symptoms and psycho-social problems. However, the surveys say nothing about how the information will be of use to the people who answer the procedure or how this scientific intervention will be put to use more specifically within the public...... carried out in a Danish county in order to improve treatment of people who have suffered from long-term illnesses. The surveys concern not only feed back on how people experience their present and past interaction with the social services and health care system; they also ask people to indicate the state...

  11. Surveying Humaness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Randi; Gad, Christopher

    Christopher Gad. Ph.d. Dept. of Information and Media Studies Randi Markussen. Associate Professor, Dept. of Information and Media Studies. rmark@imv.au.dk   Abstract:   Surveying humanness -politics of care improvement   For various reasons we both were subjected to a specific survey procedure...... and development of a large collection of biological and psychological symptoms and psycho-social problems. However, the surveys say nothing about how the information will be of use to the people who answer the procedure or how this scientific intervention will be put to use more specifically within the public...... be imagined as a positive end, as ‘making explicit’ (in a popular psychological perspective) is considered to be therapeutic and good in itself? We will discuss those questions from a Foucaultian and ANT perspective, where one does not accept that pre-existing subjects are exposed to survey procedures...

  12. Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cleaned and QCd data for the Fishing Effort Survey. Questions on fishing and other out are asked on weather and outdoor activity, including fishing trips. Used for...

  13. Melatonin modulates the cadmium-induced expression of MT-2 and MT-1 metallothioneins in three lines of human tumor cells (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and HeLa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Gonzalez, Carolina; Mediavilla, Dolores; Martinez-Campa, Carlos; Gonzalez, Alicia; Cos, Samuel; Sanchez-Barcelo, Emilio J

    2008-10-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a human carcinogen present in tobacco smoke and contaminated industrial soils. Metallothioneins (MTs) are intracellular proteins involved in protecting against Cd. The toxic effects of Cd can be modified by compounds able to modulate MTs synthesis. Melatonin has oncostatic properties and has also been shown to counteract the toxic effects of Cd. In this study we examine the possible role of melatonin in Cd-induced expression of several MT isoforms (MT-2A, MT-1X, MT-1F and MT-1E) in three human tumor cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and HeLa). We found that, in all cell types, melatonin increases Cd-induced expression of MT-2A, which is considered to protect against Cd toxicity. As regards MT-1 subtypes, which have been related with cell invasiveness and high histological grade tumors, melatonin caused Cd-induced expression in both breast cancer cell lines to decrease. These effects point towards melatonin's possible role as a preventive agent for carcinogenesis dependent on Cd contamination.

  14. Mitochondrial mosaics in the liver of 3 infants with mtDNA defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scalais Emmanuel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In muscle cytochrome oxidase (COX negative fibers (mitochondrial mosaics have often been visualized. Methods COX activity staining of liver for light and electron microscopy, muscle stains, blue native gel electrophoresis and activity assays of respiratory chain proteins, their immunolocalisation, mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analysis. Results Three unrelated infants showed a mitochondrial mosaic in the liver after staining for COX activity, i.e. hepatocytes with strongly reactive mitochondria were found adjacent to cells with many negative, or barely reactive, mitochondria. Deficiency was most severe in the patient diagnosed with Pearson syndrome. Ragged-red fibers were absent in muscle biopsies of all patients. Enzyme biochemistry was not diagnostic in muscle, fibroblasts and lymphocytes. Blue native gel electrophoresis of liver tissue, but not of muscle, demonstrated a decreased activity of complex IV; in both muscle and liver subcomplexes of complex V were seen. Immunocytochemistry of complex IV confirmed the mosaic pattern in two livers, but not in fibroblasts. MRI of the brain revealed severe white matter cavitation in the Pearson case, but only slight cortical atrophy in the Alpers-Huttenlocher patient, and a normal image in the 3rd. MtDNA in leucocytes showed a common deletion in 50% of the mtDNA molecules of the Pearson patient. In the patient diagnosed with Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome, mtDNA was depleted for 60% in muscle. In the 3rd patient muscular and hepatic mtDNA was depleted for more than 70%. Mutations in the nuclear encoded gene of POLG were subsequently found in both the 2nd and 3rd patients. Conclusion Histoenzymatic COX staining of a liver biopsy is fast and yields crucial data about the pathogenesis; it indicates whether mtDNA should be assayed. Each time a mitochondrial disorder is suspected and muscle data are non-diagnostic, a liver biopsy should be recommended. Mosaics are probably more frequent

  15. Climate change on the southern slope of Mt.Qomolangma (Everest) Region in Nepal since 1971

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Wei; ZHANG Yili; GAO Jungang; YANG Xuchao; LIU Linshan; Narendra R.KHANAL

    2013-01-01

    Based on monthly mean,maximum,and minimum air temperature and monthly mean precipitation data from 10 meteorological stations on the southern slope of the Mt.Qomolangma region in Nepal between 1971 and 2009,the spatial and temporal characteristics of climatic change in this region were analyzed using climatic linear trend,Sen's Slope Estimates and Mann-Kendall Test analysis methods.This paper focuses only on the southern slope and attempts to compare the results with those from the northern slope to clarify the characteristics and trends of climatic change in the Mt.Qomolangma region.The results showed that:(1) between 1971 and 2009,the annual mean temperature in the study area was 20.0℃,the rising rate of annual mean temperature was 0.25℃/10a,and the temperature increases were highly influenced by the maximum temperature in this region.On the other hand,the temperature increases on the northern slope of Mt.Qomolangma region were highly influenced by the minimum temperature.In 1974 and 1992,the temperature rose noticeably in February and September in the southern region when the increment passed 0.9℃.(2) Precipitation had an asymmetric distribution; between 1971 and 2009,the annual precipitation was 1729.01 mm.In this region,precipitation showed an increasing trend of 4.27mm/a,but this was not statistically significant.In addition,the increase in rainfall was mainly concentrated in the period from April to October,including the entire monsoon period (from June to September) when precipitation accounts for about 78.9% of the annual total.(3) The influence of altitude on climate warming was not clear in the southern region,whereas the trend of climate warming was obvious on the northern slope of Mt.Qomolangma.The annual mean precipitation in the southern region was much higher than that of the northern slope of the Mt.Qomolangma region.This shows the barrier effect of the Himalayas as a whole and Mt.Qomolangma in particular.

