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Sample records for survey monument valley

  1. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Monument Valley Site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevalated the Monument Valley site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposure of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.1 million tons of tailings at the Monument Valley site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the four options range from about $6,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $15,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for reprocessing the Monument Valley tailings were examined: heap leaching; Treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovery is economically unattractive.

  2. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Monument Valley Site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevalated the Monument Valley site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposure of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.1 million tons of tailings at the Monument Valley site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the four options range from about $6,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $15,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for reprocessing the Monument Valley tailings were examined: heap leaching; Treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovery is economically unattractive

  3. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Monument Valley site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Monument Valley site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.1 million tons of tailings at the Monument Valley site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $6,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $15,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for reprocessing the Monument Valley tailings were examined: heap leaching, treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be more than $500/lb of U 3 O 8 by heap leach or conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is economically unattractive

  4. A case study: Death Valley National Monument California-Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Hamson; Ristau Toni

    1979-01-01

    With passage of the Mining in the Parks Act (P.L. 94-429) in 1976, the National Park Service, Department of the Interior, was given the responsibility of preparing a report to Congress outlining the environmental consequences of mining on claims within Death Valley National Monument. In addition, the Secretary of the Interior is required to formulate a recommendation...

  5. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Cane Valley is a former uranium mill that has undergone surface remediation in the form of tailings and contaminated materials removal. Contaminated materials from the Monument Valley (Arizona) UMTRA Project site have been transported to the Mexican Hat (Utah) UMTRA Project site for consolidation with the Mexican Hat tailings. Tailings removal was completed in February 1994. Three geologic units at the site contain water: the unconsolidated eolian and alluvial deposits (alluvial aquifer), the Shinarump Conglomerate (Shinarump Member), and the De Chelly Sandstone. Water quality analyses indicate the contaminant plume has migrated north of the site and is mainly in the alluvial aquifer. An upward hydraulic gradient in the De Chelly Sandstone provides some protection to that aquifer. This water sampling and analysis plan recommends sampling domestic wells, monitor wells, and surface water in April and September 1994. The purpose of sampling is to continue periodic monitoring for the surface program, evaluate changes to water quality for site characterization, and provide data for the baseline risk assessment. Samples taken in April will be representative of high ground water levels and samples taken in September will be representative of low ground water levels. Filtered and nonfiltered samples will be analyzed for plume indicator parameters and baseline risk assessment parameters

  6. Assessment of the radiological impact of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.; Fox, W.F.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1979-12-01

    Results of a radiological survey that was conducted at the inactive uranium-mill site at Monument Valley, Arizona, in March 1976, in cooperation with a team from Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc., are presented. Consideration of these data and of previously published information on radiological conditions at the site lead to the conclusion that potential health effects from exposure to radionuclides in the mill tailings are relatively small. The occupants of three residences within 0.8 km (0.5 mile) of the tailings constitute the principal population at risk, but direct gamma-exposure rate measurements near the two residences closest to the tailings and calculations of radon dispersion indicate that the tailings do not raise either pathway of radiation exposure significantly above the background level. Data are not available to evaluate fully other possible exposure pathways, but the available information indicates that it is unlikely that doses through these pathways will add significantly to the total population dose. The low estimates of potential health effects from exposure to direct radiation and to exposure to radionuclides in the Monument Valley tailings piles are ascribed to the low 226 Ra inventory, to almost complete absence of small particles that are readily moved by wind and water, and to a small population in the vicinity of the tailings

  7. Phase II, Title I engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Monument Valley site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    An engineering assessment was made of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the Monument Valley millsite in Arizona. The Phase II, Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals residing nearby, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the tailings on the site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The sparse population and relatively low radiation levels yield minimal immediate environmental impact; hence, the two alternative actions presented are directed towards restricting access to the site and returning the windblown tailings to the pile and stabilizing the pile. Both options include remedial action costs for offsite locations where tailings have been placed. Cost estimates for the two options are $585,000 and $1,165,000

  8. Data for the geochemical investigation of UMTRAP designated site at Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markos, G.; Bush, K.J.

    1983-09-01

    This report contains the geochemical data and the methods of data collection from the former tailings site at Monument Valley, Arizona. Data are from a one-time sampling of waters and solid material from the background, the area adjacent to the site, and the site. Selected solid samples are water extracted to remove easily soluble salts. The waters and extracts of solid samples were analyzed for selected major and trace elements. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  9. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Monument Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Monument Valley, Arizona, US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action(UMTRA) Project site is one of the first site-specific documents developed to achieve ground water compliance at the site. This SOWP applies information about the Monument Valley site to a regulatory compliance framework that identifies strategies that could be used to meet ground water compliance. The compliance framework was developed in the UMTRA Ground Water programmatic environmental impact statement (DOE, 1996). The DOE`s goal is to implement a cost-effective site strategy that complies with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards and protects human health and the environment. The compliance strategy that emerges in the final version of the SOWP will be evaluated in the site-specific environmental assessment to determine potential environmental impacts and provide stakeholders a forum for review and comment. When the compliance strategy is acceptable, it will be detailed in a remedial action plan that will be subject to review by the state and/or tribe and concurrence by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Information for the preparation of this SOWP indicates active remediation is the most likely compliance strategy for the Monument Valley site. Additional data are needed to determine the most effective remediation technology.

  10. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Monument Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Monument Valley, Arizona, US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site is one of the first site-specific documents developed to achieve ground water compliance at the site. This SOWP applies information about the Monument Valley site to a regulatory compliance framework that identifies strategies that could be used to meet ground water compliance. The compliance framework was developed in the UMTRA Ground Water programmatic environmental impact statement (DOE, 1995). The DOE`s goal is to implement a cost-effective site strategy that complies with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards and protects human health and the environment. The compliance strategy that emerges in the final version of the SOWP will assess potential environmental impacts and provide stakeholder a forum for review and comment. When the compliance strategy is acceptable, it will be detailed in a remedial action plan that will be subject to review by the state and/or tribe and concurrence by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Information available for the preparation of this SOWP indicates active remediation is the most likely compliance strategy for the Monument Valley site. Additional data are needed to determine the most effective remediation technology.

  11. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    The site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Monument Valley, Arizona, US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action(UMTRA) Project site is one of the first site-specific documents developed to achieve ground water compliance at the site. This SOWP applies information about the Monument Valley site to a regulatory compliance framework that identifies strategies that could be used to meet ground water compliance. The compliance framework was developed in the UMTRA Ground Water programmatic environmental impact statement (DOE, 1996). The DOE's goal is to implement a cost-effective site strategy that complies with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards and protects human health and the environment. The compliance strategy that emerges in the final version of the SOWP will be evaluated in the site-specific environmental assessment to determine potential environmental impacts and provide stakeholders a forum for review and comment. When the compliance strategy is acceptable, it will be detailed in a remedial action plan that will be subject to review by the state and/or tribe and concurrence by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Information for the preparation of this SOWP indicates active remediation is the most likely compliance strategy for the Monument Valley site. Additional data are needed to determine the most effective remediation technology

  12. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Monument Valley, Arizona, US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site is one of the first site-specific documents developed to achieve ground water compliance at the site. This SOWP applies information about the Monument Valley site to a regulatory compliance framework that identifies strategies that could be used to meet ground water compliance. The compliance framework was developed in the UMTRA Ground Water programmatic environmental impact statement (DOE, 1995). The DOE's goal is to implement a cost-effective site strategy that complies with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards and protects human health and the environment. The compliance strategy that emerges in the final version of the SOWP will assess potential environmental impacts and provide stakeholder a forum for review and comment. When the compliance strategy is acceptable, it will be detailed in a remedial action plan that will be subject to review by the state and/or tribe and concurrence by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Information available for the preparation of this SOWP indicates active remediation is the most likely compliance strategy for the Monument Valley site. Additional data are needed to determine the most effective remediation technology

  13. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Cane Valley, Arizona. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site in Cane Valley near Monument Valley, Arizona. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has relocated and stabilized this site's tailings and other contaminated material in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project that evaluates potential health and environmental risks. It will help determine the approach required to address contaminated ground water at the site

  14. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Cane Valley, Arizona. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site in Cane Valley near Monument Valley, Arizona. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has relocated and stabilized this site`s tailings and other contaminated material in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project that evaluates potential health and environmental risks. It will help determine the approach required to address contaminated ground water at the site.

  15. Final audit report of remedial action construction at the UMTRA Project Mexican Hat, Utah -- Monument Valley, Arizona, sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    The final audit report for remedial action at the Mexican Hat, Utah, Monument Valley, Arizona, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites consists of a summary of the radiological surveillances/audits, quality assurance (QA) in-process surveillances, and QA remedial action close-out inspections performed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC); on-site construction reviews (OSCR) performed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); and a surveillance performed by the Navajo Nation. This report refers to remedial action activities performed at the Mexican Hat, Utah--Monument Valley, Arizona, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites

  16. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Monument Valley site, Monument Valley, Arizona. A summary of the Phase II, Title I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the Monument Valley millsite in Arizona. The Phase II, Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals residing nearby, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the tailings on the site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The sparse population and relatively low radiation levels yield minimal immediate environmental impact; hence, the two alternative actions presented are directed towards restricting access to the site (Options I and II), and returning the windblown tailings to the pile and stabilizing the pile with 2 ft of cover material (Option II). Both options include remedial action costs for offsite locations where tailings have been placed. Cost estimates for the two options are $585,000 and $1,165,000. Reprocessing the tailings for uranium is not economically feasible

  17. Baseline risk assessment for groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site near Monument Valley, Arizona. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being relocated and stabilized in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah, through the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The tailings removal is planned for completion by spring 1994. After the tailings are removed, groundwater contamination at the site will continue to be evaluated. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Groundwater Project. It will be used to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site

  18. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley uranium mill tailings site Cane Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing at UMTRA Project sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to minimize further contamination of ground water. Surface cleanup at the Monument Valley UMTRA Project site near Cane Valley, Arizona, was completed in 1994. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Adverse ecological and agricultural effects may also result from exposure to contaminated ground water. For example, livestock should not be watered with contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site investigations will be used to determine a compliance strategy to comply with the UMTRA ground water standards

  19. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley uranium mill tailings site Cane Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing at UMTRA Project sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to minimize further contamination of ground water. Surface cleanup at the Monument Valley UMTRA Project site near Cane Valley, Arizona, was completed in 1994. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Adverse ecological and agricultural effects may also result from exposure to contaminated ground water. For example, livestock should not be watered with contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site investigations will be used to determine a compliance strategy to comply with the UMTRA ground water standards.

  20. Data Validation Package, December 2015, Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Monument Valley, Arizona, Processing Site March 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyrrell, Evan [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, NV (United States); Denny, Angelita [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-03-23

    Fifty-two groundwater samples and one surface water sample were collected at the Monument Valley, Arizona, Processing Site to monitor groundwater contaminants for evaluating the effectiveness of the proposed compliance strategy as specified in the 1999 Final Site Observational Work Plan for the UMTRA Project Site at Monument Valley, Arizona. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and-analysis-plan-us-department- energy-office-legacy-management-sites). Samples were collected for metals, anions, nitrate + nitrite as N, and ammonia as N analyses at all locations.

  1. Baseline risk assessment for groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Monument Valley, Arizona. Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site near Monument Valley, Arizona. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being relocated and stabilized in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah, through the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The tailings removal is planned for completion by spring 1994. After the tailings are removed, groundwater contamination at the site will continue to be evaluated. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Groundwater Project. It will be used to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site.

  2. Radiological audit of remedial action activities at the processing sites Mexican Hat, Utah and Monument Valley, Arizona. Audit date: May 3--7, 1993, Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project's Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) performed a radiological audit of the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC), MK-Ferguson and CWM Federal Environmental Services, Inc., at the processing sites in Mexican Hat, Utah, and Monument Valley, Arizona. This audit was conducted May 3--7, 1993, by Bill James and Gerry Simiele of the TAC. Three site-specific findings and four observations were identified during the audit and are presented in this report. The overall conclusion from the audit is that the majority of the radiological aspects of the Mexican Hat, Utah, and Monument Valley, Arizona, remedial action programs are performed adequately. However, the findings identify that there is some inconsistency in following procedures and meeting requirements for contamination control, and a lack of communication between the RAC and the DOE on variances from the published remedial action plan (RAP)

  3. Delineation and hydrologic effects of a gasoline leak at Stovepipe Wells Hotel, Death Valley National Monument, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buono, A.; Packard, Elaine M.

    1982-01-01

    Ground water is the only local source of water available to the Stovepipe Wells Hotel facilities of the Death Valley National Monument, California. A leak in a service station storage tank caused the formation of a gasoline layer overlying the water table, creating the potential for contamination of the water supply. The maximum horizontal extent of the gasoline layer was mathematically estimated to be 1,300 feet downgradient from the leaky gasoline tank. Exploratory drilling detected the gasoline layer between 900 and 1,400 feet downgradient and between 50 and 150 feet upgradient from the source. Traces of the soluble components of gasoline were also found in the aquifer 150 feet upgradient, and 250 feet distant from the source perpendicular to the direction of ground-water movement. The gasoline spill is not likely to have an effect on the supply wells located 0.4 mile south of the leak source, which is nearly perpendicular to the direction of ground-water movement and the primary direction of gasoline movement in the area. No effect on phreatophytes 2 miles downgradient from the layer is likely, but the potential effects of gasoline vapors within the unsaturated zone on local xerophytes are not known. (USGS)

  4. METRIC SURVEY OF THE MONUMENT OF QUEEN ELISENDA'S TOMB IN THE MONASTERY OF PEDRALBES, BARCELONA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Núñez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available When an urban development is planned the cartography of this territory is necessary, in the same way before starting a project to rehabilitate a monument the graphic information about it has to be available. At present, different techniques are available which allow to obtain three-dimensional models with a different accuracy level and runtimes.This paper shows the work carried out to obtain the graphic information and three-dimensional models that are necessary for the rehabilitation project of the tomb of Queen Elisenda in the Monastery of Pedralbes, Barcelona (Spain. This monument has the peculiarity of being symmetrical about the wall separating monastery church and the cloister. To do this, different techniques have been used that allow us to obtain an accurate model and as complete as possible, for the analysis of the construction process of the monument. In order to achieve the complete architectural survey the integration of laser scanning and photogrammetric data, and CAD models has been necessary. Due to the detail of the sculptures and the Queen’s sarcophagus two sensors, with different resolution, range and accuracy, have been used to obtain the laser scanning data. Stereo pairs have been taken to obtain the 3D model of these elements to complete the model and obtain an ortophotography.In this way, a comparative analysis of both techniques has been carried out, in order to decide which one is the suitable for certain application. This investigation has been restricted to the tomb, in the two symmetrical parts of the monument.

  5. Ground-penetrating radar exploration for ancient monuments at the Valley of Mummies -Kilo 6, Bahariya Oasis, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaaban, Fathy A.; Abbas, Abbas M.; Atya, Magdy A.; Hafez, Mahfouz A.

    2009-06-01

    A Valley of Mummies was discovered recently by an Egyptian team at Bahariya Oasis, located about 380 km west of the pyramids. Four tombs were excavated, and inside them were found one hundred and five mummies (105), many of them beautifully gilded. These mummies, many sumptuously decorated with religious scenes, are the very best Roman-Period mummies ever found in Egypt. These remains are around 2000 years old, but they are in remarkable condition. A Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) had proved successful in detecting the cavities in resistive soil in which the mummies were found. The GPR survey conducted near the earlier-discovered tombs at Kilo-6 El-Bahariya to Farafra Oasis road is the focus of this paper. The GPR survey was conducted using the SIR-2000 attached to a 200 MHz monostatic antenna. The two areas to be surveyed were selected by the archaeologists in situ. Area one was 40 m × 40 m and Area two was 30 m × 15 m. A grid pattern survey in one direction; with one-meter profile spacing was done to both areas. In addition, a focusing survey was undertaken over the entire Area one. In addition, twenty long GPR profiles were conducted in an attempt to determine the outer, expected limits of the burial area. After the data acquisition, Reflex software was used for data processing and presentation. The final results of the radar survey: in the form of 2D radar records, time slices and 3D block diagrams; were used to guide the archaeologists during the excavation process. The excavation processes have been completed by the archaeologists, and many tombs and mummies were discovered. It is worthy to mention that, the excavations and location of tombs and cavities matched strongly with the GPR results.

  6. Aerial multispectral surveys - from the analysis of architectural monuments to the identification of archaeological sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mario, Bottoni; Fabretti, Giuseppe; Fabretti, Maurizio

    2010-05-01

    define the theoretical relationship existing between solar dynamics and the monument. Yet the information deduced from such a model, that could be easily examined by a user system realised on computer, had to be compared with real data obtained by thermographic surveys. This comparison was aimed to evaluate the contribution that other climatic phenomena and/or the dishomogeneities in the constituent materials could give to the recorded thermal distribution and then to the global thermal system. In other words, it was necessary to accomplish seasonal campaigns on field aimed to evaluate the significance of the theoretically computed data and then the reliability of the model as a way to foretell the actual behaviour of the monument from a thermodynamic point of view. The operative problem was to find locations that could be useful to accomplish significant recordings of the thermal behaviour of the various elements that constitute the Dome. A useful place was Giotto's bell-tower but it allowed a partial vision of the structure, it was instead necessary to obtain recordings, that could be considered practically instantaneous, of the whole dome. It was therefore necessary to flank the seasonal campaigns accomplished from the bell-tower with a survey accomplished by air recordings from an helicopter. Security reasons and the high costs (in terms of resources and persons) of such an investigation compelled to optimise times and methods of air recordings. To this purpose the user system was used with the aim of defining a period that could conciliate the operative needs with the necessity of evaluating the significance of the mathematical model. A short description of this case will be exposed to underline both the differences and the similarities between these two different ways to accomplish aerial multispectral analysis.

  7. Remedial Action Plan for the codisposal and stabilization of the Monument Valley and Mexican Hat uranium mill tailings at Mexican Hat, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This document is a revision of the original Mexiacan Hat Remedial Action Plan (RAP) and RAP Modification submitted in July 1988 and January 1989, respectively, along with updated design documents. This RAP has been developed to serve a two-fold purpose. It presents the activities proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of the residual radioactive materials (RRM) from Monument Valley, Arizona, and Mexican Hat, Utah, at the Mexican Hat disposal site. It also serves to document the concurrence of both the Navajo Nation and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the remedial action. This agreement, upon execution by DOE and the Navajo Nation and concurrence by the NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement. This document has been structured to provide a comprehensive understanding of the remedial action proposed for the Monument Valley and Mexican Hat sites. It includes specific design and construction requirements for the remedial action. Pertinent information and data are included with reference given to the supporting documents. Section 2.0 presents the EPA standards, including a discussion of their objectives. Section 3. 0 summarizes the present site characteristics and provides a definition of site-specific problems. Section 4.0 is the site design for the proposed action. Section 5.0 presents the water resources protection strategy. Section 6.0 summarizes the plan for ensuring health and safety protection for the surrounding community and the on- site workers. Section 7.0 lists the responsibilities of the project participants. Section 8.0 describes the features of the long-term surveillance and maintenance plan

  8. Radiation survey of dwellings in Cane Valley, Arizona and Utah, for use of uranium mill tailings. Final technical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hans, J.M. Jr; Douglas, R.L.

    1975-08-01

    A radiation survey was conducted in the Cane Valley area of Monument Valley, on the Navajo Reservation, to identify dwellings in which uranium mill tailings had been used and to assess the resulting radiation exposures. Sixteen of the 37 dwellings surveyed were found to have tailings and/or uranium ore used in their construction. Tailings were used in concrete floors, exterior stucco, mortar for stone footings, cement floor patchings, and inside as cement 'plaster'. Uranium ore was found in footings, walls, and in one fireplace. Other structures, not used as dwellings, were also identified as having tailings and ore use. Gamma ray exposure rates were measured inside dwellings and structures identified as having tailings and/or ore used in their construction. Indoor radon progeny samples were collected in occupied dwellings where practical

  9. A survey of macromycete diversity at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Bandelier National Monument, and Los Alamos County; A preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarmie, N.; Rogers, F.J. [Mycology Associates, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The authors have completed a 5-year survey (1991--1995) of macromycetes found in Los Alamos County, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Bandelier National Monument. The authors have compiled a database of 1,048 collections, their characteristics, and identifications. The database represents 123 (98%) genera and 175 (73%) species reliably identified. Issues of habitat loss, species extinction, and ecological relationships are addressed, and comparisons with other surveys are made. With this baseline information and modeling of this baseline data, one can begin to understand more about the fungal flora of the area.

  10. SURVEY, HBIM AND CONSERVATION PLAN OF A MONUMENTAL BUILDING DAMAGED BY EARTHQUAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Oreni

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Surveying a monumental building damaged by the earthquake means to analyse its geometries, the structural elements, the connection still exist between the different parts, in order to define its state of conservation, to make structural analysis and to plan a proper project of restoration, consolidation, seismic improvement or addition of new elements. The survey of structural geometry represents the first necessary moment of building’ knowledge investigation, to be performed after the securing of the building by the Firefighters or Civil Protection. How and by which instruments the geometric analysis are conducted depends on many factors, not always exclusively on the will of the experts involved in the restoration project, but more often dictated by political, technical, social or economic needs. The accurate geometrical survey is referred as fundamental operation even by national Directive for evaluation and earthquake risk reduction of cultural heritage (GU n. 24 – 29/01/2008 and 2011 updates, which defines guidelines for preventive interventions on built heritage in order to make the structures less vulnerable in case of earthquake. Nowadays, the wide use of tools and accurate surveying techniques makes it possible to achieve an adequate level of accuracy of information related to the buildings, overcoming the difficulties due to accessibility of the damaged structures. The geometrical survey of the Basilica of Santa Maria di Collemaggio in L'Aquila, was made by Politecnico di Milano starting from 2013, within the project "Ripartire da Collemaggio" (http://www.ungiornoacollemaggio.it/content/2027, financed by Eniservizi. The basilica, an important symbol for the community of L'Aquila, was gravely damaged by the earthquake of 6th April 2009. The objective of Eni was to turn the restoration of the building in a re-birth moment for all the community. The knowledge step was aimed to plan a restoration project able of returning the basilica

  11. Survey, Hbim and Conservation Plan of a Monumental Building Damaged by Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreni, D.; Brumana, R.; Della Torre, S.; Banfi, F.

    2017-05-01

    Surveying a monumental building damaged by the earthquake means to analyse its geometries, the structural elements, the connection still exist between the different parts, in order to define its state of conservation, to make structural analysis and to plan a proper project of restoration, consolidation, seismic improvement or addition of new elements. The survey of structural geometry represents the first necessary moment of building' knowledge investigation, to be performed after the securing of the building by the Firefighters or Civil Protection. How and by which instruments the geometric analysis are conducted depends on many factors, not always exclusively on the will of the experts involved in the restoration project, but more often dictated by political, technical, social or economic needs. The accurate geometrical survey is referred as fundamental operation even by national Directive for evaluation and earthquake risk reduction of cultural heritage (GU n. 24 - 29/01/2008 and 2011 updates), which defines guidelines for preventive interventions on built heritage in order to make the structures less vulnerable in case of earthquake. Nowadays, the wide use of tools and accurate surveying techniques makes it possible to achieve an adequate level of accuracy of information related to the buildings, overcoming the difficulties due to accessibility of the damaged structures. The geometrical survey of the Basilica of Santa Maria di Collemaggio in L'Aquila, was made by Politecnico di Milano starting from 2013, within the project "Ripartire da Collemaggio" (http://www.ungiornoacollemaggio.it/content/2027), financed by Eniservizi. The basilica, an important symbol for the community of L'Aquila, was gravely damaged by the earthquake of 6th April 2009. The objective of Eni was to turn the restoration of the building in a re-birth moment for all the community. The knowledge step was aimed to plan a restoration project able of returning the basilica to a safe and full use

  12. The Catholic of Stilo. Survey and analysis of a Byzantine monument.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinella Arena

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Cattolica di Stilo, one of the greatest monu-ments of Calabria, is the most important example of the secular Byzantine influence on this region. The Greek cross inscribed in a square, with its five domes, denounces his connection with an archi-tectural style of oriental origin. Although built in a remote province of the Empire, the Catho-lic is not the expression of a poor art; all poetics typical of Byzantine architecture are manifested with originality. The first paragraph, written by Domenico Mediati, analyzes the geometries and correlates with contemporary buildings (X-XI cen-tury and similar in size and shape. The second paragraph, written by Marinella Arena, highlights the differences of construction compared to the theoretical form. The third paragraph, written by Daniele Colistra, reviews some representations of the monument trying to identify those who most influenced the collective imagination.

  13. Parcels and Land Ownership, Parcels derived from legal descriptions and surveys. Tied to section monuments with coordinates derived from traditional survey and GPS., Published in 2013, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Portage County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Parcels and Land Ownership dataset current as of 2013. Parcels derived from legal descriptions and surveys. Tied to section monuments with coordinates derived from...

  14. Photo Scanner 3D Survey for Monitoring Historical Monuments. the Case History of Porta Praetoria in Aosta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Salonia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Accessibility to cultural heritage is one of the most important factors in cultural heritage preservation, as it assures knowledge, monitoring, Public Administration management and a wide interest on cultural heritage sites. Nowdays 3D surveys give the geometric basis for an effective artefact reconstruction but most of the times 3D data are not completely and deeply investigated to extract other useful information on historical monuments for their conservation and safeguard. The Cultural Heritage Superintendence of Aosta decided to run a time continual project of monitoring of the Praetorian Roman Gate with the collaboration of the ITABC, CNR of Italy. The Praetorian Roman Gate in Aosta, Italy, of Augustus ages, is one of the most well-known roman monumental gates, it is a double gate with three arches each side, 12 meters high, 20 meters wide, made of pudding stone ashlars, Badoglio, travertine, marble blocks and other stone insertion due to restorations between 1600 and 1950. In years 2000 a final restoration intervention brought the gate at the present state of art, within the frame of a restoration and conservation building site with the purpose of treat the different decay pathologies and conditions. A complete 3D geometric survey campaign has been the first step for the monitoring of the gate morphologic changes and decay progress in time. The main purpose is to collect both quantitative data, related to the geometry of the gate, and the qualitative data, related to the chromatic change on the surface due to the stone decay. The geometric data with colour information permits to associate materials and stone pathologies to chemical or mechanical actions and to understand and analyse superficial decay kinetics. The colours survey will also permit to directly locate on the 3D model areas of different stratigraphic units. The project aims to build a rigorous quantitative-qualitative database so to be uploaded into a GIS. The GIS will become

  15. Ventilation potential during the emissions survey in Toluca Valley, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Angulo, A.; Peralta, O.; Jurado, O. E.; Ortinez, A.; Grutter de la Mora, M.; Rivera, C.; Gutierrez, W.; Gonzalez, E.

    2017-12-01

    During the late-spring early-summer measurements of emissions and pollutants were carried out during a survey campaign at four different locations within the Toluca Valley. The current emissions inventory typically estimates the generation of pollutants based on pre-estimated values representing an entire sector function of their activities. However, those factors are not always based direct measurements. The emissions from the Toluca Valley are rather large and they could affect the air quality of Mexico City Valley. The air masses interchange between those two valleys is not very well understood; however, based on the measurements obtained during the 3 months campaign we looked carefully at the daily variability of the wind finding a clear signal for mountain-valley breeze. The ventilation coefficient is estimated and the correlations with the concentrations at the 4 locations and in a far away station in Mexico City are addressed in this work. Finally, we discuss the implication of the ventilation capacity in air quality for the system of Valleys that include Mexico City.

  16. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for White Sands National Monument, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  17. Geodetic Control Points, Benchmarks; Vertical elevation bench marks for monumented geodetic survey control points for which mean sea level elevations have been determined., Published in 1995, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Geodetic Control Points dataset current as of 1995. Benchmarks; Vertical elevation bench marks for monumented geodetic survey control points for which mean sea level...

  18. Star crossings and stone monuments-Field astronomy by the Wheeler Survey in 1870s Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William E.

    2010-01-01

    The decade of the 1870s was a time of extensive exploration and surveying in the American West. The nation needed knowledge of the cultural features, topography, natural resources, and geology of this land to promote and aid the 'rapid development of an empire.' The need was particularly acute in the region that still was known in the early 1870s as Colorado Territory. There, cities and towns were springing up along the base of the Front Range, railroads were expanding, and in the mountains prospectors and miners were exploring the countryside seeking and extracting the region's abundant mineral resources. Also, recurring conflicts between the newcomers and Native Americans made it desirable to have accurate maps for military purposes. Four major government-sponsored scientific surveys formed the principal organized effort to provide critical knowledge of the land. Civilian scientists led three of these: John Wesley Powell ('Geographical and Topographical Survey of the Colorado River of the West'); Ferdinand V. Hayden ('Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories'); and Clarence King ('Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel'). Lt. George Montague Wheeler, a young graduate of West Point (Class of 1866) and a member of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, led the fourth and most ambitious project ('United States Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian').

  19. MX Siting Investigation. Gravity Survey - Sevier Desert Valley, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-24

    Cheyenne, Wyoming. DMAHTC reduces the data to Simple Bouguer Anomaly (see Section A1.4, Appendix Al.0). The Defense Mapping Agency Aerospace Center...Desert Valley, Utah ......... 2 2 Topographic Setting - Sevier Desert Valley, Utah . 3 LIST OF DRAWINGS Drawing Number 1 Complete Bouguer Anomaly...gravity stations were distributed throughout the valley at an approxi- mate interval of 1.4 miles (2.3 km). Drawing 1 is a Complete Bouguer Anomaly

  20. Airborne electromagnetic and magnetic survey data of the Paradox and San Luis Valleys, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Lyndsay B.; Bloss, Benjamin R.; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Smith, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    In October 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) contracted airborne magnetic and electromagnetic surveys of the Paradox and San Luis Valleys in southern Colorado, United States. These airborne geophysical surveys provide high-resolution and spatially comprehensive datasets characterizing the resistivity structure of the shallow subsurface of each survey region, accompanied by magnetic-field information over matching areas. These data were collected to provide insight into the distribution of groundwater brine in the Paradox Valley, the extent of clay aquitards in the San Luis Valley, and to improve our understanding of the geologic framework for both regions. This report describes these contracted surveys and releases digital data supplied under contract to the USGS.

  1. A skin test survey of valley fever in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrich, B E

    1989-01-01

    Results of a study of the prevalence of valley fever among 1128 residents of Tijuana, Baja California are presented. Children from primary and middle schools (n = 497) and adults from technical institutes and maquiladoras (assembly plants) were tested for reaction to both spherulin and coccidioidin during 1985-1986, and they completed a questionnaire containing 23 variables on their socio-environment. Place of residence was mapped. The population sampled is largely middle class. Discriminant analysis indicates the distribution of positive cases is not clustered, nor can it be correlated with geomorphic factors such as mesa tops, canyons, or valley bottoms.

  2. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Monument Valley B, Utah, detail area. Volume II A. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Volume II A contains appendices for: stacked profiles; geologic histograms; geochemical histograms; speed and altitude histograms; geologic statistical tables; geochemical statistical tables; magnetic and ancillary profiles; and test line data

  3. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Monument Valley B, Utah, detail area. Volume II B. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Volume II B contains appendices for: flight line maps; geology maps; explanation of geologic legend; flight line/geology maps; radiometric contour maps; magnetic contour maps; and geochemical factor analysis maps

  4. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Monument Valley A, Utah, detail area. Volume II B. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Volume II B contains appendices for: flight line maps; geology maps; explanation of geologic legend; flight line/geology maps; radiometric contour maps; magnetic contour maps; multi-variant analysis maps; and geochemical factor analysis maps

  5. An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and surrounding area, West Valley, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, H.A.

    1991-09-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and the surrounding area was conducted from mid-August through early September 1984 by EG ampersand G Energy Measurements, Inc. for the United States Department of Energy. The radiological survey was part of the United States Department of Energy Comprehensive Integrated Remote Sensing (CIRS) program, which provides state-of-the-art remote sensing to support the needs of the various DOE facilities. The survey consisted of airborne measurements of both natural and man-made gamma radiation emanating from the terrestrial surface. These measurements allowed an estimate of the distribution of isotopic concentrations in the area surrounding the project site. Results are reported as isopleths superimposed on aerial photographs of the area. Gamma ray energy spectra are also presented for the net man-made radionuclides. 8 refs., 16 figs., 9 tabs

  6. Geophysical Surveys of the Hydrologic Basin Underlying Yosemite Valley, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, E. L.; Shaw, K. A.; Carey, C.; Dunn, M. E.; Whitman, S.; Bourdeau, J.; Eckert, E.; Louie, J. N.; Stock, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    UNR students in an Applied Geophysics course conducted geophysical investigations in Yosemite Valley during the months of March and August 2017. The goal of the study is to understand better the depth to bedrock, the geometry of the bedrock basin, and the properties of stratigraphy- below the valley floor. Gutenberg and others published the only prior geophysical investigation in 1956, to constrain the depth to bedrock. We employed gravity, resistivity, and refraction microtremor(ReMi) methods to investigate the interface between valley fill and bedrock, as well as shallow contrasts. Resistivity and ReMi arrays along three north-south transects investigated the top 50-60m of the basin fill. Gravity results constrained by shallow measurements suggest a maximum depth of 1000 m to bedrock. ReMi and resistivity techniques identified shallow contrasts in shear velocity and electrical resistivity that yielded information about the location of the unconfined water table, the thickness of the soil zone, and spatial variation in shallow sediment composition. The upper several meters of sediment commonly showed shear velocities below 200 m/s, while biomass-rich areas and sandy river banks could be below 150 m/s. Vs30 values consistently increased towards the edge of the basin. The general pattern for resistivity profiles was a zone of relatively high resistivity, >100 ohm-m, in the top 4 meters, followed by one or more layers with decreased resistivity. According to gravity measurements, assuming either -0.5 g/cc or -0.7 g/cc density contrast between bedrock and basin sediments, a maximum depth to bedrock is found south of El Capitan at respectively, 1145 ± 215 m or 818 ± 150 m. Longitudinal basin geometry coincides with the basin depth geometry discussed by Gutenberg in 1956. Their results describe a "double camel" shape where the deepest points are near El Capitan and the Ahwahnee Hotel and is shallowest near Yosemite Falls, in a wider part of the valley. An August Deep

  7. Die Voortrekker-Monument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Moerdyk

    1938-03-01

    Full Text Available Die Eeufeesjaar is vir die Afrikaner ’n tydperk van besieling. Nog nooit sedert die ontstaan van ons volk het een enkele gebeurtenis soveel nasietrots gewek as die honderdjarige herdenking van die Groot Trek. Vir die eerste keer in ons geskiedenis voel ons ons nie meer Kapenaars, Vrystaters, Natalers, en Transvalers nie, maar Afrikaners, saamgesnoer deur die tradisies van ’n selfstandige kultuurvolk. Wanneer die klimaks van die Ossewatrek met die hocksteenlegging van die Voortrekker-Monument bereik word, sal die besieling nie uitsterf nie, die krag wat geskep is sal bly voortgroei tot ’n onweerstaanbare mag. Die Afrikaner sal homself vind, en as die Monument na sowat vyf jaar onthul word, sal die saad wat in hierdie jaar gesaai is, tot voile rypheid gekom het. Dan sal die Monument self tot die volk spreek; intussen egter, is dit wenslik, nee noodsaaklik selfs, om die Monument aan die Afrikaners te verklaar, om ‘n uiteensetting te gee van die noodsaaklikheid van so ’n Monument, sowel as om die motief te verduidelik wat as inspirasie gedien het vir die ontwerpdaar van.

  8. Selected misdemeanors against monuments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Klimczyk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to present selected aspects misdemeanors against monuments and the possibility of counteracting them.The author has used: the method of legal analysis  and literature study.  It was moved, among others issues in which cases occur misconduct, when and  what measures can be taken to prevent it. The aim of this paper is to present the matter directly. Attention  also was paid to the role The Provincial Monuments Conservator  and the Minister of Culture and National Heritage.

  9. Cultural Connections: Lion Funerary Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the Grecian "Lion Funerary Monument" dating back to about 350 BC. Significant historical, cultural, and artistic elements of the ancient monument are highlighted. Details about the artist based on the monument itself are also described and questions to consider are provided.

  10. Merchant Seamen Monument

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    Postcard. Colour photograph of Merchant Seamen Monument. Printed description on reverse "This memorial was erected in remembrance of the merchant seamen from Limerick and the Shannon Estuary Seamen who lost their lives in the course of duty". 1991 Limerick Treaty 300 logo.

  11. High-resolution aeromagnetic survey of the Mono Basin-Long Valley Caldera region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, D. A.; Mangan, M.; McPhee, D.

    2013-12-01

    A new high-resolution aeromagnetic survey of the Mono Basin-Long Valley Caldera region greatly enhances previous magnetic interpretations that were based on older, low-resolution, and regional aeromagnetic data sets and provides new insights into volcano-tectonic processes. The surveyed area covers a 8,750 km2 NNW-trending swath situated between the Sierra Nevada to the west and the Basin and Range Province to the east. The surveyed area includes the volcanic centers of Mono Lake, Mono-Inyo Craters, Mammoth Mountain, Devils Postpile, and Long Valley Caldera. The NW-trending eastern Sierra frontal fault zone crosses through the study area, including the active Mono Lake, Silver Lake, Hartley Springs, Laurel Creek, and Hilton Creek faults. Over 6,000 line-kilometers of aeromagnetic data were collected at a constant terrain clearance of 150 m, a flight-line spacing of 400 m, and a tie-line spacing of 4 km. Data were collected via helicopter with an attached stinger housing a magnetic sensor using a Scintrex CS-3 cesium magnetometer. In the northern part of the survey area, data improve the magnetic resolution of the individual domes and coulees along Mono Craters and a circular shaped magnetic anomaly that coincides with a poorly defined ring fracture mapped by Kistler (1966). Here, aeromagnetic data combined with other geophysical data suggests that Mono Craters may have preferentially followed a pre-existing plutonic basement feature that may have controlled the sickle shape of the volcanic chain. In the northeastern part of the survey, aeromagnetic data reveal a linear magnetic anomaly that correlates with and extends a mapped fault. In the southern part of the survey, in the Sierra Nevada block just south of Long Valley Caldera, aeromagnetic anomalies correlate with NNW-trending Sierran frontal faults rather than to linear NNE-trends observed in recent seismicity over the last 30 years. These data provide an important framework for the further analysis of the

  12. Geological, geochemical, and geophysical survey of the geothermal resources at Hot Springs Bay Valley, Akutan Island, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motyka, R.J.; Wescott, E.M.; Turner, D.L.; Swanson, S.E.; Romick, J.D.; Moorman, M.A.; Poreda, R.J.; Witte, W.; Petzinger, B.; Allely, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    An extensive survey was conducted of the geothermal resource potential of Hot Springs Bay Valley on Akutan Island. A topographic base map was constructed, geologic mapping, geophysical and geochemical surveys were conducted, and the thermal waters and fumarolic gases were analyzed for major and minor element species and stable isotope composition. (ACR)

  13. Wetland survey of the X-10 Bethel Valley and Melton Valley groundwater operable units at Oak Ridge National Labortory Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosensteel, B.A.

    1996-03-01

    Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands, (May 24, 1977) requires that federal agencies avoid, to the extent possible, adverse impacts associated with the destruction and modification of wetlands and that they avoid direct and indirect support of wetlands development when there is a practicable alternative. In accordance with Department of Energy (DOE) Regulations for Compliance with Floodplains and Wetlands Environmental Review Requirements (Subpart B, 10 CFR 1022.11), surveys for wetland presence or absence were conducted in both the Melton Valley and the Bethel Valley Groundwater Operable Units (GWOU) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) from October 1994 through September 1995. As required by the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act of 1992, wetlands were identified using the criteria and methods set forth in the Wetlands Delineation Manual (Army Corps of Engineers, 1987). Wetlands were identified during field surveys that examined and documented vegetation, soils, and hydrologic evidence. Most of the wetland boundary locations and wetland sizes are approximate. Boundaries of wetlands in Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 and on the former proposed site of the Advanced Neutron Source in the upper Melton Branch watershed were located by civil survey during previous wetland surveys; thus, the boundary locations and areal sizes in these areas are accurate. The wetlands were classified according to the system developed by Cowardin et al. (1979) for wetland and deepwater habitats of the United States. A total of 215 individual wetland areas ranging in size from 0.002 ha to 9.97 ha were identified in the Bethel Valley and Melton Valley GWOUs. The wetlands are classified as palustrine forested broad-leaved deciduous (PFO1), palustrine scrub-shrub broad-leaved deciduous (PSS1), and palustrine persistent emergent (PEM1)

  14. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Beaver Valley Power Station and the Surrounding Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colton, D.P.

    1999-01-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Beaver Valley Power Station was conducted during September 18 to 21, 1998, and encompassed a 53.1-square-kilometer area. The survey was conducted by the U. S. Department of Energy's Remote Sensing Laboratory, located in Las Vegas, Nevada, and maintained and operated by Bechtel Nevada. The purpose of the survey was to measure and map the general exposure-rate levels that existed within the survey area and to define the areas of man-made radionuclide activity. The inferred exposure rates were generally uniform and typical of the natural background radiation, which varied from less than 5 to 12 microroentgens per hour. Enhanced exposure rates, not attributable to natural background, and activity from man-made radionuclides were detected over the power station. The detected man-made radionuclide activity was due to the presence of cobalt-60, which is a nuclear activation product, and cesium-137, which is a long-lived fission product. The detected man-made radionuclides were generally consistent with those expected from routine plant operations. Areas outside of the power station boundaries were found to be free of any detectable man-made radionuclides. A series of ground-based, pressurized ionization chamber exposure-rate measurements were acquired at four locations within the survey boundaries. The results of these measurements were compared and found to be within 5 to 30 percent of the corresponding 1998 inferred aerial exposure-rate data

  15. Results of the radiological survey at 30 Long Valley Road, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ045)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, W.D.; Floyd, L.M.; Francis, M.W.; Mynatt, J.O.

    1989-11-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally 232 Th, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 30 Long Valley Road, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ045), was conducted during 1985, 1986, and 1987. Some radionuclide measurements were greater than typical background levels in the northern New Jersey area. However, results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program criteria. 5 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Results of the radiological survey at 32 Long Valley Road, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ046)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, W.D.; Floyd, L.M.; Francis, M.W.; Mynatt, J.O.

    1989-10-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally 232 Th, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 32 Long Valley Road, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ046), was conducted during 1985, 1986, and 1987. Some radionuclide measurements were greater than typical background levels in the northern New Jersey area. However, results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program criteria. 5 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Results of the radiological survey at 10 Long Valley Road, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ055)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, R.D.; Floyd, L.M.; Carrier, R.F.

    1989-11-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally 232 Th, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 10 Long Valley Road, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ055), was conducted during 1985 and 1986. Results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program criteria. The radionuclide distributions were not significantly different from normal background levels in the northern New Jersey area. 4 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Results of the radiological survey at 12 Long Valley Road, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ054)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, R.D.; Floyd, L.M.; Carrier, R.F.

    1989-11-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extracting process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally 232 Th, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 12 Long Valley Road, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ054), was conducted during 1985 and 1986. Results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program criteria. The radionuclide distributions were not significantly different from normal background levels in the northern New Jersey area

  19. Results of the radiological survey at 24 Long Valley Road, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ048)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, W.D.; Floyd, L.M.; Francis, M.W.; Mynatt, J.O.

    1989-08-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monozite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally 232 Th, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 24 Long Valley Road, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ048), was conducted during 1985 and 1986. Results of the survey demonstrated radionuclide concentrations in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program criteria. The radionuclide distributions are typical of the type of material originating from the MCW site. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Results of the radiological survey at 266 East Spring Valley Avenue (MJ024), Hackensack, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, R.D.; Crutcher, J.W.; Carrier, R.F.; Floyd, L.M.

    1989-02-01

    As a result of the Energy and Water Appropriations Act of Fiscal Year 1984, the property discussed in this report and properties in its vicinity contaminated with residues from the former Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) were included as a decontamination research and development project under the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. As part of this project, DOE is conducting radiological surveys in the vicinity of the site to identify properties contaminated with residues derived from the MCW. The principal radionuclide of concern is thorium-232. The radiological survey discussed in this report is part of that effort and was conducted, at the request of DOE, by members of the Measurement Applications and Development Group of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A radiological survey of the private, residential property at 266 East Spring Valley Avenue, Hackensack, New Jersey, was conducted during 1987. The survey and sampling of the ground surface and subsurface were carried out on April 23, 1987. 4 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Results of the radiological survey at 28 Long Valley Road, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ047)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, W.D.; Floyd, L.M.; Francis, M.W.; Mynatt, J.O.

    1989-10-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally 232 Th, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 28 Long Valley Road, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ047), was conducted during 1985, 1986, 1987. Some radionuclide measurements were greater than typical background levels in the northern New Jersey area. However, results of the Survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program criteria. 5 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Results of the radiological survey at 14 Long Valley Road, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ070)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, R.D.; Carrier, R.F.

    1989-12-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally 232 Th, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 14 Long Valley Road, Lodi New Jersey (LJ070), was conducted during 1987. Survey measurements indicate that the property contained radioactive contamination primarily from the 232 Th decay chain. The radionuclide distributions are typical of the type of material originating from processing operations at the MCW. 5 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  3. The public visits a nuclear waste site: Survey results from the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, W.D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of the 1986 survey taken at the West Valley Demonstration Project Open House where a major nuclear waste cleanup is in progress. Over 1400 people were polled on what they think is most effective in educating the public on nuclear waste. A demographic analysis describes the population attending the event and their major interests in the project. Responses to attitudinal questions are examined to evaluate the importance of radioactive waste cleanup as an environmental issue and a fiscal responsibility. Additionally, nuclear power is evaluated on its public perception as an energy resource. The purpose of the study is to find out who visits a nuclear waste site and why, and to measure their attitudes on nuclear issues

  4. Rural landscapes along the Vardar Valley : two site-less surveys near Veles and Skopje, the Republic of Macedonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donev, Damjan

    2014-01-01

    The two small-scale and hyper-intensive surface artifact surveys presented in this study were the first glimpse of the type and distribution of settlement on a parish level and in a rural context, in the regions along the Vardar Valley. Not attempting to offer a representative coverage of the region

  5. Results of the radiological survey at 48 Long Valley Road, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ085)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, R.D.; Floyd, L.M.

    1989-11-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally 232 Th, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 48 Long Valley Road, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ085), was conducted during 1988. 5 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Monument avalikule hetkele = Monument to a public moment / raumlaborberlin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Saksamaa arhitektide projekt "Monument avalikule hetkele" tekitas Tallinnas asuva Välisministeeriumi ette massiivne monumendi aluse, mis mõne minuti suitsu välja ajas ja mis seejärel lammutati. Fotokujutist levitati postkaardil

  7. Electromagnetic surveys to detect clay-rich sediment in the Rio Grande inner valley, Albuquerque area, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolino, James R.; Sterling, Joseph M.

    2000-01-01

    Information on the presence of clay-rich layers in the inner-valley alluvium is essential for quantifying the amount of water transmitted between the Rio Grande and the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. This report describes a study that used electromagnetic surveys to provide this information. In the first phase of the study, electromagnetic soundings were made using time-domain and frequency-domain electro- magnetic methods. On the basis of these initial results, the time- domain method was judged ineffective because of cultural noise in the study area, so subsequent surveys were made using the frequency-domain method. For the second phase of the study, 31 frequency-domain electromagnetic surveys were conducted along the inner valley and parallel to the Rio Grande in the Albuquerque area in the spring and summer of 1997 to determine the presence of hydrologically significant clay-rich layers buried in the inner-valley alluvium. For this report, the 31 survey sections were combined into 10 composite sections for ease of interpretation. Terrain-conductivity data from the surveys were modeled using interpretation software to produce geoelectric cross sections along the survey lines. This modeling used lithologic logs from two wells installed near the survey lines: the Bosque South and Rio Bravo 5 wells. Because of cultural interference, location of the wells and soundings, complex stratigraphy, and difficulty interpreting lithology, such interpretation was inconclusive. Instead, a decision process based on modeling results was developed using vertical and horizontal dipole 40-meter intercoil spacing terrain-conductivity values. Values larger than or equal to 20 millisiemens per meter were interpreted to contain a hydrologically significant thickness of clay-rich sediment. Thus, clay-rich sediment was interpreted to underlie seven segments of the 10 composited survey lines, totaling at least 2,660 meters of the Rio Grande inner valley. The longest of these clay

  8. Radon/helium survey of thermal springs of Parbati, Beas and Sutlej valleys in Himachal Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virk, H.S.; Sharma, Anand K.; Naresh Kumar

    1998-01-01

    India has more than 300 thermal springs spread over the entire geographical area of the subcontinent. Some of these springs have linkage with Indian mythology and are famous pilgrimage centres since historical times. The temperature of water recorded in these springs varies from 40 degC to that of steam. Some of them are being exploited as a source for geothermal energy. The purpose of this study is to measure radon and helium activity in the thermal springs of Himachal Himalaya. Radon is estimated in the soil and thermal waters using alpha spectrometry and scintillometry, respectively. The radon activity is maximum ( 716.3 Bq/l ) in thermal spring at Kasol and minimum ( 15.9 Bq/l ) in a natural spring ( bauli ) at Takrer. Radon concentration is highly variable in the Parbati valley with minimum value of 2230±430 Bq/m 3 recorded at Chhinjra on the banks of river Parbati and a maximum value of 57700±2050 Bq/m 3 at Dharmaur, the site of uranium ore exploitation by the AMD (DAE). Helium is estimated in the thermal springs by using a Helium Leak Detector (sniffing technique). The radon and helium contents of Kasol thermal springs are correlatable with high radioactivity in the soil of the area as revealed by Alpha Guard survey in the environs of Parbati valley. The helium content recorded in thermal springs is found to vary between 15-90 ppm. Radon and helium are well established as geochemical precursors for earthquake prediction studies. Helium/radon ratio seems to be a better predictive tool for earthquakes in comparison to individual radon and helium precursors. (author)

  9. A Survey of Bee Species Found Pollinating Watermelons in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Henne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a combination of flower traps and visual observations, we surveyed three watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai fields in the Lower Rio Grande Valley to determine what bees inhabit this crop in this region. No managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L. hives were in any of the fields; however, two contained managed hives of the common eastern bumble bee, Bombus impatiens (Cresson. A total of 15 species were collected or observed from all three fields combined. Of these species, only four were found to be very abundant: Agapostemon angelicus Cockerell/texanus Cresson, A. mellifera, Lasioglossum coactum (Cresson, and Melissodes thelypodii Cockerell. Apis mellifera comprised 46% of all bees collected from all three fields combined and was highly abundant in two of the three fields. In the third field, however, A. mellifera and Agapostemon angelicus/texanus were equally abundant. Surprisingly, B. impatiens comprised only 1% of the total bees surveyed in all three fields combined, despite two of the fields having several managed hives each. As B. impatiens is not native to this region, it was not surprising that none were collected or observed in the field with no managed hives.

  10. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Death Valley National Topographic Map, Nevada, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The results of analysis of the airborne gamma radiation survey flown for the region identified as the Death Valley National Topographic Map NJ11-11 is presented in the bound Volume of this report. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also

  11. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Chiricahua National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Brian F.; Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Halvorson, William L.; Anning, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the first comprehensive inventory of vascular plants and vertebrates at Chiricahua National Monument (NM) in Arizona. This project was part of a larger effort to inventory vascular plants and vertebrates in eight National Park Service units in the Sonoran Desert Network of parks in Arizona and New Mexico. In 2002, 2003, and 2004 we surveyed for plants and vertebrates (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) at Chiricahua NM to document the presence of species within the boundaries of the monument. Because we used repeatable study designs and standardized field methods, these inventories can serve as the first step in a biological monitoring program for the monument. This report is also the first summary of previous research from the monument and therefore it provides an important overview of survey efforts to date. We used data from our inventory and previous research to compile complete species lists for the monument and to assess inventory completeness. We recorded a total of 424 species, including 37 not previously found at the monument (Table 1). We found 10 species of non-native plants and one non-native mammal. Most non-native plants were found along the western boundary of the monument. Based on a review of our inventory and past research at the monument, there have been a total of 1,137 species of plants and vertebrates found at the monument. We believe the inventories of vascular plants and vertebrates are nearly complete and that the monument has one of the most complete inventories of any unit in the Sonoran Desert Network. The mammal community at the monument had the highest species richness (69 species) and the amphibian and reptile community was among the lowest species richness (33 species) of any park in the Sonoran Desert Network. Species richness of the plant and bird communities was intermediate. Among the important determinants of species richness for all groups is the geographic location of the monument

  12. 78 FR 75332 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; California Central Valley Angler Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... useful for understanding the economic importance of Central Valley fisheries and potential recreational.... Dated: December 5, 2013. Gwellnar Banks, Management Analyst, Office of the Chief Information Officer...

  13. Architecture and monument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen Oosterman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The relation between architectural history and heritage is ambiguous. Both domains are confronted with rapid changes in scale and complexity, leaving practitioners in both fields with the challenging task to provide new methods and a new vocabulary to enable research and communication. 70 years ago Nicolaus Pevsner could write about Lincoln cathedral and the bicycle shed to discern between architecture and building. These days not only housing and urban development have been accepted as ‘objects’ of research, in fact all material manifestation of human occupation, at least as far as design is involved, is considered worth studying. On the heritage side, developments are comparable: horizontally and vertically the domain has been enlarged tremendously: from a collection of ‘diamonds’ to complete cities, to landscapes and structures. This is not only true for scale and layers, but also for cultural norms of quality. Cultural relativism requires that ‘beauty’ and ‘quality’ are defined in relation to the social group or culture they refer to. The logic that an elite determines what is good and what is right is challenged by the notion that popular taste is in principle equal. So what does this do to our museum collections and lists of protected monuments? The consequences for architectural history are not yet clear. Including new realities like digital design and new fields of practice like the virtual, the knowledge base and toolbox of the architectural historian has to expand beyond the Renaissance ideal of the ‘uomo universale’.

  14. Detect, map, and preserve Bronze & Iron Age monuments along the pre-historic Silk Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balz, Timo; Caspari, Gino; Fu, Bihong

    2017-02-01

    Central Asia is rich in cultural heritage generated by thousands of years of human occupation. Aiming for a better understanding of Central Asia’s archaeology and how this unique heritage can be protected, the region should be studied as a whole with regard to its cultural ties with China and combined efforts should be undertaken in shielding the archaeological monuments from destruction. So far, international research campaigns have focused predominantly on single-sites or small-scale surveys, mainly due to the bureaucratic and security related issues involved in cross-border research. This is why we created the Dzungaria Landscape Project. Since 2013, we have worked on collecting remote sensing data of Xinjiang including IKONOS, WorldView-2, and TerraSAR-X data. We have developed a method for the automatic detection of larger grave mound structures in optical and SAR data. Gravemounds are typically spatially clustered and the detection of larger mound structures is a sufficient hint towards areas of high archaeological interest in a region. A meticulous remote sensing survey is the best planning tool for subsequent ground surveys and excavation. In summer 2015, we undertook a survey in the Chinese Altai in order to establish ground-truth in the Hailiutan valley. We categorized over 1000 monuments in just three weeks thanks to the previous detection and classification work using remote sensing data. Creating accurate maps of the cemeteries in northern Xinjiang is a crucial step to preserving the cultural heritage of the region since graves in remote areas are especially prone to looting. We will continue our efforts with the ultimate aim to map and monitor all large gravemounds in Dzungaria and potentially neighbouring eastern Kazakhstan.

  15. Grey Water Reuse for Agricultural Purposes in the Jordan Valley: Household Survey Results in Deir Alla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon B. Megdal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Installation of decentralized grey water treatment systems in small rural communities contributes to a more sustainable water supply. In order to gauge community attitudes about collection and use of grey water, a door-to-door survey in the farming community of Deir Alla, Jordan was conducted by Royal Scientific Society interviewers. Outcomes of a detailed survey, designed specifically for this project, offer insights on people’s views on general water and wastewater issues, as well as their motivation, practices and concerns related to using grey water treatment for a portion of their household wastewater and reuse of the treated grey water for irrigation. A total of 47 respondents from different socio-economic background, aged over 18 years, from this community in the Jordan valley took part in the survey. The level of formal education of the respondents was low, and most of households’ incomes were below the poverty line in Jordan. Most of the respondents reported that the quality of water supplied by public network is acceptable, but the quantity is insufficient to meet their demand, with supplies being delivered to the household once a week. Respondents relied on the public water network as a first-most important resource (85.1%, and 57.4% of the respondent relied on private water tankers as a second-most important resource in addition to the public network. However, 6% of the respondents relied only on private water tankers with no access to the public network. Storage tanks are common practice in all the houses in order to store enough water for at least one week. The survey responses provide evidence that rural communities are willing to accept reuse of treated grey water for irrigation. Furthermore, some of people in the studied area are willing to learn more about grey water treatment and reuse in order to operate grey water systems for irrigation purposes. Water scarcity in this rural area of Jordan is the main determinant of

  16. Construction materials, monuments and environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prikryl, R.; Siegesmund, S.; Török, A.; Brimblecombe, P.; Gomez-Heras, M.

    2012-04-01

    Construction materials (natural stone, aggregates, bricks, cement, lime, mortar, etc.) form a wide and heterogeneous group both from the genetic and technological point of view. These materials deserve attention from the scientific community due to their long-term use, importance for society and sensitivity to the environment. Most geomaterials have also been used in important monuments designated as a part of the World Cultural Heritage and/or make part of national monuments. Despite of the wide-ranges of studies and our rapidly increasing understanding of material behaviour, our knowledge is still rather limited in many aspects. This concerns the characterisation of traditional raw materials, the knowledge of their processing and use, and/or durability and compatibility assessment. The exploitation and sustainable use of these materials are also new and emerging challenges in the modern society. The use of local materials for monuments can be considered as a part of our cultural and technological heritage, which has, however, significantly deteriorated during the past several decades. This paper summarizes the general topics related to a modern analysis of traditional construction materials derived from the Earth, and on the characteristic aspects of the behaviour of these materials on selected monuments.

  17. Inter-epidemic transmission of Rift Valley fever in livestock in the Kilombero River Valley, Tanzania: a cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D Sumaye

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In recent years, evidence of Rift Valley fever (RVF transmission during inter-epidemic periods in parts of Africa has increasingly been reported. The inter-epidemic transmissions generally pass undetected where there is no surveillance in the livestock or human populations. We studied the presence of and the determinants for inter-epidemic RVF transmission in an area experiencing annual flooding in southern Tanzania. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional sero-survey was conducted in randomly selected cattle, sheep and goats in the Kilombero river valley from May to August 2011, approximately four years after the 2006/07 RVF outbreak in Tanzania. The exposure status to RVF virus (RVFV was determined using two commercial ELISA kits, detecting IgM and IgG antibodies in serum. Information about determinants was obtained through structured interviews with herd owners. FINDINGS: An overall seroprevalence of 11.3% (n = 1680 was recorded; 5.5% in animals born after the 2006/07 RVF outbreak and 22.7% in animals present during the outbreak. There was a linear increase in prevalence in the post-epidemic annual cohorts. Nine inhibition-ELISA positive samples were also positive for RVFV IgM antibodies indicating a recent infection. The spatial distribution of seroprevalence exhibited a few hotspots. The sex difference in seroprevalence in animals born after the previous epidemic was not significant (6.1% vs. 4.6% for females and males respectively, p = 0.158 whereas it was significant in animals present during the outbreak (26.0% vs. 7.8% for females and males respectively, p15 km from the flood plain were more likely to have antibodies than those living <5 km (OR 1.92; 95% CI 1.04-3.56. Species, breed, herd composition, grazing practices and altitude were not associated with seropositivity. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate post-epidemic transmission of RVFV in the study area. The linear increase in seroprevalence in the post-epidemic annual cohorts

  18. Geomatics as a Survey Tool to Document and Enhance the Cultural and Landscaped Heritage of the Monumental Complexes in the Mountains of Abruzzo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palestini, C.; Basso, A.

