WorldWideScience

Sample records for survey meter phase

  1. Digital Receiver Phase Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcin, Martin; Abramovici, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The software of a commercially available digital radio receiver has been modified to make the receiver function as a two-channel low-noise phase meter. This phase meter is a prototype in the continuing development of a phase meter for a system in which radiofrequency (RF) signals in the two channels would be outputs of a spaceborne heterodyne laser interferometer for detecting gravitational waves. The frequencies of the signals could include a common Doppler-shift component of as much as 15 MHz. The phase meter is required to measure the relative phases of the signals in the two channels at a sampling rate of 10 Hz at a root power spectral density measurements in laser metrology of moving bodies. To illustrate part of the principle of operation of the phase meter, the figure includes a simplified block diagram of a basic singlechannel digital receiver. The input RF signal is first fed to the input terminal of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To prevent aliasing errors in the ADC, the sampling rate must be at least twice the input signal frequency. The sampling rate of the ADC is governed by a sampling clock, which also drives a digital local oscillator (DLO), which is a direct digital frequency synthesizer. The DLO produces samples of sine and cosine signals at a programmed tuning frequency. The sine and cosine samples are mixed with (that is, multiplied by) the samples from the ADC, then low-pass filtered to obtain in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. A digital signal processor (DSP) computes the ratio between the Q and I components, computes the phase of the RF signal (relative to that of the DLO signal) as the arctangent of this ratio, and then averages successive such phase values over a time interval specified by the user.

  2. Arduino based radiation survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Lombigit, Lojius; Abdullah, Nor Arymaswati; Azman, Azraf; Dolah, Taufik; Jaafar, Zainudin; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ramli, Abd Aziz Mhd; Zain, Rasif Mohd; Said, Fazila; Khalid, Mohd Ashhar; Taat, Muhamad Zahidee; Muzakkir, Amir

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design of new digital radiation survey meter with LND7121 Geiger Muller tube detector and Atmega328P microcontroller. Development of the survey meter prototype is carried out on Arduino Uno platform. 16-bit Timer1 on the microcontroller is utilized as external pulse counter to produce count per second or CPS measurement. Conversion from CPS to dose rate technique is also performed by Arduino to display results in micro Sievert per hour (μSvhr −1 ). Conversion factor (CF) value for conversion of CPM to μSvhr −1 determined from manufacturer data sheet is compared with CF obtained from calibration procedure. The survey meter measurement results are found to be linear for dose rates below 3500 µSv/hr

  3. Arduino based radiation survey meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd, E-mail: nur-aira@nm.gov.my; Lombigit, Lojius; Abdullah, Nor Arymaswati; Azman, Azraf; Dolah, Taufik; Jaafar, Zainudin; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ramli, Abd Aziz Mhd; Zain, Rasif Mohd; Said, Fazila; Khalid, Mohd Ashhar; Taat, Muhamad Zahidee [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Muzakkir, Amir [Sinaran Utama Teknologi Sdn Bhd, 43650, Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    This paper presents the design of new digital radiation survey meter with LND7121 Geiger Muller tube detector and Atmega328P microcontroller. Development of the survey meter prototype is carried out on Arduino Uno platform. 16-bit Timer1 on the microcontroller is utilized as external pulse counter to produce count per second or CPS measurement. Conversion from CPS to dose rate technique is also performed by Arduino to display results in micro Sievert per hour (μSvhr{sup −1}). Conversion factor (CF) value for conversion of CPM to μSvhr{sup −1} determined from manufacturer data sheet is compared with CF obtained from calibration procedure. The survey meter measurement results are found to be linear for dose rates below 3500 µSv/hr.

  4. Solid state semiconductor detectorized survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Eisuke; Nagase, Yoshiyuki; Furuhashi, Masato

    1987-01-01

    Survey meters are used for measurement of gamma ray dose rate of the space and the surface contamination dencity that the atomic energy plant and the radiation facility etc. We have recently developed semiconductor type survey meter (Commercial name: Compact Survey Meter). This survey meter is a small-sized dose rate meter with excellent function. The special features are using semiconductor type detector which we have developed by our own technique, stablar wide range than the old type, long life, and easy to carry. Now we introduce the efficiency and the function of the survey meter. (author)

  5. Critical review of directional neutron survey meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, Matthew J. I.; Gamage, Kelum A. A.; Taylor, Graeme C.

    2014-01-01

    Having been overlooked for many years, research is now starting to take into account the directional distribution of the neutron work place field. The impact of not taking this into account has led to overly conservative estimates of dose in neutron workplace fields. This paper provides a critical review of this existing research into directional survey meters which could improve these estimates of dose. Instruments which could be adapted for use as directional neutron survey meters are also considered within this review. Using Monte-Carlo techniques, two of the most promising existing designs are evaluated; a boron-doped liquid scintillator and a multi-detector directional spectrometer. As an outcome of these simulations, possible adaptations to these instruments are suggested with a view to improving the portability of the instrument.

  6. Critical Review of Directional Neutron Survey Meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmer, M.J.I.; Gamage, K.A.A.; Taylor, G.C.

    2013-06-01

    Having been overlooked for many years, research is now starting to take into account the directional distribution of the neutron work place field. The impact of not taking this into account has led to overly conservative estimates of dose in neutron workplace fields. This paper provides a critical review of this existing research into directional survey meters which could improve these estimates of dose. Instruments which could be adapted for use as directional neutron survey meters are also considered within this review. Using Monte-Carlo techniques, two of the most promising existing designs are evaluated; a boron-doped liquid scintillator and a multi-detector directional spectrometer. As an outcome of these simulations, possible adaptations to these instruments are suggested with a view to improving the portability of the instrument. (authors)

  7. Critical review of directional neutron survey meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmer, Matthew J.I.; Gamage, Kelum A.A.; Taylor, Graeme C.

    2014-01-01

    Having been overlooked for many years, research is now starting to take into account the directional distribution of the neutron work place field. The impact of not taking this into account has led to overly conservative estimates of dose in neutron workplace fields. This paper provides a critical review of this existing research into directional survey meters which could improve these estimates of dose. Instruments which could be adapted for use as directional neutron survey meters are also considered within this review. Using Monte-Carlo techniques, two of the most promising existing designs are evaluated; a boron-doped liquid scintillator and a multi-detector directional spectrometer. As an outcome of these simulations, possible adaptations to these instruments are suggested with a view to improving the portability of the instrument. -- Highlights: • We critically review the existing literature into directional survey meters. • Instruments which could be adapted for this purpose are also reviewed. • Investigate the potential of much lighter portable real-time instrument. • Improvements to existing instruments are suggested to improve their design. • Boron-Doped liquid scintillator design is the most promising, but needs further work

  8. Victoreen panoramic 470 A survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, P.H.; Iles, W.J.

    1978-07-01

    This instrument is a portable, battery powered, survey meter covering an exposure rate range from 0 to 1000 R h -1 . and an exposure range of 0 to 1000 mR. It is designed to measure X- and γ-radiation over a wide range of energies and angular distributions, and also to detect alpha and beta radiation. The radiation detector is an unsealed ionisation chamber. The report describes the instrument under the following headings: facilities and controls; radiation characteristics; electrical characteristics; environmental characteristics; mechanical characteristics; the manual; summary of performance. (U.K.)

  9. A convenient calibrator for tritium survey meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutler, J.M.; Janmohamed, S.R.; Surette, R.A.; Wood, M.J.

    1993-06-01

    Staff in Ontario Hydro's CANDU nuclear power stations were having difficulty calibrating their tritium-in-air survey meters. Chalk River Laboratories suggested using a standard silica gel collector loaded with tritiated water vapour as a radiation source. The collector is a polyethylene tube with a length of rubber tubing attached to each end. The plastic tube is filled with dry silica gel, and cotton wool is stuffed into each end to retain the gel. To load the source with tritiated vapour, a bubbler containing tritiated water is connected to the collector until the gel is completely pink. The end tubes of the source are then connected to each other to seal the source. To use the source, the rubber tubes are connected to the intake and exhaust fittings of the survey meter to be calibrated. No tritium vapour is released during loading or calibration. This source not only verifies that the ion chamber and electrometer are working, but also checks whether the air sample is reaching the detector. It is more direct and credible than a gamma source, and is inexpensive and convenient to construct and calibrate at the power station. 5 figs

  10. Calibration of ionization chamber survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadhim, A.K.; Kadni, T.B.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation measuring devices need to process calibration which lose their sensitivity and the extent of the response and the amount of stability under a changing conditions from time to time and this period depends on the nature and use of field in which used devices. A comparison study was done toa (45 I P) ( ionization chamber survey meter) and this showed the variation factor in five different years. This study also displayed the concept of radiation instrument calibration and necessity of every year calibration of them.In this project we used the five years calibration data for ionization chamber survey meter model Inspector (1/C F). the value deviation (∆ %) of Cfs for four years of calibration in comparison of C F for the year 2007 are very high and the device under research is not good to use in field and reliable because the ionization chamber is very sensitive to humidity and must calibrate a year or less, or due ing every two years and must maintain carefully to reduce the discarded effects the measurements.

  11. Radiation survey meters used for environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerke, H.; Sigurdsson, T.; Meier Pedersen, K.; Grindborg, J.-E.; Persson, L.; Siiskonen, T.; Hakanen, A.; Kosunen, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Nordic dosimetry group set up the GammaRate project to investigate how its expertise could be used to assure appropriate usage of survey meters in environmental monitoring. Considerable expertise in calibrating radiation instruments exists in the Nordic radiation protection authorities. The Swedish, Finnish, Danish and Norwegian authorities operate Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) that provide users with calibration traceable to internationally recognised primary standards. These authorities together with the Icelandic authorities have formally cooperated since 2002 in the field of radiation dosimetry. Dosimetry is the base for assesment of risk from ionising radiation and calibration of instruments is an imported part in dosimetry. The Nordic dosimetry group has been focused on cancer therapy. This work extends the cooperation to the dosimetry of radiation protection and environmental monitoring. This report contains the formal, theoretical and practical background for survey meter measurements. Nordic standards dosimetry laboratories have the capability to provide traceable calibration of instruments in various types of radiation. To verify and explore this further in radiation protection applications a set of survey instruments were sent between the five Nordic countries and each of the authority asked to provide a calibration coefficient for all instruments. The measurement results were within the stated uncertainties, except for some results from NRPA for the ionchamber based instrument. The comparison was shown to be a valuable tool to harmonize the calibration of radiation protection instruments in the Nordic countries. Dosimetry plays an important role in the emergency situations, and it is clear that better traceability and harmonised common guidelines will improve the emergency preparedness and health. (Author)

  12. Radiation survey meters used for environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerke, H. (ed.) (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, NRPA (Norway)); Sigurdsson, T. (Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority, Geislavarnir Rikisins, GR (IS)); Meier Pedersen, K. (National Board of Health, Statens Institut for Straalebeskyttelse (SIS) (Denmark)); Grindborg, J.-E.; Persson, L. (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Straalsaekerhetsmyndigheten (SSM) (Sweden)); Siiskonen, T.; Hakanen, A.; Kosunen, A. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Saeteilyturvakeskus (STUK) (Finland))

    2012-01-15

    The Nordic dosimetry group set up the GammaRate project to investigate how its expertise could be used to assure appropriate usage of survey meters in environmental monitoring. Considerable expertise in calibrating radiation instruments exists in the Nordic radiation protection authorities. The Swedish, Finnish, Danish and Norwegian authorities operate Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) that provide users with calibration traceable to internationally recognised primary standards. These authorities together with the Icelandic authorities have formally cooperated since 2002 in the field of radiation dosimetry. Dosimetry is the base for assesment of risk from ionising radiation and calibration of instruments is an imported part in dosimetry. The Nordic dosimetry group has been focused on cancer therapy. This work extends the cooperation to the dosimetry of radiation protection and environmental monitoring. This report contains the formal, theoretical and practical background for survey meter measurements. Nordic standards dosimetry laboratories have the capability to provide traceable calibration of instruments in various types of radiation. To verify and explore this further in radiation protection applications a set of survey instruments were sent between the five Nordic countries and each of the authority asked to provide a calibration coefficient for all instruments. The measurement results were within the stated uncertainties, except for some results from NRPA for the ionchamber based instrument. The comparison was shown to be a valuable tool to harmonize the calibration of radiation protection instruments in the Nordic countries. Dosimetry plays an important role in the emergency situations, and it is clear that better traceability and harmonised common guidelines will improve the emergency preparedness and health. (Author)

  13. Development of a hand-held fast neutron survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, T.; Tsujimura, N.; Yamano, T.

    2011-01-01

    A neutron survey meter with a ZnS(Ag) scintillator to measure recoil protons was built. The detection probe weighs ∼2 kg, therefore providing us with true portability. Performance tests exhibited satisfactory neutron dosimetry characteristics in unmoderated or lightly moderated fission neutron fields and in particular work environments at a mixed oxide fuel facility. This new survey meter will augment a routine of neutron monitoring that is inconveniently being carried out by moderator-based neutron survey meters. (authors)

  14. Comprehensive evaluation of the Berthold LB1200 survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.W.

    1986-05-01

    The performance of two Berthod LB1200 survey meters was evaluated under the influence of a range of beta and photon radiation energies and environmental conditions likely to be encountered in the field. The survey meters responded satisfactorily to the range of beta particle and photon radiation energies emitted by most radioisotopes commonly used in Canada. The survey meters performed acceptably under most of the environmental conditions tested here with the exception of radiofrequency interference and electrostatic charge

  15. Calibration of ionization chamber and GM counter survey meters, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingo, Kazuyoshi; Kajimoto, Yoichi; Suga, Shin-ichi

    1978-01-01

    Three types of ionization chamber survey meters and a type of GM counter survey meter were calibrated for measuring the β-ray absorbed dose rate in a working area. To estimate the β-ray absorbed dose rate, a survey meter was used without and with a filter. A reading of survey meter's indicator measured with the filter was subtracted from a reading measured without the filter, and then the absorbed dose rate was obtained by multiplying this remainder by a conversion coefficient. The conversion coefficients were roughly constant with distance more than 8 cm (ionization chamber survey meters) and with distance more than 5 cm (GM counter survey meter). The conversion coefficient was dependent on β-ray energies. In order to measure the absorbed dose rate of tissue whose epidermal thickness is 40 mg/cm 2 , the constant value, 4 (mrad/h)/(mR/h), was chosen independently of β-ray energies as the conversion coefficient of three types of ionization chamber survey meters. The conversion coefficient of the GM counter survey meter was more energy dependent than that of every type of ionization chamber survey meter. (author)

  16. Survey meter using novel inorganic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Akira; Fukuda, Kentaro; Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Kamada, Kei; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Yokota, Yuui; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Yanagida, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    Single crystal scintillator materials are widely used for detection of high-energy photons and particles. There is continuous demand for new scintillator materials with higher performance because of increasing number of medical, industrial, security and other applications. This article presents the recent development of three novel inorganic scintillators; Pr-doped Lu 3 Al 5 O 12 (Pr:LuAG), Ce doped Gd 3 (Al, Ga) 5 O 12 (Ce:GAGG) and Ce or Eu-doped 6 LiCaAlF 6 (Ce:LiCAF, Eu:LiCAF). Pr:LuAG shows very interesting scintillation properties including very fast decay time, high light yield and excellent energy resolution. Taking the advantage of these properties, positron emission mammography (PEM) equipped with Pr:LuAG were developed. Ce:GAGG shows very high light yield, which is much higher than that of Ce:LYSO. Survey meter using Ce:GAGG is developed using this scintillator. Ce:LiCAF and Eu:LiCAF were developed for neutron detection. The advantage and disadvantage are discussed comparing with halide scintillators. Eu-doped LiCAF indicated five times higher light yield than that of existing Li-glass. It is expected to be used as the alternative of 3 He. (author)

  17. A micro-controller based wide range survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhingare, R.R.; Bajaj, K.C.; Kannan, S.

    2004-01-01

    Wide range survey meters (1μSv/h -10 Sv/h) with the detector(s) mounted at the end of a two-to-four meter-long extendable tube are widely used for radiation protection survey of difficult to reach locations and high dose rate areas, The commercially available survey meters of this type use two GM counters to cover a wide range of dose rate measurement. A new micro-controller based wide range survey meter using two Si diode detectors has been developed. The use of solid state detectors in the survey meter has a number of advantages like low power consumption, lighter battery powered detector probe, elimination of high voltage for the operation of the detectors, etc. The design uses infrared communication between the probe and the readout unit through a light-weight collapsible extension tube for high reliability. The design details and features are discussed in detail. (author)

  18. Two-Phase Quality/Flow Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerk, J. Steven (Inventor); Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Werlink, Rudy J. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A quality and/or flow meter employs a capacitance probe assembly for measuring the dielectric constant of flow stream, particularly a two-phase flow stream including liquid and gas components.ne dielectric constant of the flow stream varies depending upon the volume ratios of its liquid and gas components, and capacitance measurements can therefore be employed to calculate the quality of the flow, which is defined as the volume ratio of liquid in the flow to the total volume ratio of gas and liquid in the flow. By using two spaced capacitance sensors, and cross-correlating the time varying capacitance values of each, the velocity of the flow stream can also be determined. A microcontroller-based processing circuit is employed to measure the capacitance of the probe sensors.The circuit employs high speed timer and counter circuits to provide a high resolution measurement of the time interval required to charge each capacitor in the probe assembly. In this manner, a high resolution, noise resistant, digital representation of each of capacitance value is obtained without the need for a high resolution A/D converter, or a high frequency oscillator circuit. One embodiment of the probe assembly employs a capacitor with two ground plates which provide symmetry to insure that accurate measurements are made thereby.

  19. Turbine flow meter response in two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, W.J.; Dougherty, T.J.; Cheh, H.Y.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest a simple method of calibrating turbine flow meters to measure the flow rates of each phase in a two-phase flow. The response of two 50.8 mm (2 inch) turbine flow meters to air-water, two-phase mixtures flowing vertically in a 57 mm I.D. (2.25 inch) polycarbonate tube has been investigated for both upflow and downflow. The flow meters were connected in series with an intervening valve to provide an adjustable pressure difference between them. Void fractions were measured by two gamma densitometers, one upstream of the flow meters and the other downstream. The output signal of the turbine flow meters was found to depend only on the actual volumetric flow rate of the gas, F G , and liquid, F L , at the location of the flow meter

  20. Evaluation of uncertainties in the calibration of radiation survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potiens, M.P.A.; Santos, G.P.

    2006-01-01

    In order to meet the requirements of ISO 17025, the quantification of the expanded uncertainties of experimental data in the calibration of survey meters must be carried out using well defined concepts, like those expressed in the 'ISO-Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement'. The calibration procedure of gamma ray survey meters involves two values that have to get their uncertainties clearly known: measurements of the instrument under calibration and the conventional true values of a quantity. Considering the continuous improvement of the calibration methods and set-ups, it is necessary to evaluate periodically the involved uncertainties in the procedures. In this work it is shown how the measurement uncertainties of an individual calibration can be estimated and how it can be generalized to be valid for others radiation survey meters. (authors)

  1. Development of PIC-based digital survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Arymaswati Abdullah; Nur Aira Abdul Rahman; Mohd Ashhar Khalid; Taiman Kadni; Glam Hadzir Patai Mohamad; Abd Aziz Mhd Ramli; Chong Foh Yong

    2006-01-01

    The need of radiation monitoring and monitoring of radioactive contamination in the workplace is very important especially when x-ray machines, linear accelerators, electron beam machines and radioactive sources are present. The appropriate use of radiation detector is significant in order to maintain a radiation and contamination free workplace. This paper reports on the development of a prototype of PIC-based digital survey meter. This prototype of digital survey meter is a hand held instrument for general-purpose radiation monitoring and surface contamination meter. Generally, the device is able to detect some or all of the three major types of ionizing radiation, namely alpha, beta and gamma. It uses a Geiger-Muller tube as a radiation detector, which converts gamma radiation quanta to electric pulses and further processed by the electronic devices. The development involved the design of the controller, counter and high voltage circuit. All these circuit are assembled and enclosed in a plastic casing together with a GM detector and LCD display to form a prototype survey meter. The number of counts of the pulses detected by the survey meter varies due to the random nature of radioactivity. By averaging the reading over a time-period, more accurate and stable reading is achieved. To test the accuracy and the linearity of the design, the prototype was calibrated using standard procedure at the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) in MINT. (Author)

  2. Evaluation of methods to calibrate radiation survey meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.C.; Arbeau, N.D.

    1987-04-01

    Calibration requirements for radiation survey meters used in industrial radiography have been reviewed. Information obtained from a literature search, discussions with CSLD inspectors and firms performing calibrations has been considered. Based on this review a set of minimum calibration requirements was generated which, when met, will determine that the survey meter is suited for measurements described in the current AEC Regulations that apply to industrial radiography equipment. These requirements are presented in this report and may be used as guidelines for evaluating calibration methods proposed or in use in industry. 39 refs

  3. Determination for energy response and directionality of neutron survey meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Changmao; Liu Jinhua; Xie Jianlun; Su Jingling

    1992-01-01

    The energy response and directionality of neutron survey meter type MK7 and 2202D are determined. The reactor thermal column beam, reactor filtered beams (6 eV, 24.4 keV and 144 keV), 226 Ra-Be, 241 Am-Be, 252 Cf and its moderated sources are used for the measurement. The results shows: the survey meters are influenced obviously by the direction; the response of middle-energy region is large, the energy response of 2202D is better than MK7

  4. Wide Range Portable Radiation Survey Meter for Emergency Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangadharan, P.; Bhave, D. G.; Gokarn, R. S.; Khadake, R. G. [Directorate Of Radiation Protection, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Bombay (India)

    1969-05-15

    The paper describes a portable battery-operated radiation survey meter for monitoring a wide range of X- and gamma-ray exposure rates from 1 mR/h to 100 R/h. The instrument Incorporates a halogen GM tube as the detector and a count-rate meter for indication. A transistorized d.c. -d.c. converter supplies the necessary high voltage to the GM counter. The instrument response has been made energy independent in the energy range 80 keV to 1.25 MeV. Further, the response is linear over the entire range of exposure rates. Suitable extension rods have been designed to provide sufficient separation between the probe and the meter in cases where remote monitoring is necessary because of high fields. (author)

  5. Handheld Multi-Gas Meters Market Survey Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Gustavious [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Wald-Hopkins, Mark David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Obrey, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Akhadov, Valida Dushdurova [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-23

    Handheld multi-gas meters (MGMs) are equipped with sensors to monitor oxygen (O2) levels and additional sensors to detect the presence of combustible or toxic gases in the environment. This report is limited to operational response-type MGMs that include at least four different sensors. These sensors can vary by type and by the chemical monitored. In real time, the sensors report the concentration of monitored gases in the atmosphere near the MGM. To provide emergency responders with information on handheld multi-gas meters, the System Assessment and Validation for Emergency Responders (SAVER) Program conducted a market survey. This market survey report is based on information gathered between November 2015 and February 2016 from vendors, Internet research, industry publications, an emergency responder focus group, and a government issued Request for Information (RFI) that was posted on the Federal Business Opportunities website.

  6. Calibration for radiation protection survey meter SSM1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Hua.

    1992-03-01

    The calibration functions for the Radiation Protection Survey Meter SSM1 built-in Geiger Mueller measuring tubes of the type ZP 1201 (low dose rate tube) and ZP 1313 (high dose rate tube) are given in the present study. Six dose rate points are proposed as the calibration points of covering the range from 500 nSv/h up to 5 Sv/h. The difference between the true dose rate and the values calculated with the method in this paper for No. 382 SSM1 is less than ±2%. (author)

  7. Digital Survey Meter based on PIC16F628 Microcontroller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mohamad, A.; Shliwitt, J.

    2010-01-01

    A Digital Survey Meter based on PIC16F628 Microcontroller was designed using simple Geiger-Muller Counter ZP1320 made by Centronic in the UK as detector. The sensitivity of this tube is about 9 counts/s at 10μGy/h. It is sensitive to gamma and beta particles over 0.25 MeV. It has a sensitive length of 28mm. Count rate versus dose rate is quite linear up to about 10 4 counts/s. Indication is given by a speaker which emits one click for each count. In addition to the acoustic alarm, the meter works according one of three different measurement modes selected using appropriate 3 states switch: 1- Measurement of Dose rate ( in μGy/h) and counting rate ( in CPS) , for High counting rates. 2- Measurement of Dose rate ( in μGy/h) and counting rate ( in CPM), for Low counting rates. 3- Accumulated Counting with continues display for No. of Counts and Counting Time with a period of 2 Sec. The results are Displayed on an Alphanumerical LCD Display, and the circuit will give many hours of operation from a single 9V PP3 battery. The design of the circuit combines between accuracy, simplicity and low power consumption. We built 2 Models of this design, the first only with an internal detector, and the second is equipped with an External Detector. (author)

  8. Effects of the leakage magnetic field from an analog meter on the response of scintillation survey meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Hisao; Norimura, Toshiyuki; Katase, Akira

    2003-01-01

    Effects of the weak leakage magnetic field are studied on the response of two kinds of scintillation survey meters: an ordinary type for γ-rays and that optimized for the detection of low-energy photons from 125 I. In the presence of the magnetic field, the response of the optimized survey meter decreases to the photons from 125 I, and increases considerably to the background radiations. On the other hand, the response of the ordinary survey meter decreases slightly to both the γ-rays from 131 I and the background radiations. From analysis of the pulse-height spectra for the radiations, such variations of the response are ascribed to the reduction of the amplification factor of photomultiplier tubes by the magnetic field. (author)

  9. Design and Implementation of Wireless Energy Meter System for Monitoring the Single Phase Supply

    OpenAIRE

    U. V, Prashanth B.

    2013-01-01

    Wireless energy meter is a system developed to serve as a basic single-phase energy meter with advanced functionalities such as Peak hour setting, Peak load setting Wireless reading transmission; further the system eliminates the role of a Meter Reader.

  10. Production of plastic scintillation survey meter for clearance verification measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, Mitsuo; Shiraishi, Kunio; Ishigami, Tsutomu; Tomii, Hiroyuki

    2008-03-01

    In the Nuclear Science Research Institute, the decommissioning of various nuclear facilities is carried out according to the plan for meeting the midterm goal of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). An increase in the clearance verification measurement of concrete on buildings and the radiation measurement for releasing controlled areas will be expected along with the dismantlement of nuclear facilities in the future. The radiation measurement for releasing controlled areas has been carried out in small-scale nuclear facilities including the JPDR (Japan Power Demonstration Reactor). However, the radiation measurement with an existing measuring device was difficult in effects of radiation from radioactive materials that remains in buried piping. On the other hand, there is no experience that the clearance verification measurement is executed in the JAEA. The generation of a large amount of clearance object will be expected along with the decommissioning of the nuclear facilities in the future. The plastic scintillation survey meter (hereafter, 'PL measuring device') was produced to apply to the clearance verification measurement and the radiation measurement for releasing controlled areas. The basic characteristic test and the actual test were confirmed using the PL measuring device. As a result of these tests, it was found that the evaluation value of radioactivity with the PL measuring device was accuracy equal with the existing measuring device. The PL measuring device has feature of the existing measuring device with a light weight and easy operability. The PL measuring device can correct the gamma ray too. The PL measuring device is effective to the clearance verification measurement of concrete on buildings and the radiation measurement for releasing controlled areas. (author)

  11. Instrument evaluation no. 33. Automess Szintomat 6134 radiation survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, D.R.

    1986-04-01

    The various radiations encountered in radiological protection cover a wide range of energies and radiation measurements have to be carried out under an equally broad spectrum of environmental conditions. This report is one of a series intended to give information on the performance characteristics of radiological protection instruments, to assist in the selection of appropriate instruments for a given purpose, to interpret the results obtained with such instruments, and, in particular, to know the likely sources and magnitude of errors that might be associated with measurements in the field. The radiation, electrical and environmental characteristics of radiation protection instruments are considered together with those aspects of the construction which make an instrument convenient for routine use. To provide consistent criteria for instrument performance, the range of tests performed on any particular class of instrument, the test methods and the criteria of acceptable performance are based broadly on the appropriate Recommendations of the International Electrotechnical Commission. The radiations in the tests are, in general, selected from the range of reference radiations for instrument calibration being drawn up by the International Standards Organisation. Normally, each report deals with the capabilities and limitations of one model of instrument and no direct comparison with other instruments intended for similar purposes is made, since the significance of particular performance characteristics largely depends on the radiations and environmental conditions in which the instrument is to be used. The results quoted here have all been obtained from tests on instruments in routine production, with the appropriate measurements being made by the NRPB. This instrument evaluation report deals with the Automess Szintomat 6134 Radiation Survey Meter

  12. One-Meter Class Drilling for Planetary Exploration, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the proposed effort is to understand and characterize the fundamental limitations of drilling one to three meters into challenging materials which may...

  13. Lightweight Thermally Stable Multi-Meter Aperture Submillimeter Reflectors, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Phase II effort will be an affordable demonstrated full-scale design for a thermally stable multi-meter submillimeter reflector. The Phase I...

  14. Study on method of dose estimation for the Dual-moderated neutron survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Bo; Li, Taosheng; Xu, Yuhai; Gong, Cunkui; Yan, Qiang; Li, Lei

    2013-01-01

    In order to study neutron dose measurement in high energy radiation field, a Dual-moderated survey meter in the range from 1 keV to 300 MeV mean energies spectra has been developed. Measurement results of some survey meters depend on the neutron spectra characteristics in different neutron radiation fields, so the characteristics of the responses to various neutron spectra should be studied in order to get more reasonable dose. In this paper the responses of the survey meter were calculated under different neutron spectra data from IAEA of Technical Reports Series No. 318 and other references. Finally one dose estimation method was determined. The range of the reading per H*(10) for the method estimated is about 0.7–1.6 for the neutron mean energy range from 50 keV to 300 MeV. -- Highlights: • We studied a novel high energy neutron survey meter. • Response characteristics of the survey meter were calculated by using a series of neutron spectra. • One significant advantage of the survey meter is that it can provide mean energy of radiation field. • Dose estimate deviation can be corrected. • The range of corrected reading per H*(10) is about 0.7–1.6 for the neutron fluence mean energy range from 0.05 MeV to 300 MeV

  15. Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport utilities metering, Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, D.M.

    1992-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed this report for the US Navy`s Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport, Rhode Island (NUWC). The purpose of the report was to review options for metering electricity and steam used in the NUWC compound, and to make recommendations to NUWC for implementation under a follow-on project. An additional NUWC concern is a proposed rate change by the servicing utility, Newport Electric, which would make a significant shift from consumption to demand billing, and what effect that rate change would have on the NUWC utility budget. Automated, remote reading meters are available which would allow NUWC to monitor its actual utility consumption and demand for both the entire NUWC compound and by end-use in individual buildings. Technology is available to perform the meter reads and manipulate the data using a personal computer with minimal staff requirement. This is not meant to mislead the reader into assuming that there is no requirement for routine preventive maintenance. All equipment requires routine maintenance to maintain its accuracy. While PNL reviewed the data collected during the site visit, however, it became obvious that significant opportunities exist for reducing the utility costs other than accounting for actual consumption and demand. Unit costs for both steam and electricity are unnecessarily high, and options are presented in this report for reducing them. Additionally, NUWC has an opportunity to undertake a comprehensive energy resource management program to significantly reduce its energy demand, consumption, and costs.

  16. Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport utilities metering, Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, D.M.

    1992-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed this report for the US Navy's Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport, Rhode Island (NUWC). The purpose of the report was to review options for metering electricity and steam used in the NUWC compound, and to make recommendations to NUWC for implementation under a follow-on project. An additional NUWC concern is a proposed rate change by the servicing utility, Newport Electric, which would make a significant shift from consumption to demand billing, and what effect that rate change would have on the NUWC utility budget. Automated, remote reading meters are available which would allow NUWC to monitor its actual utility consumption and demand for both the entire NUWC compound and by end-use in individual buildings. Technology is available to perform the meter reads and manipulate the data using a personal computer with minimal staff requirement. This is not meant to mislead the reader into assuming that there is no requirement for routine preventive maintenance. All equipment requires routine maintenance to maintain its accuracy. While PNL reviewed the data collected during the site visit, however, it became obvious that significant opportunities exist for reducing the utility costs other than accounting for actual consumption and demand. Unit costs for both steam and electricity are unnecessarily high, and options are presented in this report for reducing them. Additionally, NUWC has an opportunity to undertake a comprehensive energy resource management program to significantly reduce its energy demand, consumption, and costs.

  17. The 3R-WL working level survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiager, K.J.

    1977-01-01

    The design and operation of a direct-reading sampler for airborne radon progeny are described. The instrument was designed for use by ventilation personnel in uranium mines and is small, rugged, light-weight and easily carried and operated. Direct readout of the radon progeny concentration in units of working levels, in the range 0.01 - 10 WL, is accomplished by counting the alpha particles from 218 Po and 214 Po with a single detector and two energy discrimination channels. Unique features include a fixed-volume, gravity-operated pump requiring no power source and minimal calibration; automatic delay, counting and display sequencing; capacity for more than 50 samples on a single roll of membrane filter; and provisions for recording all data directly on the filter tape. For the prototype as built, calibration against the 2-count alpha spectroscopy method of measuring WL indicated an average error of less than 1% in the range from 0.25 to 25 WL. However, the standard deviation of measurements made with the 3R-WL meter increased from 7% above 10 WL to 71% at 0.25 WL. Sources of error and variability are analyzed and suggestions for improving the precision of the measurements are included. (author)

  18. Characteristic tests of ionization chamber and GM counter survey meters for beta-rays, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suga, Shin-ichi; Bingo, Kazuyoshi; Kajimoto, Yoichi

    1979-03-01

    To estimate a beta-ray absorbed dose rate of contaminated skin, measurements were done twice by a survey meter without and with a filter, keeping the distance from the contaminated skin surface to the survey meter at 10 mm. The absorbed dose rate was obtained multiplying a net reading (equals a reading of survey meter's indicator measured without the filter minus that measured with the filter) by a multiplying factor. Calibrations were made with reference plane sources of natural uranium, 198 Au and 204 Tl, varying their area. The five types of ionization chamber survey meters had nearly same multiplying factors when the diameter of source was larger than the diameter of the chamber cylinder. Estimation of the absorbed doses due to beta-emitting nuclides was possible when the measured value without filter was larger by 20% or more than that of with filter. In the case of small sources, the multiplying factor varied significantly with area of the source. The multiplying factors agreed within +-30% in the respective types i.e. manufacturers and in maximum beta-ray energies from 0.7 up to 2.5 MeV. In the source to detector distance of 1 cm +-0.2 cm, the multiplying factor varied within +-20%. The multiplying factor of a GM counter survey meter varied with beta-ray energy, the multiplying factor for uranium was 1/3 that of 204 Tl. (author)

  19. High Temperature, High Frequency Fuel Metering Valve, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Active Signal Technologies and its subcontractor Moog propose to develop a high-frequency actuator driven valve intended to achieve TRL 6 by the end of Phase II....

  20. A wide range survey meter for estimating γ- and β-dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A.R.

    1980-09-01

    A survey meter has been developed to measure β-dose rates in the range 0.1 - 100 rad/h (1 mGy/h - 1 Gy/h) and γ-dose rates in the range 1 mrad/h - 100 rad/h (10 μGy/h-1 Gy/h). It also provides an audible warning of high γ-dose rates and an audible and visible warning when a predetermined γ-dose is exceeded. The report describes the design of the survey meter and presents data measured on the performance of an engineering prototype. Factors which affect performance and have been investigated are temperature, battery voltage (and type of battery), GM counter counting loss, direction of incident radiation, and energy of γ-rays. Finally, the application and calibration of the survey meter are discussed. (auth)

  1. β-ray scintillation survey meter for small-sized pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamano, Toshiya; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Yoshida, Yoshiteru; Higashidate, Takamichi; Yonemura, Kenji; Fujita, Michio.

    1990-01-01

    The outer surface of the small-sized pipes used as scaffolding is measured by beta/gamma survey meter when they are carried out from the controlled area in nuclear facilities. But, the measurement of the radioactive contamination on the inner surface, when it is needed, is done indirectly using the smear method. To improve these vexatious works, Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. and Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc. jointly developed a beta-ray scintillation survey meter which, when inserted directly into pipes, can detect radioactive contamination on the inner surface. This detector is made of cylindrical plastic scintillator and it can measure low energy beta-ray by using the coincidence method which reduces random noise. A field test carried out with this prototype survey meter brought favorable results for designing its final version. (author)

  2. Design and construction of two phases flow meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Paiza Mohamad Hasan

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with design of the gamma ray correlometer and flow loop system for measuring the velocity between two parallel cross-sections of a pipeline. In the laboratory, the radioisotope source and detector were collimated by brass with small beam slit respectively. The flow loop system consists of transparent pipeline, adjustable frequency pump and water container. As a result, when the construction of the flow loop and correlometer is completed, the velocity of two phases flow can be measured by the cross-correlation techniques. (Author)

  3. Measurement of radon concentration in water using the portable radon survey meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, S; Mori, N; Shimo, M; Fukushi, M; Ohnuma, S

    2011-07-01

    A measurement method for measuring radon in water using the portable radon survey meter (RnSM) was developed. The container with propeller was used to stir the water samples and release radon from the water into the air in a sample box of the RnSM. In this method, the measurement of error would be water was >20 Bq l(-1).

  4. Operational problems with radiation survey meters - The University and Accelerator perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCall, R.C.

    1984-06-01

    This article describes problems encountered with commercial survey meters. The desired qualities of such instruments for use around accelerators are listed. Attempts to meet the accelerator monitoring needs by modifying commercial instruments and by in-house research and development are described

  5. Design and development of a digital phase ratio meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majee, B C [Reactor Control Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Roy, S B; Meghal, A M [Uranium Extraction Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    Uranium purification at Uranium Metal Plant is being carried out using solvent extraction process. The feed is aqueous uranyl nitrate solution with 2-4% insoluble silica particles. The solvent is tri-butyl phosphate diluted with commercial grade kerosene. Extraction is conducted in a slurry extractor equipment using compressed air as mixing and solution-interstage transferring medium. To ensure the organic continuous mode in the mixer and to avoid stable emulsion formation, organic to aqueous ratio maintained in each mixer is 10 to 12 whereas optimum extraction process requires an overall organic to aqueous ratio of 2. Therefore, a high volume of internal recirculation of organic is being arranged by the air-lift in mixers. For a smooth, continuous efficient extraction, mixer organic to aqueous ratio is a very critical parameter and it is required to be monitored periodically to take corrective actions during the operation by controlling the compressed air flow rate. Trials were conducted to select a suitable method of autocontrol of this phase ratio and a system has been designed for this purpose. (author). 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Real Time Phase Noise Meter Based on a Digital Signal Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrisani, Leopoldo; D'Arco, Mauro; Greenhall, Charles A.; Schiano Lo Morille, Rosario

    2006-01-01

    A digital signal-processing meter for phase noise measurement on sinusoidal signals is dealt with. It enlists a special hardware architecture, made up of a core digital signal processor connected to a data acquisition board, and takes advantage of a quadrature demodulation-based measurement scheme, already proposed by the authors. Thanks to an efficient measurement process and an optimized implementation of its fundamental stages, the proposed meter succeeds in exploiting all hardware resources in such an effective way as to gain high performance and real-time operation. For input frequencies up to some hundreds of kilohertz, the meter is capable both of updating phase noise power spectrum while seamlessly capturing the analyzed signal into its memory, and granting as good frequency resolution as few units of hertz.

  7. Calibration and evaluation of neutron survey meters used at linac facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, A.P. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria - IRD, Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, CEP 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Pereira, W.W., E-mail: walsan@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria - IRD, Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, CEP 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Fonseca, E.S. da; Patrao, K.C.S. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria - IRD, Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, CEP 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Batista, D.V.S. [Instituto Nacional do Cancer - INCa, Praca Cruz Vermelha, 23 - centro, CEP 20230-130 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2010-12-15

    Calibrated survey meters from the Neutron Laboratory of the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD) were used to determine the ambient dose-equivalent rate in a 15 MV linear accelerator treatment room at the Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCa). Three different models of neutron survey meters were calibrated using four neutron radionuclide neutron sources: {sup 241}AmBe({alpha},n), {sup 252}Cf(f,n), heavy-water moderated {sup 252}Cf(f,n), and {sup 238}PuBe({alpha},n). All neutron sources were standardized in a Manganese Sulphate Bath (MSB) absolute primary system. The response of each of these instruments was compared with reference values of ambient dose-equivalent rate. The results demonstrate the complexity of making measurements in the mixed neutron/photon field produced in electron linear accelerator radiotherapy treatment rooms.

  8. Two survey meters for measuring low γ-ray dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    Two low-level survey meters have been developed which have numerical displays. The first is of the light-emitting diode (LED) type. The second is a liquid crystal display (LCD). The design of both instruments is described and results of measurements of performance are presented. They measure γ dose rates from background up to 2 mrad/h (20 μGy/h) for γ-rays in the energy range 0.05-1.25 MeV. They can be used at temperatures between -20 deg C and +50 deg C. Statistical accuracy and battery life both depend upon a number of factors and this dependence is shown. A later section describes the intended application of the survey meters. An appendix describes the circuit adjustments which are necessary and when they must be made. (author)

  9. Borehole Gravity Meter Surveys at the Waste Treatment Plant, Hanford, Washington.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Jeffrey D.; Mann, Ethan

    2007-04-06

    Microg-LaCoste (MGL) was contracted by Pacfic Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) to record borehole gravity density data in 3 wells at the HanfordWaste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The survey was designed to provide highly accurate density information for use in seismic modeling. The borehole gravity meter (BHGM) tool has a very large depth of investigation (hundreds of feet) compared to other density tools so it is not influenced by casing or near welbore effects, such as washouts.

  10. A study of the responses of neutron dose equivalent survey meters with computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, D.E.; Beer, G.P. de

    1983-01-01

    The ANISN and DOT discrete-ordinates radiation transport codes for one and two dimensions have been proved as effective and simple techniques to study the response of dose equivalent neutron detectors. Comparisons between results of an experimental calibration of the Harwell 95/0075 survey meter and calculated results rendered satisfactory agreement, considering the different techniques and sources of error involved. Possible improvements in the methods and designs and causes of error are discussed. (author)

  11. Response of six neutron survey meters in mixed fields of fast and thermal neutrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S I; Kim, B H; Chang, I; Lee, J I; Kim, J L; Pradhan, A S

    2013-10-01

    Calibration neutron fields have been developed at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) to study the responses of commonly used neutron survey meters in the presence of fast neutrons of energy around 10 MeV. The neutron fields were produced by using neutrons from the (241)Am-Be sources held in a graphite pile and a DT neutron generator. The spectral details and the ambient dose equivalent rates of the calibration fields were established, and the responses of six neutron survey meters were evaluated. Four single-moderator-based survey meters exhibited an under-responses ranging from ∼9 to 55 %. DINEUTRUN, commonly used in fields around nuclear reactors, exhibited an over-response by a factor of three in the thermal neutron field and an under-response of ∼85 % in the mixed fields. REM-500 (tissue-equivalent proportional counter) exhibited a response close to 1.0 in the fast neutron fields and an under-response of ∼50 % in the thermal neutron field.

  12. Application of a background-compensated Geiger-Mueller counter to a survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, C.; Kumanomido, H.; Watanabe, T.

    1984-01-01

    A background-compensated Geiger-Mueller counter was used as a probe for a GM survey meter to obtain a net count rate of β-rays from a radioactive source in a quick survey. Although a background counting ratio between the two parts in the counter, front and rear, varied somewhat depending on the incident direction of background γ-rays, it was possible to compensate the background counts by subtracting a part of the rear counts, which were background counts, from the front counts, which contained β-ray counts and background counts. Undesirable small pulses generated during the recovering time after a full Geiger discharge were eliminated by an anticoincidence gating method. The survey meter with this counter and a differential ratemeter is useful for obtaining a net count rate of β-rays emitted from a surface radioactive-contamination or from a source being put near the window of the counter with nearly the same accuracy in half the measuring time as compared with conventional GM counters. (orig.)

  13. Calibration of a radiation survey meter using Cs-137 gamma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, R. O.

    2005-07-01

    The survey instrument smartIon was calibrated at the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory, Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, in terms of kerma, free in air using Cs-137 gamma radiation. All the calibrations were performed using the reference instrument spherical ionization chamber LS-01. This reference instrument has been calibrated at the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna for x-rays, 137 Cs and 60 Co gamma radiation. The air kerma calibration factors for the instrument were determined as the ratio of the dose rates obtained with the reference standard chamber LS-01 and the dose rates of the instrument under calibration. The uncertainties for the survey meter smartIon and another survey meter RADOS were obtained and the results compared with the uncertainty for the reference standard chamber. Also, the values of dose rates were obtained for various angles of the incident beam, by changing the angle by which the radiation was incident on the sensitive point of the instrument.(Author)

  14. A review of neutron scattering correction for the calibration of neutron survey meters using the shadow cone method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang In; Kim, Bong Hwan; Kim, Jang Lyul; Lee, Jung Il [Health Physics Team, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The calibration methods of neutron-measuring devices such as the neutron survey meter have advantages and disadvantages. To compare the calibration factors obtained by the shadow cone method and semi-empirical method, 10 neutron survey meters of five different types were used in this study. This experiment was performed at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI; Daejeon, South Korea), and the calibration neutron fields were constructed using a {sup 252}Californium ({sup 252}Cf) neutron source, which was positioned in the center of the neutron irradiation room. The neutron spectra of the calibration neutron fields were measured by a europium-activated lithium iodide scintillator in combination with KAERI's Bonner sphere system. When the shadow cone method was used, 10 single moderator-based survey meters exhibited a smaller calibration factor by as much as 3.1 - 9.3% than that of the semi-empirical method. This finding indicates that neutron survey meters underestimated the scattered neutrons and attenuated neutrons (i.e., the total scatter corrections). This underestimation of the calibration factor was attributed to the fact that single moderator-based survey meters have an under-ambient dose equivalent response in the thermal or thermal-dominant neutron field. As a result, when the shadow cone method is used for a single moderator-based survey meter, an additional correction and the International Organization for Standardization standard 8529-2 for room-scattered neutrons should be considered.

  15. A review of neutron scattering correction for the calibration of neutron survey meters using the shadow cone method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang In; Kim, Bong Hwan; Kim, Jang Lyul; Lee, Jung Il

    2015-01-01

    The calibration methods of neutron-measuring devices such as the neutron survey meter have advantages and disadvantages. To compare the calibration factors obtained by the shadow cone method and semi-empirical method, 10 neutron survey meters of five different types were used in this study. This experiment was performed at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI; Daejeon, South Korea), and the calibration neutron fields were constructed using a 252 Californium ( 252 Cf) neutron source, which was positioned in the center of the neutron irradiation room. The neutron spectra of the calibration neutron fields were measured by a europium-activated lithium iodide scintillator in combination with KAERI's Bonner sphere system. When the shadow cone method was used, 10 single moderator-based survey meters exhibited a smaller calibration factor by as much as 3.1 - 9.3% than that of the semi-empirical method. This finding indicates that neutron survey meters underestimated the scattered neutrons and attenuated neutrons (i.e., the total scatter corrections). This underestimation of the calibration factor was attributed to the fact that single moderator-based survey meters have an under-ambient dose equivalent response in the thermal or thermal-dominant neutron field. As a result, when the shadow cone method is used for a single moderator-based survey meter, an additional correction and the International Organization for Standardization standard 8529-2 for room-scattered neutrons should be considered

  16. User's guide for survey-meter- and film-badge-dosimetry data bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, W.G.; Sherman, S.; Young, R.

    1981-05-01

    This manual describes the data storage and retrieval system designed by Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory Las Vegas (EMSL-LV) for radiation exposure data recorded in offsite areas during and after nuclear weapons tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site in the 1950's and early 1960's. Referred to hereinafter as the EMSL-LV system, this system contains two distinct subsets of offsite radiological measurements collected during early nuclear atmospheric tests at the Nevada Test Site. The purpose of the manual is to present the methods for using the EMSL-LV system to examine all or any portion of either data subset. The two distinct subsets which comprise the EMSL-LV system are survey meter data and film badge dosimetry data. The survey meter data consist of readings obtained from portable radiation monitoring instruments used around the Nevada Test Site during the 1950's and early 1960's to measure radiation exposure rates resulting from the nuclear testing program. The dosimetry data consist of measurements of integrated radiation exposure made with film badge type dosimeters in areas surrounding the Nevada Test Site

  17. Three-channel phase meters based on the AD8302 and field programmable gate arrays for heterodyne millimeter wave interferometer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Varavin, A.V.; Ermak, G.P.; Vasiliev, A.S.; Fateev, A.V.; Varavin, Mykyta; Žáček, František; Zajac, Jaromír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 11 (2016), s. 1009-1025 ISSN 0040-2508 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : AD8302 * Interferometer * Millimeter wave * Phase meter * Programmable gate array * Tokamak Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  18. Impedance void-meter and neural networks for vertical two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mi, Y.; Li, M.; Xiao, Z.; Tsoukalas, L.H.; Ishii, M.