  16. Gain Modulation as a Mechanism for Coding Depth from Motion Parallax in Macaque Area MT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HyungGoo R; Angelaki, Dora E; DeAngelis, Gregory C

    2017-08-23

    Observer translation produces differential image motion between objects that are located at different distances from the observer's point of fixation [motion parallax (MP)]. However, MP can be ambiguous with respect to depth sign (near vs far), and this ambiguity can be resolved by combining retinal image motion with signals regarding eye movement relative to the scene. We have previously demonstrated that both extra-retinal and visual signals related to smooth eye movements can modulate the responses of neurons in area MT of macaque monkeys, and that these modulations generate neural selectivity for depth sign. However, the neural mechanisms that govern this selectivity have remained unclear. In this study, we analyze responses of MT neurons as a function of both retinal velocity and direction of eye movement, and we show that smooth eye movements modulate MT responses in a systematic, temporally precise, and directionally specific manner to generate depth-sign selectivity. We demonstrate that depth-sign selectivity is primarily generated by multiplicative modulations of the response gain of MT neurons. Through simulations, we further demonstrate that depth can be estimated reasonably well by a linear decoding of a population of MT neurons with response gains that depend on eye velocity. Together, our findings provide the first mechanistic description of how visual cortical neurons signal depth from MP.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Motion parallax is a monocular cue to depth that commonly arises during observer translation. To compute from motion parallax whether an object appears nearer or farther than the point of fixation requires combining retinal image motion with signals related to eye rotation, but the neurobiological mechanisms have remained unclear. This study provides the first mechanistic account of how this interaction takes place in the responses of cortical neurons. Specifically, we show that smooth eye movements modulate the gain of responses of neurons in

  17. Growth of Fagus in transition zones of forest and soil on the western slope of Mt. Chokai, northern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, S.; Watanabe, M.

    2012-04-01

    A wide transition zone for forest structure is expected to distribute on the gentle slope of western side of Mt. Chokai ,Yamagata prefecture, northern Japan (N39° 05'57", E140°02'55"). The annual mean temperature and total precipitation at summit (2,059 m asl.) are 0.5° C and 3,285mm, respectively. The parent materials of the soils are weathered Andesite associated with non-tephric loess deposits transported from continental China. Representative sites were selected in forests of Quercus mongolica and Fagus crenata to examine characteristics of transition zones of vegetation and soil in the western slope of Mt. Chokai with concern on the growth of Fagus in transition zones. Surveys on vegetation profile and projection diagram of canopy for each site (10-10m plots) were carried out in 7 sites selected along altitudinal sequence on the western slope of Mt. Chokai; Ch1-7: 550-1,100m asl.. Growth rate of Fagus was estimated by the measurement of tree rings from increment core samples. Timber volume of Fagus at each point was calculated based on diameter of breast height; DBH as an indicator of tree biomass. Soil profiles were observed at the above 7 sites and soil samples were collected from each horizon. As for soil analyses, soil pH (H2O, KCl, NaF) values were measured by the glass electrode method in the suspension mixture of soil with a 2.5 times volume of H2O or 1N KCl and 50 times volume of 4% NaF. Pyrophosphate, acid oxalate and dithionite-citrate extractable Al (Alp, Alo, Ald), Fe (Feo, Fed) and Si (Sio, Sid) were measured by ICP-AES. The content of exchangeable Al (AlEX) was obtained by titration of extract with 1N KCl. Sclerotia formed by species of Cenococcum, ectomycorrhizal fungi, were collected for grains of diameter larger than 0.5mm from wet samples. Sclerotia content was obtained by weight (mg g-1 soil). Due to intensive base leaching under extremely high precipitation and the mineralogical properties, Ah and Ae horizons of all profiles had low soil

  18. 接触蓝光:PROmeteus MT-20新一代产品%Contact Blue laser:PROmeteus MT-20 New Product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dr·Schenk中国分公司

    2004-01-01

    目前,众所周知并被普遍认同的PROmeteus检测系统首次在其系统上使用了蓝光光源。与红光相比,蓝光本身的特性使PROmeteus检测系统能够对所有可录、可重复读写DVD光盘的沟槽形状及沟槽结构进行非常精确的评估。一系列附加的特性及附合SEMI标准的成熟的用户界面也是新款PROmeteus MT-200系列的一大特色。本着极高的可靠性及易操件性的设计理念,MT-200可以确保对整个光盘生产实现了高效的过程控制。

  19. The 2016 Seismic sequence in central Italy: a multi-method approach to constrain the geometry of the Mt. Vettore - Mt. Bove fault system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiso, Paola; Paoletti, Valeria; Gaudiosi, Germana; Nappi, Rosa; Cella, Federico; Fedi, Maurizio

    2017-04-01

    Since August 24, 2016 a destructive seismic sequence has been occurring in Central Italy, between the Amatrice and Norcia towns. The seismic sequence started with the event of Mw 6.0 that was followed one hour later by the Mw 5.4 earthquake and by thousands of aftershocks along the NW-SE fault system extended for about 30 km. On October 26 the Mw=5.9 seismic event struck the area, followed by the strong Mw 6.5 earthquake on the October 30, at a depth of 9 km with epicenter located between the Norcia and Visso towns. The three months of seismicity activated the nearby 60 km long normal fault system of Mt. Vettore - Mt. Porche - Mt. Bove. The area was struck by several moderate to large earthquakes in historical times. In detail, in the Amatrice sector we mention the earthquakes of 1627 (Io=7-8 MCS, Mw 5.3), 1639 (Io=9-10 MCS, Mw=6.2), 1672 (Io=7-8 MCS, Mw=5.3) A.D. The main historical earthquakes of Valnerina, the area closest to the epicentre of the October 30 2016 earthquake, occurred in 1328 (Io=10 MCS, Mw=6.5), 1719 (Io= 8 MCS, Mw=5.6), 1730 (Io =9 MCS, Mw=6) 1859 (Io=8-9 MCS, Mw= 5.7) A.D. It is important also to remember the complex sequence of the 1703 A.D. (January 14, Valnerina, Io=11, Mw= 6.9; February 2, Aquilano, Io 10, Mw= 6.7) that had a considerably devastating impact on the area. Nevertheless, the historical seismicity correlated with the more external fault system of the Umbria-Marche-Abruzzi Apennine ridge is characterized by absence of strong energy seismicity along the Mt. Bove - Mt. Vettore- Vettoretto sector, suggesting that the fault system was "silent" until the 2016 seismic sequence. Our study consists in a multiparametric data analysis in GIS (Geographic Information System) environment which integrates tectonic, seismic and gravimetric datasets with the aim of investigating the neotectonic activity of the area. The gravimetric dataset contains the Multiscale Derivative Analysis (MDA) data of the gravity field, in which each maximum