    2017-05-01

    The themes of the conference provide an opportunity to exchange views on topics of study in which multidisciplinary contributions of geomatics and restoration contribute to the cognitive process aimed at the conservation of cultural Heritage. In this regard, the contribution exposes research aimed at understanding the documentation and the enhancement of unique architectural - landscape patrimony kept in the Abruzzo mountains. It is about the numerous spiritual retreats established by Pietro da Morrone, Pope Celestino V, mounted among unpassable rocky walls, where the architecture blends with its natural environment camouflaging with it. The analysis refers, specifically to the aspects of survey conducted during the years with the aid of integrated methodologies, able to allow the acquisition, management and comparison of the data. The analysis refers, specifically, to recent digital acquisitions involving the development of San Bartolomeo in Legio, on the slopes of Majella near Roccamorice detected with the use of comparative Agisoft Photoscan and Pix4d software, with shots taken with drones of different sizes, able to mount professional photographic cameras and associate to each picture the coordinates Gps of the point of shooting. Follows a confrontation between a survey carried out with 3d laser scanner, Faro Ls1105, and described acquisitions, obtained from ground and from drone with Photoscan, in order to compare the two scans and the metric differences obtained with the two methods.

  19. GEOMATICS AS A SURVEY TOOL TO DOCUMENT AND ENHANCE THE CULTURAL AND LANDSCAPED HERITAGE OF THE MONUMENTAL COMPLEXES IN THE MOUNTAINS OF ABRUZZO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Palestini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The themes of the conference provide an opportunity to exchange views on topics of study in which multidisciplinary contributions of geomatics and restoration contribute to the cognitive process aimed at the conservation of cultural Heritage. In this regard, the contribution exposes research aimed at understanding the documentation and the enhancement of unique architectural – landscape patrimony kept in the Abruzzo mountains. It is about the numerous spiritual retreats established by Pietro da Morrone, Pope Celestino V, mounted among unpassable rocky walls, where the architecture blends with its natural environment camouflaging with it. The analysis refers, specifically to the aspects of survey conducted during the years with the aid of integrated methodologies, able to allow the acquisition, management and comparison of the data. The analysis refers, specifically, to recent digital acquisitions involving the development of San Bartolomeo in Legio, on the slopes of Majella near Roccamorice detected with the use of comparative Agisoft Photoscan and Pix4d software, with shots taken with drones of different sizes, able to mount professional photographic cameras and associate to each picture the coordinates Gps of the point of shooting. Follows a confrontation between a survey carried out with 3d laser scanner, Faro Ls1105, and described acquisitions, obtained from ground and from drone with Photoscan, in order to compare the two scans and the metric differences obtained with the two methods.

  20. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Montezuma Castle National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Drost, Charles A.; Halvorson, William Lee

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary We summarize past inventory efforts for vascular plants and vertebrates at Montezuma Castle National Monument (NM) in Arizona. We used data from previous research to compile complete species lists for the monument and to assess inventory completeness. There have been 784 species recorded at Montezuma Castle NM, of which 85 (11%) are non-native. In each taxon-specific chapter we highlight areas of resources that contributed to species richness or unique species for the monument. Of particular importance are Montezuma Well and Beaver and Wet Beaver creeks and the surrounding riparian vegetation, which are responsible for the monument having one of the highest numbers of bird species in the Sonoran Desert Network of park units. Beaver Creek is also home to populations of federally-listed fish species of concern. Other important resources include the cliffs along the creeks and around Montezuma Well (for cliff and cave roosting bats). Based on the review of past studies, we believe the inventory for most taxa is nearly complete, though some rare or elusive species will be added with additional survey effort. We recommend additional inventory, monitoring and research studies.

  1. (Non-Monumental Layers of Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juli Székely

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The two books reviewed in this article, Hsiu-Ling Kuos’s Monumentality and Modernity in Hitler’s Berlin (2013 and Janet Ward’s Post-Wall Berlin (2011, focus on the structural, political, social and aesthetic transformation of Berlin, from the first half of the twentieth century to the ‘post-wall’ era. Since both authors strongly emphasize the former and present status of monumental architecture and monumental memory, this book review pays particular attention to a critical discussion of the (non-monumental layers of Berlin.

  2. Electrical imaging and self-potential surveys to study the geological setting of the quaternary slope deposits in the Agri high valley (Southern Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giano, S I; Schiattarella, M [Basilicata Univ., Potenza (Italy). Centro di Geodinamica; Lapenna, V; Piscitelli, S [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Tito, PZ (Italy). Ist. di Metodologie Avanzate di Analisi Ambientale

    2000-04-01

    The paper presents the results of a geophysical survey carried out to outline the structural modelling of quarternary slope deposits in the northern part of Agri high valley (Basilicata region, Italy). Quaternary folding and brittle deformations of the subaerial slope deposits have been studied combining electrical imaging and self-potential surveys with geological structural analysis. This integrated approach indicates that the area underwent both transpressional and transtensional tectonics during Pleistocene times as testified by the existence of a push up structure in the basement buried by deformed Quaternary breccias. On this basis, the valley appears to be a more complex structure than a simple extensional graben, as traditionally assumed in the literature.

  3. Monumental Architecture of Late Intermediate Period Cuzco: Continuities of Ritual Reciprocity and Statecraft between the Middle and Late Horizons

    OpenAIRE

    McEwan, Gordon; Gibaja, Arminda; Chatfield, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The culture history of the valley of Cuzco prior to the rise of the Incas is being revealed by twelve years of fieldwork at the site of Chokepukio. Located in the Lucre Basin at the eastern end of the valley, Chokepukio contains the only surviving monumental architecture of Late Intermediate Period Cuzco. Excavations in a series of large niched structures on the site reveals that they functioned as feasting halls. Quantities of polychrome ceramic serving and feasting vessels and high quality ...

  4. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Tuzigoot National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Brian F.; Albrecht, E.W.; Halvorson, William Lee; Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Anning, P.; Docherty, K.

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary From 2002 to 2004, we surveyed for plants and vertebrates (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) at Tuzigoot National Monument (NM) and adjacent areas in Arizona. This was the first effort of its kind in the area and was part of a larger effort to inventory vascular plants and vertebrates in eight National Park Service units in Arizona and New Mexico. In addition to our own surveys, we also compiled a complete list of species that have been found by previous studies. We found 330 species, including 142 that had not previously been recorded at the monument (Table 1). We found 39 species of non-native plants, 11 non-native fishes, three non-native birds, and one non-native species each of amphibian and mammal. Based on our work and that of others, there have been 597 species of plants and vertebrates found at the monument. The bird community at the monument had the highest species richness of any national park unit in central and southern Arizona. We found all other taxa to have intermediate species richness compared to other park units in the region. This extraordinary species richness observed for birds, as well as for some other taxa, is due primarily to Tavasci Marsh and the Verde River, two critical sources of perennial water, which provide habitat for many regionally rare or uncommon species. The location of the monument at the northern edge of the Sonoran Desert and at the southern edge of the Mogollon Rim also plays an important role in determining the distribution and community composition of the plant and vertebrate communities. Based on our findings, we believe the high number of non-native species, especially fish and plants, should be of particular management concern. We detail other management challenges, most notably the rapid increase in housing and associated commercial development near the monument, which will continue to impact the plant and vertebrate communities. Based on our data and a review of past studies, we believe the

  5. Grey Water Reuse for Agricultural Purposes in the Jordan Valley: Household Survey Results in Deir Alla

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Mashaqbeh, Othman A.; Ghrair, Ayoup M.; Megdal, Sharon B.

    2012-01-01

    Installation of decentralized grey water treatment systems in small rural communities contributes to a more sustainable water supply. In order to gauge community attitudes about collection and use of grey water, a door-to-door survey in the farming community of Deir Alla, Jordan was conducted by Royal Scientific Society interviewers. Outcomes of a detailed survey, designed specifically for this project, offer insights on people’s views on general water and wastewater issues, as well as their ...

  6. Ethnobotanical survey of wild food plants traditionally collected and consumed in the Middle Agri Valley (Basilicata region, southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansanelli, Sabrina; Ferri, Maura; Salinitro, Mirko; Tassoni, Annalisa

    2017-09-06

    This research was carried out in a scarcely populated area of the Middle Agri Valley (Basilicata region, southern Italy). The aim of the study was to record local knowledge on the traditional uses of wild food plants, as well as to collect information regarding the practices (gathering, processing and cooking) and the medicinal uses related to these plants. Fifty-eight people still possessing traditional local knowledge (TLK), 74% women and 26% men, were interviewed between May-August 2012 and January 2013, using open and semi-structured ethnobotanical interviews. For each described plant species, the botanical family, the Italian common and folk names, the plant parts used, the culinary preparation and, when present, the medicinal use, were recorded and the relative frequency of citation index (RFC) was determined. The 52 plant species mentioned by the respondents belong to 23 botanical families, with Asteraceae (12 plants) and Rosaceae (7 plants) being most frequently cited. The species with the highest RFC index is Cichorium intybus L. (0.95), followed by Sonchus spp. (S. oleraceus L., S. asper L. and S. arvensis L.) (0.76). The plant parts preferably used are leaves (22 plants), fruits (12) and stems (7). Only six wild plants were indicated as having both food use and therapeutic effect. The survey conducted on the traditional use of wild food plants in the Middle Agri Valley revealed that this cultural heritage is only partially retained by the population. Over the last few decades, this knowledge has been in fact quickly disappearing along with the people and, even in the rural context of the study area, is less and less handed down to younger generations. Nevertheless, data also revealed that the use of wild plants is recently being revaluated in a way closely related to local habits and traditions.

  7. Stability of GNSS Monumentation: Analysis of Co-Located Monuments in the UNAVCO Plate Boundary Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, F.; Herring, T.; Mattioli, G. S.; Feaux, K.; Walls, C. P.; Austin, K. E.; Dittmann, S. T.

    2017-12-01

    Geodetic-quality permanent GNSS stations have used a number of different monument styles for the purpose of ensuring that the motions of the GNSS antenna reflect those of the Earth's crust while minimizing non-tectonic motions near the surface. Monuments range from simple masts mounted on buildings or drilled into bedrock, costing a few hundred dollars to machine-drilled-braced monuments in soil costing tens of thousands. The stability of an individual monument will depend on its design, the construction techniques used to install it, and the local surface geology where it is installed. Previous studies have separately investigated pairs of identical monuments at a single site, monument type performance using global statistical analysis, and multiple monument styles at a single site, yet the stability of different monument types in similar geologic conditions has not been adequately determined. To better characterize the stability of various monument styles in diverse geologic conditions UNAVCO constructed two additional monuments at five existing PBO stations in 2013. Deep drilled-braced, short drilled-braced, and single mast type monuments were installed at sites with bedrock at the surface; deep drilled-braced, short driven-braced and pillar type monuments were installed at sites with alluvium or soil at the surface. The sites include a variety of geographic, hydrologic, and geologic conditions. Data collected from the PBO Multi-Monument Experiment have been analyzed using a variety of methods. Each site is characterized using quality-control parameters such as multipath, signal-to-noise and previously determined seasonal variations. High-precision processing by PBO Analysis Centers with GAMIT and GIPSY use regional and global schemes and yield time-series with millimeter-level that determine noise content, overall site stability relative to other PBO sites and differential motions between the individual monuments. Sub-millimeter results from single

  8. Classification of High-Rise Residential Building Facilities: A Descriptive Survey on 170 Housing Scheme in Klang Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Wahab Siti Rashidah Hanum

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-rise residential building is a type of housing that has multi-dwelling units built on the same land. This type of housing has become popular each year in urban area due to the increasing cost of land. There are several common facilities provided in high-rise residential building. For example playground, swimming pool, gymnasium, 24 hours security system such as CCTV, access card and so on. Thus, maintenance works of the common facilities must be well organised. The purpose of this paper is to identify the classification of facilities provided at high rise residential building. The survey was done on 170 high-rise residential schemes by using stratified random sampling technique. The scope of this research is within Klang Valley area. This area is rapidly developed with high-rise residential building. The objective of this survey is to list down all the facilities provided in each sample of the schemes. The result, there are nine classification of facilities provided for high-rise residential building.

  9. Digital Recording and Non-Destructive Techniques for the Understanding of Structural Performance for Rehabilitating Historic Structures at the Kathmandu Valley after Gorkha Earthquake 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, S.; Reina Ortiz, M.; Gutland, M.; Napolitano, R.; Morris, I. M.; Santana Quintero, M.; Erochko, J.; Kawan, S.; Shrestha, R. G.; Awal, P.; Suwal, S.; Duwal, S.; Maharjan, D. K.

    2017-08-01

    On 25 April 2015, the Gorkha earthquake of magnitude 7.8, severely damaged the cultural heritage sites of Nepal. In particular, the seven monument zones of the Kathmandu Valley World Heritage Site suffered extensive damage. Out of 195 surveyed monuments, 38 have completely collapsed and 157 partially damaged (DoA, 2015). In particular, the world historic city of Bhaktapur was heavily affected by the earthquake. There is, in general, a lack of knowledge regarding the traditional construction technology used in many of the most important temple monuments in Bhaktapur. To address this limitation and to assist in reconstruction and rehabilitation of the area, this study documents the existing condition of different historic structures in the Kathmandu Valley. In particular, the Nyatapola Temple is studied in detail. To record and document the condition of this temple, a combination of laser scanning and terrestrial and aerial photogrammetry are used. By also including evaluation of the temple and its supporting plinth structure using non-destructive evaluation techniques like geo-radar and micro-tremor dynamic analysis, this study will form the basis of a structural analysis study to assess the anticipated future seismic performance of the Nyatapola Temple.

  10. Digital Monument to the Jewish Community in the Netherlands and the Jewish Monument Community : commemoration and meaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faro, L.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    In April 2005, the Digital Monument to the Jewish Community in the Netherlands went online. This monument is an Internet monument dedicated to preserving the memory of more than 100,000 men, women and children, Dutch Jewish victims of the Shoah. As of September 2010, the interactive Jewish Monument

  11. Lower Monumental Spillway Hydraulic Model Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilhelms, Steven

    2003-01-01

    A 1:40 Froudian Scale model was used to investigate the hydraulic performance of the Lower Monumental Dam spillway, stilling basin, and tailrace for dissolved gas reduction and stilling basin apron scour...

  12. Monuments of the Giza Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    The colossal pyramids of the pharaohs Khufu (Cheops), Khafre (Chephren), and Menkaure (Mycerinus) have attracted a huge amount of astronomical interest over the years, both scholarly and popular. Less attention is usually given to the broader context of structures on the Giza Plateau. One of the most notorious ideas connecting the Giza Plateau with astronomy is that the three large pyramids are laid out on the ground so as to reflect the appearance of the three stars of Orion's Belt in the sky. This idea is unsupportable for several reasons but has succeeded in generating huge public interest. Of much greater serious interest is the fact that the three main pyramids were oriented cardinally to extraordinary precision, which raises the questions of why this was important and how it was achieved. Another idea that has attracted serious attention but also some confusion is that the orientations of some narrow shafts within Khufu's pyramid might have been deliberately aligned upon particular stars. The overall layout of monuments on the plateau may certainly have been designed so as to emphasize certain solar phenomena, for symbolic and ideological reasons relating to a dominant sun cult. It is also possible that it formed part of a wider cosmological "master plan" extending to other pyramids and temples up to 20 km distant.

  13. A survey of valleys and basins of the Western USA for the capacity to produce winter ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Marc L; Hall, Courtney F

    2018-04-18

    High winter ozone in the Uintah Basin, Utah, and the Upper Green River Basin, Wyoming, occurs because of the confluence of three separate factors: (1) extensive oil or natural gas production, (2) topography conducive to strong multi-day thermal inversions, and (3) snow cover. We surveyed 13 basins and valleys in the western USA for the existence and magnitude of these factors. Seven of the basins, because winter ozone measurements were available, were assigned to four different behavioral classes. Based on similarities among the basins, the remaining six were also given a tentative assignment. Two classes (1 and 2) correspond to basins with high ozone because all three factors listed above are present at sufficient magnitude. Class 3 corresponds to rural basins with ozone at background levels, and occurs because at least one of the three factors is weak or absent. Class 4 corresponds to ozone below background levels, and occurs, for example, in urban basins whose emissions scavenge ozone. All three factors are present in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming, but compared to the Uintah or the Upper Green Basins, it has only moderate oil and gas production, and is assigned to class 3. We predict that the Wind River Basin, as well as other class 3 basins that have inversions and snow cover, would transition from background (class 3) to high ozone behavior (class 1 or 2) if oil or gas production were to intensify, or to class 4 (low winter ozone) if they were to become urban. Implication Statement High ozone concentrations in winter only occur in basins or valleys that have an active oil and natural gas production industry, multi-day thermal inversions, and snow cover; and have only been documented in two basins worldwide. We have examined a number of other candidate basins in the Western USA and conclude that these factors are either absent or too weak to produce high winter ozone. This study illustrates how strong each factor needs to be before winter ozone can be expected

  14. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Casa Grande Ruins National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Brian F.; Albrecht, Eric W.; Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Halvorson, William L.; Anning, Pamela; Docherty, Kathleen

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary This report summarizes results of the first comprehensive biological inventory of Casa Grande Ruins National Monument (NM) in southern Arizona. Surveys at the monument were part of a larger effort to inventory vascular plants and vertebrates in eight National Park Service units in Arizona and New Mexico. In 2001 and 2002 we surveyed for vascular plants and vertebrates (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) at Casa Grande Ruins NM to document the presence, and in some cases relative abundance, of species. By using repeatable study designs and standardized field techniques, which included quantified survey effort, we produced inventories that can serve as the basis for a biological monitoring program. Of the National Park Service units in the region, no other has experienced as much recent ecological change as Casa Grande Ruins NM. Once situated in a large and biologically diverse mesquite bosque near the perennially flowing Gila River, the monument is now a patch of sparse desert vegetation surrounded by urban and commercial development that is rapidly replacing agriculture as the dominant land use in the area. Roads, highways, and canals surround the monument. Development, and its associated impacts, has important implications for the plants and animals that live in the monument. The plant species list is small and the distribution and number of non-native plants appears to be increasing. Terrestrial vertebrates are also being impacted by the changing landscape, which is increasing the isolation of these populations from nearby natural areas and thereby reducing the number of species at the monument. These observations are alarming and are based on our review of previous studies, our research in the monument, and our knowledge of the biogeography and ecology of the Sonoran Desert. Together, these data suggest that the monument has lost a significant portion of its historic complement of species and these changes will likely intensify as

  15. A novel survey of the ethno medicinal knowledge of dental problems in Manoor Valley (Northern Himalaya), Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Inayat Ur; Ijaz, Farhana; Iqbal, Zafar; Afzal, Aftab; Ali, Niaz; Afzal, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Azhar; Muhammad, Said; Qadir, Ghulam; Asif, Muhammad

    2016-12-24

    In the study area, the traditional knowledge and cultural practices of utilizing medicinal plants in the human healthcare is primarily restricted to the old age members of the community, while younger generation is mostly unaware of the natural wealth usage. We provide the first ever ethno medicinal insights into the management of dental disorders in Pakistan. The prime objective of the study was to explore novel knowledge of these local and remote community members and share it with rest of the world in documented form. Field surveys were arranged for collection and documentation of medicinal plants of Manoor valley during 2015. Total 71 local inhabitants were interviewed randomly through questionnaire. The data obtained were quantitatively analyzed using the use value (UVi), relative frequency citations (RFCs), fidelity level index (FL%) and consensus index (CI%). For novel uses all plants were thoroughly checked with previously published articles on the same disorder and analyzed through Jaccard index (JI) and Sorensen's similarity index (QS). The collected specimens after confirmation were submitted to the Herbarium, Department of Botany, Hazara University, Mansehra, Pakistan (HUP). In present study 25 plants belonging to 17 families are reported, these plants were used commonly as ethno medicine. There were herbs (64%), shrubs (20%) and trees (16%) whereas, Lamiaceae with 4 species was the leading family. Majority of medicinal plant species were used in treatment of toothache (38%), wound healing (19%), gum infections (16%) whereas and lowest percentage of species were used for mouth ulcer as well as teeth powder (3%). Leaves were the most widely part used plant part in the treatment of different diseases (36%). Dominated medicinal plants with high used values were Juglans regia (UVi=0.94), Rumex dentatus (0.89) and Indigofera heterantha (0.88). Based on the RFC values, the most valuable and cited medicinal plant species used by the traditional drivers are

  16. The Monumental Task of Warning Future Generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NA

    2005-01-01

    Describing preliminary concepts for permanent warning monuments or markers on the mountain's surface will be part of the US Department of Energy's license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for a proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The NRC requires that the monuments or markers accurately identify the location of the repository, be designed to be as permanent as practicable and convey a warning against intrusion into the underground repository, because of risk to public health and safety from radioactive wastes. Current concepts include both monuments and markers, but the designs will not be final for some time because they will not be approved by the NRC until shortly before the repository is to be permanently sealed and closed. Closure of the repository would be at least 50 years, and possibly up to 300 years, after the first waste is emplaced deep underground. Design ideas for the monuments and markers have been drawn from a broad range of sources: Yucca Mountain's natural conditions, worldwide archeological studies, materials science, and verbal and symbolic linguistics. The monumental challenge is to address how warnings can be coherently conveyed for thousands of years into the future when human society and languages could change radically

  17. A preliminary population study of alcove bog orchid (Platanthera zothecina) at Navajo National Monument, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura E. Hudson

    2001-01-01

    This study on Platanthera zothecina (alcove bog orchid) was initiated by the National Park Service after a recent threatened and endangered species survey at Navajo National Monument. It is listed as Category 2 (species of special concern) by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and Category 3 (likely to become endangered) by the Navajo Nation. Because P. zothecina is a...

  18. Seismic-refraction survey to the top of salt in the north end of the Salt Valley Anticline, Grand County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Hans D.

    1979-01-01

    A seismic-refraction survey, consisting of three lines about 2700, 2760, and 5460 meters long, was made at the north end of the Salt Valley anticline of the Paradox Basin in eastern Utah. The target was the crest of a diapiric salt mass and the overlying, deformed caprock. The interpretations reveal an undulating salt surface with as much as 80 meters of relief. The minimum depth of about 165 meters is near the location of three holes drilled by the U.S. Department of Energy for the purpose of evaluating the Salt Valley anticline as a potential site for radioactive waste storages Caprock properties were difficult to estimate because the contorted nature of these beds invalidated a geologic interpretation in terms of velocity layers. However, laterally varying velocities of the critically refracted rays throughout the area suggest differences in the gross physical properties of the caprock.

  19. Seismic-refraction survey to the top of salt in the north end of the Salt valley anticline, Grand County, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achermann, H.D.

    1979-01-01

    A sesimic-refraction survey, consisting of three lines about 2700, 2760, and 5460 meters long, was made at the north end of the Salt valley anticline of the Paradox Basin in eastern Utah. The target was the crest of a diapiric salt mass and the overlying, deformed caprock. The interpretations reveal an undulating salt surface with as much as 80 meters of relief. The minimum depth of about 165 meters is near the location of three holes drilled by the US Department of Energy for the purpose of evaluating the Salt Valley anticline as a potential site for radioactive waste storage. Caprock properties were difficult to estimate because the contorted nature of these beds invalidated a goelogic interpretation in terms of velocity layers. However, laterally varying velocities of the critically refracted rays throughout the area suggest differences in the gross physical properties of the caprock

  20. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Tonto National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Eric W.; Powell, Brian F.; Halvorson, William L.; Schmidt, Cecilia A.

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the first biological inventory of plants and vertebrates at Tonto National Monument (NM). From 2001 to 2003, we surveyed for vascular plants and vertebrates (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) at Tonto NM to record species presence. We focused most of our efforts along the Cave Springs riparian area, but surveyed other areas as well. We recorded 149 species in the riparian area, and 369 species overall in the monument, including 65 plant species and four bird species that were previously unrecorded for the monument. We recorded 78 plant species in the riparian area that previous studies had not indicated were present there. Several species of each taxonomic group were found only in the riparian area, suggesting that because of their concentration in this small area these populations are vulnerable to disturbance and may be of management concern. Four of the bird species that we recorded (Bell's vireo, yellow warbler, summer tanager, and Abert's towhee) have been identified as riparian 'obligate' species by other sources. Bird species that are obligated to riparian areas are targets of conservation concern due to widespread degradation of riparian areas in the desert southwest over the last century. The flora and fauna of the riparian area would benefit from continued limited public access. The dependence of the riparian area on the spring and surface flow suggests monitoring of this resource per se would benefit management of the riparian area's flora and fauna as well. The monument would benefit from incorporating monitoring protocols developed by the Sonoran Desert Network Inventory and Monitoring program rather than initiating a separate program for the riparian area. Park managers can encourage the Inventory and Monitoring program to address the unique monitoring challenges presented by small spatial areas such as this riparian area, and can request specific monitoring recommendations. We suggest that repeat

  1. SURVEY, REPRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF A WAR I COMPLEX SYSTEM OF SURFACE AND UNDERGROUND FORTIFICATIONS IN THE GRESTA VALLEY, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Salvador

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work is part of a research on the use of terrestrial laser scanner, integrated with total station and GPS, for the documentation and comprehension of complex architectures in up-land sites. The research is performed in the framework of the project "Ambiente e Paesaggi dei siti di Altura Trentini" – APSAT (Environment and landscape of hill-top sites in Trentino, a multidisciplinary project focused on the evolution of hill-top anthropic system in the Trentino region, Italy. The study area is located in the Gresta Valley and this work concerns on the Nagià Grom site, fortified by the Austria-Hungarian Army during the World War I. The site has been interested by a significant restore operation of a large series of entrenches paths and fortifications in the last decade. The survey herein described has involved an area once interested by military barracks with Officers' Mess, water provision and by one of the biggest field kitchens discovered in the Trentino region. A second survey involved the tunnel connecting the ammunition depot to the artillery stations. The nature of such complex architectures, characterized by an irregular and composite 3D span leads, in general, to necessary simple surveys and representations and somehow to simplified studies too. The 3D point cloud, once filtered by the massive presence of dense vegetation, eventually constitutes a rich data set for further analyses on the spatial, geological, architectural and historical properties of the site. The analysis has been carried out on two different scales. At the architectural-scale, the comparison to historic photos has allowed to understand how the original structure of the barracks was made and to find building characters that now are lost. The on-site observation of the underground stratigraphic splices and their analysis in the 3D point cloud, e.g., spatial extension and slope, have permitted the understanding of the special excavation process guided by the

  2. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Brian F.; Albrecht, Eric W.; Halvorson, William L.; Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Docherty, Kathleen; Anning, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary This report summarizes the results of the first comprehensive biological inventory of Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument (NM) in western New Mexico. This project was part of a larger effort to inventory plants and vertebrates in eight National Park Service units in Arizona and New Mexico. Our surveys address many of the objectives that were set forth in the monument's natural resource management plan almost 20 years ago, but until this effort, those goals were never accomplished. From 2001 to 2003 we surveyed for vascular plants and vertebrates (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) at Gila Cliff Dwellings NM to document presence of species within the boundaries of the monument. For all taxonomic groups that we studied, we collected 'incidental' sightings on U.S. Forest Service lands adjacent to the monument, and in a few cases we did formal surveys on those lands. Because we used repeatable study designs and standardized field techniques, these inventories can serve as the first step in a biological monitoring program for Gila Cliff Dwellings NM and surrounding lands. We recorded 552 species at Gila Cliff Dwellings NM and the surrounding lands (Table 1). We found no non-native species of reptiles, birds, or mammals, one non-native amphibian (American bullfrog), and 33 non-native plants. Particularly on lands adjacent to the monument we found that the American bullfrog was very abundant, which is a cause for significant management concern. Species of non-native plants that are of management concern include red brome, bufflegrass, and cheatgrass. For a park unit of its size and geographic location, we found the plant and vertebrate communities to be fairly diverse; for each taxonomic group we found representative species from a wide range of taxonomic orders and/or families. The monument's geographic location, with influences from the Rocky Mountain, Chihuahuan Desert, and Madrean ecological provinces, plays an important role in determining

  3. Are Birds a Manace to Outdoor Monuments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Vasiliu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary results of laboratory tests on real samples have shown that the uric acid which is found in bird droppings has a negative influence on metals. Results of experiments have confirmed that the damage is significant when considering the cultural heritage, statues or monuments.

  4. MONUMENTS TO THE PATRIOTIC WAR OF 1812

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolov Vladimir Pavlovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article covers a relevant historical and cultural problem of elaboration and maintenance of monuments of the military glory of 1812. The author considers various architectural and sculptural monuments illustrating heroic events of Patriotic war of 1812, built in the two Russian capitals - Moscow and Saint Petersburg in different historical periods, and also in primordial Russian towns, such as Smolensk, Vyazma, and Maloyaroslavets. Architectural and composition-related features of this or that monument erected against the background of historic events of the war of 1812 are analyzed in detail. The author demonstrates the links between architecture and sculpture within the framework of town-planning solutions implemented in the pieces that have found their places in the towns enlisted above. The value of symbols of the Victory and Glory of the Russian army and the Russian people is marked. The names of the most famous heroes of this war, starting from a field marshal and ending with a soldier are inscribed. By addressing the historical and cultural heritage of Russia, the author informs readers about the most significant events of the war. The author mentions an acute problem of the modernity, that is, preservation and restoration of monuments, and shares his view point. The value of the historic and cultural heritage of Russia for military and patriotic education is emphasized. The article is prepared within the framework of the year of the Russian history.

  5. Ocatilla : del paisaje monumental al monumento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Quesada

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Resumen

    Este artículo aborda el campamento Ocatilla, construido en el  desierto de Arizona por Frank Lloyd Wright como una estación  experimental de arquitectura en 1929. Se propone este campamento como un prototipo que tendría dos vectores  temporales por lo que se refiere a una posible genealogía y a un posible desarrollo futuro. Hacía el pasado habría que  rastrearlo en la Casa para la Familia Cristiana propuesta por  Catherine Beecher en 1869, mientras que hacia el futuro podría establecerse un posible epígono en la Burbuja Ambiental de  Reyner Banham y François Dallegret de 1965. El texto explora  las posibilidades de un ideal de arquitectura para el paisaje monumental, perfectamente ejemplarizado en los tres casos, frente a la arquitectura como monumento ante el paisaje, que ejemplificaría Taliesin West, su monumental contrafigura.

    Palabras clave

    campamento, prototipo, paisaje, ambiental, monumental

    Abstract

    This article discusses the Ocatilla camp, built in the Arizona  desert by Frank Lloyd Wright as an experimental architecture in  1929. This camp is proposed as a prototype with two temporary vectors, one would be to a possible genealogy and the other a  possible future development. Going to the past should be traced in the House for the Christian Family by Catherine Beecher proposed in 1869, while that to the future could be made a epigone in the Environmental Bubble of Reyner Banham and of François Dallegret in 1965. The text explores the possibilities of an ideal architecture for the monumental landscape, perfectly  exemplified in the three cases, compared to architecture as a monument to the landscape, which exemplify Taliesin West, his monumental counterpart.

    Key words

    camp, prototype, landscape, environment, monumental

  6. Verification survey report of the south waste tank farm training/test tower and hazardous waste storage lockers at the West Valley demonstration project, West Valley, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, Phyllis C.

    2012-01-01

    A team from ORAU's Independent Environmental Assessment and Verification Program performed verification survey activities on the South Test Tower and four Hazardous Waste Storage Lockers. Scan data collected by ORAU determined that both the alpha and alpha-plus-beta activity was representative of radiological background conditions. The count rate distribution showed no outliers that would be indicative of alpha or alpha-plus-beta count rates in excess of background. It is the opinion of ORAU that independent verification data collected support the site's conclusions that the South Tower and Lockers sufficiently meet the site criteria for release to recycle and reuse

  7. Survey of potential sharpshooter and spittlebug vectors of Xylella fastidiosa to grapevines at the São Francisco River Valley, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudiney Ringenberg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Survey of potential sharpshooter and spittlebug vectors of Xylella fastidiosa to grapevines at the São Francisco River Valley, Brazil. Pierce's disease of grapevines, caused by Xylella fastidiosa, is a serious problem in some regions of North America, not yet reported in Brazil. In this study, a survey of potential sharpshooter (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Cicadellinae and spittlebug (Hemiptera, Cercopidae vectors of X. fastidiosa was conducted in vineyards at the São Francisco River Valley, a major grape growing region in Brazil. Four vineyards of Vitis vinifera L. were sampled fortnightly from June/2005 to June/2007, using yellow sticky cards, each placed at two different heights (45 cm aboveground and 45 cm above the crop canopy in 10 sampling localities. A total of 4,095 specimens of sharpshooters were collected, nearly all from 3 Proconiini species, Homalodisca spottii Takiya, Cavichioli & McKamey, 2006 (96.8% of the specimens, Tapajosa fulvopunctata (Signoret, 1854 (3.1%, and Tretogonia cribrata Melichar, 1926 (1 specimen. Hortensia similis (Walker, 1851 (2 specimens was the only Cicadellini species. Only 1 cercopid specimen, belonging to Aeneolamia colon (Germar, 1821, was trapped. Even though they are not considered potential Xylella vectors, 2 Gyponini leafhoppers were collected: Curtara samera DeLong & Freytag, 1972 (11 specimens and Curtara inflata DeLong & Freytag, 1976 (1 specimen. Homalodisca spottii was observed feeding and mating on green branches of grapevines, in addition to egg masses. Because of its prevalence on the crop canopy, occurrence throughout the year (with peaks from February to August, and ability to colonize grapevines, H. spottii could be an important vector if a X. fastidiosa strain pathogenic to grapevines becomes introduced at the São Francisco River Valley.

  8. Multidisciplinary Investigations embedded in a photogrammatric three dimensional survey in an archaeological site and St Peter and Paul Church in Agro Valley (Messina, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crupi, Vincenza; D'Amico, Sebastiano; Majolino, Domenico; Paladini, Giuseppe; Persico, Raffaele; Saccone, Mauro; Spagnolo, Grazia; Venuti, Valentina

    2017-04-01

    In the framework of the National School "Science and Cultural Heritage: from Non-Invasive Analysis to 3D Recostruction" (19-23 September 2016, Messina-Valle d'Agrò, Italy), organized by the Department of Mathematical and Computer Sciences, Physical Sciences and Earth Sciences of the University of Messina, in co-opeartion with the Department of Geosciences of the University of Malta and in agreement with the Regional Order of Geologists of Sicily, non-invasive investigations have been performed aimed at the exploitation, fruition and safeguard of the archaeological site of Scifì and the St Peter and Paul Church in Agro Valley. Different georadar prospections [1-2] were carried out at both sites. Prospections have been performed by using a Ris-Hi mode system equipped with a dual antenna at the central frequencies of 200 and 600 MHz [3], and made along an orthogonal grid with 40 cm spacing. Data processing involved a zero timing, background removal on all tracks, a gain in-depth, a one-dimensional Butterworth filtering and a Kirchoff migration. Measurements of ambient vibrations were also performed [4-5], that revealed the absence of remarkable side heterogeneities, or large impedance contrasts associated surface stratigraphy. Measurements were also taken to measure the natural frequency of the church. In the two investigated sites, we also conducted spectroscopic investigations. The analysis was mainly focused on the study of variations, in terms of elemental composition by means of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements as well as Raman spectrospopy which allow to determine the elemental composition of the sample under investigation. In addition, several images (by means of drones) were also collected in order to create a detailed 3D model for each site the ultimate goal of creating a digital archive for the virtual use of sites of interest. References [1] M. Pieraccini, L. Noferini, D. Mecatti, C. Atzeni, R. Persico, F. Soldovieri, Advanced Processing Techniques

  9. Milleks monumenti = Why a monument? / Heie Treier

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Treier, Heie, 1963-

    2006-01-01

    2006. a. toimunud Jüri Lotmani mälestusmärgi konkursist, Mati Karmini ja Andres Lunge võidutööst. Monumentide positiivseid näiteid: Tubina plats Tartus (Aili Vahtrapuu, Veronika Valk, Louis Dandrel), ideekavandid: Estonia teatri juubelimonument Tallinnas (Tiiu Kirsipuu, Üla Koppel) ja Eesti iseseisvuse monument Pärnus Rüütli platsil (Mart Aas, Kaarel Eelma, Mikk Mutso). Bibl. lk. 73

  10. Ground-Water Flow Direction, Water Quality, Recharge Sources, and Age, Great Sand Dunes National Monument, South-Central Colorado, 2000-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, Niel

    2004-01-01

    Great Sand Dunes National Monument is located in south-central Colorado along the eastern edge of the San Luis Valley. The Great Sand Dunes National Monument contains the tallest sand dunes in North America; some rise up to750 feet. Important ecological features of the Great Sand Dunes National Monument are palustrine wetlands associated with interdunal ponds and depressions along the western edge of the dune field. The existence and natural maintenance of the dune field and the interdunal ponds are dependent on maintaining ground-water levels at historic elevations. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study, in collaboration with the National Park Service, of ground-water flow direction, water quality, recharge sources, and age at the Great Sand Dunes National Monument. A shallow unconfined aquifer and a deeper confined aquifer are the two principal aquifers at the Great Sand Dunes National Monument. Ground water in the unconfined aquifer is recharged from Medano and Sand Creeks near the Sangre de Cristo Mountain front, flows underneath the main dune field, and discharges to Big and Little Spring Creeks. The percentage of calcium in ground water in the unconfined aquifer decreases and the percentage of sodium increases because of ionic exchange with clay minerals as the ground water flows underneath the dune field. It takes more than 60 years for the ground water to flow from Medano and Sand Creeks to Big and Little Spring Creeks. During this time, ground water in the upper part of the unconfined aquifer is recharged by numerous precipitation events. Evaporation of precipitation during recharge prior to reaching the water table causes enrichment in deuterium (2H) and oxygen-18 (18O) relative to waters that are not evaporated. This recharge from precipitation events causes the apparent ages determined using chlorofluorocarbons and tritium to become younger, because relatively young precipitation water is mixing with older waters

  11. Monumentality on space and cultural democratization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Alves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes a reflection on the idea of monumentality in political and religious power, and its reconversion of a democratic society. There are 3+1 types of cultural exhibition space that are analyzed: the traditional palace or the church, which contain great works of classical art, inside of the historic centers; the art galleries associated with market economy, tend to stimulate the city centre area, and the autonomy of the architectural object in the vicinity of the traditional city. Lastly it is referred the case study - Silo Cultural Space - inside the Norteshopping, but arranged in a peripheral form, which is distinguished by an apparent proximity to multiple public.

  12. Applications of ionizing radiation for monuments conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chyzewski, M.; Galant, S.; Perkowski, J.

    1996-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used for conservation of monuments and old art objects. The irradiation of wooden and cellulose objects for disinfestation has been described. The irradiation conditions and lethal doses in respect to different species have been discussed. The different technique is the radiation consolidation of historical objects made of various materials. The method consists in radiation polymerization. The object undergoing conservation is saturated with monomer prior irradiation. The radiation polymerization results in consolidation of the object pieces and reinforcement of its material. 3 figs

  13. Capacitively Coupled Resistivity Survey of Selected Irrigation Canals Within the North Platte River Valley, Western Nebraska and Eastern Wyoming, 2004 and 2007-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Bethany L.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Vrabel, Joseph; Imig, Brian H.; Payne, Jason; Tompkins, Ryan E.

    2009-01-01

    Due to water resources of portions of the North Platte River basin being designated as over-appropriated by the State of Nebraska Department of Natural Resources (DNR), the North Platte Natural Resources District (NPNRD), in cooperation with the DNR, is developing an Integrated Management Plan (IMP) for groundwater and surface water in the NPNRD. As part of the IMP, a three-dimensional numerical finite difference groundwater-flow model is being developed to evaluate the effectiveness of using leakage of water from selected irrigation canal systems to manage groundwater recharge. To determine the relative leakage potential of the upper 8 m of the selected irrigation canals within the North Platte River valley in western Nebraska and eastern Wyoming, the U.S. Geological Survey performed a land-based capacitively coupled (CC) resistivity survey along nearly 630 km of 13 canals and 2 laterals in 2004 and from 2007 to 2009. These 13 canals were selected from the 27 irrigation canals in the North Platte valley due to their location, size, irrigated area, and relation to the active North Platte valley flood plain and related paleochannels and terrace deposits where most of the saturated thickness in the alluvium exists. The resistivity data were then compared to continuous cores at 62 test holes down to a maximum depth of 8 m. Borehole electrical conductivity (EC) measurements at 36 of those test holes were done to correlate resistivity values with grain sizes in order to determine potential vertical leakage along the canals as recharge to the underlying alluvial aquifer. The data acquired in 2004, as well as the 25 test hole cores from 2004, are presented elsewhere. These data were reprocessed using the same updated processing and inversion algorithms used on the 2007 through 2009 datasets, providing a consistent and complete dataset for all collection periods. Thirty-seven test hole cores and borehole electrical conductivity measurements were acquired based on the 2008

  14. The effects of wildfire on the peak streamflow magnitude and frequency, Frijoles and Capulin Canyons, Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenhuis, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    In June of 1977, the La Mesa fire burned 15,270 acres in and around Frijoles Canyon, Bandelier National Monument and the adjacent Santa Fe National Forest, New Mexico. The Dome fire occurred in April of 1996 in Bandelier National Monument, burned 16,516 acres in Capulin Canyon and the surrounding Dome Wilderness area. Both canyons are characterized by extensive archeological artifacts, which could be threatened by increased runoff and accelerated rates of erosion after a wildfire. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the National Park Service monitored the fires' effects on streamflow in both canyons. Copyright 2004 ASCE.

  15. Main Features of a 3d GIS for a Monumental Complex with AN Historical-Cultural Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scianna, A.; La Guardia, M.

    2017-05-01

    The last achievements of technologies in geomatics especially in survey and restitution of 3D models (UAV/drones and laser scanner technologies) generated new procedures and higher standards of quality in representation of archaeological sites. Together with Geomatics, the recent development of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) strongly contribute to document and the Cultural Heritage (CH). The representation and documentation of CH using these new technologies has became necessary in order to satisfy different needs: - for restorers in order to acquire a deep knowledge of the cultural good and to define possible strategies of restoration; - for the conservation of information, allowing to preserve the 3D geometry of the monumental complex with the integration of descriptions about architectural elements; - for touristic aims, giving the opportunity of sharing CH information on web, allowing users to visit and explore, in a virtual way, monumental complexes, acquiring information details about architectural elements or the history of monumental complex. Looking through these new scenarios, the development of a 3D Geographic Information System (GIS) applied to a cultural good could be, today, an added value of fundamental importance for full description and data management of monumental complexes. In this work, the main features necessary for the correct construction of a 3D GIS of a monumental complex will be analyzed, with a particular focus on the possibilities for creating a standardized procedure to follow.

  16. GEOLOGICAL ANDGEOMORPHOLOGICAL MAPPING ARCHAEOLOGICAL MONUMENTS OF MOUNTAIN ALTAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Y. Baryshnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the results of geological and geomorphological mapping of archaeological monument, mainly Paleolithic age, the location of which is confined to low-mountain spaces of the Mountain Altai. Using this mapping would greatly clarify the sequence of relief habitat of ancient people and more objectively determine the age characteristics of archaeological monument

  17. Architecture, urbanism, and territorial transformations of the paracas period in the Valley of Chincha

    OpenAIRE

    Canziani, José

    2015-01-01

    With questions still surrounding the indefinition of the Paracas social formation, we consider that analyses of architecture, ur-banism, and territorial transformations play a fundamental role in forming hypotheses and approaching an understanding of its possible characteristics. Unlike other valleys on the south coast, the Chincha valley sees consistent expressions of monumental architecture, urban organization and territorial transformations, which together acquire an exceptional character ...

  18. Radioactivity in fossils at the Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C Neal; Kathren, Ronald L; Christensen, Craig

    2008-08-01

    Since 1996, higher than background levels of naturally occurring radioactivity have been documented in both fossil and mineral deposits at Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument in south-central Idaho. Radioactive fossil sites occur primarily within an elevation zone of 900-1000 m above sea level and are most commonly found associated with ancient river channels filled with sand. Fossils found in clay rich deposits do not exhibit discernable levels of radioactivity. Out of 300 randomly selected fossils, approximately three-fourths exhibit detectable levels of natural radioactivity ranging from 1 to 2 orders of magnitude above ambient background levels when surveyed with a portable hand held Geiger-Muller survey instrument. Mineral deposits in geologic strata also show above ambient background levels of radioactivity. Radiochemical lab analysis has documented the presence of numerous natural radioactive isotopes. It is postulated that ancient groundwater transported radioactive elements through sand bodies containing fossils which precipitated out of solution during the fossilization process. The elevated levels of natural radioactivity in fossils may require special precautions to ensure that exposures to personnel from stored or displayed items are kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA).

  19. Casa do Alambique, estrutura rara e monumental

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, João Luís

    2014-01-01

    Uma intervenção arqueológica realizada em 2009 na Casa do Alambique, localizada na Quinta do Marquês de Pombal, em Oeiras, evidenciou a importância da produção de aguardente a partir da destilação do bagaço ou do vinho naquela quinta setecentista. O seu estudo, através da escavação e do registo, revelou assinaláveis cuidados técnicos, viabilizados por um já desenvolvido conhecimento científico, alicerçado no empirismo, conforme era usual na época. Trata-se de uma rara e monumental estru...

  20. Nanomaterials and preservation mechanisms of architecture monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, Rodica-Mariana; Radu, Adrian; Teodorescu, Sofia; Fierǎscu, Irina; Fierǎscu, Radu-Claudiu; Ştirbescu, Raluca-Maria; Dulamǎ, Ioana Daniela; Şuicǎ-Bunghez, Ioana-Raluca; Bucuricǎ, Ioan Alin; Ion, Mihaela-Lucia

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of the chemical composition of the building materials of the monuments may help us to preserve and protect them from the pollution of our cities. The aim of this work is to characterize the materials of the walls from ancient buildings, the decay products that could be appear due to the action of pollution and a new method based on nanomaterials (hydroxyapatite -HAp) for a conservative preservation of the treated walls. Some analytical techniques have been used, as follow: X-ray fluorescence energy dispersive (EDXRF) (for the relative abundance of major, minor and trace elements), FTIR and Raman spectroscopy (for stratigraphic study of cross-sections of multi-layered materials found in wall paintings), Optical microscopy (OM), (for morphology of the wall samples). The nanomaterial suspension HAp applied on the sample surface by spraying, decreased the capillary water uptake, do not modify significantly the color of the samples and induced a reduced mass loss for the treated samples.

  1. Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) survey at the Giribaile site (upper Guadalquivir valley; southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, J.; Rey, J.; Gutiérrez, L. M.; Novo, A.; Ortiz, A. J.; Alejo, M.; Galdón, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Giribaile archaeological site is one of the most important Iberian enclaves of the Alto Guadalquivir (Southern Spain). However, to date, only minimal excavation work has been performed at the site. Evaluation requires a preliminary, non-destructive general analysis to determine high-interest areas. This stage required a geophysical survey. Specifically, a 100 m2 grid was selected, where an initial campaign of nine electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) profiles was performed, where each profile was 111 m in length; these profiles were previously located using a detailed topographical survey. A total of 112 electrodes were used for each profile, spaced at 1 m apart with a Wenner-Schlumberger configuration. Secondly, 201 GPR profiles were created using a 500 MHz antenna. The 100 m long profiles were spaced 0.5 m apart and parallel to one another. The present research analyses the efficiency of each of these geophysical tools in supporting archaeological research. Using these methodologies, the position, morphology, and depth of different buried structures can be determined. 3D interpretation of the geophysical survey in 100 × 100 m grid allowed to differentiate structures square and rectangular, interesting buildings in a semicircle (interpreted as ovens) plus delineate different streets. From the geophysical survey follows the Carthaginian presence inside this ancient Iberian enclave.

  2. Food survey of three areas of the lower Rhone valley: Codolet, Tresques, and the Camargue. Consumption/home consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descamps, B.; Guillet, F.

    2003-01-01

    In 1996 the IRSN studied the dosimetric impact of the Marcoule site on the inhabitants of reference village, Codolet. The ingestion-related impact highlighted by this study revealed the need for further familiarization with the eating habits of the villagers, and more precisely their home consumption habits (that is consumption of locally-produced foodstuffs, own personal production, however, supplied or purchased). Accordingly a food survey was carried out in May 1998 in the village of Codolet and also in the village of Tresques that acted as control village and in the area of the Camargue that was flooded when the Rhone burst its banks in October 1993 and January 1994. Knowledge of 'real and current' home consumption habits is important as in the 1996 study, it was taken that all consumption was of the home consumption type. The survey, comprising a 14-page survey questionnaire, covers some twenty selected households per site. A 'fictitious' unit was used to make allowance for the wide variations in household make-up for this type of week long survey. This unit is called a 'unit of consumption, uc' and is expressed in g or cl per uc, per day (g or cl uc -1 j -1 ). It differs very little from the more conventional unit expressed in g or ell per inhabitant, per day (g or cl h -1 j -1 ). The thirteen main home consumption foodstuffs in the three survey samples were (mean values in g or cl uc -1 j -1 ): potatoes (62), lettuces (42), tomatoes (18), carrots (16), leeks, French beans and strawberries (13), cherries and radishes (11) in the fruit and vegetable category; eggs and chicken (15) for produce of animal origin; wine and water (10) in the liquids category. As regards Codolet, the home consumption figures for foodstuffs included in the 1996 dosimetric study are all, with the exception of wine, much higher than those revealed by our food survey. Applying our figures to update this dosimetric study would cause the ingestion aspect of dosimetric impact to drop very

  3. Valley Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... valley fever. These fungi are commonly found in soil in specific regions. The fungi's spores can be stirred into the air by ... species have a complex life cycle. In the soil, they grow as a mold with long filaments that break off into airborne ...

  4. Commercial Function as a Treat to the Monument - 25 Years of Experience in the Commercialization of Monuments in Gdansk, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczyk – Piatkowska, Elzbieta

    2017-10-01

    The principles of the market economy adopted in Poland in the nineties have significantly touched the resources of immovable monuments. As a result, monuments have become a product of culture subject to the rules of the free market; and state ownership, patronage and decision-making practice has now been replaced by private interest. Practical monument use has also changed with the shift in ownership of objects after privatization and further advances in technology and the economy. Accordingly, the subject of this research addresses the issue of ensuring protection as well as the profitability of monumental objects of heritage under private investment in association with municipal and state ownership. The nineties of the twentieth century in Poland marked a period of rapid revival in trade based on market principles and openness to contemporary global trends in the design of commercial facilities. Thus, commercial function as a new use has been used for the commercialization of the monument. After 25 years of experience, it turns out that this new use may pose a threat to the conditions of monument preservation. The spatial and location specifics of the monument are poorly matched to the organizational form of trade and product range, despite the huge variety of these forms; the result is bankruptcy of the commercial operation and the consequent loss of use for the monument. Unused objects will eventually be destroyed. Studies have shown that functions supporting the creation of culture, especially museums, are optimal for the use of monuments. The museum function provides sufficiently high prestige and spatial stability, and allows for the maximum preservation of authentic elements, thus performing an additional role as museum piece.

  5. Facade renovation - replacement and restoration of the panels in a monument protected object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotný, Michal

    2017-12-01

    The article deals with problems of reconstruction of the facade and the associated problem of replacement or repair of the panels. In conventional buildings it is a smooth operation, but it is problematic in monument-protected objects. In the case of a common building, it is possible to choose any modern panels and simply replace them, but for historical objects we have to follow the claims and the rules of monument protection. In practice, it usually means the impossibility of use of modern panels, but at least a combination of old and modern technologies. Another possible solution to the problem is renovation, or repairs to the original state of the existing panels, of course with respect to the functionality of such panels. The implementation of such repairs must always be based on the technical and historical survey of the condition of the object and the repairs must be professionally designed. Subsequently, corrections are made, during which it is necessary to pay particular attention to observance of the technological procedures, rules and instructions particularly in terms of monument protection. However, the functionality of the works or elements made with regard to the quality of the environment within the building is not negligible. A common problem is the lack of control of technical requirements and functional requirements. Underestimation of the problems then leads to difficult repairs. The article points to the mistakes and problems of one such construction project on a historically protected chateau building.

  6. Restoring and structurally reinforcing historic monuments by glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikonomopoulou, F.; Bristogianni, T; Karron, Kaisa; Groot, C.J.W.P.; Veer, F.A.; Nijsse, R.; Zingoni, Alphose

    In this paper a pioneering, transparent restoration methodology is presented, introducing structural glass elements to substitute missing components of damaged monuments and simultaneously reinforce the original structure. To prove the feasibility of the concept, a damaged medieval tower in Toolse,

  7. Casa Grande Ruins National Monument acoustical monitoring 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    During September 2010, The Volpe Center collected baseline acoustical data at Casa Grande National Monument (CAGR), at one site for 28 days. The baseline data collected during this period will help park managers and planners estimate the effects of f...

  8. Use of a Survey to Assess the Environmental Exposure and Family Perception to Lead in Children (<6 Years in Four Valley Cities, Northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemeng Sun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With the growth of industry, the extensive use of lead, and urban expansion in Northwestern Valley Cities (NVC China, there is probable reason for presuming an increasing risk of lead exposure. However, little is known about the lead exposure of children less than 6 years old in NVC. As a first investigation, this study uses a survey to systematically determine the influences of various risk factors within the family environment, parents’ background, children’s behavior, mother’s behavior during pregnancy, and parental perception about children’s blood lead (CBL. A total of 596 families were recruited from the general population in Urumqi, Lanzhou, Xining and Yan’an. Parents, and their children (<6 years old, were asked about the environment and behaviors which could possibly relate with lead exposure. The results indicated that in the typical NVC of China, children’s environment and behavior, parents’ education level, and mother’s pregnancy behavior, were associated with potential CBL. It was noted that not all parents in NVC China recognized the importance of children’s lead exposure. Therefore, children’s health care and medical screening campaigns need to be designed to improve family’s fundamental knowledge of lead hazards, associated health effects, and prevention in the NVC of China.

  9. Comprehensive aerodynamic and dynamic study of independence of ukraine monument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Lebedich

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive approach for solution the engineering problems o f creation the high-rise extended pillartype Monument in Kiyv is described. The results o f dynamic tests o f 1:25 scale model and aerodynamictests o f 1:8 scale model o f the Monument in TAD-2 wind tunnel are given. The procedures fordetermination o f actual dynamic characteristics and assurance the efficiency o f damping on the siteare described

  10. California's restless giant: the Long Valley Caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.; Marcaida, Mae

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have monitored geologic unrest in the Long Valley, California, area since 1980. In that year, following a swarm of strong earthquakes, they discovered that the central part of the Long Valley Caldera had begun actively rising. Unrest in the area persists today. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) continues to provide the public and civil authorities with current information on the volcanic hazard at Long Valley and is prepared to give timely warnings of any impending eruption.

  11. Dating ancient monuments by nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedicke, C.

    2000-01-01

    In the fifties and sixties several disciplines dealing with chronologies but lacking precise methods of measurements (geology, biology, archaeology and art history) became aware of the radioactive decay as a tool of measuring elapsed time. Among the disciplines that benefit most from physical methods archaeology has to be named first. So was archaeological work revolutionised by the introduction of the C-14 dating method. A wider selection of material became datable after the introduction of luminescence techniques using the effect of nuclear radiation on semiconductors. These minerals are widespread among archaeological materials. In ancient monuments, the objective of this paper, semiconductors almost exclusively form the material basis. Over the last four millennia wood, stone, mortar and fired bricks have been used for the construction of buildings. After discussing methods taking wood as a dating material, a broader view will be given on the results achieved by luminescence dating of fired bricks, mortar and stone. For many years brick dating was performed by thermoluminescence, the recipes followed those of ceramic dating. Preferably multiple aliquot additive dose protocols were used on polymineral fine grain fractions (1-10 μm). It was expected that the error in dating monuments would be smaller compared to ceramic dating, because of the constancy of the environmental conditions which a brick experiences during its lifetime. However, the variability of firing temperatures in brick kilns overthrows this advantage. Therefore, the demands of art historians to fall short of an error margin of 5% could generally not be fulfilled. Especially in medieval or renaissance times the temporal resolution of thermoluminescence is inferior to traditional stylistic dating as long as specific stylistic forms are present. New optical luminescence techniques and a new philosophy of dose evaluation, based on single aliquot regeneration protocols, produce less scatter, and in

  12. Sanitation of cultural monuments - Energy conervation. Energetic improvement of buildings listed as monuments; Kulturdenkmale sanieren - Energie sparen. Energetische Verbesserung denkmalgeschuetzter Gebaeude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-08-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on an energetic improvement of buildings listed as monuments. Substantial aspects are designated which absolutely have to be considered in the energetic sanitation. Depending upon plant (solar thermal power or photovoltaics), dimensions and other design (cell type, colour, reflection) solutions can be found which only insignificantly impair the appearance of the architectural monument. Partners for buildings listed as monument are monument protection authorities. The contribution under consideration also presents an overview of public funding programs.

  13. Radiation methods in research of ancient monuments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cechak, T.; Gerndt, J.; Kubelik, M.; Musilek, L.; Pavlik, Milan

    2000-01-01

    A 'Laboratory of Quantitative Methods in Monument Research' is being built at the CTU Prague. Its primary orientation is the investigation of historic architecture, although other objects of art can also be investigated. In the first phase, two radiation methods are being established, but it is set up in such a way, that various other methods can readily be added in its future development. The radiation methods chosen for the initial development of the laboratory are: thermoluminescence dating and X-ray fluorescence analysis. The design of the automated TL-reader, built in our laboratories, is adjusted for the purpose of dating of historic brick architecture (which, of course, does not exclude applications for ceramics and other materials). The investigation of renaissance architecture in southern Bohemia and Moravia is under preparation as the first large campaign of this kind in the Czech Republic. Radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis has been chosen as the basic analytical method in the laboratory. The possibility of analyses of paintings and fired building materials (bricks, roof tiles) have been investigated. The first results in both the areas are very promising

  14. Conservation and Management of Archaeological Monuments and Sites in Greece and Turkey: A Value-Based Approach to Anastylosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalliopi Vacharopoulou

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Heritage management and monument conservation play a significant role in the preservation of archaeological heritage. Anastylosis, a process with a long history in the Mediterranean region, is discussed with relevance to current debates concentrating on concepts of value-based approaches. Examination of the diverse values that may be attributed to monuments provides an insight into the evolution of ideas in heritage management, conservation and restoration practices. In the current theoretical framework the concept of values, as attributed by all stakeholders, and its application when preserving archaeological heritage, are constantly debated. The participation of stakeholders in the process of value identification is considered fundamental by heritage management experts. This paper presents the findings of a survey conducted to collect the opinions of anastylosis and restoration professionals, with reference to case studies on a number of monuments subjected to anastylosis in Greece and Turkey, highlighting the importance of assessing values in order to establish the appropriate type and extent of intervention. The paper concludes that a value-based approach to decision-making and planning for anastylosis, or any other form of architectural conservation, is crucial for preserving monuments in a way that satisfies those who want to experience and benefit from heritage.