    1998-01-01

    Most two-phase flow measurements, including void fraction measurements, depend on correct flow regime identification. There are two steps towards successful identification of flow regimes: one is to develop a non-intrusive instrument to demonstrate area-averaged void fluctuations, the other to develop a non-linear mapping approach to perform objective identification of flow regimes. A non-intrusive impedance void-meter provides input signals to a neural mapping approach used to identify flow regimes. After training, both supervised and self-organizing neural network learning paradigms performed flow regime identification successfully. The methodology presented holds considerable promise for multiphase flow diagnostic and measurement applications. (author)

  19. Applications of Pitot-meter techniques in two-phase, steam/water, flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastner, W.; Manzano-Ruiz, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    A simple technique, based on the interpretation of dynamic-pressure readings obtained with local and averaging Pitot-meters (APM) in tow-phase flow, is described and analyzed. The mean dynamic-pressure measurements obtained with an APM allow the calculation of the mass flux of the mixture if the steam quality is known and a combination of two slip-factor correlations is used. The local dynamic-pressure measurements with a multiple Pitot-probe technique provide information on the transition between the most commonly found flow patterns in horizontal piping, i.e. stratified, annular and annular-mist flow

  20. Coordination and propulsion and non-propulsion phases in 100 meter breaststroke swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzała, Marek; Krężałek, Piotr; Kucia-Czyszczoń, Katarzyna; Ostrowski, Andrzej; Stanula, Arkadiusz; Tyka, Anna K; Sagalara, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to analyze the coordination, propulsion and non-propulsion phases in the 100 meter breaststroke race. Twenty-seven male swimmers (15.7 ± 1.98 years old) with the total body length (TBL) of 247.0 ± 10.60 [cm] performed an all-out 100 m breaststroke bout. The bouts were recorded with an underwater camera installed on a portable trolley. The swimming kinematic parameters, stroke rate (SR) and stroke length (SL), as well as the coordination indices based on propulsive or non-propulsive movement phases of the arms and legs were distinguished. Swimming speed (V100surface breast) was associated with SL (R = 0.41, p study were measured using partial correlations with controlled age. SL interplayed negatively with the limbs propulsive phase Overlap indicator (R = -0.46, p propulsion Glide indicator. The propulsion in-sweep (AP3) phase of arms and their non-propulsion partial air recovery (ARair) phase interplayed with V100surface breast (R = 0.51, p < 0.05 and 0.48 p < 0.05) respectively, displaying the importance of proper execution of this phase (AP3) and in reducing the resistance recovery phases in consecutive ones.

  1. Investigation of the mixture flow rates of oil-water two-phase flow using the turbine flow meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Donghui; Feng Feifei; Wu Yingxiang; Xu Jingyu

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the mixture flow rate of oil-water flows was studied using the turbine flow-meter. The research emphasis focuses on the effect of oil viscosity and input fluids flow rates on the precision of the meter. Experiments were conducted to measure the in-situ mixture flow rate in a horizontal pipe with 0.05m diameter using seven different viscosities of white oil and tap water as liquid phases. Results showed that both oil viscosity and input oil fraction exert a remarkable effect on measured results, especially when the viscosity of oil phase remained in the area of high value. In addition, for metering mixture flow rate using turbine flow-meter, the results are not sensitive to two-phase flow pattern according to the experimental data.

  2. Borehole gravity meter survey in drill hole USW G-4, Yucca Mountain Area, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healey, D.L.; Clutsom, F.G.; Glover, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Drill hole USW G-4 was logged with the US Geological Survey borehole gravity meter (BHGM) BH-6 as part of a detailed study of the lithostratigraphic units penetrated by this hole. Because the BHGM measures a larger volume of rock than the conventional gamma-gamma density tool, it provides an independent and more accurate measurement of the in situ average bulk density of thick lithologic units. USW G-4 is an especially important hole because of its proximity to the proposed exploratory shaft at Yucca Mountain. The BHGM data were reduced to interval densities using a free-air gradient (F) of 0.3083 mGal./m (0.09397 mGal/ft) measured at the drill site. The interval densities were further improved by employing an instrument correction factor of 1.00226. This factor was determined from measurements obtained by taking gravity meter BH-6 over the Charleston Peak calibration loop. The interval density data reported herein, should be helpful for planning the construction of the proposed shaft

  3. Instrument evaluation no. 5. Wallac OY universal radiation survey meter type RD-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.F.; Blundell, D.R.; Callowhill, K.; Iles, W.J.

    1976-05-01

    The Wallace RD-8 is a portable, battery-operated survey meter covering an exposure rate range from 0.01 mR/h to 300 R/h. The instrument was designed specifically for military and civil defence applications and is accordingly of particularly rugged construction and claimed to be both waterproof and shockproof. This instrument is unusual in that it has two internally mounted radiation detectors. An end-window GM tube is used to cover the range from 0.01 to 300 mR/h, and a GM tube covers the range from 0.01 to 300 R/h. Both tubes have energy compensation sheaths for the measurement of photon radiation in the forward direction. Only the first tube permits the measurement of β-radiation. The information is given under the following headings; Facilities and controls; radiation characteristics; electrical characteristics; environmental characteristics; mechanical characteristics; summary of performance; calibration procedure; conclusions. (U.K.)

  4. Double ionization chamber survey meter for the separate measurement of penetrating and non-penetrating dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    The full capabilities of an advanced 8-bit microprocessor have been utilized in construction of a wide range, multiplexing survey meter based on dual electrometers and ionization chambers. The ionization chambers are constructed of modular conducting and non-conducting parts in such a way that the angular dependence for measurement of beta radiation is controlled by design. Display functions for the high range instrument include logarithmic or linear analog display, digital display of rate or dose, SI or English units, optionally for either total, penetrating, or non-penetrating dose. The instrument is presently configured to operate in the range 0.1 R/hr to 50,000 R/hr in support of the requirements of Regulatory Guide 19.7

  5. A neutron survey meter with sensitivity extended up to 400 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birattari, C.; Silari, M.

    1992-01-01

    The well-known Andersson-Braun rem counter is widely employed for radiation protection purposes, but its efficiency shows a marked decrease for neutron energies above about 10 MeV. Since the availability of a survey meter with a good sensitivity to higher energies can be very useful, for instance, at many particle accelerator facilities, a neutron monitor with a response function extended up to 400 MeV has been achieved by modifying the structure of the moderator-attenuator of a commercial instrument. The first experimental tests carried out to verify the response of the new monitor both to low and high energy neutrons are reported. A comparison with the response function of three conventional commercial rem counters is presented. (author)

  6. Establishment of a procedure to calculate the measurement uncertainties in radiation survey meters calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzoli, J.E.; Potiens, M.P.A.

    2000-01-01

    The Calibration Laboratory of Sao Paulo calibrates more than one thousand gamma ray survey meters a year; beside other kinds of radiotherapy, radiodiagnostic and radiation protection instruments. It has a standard (600 cm 3 ) cylinder ionization chamber (Nuclear Enterprises Ltd. model 2511/3) traceable to the Brazilian Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) whose instruments are traceable to the BIPM. Annually the beam dosimetry is performed using this chamber and the results are used as the true values for calibration purposes. The uncertainties present in every direct or indirect measurement during the calibration procedure must be evaluated for purposes of laboratory quality control. All calculation steps in the propagation of errors are presented in this work staging from the ionization chamber charge measured with the standard instrument. Such a propagation was made in space and time, considering even the environmental quantities uncertainties. The propagation was necessary in space, because the ionization chamber measurements were performed at only one space position. The time propagation was essential due to the fact that the activity is a peculiar physical quantity which changes with time according to precise relations for a specific radionuclide. The clear indication of every measurement uncertainty is always important to quantify the quality of this measurement. Nowadays the achievement of calibration laboratory quality systems requires the expression of all uncertainties and the procedure used to evaluate it. An example of this procedure in the case of the calibration of a typical portable radiation survey meter is presented. The direct exposure rate instrument measurement was compared with the true value given by the standard instrument properly propagated and all quantities used have their uncertainties shown. (author)

  7. Application of ranging technique of radar level meter for draft survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHEN Yijun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] This paper aims to solve the problems of the high subjectivity and low accuracy and efficiency of draft surveying relying on human visual inspection.[Methods] Radar-level oil and liquid measurement technology products are widely used in the petrochemical industry. A device is developed that uses radar to survey the draft of a boat, designed with data series optimization formulae to ensure that the data results are true and correct. At the same time, a test is designed to prove the accuracy of the results.[Results] According to the conditions of the ship,the device is composed of a radar sensor, triangular bracket and display,and is put to use in the test.[Conclusions] With 15 vessels as the research objects,the comparison experiment shows a difference in range between 0.001-0.022 meters, with an average difference rate of 0.028%, which meets the requirements for ship draft survey accuracy.

  8. Survey of Regulatory and Technological Developments Concerning Smart Metering in the European Union Electricity Market

    OpenAIRE

    VASCONCELOS, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Smart metering is a crucial factor for the efficient functioning of the Internal Electricity Market, as well as for the successful implementation of European Union policies related to energy efficiency, renewable energy and security of supply. The report first outlines the potential benefits of smart meters for consumers, suppliers, metering companies, distribution network operators and public interest. Next the report provides a short overview of the legal framework governing metering activi...

  9. Alpha particle response for a prototype radiation survey meter based on poly(ethylene terephthalate) with un-doping fluorescent guest molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Philip; Nakamura, Hidehito; Sato, Nobuhiro; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Maki, Daisuke; Kanayama, Masaya; Takahashi, Sentaro; Kitamura, Hisashi; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    There is no radiation survey meter that can discriminate among alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma-rays with one material. Previously, undoped poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) has been shown to be an effective material for beta particle and gamma-ray detection. Here, we demonstrate a prototype survey meter for alpha particles based on undoped PET. A 140 × 72 × 1-mm PET substrate was fabricated with mirrored surfaces. It was incorporated in a unique detection section of the survey meter that directly detects alpha particles. The prototype exhibited an unambiguous response to alpha particles from a 241 Am radioactive source. These results demonstrate that undoped PET can perform well in survey meters for alpha particle detection. Overall, the PET-based survey meter has the potential to detect multiple types of radiation, and will spawn an unprecedented type of radiation survey meter based on undoped aromatic ring polymers. (author)

  10. Advanced Metering Infrastructure based on Smart Meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi

    By specifically designating penetrations rates of advanced meters and communication technologies, devices and systems, this paper introduces that the penetration of advanced metering is important for the future development of electric power system infrastructure. It examines the state of the technology and the economical benefits of advanced metering. One result of the survey is that advanced metering currently has a penetration of about six percent of total installed electric meters in the United States. Applications to the infrastructure differ by type of organization. Being integrated with emerging communication technologies, smart meters enable several kinds of features such as, not only automatic meter reading but also distribution management control, outage management, remote switching, etc.

  11. FY 1998 survey report. Petroleum substituting energy metering analysis survey; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Sekiyu daitai energy keiryo bunseki chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In this survey, metering models in the Asian/Pacific region where energy demand is rapidly increasing were constructed which are used for the comprehensive analysis of the relations between changes in social structure such as economic growth, change in industrial structure, and progress in energy conservation technology and new energy technology, and the energy supply/demand structure. The survey was carried out aiming at contributing to the international development of Japan's energy policy in future by quantitatively analyzing/evaluating influences of various energy policies/economic policies on the economy and energy supply/demand, through various kinds of simulation models. In FY 1998, information collection for modeling was made in China and Korea out of the Asian/Pacific region. At the same time, pilot models were constructed, and simulation was made for the standard case. Moreover, an analysis was conducted of the relation between economic growth and motorization in each country of the world as the basic data preparation on energy consumption in the transportation sector. (NEDO)

  12. FY 1998 survey report. Petroleum substituting energy metering analysis survey; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Sekiyu daitai energy keiryo bunseki chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In this survey, metering models in the Asian/Pacific region where energy demand is rapidly increasing were constructed which are used for the comprehensive analysis of the relations between changes in social structure such as economic growth, change in industrial structure, and progress in energy conservation technology and new energy technology, and the energy supply/demand structure. The survey was carried out aiming at contributing to the international development of Japan's energy policy in future by quantitatively analyzing/evaluating influences of various energy policies/economic policies on the economy and energy supply/demand, through various kinds of simulation models. In FY 1998, information collection for modeling was made in China and Korea out of the Asian/Pacific region. At the same time, pilot models were constructed, and simulation was made for the standard case. Moreover, an analysis was conducted of the relation between economic growth and motorization in each country of the world as the basic data preparation on energy consumption in the transportation sector. (NEDO)

  13. Examination of the long-term stability of radiation survey meters and electronic pocket dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chida, K.; Nishimura, Y.; Sato, Y.; Endo, A.; Sakamoto, M.; Hoshi, C.; Zuguchi, M.

    2008-01-01

    To describe the stability of radiation survey meters (RSMs) and electronic pocket dosemeters (EPDs), we examined 28 EPDs and 24 RSMs: 12 used NaI(Tl) scintillation RSMs and 12 used Geiger-Muller (GM) RSMs. We used simple methods for the relative calibration of the 24 RSMs and 28 EPDs. The RSM and EPD measurements were compared with a calibrated RSM and EPD (reference: traceable from the national standard of exposure) using a homemade measurement device to maintain the reproducibility of the measurements with reference radiation sources (i.e. 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 67 Ga). The response of RSMs and EPDs, especially after prolonged use, should be checked periodically. In particular, GMRSMs that have been in use for many years have very low sensitivity and poor reproducibility. Our simple method for the relative calibration of RSMs and EPDs was shown to be effective for quality assurance purposes in checking RSMs and EPDs. We recommend regular checks and calibration for sustained performance of RSMs and EPDs. (authors)

  14. Development of a hotspot detector with an acrylic filter and dose rate survey meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki; Yamano, Toshiya; Kobayashi, Yusuke; Hara, Masaki

    2013-01-01

    Fukushima and adjacent regions still have a large number of high dose rate areas called hotspots. It is necessary to know these hotspots for efficient decontamination of radioactive substances such as 137 Cs and for relief of residents coming home. To find the hotspots rapidly, we have to specify the direction of the area where the dose rate is at least 1μSv/h higher than those of surroundings. We have developed a detector that consists of an acrylic filter and three NaI(Tl) scintillation survey meters, and the detector can be expected to indicate the direction of the hotspot in the short time. A basic performance of the detector was examined by using acrylic filters of 10, 15, 20 and 25cm diameter and a tiny sealed 137 Cs source of 3 MBq as the alternative of a hotspot. It demonstrated the possibility of identifying the direction of γ-rays emitted from the source in 90 seconds. (author)

  15. Neutron dosimeters and survey meters in accelerators, reactors and other neutron environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    Neutron fields in occupationally accessible areas around nuclear reactors, radioisotope sources and medical and high energy accelerators have been characterized using currently available information. Neutron, rem meters, such as the Leake detector, are the most suitable instruments available for conducting neutron dose rate surveys in the vicinity of radioisotope neutron sources, nuclear reactors and medical accelerators. However, these instruments have been shown to be deficient in that they overrespond by a factor of four to neutrons in the 0.1 to 1 MeV range and are insensitive to neutrons from about 1 eV up to about 10 keV. Also, they are insensitive to neutrons above 20 MeV and their use must be restricted near high energy accelerators where significant numbers of neutrons above 20 MeV are known to be present. The most suitable instrument of measure dose from neutrons above 20 MeV is the 12 C(n,2n) 11 C scintillation chamber. Commercially available rem meters frequently use BF 3 counters in the pulse mode to detect thermal neutrons. Therefore, measurements around pulsed accelerators must be made with caution to ensure that the detector is not saturated during each pulse and that the accelerator pulse period is greater than the response time of the detector. The personal neutron dosimeters currently available either are known to be insensitive to neutrons above 20 MeV or have not been tested. Also, all except the albedo dosimeter are insensitive to or have not been tested for neutron energies in the range 1 eV to 10 keV. Several dosimeter types respond reasonably well to neutrons in the energy range 0.1 to 15 MeV, for example, CR-39, bubble and superheated drop detectors. However, the first gas a lower limit of sensitivity of about 0.3 mSv. The bubble detector can be designed to measure doses as small as 1μSv and offers the additional benefit of direct-reading capability. The superheated drop detector is not suitable for use around pulsed accelerators because

  16. Characterization of Various Survey Meters by Car-borne Survey in Java Island as Basis Data for Searching Orphan Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yus Rusdian Akhmad

    2004-01-01

    Recently, an international collaboration in securing and managing radioactive sources, particularly orphan sources, is established. For developing countries such as Indonesia which possesses relatively inadequate resources, an effective approach in dealing with the problem is crucial. In order to deal with this situation, an activity was performed including: 1) assessment of available technical means, 2) car-borne survey during the dry and rainy seasons to identify the impact of Rn daughter washout on the interpretation of search results, 3) search for anomalies in the radioactive exposure map of the Java island, and 4) investigation of anomalies found, using more sophisticated instrument, to detect and secure orphan and illicit radioactive sources. The performance of four selected instruments in a car-borne survey which covers a large area in western part of Java was evaluated. Data series of moving background were divided into two measurement groups; control group and test group. These data series were arranged in, order to determine the value of alarm level. For this purpose, statistic procedures relying on Mann-Whitney U test and a simple moving average test (Moving Background) were applied. Among the four selected survey meters, the most convenient detection system for implementing the activity is Exploranium GR-130. There was little concern on the effect of Rn-daughters washouts on the proposed methods, provided that the operator could recognise the transition period between the clear and rainy weather as it could give rise to false alarm. The Moving Background method was generally superior to Mann-Whitney U test for detecting anomalous radiation level. During the survey, an anomaly in steel industrial area was detected. Using portable gamma spectrometers, it was concluded that the anomaly was generated from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Analyses upon survey data in the big cities showed anomalies due to concrete structures, especially

  17. Empowered? Examining self-disconnection in a postal survey of electricity prepayment meter consumers in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, Kimberley C.; Howden-Chapman, Philippa L.; Fougere, Geoffrey M.; Hales, Simon; Stanley, James

    2013-01-01

    Prepayment metering is an electricity payment method often used by low-income consumers. Fuel poverty is an important public health problem in New Zealand, and is likely to be a particular problem for those using prepayment metering. This paper details a nationwide postal survey of consumers undertaken with the support of three major electricity retailers, which investigated the advantages and disadvantages of using prepayment metering from a consumer perspective. The study surveyed a total pool of 359 randomly selected consumers across the three companies, a response rate of 48%. The study found that while almost all respondents felt the benefits of using prepayment outweighed the risks of running out of credit or ‘self-disconnection’, 53% of respondents experienced self-disconnection in the past year. Of concern, over a third of respondents experiencing self-disconnection were without electricity for more than 12 h. The frequency of self-disconnection was also high, with 17% of those disconnecting reporting six or more events in the past year. Government intervention could reduce the risks and disadvantages involved with using prepayment metering, which could then support initiatives aimed at reducing fuel poverty. - Highlights: ► Results of a national postal survey of New Zealand electricity prepayment users. ► Self-disconnection is an extreme outcome of fuel poverty. ► 53% of respondents experienced self-disconnection in the past year. ► Self-disconnection is problematic, lasting 12 or more hours for 38% of those who disconnected. ► Government policies could minimise health effects and capture benefits of prepayment metering.

  18. Formation and surface strengthening of nano-meter embedded phases during high energy Ti implanted and annealed steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tonghe; Wu Yuguang; Cui Ping; Wang Ping

    1999-12-01

    Observation of transmission electron microscope indicated that the phase of FeTi 2 with 3.5-20 nm in diameter is embedded in high energy Ti implanted layer. It's average diameter is 8 nm. The nano-meter phases were embedded among dislocations and grain boundary in Ti implanted steel at 400 degree C. The wear resistance has been improved. The embedded structure can be changed obviously after annealing. The structure has been changed slightly after annealing at annealing temperature raging from 350 to 500 degree C, however, the hardness and wear resistance of implanted layer increased greatly. The maximum of hardness is obtained when the sample was annealed at 500 degree C for 20 min. It can be seen that the strengthening of implanted layer has enhanced by annealing indeed. The grain boundary and dislocations have disappeared; the diameter of nano-meter phases increased from 10 nm to 15 nm after annealing at temperature of 750 degree C and 1000 degree respectively. The average densities of nano-meter phases are 8.8 x 10 10 /cm 2 and 6.5 x 10 10 /cm 2 respectively for both of annealing temperature. The hardness decreased obviously when the annealing temperature is greater than 750 degree C

  19. Intercomparison of principal hydrometric instruments; Third phase, Evaluation of ultrasonic velocity meters for flow measurement in streams, canals, and estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melching, Charles S.; Meno, Michael W.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) project Intercomparison of Principal Hydrometric Instruments, Third Phase, a questionnaire was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) on the application of Ultrasonic Velocity Meters (UVM's) for flowmeasurement in streams, canals, and estuaries. In 1996, this questionnaire was distributed internationally by the WMO and USGS, and distributed within the United States by the USGS. Completed questionnaires were returned by 26 agencies in 7 countries (Canada, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States). The completed questionnaires described geometric and streamflow conditions, system configurations, and reasons for applying UVM systems for 260 sites, thus providing information on the applicability of UVM systems throughout the world. The completed questionnaires also provided information on operational issues such as (1) methods used to determine and verify UVM ratings, (2) methods used to determine the mean flow velocity for UVM systems, (3) operational reliability of UVM systems, (4) methods to estimate missing data, (5) common problems with UVM systems and guidelines to mitigate these problems, and (6) personnel training issues. The completed questionnaires also described a few unique or novel applications of UVM systems. In addition to summarizing the completed questionnaires, this report includes a brief overview of UVM application and operation, and a short summary of current (1998) information from UVM system manufacturers regarding system cost and capabilities. On the basis of the information from the completed questionnaires and provided by the manufacturers, the general applicability of UVM systems is discussed. In the finalisation of this report the financial support provided by the US National Committee for Scientific Hydrology is gratefully acknowledged.

  20. Measurement of ambient dose equivalent H*(10) and directional dose equivalent H'(0.07) with pocket sized survey meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatschenko, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In many parts of the world, predominantly in Europe, small sized survey meters based on Geiger-Mueller or proportional counters are widely used for dose rate and dose equivalent rate measurements, while in other regions, especially in the U.S., ionisation chambers are preferred for this task. This paper tries to shed some light on the likely reasons for these two diverging instrumental inclinations. Their respective strengths and weaknesses is analyzed in respect to energy response, dose rate measuring range, size, weight and susceptibility to environmental influences. Furthermore the response and limitations regarding the measurement of pulsed radiation (medical X-ray and CT-devices, accelerators, non-destructive testing) is discussed. A newly developed pocket size instrument based on a pan-cake Geiger-Mueller tube is used as an example to explain the capability and flexibility of modern survey meters. The RadEye B20 is a compact multi-purpose dose rate meter and contamination meter for alpha, beta, gamma and X-ray radiation. By virtue of carefully designed multi-layer gamma energy filters, H*(10) (deep dose) or H'(0,07) (shallow dose) measurements from 17 - 1300 keV can be performed. The instrument can even be worn in a belt holster, so that the impact to the mobility of the user is minimized. For emergency response purposes alpha and beta contamination can be discriminated using another optional filter; a simple sample changer adapter can extend the scope of application. Immediate and reproducible counter measurements, e.g. of smear tests can be performed locally. (author)

  1. Low dose creatine supplementation enhances sprint phase of 400 meters swimming performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anomasiri, Wilai; Sanguanrungsirikul, Sompol; Saichandee, Pisut

    2004-09-01

    This study demonstrated the effect of low dose creatine supplement (10 g. per day) on the sprinting time in the last 50 meters of 400 meters swimming competition, as well as the effect on exertion. Nineteen swimmers in the experimental group received creatine monohydrate 5 g with orange solution 15 g, twice per day for 7 days and nineteen swimmers in the control group received the same quantity of orange solution. The results showed that the swimmers who received creatine supplement lessened the sprinting time in the last 50 meters of 400 meters swimming competition than the control group. (p<0.05). The results of Wingate test (anaerobic power, anaerobic capacity and fatigue index) compared between pre and post supplementation. There was significant difference at p<0.05 in the control group from training effect whereas there was significant difference at p<0.000 from training effect and creatine supplement in the experiment group. Therefore, the creatine supplement in amateur swimmers in the present study enhanced the physical performance up to the maximum capacity.

  2. Evaluation of metered dose inhaler spray velocities using phase Doppler anemometry (PDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofei; Doub, William H; Guo, Changning

    2012-02-28

    Droplet velocity is an important parameter which can significantly influence inhalation drug delivery performance. Together with the droplet size, this parameter determines the efficiency of the deposition of MDI products at different sites within the lungs. In this study, phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) was used to investigate the instantaneous droplet velocity emitted from MDIs as well as the corresponding droplet size distribution. The nine commercial MDI products surveyed showed significantly different droplet velocities, indicating that droplet velocity could be used as a discriminating parameter for in vitro testing of MDI products. The droplet velocity for all tested MDI products decreased when the testing distance was increased from 3 cm to 6 cm from the front of mouthpiece, with CFC formulations showing a larger decrease than HFA formulations. The mean droplet diameters of the nine MDIs were also significantly different from one-another. Droplet size measurements made using PDA (a number-based technique) could not be directly compared to results obtained using laser light scattering measurements (a volume-based technique). This work demonstrates that PDA can provide unique information useful for characterizing MDI aerosol plumes and evaluating MDI drug delivery efficiency. PDA could also aid the evaluation of in vitro equivalence in support of formulation or manufacturing changes and in evaluation of abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for MDIs. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Induced radioactive nuclides of 10-MeV radiotherapy accelerators detected by using a portable Hp-Ge survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujibuchi, T.; Obara, S.; Yamaguchi, I.; Oyama, M.; Watanabe, H.; Sakae, T.; Katoh, K.

    2012-01-01

    The radioactivation of linear accelerator components for radiation therapy is interest for radiation protection in general, and particularly, when decommissioning these structures. The energy spectra of gamma rays emitted from the heads of two accelerator models, EXL-15SP and Clinac iX, after 10-MeV X-ray irradiation, were measured using a high-purity germanium semiconductor survey meter. After spectrum analyses, activities of 24 Na, 28 Al, 54 Mn, 56 Mn, 57 Ni, 58 Co, 60 Co, 64 Cu, 65 Zn, 122 Sb, 124 Sb, 181 W, 187 W, 196 Au, and 198 Au were detected. One centimetre deep dose-equivalent rate of the heads of the linear accelerator was measured using the survey meter. The dose rate decreased to ∼10 % of its initial rate after 1 week. Long-term activations were few, the radioactivity level was low, and a cooling time of several days was effective for reducing dose rate to an acceptable level for decommissioning. (authors)

  4. The one square meter hard X-ray (15-200 KeV) sky survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; La Padula, C.D.; Polcaro, V.F.

    1981-01-01

    A long term program was started at I.A.S. since 1979 to perform a survey of the hard X-ray sky using multiwire high pressure Xenon filled Spectroscopic Proportional Counters (SPC). The first payload consisting of two very large area SPC (2,700 cm 2 each) was flown during summer 1980 from the Milo Base (Sicily, Italy). The instrument duplicated to reach 10,800 cm 2 geometric area is expected to fly from northern (1981), southern (1982) and equatorial (1983) bases to perform a deep sky survey

  5. Identifying Potential Markets for Behind-the-Meter Battery Energy Storage: A Survey of U.S. Demand Charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mullendore, Seth [Clean Energy Group, Montpelier, Vermont

    2017-08-07

    This paper presents the first publicly available comprehensive survey of the magnitude of demand charges for commercial customers across the United States -- a key predictor of the financial performance of behind-the-meter battery storage systems. Notably, the analysis estimates that there are nearly 5 million commercial customers in the United States who can subscribe to retail electricity tariffs that have demand charges in excess of $15 per kilowatt (kW), over a quarter of the 18 million commercial customers in total in the United States. While the economic viability of installing battery energy storage must be determined on a case-by-case basis, high demand charges are often cited as a critical factor in battery project economics. Increasing use of demand charges in utility tariffs and anticipated future declines in storage costs will only serve to unlock additional markets and strengthen existing ones.

  6. Metering apparatus and tariffs for electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Conference papers presented cover system economies and tariff structure with papers on pricing of electricity and new metering technologies. Other topics reviewed include metering apparatus design, electronic metering apparatus and solid phase metering technology. Meter data retrieval, bulk supply metering, test equipment and maintenance, and legal requirements and standards are discussed. (author)

  7. Wide Field Infra-Red Survey Telescope (WFIRST) 2.4-Meter Mission Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Content, D.; Aaron, K.; Alplanalp, L.; Anderson, K.; Capps, R.; Chang, Z.; Dooley, J.; Egerman, R.; Goullioud, R.; Klein, D.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The most recent study of the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission is based on reuse of an existing 2.4m telescope. This study was commissioned by NASA to examine the potential science return and cost effectiveness of WFIRST by using this significantly larger aperture telescope. We review the science program envisioned by the WFIRST 2012-2013 Science Definition Team (SDT), an overview of the mission concept, and the telescope design and status. Comparisons against the previous 1.3m and reduced cost 1.1m WFIRST design concepts are discussed. A significant departure from past point designs is the option for serviceability and the geostationary orbit location which enables servicing and replacement instrument insertion later during mission life. Other papers at this conference provide more in depth discussion of the wide field instrument and the optional exoplanet imaging coronagraph instrument.

  8. A patient dose survey for femoral arteriogram diagnostic radiographic examinations using a dose-area product meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thwaites, J.H.; Rafferty, M.W.; Gray, N.; Black, J.; Stock, B.

    1996-01-01

    A patient dose survey was carried out for femoral arteriogram procedures at the Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital. The procedure involves fluoroscopy to the pelvic region to locate a guide wire and catheter, followed by a series of radiographs extending from the pelvic area to the feet to form a collage image of the entire arterial system. Radiographs are taken whilst a bolus of contrast media is injected into the arterial system. A dose-area product meter was used to determine the dose-area product delivered to patients. Radiographic and patient details were logged with dose-area product for each part of each procedure. Mean energy imparted, mean effective dose and effective dose equivalent are calculated for the examinations. Calculated effective doses are shown to produce results consistent with those of other authors. We present a method for dealing with a complex radiographic procedure including multiple radiographs and fluoroscopy in an attempt to provide a simple way of calculating effective dose from which a general risk factor can be determined. The effective dose varies considerably from examination to examination due to the large range in the number of radiographs taken in any one procedure. A useful index can be obtained by logging the number of radiographs in each region, and fluoroscopy time, from which the effective dose may be easily calculated. These measurements extend a continuing survey of doses for common diagnostic radiographic examinations which previously included the simple examinations: lumbar spine, abdoment and pelvis. (author)

  9. A Survey of Phase Change Memory Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏飞; 蒋德钧; 熊劲; 孙凝晖

    2015-01-01

    As the scaling of applications increases, the demand of main memory capacity increases in order to serve large working set. It is difficult for DRAM (dynamic random access memory) based memory system to satisfy the memory capacity requirement due to its limited scalability and high energy consumption. Compared to DRAM, PCM (phase change memory) has better scalability, lower energy leakage, and non-volatility. PCM memory systems have become a hot topic of academic and industrial research. However, PCM technology has the following three drawbacks: long write latency, limited write endurance, and high write energy, which raises challenges to its adoption in practice. This paper surveys architectural research work to optimize PCM memory systems. First, this paper introduces the background of PCM. Then, it surveys research efforts on PCM memory systems in performance optimization, lifetime improving, and energy saving in detail, respectively. This paper also compares and summarizes these techniques from multiple dimensions. Finally, it concludes these optimization techniques and discusses possible research directions of PCM memory systems in future.

  10. Oman Drilling Project Phase I Borehole Geophysical Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter, J. M.; Pezard, P. A.; Henry, G.; Brun, L.; Célérier, B.; Lods, G.; Robert, P.; Benchikh, A. M.; Al Shukaili, M.; Al Qassabi, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Oman Drilling Project (OmanDP) drilled six holes at six sites in the Samail ophiolite in the southern Samail and Tayin massifs. 1500-m of igneous and metamorphic rocks were recovered at four sites (GT1, GT2, GT3 and BT1) using wireline diamond core drilling and drill cuttings at two sites (BA1, BA2) using air rotary drilling, respectively. OmanDP is an international collaboration supported by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program, the Deep Carbon Observatory, NSF, NASA, IODP, JAMSTEC, and the European, Japanese, German and Swiss Science Foundations, and with in-kind support in Oman from Ministry of Regional Municipalities and Water Resources, Public Authority of Mining, Sultan Qaboos University and the German University of Technology. A comprehensive borehole geophysical survey was conducted in all the OmanDP Phase I boreholes shortly after drilling in April 2017. Following geophysical wireline logs, using slim-hole borehole logging equipment provided and run by the Centre National De La Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the Université de Montpellier/ Géosciences Montpellier, and logging trucks from the Ministry of Regional Municipalities and Water Resources, were collected in most of the holes: electrical resistivity (dual laterolog resistivity, LLd and LLs), spectral gamma ray (K, U, and Th contents), magnetic susceptibility, total natural gamma ray, full waveform sonic (Vp and Vs), acoustic borehole wall imaging, optical borehole wall imaging, borehole fluid parameters (pressure, temperature, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, redox potential, non-polarized spontaneous electrical potential), and caliper (borehole diameter). In addition, spinner flowmeter (downhole fluid flow rate along borehole axis) and heatpulse flow meter logs (dowhole fluid flow rate along borehole axis) were collected in BA1 to characterize downhole fluid flow rates along borehole axis. Unfortuantely, only incomplete wireline logs are available for

  11. Characterization of Medication Velocity and Size Distribution from Pressurized Metered-Dose Inhalers by Phase Doppler Anemometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatrash, Abubaker; Matida, Edgar

    2016-12-01

    Particle size and velocity are two of the most significant factors that impact the deposition of pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) sprays in the mouth cavity. pMDIs are prominently used around the world in the treatment of patients suffering from a variety of lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Since their introduction in the field, and as a result of their effectiveness and simplicity of usage, pMDIs are considered to be the most widely prescribed medical aerosol delivery system. In the current study, particle velocity and size distribution were measured at three different locations along the centerline of a pMDI spray using Phase Doppler Anemometry. pMDIs from four different pharmaceutical companies were tested, each using salbutamol sulfate as the medication. Measurements along at the pMDI centerline (at 0, 75, and 100 mm downstream of the inhaler mouthpiece) showed that the spray velocities were bimodal in time for all four pMDI brands. The first peak occurred as the spray was leaving the mouthpiece, while the second peak (at the same location, 0 mm) occurred at around 60, 95, 95, and 115 milliseconds later, respectively, for the four tested inhalers, with a drop in the velocity between the two peaks. Three probability density functions (PDFs) were tested, and the Rosin-Rammler PDF best fit the empirical data, as determined using a chi-squared test. These results suggest that there is a difference in the mean particle velocities at the centerline for the tested pMDIs and the diameter of released particles varied statistically for each brand.

  12. Mathematical modeling of a survey-meter used to measure radioactivity in human thyroids: Monte Carlo calculations of the device response and uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrutchinsky, Arkady; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Kutsen, Semion; Minenko, Victor; Khrouch, Valeri; Luckyanov, Nickolas; Voillequé, Paul; Bouville, André

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents results of Monte Carlo modeling of the SRP-68-01 survey meter used to measure exposure rates near the thyroid glands of persons exposed to radioactivity following the Chernobyl accident. This device was not designed to measure radioactivity in humans. To estimate the uncertainty associated with the measurement results, a mathematical model of the SRP-68-01 survey meter was developed and verified. A Monte Carlo method of numerical simulation of radiation transport has been used to calculate the calibration factor for the device and evaluate its uncertainty. The SRP-68-01 survey meter scale coefficient, an important characteristic of the device, was also estimated in this study. The calibration factors of the survey meter were calculated for 131I, 132I, 133I, and 135I content in the thyroid gland for six age groups of population: newborns; children aged 1 yr, 5 yr, 10 yr, 15 yr; and adults. A realistic scenario of direct thyroid measurements with an “extended” neck was used to calculate the calibration factors for newborns and one-year-olds. Uncertainties in the device calibration factors due to variability of the device scale coefficient, variability in thyroid mass and statistical uncertainty of Monte Carlo method were evaluated. Relative uncertainties in the calibration factor estimates were found to be from 0.06 for children aged 1 yr to 0.1 for 10-yr and 15-yr children. The positioning errors of the detector during measurements deviate mainly in one direction from the estimated calibration factors. Deviations of the device position from the proper geometry of measurements were found to lead to overestimation of the calibration factor by up to 24 percent for adults and up to 60 percent for 1-yr children. The results of this study improve the estimates of 131I thyroidal content and, consequently, thyroid dose estimates that are derived from direct thyroid measurements performed in Belarus shortly after the Chernobyl accident. PMID:22245289

  13. Survey and analysis of radiation safety management systems at medical institutions. Second report. Radiation measurement, calibration of radiation survey meters, and periodic check of installations, equipment, and protection instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohba, Hisateru; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko; Aburano, Tamio

    2006-01-01

    We carried out a questionnaire survey to determine the actual situation of radiation safety management measures in all medical institutions in Japan that had nuclear medicine facilities. The questionnaire consisted of questions concerning the evaluation of shielding capacity; radiation measurement; periodic checks of installations, equipment, and protection instruments; and the calibration of radiation survey meters. The analysis was undertaken according to region, type of establishment, and number of beds. The overall response rate was 60 percent. For the evaluation of shielding capacity, the outsourcing rate was 53 percent of the total. For the radiation measurements of ''leakage radiation dose and radioactive contamination'' and contamination of radioactive substances in the air'', the outsourcing rates were 28 percent and 35 percent of the total, respectively (p<0.001, according to region and establishment). For the periodic check of radiation protection instruments, the implementation rate was 98 percent, and the outsourcing rate was 32 percent for radiation survey meters and 47 percent for lead aprons. The non-implemented rate for calibration of radiation survey meters was 25 percent of the total (p<0.001, according to region and establishment). The outsourcing rate for calibration of radiation survey meters accounted for 87 percent of the total, and of these medical institutions, 72 percent undertook annual calibration. The implementation rate for patient exposure measurement was 20 percent of the total (p<0.001, according to number of beds), and of these medical institutions 46 percent recorded measurement outcome. (author)

  14. Charge Meter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 4. Charge Meter: Easy Way to Measure Charge and Capacitance: Some Interesting Electrostatic Experiments. M K Raghavendra V Venkataraman. Classroom Volume 19 Issue 4 April 2014 pp 376-390 ...

  15. Marine chemistry, fish / shell-fish surveys, benthic organisms, and marine toxic substances and pollutants data from current meter and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from 1993-01-26 to 1994-06-13 (NODC Accession 9500088)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine chemistry, fish / shell-fish surveys, benthic organisms, and marine toxic substances and pollutants data were collected using current meter and other...

  16. Global spectroscopic survey of cloud thermodynamic phase at high spatial resolution, 2005-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David R.; Kahn, Brian H.; Green, Robert O.; Chien, Steve A.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Tran, Daniel Q.

    2018-02-01

    The distribution of ice, liquid, and mixed phase clouds is important for Earth's planetary radiation budget, impacting cloud optical properties, evolution, and solar reflectivity. Most remote orbital thermodynamic phase measurements observe kilometer scales and are insensitive to mixed phases. This under-constrains important processes with outsize radiative forcing impact, such as spatial partitioning in mixed phase clouds. To date, the fine spatial structure of cloud phase has not been measured at global scales. Imaging spectroscopy of reflected solar energy from 1.4 to 1.8 µm can address this gap: it directly measures ice and water absorption, a robust indicator of cloud top thermodynamic phase, with spatial resolution of tens to hundreds of meters. We report the first such global high spatial resolution survey based on data from 2005 to 2015 acquired by the Hyperion imaging spectrometer onboard NASA's Earth Observer 1 (EO-1) spacecraft. Seasonal and latitudinal distributions corroborate observations by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). For extratropical cloud systems, just 25 % of variance observed at GCM grid scales of 100 km was related to irreducible measurement error, while 75 % was explained by spatial correlations possible at finer resolutions.

  17. A Global Survey of Cloud Thermodynamic Phase using High Spatial Resolution VSWIR Spectroscopy, 2005-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. R.; Kahn, B. H.; Green, R. O.; Chien, S.; Middleton, E.; Tran, D. Q.

    2017-12-01

    Clouds' variable ice and liquid content significantly influences their optical properties, evolution, and radiative forcing potential (Tan and Storelvmo, J. Atmos. Sci, 73, 2016). However, most remote measurements of thermodynamic phase have spatial resolutions of 1 km or more and are insensitive to mixed phases. This under-constrains important processes, such as spatial partitioning within mixed phase clouds, that carry outsize radiative forcing impacts. These uncertainties could shift Global Climate Model (GCM) predictions of future warming by over 1 degree Celsius (Tan et al., Science 352:6282, 2016). Imaging spectroscopy of reflected solar energy from the 1.4 - 1.8 μm shortwave infrared (SWIR) spectral range can address this observational gap. These observations can distinguish ice and water absorption, providing a robust and sensitive measurement of cloud top thermodynamic phase including mixed phases. Imaging spectrometers can resolve variations at scales of tens to hundreds of meters (Thompson et al., JGR-Atmospheres 121, 2016). We report the first such global high spatial resolution (30 m) survey, based on data from 2005-2015 acquired by the Hyperion imaging spectrometer onboard NASA's EO-1 spacecraft (Pearlman et al., Proc. SPIE 4135, 2001). Estimated seasonal and latitudinal distributions of cloud thermodynamic phase generally agree with observations made by other satellites such as the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). Variogram analyses reveal variability at different spatial scales. Our results corroborate previously observed zonal distributions, while adding insight into the spatial scales of processes governing cloud top thermodynamic phase. Figure: Thermodynamic phase retrievals. Top: Example of a cloud top thermodynamic phase map from the EO-1/Hyperion. Bottom: Latitudinal distributions of pure and mixed phase clouds, 2005-2015, showing Liquid Thickness Fraction (LTF). LTF=0 corresponds to pure ice absorption, while LTF=1 is pure liquid. The

  18. Design and development of drag-disc flow meter for measurement of transient two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivas Rao, G.; Kukreja, V.; Dolas, P.K.; Venkat Raj, V.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out to test the suitability of drag-disc flowmeter for measuring two-phase flow. Calibration tests carried out under single-phase and two-phase flow conditions have confirmed the suitability of the drag-disc flowmeter. The experimental work and the results obtained are presented and discussed in the paper. (author). 6 figs

  19. A precursive study of the time-domain survey of the Galactic Anti-center using the Nanshan 1-meter telescope with variable stars detected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shu-Guo; Esamdin, Ali; Ma, Lu; Niu, Hu-Biao; Fu, Jian-Ning; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Jin-Zhong; Yang, Tao-Zhi; Song, Fang-Fang; Pu, Guang-Xin

    2018-04-01

    Following the LAMOST Spectroscopic Survey and the Xuyi's Photometric Survey of the Galactic Anti-center, we plan to carry out a time-domain survey of the Galactic Anti-center (TDS-GAC) to study variable stars by using the Nanshan 1-meter telescope. Before the beginning of TDS-GAC, a precursive sky survey (PSS) has been executed. The goal of the PSS is to optimize the observation strategy of TDS-GAC and to detect some strong transient events, as well as to find some short time-scale variable stars of different types. By observing a discontinuous sky area of 15.03 deg2 with the standard Johnson-Cousin-Bessel V filter, 48 variable stars are found and the time series are analyzed. Based on the behaviors of the light curves, 28 eclipsing binary stars, 10 RR Lyraes, 3 periodic pulsating variables of other types have been classified. The rest 7 variables stay unclassified with deficient data. In addition, the observation strategy of TD-GAC is described, and the pipeline of data reduction is tested.

  20. Potential radiation doses likely to be received by the radiologists and para medical staff in an hospital in Pakistan. (G. M. counter, survey meter measurements )

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; Zeb, J.; Iqbal, S.; Orfi, S.D.

    1999-01-01

    Potential radiation doses likely to received by the radiologists and paramedical staff in a typical hospital in Pakistan have been measured using a very sensitive radiation survey meter (FAG FH40F2) employing in Geiger Muller counter (FHZ 120] as a role which is extendable up to 4 meters in length. The measurements have been compared with internationally accepted Maximum Permissible Radiation Dos Level (MPDL). Radiation dose rates measured on the hands of two radiologist during fluoroscopy examination of the patient were of the order of 1 m Sv.h/sup -1/ and 540 u Sv. h/sup -1/ which were 400% to 21% higher than the MPDL (250 u Sv. h/sup -1/). Radiation dose rates measured on the chest of the nurses were 300 and 50 u Sv. h/sup -1/, which were 3000% to 500% higher than those of MPDL(10 u Sv. h/sup -1/). Such high dose rates present a serious situation from radiation damage point of view and deserve attention of the hospital management and of national regulatory authority so as to minimize the potential radiation doses to the radiologists and paramedical staff. As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) concept should be implemented in the health sector. (author)

  1. Potential radiation doses likely to be received by the radiologists and paramedical staff in typical hospital in Pakistan (GM counter, survey meter measurements) (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; Zeb, J.; Iqbal, S.; Orfi, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    Potential radiation doses likely to be received by the radiologists and para medical staff in a typical hospital in Pakistan have been measured using a very sensitive radiation survey meter (FAG FH40F2) employing a Geiger Muller counter (FHZ120) as a probe which is a probe extend able up to 4 meters in length. These measurements have been compared with internationally accepted Maximum Permissible Radiation Dose Level (MPDL). Radiation dose rates measured on the hands of two radiologists during fluoroscopy examination of the patient were of the order of 1mSv.h/sup -1/ and 540 mu Sv.h/sup -1/ which were 400% to 216% times higher than the MPDL (250 mu Sv.h/sup -1/). Radiation dose rates measured on the chest and neck were 300 and 50 mu Sv.h/sup -1/, which were 3000% to 500% times higher than those of MPDL (10 mu Sv.h/sup -1/. Such high dose rates present a serious situation and deserve attention of the hospital management and of national regulatory authority so as to minimize the potential radiation doses to the radiologists and para medical staff. As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) concept should be implemented in the health sector. (author)

  2. A patient dose survey or femoral arteriogram diagnostic radiographic examinations using a dose-area product meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thwaites, J.H.; Rafferty, M.W.; Gray, N.; Black, J.; Stock, B.

    1996-01-01

    We present a method for dealing with a complex radiographic procedure (which involves multiple radiographs and fluoroscopy) in an attempt to provide a simple way of calculating effective dose from which a general risk factor can be determined. A useful index of harm can be obtained by recording the number of radiographs in each region, and the fluoroscopy time, from which the effective dose may be easily calculated. A patient dose survey was carried out using a PTW diamentor for femoral arteriogram procedures in a large teaching hospital. The procedure involves fluoroscopy to the pelvic region to locate a guide wire and catheter, followed by a series of radiographs extending from the pelvic area to the feet to form a collage image of the entire arterial system. Radiographs are taken whilst a bolus of contrast media is injected into the arterial system. The measurements extend a continuing survey of doses for common diagnostic radiographic examinations which have previously included the simple examinations of lumbar spine, abdomen and pelvis. (Author)

  3. ``Trickle Meter Gravimetry'': Precision Interferometry from Residual Berry Phase Edge Effects Involving Atoms Exiting an Accelerating Optical Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Scott

    2007-03-01

    From a generalization of conventional band theory, derived from a many-body form of multiple scattering theory, I rigorously showed that the semi-classical theory of cold atom transport in optical lattices could be related to changes in the zero of momentum of the ground state. The new formulation includes finite size effects. When the effects of excitation, associated with the loss of atoms at the boundaries of the lattice are included, in the adiabatic limit, in which the perturbing potential acts sufficiently slowly and weakly, topological changes in phase (which are equivalent to Berry phase effects in the conventional semi-classical theory) take place that introduce discontinuous changes in wave function phase (and flux). In a situation involving an accelerating optical lattice, containing ultra cold atoms in a Bose Einstein Condensate, these changes in wave function phase can be monitored and used to systematically alter the acceleration of the lattice (by altering the chirp frequency of one of one of the counter-propogating lasers), in such a way that a form of edge-effect interferometry can be performed, which, in principle, can be used to make precision measurements of gravity, with unprecedented accuracy. S.R.Chubb, Proc Roy Soc A, submitted (2006).

  4. Conceptual design for the field test and evaluation of the gas-phase UF6 enrichment meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strittmatter, R.B.; Leavitt, J.N.; Slice, R.W.

    1980-12-01

    An in-line enrichment monitor is being developed to provide real-time enrichment data for the gas-phase UF 6 feed stream of an enrichment plant. Data from proof-of-principle measurements using a laboratory prototype system are presented. A conceptual design for an enrichment monitor to be field tested and evaluated at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant is reported

  5. Model to calculate mass flow rate and other quantities of two-phase flow in a pipe with a densitometer, a drag disk, and a turbine meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aya, I.

    1975-11-01

    The proposed model was developed at ORNL to calculate mass flow rate and other quantities of two-phase flow in a pipe when the flow is dispersed with slip between the phases. The calculational model is based on assumptions concerning the characteristics of a turbine meter and a drag disk. The model should be validated with experimental data before being used in blowdown analysis. In order to compare dispersed flow and homogeneous flow, the ratio of readings from each flow regime for each device discussed is calculated for a given mass flow rate and steam quality. The sensitivity analysis shows that the calculated flow rate of a steam-water mixture (based on the measurements of a drag disk and a gamma densitometer in which the flow is assumed to be homogeneous even if there is some slip between phases) is very close to the real flow rate in the case of dispersed flow at a low quality. As the steam quality increases at a constant slip ratio, all models are prone to overestimate. At 20 percent quality the overestimates reach 8 percent in the proposed model, 15 percent in Rouhani's model, 38 percent in homogeneous model, and 75 percent in Popper's model

  6. Phase Composition Maps integrate mineral compositions with rock textures from the micro-meter to the thin section scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Kyle V.; Srogi, LeeAnn; Lutz, Tim; Monson, Frederick C.; Pollock, Meagen

    2017-12-01

    Textures and compositions are critical information for interpreting rock formation. Existing methods to integrate both types of information favor high-resolution images of mineral compositions over small areas or low-resolution images of larger areas for phase identification. The method in this paper produces images of individual phases in which textural and compositional details are resolved over three orders of magnitude, from tens of micrometers to tens of millimeters. To construct these images, called Phase Composition Maps (PCMs), we make use of the resolution in backscattered electron (BSE) images and calibrate the gray scale values with mineral analyses by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS). The resulting images show the area of a standard thin section (roughly 40 mm × 20 mm) with spatial resolution as good as 3.5 μm/pixel, or more than 81 000 pixels/mm2, comparable to the resolution of X-ray element maps produced by wavelength-dispersive spectrometry (WDS). Procedures to create PCMs for mafic igneous rocks with multivariate linear regression models for minerals with solid solution (olivine, plagioclase feldspar, and pyroxenes) are presented and are applicable to other rock types. PCMs are processed using threshold functions based on the regression models to image specific composition ranges of minerals. PCMs are constructed using widely-available instrumentation: a scanning-electron microscope (SEM) with BSE and EDS X-ray detectors and standard image processing software such as ImageJ and Adobe Photoshop. Three brief applications illustrate the use of PCMs as petrologic tools: to reveal mineral composition patterns at multiple scales; to generate crystal size distributions for intracrystalline compositional zones and compare growth over time; and to image spatial distributions of minerals at different stages of magma crystallization by integrating textures and compositions with thermodynamic modeling.