  20. Parkinson's disease brain mitochondria have impaired respirasome assembly, age-related increases in distribution of oxidative damage to mtDNA and no differences in heteroplasmic mtDNA mutation abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keeney Paula M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sporadic Parkinson's disease (sPD is a nervous system-wide disease that presents with a bradykinetic movement disorder and is frequently complicated by depression and cognitive impairment. sPD likely has multiple interacting causes that include increased oxidative stress damage to mitochondrial components and reduced mitochondrial bioenergetic capacity. We analyzed mitochondria from postmortem sPD and CTL brains for evidence of oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, heteroplasmic mtDNA point mutations and levels of electron transport chain proteins. We sought to determine if sPD brains possess any mtDNA genotype-respiratory phenotype relationships. Results Treatment of sPD brain mtDNA with the mitochondrial base-excision repair enzyme 8-oxyguanosine glycosylase-1 (hOGG1 inhibited, in an age-dependent manner, qPCR amplification of overlapping ~2 kbase products; amplification of CTL brain mtDNA showed moderate sensitivity to hOGG1 not dependent on donor age. hOGG1 mRNA expression was not different between sPD and CTL brains. Heteroplasmy analysis of brain mtDNA using Surveyor nuclease® showed asymmetric distributions and levels of heteroplasmic mutations across mtDNA but no patterns that statistically distinguished sPD from CTL. sPD brain mitochondria displayed reductions of nine respirasome proteins (respiratory complexes I-V. Reduced levels of sPD brain mitochondrial complex II, III and V, but not complex I or IV proteins, correlated closely with rates of NADH-driven electron flow. mtDNA levels and PGC-1α expression did not differ between sPD and CTL brains. Conclusion PD brain mitochondria have reduced mitochondrial respiratory protein levels in complexes I-V, implying a generalized defect in respirasome assembly. These deficiencies do not appear to arise from altered point mutational burden in mtDNA or reduction of nuclear signaling for mitochondrial biogenesis, implying downstream etiologies. The origin of age

  1. mtDNA-Server: next-generation sequencing data analysis of human mitochondrial DNA in the cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissensteiner, Hansi; Forer, Lukas; Fuchsberger, Christian; Schöpf, Bernd; Kloss-Brandstätter, Anita; Specht, Günther; Kronenberg, Florian; Schönherr, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) allows investigating mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) characteristics such as heteroplasmy (i.e. intra-individual sequence variation) to a higher level of detail. While several pipelines for analyzing heteroplasmies exist, issues in usability, accuracy of results and interpreting final data limit their usage. Here we present mtDNA-Server, a scalable web server for the analysis of mtDNA studies of any size with a special focus on usability as well as reliable identification and quantification of heteroplasmic variants. The mtDNA-Server workflow includes parallel read alignment, heteroplasmy detection, artefact or contamination identification, variant annotation as well as several quality control metrics, often neglected in current mtDNA NGS studies. All computational steps are parallelized with Hadoop MapReduce and executed graphically with Cloudgene. We validated the underlying heteroplasmy and contamination detection model by generating four artificial sample mix-ups on two different NGS devices. Our evaluation data shows that mtDNA-Server detects heteroplasmies and artificial recombinations down to the 1% level with perfect specificity and outperforms existing approaches regarding sensitivity. mtDNA-Server is currently able to analyze the 1000G Phase 3 data (n = 2,504) in less than 5 h and is freely accessible at https://mtdna-server.uibk.ac.at. PMID:27084948

  2. mtDNA-Server: next-generation sequencing data analysis of human mitochondrial DNA in the cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissensteiner, Hansi; Forer, Lukas; Fuchsberger, Christian; Schöpf, Bernd; Kloss-Brandstätter, Anita; Specht, Günther; Kronenberg, Florian; Schönherr, Sebastian

    2016-07-08

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) allows investigating mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) characteristics such as heteroplasmy (i.e. intra-individual sequence variation) to a higher level of detail. While several pipelines for analyzing heteroplasmies exist, issues in usability, accuracy of results and interpreting final data limit their usage. Here we present mtDNA-Server, a scalable web server for the analysis of mtDNA studies of any size with a special focus on usability as well as reliable identification and quantification of heteroplasmic variants. The mtDNA-Server workflow includes parallel read alignment, heteroplasmy detection, artefact or contamination identification, variant annotation as well as several quality control metrics, often neglected in current mtDNA NGS studies. All computational steps are parallelized with Hadoop MapReduce and executed graphically with Cloudgene. We validated the underlying heteroplasmy and contamination detection model by generating four artificial sample mix-ups on two different NGS devices. Our evaluation data shows that mtDNA-Server detects heteroplasmies and artificial recombinations down to the 1% level with perfect specificity and outperforms existing approaches regarding sensitivity. mtDNA-Server is currently able to analyze the 1000G Phase 3 data (n = 2,504) in less than 5 h and is freely accessible at https://mtdna-server.uibk.ac.at.

  3. Roles of MPBQ-MT in Promoting α/γ-Tocopherol Production and Photosynthesis under High Light in Lettuce.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueli Tang

    Full Text Available 2-methyl-6-phytyl-1, 4-benzoquinol methyltransferase (MPBQ-MT is a vital enzyme catalyzing a key methylation step in both α/γ-tocopherol and plastoquinone biosynthetic pathway. In this study, the gene encoding MPBQ-MT was isolated from lettuce (Lactuca sativa by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE, named LsMT. Overexpression of LsMT in lettuce brought about a significant increase of α- and γ-tocopherol contents with a reduction of phylloquinone (vitamin K1 content, suggesting a competition for a common substrate phytyl diphosphate (PDP between the two biosynthetic pathways. Besides, overexpression of LsMT significantly increased plastoquinone (PQ level. The increase of tocopherol and plastoquinone levels by LsMT overexpression conduced to the improvement of plants' tolerance and photosynthesis under high light stress, by directing excessive light energy toward photosynthetic production rather than toward generation of more photooxidative damage. These findings suggest that the role and function of MPBQ-MT can be further explored for enhancing vitamin E value, strengthening photosynthesis and phototolerance under high light in plants.