  15. Becoming Roman in southern Burgundy: A field survey between Autun and Bibracte in the Arroux Valley (Saône-et-Loire, 2000-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Creighton

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a pilot programme of fieldwork carried out between 2000-3 in the Arroux Valley in southern Burgundy close to Autun and Mont Beuvray. In the late Iron Age, this region was inhabited by the Aedui, an early ally of Rome, who had their principal stronghold at Mont Beuvray (Bibracte, high up in the Morvan. The 19th century excavations established this oppidum as a type-site for the European Iron Age, and since 1984 it has been the focus of an international research programme, which has greatly enhanced our knowledge of the site. In the Augustan period, Mont Beuvray was however replaced by Autun (Augustodunum on the banks of the Arroux as the new civitas capital. It rapidly developed into one of the major cities of Roman Gaul and like Mont Beuvray has been the subject of extensive excavations. Composite image of the survey There has been far less research on rural settlement in the region. This lack of investigation has much to do with present-day land use. The Morvan used to be extensively cultivated, but nowadays is mainly pasture or woodland, severely limiting the possibilities for either aerial reconnaissance or conventional fieldwalking. Next to nothing is known about the Iron Age settlement pattern around Mont Beuvray and Gallo-Roman settlement around Autun is only slightly better attested. It would be surprising however if the hinterland of both sites was not densely settled through this period, particularly the lower-lying ground of the Arroux valley itself. The fieldwork programme reported here was designed to test the possibility of using a combination of extensive geophysical survey and linewalking the few arable fields that exist to characterise rural settlement in the environs of these two major centres. Three micro-areas in the Arroux valley between Autun and Etang, and that of its tributary, the Celle, were selected for more detailed investigation, two of them in the commune of Monthelon, the third

  16. The laboratory of quantitative methods in historic monument research at the CTU Prague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musilek, L.; Cechak, T.; Kubelik, M.; Pavelka, K.; Pavlik, M.

    2001-01-01

    A 'Laboratory of Quantitative Methods in Historic Monument Research' has been established at the Department of Dosimetry and Application of Ionizing Radiation of the CTU Prague. Its primary orientation is the investigation of historic architecture, although other objects of art can also be, investigated. In the first phase, one investigative method was established for each of the above groups: X-ray fluorescence as the analytic method, thermoluminescence for dating and photogrammetry for surveying. The first results demonstrate the need and usefulness of these methods for investigations in the rich architectural heritage of the Czech Republic.

  17. Accessibility improvement interventions realised in Byzantine monuments of Thessaloniki, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristotelis Naniopoulos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Access to culture is a fundamental right of people with disabilities and a significant aspect in the development of accessible tourism. A visit to a monument provides an authentic experience which cannot be substituted by any representation. However, any interventions to improve accessibility should be made carefully, so as not to alter the monument�s character, or damage it visually or structurally. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach – A theoretical approach model was defined in the PROSPELASIS project for the improvement of accessibility in monuments which was applied in Byzantine monuments of Thessaloniki. This approach contains the following steps: evaluation of existing accessibility level; definition of alternative solutions; creation of final studies, approval by archaeological authorities and implementation of interventions. Findings – In six major Byzantine monuments significant improvements were realized which include: installation of two lifts and creation of a new staircase at Acheiropoietos; creation of a metal bridge, a new staircase and installation of a lift at Rotunda; opening of the secondary gate and creation of a ramp at the Heptapyrgion fortress; creation of an accessible toilet at the Saint Demetrios church; installation in the six monuments of a WiFi system providing text and audible information as well as information in Greek and International Sign Language; creation of two tactile models; creation of a �cultural route� connecting three major Byzantine monuments. Originality/value – For the first time, to the knowledge, a set of interventions has been realized in Byzantine monuments focusing on various categories of people with disabilities, i.e. motor, visual, hearing and cognitive.

  18. Vertebrate paleontology, stratigraphy, and paleohydrology of Tule Springs Fossil Beds National Monument, Nevada (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Kathleen; Pigati, Jeffery S.; Scott, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Tule Springs Fossil Beds National Monument (TUSK) preserves 22,650 acres of the upper Las Vegas Wash in the northern Las Vegas Valley (Nevada, USA). TUSK is home to extensive and stratigraphically complex groundwater discharge (GWD) deposits, called the Las Vegas Formation, which represent springs and desert wetlands that covered much of the valley during the late Quaternary. The GWD deposits record hydrologic changes that occurred here in a dynamic and temporally congruent response to abrupt climatic oscillations over the last ~300 ka (thousands of years). The deposits also entomb the Tule Springs Local Fauna (TSLF), one of the most significant late Pleistocene (Rancholabrean) vertebrate assemblages in the American Southwest. The TSLF is both prolific and diverse, and includes a large mammal assemblage dominated by Mammuthus columbi and Camelops hesternus. Two (and possibly three) distinct species of Equus, two species of Bison, Panthera atrox, Smilodon fatalis, Canis dirus, Megalonyx jeffersonii, and Nothrotheriops shastensis are also present, and newly recognized faunal components include micromammals, amphibians, snakes, and birds. Invertebrates, plant macrofossils, and pollen also occur in the deposits and provide important and complementary paleoenvironmental information. This field compendium highlights the faunal assemblage in the classic stratigraphic sequences of the Las Vegas Formation within TUSK, emphasizes the significant hydrologic changes that occurred in the area during the recent geologic past, and examines the subsequent and repeated effect of rapid climate change on the local desert wetland ecosystem.

  19. POST CLOSURE INSPECTION AND MONITORING REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 417: CENTRAL NEVADA TEST AREA - SURFACE, HOT CREEK VALLEY, NEVADA, FOR CALENDAR YEAR 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECHTEL NEVADA; NNSA NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2005-04-01

    This post-closure inspection and monitoring report has been prepared according to the stipulations laid out in the Closure Report (CR) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417, Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA)--Surface (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office [NNSA/NV], 2001), and the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). This report provides an analysis and summary of site inspections, subsidence surveys, meteorological information, and soil moisture monitoring data for CAU 417, which is located in Hot Creek Valley, Nye County, Nevada. This report covers Calendar Year 2004. Inspections at CAU 417 are conducted quarterly to document the physical condition of the UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4 soil covers, monuments, signs, fencing, and use restricted areas. The physical condition of fencing, monuments, and signs is noted, and any unusual conditions that could impact the integrity of the covers are reported. The objective of the soil moisture monitoring program is to monitor the stability of soil moisture conditions within the upper 1.2 meters (m) (4 feet [ft]) of the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP) cover and detect changes that may be indicative of moisture movement exceeding the cover design performance expectations.

  20. Social Interest in The Polish Doctrine of Monument Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoszczyszyn, Marek

    2017-10-01

    The paper discusses a controversy surrounding the latest amendment to the text of the Polish Parliament Act Conservation and the Care of Monuments (2015). It is a common dictum that any edifice cannot exist without good foundations. In this particular case of the mentioned above Act, definition of monument appears to be such a basis. A social interest is one of the constituent elements of the definition mentioned above. In the first part of the paper the notion of the social interest expression has been discussed, particularly from national and international points of view. The second part of the paper comprises some examples from the Polish monument preservation experience with the use of comparison method supported by case study. Only three big Polish cities: Warsaw, Wroclaw and Szczecin are involved in the presented case study but it must be emphasized that many other places on Polish territory experienced the same. Basing on the faith of these cities, the results and discussion chapter proves fundamental discrepancy in social interest notion between national and international scopes using some analytical methods. Finally, in the discussion chapter some proposals for the future amendment of monument definition in the Act of Conservation and the Care of Monuments have been provided.

  1. EAARL Topography - George Washington Birthplace National Monument 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, John C.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Wright, C. Wayne; Stevens, Sara; Yates, Xan

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived bare earth (BE) and first surface (FS) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the George Washington Birthplace National Monument in Virginia, acquired on March 26, 2008. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL

  2. The Development of Mobile Application to Introduce Historical Monuments in Manado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markhasi Rupilu Moshe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning the historical value of a monument is important because it preserves cultural and historical values, as well as expanding our personal insight. In Indonesia, particularly in Manado, North Sulawesi, there are many monuments. The monuments are erected for history, religion, culture and past war, however these aren’t written in detail in the monuments. To get information on specific monument, manual search was required, i.e. asking related people or sources. Based on the problem, the development of an application which can utilize LBS (Location Based Service method and some algorithmic methods specifically designed for mobile devices such as Smartphone, was required so that information on every monument in Manado can be displayed in detail using GPS coordinate. The application was developed by KNN method with K-means algorithm and collaborative filtering to recommend monument information to tourist. Tourists will get recommended options filtered by distance. Then, this method was also used to look for the closest monument from user. KNN algorithm determines the closest location by making comparisons according to calculation of longitude and latitude of several monuments tourist wants to visit. With this application, tourists who want to know and find information on monuments in Manado can do them easily and quickly because monument information is recommended directly to user without having to make selection. Moreover, tourist can see recommended monument information and search several monuments in Manado in real time.

  3. The Development of Mobile Application to Introduce Historical Monuments in Manado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupilu, Moshe Markhasi; Suyoto; Santoso, Albertus Joko

    2018-02-01

    Learning the historical value of a monument is important because it preserves cultural and historical values, as well as expanding our personal insight. In Indonesia, particularly in Manado, North Sulawesi, there are many monuments. The monuments are erected for history, religion, culture and past war, however these aren't written in detail in the monuments. To get information on specific monument, manual search was required, i.e. asking related people or sources. Based on the problem, the development of an application which can utilize LBS (Location Based Service) method and some algorithmic methods specifically designed for mobile devices such as Smartphone, was required so that information on every monument in Manado can be displayed in detail using GPS coordinate. The application was developed by KNN method with K-means algorithm and collaborative filtering to recommend monument information to tourist. Tourists will get recommended options filtered by distance. Then, this method was also used to look for the closest monument from user. KNN algorithm determines the closest location by making comparisons according to calculation of longitude and latitude of several monuments tourist wants to visit. With this application, tourists who want to know and find information on monuments in Manado can do them easily and quickly because monument information is recommended directly to user without having to make selection. Moreover, tourist can see recommended monument information and search several monuments in Manado in real time.

  4. 32 CFR 553.21 - Monuments and inscriptions at private expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of simple design, dignified, and appropriate to a military cemetery. The name of the person(s) or the... maintenance of or damage of the monument. (b) Where a monument has been erected to an individual interred in...

  5. Ethnobotanical survey of Leepa valley

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr.M.Ishtiaq Ch.

    2012-02-14

    Feb 14, 2012 ... Illicit export, incessant agriculture expansion ... China, homeopathic medicine system (HMS) of Pakistan, ayurvedic ...... exponential growth of population but not increase in income or ... Leaf Epidermal Anatomy of. Medicinal ...

  6. Image based Monument Recognition using Graph based Visual Saliency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliatakis, Grigorios; Triantafyllidis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an image-based application aiming at simple image classification of well-known monuments in the area of Heraklion, Crete, Greece. This classification takes place by utilizing Graph Based Visual Saliency (GBVS) and employing Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) or Speeded......, the images have been previously processed according to the Graph Based Visual Saliency model in order to keep either SIFT or SURF features corresponding to the actual monuments while the background “noise” is minimized. The application is then able to classify these images, helping the user to better...

  7. Observations of elk movement patterns on Fossil Butte National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olexa, Edward M.; Soileau, Suzanna Carrithers.; Allen, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    The elk herd that frequents Fossil Butte National Monument, a subset of the West Green River elk population, provides visitors with seasonal opportunities to view an iconic species of the western United States. Throughout the year, these elk range across a variety of private, State, and Federal lands within close proximity to the Monument. These lands are managed differently for various uses which can create challenging wildlife-management issues and influence the herd’s seasonal movements and distribution. Research lead by the USGS investigates some of the factors associated with these seasonal changes.

  8. Water availability and flood hazards in the John Day Fossil Beds National Monument, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Frank J.; Oster, E.A.

    1979-01-01

    The rock formations of the John Day Fossil Beds National Monument area are aquifers that can be expected to yield less than 10 gallons of water per minute to wells. The most permeable of the geologic units is the alluvium that occurs at low elevations along the John Day River and most of the smaller streams. Wells in the alluvial deposits can be expected to yield adequate water supplies for recreational areas; also, wells completed in the underlying bedrock at depths ranging from 50 to 200 feet could yield as much as 10 gallons per minute. Pumping tests on two unused wells indicated yields of 8 gallons per minute and 2 gallons per minute. Nine of the ten springs measured in and near the monument area in late August of 1978 were flowing 0.2 to 30 gallons per minute. Only the Cant Ranch spring and the Johnny Kirk Spring near the Sheep Rock unit had flows exceeding 6 gallons per minute. Chemical analyses of selected constituents of the ground water indicated generally low concentrations of dissolved minerals. Although cloudbursts in the Painted Hills unit could generate a flood wave on the valley floors, flood danger can be reduced by locating recreational sites on high ground. The campground in Indian Canyon of the Clarno unit is vulnerable to cloudburst flooding. About 80 percent of the proposed campground on the John Day River in the Sheep Rock unit is above the estimated level of 1-percent chance flood (100-year flood) of the river. The 1-percent chance flood would extend about 120 feet from the riverbank into the upstream end of the campground. (USGS).

  9. Spatio-temporal variation in prevalence of Rift Valley fever: a post-epidemic serum survey in cattle and wildlife in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwande, Olivia Wesula; Paul, George Omondi; Chiyo, Patrick I; Ng'ang'a, Eliud; Otieno, Viola; Obanda, Vincent; Evander, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a fatal arthropod-borne zoonotic disease of livestock and humans. Since the identification of RVF in Kenya in the 1930s, repeated epizootics and epidemics coinciding with El Niño events have occurred in several locations in Africa and Saudi Arabia, causing mass deaths of livestock and humans. RVF is of great interest worldwide because of its negative effect on international livestock trade and its potential to spread globally. The latter is due to the increasing incidence of extreme climatic phenomena caused by global warming, as well as to the increase in global trade and international travel. How RVF is maintained and sustained between epidemics and epizootics is not clearly understood, but it has been speculated that wildlife reservoirs and trans-ovarian transmission in the vector may be important. Several studies have examined the role of wildlife and livestock in isolation or in a limited geographical location within the one country over a short time (usually less than a year). In this study, we examined the seroprevalence of anti-RVF antibodies in cattle and several wildlife species from several locations in Kenya over an inter-epidemic period spanning up to 7 years. A serological survey of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to RVF using competitive ELISA was undertaken on 297 serum samples from different wildlife species at various locations in Kenya. The samples were collected between 2008 and 2015. Serum was also collected in 2014 from 177 cattle from Ol Pejeta Conservancy; 113 of the cattle were in close contact with wildlife and the other 64 were kept separate from buffalo and large game by an electric fence. The seroprevalence of RVF virus (RVFV) antibody was 11.6% in wildlife species during the study period. Cattle that could come in contact with wildlife and large game were all negative for RVFV. The seroprevalence was relatively high in elephants, rhinoceros, and buffalo, but there were no antibodies in zebras, baboons

  10. Spatio-temporal variation in prevalence of Rift Valley fever: a post-epidemic serum survey in cattle and wildlife in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Wesula Lwande

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rift Valley fever (RVF is a fatal arthropod-borne zoonotic disease of livestock and humans. Since the identification of RVF in Kenya in the 1930s, repeated epizootics and epidemics coinciding with El Niño events have occurred in several locations in Africa and Saudi Arabia, causing mass deaths of livestock and humans. RVF is of great interest worldwide because of its negative effect on international livestock trade and its potential to spread globally. The latter is due to the increasing incidence of extreme climatic phenomena caused by global warming, as well as to the increase in global trade and international travel. How RVF is maintained and sustained between epidemics and epizootics is not clearly understood, but it has been speculated that wildlife reservoirs and trans-ovarian transmission in the vector may be important. Several studies have examined the role of wildlife and livestock in isolation or in a limited geographical location within the one country over a short time (usually less than a year. In this study, we examined the seroprevalence of anti-RVF antibodies in cattle and several wildlife species from several locations in Kenya over an inter-epidemic period spanning up to 7 years. Methods: A serological survey of immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies to RVF using competitive ELISA was undertaken on 297 serum samples from different wildlife species at various locations in Kenya. The samples were collected between 2008 and 2015. Serum was also collected in 2014 from 177 cattle from Ol Pejeta Conservancy; 113 of the cattle were in close contact with wildlife and the other 64 were kept separate from buffalo and large game by an electric fence. Results: The seroprevalence of RVF virus (RVFV antibody was 11.6% in wildlife species during the study period. Cattle that could come in contact with wildlife and large game were all negative for RVFV. The seroprevalence was relatively high in elephants, rhinoceros, and buffalo, but

  11. 76 FR 12714 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marianas Trench Marine National Monument...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... culturally significant subsistence, cultural and religious uses within the monument; a program to assess and promote monument-related scientific exploration and research, tourism, and recreational and economic... and research, tourism, and recreational and commercial activities do not degrade the monument's coral...

  12. Fifty years after Welles and Welles: Distribution and genetic structure of Desert Bighorn Sheep in Death Valley National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Clinton W.; Wehausen, John D.; Sloan, William B.; Holt, Stacy; Creech, Tyler G.; Crowhurst, Rachel S.; Jaeger, Jef R.; Longshore, Kathleen M.; Monello, Ryan J.

    2013-01-01

    The status of desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) populations in the mountains around Death Valley was first evaluated in 1938, shortly after designation of Death Valley National Monument. However, the most comprehensive evaluation of bighorn sheep in the region was conducted by Ralph and Florence Welles during 1955-1961. They documented patterns of use at water sources and other focal areas around Death Valley and roughly estimated numbers of bighorn sheep from observational data. Data collection on bighorn sheep in the area since that time has

  13. Monumental heritage exposure to urban black carbon pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrón, D.; Lyamani, H.; Titos, G.; Casquero-Vera, J. A.; Cardell, C.; Močnik, G.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Olmo, F. J.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, aerosol light-absorption measurements obtained at three sites during a winter campaign were used to analyse and identify the major sources of Black Carbon (BC) particles in and around the Alhambra monument, a UNESCO World Heritage Site that receives over 2 million visitors per year. The Conditional Bivariate Probability Function and the Aethalometer model were employed to identify the main sources of BC particles and to estimate the contributions of biomass burning and fossil fuel emissions to the total Equivalent Black Carbon (EBC) concentrations over the monumental complex. Unexpected high levels of EBC were found at the Alhambra, comparable to those measured in relatively polluted European urban areas during winter. EBC concentrations above 3.0 μg/m3, which are associated with unacceptable levels of soiling and negative public reactions, were observed at Alhambra monument on 13 days from 12 October 2015 to 29 February 2016, which can pose a risk to its long-term conservation and may cause negative social and economic impacts. It was found that road traffic emissions from the nearby urban area and access road to the Alhambra were the main sources of BC particles over the monument. However, biomass burning emissions were found to have very small impact on EBC concentrations at the Alhambra. The highest EBC concentrations were observed during an extended stagnant episode associated with persistent high-pressure systems, reflecting the large impact that can have these synoptic conditions on BC over the Alhambra.

  14. Pärnus avati monument süütusele

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Andrus Joonase Pootsi paepäevade raames valminud monument süütusele avati Academia Non Grata teise aastapäeva puhul Lepa kaubamaja ja karja tänava vahelisel alal; autori arvates on hingeline süütus kunstnikule väga tähtis ja Academia Non Grata ainus õppeasutus, kus õpilased seda hoida saavad.

  15. COMPUTER ASSISTED LOOM IN THE REVIVAL OF CONTEMPORARY MONUMENTAL TAPESTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PINTILIE Anca-Aurelia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The art of tapestry has its basics back in time, probably in the decorations of tent, the house of the nomad. Tapestry in its beginnings is the first wall of the nomad’s home and the decorative wall and canopy in the ancient Greek houses as architect Gottfried Semper stated in the nineteen century. The architectural approach is not unusual even in the next centuries. Tapestry becomes popular as a form of monumental art during the Middle Ages when it is used as decorative architectural element, coating the walls of medieval castles. During the next centuries dominated by decadent styles of baroque, rococo, the tapestry will lose its monumental spirit and architectural quality but at the middle of the XXth century a new approach will sustain the revival of the tapestry as monumental art. Later, in the XXIst century, renowned multimedia artists will approach this medium and will use computer assisted looms in ambitious tapestry projects. This technique will allow them to realize complex and exquisite tapestries, sustaining in this way the revival of the tapestry in the contemporary art world. The paper presents the importance of the architectural side of tapestry and the great achievement that computer assisted loom represents for this form of art. The research activity is willing to inform Romanian textile designers about the possibilities to create tapestries on computer assisted looms. The research was made during the initial stage of a doctoral thesis consisting in a documentary study on monumental aspects of contemporary tapestry.

  16. The Newest Monument: The Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Studies and the Young Learner, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article features the newest monument, the Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial. The memorial on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., honoring Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. will be an engaging landscape experience to convey four fundamental and recurring themes throughout Dr. King's life--democracy, justice, hope, and love. Natural…

  17. Pecos National Monument, New Mexico: Its Geologic Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ross Byron

    1969-01-01

    The ruins of the pueblos and missions of Pecos lie on the east bank of Glorieta Creek near its junction with the Pecos River at the south end of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains in north-central New Mexico. Here the Pecos River and Glorieta Creek have formed a broad rolling valley in which the red adobe walls of the mission church stand as a striking monument to a historic past. This is beautiful country; the bright hues of red rocks are complemented by the varied greens of the junipers, pi?ons, and ponderosa pines. Northward the Sangre de Cristo Mountains stretch for miles in a blue mist toward the Truchas Peaks and forests of the Pecos Wilderness. A few miles south of the ruins the steep high escarpment of Glorieta Mesa marks, in a general way, the southern termination of the Rocky Mountain System, which here is represented by the Sangre de Cristos. The escarpment of Glorieta Mesa has been formed largely by the Pecos River and its tributaries eroding the soft sedimentary layers. The Pecos flows southward from the high mountains in the north, parallels the mesa escarpment for 15 miles, and breaches the mesa near San Jose. About 1-1/2 miles southwest of the Pecos ruins at Cerro de Escobas is the highest point on Glorieta Mesa. It is the most conspicuous feature of the local landscape and rises to an elevation of 8,212 feet - 1,270 feet above the ruins. The slope of the escarpment here is very steep, rising 6 feet in every 10 horizontal feet. Along the north side of the Glorieta Mesa escarpment is a 30-mile-long natural pass around the south end of the Sangre de Cristos that extends from Canoncito on the west to Starvation Peak on the east (fig. 1). The elevation of the pass is greater than 6,000 feet at all places, and it reaches its summit of 7,432 feet near the village of Glorieta near the west end of the pass. This pass has been used as a major travel route for more than 800 years by the Indians, Spanish, and Americans. The famous Santa Fe Trail passed through

  18. Atmospheric Weathering of Historic Monuments and Their Related Conservation Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caner-Saltık Emine N.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric environment affects the materials of historic monuments and their structure starting from the time of their construction. Daily and seasonal changes in temperature and humidity, wind, snow and rainfall, soluble salts carried by water, biological agents, pollutant gases and particulate matter are some of the agents in atmospheric environment that introduce weathering by physical, chemical and biological processes in the materials of the monuments such as natural building stones, bricks, mortars and plasters, mud brick etc. The weathering processes need to be well diagnosed by identification of main mechanisms of decay and major responsible agents, degree and depth of deterioration expressed with measurable parameters of physical, physicomechanical properties, and micro structural changes together with their distribution on the monument. Success of conservation treatments strongly depend on those diagnostic studies and compatibility of the treatments with the deteriorated and relatively sound parts of the historic materials. Current approach to materials conservation is to be able to make minimum intervention to historic material by targeting the conservation treatment to the deteriorated area for the purpose of controlling the deterioration factors and achieving compatible and durable conservation of historical material. In this presentation, two examples of diagnostic research and conservation treatments based on and guided by the diagnostic results are summarized concerning historic stone monuments exposed to atmospheric environment since more than two thousand years. The first example is on the marble walls of Temple of Augustus in Ankara exposed to polluted urban atmosphere. The second example is on the limestone statues of Nemrut Mount Monument in Adıyaman-Turkey, exposed to rural atmosphere with harsh climatic conditions. Finally, a brief discussion on current research issues related to historic materials conservation in

  19. Compositions of stone and stone surface materials of historical monuments from Vidzeme and Zemgale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actins, A.; Spricis, A.; Zekunde, A.; Nemerova, A.

    2004-01-01

    By means of x-ray analysis composition of stone and stone surface materials of historical monuments from Vidzeme and Zemgale was investigated. Corrosion products of tuffa materials were identified on surfaces of some investigated monuments. Similarity of composition of products of stone corrosion for monuments from Latvia and Poland was recognised. Content of heavy metals at stone materials of historical monuments and at the surface layers of these monuments was investigated by means of atomic absorption and potentiometric stripping methods. Reasons of formation of compounds and pollution of investigated samples were discussed. (full text)

  20. Hydrologic data, 1974-77, Stovepipe Wells Hotel area, Death Valley National Monument, Inyo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Charles Edwin; Downing, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    Ground-water levels in most wells did not change significantly from 1974 to 1977 in the Stovepipe Wells Hotel area, California. The average water-level decline was less than 0.10 foot between August 1974 and August 1977 in 10 observation wells. Water-level contours show a depression centered on the two pumping wells, but this depression existed before the National Park Service started pumping its well. The chemical quality of the ground water is poor. Dissolved-solids concentrations in water samples ranged from 2,730 to 6,490 milligrams per liter. Analyses of water samples from two wells showed large changes in some constituents from 1976 to 1977. Streamflow in Salt Creek has been monitored since February 1974. Base flow is seasonal, being 0.10 to 0.20 cubic foot per second during the summer and as much as three times that amount during the winter. Two chemical analyses of water from Salt Creek, representing summer and winter flow conditions, show large differences for many constituents. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. Supplement to the UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) supplement supports the regulatory and technical basis for water sampling at the Riverton, Wyoming, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site, as defined in the 1994 WSAP document for Riverton (DOE, 1994). Further, the supplement serves to confirm the Project's present understanding of the site relative to the hydrogeology and contaminant distribution as well as the intent to continue to use the sampling strategy as presented in the 1994 WSAP document for Riverton. Ground water and surface water monitoring activities are derived from the US Environmental Protection Agency regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 and 60 FR 2854. Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (JEG, n.d.), the Technical Approach Document (DOE, 1989), and the most effective technical approach for the site. Additional site-specific documents relevant to the Riverton site are the Riverton Baseline Risk Assessment (BLRA) (DOE, 1995a) and the Riverton Site Observational Work Plan (SOWP) (DOE, 1995b)

  2. The Monument as Ruin: Natality, Spectrality, and the History of the Image in the Tirana Independence Monument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raino Isto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the Tirana Independence Monument, first inaugurated in November of 2012 on the hundredth anniversary of Albanian independence from the Ottoman Empire. The monument, designed by Visar Obrija and Kai Roman Kiklas, swiftly fell into disrepair until it was recently renovated in November of 2015. The article analyzes the monument’s function in terms of its doubled existence as a sign of perpetual natality (the possibility of the rebirth of national consciousness and as a ruin with a spectral pseudo-presence (as an object that continually reminds us of the disjunctures that divorce the present from its historicity. It considers the way the monument’s inauguration relates to the politics of monumentality in contemporary Albania, and argues that the monument’s gradual ruination between 2012 and 2015 can be read as a particular manifestation of the history of the image in late capitalist society.Keywords: spectrality, natality, monumentality, Albania, Tirana, independence, national identity, grid, public sculpture

  3. Transect survey of artificial 137Cs and natural 40K in moss and bilberry leaf samples from two main valleys from Tatra National Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubica, B.; Mietelski, J.W.; Stobinski, M.; Tuteja-Krysa, M.; Tomankiewicz, E.; Gaca, P.; Skiba, S.; Kubica, M.; Golas, J.; Krzan, Z.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of determination of artificial 137 Cs and natural 40 K activity concentrations in plants (bilberry (Vaccinum myrtillus) and moss (Polytrichum commune) and in soil samples from two main Tatra Valleys; Koscieliska and Rybi Potok Valley. The data were obtained during two years (2001-02). These plants are known a as good bio-monitors for radiocaesium. It is known that 137 Cs and 40 K isotopes play important roles in the environment, due to their good assimilation by plants. The transfer of these elements from soil to plant depends of many factors: type of soil, organic matter contents, pH, type of plants. In this paper some results concerning the transfer of 137 Cs and 40 K isotopes from various types of Tatra soil to moss or bilberry are shown. (author)

  4. Megaliths as land-marks. Chronicle of the territorial role of the megalithic monuments through written sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinón-Torres, Marcos

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Megalithic monuments have played dijferent roles throughout History. One of them has a spatial function, i.e. as landmarks. The aim of this paper has been to collect and analyse every written reference concerning Galician megaliths operating as landmarks between the 6th and 19th centuries AD. On this basis, the evolution of this social-territorial function of the monuments through time is reconstructed, and an interpretative hypothesis for this phenomenon is proposed. Finally, the importance of reviewing written sources as a methodology for archaeological survey and for studies of the topographic settings of monuments is emphasised.

    A lo largo de la Historia, los monumentos megalíticos han desempeñado, entre otras, una función espacial, como marcos de territorio. Para este artículo se recogen y analizan las referencias escritas a megalitos gallegos funcionando como marcadores o identificadores espaciales, entre los siglos VI y XIX d.C. A partir de este registro de fuentes se reconstruye la evolución de este papel social-territorial de los monumentos en las distintas épocas. Se plantea un modelo interpretativo para este fenómeno, y se valora la revisión de fuentes escritas como metodología para la prospección arqueológica y para los estudios de emplazamiento de megalitos.

  5. Neolithic Ground Axe-heads and Monuments in Wessex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Field

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available While central southern England is well known for its extant Neolithic monuments and for the fine artefacts recovered from some of its Bronze Age barrows, Neolithic artefacts from the region have received relatively little attention. This might be considered surprising, as the area not only witnessed some of the earliest investigations into the source of materials, notably the Stonehenge bluestones, but it also harbours some of the earliest dated ground axes in the country. This article examines the occurrence and distribution of ground axes found in Wessex when compared to other artefact types, but, more importantly, comparison with the location of extant monuments allows a rather different view of Wessex to emerge. The article will consider the influence of local resources, of flint mines such as those at Durrington, Easton Down and Porton Down in Wiltshire, and the extent and processes by which axes of non-local materials may have been introduced and dispersed across the landscape.

  6. The mechanics of unrest at Long Valley caldera, California: 1. Modeling the geometry of the source using GPS, leveling and two-color EDM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Maurizio; Segall, P.; Murray, J.; Cervelli, Peter; Langbein, J.

    2003-01-01

    We surveyed 44 existing leveling monuments in Long Valley caldera in July 1999, using dual frequency global positioning system (GPS) receivers. We have been able to tie GPS and leveling to a common reference frame in the Long Valley area and computed the vertical deformation by differencing GPS-based and leveled orthometric heights. The resurgent dome uplifted 74??7 cm from 1975 to 1999. To define the inflation source, we invert two-color EDM and uplift data from the 1985-1999 unrest period using spherical or ellipsoidal sources. We find that the ellipsoidal source satisfies both the vertical and horizontal deformation data, whereas the spherical point source cannot. According to our analysis of the 1985-1999 data, the main source of deformation is a prolate ellipsoid located beneath the resurgent dome at a depth of 5.9 km (95% bounds of 4.9-7.5 km). This body is vertically elongated, has an aspect ratio of 0.475 (95% bounds are 0.25-0.65) and a volume change of 0.086 km3 (95% bounds are 0.06-0.13 km3). Failure to account for the ellipsoidal nature of the source biases the estimated source depth by 2.1 km (35%), and the source volume by 0.038 km3 (44%). ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. DOCUMENTING LIVING MONUMENTS IN INDONESIA: METHODOLOGY FOR SUSTAINABLE UTILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Suryaningsih

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The systematic documentation of cultural heritage in Indonesia has been developed after the establishment of Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen (1778 and De Oudheidkundige Dienst (1913 by the Netherlands Indies government. After Indonesian independent, the tasks of cultural heritage documentation take over by The Ministry of Culture (now become The Ministry of Education of Culture with focus on the ancient and classical heritage, so called dead monument. The needed of comprehensive documentation data regarding cultural heritage become significant issues since the government and private sector pay attention to the preservation of heritage building in the urban site, so called living monument. The archives of original drawing plan many times do not fit with the existing condition, while the conservation plan demands a document such as built drawing plan to work on. The technology, methodology and system to provide such comprehensive document of heritage building and site become important, to produce good conservation plan and heritage building regular maintenance. It means the products will have a sustainable and various utility values. Since 1994, Documentation Centre for Architecture – Indonesia (PDA, has established to meet the needs of a comprehensive data of heritage building (living monuments, to utilized as basic document for conservation planning. Not only provide document of the digital drawing such site plan, plan, elevation, section and details of architecture elements, but also document of historic research, material analysis and completed with diagnosis and mapping of building damages. This manuscript is about PDA field experience, working in this subject issue

  8. Documenting Living Monuments in Indonesia: Methodology for Sustainable Utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryaningsih, F.; Purwestri, N.

    2013-07-01

    The systematic documentation of cultural heritage in Indonesia has been developed after the establishment of Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen (1778) and De Oudheidkundige Dienst (1913) by the Netherlands Indies government. After Indonesian independent, the tasks of cultural heritage documentation take over by The Ministry of Culture (now become The Ministry of Education of Culture) with focus on the ancient and classical heritage, so called dead monument. The needed of comprehensive documentation data regarding cultural heritage become significant issues since the government and private sector pay attention to the preservation of heritage building in the urban site, so called living monument. The archives of original drawing plan many times do not fit with the existing condition, while the conservation plan demands a document such as built drawing plan to work on. The technology, methodology and system to provide such comprehensive document of heritage building and site become important, to produce good conservation plan and heritage building regular maintenance. It means the products will have a sustainable and various utility values. Since 1994, Documentation Centre for Architecture - Indonesia (PDA), has established to meet the needs of a comprehensive data of heritage building (living monuments), to utilized as basic document for conservation planning. Not only provide document of the digital drawing such site plan, plan, elevation, section and details of architecture elements, but also document of historic research, material analysis and completed with diagnosis and mapping of building damages. This manuscript is about PDA field experience, working in this subject issue

  9. Reducing visitor noise levels at Muir Woods National Monument using experimental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, David W; Peter, Newman; Manning, Robert E; Fristrup, Kurt M

    2011-03-01

    Noise impacts resources and visitor experience in many protected natural areas, and visitors can be the dominant source of noise. This experimental study tested the efficacy and acceptability of signs asking visitors to be quiet at Muir Woods National Monument, California. Signs declaring a "quiet zone" (at the park's Cathedral Grove) or a "quiet day" (throughout the park) were posted on a randomized schedule that included control days (no signs). Visitor surveys were conducted to measure the cognitive and behavioral responses of visitors to the signs and test the acceptability of these management practices to visitors. Visitors were highly supportive of these management practices and reported that they consciously limited the amount of noise they produced. Sound level measurements showed substantial decreases on days when signs were posted. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  10. Applicability of 1994-1995 USRADS reg-sign surveys of Bear Creek Valley flood plain and Operable Unit 1 to the radiological characterization of Y-12 grassy/wooded areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogard, J.S.; Hamm, R.N.; Brown, K.S.

    1997-03-01

    This document, provided in support of the Y-12 Site Radiological Characterization Study, analyzes the utility of data from two reports by Chemrad Tennessee Corporation in identifying radiological contamination in excess of contamination control guidelines at the surface of soils in the Bear Creek Valley Flood Plain (BCVFP) and in Y-12 Operable Unit 1 (OU1). The Chemrad reports were developed under subcontract to Science Applications International Corporation for their remedial investigation of these sites for Martin Marietta Energy Systems Environmental Restoration Division. Surveys were performed by Chemrad using the UltraSonic Ranging and Data System (USRADS reg-sign), which utilizes ultrasonic triangulation to determine the location of a survey technician at the same time that radiological monitoring data are telemetered from his instruments to a remote receiving station. Floor monitor and Geiger-Mueller pancake meter results from the USRADS reg-sign surveys are shown to be sufficiently precise to reliably detect contamination in excess of the limiting radioactivity value of 1,000 dpm/100 cm 2 for removable uranium contamination specified in 10 CFR 835 Appendix D. MicroRem meter survey results, also included as part of the USRADS reg-sign surveys, indicate that the derived limiting value of 56.8 μrem/h for penetrating dose at 1 m (corresponding to 100 mrem/γ) was not exceeded. However, both the pancake meter and floor monitor results suggest that surface contamination exceeding 1,000 dpm/100 cm 2 is not uncommon. Sites in OU1 and BCVFP were visited, and independent surveys made with hand-held instruments, to confirm conclusions about the USRADS close-quote survey results and to verify that these results are from contamination uniformly distributed on the soil surface, and not from discrete sources which are not likely transferred to shoes, vehicles, or clothing

  11. Watermills – a Forgotten River Valley Heritage – selected examples from the Silesian voivodeship, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajer Maria

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to describe the current condition of the watermills situated in the river valleys of the Silesian voivodeship. Changes in the number and distribution of mills from the late 18th century until the 20th century have been presented (as exemplified by the Liswarta River basin in the northern part of the voivodeship. Watermills have been discussed both as industrial monuments that document the history of the milling industry and as tourist attractions. Currently, working mills that serve the local population in rural areas are a rarity, and working watermills are unique sites that should be protected as industrial monuments that constitute an important part of our cultural heritage. They are among those industrial monuments that are particularly vulnerable to destruction. Such mills increasingly attract the interest of industrial tourism promoters. Activities aimed at promoting watermills as cultural heritage sites and leading to their protection and preservation as part of the river valley landscape have also been discussed. In the Silesian voivodeship, there are many watermills that deserve attention; some of these are listed in the register of monuments maintained by the National Heritage Board of Poland. Unfortunately, most disused mills are falling into disrepair and are slowly disappearing; only a few have been preserved in good condition. Many of these have long histories and they are also situated in areas attractive for tourists. There is no doubt that watermills should be preserved. Their inclusion in open-air museums is not the only solution – any form of protection in situ by putting them to different uses is also valuable. Changing the function of a mill to serve as a hotel, restaurant, cultural centre, etc. makes it possible to maintain these sites as parts of river valley landscapes.

  12. Three-Dimensional Recording of Bastion Middleburg Monument Using Terrestrial Laser Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Z.; Lau, C. L.; Yusoff, A. R.

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the use of terrestrial laser scanning for the full three-dimensional (3D) recording of historical monument, known as the Bastion Middleburg. The monument is located in Melaka, Malaysia, and was built by the Dutch in 1660. This monument serves as a major hub for the community when conducting commercial activities in estuaries Malacca and the Dutch build this monument as a control tower or fortress. The monument is located on the banks of the Malacca River was built between Stadhuys or better known as the Red House and Mill Quayside. The breakthrough fort on 25 November 2006 was a result of the National Heritage Department through in-depth research on the old map. The recording process begins with the placement of measuring targets at strategic locations around the monument. Spherical target was used in the point cloud data registration. The scanning process is carried out using a laser scanning system known as a terrestrial scanner Leica C10. This monument was scanned at seven scanning stations located surrounding the monument with medium scanning resolution mode. Images of the monument have also been captured using a digital camera that is setup in the scanner. For the purposes of proper registration process, the entire spherical target was scanned separately using a high scanning resolution mode. The point cloud data was pre-processed using Leica Cyclone software. The pre-processing process starting with the registration of seven scan data set through overlapping spherical targets. The post-process involved in the generation of coloured point cloud model of the monument using third-party software. The orthophoto of the monument was also produced. This research shows that the method of laser scanning provides an excellent solution for recording historical monuments with true scale of and texture.

  13. Geologic and geophysical maps and volcanic history of the Kelton Pass SE and Monument Peak SW Quadrangles, Box Elder County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felger, Tracey J.; Miller, David; Langenheim, Victoria; Fleck, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The Kelton Pass SE and Monument Peak SW 7.5' quadrangles are located in Box Elder County, northwestern Utah (figure 1; plate 1). The northern boundary of the map area is 8.5 miles (13.7 km) south of the Utah-Idaho border, and the southern boundary reaches the edge of mud flats at the north end of Great Salt Lake. Elevations range from 4218 feet (1286 m) along the mud flats to 5078 feet (1548 m) in the Wildcat Hills. Deep Creek forms a prominent drainage between the Wildcat Hills and Cedar Hill. The closest towns are the ranching communities of Snowville, Utah (10 miles [16 km] to the northeast) (figure 1), and Park Valley, Utah (10 miles [16 km] to the west).The Kelton Pass SE and Monument Peak SW 7.5' quadrangles are located entirely within southern Curlew Valley, which drains south into Great Salt Lake, and extends north of the area shown on figure 1 into Idaho. Curlew Valley is bounded on the west by the Raft River Mountains and on the east by the Hansel Mountains (figure 1). Sedimentary and volcanic bedrock exposures within the quadrangles form the Wildcat Hills, Cedar Hill, and informally named Middle Shield (figure 1). Exposed rocks and deposits are Permian to Holocene in age, and include the Permian quartz sandstone and orthoquartzite of the Oquirrh Formation (Pos), tuffaceous sedimentary rocks of the Miocene Salt Lake Formation (Ts), Pliocene basaltic lava flows (Tb) and dacite (Tdw), Pleistocene rhyolite (Qrw) and basalt (Qb), and Pleistocene and Holocene surficial deposits of alluvial, lacustrine, and eolian origin. Structurally, the map area is situated in the northeastern Basin and Range Province, and is inferred to lie within the hanging wall of the late Miocene detachment faults exposed in the Raft River Mountains to the northwest (e.g., Wells, 1992, 2009; figure 1).This mapping project was undertaken to produce a comprehensive, large-scale geologic map of the Wildcat Hills, as well as to improve understanding of the volcanic and tectonic evolution of

  14. Survey on the availability, price and affordability of selected essential medicines for non-communicable diseases in community pharmacies of Kathmandu valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Rajeev; Ghale, Anish; Chapagain, Bijay Raj; Gyawali, Mahasagar; Acharya, Trishna

    2017-01-01

    The access to essential medicines for non-communicable disease treatment is unacceptably low worldwide. The fundamental right to health cannot be fulfilled without equitable access to essential medicines. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 94 community pharmacies of Kathmandu valley. Non-probability quota sampling method was adopted for the purpose. Village Development Committees with more than 5000 populations were included in the study. The availability of the selected essential medicines, their price and producer identity were observed. Data entry and analysis were carried out in Microsoft Excel and Statistical package for social science. The availability of the essential medicines was not 100% in Kathmandu valley. High competition and high price variation were seen in metformin 500 mg (254.6%) and atorvastatin 10 mg (327.6%). The study showed that maximum (54.7%) brands were manufactured in Nepal. Furthermore, atorvastatin 10 mg (0.6 day wage) was found to be quite expensive, and glibenclamide 5 mg (0.1 day wage) was the cheapest one for diabetes mellitus treatment for 1 month of treatment period compared to daily wages of other essential medicines. The availability of the selected essential medicines was found to be ununiform and insufficient in the entire region. High competition was observed in the products with high price variation, and the access to cost-effective brand was poor. Furthermore, it was found that government salary is affordable to treat non-communicable disease with the help of the essential medicines.

  15. Near Real-Time Processing and Archiving of GPS Surveys for Crustal Motion Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, B. W.; Bock, Y.

    2008-12-01

    We present an inverse instantaneous RTK method for rapidly processing and archiving GPS data for crustal motion surveys that gives positional accuracy similar to traditional post-processing methods. We first stream 1 Hz data from GPS receivers over Bluetooth to Verizon XV6700 smartphones equipped with Geodetics, Inc. RTD Rover software. The smartphone transmits raw receiver data to a real-time server at the Scripps Orbit and Permanent Array Center (SOPAC) running RTD Pro. At the server, instantaneous positions are computed every second relative to the three closest base stations in the California Real Time Network (CRTN), using ultra-rapid orbits produced by SOPAC, the NOAATrop real-time tropospheric delay model, and ITRF2005 coordinates computed by SOPAC for the CRTN stations. The raw data are converted on-the-fly to RINEX format at the server. Data in both formats are stored on the server along with a file of instantaneous positions, computed independently at each observation epoch. The single-epoch instantaneous positions are continuously transmitted back to the field surveyor's smartphone, where RTD Rover computes a median position and interquartile range for each new epoch of observation. The best-fit solution is the last median position and is available as soon as the survey is completed. We describe how we used this method to process 1 Hz data from the February, 2008 Imperial Valley GPS survey of 38 geodetic monuments established by Imperial College, London in the 1970's, and previously measured by SOPAC using rapid-static GPS methods in 1993, 1999 and 2000, as well as 14 National Geodetic Survey (NGS) monuments. For redundancy, each monument was surveyed for about 15 minutes at least twice and at staggered intervals using two survey teams operating autonomously. Archiving of data and the overall project at SOPAC is performed using the PGM software, developed by the California Spatial Reference Center (CSRC) for the National Geodetic Survey (NGS). The

  16. Gypsum-induced decay in granite monuments in Northwestern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Hermo, B.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common forms of decay in granite monuments is the detachment of the superficial layer of the stone (plaques, plaquettes and scales. Previous studies of granite monuments in the northwest Iberian Peninsula revealed a direct relation between this type of weathering and the presence of calcium sulphate, and a mechanism whereby the salt causes this type of decay was suggested. In the present study, various hypotheses as regards the origin of the gypsum found in granite monuments are proposed. The study involved analysis of the contents of ions soluble in water, the results of X-ray diffraction analyses and the ratios of CaO/SO3 in samples of stone, mortar and deposits collected from different monuments. It was concluded that in most cases the gypsum originated from old paintworks or/and from the joint mortars, although inputs from other sources cannot be discounted, as discussed

    Una de las formas de deterioro más frecuente en los monumentos graníticos es la separación de la capa superficial de la piedra (placas, plaquetas y escamas. En trabajos anteriores centrados en monumentos del noroeste de la Península Ibérica, se constató la relación directa entre esta forma de alteración y la presencia de sulfato de calcio y se propuso el mecanismo a través del cual esta sal provoca este tipo de deterioro. En este trabajo se plantean varias hipótesis acerca del origen del yeso encontrado en monumentos graníticos. Para ello se comparan los contenidos de iones solubilizados en agua, los resultados de difracción de rayos X y las relaciones OCa/SO3 de muestras de piedra, morteros y depósitos recogidas en diferentes monumentos. Se llega a la conclusión de que en la mayor parte de los casos el yeso procede de antiguas pinturas o de revestimientos superficiales y de los morteros de juntas entre sillares, pero no se puede descartar la contribución de otros aportes, los cuales se discuten también en este artículo.

  17. Valley polarization in bismuth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauque, Benoit

    2013-03-01

    The electronic structure of certain crystal lattices can contain multiple degenerate valleys for their charge carriers to occupy. The principal challenge in the development of valleytronics is to lift the valley degeneracy of charge carriers in a controlled way. In bulk semi-metallic bismuth, the Fermi surface includes three cigar-shaped electron valleys lying almost perpendicular to the high symmetry axis known as the trigonal axis. The in-plane mass anisotropy of each valley exceeds 200 as a consequence of Dirac dispersion, which drastically reduces the effective mass along two out of the three orientations. According to our recent study of angle-dependent magnetoresistance in bismuth, a flow of Dirac electrons along the trigonal axis is extremely sensitive to the orientation of in-plane magnetic field. Thus, a rotatable magnetic field can be used as a valley valve to tune the contribution of each valley to the total conductivity. As a consequence of a unique combination of high mobility and extreme mass anisotropy in bismuth, the effect is visible even at room temperature in a magnetic field of 1 T. Thus, a modest magnetic field can be used as a valley valve in bismuth. The results of our recent investigation of angle-dependent magnetoresistance in other semi-metals and doped semiconductors suggest that a rotating magnetic field can behave as a valley valve in a multi-valley system with sizeable mass anisotropy.

  18. Le Case Dureranno Meno di Noi : on the paradox of a monumental futurist cityscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenniskens, D.P.H.; van der Westerlaken, M.F.A.

    This essay, accompanying the reprint of J.J.P. Oud's 'The Monumental Cityscape', briefly assesses the lasting value of this small ‘manifesto’, by reflecting upon Oud’s idea of monumentality and by placing his thoughts in the wider context of early twentieth-century architectural avant-garde in

  19. Selected caves and lava-tube systems in and near Lava Beds National Monument, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Aaron Clement; Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Rogers, Bruce W.

    1990-01-01

    Lava Beds National Monument (fig. 1) lies on the north slope of the huge Medicine Lake shield (fig. 2), a complex volcanic edifice of greater volume than the steep-sided Mount Shasta volcanic cone, which towers as a snowclad land mark 40 mi southwest of the monument (fig. 3).

  20. Investigation of the conservation-treatment methods of the Dutch National Monument : The role of microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larbi, J.A.; Hees, R.P.J. van

    1999-01-01

    The Dutch National Monument in Amsterdam, a World War-II memorial structure, was built with an outer face consisting of slabs of travertine. In 1995, the masonry structure forming the core of the monument showed severe deterioration. In order to determine the actual cause of deterioration and to

  1. Microscopical examination of the effectiveness of conservation-treatment methods of the National Monument in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larbi, J.A.; Hees, R.P.J. van

    1999-01-01

    The Dutch National Monument in Amsterdam, a World War-II memorial structure, was built with an outer face consisting of slabs of travertine. In 1995, the masonry structure forming the core of the monument showed severe deterioration. In order to determine the actual cause of deterioration and to

  2. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Powell, Brian F.; Halvorson, William L.

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary We summarized inventory and monitoring efforts for plants and vertebrates at Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (NM) in Arizona. We used data from previous research to compile complete species lists for the monument and to assess inventory completeness. There have been 1,031 species of plants and vertebrates observed at the monument. Most of the species on the list are documented by voucher specimens. There are 59 non-native species established in the monument: one mammal, three birds, and 55 non-native plants. Most non-native plant species were first recorded along roads. In each taxon-specific chapter, we highlight areas that contribute disproportionately to species richness or that have unique species for the monument. Of particular importance are Quitobaquito Springs and Pond, which are responsible for the monument having one of the highest number of bird species in the Sonoran Desert Network of parks. Quitobaquito also contains the only fish in the monument, the endangered Quitobaquito pupfish (Cyprinodon eremus). Other important resources for the plants and vertebrates include the xeroriparian washes (e.g., Alamo Canyon) and the Ajo Mountains. Based on the review of past studies, we believe the inventories of vascular plants and vertebrates are nearly complete and that the monument has one of the most complete inventories of any unit in the Sonoran Desert Network.

  3. Chronological studies of the Arzhan-2 Scythian monument in Tuva (Russia).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaitseva, GI; Chugunov, KV; Dergachev, VA; Nagler, A; Parzinger, G; Scott, EM; Sementsov, AA; Vasiliev, S; van Geel, B; van der Plicht, J; Lebedeva, LM

    2004-01-01

    The first radiocarbon dates from the unique early Scythian monument Arzhan-2, discovered in 2001, are presented. The monument contained a royal burial (grave nr 5). Unfortunately, precise dating is hampered by the Hallstatt plateau in the calibration curve. However, using both accelerator mass

  4. 76 FR 18773 - Marianas Trench Marine National Monument, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, et al...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... during public scoping. Climate change impacts and adaptation. Marine debris impacts and removal. Invasive..., related marine resources and species, and conservation efforts. Traditional access to the Monument by... activities do not degrade the Monument's coral reef ecosystem or related marine resources or species, or...

  5. X-ray analysis of pigments on ancient Egyptian monuments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, M.; Sassa, S.; Yoshioka, T.

    1999-01-01

    Ancient pigments were analyzed using PIXE and XRD methods in the laboratory, which were painted on ancient Egyptian monuments. On the other hand, those on monuments remaining with entire shape were investigated using the hand-held type of an XRF spectrometer and an X-ray diffractometer in the field. For the laboratory experiment, several wall fragments of the Malqata palace in ancient Egypt (18th Dynasty, ca. 1390 B.C.) were investigated. In the field experiment, the block of Ramesses II (19th Dynasty, ca. 1270 B.C.), the Wooden Coffin of Neb-sny (18th Dynasty, ca. 1400 B.C.), the Funerary Stele of Amenemhat (11th Dynasty, ca. 2000 B.C.), and the painted walls of the Tomb of Userhat (18th Dynasty, ca. 1400 B.C.) were investigated. From white and blue colored parts, huntite and Egyptian blue were found, respectively, which are a very rare mineral and an artificial pigment prepared only in ancient Egypt, respectively. (author)

  6. X-ray analysis of pigments on ancient Egyptian monuments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uda, M.; Sassa, S.; Yoshioka, T. [Waseda Univ., Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tokyo (JP)] [and others

    1999-07-01

    Ancient pigments were analyzed using PIXE and XRD methods in the laboratory, which were painted on ancient Egyptian monuments. On the other hand, those on monuments remaining with entire shape were investigated using the hand-held type of an XRF spectrometer and an X-ray diffractometer in the field. For the laboratory experiment, several wall fragments of the Malqata palace in ancient Egypt (18th Dynasty, ca. 1390 B.C.) were investigated. In the field experiment, the block of Ramesses II (19th Dynasty, ca. 1270 B.C.), the Wooden Coffin of Neb-sny (18th Dynasty, ca. 1400 B.C.), the Funerary Stele of Amenemhat (11th Dynasty, ca. 2000 B.C.), and the painted walls of the Tomb of Userhat (18th Dynasty, ca. 1400 B.C.) were investigated. From white and blue colored parts, huntite and Egyptian blue were found, respectively, which are a very rare mineral and an artificial pigment prepared only in ancient Egypt, respectively. (author)

  7. POST CLOSURE INSPECTION AND MONITORING REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 417: CENTRAL NEVADA TEST AREA - SURFACE, HOT CREEK VALLEY, NEVADA; FOR CALENDAR YEAR 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417, Central Nevada Test Area - Surface, is located in Hot Creek Valley in northern Nye County, Nevada, and consists of three areas commonly referred to as UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4. CAU 417 consists of 34 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) which were closed in 2000 (U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office, 2001). Three CASs at UC-1 were closed in place with administrative controls. At CAS 58-09-01, Central Mud Pit (CMP), a vegetated soil cover was constructed over the mud pit. At the remaining two sites CAS 58-09-02, Mud Pit and 58-09-05, Mud Pits (3), aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the CAS boundaries. Three CASs at UC-3 were closed in place with administrative controls. Aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the site boundaries at CAS 58-09-06, Mud Pits (5), CAS 58-25-01, Spill and CAS 58-10-01, Shaker Pad Area. Two CASs that consist of five sites at UC-4 were closed in place with administrative controls. At CAS 58-09-03, Mud Pits 9, an engineered soil cover was constructed over Mud Pit C. At the remaining three sites in CAS 58-09-03 and at CAS 58-10-05, Shaker Pad Area, aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the site boundaries. The remaining 26 CASs at CAU 417 were either clean-closed or closed by taking no further action. Quarterly post-closure inspections are performed at the CASs that were closed in place at UC-I, UC-3, and UC-4. During calendar year 2005, site inspections were performed on March 15, June 16, September 22, and December 7. The inspections conducted at the UC-1 CMP documented that the site was in good condition and continued to show integrity of the cover unit. No new cracks or fractures were observed until the December inspection. A crack on the west portion of the cover showed evidence of lateral expansion; however, it is not at an actionable level. The crack will be sealed by filling with

  8. 78 FR 12781 - Notice of Availability of the Ironwood Forest National Monument Record of Decision and Approved...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... identified as Monument objects in the Proclamation. The Arizona State Director signed the ROD on February 19... motorized vehicle use. Guidance for management of the Monument access route network is provided, and a... of Monument objects while allowing authorized uses, recreation activities, and scientific studies...

  9. Greening Turner Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byfield, M.

    2010-01-01

    This article discussed remedial activities undertaken in the Turner Valley. Remedial action in the valley must satisfy the financial concerns of engineers and investors as well as the environmental concerns of residents and regulators. Natural gas production in the Turner Valley began in 1914. The production practices were harmful and wasteful. Soil and water pollution was not considered a problem until recently. The impacts of cumulative effects and other pollution hazards are now being considered as part of many oil and gas environmental management programs. Companies know it is cheaper and safer to prevent pollutants from being released, and more efficient to clean them up quickly. Oil and gas companies are also committed to remediating historical problems. Several factors have simplified remediation plans in the Turner Valley. Area real estate values are now among the highest in Alberta. While the valley residents are generally friendly to the petroleum industry, strong communication with all stakeholders in the region is needed. 1 fig.

  10. Four newly recorded species of Dryopteridaceae from Kashmir valley, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAKOOR AHMAD MIR

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mir SA, Mishra AK, Reshi ZA, Sharma MP. 2014. Four newly recorded species of Dryopteridaceae from Kashmir valley, India. Biodiversitas 15: 6-11. Habitat diversity, elevation, cloud cover, rainfall, seasonal and temperature variations have created many ideal sites for the luxuriant growth of pteridophytes in the Kashmir valley, yet all the regions of the valley have not been surveyed. In Kashmir valley the family Dryopteridaceae is represented by 31 species. During the recent extensive field surveys of Shopian district four more species viz., Dryopteris caroli-hopei Fraser-Jenkins, Dryopteris blanfordii subsp. nigrosquamosa (Ching Fraser-Jenkins, Dryopteris pulvinulifera (Bedd. Kuntze and Polystichum Nepalense (Spreng C. Chr. have been recorded for the first time from the valley. The taxonomic description, synonyms, distribution and photographs of each species are given in this article.

  11. Surveillance for White-Nose Syndrome in the bat community at El Malpais National Monument, New Mexico, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Ernest W.

    2012-01-01

    From late winter to summer 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey Arid Lands Field Station conducted mist-netting efforts at El Malpais National Monument and on adjacent lands belonging to Bureau of Land Management and U.S. Forest Service to detect the occurrence of white-nose syndrome or causal fungal agent (Geomyces destructans). During this assessment, 421 bats belonging to 8 species were documented at El Malpais National Monument and adjacent lands. None of these captures showed evidence for the presence of white-nose syndrome or G. destructans, but it is possible that the subtle signs of some infections may not have been observed. Throughout the field efforts, Laguna de Juan Garcia was the only water source located on El Malpais National Monument and was netted on June 20 and 27, July 25, and August 2, 2011. During these dates, a total of 155 bats were captured, belonging to eight species including: Corynorhinus townsendii (Townsend's Big-Eared Bat), Eptesicus fuscus (Big Brown Bat), Lasionycterics noctivagans (Silver-Haired Bat), Myotis ciliolabrum (Small-Footed Myotis), M. evotis (Long-eared myotis), M. thysanodes (Fringed Myotis), M. volans (Long-Legged Myotis), and Tadarida brasiliensis (Brazilian Free-Tailed Bat). Overall, Laguna de Juan Garcia had the greatest number of captures (79 bats) during one night compared to the other sites netted on adjacent lands and had the greatest species diversity of 8 species netted, not including Euderma maculatum (Spotted Bat) that was detected by its audible calls as it flew overhead. Laguna de Juan Garcia is an important site to bats because of its accessibility by all known occurring species, including the less-maneuverable T. brasiliensis that is known to form large colonies in the park. Laguna de Juan Garcia is also important as a more permanent water source during drought conditions in the earlier part of the spring and summer, as observed in 2011.