  7. Lithium tantalate single crystal for pyroelectricity-based laser energy-meter: growth, application and phase transition study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaumik, Indranil; Ganesamoorthy, S.; Bhatt, R.; Karnal, A.K.; Gupta, P.K.

    2009-01-01

    Single crystals of lithium tantalate have been grown. Dielectric-spectroscopy study reveals phase transition in congruent lithium tantalate (CLT) single crystal is diffusive and frequency dependent in contrast to that in near stoichiometric lithium tantalate where it is sharper. The ac conductivity measurements show that the conductivity is lower for 0.5Mg-SLT as compared to 1.0Mg-SLT. This is explained in terms of a Li-vacancy model. Calculation of activation energy from the lnσ vs. 1000/T plot reveals that hopping of Li + ions becomes difficult for 0.5 Mg-SLT. The pyroelectric response of CLT for pulsed Nd:YAG laser output has been tested. (author)

  8. Some problems in calibrating surface contamination meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zigen; LI Xingyuan; Shuai Xiaoping.

    1984-01-01

    It is necessary that instruments are calibrated accurately in order to obtain reliable survey data of surface contamination. Some problems in calibrating surface contamination meters are expounded in this paper. Measurement comparison for beta surface contamination meters is organized within limited scope, thus survey quality is understood, questions are discovered, significance of calibration is expounded further. (Author)

  9. Smart meter status report from Toronto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, D.

    2006-01-01

    An update of Toronto Hydro's smart metering program was presented. Electricity demand is expected to keep increasing, and there is presently insufficient generation to match supply needs in Ontario. The smart metering program was introduced to aid in the Ontario government's energy conservation strategy, as well as to address peak supply problems that have led to power outages. It is expected that the smart metering program will reduce provincial peak supply by 5 per cent, as the meters support both time-of-use rates and critical peak pricing. Over 800,000 smart meters will be supplied to customers by 2007, and all 4.3 million homes in Toronto will have a smart meter by 2010. In order to meet targets for 2010, the utility will continue to install more 15,000 meters each month for the next 4 years. While the Ontario government has planned and coordinated the rollout and developed smart metering specifications and standards, Toronto Hydro is responsible for the purchase, installation, operation and maintenance of the meters. Advance testing of each meter is needed to ensure billing accuracy, and customer education on meter use is also. The complexity of the metering program has led the utility to establish a rigid project management process. Customer education pilot program are currently being conducted. Experience gained during the earlier phases of the program have enabled the utility to select appropriate metering systems based on density, topography and physical conditions. Project expenditures have been within budget due to improved project estimating and planning. The metering program has been conducted in tandem with the utility's peakSAVER program, a residential and small commercial load control program that has been successful in reducing summer peak demand by cycling air conditioners without causing discomfort. It was concluded that the utility will continue with its mass deployment of smart meters, and is currently preparing its call center to handled

  10. ATD-2 Surface Scheduling and Metering Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppenbarger, Richard A.; Jung, Yoon Chul; Capps, Richard Alan; Engelland, Shawn A.

    2017-01-01

    This presentation describes the concept of ATD-2 tactical surface scheduling and metering. The concept is composed of several elements, including data exchange and integration; surface modeling; surface scheduling; and surface metering. The presentation explains each of the elements. Surface metering is implemented to balance demand and capacity• When surface metering is on, target times from surface scheduler areconverted to advisories for throttling demand• Through the scheduling process, flights with CTOTs will not get addedmetering delay (avoids potential for ‘double delay’)• Carriers can designate certain flights as exempt from metering holds• Demand throttle in Phase 1 at CLT is through advisories sent to rampcontrollers for pushback instructions to the flight deck– Push now– Hold for an advised period of time (in minutes)• Principles of surface metering can be more generally applied to otherairports in the NAS to throttle demand via spot-release times (TMATs Strong focus on optimal use of airport resources• Flexibility enables stakeholders to vary the amount of delay theywould like transferred to gate• Addresses practical aspects of executing surface metering in aturbulent real world environment• Algorithms designed for both short term demand/capacityimbalances (banks) or sustained metering situations• Leverage automation to enable surface metering capability withoutrequiring additional positions• Represents first step in Tactical/Strategic fusion• Provides longer look-ahead calculations to enable analysis ofstrategic surface metering potential usage

  11. Residential exposure to radiofrequency fields from mobile phone base stations, and broadcast transmitters: a population-based survey with personal meter

    OpenAIRE

    VIEL, JF; CLERC, S; BARRERA, C; RYMZHANOVA, R; MOISSONNIER, M; HOURS, M; CARDIS, E

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Both the public perceptions, and most published epidemiologic studies, rely on the assumption that the distance of a particular residence from a base station or a broadcast transmitter is an appropriate surrogate for exposure to radiofrequency fields, although complex propagation characteristics affect the beams from antennas. The main goal of this study was to characterise the distribution of residential exposure from antennas using personal exposure meters.Results: Much of the t...

  12. Study of a three-phase flow metering process for oil-water-gas flows; Etude d`un procede de mesure des debits d`un ecoulement triphasique de type eau-huile-gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Ch.

    1996-11-01

    We propose a theoretical and experimental study of a three-phase flow metering process for oil-water-gas flows. The selected process is based on a combination of a mixer, a Venturi and ultrasonic methods. To perform an experimental validation of this process an instrumented set-up for three-phase air-oil-water flows has been designed, conceived and adjusted. An original theoretical model have been built to predict three-phase dispersed flows across a contraction. Once validated with two-phase air-water, oil-water and air-oil-water flows data, this model has been used to solve the Venturi metering problems. After a critical review of the available techniques, the ultrasonic propagation velocity has been selected to determine two-phase liquid-liquid flow composition. Two original models have been developed to describe the ultrasonic propagation with the dispersed phase fraction. The comparison with experimental data in oil-water flows show the superiority of one of the two models, the scattering model. For the void fraction determination in air-water flows, the work of Bensler (1990) based on the ultrasonic attenuation measurement has been extended to take into account the multiple scattering effects. Finally these techniques have been combined to determine the different flow rates in air-water, oil-water flows. For two-phase air-water and oil-water flows the problem is solved and the flow rates are measured with a very good accuracy ({+-} 3%). The results quality obtained with three-phase oil-water-gas flows and the secure theoretical bases allowing their interpretation give us the opportunity to strongly recommend the development of an industrial prototype based on the process we studied. (author) 183 refs.

  13. Digital temperature meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowacki, S

    1982-01-01

    Digital temperature meter for precise temperature measurements is presented. Its parts such as thermostat, voltage-frequency converter and digital frequency meter are described. Its technical parameters such as temperature range 50degC-700degC, measurement precision 1degC, measurement error +-1degC are given. (A.S.).

  14. Radioisotope conveyor ash meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savelov, V.D.

    1994-01-01

    Radioisotope conveyor ash meter realizes persistent measuring of ashiness of coal and products of its enrichment on the belt conveyor without contact. The principle of ash meter acting is based on functional dependence of the gamma radiation flows backscattering intensity of radioisotope sources from the ash volume content in the controlled fuel. Facility consists from the ashiness transducer and the processing and control device

  15. Optical cycle power meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A bicycle power meter for measuring power generated when riding a bicycle, the power meter comprising a position-sensitive radiation detector (409) attachable to a component of a crank set (404) of bicycle, and a radiation source (408) attachable to the component of the crank set and configured t...

  16. Ultrasonic flow meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lötters, Joost Conrad; Snijders, G.J.; Volker, A.W.F.

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to an ultrasonic flow meter comprising a flow tube for the fluid whose flow rate is to be determined. The flow meter comprises a transmitting element for emitting ultrasonic waves, which is provided on the outer jacket of the flow tube. A receiving element, which is provided on

  17. Integrating an embedded system in a microwave moisture meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    The conversion of a PC- or laptop-controlled microwave moisture meter to a stand-alone meter hosting its own embedded system is discussed. The moisture meter measures the attenuation and phase shift of low power microwaves traversing the sample, from which the dielectric properties are calculated. T...

  18. Integrating an Embedded System within a Microwave Moisture Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper, the conversion of a PC or laptop-controlled microwave moisture meter to a stand-alone meter hosting its own embedded system is discussed. The moisture meter uses low-power microwaves to measure the attenuation and phase shift of the sample, from which the dielectric properties are cal...

  19. SMALL MAIN-BELT ASTEROID SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY, PHASE II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains visible-wavelength (0.435-0.925 micron) spectra for 1341 main-belt asteroids observed during the second phase of the Small Main-belt Asteroid...

  20. Performance of the tariffs of a single-phase electric energy meter, type electronic, operating with non-linear loads; Desempenho tarifario do medidor monofasico de energia eletrica do tipo eletronico operando com cargas nao-lineares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, G.B.; Pinheiro Neto, D.; Lisita, L.R.; Machado, P.C.M.; Oliveira, J.V.M. [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computacao], Emails: guilhermebsantos@gmail.com, daywes@gmail.com, lrlisi-ta@gmail.com, pcesar@eee.ufg.br, joao.eee@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    This paper analyzes the behavior of a electronic meter of single-phase in the laboratory when it is subjected to a environment with linear loads and nonlinear loads kind residential and commercial. It differs from correlated studies mainly for making use of real loads encountered in day-to-day, rather than as sources of electronic loads how has been observed in the state of the art. The comparison of results is made based on high precision energy pattern developed by virtual instrumentation means.

  1. Residential exposure to radiofrequency fields from mobile phone base stations, and broadcast transmitters: a population-based survey with personal meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viel, J F; Clerc, S; Barrera, C; Rymzhanova, R; Moissonnier, M; Hours, M; Cardis, E

    2009-08-01

    Both the public perceptions, and most published epidemiologic studies, rely on the assumption that the distance of a particular residence from a base station or a broadcast transmitter is an appropriate surrogate for exposure to radiofrequency fields, although complex propagation characteristics affect the beams from antennas. The main goal of this study was to characterise the distribution of residential exposure from antennas using personal exposure meters. A total of 200 randomly selected people were enrolled. Each participant was supplied with a personal exposure meter for 24 h measurements, and kept a time-location-activity diary. Two exposure metrics for each radiofrequency were then calculated: the proportion of measurements above the detection limit (0.05 V/m), and the maximum electric field strength. Residential address was geocoded, and distance from each antenna was calculated. Much of the time, the recorded field strength was below the detection level (0.05 V/m), the FM band standing apart with a proportion above the detection threshold of 12.3%. The maximum electric field strength was always lower than 1.5 V/m. Exposure to GSM and DCS waves peaked around 280 m and 1000 m from the antennas. A downward trend was found within a 10 km range for FM. Conversely, UMTS, TV 3, and TV 4&5 signals did not vary with distance. Despite numerous limiting factors entailing a high variability in radiofrequency exposure assessment, but owing to a sound statistical technique, we found that exposures from GSM and DCS base stations increase with distance in the near source zone, to a maximum where the main beam intersects the ground. We believe these results will contribute to the ongoing public debate over the location of base stations and their associated emissions.

  2. Single-Phase Mail Survey Design for Rare Population Subgroups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brick, J. Michael; Andrews, William R.; Mathiowetz, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    Although using random digit dialing (RDD) telephone samples was the preferred method for conducting surveys of households for many years, declining response and coverage rates have led researchers to explore alternative approaches. The use of address-based sampling (ABS) has been examined for sampling the general population and subgroups, most…

  3. Phase I Cultural Resources Survey and Archeological Inventory of the Segura Staging Area, Iberia Parish, Louisiana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2003-01-01

    This document presents the results of a Phase I cultural resources survey and archeological inventory of the Segura Staging Area located on the right descending bank of Bayou Teche at approximate River Mile...

  4. Travelling Wave Solutions to Stretched Beam's Equation: Phase Portraits Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betchewe, Gambo; Victor, Kuetche Kamgang; Thomas, Bouetou Bouetou; Kofane, Timoleon Crepin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, following the phase portraits analysis, we investigate the integrability of a system which physically describes the transverse oscillation of an elastic beam under end-thrust. As a result, we find that this system actually comprises two families of travelling waves: the sub- and super-sonic periodic waves of positive- and negative-definite velocities, respectively, and the localized sub-sonic loop-shaped waves of positive-definite velocity. Expressing the energy-like of this system while depicting its phase portrait dynamics, we show that these multivalued localized travelling waves appear as the boundary solutions to which the periodic travelling waves tend asymptotically. (general)

  5. Your Glucose Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco ... 164KB) En Español Basic Facts 7 Tips for Testing Your Blood Sugar and Caring for Your Meter ...

  6. Hydrogen meter prooftesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCown, J.J.; Mettler, G.W.

    1976-04-01

    Two diffusion type hydrogen meters have been tested on the Prototype Applications Loop (PAL). The ANL designed unit was used to monitor hydrogen in sodium during FFTF startup and over a wide range of hydrogen concentrations resulting from chemical additions to the sodium and cover gas. A commercially available meter was added and its performance compared with the ANL unit. Details of the test work are described

  7. Estuarine Bathymetric Digital Elevation Models (30 meter and 3 arc second resolution) Derived From Source Hydrographic Survey Soundings Collected by NOAA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These Bathymetric Digital Elevation Models (DEM) were generated from original point soundings collected during hydrographic surveys conducted by the National Ocean...

  8. Portable wireless metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPaola, L [Powtel Monitoring Systems, Inc., Ajax, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    Portable meters were discussed as alternatives to standard billing meters for temporary installations. Current, voltage and power factor at a distribution station were measured to calculate kW and kVAR, using an easy to install product that communicates live readings directly to the existing billing system. A background of situations where temporary metering is a possible alternative to regular meters was presented. Use of electronic, clamp on Electronic Recording Ammeters (ERA) and their drawbacks were discussed. An improved temporary metering solution using FM radio transmission to deliver live data to a receiving device, the Eagle Series 3500, was introduced. Improvements over previous ERA systems were discussed, including accuracy, lack of batteries, immediate confirmation of functionality, current, voltage and power factor monitoring, direct feed to billing system, line crew savings, need for only a single unit at any given site, bi-directional power flow metering, independent report storage media, and a portable voltage and P.F. diagnostic tool. Details of trial applications at the Utopia distribution station west of Barrie, ON were presented. This technology was said to be still in the testing stage, but its flexibility and economy were sonsidered to be very promising for future application.

  9. Sector smart meter audit review report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-03-31

    This paper presented the results of an electricity distributor sector smart meter audit review conducted by the Ontario Energy Board (OEB) for the period of January 1, 2006 to September 30, 2009. The review summarized the results of a questionnaire related to distributors' smart meter regulatory accounting treatment. Seventy-eight distributors responded to the survey. The review included details of: (1) total investments in smart metering initiative for capital expenditures (CAPEX) and operating maintenance and administrative expenses (OM and A), (2) funding dollars received by the distributors, (3) board-approved recoveries for CAPEX and OM and A, (4) recorded stranded meter costs, and (5) number of smart meters installed in the review period. The audit review demonstrated that some distributors incorrectly recorded carrying charges related to smart meter OM and A expenses, and that some smart meter transactions were recorded in accounts other than OEB established accounts in the general ledger. Results of the audit will be used to provide further accounting assistance to electricity distributors. 7 tabs.

  10. Do breeding phase and detection distance influence the effective area surveyed for northern goshawks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, A.M.; Andersen, D.E.; Kennedy, P.L.

    2005-01-01

    Broadcast surveys using conspecific calls are currently the most effective method for detecting northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) during the breeding season. These surveys typically use alarm calls during the nestling phase and juvenile food-begging calls during the fledgling-dependency phase. Because goshawks are most vocal during the courtship phase, we hypothesized that this phase would be an effective time to detect goshawks. Our objective was to improve current survey methodology by evaluating the probability of detecting goshawks at active nests in northern Minnesota in 3 breeding phases and at 4 broadcast distances and to determine the effective area surveyed per broadcast station. Unlike previous studies, we broadcast calls at only 1 distance per trial. This approach better quantifies (1) the relationship between distance and probability of detection, and (2) the effective area surveyed (EAS) per broadcast station. We conducted 99 broadcast trials at 14 active breeding areas. When pooled over all distances, detection rates were highest during the courtship (70%) and fledgling-dependency phases (68%). Detection rates were lowest during the nestling phase (28%), when there appeared to be higher variation in likelihood of detecting individuals. EAS per broadcast station was 39.8 ha during courtship and 24.8 ha during fledgling-dependency. Consequently, in northern Minnesota, broadcast stations may be spaced 712m and 562 m apart when conducting systematic surveys during courtship and fledgling-dependency, respectively. We could not calculate EAS for the nestling phase because probability of detection was not a simple function of distance from nest. Calculation of EAS could be applied to other areas where the probability of detection is a known function of distance.

  11. Digital reactivity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zongbing

    1996-02-01

    The importance and the usual methods of reactivity measurement in a nuclear reactor are presented. Emphasis is put upon the calculation principle, software and hardware components, main specifications, application, as well as the features of the digital reactivity meter. The test results of operation in various reactors shown that the meter possess the following features: high accuracy, short response time, low output noise, high resolution, wide measuring range, simple and flexible to operate, high stability and reliability. In addition, the reactivity meter can save the measuring data automatically and have a perfect capability of self-verifying. It not only meet the requirement of the reactivity measurement in nuclear power plant, but also can be applied to various types of reactors. (1 tab.)

  12. Status of neutron monitoring meters for radiation protection purpose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Taosheng

    2003-01-01

    The status of and trends towards the development of neutron monitoring meters, such as dose survey meter, workplace (ambient) spectrometer and individual dosimeters, are discussed in the present paper from the perspectives of workplace and individual dose monitoring. Over the past 4 decades, both neutron dose survey meter and workplace spectrometer have declined to be more reasonable in design of their probes, with more broaden applications. With the development of electronic technology, there is a trend towards being more small-compacted and smart. Although many technical difficulties in the practical measurement, some significant progresses have be made in the development and research of these kinds of meters. (authors)

  13. Digital reactivity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akkus, B.; Anac, H.; Alsan, S.; Erk, S.

    1991-01-01

    Nowadays, various digital methods making use of microcomputers for neutron detector signals and determining the reactivity by numerical calculations are used in reactor control systems in place of classical reactivity meters. In this work, a calculation based on the ''The Time Dependent Transport Equation'' has been developed for determining the reactivity numerically. The reactivity values have been obtained utilizing a computer-based data acquisition and control system and compared with the analog reactivity meter values as well as the values calculated from the ''Inhour Equation''

  14. Conducted interference on smart meters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyer, Cornelis H.A.; Leferink, Frank

    2017-01-01

    The increasing conducted interference caused by modern electronic equipment is causing more problems for electronic, or static, energy meters. These meters are called smart meters when equipped with a communication link, and are replacing the conventional electromechanical meters. It is known that

  15. Successful well test application of portable multi-phase flow meter for high gas-volume and high water-cut wells in east Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaura, Jiten D.; Finley, D.B. [PT Halliburton Indonesia, Jakarta (Indonesia); Sudradjat, Wangsa; Riyanto, Latief [Tota E and P Indonesie, Jakarta (Indonesia); Halverson, Martin [FlowSys AS, Bergen (Norway)

    2004-07-01

    Recently, testing was needed on production wells in East Kalimantan. The wells were in a mature field, and productivity from the wells field featured high water cut (WC) and extremely high gas-volume fractions (GVF). The WC and GVF ranged from 80 to 100% and 90 to 100%, respectively. Moreover, most of the wells are low productivity so they are very sensitive to back-pressure. The high WC, high GVF and low-productivity from these wells in this area present an extreme challenge for accurate production measurement. Barges are commonly used to perform well services in the swamp area of this marginal field, and production allocations from wells in this difficult area were previously monitored and measured with conventional well-test equipment on-board a well testing barge. The well test equipment traditionally used requires a large footprint, and the associated flaring presents an environmental situation in this sensitive swamp area. Hence, the MPFM solution was chosen. To better meet the challenges presented by the testing conditions, a portable multiphase flow meter (MPFM) was chosen to perform the testing from the well-testing barge. For comparative purposes, the MPFM was installed on the barge immediately upstream of the well testing equipment. Initial measurements with the MPFM yielded results that were {+-} 30% of the test separator reading. A slight modification was introduced to the MPFM system in the form of a gas knock-out (GKO) vessel. Subsequent measurements with the modified MPFM system yielded readings that were {+-}10% of the test separator reading. (author)

  16. Water velocity meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, C. W.; Smith, D. L.

    1970-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive drag sphere velocity meter with a zero to 6 ft/sec range measures steady-state flow. When combined with appropriate data acquisition system, it is suited to applications where large numbers of simultaneous measurements are needed for current mapping or velocity profile determination.

  17. Carbon activity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, P.; Krankota, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    A carbon activity meter utilizing an electrochemical carbon cell with gaseous reference electrodes having particular application for measuring carbon activity in liquid sodium for the LMFBR project is described. The electrolyte container is electroplated with a thin gold film on the inside surface thereof, and a reference electrode consisting of CO/CO 2 gas is used. (U.S.)

  18. Net metering study of switching effects on electromechanical meters[Report prepared for the Measurement Canada Electricity Net Metering Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Overberghe, L. [Measurement Canada, London, ON (Canada)

    2006-03-03

    The feasibility of introducing net metering in the electricity sector was evaluated with particular reference to a project administered by Measurement Canada and Electro-Federation Canada (MicroPower Connect) in collaboration with Natural Resources Canada. The objective of the Measurement Canada Electricity Net Metering Project is to identify and eliminate the barriers introduced by the Electricity and Gas Inspection Act regarding the introduction of net metering. The purpose was to design a device that would allow rotation reversal in a residential electromechanical single phase meter. The device should approximate any fluctuations found in a typical net metering system. A series of tests were conducted to understand the influences, on errors, of forward-to-reverse and reverse-to-forward transitions, specifically to find evidence of error migration and mechanical stress. The project was designed to find and measure the effects of forward reverse switching on an electromechanical meter resulting from a change in energy flow. Twenty metres were calibrated in the forward direction in series from light load to high load. Power factor was not adjustable. Test points were then applied in both the forward and reverse directions. The exercise yielded individual errors which were aggregated to show average found errors after 3,000 transitions. Small shifts in errors were apparent and there was no evidence to support a disk flutter theory. refs., tabs., figs.

  19. Estimating disease prevalence from two-phase surveys with non-response at the second phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Sujuan; Hui, Siu L.; Hall, Kathleen S.; Hendrie, Hugh C.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY In this paper we compare several methods for estimating population disease prevalence from data collected by two-phase sampling when there is non-response at the second phase. The traditional weighting type estimator requires the missing completely at random assumption and may yield biased estimates if the assumption does not hold. We review two approaches and propose one new approach to adjust for non-response assuming that the non-response depends on a set of covariates collected at the first phase: an adjusted weighting type estimator using estimated response probability from a response model; a modelling type estimator using predicted disease probability from a disease model; and a regression type estimator combining the adjusted weighting type estimator and the modelling type estimator. These estimators are illustrated using data from an Alzheimer’s disease study in two populations. Simulation results are presented to investigate the performances of the proposed estimators under various situations. PMID:10931514

  20. Area monitoring of ambient dose rates in parts of South-Western Nigeria using a GPS-integrated radiation survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okeyode, I.C.; Rabiu, J.A.; Alatise, O.O.; Makinde, V.; Akinboro, F.G.; Mustapha, A.O.; Al-Azmi, D.

    2017-01-01

    A radiation monitoring system comprising a Geiger-Muller counter connected to a smart phone via Bluetooth was used for a dose rate survey in some parts of south-western Nigeria. The smart phone has the Geographical Positioning System, which provides the navigation information and saves it along with the dose rate data. A large number of data points was obtained that shows the dose rate distribution within the region. The results show that the ambient dose rates in the region range from 60 to 520 nSv -1 and showed a bias that is attributable to the influence of geology on the ambient radiation dose in the region. The geology influence was demonstrated by superimposing the dose rate plot and the geological map of the area. The potential applications of the device in determining baseline information and in area monitoring, e.g. for lost or abandoned sources, radioactive materials stockpiles, etc., were discussed in the article, particularly against the background of Nigeria's plan to develop its nuclear power program. (authors)

  1. Gamma absorption meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincklage, R.D. von.

    1984-01-01

    The absorption meter consists of a radiation source, a trough for the absorbing liquid and a detector. It is characterized by the fact that there is a foil between the detector and the trough, made of a material whose binding energy of the K electrons is a little greater than the energy of the photons emitted by the radiation source. The source of radiation and foil are replaceable. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Literature survey on phase composition of hardened cement paste containing fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Taku; Yamamoto, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this literature survey is to collect the knowledge on the effect of fly ash in hardened cement paste and the information about evaluation of physicochemical performance based on phase composition of hardened cement paste. The performance of hardened cement paste containing fly ash is affected by the property of fly ash, hydration of cement and pozzolanic reaction of fly ash. Some properties of fly ash such as density and chemical composition are reflected in phase composition, showing the progress of cement hydration and pozzolanic reaction. Therefore clarification of the relationship of phase composition and performance will lead to appropriate evaluation of the property of fly ash. The amount of pore, chemical shrinkage, pore solution, compressive strength, Young modulus and alkali silica reaction have relations to the phase composition of hardened cement paste. It is considered as future subject to clarify the relationship of phase composition and performance for various properties of fly ash. (author)

  3. Development of the impedance void meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Moon Ki; Song, Chul Hwa; Won, Soon Yeon; Kim, Bok Deuk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-06-01

    An impedance void meter is developed to measure the area-averaged void fraction. Its basic principle is based on the difference in the electrical conductivity between phases. Several methods of measuring void fraction are briefly reviewed and the reason why this type of void meter is chosen to develop is discussed. Basic principle of the measurement is thoroughly described and several design parameters to affect the overall function are discussed in detail. As example of applications is given for vertical air-water flow. It is shown that the current design has good dynamic response as well as very fine spatial resolution. (Author) 47 refs., 37 figs.

  4. MULTICHANNEL DISTRIBUTION METER: A VERITABLE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Usually, commercial home owners preferred the installation of one or few .... communication (GSM) based solution were presented. The authors ... meters. The proposed meters in their work uses .... The most probable data entry component to ...

  5. Metering Plan: Intelligent Operational Strategies Through Enhanced Metering Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, Jason E.

    2016-07-27

    The Sustainability Program at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has adopted a “triple-bottom-line” approach of environmental stewardship, social responsibility, and economic prosperity to its operations. Metering at PNNL works in support of all three, specifically to measure and inform building energy use and greenhouse gas emissions and minimize water use. The foundation for metering at PNNL is a core goal set, which consists of four objectives: providing accurate data without interruption, analyzing data while it is still new, providing actionable recommendations to operations management, and ensuring PNNL’s compliance with contract metering requirements. These core objectives guide the decisions that we make during annual planning and as we operate throughout the year. This 2016 edition of the Metering Plan conveys the metering practices for and vision of the Sustainability Program. Changes in this plan from the 2015 edition include updated tables and an enhanced discussion on energy tracking systems used at PNNL. This plan also discusses updated benchmarking strategies using PNNL’s graphics and analytics tool, BuildingOS by Lucid Design Group. This plan presents our progress toward the metering goals shared by all federal agencies and highlights our successful completion of metering requirements. Currently, PNNL is fully compliant with the applicable legislative and Executive Order metering requirements. PNNL’s approach to the installation of new meters will be discussed. Perhaps most importantly, this plan details the analysis techniques utilized at PNNL that rely on the endless streams of data newly available as a result of increased meter deployment over the last several years. Previous Metering Plans have documented specific meter connection schemes as PNNL focused on deploying meters in a first step toward managing energy and water use. This plan serves not only to highlight PNNL’s successful completion of agency metering goals, but

  6. Streamlining Smart Meter Data Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2015-01-01

    Today smart meters are increasingly used in worldwide. Smart meters are the advanced meters capable of measuring customer energy consumption at a fine-grained time interval, e.g., every 15 minutes. The data are very sizable, and might be from different sources, along with the other social-economic metrics such as the geographic information of meters, the information about users and their property, geographic location and others, which make the data management very complex. On the other hand, ...

  7. Smart meter incorporating UWB technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, T.A.; Khan, A.B.; Babar, M.; Taj, T.A.

    2014-01-01

    Smart Meter is a key element in the evolving concept of Smart Grid, which plays an important role in interaction between the consumer and the supplier. In general, the smart meter is an intelligent digital energy meter that measures the consumption of electrical energy and provides other additional

  8. Smart metering design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Weranga, K S K; Chandima, D P

    2013-01-01

    Taking into account the present day trends and the requirements, this Brief focuses on smart metering of electricity for next generation energy efficiency and conservation. The contents include discussions on the smart metering concepts and existing technologies and systems as well as design and implementation of smart metering schemes together with detailed examples.

  9. Net metering: zero electricity bill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangi, A.; Khan, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide move towards renewable energy sources, environmental concerns and decentralization of the power sector have made net metering an attractive option for power generation at small scale. This paper discusses the net metering, economical issues of renewable sources in Pakistan, technical aspects, installation suitability according to varying terrain, existing utility rules and formulation of legislation for net metering making it economically attractive. (author)

  10. Good standards for smart meters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenkamp, R.A.; Huitema, G.B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines what lessons can be learned from the rollout of smart meters in the Netherlands to improve the European smart meter standardization. This study is based on the case of the Dutch meter rollout which preparations started in 2005 but finally was delayed until 2011 by governmental

  11. A radon meter chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, R.

    1990-01-01

    The meter consists of a cylindrical house with two openings, at the ends, one of which is equipped with an alpha particle detector and the other covered with a metal net. The house is manufactured in an isolating material e.g. plastic, with a metallic layer applied to all internal surfaces. The metallic layer and net are kept at a positive electric potential, compared to the alpha detector, in order to attract the radon daughters to the detector and achieve a high efficiency. (L.E.)

  12. The phase curve survey of the irregular saturnian satellites: A possible method of physical classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, James M.; Grav, Tommy; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Hicks, Michael D.

    2006-09-01

    During its 2005 January opposition, the saturnian system could be viewed at an unusually low phase angle. We surveyed a subset of Saturn's irregular satellites to obtain their true opposition magnitudes, or nearly so, down to phase angle values of 0.01°. Combining our data taken at the Palomar 200-inch and Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory's 4-m Blanco telescope with those in the literature, we present the first phase curves for nearly half the irregular satellites originally reported by Gladman et al. [2001. Nature 412, 163-166], including Paaliaq (SXX), Siarnaq (SXXIX), Tarvos (SXXI), Ijiraq (SXXII), Albiorix (SXVI), and additionally Phoebe's narrowest angle brightness measured to date. We find centaur-like steepness in the phase curves or opposition surges in most cases with the notable exception of three, Albiorix and Tarvos, which are suspected to be of similar origin based on dynamical arguments, and Siarnaq.

  13. Review of Development Survey of Phase Change Material Models in Building Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein J. Akeiber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of phase change materials (PCMs in green buildings has been increasing rapidly. PCM applications in green buildings include several development models. This paper briefly surveys the recent research and development activities of PCM technology in building applications. Firstly, a basic description of phase change and their principles is provided; the classification and applications of PCMs are also included. Secondly, PCM models in buildings are reviewed and discussed according to the wall, roof, floor, and cooling systems. Finally, conclusions are presented based on the collected data.

  14. The blowdown, refill and reflood phase during a LOCA. Survey of the main physical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reocreux, M.

    1980-05-01

    In this paper, the main physical phenomena occuring during a LOCA are reviewed. They are presented in a chronological order. For each phenomena, a detailed physical description is given followed by the review of the general modelling problems. For some of these phenomena, modelling details are given for critical flow, for two-phase flow and heat transfer, for critical heat flux and post critical heat flux heat transfer, for reflood and rewet heat transfer and in the survey on LOCA computation codes

  15. Portable wireless metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPaola, L

    1996-12-31

    Electric utilities often face situations where conventional distribution station billing meters have been removed from service. This paper presents an innovative alternative to traditional solutions to the temporary billing situation such as the use of clamp-on devices called electronic recording ammeters. It examines how Ontario Hydro is measuring current, voltage, and power factor at a distribution station to calculate kilowatts and kVAR using an easy-to-install product that communicates its live readings directly to an existing billing system. The devices used for the measurements can be easily attached to a power line with a hotstick and contain a special core which senses current flow and powers appropriate electronics, which digitizes voltage and current data and transmits it via low-power FM radio for subsequent data storage and processing. The paper includes results of field trials and outlines the advantages of using the device.

  16. GAS METERING PUMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, C.M.

    1957-12-31

    A liquid piston gas pump is described, capable of pumping minute amounts of gas in accurately measurable quantities. The pump consists of a flanged cylindrical regulating chamber and a mercury filled bellows. Sealed to the ABSTRACTS regulating chamber is a value and having a gas inlet and outlet, the inlet being connected by a helical channel to the bellows. A gravity check valve is in the gas outlet, so the gas passes through the inlet and the helical channel to the bellows where the pumping action as well as the metering is accomplished by the actuation of the mercury filled bellows. The gas then flows through the check valve and outlet to any associated apparatus.

  17. Radiation dose rate meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronenberg, S.; Siebentritt, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    A combined dose rate meter and charger unit therefor which does not require the use of batteries but on the other hand produces a charging potential by means of a piezoelectric cylinder which is struck by a manually triggered hammer mechanism. A tubular type electrometer is mounted in a portable housing which additionally includes a geiger-muller (Gm) counter tube and electronic circuitry coupled to the electrometer for providing multi-mode operation. In one mode of operation, an rc circuit of predetermined time constant is connected to a storage capacitor which serves as a timed power source for the gm tube, providing a measurement in terms of dose rate which is indicated by the electrometer. In another mode, the electrometer indicates individual counts

  18. Simulation of Phase Meter Using TINA Software

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJC

    analysis. Transient analysis calculates the circuit response to various input waveforms. Results ... with key components IC AD633 and OPAMP. .... Circuit simulation has become a core technology in the field of modern electronics engineering,.

  19. How to use your peak flow meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... meter - how to use; Asthma - peak flow meter; Reactive airway disease - peak flow meter; Bronchial asthma - peak ... 2014:chap 55. National Asthma Education and Prevention Program website. How to use a peak flow meter. ...

  20. Micro-gen metering solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elland, J.; Dickson, J.; Cranfield, P.

    2003-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a project to investigate the regulation of domestic electricity metering work and identify the most economic options for micro-generator installers to undertake work on electricity meters. A micro-generation unit is defined as an energy conversion system converting non-electrical energy into electrical energy and can include technologies such as photovoltaic systems, small-scale wind turbines, micro-hydroelectric systems, and combined heat and power systems. Details of six tasks are given and cover examination of the existing framework and legal documentation for metering work, the existing technical requirements for meter operators, meter operator personnel accreditation, appraisal of options for meter changes and for micro-generation installation, document change procedures, industry consultation, and a review of the costs implications of the options.

  1. Design and construction of the prototype of a digital meter of single phase electric energy based in a microcontroller; Diseno y construccion del prototipo de un medidor digital de energia electrica monofasico basado en un microcontrolador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Alonso, Ruben

    2003-10-15

    This research work presents the design and construction of a single-phase microcontroller-based digital electric energy meter. The digital instrument displays the energy demand (kw-h) based on up-to-date tariff provided by the Mexican national utility Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). The meter digitally processes voltage and current line waveform samples taken at its input, displaying, in real time, the number of electrical parameters calculated. For a better instrument performance a PIC16F874 microcontroller from microchip has been used as computational core. The parameters of interest are visualized in a liquid crystal display of 2 X 16 characters. The user interface includes a menu where some of the parameters can be selected by the operator. In the event of an electric power supply disruption the meter keeps to the energy consumption in memory. The voltage and current measured levels ranges from 1 to 255 Vrms and 0.1 to 25.5 Arms, respectively. The power is displayed in 5 digits ranging from 0 to 6502.5 watts and the energy is displayed with 5 whole digits and 5 decimals ranging, from 0 kWh up to 99999.99999 kWh. These values are refreshed every one second together with the actual electrical consumption cost which ranges from 0 up to 9999.9 pesos. The digital measuring instrument has been built based on four main inter-connected modules named, data acquisition; signal conditioning; signal processing; and display. A set of efficient assembly code routines has been developed in order to calculate the number of electrical parameter previously described. After a debugging process, the optimised code has been assembled for the PIC16F874. [Spanish] El trabajo presenta el diseno y construccion de un medidor digital de energia electrica basado en un microcontrolador, el cual visualiza la demanda por el consumo de kWh, basandose en una tarifa escalonada de tipo domestico de CFE. Tambien el aparato visualiza voltaje, corriente, potencia y el tiempo de medicion

  2. 77 FR 40586 - Draft NIST Interagency Report (NISTIR) 7823, Advanced Metering Infrastructure Smart Meter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ...-01] Draft NIST Interagency Report (NISTIR) 7823, Advanced Metering Infrastructure Smart Meter... Technology (NIST) seeks comments on Draft NISTIR 7823, Advanced Metering Infrastructure Smart Meter... conformance test requirements for the firmware upgradeability process for the Advanced Metering Infrastructure...

  3. Digital reactivity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copie, M.; Valantic, B.

    1978-01-01

    Digital reactivity meters (DRM) are mostly used as measuring instruments, e.g. for calibration of control rods, and there are only a few cases of their incorporation into the control systems of the reactors. To move in this direction there is more development work needed. First of all, fast algorithms are needed for inverse kinetics equations to relieve the computer for more important tasks of reactor model solving in real time. The next problem, currently under investigation, is the incorporation of the reactor thermal-hydraulic model into the DRM so that it can be used in the power range. Such an extension of DHM allows presentation not only of the instantaneous reactivity of the system, but also the inserted reactivity can be estimated from the temperature reactivity feed-backs. One of the applications of this concept is the anomalous digital reactivity monitor (ADRN) as part of the reactor protection system. As a solution of the first problem, a fast algorithm for solving the inverse kinetics equations has been implemented in the off-line program RODCAL on CDC 1700 computer and tested for its accuracy by performing different control rod calibrations on the reactor TRIGA

  4. Streamlining Smart Meter Data Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2015-01-01

    of the so-called big data possible. This can improve energy management, e.g., help utilities improve the management of energy and services, and help customers save money. As this regard, the paper focuses on building an innovative software solution to streamline smart meter data analytic, aiming at dealing......Today smart meters are increasingly used in worldwide. Smart meters are the advanced meters capable of measuring customer energy consumption at a fine-grained time interval, e.g., every 15 minutes. The data are very sizable, and might be from different sources, along with the other social......-economic metrics such as the geographic information of meters, the information about users and their property, geographic location and others, which make the data management very complex. On the other hand, data-mining and the emerging cloud computing technologies make the collection, management, and analysis...

  5. Status of Net Metering: Assessing the Potential to Reach Program Caps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Gelman, R.; Bird, L.

    2014-09-01

    Several states are addressing the issue of net metering program caps, which limit the total amount of net metered generating capacity that can be installed in a state or utility service territory. In this analysis, we examine net metering caps to gain perspective on how long net metering will be available in various jurisdictions under current policies. We also surveyed state practices and experience to understand important policy design considerations.

  6. The 1992 Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey: Phase 1 : Book 1 : Getting Started.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Applied Management & Planning Group (firm); United States. Bonneville Power Administration. End-Use Research Section.

    1993-08-01

    This Executive Summary outlines the general processes employed in and the major findings from the conduct of Phase I of the Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey (PNWRES92-I) during the last quarter of 1992. This study was Bonneville`s third comprehensive residential survey of the region, conducted to provide data on energy usage, conservation awareness and behaviors, and associated consumer characteristics for use in forecasting and planning. The summary is divided into four sections: Background sets the stage with respect to the need for the survey, relates it to previous work, outlines the implementation processes, and summarizes the data products. Profiling the respondents summarizes the survey results under these six categories: Demographics; Housing Units; Room Inventory; Appliance Inventory; Air-Conditioning/Heating; Water-Heating; and Opinion. Reports and cross-tabulations describes the various individual documents. Bonneville Power Plus provides a short description of an Excel-spreadsheet-based software program that contains all of the tabulated material in a format that encourages browsing among the tables and charts, with special feature that they can be copied directly into other Windows-based documents.

  7. Phase I Marine and Terrestrial Cultural Resources Survey of 13 Project Items Located on Marsh Island, Iberia Parish, Louisiana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barr, William

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the results of Phase I cultural resources survey and archeological inventory of two marine and 11 terrestrial project items on and near Marsh Island in Iberia Parish, Louisiana...

  8. Smart metering - energy data management at every meter point; Smart Metering - Energiedatenmanagement an jedem Zaehlpunkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller-Giessbach, D.; Kiel, E. [LogicaCMG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    The demise of monopolistic structures in the German energy market has also led to a change of perspective on metering. New requirements have to be met. Even in mass processing jobs such as meter reading it is no longer sufficient to simply read consumption data off a technically reliable meter or have customers do this themselves in preparation of billing. Currently used meters were not designed with a mind to demand management, environmental protection through energy conservation, changes in consumer behaviour or new service offers. This has been recognised in many European countries since the beginning of the present decade. The traditional task of metering is developing into a more comprehensive energy data management that takes account of the needs of customers, energy suppliers and regulatory requirements.

  9. Guidance on the Use of Hand-Held Survey Meters for radiological Triage: Time-Dependent Detector Count Rates Corresponding to 50, 250, and 500 mSv Effective Dose for Adult Males and Adult Females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolch, W.E.; Hurtado, J.L.; Lee, C.; Manger, Ryan P.; Hertel, Nolan; Burgett, E.; Dickerson, W.

    2012-01-01

    In June 2006, the Radiation Studies Branch of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention held a workshop to explore rapid methods of facilitating radiological triage of large numbers of potentially contaminated individuals following detonation of a radiological dispersal device. Two options were discussed. The first was the use of traditional gamma cameras in nuclear medicine departments operated as makeshift wholebody counters. Guidance on this approach is currently available from the CDC. This approach would be feasible if a manageable number of individuals were involved, transportation to the relevant hospitals was quickly provided, and the medical staff at each facility had been previously trained in this non-traditional use of their radiopharmaceutical imaging devices. If, however, substantially larger numbers of individuals (100 s to 1,000 s) needed radiological screening, other options must be given to first responders, first receivers, and health physicists providing medical management. In this study, the second option of the workshop was investigated by the use of commercially available portable survey meters (either NaI or GM based) for assessing potential ranges of effective dose (G50, 50Y250, 250Y500, and 9500 mSv). Two hybrid computational phantoms were used to model an adult male and an adult female subject internally contaminated with 241Am, 60Cs, 137Cs, 131I, or 192Ir following an acute inhalation or ingestion intake. As a function of time following the exposure, the net count rates corresponding to committed effective doses of 50, 250, and 500 mSv were estimated via Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation for each of four different detector types, positions, and screening distances. Measured net count rates can be compared to these values, and an assignment of one of four possible effective dose ranges could be made. The method implicitly assumes that all external contamination has been removed prior to screening and that the measurements be

  10. Beyond revenue metering -- a new age for automatic meter reading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chebra, R. J. [RJC Consulting L.L.C., PQ (Canada)

    2002-10-01

    Advanced metering, data management, and communications possibilities of automated meter reading are explored. Applications in the area of demand side management, including load reduction, peak shaving and load shifting, new tariff structures based on the 'time of use incentive/penalty' approach, and information grade metering are emphasized. Based on trends and expectations, it is predicted that AMR will continue to experience rapid growth and deployment as new services are made available to the mass market. For example, technological advances will enable the industry to make 'time of use metering ' more attractive and beneficial to residential consumers, and embedded intelligence will make it possible to achieve more holistic energy environments.

  11. Hybrid TLC-pair meter for the Sphinx Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, T.; Yamamoto, I.; Takahashi, N.; Misaki, A.

    1985-01-01

    The chief aims in THE SPHINX PROJECT are research of super lepton physics and new detector experiments. At the second phase of THE SPHINX PROJECT, a hybrid TLC-PAIR METER was designed for measuring high energy neutrino sources (E upsilon * TeV), searching high energy muon sources (E mu TeV) and measuring muon group (E mu 1 TeV). The principle of PAIR METER has been already proposed. In this TLC-PAIR METER, electromagnetic shower induced by cosmic ray muons are detected using TL (Thermoluminescence) sheets with position counters.

  12. Hybrid TLC-pair meter for the Sphinx Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, T.; Yamamoto, I.; Takahashi, N.; Misaki, A.

    1985-01-01

    The chief aims in the Sphinx Project are research on super lepton physics and new detector experiments. In the second phase of the Sphinx Project, a hybrid TLC-pair meter was designed for measuring for high energy neutrino sources (E upsilon * TeV), searching high energy muon sources (E mu TeV), and measuring muon groups (E mu 1 TeV). The principle of the pair meter has been already proposed. In this TLC pair meter, electromagnetic showers induced by cosmic ray muons are detected using thermoluminescene sheets with position counters

  13. The 1992 Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey : Phase 1 : Book 4 : Item-by-item Crosstabulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. End-Use Research Section; Applied Management & Planning Group (Firm)

    1993-06-01

    This book constitutes a portion of the primary documentation for the 1992 Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey, Phase I. The complete 33-volume set of primary documentation provides information needed by energy analysts and interpreters with respect to planning, execution, data collection, and data management of the PNWRES92-I process. Thirty of these volumes are devoted to different ``views`` of the data themselves, with each view having a special purpose or interest as its focus. Analyses and interpretations of these data will be the subjects of forthcoming publications. Conducted during the late summer and fall months of 1992, PNWRES92-I had the over-arching goal of satisfying basic requirements for a variety of information about the stock of residential units in Bonneville`s service region. Surveys with a similar goal were conducted in 1979 and 1983. This volume discerns the information by state. ``Selected crosstabulations`` refers to a set of nine survey items of wide interest (Dwelling Type, Ownership Type, Year-of-Construction, Dwelling Size, Primary Space-Heating Fuel, Primary Water-Heating Fuel, Household Income for 1991, Utility Type, and Space-Heating Fuels: Systems and Equipment) that were crosstabulated among themselves.

  14. Automated borehole gravity meter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautzenhiser, Th.V.; Wirtz, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    An automated borehole gravity meter system for measuring gravity within a wellbore. The gravity meter includes leveling devices for leveling the borehole gravity meter, displacement devices for applying forces to a gravity sensing device within the gravity meter to bring the gravity sensing device to a predetermined or null position. Electronic sensing and control devices are provided for (i) activating the displacement devices, (ii) sensing the forces applied to the gravity sensing device, (iii) electronically converting the values of the forces into a representation of the gravity at the location in the wellbore, and (iv) outputting such representation. The system further includes electronic control devices with the capability of correcting the representation of gravity for tidal effects, as well as, calculating and outputting the formation bulk density and/or porosity

  15. In situ survey of life cycle phases of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frada, Miguel J; Bidle, Kay D; Probert, Ian; de Vargas, Colomban

    2012-06-01

    The cosmopolitan coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi is characterized by a strongly differentiated haplodiplontic life cycle consisting of a diploid phase, generally bearing coccoliths (calcified) but that can be also non-calcified, and a non-calcified biflagellated haploid phase. Given most studies have focused on the bloom-producing calcified phase, there is little-to-no information about non-calcified cells in nature. Using field mesocoms as experimental platforms, we quantitatively surveyed calcified and non-calcified cells using the combined calcareous detection fluorescent in situ hybridization (COD-FISH) method and qualitatively screened for haploid specific transcripts using reverse transcription-PCR during E. huxleyi bloom successions. Diploid, calcified cells formed dense blooms that were followed by the massive proliferation of E. huxleyi viruses (EhVs), which caused bloom demise. Non-calcified cells were also detected throughout the experiment, accounting for a minor fraction of the population but becoming progressively more abundant during mid-late bloom periods concomitant with EhV burst. Non-calcified cell growth also paralleled a distinct window of haploid-specific transcripts and the appearance of autotrophic flagellates morphologically similar to haploid cells, both of which are suggestive of meiosis and sexual life cycling during natural blooms of this prominent marine phytoplankton species. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. A multi-institutional survey evaluating patient related QA – phase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teichmann Tobias

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In phase I of the survey a planning intercomparison of patient-related QA was performed at 12 institutions. The participating clinics created phantom based IMRT and VMAT plans which were measured utilizing the ArcCheck diode array. Mobius3D (M3D was used in phase II. It acts as a secondary dose verification tool for patient-specific QA based on average linac beam data collected by Mobius Medical Systems. All Quasimodo linac plans will be analyzed for the continuation of the intercomparison. We aim to determine if Mobius3D is suited for use with diverse treatment techniques, if beam model customization is needed. Initially we computed first Mobius3D results by transferring all plans from phase I to our Mobius3D server. Because of some larger PTV mean dose differences we checked if output factor customization would be beneficial. We performed measurements and output factor correction to account for discrepancies in reference conditions. Compared to Mobius3D's preconfigured average beam data values, these corrected output factors differed by ±1.5% for field sizes between 7x7cm2 and 30x30cm2 and to −3.9% for 3x3cm2. Our method of correcting the output factors turns out good congruence to M3D's reference values for these medium field sizes.