  4. Homopolymeric tract heteroplasmy in mtDNA from tissues and single oocytes: Support for a genetic bottleneck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchington, D.R.; Hartshorne, G.M.; Barlow, D.; Poulton, J. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1997-02-01

    While mtDNA polymorphisms at single base positions are common, the overwhelming majority of the mitochondrial genomes within a single individual are usually identical. When there is a point-mutation difference between a mother and her offspring, there may be a complete switching of mtDNA type within a single generation. It is generally assumed that there is a genetic bottleneck whereby a single or small number of founder mtDNA(s) populate the organism, but it is not known at which stages the restriction/amplification of mtDNA subtype(s) occur, and this uncertainty impedes antenatal diagnosis for mtDNA disorders. Length polymorphisms in homopolymeric tracts have been demonstrated in the large noncoding region of mtDNA. We have developed a new method, T-PCR (trimmed PCR), to quantitate heteroplasmy for two of these tracts (D310 and D16189). D310 variation is sufficient to indicate clonal origins of tissues and single oocytes. Tissues from normal individuals often possessed more than one length variant (heteroplasmy). However, there was no difference in the pattern of the length variants between somatic tissues in any control individual when bulk samples were taken. Oocytes from normal women undergoing in vitro fertilization were frequently heteroplasmic for length variants, and in two cases the modal length of the D310 tract differed in individual oocytes from the same woman. These data suggest that a restriction/amplification event, which we attribute to clonal expansion of founder mtDNA(s), has occurred by the time oocytes are mature, although further segregation may occur at a later stage. In contrast to controls, the length distribution of the D310 tract varied between tissues in a patient with heteroplasmic mtDNA rearrangements, suggesting that these mutants influence segregation. These findings have important implications for the genetic counselling of patients with pathogenic mtDNA mutations. 21 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Scale up and pharmacokinetic study of a novel mutated chimeric tissue plasminogen activator (mt-PA) in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raigani, Mozhgan; Rouini, Mohammad-Reza; Golabchifar, Ali-Akbar; Mirabzadeh, Esmat; Vaziri, Behrouz; Barkhordari, Farzaneh; Davami, Fatemeh; Mahboudi, Fereidoun

    2017-01-01

    Because of high mortality caused by cardiovascular diseases, various fibrinolytic agents with diverse pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties have been developed. A novel mutated chimeric tissue plasminogen activator (mt-PA) was developed by the removal of first three domains of t-PA, insertion of GHRP sequence and mutation towards resistance to plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Mt-PA protein was expressed in Expi293F cells. The expression level of mt-PA was found to be 5000 IU/mL. Following purification, the pharmacokinetic properties of mt-PA were evaluated in three doses in rats. Data related to mt-PA were best fitted to two compartment model. With the increase in dose, the Area Under the plasma concentration-time Curve (AUC0→∞) increased. The elimination half-life (t1/2) of mt-PA was in the range of 19.1–26.1 min in three doses while that of Alteplase was 8.3 min. The plasma clearance (CLp) of mt-PA ranged from 3.8 to 5.9 mL/min in three doses, which was several times lower than that of Alteplase (142.6 mL/min). The mean residence time (MRT) of mt-PA ranged from 23.3–31.8 min in three doses, which was 4–5 times greater than that of Alteplase (6 min). Mt-PA showed extended half-life and mean residence time and is a good candidate for further clinical studies. PMID:28223717

  6. Two distinct mtDNA lineages among captive African penguins in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Michiko; Murakami, Masaru

    2014-04-01

    The African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) is one of the world's most endangered seabirds. In Japan, although the number of African penguins in captivity continues to increase, genetic data have not been collected for either wild or captive populations. To reveal genetic diversity and characterization in captive African penguins, we analyzed the nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from a sample of 236 African penguins. Analysis of 433 bp of the control region and 1,140 bp of cytochrome b sequences revealed the existence of two mtDNA clades. Control region haplotypes were much more divergent (d=3.39%) between the two clades than within each clade. The divergence of these clades may reflect differences at the subspecies or geographical population level in African penguins. These findings suggest that at least two distinct maternal lineages exist in the wild populations of the African penguin.

  7. Coke Oven Gas Based Methanol Production Capacity Reached 1.2 Mt/a in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Coke oven gas is one of the main byproducts of coke chemicals industry.One ton of coke formed can generate 430 m3of coke oven gas.Adoption of appropriate chemical processing method can convert methane contained in the coke oven gas into CO that can be further converted into methanol.It is learned that currently China has constructed and commissioned ten projects for manufacture of methanol fromcoke oven gas with the total production capacity reaching 1.2 Mt/a methanol.More than twenty coke gas-to-methanol units are under construction or in the stage of project design with their overall production capacity reaching nearly 3.0 Mt/a methanol.Relevant experts have indicated that the enterprises provided with coke production lines are capable of constructing coke gas-to-methanol projects to realize coproduction of coke and methanol while utilizing their own coke gas resources.

  8. A Study on Medium Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition (MT-CVD) Technology and Super Coating Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jian; LI Jian-ping; ZENG Xiang-cai; MA Wen-cun

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the dense and columnar crystalline TiCN coating layers with very good bonding strength between a layer and another layer was deposited using Medium Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition (MT-CVD) where CH3CN organic composite with C/N atomic clusters etc. was utilized at 700 ~ 900 ℃. Effect of coating processing parameters, such as coating temperature, pressure and different gas flow quantity on structures and properties of TiCN coating layers were investigated. The super coating mechanis mand structures were analyzed. The new coating processing parameters and properties of carbide inserts with super coating layers were gained by using the improved high temperature chemical vapor deposition (HTCVD) equipment and HT-CVD, in combination with MT-CVD technology.

  9. The use of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA-investigations in Forensic Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dawson

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available A variety of methods was developed to characterize mtDNA. The initial aim of these techniques was to try and link diseases with specific mitochondrial defects. As a result of the maternal inheritance trait of mtDNA these techniques facilitate studies of the phylogenetic history and population structure of the human population. It has been shown that mitochondrial DNA typing can be of great value for human identification in forensic cases. The identification of victims of mass-disasters or mass-murders, where human remains can be recovered only after many years have passed, is one of the most challenging fields of forensic identification. By using automated DNA sequencing with fluorescent labels, mitochondrial DNA sequences can be generated rapidly and accurately. Computer software facilitates the rapid comparison of individual and reference sequences.

  10. New Balance MT576S astro ueno 日式嘻哈文化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    自从New Balance在日本方面推出了MT576S杂交鞋款后,很多艺术团体都纷纷找其合作,不知道是为了576的20周年还是为了580的鞋底。近日,日本本土Hip—Hop团体ASTRO的几位成员共同为New Balance设计了一双MT576S。黑金的配色显得典雅而深邃。漆皮材质和翻毛皮的组合让整双鞋营造出了两种不同的质感。这双鞋将在一向同New Balance有着良好合作关系的Mita Sneaker店铺独家发售。

  11. MT580 13代不知不觉间延续经典

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    不知不觉间,New Balance-MT580已经到了13代了,带着前面12双的荣耀,mita sneakers x HECTIC x Ner Balance,这三家为MT 580做出卓越贡献的单位再度联手。新作在外形上也是很像之前同Stussy合作的4代,偏复古的外观,偏户外的配色,经典的580依旧可以引起很大的共鸣。

  12. Role of adenine nucleotide translocator 1 in mtDNA maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaukonen, J; Juselius, J K; Tiranti, V; Kyttälä, A; Zeviani, M; Comi, G P; Keränen, S; Peltonen, L; Suomalainen, A

    2000-08-04

    Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia is a rare human disease that shows a Mendelian inheritance pattern, but is characterized by large-scale mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions. We have identified two heterozygous missense mutations in the nuclear gene encoding the heart/skeletal muscle isoform of the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT1) in five families and one sporadic patient. The familial mutation substitutes a proline for a highly conserved alanine at position 114 in the ANT1 protein. The analogous mutation in yeast caused a respiratory defect. These results indicate that ANT has a role in mtDNA maintenance and that a mitochondrial disease can be caused by a dominant mechanism.