  12. Monumental and domestic architecture in Contestania | Arquitectura monumental y arquitectura doméstica en la Contestania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feliciana Sala Sellés

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider a group of buildings whose dimensions, internal distribution and constructive characteristics allow their qualification as privileged residences, with a possible palatial function. Their domestic character is joined by that of social representation in the framework of the Iberian urban layout, so we could find the Contestan examples of a monumental domestic architecture. Finally, this analysis leads us to several social and political considerations that explain the appearance of these buildings in the south-east of the Iberian Peninsula at the end of the VI Century BC. | En este trabajo se toma en consideración un conjunto de edificios cuyas dimensiones, distribución interna y características constructivas permiten su calificación como residencias privilegiadas, con una posible función palacial. A su condición doméstico se añade la de representación social en el marco de la trama urbana ibérica, de manera que se podría ver en ellos los ejemplos contestanos de una arquitectura monumental doméstica. Finalmente, dicho análisis nos conduce a una serie de consideraciones sociales y políticas que explican la aparición de estos edificios en el Sureste peninsular a fines del s. VI a.C.

  13. Depths to Ice-cemented Soils in High-elevation Quartermain Mountains, Dry Valleys, Antarctica, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is comprised of four surveyed valleys focusing on the depth to ground ice in the high-elevation Quartermain Mountains in the Beacon Valley area:...

  14. The research on the buried public monumental complexes of Lupiae (Lecce) by geophysical prospecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leucci, Giovanni; De Giorgi, Lara; Di Giacomo, Giacomo; Ditaranto, Imma; Miccoli, Ilaria; Scardozzi, Giuseppe

    2017-10-01

    Ongoing and extensive urbanisation may threaten important archaeological structures that are still buried in urban areas. The ground penetrating radar (GPR) method is the most promising alternative for resolving buried archaeological structures in urban territories. This paper presents a case study that involves a geophysical survey employing the surface three-dimensional (3D) GPR techniques, in order to archaeologically characterise the investigated areas. The site is located in the south-western sector of the historical centre of Lecce (Apulia, Italy), where the modern city overlaps the main public monuments of the Roman municipium of Lupiae, only partially preserved or excavated: the amphitheatre, the theatre, the baths and maybe also the Forum. GPR measurements, integrated with the results of archaeological excavations and the topographical surveys of the preserved remains, were carried out in several areas regarding sectors of the ancient roman city. The GPR data were collected along a dense network of parallel profiles. The GPR sections were processed applying specific filters to the data in order to enhance their information content. The GPR images significantly contributed in reconstructing the complex subsurface properties in these modern urban areas. Strong GPR reflections features were correlated with possible ancient structures and they were integrated in the digital archaeological map of the city.

  15. Ground water in Fountain and Jimmy Camp Valleys, El Paso County, Colorado with a section on Computations of drawdowns caused by the pumping of wells in Fountain Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Edward D.; Glover, Robert E.

    1964-01-01

    The part of Fountain Valley considered in this report extends from Colorado Springs to the Pueblo County line. It is 23 miles long and has an area of 26 square miles. The part of Jimmy Camp Valley discussed is 11 miles long and has an area of 9 square miles. The topography is characterized by level flood plains and alluvial terraces that parallel the valley and by rather steep hills along the valley sides. The climate is semiarid, average annual precipitation being about 13 inches. Farming and stock raising are the principal occupations in the valleys; however, some of the agricultural land near Colorado Springs is being used for housing developments. The Pierre Shale and alluvium underlie most of the area, and mesa gravel caps the shale hills adjacent to Fountain Valley. The alluvium yields water to domestic, stock, irrigation, and public-supply wells and is capable of yielding large quantities of water for intermittent periods. Several springs issue along the sides of the valley at the contact of the mesa gravel and the underlying Pierre Shale. The water table ranges in depth from less than 10 feet along the bottom lands to about 80 feet along the sides of the valleys; the saturated thickness ranges from less than a foot to about 50 feet. The ground-water reservoir in Fountain Valley is recharged by precipitation that falls within the area, by percolation from Fountain Creek, which originates in the Pikes Peak, Monument Valley, and Rampart Range areas, and by seepage from irrigation water. This reservoir contains about 70,000 acre-feet of ground water in storage. The ground-water reservoir in Jimmy Camp Valley is recharged from precipitation that falls within the area, by percolation from Jimmy Camp Creek during periods of streamflow, and by seepage from irrigation water. The Jimmy Camp ground-water reservoir contains about 25,000 acre-feet of water in storage. Ground water is discharged from the area by movement to the south, by evaporation and transpiration in

  16. X-ray fluorescence in research on Czech cultural monuments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cechak, T.; Gerndt, J.; Kopecka, I.; Musilek, L.

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis (RXRFA), as a non-destructive method, relatively simple and allowing measurements to be carried out in situ, is an excellent tool in research on various objects of art. A range of artefacts have been investigated by our laboratory, in part for the purposes of history of art and in part as a basis for restoration works - medieval frescoes in some Czech castles and churches, metal sculptures and objects of applied art, paints and inks of old manuscripts, paintings. Some of these are among the most valuable monuments in the Czech cultural heritage. The contribution of the results of the tests to the investigation of their 'life story' and, in some cases, to their conservation, is not negligible. Later additions and repairs can be recognised, and materials and technologies that are close to their historic counterparts can be used in restoration work

  17. Public works: Building a Monument to Modern Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anayvelyse Allen-Mossman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between the project of modernity and urbanism has been key to understanding the city of Buenos Aires’ material transformations throughout the 20th century. This paper considers how thinking about the issues of modernity and urbanism from the perspective of monuments--namely, the Obelisk of Buenos Aires--sheds new light on how elements of this modernizing project were undertaken and how its material markers have been used and manipulated, and modified through their representation in cultural discourse on the city. Rethinking Buenos Aires from the Obelisk implies literally thinking from underground, from the subway lines that form its base and transform it into a popular symbol of mobility.

  18. Monuments deterioration evaluation, using digited images. A methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel, María C.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work a methodology is proposed for data processing, integrating the techniques of digital images processing and the analytical capacity of graphical referencing systems and relational databases, in relation with the monuments. The images are generated using the digital image processing and they are included into a graphical data processing systems associated with a database containing the characteristics of the ashars or constituent elements. By combination of the images with the database induced properties the information is processed. The results are thematic maps that we save such as images. These maps are layers of new information (deduced levels. The elaboration of these maps allows attacking the problems of the restoration, renovation or treatment of the different monumental spaces on a global way, paying special attention on the most gravely affected areas.

    En este trabajo se propone una metodología para el tratamiento de la información, integrando las técnicas de proceso digital de imágenes, la capacidad de análisis de los sistemas de referenciación gráfica y las bases de datos relacionales, referidas a monumentos. Para ello se elaboran las imágenes base por algoritmos propios del proceso digital, incluyendo aquellas en una aplicación especifica que asocia cada capa a una base de datos con las propiedades petrofísicas, hídricas, etc., o bien entre si, dando lugar a mapas temáticos. La generación de estos mapas permite abordar los problemas de restauración, rehabilitación o tratamiento de los diferentes espacios monumentales de forma global, con incidencia especial en las zonas más afectadas.

  19. Geologic Map of the House Rock Valley Area, Coconino County, Northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, George H.; Priest, Susan S.

    2010-01-01

    This geologic map is a cooperative effort of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Bureau of Land Management, the National Park Service, and the U.S. Forest Service to provide a geologic database for resource management officials and visitor information services. This map was produced in response to information needs related to a proposed withdrawal of three segregated land areas near Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, from new hard rock mining activity. House Rock Valley was designated as the east parcel of the segregated lands near the Grand Canyon. This map was needed to provide connectivity for the geologic framework of the Grand Canyon segregated land areas. This geologic map of the House Rock Valley area encompasses approximately 280 mi2 (85.4 km2) within Coconino County, northern Arizona, and is bounded by longitude 111 degrees 37'30' to 112 degrees 05' W. and latitude 36 degrees 30' to 36 degrees 50' N. The map area is in the eastern part of the Arizona Strip, which lies within the southern Colorado Plateaus geologic province (herein Colorado Plateau). The Arizona Strip is the part of Arizona lying north of the Colorado River. The map is bound on the east by the Colorado River in Marble Canyon within Grand Canyon National Park and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, on the south and west by the Kaibab National Forest and Grand Canyon National Game Preserve, and on the north by the Vermilion Cliffs Natural Area, the Paria Canyon Vermilion Cliffs Wilderness Area, and the Vermilion Cliffs National Monument. House Rock State Buffalo Ranch also bounds the southern edge of the map area. The Bureau of Land Management Arizona Field Office in St. George, Utah, manages public lands of the Vermilion Cliffs Natural Area, Paria Canyon - Vermilion Cliffs Wilderness and Vermilion Cliffs National Monument. The North Kaibab Ranger District in Fredonia, Arizona, manages U.S. Forest Service land along the west edge of the map area and House Rock State Buffalo Ranch

  20. Geothermal resource assessment of western San Luis Valley, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharakis, Ted G.; Pearl, Richard Howard; Ringrose, Charles D.

    1983-01-01

    The Colorado Geological Survey initiated and carried out a fully integrated assessment program of the geothermal resource potential of the western San Luis Valley during 1979 and 1980. The San Luis Valley is a large intermontane basin located in southcentral Colorado. While thermal springs and wells are found throughout the Valley, the only thermal waters found along the western part of the Valley are found at Shaw Warm Springs which is a relatively unused spring located approximately 6 miles (9.66 km) north of Del Norte, Colorado. The waters at Shaws Warm Spring have a temperature of 86 F (30 C), a discharge of 40 gallons per minute and contain approximately 408 mg/l of total dissolved solids. The assessment program carried out din the western San Luis Valley consisted of: soil mercury geochemical surveys; geothermal gradient drilling; and dipole-dipole electrical resistivity traverses, Schlumberger soundings, Audio-magnetotelluric surveys, telluric surveys, and time-domain electro-magnetic soundings and seismic surveys. Shaw Warm Springs appears to be the only source of thermal waters along the western side of the Valley. From the various investigations conducted the springs appear to be fault controlled and is very limited in extent. Based on best evidence presently available estimates are presented on the size and extent of Shaw Warm Springs thermal system. It is estimated that this could have an areal extent of 0.63 sq. miles (1.62 sq. km) and contain 0.0148 Q's of heat energy.

  1. U.S. Geological Survey Subsidence Interest Group conference, Edwards Air Force Base, Antelope Valley, California, November 18-19, 1992; abstracts and summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Keith R.; Galloway, Devin L.; Leake, Stanley A.

    1995-01-01

    Land subsidence, the loss of surface elevation as a result of the removal of subsurface support, affects every state in the United States. More than 17,000 mi2 of land in the United States has been lowered by the various processes that produce land subsidence with annual costs from resulting flooding and structural damage that exceed $125 million. It is estimated that an additional $400 million is spent nationwide in attempts to control subsidence. Common causes of land subsidence include the removal of oil, gas, and water from underground reservoirs; dissolution of limestone aquifers (sinkholes); underground mining activities; drainage of organic soils; and hydrocompaction (the initial wetting of dry soils). Overdrafting of aquifers is the major cause of areally extensive land subsidence, and as ground-water pumping increases, land subsidence also will increase. Land subsidence and its effects on engineering structures have been recognized for centuries, but it was not until this century that the processes that produce land subsidence were identified and understood. In 1928, while working with field data from a test of the Dakota Sandstone aquifer, O.E. Meinzer of the U.S. Geological Survey recognized the compressibility of aquifers. Around the same time, Karl Terzaghi, a soil scientist working at Harvard University, developed the one-dimensional consolidation theory that provided a quantitative means of predicting soil compaction resulting from the drainage of compressible soils. Thus, with the recognition of the compressibility of aquifers (Meinzer), and the development of a quantitative means of predicting soil compaction as a consequence of the reduction of intergranular pore pressure (Terzaghi), the theory of aquifer-system compaction was formed. With the widespread availa- bility of electric power in rural areas, and the advent of the deep turbine pump, ground-water withdrawals increased dramatically throughout the country in the 1940's and 1950's. Along

  2. a Microgravity Survey to Determine the Extent of AN Andesitic Sill that Intrudes across the Rio Grande River Basin, Rio Grande Rift Valley, Sunland Park, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, L. A.; Shinagel, S.; Villalobos, J. I.; Avila, V.; Montana, C. J.; Kaip, G.

    2012-12-01

    In Sunland Park, NM, there is an andesite outcrop near the bank of the Rio Grande (called the River Andesite) which does not match the surrounding sedimentary deposition. Studies of the River Andesite by Garcia (1970) indicate the outcrop is petrologically similar to the Muleros Andesite of Mt. Cristo Rey located several km to the south. A limited GPR and magnetic survey conducted by UTEP students in 2008 suggested the River Andesite was part of a dike, although Garcia mapped smaller outcrops of andesite ~300 m west of the river that may be part of the same body. We have recently (June 2012) found large andesite boulders that may be the outcrops Garcia mapped, although it is uncertain whether these boulders are in-situ. We initially collected microgravity and magnetic data in a small region near the river outcrop in December 2011 to determine the extent of the outcrop. Our preliminary modeling of these data showed the river outcrop appeared to merge with a more extensive igneous body at depth. Ground conductivity data collected near the river outcrop in March 2012 suggested that the outcrop impacts groundwater flow and sediment deposition adjacent to the river. From May through July 2012 we have been collecting additional microgravity data on a grid with 100-200 m spacing extending ~ 500 m from both sides of the river outcrop to better determine the extent of the buried andesite body. We also plan to conduct GPR and magnetic surveys near the recently discovered andesite boulders to determine if these are truly in-situ and part of the same igneous body as the river outcrop. Our eventual goal is to determine how extensive the andesite unit is and how it may impact groundwater flow and flooding in this area of growing urbanization.

  3. Classification and recognition of the heritage values of the monuments of Tlemcen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Hamma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The first classification of historic monuments of Tlemcen dates from 1900 and the last from 2010. The 82 monuments date back to the Berber, Muslim and Roman eras. After the independence of Algeria, the French colonial heritage is not concerned by the rankings. They were removed from the list of monuments that was established by the French before 1962. The historic city of Tlemcen dates from the year 201 AD and features many old buildings. The latest ranking list does not reflect the architectural richness of this city. We then asked about the possibility of classifying the other historic buildings. From this questioning, we first identified all cultural goods which could be classified. Then we have evaluated these buildings following a grid of 20 heritage values. They are mentioned in the national and international legislation. It turns out that only 1.57 % of monuments of this city are classified.

  4. DEGRADATION WORKS OF MONUMENTAL ART CAST BRONZE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia NICA-BADEA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Intensive pollution, combined with the lack of conservation of monuments exposed to these environments make the main cause of deterioration of cultural objects to atmospheric corrosion metal. This paper proposes a study of the main factors leading to degradation Bronze alloy, cast bronze monuments exposed to open atmosphere: corrosive environmental factors, stability and products of corrosion of bronze. In general, all corrosion products present on a metal surface are indicated as 'skate', can be composed of single-layer or multilayer products. The paper also includes a case study on the influence of environmental factors on degradation Matthias monument statue in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Visual inspection of the monument informs us that have white spots, gray, reddish not consistent with the base color green patina, surfaces showing depigmentation, the rain washed areas, crystallization, deposition of air-borne particles.

  5. 78 FR 18777 - Establishment of the Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... father's military service as a Union soldier during the Civil War, and he heeded his father's advice by... appropriation; however, the monument shall be the dominant reservation. Warning is hereby given to all...

  6. Pullman transportation plan : a transportation and access plan for Pullman National Monument and the surrounding neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The Pullman Transportation Plan provides a holistic set of recommendations to improve access to and from Pullman National Monument and its surrounding neighborhoods for both visitors and residents. In this plan, we identify short-, medium-, and long-...

  7. A brief geological history of Cockspur Island at Fort Pulaski National Monument, Chatham County, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, Christopher S.; Seefelt, Ellen L.; Parker, Mercer

    2018-03-09

    Fort Pulaski National Monument is located on Cockspur Island in Chatham County, Georgia, within the Atlantic Coastal Plain province. The island lies near the mouth of the Savannah River, and consists of small mounds (hummocks), salt marshes, and sediment dredged from the river. A 1,017-foot (ft) (310-meter [m])-deep core drilled at Cockspur Island in 2010 by the U.S. Geological Survey revealed several sedimentary units ranging in age from 43 million years old to present. Sand and mud are present at drilling depths from 0 to 182 ft (56 m), limestone is present at depths from 182 ft (56 m) to 965 ft (295 m), and glauconitic sand is present at depths from 965 ft (295 m) to 1,017 ft (310 m). The limestone and the water within the limestone are referred to collectively as the Floridan aquifer system, which is the primary source of drinking water for the City of Savannah and surrounding communities. In addition to details of the subsurface geology, this fact sheet identifies the following geologic materials used in the construction of Fort Pulaski: (1) granite, (2) bricks, (3) sandstone, and (4) lime mud with oyster shells.

  8. Water-resources investigations in Dinosaur National Monument, Utah-Colorado, fiscal year 1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumsion, C.T.

    1971-01-01

    Water-resources data were acquired during fiscal year 1970 by the U.S. Geological Survey at Dinosaur National Monument, Utah-Colorado, for the U.S. National Park Service as part of a continuing project. The data provide a basis for planning the development, management, and use of the available water resources to provide adequate water supplies. Thirty-one springs, 19 in relatively inaccessible areas, were evaluated as sources of water supplies. Seven potential well sites were evaluated for drilling depths in specific aquifers. A well drilled in Echo Park near the confluence of the Green and Yampa Rivers was tested. The pumping test showed the well to yield 130 gallons per minute with a drawdown of 1.96 feet; specific capacity of the well at 130 gallons per minute is 66 gallons per minute per foot. Water samples for chemical analysis were - collected from nine springs and one well; all except that from Disappointment Spring, were of good chemical quality.

  9. Intrasite motions and monument instabilities at Medicina ITRF co-location site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarti, Pierguido; Abbondanza, Claudio; Legrand, Juliette; Bruyninx, Carine; Vittuari, Luca; Ray, Jim

    2013-03-01

    We process the total-station surveys performed at the ITRF co-location site Medicina (Northern Italy) over the decade (2001-2010) with the purpose of determining the extent of local intrasite motions and relating them to local geophysical processes, the geological setting and the design of the ground pillars. In addition, continuous observations acquired by two co-located GPS stations (MEDI and MSEL separated by ≈27 m) are analysed and their relative motion is cross-checked with the total-station results. The local ground control network extends over a small area (<100 × 100 m) but the results demonstrate significant anisotropic deformations with rates up to 1.6 mm a-1, primarily horizontal, a value comparable to intraplate tectonic deformations. The results derived from GPS and total-station observations are consistent and point to the presence of horizontal intrasite motions over very short distances possibly associated with varying environmental conditions in a very unfavourable local geological setting and unsuitable monument design, these latter being crucial aspects of the realization and maintenance of global permanent geodetic networks and the global terrestrial reference frame.

  10. Ecology of juvenile hawksbills (Eretmochelys imbricata) at Buck Island Reef National Monument, US Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kristen M.; Sartain-Iverson, Autumn R.; Hillis-Starr, Zandy; Phillips, Brendalee; Mayor, Philippe A.; Roberson, Kimberly; Pemberton, Roy A.; Allen, Jason B.; Lundgren, Ian; Musick, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Surveys of juvenile hawksbills around Buck Island Reef National Monument, US Virgin Islands from 1994 to 1999 revealed distributional patterns and resulted in a total of 75 individual hawksbill captures from all years; turtles ranged from 23.2 to 77.7 cm curved carapace length (CCL; mean 42.1 ± 12.3 cm SD). Juveniles concentrated where Zoanthid cover was highest. Length of time between recaptures, or presumed minimum site residency, ranged from 59 to 1,396 days (mean 620.8 ± 402.4 days SD). Growth rates for 23 juveniles ranged from 0.0 to 9.5 cm year−1 (mean 4.1 ± 2.4 cm year−1SD). Annual mean growth rates were non-monotonic, with the largest mean growth rate occurring in the 30–39 cm CCL size class. Gastric lavages indicated that Zoanthids were the primary food source for hawksbills. These results contribute to our understanding of juvenile hawksbill ecology and serve as a baseline for future studies or inventories of hawksbills in the Caribbean.

  11. Visceral leishmaniasis in selected communities of Hamar and Banna-Tsamai districts in Lower Omo Valley, South West Ethiopia: Sero-epidemological and Leishmanin Skin Test Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitsum Bekele

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis [VL] is a debilitating parasitic disease which invariably kills untreated patients. The disease is caused by Leishmania (L. donovani or L. infantum, and transmitted by the bite of female phlebotomine sandflies. VL often remains subclinical but can become symptomatic with an acute/subacute or chronic course. Globally, the Eastern Africa region is one of the main VL endemic areas. The disease is prevalent in numerous foci within Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan South Sudan, and Uganda. In Ethiopia, the Lower Omo plain is one of the many VL endemic regions.The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic visceral leishmaniasisin Hamar and Banna-Tsamai districts of the South Omo plains where VL is becoming an emerging health problem of neglected communities.A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 between 25th of July and 14th of August. A total of 1682 individuals living in 404 households were included in the study. Socio-demographic and clinical data were collected from each of the participants and venous blood was also collected for the detection of antibodies to visceral leishmaniasis using Direct Agglutination Test. Leishmanin Skin Test was performed to detect the exposure to the parasite.The surveys included 14 villages located in areas where VL had been reported. In a study population of 1682 individuals, the overall positive leishmanian skin test and sero-prevalence rates respectively were 8.6% and 1.8%. A statistically significant variation in the rate of positive LST response was observed in different study sites and age groups. Positive LST response showed an increasing trend with age. The sero-prevalence rate also showed a statistically significant variation among different study sites. Higher rates of sero-prevalence were observed in children and adolescents. The LST and sero-prevalence rates in Hamar District exceeded significantly that of Banna

  12. Microchemical identification of macael white marble in some spanish monuments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bello, M. A.

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available The white marble from Macael quarries (Almería, Spain has been identified in some monuments of the Southern of Spain; the use of other white marble types has also been confirmed. The microchemical identification has been carried out by means a previously described graphical method (Bello and Martín,1991. Fourteen trace elements have been analyzed from both quarry and building material samples by using atomic absorption and flame emission spectrometry in order to apply the enrichment diagrams for trace elements (EDTE for identification purposes.

    Ha sido confirmado el empleo del mármol blanco procedente de las canteras de Macael (Almería en varios monumentos del Sur de España; también se ha constatado el empleo de otros tipos de mármol blanco. La identificación del mármol de Macael mediante técnicas microquícas ha sido realizada mediante un método gráfico propuesto por los autores (1. Han sido analizados catorce elementos traza en las muestras de cantera y de los edificios mediante espectrofotometría de absorción atómica y de emisión de llama, al objeto de construir los diagramas de enriquecimiento de elementos traza (EDTE, con fines de identificación.

  13. Seismic and Restoration Assessment of Monumental Masonry Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis G. Asteris

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Masonry structures are complex systems that require detailed knowledge and information regarding their response under seismic excitations. Appropriate modelling of a masonry structure is a prerequisite for a reliable earthquake-resistant design and/or assessment. However, modelling a real structure with a robust quantitative (mathematical representation is a very difficult, complex and computationally-demanding task. The paper herein presents a new stochastic computational framework for earthquake-resistant design of masonry structural systems. The proposed framework is based on the probabilistic behavior of crucial parameters, such as material strength and seismic characteristics, and utilizes fragility analysis based on different failure criteria for the masonry material. The application of the proposed methodology is illustrated in the case of a historical and monumental masonry structure, namely the assessment of the seismic vulnerability of the Kaisariani Monastery, a byzantine church that was built in Athens, Greece, at the end of the 11th to the beginning of the 12th century. Useful conclusions are drawn regarding the effectiveness of the intervention techniques used for the reduction of the vulnerability of the case-study structure, by means of comparison of the results obtained.

  14. Seismic and Restoration Assessment of Monumental Masonry Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asteris, Panagiotis G.; Douvika, Maria G.; Apostolopoulou, Maria; Moropoulou, Antonia

    2017-01-01

    Masonry structures are complex systems that require detailed knowledge and information regarding their response under seismic excitations. Appropriate modelling of a masonry structure is a prerequisite for a reliable earthquake-resistant design and/or assessment. However, modelling a real structure with a robust quantitative (mathematical) representation is a very difficult, complex and computationally-demanding task. The paper herein presents a new stochastic computational framework for earthquake-resistant design of masonry structural systems. The proposed framework is based on the probabilistic behavior of crucial parameters, such as material strength and seismic characteristics, and utilizes fragility analysis based on different failure criteria for the masonry material. The application of the proposed methodology is illustrated in the case of a historical and monumental masonry structure, namely the assessment of the seismic vulnerability of the Kaisariani Monastery, a byzantine church that was built in Athens, Greece, at the end of the 11th to the beginning of the 12th century. Useful conclusions are drawn regarding the effectiveness of the intervention techniques used for the reduction of the vulnerability of the case-study structure, by means of comparison of the results obtained. PMID:28767073

  15. Mountains, Monuments, and other Matter: Environmental Affects at Manzanar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladino, Jennifer K.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay investigates the natural landscapes and built structures at the Manzanar National Historic Site, the first of ten incarceration camps to open in 1941 and a temporary home for over 11,000 Japanese Americans. Using former incarceree Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston’s writing as a touchstone, my essay foregrounds the environmental features of the (relocation: the extreme desert weather, the mountain vistas, the incarceree-created rock gardens, the reconstructed barracks, guard tower, and barbed wire fence, and the cemetery/monument. I bring together concepts from ecocriticism and from affect theory—particularly Ben Anderson’s “affective atmospheres,” Sianne Ngai’s “tone,” and Sara Ahmed’s characterization of affect as “sticky”—and develop the notion of affective agency to describe the impacts generated by environments and objects at this national memory site. I assess how the visual and written rhetoric at the site addresses what I call an implied tourist, and I show how powerful emotions of shame, anger, grief, and compassion—and sometimes, mixed, even contradictory, affects—are not only represented in visual and written rhetoric but are also, in a sense, communicated by the environment itself. More broadly, I suggest that ecocritical theory brings a useful lens to discussions of public memory, and that affect theory helps account for the less tangible, visceral, experiences visitors have at Manzanar and other fraught historical sites, as well as within our everyday environments.

  16. Reconnaissance Report of Damage to Historic Monuments in Cairo, Egypt Following the October 12, 1992 Dahshur Earthquake

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sykora, D

    1993-01-01

    .... Damage to historic monuments can be generally described as having resulted from the continuous degradation of foundation and structural masonry from environmental effects, especially groundwater...

  17. Breathing Valley Fever

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-04

    Dr. Duc Vugia, chief of the Infectious Diseases Branch in the California Department of Public Health, discusses Valley Fever.  Created: 2/4/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/5/2014.

  18. Groundwater quality and simulation of sources of water to wells in the Marsh Creek valley at the U.S. Geological Survey Northern Appalachian Research Laboratory, Tioga County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Dennis W.; Breen, Kevin J.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a November 2010 snapshot of groundwater quality and an analysis of the sources of water to wells at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Northern Appalachian Research Laboratory (NARL) near Wellsboro, Pennsylvania. The laboratory, which conducts fisheries research, currently (2011) withdraws 1,000 gallons per minute of high-quality groundwater from three wells completed in the glacial sand and gravel aquifer beneath the Marsh Creek valley; a fourth well that taps the same aquifer provides the potable supply for the facility. The study was conducted to document the source areas and quality of the water supply for this Department of Interior facility, which is surrounded by the ongoing development of natural gas from the Marcellus Shale. Groundwater samples were collected from the four wells used by the NARL and from two nearby domestic-supply wells. The domestic-supply wells withdraw groundwater from bedrock of the Catskill Formation. Samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, trace metals, radiochemicals, dissolved gases, and stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in water and carbon in dissolved carbonate to document groundwater quality. Organic constituents (other than hydrocarbon gases) associated with hydraulic fracturing and other human activities were not analyzed as part of this assessment. Results show low concentrations of all constituents. Only radon, which ranged from 980 to 1,310 picocuries per liter, was somewhat elevated. These findings are consistent with the pristine nature of the aquifer in the Marsh Creek valley, which is the reason the laboratory was sited at this location. The sources of water and areas contributing recharge to wells were identified by the use of a previously documented MODFLOW groundwater-flow model for the following conditions: (1) withdrawals of 1,000 to 3,000 gallons per minute from the NARL wells, (2) average or dry hydrologic conditions, and (3) withdrawals of 1,000 gallons per minute from a new

  19. Activities of the Volgograd Branch of All-Russian Society for Protection of Historical and Cultural Monuments on the Protection of Labour Glory Monuments of the Soviet People in the 1970s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filatov Dmitriy N.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the causes and origins of the all-Russian society for protection of monuments of history and culture. On the basis of archival documents the author shows the appearance of the Volgograd branch of all-Russian society of protection of monuments of history and culture. The author describes its activities on studying, preserving and promoting the monuments of history and culture of the Volgograd region in the 1970s. The author discusses the causes of establishing in 1974 the section of the regional Department for the protection and promotion of monuments of labour glory of the Soviet people. He indicates that its appearance in the structure of all-Russian society of protection of monuments of history and culture was associated with an increased conducted by the then government work on military-Patriotic education of youth. Under this policy, the section has been considered from the point of view of propaganda of Soviet history and focused on the identification, promotion and protection of monuments of history of Soviet society. The article studies its activities related to the identification, research, description, and preservation of monuments of labour achievements of the Soviet period. The author indicates the difficulties encountered after the adoption in 1976 of the USSR Law “On the protection and use of monuments of history and culture”, where the monuments of labour glory in a separate category werenot distinguished and were classified as historical monuments. The author describes the closure of the section of monuments to the labour of fame in 1979 and evaluates the results of the section, its contribution to the preservation of the cultural heritage of the Volgograd region.

  20. A Monument as a Text, or The Message of the Brothers Dostoevsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Zakharov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the circumstances of the creation of a monument to the writer's mother Maria Fyodorovna Dostoevskaya. Mikhail Andreevich, father of the brothers Dostoevsky, asked Mikhail and Fyodor to compose the text for the monument. In March and April of 1837 the brothers worked out the idea and conception of the monument, wrote the text of the first and fourth epigraphs, chose evangelic verses and an epitaph of N.M. Karamzin. This was their first collective act of creative work embodied in stone. The monument is not only a symbol of love and sorrow for their mother’s death but also hope for her salvation and future resurrection. The brothers’ words and those chosen from the Gospel as well as the Karamzin’s ones have one more meaning. These convey a sense of beingness and an Easter idea of individual creative work. It is necessary to renew the tomb of Maria Fyodorovna Dostoevskaya and bring the monument back to Lazarevskoye cemetery in Moscow.

  1. Monumentality and public space in Lourenço Marques in the 1930 and 1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerbert Verheij

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lourenço Marques, actual Maputo (Mozambique, is subjected to a series of aesthetic interventions in its public space during the 1930s e 1940s. These seek to “monumentalize” and “portugalize” the city, responding to its recently acquired status as capital of the Colony. Two monuments appear as especially important and exemplary: the Padrão de Guerra, a lately built First War memorial (1935, and the monument to the hero of the “pacification campaigns” of the 1890s, Mouzinho de Albuquerque (1940. Around these monuments, a large number of commemorative and celebrative practices are developed. Such practices posit the monument as a “national allegory” and reproduce, in the context of a modern city, auratic and cult values. As such, they add an important dimension to the monument’s role in the authoritarian reformulation of the city’s public space as an “imperial” space, as well as in the putative hegemonization of the representations of the community imagined as a “Nation”. They allow, therefore, to approach the political-ideological use and utility of the monument within the organization of public space.

  2. Understanding and managing experiential aspects of soundscapes at Muir woods national monument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Ericka J; Newman, Peter; Manning, Robert E

    2009-03-01

    Research has found that human-caused noise can detract from the quality of the visitor experience in national parks and related areas. Moreover, impacts to the visitor experience can be managed by formulating indicators and standards of quality as suggested in park and outdoor recreation management frameworks, such as Visitor Experience and Resource Protection (VERP), as developed by the U.S. National Park Service. The research reported in this article supports the formulation of indicators and standards of quality for human-caused noise at Muir Woods National Monument, California. Phase I identified potential indicators of quality for the soundscape of Muir Woods. A visitor "listening exercise" was conducted, where respondents identified natural and human-caused sounds heard in the park and rated the degree to which each sound was "pleasing" or "annoying." Certain visitor-caused sounds such as groups talking were heard by most respondents and were rated as annoying, suggesting that these sounds may be a good indicator of quality. Loud groups were heard by few people but were rated as highly annoying, whereas wind and water were heard by most visitors and were rated as highly pleasing. Phase II measured standards of quality for visitor-caused noise. Visitors were presented with a series of 30-second audio clips representing increasing amounts of visitor-caused sound in the park. Respondents were asked to rate the acceptability of each audio clip on a survey. Findings suggest a threshold at which visitor-caused sound is judged to be unacceptable, and is therefore considered as noise. A parallel program of sound monitoring in the park found that current levels of visitor-caused sound sometimes violate this threshold. Study findings provide an empirical basis to help formulate noise-related indicators and standards of quality in parks and related areas.

  3. Monumental Masonry Buildings Pre-Assessment Method Based on Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem VATAN

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the construction period, geometrical typology, construction and organization of the structure, element size and construction material of historic monumental structures; constructed with bricks, stones, adobe and mortar, are diverse and very complicated. Structural safety is guaranteed by the codes, guidelines, and specifications for recently constructed concrete and steel buildings, but there is no specific criterion for evaluating the historic monumental buildings. This study presents a scoring system method for classifying the risk level of the historic monumental structures based on visual information. This method is based on the acquisition of visual data of the building by using the developed building inspection form, storage of the acquired data on the web database and evaluation of the risk score of the inspected building automatically by the computer database system.

  4. 3 CFR 8335 - Proclamation 8335 of January 6, 2009. Establishment of the Marianas Trench Marine National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... significant subsistence, cultural and religious uses within the monument; 4. a program to assess and promote monument-related scientific exploration and research, tourism, and recreational and economic activities and... and enforcement necessary to ensure that scientific exploration and research, tourism, and...

  5. 75 FR 21034 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Agua Fria National Monument and Bradshaw...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ....241A] Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Agua Fria National Monument and Bradshaw... availability of the Record of Decision (ROD)/Approved Resource Management Plan (RMP) for the Agua Fria National... of the planning area during prehistoric or historic times. The Agua Fria National Monument includes...

  6. Water resources of Parowan Valley, Iron County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Thomas M.

    2017-08-29

    Parowan Valley, in Iron County, Utah, covers about 160 square miles west of the Red Cliffs and includes the towns of Parowan, Paragonah, and Summit. The valley is a structural depression formed by northwest-trending faults and is, essentially, a closed surface-water basin although a small part of the valley at the southwestern end drains into the adjacent Cedar Valley. Groundwater occurs in and has been developed mainly from the unconsolidated basin-fill aquifer. Long-term downward trends in groundwater levels have been documented by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since the mid-1950s. The water resources of Parowan Valley were assessed during 2012 to 2014 with an emphasis on refining the understanding of the groundwater and surface-water systems and updating the groundwater budget.Surface-water discharge of five perennial mountain streams that enter Parowan Valley was measured from 2013 to 2014. The total annual surface-water discharge of the five streams during 2013 to 2014 was about 18,000 acre-feet (acre-ft) compared to the average annual streamflow of about 22,000 acre-ft from USGS streamgages operated on the three largest of these streams from the 1940s to the 1980s. The largest stream, Parowan Creek, contributes more than 50 percent of the annual surface-water discharge to the valley, with smaller amounts contributed by Red, Summit, Little, and Cottonwood Creeks.Average annual recharge to the Parowan Valley groundwater system was estimated to be about 25,000 acre-ft from 1994 to 2013. Nearly all recharge occurs as direct infiltration of snowmelt and rainfall on the Markagunt Plateau east of the valley. Smaller amounts of recharge occur as infiltration of streamflow and unconsumed irrigation water near the east side of the valley on alluvial fans associated with mountain streams at the foot of the Red Cliffs. Subsurface flow from the mountain block to the east of the valley is a significant source of groundwater recharge to the basin-fill aquifer

  7. 77 FR 33237 - Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death Valley National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death Valley National Park, Inyo... an Environmental Impact Statement for the Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan, Death Valley... analysis process for the Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan for Death Valley [[Page 33238...

  8. The California Valley grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J.E.; Schoenherr, Allan A.

    1990-01-01

    Grasslands are distributed throughout California from Oregon to Baja California Norte and from the coast to the desert (Brown 1982) (Figure 1). This review will focus on the dominant formation in cismontane California, a community referred to as Valley Grassland (Munz 1959). Today, Valley Grassland is dominated by non-native annual grasses in genera such as Avena (wild oat), Bromus (brome grass), and Hordeum (barley), and is often referred to as the California annual grassland. On localized sites, native perennial bunchgrasses such as Stipa pultra (purple needle grass) may dominate and such sites are interpreted to be remnants of the pristine valley grassland. In northwestern California a floristically distinct formation of the Valley Grassland, known as Coast Prairie (Munz 1959) or Northern Coastal Grassland (Holland and Keil 1989) is recognized. The dominant grasses include many native perennial bunchgrasses in genera such as Agrostis, Calamagrostis, Danthonia, Deschampsia, Festuca, Koeleria and Poa (Heady et al. 1977). Non-native annuals do not dominate, but on some sites non-native perennials like Anthoxanthum odoratum may colonize the native grassland (Foin and Hektner 1986). Elevationally, California's grasslands extend from sea level to at leas 1500 m. The upper boundary is vague because montane grassland formations are commonly referred to as meadows; a community which Munz (1959) does not recognize. Holland and Keil (1989) describe the montane meadow as an azonal community; that is, a community restricted not so much to a particular climatic zone but rather controlled by substrate characteristics. They consider poor soil-drainage an over-riding factor in the development of montane meadows and, in contrast to grasslands, meadows often remain green through the summer drought. Floristically, meadows are composed of graminoids; Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, and rhizomatous grasses such as Agropyron (wheat grass). Some bunchgrasses, such as Muhlenbergia rigens, are

  9. Gravity-induced stress as a factor reducing decay of sandstone monuments in Petra, Jordan

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řihošek, J.; Bruthans, J.; Mašín, D.; Filippi, Michal; Carling, G. T.; Schweigstillová, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 19, 1 May (2016), s. 415-425 ISSN 1296-2074 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-28040S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 ; RVO:67985891 Keywords : Decay * Petra * sandstone monument * stability * stress Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.838, year: 2016

  10. Optimal setpoint operation of the climate control of a monumental church

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.; Neilen, D.; Schellen, H.L.; Aarle, van M.A.P.; Carmeliet, J.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the characteristics of the Walloon Church in Delft (Netherlands) and a description of constraints for the indoor climate, giving criteria for the indoor air temperature and relative humidity with the focus on the preservation of the monumental organ. The setpoint operation of the

  11. Optimal setpoint operation of the climate controle of a monumental church

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the characteristics of the Walloon Church in Delft (Netherlands) and a description of constraints for the indoor climate, giving criteria for the indoor air temperature and relative humidity with the focus on the preservation of the monumental organ. The setpoint operation of the

  12. 78 FR 18783 - Establishment of the R[iacute]o Grande del Norte National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... protection of religious and cultural sites in the monument and provide access to the sites by members of... Indian Religious Freedom Act (92 Stat. 469, 42 U.S.C. 1996) and Executive Order 13007 of May 24, 1996 (Indian Sacred Sites). Laws, regulations, and policies followed by the BLM in issuing and administering...

  13. 41 CFR 102-75.455 - May historic monuments be used for revenue-producing activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., rehabilitation, restoration, and maintenance of the property; (c) Approves the grantee's plan for financing the... connection with the management, operation, or development of the property for revenue producing activities... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May historic monuments...

  14. Air Quality at Devils Postpile National Monument, Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel D. Burley; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Monica Buhler; Barbara Zielinska; Donald Schweizer; Ricardo Cisneros; Susan Schilling; Jennifer Chapman Varela; Mark McDaniel; Michelle Horn; Deanna Dulen

    2016-01-01

    Ambient concentrations of O3, PM2.5, NH3, NO, NO2, HNO3, SO2 and VOCs were measured at Devils Postpile National Monument (DEPO) during the summer seasons of 2013 and 2014. The measurements were impacted by the Aspen and Rim Fires in...

  15. Our National Monument of Art: Constructing and Debating the National Body at the Library of Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sarah J.

    2010-01-01

    It is not surprising that the Library of Congress would be defined as our national monument of art given the scale of the project, its federal sponsorship, and its posture as a public library with access to all Americans. Paralleling the assumption of the Library of Congress as not merely a building for housing books but a ritualistic center of…

  16. Monuments and energy efficiency between conservation and modernization; Denkmal und Energieeffizienz zwischen Konservierung und Anpassung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Roswitha [LWL - Amt fuer Denkmalpflege, Muenster (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Protection of monuments does not necessarily mean conservation of buildings in their original state, but modernization with a view to energy conservation should be an important goal as well. The contribution shows how the two goals can be combined. (orig./AKB)

  17. Pages of the phytomorphology history in the monuments of material culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Yu. Barshteyn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available It was reviewed Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome sources of plants morphology, plant morphology knowledge in Renaissance age – scientific works of Andrea Cesalpino, Joachim Jungius, Marcello Malpighi and plant morphology formation as the separate branch of science due to Johann Wolfgang von Goethe scientific works and its reflection in the monuments of material culture.

  18. Landscape of Memory. Commemorative monuments, memorials and public statuary in post-apartheid South-Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marschall, S.

    2010-01-01

    Under the aegis of post-apartheid government, much emphasis has been placed on the transformation and democratisation of the heritage sector in South Africa. The emergent new landscape of memory comprises a host of commemorative monuments, memorials and statues installed since 1994 to create a

  19. Indoor climate design for a monumental building with periodic high indoor moisture loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.; Lony, R.J.M.; Schellen, H.L.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a case study on the performance based design for the indoor climate of a monumental building with periodic high indoor moisture loads. Several scenarios of the past performance and new control classes are simulated and evaluated. The results include the influence of hygric inertia

  20. Indoor climate design for a monumental building with incidental high indoor moisture loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a study of the indoor climate of a monumental building with periodic high indoor moisture loads. Several scenarios of the past performance and new control classes are simulated and evaluated. The results include the influence of hygric inertia on the indoor climate and

  1. Permanent Transiency, Tele-visual Spectacle, and the Slum as Postcolonial Monument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dasgupta, S.

    2013-01-01

    With their makeshift structures and seemingly itinerant inhabitants, slums suggest transiency. Yet, like monuments, they acquire a paradoxical permanency in the context of continual social upheaval, the historical ebbs and flows of the nation-state, and the economic transformations engendered by

  2. 40 CFR 230.54 - Parks, national and historical monuments, national seashores, wilderness areas, research sites...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b... Human Use Characteristics § 230.54 Parks, national and historical monuments, national seashores... -managed. Note: Possible actions to minimize adverse impacts regarding site or material characteristics can...

  3. Historical floods in central Europe and their documentation by means of floodmarks and other epigraphical monuments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Munzar, Jan; Deutsch, M.; Elleder, L.; Ondráček, Stanislav; Kallabová, Eva; Hrádek, Mojmír

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 3 (2006), s. 26-44 ISSN 1210-8812 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3086601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : historical floods * floodmarks * epigraphical monuments * Central Europe Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  4. Rift Valley Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Amy

    2017-06-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe veterinary disease of livestock that also causes moderate to severe illness in people. The life cycle of RVF is complex and involves mosquitoes, livestock, people, and the environment. RVF virus is transmitted from either mosquitoes or farm animals to humans, but is generally not transmitted from person to person. People can develop different diseases after infection, including febrile illness, ocular disease, hemorrhagic fever, or encephalitis. There is a significant risk for emergence of RVF into new locations, which would affect human health and livestock industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Plant population and habitat characteristics of the endemic Sonoran Desert cactus Peniocereus striatus in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Greta; Rutman, Sue; Munson, Seth M.

    2010-01-01

    Peniocereus striatus (Brandegee) Buxb. (Cactaceae) is an endemic Sonoran Desert cactus that reaches its northern range limit in southwestern Arizona. One U.S. population occupies a small area of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument near the U.S./Mexico international boundary, which has been monitored since 1939. An extensive survey conducted in 2002, covering 177 ha, resulted in the discovery of 88 new plants, in addition to the relocation of 57 plants found in previous surveys. Despite potential increases in population size and spatial distribution, mean plant height and number of basal stems has not significantly changed in recent years. Bud scars revealed that a majority of the population was sexually mature. Peniocereus striatus occurrence increased with decreasing slope, spanned every slope aspect, and was highest on rocky soils, but was noticeably low on west and northwest slopes and areas where severe land degradation had previously occurred. Over half of P. striatus plants were nursed by shrubs and subshrubs, while 40% occurred under leguminous trees. A severe frost in January 2002 top-killed 19% of the population, with the greatest damage in drainage bottoms. However, long-term (1944–2002) climate records show that there has been an overall increase in the number of frost free days in the region, which, coupled with land use change, has implications for the future health of this population.

  6. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) file of topographic elevations for the Death Valley region of southern Nevada and southeastern California processed from US Geological Survey 1-degree Digital Elevation Model data files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, A.K.; D'Agnese, F.A.; Faunt, C.C.

    1996-01-01

    Elevation data have been compiled into a digital data base for an ∼100,000-km 2 area of the southern Great Basin, the Death Valley region of southern Nevada, and SE Calif., located between lat 35 degree N, long 115 degree W, and lat 38 degree N, long 118 degree W. This region includes the Nevada Test Site, Yucca Mountain, and adjacent parts of southern Nevada and eastern California and encompasses the Death Valley regional ground-water system. Because digital maps are often useful for applications other than that for which they were originally intended, and because the area corresponds to a region under continuing investigation by several groups, these digital files are being released by USGS

  7. Aburra Valley: Quo vadis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermelin, Michel

    2008-01-01

    These paper intents a brief description of the evolution that characterised natural risk prevention in the area surrounding the city of Medellin, Colombia, called the Aburra Valley. Both the lithological and structural composition of the Valle and its topographic and climatic conditions contribute to the abundance of destructive natural phenomena as earthquakes, slope movements, flash floods and, in a lower proportion, to floods. The population increase, which reaches now 3.5 millions inhabitants and the frequent occupation of sites exposed to natural hazards have resulted in numerous disasters. At present two entities called SIMPAD and DAPARD work on risk prevention, on city and department scale respectively. The amount of knowledge about physical environment is considered to be insufficient, together with regulations which should direct land use in accordance to restrictions related to natural hazards. Several seminars on this topic have already been carried out and the organisers of the present one, destined to commemorate the twentieth anniversary of the Villatina disaster, should make the decision to meet each two years. Furthermore, the creation of a permanent commission dedicated to study past events, to foster information broadcasting and to seek a better knowledge of the Aburra Valley, should be considered

  8. The Places of Memory in a Square of Monuments: Conceptions of Past, Freedom and History at Szabadság Tér

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Thorstensen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I try to approach contemporary Hungarian political culture through an analysis of the history of changing monuments at Szabadság Tér in Budapest. The paper has as its point of origin a protest/irredentist monument facing the present Soviet liberation monument. In order to understand this irredentist monument, I look into the meaning of the earlier irredentist monuments under Horthy and try to see what monuments were torn down under Communism and which ones remained. I further argue that changes in the other monuments also affect the meaning of the others. From this background I enter into a brief interpretation of changes in memory culture in relation to changes in political culture. The conclusions point toward the fact that Hungary is actively pursuing a cleansing of its past in public spaces, and that this process is reflected in an increased acceptance of political authoritarianism.

  9. 77 FR 59221 - Information Collection Activities: Timpanogos Cave National Monument Visitor and Community Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... of how each of the above management issue affects their overall quality of visit experience. Visitors... collect visitors and local community members' perceptions and evaluations of four management issues (1... management issues: (1) Cave tour size and frequency. (2) Ticketing process and fees. (3) Concession service...

  10. Valley development on Hawaiian volcanoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, V.R.; Gulick, V.C.

    1987-01-01

    Work in progress on Hawaiian drainage evolution indicates an important potential for understanding drainage development on Mars. Similar to Mars, the Hawaiian valleys were initiated by surface runoff, subsequently enlarged by groundwater sapping, and eventually stabilized as aquifers were depleted. Quantitative geomorphic measurements were used to evaluate the following factors in Hawaiian drainage evolution: climate, stream processes, and time. In comparing regions of similar climate, drainage density shows a general increase with the age of the volcani island. With age and climate held constant, sapping dominated valleys, in contrast to runoff-dominated valleys, display the following: lower drainage densities, higher ratios of valley floor width to valley height, and more positive profile concavities. Studies of stream junction angles indicate increasing junction angles with time on the drier leeward sides of the major islands. The quantitative geomorphic studies and earlier field work yielded important insights for Martian geomorphology. The importance of ash mantling in controlling infiltration on Hawaii also seems to apply to Mars. The Hawaiian valley also have implications for the valley networks of Martian heavily cratered terrains

  11. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report calendar year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1998 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  12. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None Available

    2000-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1999 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  13. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1997 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  14. Beyond the chalice: monuments manifesting utraquist religious identity in the Bohemian urban context in the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horníčková, Kateřina

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2013), s. 137-152 ISSN 1350-7486 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : utraquism * Bohemia * religious history * religious symbolism * denominational culture * denominational monuments Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  15. Field Surveys, IOC Valleys. Biological Resources Survey, Dry Lake Valley, Nevada. Volume II, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    years ago; the transplant was considered unsuccessful. Sagebrush is the principal item in the diet of adult sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), and...canyon areas in the normal chukar partridge range but can also extend its range to areas too dry for the chukar. The transplant was not con- sidered...determined. - Ertee E-TR-48-II-I SSL1’N SL xx- C - - _ 0S91’ - - I. 009t N - - 0’J o,, s). N, - . ,o 09 -SW,- - - ,o T z X -4 oseo 0L91 - N - = - ozot ma

  16. Cultural monuments from exceptional importance in Serbia as anthropogenic tourist values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirković Sanja

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultural monuments mark historical past. They are included in anthropogenic tourist values. They present rare copies of creativity and they have exceptional artistic and esthetic values. The most numerous group are sacral objects. The largest attention deserve objects assigned in World cultural inheritance - monastery Studenica and monastery Sopoćani with old town Ras. It is necessary to build caterer capacities, parking lots and sanitary devices in encirclement. Manifestations and presentations on domestic and foreign market contribute to cultural affirmation. Tourist valorization is impeded with that there are no evidence about number of visitors. In separating priorities we must consider uniqueness, rarity and fame. That’s the reason why Čele kula has tourist importance. Cultural monuments increase stay and serve as complementary tourist values. That’s why is necessary synthesis access in their learn and tourist presentation.

  17. Christian interpretation of the Ancient monuments in Rome Sixtus V (1585-1590

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Verdugo Santos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The view of the counter reformation on the ancient monuments was very different from the thought of Renaissance men. The pagan world was conquered by Christianity, and therefore had the remains of one reason only be based on the exaltation of the glory of Christ and his Church. According to this belief Sixtus V acts on the columns of Trajan and Marcus Aurelius; statues on the Capitol or Coliseum, transforming them into monuments to the victory of Christianity. Other operations will be moving the Vatican obelisk located on the spina of the circus of Caligula. A challenge for the technology of the time, which was used in propagandize by the pope. The obelisk had an archaeological and symbolic value, for tradition stated that circus as the place where early Christians were martyred.

  18. IMPLEMENTING TQM IN RURAL MONUMENTAL BAROQUE SCULPTURE IN THE BANAT AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. PETROMAN

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The cultural patrimony preserves the memory and identity of the Banat’s rural area, defining the personality specific to each locality depending on the colonizing ethnic group after the liberation from the Turkish yoke. Steadily degrading, this baroque sculptural patrimony must be saved and integrated into a tourist circuit through the development of a managerial strategy and the implementation of a total quality management that cover the widest area possible of issues related to the intact preservation of monuments and to their conservation. The valorisation of monumental baroque sculpture in the rural area must be done together with the development of a managerial strategy of sustainable development thus contributing to the making up of an emblematic image specific to the Banat village and to the inclusion into regional, national, and international tourist circuits through such modern forms of tourism as cultural tourism, rural tourism, heritage tourism, interethnic tourism, religious tourism, and business tourism.

  19. Creating/Curating Cultural Capital: Monuments and Museums for Post-Apartheid South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Rankin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the first democratic elections in 1994, South Africa has faced the challenge of creating new cultural capital to replace old racist paradigms, and monuments and museums have been deployed as part of this agenda of transformation. Monuments have been inscribed with new meanings, and acquisition and collecting policies have changed at existing museums to embrace a wider definition of culture. In addition, a series of new museums, often with a memorial purpose, has provided opportunities to acknowledge previously marginalized histories, and honor those who opposed apartheid, many of whom died in the Struggle. Lacking extensive collections, these museums have relied on innovative concepts, not only the use of audio-visual materials, but also the metaphoric deployment of sites and the architecture itself, to create affective audience experiences and recount South Africa’s tragic history under apartheid.

  20. The research of contamination regularities of historical buildings and architectural monuments by methods of computer modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmichev Andrey A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the active step of urbanization and rapid development of industry the external appearance of buildings and architectural monuments of urban environment from visual ecology position requires special attention. Dust deposition by polluted atmospheric air is one of the key aspects of degradation of the facades of buildings. With the help of modern computer modeling methods it is possible to evaluate the impact of polluted atmospheric air on the external facades of the buildings in order to save them.

  1. Enhancing the Durability of Calcareous Stone Monuments of Ancient Egypt Using CaCO3 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Aldoasri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The unwanted changes in valuable historic calcareous stone monuments due to exposure to many physical and chemical effects may lead to its deterioration. The growing interest in the field of conservation of stone monuments encourages the development of consolidation and water-repellent materials. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of CaCO3 nanoparticles as a consolidation and protection material for calcareous stone monuments, when those nanoparticles used are dispersed in acrylic copolymer; polyethylmethacrylate (EMA/methylacrylate (MA (70/30, respectively. Samples were subjected to artificial aging by relative humidity/temperature to show the optimum conditions of durability and the effectiveness of the nano-mixture in improving the physical and mechanical properties of the stone material. The synthesis process of CaCO3 nanoparticles/polymer nanocomposite has been prepared by in situ emulsion polymerization system. The prepared nanocomposites with 0.15 g CaCO3 nanoparticles showed obvious transparency features and represent nanocomposites coating technology with hydrophobic, consolidating and good protection properties. Some tests were performed in order to estimate the superficial consolidating and protective effect of the treatment. The obtained nanocomposites have been characterized by TEM, while the surface morphology before and after treatment and homogeneous distribution of used consolidation materials on stone surface were examined by SEM. Improvement of stone mechanical properties was evaluated by compressive strength tests. Change in water-interaction properties was evaluated by water absorption capillarity measurements, and colorimetric measurements were used to evaluate the optical appearance. Taken together, the results indicate that CaCO3/polymer nanocomposite is a completely compatible, efficient material for the consolidation of artistic and architectural limestone monuments capable of enhancing the

  2. Een monument voor het land. Overheidsstatistiek in België, 1795-1870

    OpenAIRE

    Bracke, Nele

    2008-01-01

    In A monument to the country. Official statistics in Belgium, 1795-1870, Nele Bracke unravels why and how the Belgian state and its predecessors organized and developed an official statistical apparatus in order to collect numerical information. The study captures the underlying objectives and structures, as well as the methods to compile statistics. Nele Bracke investigates the meaning and significance of government statistics in the 19th-century State and society. In Belgium, early social s...

  3. Monumental Misjudgements? Early Conservative Interventions and their Impact on Orcadian Neolithic Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Ritchie, Georgina

    2014-01-01

    The contemporary experience of visiting many Neolithic sites in Orkney is dominated by the physical manifestations of early conservative interventions; the most striking of these being a series of cover-houses, installed over chambered tombs to ensure their protection from the elements. These shelters range in scale from small concrete domes enclosing the interior of the monuments (such as that over the Knowe of Yarso, depicted in the cover image), to a vast free-standing steel enclosure (see...

  4. The use of nuclear analytical methods in the investigation of objects of art and historical monuments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janovsky, I.

    2006-01-01

    Special nuclear analytical methods contribute significantly to the identification of the origin, manufacturing technology and/or authenticity of objects of art and historical monuments, Such methods primarily include variants of X-ray fluorescence analysis and activation analysis. The former enables non/destructive testing of materials, the latter features a high sensitivity. The article presents numerous examples of use of such methods especially in the Czech Republic (or former Czechoslovakia). (author)

  5. MONITORING OF NATURAL MONUMENTS IN THE PARK ZAMKOWY IN ŻYWIEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Elżbieta Salachna

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of monitoring of trees monumenst of Park Zamkowy in Żywiec, which is a one of most valuable dendrological collection in the Silesia region. It was found that among the 27 studied monuments of nature, most (76% is in a satisfactory state of health and requires only care intervention. Of the remaining group 13% presented of good condition and for 11% it is necessary to take immediate treatments.

  6. Neutron-activation analysis of wall soils of ancient architectural monuments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatamov, Sh.; Zhumamuratov, A.; Ibragimov, T.; Tillyaev, T.; Osinskaya, N.S.; Rakhmanova, T.P.; Pulatov, D.D.

    2001-01-01

    The simplified, relatively inexpensive, and productive multielemental neutron activation techniques for analysis of solid of the architectural monuments of Karakalpakstan have been elaborated. A comparison of the elemental composition of the wall soils of the ancient buildings, constructed at different historical periods, with the composition of the agricultural soils allows us to estimate the present ecological and agrogeochemical states of the agricultural soils and to trace changing the dynamics of about 30 chemical elements. (author)

  7. The Drentsche Aa valley system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gans, W. de.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis is composed of five papers concerned with Late Quaternary geology and geomorphology of the Aa valley system. The correlation and chronostratigraphic position of the layers have been established by radiocarbon dating. (Auth.)

  8. Application of Integrated Photogrammetric and Terrestrial Laser Scanning Data to Cultural Heritage Surveying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapa, Przemyslaw; Mitka, Bartosz; Zygmunt, Mariusz

    2017-12-01

    The terrestrial laser scanning technology has a wide spectrum of applications, from land surveying, civil engineering and architecture to archaeology. The technology is capable of obtaining, in a short time, accurate coordinates of points which represent the surface of objects. Scanning of buildings is therefore a process which ensures obtaining information on all structural elements a building. The result is a point cloud consisting of millions of elements which are a perfect source of information on the object and its surrounding. The photogrammetric techniques allow documenting an object in high resolution in the form of orthophoto plans, or are a basis to develop 2D documentation or obtain point clouds for objects and 3D modelling. Integration of photogrammetric data and TLS brings a new quality in surveying historic monuments. Historic monuments play an important cultural and historical role. Centuries-old buildings require constant renovation and preservation of their structural and visual invariability while maintaining safety of people who use them. The full process of surveying allows evaluating the actual condition of monuments and planning repairs and renovations. Huge sizes and specific types of historic monuments cause problems in obtaining reliable and full information on them. The TLS technology allows obtaining such information in a short time and is non-invasive. A point cloud is not only a basis for developing architectural and construction documentation or evaluation of actual condition of a building. It also is a real visualization of monuments and their entire environment. The saved image of object surface can be presented at any time and place. A cyclical TLS survey of historic monuments allows detecting structural changes and evaluating damage and changes that cause deformation of monument’s components. The paper presents application of integrated photogrammetric data and TLS illustrated on an example of historic monuments from southern

  9. Bacterial bio-mediated calcite precipitation for monumental stones conservation: methods of evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiano, P; Biagiotti, L; Mastromei, G

    1999-05-01

    The weathering of monumental stones is a complex process inserted in the more general 'matter transformation cycle' operated by physical, chemical and biological factors. The consequence of these combined actions is a loss of cohesion with dwindling and scaling of stone material and the induction of a progressive mineral matrix dissolution. In the case of calcareous stones, calcite leaching increases the material porosity and decreases its mechanical features with a general weakening of the superficial structural strength. Attempts to stop, or at least to slow down, deterioration of monumental stones has been made by conservative treatments with both inorganic or organic products. More recent studies show a new approach to hinder these phenomena by inducing a bio-mediated precipitation of calcite directly inside the stone porosity. This can be achieved either through the application of organic matrix macromolecules extracted from sea shells or of living bacteria. The effectiveness of the treatment using calcinogenic bacteria has been evaluated with laboratory tests specifically developed to evaluate the parameters such as : porosity, superficial strength and chromatic changes, influenced by the treatment itself. The results obtained seem to indicate that this type of treatment might not be suitable for monumental stone conservation.