  17. A two-phase sampling survey for nonresponse and its paradata to correct nonresponse bias in a health surveillance survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, G; Bénézet, L; Geoffroy-Perez, B; Bouyer, J; Guéguen, A

    2017-02-01

    The decline in participation rates in surveys, including epidemiological surveillance surveys, has become a real concern since it may increase nonresponse bias. The aim of this study is to estimate the contribution of a complementary survey among a subsample of nonrespondents, and the additional contribution of paradata in correcting for nonresponse bias in an occupational health surveillance survey. In 2010, 10,000 workers were randomly selected and sent a postal questionnaire. Sociodemographic data were available for the whole sample. After data collection of the questionnaires, a complementary survey among a random subsample of 500 nonrespondents was performed using a questionnaire administered by an interviewer. Paradata were collected for the complete subsample of the complementary survey. Nonresponse bias in the initial sample and in the combined samples were assessed using variables from administrative databases available for the whole sample, not subject to differential measurement errors. Corrected prevalences by reweighting technique were estimated by first using the initial survey alone and then the initial and complementary surveys combined, under several assumptions regarding the missing data process. Results were compared by computing relative errors. The response rates of the initial and complementary surveys were 23.6% and 62.6%, respectively. For the initial and the combined surveys, the relative errors decreased after correction for nonresponse on sociodemographic variables. For the combined surveys without paradata, relative errors decreased compared with the initial survey. The contribution of the paradata was weak. When a complex descriptive survey has a low response rate, a short complementary survey among nonrespondents with a protocol which aims to maximize the response rates, is useful. The contribution of sociodemographic variables in correcting for nonresponse bias is important whereas the additional contribution of paradata in

  18. Low Cost Digital Vibration Meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, W Vance; Geist, Jon

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the development of a low cost, digital Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) vibration meter that reports an approximation to the RMS acceleration of the vibration to which the vibration meter is subjected. The major mechanical element of this vibration meter is a cantilever beam, which is on the order of 500 µm in length, with a piezoresistor deposited at its base. Vibration of the device in the plane perpendicular to the cantilever beam causes it to bend, which produces a measurable change in the resistance of a piezoresistor. These changes in resistance along with a unique signal-processing scheme are used to determine an approximation to the RMS acceleration sensed by the device.

  19. Smart Metering System for Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacios-Garcia, Emilio; Guan, Yajuan; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    suppliers, but they can also play a big role in the control of the Microgrid since the recorded power and energy profiles can be integrated in energy management systems (EMS). In addition, basic power quality (PQ) disturbance can de detected and reported by some advanced metering systems. Thus, this paper...... will expose an example of Smart Meters integration in a Microgrid scenario, which is the Intelligent Microgrid Lab of Aalborg University (AAU). To do this, first the installation available in the Microgrid Lab will be introduced. Then, three different test scenarios and their respective results...... will be presented, regarding the capabilities of this system and the advantages of integration the Smart Meters information in the Microgrid control....

  20. Metering in the gas supply sector; Metering in der Gasversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernekinck, U. [RWE Westfalen-Weser-Ems, Recklinghausen (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    The new conditions of competition in the gas supply sector have strongly increased the requirements on gas grid operators. Mainly an exact gas metering and -accouting will become more and more important. The systems and procedures are presented in detail in this contribution. (GL)

  1. Microprocessor controlled digital period meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.J.; McDowell, W.P.; Rusch, G.K.

    1980-01-01

    A microprocessor controlled digital period meter has been developed and tested operationally on a reactor at Argonne National Laboratory. The principle of operation is the mathematical relationship between asymptotic periods and pulse counting circuitry. This relationship is used to calculate and display the reactor periods over a range of /plus or minus/1 second to /plus or minus/999 seconds. The time interval required to update each measurement automatically varies from 8 seconds at the lowest counting rates to 2 seconds at higher counting rates. The paper will describe hardware and software design details and show the advantages of this type of Period Meter over the conventional circuits. 1 ref

  2. A two-phase sampling design for increasing detections of rare species in occupancy surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, Krishna; Dorazio, Robert M.; Dorazio, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    1. Occupancy estimation is a commonly used tool in ecological studies owing to the ease at which data can be collected and the large spatial extent that can be covered. One major obstacle to using an occupancy-based approach is the complications associated with designing and implementing an efficient survey. These logistical challenges become magnified when working with rare species when effort can be wasted in areas with none or very few individuals. 2. Here, we develop a two-phase sampling approach that mitigates these problems by using a design that places more effort in areas with higher predicted probability of occurrence. We compare our new sampling design to traditional single-season occupancy estimation under a range of conditions and population characteristics. We develop an intuitive measure of predictive error to compare the two approaches and use simulations to assess the relative accuracy of each approach. 3. Our two-phase approach exhibited lower predictive error rates compared to the traditional single-season approach in highly spatially correlated environments. The difference was greatest when detection probability was high (0·75) regardless of the habitat or sample size. When the true occupancy rate was below 0·4 (0·05-0·4), we found that allocating 25% of the sample to the first phase resulted in the lowest error rates. 4. In the majority of scenarios, the two-phase approach showed lower error rates compared to the traditional single-season approach suggesting our new approach is fairly robust to a broad range of conditions and design factors and merits use under a wide variety of settings. 5. Synthesis and applications. Conservation and management of rare species are a challenging task facing natural resource managers. It is critical for studies involving rare species to efficiently allocate effort and resources as they are usually of a finite nature. We believe our approach provides a framework for optimal allocation of effort while

  3. Arrival metering fuel consumption analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Arrival metering is a method of time-based traffic management that is used by the Federal Aviation Administration to plan and manage streams of arrival traffic during periods of : high demand at busy airports. The Traffic Management Advisor is an aut...

  4. The Thirty-Meter Telescope

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... The Thirty-Meter Telescope international observatory will enable transformational observations over the full cosmic timeline all the way from the first luminous objects in the Universe to the planets and moons of our own solar system. To realize its full scientific potential, TMT will be equipped with a powerful ...

  5. Rate meter design and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peon Aguirre, R.; Fonseca Araujo, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    An electric diagram is proposed to build a geiger detector Rate Meter, to count gamma radiation and X ray. This idea was made up with the prototype construction which has a five scales analogue display (100, 300, 1000, 3000 and 10000 c/s). (Author)

  6. Smart metering. Conformance tests for electricity meters; Smart Metering. Konformitaetstests an Stromzaehlern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bormann, Matthias; Pongratz, Siegfried [VDE Pruef- und Zertifizierungsinstitut, Offenbach (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Introduction of communication technologies into today's energy network enables the interworking between the domains of smart metering, smart grid, smart home and e-mobility as well as the creation and provisioning of new innovative services such as efficient load adjustment. Due to this convergence the new energy networks are becoming increasingly complex. Ensuring the interworking between all network elements (e.g. electricity meters, gateways) in these smart energy networks is of utmost importance. To this end conformance and interoperability tests have to be defined to ensure that services work as expected. (orig.)

  7. Spectral correction factors for conventional neutron dose meters used in high-energy neutron environments improved and extended results based on a complete survey of all neutron spectra in IAEA-TRS-403

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oparaji, U.; Tsai, Y. H.; Liu, Y. C.; Lee, K. W.; Patelli, E.; Sheu, R. J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents improved and extended results of our previous study on corrections for conventional neutron dose meters used in environments with high-energy neutrons (E n > 10 MeV). Conventional moderated-type neutron dose meters tend to underestimate the dose contribution of high-energy neutrons because of the opposite trends of dose conversion coefficients and detection efficiencies as the neutron energy increases. A practical correction scheme was proposed based on analysis of hundreds of neutron spectra in the IAEA-TRS-403 report. By comparing 252 Cf-calibrated dose responses with reference values derived from fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients, this study provides recommendations for neutron field characterization and the corresponding dose correction factors. Further sensitivity studies confirm the appropriateness of the proposed scheme and indicate that (1) the spectral correction factors are nearly independent of the selection of three commonly used calibration sources: 252 Cf, 241 Am-Be and 239 Pu-Be; (2) the derived correction factors for Bonner spheres of various sizes (6''-9'') are similar in trend and (3) practical high-energy neutron indexes based on measurements can be established to facilitate the application of these correction factors in workplaces. (authors)

  8. Squid based beam current meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchnir, M.

    1983-01-01

    A SQUID based beam current meter has the capability of measuring the current of a beam with as little as 30 x 155 antiprotons (with a signal to noise ratio of 2). If low noise dc current is used to cancel most of the beam or an up-down counter is used to count auto-resets this sensitivity will be available at any time in the acumulation process. This current meter will therefore be a unique diagnostic tool for optimizing the performance of several Tev I components. Besides requiring liquid helium it seems that its only drawback is not to follow with the above sensitivity a sudden beam change larger than 16 μA, something that could be done using a second one in a less sensitive configuration

  9. Federal Building Metering Guidance (per 42 U.S.C. 8253(e), Metering of Energy Use)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-11-01

    Guidance defines which federal buildings are appropriate to meter, provides metering prioritization recommendations for agencies with limited resources, and discusses the requirement for agencies to submit metering implementation plans to the U.S. Department of Energy.

  10. Cross-cultural differences in meter perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalender, Beste; Trehub, Sandra E; Schellenberg, E Glenn

    2013-03-01

    We examined the influence of incidental exposure to varied metrical patterns from different musical cultures on the perception of complex metrical structures from an unfamiliar musical culture. Adults who were familiar with Western music only (i.e., simple meters) and those who also had limited familiarity with non-Western music were tested on their perception of metrical organization in unfamiliar (Turkish) music with simple and complex meters. Adults who were familiar with Western music detected meter-violating changes in Turkish music with simple meter but not in Turkish music with complex meter. Adults with some exposure to non-Western music that was unmetered or metrically complex detected meter-violating changes in Turkish music with both simple and complex meters, but they performed better on patterns with a simple meter. The implication is that familiarity with varied metrical structures, including those with a non-isochronous tactus, enhances sensitivity to the metrical organization of unfamiliar music.

  11. Net metering in British Columbia : white paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, T.

    2003-01-01

    Net metering was described as being the reverse registration of an electricity customer's revenue meter when interconnected with a utility's grid. It is a provincial policy designed to encourage small-distributed renewable power generation such as micro-hydro, solar energy, fuel cells, and larger-scale wind energy. It was noted that interconnection standards for small generation is an important issue that must be addressed. The British Columbia Utilities Commission has asked BC Hydro to prepare a report on the merits of net metering in order to support consultations on a potential net metering tariff application by the utility. This report provides information on net metering with reference to experience in other jurisdictions with net metering, and the possible costs and benefits associated with net metering from both a utility and consumer perspective. Some of the barriers and policy considerations for successful implementation of net metering were also discussed. refs., tabs., figs

  12. Versatile operation meter for nuclear information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yong; Xiao Yabin; Wang Shuyuan; Shu Jingfang; Di Shaoliang; Wu Hongbin

    1995-01-01

    This paper states a low-cost, small-volume, multi-function, reproducible and new model intelligent nuclear electronic meter. It's hardware and Software were detailed and the 137 Cs spectrum with this meter was presented

  13. Calibration of dose meters used in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This manual is a practical guide, not a comprehensive textbook, to the instrumentation and procedures necessary to calibrate a radiation dose meter used in clinical practice against a secondary standard dose meter

  14. Hardware Design of a Smart Meter

    OpenAIRE

    Ganiyu A. Ajenikoko; Anthony A. Olaomi

    2014-01-01

    Smart meters are electronic measurement devices used by utilities to communicate information for billing customers and operating their electric systems. This paper presents the hardware design of a smart meter. Sensing and circuit protection circuits are included in the design of the smart meter in which resistors are naturally a fundamental part of the electronic design. Smart meters provides a route for energy savings, real-time pricing, automated data collection and elimina...

  15. Intelligent Metering for Urban Water: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rodney Stewart; Stuart White; Candice Moy; Ariane Liu; Pierre Mukheibir; Damien Giurco; Thomas Boyle

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the drivers, development and global deployment of intelligent water metering in the urban context. Recognising that intelligent metering (or smart metering) has the potential to revolutionise customer engagement and management of urban water by utilities, this paper provides a summary of the knowledge-base for researchers and industry practitioners to ensure that the technology fosters sustainable urban water management. To date, roll-outs of intelligent metering have been ...

  16. Seismic survey in southeastern Socorro Island: Background noise measurements, seismic events, and T phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenzuela, Raul W [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Galindo, Marta [Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization, IMS, Vienna (Austria); Pacheco, Javier F; Iglesias, Arturo; Teran, Luis F [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Barreda, Jose L; Coba, Carlos [Facultad de Ingenieria, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2005-01-15

    We carried out a seismic survey and installed five portable, broadband seismometers in the southeastern corner of Socorro Island during June 1999. Power spectral densities for all five sites were relatively noisy when compared to reference curves around the world. Power spectral densities remain constant regardless of the time of day, or the day of the week. Cultural noise at the island is very small. Quiet and noisy sites were identified to determine the best location of the T phase station to be installed jointly by the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization. During the survey six earthquakes were recorded at epicentral distances between 42 km and 2202 km, with magnitudes between 2.8 and 7.0. Two small earthquakes (M{sub c} = 2.8 and 3.3) occurred on the Clarion Fracture Zone. The four largest and more distant earthquakes produced T waves. One T wave from an epicenter near the coast of Guatemala had a duration of about 100 s and a frequency content between 2 and 8 Hz, with maximum amplitude at about 4.75 Hz. The Tehuacan earthquake of June 15, 1999 (M{sub w} = 7.0) produced arrivals of P {yields} T and S {yields} T waves, with energy between 2 Hz and 3.75 Hz. The earthquake occurred inland within the subducted Cocos plate at a depth of 60 km; a significant portion of the path was continental. Seismic P and S waves probably propagated upward in the subducted slab, and were converted to acoustic energy at the continental slope. Total duration of the T phase is close to 500 s and reaches its maximum amplitude about 200 s after the P {yields} T arrival. The T wave contains energy at frequencies between 2 and 10 Hz and reaches its maximum amplitude at about 2.5 Hz. T phases were also recorded from two earthquakes in Guerrero, Mexico and in the Rivera Fracture Zone. [Spanish] En junio de 1999 instalamos cinco sismometros portatiles de banda ancha en el sureste de la Isla Socorro. Se encontro que las densidades

  17. 5 Meter Alaska Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) - USGS National Map 3DEP Downloadable Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is comprised of 5-meter ifsar-derived Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) over Alaska only. It is distributed as one-degree blocks with overedge. Horizontal...

  18. Smart Metering. Technological, economic and legal aspects. 2. ed.; Smart Metering. Technologische, wirtschaftliche und juristische Aspekte des Smart Metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler-Schute, Christiana (ed.)

    2010-07-01

    Smart metering comprises more than just meter technology, and the use of information and communication technologies is indispensable. Processes, roles and business models must be reconsidered as further challenges arise in the context of smart metering. For one, there is the operator of the metering points. Secondly, there is the end user who is in the role of an active market partner. Further, there is smart metering as a basic technology, e.g. for smart grids and smart homes. In spite of the need for action, many utilities are reluctant to introduce smart metering. Reasons for this are the cost, a lack of defined standards, and an unclear legal situation. On the other hand, smart metering offers potential for grids and distribution that should be made use of. The authors discuss all aspects of the subject. The point out the chances and limitations of smart metering and present their own experience. [German] Smart Metering geht weit ueber die Zaehlertechnologie hinaus und der Einsatz von Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien ist unabdingbar. Damit einhergehend muessen Prozesse, Rollen und auch Geschaeftsmodelle neu durchdacht werden. Denn weitere Herausforderungen stehen im direkten Zusammenhang mit Smart Metering. Das ist zum einen die Rolle des Messstellenbetreibers / Messdienstleisters. Das ist zum anderen der Endnutzer, dem die Rolle des aktiven Marktpartners zugedacht wird. Das ist des Weiteren das Smart Metering als Basistechnologie beispielsweise fuer Smart Grid und Smart Home. Trotz des Handlungsdrucks stehen viele Unternehmen der Energiewirtschaft dem Smart Metering zurueckhaltend gegenueber. Drei gewichtige Gruende werden ins Feld gefuehrt: die Kostenfrage, nicht definierte Standards und die in vielen Bereichen ungeklaerte Gesetzeslage. Demgegenueber bietet das Smart Metering Potenziale fuer Netz und Vertrieb, die es zu nutzen gilt. Die Autoren setzen sich in ihren Beitraegen mit diesen Themen auseinander, zeigen Chancen, aber auch Grenzen des

  19. Fundamental principles of rotary displacement meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, J. [Schlumberger Industries, Owenton, KY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The gas meter exists to continually and accurately measure the volume of gas supplied over the complete flow range of the load. In effect the gas meter serves as the {open_quotes}cash register{close_quotes} of the gas industry; its accurate and dependable performance ensures fair dealings for both the supplier and the user. An investment both in and of itself, the gas meter should be chosen as a function of its usefullness both over the short term and the long term. Thus in addition to initial cost, one must take into account various associated factors, costs and benefits, including the following: Design Characteristics Application, suitability, Meter features and options, Operation constraints, Installation, Service and maintenance, Repair and replacement, Life expectancy, Compatibility with complimentary products, Correcting devices, Remote reading capabilities, Data generation and gathering, Upgradeabilty. This paper will look at one positive displacement meter, the Rotary meter, and address the fundamentals principals of the technology as well as looking at some of the benefits derived from its application. Rotary positive displacement meters were introduced at the end of last century. Used primarily for metering transmission sized loads, the meters` measuring capabilities have extended to cover nearly all areas of distribution with exception of domestic applications. Rotary meters are available in rated capacities from 800 cfh to 102,000 cfh and operating pressures from 175 PSIG to 1440 PSIG. The use of rotary meters on load ranges in the 800 to 10,000 cfh category has increased and is replacing the use of diaphragm meters because of the smaller relative size of rotaries, and improvements in rangeabilities in the last few years. Turbine meters are usually the meter of choice on loads over 16,000 cfh unless a meter with high rangeability is required because of varying load characteristics, in which case a large foot mounted rotary might still be selected.

  20. Modelling and calibration of a ring-shaped electrostatic meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jianyong [University of Teesside, Middlesbrough TS1 3BA (United Kingdom); Zhou Bin; Xu Chuanlong; Wang Shimin, E-mail: zhoubinde1980@gmail.co [Southeast University, Sipailou 2, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2009-02-01

    Ring-shaped electrostatic flow meters can provide very useful information on pneumatically transported air-solids mixture. This type of meters are popular in measuring and controlling the pulverized coal flow distribution among conveyors leading to burners in coal-fired power stations, and they have also been used for research purposes, e.g. for the investigation of electrification mechanism of air-solids two-phase flow. In this paper, finite element method (FEM) is employed to analyze the characteristics of ring-shaped electrostatic meters, and a mathematic model has been developed to express the relationship between the meter's voltage output and the motion of charged particles in the sensing volume. The theoretical analysis and the test results using a belt rig demonstrate that the output of the meter depends upon many parameters including the characteristics of conditioning circuitry, the particle velocity vector, the amount and the rate of change of the charge carried by particles, the locations of particles and etc. This paper also introduces a method to optimize the theoretical model via calibration.

  1. Polarization speed meter for gravitational-wave detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Andrew R.; McKenzie, Kirk; Chen, Yanbei; Shaddock, Daniel A.; Chow, Jong H.; McClelland, David E.

    2012-09-01

    We propose a modified configuration of an advanced gravitational-wave detector that is a speed-meter-type interferometer with improved sensitivity with respect to quantum noise. With the addition of polarization-controlling components to the output of an arm cavity Michelson interferometer, an orthogonal polarization state of the interferometer can be used to store signal, returning it later with opposite phase to cancel position information below the storage bandwidth of the opposite mode. This modification provides an alternative to an external kilometer-scale Fabry-Pérot cavity, as presented in earlier work of Purdue and Chen [Phys. Rev. D 66, 122004 (2002)]. The new configuration requires significantly less physical infrastructure to achieve speed meter operation. The quantity of length and alignment degrees of freedom is also reduced. We present theoretical calculations to show that such a speed meter detector is capable of beating the strain sensitivity imposed by the standard quantum limit over a broad range of frequencies for Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory-like parameters. The benefits and possible difficulties of implementing such a scheme are outlined. We also present results for tuning of the speed meter by adjusting the degree of polarization coupling, a novel possibility that does not exist in previously proposed designs, showing that there is a smooth transition from speed meter operation to that of a signal-recycling Michelson behavior.

  2. The Isan Culture Maintenance and Revitalisation Programme's Multilingual Signage Attitude Survey: Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, John

    2016-01-01

    This article contextualises and presents to the academic community the full dataset of the Isan Culture Maintenance and Revitalisation Programme's (ICMRP) multilingual signage survey. The ICMRP is a four-year European Union co-sponsored project in Northeast Thailand. This article focuses on one aspect of the project, four surveys each of 1,500…

  3. Multitasking metering enhances generation, transmission operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, E.

    2008-11-15

    The Dairyland Power Cooperative (DPC) which operates from La Crosse, Wisconsin has the capacity to generate and transmit 1000 MW of power to 25 member cooperatives and 20 municipalities who serve over 500,000 customers. When DPC was experiencing diminished service within its analog cellular-based data communications system, it was presented with an opportunity to install a new automated telecommunications system that would provide secure collection of meter readings from all of its substations. DPC decided to evaluate an advanced multifunctional digital meter from Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories (SEL). The SEL-734 Revenue Metering System offers complete instantaneous metering functions, including voltages, currents, power, energy and power factor. Other capabilities include predictive demand, time-of-use metering, automatic voltage monitoring, harmonics metering and synchrophasor measurement. From a metering perspective, DPC wanted to perform daily load profiles and interval-by-interval metering of their delivery points for billing purposes. They also wanted to provide real-time monitoring of electricity being delivered for both generation and transmission purposes and to make that information available to a distribution SCADA system for their members. The SEL-734 Revenue Meter was well suited to those needs. The SEL-734 provides very high-accuracy energy metering, load profile data collection, instantaneous power measurements, power quality monitoring, and communicates simultaneously over a modem, serial ports, and wide area networks (WAN). The meter is backed with a ten-year warranty as well as field support engineers. 5 figs.

  4. The 59 meter dash - automatic rapid meter reading in Ronneby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottosson, Hans [Enersearch (Sweden); Selander, Lars [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden); Bergstroem, Ulrika [Sydkraft (Sweden)

    1999-02-01

    As a result of deregulation of the telecommunications and energy markets, the utilities in Sweden see opportunities to use power lines for additional profitable applications such as transmission of data; the technology is called Power Line Telecommunications (PLT). The potential advantages are said to be 'massive'. The potential applications include remote security, automatic meter reading, load management and 'smart' home automation. A small scale feasibility study has been carried out in Ronneby in Sweden where it was shown that load management and efficiency improvements can reduce the costs of supplying the town with heat and electricity by about 3%. The Ronneby trial is described in detail. Since Scandinavia makes use of weather-dependent renewables for much of its power generation, load management is an attractive potential application of PLT. (UK)

  5. Aeromagnetic survey in Eurajoensalmi, Olkiluoto 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levaeniemi, H.

    2008-08-01

    This report describes the survey operation, survey and processing methods and the deliverables of an aerogeophysical survey in Olkiluoto area in April 2008. The survey was conducted by Geological Survey of Finland (GTK). The survey aircraft was a twin-engine Twin Otter operated by Finnish Aviation Academy (SIO) and owned by Natural Environment Research Council / British Geological Survey (NERC / BGS), with whom GTK has established a joint venture called Joint Airborne-geoscience Capability (JAC). The survey was conducted in April 2008 during six days. The survey consists of six separate survey flights, one of which was a magnetic calibration flight. The survey was based in Pori airport. Survey line spacing was 50 meters and nominal survey altitude was 30 meters. Measurements were completed in April 2008, and data processing and reporting was done in June 2008. Two cesium magnetometers installed onboard the aircraft (at the left wingtip and in a nose cone) were measuring the magnetic total field intensity during the survey flights. An automatic compensation unit corrected the aircraft attitude errors in the magnetic data in real time. In addition to magnetic measurement, auxiliary parameters such as flight altitude and aircraft attitude were also recorded simultaneously. Reference ground base station was used for recording the temporal variations in the magnetic field and also reference data for post-positioning of coordinate information. In the post-processing phase, heading correction, base station correction and microlevelling procedures were applied to the magnetic data. The data was exported to numeric XYZ files and interpolated into grid data file. A noteworthy local detail present in the survey and in the processing was the massive power line. For safety reasons, flight altitude had to be increased and survey lines had to be cut short in the vicinity of the powerline. However, due to reasonable planning of the survey area boundaries, this caused no great

  6. Too cheap to meter what?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedekind, Lothar

    2004-01-01

    Full text: 50 years ago, at 17:30 hours, 26 June 1954, in the town of Obninsk, near Moscow, the first nuclear power plant sent electricity to residences and businesses. Atomic energy had crossed the divide from military uses to peaceful ones, demonstrating the potential to fuel civilian electric power plants. The milestone is being marked this year at an IAEA international nuclear power conference in Obninsk. Past experience will be reviewed, but the focus is on meeting future challenges. Though it has come a long way in 50 years, nuclear energy today finds itself in a struggle of the fittest to carve a niche over the next fifty - in the marketplace and in the public eye. Cliches and sound bites tell part of the nuclear story. Visionary talk by nuclear proponents in 1954 was about future energy sources that would be 'too cheap to meter', a phrase critics pounced upon. Today in 2004 the 'too cheap to meter' phrase occasionally haunts the atom, but pops up more often than not in promotional ads for anything from wind power to web sites. Talk of nuclear energy now is of a 'renaissance' and 'second wind.' New nuclear plants are most attractive where energy demand is growing and resources are scarce, and where energy security, air pollution and greenhouse gases are priorities, IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei points out. In cities, towns, and villages, reality is different, or too much the same, depending how you see and live it. Cheap or not, nuclear energy today supplies one-sixth of the world's electricity in some 30 countries. Still, it does not produce enough power. Neither does any other energy source. More than 1.5 billion people have no electricity to meter whatsoever - not from renewables, solar, nuclear, biomass, wind, coal, oil, gas, firewood, or hydrogen, the publicized promise of tomorrow. So what will it take? Maybe bigger blackouts or hotter days than the world has seen. Certainly needed are more attention, action, and money. In dollar terms

  7. Improvement of nuclear reactor component materials by application of hot isostatic processing (HIP). Survey report on Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.J.

    1975-12-01

    The report summarizes the results of an EPRI-sponsored state-of-the-art survey of hot isostatic processing (HIP). The purpose of the study was to identify potential nuclear plant applications of HIP with high pay-off through improvement in component quality and reliability. The survey shows that HIP will reduce cost and manufacturing time and improve quality and ease of nondestructive examination of all castings for which porosity is a problem. Nuclear valves are a prime example. Tubing, pipe, and sheet and bar present other possibilities of somewhat less immediate promise. This report includes a review of some of the EPRI motivations for undertaking this research; a brief explanation of HIP, the survey methodology exployed; the basic operations in the processes studied; a review of the historical applications of HIP to problem areas consistent with those addressed in the survey; the results of the survey and associated analyses of the problems; and the recommendations and justifications for the Phase II program

  8. Singularities of construction of static war-hour meters alternating-current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.О. Петрище

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available  The analysis of construction of static war-hour meters is carried out which are founded on use of specialized tools, which are intended for measurement of a active energy. The shortages of such methods concerning a possibility of unauthorized takeoff of an electric energy are marked through improper phasing of a current. The method is offered which allows to construct static war-hour meters insensitive to improper phasing of a current.

  9. Smart meter adoption and deployment strategy for residential buildings in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Jui-Sheng; Gusti Ayu Novi Yutami, I

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Limited consumer awareness of smart meters contributes to skepticism. • Data obtained from a survey of energy users are analyzed using SEM. • A CAP index is developed via SEM results to measure consumer propensity for adopting smart meters. • The findings of this study enhance understanding of consumer perceptions and behaviors. • Concrete strategies are proposed to help policy makers and utility companies. - Abstract: For countries pursuing sustainable development and energy efficiency, the use of smart meters is considered a first step in allowing residential consumers to remotely control their energy consumption, and a promising technology for conserving limited energy resources. However, despite the growing interest in smart meters, limited consumer awareness, knowledge, and understanding of these devices contributes to skepticism. This study thus developed an index to measure consumer propensity to adopt smart meters in residential buildings. Data obtained from a survey of energy use by Indonesian households were analyzed using structural equation modeling to determine the interacting factors in consumer acceptance of smart meters. Consumer perceptions, expectations, and intentions regarding the potential use of smart meters in Indonesia were also discussed. The findings of this study enhance understanding of consumer perceptions and behaviors, and can help decision makers and energy utility companies develop policies and strategies for a “one-size-fits-all” program related to smart meter applications in future residential buildings

  10. Balanced Flow Meters without Moving Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Anthony R.; VanBuskirk, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Balanced flow meters are recent additions to an established class of simple, rugged flow meters that contain no moving parts in contact with flow and are based on measurement of pressure drops across objects placed in flow paths. These flow meters are highly accurate, minimally intrusive, easily manufacturable, and reliable. A balanced flow meter can be easily mounted in a flow path by bolting it between conventional pipe flanges. A balanced flow meter can be used to measure the flow of any of a variety of liquids or gases, provided that it has been properly calibrated. Relative to the standard orifice-plate flow meter, the balanced flow meter introduces less turbulence and two times less permanent pressure loss and is therefore capable of offering 10 times greater accuracy and repeatability with less dissipation of energy. A secondary benefit of the reduction of turbulence is the reduction of vibration and up to 15 times less acoustic noise generation. Both the balanced flow meter and the standard orifice-plate flow meter are basically disks that contain holes and are instrumented with pressure transducers on their upstream and downstream faces. The most obvious difference between them is that the standard orifice plate contains a single, central hole while the balanced flow meter contains multiple holes. The term 'balanced' signifies that in designing the meter, the sizes and locations of the holes are determined in an optimization procedure that involves balancing of numerous factors, including volumetric flow, mass flow, dynamic pressure, kinetic energy, all in an effort to minimize such undesired effects as turbulence, pressure loss, dissipation of kinetic energy, and non-repeatability and nonlinearity of response over the anticipated range of flow conditions. Due to proper balancing of these factors, recent testing demonstrated that the balanced flow-meter performance was similar to a Venturi tube in both accuracy and pressure recovery, but featured reduced

  11. RFID-BASED Prepaid Power Meter

    OpenAIRE

    Teymourzadeh, Rozita

    2013-01-01

    An Electric power meter is an important component in electric energy service. In the past, many consumers have complained about reading inaccurate of the electric meter. This research presents the development of an electrical power meter equipped with RFID reader. The RFID reader reads a valid RFID card and activates the power meter so that it can supply electricity. When the credit is about low or before the electricity is auto cut off, an SMS message will be sent to the user’s handphone to ...

  12. Cancer-meter: measure and cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Sunil Kumar; Sharma, Birendra Kumar; Banerjee, Amitabh

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a theory and system on "Cancer-Meter'. This idea came through the statement that "cancer is curable if it is measurable". The Cancer-Meter proves that it is possible. This paper proposes the cancer-meter in two ways, theoretical and electronically, as per the measurement and treatment. By the mathematics, first part is defined but the second part is based on computer programming, electrical and electronics. Thus, the cancer-meter is a programmed-electrical-electronic device which measures and cures the cancer both.

  13. First Kepler results on compact pulsators - VI. Targets in the final half of the survey phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østensen, Roy H.; Silvotti, Roberto; Charpinet, S.

    2011-01-01

    We present results from the final 6 months of a survey to search for pulsations in white dwarfs (WDs) and hot subdwarf stars with the Kepler spacecraft. Spectroscopic observations are used to separate the objects into accurate classes, and we explore the physical parameters of the subdwarf B (sdB...

  14. Lessons from wet gas flow metering systems using differential measurements devices: Testing and flow modelling results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazin, J.; Couput, J.P.; Dudezert, C. et al

    2005-07-01

    A significant number of wet gas meters used for high GVF and very high GVF are based on differential pressure measurements. Recent high pressure tests performed on a variety of different DP devices on different flow loops are presented. Application of existing correlations is discussed for several DP devices including Venturi meters. For Venturi meters, deviations vary from 9% when using the Murdock correlation to less than 3 % with physical based models. The use of DP system in a large domain of conditions (Water Liquid Ratio) especially for liquid estimation will require information on the WLR This obviously raises the question of the gas and liquid flow metering accuracy in wet gas meters and highlight needs to understand AP systems behaviour in wet gas flows (annular / mist / annular mist). As an example, experimental results obtained on the influence of liquid film characteristics on a Venturi meter are presented. Visualizations of the film upstream and inside the Venturi meter are shown. They are completed by film characterization. The AP measurements indicate that for a same Lockhart Martinelli parameter, the characteristics of the two phase flow have a major influence on the correlation coefficient. A 1D model is defined and the results are compared with the experiments. These results indicate that the flow regime influences the AP measurements and that a better modelling of the flow phenomena is needed even for allocation purposes. Based on that, lessons and way forward in wet gas metering systems improvement for allocation and well metering are discussed and proposed. (author) (tk)

  15. Methodology of calibration for nucleonic multiphase meter technology for SAGD extra heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinguet, B.; Pechard, P.; Guerra, E. [Schlumberger Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Arendo, V.; Shaffer, M.; Contreras, J. [Total, Paris (France)

    2008-10-15

    The challenges facing bitumen metering in steam assisted gravity drainage operations were discussed with reference to high operating temperatures, steam pressure in the gas phase, foaming, emulsion and small density differences between bitumen and produced water. A metering tool that can deal with these operating constraints was presented. The multiphase meter (MFM) uses a multi-energy gamma ray (nuclear fraction) meter together with a venturi tube to provide accurate monitoring and optimization of oil, water, gas and steam production. This paper presented the specific strengths of the MFM with emphasis on its ability to correctly meter the liquid/gas phases depending on the calibration method and operating measurement range. The paper presented a study of the main parameters which could influence the measurement associated with this technology. The study was based on practical and simulated data and evaluated the impact of changes in each parameter. The purpose of the paper was to improve the understanding of this technology and how to apply it to bitumen metering and provide a guideline of the technology for future users in the oil industry. It described the combination venturi-nucleonic measurement parameters, such as mass flow rate; fraction meter; solution triangle of the fraction meter; primary and secondary output; fluid properties information; and uncertainty associated to any technology. A sensitivity analysis study to identify the dependency to some key fluid parameters was also described. It was concluded that MFM can be used in a stand-alone configuration. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 22 figs.

  16. Life orientation in the intermediate phase (grades 4-6): A survey in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of this article was on the Intermediate Phase (IP [Grades 4-6]) in the General Education and Training Band (GET). The main problem was to determine the perspectives of LO teachers regarding the implementation of LO and particularly the Learning Outcome, PDM, in the IP in selected primary schools in the ...

  17. A Study of the Extent and Effect of English Language Training for Refugees. Phase One: Results of a Comprehensive Mail Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR. Office of Research and Evaluation Services.

    Results of a national mail survey of regional, state, and local agencies administering English language training programs for refugees, the first phase of a larger study of the training programs, are reported. An introductory section outlines the survey and procedure. The responses and statistical analyses are summarized, and some data tables are…

  18. FLOW METERS WITH VERY GOOD PERFORMANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Dimitrie CAZACU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the theoretical calculus of a patented flow meter, concerning such the thermodynamic and aerodynamic calculus, as well as the offered precision to measure the flow of the air in any meteorological conditions. In the same time we remark that the proposed flow meter, by its positioning, has not loss of head.

  19. ORNL Pocket Meter Program: internal operating procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.D.; Miller, J.H.; Dunsmore, M.R.

    1984-12-01

    The ORNL Pocket Meter Program is designed for auditing the approximate photon radiation exposure of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) radiation workers. Although pocket meters are considered to be a secondary personnel dosimetry system at ORNL, they are valuable indicators of unplanned exposures if proper procedures are followed for testing, calibrating, deploying, wearing, processing, and recording data. 4 figures, 1 table

  20. Adjustment equipment for reactor radioactivity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, V.P.; Malishev, A.N.; Shebanova, L.E.; Kirilyuk, N.A.; Maksimov, Yu.N.; Bessalov, G.G.; Vikhorev, Yu.V.; Lukyanov, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    An activity meter is described movably located in a channel placed in the peripheral biological shielding of a nuclear reactor. It is connected to a weight moving in a second channel by means of a pulley. This arrangement allows locating the radioactivity meter drive on the outer side of the biological shield and vacating space above the reactor body. (Ha)

  1. 10 CFR 451.7 - Metering requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metering requirements. 451.7 Section 451.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.7 Metering requirements. The net electric energy generated and sold (kilowatt-hours) by the owner or operator of a qualified...

  2. The reactivity meter and core reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siltanen, P.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discussed in depth the point kinetic equations and the characteristics of the point kinetic reactivity meter, particularly for large negative reactivities. From a given input signal representing the neutron flux seen by a detector, the meter computes a value of reactivity in dollars (ρ/β), based on inverse point kinetics. The prompt jump point of view is emphasised. (Author)

  3. Survey of the calculation of phase equilibria with the aid of the UNIFAC-method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gmehling, J.; Rasmussen, P.; Fredenslund, A.

    1981-09-01

    In the design of diffusional separation processes and for many other practical purposes one needs quantitative estimates of phase equilibrium compositions. These compositions can today be predicted with good results using modern, two-parameter models for the excess Gibbs energy. However, since the number of different multicomponent mixtures of interest in chemical technology is very large, it is in practise often not possible to find experimental data in the literature for all the possible binary combinations. In these cases it is necessary to use a predictive approach. Today, group-contribution methods such as ASOG and UNIFAC may be used with confidence to predict liquid phase excess Gibbs energies. In these methods, the mixture is assumed to consist not of molecules but of the functional groups which, when added form the parent molecules. This has the advantage that a large number of mixtures of interest in chemical technology can be described in terms of relatively few parameters characterizing the interactions between the groups. This review article demonstrates the application of the UNIFAC method to various practical problems within phase equilibria. The UNIFAC method applies to mixtures of nonelectrolytes in the temperature range of 275-425 K and at pressures up to 10 bar.

  4. Development of a contour meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrada C, F.A.; Sanz, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    The dosimetric calculation in patients that receive radiotherapy treatment it requires the one knowledge of the geometry of some anatomical portions, which differs from a patient to another. Making reference to the specific case of mammary neoplasia, one of the measurements that is carried out on the patient is the acquisition of the contour of the breast, which is determined from a point marked on the breastbone until another point marked on the lateral of the thorax, below the armpit, with the patient located in the irradiation position. This measurement is carried out with the help of a mechanical contour meter that is a device conformed by a series of wires with a polymeric coating, which support on the breast of the patient and it reproduces its form. Then it is transported in the more careful possible form on a paper and the contour is traced with a tracer one. The geometric error associated to this procedure is of ±1 cm, which is sensitive of being reduced. The present work finds its motivation in the patient's radiological protection radiotherapy. The maximum error in dose allowed in radiotherapeutic treatments is 5%. It would be increase the precision and with it to optimize the treatment received by the patient, reducing the error in the acquisition process of the mammary contour. With this objective, a digital device is designed whose operation is based in the application of a spatial transformation on a picture of the mammary contour, which corrects the geometric distortion introduced in the process of the photographic acquisition. An algorithm that allows to obtain a front image (without distortion) of the plane of the contour was developed. A software tool especially developed carries out the processing of the digital images. The maximum geometric error detected in the validation process is 2 mm located on a small portion of the contour. (Author)

  5. Ambiguity effects of rhyme and meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallot, Sebastian; Menninghaus, Winfried

    2018-04-23

    Previous research has shown that rhyme and meter-although enhancing prosodic processing ease and memorability-also tend to make semantic processing more demanding. Using a set of rhymed and metered proverbs, as well as nonrhymed and nonmetered versions of these proverbs, the present study reveals this hitherto unspecified difficulty of comprehension to be specifically driven by perceived ambiguity. Roman Jakobson was the 1st to propose this hypothesis, in 1960. He suggested that "ambiguity is an intrinsic, inalienable feature" of "parallelistic" diction of which the combination of rhyme and meter is a pronounced example. Our results show that ambiguity indeed explains a substantial portion of the rhyme- and meter-driven difficulty of comprehension. Longer word-reading times differentially reflected ratings for ambiguity and comprehension difficulty. However, the ambiguity effect is not "inalienable." Rather, many rhymed and metered sentences turned out to be low in ambiguity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Hydro Ottawa achieves Smart Meter milestone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    As Ontario's second largest municipal electricity company, Hydro Ottawa serves more than 285,000 residential and business customers in the city of Ottawa and the village of Casselman. Since 2006, the utility has installed more than 230,000 Smart Meters throughout its service territory in an effort to provide better services to its customers. This initiative represents the largest operational advanced metering infrastructure network in Canada. This move was necessary before time-of-use rates can be implemented in Ottawa. The Smart Meters deliver data wirelessly to Hydro Ottawa's Customer Information System for billing and eliminating manual readings. The Smart Meters are designed to promote more efficient use of electricity. The Government of Ontario has passed legislation requiring the installation of Smart Meters throughout the province by the end of 2010

  7. Aerogeophysical survey in Olkiluoto 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurimo, M.

    2009-08-01

    This report describes the survey operation, survey and processing methods and the deliverables of an aerogeophysical survey in Olkiluoto area in May 2009. The survey was conducted by Geological Survey of Finland (GTK). The survey aircraft was a twin-engine Twin Otter operated by Finnish Aviation Academy (SIO) and owned by Natural Environment Research Council / British Geological Survey (NERC / BGS), with whom GTK has established a joint venture called Joint Airborne-geoscience Capability (JAC). The survey was conducted in May 2009 between May 5th and May 18th. The survey consists of ten separate survey flights and two magnetic calibration flights. The survey was based in Pori airport. Survey line spacing was 50 meters and nominal survey altitude was 30 meters. Measurements were completed in May 2009, and data processing and reporting was done in June 2009. Two cesium magnetometers installed onboard the aircraft (at the left wingtip and in a nose cone) were measuring the magnetic total field intensity during the survey flights. An automatic compensation unit corrected the aircraft attitude errors in the magnetic data in real time. The four-frequency electromagnetic (EM) unit included four transmitter coils with amplifiers in right wingtip and four receiver coils in left wingtip. Frequencies were 900 Hz, 3 kHz, 14 kHz and 24.5 kHz. The gamma spectrometer with two crystal packages (total volume 42 litres) measured the 256 channel energy spectra. In addition, auxiliary parameters such as flight altitude and aircraft attitude were also recorded simultaneously. Reference ground base station was used for recording the temporal variations in the magnetic field and also reference data for post-positioning of coordinate information. In the post-processing phase, heading correction, base station correction and microlevelling procedures were applied to the magnetic data. The EM data and radiometric data were corrected with calibration coefficients and levelled. The data was

  8. Investigation and Comparison of Separate Meter-In Separate Meter-Out Control Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole; Skoubo, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    In the later years, there has been an increased focus on new valve types, which yield the possibility to do Separate Meter-In Separate Meter-Out (SMISMO) control. This includes both digital valves, but proportional valves with separate metering spools and build in pressure sensors are also emerging....... The possibility to independently control the meter-in and meter-out side not only increase the functionality of the system, but also opens up for better performance and/or lowered energy consumption. The focus of the current paper is therefore on investigation and comparison of what may be obtained using...

  9. Jean Lafitte 2013, 1.0 Meter LiDAR, Classified point cloud

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of the Jean Lafitte,G13PD00214, 1.0 Meter LiDAR Survey Area in south of New Orleans and encompasses 77...

  10. Analysis of nano-meter structure in Ti implanted polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Gu; Wu Yuguang; Zhang Tonghe; Zhao Xinrong

    2001-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is modified with Ti ion implantation to a dose of 1x10 17 to 2 x 10 17 cm -2 by using a metal vapor vacuum arc(MEVVA)source. Nano-meter structures in the implanted sample are observed by means of transmission electron microscope (TEM). The influence of ion dose on the structure is indicated. The results show that dense nano-meter phases are dispersed uniformly in the implanted layer. TEM cross section indicates that there is a three-layer structure in the implanted PET. It is found that a metallurgical surface is formed. Therefore the hardness, wear resistance and conductive properties of PET are improved after metal ion implantation. The mechanism of electrical conduction will be discussed

  11. Household costs of illness during different phases of tuberculosis treatment in Central Asia: a patient survey in Tajikistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdualimova Hanifa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Illness-related costs incurred by patients constitute a severe economic burden for households especially in low-income countries. High household costs of illness lead to impoverishment; they impair affordability and equitable access to health care and consequently hamper tuberculosis (TB control. So far, no study has investigated patient costs of TB in the former Soviet Union. Methods All adult new pulmonary TB cases enrolled into the DOTS program in 12 study districts during the study period were enrolled. Medical and non-medical expenditure as well as loss of income were quantified in two interviews covering separate time periods. Costs of different items were summed up to calculate total costs. For missing values, multiple imputation was applied. Results A cohort of 204 patients under DOTS, 114 men and 90 women, participated in the questionnaire survey. Total illness costs of a TB episode averaged $1053 (c. $4900 purchasing power parity, PPP, of which $292, $338 and $422 were encountered before the start of treatment, during intensive phase and in continuation phase, respectively. Costs per month were highest before the start of treatment ($145 and during intensive phase ($153 and lower during continuation phase ($95. These differences were highly significant (paired t-test, p Conclusions The illness-related costs of an episode of TB exceed the per capita GDP of $1600 PPP about two-and-a-half times. Hence, these costs are catastrophic for concerned households and suggest a high risk for impoverishment. Costs are not equally spread over time, but peak in early stages of treatment, exacerbating the problem of affordability. Mitigation strategies are needed in order to control TB in Tajikistan and may include social support to the patients as well as changes in the management of TB cases. These mitigation strategies should be timed early in treatment when the cost burden is highest.

  12. Development of the liquid level meters for the PandaX dark matter detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jie; Gong Haowei; Lin Qing; Ni Kaixuan; Wei Yuehuan; Xiao Mengjiao; Xiao Xiang; Zhao Li; Tan Andi

    2014-01-01

    The two-phase xenon detector is at the frontier of dark matter direct search. This kind of detector uses liquid xenon as the sensitive target and is operated in two-phase (liquid/gas) mode, where the liquid level needs to be monitored and controlled in sub-millimeter precision. In this paper, we present a detailed design and study of two kinds of level meters for the PandaX dark matter detector. The long level meter is used to monitor the overall liquid level while short level meters are used to monitor the inclination of the detector. These level meters are cylindrical capacitors that are custom-made from two concentric metal tubes. Their capacitance values are read out by a universal transducer interface chip and are recorded by the PandaX slow control system. We present the developments that lead to level meters with long-term stability and sub-millimeter precision. Fluctuations (standard deviations) of less than 0.02 mm for the short level meters and less than 0.2 mm for the long level meter were achieved during a few days of test operation. (authors)

  13. Design and implementation of Remote Digital Energy Meter (RDEM) based on GSM technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Waseem; Wang, Jie; Irfan, Muhammad; Shiraz, M.; Khan, Ali Hassan

    2017-11-01

    Electric power is one of the basic requirement for socio economic and social prosperity of any country, which is mainly employs for domestic, industrial and agricultural sectors. The primary purpose of this research is to design and implement an energy meter which can remotely control and monitor through global system for mobile (GSM) communication technology. For this purpose, a single phase or three phase digital energy meters are used to add on different advanced modules. The energy meter can be activated and display power consumption information at the consumer premises on liquid crystal display and through a short message service (SMS) by using GSM technology. At the power sending end, an energy meter can be remotely control and monitor through GSM technology without any system disturbances. This study will lead to make the system easier, economical, reliable and efficient for the electrical department.

  14. Water metering in England and Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zetland

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of water services that began with the privatisation of water companies in 1989 extended to households with the implementation of water metering. Meters 'privatised' water and the cost of provision by allocating to individual households costs that had previously been shared within the community. This (ongoing conversion of common pool to private good has mostly improved economic, environmental and social impacts, but the potential burden of metering on poorer households has slowed the transition. Stronger anti-poverty programmes would be better at addressing this poverty barrier than existing coping mechanisms reliant on subsidies from other water consumers.

  15. A neutron dose equivalent meter at CAEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Shihai; Lu Yan; Wang Heyi; Yuan Yonggang; Chen Xu

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of neutron dose equivalent has been a widespread need in industry and research. In this paper, aimed at improving the accuracy of neutron dose equivalent meter: a neutron dose counter is simulated with MCNP5, and the energy response curve is optimized. The results show that the energy response factor is from 0.2 to 1.8 for neutrons in the energy range of 2.53×10 -8 MeV to 10 MeV Compared with other related meters, it turns that the design of this meter is right. (authors)

  16. Hydrogen meter for service in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCown, J.J.

    1983-11-01

    This standard establishes the requirements for the design, materials, fabrication, quality assurance, examination, and acceptance testing of a hydrogen meter and auxiliary equipment for use in radioactive or nonradioactive liquid sodium service. The meter shall provide a continuous and accurate indication of the hydrogen impurity concentration over the range 0.03 to 10 ppM hydrogen in sodium at temperatures between 800 and 1000 0 F (427 and 538 0 C). The meter may also be used to rapidly monitor changes in hydrogen concentration, over the same concentration range, and, therefore can be used as a sensor for sodium-water reactions in LMFBR steam generators

  17. Bandwidth Analysis of Smart Meter Network Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balachandran, Kardi; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2014-01-01

    Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) is a net-work infrastructure in Smart Grid, which links the electricity customers to the utility company. This network enables smart services by making it possible for the utility company to get an overview of their customers power consumption and also control...... devices in their costumers household e.g. heat pumps. With these smart services, utility companies can do load balancing on the grid by shifting load using resources the customers have. The problem investigated in this paper is what bandwidth require-ments can be expected when implementing such network...... to utilize smart meters and which existing broadband network technologies can facilitate this smart meter service. Initially, scenarios for smart meter infrastructure are identified. The paper defines abstraction models which cover the AMI scenarios. When the scenario has been identified a general overview...

  18. USGS Digital Orthophoto Quad (DOQ) - 3 meter

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — These data files are a collection of the USGS standard DOQs that have been resampled to a 3-meter cell resolution and mosaiced into quad format vs quarter quad...