  13. Dr.Schenk公司PROmeteus MT-146系统知多少--PROmeterus MT-146系统的常见问题及回答%Dr. Schenk PROmeteus MT-146 System-Questions and answers for Prometerus MT-146 system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ 全世界许多DVD及CD生产商选择德国申克博士公司的PROmeteus MT-146系统用于光介质的物理及光学特性的离线检测,对其生产过程进行控制.在使用过程中就PROmeteus MT-146离线检测系统的优势及DVD、CD的离线检测之间的相互关系等出现了一些问题.以下就是申克博士公司针对这些相关问题进行的答复:

  14. LOCA simulation in NRU program: data report for the fourth materials experiment (MT-4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, C.L.; Mohr, C.L.; Hesson, G.M.; Wildung, N.J.; Russcher, G.E.; Webb, B.J.; Freshley, M.D.

    1983-07-01

    A series of in-reactor experiments were conducted using full-length 32-rod pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel bundles as part of the Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) Simulation Program by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This experiment (MT-4) was funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to evaluate ballooning and rupture during adiabatic heatup in the temperature range of 1033 to 1200K (1400 to 1700/sup 0/F). The 12 rest rods in the center of the 32-rod bundle were initially pressurized to 4.62 MPa (670 psia) to insure rupture in the correct temperature range. All 12 test rods ruptured with an average strain of 43.7% at the maximum flow blockage elevation of 2.68 m (105.4 in.). Experimental data for the MT-4 transient experiment and post-test measurements and photographs of the fuel are presented in this report.

  15. Study and orientation of the Mt. Oche `Dragon House' in Euboea, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodossiou, E.; Manimanis, V. N.; Katsiotis, M.; Papanikolaou, D.

    2009-07-01

    In southern Euboea, Central Greece, there are several megalithic buildings known as ‘drakospita’ (or dragon houses) whose builders and purpose are unknown. On 22 March 2002 and 4 July 2004 we visited the bestpreserved of all drakospita on top of Mt. Oche, measured its dimensions and calculated its orientation based on the azimuth of sunset and moonrise. A Sirius-rise orientation corresponding to ca 1100 B.C., not inconsistent with previous archaeological dating based on artefacts found inside the structure, indicates a religious/astronomical purpose for the building. It could probably be argued that at least the famous drakospito at Mt. Oche was not only a place of worship but also an ancient astronomical observatory.

  16. ProMT: effective human promoter prediction using Markov chain model based on DNA structural properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Dapeng; Liu, Rongjie; Xiao, Fen; Gao, Xieping

    2014-12-01

    The core promoters play significant and extensive roles for the initiation and regulation of DNA transcription. The identification of core promoters is one of the most challenging problems yet. Due to the diverse nature of core promoters, the results obtained through existing computational approaches are not satisfactory. None of them considered the potential influence on performance of predictive approach resulted by the interference between neighboring TSSs in TSS clusters. In this paper, we sufficiently considered this main factor and proposed an approach to locate potential TSS clusters according to the correlation of regional profiles of DNA and TSS clusters. On this basis, we further presented a novel computational approach (ProMT) for promoter prediction using Markov chain model and predictive TSS clusters based on structural properties of DNA. Extensive experiments demonstrated that ProMT can significantly improve the predictive performance. Therefore, considering interference between neighboring TSSs is essential for a wider range of promoter prediction.

  17. Attention decreases phase-amplitude coupling, enhancing stimulus discriminability in cortical area MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moein eEsghaei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Local field potentials (LFPs in cortex reflect synchronous fluctuations in the activity of local populations of neurons. The power of high frequency (>30 Hz oscillations in LFPs is locked to the phase of low frequency (<30 Hz oscillations, an effect known as phase-amplitude coupling (PAC. While PAC has been observed in a variety of cortical regions and animal models, its functional role particularly in primate visual cortex is largely unknown. Here we document PAC for LFPs recorded from extra-striate area MT of macaque monkeys, an area specialized for the processing of visual motion. We further show that directing spatial attention into the receptive field of MT neurons decreases the coupling between the low frequency phase and high frequency power of LFPs. This attentional suppression of PAC increases neuronal discriminability for attended visual stimuli. Therefore we hypothesize that visual cortex uses PAC to regulate inter-neuronal correlations and thereby enhances the coding of relevant stimuli.

  18. Two Distinct mtDNA Lineages among Captive African Penguins in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Murata, Michiko; Murakami, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) is one of the world’s most endangered seabirds. In Japan, although the number of African penguins in captivity continues to increase, genetic data have not been collected for either wild or captive populations. To reveal genetic diversity and characterization in captive African penguins, we analyzed the nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from a sample of 236 African penguins. Analysis of 433 bp of the control region and 1,140 b...

  19. Volcanic records of the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion from Mt Ruapehu, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, E.; Turner, G. M.; Conway, C. E.; Heslop, D.; Roberts, A. P.; Leonard, G.; Townsend, D.; Calvert, A.

    2017-08-01

    We present palaeodirectional records of the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion from lavas on Mt Ruapehu, New Zealand. Fourteen lava flows on the northwestern and southern flanks of Mt Ruapehu, with 40Ar/39Ar weighted mean plateau ages that range from 46.3 ± 2.0 to 39.9 ± 1.4 ka, were studied. The youngest and older flows carry a normal polarity magnetization; however, six flows, dated between 46.3 ± 2.0 and 42.7 ± 1.8 ka, record excursional directions. Three of these flows record southerly palaeomagnetic declinations and negative inclinations that agree well with a published Laschamp record from the Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF). Together, the AVF and Mt Ruapehu lavas currently represent the only volcanic records of the Laschamp excursion outside the Chaîne des Puys region, France. Thus, they make an important contribution to the global set of Laschamp excursion records. Virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) groups for the New Zealand and French records early in the excursion are compatible with a dipole-dominated field that rotated to an equatorial orientation while simultaneously decaying in strength. In contrast, younger excursional flows from France and New Zealand yield separate VGP groups, which suggest either that the field had a nondipolar morphology in this later phase, or that the VGP groups were not synchronous. 40Ar/39Ar ages for the Mt Ruapehu record are on average slightly older than published northern hemisphere ages and from the relative palaeointensity minimum in the GLOPIS sedimentary stack. Although few individual ages differ significantly at the 2σ level, the spread suggests an overall excursion duration that is longer than the currently accepted 1500 years. This age spread may result from excess Ar in magmas at the time of the eruption biasing the results to slightly older ages, or from non-synchronous excursional field behaviour at near-antipodal locations, or, possibly, a precursory phase prior to the main excursion.

