WorldWideScience

Sample records for survey karst interest

  1. U.S. Geological Survey Karst Interest Group Proceedings, Bowling Green, Kentucky, May 27-29, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniansky, Eve L.

    2008-01-01

    States are developed in carbonate rocks and karst areas. These aquifers and the springs that discharge from them, serve as major water-supply sources and as unique biological habitats. Commonly, there is competition for the water resources of karst aquifers, and urban development in karst areas can impact the ecosystem and water quality of these aquifers. The concept for developing a Karst Interest Group evolved from the November 1999 National Ground-Water Meeting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Water Resources Division. As a result, the Karst Interest Group was formed in 2000. The Karst Interest Group is a loose-knit grass-roots organization of USGS employees devoted to fostering better communication among scientists working on, or interested in, karst hydrology studies. The mission of the Karst Interest Group is to encourage and support interdisciplinary collaboration and technology transfer among USGS scientists working in karst areas. Additionally, the Karst Interest Group encourages cooperative studies between the different disciplines of the USGS and other Department of Interior agencies and university researchers or research institutes. The first Karst Interest Group workshop was held in St. Petersburg, Florida, February 13-16, 2001, in the vicinity of karst features of the Floridan aquifer system. The proceedings of that first meeting, Water-Resources Investigations Report 01-4011 are available online at: http://water.usgs.gov/ogw/karst/ The second Karst Interest Group workshop was held August 20-22, 2002, in Shepherdstown, West Virginia, in close proximity to the carbonate aquifers of the northern Shenandoah Valley. The proceedings of the second workshop were published in Water-Resources Investigations Report 02-4174, which is available online at the previously mentioned website. The third workshop of the Karst Interest Group was held September, 12-15, 2005, in Rapid City, South Dakota, which is in close proximity to karst features

  2. U.S. Geological Survey Karst Interest Group Proceedings, Carlsbad, New Mexico, April 29-May 2, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniansky, Eve L.; Spangler, Lawrence E.; Kuniansky, Eve L.; Spangler, Lawrence E.

    2014-01-01

    , state, and local agencies have a strong interest in the study of karst terrains. Many of the major springs and aquifers in the United States have developed in carbonate rocks, such as the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina; the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system in parts of Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma; and the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system in west-central Texas. These aquifers, and the springs that discharge from them, serve as major water-supply sources and as unique ecological habitats. Competition for the water resources of karst aquifers is common, and urban development and the lack of attenuation of contaminants in karst areas can impact the ecosystem and water quality of these aquifers. The concept for developing a platform for interaction among scientists within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) working on karst-related studies evolved from the November 1999 National Ground-Water Meeting of the USGS. As a result, the Karst Interest Group (KIG) was formed in 2000. The KIG is a loose-knit, grass-roots organization of USGS and non-USGS scientists and researchers devoted to fostering better communication among scientists working on, or interested in, karst science. The primary mission of the KIG is to encourage and support interdisciplinary collaboration and technology transfer among scientists working in karst areas. Additionally, the KIG encourages collaborative studies between the different mission areas of the USGS as well as other federal and state agencies, and with researchers from academia and institutes. The KIG also encourages younger scientists by participation of students in the poster and oral sessions. To accomplish its mission, the KIG has organized a series of workshops that are held near nationally important karst areas. To date (2014) six KIG workshops, including the workshop documented in this report, have been held. The workshops typically include oral and poster sessions on selected karst

  3. U.S. Geological Survey Karst Interest Group Proceedings, Carlsbad, New Mexico, April 29-May 2, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniansky, Eve L.; Spangler, Lawrence E.; Kuniansky, Eve L.; Spangler, Lawrence E.

    2014-01-01

    strong interest in the study of karst terrains.Many of the major springs and aquifers in the United States have developed in carbonate rocks, such as the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina; the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system in parts of Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma; and the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system in west-central Texas. These aquifers, and the springs that discharge from them, serve as major water-supply sources and as unique ecological habitats. Competition for the water resources of karst aquifers is common, and urban development and the lack of attenuation of contaminants in karst areas can impact the ecosystem and water quality of these aquifers.The concept for developing a platform for interaction among scientists within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) working on karst-related studies evolved from the November 1999 National Ground-Water Meeting of the USGS. As a result, the Karst Interest Group (KIG) was formed in 2000. The KIG is a loose-knit, grass-roots organization of USGS and non-USGS scientists and researchers devoted to fostering better communication among scientists working on, or interested in, karst science. The primary mission of the KIG is to encourage and support interdisciplinary collaboration and technology transfer among scientists working in karst areas. Additionally, the KIG encourages collaborative studies between the different mission areas of the USGS as well as other federal and state agencies, and with researchers from academia and institutes. The KIG also encourages younger scientists by participation of students in the poster and oral sessions.To accomplish its mission, the KIG has organized a series of workshops that are held near nationally important karst areas. To date (2014) six KIG workshops, including the workshop documented in this report, have been held. The workshops typically include oral and poster sessions on selected karst-related topics and research, as well

  4. U.S. Geological Survey Karst Interest Group Proceedings, San Antonio, Texas, May 16–18, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniansky, Eve L.; Spangler, Lawrence E.