  19. A simple reactivity-meter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, P.S.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a new version of a reactivity meter developed at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (IPEN) (Brazil). The reactivity meter computes the reactor reactivity utilizing a programmable electrometer that performs the data aquisition. The software commands the main functions of the electrometer, the data acquisition, data transfer, and reactivity calculation. The necessary hardware for this reactivity meter are a programmable electrometer, a microcomputer, and interfaces for the microcomputer to communicate with the electrometer. If it is necessary, it is possible to connect a graphic register to the microcomputer. With this conventional hardware, available in any nuclear reactor facility, one can build a powerful reactivity meter. Adding to these advantages, one can use the microcomputer on-line to analyze the data, store the data on diskettes, or create graphics

  20. New consumer services provided by smart metering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daminov Ildar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the issues of smart metering market and considers different services provided by smart metering from consumer point of view. Firstly, smart metering deployment challenges emerging and conventional tariffs, which modify a consumer behavior and thus, the entire electric energy market can be optimized since the customer is motivated to consume less energy. Secondly, the authors illustrate changes in electricity quality, which have an impact on consumer relations with utility. Additionally, two main indices of grid resilience – SAIDI and SAIFI – are exemplified to reveal the improvement potential of smart metering implementation in certain regions of Russia that also influence the consumer. Finally, in-home display and privacy problem directly reflect the consumer’s behavior, thus the private life rights should not be violated as they are guaranteed by law.

  1. EMMNet: Sensor Networking for Electricity Meter Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Ting Lin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Smart sensors are emerging as a promising technology for a large number of application domains. This paper presents a collection of requirements and guidelines that serve as a basis for a general smart sensor architecture to monitor electricity meters. It also presents an electricity meter monitoring network, named EMMNet, comprised of data collectors, data concentrators, hand-held devices, a centralized server, and clients. EMMNet provides long-distance communication capabilities, which make it suitable suitable for complex urban environments. In addition, the operational cost of EMMNet is low, compared with other existing remote meter monitoring systems based on GPRS. A new dynamic tree protocol based on the application requirements which can significantly improve the reliability of the network is also proposed. We are currently conducting tests on five networks and investigating network problems for further improvements. Evaluation results indicate that EMMNet enhances the efficiency and accuracy in the reading, recording, and calibration of electricity meters.

  2. EMMNet: sensor networking for electricity meter monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhi-Ting; Zheng, Jie; Ji, Yu-Sheng; Zhao, Bao-Hua; Qu, Yu-Gui; Huang, Xu-Dong; Jiang, Xiu-Fang

    2010-01-01

    Smart sensors are emerging as a promising technology for a large number of application domains. This paper presents a collection of requirements and guidelines that serve as a basis for a general smart sensor architecture to monitor electricity meters. It also presents an electricity meter monitoring network, named EMMNet, comprised of data collectors, data concentrators, hand-held devices, a centralized server, and clients. EMMNet provides long-distance communication capabilities, which make it suitable suitable for complex urban environments. In addition, the operational cost of EMMNet is low, compared with other existing remote meter monitoring systems based on GPRS. A new dynamic tree protocol based on the application requirements which can significantly improve the reliability of the network is also proposed. We are currently conducting tests on five networks and investigating network problems for further improvements. Evaluation results indicate that EMMNet enhances the efficiency and accuracy in the reading, recording, and calibration of electricity meters.

  3. Opportunities for smart meters in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, J.

    2010-10-01

    Germany has the ambitious goal of lowering its CO2 emission with 80 percent until 2050 as compared to 1990. Sustainable energy and the deployment of smart meters are starting to play increasingly important roles. [nl

  4. Comparison of five portable peak flow meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Nency Takara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the measurements of spirometric peak expiratory flow (PEF from five different PEF meters and to determine if their values are in agreement. Inaccurate equipment may result in incorrect diagnoses of asthma and inappropriate treatments. METHODS: Sixty-eight healthy, sedentary and insufficiently active subjects, aged from 19 to 40 years, performed PEF measurements using Air Zone®, Assess®, Galemed®, Personal Best® and Vitalograph® peak flow meters. The highest value recorded for each subject for each device was compared to the corresponding spirometric values using Friedman's test with Dunn's post-hoc (p<0.05, Spearman's correlation test and Bland-Altman's agreement test. RESULTS: The median and interquartile ranges for the spirometric values and the Air Zone®, Assess®, Galemed®, Personal Best® and Vitalograph® meters were 428 (263-688 L/min, 450 (350-800 L/min, 420 (310-720 L/min, 380 (300-735 L/min, 400 (310-685 L/min and 415 (335-610 L/min, respectively. Significant differences were found when the spirometric values were compared to those recorded by the Air Zone® (p<0.001 and Galemed ® (p<0.01 meters. There was no agreement between the spirometric values and the five PEF meters. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the values recorded from Galemed® meters may underestimate the actual value, which could lead to unnecessary interventions, and that Air Zone® meters overestimate spirometric values, which could obfuscate the need for intervention. These findings must be taken into account when interpreting both devices' results in younger people. These differences should also be considered when directly comparing values from different types of PEF meters.

  5. Volunteer feedback and perceptions after participation in a phase I, first-in-human Ebola vaccine trial: An anonymous survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie-Anne Dayer

    Full Text Available The continued participation of volunteers in clinical trials is crucial to advances in healthcare. Few data are available regarding the satisfaction and impressions of healthy volunteers after participation in phase I trials, many of which lead to unexpected adverse events. We report feedback from over 100 adult volunteers who took part in a first-in-human trial conducted in a high-income country testing an experimental Ebola vaccine causing significant reactogenicity, as well as unexpected arthritis in one fifth of participants. The anonymous, internet-based satisfaction survey was sent by email to all participants upon their completion of this one-year trial; it asked 24 questions concerning volunteers' motivations, impressions of the trial experience, and overall satisfaction. Answers were summarized using descriptive statistics. Of the 115 trial participants, 103 (90% filled out the survey. Fifty-five respondents (53% were male. Thirty-five respondents (34% were healthcare workers, many of whom would deploy to Ebola-affected countries. All respondents cited scientific advancement as their chief motivation for participation, while 100/103 (97% and 61/103 (59% reported additional "humanitarian reasons" and potential protection from Ebolavirus, respectively. Although investigators had documented adverse events in 97% of trial participants, only 74 of 103 respondents (72% recalled experiencing an adverse event. All reported an overall positive experience, and 93/103 (90% a willingness to participate in future trials. Given the high level of satisfaction, no significant associations could be detected between trial experiences and satisfaction, even among respondents reporting adverse events lasting weeks or months. Despite considerable reactogenicity and unexpected vaccine-related arthritis, all survey respondents reported overall satisfaction. While this trial's context was unique, the positive feedback is likely due at least in part to the

  6. Intelligent Metering for Urban Water: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Stewart

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the drivers, development and global deployment of intelligent water metering in the urban context. Recognising that intelligent metering (or smart metering has the potential to revolutionise customer engagement and management of urban water by utilities, this paper provides a summary of the knowledge-base for researchers and industry practitioners to ensure that the technology fosters sustainable urban water management. To date, roll-outs of intelligent metering have been driven by the desire for increased data regarding time of use and end-use (such as use by shower, toilet, garden, etc. as well as by the ability of the technology to reduce labour costs for meter reading. Technology development in the water sector generally lags that seen in the electricity sector. In the coming decade, the deployment of intelligent water metering will transition from being predominantly “pilot or demonstration scale” with the occasional city-wide roll-out, to broader mainstream implementation. This means that issues which have hitherto received little focus must now be addressed, namely: the role of real-time data in customer engagement and demand management; data ownership, sharing and privacy; technical data management and infrastructure security, utility workforce skills; and costs and benefits of implementation.

  7. Comparison of five portable peak flow meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Glaucia Nency; Ruas, Gualberto; Pessoa, Bruna Varanda; Jamami, Luciana Kawakami; Di Lorenzo, Valéria Amorim Pires; Jamami, Mauricio

    2010-05-01

    To compare the measurements of spirometric peak expiratory flow (PEF) from five different PEF meters and to determine if their values are in agreement. Inaccurate equipment may result in incorrect diagnoses of asthma and inappropriate treatments. Sixty-eight healthy, sedentary and insufficiently active subjects, aged from 19 to 40 years, performed PEF measurements using Air Zone, Assess, Galemed, Personal Best and Vitalograph peak flow meters. The highest value recorded for each subject for each device was compared to the corresponding spirometric values using Friedman's test with Dunn's post-hoc (pmeters were 428 (263-688 L/min), 450 (350-800 L/min), 420 (310-720 L/min), 380 (300-735 L/min), 400 (310-685 L/min) and 415 (335-610 L/min), respectively. Significant differences were found when the spirometric values were compared to those recorded by the Air Zone(R) (pmeters. There was no agreement between the spirometric values and the five PEF meters. The results suggest that the values recorded from Galemed meters may underestimate the actual value, which could lead to unnecessary interventions, and that Air Zone meters overestimate spirometric values, which could obfuscate the need for intervention. These findings must be taken into account when interpreting both devices' results in younger people. These differences should also be considered when directly comparing values from different types of PEF meters.

  8. Smart meters. Smart metering. A solution module for a future-oriented energy system; Intelligente Zaehler. Smart Metering. Ein Loesungsbaustein fuer ein zukunftsfaehiges Energiesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, Nadia; Seidl, Hans [comps.

    2011-12-15

    The German Energy Agency GmbH (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on smart metering as a solution module for a future-oriented energy system by means of the following contributions: (1) Key role for smart meters; (2) What is smart metering? (3) Implementation of smart metering in Europe; (4) The market development to date in Germany; (5) Practical experiences with smart metering in Germany; (6) Frequently asked questions; (7) Smart metering in intelligent networks; (8) Legal framework conditions; (9) Data security and data protection in the utilisation of smart meters; (10) Ongoing information; (11) Efficient energy systems.

  9. Determination of Multiphase Flow Meter Reliability and Development of Correction Charts for the Prediction of Oilfield Fluid Flow Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel S. MOFUNLEWI

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of field testing of Multiphase Flow Meter (MPFM is to show whether its accuracy compares favourably with that of the Test Separator in accurately measuring the three production phases (oil, gas and water as well as determining meter reliability in field environment. This study evaluates field test results of the MPFM as compared to reference conventional test separators. Generally, results show that MPFM compares favourably with Test Separator within the specified range of accuracy.At the moment, there is no legislation for meter proving technique for MPFM. However, this study has developed calibration charts that can be used to correct and improve meter accuracy.

  10. Preparing for smart grid technologies: A behavioral decision research approach to understanding consumer expectations about smart meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurti, Tamar; Schwartz, Daniel; Davis, Alexander; Fischhoff, Baruch; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Lave, Lester; Wang, Jack

    2012-01-01

    With the enactment of the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, U.S. President Obama made a public commitment to a new approach to energy production and transmission in the United States. It features installing smart meters and related technologies in residential homes, as part of transforming the current electrical grid into a “smart grid.” Realizing this transformation requires consumers to accept these new technologies and take advantage of the opportunities that they create. We use methods from behavioral decision research to understand consumer beliefs about smart meters, including in-depth mental models interviews and a follow-up survey with a sample of potential smart meter customers of a major U.S. mid-Atlantic electricity utility. In both the surveys and the interviews, most respondents reported wanting smart meters. However, these preferences were often based on erroneous beliefs regarding their purpose and function. Respondents confused smart meters with in-home displays and other enabling technologies, while expecting to realize immediate savings. They also perceived risks, including less control over their electricity usage, violations of their privacy, and increased costs. We discuss the policy implications of our results. - Highlights: ► We outline normative risks and benefits of smart meters from scientific literature. ► We examine consumer perceptions of smart meters via interviews and surveys. ► Smart meter desire stems from consumer misconceptions about purpose and function. ► Appropriate communications may prevent consumer protests against the smart grid.

  11. SAGD production optimization : combination of ESP and multiphase metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinguet, B.G.; Guerra, E.; Drever, C. [Schlumberger Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Many commercial oil reservoirs in Canada are completed using electric submersible pumps (ESP) due to low reservoir pressures and extra heavy oils and bitumens. This paper presented details of an optimization process for steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) wells. The process used ESP and a multiphase flow meter (MFM) based on Vx technology. The MFM was based on a Venturi and nuclear fraction meter combination that was engineered to measure the steam phases during SAGD processes. The technology was designed to measure total mass or total volumetric flow rates as well as oil, water and gas in producing wells. Length fractions of oil, water, and gas were calculated based on the attenuation of Gamma-rays as they passed through the Venturi section. Production was optimized in real time using the frequency control of the pump to improve oil flow rates. The results of field tests showed that the optimization process resulted in longer life cycles for the ESP. It was concluded that use of the meter results in changes to lift system operating parameters at the well site as well as improved monitoring during the workflow process. 3 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  12. Robust Meter Network for Water Distribution Pipe Burst Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Donghwi Jung; Joong Hoon Kim

    2017-01-01

    A meter network is a set of meters installed throughout a water distribution system to measure system variables, such as the pipe flow rate and pressure. In the current hyper-connected world, meter networks are being exposed to meter failure conditions, such as malfunction of the meter’s physical system and communication system failure. Therefore, a meter network’s robustness should be secured for reliable provision of informative meter data. This paper introduces a multi-objective optimal me...

  13. Operating experience using venturi flow meters at liquid helium temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, K.C.

    1992-01-01

    Experiences using commercial venturi to measure single phase helium flow near 4 K (degree Kelvin) for cooling superconducting magnets have been presented. The mass flow rate was calculated from the differential pressure and the helium density evaluated from measured pressure and temperature. The venturi flow meter, with a full range of 290 g/s (0.29 Kg/s) at design conditions, has been found to be reliable and accurate. The flow measurements have been used, with great success, for evaluating the performance of a cold centrifugal compressor, the thermal acoustic heat load of a cryogenic system and the cooling of a superconducting magnet after quench

  14. ASTEROID LIGHT CURVES FROM THE PALOMAR TRANSIENT FACTORY SURVEY: ROTATION PERIODS AND PHASE FUNCTIONS FROM SPARSE PHOTOMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waszczak, Adam [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Chang, Chan-Kao; Cheng, Yu-Chi; Ip, Wing-Huen; Kinoshita, Daisuke [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China); Ofek, Eran O. [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel); Laher, Russ; Surace, Jason [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Masci, Frank; Helou, George [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Levitan, David; Prince, Thomas A.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas, E-mail: waszczak@caltech.edu [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    We fit 54,296 sparsely sampled asteroid light curves in the Palomar Transient Factory survey to a combined rotation plus phase-function model. Each light curve consists of 20 or more observations acquired in a single opposition. Using 805 asteroids in our sample that have reference periods in the literature, we find that the reliability of our fitted periods is a complicated function of the period, amplitude, apparent magnitude, and other light-curve attributes. Using the 805-asteroid ground-truth sample, we train an automated classifier to estimate (along with manual inspection) the validity of the remaining ∼53,000 fitted periods. By this method we find that 9033 of our light curves (of ∼8300 unique asteroids) have “reliable” periods. Subsequent consideration of asteroids with multiple light-curve fits indicates a 4% contamination in these “reliable” periods. For 3902 light curves with sufficient phase-angle coverage and either a reliable fit period or low amplitude, we examine the distribution of several phase-function parameters, none of which are bimodal though all correlate with the bond albedo and with visible-band colors. Comparing the theoretical maximal spin rate of a fluid body with our amplitude versus spin-rate distribution suggests that, if held together only by self-gravity, most asteroids are in general less dense than ∼2 g cm{sup −3}, while C types have a lower limit of between 1 and 2 g cm{sup −3}. These results are in agreement with previous density estimates. For 5–20 km diameters, S types rotate faster and have lower amplitudes than C types. If both populations share the same angular momentum, this may indicate the two types’ differing ability to deform under rotational stress. Lastly, we compare our absolute magnitudes (and apparent-magnitude residuals) to those of the Minor Planet Center’s nominal (G = 0.15, rotation-neglecting) model; our phase-function plus Fourier-series fitting reduces asteroid photometric rms

  15. Compact, High-Accuracy Oxygen Flow Meter, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Life support systems for future space suits will require advanced instrumentation to enable use of the suit for multiple missions. We propose to develop an oxygen...

  16. Individualized Fatigue Meter for Space Exploration, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To ensure mission success, astronauts must maintain a high level of performance even when work-rest schedules result in chronic sleep restriction and circadian...

  17. Individualized Fatigue Meter for Space Exploration, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To ensure mission success, astronauts must maintain a high level of performance even when work-rest schedules result in chronic sleep restriction and circadian...

  18. Properties of cellulose triacetate dose meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, N.; Tanaka, R.; Mitomo, S.; Matsuda, K.; Nagai, S.

    1981-01-01

    Several clear plastics and dyed plastics are commercially available for dosimetry in intense radiation field, especially for radiation processing applications. Among these dose meters cellulose triacetate (CTA) dose meter has two advantages for routine uses; (1) it has linear response in mega-rad dose region and (2) the main product form is long tape. However, the manufacture of Numelec CTA film so far used had been discontinued, and for this reason we developed a new film for dosimetry uses. To determine the manufacturing conditions of the film, we examined the influence of additives, triphenylphosphate (TPP) and others, and film thickness on the dosimetric properties, since these two conditions remarkably influence the sensitivity of the dose meter. It is necessary for the reliability of plastic dose meters that the radiation induced colorations should be understood as radiation chemical processes. In this paper we describe the determination of the manufacturing conditions of the new film, the feature of the new dose meter, and the coloration mechanism. (author)

  19. Multiphase flow metering: 4 years on

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcone, G.; Hewitt, G.F.; Alimonti, C.; Harrison, B.

    2005-07-01

    Since the authors' last review in 2001 [1], the use of Multiphase Flow Metering (MFM) within the oil and gas industry continues to grow apace, being more popular in some parts of the world than others. Since the early 1990's, when the first commercial meters started to appear, there have been more than 1,600 field applications of MFM for field allocation, production optimisation and mobile well testing. As the authors predicted, wet gas metering technology has improved to such an extent that its use has rapidly increased worldwide. A ''who's who'' of the MFM sector is provided, which highlights the mergers in the sector and gives an insight into the meters and measurement principles available today. Cost estimates, potential benefits and reliability in the field of the current MFM technologies are revisited and brought up to date. Several measurements technologies have resurfaced, such as passive acoustic energy patterns, infrared wavelengths, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT), and they are becoming commercial. The concept of ''virtual metering'', integrated with ''classical MFM'', is now widely accepted. However, sometimes the principles of the MFM measurements themselves are forgotten, submerged in the sales and marketing hype. (author) (tk)

  20. Development of quick-response area-averaged void fraction meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hironori; Iguchi, Tadashi; Kimura, Mamoru; Anoda, Yoshinari

    2000-11-01

    Authors are performing experiments to investigate BWR thermal-hydraulic instability under coupling of neutronics and thermal-hydraulics. To perform the experiment, it is necessary to measure instantaneously area-averaged void fraction in rod bundle under high temperature/high pressure gas-liquid two-phase flow condition. Since there were no void fraction meters suitable for these requirements, we newly developed a practical void fraction meter. The principle of the meter is based on the electrical conductance changing with void fraction in gas-liquid two-phase flow. In this meter, metal flow channel wall is used as one electrode and a L-shaped line electrode installed at the center of flow channel is used as the other electrode. This electrode arrangement makes possible instantaneous measurement of area-averaged void fraction even under the metal flow channel. We performed experiments with air/water two-phase flow to clarify the void fraction meter performance. Experimental results indicated that void fraction was approximated by α=1-I/I o , where α and I are void fraction and current (I o is current at α=0). This relation holds in the wide range of void fraction of 0∼70%. The difference between α and 1-I/I o was approximately 10% at maximum. The major reasons of the difference are a void distribution over measurement area and an electrical insulation of the center electrode by bubbles. The principle and structure of this void fraction meter are very basic and simple. Therefore, the meter can be applied to various fields on gas-liquid two-phase flow studies. (author)

  1. Enhanced Operation of Electricity Distribution Grids Through Smart Metering PLC Network Monitoring, Analysis and Grid Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iker Urrutia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Low Voltage (LV electricity distribution grid operations can be improved through a combination of new smart metering systems’ capabilities based on real time Power Line Communications (PLC and LV grid topology mapping. This paper presents two novel contributions. The first one is a new methodology developed for smart metering PLC network monitoring and analysis. It can be used to obtain relevant information from the grid, thus adding value to existing smart metering deployments and facilitating utility operational activities. A second contribution describes grid conditioning used to obtain LV feeder and phase identification of all connected smart electric meters. Real time availability of such information may help utilities with grid planning, fault location and a more accurate point of supply management.

  2. Privacy friendly aggregation of smart meter readings, even when meters crash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoepman, J.H.

    2017-01-01

    A well studied privacy problem in the area of smart grids is the question of how to aggregate the sum of a set of smart meter readings in a privacy friendly manner, i.e., in such a way that individual meter readings are not revealed to the adversary. Much less well studied is how to deal with

  3. Simple meters get smart? Cost benefit analysis of smart metering infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gerwen, R.J.F.; Jaarsma, S.A.; Koenis, F.T.C.

    2005-08-01

    The Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs requested a cost-benefit analysis of the large scale introduction of a smart meter infrastructure for gas and electricity consumption by small consumers. The questions asked in the study need to be answered in order to enable a well-founded evaluation of the implementation of smart meters. [mk] [nl

  4. Household Classification Using Smart Meter Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carroll Paula

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a project conducted in conjunction with the Central Statistics Office of Ireland in response to a planned national rollout of smart electricity metering in Ireland. We investigate how this new data source might be used for the purpose of official statistics production. This study specifically looks at the question of determining household composition from electricity smart meter data using both Neural Networks (a supervised machine learning approach and Elastic Net Logistic regression. An overview of both classification techniques is given. Results for both approaches are presented with analysis. We find that the smart meter data alone is limited in its capability to distinguish between household categories but that it does provide some useful insights.

  5. Implementation plan for smart meters in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents Ontario Energy Board's implementation plan to install 800,000 smart meters by December 31, 2007. The objective is to help consumers control their electricity bills through conservation and demand response. The three conditions that will change power consumption habits are price changes in response to demand and supply forces; the ability of consumers to see and respond to the price signals; and, a measurement of the response so that consumers get credit for their actions. This paper identifies the mandatory technical requirements for smart meters and the support operations of distributors. It sets priorities, identifies barriers and regulatory mechanisms for cost recovery. It also discusses options for ownership of the meters. 18 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  6. IMPORTANT: Fluke is recalling Digital Clamp Meters

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Fluke is voluntarily recalling four models of Digital Clamp Meters: Fluke 373, 374, 375 and 376. If you own one of these clamp meters, please stop using it and send it back to Fluke for repair even if you have not experienced problems.   Description of the problem: "The printed circuit assembly may not be properly fastened to the test lead input jack. This may result in inaccurate voltage readings, including a low or no-voltage reading on a circuit energised with a hazardous voltage, presenting a shock, electrocution or thermal burn hazard." To determine if your clamp meter is affected by this recall notice, and for more information, click here.

  7. A Study of the Extent and Effect of English Language Training for Refugees. Phase One: Results of a Comprehensive Mail Survey. Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR. Office of Research and Evaluation Services.

    Results of a national survey of regional, state, and local agencies administering English language training programs for refugees, the first phase of a larger study of the training programs, are reported. The executive summary outlines the responses from 8 regional, 36 state, and 232 local agencies on four topics: (1) the nature and extent of…

  8. Reactor Power Meter type SG-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowacki, S W

    1981-01-01

    The report describes the principle and electronic circuits of the Reactor Power Meter type SG-8. The gamma radiation caused by the activity of the reactor first cooling circuit affectes the ionization chamber being the detector of the instrument. The output detector signal direct current is converted into the frequency of electric pulses by means of the current-to-frequency converter. The output converter frequency is measured by the digital frequency meter: the number of measured digits in time unit is proportional to the reactor power.

  9. Liquid metal Flow Meter - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, C.; Hoogendoom, S.; Hudson, B.; Prince, J.; Teichert, K.; Wood, J.; Chase, K.

    2007-01-30

    Measuring the flow of liquid metal presents serious challenges. Current commercially-available flow meters use ultrasonic, electromagnetic, and other technologies to measure flow, but are inadequate for liquid metal flow measurement because of the high temperatures required by most liquid metals. As a result of the reactivity and high temperatures of most liquid metals, corrosion and leakage become very serious safety concerns. The purpose of this project is to develop a flow meter for Lockheed Martin that measures the flow rate of molten metal in a conduit.

  10. Simple, inexpensive computerized rodent activity meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, R M; Karachunski, P I; Kellermann, S A; Conti-Fine, B M

    1995-10-01

    We describe two approaches for using obsolescent computers, either an IBM PC XT or an Apple Macintosh Plus, to accurately quantify spontaneous rodent activity, as revealed by continuous monitoring of the spontaneous usage of running activity wheels. Because such computers can commonly be obtained at little or no expense, and other commonly available materials and inexpensive parts can be used, these meters can be built quite economically. Construction of these meters requires no specialized electronics expertise, and their software requirements are simple. The computer interfaces are potentially of general interest, as they could also be used for monitoring a variety of events in a research setting.

  11. Portable digital reactivity meter for power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, G [Nuklear-Ingenieur Service G.m.b.H., Hanau (Germany, F.R.)

    1977-07-01

    A digital reactivity meter has been developed, which can be used for all kinds of kinetic reactivity measurements in PWR's and BWR's. The input signals may be supplied by standard neutron detectors of the reactor. The hardware configuration consists of a minicomputer with ADC and DAC, a 'Silent' terminal and a high speed paper tape reader/punch. It is easily transportable. The reactivity meter solves the inverse kinetics equations for 6 delayed neutron groups, simultaneously for up to 8 logarithmic or linear neutron flux signals. It has been successfully tested at Biblis A PWR and the KRB BWR.

  12. Two-channel neutron boron meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yongqing; Yin Guowei; Chai Songshan; Deng Zhaoping; Zhou Bin

    1993-09-01

    The two-channel neutron boron meter is a continuous on-line measuring device to measure boron concentration of primary cooling liquid of reactors. The neutron-leakage-compensation method is taken in the measuring mechanism. In the primary measuring configuration, the mini-boron-water annulus and two-channel and central calibration loop are adopted. The calibration ring and constant-temperature of boron-water can be remotely controlled by secondary instruments. With the microcomputer data processing system the boron concentration is automatically measured and calibrated in on-line mode. The meter has many advantages such as high accuracy, fast response, multi-applications, high reliability and convenience

  13. Phase reconstruction from velocity-encoded MRI measurements – A survey of sparsity-promoting variational approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Benning, Martin

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there has been significant developments in the reconstruction of magnetic resonance velocity images from sub-sampled k-space data. While showing a strong improvement in reconstruction quality compared to classical approaches, the vast number of different methods, and the challenges in setting them up, often leaves the user with the difficult task of choosing the correct approach, or more importantly, not selecting a poor approach. In this paper, we survey variational approaches for the reconstruction of phase-encoded magnetic resonance velocity images from sub-sampled k-space data. We are particularly interested in regularisers that correctly treat both smooth and geometric features of the image. These features are common to velocity imaging, where the flow field will be smooth but interfaces between the fluid and surrounding material will be sharp, but are challenging to represent sparsely. As an example we demonstrate the variational approaches on velocity imaging of water flowing through a packed bed of solid particles. We evaluate Wavelet regularisation against Total Variation and the relatively recent second order Total Generalised Variation regularisation. We combine these regularisation schemes with a contrast enhancement approach called Bregman iteration. We verify for a variety of sampling patterns that Morozov\\'s discrepancy principle provides a good criterion for stopping the iterations. Therefore, given only the noise level, we present a robust guideline for setting up a variational reconstruction scheme for MR velocity imaging. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A Probabilistic Model of Meter Perception: Simulating Enculturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Weij, B.; Pearce, M.T.; Honing, H.

    Enculturation is known to shape the perception of meter in music but this is not explicitly accounted for by current cognitive models of meter perception. We hypothesize that the induction of meter is a result of predictive coding: interpreting onsets in a rhythm relative to a periodic meter

  15. 39 CFR 501.15 - Computerized Meter Resetting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Computerized Meter Resetting System. 501.15... AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.15 Computerized Meter Resetting System. (a) Description. The Computerized Meter Resetting System (CMRS) permits customers to reset their postage meters at...

  16. 18 CFR 367.9020 - Account 902, Meter reading expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 902, Meter... GAS ACT Operation and Maintenance Expense Chart of Accounts § 367.9020 Account 902, Meter reading... customer meters, and determining consumption when performed by employees engaged in reading meters. (b...

  17. An evaporation based digital microflow meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nie, C; Frijns, A J H; Mandamparambil, R; Zevenbergen, M A G; den Toonder, J M J

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present a digital microflow meter operating in the range 30-250 nl min-1 for water. The principle is based on determining the evaporation rate of the liquid via reading the number of wetted pore array structures in a microfluidic system, through which continuous evaporation takes

  18. An evaporation based digital microflow meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nie, C.; Frijns, A.J.H.; Mandamparambil, R.; Zevenbergen, M.A.G.; Toonder, den J.M.J.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present a digital microflow meter operating in the range 30–250 nl min-1 for water. The principle is based on determining the evaporation rate of the liquid via reading the number of wetted pore array structures in a microfluidic system, through which continuous evaporation takes

  19. Water table and the neutron moisture meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visvalingam, M [Hull Univ. (UK). Geography Dept.

    1975-12-01

    Measurements with a neutron moisture meter at Westlands, near Hull, showed count rates at capillary saturation to be within the error limits of count rates at full saturation. However, the saturation profiles in themselves were interesting as they indicated not only the zonation of the soil but also differences in drainable porosity when compared to count-rate profiles at the end of November.

  20. Field test of coordinated ramp metering (CRM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-15

    This project has focused on field implementation and testing of a Coordinated Ramp Metering (CRM) algorithm at California State Route 99 : Northbound corridor in Sacramento between Calvine Road and the SR50 interchange after 12th Ave. It is a 9 mile ...

  1. Smart meters and economies in energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelem, Marie-Christine

    2014-01-01

    A central theme promoted by the government for the energy transition, the mastering of energy consumption features notably the setting up of intelligent electricity networks and the installation of what are known as smart meters. Yet will consumers actually be in a position to become proponents of more sober use of energy? (author)

  2. Smart wavelength meter for integrated photonics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benelajla, Meryem; Taballione, Caterina; Boller, Klaus J.

    2017-01-01

    Thermally tunable SiN waveguide microring resonators in connection with neural network readout algorithms appear promising for use as integrated optical wavelength meters. So far, we have observed long-term reliability and a temperature immunity of the readout across several degrees of ambient

  3. Weak measurements with a qubit meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Shengjun; Mølmer, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    We derive schemes to measure the so-called weak values of quantum system observables by coupling of the system to a qubit meter system. We highlight, in particular, the meaning of the imaginary part of the weak values, and show how it can be measured directly on equal footing with the real part...

  4. Educational Electrical Appliance Power Meter and Logger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, John

    2013-01-01

    The principles behind two different designs of inductive power meter are presented. They both make use of the microphone input of a computer which, together with a custom-written program, can record the instantaneous power of a domestic electrical appliance. The device can be built quickly and can be calibrated with reference to a known power…

  5. Wat maakt een slimme meter echt slim?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Bakker, Vincent; Bosman, M.G.C.; Molderink, Albert; Croes, Roel

    In de Tweede Kamer laaide in 2008 een discussie op naar aanleiding van geluiden uit de samenleving over het wel of niet verplicht installeren van slimme meters in huizen. Voor- en tegenstanders van een verplichte invoer gebruiken ondertussen alle media om de algemene opinie te beïnvloeden.

  6. Optical system for a universal luminance meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1965-01-01

    There is a need for luminance meters in various fields of photometry having these characteristics: a- objective method of measurements. b. variable shape and size of measurement area. c- absence of parallax during aiming operations. d- Possibility of observing the part of the field of view to be

  7. Meter Designs Reduce Operation Costs for Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center collaborated with Quality Monitoring and Control (QMC) of Humble, Texas, through a Space Act Agreement to design a balanced flow meter for the Space Shuttle Program. QMC founded APlus-QMC LLC to commercialize the technology, which has contributed to 100 new jobs, approximately $250,000 in yearly sales, and saved customers an estimated $10 million.

  8. KVP meter errors induced by plastic wrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferies, D.; Morris, J.W.; White, V.P.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether erroneous kVp meter readings, induced by plastic wrap, affected the actual kVp (output) of a dental X-ray machine. To evaluate the effect of plastic wrap on dental X-ray machine kVp meters, a radiation output device was used to measure output in mR/ma.s. An intraoral dental X-ray unit (S.S. White Model number-sign 90W) was used to make the exposures. First, the kVp meter was not covered with plastic wrap and output readings were recorded at various kVp settings with the milliamperage and time held constant. Secondly, the same kVp settings were selected before the plastic wrap was placed. Milliamperage and time were again held to the same constant. The X-ray console was then covered with plastic wrap prior to measuring the output for each kVp. The wrap possessed a static charge. This charge induced erroneous kVp meter readings. Out-put readings at the various induced kVp settings were then recorded. A kVp of 50 with no wrap present resulted in the same output as a kVp of 50 induced to read 40 or 60 kVp by the presence of wrap. Similar results were obtained at other kVp settings. This indicates that the plastic wrap influences only the kVp meter needle and not the actual kilovoltage of the X-ray machine. Dental X-ray machine operators should select kVp meter readings prior to placing plastic wrap and should not adjust initial settings if the meter is deflected later by the presence of wrap. The use of such a procedure will result in proper exposures, fewer retakes, and less patient radiation. If plastic wrap leads to consistent exposure errors, clinicians may wish to use a 0.5% sodium hypochlorite disinfectant as an alternative to the barrier technique

  9. BCM6: New Generation of Boron Meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirat, P.

    2010-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Rolls-Royce has developed a new generation of boron meter, based on more than 30 years of experience. The Rolls-Royce BCM6 boron meter provides Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operators with the boron concentration of the primary circuit. The meter provides continuous and safe measurements with no manual sampling and no human contact. In this paper, technical features, advantages and customer benefits of the use of the new generation of Rolls-Royce BCM6 boron meter will be detailed. Values and associated alarms are provides over different media: 4-20 mA outputs, relays, displays in the main control room and in the chemical lab, and digital links. A special alarm avoids unexpected homogeneous dilution of the primary circuit, which is a critical operational parameter. The Rolls-Royce BCM6 boron meter is fully configurable over a set of parameters allowing adaptation to customer needs. It has a differential capability, thus eliminating neutronic noise and keeping measurements accurate, even in the case of fuel clad rupture. Measurements are accurate, reliable, and have a quick response time. Equipment meets state-of-the-art qualification requests. Designed in 2008, the BCM6 boron meter is the newest equipment of Rolls-Royce boron meters product line. It has been chosen to equip the French EPR NPP and complies with the state-of-the-art of the technology. Rolls-Royce has more than 30 years of experience in Instrumentation and Controls with more than 75 NPP units operating worldwide. All of this experience return has been put in this new generation of equipment to provide the customer with the best operation. About Rolls-Royce Rolls-Royce is a global business providing integrated power systems for use on land, at sea and in the air. The Group has a balanced business portfolio with leading market positions. Rolls-Royce has a broad range of civil nuclear expertise, including work related to licensing and safety reviews, engineering design

  10. Assessment of the implementation regulations for smart meters; Beoordeling uitvoeringsregelingen Slimme Meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boekema, J.

    2011-03-15

    TNO (Netherlands) assessed whether the smart meter is reliable and future proof. By request of the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation (ELI) an assessment was conducted of the requirements for smart meters and, as formulated in the Order in Council 'Decree on remotely readable metering devices', based on 48 tests regarding security, privacy and future stability. Taking into account a number of described recommendations, TNO deems the legislation and implementation schemes sufficient to allow for safe, reliable and future proof implementation of smart meters in the Netherlands. [Dutch] TNO heeft beoordeeld of de slimme meter betrouwbaar en toekomstvast is. Ten behoeve van het ministerie van Economische Zaken, Landbouw en Innovatie (ELI) zijn de eisen die aan slimme meters worden gesteld, en zoals verwoord in de AmvB 'Besluit op afstand uitleesbare meetinrichtingen', beoordeeld aan de hand van 48 toetsen over zekerheid (security), persoonlijke levenssfeer (privacy) en toekomstvastheid. Met inachtneming van een aantal omschreven aanbevelingen, vindt TNO wetgeving en uitvoeringsregelingen zodanig dat daarmee een veilige, betrouwbare en toekomstvaste slimme meter geimplementeerd kan worden in Nederland.

  11. Revealing household characteristics from smart meter data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckel, Christian; Sadamori, Leyna; Staake, Thorsten; Santini, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Utilities are currently deploying smart electricity meters in millions of households worldwide to collect fine-grained electricity consumption data. We present an approach to automatically analyzing this data to enable personalized and scalable energy efficiency programs for private households. In particular, we develop and evaluate a system that uses supervised machine learning techniques to automatically estimate specific “characteristics” of a household from its electricity consumption. The characteristics are related to a household's socio-economic status, its dwelling, or its appliance stock. We evaluate our approach by analyzing smart meter data collected from 4232 households in Ireland at a 30-min granularity over a period of 1.5 years. Our analysis shows that revealing characteristics from smart meter data is feasible, as our method achieves an accuracy of more than 70% over all households for many of the characteristics and even exceeds 80% for some of the characteristics. The findings are applicable to all smart metering systems without making changes to the measurement infrastructure. The inferred knowledge paves the way for targeted energy efficiency programs and other services that benefit from improved customer insights. On the basis of these promising results, the paper discusses the potential for utilities as well as policy and privacy implications. - Highlights: • Many household characteristics can be automatically inferred from smart meter data. • We develop a system to infer employment status and number of occupants, for instance. • We evaluate our system analyzing data collected from 4232 households in Ireland. • The insights enable personalized and scalable efficiency campaigns for utilities. • Energy efficiency measures must be complemented by privacy protection

  12. The last generation of contamination and exposure rate meters and monitors designed in Boris Kidric Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koturovic, A.M.; Sobajic, M.V.; Smelcerovic, M.A.; Damljanovic, D.D.; Drndarevic, V.R.

    1989-01-01

    The last generation of contamination and exposure rate meters and monitors designed and produced in Boris Kidric Institute, presented in this paper, are digital survey instruments. The common principle of these instruments is the 'simple precision' concept, i.e. predetermined time pulse counting. This principle is discussed and basic structure of these instruments is shown with their possibilities and features (author)

  13. 1 meter Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) - USGS National Map 3DEP Downloadable Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a tiled collection of the 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) and is one meter resolution.The 3DEP data holdings serve as the elevation layer of The National Map,...

  14. Analysis of current meter records at the northwest atlantic 2800 metre radioactive waste dumpsite. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, P.

    1982-01-01

    In August, 1976, four current meter arrays were deployed for a period of three months at the Atlantic 2800 meter radioactive waste disposal site as part of a scientific survey by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to assess the environmental conditions at this formerly used site. The disposal site is located on the Continental Rise and is centered at 38 deg 30' N, 72 deg 06' W. The four arrays were placed in a rectangle near the periphery of the site, each with a current meter 5.1 meters off the bottom, with an additional meter located 96 meters from the bottom at the southwest mooring. The principal findings included a 3-4 cm/s southwesterly mean current observed near the bottom. The low frequency part of the spectrum is explained as bottom trapped topographic Rossby waves. The high frequency motions are dominated by inertial oscillations with a maximum amplitude of about 10 cm/s. The potential for sediment transport during the measurement period is considered very small based on the observed current speeds

  15. Automated Burris gravity meter for single and continuous observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Jentzsch

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The Burris Gravity Meter™ manufactured by ZLS Corporation, Austin/Texas, USA, is based on the invention of L&R (L. LaCoste and A. Romberg: The ZLS (zero-length spring. A digital feedback system (range of about 50 mGal is used to null the beam. Now, more than 120 gravity meters of this make exist worldwide and are used successfully in exploration, volcanology, geodetic work and surveying.The sensor is made of the well-known (L&R metal-alloy zero-length spring providing a low drift characteristic. The drifts observed are comparable to L&R gravimeters and are less than 0.3 mGal per month, which is much lower than the drifts known for the fused quartz sensors.The dial is calibrated every 50 mGal over the entire 7000 mGal meter range. Since the gravity value is determined at these points, there are no periodic errors. By a fourth heater circuit temperature effects are totally avoided. The gravity meter is controlled via Bluetooth® either to a handheld computer (tablet or a notebook computer.The feedback responds with high stability and accuracy. The nulling of the beam is controlled by the UltraGrav™ control system which incorporates an inherently linear PWM (pulse-width modulated electrostatic feedback system. In order to improve the handling of the gravimeter we have developed two Windows based programs: AGESfield for single measurements and AGEScont for continuous readings. Keywords: Gravimeter, Micro-gravity measurements, Drift, Resolution, Single and continuous observations

  16. Metering error quantification under voltage and current waveform distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Jia; Xie, Zhi; Zhang, Ran

    2017-09-01

    With integration of more and more renewable energies and distortion loads into power grid, the voltage and current waveform distortion results in metering error in the smart meters. Because of the negative effects on the metering accuracy and fairness, it is an important subject to study energy metering combined error. In this paper, after the comparing between metering theoretical value and real recorded value under different meter modes for linear and nonlinear loads, a quantification method of metering mode error is proposed under waveform distortion. Based on the metering and time-division multiplier principles, a quantification method of metering accuracy error is proposed also. Analyzing the mode error and accuracy error, a comprehensive error analysis method is presented which is suitable for new energy and nonlinear loads. The proposed method has been proved by simulation.

  17. Calibration of reference KAP-meters at SSDL and cross calibration of clinical KAP-meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetland, Per O.; Friberg, Eva G.; Oevreboe, Kirsti M.; Bjerke, Hans H.

    2009-01-01

    In the summer of 2007 the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (SSDL) in Norway established a calibration service for reference air-kerma product meter (KAP-meter). The air-kerma area product, PKA, is a dosimetric quantity that can be directly related to the patient dose and used for risk assessment associated with different x-ray examinations. The calibration of reference KAP-meters at the SSDL gives important information on parameters influencing the calibration factor for different types of KAP-meters. The use of reference KAP-meters calibrated at the SSDL is an easy and reliable way to calibrate or verify the PKA indicated by the x-ray equipment out in the clinics. Material and methods. Twelve KAP-meters were calibrated at the SSDL by use of the substitution method at five diagnostic radiation qualities (RQRs). Results. The calibration factors varied from 0.94 to 1.18. The energy response of the individual KAP-meters varied by a total of 20% between the different RQRs and the typical chamber transmission factors ranged from 0.78 to 0.91. Discussion. It is important to use a calibrated reference KAP-meter and a harmonised calibration method in the PKA calibration in hospitals. The obtained uncertainty in the PKA readings is comparable with other calibration methods if the information in the calibration certificate is correct used, corrections are made and proper positioning of the KAP-chamber is performed. This will ensure a reliable estimate of the patient dose and a proper optimisation of conventional x-ray examinations and interventional procedures

  18. Community Net Energy Metering: How Novel Policies Expand Benefits of Net Metering to Non-Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, James; Varnado, Laurel

    2009-04-01

    As interest in community solutions to renewable energy grows, more states are beginning to develop policies that encourage properties with more than one meter to install shared renewable energy systems. State net metering policies are evolving to allow the aggregation of multiple meters on a customer’s property and to dissolve conventional geographical boundaries. This trend means net metering is expanding out of its traditional function as an enabling incentive to offset onsite customer load at a single facility. This paper analyzes community net energy metering (CNEM) as an emerging vehicle by which farmers, neighborhoods, and municipalities may more easily finance and reap the benefits of renewable energy. Specifically, it aims to compare and contrast the definition of geographical boundaries among different CNEM models and examine the benefits and limitations of each approach. As state policies begin to stretch the geographic boundaries of net metering, they allow inventive solutions to encourage renewable energy investment. This paper attempts to initiate the conversation on this emerging policy mechanism and offers recommendations for further development of these policies.

  19. Gamin partable radiation meter with alarm threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payat, Rene.

    1981-10-01

    The Gamin Radiation meter is a direct reading, portable, battery-powered gamma doserate meter featuring alarm thresholds. Doserate is read on a micro-ammeter with a millirad-per-hour logarithmic scale, covering a range of 0,1 to 1000 millirads/hour. The instrument issues an audible warning signal when dose-rate level exceeds a threshold value, which can be selected. The detector tube is of the Geiger-Muller counter, energy compensated type. Because of its low battery drain, the instrument can be operated continously for 1000 hours. It is powered by four 1.5 volt alcaline batteries of the R6 type. The electronic circuitry is housed in a small lightweight case made of impact resistant plastic. Applications of the Gamin portable radiation monitor are found in health physics, safety departments, medical facilities, teaching, civil defense [fr

  20. Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel O.; Walsh, Michael M.

    1999-01-01

    A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel in order to mix its respective portion of liquid water with the corresponding portion of the stream. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

  1. Energy Theft in the Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Stephen; Podkuiko, Dmitry; McDaniel, Patrick

    Global energy generation and delivery systems are transitioning to a new computerized "smart grid". One of the principle components of the smart grid is an advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). AMI replaces the analog meters with computerized systems that report usage over digital communication interfaces, e.g., phone lines. However, with this infrastructure comes new risk. In this paper, we consider adversary means of defrauding the electrical grid by manipulating AMI systems. We document the methods adversaries will use to attempt to manipulate energy usage data, and validate the viability of these attacks by performing penetration testing on commodity devices. Through these activities, we demonstrate that not only is theft still possible in AMI systems, but that current AMI devices introduce a myriad of new vectors for achieving it.

  2. Analysis Balance Parameter of Optimal Ramp metering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Duan, N.; Yang, X.

    2018-05-01

    Ramp metering is a motorway control method to avoid onset congestion through limiting the access of ramp inflows into the main road of the motorway. The optimization model of ramp metering is developed based upon cell transmission model (CTM). With the piecewise linear structure of CTM, the corresponding motorway traffic optimization problem can be formulated as a linear programming (LP) problem. It is known that LP problem can be solved by established solution algorithms such as SIMPLEX or interior-point methods for the global optimal solution. The commercial software (CPLEX) is adopted in this study to solve the LP problem within reasonable computational time. The concept is illustrated through a case study of the United Kingdom M25 Motorway. The optimal solution provides useful insights and guidances on how to manage motorway traffic in order to maximize the corresponding efficiency.

  3. Quality control of the activity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Marlon da Silva Brandão; Sá, Lídia Vasconcelos de

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To carry out a comparative analysis of national and international standards regarding the quality control of the activity meter used in Nuclear Medicine Services in Brazil. Material and methods: Quality control protocols from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) were pointed out and compared with requirements from both regulatory Brazilian agencies, National Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) and National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). Results: The daily routine tests recommended by the regulatory agencies do not have significant differences; in contrast the tests with higher periodicities like (accuracy, linearity and precision) have differences discrepant. Conclusion: In view of the comparative analysis carried out, it is suggested that the national recommendations for the quality control tests of the activity meter should be checked and evaluated, with emphasis on the semiannual and annual periodicity tests. (author)

  4. From Smart Metering to Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukuča, Peter; Chrapčiak, Igor

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with evaluation of measurements in electrical distribution systems aimed at better use of data provided by Smart Metering systems. The influence of individual components of apparent power on the power loss is calculated and results of measurements under real conditions are presented. The significance of difference between the traditional and the complex evaluation of the electricity consumption efficiency by means of different definitions of the power factor is illustrated.

  5. Wanted: competitive metering infrastructure. Metering must be automated in a high grade; Gesucht: wettbewerbsfaehige Metering-Infrastruktur. Metering muss hochgradig automatisiert werden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Elschner, C. [T-Systems Enterprise Services GmbH, Bonn (Germany). Business Development und Marketing

    2008-04-21

    Accurate on-time consumption metering and data transmission are increasingly important as energy markets are being deregulated. Measuring and information systems combine measurements with intelligent modules for automatic transmission of consumption information. A meaningful cost-benefit comparision results only when the total system is considered. Telecommunication companies as ICT service systems and service sectors can do a clear contribution to the total system. (orig./GL)

  6. Device Stores and Discharges Metered Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, S. L.; Setzer, D.

    1983-01-01

    Hand-held container accepts measured amount of liquid from pressurized supply. Supply pressure drives spring-loaded piston that stores enough mechanical energy to discharge measured liquid into another container. Original application of container was to rehydrate sterilized pre-packaged food in zerogravity environment of space vehicles. Possible terrestrial applicatios include dispensing of toxic fluids or metering of fluids for household, commercial or laboratory uses.

  7. Electricity Consumption Clustering Using Smart Meter Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Tureczek

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Electricity smart meter consumption data is enabling utilities to analyze consumption information at unprecedented granularity. Much focus has been directed towards consumption clustering for diversifying tariffs; through modern clustering methods, cluster analyses have been performed. However, the clusters developed exhibit a large variation with resulting shadow clusters, making it impossible to truly identify the individual clusters. Using clearly defined dwelling types, this paper will present methods to improve clustering by harvesting inherent structure from the smart meter data. This paper clusters domestic electricity consumption using smart meter data from the Danish city of Esbjerg. Methods from time series analysis and wavelets are applied to enable the K-Means clustering method to account for autocorrelation in data and thereby improve the clustering performance. The results show the importance of data knowledge and we identify sub-clusters of consumption within the dwelling types and enable K-Means to produce satisfactory clustering by accounting for a temporal component. Furthermore our study shows that careful preprocessing of the data to account for intrinsic structure enables better clustering performance by the K-Means method.