  20. Influence of Aerosol Heating on the Stratospheric Transport of the Mt. Pinatubo Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquila, Valentina; Oman, Luke D.; Stolarski, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    On June 15th, 1991 the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo (15.1 deg. N, 120.3 Deg. E) in the Philippines injected about 20 Tg of sulfur dioxide in the stratosphere, which was transformed into sulfuric acid aerosol. The large perturbation of the background aerosol caused an increase in temperature in the lower stratosphere of 2-3 K. Even though stratospheric winds climatological]y tend to hinder the air mixing between the two hemispheres, observations have shown that a large part of the SO2 emitted by Mt. Pinatubo have been transported from the Northern to the Southern Hemisphere. We simulate the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo with the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) version 5 global climate model, coupled to the aerosol module GOCART and the stratospheric chemistry module StratChem, to investigate the influence of the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo on the stratospheric transport pattern. We perform two ensembles of simulations: the first ensemble consists of runs without coupling between aerosol and radiation. In these simulations the plume of aerosols is treated as a passive tracer and the atmosphere is unperturbed. In the second ensemble of simulations aerosols and radiation are coupled. We show that the set of runs with interactive aerosol produces a larger cross-equatorial transport of the Pinatubo cloud. In our simulations the local heating perturbation caused by the sudden injection of volcanic aerosol changes the pattern of the stratospheric winds causing more intrusion of air from the Northern into the Southern Hemisphere. Furthermore, we perform simulations changing the injection height of the cloud, and study the transport of the plume resulting from the different scenarios. Comparisons of model results with SAGE II and AVHRR satellite observations will be shown.

  1. Deep-Cut Vacuum Distillation in the 10 Mt/a CDUNDU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Zhuwei; Mao Fuzhong; Jiang Bing; Chen Kaibei; Chi Ling; Yan Chun

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces the concepts relating to deep-cut vacuum distillation and its suitability, and analyzes the deep-cut vacuum distillation technique licensed by the KBC Advanced Technologies to the 10 Mt/a CDUNDU of the Qingdao refinery and makes comparison on the test run data after commissioning of the distillation unit. The test results have confirmed that the operation of the CDU/VDU had reached the expected goal to achieve good social and economic benefits.

  2. Meteorological Features at 6523 m of Mt. Qomolangma (Everest) between 1 May and 22 July 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Aihong; REN Jiawen; QIN Xiang; JIANG Youyan

    2006-01-01

    Mt. Qomolangma (Everest), the highest mountain peak in the world, has little been studied extensively from a meteorological perspective, mostly because of the remoteness of the region and the resultant lack of meteorological data. An automatic weather station (AWS), the highest in the world, was set up on 27 April 2005 at the Ruopula Pass (6523 m asl) on the northern slope of Mt. Qomolangma by the team of integrated scientific expedition to Mt. Qomolangma. Here its meteorological characteristics were analyzed according to the 10-minute-averaged and 24-hour records of air temperature, relative humidity,air pressure and wind from 1 May to 22 July 2005. It is shown that at 6523 m of Mt. Qomolangma, these meteorological elements display very obvious diurnal variations, and the character of averaged diurnal variation is one-peak-and-one-vale for air temperature, one-vale for relative humidity, two-peak-and-two-vale for air pressure, and one-peak with day-night asymmetry for wind speed. In the 83 days,all the air temperature, relative humidity and air pressure increased with some different fluctuations,while wind speed decreased gradually and wind direction turned from north to south. The variations of relative humidity had great fluctuations and obvious local differences. Then the paper discusses the reason for the characters of diurnal and daily variations.Compared with the corresponding records in May 1960, 5-day-averaged maximums, minimums and diurnal variations of air temperature in May 2005 were apparently lower.

  3. Annual litterfall dynamics and nutrient deposition depending on elevation and land use at Mt. Kilimanjaro

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, J; Pabst, H.; J. Mnyonga; Kuzyakov, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Litterfall is one of the major pathways connecting above- and below-ground processes. The effects of climate and land-use change on carbon (C) and nutrient inputs by litterfall are poorly known. We quantified and analyzed annual patterns of C and nutrient deposition via litterfall in natural forests and agroforestry systems along the unique elevation gradient of Mt. Kilimanjaro. Tree litter in three natural (lower montane, Ocotea and Podocarpus forests), two sustainab...

  4. Annual litterfall dynamics and nutrient deposition depending on elevation and land use at Mt. Kilimanjaro

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, J; Pabst, H.; J. Mnyonga; Kuzyakov, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Litterfall is one of the major pathways connecting above- and belowground processes. The effects of climate and land-use change on carbon (C) and nutrient inputs by litterfall are poorly known. We quantified and analyzed annual patterns of C and nutrient deposition via litterfall in natural forests and agroforestry systems along the unique elevation gradient of Mt. Kilimanjaro. Tree litter in three natural (lower montane, Ocotea and Podocarpus forests)...