    2017-05-15

    karst hydrogeologic systems. As a result, numerous federal, state, and local agencies have a strong interest in the study of karst terrains.Many of the major springs and aquifers in the United States have developed in carbonate rocks, such as the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina; the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system in parts of Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma; and the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system in west-central Texas. These aquifers, and the springs that discharge from them, serve as major water-supply sources and form unique ecological habitats. Competition for the water resources of karst aquifers is common, and urban development and the lack of attenuation of contaminants in karst areas due to dissolution features that form direct pathways into karst aquifers can impact the ecosystem and water quality associated with these aquifers.The concept for developing a platform for interaction among scientists within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) working on karst-related studies evolved from the November 1999 National Groundwater Meeting of the USGS. As a result, the Karst Interest Group (KIG) was formed in 2000. The KIG is a loose-knit, grass-roots organization of USGS and non-USGS scientists and researchers devoted to fostering better communication among scientists working on, or interested in, karst science. The primary mission of the KIG is to encourage and support interdisciplinary collaboration and technology transfer among scientists working in karst areas. Additionally, the KIG encourages collaborative studies between the different mission areas of the USGS as well as with other federal and state agencies, and with researchers from academia and institutes.To accomplish its mission, the KIG has organized a series of workshops that have been held near nationally important karst areas. To date (2017) seven KIG workshops, including the workshop documented in this report, have been held. The workshops

  5. U.S. Geological Survey Karst Interest Group Proceedings, Fayetteville, Arkansas, April 26-29, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniansky, Eve L.

    2011-01-01

    Karst aquifer systems are present throughout parts of the United States and some of its territories and are developed in carbonate rocks (primarily limestone and dolomite) that span the entire geologic time frame. The depositional environments, diagenetic processes, and post-depositional tectonic events that form carbonate rock aquifers are varied and complex, involving both biological and physical processes that can influence the development of permeability. These factors, combined with the diverse climatic regimes under which karst development in these rocks has taken place result in the unique dual or triple porosity nature of karst aquifers. These complex hydrologic systems often present challenges to scientists attempting to study groundwater flow and contaminant transport.

  6. Ceophysical Surveys over Karst Recharge Features,Illinois,USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Karst aquifers supply a significant fraction of the world's drinking water. These types of aquifers are also highly susceptible to pollution from the surface with recharge usually occurring through fractures and solution openings at the bedrock surface. Thickness of the protective soil cover, macropores and openings within the soil cover, and the nature of the weathered bedrock surface all influence infiltration. Recharge openings at the bedrock surface, however, are often covered by unconsolidated sediments, resulting in the inadvertent placement of landfills, unregulated dump sites, tailing piles, waste lagoons and septic systems over recharge zones. In these settings surface geophysical surveys, calibrated by a few soil cores, could be employed to identify these recharge openings, and qualitatively assess the protection afforded by the soil cover. In a test of this hypothesis, geophysical measurements accurately predicted the thickness of unconsolidated deposits overlying karstic dolomite at a site about 100 km south of Chicago, Illinois. Zones of elevated electrical conductivity and high ground-penetrating radar (GPR) attenuation within the sediments coincided with subcropping solutionally-enlarged hydraulically active bedrock fractures. These fractures extend to over 12-m depth, as shown by 2-D inverted resistivity sections and soil coring. Anomalous electromagnetic (EM) conductivity and GPR response may be due to higher soil moisture above these enlarged fractures. An epikarstal conduit at 2.5-m depth was directly identified through a GPR survey. These results suggest that surface geophysical surveys are a viable tool for assessing the susceptibility of shallow karst aquifers to contamination.``

  7. Regional-scale airborne electromagnetic surveying of the Yucatan karst aquifer (Mexico): geological and hydrogeological interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondwe, Bibi Ruth Neuman; Ottowitz, David; Supper, Robert;

    2012-01-01

    . One known preferential flow path, the Holbox fracture zone, showed lower bulk electrical resistivity than its surroundings in the AEM surveys. Anomalous structures delineated inland were sealed above by a low-resistivity layer (resistivity: 1–5 Ωm, thickness: 5–6m). This layer was interpreted......Geometry and connectivity of high-permeability zones determine groundwater flow in karst aquifers. Efficient management of karst aquifers requires regional mapping of preferential flow paths. Remote-sensing technology provides tools to efficiently map the subsurface at such scales. Multi......-spectral remote sensing imagery, shuttle radar topography data and frequency-domain airborne electromagnetic (AEM) survey data were used to map karst-aquifer structure on the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Anomalous AEM responses correlated with topographic features and anomalous spectral reflectance of the terrain...

  8. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Augustin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  9. Sky surveys of interest for cataclysmic variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkody, Paula

    2016-07-01

    interval. Current followup of interesting systems occurs with HST, XMM, Chandra and NuSTAR. Future followup will involve JWST, WFIRST and Euclid. Examples, advantages and problems with these surveys will be presented and discussed.

  10. 12 CFR 906.5 - Monthly interest rate survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Monthly interest rate survey. 906.5 Section 906... OPERATIONS OPERATIONS Monthly Interest Rate Survey (MIRS) § 906.5 Monthly interest rate survey. The Finance Board conducts its Monthly Survey of Rates and Terms on Conventional One-Family Non-farm Mortgage...