  10. Technical Limitations in Merging Secular and Sacred Functions in Monumental Churches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatkowska, Ksenia

    2017-10-01

    The abandonment of churches and their adaptation for secular purposes is a current subject in Europe and worldwide. Most cases involve objects that were desacralized and then rebuilt as a whole object for alternative functions. Thus far, the merging of secular and sacred functions in one monumental Catholic church has not raised any issues. The paper describes the case of St. Catherine’s Church in Gdansk, Poland, where sacred function exists parallel to the new secular function being implemented. The study is based on the authentic, professional experience of the author. It describes the technical limitations arising from the need to ensure destinies for the optimal conditions of both sacred and secular function, while avoiding undesirable interference between them. The author further identifies architectural solutions most relevant to current requirements for protection of sacred zones in the church, for preservation of the monument, and for optimal function of a modern science museum. Significant design issues include: the inviolability of the sacred zone, preservation of the historical value of the monument, proper operation of new secular zones in compliance with contemporary standards of safety, performance of the assumed mission and profitability. The research indicates specific areas where the highest probability of collision exists between the sacred and profane and where technical problems are likely to occur.

  11. Biodiversity of cyanobacteria and green algae on monuments in the Mediterranean Basin: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Maria Filomena; Miller, Ana Zélia; Dionísio, Amélia; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2009-11-01

    The presence and deteriorating action of micro-organisms on monuments and stone works of art have received considerable attention in the last few years. Knowledge of the microbial populations living on stone materials is the starting point for successful conservation treatment and control. This paper reviews the literature on cyanobacteria and chlorophyta that cause deterioration of stone cultural heritage (outdoor monuments and stone works of art) in European countries of the Mediterranean Basin. Some 45 case studies from 32 scientific papers published between 1976 and 2009 were analysed. Six lithotypes were considered: marble, limestone, travertine, dolomite, sandstone and granite. A wide range of stone monuments in the Mediterranean Basin support considerable colonization of cyanobacteria and chlorophyta, showing notable biodiversity. About 172 taxa have been described by different authors, including 37 genera of cyanobacteria and 48 genera of chlorophyta. The most widespread and commonly reported taxa on the stone cultural heritage in the Mediterranean Basin are, among cyanobacteria, Gloeocapsa, Phormidium and Chroococcus and, among chlorophyta, Chlorella, Stichococcus and Chlorococcum. The results suggest that cyanobacteria and chlorophyta colonize a wide variety of substrata and that this is related primarily to the physical characteristics of the stone surface, microclimate and environmental conditions and secondarily to the lithotype.

  12. Time–frequency analysis of GPR data to investigate the damage of monumental buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leucci, Giovanni; Persico, Raffaele; Masini, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    The presence of particular microclimatic conditions inside monumental buildings is responsible for bio-deterioration processes. In many cases, efflorescence and moulds are visible on the facades of several monuments of historical importance. In many other cases, the effects of decay processes are not visible, thus making difficult the diagnosis and the consequent setup of effective rehabilitation and preservation interventions, especially in the presence of a complex geometry and/or a large variability of construction materials. In such cases, a valuable contribution could be provided by geophysical methods (such as electrical resistivity, electromagnetic conductivity, ground-penetrating radar (GPR), etc), which have been proved to be successful tools for sub-surface investigation and characterization of historical buildings. In old monumental buildings, the masonry structures frequently exhibit cracks, voids, detachments and high moisture contrasts that can give rise to reflection events in radar signals. However, the complexity of the geometry and the structural heterogeneity that characterize these old structures often make the GPR results difficult to analyse and interpret. In particular, the spatial variation in GPR signal attenuation can provide important information about the electrical properties of the investigated materials that, in turn, can be used to assess the physical parameters associated with damage. In this paper, we propose an approach that analyses the data in the form of ‘frequency maps’ to evidence absorption losses probably linked to higher moisture content. Two real case histories back up the proposed method. (paper)

  13. Acoustical features of two Mayan monuments at Chichen Itza: Accident or design?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubman, David

    2002-11-01

    Chichen Itza dominated the early postclassic Maya world, ca. 900-1200 C.E. Two of its colossal monuments, the Great Ball Court and the temple of Kukulkan, reflect the sophisticated, hybrid culture of a Mexicanized Maya civilization. The architecture seems intended for ceremony and ritual drama. Deducing ritual practices will advance the understanding of a lost civilization, but what took place there is largely unknown. Perhaps acoustical science can add value. Unexpected and unusual acoustical features can be interpreted as intriguing clues or irrelevant accidents. Acoustical advocates believe that, when combined with an understanding of the Maya worldview, acoustical features can provide unique insights into how the Maya designed and used theater spaces. At Chichen Itza's monuments, sound reinforcement features improve rulers and priests ability to address large crowds, and Ball Court whispering galleries permit speech communication over unexpectedly large distances. Handclaps at Kukulkan stimulate chirps that mimic a revered bird (''Kukul''), thus reinforcing cultic beliefs. A ball striking playing field wall stimulates flutter echoes at the Great Ball Court; their strength and duration arguably had dramatic, mythic, and practical significance. Interpretations of the possible mythic, magic, and political significance of sound phenomena at these Maya monuments strongly suggests intentional design.

  14. Aerial radiation surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobst, J.

    1980-01-01

    A recent aerial radiation survey of the surroundings of the Vitro mill in Salt Lake City shows that uranium mill tailings have been removed to many locations outside their original boundary. To date, 52 remote sites have been discovered within a 100 square kilometer aerial survey perimeter surrounding the mill; 9 of these were discovered with the recent aerial survey map. Five additional sites, also discovered by aerial survey, contained uranium ore, milling equipment, or radioactive slag. Because of the success of this survey, plans are being made to extend the aerial survey program to other parts of the Salt Lake valley where diversions of Vitro tailings are also known to exist

  15. Astronomy, Illumination and Heritage: the Arles-Fontvieille megalithic monuments and their implications for archaeoastronomy and world heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling Saletta, Morgan

    2015-08-01

    Recent archaeoastronomical research at the Arles-Fontvieille monuments has important implications for establishing potential Outstanding Universal Value of megalithic monuments and establishing the credibility of archaeoastronomical sites. My discovery of seasonal light and shadow hierophanies within the Arles-Fontvieille monuments has interpretive and heritage value implications not only for these sites but for late prehistoric European monuments more generally.While horizon astronomy was very likely used for time-reckoning in the Neolithic, I argue the ‘seasonal illumination hypothesis’ is more appropriate than the ‘celestial targeting paradigm’ not only for the interpretation of the role of astronomy and cosmological symbolism in the construction of the Arles-Fontvieille monuments but also for late prehistoric European tombs with chambers and passages more generally.Multiple lines of evidence suggest a cosmologically symbolic link between houses of the living and houses of the dead in late prehistoric Europe. I will suggest that this practice originated not only in symbolic aspects of domestic dwellings, but also in functional solar orientation.If seasonal illumination was a major impetus for the orientation signatures of late prehistoric European monuments, how best to establish this? Time-lapse photography or video, while not unproblematic, is a powerful method of establishing the credibility of archaeoastronomical sites- one which has been used to great effect at monuments such as Newgrange and Stonehenge. In the past, this method was limited by the cost of equipment and the time needed to visit sites and at specific periods of time. Both of these limitations have been significantly lessened in recent years. Digital cameras have become ubiquitous. More importantly, examples of “crowd-sourcing” research problems in science provide a strategy for field documentation of sites whose level of preservation is sufficient to reveal seasonal illumination

  16. Site characterization at the Rabbit Valley Geophysical Performance Evaluation Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppenjan, S.; Martinez, M.

    1994-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (US DOE) is developing a Geophysical Performance Evaluation Range (GPER) at Rabbit Valley located 30 miles west of Grand Junction, Colorado. The purpose of the range is to provide a test area for geophysical instruments and survey procedures. Assessment of equipment accuracy and resolution is accomplished through the use of static and dynamic physical models. These models include targets with fixed configurations and targets that can be re-configured to simulate specific specifications. Initial testing (1991) combined with the current tests at the Rabbit Valley GPER will establish baseline data and will provide performance criteria for the development of geophysical technologies and techniques. The US DOE's Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) staff has conducted a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey of the site with its stepped FM-CW GPR. Additionally, STL contracted several other geophysical tests. These include an airborne GPR survey incorporating a ''chirped'' FM-CW GPR system and a magnetic survey with a surfaced-towed magnetometer array unit Ground-based and aerial video and still frame pictures were also acquired. STL compiled and analyzed all of the geophysical maps and created a site characterization database. This paper discusses the results of the multi-sensor geophysical studies performed at Rabbit Valley and the future plans for the site

  17. Small drones for geo-archaeology in the steppe: locating and documenting the archaeological heritage of the Orkhon Valley in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oczipka, M.; Bemmann, J.; Piezonka, H.; Munkabayar, J.; Ahrens, B.; Achtelik, M.; Lehmann, F.

    2009-09-01

    The international project "Geo-Archaeology in the Steppe - Reconstruction of Cultural Landscapes in the Orkhon valley, Central Mongolia" was set up in July 2008. It is headed by the Department of Pre- and Protohistoric Archaeology of Bonn University. The project aims at the study of prehistoric and historic settlement patterns, human impact on the environment and the relation between towns and their hinterland in the Orkhon valley, Central Mongolia. The multidisciplinary project is mainly sponsored for three years by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and bridges archaeology, natural sciences and engineering (sponsorship code 01UA0801C). Archaeologists of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences and of the Bonn University, geographers of Free University Berlin, geophysics of the Institute for Photonic Technology Jena and the RWTH Aachen University, and geographers and engineers of the German Aerospace Centre Berlin collaborate in the development of new technologies and their application in archaeology1. On the basis of Russian aerial photographs from the 1970s, an initial evaluation regarding potential archaeological sites was made. Due to the poor geometric and radiometric resolution of these photographs, identification of archaeological sites in many cases remained preliminary, and detailed information on layout and size could not be gained. The aim of the flight campaign in September 2008 was therefore the confirmation of these sites as well as their high resolution survey. A 10 megapixel range finder camera was used for the recording of high resolution aerial photography. This image data is suited for accurate determination and mapping of selected monuments. The airborne camera was adapted and mounted on an electrically operated eight propeller small drone. Apart from high resolution geo-referenced overview pictures, impressive panoramic images and very high resolution overlapping image data was recorded for photogrammetric stereoscopic

  18. Hoopa Valley Small Scale Hydroelectric Feasibility Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis Miller

    2009-03-22

    This study considered assessing the feasibility of developing small scale hydro-electric power from seven major tributaries within the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation of Northern California (http://www.hoopa-nsn.gov/). This study pursued the assessment of seven major tributaries of the Reservation that flow into the Trinity River. The feasibility of hydropower on the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation has real potential for development and many alternative options for project locations, designs, operations and financing. In order to realize this opportunity further will require at least 2-3 years of intense data collection focusing on stream flow measurements at multiple locations in order to quantify real power potential. This also includes on the ground stream gradient surveys, road access planning and grid connectivity to PG&E for sale of electricity. Imperative to this effort is the need for negotiations between the Hoopa Tribal Council and PG&E to take place in order to finalize the power rate the Tribe will receive through any wholesale agreement that utilizes the alternative energy generated on the Reservation.

  19. Monuments in the Structure of an Urban Environment: The Source of Social Memory and the Marker of the Urban Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonova, N.; Grunt, E.; Merenkov, A.

    2017-10-01

    The major research objective was to analyze the role of monuments in the formation of local residents’ and guests’ representations about the city, its history and traditions. The authors consider the system of monuments’ location in the urban space as a way of its social construction, as the system of influence on citizens’ aesthetic feelings, as the formation of their attitudes towards maintaining of continuity in the activities of different generations for the improvement of the territory of their permanent residence. Methodology. An urban monument is considered in two ways: as a transfer of historical memory and as a social memory transfer, which includes the experience of previous generations. One of the main provisions of the study is the idea that monuments can lose their former social value, transforming into “simple” objects of a public place. The study was conducted in the city of Yekaterinburg, one of the largest, cultural, scientific and industrial Russian megalopolises in 2015. The primary data was collected using standardized interviews. Four hundred and twenty respondents at the age of and above 18 were questioned on the basis of quota sampling. Interviews with respondents were conducted in order to identify key problems involved and reasons for shaping respondents’ representations of monuments in the urban environment typical for the population of Russian megalopolises. The standardized interview guide included 15 questions. Findings and discussion. Our investigation has revealed that different monuments fulfil various functions in an urban environment (ideological, aesthetic, transferring, valuable, etc.). The study has unequivocally confirmed that objects in the urban space have a different emotional colour background: people paint them in accordance with the feelings that arise in their perception. Hence, some monuments effectively fulfil the functions of social memory transfer: they are remembered, they tell us about the events to

  20. MONUMENTO JEROGLÍFICO MAYA DE XKOMBEC, CAMPECHE: UNA REVISIÓN (Maya Hieroglyphic Monument from Xkombec, Campeche: A Revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Galeev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available El reanálisis del Monumento 1 de Xkombec (Campeche, México, basado sobre su nueva documentación realizada en 2014 por los colaboradores del Proyecto Atlas Epigráfico de Yucatán, permite descartar la datación de esta inscripción en 866 d. C. y ubicarla a mediados del siglo VIII d. C., contemporánea de los monumentos de Xcalumkín y otros sitios cercanos del Puuc campechano. De acuerdo con el texto, la organización política de Xkombec era parecida a otros centros de Puuc. La ciudad contaba con su propia casa noble, cuyos miembros Xok Tun y B’ahlam eran de rango secundario y llevaban el título de b’ahkab y, probablemente, estaban relacionados con Xcalumkín. ENGLISH: Recent analysis of the epigraphy on Monument 1 from Xkombec indicates that the monument can be dated to A.D. 866, not to the mid-8th century as was previously argued. This new date marks Monument 1 as contemporary to the monuments at Xcalumkin and other neighboring Puuc sites. According to the text contained on Monument 1, political organization of Xkombec was similar to that of other Puuc centers. The association between these two centers may indicate that members of the noble house at Xkombec (Xok Tun and his son B’ahlam may have been related to the nobility of Xcalumkin.

  1. Preliminary hydrogeologic assessment near the boundary of the Antelope Valley and El Mirage Valley groundwater basins, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamos, Christina L.; Christensen, Allen H.; Langenheim, Victoria

    2017-07-19

    The increasing demands on groundwater for water supply in desert areas in California and the western United States have resulted in the need to better understand groundwater sources, availability, and sustainability. This is true for a 650-square-mile area that encompasses the Antelope Valley, El Mirage Valley, and Upper Mojave River Valley groundwater basins, about 50 miles northeast of Los Angeles, California, in the western part of the Mojave Desert. These basins have been adjudicated to ensure that groundwater rights are allocated according to legal judgments. In an effort to assess if the boundary between the Antelope Valley and El Mirage Valley groundwater basins could be better defined, the U.S. Geological Survey began a cooperative study in 2014 with the Mojave Water Agency to better understand the hydrogeology in the area and investigate potential controls on groundwater flow and availability, including basement topography.Recharge is sporadic and primarily from small ephemeral washes and streams that originate in the San Gabriel Mountains to the south; estimates range from about 400 to 1,940 acre-feet per year. Lateral underflow from adjacent basins has been considered minor in previous studies; underflow from the Antelope Valley to the El Mirage Valley groundwater basin has been estimated to be between 100 and 1,900 acre-feet per year. Groundwater discharge is primarily from pumping, mostly by municipal supply wells. Between October 2013 and September 2014, the municipal pumpage in the Antelope Valley and El Mirage Valley groundwater basins was reported to be about 800 and 2,080 acre-feet, respectively.This study was motivated by the results from a previously completed regional gravity study, which suggested a northeast-trending subsurface basement ridge and saddle approximately 3.5 miles west of the boundary between the Antelope Valley and El Mirage Valley groundwater basins that might influence groundwater flow. To better define potential basement

  2. Attacks on South African monuments: Mediating heritage in post-conflict society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntsikelelo B. Breakfast

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The controversy surrounding the notion of national heritage and what constitutes a proper heritage in post-apartheid South Africa intersects with issues of identity and identity formation in a post-conflict society. That it impinges powerfully on social cohesion has been thrust into the spotlight in view of recent protest action related to colonial and apartheid era monuments. We have made the point elsewhere that conflict resolution in South Africa through negotiations, the National Peace Accord and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission has, at best, been partial, that it has not always been taken sufficiently seriously to engage with the fault-lines of protracted social conflict in the country. This article has employed a qualitative methodology because it is both descriptive and explorative in nature. The main aim of this article is to provide a critique on how issues of intersectionality (race, class and gender coincide with the attacks of the monuments by university students in South Africa. This article utilises two theoretical frameworks, namely, classical Marxism and Black Consciousness, simply because both the psychological and class analysis were invoked by the student bodies to diagnose and prognose the challenges of black South Africans within the context of higher education in South Africa. The central thesis of this article is that the attacks on monuments in South African universities were instigated by a group of young people who claim to be revolutionary in thinking and are calling for transformation, free education, dismantling gender oppression and doing away with institutionalisation of racism.

  3. Biofilm forming cyanobacteria, algae and fungi on two historic monuments in Belgrade, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljaljević-Grbić Milica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofilm on the sandstone substrata of the bridge 'Brankov most' and on the granite substrata of the 'Monument of the Unknown Hero' contains a complex consortia of cyanobacteria, algae, and fungi. Coccoid and filamentous cyanobacteria, green algae and diatoms make up the photosynthetic part of the biofilm while hyphal fragments, chlamydospores, fruiting bodies and spores take part as fungal components. These structures make a dense layer by intertwining and overlapping the stone surface. Five cyanobacterial, 11 algal and 23 fungal taxa were found. The interaction of the biofilm's constituents results in the bioweathering of the stone substrata through mechanical penetration, acid corrosion and the production of secondary mycogenic biominerals. .

  4. Non-destructive analysis for the inspection and control of metalic monuments and historical manuscripts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faubel, W.; Heissler, S.; Klewe-Nebenius, H.; Willin, E.

    2003-01-01

    As a contribution to the increasing efforts to preserve cultural heritage of historical bronze monuments exposed to atmospheric corrosion as well as historical books and manuscripts non-destructive analytical methods are highly desirable enabling an in-situ examination of the surface status of an object. The development and application of novel non-destructive analytical methods based on the photoacoustic and photothermal deflection spectroscopy allowed to investigate the state of bronze patina as well as the effectiveness of conservation procedures for historical manuscripts. (orig.)

  5. Architectonic context and technological implements for Teodoro Ansagasti’s Monumental Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lavilla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Overcoming the economical crisis that Spain suffered in the twentieth century allowed to build more edifices and made possible to follow the concepts of modern European movement. Cinemas were one of the best examples of this attempt of modernity. There are few examples of real quality architecture, and majority of them were built in Madrid or Barcelona. In this context, one of that years’ greatest works has to be put in value: Teodoro Anasagasti’s Monumental Cinema, providing additional architectonic and technological data to the existing historiography.

  6. ADULT CADDISFLY (TRICHOPTERA) PHENOLOGY AT THE HANFORD REACH NATIONAL MONUMENT, WASHINGTON STATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zack, Richard S.; Ruiter, David E.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Landolt, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    Adult caddisflies were sampled on the Wahluke Wildlife Area and Saddle Mountain National Wildlife Refuge subunits of the newly created (2000) Hanford Reach National Monument using 15-watt ''black lights'' from April 2002 through April 2003. A diverse fauna consisting of nine families, 21 genera, and 33 species were collected. Protoptila Coloma Ross, Agraylea multipunctata Curtis, Hydroptila xera Ross, Ceraclea alagma (Ross), Nectopsych Iahontanensis Haddock Oecetis cinerascens (Hagen), and Ylodes reuteri (MacLachlan) represent new records for Washington State. Species composition and phenology are presented in tabular form

  7. Characterization of water quality and suspended sediment during cold-season flows, warm-season flows, and stormflows in the Fountain and Monument Creek watersheds, Colorado, 2007–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lisa D.; Stogner, Sr., Robert W.

    2017-09-01

    From 2007 through 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Colorado Springs City Engineering, conducted a study in the Fountain and Monument Creek watersheds, Colorado, to characterize surface-water quality and suspended-sediment conditions for three different streamflow regimes with an emphasis on characterizing water quality during storm runoff. Data collected during this study were used to evaluate the effects of stormflows and wastewater-treatment effluent discharge on Fountain and Monument Creeks in the Colorado Springs, Colorado, area. Water-quality samples were collected at 2 sites on Upper Fountain Creek, 2 sites on Monument Creek, 3 sites on Lower Fountain Creek, and 13 tributary sites during 3 flow regimes: cold-season flow (November–April), warm-season flow (May–October), and stormflow from 2007 through 2015. During 2015, additional samples were collected and analyzed for Escherichia coli (E. coli) during dry weather conditions at 41 sites, located in E. coli impaired stream reaches, to help identify source areas and scope of the impairment.Concentrations of E. coli, total arsenic, and dissolved copper, selenium, and zinc in surface-water samples were compared to Colorado in-stream standards. Stormflow concentrations of E. coli frequently exceeded the recreational use standard of 126 colonies per 100 milliliters at main-stem and tributary sites by more than an order of magnitude. Even though median E. coli concentrations in warm-season flow samples were lower than median concentrations in storm-flow samples, the water quality standard for E. coli was still exceeded at most main-stem sites and many tributary sites during warm-season flows. Six samples (three warm-season flow and three stormflow samples) collected from Upper Fountain Creek, upstream from the confluence of Monument Creek, and two stormflow samples collected from Lower Fountain Creek, downstream from the confluence with Monument Creek, exceeded the acute water

  8. Birds of the St. Croix River valley: Minnesota and Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faanes, Craig A.

    1981-01-01

    The St. Croix River Valley encompasses nearly 11,550 km2 in east-central Minnesota and northwestern Wisconsin. A wide range of habitats are available for birds including upland oak, lowland deciduous, maple-basswood, lowland and upland coniferous forests, natural basin wetlands, and grasslands. Situated in the north-central region of the United States, the valley is a biological 'crossroads' for many species. Because of the mixed affinities of plant communities, the valley includes the northern and southern range limits for a number of species. Also, because the valley lies near the forest-prairie transition zone, many typical western breeding species (e.g. pintail, western meadowlark, yellow-headed blackbird) breed in proximity to typical eastern species such as tufted titmouse, eastern meadowlark, and cardinal. From 1966 to 1980, I conducted extensive surveys of avian distribution and abundance in the St. Croix River Valley. I have supplemented the results of these surveys with published and unpublished observations contributed by many ornithologists. These additional data include compilations from Christmas Bird Counts sponsored by the National Audubon Society and from the Breeding Bird Survey coordinated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Three hundred fourteen species have been recorded in the study area; data are presented on the migration period, nesting season distribution, winter distribution, relative abundance, and habitat use of each species. Recognizing the uniqueness of the area, and its importance not only to wildlife but also to man, the U.S. Congress designated the St. Croix a National Scenic Riverway. This action provided a considerable degree of protection to lands along and directly adjacent to the river. Unfortunately, no similar legal measure exists to protect lands away from the river. With the exception of the northern quarter of the St. Croix River Valley, agricultural interests have made significant inroads into the habitat base. The

  9. Martian channels and valleys - Their characteristics, distribution, and age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M. H.; Clow, G. D.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution and ages of Martian channels and valleys, which are generally believed to have been cut by running water, are examined with particular emphasis on the small branching networks referred to as runoff channels or valley networks. Valleys at latitudes from 65 deg S to 65 deg N were surveyed on Viking images at resolutions between 125 and 300 m. Almost all of the valleys are found in the old cratered terrain, in areas characterized by high elevations, low albedos and low violet/red ratios. The networks are deduced to have formed early in the history of the planet, with a formation rate declining rapidly shortly after the decline of the cratering rate 3.9 billion years ago. Two types of outflow channels are distinguished: unconfined, in which broad swaths of terrain are scoured, and confined, in which flow is restricted to discrete channels. Both types start at local sources, and have formed episodically throughout Martian history. Fretted channels, found mainly in two latitude belts characterized by relatively rapid erosion along escarpments, are explained by the lateral enlargement of other channels by mass wasting.

  10. Conservarea şi restaurarea monumentelor istorice: unele obiective şi principii (probleme inginereşti la monumente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian-Constantin Diaconu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Even when large parts of the original substance were lost throughout its existence, the monument should be regarded as a spatial structure, participating to the reality around them. Precepts governing the conservation and rehabilitation of historical monuments have to be applied individually to each monument, according to his personality, his past or future function, conservation status, in the way that the rehabilitation concept results from obligations balance to not harm the monument - Primum non Nocera (Carta de la Veneţia even to act for the future generation’s heritage. Monument to be seen through all the three attributes: FIRMITAS (solid, technical achievement, UTILITAS (functionality, the purpose for which it was made, PULCHRITAS (beauty, aesthetic expression. The historical monument’s components are: the land – cadastral lot, constructions, exterior arrangements, other elements, cultural mobile goods. The actions of historical monuments should consider the following objectives and principles: maintenance, rehabilitation, consolidation, security, social, economic and cultural lifeof the local community. The principles underlying these goals:building’s state expertise from all points of view, the building’sconsolidation solution must not affect the architectural appearance, to maintain authenticity, the level of response and earthquake insurance, as a matter of urgency execution of building works, reversible methods applied in conservation and / or rehabilitation, compatible materials used in conservation and / or rehabilitation, the loads resulting from new building elements should not exceed the capable strength of materials of (blocks of masonry, mortar, etc.., the resulting structure after consolidation should lead to good seismic behavior of the assemble "old structure - new structural elements," reintegration cultural and social, etc.

  11. Celebrating the Immigrant: An Administrative History of the Statue of Liberty National Monument, 1952-1982. Cultural Resource Management Study 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Barbara

    This book focuses on the history of the Statue of Liberty National Monument from 1952 through 1982. It describes how the monument has come to symbolize an expanding set of ideals, how the symbolism has produced responses in various groups of people ranging from celebrations to physical attacks upon the Statue, and the manner in which the monument…

  12. Survey, alignment, and beam stability at the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krebs, G.F.

    1997-10-01

    This paper describes survey and alignment at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories Advanced Light Source (ALS) accelerators from 1993 to 1997. The ALS is a third generation light source requiring magnet alignment to within 150 microns. To accomplish this, a network of monuments was established and maintained. Monthly elevation surveys show the movement of the floor over time. Inclinometers have recently been employed to give real time information about magnet, vacuum tank and magnet girder motion in the ALS storage ring

  13. Hydrogeologic Framework and Ground Water in Basin-Fill Deposits of the Diamond Valley Flow System, Central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumbusch, Mary L.; Plume, Russell W.

    2006-01-01

    The Diamond Valley flow system, an area of about 3,120 square miles in central Nevada, consists of five hydrographic areas: Monitor, Antelope, Kobeh, and Diamond Valleys and Stevens Basin. Although these five areas are in a remote part of Nevada, local government officials and citizens are concerned that the water resources of the flow system eventually could be further developed for irrigation or mining purposes or potentially for municipal use outside the study area. In order to better understand the flow system, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Eureka, Lander, and Nye Counties and the Nevada Division of Water Resources, is conducting a multi-phase study of the flow system. The principal aquifers of the Diamond Valley flow system are in basin-fill deposits that occupy structural basins comprised of carbonate rocks, siliciclastic sedimentary rocks, igneous intrusive rocks, and volcanic rocks. Carbonate rocks also function as aquifers, but their extent and interconnections with basin-fill aquifers are poorly understood. Ground-water flow in southern Monitor Valley is from the valley margins toward the valley axis and then northward to a large area of discharge by evapotranspiration (ET) that is formed south of a group of unnamed hills near the center of the valley. Ground-water flow from northern Monitor Valley, Antelope Valley, and northern and western parts of Kobeh Valley converges to an area of ground-water discharge by ET in central and eastern Kobeh Valley. Prior to irrigation development in the 1960s, ground-water flow in Diamond Valley was from valley margins toward the valley axis and then northward to a large discharge area at the north end of the valley. Stevens Basin is a small upland basin with internal drainage and is not connected with other parts of the flow system. After 40 years of irrigation pumping, a large area of ground-water decline has developed in southern Diamond Valley around the irrigated area. In this part of Diamond

  14. Participative restoration of the monument national Bosque de Piedra Isabel Rubio

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    Barbarita Mijans Moreno

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The work was carried out in four hectares of the «Monument National» Bosque Piedra Isabel Rubio, belonging to the Forest Company Macurije municipality Guane. Ecosystem that possesses national significance because it constitutes a valuable monumental example, it summarizes natural aspects as their calcareous formations of the Jurassic period, besides their intangible values associated to the rural traditions. The objective of the research is to propose a plan of action participative for the restoration of this ecosystem starting from the results obtained in diagnose participative. Among the used scientific methods, they are the research Action Participative and the participant observation, for the collection of information the interview was used in depth, and the meetings in groups. As important results the presence of a strong pressure antropic is obtained on the flora, fauna and rocks of the minimogotes, the introduction of exotic and invasive species, and soil erosion, in consequence the degradation of the ecosystem and loss of the biodiversity. Another significant result constituted it the scarce level of the actors' knowledge regarding the category of this forest and the administrative juridical regulations that govern it. The removed evidences of these communities show that the necessity to diminish the antropics actions and to elevate the sensibility regarding the conservation, they impose a demand of knowledge to satisfy by means of training actions with the participation of the local actors and instrumentation of the regulative apparatus.

  15. An investigation of sulfur concentrations in soils and pine needles in Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladney, E.S.; Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Jones, E.A.; Bell, M.G.; Morgan, J.D.; Stallings, E.A.; Nelson, L.A.; Lundstrom, C.; Bowker, R.G.

    1993-03-01

    Sulfur measurements in different age groups of pinon pine needles and adjacent soil samples from ten sampling sites at Bandelier National Monument were determined using combustion elemental analysis and chromatographic techniques. The primary goal was to establish base-line levels for elemental sulfur in the Monument. Sulfur levels in foliage and soils were evaluated using analysis of variance techniques. Foliage sulfur concentrations differed significantly among the 10 sampling sites and among trees within sites; however, needles of different ages did not differ significantly in sulfur content. Average soil concentrations were very low, approximately 12% of the average needle concentrations. Soil sulfur concentrations also differed significantly among the 10 sampling sites and at different depths in the soil. No statistical differences were evident in soils sampled at the four compass points (N,S,E,W) around each tree. These differences imply that large numbers of samples are needed to identify small effects from anthropogenic inputs of sulfur into the system or that the effects must be large relative to the differences among sampling sites and individual trees in order to be detected

  16. Terrestrial scanning or digital images in inventory of monumental objects? - case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz, J. S.; Zawieska, D.

    2014-06-01

    Cultural heritage is the evidence of the past; monumental objects create the important part of the cultural heritage. Selection of a method to be applied depends on many factors, which include: the objectives of inventory, the object's volume, sumptuousness of architectural design, accessibility to the object, required terms and accuracy of works. The paper presents research and experimental works, which have been performed in the course of development of architectural documentation of elements of the external facades and interiors of the Wilanów Palace Museum in Warszawa. Point clouds, acquired from terrestrial laser scanning (Z+F 5003h) and digital images taken with Nikon D3X and Hasselblad H4D cameras were used. Advantages and disadvantages of utilisation of these technologies of measurements have been analysed with consideration of the influence of the structure and reflectance of investigated monumental surfaces on the quality of generation of photogrammetric products. The geometric quality of surfaces obtained from terrestrial laser scanning data and from point clouds resulting from digital images, have been compared.

  17. Visualizing a monumental past: Archeology, Nasser's Egypt, and the early Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, William

    2017-09-01

    This article examines geographies of decolonization and the Cold War through a case study in the making of archeological knowledge. The article focuses on an archeological dig that took place in Egypt in the period between the July 1952 Free Officers' coup and the 1956 Suez crisis. Making use of the notion of the 'boundary object', this article demonstrates how the excavation of ancient Egyptian remains at the site of Mit Rahina helped to constitute Nasserist revolutionary modernity and its relationship to wider, post-Second World War political geographies. The dig took place as a result of an Egyptian-American collaboration designed to institute the possibility of archeology taking place along the lines of the Point Four modernization program promoted by the United States. The article discusses how this situation not only engendered contention surrounding the role of the international 'experts' appointed to run this excavation work, but also - and as a result - helped to constitute the monumental visual and material shape that archeological evidence relating to the Egyptian past could now take. Egypt's revolution sat within wider Cold War political struggles, yet the 'ground-up' realities of this relationship helped to constitute the sort of past (and future) monumentality proposed by Nasser's government.

  18. Polymer-Silica nanoparticles composite films as protective coatings for stone-based monuments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manoudis, P [Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124, Thessaloniki (Greece); Papadopoulou, S [Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124, Thessaloniki (Greece); Karapanagiotis, I [' Ormylia' Art Diagnosis Centre, Ormylia, Chalkidiki, 63071 (Greece); Tsakalof, A [Medical Department, University of Thessaly, Larissa, 41222 (Greece); Zuburtikudis, I [Department of Industrial Design Engineering, TEI of Western Macedonia, Kozani, 50100 (Greece); Panayiotou, C [Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2007-04-15

    The decrease of surface energy of mineral substrates similar to those used in many stone monuments of cultural heritage by the application of protective polymer coatings along with the simultaneous increase of their surface roughness can increase their ability to repel water substantially. In this work, the effect of artificially induced roughness on the water repellency of mineral substrates coated with protective polymer films was investigated. Natural marble samples or home made calcium carbonate blocks were tried as the mineral substrates. The roughness increase was achieved by mineral chemical etching or by creation of nanoscale binary composition film on the substrate surface. PMMA and PFPE were the polymers used, while different-sized silica nanoparticles were employed for the production of the nanocomposite films. Examination of the coated and uncoated surfaces with profilometry and AFM and measurements of water contact angles reveal a pronounced effect of the surface roughness on water repellency. Especially in the case of nanocomposite coatings, the surfaces become super-hydrophobic. This result indicates that the nanoscale binary composition film scheme, which is characterized by its simplicity and low cost, is a suitable candidate for the water protection of stone-based monuments on large scale.

  19. Polymer-Silica nanoparticles composite films as protective coatings for stone-based monuments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoudis, P; Papadopoulou, S; Karapanagiotis, I; Tsakalof, A; Zuburtikudis, I; Panayiotou, C

    2007-01-01

    The decrease of surface energy of mineral substrates similar to those used in many stone monuments of cultural heritage by the application of protective polymer coatings along with the simultaneous increase of their surface roughness can increase their ability to repel water substantially. In this work, the effect of artificially induced roughness on the water repellency of mineral substrates coated with protective polymer films was investigated. Natural marble samples or home made calcium carbonate blocks were tried as the mineral substrates. The roughness increase was achieved by mineral chemical etching or by creation of nanoscale binary composition film on the substrate surface. PMMA and PFPE were the polymers used, while different-sized silica nanoparticles were employed for the production of the nanocomposite films. Examination of the coated and uncoated surfaces with profilometry and AFM and measurements of water contact angles reveal a pronounced effect of the surface roughness on water repellency. Especially in the case of nanocomposite coatings, the surfaces become super-hydrophobic. This result indicates that the nanoscale binary composition film scheme, which is characterized by its simplicity and low cost, is a suitable candidate for the water protection of stone-based monuments on large scale

  20. CONTESTED HERITAGE: AN ANALYSIS OF THE PHYSICAL TRANSFORMATION OF DERRY/LONDONDERRY’S SIEGE MONUMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehan Selim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Transformations of Derry/Londonderry’s medieval city walls during the twentieth century have shaped an urbanism of segregated settlements within a city of religious confrontation. The heritage of military blockades, peace lines and watchtowers imposed upon the city’s Walls has influenced the disintegration of public space and created areas of no man’s land around the peripheries of the monument. The aim of this paper is to examine physical transformation and trace the consequences of urban planning regarding the historic city Walls. This change includes the shifting of residential settlements in the Bogside/Fountain areas and the movement of Protestant settlements towards the Waterside of Derry/Londonderry. The history and heritage of the Walls are analysed by focusing on four periods: 1600, when the first medieval walls were constructed; the housing crisis of 1948; the 1968 urban area plan and the beginning of the ‘Troubles’; and the present day. This analysis offers an understanding of the spatial relationships between enclaves and the monument over key moments of conflict and political change. The paper reveals that the manifestations of the Walls have aided in the further division of religiously segregated communities in Derry/Londonderry.

  1. Kala-tau Hill as a Medieval Monument of Archaeology and Epigraphy in the Western Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabdrafikov I.M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To provide a description of Starokalmashevo hillfort and the Starokalmashevo gravestone with an Arabic epitaph found in the mid-20th century in close proximity to the site of ancient settlement. They are here described not only as monuments of the Middle Ages, but also as objects of historical heritage testifying to the continuous process of ethno-culturogenesis in the Western Cis-Urals up to modern times. Research materials: The author considers the issues of medieval history, ethno- and cultural genesis of the Western Cis-Urals in light of the example of the Starokalmashevo hillfort, located on the hill of Kala-tau (Chekmagushevsky district of the Republic of Bashkortostan, as well as the Starokalmashevo gravestone. The author provides a complex description of these archaeological and cultural monuments and points out the importance of preserving these objects as an integral part of the local population and the entire Volga-Ural region’s collective historical memory. Research novelty: The author presents new materials, including the stories of community elders about the origin of the above-mentioned archaeological sites. He analyzes the inscriptions on the tombstone, including its new reading, and draws a conclusion about the continuity of the population of this territory for a sustained period.

  2. Swainson's Hawk Survey Grid - DFG Region 2 [ds697

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — 5 km x 5 km landscape blocks used for Ca. Dept. of Fish and Game central valley Swainson's hawk nest surveys since 2000, edited for 2009 surveys using the following...

  3. Unintentional Monuments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Runa

    2015-01-01

    The Mughrabi Bridge leading to Haram al-Sharif/Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem was built in 2005 with the intent of being a temporary infrastructural solution while a new and permanent bridge was on the drawing table. But the natural forces that had led the old stone ramp to collapse...

  4. Monumentalizing Landscape: from present perceptions to the original meanings of Galician Megalithism (NW Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Criado Boado, Felipe

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of Landscape as social construction implies considering its economic and territorial dimensions, as much as its symbolic ones. A major topic in such kind of studies is to reconstruct the ways as natural and social space was perceived by past societies. We ought approach the project of building an Archaeology of Perception. One of the aims of such research programme would be to evaluate the effect of natural and artificial landscape features on past human observers. This paper will argue that a possible strategy for studying these dimensions of past landscapes could be based on the systematic analysis of visual features of the prehistoric monuments and in the characterization of the escenic effects and vistas related to them. A detailed analysis of the pattern of location of megalithic monuments, of their visibility and visibilization conditions, allow us to recognize certain regularities what display an intentional will to remark on the existence of the monument and provoke dramatic artificial effects. In such way we could approach a phenomenology of prehistoric perception without falling in mere subjetive solutions. This study is based in a systematic review of the megalithic monuments from Sierra de Barbanza (NW Iberia. Its final scope is proposing theoretical and methodological standpoints to approach these phenomena, but as well producing a case-study to reconstruct monumental strategies to shape cultural landscapes in Neolithic Europe and observe the diacrony (ie, continuities and changes of these traditions.

    El estudio del paisaje como construcción social implica considerar sus dimensiones económicas, territoriales y simbólicas. Sería importante reconstruir cómo fue percibido el espacio natural y social, para lo que se debería construir una Arqueología de la Percepción que tendría entre sus objetivos evaluar el efecto de los rasgos naturales y artificiales del paisaje sobre sus observadores pretéritos. Aquí se

  5. Electrical Resistivity Tomography and Ground Penetrating Radar for locating buried petrified wood sites: a case study in the natural monument of the Petrified Forest of Evros, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargemezis, George; Diamanti, Nectaria; Tsourlos, Panagiotis; Fikos, Ilias

    2014-05-01

    A geophysical survey was carried out in the Petrified Forest of Evros, the northernmost regional unit of Greece. This collection of petrified wood has an age of approximately 35 million years and it is the oldest in Greece (i.e., older than the well-known Petrified Forest of Lesvos island located in the North Aegean Sea and which is possibly the largest of the petrified forests worldwide). Protection, development and maintenance projects still need to be carried out at the area despite all fears regarding the forest's fate since many petrified logs remain exposed both in weather conditions - leading to erosion - and to the public. This survey was conducted as part of a more extensive framework regarding the development and protection of this natural monument. Geophysical surveying has been chosen as a non-destructive investigation method since the area of application is both a natural ecosystem and part of cultural heritage. Along with electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys have been carried out for investigating possible locations of buried fossilized tree trunks. The geoelectrical sections derived from ERT data in combination with the GPR profiles provided a broad view of the subsurface. Two and three dimensional subsurface geophysical images of the surveyed area have been constructed, pointing out probable locations of petrified logs. Regarding ERT, petrified trunks have been detected as high resistive bodies, while lower resistivity values were more related to the surrounding geological materials. GPR surveying has also indicated buried petrified log locations. As these two geophysical methods are affected in different ways by the subsurface conditions, the combined use of both techniques enhanced our ability to produce more reliable interpretations of the subsurface. After the completion of the geophysical investigations of this first stage, petrified trunks were revealed after a subsequent excavation at indicated

  6. Functional ecology of an Antarctic Dry Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yuki; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong; Pointing, Stephen B.

    2013-01-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys are the largest ice-free region in Antarctica and are critically at risk from climate change. The terrestrial landscape is dominated by oligotrophic mineral soils and extensive exposed rocky surfaces where biota are largely restricted to microbial communities, although their ability to perform the majority of geobiological processes has remained largely uncharacterized. Here, we identified functional traits that drive microbial survival and community assembly, using a metagenomic approach with GeoChip-based functional gene arrays to establish metabolic capabilities in communities inhabiting soil and rock surface niches in McKelvey Valley. Major pathways in primary metabolism were identified, indicating significant plasticity in autotrophic, heterotrophic, and diazotrophic strategies supporting microbial communities. This represents a major advance beyond biodiversity surveys in that we have now identified how putative functional ecology drives microbial community assembly. Significant differences were apparent between open soil, hypolithic, chasmoendolithic, and cryptoendolithic communities. A suite of previously unappreciated Antarctic microbial stress response pathways, thermal, osmotic, and nutrient limitation responses were identified and related to environmental stressors, offering tangible clues to the mechanisms behind the enduring success of microorganisms in this seemingly inhospitable terrain. Rocky substrates exposed to larger fluctuations in environmental stress supported greater functional diversity in stress-response pathways than soils. Soils comprised a unique reservoir of genes involved in transformation of organic hydrocarbons and lignin-like degradative pathways. This has major implications for the evolutionary origin of the organisms, turnover of recalcitrant substrates in Antarctic soils, and predicting future responses to anthropogenic pollution. PMID:23671121

  7. Better building of valley fills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chironis, N.P.

    1980-03-01

    Current US regulations for building valley fills or head of hollow fills to hold excess spoil resulting from contour mining are meeting with considerable opposition, particularly from operators in steep-slope areas. An alternative method has been submitted to the Office of Surface Mining by Virgina. Known as the zoned concept method, it has already been used successfully in building water-holding dams and coal refuse embankments on sloping terrain. The ways in which drainage and seepage are managed are described.

  8. 3 CFR 8337 - Proclamation 8337 of January 6, 2009. Establishment of the Rose Atoll Marine National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Rose Atoll Marine National Monument 8337 Proclamation 8337 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8337 of January 6, 2009 Proc. 8337 Establishment of the Rose Atoll Marine National... 130 nautical miles east-southeast of Pago Pago Harbor, American Samoa, lies Rose Atoll—the easternmost...

  9. Combination of three-dimensional laser scanning and digital photogrammetric shoot for fixing and measurement of architectural monuments

    OpenAIRE

    S.V. Tiurin; S.G. Tihonov

    2010-01-01

    Several variants of architectural monument fixing using photogrammetric method are considered: black-and-white and colour three-dimensional point models; black-and-white and colour orthophotomaps in format SPO; black-and-white and colour orthophotomaps in standard raster formats. For different aims authors recommend corresponding data formats.

  10. Water quality study at the Congaree Swamp National monument of Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rikard, M.

    1991-11-01

    The Congaree Swamp National Monument is one of the last significant near virgin tracts of bottom land hardwood forests in the Southeast United States. The study documents a water quality monitoring program on Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Basic water quality parameters were analyzed. High levels of aluminum and iron were found, and recommendations were made for further monitoring

  11. Monument et espace urbain. Pour une Sémiotique des parcours et des structures de la ville

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruggero Ragonese

    2012-11-01

    Cependant, partant de cet exigu corpus bibliographique, on peut chercher des bases pour commencer un travail sur le texte architectural, à partir de l'étude de monuments, capable de décrire le processus de transformation urbaine et les formes de l'espace construit.

  12. THE UNDERSTANDING OF THE TOURISTIC VALUE OF PORTUGUESE OVERSEAS MONUMENTS: THE CASE OF ANGOLA (1959-1974

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Mariz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the understanding of the touristic value of Portuguese overseas monuments during Estado Novo, having as case-study the then colony of Angola between 1959 and 1974, years marked by the creation of the Information and Tourism Centre and the fall of the regime. Thus, considering the reality of the metropolis, we aimed to identify and analyse the evolution of tourism in this territory, as well the understanding and use of historic monuments by a nationalist regime as points of touristic interest and legitimisers of the national colonialism. We argue that during two different but totally complementary moments devoted to the relation between tourism and historic monuments of Angola, there was a real understanding of their touristic value. Besides that we claim that the believers of the touristic value of those monuments were very often advocates of the preservation or restoration of their pristine characteristics, an idea that we can affiliate to the thought of António Ferro to whom the success of tourism was extremely dependent on preserving and emphasizing the picturesque and idiosyncratic characteristics of those tourist destinations. To achieve our goals we have identified and analysed some tourism-related periodicals, thematic studies and legislation.

  13. Monitoring of atmospheric pollutants passive sampling for the protection of historic buildings and monuments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Santis, F.; Fino, A.; Vazzana, C.; Allegrini, I. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto Inquinamento Atmosferico, Rome (Italy)

    2001-12-01

    When considering the various possibilities to assess the effects of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} on historic buildings and monuments, a distinction can be made according to the completeness of the scope of the assessment itself. A first approach can be limited to gathering data as they become available through the official bodies established under air quality legislation. This approach is based on a single point measurement where a general purpose monitoring station is located, often quite far from the monument to protect and often without investigating local and temporal variations. A more comprehensive assessment should include a generalisation that covers the territory. This can be made on the basis of the knowledge of the spatial distribution of concentrations and the knowledge of the causes of air pollution. Passive samplers allow the measurement of air quality in numerous sites and to assess the pollutant spatial distribution over a large area with a high resolution. As an application of the method, the spatial distribution of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} in the city of Siracusa, Sicily, Italy, has been studied to identify areas of high deposition fluxes in relation to the protection of buildings and monuments of the historic centre. [Italian] E' noto che gli inquinanti presenti in aria, tra questi in particolare l'SO{sub 2} e l'NO{sub 2}, sono causa di danno sui monumenti e sulle opere d'arte. La valutazione dell'impatto di questi due inquinanti viene solitamente effettuata sulla base del monitoraggio eseguito secondo la legislazione vigente ma spesso lontano dal monumento da proteggere. Cio', evidentemente, non consente di valutare correttamente il grado di rischio al quale un monumento e' esposto poiche' non fornisce informazioni sulle variazioni spaziali e temporali dei due inquinanti in prossimita' del monumento stesso. Allo scopo di raccogliere quindi informazioni complete sulla distribuzione degli inquinanti, e

  14. Hillslope failure and paraglacial reworking of sediments in response to glacier retreat, Fox Valley, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColl, Samuel T.; Fuller, Ian C.; Anderson, Brian; Tate, Rosie

    2017-04-01

    Climate and glacier fluctuations influence sediment supply to glacier forelands, which in turn influences down-valley hazards to infrastructure and tourism within glacier forelands. At Fox Glacier, one of New Zealand's most iconic and popular glaciers, rapid retreat has initiated a range of hillslope and valley floor responses, that present a cascade of hazards and changes that need to be carefully managed. Fox Glacier has retreated many kilometres historically, with 2.6 km of retreat since the mid-20th century, and a phase of rapid retreat of 50-340 m per year since 2009. To study the system response to past and ongoing glacial retreat at the Fox valley, morphological changes are being observed using time-lapse photography and the annual collection of high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) and orthophoto mosaics. The DEMs are being produced using Structure from Motion photogrammetry from UAV/RPAS and helicopter platforms, and are being used, along with manual ground surveying, to produce ground surface change models (DoDs; DEMs of Difference) and sediment budgets for the valley. Results from time-lapse photography and DoDs show that glacial retreat has initiated destabilisation and (mostly chronic) mass movement of surficial glacial sediments on the valley slopes near the glacier terminus. Alluvial fans farther down valley are actively growing, reworking glacial and landslide sediments from tributary catchments. These paraglacial sediments being delivered to the proglacial river from the glacier terminus and alluvial fans are driving aggradation of the valley floor of decimetres to metres per year and maintaining a highly dynamic braid plain. Valley floor changes also include the melting of buried dead ice, which are causing localised subsidence at the carpark and one of the alluvial fans. The unstable slopes and active debris fans, aggrading and highly active river channel, ground subsidence, add to the spectacle but also the hazards of the Fox valley

  15. Quaternary Geochronology, Paleontology, and Archaeology of the Upper San Pedro River Valley, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, E. P.

    2013-12-01

    This poster presents the results of multi-disciplinary investigations of the preservation and extent of Quaternary fossil-bearing strata in the San Pedro River Valley in Sonora, Mexico. Geologic deposits in the portions of the San Pedro Valley in southern Arizona contain one of the best late Cenozoic fossil records known in North America and the best record of early humans and extinct mammals on the continent. The basin in the U.S. is one of the type locations for the Blancan Land Mammal Age. Hemiphilian and Irvingtonian fossils are common. Rancholabrean remains are widespread. Strata in the valley adjacent to the international border with Mexico have yielded the densest concentration of archaeological mammoth-kill sites known in the western hemisphere. Despite more than 60 years of research in the U.S., however, and the fact that over one third of the San Pedro River lies south of the international boundary, little has been known about the late Cenozoic geology of the valley in Mexico. The study reported here utilized extensive field survey, archaeological documentation, paleontological excavations, stratigraphic mapping and alluvial geochronology to determine the nature and extent of Quaternary fossil-bearing deposits in the portions of the San Pedro Valley in Sonora, Mexico. The results demonstrate that the Plio-Pleistocene fossil -bearing formations known from the valley in Arizona extend into the uppermost reaches of the valley in Mexico. Several new fossil sites were discovered that yielded the remains of Camelids, Equus, Mammuthus, and other Proboscidean species. Late Pleistocene archaeological remains were found on the surface of the surrounding uplands. AMS radiocarbon dating demonstrates the widespread preservation of middle- to late- Holocene deposits. However, the late Pleistocene deposits that contain the archaeological mammoth-kill sites in Arizona are absent in the valley in Mexico, and are now known to be restricted to relatively small portions of

  16. Groundwater budgets for Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Valleys, Mohave County, Arizona, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Bradley D.; Truini, Margot

    2011-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Arizona Department of Water Resources, initiated an investigation of the hydrogeology and water resources of Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Valleys in northwestern Arizona in 2005, and this report is part of that investigation. Water budgets were developed for Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Valleys to provide a generalized understanding of the groundwater systems in this rural area that has shown some evidence of human-induced water-level declines. The valleys are within the Basin and Range physiographic province and consist of thick sequences of permeable alluvial sediment deposited into basins bounded by relatively less permeable igneous and metamorphic rocks. Long-term natural recharge rates (1940-2008) for the alluvial aquifers were estimated to be 1,400 acre-feet per year (acre-ft/yr) for Detrital Valley, 5,700 acre-ft/yr for Hualapai Valley, and 6,000 acre-ft/yr for Sacramento Valley. Natural discharge rates were assumed to be equal to natural recharge rates, on the basis of the assumption that all groundwater withdrawals to date have obtained water from groundwater storage. Groundwater withdrawals (2007-08) for the alluvial aquifers were less than 300 acre-ft/yr for Detrital Valley, about 9,800 acre-ft/yr for Hualapai Valley, and about 4,500 acre-ft/yr for Sacramento Valley. Incidental recharge from leaking water-supply pipes, septic systems, and wastewater-treatment plants accounted for about 35 percent of total recharge (2007-08) across the study area. Natural recharge and discharge values in this study were 24-50 percent higher than values in most previously published studies. Water budgets present a spatially and temporally "lumped" view of water resources and incorporate many sources of uncertainty in this study area where only limited data presently are available.

  17. Isolation and characterisation of barium sulphate and titanium oxides in monument crusts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luis Perez-Rodriguez, Jose; Carmen Jimenez de Haro, Maria del; Maqueda, Celia

    2004-10-25

    Black crusts from historical ornamental materials contain Ba and Ti. These elements are in low proportion, making their determination difficult and especially the characterisation of the phases in which they are present. For this reason, works on the mineralogical composition of the two elements in black crusts is scarce. Thus the isolation, previous to their characterisation, is important for the study of the surface layer in altered monuments. An acid attack for the isolation of barium sulphate and titanium oxides in black crusts from polluted areas has been used. The acid employed is a mixture of HF, HNO{sub 3} and HClO{sub 4}. The residue isolated by acid attack was analysed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction. It was characterised, and the percentages of barite (barium sulphate), anatase (titanium oxide), and rutile (titanium oxide) phases present in the surface layers were calculated.

  18. Monuments devoted to artists in public spaces around museums: A nineteenth-century strategy to enhance the urban space of art districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorente, J. Pedro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Monuments to kings or military heroes have always been positioned in main squares and avenues, whilst those erected to famous cultural figures were a novelty introduced in the Enlightenment and Romanticism, placing busts or sitting monuments to writers or musicians in secluded gardens and in the surroundings of libraries, theatres, etc. During the nineteenth century, monuments to artists became also a common feature in many cities, where a most likely emplacement for them was in front of some art museum. In a way, they were a complement to the ornaments of such building, usually decorated with portraits and inscriptions glorifying great artists; but the monument to Murillo erected in 1863 by public subscription in Seville's Plaza del Museo was also an urban milestone, catching the attention of promenading public passing along a lateral street. Later, the monuments erected in the piazzas around the Prado Museum in Madrid, or in gardens outside the Louvre, became a popular prototype, emulated in many other cities up to the early 20th century. Their role as interfaces between public spaces and museum sites would thereafter be taken over by other kinds of artistic landmarks: not monuments to artists, but monumental artworks, often owned by the museum itself, thus bringing part of its collection outside, as a welcome starter to prospective cultural consumers.

  19. Trace element quantification of lead based roof sheets of historical monuments by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syvilay, D., E-mail: delphine.syvilay@culture.gouv.fr [LRMH USR 3224, 29 rue de Paris, 77420 Champs-sur-Marne (France); Texier, A. [LRMH USR 3224, 29 rue de Paris, 77420 Champs-sur-Marne (France); Arles, A.; Gratuze, B. [IRAMAT, 3D, rue de la Férollerie, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Wilkie-Chancellier, N.; Martinez, L.; Serfaty, S. [SATIE, UMR CNRS 8029, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, ENS Cachan, 95000 Cergy-Pontoise Cedex (France); Detalle, V. [LRMH USR 3224, 29 rue de Paris, 77420 Champs-sur-Marne (France)

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify the different periods of construction or restoration of the lead roof of a historic monument. Trace elements in a lead matrix can be a signature of the metallurgical processes, allowing identification of a specific time period for the production of the lead used to build the roof. The ability of LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) to detect such trace elements in a lead matrix is therefore explored and checked by comparing its results with LA-ICP-MS as a reference method (Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry). Concentrations of 263 samples were compared between LIBS and LA-ICP-MS data and their correlation was evaluated. Another way to compare their results is also suggested by combining PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and GIS (Geographic Information System). As a result statistical mappings were created, highlighting metallurgical groups of samples across the roof of the building. This innovative approach links concentration and spatial location resulting in an easily interpretable graphical presentation of the data. The results of both spectrometry methods lead to similar conclusions with distinctive areas of different lead compositions and by extension different lead dating across the roof. But since LIBS is portable we can conclude that it is a suitable and reliable instrument for in-situ applications on historic monuments. - Highlights: • Quantification of trace elements (Ag, Bi, Cu and Sn) in a lead matrix by LIBS and LA-ICP-MS • Low limit of detection for Ag, Bi, Cu and Sn by using LIBS portable instrumentation • Set up a specific data processing combining PCA and GIS for cultural heritage application • Comparison of LIBS and LA-ICP-MS results with 263 samples • 488 samples analyzed by LIBS.

  20. NIPGAT: new tool for investigating the deterioration of monuments and historic buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaafar Abdullah; Lahasen Norman Shah Dahing; Susan Maria Sipaun; Md Fakaruddin Abdul Rahman; Ismail Mustapha

    2004-01-01

    The degradation of some building materials such as brick and mortar is a major problem for the preservation of monuments or historic structures, especially where it is desirable to preserve the original fabric of the building. Such degradation often arises from the presence of contaminants in the constituent materials. Knowledge of the presence and distribution of contaminants is needed for effective treatment and preservation. In building materials, water and soluble salt are considered two unwanted contaminants. Their concentrations and distribution in these materials are very important factor in estimating the degree of building deterioration. Water is a major course of deterioration, both by acting as a solvent for various building materials components and by exerting stresses on the structure during thermal cycle. The soluble salts, notably chlorides, damage the structure either by periodically dissolving and recrystallising within the pores or by promoting corrosion. Neutrons are useful as probes for non-destructive examination of extended media because neutrons can travel relatively long distances before interacting with the nuclei of the media. Depending on the type of material, neutrons can have a mean free path of tens of centimeters to meters. It is for this reason that neutrons in conjunction with gamma-ray spectroscopy have been used extensively in oil-well logging and mineral exploration. For the same reason, a new method, called neutron-induced prompt gamma-ray technique, NIPGAT is being developed at MINT for preservation of monuments and historic buildings. NIPGAT can be used for in-situ quantitative determination and location of contaminants, particularly water and soluble salt in building materials. This paper presents a brief overview and gives preliminary results of NIPGAT research activities at MINT. It is hoped that it may raise awareness and promote further opportunities for the collaboration of the nuclear research scientists with the museum

  1. 1855 and 1991 Surveys of the San Andreas Fault: Implications for Fault Machanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Lisa B.; Donnellan, Andrea

    1993-01-01

    Two monuments from an 1855 survey that spans the San Andreas fault in the Carrizo Plain have been displaced 11.0+/-2.5m right-laterally by the 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake and associated seismicity and afterslip by the 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake and associated seismicity and afterslip.