  8. The Gemini 8-Meter Telescopes Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroson, Todd A.

    1995-05-01

    The Gemini 8-Meter Telescopes Project is an international partnership to build and operate two 8-meter telescopes, one on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, and one on Cerro Pachon, Chile. The telescopes will be international facilities, open to the scientific communities of the six member countries, the United States (50%), the United Kingdom (25%), Canada (15%), Chile (5%), Argentina (2.5%), and Brazil (2.5%). The telescopes are designed to exploit the best atmospheric conditions at these excellent sites. Near diffraction limited performance will be delivered at 2.2 microns and longward, with minimal degradation of the best seeing conditions at shorter wavelengths. The telescopes and facilities are designed to achieve emissivity opportunity. First light for the Mauna Kea telescope is expected in late 1998, and for the Cerro Pachon telescope in mid-2000. This talk will report on construction progress, the instrumental capabilities, and operations strategies being considered. The Gemini 8-meter Telescopes Project is managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc. under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation which serves as executive agency for the Gemini partner countries. U.S. participation in the project is through the U.S. Gemini Program, a division of the National Optical Astronomy Observatories. NOAO is operated by AURA, Inc. under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  9. Route Optimization for Offloading Congested Meter Fixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Min; Zelinski, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    The Optimized Route Capability (ORC) concept proposed by the FAA facilitates traffic managers to identify and resolve arrival flight delays caused by bottlenecks formed at arrival meter fixes when there exists imbalance between arrival fixes and runways. ORC makes use of the prediction capability of existing automation tools, monitors the traffic delays based on these predictions, and searches the best reroutes upstream of the meter fixes based on the predictions and estimated arrival schedules when delays are over a predefined threshold. Initial implementation and evaluation of the ORC concept considered only reroutes available at the time arrival congestion was first predicted. This work extends previous work by introducing an additional dimension in reroute options such that ORC can find the best time to reroute and overcome the 'firstcome- first-reroute' phenomenon. To deal with the enlarged reroute solution space, a genetic algorithm was developed to solve this problem. Experiments were conducted using the same traffic scenario used in previous work, when an arrival rush was created for one of the four arrival meter fixes at George Bush Intercontinental Houston Airport. Results showed the new approach further improved delay savings. The suggested route changes from the new approach were on average 30 minutes later than those using other approaches, and fewer numbers of reroutes were required. Fewer numbers of reroutes reduce operational complexity and later reroutes help decision makers deal with uncertain situations.

  10. Metering, settlement and export reward options for micro-generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report presents the results of a study carried out as part of the Department of Trade and Industry's New and Renewable Energy Programme to evaluate the costs and benefits of various metering, settlement and export reward opportunities for both renewable and non-renewable forms of microgeneration based on existing projections to 2020. The technologies studied included single and three-phase applications of: solar photovoltaic (rated at 1 kW per installation); small-scale wind generation (rated at 1 kW per installation); micro-CHP (combined heat and power) (rated at 1.1 kW per installation); and micro-hydropower (rated at 3.7 and 6.4 kW per installation). The report outlines a number of different options for metering, settlement and export rewards, and describes the development of an economic model to quantify their costs and benefits. This model is then used to predict the future costs and benefits of the various options. The potential value of the options to the UK economy and any environmental benefits are discussed and a commentary on possible barriers to implementation is provided.

  11. Visualization Techniques for Electrical Grid Smart Metering Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefan, Maria; Lopez, Jose Manuel Guterrez Lopez; Andreasen, Morten Henius

    2017-01-01

    (GIS) tools are useful to help visualize the collected big data in near-real time. For this reason, a survey of existing GIS software will be made so that the choice of the most suitable tool can be justified. Also, the integration of GIS technologies into the Common Information Model (CIM) aims...... presented, as a motivation for the choice of the relevant state of the art research. In relation to the knowledge provided by the metering data, a definition of the big data concept will be further introduced, according to the requirements established by the project definition. Geographic Information System...... to improve the visualization efficiency. As a consequence, investigating methods for adapting CIM standards to the GIS platform are also important....

  12. Real time Aanderaa current meter data collection system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AshokKumar, K.; Diwan, S.G.

    Aanderaa current meters are widely used for recording the current speed and such other 4 parameters by deploying them over extended period of time. Normally data are recorded on magnetic tape and after recovery of current meters, data are read...

  13. Passive Rn dose meters - measuring methods appropriate for large measurement series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, M.; Kiefer, H.

    1985-01-01

    Passive integrating measuring methods can be classified in several groups by their functioning principle, e.g. spray chambers or open chambers with nuclear trace detectors or TL detectors, open detectors, activated carbon dose meters with or without TL detectors. According to the functioning principle, only radon or radon and fission products can be detected. The lecture gives a survey of the present state of development of passive Rn dose meters. By the example of the Ra dose meter developed at Karlsruhe which was used in inquiry measurements carried out in Germany, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Belgium and Austria, etching technology, estimation of measuring uncertainties, reproducibility and fading behaviour shall be discussed. (orig./HP) [de

  14. The California Baseline Methane Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, R. M.; Thorpe, A. K.; Hopkins, F. M.; Rafiq, T.; Bue, B. D.; Prasad, K.; Mccubbin, I.; Miller, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    The California Baseline Methane Survey is the first systematic, statewide assessment of methane point source emissions. The objectives are to reduce uncertainty in the state's methane budget and to identify emission mitigation priorities for state and local agencies, utilities and facility owners. The project combines remote sensing of large areas with airborne imaging spectroscopy and spatially resolved bottom-up data sets to detect, quantify and attribute emissions from diverse sectors including agriculture, waste management, oil and gas production and the natural gas supply chain. Phase 1 of the project surveyed nearly 180,000 individual facilities and infrastructure components across California in 2016 - achieving completeness rates ranging from 20% to 100% per emission sector at < 5 meters spatial resolution. Additionally, intensive studies of key areas and sectors were performed to assess source persistence and variability at times scales ranging from minutes to months. Phase 2 of the project continues with additional data collection in Spring and Fall 2017. We describe the survey design and measurement, modeling and analysis methods. We present initial findings regarding the spatial, temporal and sectoral distribution of methane point source emissions in California and their estimated contribution to the state's total methane budget. We provide case-studies and lessons learned about key sectors including examples where super-emitters were identified and mitigated. We summarize challenges and recommendations for future methane research, inventories and mitigation guidance within and beyond California.

  15. The Fourteenth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: First Spectroscopic Data from the Extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey and from the Second Phase of the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolfathi, Bela; Aguado, D. S.; Aguilar, Gabriela; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Almeida, Andres; Tasnim Ananna, Tonima; Anders, Friedrich; Anderson, Scott F.; Andrews, Brett H.; Anguiano, Borja; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Argudo-Fernández, Maria; Armengaud, Eric; Ata, Metin; Aubourg, Eric; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Badenes, Carles; Bailey, Stephen; Balland, Christophe; Barger, Kathleen A.; Barrera-Ballesteros, Jorge; Bartosz, Curtis; Bastien, Fabienne; Bates, Dominic; Baumgarten, Falk; Bautista, Julian; Beaton, Rachael; Beers, Timothy C.; Belfiore, Francesco; Bender, Chad F.; Bernardi, Mariangela; Bershady, Matthew A.; Beutler, Florian; Bird, Jonathan C.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Blanton, Michael R.; Blomqvist, Michael; Bolton, Adam S.; Boquien, Médéric; Borissova, Jura; Bovy, Jo; Andres Bradna Diaz, Christian; Nielsen Brandt, William; Brinkmann, Jonathan; Brownstein, Joel R.; Bundy, Kevin; Burgasser, Adam J.; Burtin, Etienne; Busca, Nicolás G.; Cañas, Caleb I.; Cano-Díaz, Mariana; Cappellari, Michele; Carrera, Ricardo; Casey, Andrew R.; Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo; Chen, Yanping; Cherinka, Brian; Chiappini, Cristina; Doohyun Choi, Peter; Chojnowski, Drew; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Chung, Haeun; Clerc, Nicolas; Cohen, Roger E.; Comerford, Julia M.; Comparat, Johan; Correa do Nascimento, Janaina; da Costa, Luiz; Cousinou, Marie-Claude; Covey, Kevin; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Cruz-Gonzalez, Irene; Cunha, Katia; da Silva Ilha, Gabriele; Damke, Guillermo J.; Darling, Jeremy; Davidson, James W., Jr.; Dawson, Kyle; de Icaza Lizaola, Miguel Angel C.; de la Macorra, Axel; de la Torre, Sylvain; De Lee, Nathan; de Sainte Agathe, Victoria; Deconto Machado, Alice; Dell’Agli, Flavia; Delubac, Timothée; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Donor, John; José Downes, Juan; Drory, Niv; du Mas des Bourboux, Hélion; Duckworth, Christopher J.; Dwelly, Tom; Dyer, Jamie; Ebelke, Garrett; Davis Eigenbrot, Arthur; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Elsworth, Yvonne P.; Emsellem, Eric; Eracleous, Michael; Erfanianfar, Ghazaleh; Escoffier, Stephanie; Fan, Xiaohui; Fernández Alvar, Emma; Fernandez-Trincado, J. G.; Cirolini, Rafael Fernando; Feuillet, Diane; Finoguenov, Alexis; Fleming, Scott W.; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Freischlad, Gordon; Frinchaboy, Peter; Fu, Hai; Gómez Maqueo Chew, Yilen; Galbany, Lluís; García Pérez, Ana E.; Garcia-Dias, R.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Garma Oehmichen, Luis Alberto; Gaulme, Patrick; Gelfand, Joseph; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Gillespie, Bruce A.; Goddard, Daniel; González Hernández, Jonay I.; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Grabowski, Kathleen; Green, Paul J.; Grier, Catherine J.; Gueguen, Alain; Guo, Hong; Guy, Julien; Hagen, Alex; Hall, Patrick; Harding, Paul; Hasselquist, Sten; Hawley, Suzanne; Hayes, Christian R.; Hearty, Fred; Hekker, Saskia; Hernandez, Jesus; Hernandez Toledo, Hector; Hogg, David W.; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Holtzman, Jon A.; Hou, Jiamin; Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Hunt, Jason A. S.; Hutchinson, Timothy A.; Hwang, Ho Seong; Jimenez Angel, Camilo Eduardo; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Jones, Amy; Jönsson, Henrik; Jullo, Eric; Sakil Khan, Fahim; Kinemuchi, Karen; Kirkby, David; Kirkpatrick, Charles C., IV; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Knapp, Gillian R.; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Kollmeier, Juna A.; Lacerna, Ivan; Lane, Richard R.; Lang, Dustin; Law, David R.; Le Goff, Jean-Marc; Lee, Young-Bae; Li, Hongyu; Li, Cheng; Lian, Jianhui; Liang, Yu; Lima, Marcos; Lin, Lihwai; Long, Dan; Lucatello, Sara; Lundgren, Britt; Mackereth, J. Ted; MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Geimba Maia, Marcio Antonio; Majewski, Steven; Manchado, Arturo; Maraston, Claudia; Mariappan, Vivek; Marques-Chaves, Rui; Masseron, Thomas; Masters, Karen L.; McDermid, Richard M.; McGreer, Ian D.; Melendez, Matthew; Meneses-Goytia, Sofia; Merloni, Andrea; Merrifield, Michael R.; Meszaros, Szabolcs; Meza, Andres; Minchev, Ivan; Minniti, Dante; Mueller, Eva-Maria; Muller-Sanchez, Francisco; Muna, Demitri; Muñoz, Ricardo R.; Myers, Adam D.; Nair, Preethi; Nandra, Kirpal; Ness, Melissa; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Nichol, Robert C.; Nidever, David L.; Nitschelm, Christian; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; O’Connell, Julia; Oelkers, Ryan James; Oravetz, Audrey; Oravetz, Daniel; Aquino Ortíz, Erik; Osorio, Yeisson; Pace, Zach; Padilla, Nelson; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Alonso Palicio, Pedro; Pan, Hsi-An; Pan, Kaike; Parikh, Taniya; Pâris, Isabelle; Park, Changbom; Peirani, Sebastien; Pellejero-Ibanez, Marcos; Penny, Samantha; Percival, Will J.; Perez-Fournon, Ismael; Petitjean, Patrick; Pieri, Matthew M.; Pinsonneault, Marc; Pisani, Alice; Prada, Francisco; Prakash, Abhishek; Queiroz, Anna Bárbara de Andrade; Raddick, M. Jordan; Raichoor, Anand; Barboza Rembold, Sandro; Richstein, Hannah; Riffel, Rogemar A.; Riffel, Rogério; Rix, Hans-Walter; Robin, Annie C.; Rodríguez Torres, Sergio; Román-Zúñiga, Carlos; Ross, Ashley J.; Rossi, Graziano; Ruan, John; Ruggeri, Rossana; Ruiz, Jose; Salvato, Mara; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Sánchez, Sebastián F.; Sanchez Almeida, Jorge; Sánchez-Gallego, José R.; Santana Rojas, Felipe Antonio; Santiago, Basílio Xavier; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Schimoia, Jaderson S.; Schlafly, Edward; Schlegel, David; Schneider, Donald P.; Schuster, William J.; Schwope, Axel; Seo, Hee-Jong; Serenelli, Aldo; Shen, Shiyin; Shen, Yue; Shetrone, Matthew; Shull, Michael; Silva Aguirre, Víctor; Simon, Joshua D.; Skrutskie, Mike; Slosar, Anže; Smethurst, Rebecca; Smith, Verne; Sobeck, Jennifer; Somers, Garrett; Souter, Barbara J.; Souto, Diogo; Spindler, Ashley; Stark, David V.; Stassun, Keivan; Steinmetz, Matthias; Stello, Dennis; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Streblyanska, Alina; Stringfellow, Guy S.; Suárez, Genaro; Sun, Jing; Szigeti, Laszlo; Taghizadeh-Popp, Manuchehr; Talbot, Michael S.; Tang, Baitian; Tao, Charling; Tayar, Jamie; Tembe, Mita; Teske, Johanna; Thakar, Aniruddha R.; Thomas, Daniel; Tissera, Patricia; Tojeiro, Rita; Tremonti, Christy; Troup, Nicholas W.; Urry, Meg; Valenzuela, O.; van den Bosch, Remco; Vargas-González, Jaime; Vargas-Magaña, Mariana; Vazquez, Jose Alberto; Villanova, Sandro; Vogt, Nicole; Wake, David; Wang, Yuting; Weaver, Benjamin Alan; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Weinberg, David H.; Westfall, Kyle B.; Whelan, David G.; Wilcots, Eric; Wild, Vivienne; Williams, Rob A.; Wilson, John; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Wylezalek, Dominika; Xiao, Ting; Yan, Renbin; Yang, Meng; Ybarra, Jason E.; Yèche, Christophe; Zakamska, Nadia; Zamora, Olga; Zarrouk, Pauline; Zasowski, Gail; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Cheng; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Zheng, Zheng; Zheng, Zheng; Zhou, Zhi-Min; Zhu, Guangtun; Zinn, Joel C.; Zou, Hu

    2018-04-01

    The fourth generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV) has been in operation since 2014 July. This paper describes the second data release from this phase, and the 14th from SDSS overall (making this Data Release Fourteen or DR14). This release makes the data taken by SDSS-IV in its first two years of operation (2014–2016 July) public. Like all previous SDSS releases, DR14 is cumulative, including the most recent reductions and calibrations of all data taken by SDSS since the first phase began operations in 2000. New in DR14 is the first public release of data from the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey; the first data from the second phase of the Apache Point Observatory (APO) Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE-2), including stellar parameter estimates from an innovative data-driven machine-learning algorithm known as “The Cannon” and almost twice as many data cubes from the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO (MaNGA) survey as were in the previous release (N = 2812 in total). This paper describes the location and format of the publicly available data from the SDSS-IV surveys. We provide references to the important technical papers describing how these data have been taken (both targeting and observation details) and processed for scientific use. The SDSS web site (www.sdss.org) has been updated for this release and provides links to data downloads, as well as tutorials and examples of data use. SDSS-IV is planning to continue to collect astronomical data until 2020 and will be followed by SDSS-V.

  16. Electromagnetic surveys to detect clay-rich sediment in the Rio Grande inner valley, Albuquerque area, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolino, James R.; Sterling, Joseph M.

    2000-01-01

    Information on the presence of clay-rich layers in the inner-valley alluvium is essential for quantifying the amount of water transmitted between the Rio Grande and the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. This report describes a study that used electromagnetic surveys to provide this information. In the first phase of the study, electromagnetic soundings were made using time-domain and frequency-domain electro- magnetic methods. On the basis of these initial results, the time- domain method was judged ineffective because of cultural noise in the study area, so subsequent surveys were made using the frequency-domain method. For the second phase of the study, 31 frequency-domain electromagnetic surveys were conducted along the inner valley and parallel to the Rio Grande in the Albuquerque area in the spring and summer of 1997 to determine the presence of hydrologically significant clay-rich layers buried in the inner-valley alluvium. For this report, the 31 survey sections were combined into 10 composite sections for ease of interpretation. Terrain-conductivity data from the surveys were modeled using interpretation software to produce geoelectric cross sections along the survey lines. This modeling used lithologic logs from two wells installed near the survey lines: the Bosque South and Rio Bravo 5 wells. Because of cultural interference, location of the wells and soundings, complex stratigraphy, and difficulty interpreting lithology, such interpretation was inconclusive. Instead, a decision process based on modeling results was developed using vertical and horizontal dipole 40-meter intercoil spacing terrain-conductivity values. Values larger than or equal to 20 millisiemens per meter were interpreted to contain a hydrologically significant thickness of clay-rich sediment. Thus, clay-rich sediment was interpreted to underlie seven segments of the 10 composited survey lines, totaling at least 2,660 meters of the Rio Grande inner valley. The longest of these clay

  17. IMAGE TYPE WATER METER CHARACTER RECOGNITION BASED ON EMBEDDED DSP

    OpenAIRE

    LIU Ying; HAN Yan-bin; ZHANG Yu-lin

    2015-01-01

    In the paper, we combined DSP processor with image processing algorithm and studied the method of water meter character recognition. We collected water meter image through camera at a fixed angle, and the projection method is used to recognize those digital images. The experiment results show that the method can recognize the meter characters accurately and artificial meter reading is replaced by automatic digital recognition, which improves working efficiency.

  18. Tapping to a slow tempo in the presence of simple and complex meters reveals experience-specific biases for processing music.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Ullal-Gupta

    Full Text Available Musical meters vary considerably across cultures, yet relatively little is known about how culture-specific experience influences metrical processing. In Experiment 1, we compared American and Indian listeners' synchronous tapping to slow sequences. Inter-tone intervals contained silence or to-be-ignored rhythms that were designed to induce a simple meter (familiar to Americans and Indians or a complex meter (familiar only to Indians. A subset of trials contained an abrupt switch from one rhythm to another to assess the disruptive effects of contradicting the initially implied meter. In the unfilled condition, both groups tapped earlier than the target and showed large tap-tone asynchronies (measured in relative phase. When inter-tone intervals were filled with simple-meter rhythms, American listeners tapped later than targets, but their asynchronies were smaller and declined more rapidly. Likewise, asynchronies rose sharply following a switch away from simple-meter but not from complex-meter rhythm. By contrast, Indian listeners performed similarly across all rhythm types, with asynchronies rapidly declining over the course of complex- and simple-meter trials. For these listeners, a switch from either simple or complex meter increased asynchronies. Experiment 2 tested American listeners but doubled the duration of the synchronization phase prior to (and after the switch. Here, compared with simple meters, complex-meter rhythms elicited larger asynchronies that declined at a slower rate, however, asynchronies increased after the switch for all conditions. Our results provide evidence that ease of meter processing depends to a great extent on the amount of experience with specific meters.

  19. Tapping to a slow tempo in the presence of simple and complex meters reveals experience-specific biases for processing music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullal-Gupta, Sangeeta; Hannon, Erin E; Snyder, Joel S

    2014-01-01

    Musical meters vary considerably across cultures, yet relatively little is known about how culture-specific experience influences metrical processing. In Experiment 1, we compared American and Indian listeners' synchronous tapping to slow sequences. Inter-tone intervals contained silence or to-be-ignored rhythms that were designed to induce a simple meter (familiar to Americans and Indians) or a complex meter (familiar only to Indians). A subset of trials contained an abrupt switch from one rhythm to another to assess the disruptive effects of contradicting the initially implied meter. In the unfilled condition, both groups tapped earlier than the target and showed large tap-tone asynchronies (measured in relative phase). When inter-tone intervals were filled with simple-meter rhythms, American listeners tapped later than targets, but their asynchronies were smaller and declined more rapidly. Likewise, asynchronies rose sharply following a switch away from simple-meter but not from complex-meter rhythm. By contrast, Indian listeners performed similarly across all rhythm types, with asynchronies rapidly declining over the course of complex- and simple-meter trials. For these listeners, a switch from either simple or complex meter increased asynchronies. Experiment 2 tested American listeners but doubled the duration of the synchronization phase prior to (and after) the switch. Here, compared with simple meters, complex-meter rhythms elicited larger asynchronies that declined at a slower rate, however, asynchronies increased after the switch for all conditions. Our results provide evidence that ease of meter processing depends to a great extent on the amount of experience with specific meters.

  20. 49 CFR 192.357 - Customer meters and regulators: Installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Installation. 192... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.357 Customer meters and regulators: Installation. (a...

  1. 49 CFR 192.359 - Customer meter installations: Operating pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer meter installations: Operating pressure... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.359 Customer meter installations: Operating pressure...

  2. 24 CFR 965.401 - Individually metered utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Individual Metering of Utilities for Existing PHA-Owned Projects § 965.401 Individually metered utilities. (a) All utility service shall be... supplier or through the use of checkmeters, unless: (1) Individual metering is impractical, such as in the...

  3. HJD-I record and analysis meter for nuclear information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Shaoliang; Huang Yong; Xiao Yanbin

    1992-01-01

    A low-cost, small-volume, multi-function and new model intelligent nuclear electronic meter HJD-I Record and Analysis Meter are stated for Nuclear Information. It's hardware and software were detailed and the 137 Cs spectrum with this meter was presented

  4. A Scalable Smart Meter Data Generator Using Spark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Liu, Xiufeng; Danalachi, Sergiu

    2017-01-01

    Today, smart meters are being used worldwide. As a matter of fact smart meters produce large volumes of data. Thus, it is important for smart meter data management and analytics systems to process petabytes of data. Benchmarking and testing of these systems require scalable data, however, it can ...

  5. The disc pasture meter: Possible applications in grazing management.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The disc meter is a simple inexpensive instrument which may be used to make rapid yield estimates of standing forage. Linear regression relationships between meter reading and pasture dry matter yield are usually fairly good, but these may be affected by a number of different factors. The meter should therefore be ...

  6. 21 CFR 868.1780 - Inspiratory airway pressure meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inspiratory airway pressure meter. 868.1780 Section 868.1780 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... meter. (a) Identification. An inspiratory airway pressure meter is a device used to measure the amount...

  7. Multichannel Distribution Meter: A Veritable Solution in Power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Partitioned apartments in commercial buildings particularly in congested environments shares energy supply meters among several users. This often leads to disputes and results to power theft in the form of unpaid bills and meter tampering. This paper described how power from a single supply meter can be adequately ...

  8. Telecommunication Technologies for Smart Grid Projects with Focus on Smart Metering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoleta Andreadou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a study of the smart grid projects realised in Europe and presents their technological solutions with a focus on smart metering Low Voltage (LV applications. Special attention is given to the telecommunications technologies used. For this purpose, we present the telecommunication technologies chosen by several European utilities for the accomplishment of their smart meter national roll-outs. Further on, a study is performed based on the European Smart Grid Projects, highlighting their technological options. The range of the projects analysed covers the ones including smart metering implementation as well as those in which smart metering applications play a significant role in the overall project success. The survey reveals that various topics are directly or indirectly linked to smart metering applications, like smart home/building, energy management, grid monitoring and integration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES. Therefore, the technological options that lie behind such projects are pointed out. For reasons of completeness, we also present the main characteristics of the telecommunication technologies that are found to be used in practice for the LV grid.

  9. NUCLEAR MIXING METERS FOR CLASSICAL NOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Keegan J.; Iliadis, Christian; Downen, Lori; Champagne, Art [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); José, Jordi [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, EUETIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, E-08036 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-11-10

    Classical novae are caused by mass transfer episodes from a main-sequence star onto a white dwarf via Roche lobe overflow. This material possesses angular momentum and forms an accretion disk around the white dwarf. Ultimately, a fraction of this material spirals in and piles up on the white dwarf surface under electron-degenerate conditions. The subsequently occurring thermonuclear runaway reaches hundreds of megakelvin and explosively ejects matter into the interstellar medium. The exact peak temperature strongly depends on the underlying white dwarf mass, the accreted mass and metallicity, and the initial white dwarf luminosity. Observations of elemental abundance enrichments in these classical nova events imply that the ejected matter consists not only of processed solar material from the main-sequence partner but also of material from the outer layers of the underlying white dwarf. This indicates that white dwarf and accreted matter mix prior to the thermonuclear runaway. The processes by which this mixing occurs require further investigation to be understood. In this work, we analyze elemental abundances ejected from hydrodynamic nova models in search of elemental abundance ratios that are useful indicators of the total amount of mixing. We identify the abundance ratios ΣCNO/H, Ne/H, Mg/H, Al/H, and Si/H as useful mixing meters in ONe novae. The impact of thermonuclear reaction rate uncertainties on the mixing meters is investigated using Monte Carlo post-processing network calculations with temperature-density evolutions of all mass zones computed by the hydrodynamic models. We find that the current uncertainties in the {sup 30}P(p, γ){sup 31}S rate influence the Si/H abundance ratio, but overall the mixing meters found here are robust against nuclear physics uncertainties. A comparison of our results with observations of ONe novae provides strong constraints for classical nova models.

  10. Joint CDRH (Center for Devices and Radiological Health) and state quality-assurance surveys in nuclear medicine: Phase 2 - radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, D.R.; Evans, C.D.

    1986-08-01

    The report discusses survey results on aspects of the quality assurance of radio-pharmaceuticals from 180 nuclear-medicine facilities in the United States. Data were collected from facilities in 8 states. Demographic information about nuclear-medicine operations and quality-assurance programs was gathered by state radiation-control-program personnel. The data collected from the survey show an incomplete acceptance of quality-assurance practices for radiopharmaceuticals. Most of the facilities in the survey indicated that, because an inferior radiopharmaceutical was prepared so infrequently, they did not believe it was cost-effective to perform extensive quality-assurance testing. The Center for Devices and Radiological Health hopes that the information from the survey will stimulate nuclear-medicine professionals and their organizations to encourage appropriate testing of all radiopharmaceuticals

  11. A transit-time flow meter for measuring milliliter per minute liquid flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Canqian; Kymmel, Mogens; Søeberg, Henrik

    1988-01-01

    A transit-time flow meter, using periodic temperature fluctuations as tracers, has been developed for measuring liquid flow as small as 0.1 ml/min in microchannels. By injecting square waves of heat into the liquid flow upstream with a tiny resistance wire heater, periodic temperature fluctuation....... This flow meter will be used to measure and control the small liquid flow in microchannels in flow injection analysis. Review of Scientific Instruments is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....... are generated downstream. The fundamental frequency phase shift of the temperature signal with respect to the square wave is found to be a linear function of the reciprocal mean velocity of the fluid. The transit-time principle enables the flow meter to have high accuracy, better than 0.2%, and good linearity...

  12. Digital radioisotope moisture-density meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychvarov, N.; Vankov, I.; Dimitrov, L.

    1982-01-01

    The primary information from the detectors of a combined radioisotope moisture-density meter is obtained as pulses, their counting rate being functionally dependent on the humidity per unit volume and the wet density. However, most practical cases demand information on the moisture per unit weight and the mass density of the dry skeleton. The paper describes how the proposed electronic circuit processes the input primary information to obtain the moisture in weight % and the mass density of the dry skeleton in g/cm 3 . (authors)

  13. Ramp - Metering Algorithms Evaluated within Simplified Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janota, Aleš; Holečko, Peter; Gregor, Michal; Hruboš, Marián

    2017-12-01

    Freeway networks reach their limits, since it is usually impossible to increase traffic volumes by indefinitely extending transport infrastructure through adding new traffic lanes. One of the possible solutions is to use advanced intelligent transport systems, particularly ramp metering systems. The paper shows how two particular algorithms of local and traffic-responsive control (Zone, ALINEA) can be adapted to simplified conditions corresponding to Slovak freeways. Both control strategies are modelled and simulated using PTV Vissim software, including the module VisVAP. Presented results demonstrate the properties of both control strategies, which are compared mutually as well as with the initial situation in which no control strategy is applied

  14. Ramp - Metering Algorithms Evaluated within Simplified Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janota Aleš

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Freeway networks reach their limits, since it is usually impossible to increase traffic volumes by indefinitely extending transport infrastructure through adding new traffic lanes. One of the possible solutions is to use advanced intelligent transport systems, particularly ramp metering systems. The paper shows how two particular algorithms of local and traffic-responsive control (Zone, ALINEA can be adapted to simplified conditions corresponding to Slovak freeways. Both control strategies are modelled and simulated using PTV Vissim software, including the module VisVAP. Presented results demonstrate the properties of both control strategies, which are compared mutually as well as with the initial situation in which no control strategy is applied

  15. Dynamic range meter for radiofrequency amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drozd S. S.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The new measurement setup having increased on 20…30 dB the own dynamic range in comparison with the standard circuit of the dynamic range meter is offered and the rated value of an error bringing by setup in the worst case does not exceed ± 2,8 dB. The measurement setup can be applied also to determinate levels of intermodulation components average power amplifiers and powerful amplifiers of a low-frequency at replacement of the quartz filter on meeting low-frequency the LC-filter and the spectrum analyzer.

  16. EPA Region 1 - Valley Depth in Meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raster of the Depth in meters of EPA-delimited Valleys in Region 1.Valleys (areas that are lower than their neighbors) were extracted from a Digital Elevation Model (USGS, 30m) by finding the local average elevation, subtracting the actual elevation from the average, and selecting areas where the actual elevation was below the average. The landscape was sampled at seven scales (circles of 1, 2, 4, 7, 11, 16, and 22 km radius) to take into account the diversity of valley shapes and sizes. Areas selected in at least four scales were designated as valleys.

  17. Synergisms between smart metering and smart grid; Synergien zwischen Smart Metering und Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maas, Peter [IDS GmbH, Ettlingen (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    With the implementation of a smart metering solution, it is not only possible to acquire consumption data for billing but also to acquire relevant data of the distribution grid for grid operation. There is still a wide gap between the actual condition and the target condition. Synergies result from the use of a common infrastructure which takes account both of the requirements of smart metering and of grid operation. An open architecture also enables the future integration of further applications of the fields of smart grid and smart home. (orig.)

  18. Smart Metering. Synergies within medium voltage automation; Synergien durch Smart Metering. Automatisierung auf Mittelspannungsebene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maas, Peter [IDS GmbH, Ettlingen (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Transparent interdivisional system solutions are an indispensable and decisive precondition for the optimization of business processes. The implementation of a Smart Metering solution does not only provide data for billing purposes, but also renders important data for network operation. Synergies can be achieved through the use of a common infrastructure which covers both the needs of Smart Metering and network operation. An open architecture of the solution allows for the future integration of further services of the domains Smart Grid and Smart Home. (orig.)

  19. Energy saving by smart metering with consumption feedback; Energieeinsparung durch Smart Metering mit Verbrauchs-Feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Patrick [Institut fuer ZukunftsEnergieSysteme (IZES), Saarbruecken (Germany); Friedrich, Malte [Institut fuer Soziologische Meinungsforschung (IsoMe), Berlin (Germany); Kerber-Clasen, Stefan [Institut fuer Sozialforschung und Sozialwirtschaft e.V., Saarbruecken (Germany); Frey, Guenther

    2012-08-15

    While the German legislative, e.g. in the EnWG (Power Industry Act) assumes that electricity consumption metering will contribute to energy conservation in any case, many studies have arrived at a different contribution: Only a combination of consumption metering and direct feedback methods will result in significant energy savings. A recent research project (''Moderne Energiesparsysteme fuer Haushalte'') analysed an energy conservation system of this type. The findings will provide socio-economic insight into the background of successful energy conservation, and they will show how feedback methods can be optimised.

  20. Study of the design variables for a wet-chamber gas meter prototype (MGCH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patino, Carlos Hernando; Romero, Luis Said; Quiroga, Jabid

    2004-01-01

    This paper established the most important variables and their correlation that affect design and operation of wet-chamber gas meter (MGCH), focused on the gas pressure difference along the meter and the sealing-liquid level. In order to study variable behavior a simulation was carried out based on computational systems The mathematical model developed was built taking into account common features in present wet test gas meter as their internal configuration. Therefore, this work can be understood as a general analysis and its conclusions can be extended to whichever meter of this type. Software was developed to facilitate the analysis of the variables involved in this physical process; besides the drum sizing was modeling using CAD software. As a result of this investigation, theoretical basis were established for the analyzing and designing of a MGCH meter, as a previous phase to the construction and evaluation of the prototype. Uncertainty analysis of each variable implicates in this model was beyond the scope of this study

  1. Smart meter implementation plan : report of the Board to the Minister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report provides detailed information about Ontario's smart meter implementation plan. The smart metering system will measure how much electricity a customer uses on an hourly basis, with data being transferred daily to local electricity distributors. Energy prices will vary according to the time of day when energy was being consumed, a system that supports current methods of charging larger customers. The plan proposes that all new and existing customers in Ontario have some type of smart meter by 2010 as part of a two-phased plan. Customers will receive timely information on consumption, and distributors will offer variable pricing plans. It was advised that costs be included in the distribution rate immediately upon installation of smart meters. Detailed information on implementation, smart metering costs, minimum requirements, and non-commodity time of use rates were presented. Critical tasks for establishing a framework for implementation included: ministerial approval of the plan; identification of a program coordinator; the establishment of a correct regulatory framework; a vendor approval process requiring appropriate permissions for radio frequency licences; technology pilots on behalf of distributors to assure adequate adaptation and the development of procedures concerning procurement, internal schedules and deployment; coordination between government, regulatory bodies and distributors towards the establishment of communication strategies, implementation plans and distributor approaches. 5 tabs., 6 figs

  2. Advanced metering policy development and influence structures: The case of Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inderberg, Tor Håkon

    2015-01-01

    Responding to a global trend of installing smart meters Norway has taken a route of full governmental and regulatory coordination. The article maps and analyses the main influences on the developments of Norwegian Advanced Metering policy. Based on 12 interviews and extensive document mapping the Norwegian policy developments are traced from about 1990 to 2014, divided into three phases: Before 2000, between 2000 and 2007, and after 2007. It finds that the main influence and push came from an increasingly united industry sector, fronted by the grid utilities with respective interest organizations. Policy change has been boosted by years of constrained supply, creating incentives for political action. Also developments at the EU level have been important for creating attention for smart meters, while consumer groups have been less influential. The national regulator NVE has adapted its policy process to include external expertise, in particular from the grid companies. The findings confirm that influence into policy processes is a matter of financial and organizational resources and expert knowledge. Of particular policy relevance is the weak organization of private consumer interests into these policy streams, which may be important for further policy development for distributed generation and regulation of private generation activities. -- Highlights: •Roll-out of smart meters is in Norway coordinated by national regulation. •Grid companies and related interest organizations has been most influential. •EU has provided informal pressure on smart meter policy. •Consumer interests have been less influential in the policy process

  3. Performance of combination of a Venturi and nuclear fraction meter in SAGD production operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hompoth, D.; Khun, N. [Suncor Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada); Pinguet, B.G.; Guerra, E. [Schlumberger Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper described a multiphase flow meter (MFM) that used a Venturi and nuclear fraction meter combination for steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) well production testing. The device was designed by re-engineering a flow model and fluid property package to measure the steam phases. The meter was designed to improve pump monitoring processes in SAGD operations. The technology combined 2 basic measurement steps. The first was a nuclear multi Gamma-ray fraction meters which measured the fraction of each constituent at the Venturi tube's throat at high frequencies. Fractions were then determined from the solution of 3 simultaneous equations related to the Gamma ray attenuation, and a fraction balance equation. Pressure and temperature measurements were used to predict the fluid properties at line conditions. Primary outputs were based on nuclear measurements, gas fractions, water liquid ratios, and mixture densities. Secondary outputs from the meter included volumetric flow rates. Stability, dynamic responses, and reproducibility rates of the MFM were also presented. 9 refs., 6 tabs., 17 figs.

  4. Automatic ranging circuit for a digital panel meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, T.R.; Ross, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a range changing circuit that operates in conjunction with a digital panel meter of fixed sensitivity. The circuit decodes the output of the panel meter and uses that information to change the gain of an input amplifier to the panel meter in order to ensure that the maximum number of significant figures is always displayed in the meter. The circuit monitors five conditions in the meter and responds to any of four combinations of these conditions by means of logic elements to carry out the function of the circuit. The system was designed for readout of a fluorescence analyzer for uranium analysis

  5. Is Individual Metering Socially Sustainable? The Case of Multifamily Housing in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Barraqué

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Before generalising water metering and billing at the apartment level for consumer equity reasons, and alleviating the burden of water bills for poor families through increasing block tariffs (IBTs, Paris Council asked for some expert advice. The pros and cons of two separate issues – IBTs efficiency and justice; and individual household metering – were mixed. Our research first summarises various studies of the redistributive effects of tariff changes, first from flat rates to metering, and then from uniform prices to IBTs. We address the particular case of multifamily housing, where it is possible to retain collective billing, while relying on sub-metering to allocate the bill. The limitations of classical econometric surveys on large samples (in terms of understanding households’ strategies with tap water support the need for supplementary detailed sociological surveys at neighbourhood or building levels, if only to check the unexpected redistributive effects of tariff changes in practice. We review the specific French situation, peculiarly in Paris, to show that individual apartment billing is more costly and tends to have regressive effects. Like other cities in France, Paris abandoned the implementation of Art. 93 of the 2000 law, which encouraged individual billing; and we explain why.

  6. Smart meter users give a thumbs up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horne, D.

    2007-01-01

    The Ontario Energy Board conducted a pilot study with the support of Hydro Ottawa to better understand how consumers change their electricity consumption behaviour with smart meters and time-of-use (TOU) prices. The project enabled consumers to learn the most cost-effective times to use energy. Results from the Ontario Smart Price Pilot reveal that consumers like to have control over how much and when they use their electricity. Although the savings were only small for some clients involved in the study, they appreciated having their metering bills in greater detail. At the end of the pilot project, participants reduced electricity consumption by 6 per cent. Nearly 90 per cent of the participants paid lower energy bills and nearly 80 per cent indicated they would recommend TOU pricing to their friends because it motivated them to shift some of their electricity use away from peak hours. The average reduction in electricity demand among the two-thirds of participants on critical pricing plans was more than 20 per cent during high demand or critical peak hours in summer. Demand reduction on winter critical peak days was much lower for all participants. 1 fig

  7. Understanding pressurized metered dose inhaler performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, James W; Vehring, Reinhard; Finlay, Warren H

    2015-06-01

    Deepening the current understanding of the factors governing the performance of the pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI) has the potential to benefit patients by providing improved drugs for current indications as well as by enabling new areas of therapy. Although a great deal of work has been conducted to this end, our knowledge of the physical mechanisms that drive pMDI performance remains incomplete. This review focuses on research into the influence of device and formulation variables on pMDI performance metrics. Literature in the areas of dose metering, atomization and aerosol evolution and deposition is covered, with an emphasis on studies of a more fundamental nature. Simple models which may be of use to those developing pMDI products are summarized. Although researchers have had good success utilizing an empirically developed knowledge base to predict pMDI performance, such knowledge may not be applicable when pursuing innovations in device or formulation technology. Developing a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms is a worthwhile investment for those working to enable the next generation of pMDI products.

  8. Ultrasonic flow-meter test in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Y.; Uno, O.; Kamei, M.

    1978-01-01

    As a part of the R and D programme for the prototype fast breeder reactor MONJU, an ultrasonic flow-meter (USFM) test is being carried out in sodium in the O-Arai Engineering Center of PNC. Prior to the present test, an in-water test was done at the manufacturer's as a preliminary investigation. The results reported here are the results up to the present. Calibration tests using the actual fluid were conducted on a 12-inch ultrasonic flow-meter with guide rods fabricated for sodium flow measurement. The test conditions in sodium were a temperature of 200 approximately 400 0 C and flow-rates of 0 approximately 6m/s. The main results are: (1) The linearity of output signal was good and accuracy was within 1%; (2) The alternating type of the USFM was much better than the fixed type in temperature change; (3) 2MHz of transducer frequency was better than 3MHz in sodium; (4) The S/N ratio of the ultrasonic signal and the length/diameter effect in a wide range in sodium surpassed the in-water test. (author)

  9. A survey of Type III restriction-modification systems reveals numerous, novel epigenetic regulators controlling phase-variable regulons; phasevarions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atack, John M; Yang, Yuedong; Jennings, Michael P

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Many bacteria utilize simple DNA sequence repeats as a mechanism to randomly switch genes on and off. This process is called phase variation. Several phase-variable N6-adenine DNA-methyltransferases from Type III restriction-modification systems have been reported in bacterial pathogens. Random switching of DNA methyltransferases changes the global DNA methylation pattern, leading to changes in gene expression. These epigenetic regulatory systems are called phasevarions — phase-variable regulons. The extent of these phase-variable genes in the bacterial kingdom is unknown. Here, we interrogated a database of restriction-modification systems, REBASE, by searching for all simple DNA sequence repeats in mod genes that encode Type III N6-adenine DNA-methyltransferases. We report that 17.4% of Type III mod genes (662/3805) contain simple sequence repeats. Of these, only one-fifth have been previously identified. The newly discovered examples are widely distributed and include many examples in opportunistic pathogens as well as in environmental species. In many cases, multiple phasevarions exist in one genome, with examples of up to 4 independent phasevarions in some species. We found several new types of phase-variable mod genes, including the first example of a phase-variable methyltransferase in pathogenic Escherichia coli. Phasevarions are a common epigenetic regulation contingency strategy used by both pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria. PMID:29554328

  10. Smart metering for Switzerland - Potential, success factors and measures to be taken to increase energy efficiency - Final report; Smart Metering fuer die Schweiz - Potenziale, Erfolgsfaktoren und Massnahmen fuer die Steigerung der Energieeffizienz - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dettli, R.; Philippen, D.; Reinhardt, R. [econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Schaeffler, H.; Heinemann, Ch. [Forschungsgruppe Energie- und Kommunikationstechnologien EnCT GmbH, Freiburg (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    This report examines the use of Smart Metering technology and what improvement of energy efficiency could be expected by its wide adoption in whole Switzerland. It examines the effects of feedback applications and of variable tariffs which are made possible with the use of this technology. A summary lists the ongoing system concepts and technologies of Smart Metering, feedback and variable tariffs as well as the general legal requirements for Switzerland. By means of a literature survey the worldwide experiences with feedback and variable tariffs were evaluated and the application of the results regarding their use in Switzerland examined. On this basis, the report lists suggestions for meter manufacturers, energy suppliers, distribution system operators as well as for federal and cantonal authorities as to how to use the Smart Meter technology to its full advantage. (authors)

  11. Evaluation of different disinfectants on the performance of an on-meter dosed amperometric glucose-oxidase-based glucose meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmaga, Don; Dubois, Jeffrey A; Lyon, Martha E

    2011-11-01

    Off-meter dosed photometric glucose-oxidase-based glucose meters have been reported to be susceptible to interference by hydrogen-peroxide-based disinfecting agents. The objective of this study was to determine if a single application of hydrogen-peroxide-containing Accel® wipe to disinfect an on-meter dosed amperometric glucose-oxidase-based glucose meter will influence its performance. The performance of five on-meter dosed amperometric glucose-oxidase-based glucose meters was determined before and after disinfecting the devices with a single application of either CaviWipes® (14.3% isopropanol and 0.23% diisobutyl-phenoxy-ethoxyethyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride) or Accel (0.5% hydrogen peroxide) wipes. Replicate glucose measurements were conducted before disinfecting the devices, immediately after disinfecting, and then 1 and 2 min postdisinfecting, with measurements in triplicate. Analysis was sequentially completed for five different meters. Results were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance (Analyze-it software). No clinical ( .05) in glucose concentration were detected when the on-meter dosed amperometric glucose-oxidase-based glucose meters were disinfected with either CaviWipes or Accel wipes and measured immediately or 1 or 2 min postdisinfecting. No clinically significant difference in glucose concentration was detected between meters (glucose oxidase amperometric-based glucose meters are not analytically susceptible to interference by a single application of hydrogen-peroxide-containing Accel disinfectant wipes. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  12. Handheld Multi-Gas Meters Assessment Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Gustavious [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Wald-Hopkins, Mark David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Obrey, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Akhadov, Valida Dushdurova [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-27

    Handheld multi-gas meters (MGMs) are equipped with sensors to monitor oxygen (O2) levels and additional sensors to detect the presence of combustible or toxic gases in the environment. This report is limited to operational response-type MGMs that include at least four different sensors. These sensors can vary by type and by the monitored chemical. In real time, the sensors report the concentration of monitored gases in the atmosphere near the MGM. In April 2016 the System Assessment and Validation for Emergency Responders (SAVER) Program conducted an operationally-oriented assessment of MGMs. Five MGMs were assessed by emergency responders. The criteria and scenarios used in this assessment were derived from the results of a focus group of emergency responders with experience in using MGMs. The assessment addressed 16 evaluation criteria in four SAVER categories: Usability, Capability, Maintainability, and Deployability.

  13. Logic elements for reactor period meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, William P.; Bobis, James P.

    1976-01-01

    Logic elements are provided for a reactor period meter trip circuit. For one element, first and second inputs are applied to first and second chopper comparators, respectively. The output of each comparator is O if the input applied to it is greater than or equal to a trip level associated with each input and each output is a square wave of frequency f if the input applied to it is less than the associated trip level. The outputs of the comparators are algebraically summed and applied to a bandpass filter tuned to f. For another element, the output of each comparator is applied to a bandpass filter which is tuned to f to give a sine wave of frequency f. The outputs of the filters are multiplied by an analog multiplier whose output is 0 if either input is 0 and a sine wave of frequency 2f if both inputs are a frequency f.

  14. Aperture meter for the Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, G.J.; Fuchsberger, K.; Redaelli, S.

    2012-01-01

    The control of the high intensity beams of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is particular challenging and requires a good modeling of the machine and monitoring of various machine parameters. During operation it is crucial to ensure a minimal distance between the beam edge and the aperture of sensitive equipment, e.g. the superconducting magnets, which in all cases must be in the shadow of the collimator's that protect the machine. Possible dangerous situations must be detected as soon as possible. In order to provide the operator with information about the current machine bottlenecks an aperture meter application was developed based on the LHC online modeling tool-chain. The calculation of available free aperture takes into account the best available optics and aperture model as well as the relevant beam measurements. This paper describes the design and integration of this application into the control environment and presents results of the usage in daily operation and from validation measurements. (authors)

  15. Acoustic propagation in viscous fluid with uniform flow and a novel design methodology for ultrasonic flow meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Huang, Yiyong; Chen, Xiaoqian

    2013-02-01

    Ultrasonic flow meter with non-invasive no-moving-parts construction has good prospective application for space on-orbit fluid gauging. In traditional pulse transit time flow meter, inconsistency of ultrasonic transducers leads to measurement error and plane wave theory, bases of transit time flow meter, is valuable only for low-frequency wave propagation in inviscid fluid and will lose feasibility when fluid viscosity is considered. In this paper, based on the hydrodynamics of viscous fluid, wave propagation with uniform flow profile is mathematically formulated and a novel solution for viscous fluid using potential theory is firstly presented. Then a novel design methodology of continuous ultrasonic flow meter is proposed, where high measurement rangeability and accuracy are guaranteed individually by solving the integral ambiguity using multi-tone wide laning strategy and the fractional phase shift using phase lock loop tracking method. A comparison with transit time ultrasonic flow meter shows the advantage of proposed methodology. In the end, parametric analysis of viscosity on wave propagation and ultrasonic flow meter is compressively investigated. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Two laboratory methods for the calibration of GPS speed meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Yin; Sun, Qiao; Du, Lei; Yu, Mei; Bai, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The set-ups of two calibration systems are presented to investigate calibration methods of GPS speed meters. The GPS speed meter calibrated is a special type of high accuracy speed meter for vehicles which uses Doppler demodulation of GPS signals to calculate the measured speed of a moving target. Three experiments are performed: including simulated calibration, field-test signal replay calibration, and in-field test comparison with an optical speed meter. The experiments are conducted at specific speeds in the range of 40–180 km h −1 with the same GPS speed meter as the device under calibration. The evaluation of measurement results validates both methods for calibrating GPS speed meters. The relative deviations between the measurement results of the GPS-based high accuracy speed meter and those of the optical speed meter are analyzed, and the equivalent uncertainty of the comparison is evaluated. The comparison results justify the utilization of GPS speed meters as reference equipment if no fewer than seven satellites are available. This study contributes to the widespread use of GPS-based high accuracy speed meters as legal reference equipment in traffic speed metrology. (paper)

  17. A Probabilistic Model of Meter Perception: Simulating Enculturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastiaan van der Weij

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Enculturation is known to shape the perception of meter in music but this is not explicitly accounted for by current cognitive models of meter perception. We hypothesize that the induction of meter is a result of predictive coding: interpreting onsets in a rhythm relative to a periodic meter facilitates prediction of future onsets. Such prediction, we hypothesize, is based on previous exposure to rhythms. As such, predictive coding provides a possible explanation for the way meter perception is shaped by the cultural environment. Based on this hypothesis, we present a probabilistic model of meter perception that uses statistical properties of the relation between rhythm and meter to infer meter from quantized rhythms. We show that our model can successfully predict annotated time signatures from quantized rhythmic patterns derived from folk melodies. Furthermore, we show that by inferring meter, our model improves prediction of the onsets of future events compared to a similar probabilistic model that does not infer meter. Finally, as a proof of concept, we demonstrate how our model can be used in a simulation of enculturation. From the results of this simulation, we derive a class of rhythms that are likely to be interpreted differently by enculturated listeners with different histories of exposure to rhythms.