  11. Kuder Occupational Interest Survey Profiles of Reentry Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittle, Carol K.; Denker, Elenor R.

    1977-01-01

    The Kuder Occupational Interest Survey was administered to 202 women considering reentry into education. It was found that the KOIS does differentiate between women and individual interests are reflected for this sample of women. It was concluded that examination of male-normed scales is very useful in counseling. (Author)

  12. How Informative Are Interest Rate Survey-based Forecasts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus A. Feitosa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the information content of survey-based predictions for the Brazilian short-term interest rate. We perform vector autoregression analysis to test for the dynamic relationship between market expectations of interest rates and spot interest rates, and a single regression forecasting approach. Empirical results suggest that surveys may be useful in assessing market expectations (contain relevant information and in building Central Bank credibility. Within an inflation targeting framework they are crucial in order to receive timely feedback on market sentiment regarding the conduct of monetary policy.

  13. Comparing and refining karst disturbance index methods through application in an island karst setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Brandon L.; North, Leslie A.; Polk, Jason S.

    2016-12-01

    The interconnected nature of surface and subsurface karst environments allows easy disturbance to their aquifers and specialized ecosystems from anthropogenic impacts. The karst disturbance index is a holistic tool used to measure disturbance to karst environments and has been applied and refined through studies in Florida and Italy, among others. Through these applications, the karst disturbance index has evolved into two commonly used methods of application; yet, the karst disturbance index is still susceptible to evaluation and modification for application in other areas around the world. The geographically isolated and highly vulnerable municipality of Arecibo, Puerto Rico's karst area provides an opportunity to test the usefulness and validity of the karst disturbance index in an island setting and to compare and further refine the application of the original and modified methods. This study found the both methods of karst disturbance index application resulted in high disturbance scores (Original Method 0.54 and Modified Method 0.69, respectively) and uncovered multiple considerations for the improvement of the karst disturbance index. An evaluation of multiple methods together in an island setting also resulted in the need for adding additional indicators, including Mogote Removal and Coastal Karst. Collectively, the results provide a holistic approach to using the karst disturbance index in an island karst setting and suggest a modified method by which scaling and weighting may compensate for the difference between the original and modified method scores and allow interested stakeholders to evaluate disturbance regardless of his or her level of expertise.

  14. Karst Map of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman-Gonzalez, Wilma B.

    2010-01-01

    This map is a digital compilation, combining the mapping of earlier geologists. Their work, cited on the map, contains more detailed descriptions of karst areas and landforms in Puerto Rico. This map is the basis for the Puerto Rico part of a new national karst map currently being compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey. In addition, this product is a standalone, citable source of digital karst data for Puerto Rico. Nearly 25 percent of the United States is underlain by karst terrain, and a large part of that area is undergoing urban and industrial development. Accurate delineations of karstic rocks are needed at scales suitable for national, State, and local maps. The data on this map contribute to a better understanding of subsidence hazards, groundwater contamination potential, and cave resources as well as serve as a guide to topical research on karst. Because the karst data were digitized from maps having a different scale and projection from those on the base map used for this publication, some karst features may not coincide perfectly with physiographic features portrayed on the base map.

  15. On the Karst Ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁道先

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the author gives a definition of the karst ecosystem and discusses the characteristics of the karst environment and karst ecosystem and the relationship between life and the karst environment. Finally he clarifies the structure, driving force and functions of the karst system.``

  16. Karst Feature Inventory Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Southeastern Minnesota is part of the Upper Mississippi Valley Karst (Hedges and Alexander, 1985) that includes southwestern Wisconsin and northeastern Iowa. Karst...

  17. Quantitatively structural control of the karst based on speleological cave survey data: Cabeza Llerosos massif (Picos de Europa, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, D.; Jiménez-Sánchez, M.; García-Sansegundo, J.; Borreguero, M.; Sendra, G.

    2012-04-01

    Speleological cave survey characterizes each cave passage by a 3D line (called shot survey) defined by its length, direction and dipping. This line represents the three-dimensional geometry of the karst system and cave passage scale and can be statistically analyzed and compared with the geometry of the massif discontinuities. The aim of this work is to establish the quantitative influence of the structural geology in caves based on the comparison between cave survey data, joint and bedding measurements with stereographic projection. 15 km of cave surveys from Cabeza Llerosos massif (Picos de Europa, Northern Spain) were chosen to illustrate the method. The length of the cavities range between 50 to 4,438 m and their depth is up to 738 m. The methodology of work includes: 1) cave survey collection from caving reports; 2) geological mapping and cross-sections with cavities projection;3) data collection of bedding and joints in caves and near outcrops;4) definition of families of joints and bedding planes by stereographic projection; 5) definition of groups of cave passages from stereographic projection (based on their directions and dipping) and 6) comparison between bedding, families of joints and cave survey data by stereographic projection. Seven families of joints have been defined in all the area of study. The joint families are: J1) sub-vertical, J2) N63/68SE, J3) N29E/46NW, J4) N52E/72NW, J5) N129E/17NE, J6) N167E/57NE and J7) N180E/26E; the bedding is N30-55/60-80NE. Five groups of cave passages have been defined. "A" group of cave passage is formed by sub-vertical series; it is represented by the 61 % of all the cave passages and is conditioned by the joint families J1, J3, J4 and J6, as well as their intersections. "B" group is formed by N10W-N10E/3-20N galleries; it corresponds with the 13 % of the series and is controlled by the intersection between families J5 and J6. "C" group is defined by N20-70E/0-50NE passages; it is represented by the 13 % of the