  2. Small martian valleys: Pristine and degraded morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, V.R.; Partridge, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    The equatorial heavily cratered uplands of Mars are dissected by two classes of small valleys that are intimately associated in compound networks. Pristine valleys with steep valley walls preferentially occupy downstream portions of compound basins. Degraded valleys with eroded walls are laterally more extensive and have higher drainage densities than pristine valleys. Morphometric and crater-counting studies indicate that relatively dense drainage networks were emplaced on Mars during the heavy bombardment about 4.0 b.y. ago. Over a period of approximately 10 8 years, these networks were degraded and subsequently invaded by headwardly extending pristine valleys. The pristine valleys locally reactivated the compound networks, probably through sapping processes dependent upon high water tables. Fluvial activity in the heavily cratered uplands generally ceased approximately 3.8--3.9 b.y. ago, coincident with the rapid decline in cratering rates. The relict compound valleys on Mars are morphometrically distinct from most terrestrial drainage systems. The differences might be caused by a Martian valley formation episode characterized by hyperaridity, by inadequate time for network growth, by very permeable rock types, or by a combination of factors

  3. EPA Region 1 - Valley Depth in Meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raster of the Depth in meters of EPA-delimited Valleys in Region 1.Valleys (areas that are lower than their neighbors) were extracted from a Digital Elevation Model (USGS, 30m) by finding the local average elevation, subtracting the actual elevation from the average, and selecting areas where the actual elevation was below the average. The landscape was sampled at seven scales (circles of 1, 2, 4, 7, 11, 16, and 22 km radius) to take into account the diversity of valley shapes and sizes. Areas selected in at least four scales were designated as valleys.

  4. A landscape scale valley confinement algorithm: Delineating unconfined valley bottoms for geomorphic, aquatic, and riparian applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Nagel; John M. Buffington; Sharon L. Parkes; Seth Wenger; Jaime R. Goode

    2014-01-01

    Valley confinement is an important landscape characteristic linked to aquatic habitat, riparian diversity, and geomorphic processes. This report describes a GIS program called the Valley Confinement Algorithm (VCA), which identifies unconfined valleys in montane landscapes. The algorithm uses nationally available digital elevation models (DEMs) at 10-30 m resolution to...

  5. Budgets and chemical characterization of groundwater for the Diamond Valley flow system, central Nevada, 2011–12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, David L.; Mayers, C. Justin; Garcia, C. Amanda; Buto, Susan G.; Huntington, Jena M.

    2016-07-29

    The Diamond Valley flow system consists of six hydraulically connected hydrographic areas in central Nevada. The general down-gradient order of the areas are southern and northern Monitor Valleys, Antelope Valley, Kobeh Valley, Stevens Basin, and Diamond Valley. Groundwater flow in the Diamond Valley flow system terminates at a large playa in the northern part of Diamond Valley. Concerns relating to continued water-resources development of the flow system resulted in a phased hydrologic investigation that began in 2005 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Eureka County. This report presents the culmination of the phased investigation to increase understanding of the groundwater resources of the basin-fill aquifers in the Diamond Valley flow system through evaluations of groundwater chemistry and budgets. Groundwater chemistry was characterized using major ions and stable isotopes from groundwater and precipitation samples. Groundwater budgets accounted for all inflows, outflows, and changes in storage, and were developed for pre-development (pre-1950) and recent (average annual 2011–12) conditions. Major budget components include groundwater discharge by evapotranspiration and groundwater withdrawals; groundwater recharge by precipitation, and interbasin flow; and storage change.

  6. Monitoring and research to describe geomorphic effects of the 2011 controlled flood on the Green River in the Canyon of Lodore, Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Erich R.; Grams, Paul E.; Schmidt, John C.; Hazel, Joseph E.; Kaplinski, Matt; Alexander, Jason A.; Kohl, Keith

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, a large magnitude flow release from Flaming Gorge Reservoir, Wyoming and Utah, occurred in response to high snowpack in the middle Rocky Mountains. This was the third highest recorded discharge along the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam, Utah, since its initial closure in November 1962 and motivated a research effort to document effects of these flows on channel morphology and sedimentology at four long-term monitoring sites within the Canyon of Lodore in Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado and Utah. Data collected in September 2011 included raft-based bathymetric surveys, ground-based surveys of banks, channel cross sections and vegetation-plot locations, sand-bar stratigraphy, and painted rock recovery on gravel bars. As part of this surveying effort, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data were collected at benchmarks on the canyon rim and along the river corridor to establish a high-resolution survey control network. This survey control network allows for the collection of repeatable spatial and elevation data necessary for high accuracy geomorphic change detection. Nearly 10,000 ground survey points and more than 20,000 bathymetric points (at 1-meter resolution) were collected over a 5-day field campaign, allowing for the construction of reach-scale digital elevation models (DEMs). Additionally, we evaluated long-term geomorphic change at these sites using repeat topographic surveys of eight monumented cross sections at each of the four sites. Analysis of DEMs and channel cross sections show a spatially variable pattern of erosion and deposition, both within and between reaches. As much as 5 meters of scour occurred in pools downstream from flow constrictions, especially in channel segments where gravel bars were absent. By contrast, some channel cross sections were stable during the 2011 floods, and have shown almost no change in over a decade of monitoring. Partial mobility of gravel bars occurred, and although in some locations

  7. West Valley Demonstration Project, West Valley, New York: Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Under the West Valley Demonstration Project Act, Public Law 96-368, liquid high-level radioactive waste stored at the Western New York Nuclear Services Center, West Valley, New York, that resulted from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing operations conducted between 1966 and 1972, is to be solidified in borosilicate glass and transported to a federal repository for geologic disposal. A major milestone was reached in May 1988 when the Project began reducing the volume of the liquid high-level waste. By the end of 1988, approximately 15 percent of the initial inventory had been processed into two waste streams. The decontaminated low-level liquid waste is being solidified in cement. The high-level waste stream is being stored in an underground tank pending its incorporation into borosilicate glass. Four tests of the waste glass melter system were completed. These tests confirmed equipment operability, control system reliability, and provided samples of waste glass for durability testing. In mid-1988, the Department validated an integrated cost and schedule plan for activities required to complete the production of the waste borosilicate glass. Design of the radioactive Vitrification Facility continued

  8. The Pocatello Valley, Idaho, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A. M.; Langer, C.J.; Bucknam, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    A Richter magnitude 6.3 earthquake occurred at 8:31 p.m mountain daylight time on March 27, 1975, near the Utah-Idaho border in Pocatello Valley. The epicenter of the main shock was located at 42.094° N, 112.478° W, and had a focal depth of 5.5 km. This earthquake was the largest in the continental United States since the destructive San Fernando earthquake of February 1971. The main shock was preceded by a magnitude 4.5 foreshock on March 26. 

  9. Radwaste challenge at Beaver Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Duquesne Light Company met the problem of accumulating low-level radioactive waste at its Beaver Valley nuclear plant with an aggressive program to reduce the quantity of contaminated material and demonstrate that the plant was improving its radiological protection. There was also an economic incentive to reduce low-level wastes. The imaginative campaign involved workers in the reduction effort through training and the adoption of practical approaches to reducing the amount of material exposed to radiation that include sorting trash by radiation level and a compacting system. 4 figures

  10. The Owens Valley Millimeter Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padin, S.; Scott, S.L.; Woody, D.P.; Scoville, N.Z.; Seling, T.V.

    1991-01-01

    The telescopes and signal processing systems of the Owens Valley Millimeter Array are considered, and improvements in the sensitivity and stability of the instrument are characterized. The instrument can be applied to map sources in the 85 to 115 GHz and 218 to 265 GHz bands with a resolution of about 1 arcsec in the higher frequency band. The operation of the array is fully automated. The current scientific programs for the array encompass high-resolution imaging of protoplanetary/protostellar disk structures, observations of molecular cloud complexes associated with spiral structure in nearby galaxies, and observations of molecular structures in the nuclei of spiral and luminous IRAS galaxies. 9 refs

  11. River flow and riparian vegetation dynamics - implications for management of the Yampa River through Dinosaur National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Michael L; Friedman, Jonathan M.

    2018-01-01

    This report addresses the relation between flow of the Yampa River and occurrence of herbaceous and woody riparian vegetation in Dinosaur National Monument (DINO) with the goal of informing management decisions related to potential future water development. The Yampa River in DINO flows through diverse valley settings, from the relatively broad restricted meanders of Deerlodge Park to narrower canyons, including debris fan-affected reaches in the upper Yampa Canyon and entrenched meanders in Harding Hole and Laddie Park. Analysis of occurrence of all plant species measured in 1470 quadrats by multiple authors over the last 24 years shows that riparian vegetation along the Yampa River is strongly related to valley setting and geomorphic surfaces, defined here as active channel, active floodplain, inactive floodplain, and upland. Principal Coordinates Ordination arrayed quadrats and species along gradients of overall cover and moisture availability, from upland and inactive floodplain quadrats and associated xeric species like western wheat grass (Pascopyrum smithii), cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), and saltgrass (Distichlis spicata) to active channel and active floodplain quadrats supporting more mesic species including sandbar willow (Salix exigua), wild licorice (Glycyrrhiza lepidota), and cordgrass (Spartina spp.). Indicator species analysis identified plants strongly correlated with geomorphic surfaces. These species indicate state changes in geomorphic surfaces, such as the conversion of active channel to floodplain during channel narrowing. The dominant woody riparian species along the Yampa River are invasive tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima), and native Fremont cottonwood (Populus deltoides ssp. wislizenii), box elder (Acer negundo L. var. interius), and sandbar willow (Salix exigua). These species differ in tolerance of drought, salinity, inundation, flood disturbance and shade, and in seed size, timing of seed dispersal and ability to form root sprouts. These

  12. Winter habitat associations of diurnal raptors in Californias Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolrno, E.R.; Herzog, M.P.; Hooper, S.L.; Smith, Z.

    2011-01-01

    The wintering raptors of California's Central Valley are abundant and diverse. Despite this, little information exists on the habitats used by these birds in winter. We recorded diurnal raptors along 19 roadside survey routes throughout the Central Valley for three consecutive winters between 2007 and 2010. We obtained data sufficient to determine significant positive and negative habitat associations for the White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus), Bald Eagle {Haliaeetus leucocephalus), Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus), Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis), Rough-legged Hawk (Buteo lagopus), American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), and Prairie Falcon (Falco mexicanus). The Prairie Falcon and Ferruginous and Rough-legged hawks showed expected strong positive associations with grasslands. The Bald Eagle and Northern Harrier were positively associated not only with wetlands but also with rice. The strongest positive association for the White-tailed Kite was with wetlands. The Red-tailed Hawk was positively associated with a variety of habitat types but most strongly with wetlands and rice. The American Kestrel, Northern Harrier, and White-tailed Kite were positively associated with alfalfa. Nearly all species were negatively associated with urbanized landscapes, orchards, and other intensive forms of agriculture. The White-tailed Kite, Northern Harrier, Redtailed Hawk, Ferruginous Hawk, and American Kestrel showed significant negative associations with oak savanna. Given the rapid conversion of the Central Valley to urban and intensive agricultural uses over the past few decades, these results have important implications for conservation of these wintering raptors in this region.

  13. Electrical resistivity tomography investigations in the ufita Valley (southern Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Basso

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Several Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT surveys have been carried out to study the subsurface structural and sedimentary settings of the upper Ufita River valley, and to evaluate their efficiency to distinguish the geological boundary between shallow Quaternary sedimentary deposits and clayey bedrock characterized by moderate resistivity contrast. Five shallow ERTs were carried out across a morphological scarp running at the foot of the northeastern slope of the valley. This valley shoulder is characterized by a set of triangular facets, that some authors associated to the presence of a SW-dipping normal fault. The geological studies allow us to interpret the shallow ERTs results obtaining a resistivity range for each Quaternary sedimentary deposit. The tomographies showed the geometrical relationships of alluvial and slope deposits, having a maximum thickness of 30-40 m, and the morphology of the bedrock. The resistivity range obtained for each sedimentary body has been used for calibrating the tomographic results of one 3560m-long deep ERT carried out across the deeper part of the intramountain depression with an investigation depth of about 170 m. The deep resistivity result highlighted the complex alluvial setting, characterized by alternating fine grained lacustrine deposits and coarser gravelly fluvial sediments.

  14. Remedial Action Plan for the codisposal and stabilization of the Monument Valley and Mexican Hat uranium mill tailings at Mexican Hat, Utah: Appendices C--E. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This document provides appendices C, D, and E this Remedial Action Plan (RAP) which is a revision of the original Mexican Hat Remedial Action Plan and RAP Modification submitted in July 1988 and January 1989, respectively, along with updated design documents. Appendix C provide the Radiological Support Plan, Appendix D provides the Site Characterization, and Appendix E provides the Water Resources Protection Strategy

  15. Remedial Action Plan for the codisposal and stabilization of the Monument Valley and Mexican Hat uranium mill tailings at Mexican Hat, Utah: Appendices C--E. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-02-01

    This document provides appendices C, D, and E this Remedial Action Plan (RAP) which is a revision of the original Mexican Hat Remedial Action Plan and RAP Modification submitted in July 1988 and January 1989, respectively, along with updated design documents. Appendix C provide the Radiological Support Plan, Appendix D provides the Site Characterization, and Appendix E provides the Water Resources Protection Strategy.

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the atmospheres of two French alpine valleys: sources and temporal patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Marchand

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpine valleys represent some of the most important crossroads for international heavy-duty traffic in Europe, but the full impact of this traffic on air quality is not known due to a lack of data concerning these complex systems. As part of the program "Pollution des Vallées Alpines" (POVA, we performed two sampling surveys of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in two sensitive valleys: the Chamonix and Maurienne Valleys, between France and Italy. Sampling campaigns were performed during the summer of 2000 and the winter of 2001, with both periods taking place during the closure of the "Tunnel du Mont-Blanc". The first objective of this paper is to describe the relations between PAH concentrations, external parameters (sampling site localization, meteorological parameters, sources, and aerosol characteristics, including its carbonaceous fraction (OC and EC. The second objective is to study the capacity of PAH profiles to accurately distinguish the different emission sources. Temporal evolution of the relative concentration of an individual PAH (CHR and the PAH groups BghiP+COR and BbF+BkF is studied in order to differentiate wood combustion, gasoline, and diesel emissions, respectively. The results show that the total particulate PAH concentrations were higher in the Chamonix valley during both seasons, despite the cessation of international traffic. Seasonal cycles, with higher concentrations in winter, are also stronger in this valley. During winter, particulate PAH concentration can reach very high levels (up to 155 ng.m-3 in this valley during cold anticyclonic periods. The examination of sources shows the impact during summer of heavy-duty traffic in the Maurienne valley and of gasoline vehicles in the Chamonix valley. During winter, Chamonix is characterized by the strong influence of wood combustion in residential fireplaces, even if the temporal evolution of specific PAH ratios are difficult to interpret. Information on sources

  17. Valley-dependent band structure and valley polarization in periodically modulated graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei-Tao

    2016-08-01

    The valley-dependent energy band and transport property of graphene under a periodic magnetic-strained field are studied, where the time-reversal symmetry is broken and the valley degeneracy is lifted. The considered superlattice is composed of two different barriers, providing more degrees of freedom for engineering the electronic structure. The electrons near the K and K' valleys are dominated by different effective superlattices. It is found that the energy bands for both valleys are symmetric with respect to ky=-(AM+ξ AS) /4 under the symmetric superlattices. More finite-energy Dirac points, more prominent collimation behavior, and new crossing points are found for K' valley. The degenerate miniband near the K valley splits into two subminibands and produces a new band gap under the asymmetric superlattices. The velocity for the K' valley is greatly renormalized compared with the K valley, and so we can achieve a finite velocity for the K valley while the velocity for the K' valley is zero. Especially, the miniband and band gap could be manipulated independently, leading to an increase of the conductance. The characteristics of the band structure are reflected in the transmission spectra. The Dirac points and the crossing points appear as pronounced peaks in transmission. A remarkable valley polarization is obtained which is robust to the disorder and can be controlled by the strain, the period, and the voltage.

  18. Sustainable agricultural development in inland valleys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, S.J.

    2018-01-01

    The inland valley in Africa are common landscapes that have favorable conditions for agricultural production. Compared to the surrounding uplands they are characterized by a relatively high and secure water availability and high soil fertility levels. Inland valleys thus have a high agricultural

  19. Valley dependent transport in graphene L junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K. S.

    2018-05-01

    We studied the valley dependent transport in graphene L junctions connecting an armchair lead and a zigzag lead. The junction can be used in valleytronic devices and circuits. Electrons injected from the armchair lead into the junction is not valley polarized, but they can become valley polarized in the zigzag lead. There are Fermi energies, where the current in the zigzag lead is highly valley polarized and the junction is an efficient generator of valley polarized current. The features of the valley polarized current depend sensitively on the widths of the two leads, as well as the number of dimers in the armchair lead, because this number has a sensitive effect on the band structure of the armchair lead. When an external potential is applied to the junction, the energy range with high valley polarization is enlarged enhancing its function as a generator of highly valley polarized current. The scaling behavior found in other graphene devices is also found in L junctions, which means that the results presented here can be extended to junctions with larger dimensions after appropriate scaling of the energy.

  20. Beaver assisted river valley formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Cherie J.; Cooper, D.J.; Baker, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    We examined how beaver dams affect key ecosystem processes, including pattern and process of sediment deposition, the composition and spatial pattern of vegetation, and nutrient loading and processing. We provide new evidence for the formation of heterogeneous beaver meadows on riverine system floodplains and terraces where dynamic flows are capable of breaching in-channel beaver dams. Our data show a 1.7-m high beaver dam triggered overbank flooding that drowned vegetation in areas deeply flooded, deposited nutrient-rich sediment in a spatially heterogeneous pattern on the floodplain and terrace, and scoured soils in other areas. The site quickly de-watered following the dam breach by high stream flows, protecting the deposited sediment from future re-mobilization by overbank floods. Bare sediment either exposed by scouring or deposited by the beaver flood was quickly colonized by a spatially heterogeneous plant community, forming a beaver meadow. Many willow and some aspen seedlings established in the more heavily disturbed areas, suggesting the site may succeed to a willow carr plant community suitable for future beaver re-occupation. We expand existing theory beyond the beaver pond to include terraces within valleys. This more fully explains how beavers can help drive the formation of alluvial valleys and their complex vegetation patterns as was first postulated by Ruedemann and Schoonmaker in 1938. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Bathymetry of NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (Inshore), St. John, US Virgin Islands 2005, 1M Grid, UTM 20 NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Grid with 1 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of an inshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument,...

  2. Virus incidence in orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) seed production fields in the Willamette Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    A survey was conducted over the course of three years (2014-2016) for the presence of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV-MAV and BYDV-PAV), Cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV-RPV), and Cocksfoot mottle virus (CfMV) in orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata) fields in the Willamette Valley, Oregon. There was an ...

  3. Effect of the acid rain in the constituent material of the Mayan Mexican monuments; Efecto de la lluvia acida en el material constituyente de los monuments mayas mexicanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo Alvarez, H; Soto Ayala, R; Sosa Echeverria, R; Sanchez Alvarez, P [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-10-15

    Actually, acid rain is considered as a potential problem that affects materials and ecosystems. The effect on monuments, made mainly from limestone, has been studied for long time. In this work, a sample of limestone from Tulum, Qintana Roo, was studied. The following parameters were measured: density, porosity and percentage of water adsorption. Also, the sample was irrigated with acid rain prepared in the laboratory (pH = 4.6), based in the chemical composition of 56 rain samples from Puerto Morelos, Quintana Roo, in 1994 and 1995. The results obtained show that acid rain is neutralized by calcium carbonate from the limestone. The high calcium concentrations in the effluent, show that limestone is dissolved by acid rain. Superficial recession was 4.4 {mu}m/year under experimental conditions used. [Spanish] Actualmente la lluvia acida se ha convertido en un problema potencial que afecta en mayor o menor grado a materiales y a los ecosistemas. El efecto que causa la lluvia acida en monumentos construidos fundamentalmente de roca caliza, ha sido objeto de muchas investigaciones realizadas, prioritariamente, por paises que poseen estructuras, cuyo material de construccion es caliza. En este trabajo de investigacion se estudio una muestra de roca caliza proveniente de los monumentos mayas de Tulum, Quintana Roo. Se determinaron los parametros de densidad, porosidad y porcentaje de adsorcion de agua. Asimismo, se efectuo la irrigacion de la muestra con lluvia acida (pH aprox.4.6), preparada en el laboratorio con base en la composicion quimica que se determino en 56 muestras de agua de lluvia provenientes de Puerto Morelos, punto cercano a los monumentos de Tulum, Quintana Roo, durante los anos 1994 y 1995. Los resultados permiten concluir que la lluvia acida sufre un proceso de naturalizacion con el carbonato de calcio de la roca caliza. Las altas concentraciones de calcio en el efluente, mostraron que la roca caliza sufrio una disolucion con la lluvia acida. La

  4. Measuring change over time: the use of geotagged photographs to evaluate the weathering of monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehne, E.

    2012-04-01

    Evaluating the condition of weathered stone surfaces on a monument, building or sculpture requires information on how those surfaces have evolved. In a number of cases, the documentation related to a site or object is either not readily available or has been lost (due to war, fire, etc.). Exploring the use of geotagged photographs to supplement the evaluation of surface changes to monuments was tested using two sites: the Mausoleum at the Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens in San Marino, California and the Duomo in Florence, Italy. Increasingly, photographs are being geo-located or geotagged, either automatically via GPS/WiFi or manually. Geolocation tags increase the value of a photograph to researchers by providing the geographic location where the image was taken, often along with the date and time the photograph was acquired. Estimates of the number of geolocated photographs posted to the Internet include 148 million on Flickr.com (as of June 3, 2011) increasing to 172 million as of January 15, 2012. On Panarimo.com five million geolocated images were archived as of October 2007. Tools such as auto-geotag and PhotoOverlay are making it easier for users to locate and exactly position existing photographs and historic photographs on sites such as Google Earth (PhotoOverlays are images that are directly embedded in the Google Earth's landscape). 42 photo sharing websites are listed currently on Wikipedia, with seven having Alexa rankings of less than 200, indicating the popularity of photo sharing and the vast nature of this resource. Preliminary results from the Huntington and the Duomo indicate that geolocated images are indeed a useful tool for aiding in understanding stone weathering patterns and changes over time. However, greater software support and new tools are needed to enable researchers to search, organize and analyze groups of photographs from a single geolocation. Such software would have obvious uses beyond the conservation

  5. US Geological Survey research on the environmental fate of uranium mining and milling wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landa, E.R.; Gray, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Studies by the US Geological Survey (USGS) of uranium mill tailings (UMT) have focused on characterizing the forms in which radionuclides are retained and identifying factors influencing the release of radionuclides to air and water. Selective extraction studies and studies of radionuclide sorption by and reaching from components of UMT showed alkaline earth sulfate and hydrous ferric oxides to be important hosts of radium-226 ( 226 Ra) in UMT. Extrapolating from studies of barite dissolution in anerobic lake sediments, the leaching of 226 Ra from UMT by sulfate-reducing bacteria was investigated; a marked increase in 226 Ra release to aqueous solution as compared to sterile controls was demonstrated. A similar action of iron(III)-reducing bacteria was later shown. Ion exchangers such as clay minerals can also promote the dissolution of host-phase minerals and thereby influence the fate of radionuclides such as 226 Ra. Radon release studies examined particle size and ore composition as variables. Aggregation of UMT particles was shown to mask the higher emanating fraction of finer particles. Studies of various ores and ore components showed that UMT cannot be assumed to have the same radon-release characteristics as their precursor ores, nor can 226 Ra retained by various substrates be assumed to emanate the same fraction of radon. Over the last decade, USGS research directed at offsite mobility of radionuclides form uranium mining and milling processes has focused on six areas: the Midnite Mine in Washington; Ralston Creek and Reservoir, Colorado; sites near Canon City, Colorado; the Monument Valley District of Arizona and Utah; the Cameron District of Arizona; and the Puerco River basin of Arizona and New Mexico. 48 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Beyond Restoration. Valorization of the Public. Monumental Heritage Asset The Istituto degli Innocenti and the MUDI Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Terpolilli

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available While protection of our collective monumental heritage is a value and an objective we pass along to future generations, at the same time it must be conceived of a commitment to making these assets available to citizens of the present time. This means applying the disciplines of preservation and restoration and at the same time going beyond with a cultural approach that interprets the monumental asset as a fabbrica; that is, as a place of ongoing design activity: a workshop for a work in progress. This approach necessitates programs for valorization and productive investments that operate in full respect of the assets themselves while employing the innovative tools available for ensuring that the asset as a whole produces income. This is the framework for the MUDI project in Florence.

  7. Renovation and development of the «Fortress of Bard» monument complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Cacozza

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available At the heart of the restoration and development project lies the ambition to make the fort a centre for alpine culture, based on an ongoing dialogue between tradition and modernity. A forum for the understanding and exploration of the Alps of today, with their appeal and contradictions, combined with a perspective on the history and tradition of the area. A cultural project that merges the precision of the scientific and educational mission of its museum with the power of communication offered by the theme park, to allow visitors to discover and learn with fun and excitement. The Fortress of Bard offers visitors privileged access into the heritage of the Valley of Aosta and the lower valley, with the Vallée Culture space, the Info Lounge and the many initiatives related to the Bard/Donnas/Pont Saint-Martin, microsystem, in which Bard plays an integral role.

  8. 3D View of Death Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This 3-D perspective view looking north over Death Valley, California, was produced by draping ASTER nighttime thermal infrared data over topographic data from the US Geological Survey. The ASTER data were acquired April 7, 2000 with the multi-spectral thermal infrared channels, and cover an area of 60 by 80 km (37 by 50 miles). Bands 13, 12, and 10 are displayed in red, green and blue respectively. The data have been computer enhanced to exaggerate the color variations that highlight differences in types of surface materials. Salt deposits on the floor of Death Valley appear in shades of yellow, green, purple, and pink, indicating presence of carbonate, sulfate, and chloride minerals. The Panamint Mtns. to the west, and the Black Mtns. to the east, are made up of sedimentary limestones, sandstones, shales, and metamorphic rocks. The bright red areas are dominated by the mineral quartz, such as is found in sandstones; green areas are limestones. In the lower center part of the image is Badwater, the lowest point in North America.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide

  9. Modeling seasonal detection patterns for burrowing owl surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quresh S. Latif; Kathleen D. Fleming; Cameron Barrows; John T. Rotenberry

    2012-01-01

    To guide monitoring of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) in the Coachella Valley, California, USA, we analyzed survey-method-specific seasonal variation in detectability. Point-based call-broadcast surveys yielded high early season detectability that then declined through time, whereas detectability on driving surveys increased through the season. Point surveys...

  10. “Tomar” e “Zona Monumental de Ajuda Belem”. Dois projectos de salvaguardia, dois casos de estudo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Maria Augusto de Sousa Rosa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Prosseguindo os propósitos deste Il Seminário internacional “Conservazione del Património Arquitectónico e Urbano”, onde irão ser confrontadas as experiências realizadas em Itália e Portugal no âmbito da conservação do património arquitectónico e urbano, são apresentados dois casos de estudo, objectivando a salvaguarda dos centros históricos, realizados em duas cidades portuguesas - Tomar (Centro Histórico e Lisboa (Zona Monumental Ajuda-Belém. Os dois Planos então realizados – Tomar, em 1996, e zona monumental Ajuda-Belém, em 2004 – ambos recorrendo a suporte informático, evidenciam na “decalage” de 8 anos, a importância dos avanços tecnológicos e informáticos, patente no projecto mais recente (Zona Monumental Ajuda - Belém, quer na aquisição e processamento de dados, quer ainda na consulta dos mesmos, processos que se têm revelado valiosíssimos para a conservação e salvaguarda do património arquitectónico, urbano e ambiental desta zona da cidade de Lisboa.

  11. Hidden Valley Search at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Verducci, M

    2011-01-01

    A number of extensions of the Standard Model result in neutral and weakly-coupled particles that decay to multi hadrons or multi leptons with macroscopic decay lengths. These particles with decay paths that can be comparable with ATLAS detector dimensions represent, from an experimental point of view, a challenge both for the trigger and for the reconstruction capabilities of the ATLAS detector. We will present a set of signature driven triggers for the ATLAS detector that target such displaced decays and evaluate their performances for some benchmark models and describe analysis strategies and limits on the production of such long-lived particles. A first estimation of the Hidden Valley trigger rates has been evaluated with 6 pb-1 of data collected at ATLAS during the data taking of 2010.

  12. Monitoring Mechanism in Preservation of Monuments in Hot and Wet Climate Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M. C.; Tsai, Y. L.; Lin, M. L.; Hang, L. W.; Chen, C. Y.

    2015-08-01

    Historic monuments and buildings are critical cultural assets which cannot be presented by again by human beings. Longer affected by natural climate, environment and biological behavior (including human), resulting in damage and the need for repair. Therefore, UNESCO proposed periodic reporting and reactive monitoring in 2007, in order to achieve "early detection, early repair". This study discusses about suitable preservation monitoring methods for Taiwan. To shed light on damage and impact factors of historical buildings and cultural relics, the study is based on impact and sensor, monitoring method, monitoring period and maintenance personnel in order to propose standard operating procedures of monitoring method. To reduce the rate of the human and sensor monitoring, with the long-term monitoring data analysis, it is calculated that 30 minutes is the best period of data collecting. Besides, the study is adopted regression analysis to select temperature variable only then calculate humidity variable function. This study provides a reference monitoring method for monitoring personnel and maintenance personnel, and establishes a long-term monitoring data based information for damage and destroy in the future. Monitoring period and maintenance personnel can follow the data based to find out the damage points and problems, to keep the value of cultural assets.

  13. GPR identification of an early monument at Los Morteros in the Peruvian coastal desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandweiss, Daniel H.; Kelley, Alice R.; Belknap, Daniel F.; Kelley, Joseph T.; Rademaker, Kurt; Reid, David A.

    2010-05-01

    Los Morteros (8˚39'54″S, 78˚42 '00″W) is located in coastal, northern Peru, one of the six original centers of world civilization. The site consists of a large, sand-covered, isolated prominence situated on a Mid-Holocene shoreline, ˜ 5 km from the present coast. Preceramic archaeological deposits (4040 ± 75 to 4656 ± 60 14C yr BP or ˜ 3600-5500 cal yr BP) cap this feature, which has been identified by prior researchers as a sand-draped, bedrock-cored landform or a relict dune deposit. Because neither explanation is geomorphologically probable, we used ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and high-resolution mapping to assess the mound's interior structure. Our results indicate an anthropogenic origin for Los Morteros, potentially placing it among the earliest monumental structures in prehistoric South America. The extremely arid setting raises new questions about the purpose and the logistics of early mound construction in this region. This work demonstrates the value of an integrated Quaternary sciences approach to assess long-term landscape change and to understand the interaction between humans and the environment.

  14. Effect of Ground Motion Characteristics on the Seismic Response of a Monumental Concrete Arch Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglayan, B. Ozden; Ozakgul, Kadir; Tezer, Ovunc

    2008-07-01

    Railway network in Turkey dates back to more than a hundred years ago and according to official records, there are approximately 18,000 railway bridges with spans varying between 50 cm up to 150 meters. One of them is a monumental concrete arch bridge with a total length of 210 meters having three major spans of 30 meters and a height of 65 meters, located in an earthquake-prone region in southern part of the country. Three-dimensional finite element model of the bridge was generated using a commercially available general finite element analysis software and based on the outcomes of a series of in-depth acceleration measurements that were conducted on-site, the model was refined. Types of ground motion records were used to investigate the seismic response and vulnerability of this massive structure in order to provide information regarding (i) damage-susceptible regions of the structure for monitoring purposes, and, (ii) seismic loads to be taken into account during evaluation and possible strengthening phases for this type of structures.

  15. Effect of Ground Motion Characteristics on the Seismic Response of a Monumental Concrete Arch Bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caglayan, B. Ozden; Ozakgul, Kadir; Tezer, Ovunc

    2008-01-01

    Railway network in Turkey dates back to more than a hundred years ago and according to official records, there are approximately 18,000 railway bridges with spans varying between 50 cm up to 150 meters. One of them is a monumental concrete arch bridge with a total length of 210 meters having three major spans of 30 meters and a height of 65 meters, located in an earthquake-prone region in southern part of the country. Three-dimensional finite element model of the bridge was generated using a commercially available general finite element analysis software and based on the outcomes of a series of in-depth acceleration measurements that were conducted on-site, the model was refined. Types of ground motion records were used to investigate the seismic response and vulnerability of this massive structure in order to provide information regarding (i) damage-susceptible regions of the structure for monitoring purposes, and, (ii) seismic loads to be taken into account during evaluation and possible strengthening phases for this type of structures

  16. Building the Monumental Source Alameda Afonso Henriques (1938-1948 through journals and administrative process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Elias

    2010-02-01

    The research was based primarily on data collected in the process of work, existing file. The journals have been the prime source to describe the construction of the Monumental Fountain. However, given the political context of the time, the journals say little about the logic that led to the belated realization of the work, since their concern is, above all, credibility and consolidate the political image of the regime. In this study, the consultation of journals made by the need to contextualize the motivations of political and ideological order that accompanied the launching of the construction. In the absence of justification on the grounds that caused the delay in the work, we used to see the file's administrative order. This made it possible to obtain unpublished data on the construction of commemorative works such as launching an international tender for electrical installation and plumbing of water games or contingencies that led to the tardy commencement of the works and the replacement of material originally intended for artistic commissions.

  17. Study of the mechanical behavior of the fronts of exterior monuments in Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, E.; Martinez, W.; Avalos, M.; Castano, V.; Martinez, L.

    2005-01-01

    There are 1,130 architectural ancient monuments in the historic center in Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico built with ignimbrites from the surrounding quarry stones. In some facades is acute the damage. The walls are between 0.50 and 1.50 meters wide, it helps the structure under seismic or accidental loads. The main winds come from the S-SW and their ratio speed (4-20 m/s) does not allow mechanical corrosion (corrosion) but it is able to carry anthropogenic particles (2-25 m), form the burnt of fossil fuels, and they lay on the facades. The damage is observed specially on the facades on the dominant winds and also on the facades located on streets less than 6.0 m wide. The capillary humidity is visible until highs of 2.0 meters on the streets, and it is appreciate the efflorescence crystals and biologic patinas. We performance non destructive tests in situ with the Schmidt hammer to quantify the mechanical resistance on the ignimbrite blocks forming the buildings, in the lowest part of them we took the data because the damage is acute in that wet zone and because in this part could occur the collapse in an extraordinary earthquake. The collected data were compared with the data obtained in ignimbrites blocks taken from the 'healthy' quarry stones. (Author)

  18. Preliminary Study on Controlling Black Fungi Dwelling on Stone Monuments by Using a Microwave Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana-Adriana CUZMAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Microcolonial black fungi have their natural ecological niche on rocks and walls of hypogean environments, playing an important role in the deterioration of materials and aesthetical alteration of monumental stones and mortars. Three black fungi (Sarcinomyces sp., Pithomyces sp. and Scolecobasidium sp. have been isolated from cultural assets of historical interest. These fungal strains have been used to test the microwave heating method as a new control methodology for eradicating the fungal biological growth on cultural stone artifacts. This methodology is based on a 2.45 GHz microwave electromagnetic radiation, generated by a new apparatus with an appropriate applicator. The first results showed the best dose of 65°C for three minutes, for all the investigated fungal strains. This methodology is very promising because is safety for the operator and the environment, and can be easily applied on site. The use of this method to kill biodeteriogens can avoid the application of chemicals formulates potentially dangerous for substrates and environment.

  19. Disruption rates for one vulnerable soil in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Robert H.; Esque, Todd C.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Sturm, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Rates of soil disruption from hikers and vehicle traffic are poorly known, particularly for arid landscapes. We conducted an experiment in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (ORPI) in western Arizona, USA, on an air-dry very fine sandy loam that is considered to be vulnerable to disruption. We created variable-pass tracks using hikers, an all-terrain vehicle (ATV), and a four-wheel drive vehicle (4WD) and measured changes in cross-track topography, penetration depth, and bulk density. Hikers (one pass = 5 hikers) increased bulk density and altered penetration depth but caused minimal surface disruption up to 100 passes; a minimum of 10 passes were required to overcome surface strength of this dry soil. Both ATV and 4WD traffic significantly disrupted the soil with one pass, creating deep ruts with increasing passes that rendered the 4WD trail impassable after 20 passes. Despite considerable soil loosening (dilation), bulk density increased in the vehicle trails, and lateral displacement created berms of loosened soil. This soil type, when dry, can sustain up to 10 passes of hikers but only one vehicle pass before significant soil disruption occurs; greater disruption is expected when soils are wet. Bulk density increased logarithmically with applied pressure from hikers, ATV, and 4WD.

  20. SHM experiences of monuments in different structural use and environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modena, C.

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades the need for an effective seismic protection and vulnerability reduction of strategic structures and particularly the architectural heritage determined a growing interest in Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) as measure of passive mitigation of earthquake effects. The object of monitoring is to identify, locate and classify type and severity of damage induced by external actions or degradation phenomena and to assess their effects on the structural performance. In this way it is possible to take appropriate measures to reduce the danger of collapse and, when necessary, perform straightening interventions to improve the structural and seismic capacity. Motivated by the above reasons, the paper provide a contribution to the application of integrated methodologies and techniques, based on SHM, for the assessment and protection of Cultural Heritage (CH) buildings and monuments. Selected case studies, equipped with distributed sensors and acquisition systems. allowed the definition and successive validation of SHM as a knowledge-based assessment tool, implemented to evaluate intervention needs, following an incremental approach during their execution, and to control the damage states of buildings in a post-seismic scenario. In order to maximize the benefits of SHM and optimize the entire process, dedicated software for static monitoring and automated algorithms for modal parameters identification have been developed, able to provide almost real time information on the health state of the monitored structure. Finally integrated procedures based on robust statistical and numerical models have been implemented to interpret and exploit SHM outputs to assess the structural conditions of the investigated CH buildings.

  1. Controls on dripwater chemistry of Oregon Caves National Monument, northwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushdi, Ahmed I.; Ersek, Vasile; Mix, Alan C.; Clark, Peter U.

    2018-02-01

    Cave dripwater chemistry of Oregon Caves National Monument (OCNM) was studied, where the parameters pH, total alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, strontium, sodium and barium were analyzed at quasi-monthly intervals from 2005 to 2007. Different statistical analyses have been used to investigate the variability of the chemical parameters in the different sites in the OCNM cave system. The dripwater varies in response to seasonal changes in rainfall. The drip rates range from zero in summer to continuous flow in winter, closely following the rainfall intensity. Spatial variations of dripwater chemistry, which is nonlinearly related to dripwater discharge likely, reflect the chemical composition of bedrock and overlying soil, and the residence time of the ground water within the aquifer. The residence time of infiltrated water in bedrock cracks control the dissolution carbonate bedrock, reprecipitation of calcium carbonate and the degree of saturation of dripwater with respect to calcium carbonate minerals. Spatiotemporal fluctuations of dripwater Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios are controlled by dissolution of carbonate bedrock and the degree of calcite reprecipitation in bedrock cracks. This suggests that trace elements in speleothem deposits at the OCNM may serve as paleoclimatological proxies for precipitation, if interpreted within the context of understanding local bedrock chemistry.

  2. Lipid residues preserved in sheltered bedrock features at Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, New Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy Buonasera

    2016-10-01

    Bedrock features represent various economic, social, and symbolic aspects of past societies, but have historically received little study, particularly in North America. Fortunately, new techniques for analyzing spatial configurations, use-wear, and organic residues are beginning to unlock more of the interpretive potential of these features. Though preliminary in nature, the present study contributes to this trend by documenting an application of lipid analysis to bedrock features in a dry rockshelter. Results of this initial application indicate that bedrock features in dry rockshelters may provide especially favorable conditions for the preservation and interpretation of ancient organic residues. Abundant lipids, comparable to concentrations present in some pottery sherds, were extracted from a bedrock grinding surface at Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Though the lipids were highly oxidized, degradation products indicative of former unsaturated fatty acids were retained. Comparisons to experimentally aged residues, and absence of a known biomarker for maize, indicate that the bulk of the lipids preserved in the milling surface probably derive from processing an oily nut or seed resource, and not from processing maize. Substantially lower amounts of lipids were recovered from a small, blackened cupule. It is hypothesized that some portion of the lipids in the blackened cupule was deposited from condensed smoke of cooking and heating fires in the caves. Potential for the preservation of organic residues in similar sheltered bedrock contexts is discussed, and a practical method for sampling bedrock features in the field is described.

  3. Gravity field separation and mapping of buried quaternary valleys in Lolland, Denmark using old geophysical data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, M.J.; Olsen, Henrik; Ploug, C.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we utilise the old industrial data for planning new surveys. The overall purpose is a detailed mapping of possible aquifers for the island of Lolland, Denmark. This is done through detection and modelling of the buried quaternary valleys, which either can serve as potential aquifers...... or potential aquifer barriers. The present paper deals only with one aspect of a larger study; namely a case story leading to the detection of unknown buried valleys and the first attempts to model them in 3D from gravity and seismics. Also, the emphasis here is not on any theoretical or even methodological...

  4. Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Hot Creek Valley, Nevada For Calendar Year 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417, Central Nevada Test Area - Surface, is located in Hot Creek Valley in northern Nye County, Nevada, and consists of three areas commonly referred to as UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4. CAU 417 consists of 34 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) which were closed in 2000 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office, 2001). Three CASs at UC-1 were closed in place with administrative controls. At CAS 58-09-01, Central Mud Pit (CMP), a vegetated soil cover was constructed over the mud pit. At the remaining two sites, CAS 58-09-02, Mud Pit, and CAS 58-09-05, Mud Pits (3), aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the CAS boundaries. Three CASs at UC-3 were closed in place with administrative controls. Aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the site boundaries at CAS 58-09-06, Mud Pits (5), CAS 58-25-01, Spill, and CAS 58-10-01, Shaker Pad Area. Two CASs that consist of five sites at UC-4 were closed in place with administrative controls. At CAS 58-09-03, Mud Pits (5), an engineered soil cover was constructed over Mud Pit C. At the remaining three sites in CAS 58-09-03 and at CAS 58-10-05, Shaker Pad Area, aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the site boundaries. The remaining 26 CASs at CAU 417 were either clean-closed or closed by taking no further action.

  5. Mass coral bleaching due to unprecedented marine heatwave in Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (Northwestern Hawaiian Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Courtney S; Burns, John H R; Liu, Gang; Steward, Kanoelani; Gutlay, Tiffany Nicole; Kenyon, Jean; Eakin, C Mark; Kosaki, Randall K

    2017-01-01

    2014 marked the sixth and most widespread mass bleaching event reported in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, home to the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (PMNM), the world's second largest marine reserve. This event was associated with an unusual basin-scale warming in the North Pacific Ocean, with an unprecedented peak intensity of around 20°C-weeks of cumulative heat stress at Lisianksi Island. In situ bleaching surveys and satellite data were used to evaluate the relative importance of potential drivers of bleaching patterns in 2014, assess the subsequent morality and its effects on coral communities and 3D complexity, test for signs of regional acclimation, and investigate long-term change in heat stress in PMNM. Surveys conducted at four island/atoll (French Frigate Shoals, Lisianski Island, Pearl and Hermes Atoll, and Midway Atoll) showed that in 2014, percent bleaching varied considerably between islands/atolls and habitats (back reef/fore reef and depth), and was up to 91% in shallow habitats at Lisianski. The percent bleaching during the 2014 event was best explained by a combination of duration of heat stress measured by Coral Reef Watch's satellite Degree Heating Week, relative community susceptibility (bleaching susceptibility score of each taxon * the taxon's abundance relative to the total number of colonies), depth and region. Mean coral cover at permanent Lisianski monitoring sites decreased by 68% due to severe losses of Montipora dilatata complex, resulting in rapid reductions in habitat complexity. Spatial distribution of the 2014 bleaching was significantly different from the 2002 and 2004 bleaching events likely due to a combination of differences in heat stress and local acclimatization. Historical satellite data demonstrated heat stress in 2014 was unlike any previous event and that the exposure of corals to the bleaching-level heat stress has increased significantly in the northern PMNM since 1982, highlighting the increasing

  6. Mass coral bleaching due to unprecedented marine heatwave in Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney S Couch

    Full Text Available 2014 marked the sixth and most widespread mass bleaching event reported in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, home to the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (PMNM, the world's second largest marine reserve. This event was associated with an unusual basin-scale warming in the North Pacific Ocean, with an unprecedented peak intensity of around 20°C-weeks of cumulative heat stress at Lisianksi Island. In situ bleaching surveys and satellite data were used to evaluate the relative importance of potential drivers of bleaching patterns in 2014, assess the subsequent morality and its effects on coral communities and 3D complexity, test for signs of regional acclimation, and investigate long-term change in heat stress in PMNM. Surveys conducted at four island/atoll (French Frigate Shoals, Lisianski Island, Pearl and Hermes Atoll, and Midway Atoll showed that in 2014, percent bleaching varied considerably between islands/atolls and habitats (back reef/fore reef and depth, and was up to 91% in shallow habitats at Lisianski. The percent bleaching during the 2014 event was best explained by a combination of duration of heat stress measured by Coral Reef Watch's satellite Degree Heating Week, relative community susceptibility (bleaching susceptibility score of each taxon * the taxon's abundance relative to the total number of colonies, depth and region. Mean coral cover at permanent Lisianski monitoring sites decreased by 68% due to severe losses of Montipora dilatata complex, resulting in rapid reductions in habitat complexity. Spatial distribution of the 2014 bleaching was significantly different from the 2002 and 2004 bleaching events likely due to a combination of differences in heat stress and local acclimatization. Historical satellite data demonstrated heat stress in 2014 was unlike any previous event and that the exposure of corals to the bleaching-level heat stress has increased significantly in the northern PMNM since 1982, highlighting

  7. The Final Days of Paracas in Cerro del Gentil, Chincha Valley, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This article describes and analyzes a highly significant archaeological context discovered in a late Paracas (400–200 BCE) sunken patio in the monumental platform mound of Cerro Gentil, located in the Chincha Valley, Peru. This patio area was used for several centuries for ritual activities, including large-scale feasting and other public gatherings. At one point late in this historical sequence people deposited a great deal of objects in what is demonstrably a single historical event. This was quickly followed by a series of minor events stratigraphically immediately above this larger event. This entire ritual process included the consumption of liquids and food, and involved the offering of whole pottery, pottery fragments, botanical remains, bone, lithics, baskets, pyro-engraved gourds, mummies, and other objects. We interpret these events as an “abandonment ceremony” or “termination ritual” during the late Paracas period, one that may have lasted for weeks or even months. The subsequent Topará occupation at the site (ca. 200 BCE- AD 100) involved the architectural enhancement of the mound area, but the pattern of use of the patio itself ended. Such a termination ritual signals a reorganization in the regional political structure of Paracas society. PMID:27144824

  8. Occurrence and Distribution of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV in the Jordan Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Anfoka

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In a survey conducted in 2002 and 2003, Citrus tristeza virus (CTV was detected in the Jordan Valley. The direct tissue blot immunoassay (DTBIA indicated that 12.7 and 15.2% of samples tested in the central and northern Jordan Valley respectively were infected with CTV. Similar results showed that all citrus species grown in the Jordan Valley were susceptible to CTV. DAS-ELISA analysis of samples from a citrus orchard in the Dir Alla area with severe CTV symptoms indicated that 49% of samples were infected with CTV. Using a CTV specific primer pair (CTV1/CTV10, the coat protein gene of the virus was successfully amplified from leaf extracts obtained from CTVinfected trees by IC-RT-PCR. After cloning and sequencing the coat protein gene, the sequence of the amplified product was deposited in the GenBank.

  9. New Insights Into Valley Formation and Preservation: Geophysical Imaging of the Offshore Trinity River Paleovalley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed, C. M.; Swartz, J. M.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Goff, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Trinity River paleovalley is an offshore stratigraphic structure located on the inner continental shelf of the Gulf of Mexico offshore Galveston, Texas. Its formation is linked to the paleo-Trinity system as it existed across the continental shelf during the last glacial period. Newly acquired high-resolution geophysical data have imaged more complexity to the valley morphology and shelf stratigraphy than was previously captured. Significantly, the paleo-Trinity River valley appears to change in the degree of confinement and relief relative to the surrounding strata. Proximal to the modern shoreline, the interpreted time-transgressive erosive surface formed by the paleo-river system is broad and rugose with no single valley, but just 5 km farther offshore the system appears to become confined to a 10 km wide valley structure before again becoming unconfined once again 30 km offshore. Fluvial stratigraphy in this region has a similar degree of complexity in morphology and preservation. A dense geophysical survey of several hundred km is planned for Fall 2017, which will provide unprecedented imaging of the paleovalley morphology and associated stratigraphy. Our analysis leverages robust chirp processing techniques that allow for imaging of strata on the decimeter scale. We will integrate our geophysical results with a wide array of both newly collected and previously published sediment cores. This approach will allow us to address several key questions regarding incised valley formation and preservation on glacial-interglacial timescales including: to what extent do paleo-rivers remain confined within a single broad valley structure, what is the fluvial systems response to transgression, and what stratigraphy is created and preserved at the transition from fluvial to estuarine environments? Our work illustrates that traditional models of incised valley formation and subsequent infilling potentially fail to capture the full breadth of dynamics of past river

  10. Valley-filtered edge states and quantum valley Hall effect in gated bilayer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu-Long; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Jun

    2017-05-10

    Electron edge states in gated bilayer graphene in the quantum valley Hall (QVH) effect regime can carry both charge and valley currents. We show that an interlayer potential splits the zero-energy level and opens a bulk gap, yielding counter-propagating edge modes with different valleys. A rich variety of valley current states can be obtained by tuning the applied boundary potential and lead to the QVH effect, as well as to the unbalanced QVH effect. A method to individually manipulate the edge states by the boundary potentials is proposed.

  11. MX Siting Investigation, Gravity Survey - Delamar Valley, Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-20

    reduces the data to Simple Bouguer Anomaly (see Section A1.4, Appendix A1.0). The Defense Mapping Agency Aerospace Center (DMAAC), St. Louis, Missouri...DRAWINGS Drawing Number 1 Complete Bouguer Anomaly Contours 2 Depth to Rock -Interpreted from In Pocket at Gravity Data End of Report iv E-TR-33-DM...ErtPX E-TR-3 3-DM 6 2.0 GRAVITY DATA REDUCTION DMAHTC/GSS obtained the basic observations for the new stations and reduced them to Simple Bouguer

  12. MX Siting Investigation. Gravity Survey - Big Smokey Valley, Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-28

    headquartered in Cheyenne, Wyoming. DMAHTC reduces the data to Simple Bouguer Anomaly (see Section A1.4, Appendix Al.0). The Defense Mapping Agency Aerospace...OF TABLES Table Number Page Big Smoky Geotechnical Data ....................... 10 LIST OF DRAWINGS Drawing Number 1 Complete Bouguer Anamaly Contours...reduced them to Simple Bouguer Anomalies (SBA) as described in Appendix A1.0. Up to three levels of terrain corrections were applied to the new

  13. MX Siting Investigation Gravity Survey - Wah Wah Valley, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-15

    Bouguer Anomaly (see Section A1.4, Appendix A1.0). The Defense Mapping Agency Aerospace Center (DMAAC), St. Louis, Missouri, calculates outer zone...Utah .... 12 LIST OF DRAWINGS Drawing Number 1 Complete Bouguer Anomaly Contours In Pocket at 2 Deptn to Rock - Interpreted from End of Report...DMAHTC/GSS obtained the basic observations for the new stations and reduced them to Simple Bouguer Anomalies (SBA) as described in Appendix A1.0. Up to

  14. Vegetation - San Felipe Valley [ds172

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This Vegetation Map of the San Felipe Valley Wildlife Area in San Diego County, California is based on vegetation samples collected in the field in 2002 and 2005 and...

  15. Babesiosis in Lower Hudson Valley, New York

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast discusses a study about an increase in babesiosis in the Lower Hudson Valley of New York state. Dr. Julie Joseph, Assistant Professor of Medicine at New York Medical College, shares details of this study.

  16. Meie mees Silicon Valleys / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 5. dets. lk. 4. Peaminister Andrus Ansip avas Eesti Ettevõtluse Sihtasutuse esinduse Silicon Valley pealinnas San Joses. Vt. samas: Ränioru kliima on tehnoloogiasõbralik; Andrus Viirg

  17. Meie ingel Silicon Valleys / Raigo Neudorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo

    2008-01-01

    Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutuse esinduse töölepanekust USAs Silicon Valleys räägib esinduse juht Andrus Viirg. Vt. ka: Eestlasi leidub San Franciscos omajagu; Muljetavaldav karjäär; USAga ammune tuttav

  18. Burrowing Owl - Palo Verde Valley [ds197

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — These burrowing owl observations were collected during the spring and early summer of 1976 in the Palo Verde Valley, eastern Riverside County, California. This is an...

  19. Livelihood Strategies in Shaxi, Southwest China: Conceptualizing Mountain–Valley Interactions as a Human–Environment System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz K. Huber

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the socio-ecological differences and interactions between upland and lowland areas in Shaxi Valley, Yunnan Province, Southwest China. As an analytical tool we used an extended Human–Environment System Framework by focusing particularly on the dynamics and sustainability of livelihood strategies and mountain–valley interactions. Drawing from household surveys conducted in two mountain and two valley communities in 2005 and 2009, we show that the distinct income gap between mountain and valley households in 2005 ceased to exist in 2009. The main drivers for this development are the local tourist industry, persistent demand for forest resources, as well as local off-farm and seasonal migrant employment.

  20. Electrical valley filtering in transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Tzu-Chi; Chou, Mei-Yin; Wu, Yu-Shu

    2018-03-01

    This work investigates the feasibility of electrical valley filtering for holes in transition metal dichalcogenides. We look specifically into the scheme that utilizes a potential barrier to produce valley-dependent tunneling rates, and perform the study with both a k .p -based analytic method and a recursive Green's function-based numerical method. The study yields the transmission coefficient as a function of incident energy and transverse wave vector, for holes going through lateral quantum barriers oriented in either armchair or zigzag directions, in both homogeneous and heterogeneous systems. The main findings are the following: (1) The tunneling current valley polarization increases with increasing barrier width or height; (2) both the valley-orbit interaction and band structure warping contribute to valley-dependent tunneling, with the former contribution being manifest in structures with asymmetric potential barriers, and the latter being orientation dependent and reaching maximum for transmission in the armchair direction; and (3) for transmission ˜0.1 , a tunneling current valley polarization of the order of 10 % can be achieved.

  1. Integration of Jeddah Historical BIM and 3D GIS for Documentation and Restoration of Historical Monument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baik

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This work outlines a new approach for the integration of 3D Building Information Modelling and the 3D Geographic Information System (GIS to provide semantically rich models, and to get the benefits from both systems to help document and analyse cultural heritage sites. Our proposed framework is based on the Jeddah Historical Building Information Modelling process (JHBIM. This JHBIM consists of a Hijazi Architectural Objects Library (HAOL that supports higher level of details (LoD while decreasing the time of modelling. The Hijazi Architectural Objects Library has been modelled based on the Islamic historical manuscripts and Hijazi architectural pattern books. Moreover, the HAOL is implemented using BIM software called Autodesk Revit. However, it is known that this BIM environment still has some limitations with the non-standard architectural objects. Hence, we propose to integrate the developed 3D JHBIM with 3D GIS for more advanced analysis. To do so, the JHBIM database is exported and semantically enriched with non-architectural information that is necessary for restoration and preservation of historical monuments. After that, this database is integrated with the 3D Model in the 3D GIS solution. At the end of this paper, we’ll illustrate our proposed framework by applying it to a Historical Building called Nasif Historical House in Jeddah. First of all, this building is scanned by the use of a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS and Close Range Photogrammetry. Then, the 3D JHBIM based on the HOAL is designed on Revit Platform. Finally, this model is integrated to a 3D GIS solution through Autodesk InfraWorks. The shown analysis presented in this research highlights the importance of such integration especially for operational decisions and sharing the historical knowledge about Jeddah Historical City. Furthermore, one of the historical buildings in Old Jeddah, Nasif Historical House, was chosen as a test case for the project.

  2. Integration of Jeddah Historical BIM and 3D GIS for Documentation and Restoration of Historical Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, A.; Yaagoubi, R.; Boehm, J.

    2015-08-01

    This work outlines a new approach for the integration of 3D Building Information Modelling and the 3D Geographic Information System (GIS) to provide semantically rich models, and to get the benefits from both systems to help document and analyse cultural heritage sites. Our proposed framework is based on the Jeddah Historical Building Information Modelling process (JHBIM). This JHBIM consists of a Hijazi Architectural Objects Library (HAOL) that supports higher level of details (LoD) while decreasing the time of modelling. The Hijazi Architectural Objects Library has been modelled based on the Islamic historical manuscripts and Hijazi architectural pattern books. Moreover, the HAOL is implemented using BIM software called Autodesk Revit. However, it is known that this BIM environment still has some limitations with the non-standard architectural objects. Hence, we propose to integrate the developed 3D JHBIM with 3D GIS for more advanced analysis. To do so, the JHBIM database is exported and semantically enriched with non-architectural information that is necessary for restoration and preservation of historical monuments. After that, this database is integrated with the 3D Model in the 3D GIS solution. At the end of this paper, we'll illustrate our proposed framework by applying it to a Historical Building called Nasif Historical House in Jeddah. First of all, this building is scanned by the use of a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) and Close Range Photogrammetry. Then, the 3D JHBIM based on the HOAL is designed on Revit Platform. Finally, this model is integrated to a 3D GIS solution through Autodesk InfraWorks. The shown analysis presented in this research highlights the importance of such integration especially for operational decisions and sharing the historical knowledge about Jeddah Historical City. Furthermore, one of the historical buildings in Old Jeddah, Nasif Historical House, was chosen as a test case for the project.

  3. Geologic field-trip guide to Medicine Lake Volcano, northern California, including Lava Beds National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Grove, Timothy L.

    2017-08-17

    Medicine Lake volcano is among the very best places in the United States to see and walk on a variety of well-exposed young lava flows that range in composition from basalt to rhyolite. This field-trip guide to the volcano and to Lava Beds National Monument, which occupies part of the north flank, directs visitors to a wide range of lava flow compositions and volcanic phenomena, many of them well exposed and Holocene in age. The writing of the guide was prompted by a field trip to the California Cascades Arc organized in conjunction with the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) quadrennial meeting in Portland, Oregon, in August of 2017. This report is one of a group of three guides describing the three major volcanic centers of the southern Cascades Volcanic Arc. The guides describing the Mount Shasta and Lassen Volcanic Center parts of the trip share an introduction, written as an overview to the IAVCEI field trip. However, this guide to Medicine Lake volcano has descriptions of many more stops than are included in the 2017 field trip. The 23 stops described here feature a range of compositions and volcanic phenomena. Many other stops are possible and some have been previously described, but these 23 have been selected to highlight the variety of volcanic phenomena at this rear-arc center, the range of compositions, and for the practical reason that they are readily accessible. Open ground cracks, various vent features, tuffs, lava-tube caves, evidence for glaciation, and lava flows that contain inclusions and show visible evidence of compositional zonation are described and visited along the route.