  18. Proceedings of the 2006 smart metering conference and expo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Ontario's smart metering program was launched as part of a general demand response management strategy to improve energy conservation in the province. Smart metering will help consumers to control their electricity bills through conservation and demand response, and will allow consumers to better manage their energy consumption and use it more effectively during cheaper, off-peak times of day. Smart metering systems measure how much electricity a customer uses on an hourly basis, and data is transferred daily to local electricity distributors. Toronto Hydro will have close to 200,000 smart meters installed by the end of 2006. By 2010, Toronto will be North America's largest urban centre to have made the full transition to smart metering technology across its entire base. This conference provided an update of Toronto Hydro's smart metering project, as well as details of their demand response program. Presentations were given by a variety of experts in information technology as well as electric power industry leaders North American demand and response metering strategies were reviewed, as well as various initiatives in advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). Security risks associated with smart metering environments were reviewed. An evaluation of the current regulatory environment was presented along with a discussion of smart metering standards and compatibility issues. New metering technologies were presented as well as various associated demand side management tools. Smart metering pilot programs and initiatives were discussed, and best practices in smart metering were evaluated. Twenty-nine presentations were given at the conference, 13 of which have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  19. Radiofrequency energy exposure from the Trilliant smart meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Kenneth R; Tell, Richard A

    2013-08-01

    This paper reviews radiofrequency (RF) field levels produced by electric utility meters equipped with RF transceivers (so-called Smart Meters), focusing on meters from one manufacturer (Trilliant, Redwood City, CA, USA, and Granby, QC, Canada). The RF transmission levels are summarized based on publicly available data submitted to the U.S. Federal Communications Commission supplemented by limited independent measurements. As with other Smart Meters, this meter incorporates a low powered radiofrequency transceiver used for a neighborhood mesh network, in the present case using ZigBee-compliant physical and medium access layers, operating in the 2.45 GHz unlicensed band but with a proprietary network architecture. Simple calculations based on a free space propagation model indicate that peak RF field intensities are in the range of 10 mW m or less at a distance of more than 1-2 m from the meters. However, the duty cycle of transmission from the meters is very low (meter that were consistent with data reported by the vendor to the U.S. Federal Communications Commission. Limited measurements conducted in two houses with the meters were unable to clearly distinguish emissions from the meters from the considerable electromagnetic clutter in the same frequency range from other sources, including Wi-Fi routers and, when it was activated, a microwave oven. These preliminary measurements disclosed the difficulties that would be encountered in characterizing the RF exposures from these meters in homes in the face of background signals from other household devices in the same frequency range. An appendix provides an introduction to Smart Meter technology. The RF transmitters in wireless-equipped Smart Meters operate at similar power levels and in similar frequency ranges as many other digital communications devices in common use, and their exposure levels are very far below U.S. and international exposure limits.

  20. Implementing the Prepaid Smart Meter System for Irrigated Groundwater Production in Northern China: Status and Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaowei Wang; Jingli Shao; Frank van Steenbergen; Qiulan Zhang

    2017-01-01

    To reduce the gap between groundwater demand and supply caused by agricultural groundwater over-exploitation, the Prepaid Smart Meter System (PSMS) is being strongly implemented by the Chinese government in northern China. This study reports the analysis and results of PSMS field surveys in six typical provinces in northern China as well as domestic literature reviews. Based on the architecture and implementation policies of the system, the implementation differences between areas and the inf...

  1. Survey of existing literature in the field of shock-absorbing materials with a view to subsequent adaptation of plastic deformation codes. Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draulans, J.; Fabry, J.P.; Lafontaine, I.; Richel, H.; Guyette, M.

    1985-01-01

    Shock-absorbing materials and structures can be used as part of the transport container structure or of the truck equipment. An extensive survey of the literature has provided much information. Investigation has been made to define the required experimental procedures necessary to measure the misssing material properties. Three codes had been selected: EURDYN, MARC-CDC and SAMCEF. For code evaluation, a schematic container model has been considered to serve as a benchmark for the evaluation of plastic deformation. For the shock-calculation, the container falls from a height of 9 meters along the direction of its cylinder axis on an unyielded flat surface. The EURDYN computer code, has been selected first as it is especially designed to handle dynamic problems, preferably plastic ones. Indeed, EURDYN uses an explicit integration scheme versus time, which makes it quite efficient to run short deformation processes such as absorber collapses. The SAMCEF computer code could not readily calculate the benchmark, also a visco-plastic flow model has been added to it. The MARC computer code was supposed to be a candidate to run shock-calculation but extensive computing time and engineering efforts would be required, it was replaced by the PLEXUS code. The results obtained using the SAMCEF programme confirm those obtained with EURDYN. The PLEXUS results are in between. The proposed benchmark calculation is at the border of the capabilities of the most advanced computer codes for plastic-dynamic calculations. Indeed, a complex energy absorption process seems to take place in a narrow region, moving versus time, where very large shape inversions occur. That requires an accurate modelling of the system in the deformed regions and a skilful choice of the numerical parameters of the computer run. The three tested codes gave qualitatively consistent results and confirm some scarce experimental results

  2. Phase reconstruction from velocity-encoded MRI measurements – A survey of sparsity-promoting variational approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Benning, Martin; Gladden, Lynn; Holland, Daniel; Schö nlieb, Carola-Bibiane; Valkonen, Tuomo

    2014-01-01

    for the reconstruction of phase-encoded magnetic resonance velocity images from sub-sampled k-space data. We are particularly interested in regularisers that correctly treat both smooth and geometric features of the image. These features are common to velocity imaging

  3. A Study of the Extent and Effect of English Language Training for Refugees. Phase II: Classroom Observation and Community Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reder, Stephen; Cohn, Mary

    The second phase of a study of the impact of English language training programs on adult Southeast Asian refugees involved on-site visits to 22 intensive programs in eight metropolitan areas: San Diego, Seattle, Minneapolis/St. Paul, New Orleans, Oklahoma City, Northern Virginia/Washington, DC, and Stockton, California. Programs represented a wide…

  4. A review of net metering mechanism for electricity renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poullikkas, Andreas; Kourtis, George; Hadjipaschalis, Ioannis [Electricity Authority of Cyprus, P.O. Box 24506, 1399 Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2013-07-01

    In this work, an overview of the net metering mechanism for renewable energy sources for power generation (RES-E) systems is carried out. In particular, the net metering concept is examined with its benefits and misconceptions. Furthermore, a survey of the current operational net metering schemes in different countries in the world, such as, in Europe, USA, Canada, Thailand and Australia, is carried out. The survey indicated that there are different net metering mechanisms depending on the particularities of each country (or state in the case of USA). Especially, in Europe, only five countries are using net metering in a very simple form, such as, any amount of energy produced by the eligible RES-E technology is compensated from the energy consumed by the RES-E producer, which results to either a less overall electricity bill or to an exception in payment energy taxes. In the USA and the USA territories, any customer’s net excess generation is credited to the customer’s next electricity bill for a 12-month billing cycle at various rates or via a combination between rates. The actual type of net excess generation (NEG) credit is decided by a number of set criteria, such as the type of RES-E technology, the RES-E capacity limit, the type of customer and the type of utility. Regarding any excess credit at the end of the 12-month billing cycle, this is either granted to the utilities, or carries over indefinitely to the customer’s next electricity bill, or is reconciled annually at any rate, or provides an option to the customer to choose between the last two options.

  5. An aerial radiological survey of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Forked River, New Jersey. Date of survey: September 18--25, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, H.A.; McCall, K.A.

    1994-05-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant in Forked River, New Jersey, during the period September 18 through September 24, 1992. The survey was conducted at an altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) over a 26-square-mile (67-square-kilometer) area centered on the power station. The purpose of the survey was to document the terrestrial gamma radiation environment of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power plant and surrounding area. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. Outside the plant boundary, exposure rates were found to vary between 4 and 10 microroentgens per hour and were attributed to naturally-occurring uranium, thorium, and radioactive potassium gamma emitters. The aerial data were compared to ground-based benchmark exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assays of soil samples obtained within the survey boundary. The ground-based measurements were found to be in good agreement with those inferred from the aerial measuring system. A previous survey of the power plant was conducted in August 1969 during its initial startup phase. Exposure rates and radioactive isotopes revealed in both surveys were consistent and within normal terrestrial background levels

  6. Measurement of complex RF susceptibility using a series Q-meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisselev, Yu.F.; Dulya, C.M.; Niinikoski, T.O.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we have for the first time derived closed form expressions for the nuclear magnetic susceptibility in terms of the series Q-meter output voltage. We discuss the corrections involved in determining nuclear polarization from NMR signals by using the deuteron and proton spin systems as examples. Deuteron signals are shown to exhibit a false asymmetry, while proton signals have substantial shape distortions. Moreover, for the first time the importance of making a phase correction is demonstrated. We conclude that the series Q-meter with real part detection is not sufficient to produce an output voltage from which the nuclear susceptibility can be determined. An additional phase-sensitive detector is proposed for obtaining the imaginary part of the signal required for unambiguous extraction of the complex RF susceptibility. ((orig.))

  7. Advanced Metering Installations – A Perspective from Federal Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earni, Shankar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area

    2016-05-02

    This report is intended to provide guidance to the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and other federal agencies to highlight some of the existing practices related to advanced building metering systems. This study identified some of the existing actions related to advanced meter data and proposes how advanced metered data can be employed to develop robust cost effective measurement and verification (M&V) strategies. This report proposes an integrated framework on how advanced meter data can be used to identify energy conservation opportunities and to develop proactive M&V strategies to ensure that the savings for energy projects are being realized. This information will help improve metering, feedback, and dashboard implementations for reducing energy use at DOE facilities, based on lessons learned from various advanced metering implementations.

  8. De Minimis Thresholds for Federal Building Metering Appropriateness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Jordan W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is required by statute and Presidential Memorandum to establish guidelines for agencies to meter their Federal buildings for energy (electricity, natural gas, and steam) and water. See 42 U.S.C. § 8253(e). DOE issued guidance in February 2006 on the installation of electric meters in Federal buildings. A recent update to the 2006 guidance accounts for more current metering practices within the Federal Government. The updated metering guidance specifies that all Federal buildings shall be considered “appropriate” for energy or water metering unless identified for potential exclusion. In developing the updated guidance to carry out the statue, Congress also directed DOE to (among other things) establish exclusions from the metering requirements based on the de minimis quantity of energy use of a Federal building, industrial process, or structure. This paper discusses the method used to identify de minimis values.

  9. Research on Operation Assessment Method for Energy Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangqun; Huang, Rui; Shen, Liman; chen, Hao; Xiong, Dezhi; Xiao, Xiangqi; Liu, Mouhai; Xu, Renheng

    2018-03-01

    The existing electric energy meter rotation maintenance strategy regularly checks the electric energy meter and evaluates the state. It only considers the influence of time factors, neglects the influence of other factors, leads to the inaccuracy of the evaluation, and causes the waste of resources. In order to evaluate the running state of the electric energy meter in time, a method of the operation evaluation of the electric energy meter is proposed. The method is based on extracting the existing data acquisition system, marketing business system and metrology production scheduling platform that affect the state of energy meters, and classified into error stability, operational reliability, potential risks and other factors according to the influencing factors, based on the above basic test score, inspecting score, monitoring score, score of family defect detection. Then, according to the evaluation model according to the scoring, we evaluate electric energy meter operating state, and finally put forward the corresponding maintenance strategy of rotation.

  10. A Method of Evaluating Operation of Electric Energy Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangqun; Li, Tianyang; Cao, Fei; Chu, Pengfei; Zhao, Xinwang; Huang, Rui; Liu, Liping; Zhang, Chenglin

    2018-05-01

    The existing electric energy meter rotation maintenance strategy regularly checks the electric energy meter and evaluates the state. It only considers the influence of time factors, neglects the influence of other factors, leads to the inaccuracy of the evaluation, and causes the waste of resources. In order to evaluate the running state of the electric energy meter in time, a method of the operation evaluation of the electric energy meter is proposed. The method is based on extracting the existing data acquisition system, marketing business system and metrology production scheduling platform that affect the state of energy meters, and classified into error stability, operational reliability, potential risks and other factors according to the influencing factors, based on the above basic test score, inspecting score, monitoring score, score of family defect detection. Then, according to the evaluation model according to the scoring, we evaluate electric energy meter operating state, and finally put forward the corresponding maintenance strategy of rotation.

  11. Reciprocity and its utilization in ultrasonic flow meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunde, Per; Vestrheim, Magne; Boe, Reidar; Smoergrav, Skule; Abrahamsen, Atle K.

    2005-07-01

    irrespective of whether the transducers are equal or not. Thus, ''dry calibration'' may be simplified, since reciprocal operation may provide possibilities for {sup a}uto-zeroing'' of the USM. However, reciprocal operation is not an ''obvious'' property of an USM. Even though the USM measurement system consisting of two transducers, electronics, etc. (e.g. an acoustic path), may be reciprocal, it may not necessarily be reciprocally operated. Control and careful design is essential to realize reciprocal operation at no-flow conditions in an acoustical measurement system such as a USM. In the present paper, reciprocal operation of USMs is discussed on basis of general electro acoustical principles, and related to utilization in ultrasonic flow metering of gas and liquid. Criteria for ''sufficient reciprocal operation'' of a USM are developed. It extends earlier works by (a) taking into account finite-valued electrical impedances of the electronics and the transducers employed in the meter, (b) deriving specific design criteria for ''sufficient reciprocal operation'' of a USM, in terms of requirements for the electrical impedances of the electronics and transducers, and (c) giving criteria for transducer manufacturing reproducibility, in terms of bounds for variations of the phase of the transducer impedances. In addition, use of the transducer input signal as the reference for the transit time measurements is discussed in this respect, which is shown to provide reduced requirements for achieving ''sufficient reciprocal operation''. Laboratory measurements and USM ''dry calibration'' measurements made over a range of pressures, temperatures and signal levels (''firing voltages''), in combination with theoretical calculations, are used to demonstrate reciprocal operation and validity of the theoretical results, also for transducers

  12. VT USGS NED DEM (30 meter) - statewide

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a National Elevation Database (NED). VCGI has extracted a portion of the NED for Vermont and re-projected...

  13. Feasibility study for an airborne high-sensitivity gamma-ray survey of Alaska. Phase II (final) report: 1976--1979 program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This study constitutes a determination of the extent to which it is feasible to use airborne, high-sensitivity gamma spectrometer systems for uranium reconnaissance in the State of Alaska, and specification of a preliminary plan for surveying the entire state of the 1975--1979 time frame. Phase I included the design of a program to survey the highest priority areas in 1975 using available aircraft and spectrometer equipment. This has now resulted in a contract for 10,305 flight line miles to cover about 11 of the 1:250,000 scale quadrangles using a DC-3 aircraft with an average 6.25 x 25 mile grid of flight line. Phase II includes the design of alternative programs to cover the remaining 128 quadrangles using either a DC-3 and a Bell 205A helicopter or a Helio Stallion STOL aircraft and a Bell 205A helicopter during 1976-1979. The 1976-1979 time frame allows some time for possible new system developments in both airborne gamma-ray spectrometers and in ancillary equipment, and these are outlined. (auth)

  14. Study of preparation and survey of radioisotopes tracer applications of gold nanoparticles in the multi-phase industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynh Thai Kim Ngan; Trinh Cong Son; Duong Thi Bich Chi; Tran Tri Hai; Nguyen Huu Quang; Bui Trong Duy; Le Trong Nghia; Ngo Duc Tin

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were prepared by Turkevich and Brust method. The labeled gold in liquids is the colloidal form with nano size particle of gold. This particles is of high dispersity in the liquid phase that makes them a good physical tracer. The stability and dissolve of AuNPs in solvents such as water, toluene are hereafter discussed. The size of AuNPs was determined through UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). (author)

  15. FUSION OF VENTURI AND ULTRASONIC FLOW METER FOR ENHANCED FLOW METER CHARACTERISTICS USING FUZZY LOGIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Santhosh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a technique for measurement of liquid flow using venturi and ultrasonic flow meter(UFM to have following objectives a to design a multi-sensor data fusion (MSDF architecture for using both the sensors, b improve sensitivity and linearity of venturi and ultrasonic flow meter, and c detect and diagnosis of faults in sensor if any. Fuzzy logic algorithm is used to fuse outputs of both the sensor and train the fuzzy block to produces output which has an improved characteristics in terms of both sensitivity and linearity. For identification of sensor faults a comparative test algorithm is designed. Once trained proposed technique is tested in real life, results show successful implementation of proposed objectives.

  16. How today's USM diagnostics solve metering problems[Ultrasonic meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansing, John

    2005-07-01

    This paper discusses both basic and advanced diagnostic features of gas ultrasonic meters (USM), and how capabilities built into today's electronics can identify problems that often may not have been identified in the past. It primarily discusses fiscal-quality, multi-path USMs and does not cover issues that may be different with non-fiscal meters. Although USMs basically work the same, the diagnostics for each manufacturer does vary. All brands provide basic features as discussed in AGA 9. However, some provide advanced features that can be used to help identify issues such as blocked flow conditioners and gas compositional errors. This paper is based upon the Daniel USM design and the information presented here may or may not be applicable to other manufacturers. (author) (tk)

  17. Established Designs For Advanced Ground Based Astronomical Telescopes In The 1-meter To 4-meter Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Anthony B.; Barentine, J.; Legters, S.

    2012-01-01

    The same technology and analytic approaches that led to cost-effective unmitigated successes for the spaceborne Kepler and WISE telescopes are now being applied to meter-class to 4-meter-class ground telescopes, providing affordable solutions to ground astronomy, with advanced features as needed for the application. The range of optical and mechanical performance standards and features that can be supplied for ground astronomy shall be described. Both classical RC designs, as well as unobscured designs are well represented in the IOS design library, allowing heritage designs for both night time and day time operations, the latter even in the proximity of the sun. In addition to discussing this library of mature features, we will also describe a process for working with astronomers early in the definition process to provide the best-value solution. Solutions can include remote operation and astronomical data acquisition and transmission.

  18. Activity meters: Calibration and quality assurance measures by the manufacturer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pychlau, P.

    1992-01-01

    A manufacturer of ionisation chambers gives a general idea of such quality assurance programs as may be implemented after an agreement has been reached at the EC level on a guideline for activity meters. Further issues discussed include the final controls, calibration of activity meters by the manufacturer and the advantages that the participation in cooperate tests would offer over a mandatory calibration of activity meters. (orig./DG) [de

  19. Optimization on Measurement Method for Neutron Moisture Meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Yalin; Wu Zhiqiang; Li Yanfeng; Wang Wei; Song Qingfeng; Liu Hui; Wei Xiaoyun; Zhao Zhonghua

    2010-01-01

    When the water in the measured material is nonuniformity, the measured results of the neutron moisture meter in the field may have errors, so the measured errors of the moisture meter associated with the water nonuniformity in material were simulated by Monte Carlo method. A new measurement method of moisture meter named 'transmission plus scatter' was put forward. The experiment results show that the new measurement method can reduce the error even if the water in the material is nonuniformity. (authors)

  20. Academic Research Equipment in the Physical and Computer Sciences and Engineering. An Analysis of Findings from Phase I of the National Science Foundation's National Survey of Academic Research Instruments and Instrumentation Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgdorf, Kenneth; White, Kristine

    This report presents information from phase I of a survey designed to develop quantitative indicators of the current national stock, cost/investment, condition, obsolescence, utilization, and need for major research instruments in academic settings. Data for phase I (which focused on the physical and computer sciences and engineering) were…

  1. Development of quick-response area-averaged void fraction meter. Application to BWR condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguchi, Tadashi; Watanabe, Hironori; Kimura, Mamoru; Anoda, Yoshinari [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-05-01

    Authors have been developed a practical conductance-type void fraction meter to measure instantaneously area-averaged void fraction in rod bundle. The principle of the meter is based on the fact that the electrical conductance changes with the change of void fraction in gas-liquid two-phase flow. According to air/water two-phase flow experiment, the void fraction was approximated by {alpha}=1-I/I{sub 0}, where {alpha} and I are void fraction and current (I{sub 0} is current at {alpha}=0). Authors investigated the performance of the void fraction meter under high temperature/high pressure conditions (BWR condition; 290degC, 7MPa). The results indicated that the void fraction was approximated by {alpha}=1-I/I{sub 0} even under high temperature/high pressure condition of stem/water flow. However, it is necessary to take account of temperature dependency of water specific conductance. Therefore, authors derived a correction equation for temperature dependency. Further, for applying the void fraction meter to a large-scale facility, it was found to be necessary to reduce the capacitance of the circuit. Then, authors developed the method to reduce the capacitance effect. Finally, authors succeeded to measure the void fraction in 2 x 2 bundle flow path at the range of 0% - 70% in the error of 10% under high temperature/high pressure and mass flux of less than 133 kg/m{sup 2}s. Developed void fraction meter is theoretically not affected by flow rate. Therefore, it can be applied to the condition of oscillating flow. (author)

  2. A Novel Smart Meter Controlling System with Dynamic IP Addresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manembu, Pinrolinvic; Welang, Brammy; Kalua Lapu, Aditya

    2017-01-01

    Smart meters are the electronic devices for measuring energy consumption in real time. Usually, static public IP addresses are allocated to realize the point-to-point (P2P) communication and remote controlling for smart metering systems. This, however, restricts the wide deployment of smart meters......, due to the deficiency of public IP resources. This paper proposes a novel subscription-based communication architecture for the support of dynamic IP addresses and group controlling of smart meters. The paper evaluates the proposed architecture by comparing the traditional P2P architecture...

  3. The relationships between common measures of glucose meter performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmoth, Daniel R

    2012-09-01

    Glucose meter performance is commonly measured in several different ways, including the relative bias and coefficient of variation (CV), the total error, the mean absolute relative deviation (MARD), and the size of the interval around the reference value that would be necessary to contain a meter measurement at a specified probability. This fourth measure is commonly expressed as a proportion of the reference value and will be referred to as the necessary relative deviation. A deeper understanding of the relationships between these measures may aid health care providers, patients, and regulators in comparing meter performances when different measures are used. The relationships between common measures of glucose meter performance were derived mathematically. Equations are presented for calculating the total error, MARD, and necessary relative deviation using the reference value, relative bias, and CV when glucose meter measurements are normally distributed. When measurements are also unbiased, the CV, total error, MARD, and necessary relative deviation are linearly related and are therefore equivalent measures of meter performance. The relative bias and CV provide more information about meter performance than the other measures considered but may be difficult for some audiences to interpret. Reporting meter performance in multiple ways may facilitate the informed selection of blood glucose meters. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  4. Phase II Characterization Survey of the USNS Bridge (T-AOE 10), Military Sealift Fleet Support Command, Naval Station, Norfolk, Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALTIC, NICK A

    2012-08-30

    In March 2011, the USNS Bridge was deployed off northeastern Honshu, Japan with the carrier USS Ronald Reagan to assist with relief efforts after the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami. During that time, the Bridge was exposed to air-borne radioactive materials leaking from the damaged Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant. The proximity of the Bridge to the air-borne impacted area resulted in the contamination of the ship’s air-handling systems and the associated components, as well as potential contamination of other ship surfaces due to either direct intake/deposition or inadvertent spread from crew/operational activities. Preliminary surveys in the weeks after the event confirmed low-level contamination within the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) ductwork and systems, and engine and other auxiliary air intake systems. Some partial decontamination was performed at that time. In response to the airborne contamination event, Military Sealift Fleet Support Command (MSFSC) contracted Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under provisions of the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, to assess the radiological condition of the Bridge. Phase I identified contamination within the CPS filters, ventilation systems, miscellaneous equipment, and other suspect locations that could not accessed at that time (ORAU 2011b). Because the Bridge was underway during the characterization, all the potentially impacted systems/spaces could not be investigated. As a result, MSFSC contracted with ORAU to perform Phase II of the characterization, specifically to survey systems/spaces previously inaccessible. During Phase II of the characterization, the ship was in port to perform routine maintenance operations, allowing access to the previously inaccessible systems/spaces.

  5. In silico optimization of phase-change materials for digital memories: a survey of first-row transition-metal dopants for Ge2Sb2Te5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skelton, J M; Elliott, S R

    2013-01-01

    Phase-change materials are the alloys at the heart of an emerging class of next-generation, non-volatile digital memory technologies. However, the widely studied Ge–Sb–Te system possesses several undesirable properties, and enhancing its properties, e.g. by doping, is an area of active research. Various first-row transition-metal dopants have been shown to impart useful property enhancements, but a systematic study of the entire period has yet to be undertaken, and little has been done to investigate their interaction with the host material at the atomic level. We have carried out first-principles computer simulations of the complete phase-change cycle in Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 doped with each of the ten first-row transition metals. In this article, we present a comprehensive survey of the electronic, magnetic and optical properties of these doped materials. We discuss in detail their atomic-level structure, and relate the microscopic behaviours of the dopant atoms to their influence on the Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 host. By considering an entire family of similar materials, we identify trends and patterns which might be used to predict suitable dopants for optimizing materials for specific phase-change applications. The computational method employed here is general, and this materials-discovery approach could be applied in the future to study other families of potential dopants for such materials. (paper)

  6. In silico optimization of phase-change materials for digital memories: a survey of first-row transition-metal dopants for Ge₂Sb₂Te₅.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, J M; Elliott, S R

    2013-05-22

    Phase-change materials are the alloys at the heart of an emerging class of next-generation, non-volatile digital memory technologies. However, the widely studied Ge-Sb-Te system possesses several undesirable properties, and enhancing its properties, e.g. by doping, is an area of active research. Various first-row transition-metal dopants have been shown to impart useful property enhancements, but a systematic study of the entire period has yet to be undertaken, and little has been done to investigate their interaction with the host material at the atomic level. We have carried out first-principles computer simulations of the complete phase-change cycle in Ge2Sb2Te5 doped with each of the ten first-row transition metals. In this article, we present a comprehensive survey of the electronic, magnetic and optical properties of these doped materials. We discuss in detail their atomic-level structure, and relate the microscopic behaviours of the dopant atoms to their influence on the Ge2Sb2Te5 host. By considering an entire family of similar materials, we identify trends and patterns which might be used to predict suitable dopants for optimizing materials for specific phase-change applications. The computational method employed here is general, and this materials-discovery approach could be applied in the future to study other families of potential dopants for such materials.

  7. Meter-wavelength VLBI. III. Pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenberg, N.R.; Clark, T.A.; Clark, W.C.; Erickson, W.C.; Resch, G.M.; Broderick, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    The results and analysis of observations of pulsars, especially the Crab Nebula pulsar, taken during a series of meter-wavelength very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) experiments are discussed. Based on a crude 144 MHz visibility curve which is consistent with a Gaussian brightness distribution, the measured visibilities at 196, 111, and 74 MHz were interpreted to yield apparent angular diameters (at half-power) of 0 .03 +- 0 .01, 0 .07 +- 0 .01, and 0 .18 +- 0 .01, respectively. These sizes scale approximately as wavelength-squared, and the 74 MHz size agrees with recent observations using interplanetary scintillation techniques.The VLBI-measured total flux densities lie on the extrapolation from higher frequencies of the pulsing flux densities. Variations in the total flux density up to 25 percent were observed. A lack of fine structure other than the pulsar in the nebula is indicated by our simple visibility curves. The pulse shapes observed with the interferometer are similar to single-dish measurements at 196 MHz but reveal a steady, nonpulsing component at 111 MHz. The ratio of pulsing to total power was approximately equal to one-half but varied with time. No pulsing power was detected at 74 MHz. It was found that four strong, low-dispersion pulsars were only slightly resolved

  8. REM meter for pulsed sources of neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorngate, J.E.; Hunt, G.F.; Rueppel, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    A rem meter was constructed specifically for measuring neutrons produced by fusion experiments for which the source pulses last 10 ms or longer. The detector is a 6 Li glass scintillator, 25.4 mm in diameter and 3.2 mm thick, surrounded by 11.5 cm of polyethylene. This detector has a sensitivity of 8.5 x 10 4 counts/mrem. The signals from this fast scintillator are shaped using a shorted delay line to produce pulses that are only 10 ns long so that dose equivalent rates up to 12 mrem/s can be measured with less than a 1% counting loss. The associated electronic circuits store detector counts only when the count rate exceeds a preset level. When the count rate returns to background, a conversion from counts to dose equivalent is made and the results are displayed. As a means of recording the number of source pulses that have occurred, a second display shows how many times the preset count rate has been exceeded. Accumulation of detector counts and readouts can also be controlled manually. The unit will display the integrated dose equilavent up to 200 mrem in 0.01 mrem steps. A pulse-height discriminator rejects gamma-ray interactions below 1 MeV, and the detector size limits the response above that energy. The instrument can be operated from an ac line or will run on rechargeable batteries for up to 12 hours

  9. On Calibration of pH Meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Ming Zhu

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The calibration of pH meters including the pH glass electrode, ISE electrodes,buffers, and the general background for calibration are reviewed. Understanding of basicconcepts of pH, pOH, and electrode mechanism is emphasized. New concepts of pH, pOH,as well as critical examination of activity, and activity coefficients are given. Theemergence of new solid state pH electrodes and replacement of the salt bridge with aconducting wire have opened up a new horizon for pH measurements. A pH buffer solutionwith a conducting wire may be used as a stable reference electrode. The misleadingunlimited linear Nernstian slope should be discarded. Calibration curves with 3 nonlinearportions for the entire 0—14 pH range due to the isoelectric point change effect areexplained. The potential measurement with stirring or unstirring and effects by double layer(DL and triple layer (TL will be discussed.

  10. Development of a CONTOUR-METER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrada Contardi, F.A.

    2004-01-01

    Dose calculation in patients undergoing radiotherapy treatments requires the knowledge of their anatomical geometry.Making reference to the specific case of breast cancer, one of the measurement that are made on the patients is the acquisition of the breast's contour, determined in an axial plane from a point marked on the breastbone until another point marked on the thorax side under the armpit.This measurement is normally made with a mechanic contour-meter: a device formed by a series of plastic-covered wires designed to be applied on the patient's skin copying the breast contour after it deformation.The geometrical error associated with this procedure is ± 1 cm. The precision of the dose calculation could be increased acquiring a breast contour more accurate.This objective was achieved developing a method based on breast images from a digital camera.The algorithms to obtain an axial-plane image of the contour from digital photographs taken from arbitrary positions were developed.A geometric transformation is applied to the photograph to correct for perspective distortions, obtaining a frontal - undistorted image (axial-plane image).A software tool to make all the image processing was developed under MatLab.The maximum geometrical error detected during the validation of the process was 2 mm [es

  11. Measuring methods in power metering 2013; Elektrizitaetsmesstechnik 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahmann, Martin; Zayer, Peter (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    The book addresses technical and economic issues of power metering, data communication and data processing. Smart metering is the key issue discussed in all 14 contributions: 1. The perspective of Smart Metering in Europe through 2020; 2. Introduction of Smart Metering in Austria; 3. Metering after the amended EnWG 2011; 4. The FNN project ''MessSystem 2020''; 5. Technological requirements of Smart Grid and Smart Market; 6. DIN Spec 33440 ''Ergonomic Aspects of Smart Grids and Electromobility''; 7. Load management as a key element of energy transition; 8. Added value in Smart Metering as a result of Smart Home applications, 9. The main cost factors of the new metering systems; 10. BSI protection profile: Smart Meter Gateway certification; 11. The influence of new boundary conditions in metering on intercompany processes; 12. Reliable time allotment via internet; 13. Recommendations of the EEG Clearing Authority on metering problems; 14. Outline quality management manual for state-authorized test services for electric power, gas, water, and heat. [German] Dieses Buch richtet seinen Blick sowohl auf technische wie auch auf energiewirtschaftliche Themen rund um das Thema Mess- und Zaehltechnik sowie die inzwischen immer bedeutsamer werdende zugehoerige Datenkommunikations- und Datenverarbeitungstechnik. Eine zunehmende Betrachtung des Smart Metering als einen Teilaspekt des grossen Themas Smart Grid bildet die gemeinsame Klammer um die Beitraege. Die Themen der 14 Beitraege sind: 1. Perspektive Smart Metering in Europa bis 2020; 2. Smart-Meter-Einfuehrung in Oesterreich; 3. Das Messwesen nach der EnWG-Novelle 2011; 4. Das FNN-Projekt ''MessSystem 2020''; 5. Anforderungen durch Smart Grid und Smart Market an die intelligente Messtechnik; 6. DIN Spec 33440 ''Ergonomie-Aspekte zu Smart Grid und Elektromobilitaet''; 7. Lastverschiebung als Baustein der Energiewende; 8. Mehrwerte beim Smart

  12. Suitable RF spectrum in ISM band for 2-way advanced metering network in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A.; Khan, M. A.; Gaur, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    The ISM (Industrial Scientific and Medical) bands in the radio frequency space in India offer two alternative spectra to implement wireless network for advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). These bands lie in the range of 2.4GHz and sub-GHz frequencies 865 to 867 MHz This paper aims to examine the suitability of both options by designing and executing experiments in laboratory as well as carrying out field trials on electricity meters to validate the selected option. A parameter, communication effectiveness index (CEI2) is defined to measure the effectiveness of 2 way data communication (packet exchange) between two points under different scenarios of buildings and free space. Both 2.4 GHz and Sub-GHz designs were implemented to compare the results. The experiments were conducted across 3 floors of a building. Validation of the selected option was carried out by conducting a field trial by integrating the selected radio frequency (RF) modem into the single phase electricity meters and installing these meters across three floors of the building. The methodology, implementation details, observations and resulting analytical conclusion are described in the paper.

  13. Recursive Pyramid Algorithm-Based Discrete Wavelet Transform for Reactive Power Measurement in Smart Meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin K. Atiq

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of the active, reactive, and apparent power is one of the most fundamental tasks of smart meters in energy systems. Recently, a number of studies have employed the discrete wavelet transform (DWT for power measurement in smart meters. The most common way to implement DWT is the pyramid algorithm; however, this is not feasible for practical DWT computation because it requires either a log N cascaded filter or O (N word size memory storage for an input signal of the N-point. Both solutions are too expensive for practical applications of smart meters. It is proposed that the recursive pyramid algorithm is more suitable for smart meter implementation because it requires only word size storage of L × Log (N-L, where L is the length of filter. We also investigated the effect of varying different system parameters, such as the sampling rate, dc offset, phase offset, linearity error in current and voltage sensors, analog to digital converter resolution, and number of harmonics in a non-sinusoidal system, on the reactive energy measurement using DWT. The error analysis is depicted in the form of the absolute difference between the measured and the true value of the reactive energy.

  14. Information needs about palliative care and euthanasia: A survey of patients in different phases of their cancer trajectory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beernaert, Kim; Haverbeke, Chloë; Van Belle, Simon; Deliens, Luc; Cohen, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    We assessed information provision and information needs about illness course, treatments, palliative care and euthanasia in cancer patients. Cancer patients consulting a university hospital (N=620) filled out a questionnaire. Their cancer related data were collected through the treating oncologist. This study is performed in Belgium, where "palliative care for all" is a patient's right embedded in the law and euthanasia is possible under certain conditions. Around 80% received information about their illness course and treatments. Ten percent received information about palliative care and euthanasia. Most information about palliative care and euthanasia was given when the patient had a life expectancy of less than six months. However, a quarter of those in earlier phases in their illness trajectory, particularly those who experienced high pain, fatigue or nausea requested more information on these topics. Many patients want more information about palliative care and euthanasia than what is currently provided, also those in an earlier than terminal phase of their disease. Healthcare professionals should be more responsive, already from diagnosis, to the information needs about palliative care and possible end-of-life decisions. This should be patient-tailored, as some patients want more and some patients want less information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Transverse micro-erosion meter measurements; determining minimum sample size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenhaile, Alan S.; Lakhan, V. Chris

    2011-11-01

    Two transverse micro-erosion meter (TMEM) stations were installed in each of four rock slabs, a slate/shale, basalt, phyllite/schist, and sandstone. One station was sprayed each day with fresh water and the other with a synthetic sea water solution (salt water). To record changes in surface elevation (usually downwearing but with some swelling), 100 measurements (the pilot survey), the maximum for the TMEM used in this study, were made at each station in February 2010, and then at two-monthly intervals until February 2011. The data were normalized using Box-Cox transformations and analyzed to determine the minimum number of measurements needed to obtain station means that fall within a range of confidence limits of the population means, and the means of the pilot survey. The effect on the confidence limits of reducing an already small number of measurements (say 15 or less) is much greater than that of reducing a much larger number of measurements (say more than 50) by the same amount. There was a tendency for the number of measurements, for the same confidence limits, to increase with the rate of downwearing, although it was also dependent on whether the surface was treated with fresh or salt water. About 10 measurements often provided fairly reasonable estimates of rates of surface change but with fairly high percentage confidence intervals in slowly eroding rocks; however, many more measurements were generally needed to derive means within 10% of the population means. The results were tabulated and graphed to provide an indication of the approximate number of measurements required for given confidence limits, and the confidence limits that might be attained for a given number of measurements.

  16. Physical requirements for measurement of radiation dose and their relationship to personnel dose meter design and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabot, G.E. Jr.; Jimenez, M.A.; Skrable, K.W.

    1978-01-01

    This paper stems from the concerns of the authors with both the design of current personnel dose meters and the interpretation of dose information from them in light of the actual physical requirements to measure dose. These concerns have been reinforced and extended following a comparative study of the responses of particular TLD and film systems and as the result of a recent national survey on personnel dosimetry conducted by the authors. Among the major points discussed are the systems available for penetrating and shallow dose assessment, dose meter calibration, the measurement and interpretation of skin dose, and the deficiencies of neutron albedo dose meters for routine personnel use. Calibration considerations address the questions of whether or not a phantom should be used and the difference in interpretation of responses with and without a phantom; the relationship between calculated and measured doses; and electronic equilibrium considerations in the measurement of photon doses. Matters of importance in relation to skin dose measurement include techniques in use to interpret skin dose from dose meter response; the appropriateness of evaluation of the surface dose to the live skin layer versus the average dose to the live skin layer and the limitations and requirements on dose meter design with respect to the dose being evaluated; and the significance of dose meter response in relationship to currently used beta calibration standards. Regarding the use of TLD albedo type neutron dose meters currently available, considerations are extended to the strong energy spectral dependence of the dose meter response and the possibility of making significant over or underestimations of neutron dose equivalent, depending on the calibration techniques used and the spectral quality encountered. (author)

  17. Monitoring the metering performance of an electronic voltage transformer on-line based on cyber-physics correlation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhu; Li, Hongbin; Hu, Chen; Jiao, Yang; Tang, Dengping

    2017-01-01

    Metering performance is the key parameter of an electronic voltage transformer (EVT), and it requires high accuracy. The conventional off-line calibration method using a standard voltage transformer is not suitable for the key equipment in a smart substation, which needs on-line monitoring. In this article, we propose a method for monitoring the metering performance of an EVT on-line based on cyber-physics correlation analysis. By the electrical and physical properties of a substation running in three-phase symmetry, the principal component analysis method is used to separate the metering deviation caused by the primary fluctuation and the EVT anomaly. The characteristic statistics of the measured data during operation are extracted, and the metering performance of the EVT is evaluated by analyzing the change in statistics. The experimental results show that the method successfully monitors the metering deviation of a Class 0.2 EVT accurately. The method demonstrates the accurate evaluation of on-line monitoring of the metering performance on an EVT without a standard voltage transformer. (paper)

  18. Monitoring the metering performance of an electronic voltage transformer on-line based on cyber-physics correlation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhu; Li, Hongbin; Tang, Dengping; Hu, Chen; Jiao, Yang

    2017-10-01

    Metering performance is the key parameter of an electronic voltage transformer (EVT), and it requires high accuracy. The conventional off-line calibration method using a standard voltage transformer is not suitable for the key equipment in a smart substation, which needs on-line monitoring. In this article, we propose a method for monitoring the metering performance of an EVT on-line based on cyber-physics correlation analysis. By the electrical and physical properties of a substation running in three-phase symmetry, the principal component analysis method is used to separate the metering deviation caused by the primary fluctuation and the EVT anomaly. The characteristic statistics of the measured data during operation are extracted, and the metering performance of the EVT is evaluated by analyzing the change in statistics. The experimental results show that the method successfully monitors the metering deviation of a Class 0.2 EVT accurately. The method demonstrates the accurate evaluation of on-line monitoring of the metering performance on an EVT without a standard voltage transformer.

  19. Development of a novel vortex flow meter for downhole use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiferli, W.; Cheng, L.K.

    2008-01-01

    Due to the increasing complexity of oil and gas wells, the demand for instrumentation to measure conditions inside well tubing below the surface is growing rapidly. A robust meter was designed to measure liquid flows at downhole conditions. The meter is based on a specially-designed bluff body to

  20. Analysis of a quantum nondemolition speed-meter interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdue, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    In the quest to develop viable designs for third-generation optical interferometric gravitational-wave detectors (e.g. LIGO-III and EURO), one strategy is to monitor the relative momentum or speed of the test-mass mirrors rather than monitoring their relative position. This paper describes and analyzes the most straightforward design for a speed meter interferometer that accomplishes this--a design (due to Braginsky, Gorodetsky, Khalili and Thorne) that is analogous to a microwave-cavity speed meter conceived by Braginsky and Khalili. A mathematical mapping between the microwave speed meter and the optical interferometric speed meter is developed and is used to show [in accord with the speed being a quantum nondemolition observable] that in principle the interferometric speed meter can beat the gravitational-wave standard quantum limit (SQL) by an arbitrarily large amount, over an arbitrarily wide range of frequencies, and can do so without the use of squeezed vacuum or any auxiliary filter cavities at the interferometer's input or output. However, in practice, to reach or beat the SQL, this specific speed meter requires exorbitantly high input light power. The physical reason for this is explored, along with other issues such as constraints on performance due to optical dissipation. This analysis forms a foundation for ongoing attempts to develop a more practical variant of an interferometric speed meter and to combine the speed meter concept with other ideas to yield a promising LIGO-III/EURO interferometer design that entails low laser power

  1. Investigating water meter performance in developing countries: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High levels of water losses in distribution systems are the main challenge that water utilities in developing countries currently face. The water meter is an essential tool for both the utility and the customers to measure and monitor consumption. When metering is inefficient and coupled with low tariffs, the financial ...

  2. The Solar Energy Trifecta: Solar + Storage + Net Metering | State, Local,

    Science.gov (United States)

    and Tribal Governments | NREL The Solar Energy Trifecta: Solar + Storage + Net Metering The Solar Energy Trifecta: Solar + Storage + Net Metering February 12, 2018 by Benjamin Mow Massachusetts (DPU) seeking an advisory ruling on the eligibility of pairing solar-plus-storage systems with current

  3. 40 CFR 1065.230 - Raw exhaust flow meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the following cases, you may use a raw exhaust flow meter signal that does not give the actual value... dew and pressure, p total at the flow meter inlet. Use these values in emission calculations according... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.230 Raw exhaust...

  4. Justification of the Utility of Introducing Smart Meters in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunickis M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Automatic data reading from smart meters is being developed in many parts of the world, including Latvia. The key drivers for that are developments of smart technologies and economic benefits for consumers. Deployment of smart meters could be launched in a massive scale.

  5. Construction and calibration of high time resolution gas pressure meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, J.O.; Santos, C.; Ueda, M.

    1989-11-01

    In this report, the construction and calibration of a gas pressure meter with a time resolution better than 20 μs are described. The meter consists basically of a sensor of the FIG (Fast Ionization Gauge) type and an adequate electronic circuit. A 6AU6A pentode vacuum tube without the glass envelope is used as the sensor head. (author) [pt

  6. A wireless mesh communication protocol for smart-metering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelen, D.J.M.; Kempen, van G.M.P.; Hoogstraten, van F.; Liotta, A.

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide there has been increasing interest over the past few years for so-called "Smart Meters", in academia, governments and in industry. Such smart-metering systems need a way to communicate the collected data reliably and cost efficiently to the back-office for analysis. Several competing

  7. Performance of a Tilt Current Meter in the Surf Zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Asger Bendix; Carstensen, Stefan; Christensen, Drude Fritzbøger

    2017-01-01

    Tilt Current Meters (TCM’s) are relatively simple and inexpensive instruments for measuring currents in rivers and inthe sea. Their low cost and easy deployment means that a relatively large number of TCM’s can be deployed comparedto more conventional current meters such as Acoustic Doppler...

  8. 40 CFR 92.122 - Smoke meter calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smoke meter calibration. 92.122 Section 92.122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... meter calibration. The smokemeter shall be checked according to the following procedure prior to each...

  9. Designing remote web-based mechanical-volumetric flow meter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Today, in water and wastewater industry a lot of mechanical-volumetric flow meters are used for the navigation of the produced water and the data of these flow meters, due to use in a wide geographical range, is done physically and by in person presence. All this makes reading the data costly and, in some cases, due to ...

  10. The accuracy of self monitoring blood glucose meter systems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many patients were referred to Kololo polyclinic laboratory to have their blood glucose checked because the values obtained on the patients' glucose meter systems did not tally with familiar clinical signs and symptoms. This prompted an experimental set up to check glucose meter systems using a larger number of patients.

  11. Integration of auditory and tactile inputs in musical meter perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Juan; Gamble, Darik; Sarnlertsophon, Kristine; Wang, Xiaoqin; Hsiao, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Musicians often say that they not only hear but also "feel" music. To explore the contribution of tactile information to "feeling" music, we investigated the degree that auditory and tactile inputs are integrated in humans performing a musical meter-recognition task. Subjects discriminated between two types of sequences, "duple" (march-like rhythms) and "triple" (waltz-like rhythms), presented in three conditions: (1) unimodal inputs (auditory or tactile alone); (2) various combinations of bimodal inputs, where sequences were distributed between the auditory and tactile channels such that a single channel did not produce coherent meter percepts; and (3) bimodal inputs where the two channels contained congruent or incongruent meter cues. We first show that meter is perceived similarly well (70-85 %) when tactile or auditory cues are presented alone. We next show in the bimodal experiments that auditory and tactile cues are integrated to produce coherent meter percepts. Performance is high (70-90 %) when all of the metrically important notes are assigned to one channel and is reduced to 60 % when half of these notes are assigned to one channel. When the important notes are presented simultaneously to both channels, congruent cues enhance meter recognition (90 %). Performance dropped dramatically when subjects were presented with incongruent auditory cues (10 %), as opposed to incongruent tactile cues (60 %), demonstrating that auditory input dominates meter perception. These observations support the notion that meter perception is a cross-modal percept with tactile inputs underlying the perception of "feeling" music.

  12. Development and Testing of Infrared Water Current Meter | Ezenne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuous monitoring of the river flow is essential for assessing water availability. River flow velocity is crucial to simulate discharge hydrographs of water in the hydrological system.This study developed a digital water current meter with infrared. The infrared current meter was tested using Ebonyi River at Obollo-Etiti and ...

  13. Knowledge of spacer device, peak flow meter and inhaler technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Metered dose inhalers are cornerstone in effective management of bronchial asthma when correctly used. Most studies hitherto have focused on assessing patient's knowledge of inhaler technique. We sought to assess the knowledge of inhaler technique, spacer device and peak flow meter among doctors and ...

  14. Attacks and their Defenses for Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lighari, Sheeraz Niaz; Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2014-01-01

    The smart grid is the digitized, modernized, updated version of archaic traditional electric grid. Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) is an imperative part of the smart grid. It has replaced legacy metering, as it reports the energy consumption to the utility automatically through communicati...

  15. 7 CFR 801.6 - Tolerances for moisture meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tolerances for moisture meters. 801.6 Section 801.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.6 Tolerances for moisture meters. (a) The maintenance tolerances...

  16. Improvement of PLL algorithm for the LEP Q-meter

    CERN Document Server

    Berrig, O E

    1998-01-01

    The PLL (Phase Locked Loop) has two modes: search mode and locking mode. The mode is determined by how far apart the internal frequency is from the external frequency. When the internal - and exter nal frequencies are close, the PLL is in locking mode. While locking on the external frequency, the PLL can largely be expressed as a linear term superimposed with a small "noise" term. We can t herefore calculate a transfer function that will completely describe the performance of the PLL apart from the precision, which is determined by the noise term. Two ideas are presented on how to re duce the noise term. The first idea is to compensate the noise term with an equal value of opposite sign. This completely removes the noise when the PLL locks on a steady frequency. Unfortunately it can not be used for the LEP Q-meter which is plagued by the presence of satellite frequencies. For other equipment with cleaner spectra, the method can improve their precision dramatically. T he second idea reduces the noise level wit...

  17. Economic and social impacts of converting to tenant metering in multi-family housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palermini, D.; Hewitt, D.

    1990-01-01

    A current trend in the multifamily housing industry is to convert heating (gas and oil) systems to tenant-metered heating systems (electric zonal heat, individual gas furnaces, secondary metering systems for boilers). Moving responsibility for heating costs directly to tenants has been shown to save energy (on the order of 15%). However, there are social and economic aspects of this type of 'energy investment' such as the impact on vacancy rates, rent levels and comfort of tenants. This paper presents the findings from a research project that surveyed the owners and tenants of 37 multifamily buildings (a total of 741 units) that had been converted from central to individual metering. In addition to the behavioral analysis, the authors gathered utility billing data which they analyzed using the Princeton Scorekeeping Method. Survey findings indicate that energy use was decreased substantially by conversion to separate heating systems. Increases in tenant-paid utility bills after conversion were not sufficient to cause hardship for most tenants, even those with modest incomes. Rent and vacancy levels remained stable after the heating system changes were made or an allocation system was installed

  18. Metering instrument of quality factor Q of gravitational wave antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia-yan, C.; Tong-ren, G.

    1982-01-01

    The quality factor, Q, of gravitational wave antenna depends on the material property as well as external conditions, such as temperature, residual pressure in vacuum tank, support type, additional loss from transducer on antenna, etc. In order to find out the relationship between the antenna Q and external conditions automatical operating in succession is required. The authors have designed and made a metering instrument for quality factor Q. The metering instrument of Q can measure Q of the metal cylinder and other bar of higher Q. It can give data of the measurement at regular intervals as desired. It can measure accurately the longitudinal fundamental mode frequency of the cylinder with a digital frequency meter record oscillating signal from metering instrument. Because the metering instrument excites free-vibration of the cylinder with free-running type and keep up the stationary amplitude for a long time. (Auth.)