  18. Problems and Solutions about Use of Different Karst Lands in Southern China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhiwei; ZHU, Zhangxiong; WEN, Zhilin

    2013-01-01

    This paper is aimed to analyze the current situation and problems about use of various karst environments via filed survey, documentation and comparison methods, and to make reasonable recommendations about land use and management for different karst types in a bid to provide theoretical and practical basis for optimization of karst land use and the comprehensive control of karst rock desertification. The results show that,â‘ as the bare karst areas are lack of water and soil and highly prone...

  19. High Interest Scales on the Strong Vocational Interest Blank and the Kuder Occupational Interest Survey Using Holland's Occupational Codes. Research Report No. 1-75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Franklin D.

    This study compared the arrays of high interest occupations produced by the Strong Vocational Interest Blank, T-399 and the Kuder Occupational Interest Survey, Form DD when the instruments were administered to the same Subjects. Holland type Summary Codes were devised from the arrays of occupations and were analyzed by correlated t tests and…

  20. Karst in Slovenia; EL karst en Eslovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihevc, A.; Gabrovsek, F.; Knez, M.; Kozel, P.; Mulec, J.; Otomicar, B.; Petric, M.; Pipan, T.; Prelovsek, M.; Slabe, T.; Sebela, S.; Zupan Hajna, N.

    2016-07-01

    Karst is a type of landscape with special surface, underground and hydrological features and phenomena. Its main characteristic is dissolution of the carbonate rocks by water enriched with CO{sub 2} as the dominant morphological process, removal of the rock in the form of solution and prevalent underground drainage that forms caves. In Slovene language, kras means a rocky, barren surface developed on limestone or dolomite and is also used as a toponym, so the word karst was developed from the name of the Kras plateau, which is a classical, reference site for the karst type of landscape. (Author)

  1. Forest Landowner Education Interests and Delivery Preferences: A Retrospective Look at Survey Results and Actual Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobrist, Kevin W.; Rozance, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    This article presents survey data on education interests and delivery preferences of small forest landowners in Washington and compares it to actual program participation over 6 years. The survey was conducted in late 2007 to guide development and implementation of a Extension forestry program. The survey found broad interest across many topics…

  2. Forest Landowner Education Interests and Delivery Preferences: A Retrospective Look at Survey Results and Actual Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobrist, Kevin W.; Rozance, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    This article presents survey data on education interests and delivery preferences of small forest landowners in Washington and compares it to actual program participation over 6 years. The survey was conducted in late 2007 to guide development and implementation of a Extension forestry program. The survey found broad interest across many topics…

  3. Engineering Aspects of Karst - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are a digital version of U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2004-1352, Engineering Aspects of Karst. The open-file report is a map with accompanying...

  4. Gypsum karst in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper A.H.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In Great Britain the most spectacular gypsum karst development is in the Zechstein gypsum (late Permian mainly in north-eastern England. The Midlands of England also has some karst developed in the Triassic gypsum in the vicinity of Nottingham. Along the north-east coast, south of Sunderland, well-developed palaeokarst, with magnificent breccia pipes, was produced by dissolution of Permian gypsum. In north-west England a small gypsum cave system of phreatic origin has been surveyed and recorded. A large actively evolving phreatic gypsum cave system has been postulated beneath the Ripon area on the basis of studies of subsidence and boreholes. The rate of gypsum dissolution here, and the associated collapse lead to difficult civil engineering and construction conditions, which can also be aggravated by water abstraction.

  5. The role of ultrasonic bat detectors in improving inventory and monitoring surveys in Vietnamese karst bat assemblages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neil M. FUREY; Iain J. MACKIE; Paul A. RACEY

    2009-01-01

    Bats account for 30% of mammal diversity in SE Asia and are potential bioindieators of wider biodiversity impacts resulting from habitat loss and climate change. As existing sampling techniques in the region typically fall to record bats that habitually fly in open areas and at higher altitudes, current inventory efforts are less than comprehensive. Acoustic sampling with bat detectors may help to overcome these limitations for insectivorous bats, but has yet to be tested in mainland SE Asia. To do so, we sampled bats while simultaneously recording the echolocation calls of insectivorous species commuting and foraging in a variety of karst habitats in north Vietnam. Monitoring of cave-dwelling bats was also undertaken. Discriminant function analysis of 367 echolocation calls produced by 30 insectivorous species showed that acoustic identification was feasible by correctly classifying 89. 1% of caLls. In all habitats, acoustic sampling and capture methods recorded significantly more species each night than capture methods alone. Capture methods consequently failed to record 29% (ten spp. of aerial insectivores) of the bat fauna in commuting and foraging habitats and 11% ( two spp. ) of that in our cave sample. Only four of these species were subsequently captured following significantly greater sampling effort. This strongly suggests that acoustic methods axe indispensable for maximizing bat inventory completeness in SE Asia. As accurate inventories and monitoring are essential for effective species conservation, we recommend the inclusion of acoustic sampling in future studies of bat assemblages across the region [Current Zoology 55 (5) : 327 - 341, 2009].