  4. Field Surveys, IOC Valleys. Volume III, Part II. Cultural Resources Survey, Pine and Wah Wah Valleys, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    including horse, camel, mammoth, Ertm E-TR-48-III-II 20 musk ox, and certain species of bison, goat, and bear, which had previously inhabited the marsh and...34 - - -9,$.. 𔄃 Im I I I Si to * Location lype/Contents Affiliation 42B@644 rid e over cr ek - P/J depression, cleared areas, Fr elon (f4-5-18-92) ground

  5. Field Surveys, IOC Valleys. Volume II, Part II. Biological Resources Survey, Pine and Wah Wah Valleys, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    members of the family Cactaceae : Coryphantha vivipara, Sclerocactus pubispinus, Opuntia spp., and Echinocereus engelmannii. The individuals were widely...Sclerocactus pubispinus (family Cactaceae ) was found on Sites 2/16, 3/6, 3/12, and 3/14. Coryphantha vivipara (family cactaceae ), a taxon Currently Under...family Cactaceae : Echinocereus engelmanii, Echinocereus sp., Opuntia erinacea, Opuntia sp., Sclerocactus pubispinus, Sclerocactus sp., and Coryphantha

  6. Technical Analysis of In-Valley Drainage Management Strategies for the Western San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Theresa S.; Schwarzbach, Steven E.

    2008-01-01

    The western San Joaquin Valley is one of the most productive farming areas in the United States, but salt-buildup in soils and shallow groundwater aquifers threatens this area?s productivity. Elevated selenium concentrations in soils and groundwater complicate drainage management and salt disposal. In this document, we evaluate constraints on drainage management and implications of various approaches to management considered in: *the San Luis Drainage Feature Re-Evaluation (SLDFRE) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) (about 5,000 pages of documentation, including supporting technical reports and appendices); *recent conceptual plans put forward by the San Luis Unit (SLU) contractors (i.e., the SLU Plans) (about 6 pages of documentation); *approaches recommended by the San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program (SJVDP) (1990a); and *other U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) models and analysis relevant to the western San Joaquin Valley. The alternatives developed in the SLDFRE EIS and other recently proposed drainage plans (refer to appendix A for details) differ from the strategies proposed by the San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program (1990a). The Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) in March 2007 signed a record of decision for an in-valley disposal option that would retire 194,000 acres of land, build 1,900 acres of evaporation ponds, and develop a treatment system to remove salt and selenium from drainwater. The recently proposed SLU Plans emphasize pumping drainage to the surface, storing approximately 33% in agricultural water re-use areas, treating selenium through biotechnology, enhancing the evaporation of water to concentrate salt, and identifying ultimate storage facilities for the remaining approximately 67% of waste selenium and salt. The treatment sequence of reuse, reverse osmosis, selenium bio-treatment, and enhanced solar evaporation is unprecedented and untested at the scale needed to meet plan requirements. All drainage management strategies that have been proposed

  7. Educational use of 3D models and photogrammetry content: the Europeana space project for Cypriot UNESCO monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannides, M.; Chatzigrigoriou, P.; Bokolas, V.; Nikolakopoulou, V.; Athanasiou, V.

    2016-08-01

    Digital heritage data are now more accessible through crowdsourcing platforms, social media and blogs. At the same time, evolving technology on 3D modelling, laser scanning and 3D reconstruction is constantly upgrading and multiplying the information that we can use from heritage digitalisation. The question of reusing the information in different aspects rises. Educators and students are potential users of the digital content; developing for them an adaptable environment for applications and services is our challenge. One of the main objective of the EU Europeana Space project is the development of a holistic approach for educating people (grown ups and kids) on Monuments that are listed at UNESCO world heritage list, in Cyprus. The challenge was the use of Europeana Data (Pictures and the 3D objects) in a way that the information on the platform would be comprehensible by the users. Most of the data have little metadata information and they lack history and cultural value description (semantics). The proposed model ction is based on the cross cultural approach which responds to the multicultural features of present era but at the same time to the contemporary pedagogical and methodological directions. The system uses all innovative digital heritage resources, in order to help the user, in a UX friendly way, to learn about the different phases of the monument, the history, the pathology state, the architectural value and the conservation stage. The result is a responsive platform, accessible through smart devices and desktop computers, (in the frame of "Bring Your Own Device" a.k.a. BYOD) where every Monument is a different course and every course is addressed to different age groups (from elementary level to adults' vocational training).

  8. Metal exposure and effects in voles and small birds near a mining haul road in Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, William G; Mora, Miguel A; May, Thomas W; Phalen, David N

    2010-11-01

    Voles and small passerine birds were live-captured near the Delong Mountain Regional Transportation System (DMTS) haul road in Cape Krusenstern National Monument in northwest Alaska to assess metals exposure and sub-lethal biological effects. Similar numbers of animals were captured from a reference site in southern Cape Krusenstern National Monument for comparison. Histopathological examination of selected organs, and analysis of cadmium, lead, and zinc concentrations in liver and blood samples were performed. Voles and small birds captured from near the haul road had about 20 times greater blood and liver lead concentrations and about three times greater cadmium concentrations when compared to those from the reference site, but there were no differences in zinc tissue concentrations. One vole had moderate metastatic mineralization of kidney tissue, otherwise we observed no abnormalities in internal organs or DNA damage in the blood of any of the animals. The affected vole also had the greatest liver and blood Cd concentration, indicating that the lesion might have been caused by Cd exposure. Blood and liver lead concentrations in animals captured near the haul road were below concentrations that have been associated with adverse biological effects in other studies; however, subtle effects resulting from lead exposure, such as the suppression of the activity of certain enzymes, cannot be ruled out for some individual animals. Results from our 2006 reconnaissance-level study indicate that overall, voles and small birds obtained from near the DMTS road in Cape Krusenstern National Monument were not adversely affected by metals exposure; however, because of the small sample size and other uncertainties, continued monitoring of lead and cadmium in terrestrial habitats near the DMTS road is advised.

  9. The «discorso per immagini» of Superstudio: from Continuous Monument to Supersurface, 1968-1971

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Lampariello

    2016-06-01

    With a Christmas card from 1968 in the form of a poster, Superstudio inaugurated the production of photomontages which were to bring fame to the group. It is, however, for the competition dedicated to the theme of Architecture and Freedom, launched in 1969 by the Tri-National Biennial of Graz, that photomontage became the preferred graphical tool for the construction of a «discorso per immagini» for Superstudio, a narrative in which project descriptions and traditional forms of architectural representation are replaced by images representing enigmatic volumes, seemingly devoid of function and open to multiple interpretations. Compared to similar and contemporary images produced, amonst others, by Archigram and Yona Friedman, the photomontages of Superstudio do not intend to give veracity to futuristic urban and territorial visions. The impenetrable volumes, designed beyond any program or structural logic, are an expression of absolute rationality and order which Superstudio has been searching for its founding to ward off the crisis and to ward for uncertainty of contemporary era. Graphic techniques used by the group for their representations evolved over the years, and were adapted to achieve different effects, all still oriented to building a strong environmental realism, as far away as possible from comic and surprising effects. Through the «discorso per immagini» the theory of the group became eloquent: after having imagined a new form of land occupation designed as a monumental infinite linear structure that crosses cities and virgin landscapes – the Continuous Monument – Superstudio staged the dissolution of conventional boundaries of architecture, to move towards its «non-physical» re-foundation. After all, the «happy death of architecture should not frighten anybody: we have been preparing for long, increasingly distancing ourselves from the physicality of the construction», as revealed by one of the members of the group in 1971. Key words

  10. Topological Valley Transport in Two-dimensional Honeycomb Photonic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuting; Jiang, Hua; Hang, Zhi Hong

    2018-01-25

    Two-dimensional photonic crystals, in analogy to AB/BA stacking bilayer graphene in electronic system, are studied. Inequivalent valleys in the momentum space for photons can be manipulated by simply engineering diameters of cylinders in a honeycomb lattice. The inequivalent valleys in photonic crystal are selectively excited by a designed optical chiral source and bulk valley polarizations are visualized. Unidirectional valley interface states are proved to exist on a domain wall connecting two photonic crystals with different valley Chern numbers. With the similar optical vortex index, interface states can couple with bulk valley polarizations and thus valley filter and valley coupler can be designed. Our simple dielectric PC scheme can help to exploit the valley degree of freedom for future optical devices.

  11. Resistivity structure and geochemistry of the Jigokudani Valley hydrothermal system, Mt. Tateyama, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Kaori; Kanda, Wataru; Tanbo, Toshiya; Ohba, Takeshi; Ogawa, Yasuo; Takakura, Shinichi; Nogami, Kenji; Ushioda, Masashi; Suzuki, Atsushi; Saito, Zenshiro; Matsunaga, Yasuo

    2016-10-01

    This study clarifies the hydrothermal system of Jigokudani Valley near Mt. Tateyama volcano in Japan by using a combination of audio-frequency magnetotelluric (AMT) survey and hot-spring water analysis in order to assess the potential of future phreatic eruptions in the area. Repeated phreatic eruptions in the area about 40,000 years ago produced the current valley morphology, which is now an active solfatara field dotted with hot springs and fumaroles indicative of a well-developed hydrothermal system. The three-dimensional (3D) resistivity structure of the hydrothermal system was modeled by using the results of an AMT survey conducted at 25 locations across the valley in 2013-2014. The model suggests the presence of a near-surface highly conductive layer of falling largely on a mixing line between magmatic fluids and local meteoric water (LMW). The geochemical analysis suggests that the hydrothermal system includes a two-phase zone of vapor-liquid. A comparison of the resistivity structure and the geochemically inferred structure suggests that a hydrothermal reservoir is present at a depth of approximately 500 m, from which hot-spring water differentiates into the three observed types. The two-phase zone appears to be located immediately beneath the cap rock structure. These findings suggest that the hydrothermal system of Jigokudani Valley exhibits a number of factors that could trigger a future phreatic eruption.

  12. Preliminary hydrogeologic assessment near Tassi and Pakoon Springs, western part of Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truini, Margot

    2013-01-01

    Tassi and Pakoon Springs are both in the Grand Wash Trough in the western part of Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument on the Arizona Strip. The monument is jointly managed by the National Park Service (NPS) and the Bureau of Land Management. This study was in response to NPS’s need to better understand the influence from regional increases in groundwater withdrawals near Grand Canyon-Parashant on the groundwater discharge from Tassi and Pakoon Springs. The climate of the Arizona Strip is generally semiarid to arid, and springs in the monument provide the water for the fragile ecosystems that are commonly separated by large areas of dry washes in canyons with pinyon and juniper. Available hydrogeologic data from previous investigations included water levels from the few existing wells, location information for springs, water chemistry from springs, and geologic maps. Available groundwater-elevation data from the wells and springs in the monument indicate that groundwater in the Grand Wash Trough is moving from north to south, discharging to springs and into the Colorado River. Groundwater may also be moving from east to west from Paleozoic rocks in the Grand Wash Cliffs into sedimentary deposits in the Grand Wash Trough. Finally, groundwater may be moving from the northwest in the Mesoproterozoic crystalline rocks of the Virgin Mountains into the northern part of the Grand Wash Trough. Water discharging from Tassi and Pakoon Springs has a major-ion chemistry similar to that of other springs in the western part of Grand Canyon-Parashant. Stable-isotopic signatures for oxygen-18 and hydrogen-2 are depleted in the water from both Tassi and Pakoon Springs in comparison to other springs on the Arizona Strip. Tassi Spring discharges from multiple seeps along the Wheeler Fault, and the depleted isotopic signatures suggest that water may be flowing from multiple places into Lake Mead and seems to have a higher elevation or an older climate source. Elevated water

  13. TUMULI, ROADS AND PLOTS. DECODING THE MONUMENTAL FUNERARY SPACE OF THE 4TH-3RD CENTURIES BC KALLATIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Magdalena Ștefan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study focusses on the monumental elements of the 4th-3rd centuries BC cemeteries of Kallatis: the use of large tumuli, the implementation of a systematized network of funerary plots, the extent of the burial grounds, the discovery of a series of built chamber tombs under tumuli with elements of decorated architecture, including mural paintings and exceptional presence of a statue topping a tumulus. The detection and morphological characterisation of archaeological features and the recovering of the funerary landscapes’ spatial layout were based on historiographic study, remote-sensing and geophysical investigations.

  14. Christmas Valley Renewable Energy Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Mar, Robert [Oregon Department of Energy, Salem, OR (United States)

    2017-05-22

    In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. The Oregon Military Department (Military) acquired a large parcel of land located in south central Oregon. The land was previously owned by the US Air Force and developed for an Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Transmitter Facility, located about 10 miles east of the town of Christmas Valley. The Military is investigating a number of uses for the site, including Research and Development (R&D) laboratory, emergency response, military operations, developing renewable energy and related educational programs. One of the key potential uses would be for a large scale solar photovoltaic power plant. This is an attractive use because the site has excellent solar exposure; an existing strong electrical interconnection to the power grid; and a secure location at a moderate cost per acre. The project objectives include: 1. Site evaluation 2. Research and Development (R&D) facility analysis 3. Utility interconnection studies and agreements 4. Additional on-site renewable energy resources analysis 5. Community education, outreach and mitigation 6. Renewable energy and emergency readiness training program for veterans

  15. Silsesquioxane-based hybrid nanocomposites with methacrylate units containing titania and/or silver nanoparticles as antibacterial/antifungal coatings for monumental stones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aflori, Magdalena [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41A Grigore Ghica Voda Alley, 700487 Iasi (Romania); Simionescu, Bogdana [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41A Grigore Ghica Voda Alley, 700487 Iasi (Romania); “Costin D. Nenitescu” Centre of Organic Chemistry, 202B Splaiul Independentei, 7114 Bucharest (Romania); Bordianu, Irina-Elena; Sacarescu, Liviu; Varganici, Cristian-Dragos; Doroftei, Florica; Nicolescu, Alina [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41A Grigore Ghica Voda Alley, 700487 Iasi (Romania); Olaru, Mihaela, E-mail: olaruma@icmpp.ro [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41A Grigore Ghica Voda Alley, 700487 Iasi (Romania)

    2013-11-20

    Highlights: • Synthesis of nanocomposites with noble metals having high antibacterial efficiency. • Silver nanoparticles antibacterial activity for monumental stone conservation. • A high antibacterial activity while assuring good stone protection. -- Abstract: The present paper reports on the evaluation of two silsesquioxane-based hybrid nanocomposites with methacrylate units containing titania and/or silver nanoparticles aimed as antibacterial coatings for monumental stones. Sol–gel reaction of titanium isopropoxide and/or 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate, in the presence of silver nitrate and a primary amine surfactant, yielded new types of hybrid nanocomposites with high antibacterial/antifungal efficacy. Different polymer behaviours regarding a frequently used monumental stone originating from Romania were evidenced through Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) technique. Conclusions regarding the stones acid-resistant character and lower influence of salt weathering on its durability, as well as a better protective coating containing titania units were revealed.

  16. Silsesquioxane-based hybrid nanocomposites with methacrylate units containing titania and/or silver nanoparticles as antibacterial/antifungal coatings for monumental stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aflori, Magdalena; Simionescu, Bogdana; Bordianu, Irina-Elena; Sacarescu, Liviu; Varganici, Cristian-Dragos; Doroftei, Florica; Nicolescu, Alina; Olaru, Mihaela

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of nanocomposites with noble metals having high antibacterial efficiency. • Silver nanoparticles antibacterial activity for monumental stone conservation. • A high antibacterial activity while assuring good stone protection. -- Abstract: The present paper reports on the evaluation of two silsesquioxane-based hybrid nanocomposites with methacrylate units containing titania and/or silver nanoparticles aimed as antibacterial coatings for monumental stones. Sol–gel reaction of titanium isopropoxide and/or 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate, in the presence of silver nitrate and a primary amine surfactant, yielded new types of hybrid nanocomposites with high antibacterial/antifungal efficacy. Different polymer behaviours regarding a frequently used monumental stone originating from Romania were evidenced through Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) technique. Conclusions regarding the stones acid-resistant character and lower influence of salt weathering on its durability, as well as a better protective coating containing titania units were revealed

  17. Green valley galaxies as a transition population in different environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenda, Valeria; Martínez, Héctor J.; Muriel, Hernán

    2018-02-01

    We present a comparative analysis of the properties of passive, star-forming and transition (green valley) galaxies in four discrete environments: field, groups, the outskirts and the core of X-ray clusters. We construct samples of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in these environments so that they are bound to have similar redshift distributions. The classification of galaxies into the three sequences is based on the UV-optical colour NUV - r. We study a number of galaxy properties: stellar mass, morphology, specific star formation rate and the history of star formation. The analysis of green valley (GV) galaxies reveals that the physical mechanisms responsible for external quenching become more efficient moving from the field to denser environments. We confirm previous findings that GV galaxies have intermediate morphologies; moreover, we find that this appears to be independent of the environment. Regarding the stellar mass of GV galaxies, we find that they tend to be more massive in the field than in denser environments. On average, GV galaxies account for ∼ 20 per cent of all galaxies in groups and X-ray clusters. We find evidence that the field environment is inefficient in transforming low-mass galaxies. GV galaxies have average star formation histories intermediate between passive and star-forming galaxies, and have a clear and consistent dependence on the environment: both, the quenching time and the amplitude of the star formation rate, decrease towards higher density environments.

  18. New records of Pteridophytes for Kashmir Valley, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAKOOR A. MIR

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mir SA, Mishra AK, Reshi ZA, Sharma MP. 2014. New Records of Pteridophytes for Kashmir Valley, India. Biodiversitas 15: 131-136. During the recent field survey of district Shopian four species of Pteridophytes are reported for the first time that constitutes new records for Kashmir valley. These species are Hypolepis polypodioides (Blume Hook, Pteris stenophylla Wall. ex Hook. & Grev., Dryopteris subimpressa Loyal and Dryopteris wallichiana (Spreng. Hylander. The diagnostic features of H. polypodioides are presence of long-creeping slender rhizome and eglandular, colorless or brown tinged hairs throughout the frond. P. stenophylla is characterized by having dimorphic fronds and 3 to 5 pinnae clustered at stipe apex. D. subimpressa is marked by pale-green lamina and the largest basiscopic basal pinnule in the lowest pair of pinnae. Similarly, the characteristic features of D. wallichiana are presence of huge frond size, glossier and dark-green lamina and dense browner scales in stipe and rachis. In present communication taxonomic description, synonyms, ecology and photographs are provided for each of these newly recorded species.

  19. Geophysical Exploration of Tyuonyi Pueblo in Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, C.; Graham, D.; Peacock, E.; Suen, C.; Creighton, A.; Carchedi, C.; Feucht, D. W.; Civitello, J. A.; Jarret, J.; Martin, C.; Ferguson, J. F.; McPhee, D.; Pellerin, L.

    2017-12-01

    The Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE) class of 2017 carried out near-surface geophysical investigations of the Tyuonyi Pueblo of Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico in order to aid trail planning and identification of archeological features that could potentially be impacted. Tyuonyi is located in Frijoles Canyon, carved by the Rito de los Frijoles, between the SE flank of the Jemez Mountains and the Rio Grande, and contains pueblo room blocks, kivas and cavates that were occupied by ancestral Puebloans between 1350 and 1550 CE. SAGE collected seismic refraction, magnetic, electromagnetic (EM) and GPR data along targeted profiles and grids north and east of Tyuonyi Pueblo. Two 30 X 30 m grids of GPR data were recorded along 1-m spaced lines using the 250 MHz Sensors and Software NOGGIN® 250 Smart Tow and processed using the EKKO Project V5 program. Seismic refraction data were collected using a 48-channel Geometrics Strataview recorder and seven spreads with 0.5 m geophone spacing, a 6 m shot point interval, and a hammer source. Shot point offsets between 0.5 m and 48 m provided overlapping subsurface coverage. Seismic data from SAGE 2016 and 2017 were merged into a 168 m-long profile. Magnetic data were collected along 1-m spaced N-S lines in two 30 X 30 m grids and along the seismic line using a Geometrics 858 cesium vapor magnetometer. In addition, EM data were collected using a Geonics, EM-31 system along the seismic line. A velocity model was created to fit the seismic travel times. The GPR images and seismic model can be used to interpret the Quaternary geology of the site. These data trace incision of the Rito de los Frijoles into the Bandelier Tuff over several stages of the canyon development. The seismic model indicates a number of narrow, shallow channels carved into a broader strath. Holocene alluvial terrace deposits overlie the Bandelier Tuff surface, and the Tyuonyi Pueblo was constructed on top of the highest terrace. On the north

  20. Use of microorganisms to improve the cementation of granular structures. Applications in the restoration of monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Isabel; Mayoral, Eduardo; Ortiz, Pilar; Segura, Dolores; Vazquez, Auxiliadora; Barba, Cinta; Ortiz, Rocio; Romero, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    focuses on finding out the best conditions to cultivate populations of bacterias Bacillus pasteurii and Myxococcus xanthus and the suitable proportions of the mixing of urea, with building material, calcium chloride; to come out with structural components interesting for the civil engineering. Trials with some stone materials with alteration problems (granular disintegration) have been carried out to assess their application to the restoration of monuments. Porosity and petrographical characterization has been analyzed before and after the process.

  1. Building monument materials during the 3rd-4rd millennium (Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moita, Patricia; Pedro, Jorge; Boaventura, Rui; Mataloto, Rui; Maximo, Jaime; Almeida, Luís; Nogueira, Pedro

    2014-05-01

    Dolmens are the most conspicuous remains of the populations of the 4th and first half of 3rd millennia BCE. These tombs are impressive not only for their monumentality, but also because of the socioeconomic investment they represent for those Neolithic communities, namely from the Central-South of Portugal, who built them. Although dolmens have been studied for their funerary content and typologies, an interdisciplinary approach toward the geological characterization and sourcing of stones used in these constructions has not received enough attention from researchers. With MEGAGEO project a multidisciplinary group of geologist and archaeologists intends to assess the relationship between the distribution of dolmens in Central-South Portugal, their source materials, and the geological landscape. GIS will map the information gathered and will be used to analyse these relationships. The selection of the areas, with distinctive geologies (limestone vs granite), will allow to verify if human patterns of behaviour regarding the selection of megaliths are similar or different regionally. Geologically the first target area (Freixo, Alentejo) is dominated by a small intrusion of gabbro mingled/mixed within a granodioritic intrusion both related with variscan orogeny. Granodiorite exhibit several enclaves of igneous and metamorphic nature attesting the interaction between both igneous rocks as well with enclosing gneisses. Despite Alentejo region have a reduced number of outcrops the granodiorite provides rounded to tabular metric blocks. The gabbro is very coarse grained, sometimes with a cumulate texture, and their fracturing and weathering provide very fresh tabular blocks. The five studied dolmens (Quinta do Freixo #1 to #5) are implanted in a large granodioritic intrusion, around the gabbroic rocks, within an area of approximately 9km2. The medium grained granodiorite is ubiquity in all the dolmens slabs and occasionally it can be observed features of mixing and

  2. Analysis of Mining-induced Valley Closure Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Mitra, R.; Oh, J.; Hebblewhite, B.

    2016-05-01

    Valley closure movements have been observed for decades in Australia and overseas when underground mining occurred beneath or in close proximity to valleys and other forms of irregular topographies. Valley closure is defined as the inward movements of the valley sides towards the valley centreline. Due to the complexity of the local geology and the interplay between several geological, topographical and mining factors, the underlying mechanisms that actually cause this behaviour are not completely understood. A comprehensive programme of numerical modelling investigations has been carried out to further evaluate and quantify the influence of a number of these mining and geological factors and their inter-relationships. The factors investigated in this paper include longwall positional factors, horizontal stress, panel width, depth of cover and geological structures around the valley. It is found that mining in a series passing beneath the valley dramatically increases valley closure, and mining parallel to valley induces much more closure than other mining orientations. The redistribution of horizontal stress and influence of mining activity have also been recognised as important factors promoting valley closure, and the effect of geological structure around the valley is found to be relatively small. This paper provides further insight into both the valley closure mechanisms and how these mechanisms should be considered in valley closure prediction models.

  3. Caracterización petrográfica y petrofísica de la piedra monumental en la Provincia de Segovia

    OpenAIRE

    Pedrazuela González, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    La piedra monumental es un material que se ha venido utilizando en todas las épocas históricas que nos han precedido, además de la contemporánea. Es necesario conocer la piedra monumental tanto para su uso en las nuevas edificaciones y obra civil, como para poder mantener y restaurar el magnífico patrimonio en piedra que nos ha sido legado. Esta tesis se circunscribe al ámbito geográfico actual de la provincia de Segovia, la cual cuenta con una gran variedad litológica; beneficiándose gr...

  4. Results of environmental monitoring in the Kinta Valley and Cameron Highland areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoste, V.

    1994-01-01

    The environmental radioactivity of the Kinta Valley and the Cameron Highlands show relative high values of gamma and alpha radiation. Both types of radiation are strongly related to meteorological conditions. In the Kinta Valley the average environmental values for Ra-222 are I 00 Bq/m sup 3 air. The monitoring chart shows a sinus shaped curve of the Radon 222 daughter concentration (EER = energy equivalent radon concentration). The concentration levels differ by I 0 times from a low in the late afternoon (around 18:00) and a high with the sunrise in the early morning (around 7:00). In the Kinta Valley and at the Pangkor island the observed interval is 24-hours. In the Kinta Valley three different surveys each of one week length showed, that the daily fluctuations exists over the whole year and doe not depend on rainy or dry seasons.. In the Cameron Highlands the outdoor radioactivity varies much faster than in the valley. There wash-out and building up periods during and between rain falls control external gamma and alpha concentration. Immediately after wash-out local gamma values can rise to 10 μSv/hour near the ground. It is concluded that the radioactivity concentration in the air is controlled by the building up time of the Rn 222 (around two hours) and the Rn 220 progeny (around 12 hours). An equilibrium factor of around 0.2 to 0.3 shows that full equilibrium is never reached in the air system. The calculation of the yearly external exposure is only possible with the knowledge of the local monitored concentration curve. A first calculation of the external dose rate for the persons living in the Kinta Valley was made. The calculations suggest dose rates between 5 and 15 mSv per year. High effective doses rates are expected film inhalation of indoor Radon progeny concentrations and from ingestion of contaminated food. (author)

  5. Ecology and identification of environmental fungi and metabolic processes involved in the biodeterioration of Brazilian soapstone historical monuments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boniek, D; de Castro Mendes, I; Paiva, C A O; de Paula Lana, U G; Dos Santos, A F B; de Resende Stoianoff, M A

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the action of organic acids produced by the fungal population associated with the biodeterioration process of the Twelve Prophets of Aleijadinho, a set of soapstone sculptures in Congonhas, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. For this, samples of fungi were obtained from the surface of each of the 12 outdoor stone sculptures that comprise the set of Prophets. The identification of the colonizing filamentous fungi was performed by classical microbiology and molecular methods. Some species of filamentous fungi-dependent cultivation were detected, and the presence of species Aspergillus versicolor, Curvularia lunata, Epicoccum nigrum, Penicillium citrinum and Pseudocercospora norchiensis indicated a connection with the excretion of organic acids. The acids produced by each of these fungal species were analysed quantitatively by chromatographic methods, revealing potential biodeterioration by the action of acidic metabolites excreted in the stone. Minas Gerais, Brazil, is vulnerable to the activities of mineral extraction industries, posing an imminent risk to United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) recognized cities, e.g. Congonhas. Many of these municipalities hold many soapstone religious sculptures and historical monuments. Consequently, soapstone is susceptible to filamentous fungi attack causing irreversible biodeterioration. Despite the concern related to nondestructive sampling of 18th century sculptures, in this study, we have discussed the factors that lead to biodeterioration of soapstone due to organic acid excretion by the fungi that damage the stone, thereby providing an insight in conserving and preserving the soapstone monuments. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Atmospheric composition and micro-climate in the Alhambra monument, Granada (Spain), in the context of preventive conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horemans, B; Schalm, O; De Wael, K; Van Grieken, R; Cardell, C

    2012-01-01

    The world famous Alhambra monument in Granada, Southern Spain, listed as UNESCO world cultural heritage since 1984, represents probably the most beautiful example of Islamic art and architecture from the Middle Ages in Europe. It is visited by ca. 2 million people annually. Granada is situated in a natural basin, surrounded by mountains with altitudes up to 3500 m. Due to this topography and the prevailing low wind speeds, pollution-derived and especially traffic-derived particulate matter often accumulates in the urban air. In order to evaluate the potential conservation risks from the surrounding air, the atmospheric composition in the Alhambra monument was evaluated. Indoor temperature and relative humidity fluctuations were evaluated for their potential degenerative effects. Furthermore, the atmospheric composition in the Alhambra was analyzed in terms of inorganic gases (NO 2 , SO 2 , O 3 , and NH 3 ) and black carbon. It was found that the open architecture protected the indoor environments from developing a potentially harmful microclimate, such as the build-up of humidity resulting from the huge number of daily tourists. On the downside, the strong ventilation made the indoor air hardly different from outdoor air, as characterized by strong diurnal temperature and relative humidity gradients and high traffic-derived pollutant levels.

  7. Atmospheric composition and micro-climate in the Alhambra monument, Granada (Spain), in the context of preventive conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horemans, B.; Schalm, O.; De Wael, K.; Cardell, C.; Van Grieken, R.

    2012-07-01

    The world famous Alhambra monument in Granada, Southern Spain, listed as UNESCO world cultural heritage since 1984, represents probably the most beautiful example of Islamic art and architecture from the Middle Ages in Europe. It is visited by ca. 2 million people annually. Granada is situated in a natural basin, surrounded by mountains with altitudes up to 3500 m. Due to this topography and the prevailing low wind speeds, pollution-derived and especially traffic-derived particulate matter often accumulates in the urban air. In order to evaluate the potential conservation risks from the surrounding air, the atmospheric composition in the Alhambra monument was evaluated. Indoor temperature and relative humidity fluctuations were evaluated for their potential degenerative effects. Furthermore, the atmospheric composition in the Alhambra was analyzed in terms of inorganic gases (NO2, SO2, O3, and NH3) and black carbon. It was found that the open architecture protected the indoor environments from developing a potentially harmful microclimate, such as the build-up of humidity resulting from the huge number of daily tourists. On the downside, the strong ventilation made the indoor air hardly different from outdoor air, as characterized by strong diurnal temperature and relative humidity gradients and high traffic-derived pollutant levels.

  8. The lakes of the Jordan Rift Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the proceedings of a workshop on the Lakes of the Jordan Rift Valley that was held in conjunction with the CRP on The Use of Isotope Techniques in Lake Dynamics Investigations. The paper presents a review of the geological, hydrogeological and physical limnological setting of the lakes in the Jordan Rift Valley, Lake Hula, Lake Kinneret and the Dead Sea. This is complemented by a description of the isotope hydrology of the system that includes the use of a wide range of isotopes: oxygen-18, deuterium, tritium, carbon-14, carbon-13, chlorine isotopes, boron-11 and helium-3/4. Environmental isotope aspects of the salt balances of the lakes, their palaeolimnology and biogeochemical tracers are also presented. The scope of application of isotopic tracers is very broad and provides a clear insight into many aspects of the physical, chemical and biological limnology of the Rift Valley Lakes. (author)

  9. A new Proposal to Mexico Valley Zonification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Estrella, H. C.; Yussim, S.; Lomnitz, C.

    2004-12-01

    The effects of the Michoacan earthquake (19th September, 1985, Mw 8.1) in Mexico City caused a significant change in the political, social and scientific history, as it was considered the worst seismic disaster ever lived in Mexico. Since then, numerous efforts have been made to understand and determine the parameters that caused the special features registered. One of these efforts had began on 1960 with the work by Marsal and Masari, who published the Mexico Valley seismological and geotechnical zonification (1969), based on gravimetric and shallow borehole data. In this work, we present a revision of the studies that proposed the zonification, a description of the valley geology, and basing on it we propose a new zonification for Mexico Valley.

  10. Geologic summary of the Owens Valley drilling project, Owens and Rose Valleys, Inyo County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaer, D.W.

    1981-07-01

    The Owens Valley Drilling Project consists of eight drill holes located in southwest Inyo County, California, having an aggregate depth of 19,205 feet (5853 m). Project holes penetrated the Coso Formation of upper Pliocene or early Pleistocene age and the Owens Lake sand and lakebed units of the same age. The project objective was to improve the reliability of uranium-potential-resource estimates assigned to the Coso Formation in the Owens Valley region. Uranium-potential-resource estimates for this area in $100 per pound U 3 O 8 forward-cost-category material have been estimatd to be 16,954 tons (15,384 metric tons). This estimate is based partly on project drilling results. Within the Owens Valley project area, the Coso Formation was encountered only in the Rose Valley region, and for this reason Rose Valley is considered to be the only portion of the project area favorable for economically sized uranium deposits. The sequence of sediments contained in the Owens Valley basin is considered to be largely equivalent but lithologically dissimilar to the Coso Formation of Haiwee Ridge and Rose Valley. The most important factor in the concentration of significant amounts of uranium in the rock units investigated appears to be the availability of reducing agents. Significant amounts of reductants (pyrite) were found in the Coso Formation. No organic debris was noted. Many small, disconnected uranium occurrences, 100 to 500 ppM U 3 O 8 , were encountered in several of the holes

  11. Groundwater quality in Coachella Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Coachella Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Coachella study area is approximately 820 square miles (2,124 square kilometers) and includes the Coachella Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Coachella Valley has an arid climate, with average annual rainfall of about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The runoff from the surrounding mountains drains to rivers that flow east and south out of the study area to the Salton Sea. Land use in the study area is approximately 67 percent (%) natural, 21% agricultural, and 12% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban areas are the cities of Indio and Palm Springs (2010 populations of 76,000 and 44,000, respectively). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in Coachella Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in Coachella Valley are completed to depths between 490 and 900 feet (149 to 274 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 260 to 510 feet (79 to 155 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the surrounding mountains, and by direct infiltration of irrigation. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells, evapotranspiration, and underflow to

  12. Susceptibility assessment of debris flows using the analytic hierarchy process method − A case study in Subao river valley, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingzhang Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many debris flows have occurred in the areas surrounding the epicenter of the Wenchuan earthquake. Susceptibility assessment of debris flows in this area is especially important for disaster prevention and mitigation. This paper studies one of the worst hit areas, the Subao river valley, and the susceptibility assessment of debris flows is performed based on field surveys and remote sensing interpretation. By investigating the formation conditions of debris flows in the valley, the following assessment factors are selected: mixture density of landslides and rock avalanches, distance to the seismogenic fault, stratum lithology, ground roughness, and hillside angle. The weights of the assessment factors are determined by the analytic hierarchy process (AHP method. Each of the assessment factors is further divided into five grades. Then, the assessment model is built using the multifactor superposition method to assess the debris flow susceptibility. Based on the assessment results, the Subao river valley is divided into three areas: high susceptibility areas, medium susceptibility areas, and low susceptibility areas. The high susceptibility areas are concentrated in the middle of the valley, accounting for 17.6% of the valley area. The medium susceptibility areas are in the middle and lower reaches, most of which are located on both sides of the high susceptibility areas and account for 45.3% of the valley area. The remainders are classified as low susceptibility areas. The results of the model are in accordance with the actual debris flow events that occurred after the earthquake in the valley, confirming that the proposed model is capable of assessing the debris flow susceptibility. The results can also provide guidance for reconstruction planning and debris flow prevention in the Subao river valley.

  13. Decision analysis framing study; in-valley drainage management strategies for the western San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Theresa S.; Jenni, Karen E.; Nieman, Timothy; Coleman, James

    2010-01-01

    Constraints on drainage management in the western San Joaquin Valley and implications of proposed approaches to management were recently evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The USGS found that a significant amount of data for relevant technical issues was available and that a structured, analytical decision support tool could help optimize combinations of specific in-valley drainage management strategies, address uncertainties, and document underlying data analysis for future use. To follow-up on USGS's technical analysis and to help define a scientific basis for decisionmaking in implementing in-valley drainage management strategies, this report describes the first step (that is, a framing study) in a Decision Analysis process. In general, a Decision Analysis process includes four steps: (1) problem framing to establish the scope of the decision problem(s) and a set of fundamental objectives to evaluate potential solutions, (2) generation of strategies to address identified decision problem(s), (3) identification of uncertainties and their relationships, and (4) construction of a decision support model. Participation in such a systematic approach can help to promote consensus and to build a record of qualified supporting data for planning and implementation. In December 2008, a Decision Analysis framing study was initiated with a series of meetings designed to obtain preliminary input from key stakeholder groups on the scope of decisions relevant to drainage management that were of interest to them, and on the fundamental objectives each group considered relevant to those decisions. Two key findings of this framing study are: (1) participating stakeholders have many drainage management objectives in common; and (2) understanding the links between drainage management and water management is necessary both for sound science-based decisionmaking and for resolving stakeholder differences about the value of proposed drainage management solutions. Citing

  14. Direct measurement of exciton valley coherence in monolayer WSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Hao, Kai; Moody, Galan; Wu, Fengcheng; Dass, Chandriker Kavir; Xu, Lixiang; Chen, Chang Hsiao; Sun, Liuyang; Li, Ming-yang; Li, Lain-Jong; MacDonald, Allan H.; Li, Xiaoqin

    2016-01-01

    In crystals, energy band extrema in momentum space can be identified by a valley index. The internal quantum degree of freedom associated with valley pseudospin indices can act as a useful information carrier, analogous to electronic charge

  15. Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope System Theory of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, George R.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this learning module is to enable learners to describe how the Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) system functions in support of Apple Valley Science and Technology Center's (AVSTC) client schools' radio astronomy activities.

  16. Mechanical control over valley magnetotransport in strained graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ning, E-mail: maning@stu.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, MOE Key Laboratory of Advanced Transducers and Intelligent Control System, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Department of Applied Physics, MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Zhang, Shengli, E-mail: zhangsl@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Liu, Daqing, E-mail: liudq@cczu.edu.cn [School of Mathematics and Physics, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China)

    2016-05-06

    Recent experiments report that the graphene exhibits Landau levels (LLs) that form in the presence of a uniform strain pseudomagnetic field with magnitudes up to hundreds of tesla. We further reveal that the strain removes the valley degeneracy in LLs, and leads to a significant valley polarization with inversion symmetry broken. This accordingly gives rise to the well separated valley Hall plateaus and Shubnikov–de Haas oscillations. These effects are absent in strainless graphene, and can be used to generate and detect valley polarization by mechanical means, forming the basis for the new paradigm “valleytronics” applications. - Highlights: • We explore the mechanical strain effects on the valley magnetotransport in graphene. • We analytically derive the dc collisional and Hall conductivities under strain. • The strain removes the valley degeneracy in Landau levels. • The strain causes a significant valley polarization with inversion symmetry broken. • The strain leads to the well separated valley Hall and Shubnikov–de Haas effects.

  17. The Health Valley: Global Entrepreneurial Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuis, Benoit

    2014-12-01

    In the space of a decade, the Lake Geneva region has become the Health Valley, a world-class laboratory for discovering and developing healthcare of the future. Through visionary individuals and thanks to exceptional infrastructure this region has become one of the most dynamic in the field of innovation, including leading scientific research and exceptional actors for the commercialization of academic innovation to industrial applications that will improve the lives of patients and their families. Here follows the chronicle of a spectacular expansion into the Health Valley.

  18. Solar energy innovation and Silicon Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2015-03-01

    The growth of the U. S. and global solar energy industry depends on a strong relationship between science and engineering innovation, manufacturing, and cycles of policy design and advancement. The mixture of the academic and industrial engine of innovation that is Silicon Valley, and the strong suite of environmental policies for which California is a leader work together to both drive the solar energy industry, and keep Silicon Valley competitive as China, Europe and other area of solar energy strength continue to build their clean energy sectors.

  19. Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Coachella Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ICF Kaiser

    1999-05-20

    Southern California's Coachella Valley became a Clean Cities region in 1996. Since then, they've made great strides. SunLine Transit, the regional public transit provider, was the first transit provider to replace its entire fleet with compressed natural gas buses. They've also built the foundation for a nationally recognized model in the clean air movement, by partnering with Southern California Gas Company to install a refueling station and developing a curriculum for AFV maintenance with the College of the Desert. Today the valley is home to more than 275 AFVs and 15 refueling stations.

  20. Estimating Vehicular Emission in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Prasad Ghimire

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study estimate, the vehicular emission load for CO, CO2 , HCs, NOX, SO2, Dioxin/Furans, Particulate Matters (PM10, PM2.5, Black carbon and Organic Carbon by using emission factors and Global Warming Potentials (GWPs of the pollutants (CO2, NOX, BC and OC. For this purpose, data were collected through the video tape record (in 30 sites, questionnaire survey, field visit, and literatures review. The total estimated emission of Kathmandu Valley (KV was 7231053.12 ton/year. Of the total emission, CO2 emission was highest i.e., 91.01% followed by CO 5.03%, HC 0.96%, NOX 0.60%, PM10 0.18% and SO2 0.10%. Annually 529353.36 μg Toxic Equivalent (TEQ of Dioxin/Furan produced and directly disperse to the ambient environment. The total estimated PM2.5, BC and OC emission were 9649.40 ton/year, 1640.4 ton/year and 2894.82 ton/year. The total carbon equivalence of the combined emissions (CO2, NOX and BC for 100-years standard time horizon is 10579763.6 ton CO2-eq i.e., 2885390.07 ton carbon.CO2 alone will be responsible, for about 62% of the impacts for the next century from current emissions of CO2, NOX and BC. Of the total emission Heavy Duty Vehicles (HDV emits 50%, Light Duty Vehicles (LDV emits, 27%, 2-Wheelers emits 22% and 3-Wheeler (Tempo emits 1%. The total emission of all pollutants combined per vehicle together was estimated to be 5.46 ton/year which was estimated as 23.63, 10.35, 1.83 and 5.58 ton/year for HDV, LDV, 2-Wheelers and 3-Wheeler respectively. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i4.11742      International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-3, Issue-4, Sep-Nov 2014Page: 133-146 

  1. Factors affecting beef consumption in the valley of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Tellez Delgado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to know the factors that determine the consumption of beef in the Metropolitan Area of the Valley of Mexico, using logit and probit modeling (nominal variable with 400 surveys. The results showed that significant variables that determine the probability of purchasing beef are schooling, number of members per family, meat preference, family income, and presence of disease in the individual. The largest marginal effects on the purchase decision were provided by the income and the meat preference variables, while the price was not significant. The main factors that determine the consumption of beef are schooling and the number of members in the family, while the meat preference and income are dismissed.

  2. Philippine Plecopteran with four new records in Compostela Valley Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Norman Dejadena Medina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is the updated list of Philippine Plecoptera starting from the 1940’s Philippine Zoological Expedition up to the recent discoveries of Sivec and Stark on 2011. A poorly known group, there is scanty literature and several part of the Philippine archipelago is poorly explored. In order to address this information gap particularly in Compostela Valley Province, a provincial survey was conducted from January to November 2012. Opportunistic sampling using hand netting and standard light trapping methods were used to collect species from nine municipalities. There were 181 individuals collected representing two genera and four species comprising about 11.76% of the recorded species to occur in the archipelago. This paper reports the first record of Plecoptera in the province.

  3. STEM education for teachers in the Rio Grande Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Judit Gyorgyey; Baguio, Margaret R.

    2015-11-01

    We have worked with elementary and middle school teachers in the Rio Grande Valley for the last 10 years bringing Earth and Space Science themed workshops to underserved areas of Texas. The Texas curriculum was also changed to include Astronomy and Space Science requirement in the tests students need to take to prove their academic preparedness. The teachers worked through a variety of inquiry-based, hands-on activities after a short presentation on the background science. In order to evaluate our effectiveness, we have asked the teachers to take pre- and post-workshop tests, and we asked them to fill out a self-reflective survey. We will report on our experiences, what works best with the teachers, and in what areas we still have a long way to go.This work was supported by various NASA education grants and Cooperative agreements, as well as grants provided by the Texas Space Grant Consortium.

  4. Possible effects of groundwater pumping on surface water in the Verde Valley, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Stanley A.; Haney, Jeanmarie

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with The Nature Conservancy, has applied a groundwater model to simulate effects of groundwater pumping and artificial recharge on surface water in the Verde Valley sub-basin of Arizona. Results are in two sets of maps that show effects of locations of pumping or recharge on streamflow. These maps will help managers make decisions that will meet water needs and minimize environmental impacts.

  5. BPA/Lower Valley transmission project. Final environmental impact statement. Appendix C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    Bonneville Power Administration is investigating the feasibility of constructing an additional transmission line, which for the most part will be adjacent to the existing transmission line. This would require the construction or acquisition of additional access roads, used for routine and emergency maintenance and construction activities. A survey was conducted to map any occurrences of threatened, endangered and sensitivity plant species and weed species along the Swan Valley-Teton Line. This report contains Appendix C

  6. BPA/Lower Valley transmission project. Final environmental impact statement. Appendix F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    Bonneville Power Administration is investigating the feasibility of constructing an additional transmission line, which for the most part will be adjacent to the existing transmission line. This would require the construction or acquisition of additional access roads, used for routine and emergency maintenance and construction activities. A survey was conducted to map any occurrences of threatened, endangered and sensitivity plant species and weed species along the Swan Valley-Teton Line. This report contains Appendix F

  7. Hydrogeology and ground-water/surface water interactions in the Des Moines River valley, southwestern Minnesota, 1997-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowdery, Timothy K.

    2005-01-01

    Increased water demand in and around Windom led the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, local water suppliers, and Cottonwood County, to study the hydrology of aquifers in the Des Moines River Valley near Windom. The study area is the watershed of a 30-kilometer (19-mile) reach of the Des Moines River upstream from Windom.

  8. Land Capability Potential Index (LCPI) and geodatabase for the Lower Missouri River Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Struckhoff, Matthew A.; Jacobson, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    The Land Capacity Potential Index (LCPI) is a coarse-scale index intended to delineate broad land-capability classes in the Lower Missouri River valley bottom from the Gavins Point Dam near Yankton, South Dakota to the mouth of the Missouri River near St. Louis, Missouri (river miles 811–0). The LCPI provides a systematic index of wetness potential and soil moisture-retention potential of the valley-bottom lands by combining the interactions among water-surface elevations, land-surface elevations, and the inherent moisture-retention capability of soils. A nine-class wetness index was generated by intersecting a digital elevation model for the valley bottom with sloping water-surface elevation planes derived from eight modeled discharges. The flow-recurrence index was then intersected with eight soil-drainage classes assigned to soils units in the digital Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) Database (Soil Survey Staff, 2010) to create a 72-class index of potential flow-recurrence and moisture-retention capability of Missouri River valley-bottom lands. The LCPI integrates the fundamental abiotic factors that determine long-term suitability of land for various uses, particularly those relating to vegetative communities and their associated values. Therefore, the LCPI provides a mechanism allowing planners, land managers, landowners, and other stakeholders to assess land-use capability based on the physical properties of the land, in order to guide future land-management decisions. This report documents data compilation for the LCPI in a revised and expanded, 72-class version for the Lower Missouri River valley bottom, and inclusion of additional soil attributes to allow users flexibility in exploring land capabilities.

  9. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring in the Sawtooth Valley Lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teuscher, D.M.; Taki, D.; Ariwite, K.

    1996-01-01

    Critical habitat for endangered Snake River sockeye salmon includes five rearing lakes located in the Sawtooth Valley of central Idaho. Most of the lakes contain either introduced or endemic kokanee populations. Snake River sockeye occur naturally in Redfish Lake, and are being stocked in Redfish and Pettit Lakes. Because kokanee compete with sockeye for limited food resources, understanding population characteristics of both species such as spawn timing, egg-to-fry survival, distribution and abundance are important components of sockeye recovery. This chapter describes some of those characteristics. In 1995, hydroacoustic estimates of O. nerka densities in the Sawtooth Valley Lakes ranged from 57 to 465 fish/ha. Densities were greatest in Pettit followed by Redfish (167), Alturas (95), and Stanley Lakes. O. nerka numbers increased from 1994 values in Pettit and Alturas Lakes, but declined in Redfish and Stanley. Despite a decline in total lake abundance, O. nerka biomass estimates in Redfish Lake increased. Approximately 144,000 kokanee fry recruited to Redfish Lake from Fishhook Creek. O. nerka fry recruitment to Stanley and Alturas lake was 5,000 and 30,000 fry, respectively. Egg-to-fry survival was 14% in Fishhook and 7% in Stanley Lake Creek. In Fishhook Creek, kokanee spawning escapement was estimated using stream surveys and a weir. Escapement estimates were 4,860 from weir counts, and 7,000 from stream surveys. As part of the kokanee reduction program, 385 of the spawning female kokanee were culled. Escapement for Stanley Lake Creek was only 60 fish, a ten fold decrease from 1994. In Alturas Lake, kokanee spawners dropped by 50% to 1,600

  10. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring in the Sawtooth Valley Lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teuscher, D.M.; Taki, D.; Ariwite, K.

    1996-05-01

    Critical habitat for endangered Snake River sockeye salmon includes five rearing lakes located in the Sawtooth Valley of central Idaho. Most of the lakes contain either introduced or endemic kokanee populations. Snake River sockeye occur naturally in Redfish Lake, and are being stocked in Redfish and Pettit Lakes. Because kokanee compete with sockeye for limited food resources, understanding population characteristics of both species such as spawn timing, egg-to-fry survival, distribution and abundance are important components of sockeye recovery. This chapter describes some of those characteristics. In 1995, hydroacoustic estimates of O. nerka densities in the Sawtooth Valley Lakes ranged from 57 to 465 fish/ha. Densities were greatest in Pettit followed by Redfish (167), Alturas (95), and Stanley Lakes. O. nerka numbers increased from 1994 values in Pettit and Alturas Lakes, but declined in Redfish and Stanley. Despite a decline in total lake abundance, O. nerka biomass estimates in Redfish Lake increased. Approximately 144,000 kokanee fry recruited to Redfish Lake from Fishhook Creek. O. nerka fry recruitment to Stanley and Alturas lake was 5,000 and 30,000 fry, respectively. Egg-to-fry survival was 14% in Fishhook and 7% in Stanley Lake Creek. In Fishhook Creek, kokanee spawning escapement was estimated using stream surveys and a weir. Escapement estimates were 4,860 from weir counts, and 7,000 from stream surveys. As part of the kokanee reduction program, 385 of the spawning female kokanee were culled. Escapement for Stanley Lake Creek was only 60 fish, a ten fold decrease from 1994. In Alturas Lake, kokanee spawners dropped by 50% to 1,600.

  11. Survey Guidelines and its Reading Criteria for Monitoring and Transmitting Cultural Heritage Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Masi, A.

    2015-08-01

    The paper describes reading criteria for an analysis and interpretation of material systems in relation to a built space, survey guidelines and its reading criteria for Cultural Heritage (CH) values'monitoring and transmission. In addition, integrated systems of digital technologies and 2D/3D digitization of CH are introduced for an effective and accurate reading of Venice and Milan's monuments. Specifically, the guidelines for an architectural survey allow to organize and document historic monuments information, and to identify the significant cultural/physical elements of our past in order for them to be preserved and protected for future generations. In addition, in this paper the studied projects introduce a combination of virtual technologies and historical reality with experimenting innovative solutions for CH. From the methodological point of view, this study has made use of the identification of levels of study (LS) differentiated, each of which is capable of identifying categories.

  12. Survey Guidelines and its Reading Criteria for Monitoring and Transmitting Cultural Heritage Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. De Masi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes reading criteria for an analysis and interpretation of material systems in relation to a built space, survey guidelines and its reading criteria for Cultural Heritage (CH values’monitoring and transmission. In addition, integrated systems of digital technologies and 2D/3D digitization of CH are introduced for an effective and accurate reading of Venice and Milan’s monuments. Specifically, the guidelines for an architectural survey allow to organize and document historic monuments information, and to identify the significant cultural/physical elements of our past in order for them to be preserved and protected for future generations. In addition, in this paper the studied projects introduce a combination of virtual technologies and historical reality with experimenting innovative solutions for CH. From the methodological point of view, this study has made use of the identification of levels of study (LS differentiated, each of which is capable of identifying categories.

  13. 27 CFR 9.27 - Lime Kiln Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lime Kiln Valley. 9.27... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.27 Lime Kiln Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lime Kiln Valley...

  14. An example of Alaknanda valley, Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014) have been best explained by the geometry .... flows through narrow valley confined by the steep valley slopes. ... valley (figure 3b) which opens up around Srina- ... Method. 4.1 Drainage basin and stream network. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) helps in extracting ... was processed to fill the pits or sinks, and to obtain.

  15. Basaltic caves at Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve as analogs for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinman, N. W.; Richardson, C. D.; McHenry, L.; Scott, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    Basaltic caves and lava tubes offer stable physicochemical conditions for formation of secondary minerals. Such features, putatively observed on Mars, intercept groundwater to weather country rock, leading to formation of secondary minerals. Further, caves are stable environments to search for evidence of past life, as they could offer protection from the oxidizing martian atmosphere. Searching for signs of life in a cave that could protect bio/organic compounds would preclude the need for risky drilling on Mars. Craters of the Moon National Monument (COM) offers an opportunity to study caves in Holocene iron-rich basalt flows to characterize secondary mineral deposits and search for organic compounds associated with secondary minerals; COM basalts are a good analog for martian basalts because of their high iron but other elements are higher at COM than on Mars. The Blue Dragon flow (~2.1 ka) contains the majority of the accessible caves and lava tubes. Two types of secondary mineral deposits were observed in these caves: ceiling coatings and crack or floor precipitates. Hematite, silica, and calcite comprise ceiling coatings. The crack and floor precipitates are white, efflorescent deposits in cavities along cave walls and ceilings or in localized mounds on cave floors. The secondary minerals in crack and floor precipitates are mainly thenardite and mirabilite with some minor concentrations of trona and/or burkeite. Organic compounds were found associated with the efflorescent deposits. Formation of the deposits is likely due to chemical leaching of basalt by meteoritic water. To test this, fluids collected from the ceiling and walls of the caves were analyzed. Solutions were modeled with the geochemical code, PHREEQC. The model tracked composition as water evaporated. Selected minerals were allowed to precipitate as they became oversaturated. Among the first minerals to become oversaturated were quartz and calcite, which are observed in ceiling deposits. Iron

  16. Sedimentary differentiation of aeolian grains at the White Sands National Monument, New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Lori K.; Bishop, Janice L.; King, Sara; Lafuente, Barbara; Horgan, Briony; Bustos, David; Sarrazin, Philippe

    2017-06-01

    Gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) has been identified as a major component of part of Olympia Undae in the northern polar region of Mars, along with the mafic minerals more typical of Martian dune fields. The source and age of the gypsum is disputed, with the proposed explanations having vastly different implications for Mars' geological history. Furthermore, the transport of low density gypsum grains relative to and concurrently with denser grains has yet to be investigated in an aeolian setting. To address this knowledge gap, we performed a field study at White Sands National Monument (WSNM) in New Mexico, USA. Although gypsum dominates the bulk of the dune field, a dolomite-rich [CaMg(CO3)2] transport pathway along the northern border of WSNM provides a suitable analog site to study the transport of gypsum grains relative to the somewhat harder and denser carbonate grains. We collected samples along the stoss slope of a dune and on two coarse-grained ripples at the upwind margin of the dune field where minerals other than gypsum were most common. For comparison, additional samples were taken along the stoss slope of a dune outside the dolomite transport pathway, in the center of the dune field. Visible and near-infrared (VNIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and Raman analyses of different sample size fractions reveal that dolomite is only prevalent in grains larger than ∼1 mm. Other minerals, most notably calcite, are also present in smaller quantities among the coarse grains. The abundance of these coarse grains, relative to gypsum grains of the same size, drops off sharply at the upwind margin of the dune field. In contrast, gypsum dominated the finer fraction (MCD) are consistent with the observed concentration of gypsum at dune crests. Density-driven differentiation in transport should not influence sediment fluxes of finer grains (<1 mm) as strongly on Earth, suggesting that the high ratio of fine gypsum grains to other minerals at WSNM is caused by a relatively

  17. Application of X-ray fluorescence in investigation of historical monuments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cechak, Tomas; Trojek, Tomas; Musilek, Ladislav; Paulusova, Hana

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear techniques represent invaluable tools in non-destructive diagnostics applied to archaeological findings and objects of arts, mainly for dating and determining the composition of materials used in the production of artefacts. In this work we present the application of X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRFA). The X-ray fluorescence apparatus built and operated in the Laboratory of Quantitative Methods in Research of Ancient Monuments, constituent part of the Department of Dosimetry and Application of Ionizing Radiation, FNSPE, was used for the purpose of old relics measurements. The X-ray sources (radionuclides) generate the characteristic X-ray photons from the sample. After processing the resulting signal, we obtain information about the chemical composition of the tested sample. These results give data for qualitative and quantitative analysis of samples. XRFA is relatively simple and non-destructive method. Capability of in-situ measurement is one of big advantages of this method. The radionuclide sources of exciting radiation (e.g. 55 Fe enables the excitation of elements with Z up to 23, 238 Pu is used in interval of Z from 20 to 39 etc.) and X-ray tube with Mo anode were used. Narrow collimation of the exciting beam makes it possible to select the measured area of e.g. pigments in old manuscripts. X-ray fluorescence analysis, both in its energy form and in its wave dispersive form, is one of the most widespread methods using ionising radiation to study the elemental composition of materials. It is frequently used for studies of various cultural and historic relicts and objects of art. This work summarizes the author's experience with X-ray fluorescence analysis in investigating historical relicts namely by means of portable spectroscopic devices. Utilization of these methods is demonstrated in the investigation of fresco paintings, metal objects and old manuscripts. The results of these measurements provide the information on the composition of

  18. Babesiosis in Lower Hudson Valley, New York

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-12

    This podcast discusses a study about an increase in babesiosis in the Lower Hudson Valley of New York state. Dr. Julie Joseph, Assistant Professor of Medicine at New York Medical College, shares details of this study.  Created: 5/12/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/23/2011.

  19. Rift Valley Fever, Mayotte, 2007–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giry, Claude; Gabrie, Philippe; Tarantola, Arnaud; Pettinelli, François; Collet, Louis; D’Ortenzio, Eric; Renault, Philippe; Pierre, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    After the 2006–2007 epidemic wave of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in East Africa and its circulation in the Comoros, laboratory case-finding of RVF was conducted in Mayotte from September 2007 through May 2008. Ten recent human RVF cases were detected, which confirms the indigenous transmission of RFV virus in Mayotte. PMID:19331733

  20. SADF EARLYIRON AGE EXCAVATIONS IN THETUGELA VALLEY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effect of the high flanking ridges of the Tugela. Valley. The high ... fire. Police intervention and the Bhengu superior- ity in numbers brought an end to the fights just prior to the ..... The tail and three legs of the reptile are miss- ing . . ~C£.'.':.-:".

  1. Potential hydrologic characterization wells in Amargosa Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyles, B.; Mihevc, T.