  19. How Should Blood Glucose Meter System Analytical Performance Be Assessed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, David A

    2015-08-31

    Blood glucose meter system analytical performance is assessed by comparing pairs of meter system and reference instrument blood glucose measurements measured over time and across a broad array of glucose values. Consequently, no single, complete, and ideal parameter can fully describe the difference between meter system and reference results. Instead, a number of assessment tools, both graphical (eg, regression plots, modified Bland-Altman plots, and error grid analysis) and tabular (eg, International Organization for Standardization guidelines, mean absolute difference, and mean absolute relative difference) have been developed to evaluate meter system performance. The strengths and weaknesses of these methods of presenting meter system performance data, including a new method known as Radar Plots, are described here. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  20. Pilot phase evaluation of the elective general practice class: results of student surveys of the first two years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samos, Franziska-Antonia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary health care in rural regions is currently undergoing a global crisis in respect of the next generation of practitioners. National and international recommendations advise placing greater emphasis upon practical skills and competences in medical studies. It is also in the interest of training the next generation to include mentoring and longitudinal integration of contact to teaching practices for general medicine in an early stage. Consequently, the (KAM was introduced in Halle in 2011 as an elective with 20 individually mentored students per year, beginning with the first subject-related semester. We are now reporting on the results of the evaluation for the first two years. Method: A standardised online survey was carried out with all students who took part in the KAM in the two years 2011 and 2012 (N=38. For both years the survey was made at the end of the first summer semester on the basis of an adapted version of the and the . Furthermore, each year the preference for the choice of specialty and location of a medical practice was queried. Predictors for the preference of the chosen specialty and the location of a medical practice were estimated by binary logistic regression analysis. Via univariate evaluations the number of students who reported an increase in knowledge in different areas of competence as a result of the KAM was counted. Correlations between the intention to remain in the KAM and the quality of teaching were evaluated on the basis of bivariate correlations. Results: 48% of the students agreed partly or fully that the KAM seminars enhanced their specialist competence. This individual acquiring of competence in the model project represented a significant predictor for the preferred choice of the area (OR 7.98; 95% CI [1.27-50.27], p=0.027. Students who assessed the commitment (r=0.504, support (r=0.526 and interaction management (r=0.529 of the mentors positively were more likely inclined to continue their

  1. Pilot phase evaluation of the elective general practice class: results of student surveys of the first two years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samos, Franziska-Antonia; Heise, Marcus; Fuchs, Stephan; Mittmann, Susanne; Bauer, Alexander; Klement, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Background: Primary health care in rural regions is currently undergoing a global crisis in respect of the next generation of practitioners. National and international recommendations advise placing greater emphasis upon practical skills and competences in medical studies. It is also in the interest of training the next generation to include mentoring and longitudinal integration of contact to teaching practices for general medicine in an early stage. Consequently, the General Practice Class (KAM) was introduced in Halle in 2011 as an elective with 20 individually mentored students per year, beginning with the first subject-related semester. We are now reporting on the results of the evaluation for the first two years. Method: A standardised online survey was carried out with all students who took part in the KAM in the two years 2011 and 2012 (N=38). For both years the survey was made at the end of the first summer semester on the basis of an adapted version of the Heidelberger Inventar zur Lehrevaluation (Heidelberg Inventory for the Evaluation of Teaching, HILVE-II) and the Berliner Evaluationsinstrument für selbsteingeschätzte, studentische Kompetenzen (Berlin Evaluation Instrument for the self-assessment of student competences, BEvaKomp) . Furthermore, each year the preference for the choice of specialty and location of a medical practice was queried. Predictors for the preference of the chosen specialty and the location of a medical practice were estimated by binary logistic regression analysis. Via univariate evaluations the number of students who reported an increase in knowledge in different areas of competence as a result of the KAM was counted. Correlations between the intention to remain in the KAM and the quality of teaching were evaluated on the basis of bivariate correlations. Results: 48% of the students agreed partly or fully that the KAM seminars enhanced their specialist competence. This individual acquiring of competence in the model project

  2. Combining smart metering with successful marketing; Smart Metering mit erfolgreichem Marketing verbinden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luckhardt, Sina [EVB Energie AG, Velbert (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    Smart metering can be implemented in various ways. Apart from data transmission via powerline cables, also teletransmission via GPRS may be advantageous. A current project investigates both communication strategies which can also be used in parallel, especially by major utilities with the appropriate infrastructure. In the case of concrete implementation, it has been found that the communication with users must be clear in order to give them an idea of the advantages of the new technologies, and that an appropriate marketing strategy must be developed for successful rollout. (orig.)

  3. FY 2000 report on the verification survey of geothermal exploration technology, etc. Development of the reservoir fluctuation exploration method - Phase 2 (Feasibility survey); 2000 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa hokokusho. Choryuso hendo tansaho kaihatsu phase 2 F/S chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of developing the technology to grasp the behavior of geothermal fluids flowing inside the deep-seated reservoir, study of subjects was made for the reservoir fluctuation exploration method - Phase 2. In the overview of the reservoir fluctuation exploration method - Phase 1, various element technologies being developed in Phase 1 were arranged in terms of the overview of technology, results concretely obtained, present subjects, achievement of technical development, etc. In the overview of geothermal fields, domestic geothermal fields and overseas geothermal fields were outlined of which demonstrative tests in Phase 2 can be made. In the survey, data on characteristics of reservoirs at the sites proposed, existing data usable for the project and information of the existing facilities were covered in terms of the those that can be collected being based on the public data. In the study of demonstrative testing fields, to make selection of demonstrative testing fields in Phase 2, selection of conditions was made from the two points of view: 'necessary conditions for demonstrative testing field' and 'comparison in adaptability of geothermal fields by method.' (NEDO)

  4. EU data protection and smart metering. Legal boundary conditions; EU-Datenschutz und Smart Metering. Rechtliche Rahmenbedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hladjk, Joerg [Praxisgruppe European Data Protection and Privacy, Hunton and Williams, Bruessel (Belgium)

    2011-07-01

    With the introduction of smart metering, the problem of data protection arises. The independent Article 29 Data Protection Group of the European Commission drew up an expert opinion with the intention of explaining the applicable EU data protection regulations for the smart metering technology in the power supply sector. (orig.)

  5. The Phase of Aggressive Behavior, Deprivation among the Inmates Age Group of Nigerian Prisons: A Survey of Sokoto Central Prison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Yusuf

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the phase of aggressive behavior, deprivation, among the inmate's age group of Nigerian prison. However, the study elaborated the meaning of aggressive behavior; factors contributed to aggressive behavior, theory of aggressive behavior, literature review, method of information collection and data analysis. Therefore, prison setting can instigate aggressive behaviors, especially in Nigeria, where inmates are deprived of their particular right and are treated brutality in some instances studies shows, that Nigerian prisons are not adequately organized and made do as such, inmates are exposed to all kinds of atrocity. It should be noted that a condition of privation and lack of societal well-being especially among people being in an isolated environment as in the case with most prisons in Nigeria can degenerate to frustration and aggression which in turn can result in dangerous situations such as riots/ violence in the prisons. Aggression can lead to violence that may be adaptive under certain conditions regarding natural selection. That is most obviously the case regarding attacking prey to obtain food, or in anti-predator defense. The results showed that there is significant difference between the levels of aggressiveness with respect to the classes of age groups. Recommendation will be discussed further.

  6. Disclosure of funding sources and conflicts of interest in phase III surgical trials: survey of ten general surgery journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridoux, Valérie; Moutel, Grégoire; Schwarz, Lilian; Michot, Francis; Herve, Christian; Tuech, Jean-Jacques

    2014-10-01

    Discussions regarding disclosure of funding sources and conflicts of interest (COI) in published peer-reviewed journal articles are becoming increasingly more common and intense. The aim of the present study was to examine whether randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in leading surgery journals report funding sources and COI. All articles reporting randomized controlled phase III trials published January 2005 through December 2010 were chosen for review from ten international journals. We evaluated the number of disclosed funding sources and COI, and the factors associated with such disclosures. From a review of 657 RCT from the ten journals, we discovered that presence or absence of a funding source and COI was disclosed by 47 % (309) and 25.1 % (165), respectively. Most articles in "International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)-affiliated journals" did not disclose COI. Disclosure of funding was associated with a journal impact factor >3 (51.7 vs 41.6 %; p funding sources (i.e., whether or not there was a funding source), and almost three quarters did not disclose whether COI existed. Our findings suggest the need to adopt best current practices regarding disclosure of competing interests to fulfill responsibilities to readers and, ultimately, to patients.

  7. Phase 1 archaeological investigation, cultural resources survey, Hawaii Geothermal Project, Makawao and Hana districts, south shore of Maui, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkelens, C. [International Archaeological Research Inst., Inc., Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This report details the archaeological investigation of a 200 foot wide sample corridor extending approximately 9 miles along the southern portion of Maui within the present districts of Hana and Makawao. The survey team documented a total of 51 archaeological sites encompassing 233 surface features. Archaeological sites are abundant throughout the region and only become scarce where vegetation has been bulldozed for ranching activities. At the sea-land transition points for the underwater transmission cable, both Ahihi Bay and Huakini Bay are subjected to seasonal erosion and redeposition of their boulder shorelines. The corridor at the Ahihi Bay transition point runs through the Maonakala Village Complex which is an archaeological site on the State Register of Historic Places within a State Natural Area Reserve. Numerous other potentially significant archaeological sites lie within the project corridor. It is likely that rerouting of the corridor in an attempt to avoid known sites would result in other undocumented sites located outside the sample corridor being impacted. Given the distribution of archaeological sites, there is no alternative route that can be suggested that is likely to avoid encountering sites. Twelve charcoal samples were obtained for potential taxon identification and radiocarbon analysis. Four of these samples were subsequently submitted for dating and species identification. Bird bones from various locations within a lava tube were collected for identification. Sediment samples for subsequent pollen analysis were obtained from within two lava tubes. With these three sources of information it is hoped that paleoenvironmental data can be recovered that will enable a better understanding of the setting for Hawaiian habitation of the area.

  8. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 26: The technical communication practices of aerospace engineering students: Results of the phase 3 AIAA National Student Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Hecht, Laura M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes similarities and differences between undergraduate and graduate engineering students in the context of two general aspects of the educational experience. First, we explore the extent to which students differ regarding the factors that lead to the choice of becoming an engineer, current satisfaction with that choice, and career-related goals and objectives. Second, we look at the technical communication practices, habits, and training of aerospace engineering students. The reported data were obtained from a survey of student members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). The survey was undertaken as a phase 3 activity of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Data are reported for the following categories: student demographics; skill importance, skill training, and skill helpfulness; collaborative writing; computer and information technology use and importance; use of electronic networks; use and importance of libraries and library services; use and importance of information sources and products; use of foreign language technical reports; and foreign language (reading and speaking) skills.

  9. Using threshold regression to analyze survival data from complex surveys: With application to mortality linked NHANES III Phase II genetic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Xiao, Tao; Liao, Dandan; Lee, Mei-Ling Ting

    2018-03-30

    The Cox proportional hazards (PH) model is a common statistical technique used for analyzing time-to-event data. The assumption of PH, however, is not always appropriate in real applications. In cases where the assumption is not tenable, threshold regression (TR) and other survival methods, which do not require the PH assumption, are available and widely used. These alternative methods generally assume that the study data constitute simple random samples. In particular, TR has not been studied in the setting of complex surveys that involve (1) differential selection probabilities of study subjects and (2) intracluster correlations induced by multistage cluster sampling. In this paper, we extend TR procedures to account for complex sampling designs. The pseudo-maximum likelihood estimation technique is applied to estimate the TR model parameters. Computationally efficient Taylor linearization variance estimators that consider both the intracluster correlation and the differential selection probabilities are developed. The proposed methods are evaluated by using simulation experiments with various complex designs and illustrated empirically by using mortality-linked Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Phase II genetic data. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. A study of the cool gas in the Large Magellanic Cloud. I. Properties of the cool atomic phase - a third H i absorption survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx-Zimmer, M.; Herbstmeier, U.; Dickey, J. M.; Zimmer, F.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Mebold, U.

    2000-02-01

    The cool atomic interstellar medium of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) seems to be quite different from that in the Milky Way. In a series of three papers we study the properties of the cool atomic hydrogen in the LMC (Paper I), its relation to molecular clouds using SEST-CO-observations (Paper II) and the cooling mechanism of the atomic gas based on ISO-[\\CII]-investigations (Paper III). In this paper we present the results of a third 21 cm absorption line survey toward the LMC carried out with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). 20 compact continuum sources, which are mainly in the direction of the supergiant shell LMC 4, toward the surroundings of 30 Doradus and toward the eastern steep \\HI\\ boundary, have been chosen from the 1.4 GHz snapshot continuum survey of Marx et al. We have identified 20 absorption features toward nine of the 20 sources. The properties of the cool \\HI\\ clouds are investigated and are compared for the different regions of the LMC taking the results of Dickey et al. (survey 2) into account. We find that the cool \\HI\\ gas in the LMC is either unusually abundant compared to the cool atomic phase of the Milky Way or the gas is clearly colder (\\Tc\\ ~ 30 K) than that in our Galaxy (\\Tc\\ ~ 60 K). The properties of atomic clouds toward 30 Doradus and LMC 4 suggest a higher cooling rate in these regions compared to other parts of the LMC, probably due to an enhanced pressure near the shock fronts of LMC 4 and 30 Doradus. The detected cool atomic gas toward the eastern steep \\HI\\ boundary might be the result of a high compression of gas at the leading edge. The Australia Telescope is funded by the Commonwealth of Australia for operation as a National Facility managed by CSIRO.

  11. The NASA/AFRL Meter Class Autonomous Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowardin, H.; Lederer, S.; Buckalew, B.; Frith, J.; Hickson, P.; Glesne, T.; Anz-Meador, P.; Barker, E.; Stansbery, G.; Kervin, P.

    2016-01-01

    For the past decade, the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) has relied on using various ground-based telescopes in Chile to acquire statistical survey data as well as photometric and spectroscopic data of orbital debris in geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). The statistical survey data have been used to supply the Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM) v.3.0 with debris detections in GEO to better model the environment at altitudes where radar detections are limited. The data produced for the statistical survey ranged from 30 to 40 nights per year, which only accounted for 10% of the possible observing time. Data collection was restricted by ODPO resources and weather conditions. In order to improve the statistical sampling in GEO, as well as observe and sample other orbits, NASA's ODPO with support from the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), has constructed a new observatory dedicated to orbital debris - the Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) on Ascension Island. This location provides MCAT with the unique ability to access targets orbiting at an altitude of less than 1,000 km and low inclinations (< 20 deg). This orbital regime currently has little to no coverage by the U.S. Space Surveillance Network. Unlike previous ODPO optical assets, the ability to operate autonomously will allow rapid response observations of break-up events, an observing mode that was only available via radar tasking prior to MCAT's deployment. The primary goal of MCAT is to statistically characterize GEO via daily tasking files uploaded from ODPO. These tasking files define which operating mode to follow, providing the field center, rates, and/or targets to observe over the entire observing period. The system is also capable of tracking fast-moving targets in low Earth orbit (LEO), middle Earth orbit (MEO), as well as highly eccentric orbits like geostationary transfer orbits. On 25 August 2015, MCAT successfully acquired scientific first light, imaging the Bug Nebula and

  12. Phase I Archaeological Investigation Cultural Resources Survey, Hawaii Geothermal Project, Makawao and Hana Districts, South Shore of Maui, Hawaii (DRAFT )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkelens, Conrad

    1994-03-01

    . Charcoal, molluscan and fish remains, basalt tools, and other artifacts were recovered. This material, while providing an extremely small sample, will greatly enhance our understanding of the use of the area. Recommendations regarding the need for further investigation and the preservation of sites within the project corridor are suggested. All sites within the project corridor must be considered potentially significant at this juncture. Further archaeological investigation consisting of a full inventory survey will be required prior to a final assessment of significance for each site and the development of a mitigation plan for sites likely to be impacted by the Hawaii Geothermal Project.

  13. Justification of the Utility of Introducing Smart Meters in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunickis, M.; Dandens, A.; Bariss, U.

    2015-12-01

    Automatic data reading from smart meters is being developed in many parts of the world, including Latvia. The key drivers for that are developments of smart technologies and economic benefits for consumers. Deployment of smart meters could be launched in a massive scale. Several pilot projects were implemented to verify the feasibility of smart meters for individual consumer groups. Preliminary calculations indicate that installation of smart meters for approximately 23 % of electricity consumers would be economically viable. Currently, the data for the last two years is available for an in-depth mathematical analysis. The continuous analysis of consumption data would be established, when more measurements from smart meters are available. The extent of introduction of smart meters should be specified during this process in order to gain the maximum benefit for the whole society (consumers, grid companies, state authorities), because there are still many uncertain and variable factors. For example, it is necessary to consider statistical load variations by hour, dependence of electricity consumption on temperature fluctuations, consumer behaviour and demand response to market signals to reduce electricity consumption in the short and long term, consumer's ambitions and capability to install home automation for regulation of electricity consumption. To develop the demand response, it is necessary to analyse the whole array of additional factors, such as expected cost reduction of smart meters, possible extension of their functionality, further development of information exchange systems, as well as standard requirements and different political and regulatory decisions regarding the reduction of electricity consumption and energy efficiency.

  14. Design and Implementation of Enhanced Smart Energy Metering System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oday A.L.A Ridha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the design and implementation of a smart energy metering system has been developed. This system consists of two parts: billing center and a set of distributed smart energy meters. The function of smart energy meter is measuring and calculating the cost of consumed energy according to a multi-tariff scheme. This can be effectively solving the problem of stressing the electrical grid and rising consumer awareness. Moreover, smart energy meter decreases technical losses by improving power factor. The function of the billing center is to issue a consumer bill and contributes in locating the irregularities on the electrical grid (non-technical losses. Moreover, it sends the switch off command in case of the consumer bill is not paid. For implementation of smart energy meter, the microcontroller (PIC 18F45K22 is used. For communication between billing center and smart energy meters, ZigBee technology is adopted. The necessary program for smart energy meter is written in MicroC PRO, while the program for billing center is written in visual C#.

  15. Simulation of a short-cable Q-meter for measuring the deuteron target polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnaukhov, I.M.; Lukhanin, A.A.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Trotsenko, V.I.; Chechetenko, V.F.

    1984-01-01

    Simulation of Q-meter with a phase automatic-frequency control of a reception circuit is carried out in the paper. Effect of circuit parameters and connecting cable on Q-meter sensitivity and magnitude of distortions of recorded signal is studied. It is shown that usage of the cable with a length of lambda/12-lambda/10 instead of traditional semiwave one enables to increase essentially the circuit sensitivity at the same distortion rate. Errors conditioned by distortions of the deuteron magnetic resonance (DMR) signal forms in the reception circuit, which can effect essertially on accuracy of deuteron polarization detection by the method of DMR spectrum decomposition, are discussed. It is shown that in the case of utilization of a short cable the polarization error due to spectrum distortions does not exceed 4...5%

  16. An equation-of-state-meter of quantum chromodynamics transition from deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Long-Gang; Zhou, Kai; Su, Nan; Petersen, Hannah; Stöcker, Horst; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2018-01-15

    A primordial state of matter consisting of free quarks and gluons that existed in the early universe a few microseconds after the Big Bang is also expected to form in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. Determining the equation of state (EoS) of such a primordial matter is the ultimate goal of high-energy heavy-ion experiments. Here we use supervised learning with a deep convolutional neural network to identify the EoS employed in the relativistic hydrodynamic simulations of heavy ion collisions. High-level correlations of particle spectra in transverse momentum and azimuthal angle learned by the network act as an effective EoS-meter in deciphering the nature of the phase transition in quantum chromodynamics. Such EoS-meter is model-independent and insensitive to other simulation inputs including the initial conditions for hydrodynamic simulations.

  17. Liquid ultrasonic flow meters for crude oil measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalivoda, Raymond J.; Lunde, Per

    2005-07-01

    Liquid ultrasonic flow meters (LUFMs) are gaining popularity for the accurate measurement of petroleum products. In North America the first edition of the API standard ''Measurement of liquid hydrocarbons by ultrasonic flow meters using transit time technology'' was issued in February 2005. It addresses both refined petroleum products and crude oil applications. Its field of application is mainly custody transfer applications but it does provide general guidelines for the installation and operation of LUFM's other applications such as allocation, check meters and leak detection. As with all new technologies performance claims are at times exaggerated or misunderstood and application knowledge is limited. Since ultrasonic meters have no moving parts they appear to have fewer limitations than other liquid flow meters. Liquids ultrasonic flow meters, like turbine meters, are sensitive to fluid properties. It is increasingly more difficult to apply on high viscosity products then on lighter hydrocarbon products. Therefore application data or experience on the measurement of refined or light crude oil may not necessarily be transferred to measuring medium to heavy crude oils. Before better and more quantitative knowledge is available on how LUFMs react on different fluids, the arguments advocating reduced need for in-situ proving and increased dependency on laboratory flow calibration (e.g. using water instead of hydrocarbons) may be questionable. The present paper explores the accurate measurement of crude oil with liquid ultrasonic meters. It defines the unique characteristics of the different API grades of crude oils and how they can affect the accuracy of the liquid ultrasonic measurement. Flow testing results using a new LUFM design are discussed. The paper is intended to provide increased insight into the potentials and limitations of crude oil measurement using ultrasonic flow meters. (author) (tk)

  18. Metering: EU policy and implications for fuel poor households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darby, Sarah J.

    2012-01-01

    Fuel poverty is a function of household energy consumption, income, and the cost of delivered energy. The paper discusses ways in which current EU policy on the development of ‘smart’ metering could affect fuel poor households. The main focus is on developments in electricity metering and the development of ‘active demand’ and smart grids, so that demand can be matched closely with available supply. Advances in metering and related technologies open the way to time-of-use charging, easier switching between suppliers and between credit payment and prepayment, direct load control of some end-uses by the utility, greater scope for microgeneration, and improved consumption feedback for customers. These options open up both uncertainties and risks. The paper offers definitions and discussion of various functions of smart metering, summarizes the EU policy background, and considers some possible equity implications of rolling out a new generation of meters. There follows an assessment of potential implications to the fuel poor of changes to metering, based on a review of the literature on energy feedback, tariffing, and supplier–customer relationships. Much of the discussion is based on the UK experience, with examples from other EU member states and, where appropriate, from other parts of the world. - Highlights: ► Smart meters are part of general upgrading of electricity and gas networks. ► EU policy is to roll out the meters to 80%+ of the population by 2020. ► Improved feedback and prepayment metering may benefit the fuel poor. ► Remote disconnection and data privacy are issues for all consumers. ► We need careful assessment of potential gains and losses to the fuel poor.

  19. Advanced digital counting rate meter for gamma ray logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, S.; Meenakshi Sundari, A.; Rai, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    A compact, hand held controller based Advanced Digital Count Rate Meter (ADCRM) as a replacement of bulky Count Rate (analog) Meters (SBL-2A) was designed, developed and fabricated to carry out Gamma-Ray borehole logging with Geiger Muller (GM) tubes and Scintillation (SC) detectors. In the hardware the functionality of analog meter simulation, digital counting of gamma events and auto reference adjustment to use different length of armour cable winches were implemented. The in-built software evaluates grade in ppm and at the end of logging, the reports are prepared automatically. ADCRM was developed in-house to assist the uranium mineral exploration in AMD. (author)

  20. A new kind high-reliability digital reactivity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Feng; Jiang Zongbing

    2001-01-01

    The paper introduces a new kind of high-reliability Digital Reactivity Meter developed by the DRM developing group in designing department of Nuclear Power Institute of China. The meter has two independent measure channels, which can be set as either master-slave structure or working independently. This structure will ensure that the meter can continually fulfill its online measure task under the condition of single failure with it. It provides a solution for the conflict between nuclear station's extreme demand in DRM's reliability and instability of computer's business software platform. The instrument reaches both advance and reliability by covering a lot of kinds of complex functions in data process and display

  1. Topology-Based Estimation of Missing Smart Meter Readings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Kodaira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart meters often fail to measure or transmit the data they record when measuring energy consumption, known as meter readings, owing to faulty measuring equipment or unreliable communication modules. Existing studies do not address successive and non-periodical missing meter readings. This paper proposes a method whereby missing readings observed at a node are estimated by using circuit theory principles that leverage the voltage and current data from adjacent nodes. A case study is used to demonstrate the ability of the proposed method to successfully estimate the missing readings over an entire day during which outages and unpredictable perturbations occurred.

  2. Federal metering data analysis needs and existing tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Jordan W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fowler, Kimberly M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Agencies have been working to improve their metering data collection, management, and analysis efforts over the last decade (since EPAct 2005) and will continue to address these challenges as new requirements and data needs come into place. Unfortunately there is no “one-size-fits-all” solution. As agencies continue to expand their capabilities to use metered consumption data to reducing resource use and improve operations, the hope is that shared knowledge will empower others to follow suit. This paper discusses the Federal metering data analysis needs and some existing tools.

  3. Deducing Energy Consumer Behavior from Smart Meter Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebeid, Emad Samuel Malki; Heick, Rune; Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg

    2017-01-01

    The ongoing upgrade of electricity meters to smart ones has opened a new market of intelligent services to analyze the recorded meter data. This paper introduces an open architecture and a unified framework for deducing user behavior from its smart main electricity meter data and presenting...... the results in a natural language. The framework allows a fast exploration and integration of a variety of machine learning algorithms combined with data recovery mechanisms for improving the recognition’s accuracy. Consequently, the framework generates natural language reports of the user’s behavior from...

  4. Smart Metering Guide. Energy Saving and the Customer. Edition 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kester, J.C.P. (ed.) [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Gonzalez Burgos, M.J. (ed.) [Endesa Ingenieria, Madrid (Spain); Parsons, J. (ed.) [British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers Association BEAMA, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    Smart metering can provide the foundations for a radically different approach to energy reduction schemes. However, the implementation of smart metering is a complex undertaking and its success depends on getting many factors right, from technology choice to how the information is presented to final customers. Making the expected reduction in energy consumption depends on achieving a positive reaction from final customers. Maintaining and increasing these savings will need the engagement of Energy Retailers, energy agencies and others. This Guide has been produced to bring together the lessons learnt from smart metering systems and trials, targeted on the promotion of End Use Energy Efficiency. The aim is to assist those groups who are considering implementing smart metering for this purpose and to maximise the benefits arising from those implementations. . The main target audience for the Guide are utilities, ESCO's and service providers across Europe. In most countries these are the parties investing in the smart metering systems and providing the smart metering services. In addition to these, governments, regulators, consumer bodies and energy agencies, as well as suppliers and system integrators, will also find valuable information in the Guide. As the subtitle of the Guide indicates, the focus of this Guide is on the application of smart metering for delivering energy saving. Making the expected reduction in energy consumption depends on achieving a positive reaction from final customers. In general, the successful provision of smart metering services is highly dependent on the right involvement of the energy final customer. This guide is not a ready-to-go manual for the installation of a specific type of smart metering system. Rather, the authors have tried to give the reader an insight into some of the complexities of the whole implementation process of smart metering systems. Also the guide is impartial regarding different technologies unless there is

  5. Technique of Hurdle Clearing in 400 Meters Hurdles (Study Review)

    OpenAIRE

    Jakoubek, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Title: Technique of Hurdle Clearing in 400 Meters Hurdles (Study Review) Authors: Jiří Jakoubek Supervisor: PhDr. Aleš Kaplan, Ph.D. Aims: The aim of this thesis is to describe technique of hurdle clearing in 400 meters hurdle race using study review and to examine this technique at particular athlete during training and racing sessions in 400 meters hurdles race. Methods: Technique was compared and examined at young athlete. Two kinograms were used for analysis, one from training and one fro...

  6. Technique of Hurdle Clearing in 400 Meters Hurdles

    OpenAIRE

    Jakoubek, Jiří

    2018-01-01

    Title: Technique of Hurdle Clearing in 400 Meters Hurdles Authors: Jiří Jakoubek Supervisor: PhDr. Aleš Kaplan, Ph.D. Aims: The aim of this thesis is to describe technique of hurdle clearing in 400 meters hurdle race using study review and to examine this technique at particular athlete during training and racing sessions in 400 meters hurdles race. Methods: Technique was compared and examined at young athlete. Two kinograms were used for analysis, one from training and one from racing sessio...

  7. 40 CFR 1065.245 - Sample flow meter for batch sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample flow meter for batch sampling... Sample flow meter for batch sampling. (a) Application. Use a sample flow meter to determine sample flow... difference between a diluted exhaust sample flow meter and a dilution air meter to calculate raw exhaust flow...

  8. SURVEY, BUFFALO COUNTY, NE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  9. Survey, OCONEE COUNTY, SC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  10. SURVEY, DOUGLAS COUNTY, MN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  11. SURVEY, KENAI PENINSULSA, AK

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  12. SURVEY, BROADWATER COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  13. SURVEY, OSCEOLA COUNTY, FLORIDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  14. SURVEY, POTTAWATTAMIE COUNTY, IA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  15. SURVEY, LAKE COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  16. SURVEY, Lowndes County, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  17. SURVEY, REFUGIO COUNTY, TEXAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  18. SURVEY, FAIRFIELD COUNTY, CT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  19. SURVEY, MISSOULA COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  20. SURVEY, Northumberland County, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  1. SURVEY, BARNSTABLE COUNTY, MA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  2. SURVEY, CASCADE COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  3. SURVEY, NATCHITOCHES PARISH, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  4. SURVEY, HOLMES COUNTY, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  5. Iowa Intensive Archaeological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This shape file contains intensive level archaeological survey areas for the state of Iowa. All intensive Phase I surveys that are submitted to the State Historic...

  6. SURVEY, MONO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  7. Multiparametric Experiments and Multiparametric Setups for Metering Explosive Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddeucci, J.; Scarlato, P.; Del Bello, E.

    2016-12-01

    Explosive eruptions are multifaceted processes best studied by integrating a variety of observational perspectives. This need marries well with the continuous stream of new means that technological progress provides to volcanologists to parameterize these eruptions. Since decades, new technologies have been tested and integrated approaches have been attempted during so-called multiparametric experiments, i.e., short field campaigns with many, different instruments (and scientists) targeting natural laboratory volcanoes. Recently, portable multiparametric setups have been developed, including a few, highly complementary instruments to be rapidly deployed at any erupting volcano. Multiparametric experiments and setups share most of their challenges, like technical issues, site logistics, and data processing and interpretation. Our FAMoUS (FAst MUltiparametric Setup) setup pivots around coupled, high-speed imaging (visible and thermal) and acoustic (infrasonic to audible) recording, plus occasional seismic recording and sample collection. FAMoUS provided new insights on pyroclasts ejection and settling and jet noise dynamics at volcanoes worldwide. In the last years we conducted a series of BAcIO (Broadband ACquisition and Imaging Operation) experiments at Stromboli (Italy). These hosted state-of-the-art and prototypal eruption-metering technologies, including: multiple high-speed high-definition cameras for 3-D imaging; combined visible-infrared-ultraviolet imaging; in-situ and remote gas measurements; UAV aerial surveys; Doppler radar, and microphone arrays. This combined approach provides new understandings of the fundamental controls of Strombolian-style activity, and allows for crucial cross-validation of instruments and techniques. Several documentary expeditions participated in the BAcIO, attesting its tremendous potential for public outreach. Finally, sharing field work promotes interdisciplinary discussions and cooperation like nothing in the world.

  8. Period meter output in response to terminated ramps of reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, J D [Dynamics Group, Control and Instrumentation Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1962-07-15

    The time behaviour of the period meter output has been determined for a range of total reactivity injections and reactivity rates. Some results which are directly applicable to graphite gas cooled reactors are given. (author)

  9. Chlorophyll meter for estimating nitrogen status of irrigated wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schepers, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    Chlorophyll-meter readings, generated from the leaves of irrigated wheat at particular growth stages, were normalized to the data obtained with locally recommended rates of fertilizer N, in Chile China, India and Mexico. Normalizing permitted comparisons of crop-N status across growth stages, locations, cultivars, and years. Relative yields and meter readings at growth-stage Z-50 are presented; they revealed similar trends for India, China, and Chile, however, for Mexico, the combination of soil, wheat cultivar, and climate resulted in much less response to N fertilization in the meter data. The implications are discussed. The SPAD meter proved to be a good tool to monitor and evaluate the N status of irrigated wheat. (author)

  10. Electric Power Substitute Meter Management via Mobile Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson C. Rodelas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available EPSMvMA is composed of Digital Sub-Meter connected to different components namely the GSM module, Bluetooth module, Power Analyzer Module, LCD Module, Relay Module and Main Microcontroller module. The connection via Mobile is made possible by the modules mentioned. The software that the proponents will be dealing with in the study is C++ language, which will be used in programming the Main Microcontroller module and Visual Basic Language for the Android Phones. The Bluetooth module can access the Android Phones and connect to the digital sub-meter in a limited distance. The users will be at ease since a code embedded to the microcontroller will make the utility sub-meter produce the desired value of electricity (KWH and wherein the computed Sub-meter reading can be viewed through the LCD. This project is accommodating to those person that is always on the go and prudent.

  11. Smart Meter Data Analytics: Systems, Algorithms and Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Golab, Lukasz; Golab, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    the proposed benchmark using five representative platforms: a traditional numeric computing platform (Matlab), a relational DBMS with a built-in machine learning toolkit (PostgreSQL/MADlib), a main-memory column store (“System C”), and two distributed data processing platforms (Hive and Spark/Spark Streaming......Smart electricity meters have been replacing conventional meters worldwide, enabling automated collection of fine-grained (e.g., every 15 minutes or hourly) consumption data. A variety of smart meter analytics algorithms and applications have been proposed, mainly in the smart grid literature......-line feature extraction and model building as well a framework for on-line anomaly detection that we propose. Second, since obtaining real smart meter data is difficult due to privacy issues, we present an algorithm for generating large realistic data sets from a small seed of real data. Third, we implement...

  12. Tweeting : Smart meters raise awareness of energy consumption in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2009-11-15

    The University of Mississippi (UM) will monitor, analyze and report on energy consumption in its campus buildings in real-time using SmartSynch Smart Meters. The technology uses smart meter data to help identify a detailed pattern of electricity usage with the objective of finding methods to alter behaviour to reduce electricity usage and carbon emissions. SmartSynch installed 16 Smart Meters on campus with additional deployments being planned. The technology will enable the university to monitor energy consumption, track building power performance over time, compare building energy usage, and review the impact of the weather on energy use while reducing its carbon footprint. Additionally, UM will use Facebook, Twitter and an RSS feed to provide regular public updates on its buildings' energy consumption based on SmartSynch Smart Meter data. Each building will have its own profile on the social networking sites. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  13. Minnesota Digital Elevation Model - Tiled 93 Meter Resolution

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Digital Elevation Model (DEM) at a resolution of 93 meters. Original data resolution was 3 arc seconds which corresponds (approximately) to a matrix of points at a...

  14. an assessment of billing electricity consumers via analogue meters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. This paper assesses the perception of billing consumers via analogue meter in Kano Electricity ... the successor companies of Power Holding Company ... Nassarawa computer center was established in 1991. .... The value 7.2 is.

  15. Evaluating the student activity meter : two case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govaerts, S.; Verbert, K.; Duval, E.

    2011-01-01

    In the Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) domain, visualizations are attracting increased interest. In this paper, we present the Student Activity Meter that visualizes learner activities within online learning environments for learners and teachers to help increase awareness and to support

  16. Service-oriented advanced metering infrastructure for smart grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, S.; Lukkien, J.J.; Zhang, L.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) enables smart grids to involve power consumers in the business process of power generation transmission, distribution and consumption. However, the participant of consumers challenges the current power systems with system integration and cooperation and

  17. Service-oriented advanced metering infrastructure for smart grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, S.; Lukkien, J.J.; Zhang, L.

    2010-01-01

    Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) enables smart grids to involve power consumers in the business process of power generation, transmission, distribution and consumption. However, the participant of consumers challenges the current power systems with system integration and cooperation and

  18. 49 CFR 192.353 - Customer meters and regulators: Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service... protected from corrosion and other damage, including, if installed outside a building, vehicular damage that...

  19. A Prediction-based Smart Meter Data Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Liu, Xiufeng; Nordbjerg, Finn Ebertsen

    2016-01-01

    With the prevalence of cloud computing and In-ternet of Things (IoT), smart meters have become one of the main components of smart city strategy. Smart meters generate large amounts of fine-grained data that is used to provide useful information to consumers and utility companies for decision......, mainly due to privacy issues. This paper proposes a smart meter data generator that can generate realistic energy consumption data by making use of a small real-world dataset as seed. The generator generates data using a prediction-based method that depends on historical energy consumption patterns along......-making. Now-a-days, smart meter analytics systems consist of analytical algorithms that process massive amounts of data. These analytics algorithms require ample amounts of realistic data for testing and verification purposes. However, it is usually difficult to obtain adequate amounts of realistic data...

  20. Digital forensics issues in advanced metering infrastructure | Ibrahim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 10, No 6S (2018) > ... the architecture of telecommunications and energy infrastructure, along with Internet networks. Various ... A core component of the smart grid is advanced metering infrastructure (AMI), in which a utility ...

  1. Radiofrequency fields associated with the Itron smart meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, R A; Sias, G G; Vazquez, A; Sahl, J; Turman, J P; Kavet, R I; Mezei, G

    2012-08-01

    This study examined radiofrequency (RF) emissions from smart electric power meters deployed in two service territories in California for the purpose of evaluating potential human exposure. These meters included transmitters operating in a local area mesh network (RF LAN, ∼250 mW); a cell relay, which uses a wireless wide area network (WWAN, ∼1 W); and a transmitter serving a home area network (HAN, ∼70 mW). In all instances, RF fields were found to comply by a wide margin with the RF exposure limits established by the US Federal Communications Commission. The study included specialised measurement techniques and reported the spatial distribution of the fields near the meters and their duty cycles (typically smart meters as deployed. However, the results are restricted to a single manufacturer's emitters.

  2. Solutions For Smart Metering Under Harsh Environmental Condicions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunicina N.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The described case study concerns application of wireless sensor networks to the smart control of power supply substations. The solution proposed for metering is based on the modular principle and has been tested in the intersystem communication paradigm using selectable interface modules (IEEE 802.3, ISM radio interface, GSM/GPRS. The solution modularity gives 7 % savings of maintenance costs. The developed solution can be applied to the control of different critical infrastructure networks using adapted modules. The proposed smart metering is suitable for outdoor installation, indoor industrial installations, operation under electromagnetic pollution, temperature and humidity impact. The results of tests have shown a good electromagnetic compatibility of the prototype meter with other electronic devices. The metering procedure is exemplified by operation of a testing company's workers under harsh environmental conditions.

  3. Guanabara Bay and Pecem LNG flexible metering systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Vinicus Roberto C.; Carvalho, Gustavo L.A.; Bruel, Edson L.; Santana, Jose P.C. de; Vidal, Lud C.C.N. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    This work presents to the community the metering systems installed in the Liquefied Natural (LNG) Gas Flexible Terminals of the Pecem Port and Guanabara Bay. A brief description of the Terminals facilities and its operation is firstly made to provide a background of the systems discussed. Then, the LNG custody transfer metering system, the operational control metering system, the energy balance of the LNG transferring system and the Natural Gas custody transfer metering system - that are our systems of interest - are described in detail. It is intended to use the philosophy adopted in the Guanabara Bay and Pecem Flexible Terminals design as a standard to future installations, integrated with improvements brought by the operation experience that will be obtained in those terminals. (author)

  4. Radiofrequency fields associated with the Itron smart meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tell, R. A.; Sias, G. G.; Vazquez, A.; Sahl, J.; Turman, J. P.; Kavet, R. I.; Mezei, G.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined radiofrequency (RF) emissions from smart electric power meters deployed in two service territories in California for the purpose of evaluating potential human exposure. These meters included transmitters operating in a local area mesh network (RF LAN, ∼250 mW); a cell relay, which uses a wireless wide area network (WWAN, ∼1 W); and a transmitter serving a home area network (HAN, ∼70 mW). In all instances, RF fields were found to comply by a wide margin with the RF exposure limits established by the US Federal Communications Commission. The study included specialised measurement techniques and reported the spatial distribution of the fields near the meters and their duty cycles (typically <1 %) whose value is crucial to assessing time-averaged exposure levels. This study is the first to characterise smart meters as deployed. However, the results are restricted to a single manufacturer's emitters. (authors)

  5. Wireless transmission of metering data from a photovoltaic solar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data from direct cable connection was highly reliable because data ... aggregated solar home systems instead of establishing grid connected solar farms. ... Key words: PV solar home system, DC power meter, GSM, data adaptor software ...

  6. Tweeting : Smart meters raise awareness of energy consumption in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    2009-11-15

    The University of Mississippi (UM) will monitor, analyze and report on energy consumption in its campus buildings in real-time using SmartSynch Smart Meters. The technology uses smart meter data to help identify a detailed pattern of electricity usage with the objective of finding methods to alter behaviour to reduce electricity usage and carbon emissions. SmartSynch installed 16 Smart Meters on campus with additional deployments being planned. The technology will enable the university to monitor energy consumption, track building power performance over time, compare building energy usage, and review the impact of the weather on energy use while reducing its carbon footprint. Additionally, UM will use Facebook, Twitter and an RSS feed to provide regular public updates on its buildings' energy consumption based on SmartSynch Smart Meter data. Each building will have its own profile on the social networking sites. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  7. Smarter energy from smart metering to the smart grid

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Hongjian; Poor, H Vincent; Carpanini, Laurence; Fornié, Miguel Angel Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    This book presents cutting-edge perspectives and research results in smart energy spanning multiple disciplines across four main topics: smart metering, smart grid modeling, control and optimisation, and smart grid communications and networking.

  8. Development of an ultra-portable ride quality meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    FRAs Office of Research and Development has funded the development of an ultra-portable ride quality meter (UPRQM) under the Small Business and Innovative Research (SBIR) program. Track inspectors can use the UPRQM to locate segments of track that...

  9. Pulse counting period meter output during startup transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, J.D.

    1962-12-01

    The time response of a period meter whose input signal comes from a pulse counting channel may be calculated using a Ferranti Mercury autocode programme details of which are given. The period meter considered is the type for which the logarithmic characteristic is approximated by several diode pump circuits. The input excitation is a terminated ramp of reactivity. Other reactivity inputs may be treated. In particular the step change of reactivity may be used as the input excitation. Allowance is made for the effective time constants of the diode pump circuits and the period meter. The programme may be used for instrument assessment and for safety and operations studies on reactors which use this type of period meter. An example of the use of the programme is given. (author)

  10. an assessment of billing electricity consumers via analogue meters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Keywords: Electricity Distribution, Consumers, Analogue Meter, Billing, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION. Electricity ... the energy usage of a typical electricity consumer in one month is several ..... improve on distribution network. In addition it should.

  11. Design and construction of a resistivity meter for shallow investigation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design and construction of a resistivity meter for shallow investigation. ... Nigerian Journal of Physics. Journal Home ... Consequently many institutions that need this equipment for teaching and research purposes cannot afford the price.

  12. Development of an alternative reactivity meter for nuclear reactor control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, P.S.B.

    1991-01-01

    This work describes an alternative version of the IPEN-CNEN/SP reactivity-meter. This new version utilizes a programmable electrometer (to realize the data acquisition) and a IBM-PC microcomputer to process the reactivity calculation. The aim of development of this alternative reactivity-meter is to have available a equipment of measurements of reactivity in the case of the later version show any problem during an experiment. (author)

  13. Ramp metering with an objective to reduce fuel consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Vreeswijk, Jacob Dirk; Woldeab, Zeremariam; de Koning, Anne; Bie, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Ramp meters successfully decrease congestion but leave a burden on the traffic situation at on-ramps. Chaotic queuing leads to many stop-and-go movements and causes inefficiency where fuel consumption is concerned. As part of the eCoMove project, complementary strategies are being designed and evaluated to reduce fuel consumption at metered on-ramps, using vehicle-to-infrastructure communication. This paper presents the design of two strategies, as well as their effect as derived from simulat...

  14. Additive Manufacturing of Telescope Mirrors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase 1 SBIR is to demonstrate feasibility of using selective laser melting (SLM) to produce a 3-meter symmetrical radius of curvature (ROC) isogrid mirror...

  15. Remote calibration system of a smart electrical energy meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakariae Jebroni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The need to control the power grid in real time has opened a new field of research, today researchers are trying to design electrical meters that are completely remote controlled, to create an advanced metering infrastructure. One of the most important processes in the field of measurement is the calibration of measuring instruments. The calibration process of the electrical meters was performed at laboratories. However, the new directives, now, require a regular test of accuracy. Nevertheless, moving each time on site to check the accuracy of a meter can be annoying. To solve this problem our contribution is to propose a new structure of a smart meter that integrates a calibration card, so that, this process is carried out remotely. To be able to calibrate the meter or test its accuracy, we have included an AC-AC converter powered by the electrical grid and that provides a stable voltage independent of the electrical grid in term of frequency and amplitude. The output voltage of the converter is used as the reference signal during calibration or accuracy testing. In this paper, we will present the structure of the calibration card, the study and dimensioning of the converter, as well as the control technique used to eliminate variations of the input voltage. At the end, we will present the results of simulations and experiments.

  16. Interest in smart metering project surprises utility, IBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horne, D.

    2006-01-01

    This article provided an outline of Hydro Ottawa and IBM's smart metering pilot project, which has resulted in high approval ratings from the public. The project features 375 participants broken down into 3 separate groups to look for potential consumption differences between customers charged according to standard time-of-use pricing; time-of-use with critical peak pricing; and time-of-use with critical peak rebates. The Ontario Smart Price Pilot project will be run for 5 months, and is expected to provide detailed energy information about usage. Past projects have indicated that customers respond quickly to smart metering, as they are able to monitor their energy usage and more effectively manage their energy consumption. Ontario plans to have all homes and small businesses using smart meters by 2010, as high seasonal demand has indicated that conservation and balanced resource use are now top priorities for many utility companies. At least 10 states in the United States have conducted smart metering pilot projects. The California Public Utilities Commissions has recently approved a $1.7 billion statewide plan to replace old meters with smart meters. In Ontario, customers have ordered 10,000 electricity monitors that Hydro One is giving away. It was concluded that research results from an earlier Hydro One demonstration project with 500 Ontario homeowners showed that real time electricity monitors can help homeowners reduce their consumption of electricity by up to 15 per cent. 4 figs

  17. Characterization of radiofrequency field emissions from smart meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, Richard A; Kavet, Robert; Mezei, Gabor

    2013-01-01

    This study presents measurement data that describe radiofrequency emission levels and patterns from smart meters (rated nominally at 1 W) currently deployed in Pacific Gas and Electric Company's service territory in northern California. The smart meters in our investigation could not be set to operate continuously and required a Field Service Unit to induce short periods of emitted fields. To obtain peak field data under both laboratory and ambient conditions, a spectrum analyzer scanned across the 83 transmitting channels between 902 and 928 MHz used by the smart meter on a random frequency-hopping basis. To obtain data describing temporal emission patterns, the analyzer operated in scope mode. Duty cycle was estimated using transmit data acquired by the system operator from over 88,000 m. Instantaneous peak fields at 0.3 m in front of the meters were no more than 15% of the US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) exposure limit for the general public, and 99.9% of the meters operated with a duty cycle of 1.12% or less during the sampling period. In a sample of measurements in six single-detached residences equipped with individual smart meters, no interior measurement of peak field exceeded 1% of the FCC's general public exposure limit.

  18. Smart meter data: Balancing consumer privacy concerns with legitimate applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, Eoghan; Richardson, Ian; Thomson, Murray

    2012-01-01

    Smart meters are being rolled out in large numbers throughout the world, with proponents claiming they are a critical step in the transition to a low-carbon economy. Yet there are significant unresolved negative reactions to smart meters, principally based on the concern that smart meters might be used to infer the private activities that occur within a dwelling. Though smart meter data is classified as personal data, and as such protected under existing data protection frameworks in the EU, there are relevant exceptions, notably where the data is required for legitimate applications associated with the performance of 'regulated duties'. This paper contributes to this debate by examining the data requirements for some of the proposed applications of smart meter data within the electricity supply industry, and investigates whether the use of personal data can be minimized or even avoided. The discussion includes system balancing, demand reduction, demand response and distribution network operation and planning, and indicates that, for most of these applications, the requirements for personal data can indeed be minimized. 'Privacy friendly' alternatives are discussed. - Highlights: ▶ Current smart meter systems provide a strong indication of occupancy. ▶ This will have important implications for external and internal home privacy. ▶ Personal data requirements within legitimate applications are discussed. ▶ 'Privacy friendly' techniques are suggested that minimize the use of personal data. ▶ Distribution network operator has strongest claim for data from each household.

  19. Analysing Smart Metering Systems from a Consumer Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesudas, Rani

    Many countries are deploying smart meters and Advanced Metering Infrastructure systems as part of demand management and grid modernisation efforts. Several of these projects are facing consumer resistance. The advertised benefits to the consumer appear mainly monetary but detailed analysis shows that financial benefits are hard to realise since the fixed services charges are high. Additionally, the data collected from smart meters have security and privacy implications for the consumer. These projects failed to consider end-users as an important stakeholder group during planning stages resulting in the design and roll-out of expensive systems, which do not demonstrate clear consumer benefits. The overall goal of the research reported in this thesis was to improve the smart metering system to deliver consumer benefits that increase confidence and acceptance of these projects. The smart metering system was examined from an end-user perspective for realistic insights into consumer concerns. Processes from Design Science Research methodology were utilised to conduct this research due to the utilitarian nature of the objective. Consumer segmentation was central to the proposed measures. Initially, a consumer-friendly risk analysis framework was devised, and appropriate requirement elicitation techniques were identified. Control options for smart meter data transfer and storage were explored. Various scenarios were analysed to determine consumer-friendly features in the smart metering system, including control options for smart meter data transfer and storage. Proposed functionalities (billing choices, feedback information and specific configurations to match the needs of different user segments) were studied using the Australian smart metering system. Smart meters vary in capabilities depending on the manufacturer, mode and place of deployment. The research showed that features proposed in this thesis are implementable in smart meters, by examining their applicability

  20. Investigation of Separate Meter-In Separate Meter-Out Control Strategies for Systems with Over Centre Valves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Rico Hjerm

    2010-01-01

    to overcome this problem, but it typically implies higher energy consumption and/or decreased control performance. With the development of robust sensors and new valve types with separate meter-in, separate meter-out control it is, however, possible to overcome these stability problems in a much more...... intelligent way, also adding increased functionality to the system. The focus of the current paper is therefore on investigation of different control strategies for Separate Meter-In Separate Meter-Out (SMISMO) control of general single axis hydraulic system with a differential cylinder and an over......-centre valve included. The paper first presents a general model of the system considered, which is experimentally verified. This is followed by a discussion of different control strategies and their implications. For each of the control strategies controllers are described, taking into account the dynamics...