  6. Interest in facial plastic and reconstructive surgery among otorhinolaryngologists: a survey in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinxteren, S.A. van; Lohuis, P.J.; Ingels, K.J.A.O.; Nolst Trenite, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the interest of Dutch otorhinolaryngologists in facial plastic and reconstructive surgery (FPRS). METHODS: We conducted a 22-question survey among otorhinolaryngology physicians and residents concerning their experience with and interest in FPRS. The response rate was 71%

  7. The Karst Waters Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Karst Waters Institute (KWI) is a U.S. research organization that was formed to combine the skills of academic, governmental, and private sector specialists to solve existing karst water problems and anticipate future problems. KWI has been incorporated as a not-for-profit corporation in West Virginia to provide the human expertise and database needed to assist the nation in the preservation and utilization of its water resources. KWI plans to develop a core of resident and visiting scientists from across the nation and overseas, technicians, support staff, and graduate students. Its mission is to conduct research to improve our understanding of karst phenomena, to develop techniques to prevent environmental problems from occurring in karst areas, to assist in rectifying existing environmental problems, and to provide education and training for professionals and the general public on the risks and benefits of karst areas.

  8. Problems and Solutions about Land Use of Different Karst Environments in Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiwei; ZHANG; Zhangxiong; ZHU; Zhilin; WEN

    2013-01-01

    This paper is aimed to analyze the current situation and problems about land use of various karst environments via field survey,documentation and comparison methods,and to make reasonable recommendations about land use and management for different karst types in a bid to provide theoretical and practical basis for optimization of karst land use and the comprehensive control of karst rock desertification.The results show that,①as the bare karst areas are lack of water and soil and highly vulnerable to droughts and floods,land utilization in such areas should follow the principles of soil and water conservation and ecological restoration,emphasize both the ecological benefit and the economic benefits and reasonably configure the land resources to achieve virtuous circle;②in covered karst areas,the most important task is to take measures to prevent the appearance of secondary karst rock desertification,water exhaustion and karst collapse;③the buried karst areas shall mainly focus on prevention of overlaying sand shale collapse,and possible pollution of deep karst water and the surface land resulted from exploration and exploitation of oil and gas and geothermal water.④The final conclusion is that features and problems of land utilization of the three karst types are different from each other,and that the general principle for land use in karst regions shall be based on the local conditions.

  9. Karst flash floods: an example from the Dinaric karst (Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bonacci

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Flash floods constitute one of the deadliest and costliest natural disasters worldwide. This paper explains the karst flash flood phenomenon, which represents a special kind of flash flood. As the majority of flash floods karst flash floods are caused by intensive short-term precipitation in an area whose surface rarely exceeds a few square kilometres. The characteristics of all flash floods are their short duration, small areal extent, high flood peaks and rapid flows, and heavy loss of life and property. Karst flash floods have specific characteristics due to special conditions for water circulation, which exist in karst terrains. During karst flash floods a sudden rise of groundwater levels occurs, which causes the appearance of numerous, unexpected, abundant and temporary karst springs. This paper presents in detail an example of a karst flash flood in the Marina bay (Dinaric karst region of Croatia, which occurred in December 2004.

  10. Some Caves in tunnels in Dinaric karst of Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garasic, Mladen; Garasic, Davor

    2016-04-01

    In the last 50 years during the construction of almost all the tunnels in the Croatian Dinaric Karst thousands of caves have been encountered that represented the major problems during the construction works. Geological features (fissures, folding, faults, etc.) are described in this contribution, together with the hydrogeological conditions (rapid changes in groundwater levels). Special engineering geological exploration and survey of each cave, together with the stabilization of the tunnel ceiling, and groundwater protection actions according to basic engineering geological parameters are also presented. In karst tunneling in Croatia over 150 caves longer than 500 m have been investigated. Several caves are over 300 m deep (St. Ilija tunnel in Biokovo Mt), and 10 are longer than 1000 m (St.Rok tunnel, HE Senj and HE Velebit tunnels in Velebit Mt, Ucka tunnel in Ucka Mt, Mala kapela tunnel in Kapela Mt, caverns in HE Plat tunnel etc). Different solutions were chosen to cross the caves depending on the size and purpose of the tunnels (road, rail, pedestrian tunnel, or hydrotechnical tunnels). This is presentations of interesting examples of ceiling stabilization in big cave chambers, construction of bridges inside tunnels, deviations of tunnels, filling caves, grouting, etc. A complex type of karstification has been found in the cavern at the contact between the Palaeozoic clastic impervious formations and the Mesozoic complex of dolomitic limestones in the Vrata Tunnel and at the contact with flysch in the Učka Tunnel. However, karstification advancing in all directions at a similar rate is quite rare. The need to have the roadway and/or tunnel above water from a spring is the biggest possible engineering-geological, hydrogeological and civil engineering challenge. Significant examples are those above the Jadro spring (Mravinci tunnel) in flysch materials or above the Zvir spring in Rijeka (Katarina tunnel), and in fractured Mesozoic carbonates. Today in Croatian

  11. The Development of the STEM Career Interest Survey (STEM-CIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kier, Meredith W.; Blanchard, Margaret R.; Osborne, Jason W.; Albert, Jennifer L.