  5. Low-dose rapamycin extends lifespan in a mouse model of mtDNA depletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, Stephanie; Yang, Hua; Sharma, Rohit; Javors, Martin; Skinner, Owen; Mootha, Vamsi; Hirano, Michio; Schon, Eric A

    2017-09-01

    Mitochondrial disorders affecting oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) are caused by mutations in both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. One promising candidate for treatment is the drug rapamycin, which has been shown to extend lifespan in multiple animal models, and which was previously shown to ameliorate mitochondrial disease in a knock-out mouse model lacking a nuclear-encoded gene specifying an OxPhos structural subunit (Ndufs4). In that model, relatively high-dose intraperitoneal rapamycin extended lifespan and improved markers of neurological disease, via an unknown mechanism. Here, we administered low-dose oral rapamycin to a knock-in (KI) mouse model of authentic mtDNA disease, specifically, progressive mtDNA depletion syndrome, resulting from a mutation in the mitochondrial nucleotide salvage enzyme thymidine kinase 2 (TK2). Importantly, low-dose oral rapamycin was sufficient to extend Tk2KI/KI mouse lifespan significantly, and did so in the absence of detectable improvements in mitochondrial dysfunction. We found no evidence that rapamycin increased survival by acting through canonical pathways, including mitochondrial autophagy. However, transcriptomics and metabolomics analyses uncovered systemic metabolic changes pointing to a potential "rapamycin metabolic signature." These changes also implied that rapamycin may have enabled the Tk2KI/KI mice to utilize alternative energy reserves, and possibly triggered indirect signaling events that modified mortality through developmental reprogramming. From a therapeutic standpoint, our results support the possibility that low-dose rapamycin, while not targeting the underlying mtDNA defect, could represent a crucial therapy for the treatment of mtDNA-driven, and some nuclear DNA-driven, mitochondrial diseases. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. Two Distinct mtDNA Lineages among Captive African Penguins in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Murata, Michiko; Murakami, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) is one of the world’s most endangered seabirds. In Japan, although the number of African penguins in captivity continues to increase, genetic data have not been collected for either wild or captive populations. To reveal genetic diversity and characterization in captive African penguins, we analyzed the nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from a sample of 236 African penguins. Analysis of 433 bp of the control region and 1,140 b...

  7. ScaleMT: a free/open-source framework for building scalable machine translation web services

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Cartagena, Víctor M.; Pérez-Ortiz, Juan Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Machine translation web services usage is growing amazingly mainly because of the translation quality and reliability of the service provided by the Google Ajax Language API. To allow the open-source machine ranslation projects to compete with Google’s one and gain visibility on the internet, we have developed ScaleMT: a free/open-source framework that exposes existing machine translation engines as public web services. This framework is highly scalable as it can run coordinately on many serv...

  8. Two-dimensional map of direction selectivity in cortical visual area MT of Cebus monkey

    OpenAIRE

    ANTONIA CINIRA M. DIOGO; Soares, Juliana G. M.; Albright, Thomas D.; RICARDO GATTASS

    2002-01-01

    We studied the spatial organization of direction of motion in visual area MT of the Cebus apella monkey. We used arrays of 6 (700 µm apart) parallel electrodes in penetrations tangential to the cortical layers to record multi-unit responses to moving bars, at 200 µm steps. We determined the direction selectivity at each recording site. The data from single penetrations showed cyclic and gradual changes in the direction selectivity of clusters of cells, intermixed with abrupt 180º discontinuit...

  9. VEGETATION CHANGE IN THE MT.QOMOLANGMA NATURAL RESERVE FROM 1981 TO 2001

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Introduction On 18 May 1989,the Mt.Qomolangma (Everest)Natural Reserve(abbr.MQNR)in Tibet Autonomous Region formally came into existence and it was listed as World Network of Biosphere Reserves(WNBR)in May 2005.The MQNR is a comprehensive reserve,which mainly protects alpine ecosystems,plateau natural landscapes,geological remains and Tibetan historical and cultural heritages.

  10. Bridging near and remote Oceania: mtDNA and NRY variation in the Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfin, Frederick; Myles, Sean; Choi, Ying; Hughes, David; Illek, Robert; van Oven, Mannis; Pakendorf, Brigitte; Kayser, Manfred; Stoneking, Mark

    2012-02-01

    Although genetic studies have contributed greatly to our understanding of the colonization of Near and Remote Oceania, important gaps still exist. One such gap is the Solomon Islands, which extend between Bougainville and Vanuatu, thereby bridging Near and Remote Oceania, and include both Austronesian-speaking and Papuan-speaking groups. Here, we describe patterns of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nonrecombining Y chromosome (NRY) variation in over 700 individuals from 18 populations in the Solomons, including 11 Austronesian-speaking groups, 3 Papuan-speaking groups, and 4 Polynesian Outliers (descended via back migration from Polynesia). We find evidence for ancient (pre-Lapita) colonization of the Solomons in old NRY paragroups as well as from M2-M353, which probably arose in the Solomons ∼9,200 years ago and is the most frequent NRY haplogroup there. There are no consistent genetic differences between Austronesian-speaking and Papuan-speaking groups, suggesting extensive genetic contact between them. Santa Cruz, which is located in Remote Oceania, shows unusually low frequencies of mtDNA and NRY haplogroups of recent Asian ancestry. This is in apparent contradiction with expectations based on archaeological and linguistic evidence for an early (∼3,200 years ago), direct colonization of Santa Cruz by Lapita people from the Bismarck Archipelago, via a migration that "leapfrogged" over the rest of the Solomons. Polynesian Outliers show dramatic island-specific founder events involving various NRY haplogroups. We also find that NRY, but not mtDNA, genetic distance is correlated with the geographic distance between Solomons groups and that historically attested spheres of cultural interaction are associated with the recent genetic structure of Solomons groups, as revealed by mtDNA HV1 sequence and Y-STR haplotype diversity. Our results fill an important lacuna in human genetic studies of Oceania and aid in understanding the colonization and genetic history of

  11. Comparing acceleration and speed tuning in macaque MT: physiology and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, N S C; Ono, S; Mustari, M J; Ibbotson, M R

    2005-11-01

    Studies of individual neurons in area MT have traditionally investigated their sensitivity to constant speeds. We investigated acceleration sensitivity in MT neurons by comparing their responses to constant steps and linear ramps in stimulus speed. Speed ramps constituted constant accelerations and decelerations between 0 and 240 degrees /s. Our results suggest that MT neurons do not have explicit acceleration sensitivity, although speed changes affected their responses in three main ways. First, accelerations typically evoked higher responses than the corresponding deceleration rate at all rates tested. We show that this can be explained by adaptation mechanisms rather than differential processing of positive and negative speed gradients. Second, we inferred a cell's preferred speed from the responses to speed ramps by finding the stimulus speed at the latency-adjusted time when response amplitude peaked. In most cells, the preferred speeds inferred from deceleration were higher than those for accelerations of the same rate or from steps in stimulus speed. Third, neuron responses to speed ramps were not well predicted by the transient or sustained responses to steps in stimulus speed. Based on these findings, we developed a model incorporating adaptation and a neuron's speed tuning that predicted the higher inferred speeds and lower spike rates for deceleration responses compared with acceleration responses. This model did not predict acceleration-specific responses, in accordance with the lack of acceleration sensitivity in the neurons. The outputs of this single-cell model were passed to a population-vector-based model used to estimate stimulus speed and acceleration. We show that such a model can accurately estimate relative speed and acceleration using information from the population of neurons in area MT.