    1994-09-01

    More than 500 domestic, agricultural, and monitoring wells were identified in the Amargosa Valley. From this list, 80 wells were identified as potential hydrologic characterization wells, in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Underground Test Area/Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (UGTA/RIFS). Previous hydrogeologic studies have shown that groundwater flow in the basin is complex and that aquifers may have little lateral continuity. Wells located more than 10 km or so from the Nevada Test Site (NTS) boundary may yield data that are difficult to correlate to sources from the NTS. Also, monitoring well locations should be chosen within the guidelines of a hydrologic conceptual model and monitoring plan. Since these do not exist at this time, recompletion recommendations will be restricted to wells relatively close (approximately 20 km) to the NTS boundary. Recompletion recommendations were made for two abandoned agricultural irrigation wells near the town of Amargosa Valley (previously Lathrop Wells), for two abandoned wildcat oil wells about 10 km southwest of Amargosa Valley, and for Test Well 5 (TW-5), about 10 km east of Amargosa Valley

  2. Geomorphological hazards in Swat valley, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, A.

    1999-01-01

    This study attempts to describe, interpret and analyze, in depth, the varied geomorphological hazards and their impacts prevailing in the swat valley locate in the northern hilly and mountainous regions of Pakistan. The hills and mountains re zones of high geomorphological activity with rapid rates of weathering, active tectonic activities, abundant precipitation, rapid runoff and heavy sediment transport. Due to the varied topography, lithology, steep slope, erodible soil, heavy winter snowfall and intensive rainfall in the spring and summer seasons, several kinds of geomorphological hazards, such as geomorphic gravitational hazards, Fluvial hazards, Glacial hazards, Geo tectonic hazards, are occurring frequently in swat valley. Amongst them, geomorphic gravitational hazards, such as rock fall rock slide, debris slide mud flow avalanches, are major hazards in mountains and hills while fluvial hazards and sedimentation are mainly confined to the alluvial plain and lowlands of the valley. The Getechtonic hazards, on the other hand, have wide spread distribution in the valley the magnitude and occurrence of each king of hazard is thus, varied according to intensity of process and physical geographic environment. This paper discusses the type distribution and damage due to the various geomorphological hazards and their reduction treatments. The study would to be of particular importance and interest to both natural and social scientists, as well as planner, environmentalists and decision-makers for successful developmental interventions in the region. (author)

  3. Antelope Valley Community College District Education Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmyer, Joe

    An analysis is provided of a proposal to the Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges by the Antelope Valley Community College District (AVCCD) to develop an education center in Palmdale to accommodate rapid growth. First, pros and cons are discussed for the following major options: (1) increase utilization and/or expand the…

  4. Ecological Researches in the Yagnob Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razykov, Z.A.; Yunusov, M.M.; Bezzubov, N.I.; Murtazaev, Kh.; Fajzullaev, B.G.

    2002-01-01

    The article dwells on the resents of the estimation of the ecology surroundings of the Yagnob Valley. The researches included appraisal of radiation background, determination of the amount of heavy and radioactive elements in soil, bottom sedimentations, ashes in plants, water in rivers and wells. Designing on the premise of the researches implemented the ecology surrounding are estimated as propitious man's habitation. (Authors)

  5. 27 CFR 9.174 - Yadkin Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...”. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Yadkin Valley...-Salem, N.C.; VA; Tenn. (1953, Limited Revision 1962), and, (2) Charlotte, North Carolina; South Carolina... North Carolina within Wilkes, Surry, Yadkin and portions of Stokes, Forsyth, Davidson, and Davie...

  6. 27 CFR 9.41 - Lancaster Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lancaster Valley. 9.41 Section 9.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... through the town of Gap and along Mine Ridge to the 76°07′30″ west longitude line in Paradise Township. (9...

  7. NNSS Soils Monitoring: Plutonium Valley (CAU 366)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Julianne J.; Mizell, Steve A.; Nikolich, George; Campbell, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada Site Office (NSO), Environmental Restoration Soils Activity has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential sediment transport of contaminated soil from Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 366, Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites Contamination Area (CA) during precipitation runoff events.

  8. College in Paradise! (Paradise Valley Shopping Mall).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolland, Lucile B.

    Rio Salado Community College (RSCC), a non-campus college within the Maricopa Community College District, offers hundreds of day, late afternoon, and evening classes at locations throughout the county. The Paradise Valley community had always participated heavily in the evening classes offered by RSCC at local high schools. In fall 1982, an effort…

  9. Temperature profiles from Salt Valley, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, J. H.; Lachenbruch, A. H.; Smith, E. P.

    Temperature profiles were obtained in the nine drilled wells as part of a thermal study of the Salt Valley anticline, Paradox Basin, Utha. Thermal conductivities were also measured on 10 samples judged to be representative of the rocks encountered in the deepest hole. The temperature profiles and thermal conductivities are presented, together with preliminary interpretive remarks and suggestions for additional work.

  10. Poultry Slaughter facility Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij, A.G.; Wilschut, S.

    2015-01-01

    This business plan focuses on the establishment of a slaughterhouse, one of the essential elements of a sustainable and profitable poultry meat value chain. There is a growing demand for poultry meat in the Zambezi Valley, and currently a large part of the consumed broilers comes from other parts of

  11. Business plan Hatchery Facility Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij, A.G.; Wilschut, S.

    2015-01-01

    This business plan focuses on the establishment of a hatchery, one of the essential elements of a sustainable and profitable poultry meat value chain. There is a growing demand for poultry meat in the Zambezi Valley, and currently a large part of the consumed broilers comes from other parts of the

  12. Eco-Hydrological Modelling of Stream Valleys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ole

    a flow reduction in the order of 20 % in a natural spring, whereas no effect could be measured in neither short nor deep piezometers in the river valley 50 m from the spring. Problems of measuring effects of pumping are partly caused by disturbances from natural water level fluctuations. In this aspect...

  13. Ethno-botanical study of medicinal plants of Paddar Valley of Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sushil Kumar; Sharma, O M Prakash; Raina, Narinder Singh; Sehgal, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    The Paddar Valley, historically known as Sapphire Valley situated in Kishtwar district, is a prime landmark in the Jammu region of J&K state and is known for its rich cultural and plant diversity because of diverse habitats such as rivers, streams, meadows and steep mountain slopes. The area is located in the dry temperate region comprising typical vegetation which disappears completely on the eastern slopes, dominated by a variety of economical species which play an important role in the rural life. The inhabitants are dependent on plant resources for food, fuel, timber, shelter, fodder/forage, household articles and traditional medicines in treating diseases like malaria, cancer, gastro-intestinal ailments, etc. This paper deals with the observations on traditional therapeutic application by the inhabitants of Paddar Valley. The ethno-botanical information on medicinal plants would not only be useful in conservation of traditional cultures and biodiversity but also community health care and drug development. Exploration survey in Paddar Valley has revealed that people collect and sell these medicinal species through local intermediaries / contractors to earn their livelihood. But the scientific cultivation and appropriate post-harvest management would improve employment opportunity and income of local farmers in the region.

  14. Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): Morphological transformation of galaxies across the green valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, M. N.; Phillipps, S.; Kelvin, L. S.; De Propris, R.; Kennedy, Rebecca; Moffett, Amanda J.; Bamford, S.; Davies, L. J. M.; Driver, S. P.; Häußler, B.; Holwerda, B.; Hopkins, A.; James, P. A.; Liske, J.; Percival, S.; Taylor, E. N.

    2018-05-01

    We explore constraints on the joint photometric and morphological evolution of typical low redshift galaxies as they move from the blue cloud through the green valley and on to the red sequence. We select Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey galaxies with 10.25 sensitive K-band profiles of red and green galaxy populations are very similar while g-band profiles indicate more disc-like morphologies for the green galaxies: apparent (optical) morphological differences arise primarily from radial mass-to-light ratio variations. Two-component fits show that most green galaxies have significant bulge and disc components and that the blue to red evolution is driven by colour change in the disc. Together, these strongly suggest that galaxies evolve from blue to red through secular disc fading and that a strong bulge is present prior to any decline in star formation. The relative abundance of the green population implies a typical time-scale for traversing the green valley ˜1-2 Gyr and is independent of environment, unlike that of the red and blue populations. While environment likely plays a rôle in triggering the passage across the green valley, it appears to have little effect on time taken. These results are consistent with a green valley population dominated by (early type) disc galaxies that are insufficiently supplied with gas to maintain previous levels of disc star formation, eventually attaining passive colours. No single event is needed to quench their star formation.

  15. Field Surveys, IOC Valleys. Volumes II-I and II-II. Biological Resources Survey, Dry Lake Valley, Nevada and Pine and Wah Wah Valleys, Utah. Supplement. Spring Survey of the IOC Valleys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    pinnata X K CACTACEAE Coryphantha vivipara x Opuntia echinocarpa K 0 x K K K 5putaerinacea K Op’untia sp. x X -12- TABLE 3-1 (Cont.) Shelter site...pilosus x Lepidium montanun X CACTACEAE Opuntia echinocarpa x x Opuntia erinacea X X X CHENOPODIACEAE Atriplex canescens X X X Ceratoides lanata X X X X...Stanleya pinnata X CACTACEAE Coryphantha vivipara var. rosea X Echinocereus engelmannii X opuntia echinocarpa X X X X X X X X Opuntia erinacea XX X X X X x

  16. In-situ diagnosis of stone monuments; the Ruin Garden in Székesfehérvár

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoridou, Magdalini; Török, Ákos

    2014-05-01

    Székesfehérvár is a city in central Hungary, located around 65 km southwest of Budapest. In the Middle Ages (11th and 12th centuries), the city was a Royal residence and until the Turkish occupation in 1543, one of the most important cities of Hungary. The Ruin Garden of Székesfehérvár is a unique assemblage of monuments belonging to the cultural heritage of Hungary due to its important role in the Middle Ages as the coronation church for the kings of the Hungarian Christian Kingdom and the burial place for fifteen kings and other members of the royal families and the high nobility. It was also the home of the royal treasury and relics. It is comprised of a provostal church dedicated to Virgin Mary, so called today "Royal Basilica", royal tombs and related ecclesial and lay buildings. Since it has been nominated for "National Memorial Place", its present and future protection is required. Its several reconstructions and expansions throughout Hungarian history introduce another aspect of the importance of the historical site. By a quick overview of the current state of the monument, the presence of several lithotypes could be found among the remained building and decorative stones. Therefore, the research related to the materials in order to understand their composition, structure, origin and behavior was crucial not only for the conservation of that specific monument but also for a series of other historic structures in the Hungarian territory. In order to help the study of the Ruin Garden in Székesfehérvár, a series of maps was created based on in-situ investigations. Five wall sections were selected for the sake of the different lithotypes distribution and the different construction periods were the ruins belong to. The total mapped area covers about 30 m2 of the existing walls surfaces. Three different kinds of maps were designed for each wall section. The first series of maps depicts the different construction periods of the selected section of the

  17. The geochemistry of groundwater resources in the Jordan Valley: The impact of the Rift Valley brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, E.; Vengosh, A.; Gavrieli, I.; Marie, Amarisa; Bullen, T.D.; Mayer, B.; Polak, A.; Shavit, U.

    2007-01-01

    The chemical composition of groundwater in the Jordan Valley, along the section between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, is investigated in order to evaluate the origin of the groundwater resources and, in particular, to elucidate the role of deep brines on the chemical composition of the regional groundwater resources in the Jordan Valley. Samples were collected from shallow groundwater in research boreholes on two sites in the northern and southern parts of the Jordan Valley, adjacent to the Jordan River. Data is also compiled from previous published studies. Geochemical data (e.g., Br/Cl, Na/Cl and SO4/Cl ratios) and B, O, Sr and S isotopic compositions are used to define groundwater groups, to map their distribution in the Jordan valley, and to evaluate their origin. The combined geochemical tools enabled the delineation of three major sources of solutes that differentially affect the quality of groundwater in the Jordan Valley: (1) flow and mixing with hypersaline brines with high Br/Cl (>2 ?? 10-3) and low Na/Cl (shallow saline groundwaters influenced by brine mixing exhibit a north-south variation in their Br/Cl and Na/Cl ratios. This chemical trend was observed also in hypersaline brines in the Jordan valley, which suggests a local mixing process between the water bodies. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Wildfire in the valley of the wild roses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Moon Stumpff

    2015-01-01

    Santa Clara Indian Pueblo lands are adjacent to the Jemez National Forest, Bandelier National Monument and Valles Caldera National Preserve. This paper explores Pueblo vulnerability and resilience after repeated and devastating fires in this century as a result of drought and climate change. Santa Clara Pueblo holds a rich store of traditional knowledge about the fire-...

  19. A valley-filtering switch based on strained graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Feng; Ma, Yanling; Zhang, Ying-Tao

    2011-09-28

    We investigate valley-dependent transport through a graphene sheet modulated by both the substrate strain and the fringe field of two parallel ferromagnetic metal (FM) stripes. When the magnetizations of the two FM stripes are switched from the parallel to the antiparallel alignment, the total conductance, valley polarization and valley conductance excess change greatly over a wide range of Fermi energy, which results from the dependence of the valley-related transmission suppression on the polarity configuration of inhomogeneous magnetic fields. Thus the proposed structure exhibits the significant features of a valley-filtering switch and a magnetoresistance device.

  20. A valley-filtering switch based on strained graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Feng; Ma Yanling; Zhang Yingtao

    2011-01-01

    We investigate valley-dependent transport through a graphene sheet modulated by both the substrate strain and the fringe field of two parallel ferromagnetic metal (FM) stripes. When the magnetizations of the two FM stripes are switched from the parallel to the antiparallel alignment, the total conductance, valley polarization and valley conductance excess change greatly over a wide range of Fermi energy, which results from the dependence of the valley-related transmission suppression on the polarity configuration of inhomogeneous magnetic fields. Thus the proposed structure exhibits the significant features of a valley-filtering switch and a magnetoresistance device. (paper)

  1. Hot water in the Long Valley Caldera—The benefits and hazards of this large natural resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, William C.; Hurwitz, Shaul; Bergfeld, Deborah; Howle, James F.

    2018-03-26

    The volcanic processes that have shaped the Long Valley Caldera in eastern California have also created an abundant supply of natural hot water. This natural resource provides benefits to many users, including power generation at the Casa Diablo Geothermal Plant, warm water for a state fish hatchery, and beautiful scenic areas such as Hot Creek gorge for visitors. However, some features can be dangerous because of sudden and unpredictable changes in the location and flow rate of boiling water. The U.S. Geological Survey monitors several aspects of the hydrothermal system in the Long Valley Caldera including temperature, flow rate, and water chemistry.

  2. Wiki Loves Monuments 2011: experiència a Espanya i reflexions des de la difusió del patrimoni cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio José Rodríguez Posada

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available La Wikipedia va néixer al ciberespai. Els seus primers anys es van caracteritzar per una feina distribuïda i asíncrona entre usuaris de tot el planeta, que amb prou feines tenien relació personal fora de la xarxa. Amb el pas del temps, alguns dels seus voluntaris van fer les anomenades wikitrobades, però al començament les reunions de wikimedistes tenien la finalitat d'estrènyer llaços i no comportaven cap millora directa dels continguts dels projectes. Més endavant van sorgir iniciatives presencials en les quals es van involucrar, a més de voluntaris, algunes entitats culturals; la més recent i que ha tingut més impacte és Wiki Loves Monuments 2011, un concurs destinat a fotografiar monuments de divuit països europeus, entre els quals hi ha Espanya. Gràcies a l'alta participació, s'han pres en conjunt més de 160.000 fotografies de monuments. Espanya ha ocupat el tercer lloc en nombre d'imatges. En aquest article estudiem els orígens de Wiki Loves Monuments, com es va posar en marxa, com es va desenvolupar i els resultats obtinguts. L'èxit de l'edició 2011 i les peticions d'altres països han fet que ja es treballi en l'organització de Wiki Loves Monuments 2012, aquesta vegada a escala mundial.

  3. Contaminants assessment in the coral reefs of Virgin Islands National Park and Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, Timothy A.; Garrison, Virginia H.; Alvarez, David A.; Echols, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    Coral, fish, plankton, and detritus samples were collected from coral reefs in Virgin Islands National Park (VIIS) and Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (VICR) to assess existing contamination levels. Passive water sampling using polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and semi-permeable membrane devices found a few emerging pollutants of concern (DEET and galaxolide) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Very little persistent organic chemical contamination was detected in the tissue or detritus samples. Detected contaminants were at concentrations below those reported to be harmful to aquatic organisms. Extracts from the POCIS were subjected to the yeast estrogen screen (YES) to assess potential estrogenicity of the contaminant mixture. Results of the YES (estrogen equivalency of 0.17–0.31 ng/L 17-β-estradiol) indicated a low estrogenicity likelihood for contaminants extracted from water. Findings point to low levels of polar and non-polar organic contaminants in the bays sampled within VICR and VIIS.

  4. The Ecology of Coral Reef Top Predators in the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J. Dale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Coral reef habitats in the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (PMNM are characterized by abundant top-level predators such as sharks and jacks. The predator assemblage is dominated both numerically and in biomass by giant trevally (Caranx ignobilis and Galapagos sharks (Carcharhinus galapagensis. A lower diversity of predatory teleosts, particularly groupers and snappers, distinguishes the PMNM from other remote, unfished atolls in the Pacific. Most coral reef top predators are site attached to a “home” atoll, but move extensively within these atolls. Abundances of the most common sharks and jacks are highest in atoll fore reef habitats. Top predators within the PMNM forage on a diverse range of prey and exert top-down control over shallow-water reef fish assemblages. Ecological models suggest ecosystem processes may be most impacted by top predators through indirect effects of predation. Knowledge gaps are identified to guide future studies of top predators in the PMNM.

  5. Ca (OH)2Nanoparticles Based on Acrylic Copolymers for the consolidation and protection of Ancient Egypt Calcareous Stone Monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dosari, Mohammad A.; Darwish, Sawsan S.; Adam, Mahmoud A.; Elmarzugi, Nagib A.; Al-Mouallimi, Nadia; Ahmed, Sayed M.

    2017-04-01

    The deterioration of calcareous stones materials used in artistic/architectural field is one of the most serious problems facing conservation today. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of nanosized particles of calcium hydroxide (slaked lime) as a consolidation and protection material dispersed in acrylic copolymer, poly ethylmethacrylate/methylacrylate (70:30) (Poly (EMA/MA), for calcareous stone monuments and painted surfaces affected by different kinds of decay. The synthesis process of Ca (OH)2 nanoparticles/polymer nanocomposites have been prepared by in situ emulsion polymerization system. The prepared nanocomposite containing 5% of Ca (OH)2 nanoparticles showed obvious transparency features and represent nanocomposites coating technology with hydrophobic, consolidating and well protection properties.

  6. Ca (OH)2Nanoparticles Based on Acrylic Copolymers for the consolidation and protection of Ancient Egypt Calcareous Stone Monuments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dosari, Mohammad A.; Ahmed, Sayed M.; Darwish, Sawsan S.; Adam, Mahmoud A.; Elmarzugi, Nagib A.; Al-Mouallimi, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    The deterioration of calcareous stones materials used in artistic/architectural field is one of the most serious problems facing conservation today. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of nanosized particles of calcium hydroxide (slaked lime) as a consolidation and protection material dispersed in acrylic copolymer, poly ethylmethacrylate/methylacrylate (70:30) (Poly (EMA/MA), for calcareous stone monuments and painted surfaces affected by different kinds of decay. The synthesis process of Ca (OH) 2 nanoparticles/polymer nanocomposites have been prepared by in situ emulsion polymerization system. The prepared nanocomposite containing 5% of Ca (OH) 2 nanoparticles showed obvious transparency features and represent nanocomposites coating technology with hydrophobic, consolidating and well protection properties. (paper)

  7. Data on construction and architechture of cult objects in Drino’s valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melsi Labi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Drino’s valley is one of the richest areas with cult objects, which are a valuable treasure of our cultural heritage. The first early Christian churches date back to the 4-th century. Their construction is related to the spread of Christianity in the Albanian territory. In the first half of the 5-th century construction has been limited because of the barbarian invasions, and during the second half of the 5-th century and the beginning of the 6-th century Early Christian churches had a wide extension. Early Christian churches were built not only through early Episcopal centres but also in rural settlements. Archaeological discoveries have brought to light a large number of early Christian churches, out of which we can judge the architectural development of that period. A wide use during the early Christian period had the three-nave basilicas and one-nave churches. From what can be judged from the ruins left, the architectonic decorative treatment of early Christian churches has been very simple. Decorative ornaments were mainly inside the churches (Chalkiá, 1997, 10-11. Early Christian monuments of the IV-VI centuries, being considered in typological terms are divided into: one-nave basilicas and churches. Early Christian churches were built with simple walls and raw stones, which were related to each other with lime mortar, using a number of bricks. Early Christian builders knew very well physical laws on balance of the columns and arcades. From the chronological aspect, the early Christian churches are constructions of the second half of the 5-th century and the first half of 4-th century

  8. Monumental megalithic burial and rock art tell a new story about the Levant Intermediate Bronze “Dark Ages”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barash, Alon; Eisenberg-Degen, Davida; Grosman, Leore; Oron, Maya; Berger, Uri

    2017-01-01

    The Intermediate Bronze Age (IB) in the Southern Levant (ca. 2350–2000 BCE) is known as the “Dark Ages,” following the collapse of Early Bronze urban society and predating the establishment of the Middle Bronze cities. The absence of significant settlements and monumental building has led to the reconstruction of IB social organization as that of nomadic, tribal society inhabiting rural villages with no central governmental system. Excavation in the Shamir Dolmen Field (comprising over 400 dolmens) on the western foothills of the Golan Heights was carried out following the discovery of rock art engravings on the ceiling of the central chamber inside one of the largest dolmens ever recorded in the Levant. Excavation of this multi-chambered dolmen, covered by a basalt capstone weighing some 50 tons, revealed a secondary multi-burial (of both adults and children) rarely described in a dolmen context in the Golan. Engraved into the rock ceiling above the multi-burial is a panel of 14 forms composed of a vertical line and downturned arc motif. 3D-scanning by structured-light technology was used to sharpen the forms and revealed the technique employed to create them. Building of the Shamir dolmens required a tremendous amount of labor, architectural mastery, and complex socio-economic organization well beyond the capacity of small, rural nomadic groups. The monumental megalithic burial of the Shamir dolmens indicates a hierarchical, complex, non-urban governmental system. This new evidence supports a growing body of recent criticism stemming from new discoveries and approaches that calls for rethinking our views of the Levantine IB “Dark Ages.” PMID:28253312

  9. The role of monumental trees for the preservation of saproxylic biodiversity: re-thinking their management in cultural landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Zapponi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ancient trees present structural and functional characteristics fundamental for sustaining complex and unique assemblages of species. They are a resource globally threatened by both intensive land uses and lack of recruitment. Their disappearance would involve not only the loss of majestic organisms with high intrinsic value, but may also result in the disappearance of rare and endangered species. Italy is currently implementing a new list of noteworthy ancient trees (i.e. monumental trees and the preliminary results of this new inventory have been analysed as a case study of a national initiative. The provisional list included 950 complete records, corresponding to 65 genera and 118 species. The most abundant species was Quercus pubescens Willd while the most common genera were Quercus, Larix, Cedrus, Fagus and Platanus. Age and size were the most used criteria for inclusion of trees in the census. The fundamental novelty of the new inventory is that it is based on a set of well-defined criteria of monumentality and that it clearly recognised the ecological value of ancient trees. Preserving a tree for its ecological role requires a profound cultural shift. The value of microhabitats, structures that have historically been considered defects, should be recognised and managed accordingly. Ancient trees are often part of disappearing cultural landscapes: to preserve the richness and diversity of these habitats, new policies and regulations are needed. The preservation of landscapes, where there is still a high density of ancient trees, should be a priority for all European countries in order to conserve their unique associated fauna and for their irreplaceable functional value for biodiversity conservation.

  10. A new approach to assess the chemical composition of powder deposits damaging the stone surfaces of historical monuments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermo, Paola; Turrion, Raquel Gonzalez; Rosa, Mario; Omegna, Alessandra

    2015-04-01

    The issue of conservation of the monumental heritage worldwide is mainly related to atmospheric pollution that causes the degradation of stone surfaces. The powder deposits present on the stone monuments reflect the composition of the aerosol particulate matter (PM) to which the surfaces are exposed, so the chemical characterization of the outermost damaged layers is necessary in order to adopt mitigation measurements to reduce PM emissions. In the present paper, a new analytical approach is proposed to investigate the chemical composition of powder deposits present on Angera stone, a dolomitic rock used in the Richini courtyard, a masterpiece of Lombard Baroque and placed in Milan. Inorganic and organic components present in these deposits have been analyzed by IC (ion chromatography) and a new approach mainly bases on thermal analyses, respectively. Gypsum is the main inorganic constituent indicating a composition similar to that of black crusts, hard black patina covering the degraded building surfaces. Ammonium nitrate present in the powder is able to react with the stone substrate to form magnesium nitrate which can migrate into the porous stone. The carbonaceous fraction powder deposits (i.e. OC = Organic Carbon and EC = Elemental Carbon) have been quantified by a new simple thermal approach based on carbon hydrogen nitrogen (CHN) analysis. The presence of high concentration of EC confirms that the powder deposits are evolving to black crust. Low values of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC, determined by total organic carbon-TOC), with respect to what is normally found in PM, may indicate a migration process of organic substances into the stone with a worsening of the conservation conditions. The presence of heavy metals of anthropogenic origin and acting as catalysts in the black crust formation process has been highlighted by SEM-EDS (electron microscopy coupled with an energy dispersive spectrometer) as well.

  11. Monumental megalithic burial and rock art tell a new story about the Levant Intermediate Bronze "Dark Ages".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonen Sharon

    Full Text Available The Intermediate Bronze Age (IB in the Southern Levant (ca. 2350-2000 BCE is known as the "Dark Ages," following the collapse of Early Bronze urban society and predating the establishment of the Middle Bronze cities. The absence of significant settlements and monumental building has led to the reconstruction of IB social organization as that of nomadic, tribal society inhabiting rural villages with no central governmental system. Excavation in the Shamir Dolmen Field (comprising over 400 dolmens on the western foothills of the Golan Heights was carried out following the discovery of rock art engravings on the ceiling of the central chamber inside one of the largest dolmens ever recorded in the Levant. Excavation of this multi-chambered dolmen, covered by a basalt capstone weighing some 50 tons, revealed a secondary multi-burial (of both adults and children rarely described in a dolmen context in the Golan. Engraved into the rock ceiling above the multi-burial is a panel of 14 forms composed of a vertical line and downturned arc motif. 3D-scanning by structured-light technology was used to sharpen the forms and revealed the technique employed to create them. Building of the Shamir dolmens required a tremendous amount of labor, architectural mastery, and complex socio-economic organization well beyond the capacity of small, rural nomadic groups. The monumental megalithic burial of the Shamir dolmens indicates a hierarchical, complex, non-urban governmental system. This new evidence supports a growing body of recent criticism stemming from new discoveries and approaches that calls for rethinking our views of the Levantine IB "Dark Ages."

  12. Monumental megalithic burial and rock art tell a new story about the Levant Intermediate Bronze "Dark Ages".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Gonen; Barash, Alon; Eisenberg-Degen, Davida; Grosman, Leore; Oron, Maya; Berger, Uri

    2017-01-01

    The Intermediate Bronze Age (IB) in the Southern Levant (ca. 2350-2000 BCE) is known as the "Dark Ages," following the collapse of Early Bronze urban society and predating the establishment of the Middle Bronze cities. The absence of significant settlements and monumental building has led to the reconstruction of IB social organization as that of nomadic, tribal society inhabiting rural villages with no central governmental system. Excavation in the Shamir Dolmen Field (comprising over 400 dolmens) on the western foothills of the Golan Heights was carried out following the discovery of rock art engravings on the ceiling of the central chamber inside one of the largest dolmens ever recorded in the Levant. Excavation of this multi-chambered dolmen, covered by a basalt capstone weighing some 50 tons, revealed a secondary multi-burial (of both adults and children) rarely described in a dolmen context in the Golan. Engraved into the rock ceiling above the multi-burial is a panel of 14 forms composed of a vertical line and downturned arc motif. 3D-scanning by structured-light technology was used to sharpen the forms and revealed the technique employed to create them. Building of the Shamir dolmens required a tremendous amount of labor, architectural mastery, and complex socio-economic organization well beyond the capacity of small, rural nomadic groups. The monumental megalithic burial of the Shamir dolmens indicates a hierarchical, complex, non-urban governmental system. This new evidence supports a growing body of recent criticism stemming from new discoveries and approaches that calls for rethinking our views of the Levantine IB "Dark Ages."

  13. The problem of mechanical compatibility of natural building stones in restoration of monuments. Part I: Composite specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourkoulis, Stavros K.; Ninis, Nikolaos L.

    2011-12-01

    The mechanical compatibility of natural building stones used in the restoration of ancient monuments as substitutes of the authentic material is studied in this short two-paper series. Attention is focused on the porous oolitic limestone of Kenchreae used in the erection of the monuments at the Epidaurean Asklepieion. In Part I experimental results are presented concerning the mechanical properties and constants of both the authentic (ancient and freshly quarried) material and the various stones proposed so far as possible substitutes. It is concluded that only the Kenchreae stone satisfactorily simulates the behaviour of the material used by ancient Greeks. The other types of stones have a substantially different character and their incorporation in the restoration should be treated with caution. In an effort to quantify the influence of the substitute stone on the authentic one, a series of experiments were carried out using composite specimens made from equal parts of authentic and substitute material with various inclination angles of the adhesion plane with respect to the load. It was concluded that the mechanical properties of the composite specimen are strongly affected by this angle and the dependence is not monotonous. In addition, strong strain discontinuities are recorded in the vicinity of the adhesion plane, which are responsible for the initiation of cracking in either of the two materials. It was pointed out that in some cases the incompatibility causes violation of the basic restoration principle concerning the protection of the ancient material. In this context certain geometrical configurations of the boundaries of the specimens are examined in Part II as a possible means of modifying the mechanical behaviour of the substitute stones, in order to make them as compatible as possible with the authentic material.

  14. Groundwater quality in the Antelope Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Antelope Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Antelope study area is approximately 1,600 square miles (4,144 square kilometers) and includes the Antelope Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Antelope Valley has an arid climate and is part of the Mojave Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff from the surrounding mountains draining towards dry lakebeds in the lower parts of the valley. Land use in the study area is approximately 68 percent (%) natural (mostly shrubland and grassland), 24% agricultural, and 8% urban. The primary crops are pasture and hay. The largest urban areas are the cities of Palmdale and Lancaster (2010 populations of 152,000 and 156,000, respectively). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in Antelope Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in Antelope Valley are completed to depths between 360 and 700 feet (110 to 213 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 180 to 350 feet (55 to 107 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the surrounding mountains, and by direct infiltration of irrigation and sewer and septic

  15. Groundwater quality in the Owens Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Owens Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Owens study area is approximately 1,030 square miles (2,668 square kilometers) and includes the Owens Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Owens Valley has a semiarid to arid climate, with average annual rainfall of about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff primarily from the Sierra Nevada draining east to the Owens River, which flows south to Owens Lake dry lakebed at the southern end of the valley. Beginning in the early 1900s, the City of Los Angeles began diverting the flow of the Owens River to the Los Angeles Aqueduct, resulting in the evaporation of Owens Lake and the formation of the current Owens Lake dry lakebed. Land use in the study area is approximately 94 percent (%) natural, 5% agricultural, and 1% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban area is the city of Bishop (2010 population of 4,000). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada, and by direct infiltration of irrigation. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells, evapotranspiration, and underflow to the Owens Lake dry lakebed. The primary aquifers in Owens Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database

  16. Microscopic Identification of Prokaryotes in Modern and Ancient Halite, Saline Valley and Death Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Brian A.; Lowenstein, Tim K.; Timofeeff, Michael N.

    2009-06-01

    Primary fluid inclusions in halite crystallized in Saline Valley, California, in 1980, 2004-2005, and 2007, contain rod- and coccoid-shaped microparticles the same size and morphology as archaea and bacteria living in modern brines. Primary fluid inclusions from a well-dated (0-100,000 years), 90 m long salt core from Badwater Basin, Death Valley, California, also contain microparticles, here interpreted as halophilic and halotolerant prokaryotes. Prokaryotes are distinguished from crystals on the basis of morphology, optical properties (birefringence), and uniformity of size. Electron micrographs of microparticles from filtered modern brine (Saline Valley), dissolved modern halite crystals (Saline Valley), and dissolved ancient halite crystals (Death Valley) support in situ microscopic observations that prokaryotes are present in fluid inclusions in ancient halite. In the Death Valley salt core, prokaryotes in fluid inclusions occur almost exclusively in halite precipitated in perennial saline lakes 10,000 to 35,000 years ago. This suggests that trapping and preservation of prokaryotes in fluid inclusions is influenced by the surface environment in which the halite originally precipitated. In all cases, prokaryotes in fluid inclusions in halite from the Death Valley salt core are miniaturized (<1 μm diameter cocci, <2.5 μm long, very rare rod shapes), which supports interpretations that the prokaryotes are indigenous to the halite and starvation survival may be the normal response of some prokaryotes to entrapment in fluid inclusions for millennia. These results reinforce the view that fluid inclusions in halite and possibly other evaporites are important repositories of microbial life and should be carefully examined in the search for ancient microorganisms on Earth, Mars, and elsewhere in the Solar System.

  17. Surveying Future Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstrom, John E.

    2016-06-01

    The now standard model of cosmology has been tested and refined by the analysis of increasingly sensitive, large astronomical surveys, especially with statistically significant millimeter-wave surveys of the cosmic microwave background and optical surveys of the distribution of galaxies. This talk will offer a glimpse of the future, which promises an acceleration of this trend with cosmological information coming from new surveys across the electromagnetic spectrum as well as particles and even gravitational waves.

  18. D Digitization and Mapping of Heritage Monuments and Comparison with Historical Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorillo, F.; Remondino, F.; Barba, S.; Santoriello, A.; De Vita, C. B.; Casellato, A.

    2013-07-01

    The paper presents the integration of different 3D recording techniques and instruments to survey the archaeological area of Paestum (Italy). Paestum was included in the UNESCO World Heritage list since 1998, and still preserves the ruins of Greek and Roman times. Photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) acquisitions were integrated in order to exploit the advantages of the 3D surveying techniques and produce digital models, orthoimages, maps and other geometric representations useful for archaeological, architectural and cultural touristic purposes. The obtained 3D results are then compared to historical representations to show the high quality of such ancient manual drawings.

  19. Pattern of ground deformation in Kathmandu valley during 2015 Gorkha Earthquake, central Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, S.; Dwivedi, S. K.; Acharya, K. K.

    2016-12-01

    The 25th April 2015 Gorkha Earthquake (Mw=7.8) epicentered at Barpak along with thousands of aftershocks released seismic moment nearly equivalent to an 8.0 Magnitude earthquake rupturing a 150km long fault segment. Although Kathmandu valley was supposed to be severely devastated by such major earthquake, post earthquake scenario is completely different. The observed destruction is far less than anticipated as well as the spatial pattern is different than expected. This work focuses on the behavior of Kathmandu valley sediments during the strong shaking by the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake. For this purpose spatial pattern of destruction is analyzed at heavily destructed sites. To understand characteristics of subsurface soil 2D-MASW survey was carried out using a 24-channel seismograph system. An accellerogram recorded by Nepal Seismological Center was analyzed to characterize the strong ground motion. The Kathmandu valley comprises fluvio-lacustrine deposit with gravel, sand, silt and clay along with few exposures of basement rocks within the sediments. The observations show systematic repetition of destruction at an average interval of 2.5km mostly in sand, silt and clay dominated formations. Results of 2D-MASW show the sites of destruction are characterized by static deformation of soil (liquefaction and southerly dipping cracks). Spectral analysis of the accelerogram indicates maximum power associated with frequency of 1.0Hz. The result of this study explains the observed spatial pattern of destruction in Kathmandu valley. This is correlated with the seismic energy associated with the frequency of 1Hz, which generates an average wavelength of 2.5km with an average S-wave velocity of 2.5km/s. The cumulative effect of dominant frequency and associated wavelength resulted in static deformation of surface soil layers at an average interval of 2.5km. This phenomenon clearly describes the reason for different scenario than that was anticipated in Kathmandu valley.

  20. Quantitative rock-fall hazard and risk assessment for Yosemite Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, G. M.; Luco, N.; Collins, B. D.; Harp, E.; Reichenbach, P.; Frankel, K. L.

    2011-12-01

    Rock falls are a considerable hazard in Yosemite Valley, California with more than 835 rock falls and other slope movements documented since 1857. Thus, rock falls pose potentially significant risk to the nearly four million annual visitors to Yosemite National Park. Building on earlier hazard assessment work by the U.S. Geological Survey, we performed a quantitative rock-fall hazard and risk assessment for Yosemite Valley. This work was aided by several new data sets, including precise Geographic Information System (GIS) maps of rock-fall deposits, airborne and terrestrial LiDAR-based point cloud data and digital elevation models, and numerical ages of talus deposits. Using Global Position Systems (GPS), we mapped the positions of over 500 boulders on the valley floor and measured their distance relative to the mapped base of talus. Statistical analyses of these data yielded an initial hazard zone that is based on the 90th percentile distance of rock-fall boulders beyond the talus edge. This distance was subsequently scaled (either inward or outward from the 90th percentile line) based on rock-fall frequency information derived from a combination of cosmogenic beryllium-10 exposure dating of boulders beyond the edge of the talus, and computer model simulations of rock-fall runout. The scaled distances provide the basis for a new hazard zone on the floor of Yosemite Valley. Once this zone was delineated, we assembled visitor, employee, and resident use data for each structure within the hazard zone to quantitatively assess risk exposure. Our results identify areas within the new hazard zone that may warrant more detailed study, for example rock-fall susceptibility, which can be assessed through examination of high-resolution photographs, structural measurements on the cliffs, and empirical calculations derived from LiDAR point cloud data. This hazard and risk information is used to inform placement of existing and potential future infrastructure in Yosemite Valley.

  1. Aquatic habitats of Canaan Valley, West Virginia: Diversity and environmental threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, C.D.; Young, J.A.; Stout, B. M.

    2006-01-01

    We conducted surveys of aquatic habitats during the spring and summer of 1995 in Canaan Valley, WV, to describe the diversity of aquatic habitats in the valley and identify issues that may threaten the viability of aquatic species. We assessed physical habitat and water chemistry of 126 ponds and 82 stream sites, and related habitat characteristics to landscape variables such as geology and terrain. Based on our analyses, we found two issues likely to affect the viability of aquatic populations in the valley. The first issue was acid rain and the extent to which it potentially limits the distribution of aquatic and semi-aquatic species, particularly in headwater portions of the watershed. We estimate that nearly 46%, or 56 kilometers of stream, had pH levels that would not support survival and reproduction of Salvelinuw fontinalis (brook trout), one of the most acid-tolerant fishes in the eastern US. The second issue was the influence of Castor canadensis (beaver) activity. In the Canaan Valley State Park portion of the valley, beaver have transformed 4.7 kilometers of stream (approximately 17% of the total) to pond habitat through their dam building. This has resulted in an increase in pond habitat, a decrease in stream habitat, and a fragmented stream network (i.e., beaver ponds dispersed among stream reaches). In addition, beaver have eliminated an undetermined amount of forested riparian area through their foraging activities. Depending on the perspective, beaver-mediated changes can be viewed as positive or negative. Increases in pond habitat may increase habitat heterogeneity with consequent increases in biological diversity. In contrast, flooding associated with beaver activity may eliminate lowland wetlands and associated species, create barriers to fish dispersal, and possibly contribute to low dissolved oxygen levels in the Blackwater River. We recommend that future management strategies for the wildlife refuge be viewed in the context of these two issues

  2. Stakeholder Evaluation for Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge: Completion Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Natalie R.; Burkardt, Nina; Swann, Margaret Earlene; Stewart, Susan C.

    2009-01-01

    Valley National Wildlife Refuge, the FWS sponsored a stakeholder evaluation conducted by the Policy Analysis and Science Assistance Branch of U.S. Geological Survey, Fort Collins Science Center the winter of 2006-2007. The stakeholder evaluation was intended to answer the following questions: 1)Which Refuge management issues are most important, and to whom?, 2)How do opinions about what is most important to stakeholders overlap or conflict?, 3)Why do stakeholders emphasize specific issues, and what values are driving this?, and 4)What potential solutions do stakeholders have for addressing important issues? This information will be used by the Refuge to help guide development of their CCP as they strive to balance stakeholder desires with their charge to manage the unique wetlands and uplands of the Canaan Valley for wildlife conservation.

  3. Mapping Drought Impacts on Agricultural Production in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, F. S.; Guzman, A.; Johnson, L.; Rosevelt, C.; Verdin, J. P.; Dwyer, J. L.; Mueller, R.; Zakzeski, A.; Thenkabail, P. S.; Wallace, C.; Jones, J.; Windell, S.; Urness, J.; Teaby, A.; Hamblin, D.; Post, K. M.; Nemani, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    The ongoing drought in California has substantially reduced surface water supplies for millions of acres of irrigated farmland in California's Central Valley. Rapid assessment of drought impacts on agricultural production can aid water managers in assessing mitigation options, and guide decision making with respect to requests for local water transfers, county drought disaster designations, and allocation of emergency funds to mitigate drought impacts. Satellite remote sensing offers an efficient way to provide quantitative assessments of drought impacts on agricultural production and increases in idle acreage associated with reductions in water supply. A key advantage of satellite-based assessments is that they can provide a measure of land fallowing that is consistent across both space and time. We describe an approach for monthly and seasonal mapping of uncultivated agricultural acreage developed as part of a joint effort by USGS, USDA, NASA, and the California Department of Water Resources to provide timely assessments of land fallowing during drought events. This effort has used the Central Valley of California as a pilot region for development and testing of an operational approach. To provide quantitative measures of uncultivated agricultural acreage from satellite data early in the season, we developed a decision tree algorithm and applied it to timeseries of data from Landsat TM, ETM+, OLI, and MODIS. Our effort has been focused on development of indicators of drought impacts in the March - August timeframe based on measures of crop development patterns relative to a reference period with average or above average rainfall. To assess the accuracy of the algorithms, monthly ground validation surveys were conducted across 640 fields from March - September, 2014. We present the algorithm along with updated results from the accuracy assessment, and discuss potential applications to other regions.

  4. Valley Topological Phases in Bilayer Sonic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiuyang; Qiu, Chunyin; Deng, Weiyin; Huang, Xueqin; Li, Feng; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Shuqi; Liu, Zhengyou

    2018-03-01

    Recently, the topological physics in artificial crystals for classical waves has become an emerging research area. In this Letter, we propose a unique bilayer design of sonic crystals that are constructed by two layers of coupled hexagonal array of triangular scatterers. Assisted by the additional layer degree of freedom, a rich topological phase diagram is achieved by simply rotating scatterers in both layers. Under a unified theoretical framework, two kinds of valley-projected topological acoustic insulators are distinguished analytically, i.e., the layer-mixed and layer-polarized topological valley Hall phases, respectively. The theory is evidently confirmed by our numerical and experimental observations of the nontrivial edge states that propagate along the interfaces separating different topological phases. Various applications such as sound communications in integrated devices can be anticipated by the intriguing acoustic edge states enriched by the layer information.

  5. LiDAR, geophysical and field surveys at Ancient Epomanduodurum site and its surrounding country (Doubs, Eastern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laplaige, Clement; Bossuet, Gilles; Thivet, Matthieu

    2010-05-01

    Integrated geophysical studies were carried out over several years, at Mandeure-Mathay (Franche-Comté Region, Eastern France) for the archaeological evaluation of ancient Epomanduodurum. The site is of major scientific interest to understand the territorial structure of earlier agglomerations in Eastern Gaul at the end of the Iron Age and during the Roman period. As regards its size, urban equipment, monuments and function, the ancient town is considered rating second behind the civitas capital of Sequani, Besançon-Vesontio. It is located in the Doubs valley, where the plain of Alsace opens into the marches of Burgundy, in a traffic zone between the Vosges and the Jura. This location allows transit between the Rhône valley and the Rhein plain, through the Saône and Doubs valleys. This geographical situation was a significant factor in the creation of the late Iron Age settlement, later to turn into a major Gallo-roman town. The whole site of the Ancient town includes urban centre and two artisan suburbs. The buried ruins stretch on more than 500 hectares outside and inside a meander of the Doubs River. From the beginning of the survey, in 2001, high resolution and non invasive geophysical methods (magnetic mapping and Automatic Restivity Profiling (ARP) were performed on large scale, both on the terrace and in the floodplain). Excavations associated to geophysical prospection allow to produce a general plan of the Gallo roman structures and to reconstruct the settlement evolution. While human occupation on open land is certified by a lot of indications, on the contrary, the forest-covered zones on table-land appear as less documented areas. The explanation is that some of the classic methods (such as aerial reconnaissance and field walking) are less efficient in the archaeological prospection of table-lands and hills, naturally marked by omnipresent forest. In our new research program (LIEPPEC and PCR Mandeure, 2008-2010), it appears necessary to better

  6. Potential impacts of damming the Juba Valley, western Somalia: Insights from geomorphology and alluvial history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martin

    2014-05-01

    In 1988 plans were well advanced to dam the Juba River in western Somalia. The aims of the Baardheere Dam Project were to generate hydroelectric power for the capital Mogadishu, and to provide water for irrigation in the Juba Valley. A reconnaissance survey on foot along 500 km of the river upstream of the proposed dam site at Baardheere and detailed geomorphic mapping from air photos provided a basis for reconstructing the late Quaternary alluvial history of the river and for assessing the potential impact of the proposed dam. The Juba River rises in the Ethiopian Highlands and is the only river in Somalia that flows to the sea. Its history reflects climatic events in Ethiopia, where the Rift Valley lakes were very low during the LGM (21±2 ka), and high for about 5, 000 years before and after then. Cave deposits in Somalia indicate wetter conditions at 13, 10, 7.5 and 1.5 ka. Alluvial terraces in the Juba Valley range in age from late Pleistocene to late Holocene but only attain a few metres above the present floodplain. This is because the dry tributary valleys contain limestone caves and fissures that divert any high flows from the parent river underground, a process not known when the project was first approved. The oldest preserved terrace was cemented by calcrete by 40 ka. Alluvial gravels were deposited at the outlet of dry tributary valleys during times of episodic high-energy flow between 26 ka and 28 ka. Finely laminated shelly sands accumulated at 10 ka to form the 5 m terrace. The 2 m terrace was laid down 3.2 ka ago as a slackwater deposit. The lack of high-level alluvial terraces raises doubts over plans to dam the river, since rapid leakage would occur from side valleys and the reservoir would not attain the height needed to generate hydroelectric power. It would submerge all existing arable land along the river. Finally, the presence in the late Holocene alluvium of the sub-fossil gastropods Bulinus truncatus and Biomphalaria pfeifferi, which are

  7. An Ethnobotanical Survey on Fuel Wood and Timber plant Species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted to explore the fuel wood species and timber producing species of Kaghan valleys, Pakistan. Consumption pattern and impact on the forest resources were also taken into consideration. A questionnaire was used as a survey instrument to obtain desired data. For this study, 10 villages were randomly ...

  8. Ward Valley transfer stalled by Babbitt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Interior Secretary Bruce Babbitt announced on November 24 that he would not authorize the land transfer for the proposed low-level waste disposal site at Ward Valley, California, until a legal challenge to the facility's license and environmental impact statement is resolved. Even if the matter is resolved quickly, there exists the possibility that yet another hearing will be held on the project, even though state courts in California have stated flatly that no such hearings are required

  9. Ward Valley transfer stalled by Babbitt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Interior Secretary Bruce Babbitt announced on November 24 that he would not authorize the land transfer for the proposed low-level waste disposal site at Ward Valley, California, until a legal challenge to the facility's license and environmental impact statement is resolved. Even if the matter is resolved quickly, there exists the possibility that yet another hearing will be held on the project, even though state courts in California have stated flatly that no such hearings are required.

  10. Ground water in Dale Valley, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Allan D.

    1979-01-01

    Dale Valley is a broad valley segment, enlarged by glacial erosion, at the headwaters of Little Tonawanda Creek near Warsaw , New York. A thin, shallow alluvial aquifer immediately underlies the valley floor but is little used. A deeper gravel aquifer, buried beneath many feet of lake deposits, is tapped by several industrial wells. A finite-difference digital model treated the deep aquifer as two-dimensional with recharge and discharge through a confining layer. It was calibrated by simulating (1) natural conditions, (2) an 18-day aquifer test, and (3) 91 days of well-field operation. Streamflow records and model simulations suggest that in moderately wet years such as 1974, a demand of 750 gallons per minute could be met by withdrawal from the creek and from the aquifer without excessive drawdown at production wells or existing domestic wells. With reasonable but unverified model adjustments to simulate an unusually dry year, the model predicts that a demand of 600 gallons per minute could be met from the same sources. Water high in chloride has migrated from bedrock into parts of the deep aquifer. Industrial pumpage, faults in the bedrock, and the natural flow system may be responsible. (Woodard-USGS)

  11. Cleanup and valuation of waters of the aquifer of M’zab Valley (Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouled Belkhir Cheikh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The M’zab valley is a hyper arid region of average rainfall not exceeding 100 mm per year. However, the rare floods that occur in M’zab River drain large volumes of surface water. Thanks to the genius of the local population, traditional dams were made for artificial recharge of groundwater. Grace of traditional wells drilled in the valley, farmers irrigate their palm groves and gardens. However, since more than half a century, the contribution of deep drilling for the exploitation of the aquifer of the Continental Intercalary posed environmental problems. On the basis of investigations and surveys of the local population during the years 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, it appears that these modern techniques in water catchment caused harmful consequences to the region like the rising of water consumption, pollution of groundwater and soil salinity. Solutions and recommendations are outlined in this article.

  12. Distribution and abundance of fungi in the soils of Taylor Valley, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, L.; Redman, R.; Craig, S.; Rodriguez, R.

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence and distribution of culturable fungi in Taylor Valley, Antarctica was assessed in terms of soil habitat. Soil transects throughout the valley revealed differential habitat utilization between filamentous and non-filamentous (yeast and yeast-like) fungi. In addition, there were significant differences in species distribution patterns with respect to soil pH, moisture, distance from marine coastline, carbon, chlorophyll a, salinity, elevation and solar inputs. Filamentous fungal abundance is most closely associated with habitats having higher pH, and soil moistures. These close associations were not found with yeast and yeast-like fungi demonstrating that yeast and yeast-like fungi utilize a broader range of habitat. An intensive survey of the Victoria Land is necessary to gain a better understanding of their role in soil functioning and nutrient cycling processes. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Multi-decadal elevation changes on Bagley Ice Valley and Malaspina Glacier, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskett, Reginald R.; Lingle, Craig S.; Tangborn, Wendell V.; Rabus, Bernhard T.

    2003-08-01

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) of Bagley Ice Valley and Malaspina Glacier produced by (i) Intermap Technologies, Inc. (ITI) from airborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data acquired 4-13 September 2000, (ii) the German Aerospace Center (DRL) from spaceborne InSAR data acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 11-22 February 2000, and (iii) the US Geological Survey (USGS) from aerial photographs acquired in 1972/73, were differenced to estimate glacier surface elevation changes from 1972 to 2000. Spatially non-uniform thickening, 10 +/- 7 m on average, is observed on Bagley Ice Valley (accumulation area) while non-uniform thinning, 47 +/- 5 m on average, is observed on the glaciers of the Malaspina complex (mostly ablation area). Even larger thinning is observed on the retreating tidewater Tyndall Glacier. These changes have resulted from increased temperature and precipitation associated with climate warming, and rapid tidewater retreat.

  14. Geohydrology and Water Quality of the Valley-Fill Aquifer System in the Upper Sixmile Creek and West Branch Owego Creek Valleys in the Town of Caroline, Tompkins County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd S.

    2009-01-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Town of Caroline and Tompkins County Planning Department, began a study of the valley-fill aquifer system in upper Sixmile Creek and headwaters of West Branch Owego Creek valleys in the Town of Caroline, NY. The purpose of the study is to provide geohydrologic data to county and town planners as they develop a strategy to manage and protect their water resources. The first aquifer reach investigated in this series is in the Town of Caroline and includes the upper Sixmile Creek valley and part of West Branch Owego Creek valley. The portions of the valley-fill aquifer system that are comprised of saturated coarse-grained sediments including medium to coarse sand and sandy gravel form the major aquifers. Confined sand and gravel units form the major aquifers in the western and central portions of the upper Sixmile Creek valley, and an unconfined sand and gravel unit forms the major aquifer in the eastern portion of the upper Sixmile Creek valley and in the headwaters of the West Branch Owego Creek valley. The valley-fill deposits are thinnest near the edges of the valley where they pinch out along the till-mantled bedrock valley walls. The thickness of the valley fill in the deepest part of the valley, at the western end of the study area, is about 100 feet (ft); the thickness is greater than 165 ft on top of the Valley Heads Moraine in the central part of the valley. An estimated 750 people live over and rely on groundwater from the valley-fill aquifers in upper Sixmile Creek and West Branch Owego Creek valleys. Most groundwater withdrawn from the valley-fill aquifers is pumped from wells with open-ended 6-inch diameter casings; the remaining withdrawals are from shallow dug wells or cisterns that collect groundwater that discharges to springs (especially in the Brooktondale area). The valley-fill aquifers are the sources of water for about 200 households, several apartment complexes, two mobile home parks

  15. Virgin Valley opal district, Humboldt County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staatz, Mortimer Hay; Bauer, Herman L.

    1951-01-01

    The Virgin Valley opal district, Humboldt County, Nevada, is near the Oregon-Nevada border in the Sheldon Game Refuge. Nineteen claims owned by Jack and Toni Crane were examined, sampled, and tested radiometrically for uranium. Numerous discontinuous layers of opal are interbedded with a gently-dipping series of vitric tuff and ash which is at least 300 ft thick. The tuff and ash are capped by a dark, vesicular basalt in the eastern part of the area and by a thin layer of terrace qravels in the area along the west side of Virgin Valley. Silicification of the ash and tuff has produced a rock that ranges from partly opalized rock that resembles silicified shale to completely altered rock that is entirely translucent, and consists of massive, brown and pale-green opal. Carnotite, the only identified uranium mineral, occurs as fracture coatings or fine layers in the opal; in places, no uranium minerals are visible in the radioactive opal. The opal layers are irregular in extent and thickness. The exposed length of the layers ranges from 8 to 1, 200 ft or more, and the thickness of the layers ranges from 0. 1 to 3. 9 ft. The uranium content of each opal layer, and of different parts of the same layer, differs widely. On the east side of Virgin Valley four of the seven observed opal layers, nos. 3, 4, 5, and 7, are more radioactive than the average; and the uranium content ranges from 0. 002 to 0. 12 percent. Two samples, taken 5 ft apart across opal layer no. 7, contained 0. 003 and 0. -049 percent uranium. On the west side of the valley only four of the fifteen observed opal layers, nos; 9, , 10, 14, and 15, are more radioactive than the average; and the uranium content ranges from 0. 004 to 0. 047 percent. Material of the highest grade was found in a small discontinuous layer of pale-green opal (no. 4) on the east side of Virgin Valley. The grade of this layer ranged from 0. 027 to 0. 12 percent uranium.

  16. THE FLORENCE BAPTISTERY: 3-D SURVEY AS A KNOWLEDGE TOOL FOR HISTORICAL AND STRUCTURAL INVESTIGATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Tucci

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Baptistery of San Giovanni is one of the most important pieces of architecture in Florence. It is an octagonal building, encrusted with marble both internally and externally (including the pyramidal roof and covered inside by a magnificent dome with sparkling gold mosaics. During Dante’s time, it appeared much older than the other monuments, so its origins were considered as hailing straight from Florence’s most remote and mythical history. Even though we have much more data now, scholars still disagree over the interpretations on the origin and construction sequence of the monument. Survey has always been considered a main instrument for understanding historical architecture, mostly from constructional and structural points of view. During the last century, the Baptistery was surveyed using both traditional techniques and the most up-to-date instruments available at the time, such as topography, close-range photogrammetry and laser scanning. So, a review of those early applications, even if partial or isolated, can significantly attest to the state of the art and evolution of survey techniques. During recent years, the Opera di Santa Maria del Fiore promoted new research and a wide range of diagnostic investigations aimed at acquiring greater knowledge of the monument in anticipation of the cleaning and restoration of the outer wall surfaces during 2015. Among this research, GeCo Lab carried out a new systematic and complete laser scanner survey of the whole Baptistery, acquiring data for the more inaccessible parts that were given little attention during other survey campaigns. First of all, the paper analyses recent contributions given by instrumental surveys in advancing knowledge of the building, with references to the cutting-edge techniques and measurement tools used at the time. Then, it describes the new survey campaign, illustrating the approach followed in the planning, data acquisition and data elaboration phases; finally, it

  17. The Florence Baptistery: 3-D Survey as a Knowledge Tool for Historical and Structural Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, G.; Bonora, V.; Fiorini, L.; Conti, A.

    2016-06-01

    The Baptistery of San Giovanni is one of the most important pieces of architecture in Florence. It is an octagonal building, encrusted with marble both internally and externally (including the pyramidal roof) and covered inside by a magnificent dome with sparkling gold mosaics. During Dante's time, it appeared much older than the other monuments, so its origins were considered as hailing straight from Florence's most remote and mythical history. Even though we have much more data now, scholars still disagree over the interpretations on the origin and construction sequence of the monument. Survey has always been considered a main instrument for understanding historical architecture, mostly from constructional and structural points of view. During the last century, the Baptistery was surveyed using both traditional techniques and the most up-to-date instruments available at the time, such as topography, close-range photogrammetry and laser scanning. So, a review of those early applications, even if partial or isolated, can significantly attest to the state of the art and evolution of survey techniques. During recent years, the Opera di Santa Maria del Fiore promoted new research and a wide range of diagnostic investigations aimed at acquiring greater knowledge of the monument in anticipation of the cleaning and restoration of the outer wall surfaces during 2015. Among this research, GeCo Lab carried out a new systematic and complete laser scanner survey of the whole Baptistery, acquiring data for the more inaccessible parts that were given little attention during other survey campaigns. First of all, the paper analyses recent contributions given by instrumental surveys in advancing knowledge of the building, with references to the cutting-edge techniques and measurement tools used at the time. Then, it describes the new survey campaign, illustrating the approach followed in the planning, data acquisition and data elaboration phases; finally, it gives examples of some

  18. Valley and spin thermoelectric transport in ferromagnetic silicene junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ping Niu, Zhi; Dong, Shihao

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the valley and spin resolved thermoelectric transport in a normal/ferromagnetic/normal silicene junction. Due to the coupling between the valley and spin degrees of freedom, thermally induced pure valley and spin currents can be demonstrated. The magnitude and sign of these currents can be manipulated by adjusting the ferromagnetic exchange field and local external electric field, thus the currents are controllable. We also find fully valley and/or spin polarized currents. Similar to the currents, owing to the band structure symmetry, tunable pure spin and/or valley thermopowers with zero charge counterpart are generated. The results obtained here suggest a feasible way of generating a pure valley (spin) current and thermopower in silicene

  19. Valley-orbit hybrid states in Si quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, John; Friesen, Mark; Coppersmith, S. N.

    2013-03-01

    The conduction band for electrons in layered Si nanostructures oriented along (001) has two low-lying valleys. Most theoretical treatments assume that these valleys are decoupled from the long-wavelength physics of electron confinement. In this work, we show that even a minimal amount of disorder (a single atomic step at the quantum well interface) is sufficient to mix valley states and electron orbitals, causing a significant distortion of the long-wavelength electron envelope. For physically realistic electric fields and dot sizes, this valley-orbit coupling impacts all electronic states in Si quantum dots, implying that one must always consider valley-orbit hybrid states, rather than distinct valley and orbital degrees of freedom. We discuss the ramifications of our results on silicon quantum dot qubits. This work was supported in part by ARO (W911NF-08-1-0482) and NSF (DMR-0805045).

  20. Valley Hall effect and Nernst effect in strain engineered graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhi Ping; Yao, Jian-ming

    2018-04-01

    We theoretically predict the existence of tunneling valley Hall effect and Nernst effect in the normal/strain/normal graphene junctions, where a strained graphene is sandwiched by two normal graphene electrodes. By applying an electric bias a pure transverse valley Hall current with longitudinal charge current is generated. If the system is driven by a temperature bias, a valley Nernst effect is observed, where a pure transverse valley current without charge current propagates. Furthermore, the transverse valley current can be modulated by the Fermi energy and crystallographic orientation. When the magnetic field is further considered, we obtain a fully valley-polarized current. It is expected these features may be helpful in the design of the controllable valleytronic devices.