    2014-06-01

    Internationally, efforts to increase student interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers have been on the rise. It is often the goal of such efforts that increased interest in STEM careers should stimulate economic growth and enhance innovation. Scientific and educational organizations recommend that efforts to interest students in STEM majors and careers begin at the middle school level, a time when students are developing their own interests and recognizing their academic strengths. These factors have led scholars to call for instruments that effectively measure interest in STEM classes and careers, particularly for middle school students. In response, we leveraged the social cognitive career theory to develop a survey with subscales in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. In this manuscript, we detail the six stages of development of the STEM Career Interest Survey. To investigate the instrument's reliability and psychometric properties, we administered this 44-item survey to over 1,000 middle school students (grades 6-8) who primarily were in rural, high-poverty districts in the southeastern USA. Confirmatory factor analyses indicate that the STEM-CIS is a strong, single factor instrument and also has four strong, discipline-specific subscales, which allow for the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics subscales to be administered separately or in combination. This instrument should prove helpful in research, evaluation, and professional development to measure STEM career interest in secondary level students.

  12. The zero lower bound on nominal interest rates and monetary policy effectiveness: A survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Uilersma

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper surveys the literature on monetary policy at the zero lower bound on nominal interest rates. Certain crucial insights regarding expectations have been neglected in recent research in this field. Taking this into account, the interactions between demand, confidence and supply s

  13. Picos de Europa National and Regional parks (Northern Spain): the karst underground landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Daniel; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Laura; José Domínguez-Cuesta, María; Meléndez-Asensio, Mónica; García-Sansegundo, Joaquín

    2015-04-01

    Karst caves represent an environmental with a high value from the Geoheritage and Geodiversity points of view given by hidden underground landscape practically reserved to the speleologists. Nevertheless, cave surveys, 3d models of caves and DEMs, and pictures can be used to approach the endokarst geoheritage characterization. The Picos de Europa National and Regional parks include the 14% of World's Deepest Caves (>1 km depth); moreover these parks shows a high environmental value related with seven protection figures: Biosphere Reserve, Special Protection Area, the Site of Community Importance, and four Natural Monument. The aim of this work is to present the Geoheritage values of the underground landscape of the Picos de Europa National and Regional parks. These parks involve several alpine karst massifs up to 700 km2 and 2,600 m asl, as the Picos de Europa mountains (declared Global Geosite by its geomorphological interest), the Mampodre Massif, and the Peñas Pintas and Yordas peaks (sited in Riaño dam area). The alpine karst involves a large underground landscape formed by more than 3,700 epigenic caves with 403 km of conduits. The 95 % of the cave conduits are located in the Picos de Europa mountains and correspond to caves up to 18.9 km length and 1.6 km depth; the 5 % of cave conduits are sited in other small karst areas and include caves up to 1.5 km length and 200 m depth. The karst caves present high natural, scientific and cultural values. The natural value corresponds to the singularity and the spectacular vertical development of the caves and a very high Geodiversity of cave features. The karst shows a high concentration of deep caves (81 caves deeper than 500 m) that is twice higher than the concentration of other karst areas, as Arabika Massif (Western Caucasus). The natural value is mainly related to the presence of geomorphological and hydrogeological features, highlighting high vadose canyons and shafts, old phreatic and epiphreatic conduits

  14. Speleogenesis in Dinaric karst area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garasic, Mladen; Garasic, Davor

    2015-04-01

    Dinaric Karst is one of the largest karst regions in Europe and in the World. It is the paramount karst of Europe and type site of many karst features. Dinaric Karst Area covers an extensive part of the Dinarides, a mountain chain in Southern Europe named after Dinara Mt., an impressive and outstanding rocky wall on the border between Dalmatian part of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Dinaric Karst occupies an area from the Friuli Plain (Doberdo Karst Plateau) and Slovenian mountains near Postojna cave on the northwest, to Skadar Lake and Prokletije Mt. on the southeast, from Central Bosnian Mountains on the northeast, and the Adriatic Sea seafloor with its islands. The Dinarides outspread in a so-called "Dinaric strike" (NW-SE) for 650 km in length and are up to 150 km wide across SW-NE. The biggest part of the Dinaric Karst Area is situated within Croatian territory (continental, Adriatic coastal and seafloor karst) comprising all karst features with exceptional examples exposed on the surface as well as in the underground. Classical karst area is the one situated in Slovenia, where typical karst features were described for the first time. Presentation of the outstanding values of Dinaric karst is based on the values that can be met in Italy, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Serbia and Albania, too. Dinaric Karst is the World's natural heritage because of its unique and outstanding geological characteristics and its living world; some of them are of outstanding natural beauty. Dinaric karst is an integral, compact karst area with extremely great thickness of carbonate rocks of predominantly Mesozoic age which in some areas exceeds 8.000 m. It bears several cycles of karstification thus giving world uniqueness to the area, especially regarding the wealth of submerged karst phenomena, among which vruljes are world unique features. Dinaric karst is one of the largest karst regions in the World. From the scientific perspective, the Dinaric Karst is one of

  15. Career interest and perceptions of nephrology: A repeated cross-sectional survey of internal medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Michael N; Maynard, Sharon; Porter, Ivan; Kincaid, Hope; Jain, Deepika; Aslam, Nabeel