  12. PyMT: A Python package for model-coupling in the Earth sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, E.

    2016-12-01

    The current landscape of Earth-system models is not only broad in scientific scope, but also broad in type. On the one hand, the large variety of models is exciting, as it provides fertile ground for extending or linking models together in novel ways to answer new scientific questions. However, the heterogeneity in model type acts to inhibit model coupling, model development, or even model use. Existing models are written in a variety of programming languages, operate on different grids, use their own file formats (both for input and output), have different user interfaces, have their own time steps, etc. Each of these factors become obstructions to scientists wanting to couple, extend - or simply run - existing models. For scientists whose main focus may not be computer science these barriers become even larger and become significant logistical hurdles. And this is all before the scientific difficulties of coupling or running models are addressed. The CSDMS Python Modeling Toolkit (PyMT) was developed to help non-computer scientists deal with these sorts of modeling logistics. PyMT is the fundamental package the Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System uses for the coupling of models that expose the Basic Modeling Interface (BMI). It contains: Tools necessary for coupling models of disparate time and space scales (including grid mappers) Time-steppers that coordinate the sequencing of coupled models Exchange of data between BMI-enabled models Wrappers that automatically load BMI-enabled models into the PyMT framework Utilities that support open-source interfaces (UGRID, SGRID,CSDMS Standard Names, etc.) A collection of community-submitted models, written in a variety of programminglanguages, from a variety of process domains - but all usable from within the Python programming language A plug-in framework for adding additional BMI-enabled models to the framework In this presentation we intoduce the basics of the PyMT as well as provide an example of coupling

  13. Quattro3 MT303/DuetEXE:麦克风

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    美国Phoenix Audio Technology(凤凰语音科技有限公司)推出了可以与所有智能手机、平板电脑、PSTN模拟电话进行互通的Quattr03MT303和DuetEXE全向麦克风。鼎曛(上海)商贸有限公司为Phoenix Audio的中国独家总代理。

  14. OCCURRENCE OF LEAD-ZINK ORE AT Mt. IVANŠČICA NEAR IVANEC (CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Šinkovec

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Mineral and ore occurences at Mt. Ivanščica are situated in the Middle Triassic carbonate rocks and are of epigenetic origin. These occurences are characterised by simple paragenesis of primary sulphides of leads and zinc and traces of sulphides of iron and copper. This mineralization is similar to Mississippi Valley Pb-Zn deposits (the paper is published in Croatian.

  15. Lichen biomonitoring of trace elements in the Mt. Amiata geothermal area (central Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    LOPPI, Stefano

    1998-01-01

    The possible contribution of Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Pb, Sb, Sr, Ti, V and Zn from geothermal exploitation to the environmental contamination of Mt. Amiata was evaluated by assaying the epiphytic lichen Parmelia sulcata from two sampling areas: Piancastagnaio, where there are geothermal power plants, and a remote site distant from geothermal power plants. The results showed that the geothermal power plants at Piancastagnaio do not represent a macroscopic source of atmospheric cont...

  16. Possible link between numerical modeling of the lithospheric deformation and MT research fields

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan V. Sobolev; [Child, Sir Josiah, bart.] 

    2004-01-01

    There is almost no connection established yet between two rapidly developing fields of the lithospheric research, namely between numerical simulation of the thermo-mechanical processes and MT studies. To compensate for this gap I focus here on the numerical modeling of the strain localization processes at the lithosphere-scale continental transform faults and on prediction of the possible electrical conductivity structures associated with these processes. First, I use a finite-element thermo-...

  17. Return on Investment Tool for Effective Medical Training (RITE-MT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-11

    all of the Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) was completed based on the use case designs and interactively improved through redesigns following...Evaluations (TEE; e.g. based on Fidelity Support, Subjective Reactions, and Learning Gains). Design Interactive Inc. developed this system’s design to...AND ACRONYMS EVALS-R Evaluation of Value Added in Learning Systems GUI Graphical User Interface RITE-MT Return on Investment Tool for

  18. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2007-01-01

    Engineering surveying involves determining the position of natural and man-made features on or beneath the Earth's surface and utilizing these features in the planning, design and construction of works. It is a critical part of any engineering project. Without an accurate understanding of the size, shape and nature of the site the project risks expensive and time-consuming errors or even catastrophic failure.Engineering Surveying 6th edition covers all the basic principles and practice of this complex subject and the authors bring expertise and clarity. Previous editions of this classic text have given readers a clear understanding of fundamentals such as vertical control, distance, angles and position right through to the most modern technologies, and this fully updated edition continues that tradition.This sixth edition includes:* An introduction to geodesy to facilitate greater understanding of satellite systems* A fully updated chapter on GPS, GLONASS and GALILEO for satellite positioning in surveying* Al...

  19. MT1-MMP and type II collagen specify skeletal stem cells and their bone and cartilage progeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabova, L.; Yamada, S.S.; Wimer, H.;

    2009-01-01

    Skeletal formation is dependent on timely recruitment of skeletal stem cells and their ensuing synthesis and remodeling of the major fibrillar collagens, type I collagen and type II collagen, in bone and cartilage tissues during development and postnatal growth. Loss of the major collagenolytic...... activity associated with the membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) results in disrupted skeletal development and growth in both cartilage and bone, where MT1-MMP is required for pericellular collagen dissolution. We show here that reconstitution of MT1-MMP activity in the type II collagen...

  20. Application of unconventional geoelectrical methods to the hydrogeological examination of the Mt. S. Croce rock formations (Umbria, Italy involved in a railway tunnel project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Patella

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available he project of doubling and developing of the railway line Orte-Falconara, committed by the Italian State Railway Company to the COMAVI Consortium (Rome, Italy, envisaged building the Mt. S. Croce tunnel, about 3200 m long between the stations of Narni and Nera Montoro (Umbria, ltaly. During the last phase of the feasibility project, a geophysical research based on geoelectrical prospecting methods was carried out to complement other geognostic investigations with the following goals: a to outline the complex geotectonic model of the rock system, which will be affected by the new railway layout; b to gain information on the hydrogeologic features of the survey area, in relation to the existing geologic situation and the consequent effects on the digging conditions of the tunnel and on the operation conditions of the railway layout. The geophysical work was thus organized according to the following scheme: a execution of dipole electrical sounding pro-files, to depict a series of significant tomographic pseudosections, both across and along the new railway layout; b execution of self-potential measurements, to draw an anomaly map over the whole hydrogeological network system in the survey area. The research provided information which has helped to improve the geological-structural model of the area and disclosed the hydrogelogic network, conforming to the classified field surface manifestations. At present, further detailed field investigations are being carried out, which confirm all the results obtained by the geoelectrical survey.