    2017-01-01

    Interest in nephrology careers among internal medicine residents in the United States is declining. Our objective was to assess the impact of the presence of a nephrology fellowship training program on perceptions and career interest in nephrology among internal medicine residents. A secondary objective was to identify commonly endorsed negative perceptions of nephrology among internal medicine residents. This was a repeated cross-sectional survey of internal medicine residents before (Group 1) and 3 years after (Group 2) the establishment of nephrology fellowship programs at two institutions. The primary outcome was the percentage of residents indicating nephrology as a career interest in Group 1 vs. Group 2. Secondary outcomes included the frequency that residents agreed with negative statements about nephrology. 131 (80.9%) of 162 residents completed the survey. 19 (14.8%) residents indicated interest in a nephrology career, with 8 (6.3%) indicating nephrology as their first choice. There was no difference in career interest in nephrology between residents who were exposed to nephrology fellows during residency training (Group 2) and residents who were not (Group 1). The most commonly endorsed negative perceptions of nephrology were: nephrology fellows have long hours/burdensome call (36 [28.1%] of residents agreed or strongly agreed), practicing nephrologists must take frequent/difficult call (35 [27.6%] agreed or strongly agreed), and nephrology has few opportunities for procedures (35 [27.3%] agreed or strongly agreed). More residents in Group 2 agreed that nephrology is poorly paid (8.9% in Group 1 vs. 20.8% in Group 2, P = 0.04), whereas more residents in Group 1 agreed that nephrologists must take frequent/difficult call (40.0% in Group 1 vs. 18.1% in Group 2, P = 0.02). The initiation of a nephrology fellowship program was not associated with an increase in internal medicine residents' interest in nephrology careers. Residents endorsed several negative

  16. Are people with chronic diseases interested in using telehealth? A cross-sectional postal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Louisa; Thomas, Clare; Gregory, Alison; Yardley, Lucy; O'Cathain, Alicia; Montgomery, Alan A; Salisbury, Chris

    2014-05-08

    There is growing interest in telehealth-the use of technology to support the remote delivery of health care and promote self-management-as a potential alternative to face-to-face care for patients with chronic diseases. However, little is known about what precipitates interest in the use of telehealth among these patients. This survey forms part of a research program to develop and evaluate a telehealth intervention for patients with two exemplar chronic diseases: depression and raised cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The survey was designed to explore the key factors that influence interest in using telehealth in these patient groups. Thirty-four general practices were recruited from two different regions within England. Practice records were searched for patients with (1) depression (aged 18+ years) or (2) 10-year risk of CVD ≥20% and at least one modifiable risk factor (aged 40-74 years). Within each general practice, 54 patients in each chronic disease group were randomly selected to receive a postal questionnaire. Questions assessed five key constructs: sociodemographics, health needs, difficulties accessing health care, technology-related factors (availability, confidence using technology, perceived benefits and drawbacks of telehealth), and satisfaction with prior use of telehealth. Respondents also rated their interest in using different technologies for telehealth (phone, email and Internet, or social media). Relationships between the key constructs and interest in using the three mediums of telehealth were examined using multivariable regression models. Of the 3329 patients who were sent a study questionnaire, 44.40% completed it (872/1740, 50.11% CVD risk; 606/1589, 38.14% depression). Overall, there was moderate interest in using phone-based (854/1423, 60.01%) and email/Internet-based (816/1425, 57.26%) telehealth, but very little interest in social media (243/1430, 16.99%). After adjusting for health needs, access difficulties, technology

  17. Primitive running: a survey analysis of runners' interest, participation, and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Carey E

    2012-08-01

    Running is a sport that has continued to see growth in numbers over the years. Recently, there has been a movement promoting running barefoot and in light, "minimalist" shoes. Advocates of barefoot running believe that a more primitive style of running may result in fewer running-related injuries and even possibly improve performance. To identify the current interest level and participation in barefoot or minimalist shod running, an electronic survey was developed and dispersed to 6,082 runners. The survey instrument examined demographics, motivating factors, used resources, perceived barriers, and expectations in runners who add barefoot or in minimalist shod running to their training. Seven hundred eighty-five (13%) runners completed the survey. Six hundred and thirty (75.7%) indicated they were at least somewhat interested in running barefoot or in minimalist shoes. One hundred seventy-two (21.9%) runners had previously tried barefoot running, whereas 239 (30.4%) had previously tried minimalist shoes. The primary motivating factor for those running barefoot or in minimalist shoes (n = 283) was to prevent future injury (n = 97, 34.3%). Advice from friends (n = 68, 24.5%) or books (n = 68, 24.5%) was the most commonly used resource in transitioning to barefoot or minimalist shod running. Fear of possible injury (n = 424, 54%) was the most prevalent perceived barrier in transitioning to barefoot or minimalist shod running. An overwhelming 671 (85.5%) indicated that they were at least somewhat likely to continue with or to add barefoot or minimalist shod running if provided sufficient instruction. Runners who are men, of younger age, and who consider themselves elite runners are somewhat more likely to be interested in barefoot or minimalist shod running.

  18. High Scales On the Strong Vocational Interest Blank and the Kuder Occupational Interest Survey Using Holland's Occupational Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Franklin D.

    1975-01-01

    The study compared the arrays of high-interest occupations produced by the Strong and the Kuder. A frequency percentage count showed 85 percent of the pairs of summary codes had two identical characteristics, and some support was found for Holland's hexagon. The implications for further studies comparing the two instruments are discussed. (Author)

  19. Karst and agriculture in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillieson David

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Much of the development and degradation of karst lands in Australia has occurred in the last two centuries since European settlement. Recent prolonged El Nino events add further climatic uncertainty and place real constraints on sustainable agriculture. The lower southeast of South Australia is perhaps the one area in Australia where karst, and particularly karst hydrology, impinge on the daily lives of the community in that pollution and overexploitation of the aquifer are readily apparent to the local population. Effluent from intensive dairy farms, piggeries and cheese factories enters the karst and has caused concern over pollution of water supplies. Human impacts on the Mole Creek karst of Tasmania have been well documented. The principal recent impacts on the karst arc associated with land clearance for farmland, forest cutting for timber, road building, refuse disposal and associated hydrological change. There is similar evidence of agricultural impacts un karst in central New South Wales, with clear evidence of vegetation clearance and soil stripping on the limestones at Wellington, Orange and Molong.

  20. The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey: The First National Survey of State Health Agency Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Katie; Leider, Jonathon P; Harper, Elizabeth; Castrucci, Brian C; Bharthapudi, Kiran; Liss-Levinson, Rivka; Jarris, Paul E; Hunter, Edward L

    2015-01-01

    Public health practitioners, policy makers, and researchers alike have called for more data on individual worker's perceptions about workplace environment, job satisfaction, and training needs for a quarter of a century. The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS) was created to answer that call. Characterize key components of the public health workforce, including demographics, workplace environment, perceptions about national trends, and perceived training needs. A nationally representative survey of central office employees at state health agencies (SHAs) was conducted in 2014. Approximately 25,000 e-mail invitations to a Web-based survey were sent out to public health staff in 37 states, based on a stratified sampling approach. Balanced repeated replication weights were used to account for the complex sampling design. A total of 10,246 permanently employed SHA central office employees participated in PH WINS (46% response rate). Perceptions about training needs; workplace environment and job satisfaction; national initiatives and trends; and demographics. Although the majority of staff said they were somewhat or very satisfied with their job (79%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 78-80), as well as their organization (65%; 95% CI, 64-66), more than 42% (95% CI, 41-43) were considering leaving their organization in the next year or retiring before 2020; 4% of those were considering leaving for another job elsewhere in governmental public health. The majority of public health staff at SHA central offices are female (72%; 95% CI, 71-73), non-Hispanic white (70%; 95% CI, 69-71), and older than 40 years (73%; 95% CI, 72-74). The greatest training needs include influencing policy development, preparing a budget, and training related to the social determinants of health. PH WINS represents the first nationally representative survey of SHA employees. It holds significant potential to help answer previously unaddressed questions in public health

  1. The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey: The First National Survey of State Health Agency Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Katie; Leider, Jonathon P.; Harper, Elizabeth; Castrucci, Brian C.; Bharthapudi, Kiran; Liss-Levinson, Rivka; Jarris, Paul E.; Hunter, Edward L.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Public health practitioners, policy makers, and researchers alike have called for more data on individual worker's perceptions about workplace environment, job satisfaction, and training needs for a quarter of a century. The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS) was created to answer that call. Objective: Characterize key components of the public health workforce, including demographics, workplace environment, perceptions about national trends, and perceived training needs. Design: A nationally representative survey of central office employees at state health agencies (SHAs) was conducted in 2014. Approximately 25 000 e-mail invitations to a Web-based survey were sent out to public health staff in 37 states, based on a stratified sampling approach. Balanced repeated replication weights were used to account for the complex sampling design. Setting and Participants: A total of 10 246 permanently employed SHA central office employees participated in PH WINS (46% response rate). Main Outcome Measures: Perceptions about training needs; workplace environment and job satisfaction; national initiatives and trends; and demographics. Results: Although the majority of staff said they were somewhat or very satisfied with their job (79%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 78-80), as well as their organization (65%; 95% CI, 64-66), more than 42% (95% CI, 41-43) were considering leaving their organization in the next year or retiring before 2020; 4% of those were considering leaving for another job elsewhere in governmental public health. The majority of public health staff at SHA central offices are female (72%; 95% CI, 71-73), non-Hispanic white (70%; 95% CI, 69-71), and older than 40 years (73%; 95% CI, 72-74). The greatest training needs include influencing policy development, preparing a budget, and training related to the social determinants of health. Conclusions: PH WINS represents the first nationally representative survey of SHA employees. It

  2. Career interest and perceptions of nephrology: A repeated cross-sectional survey of internal medicine residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Michael N.; Porter, Ivan; Kincaid, Hope; Jain, Deepika; Aslam, Nabeel

    2017-01-01

    Background Interest in nephrology careers among internal medicine residents in the United States is declining. Our objective was to assess the impact of the presence of a nephrology fellowship training program on perceptions and career interest in nephrology among internal medicine residents. A secondary objective was to identify commonly endorsed negative perceptions of nephrology among internal medicine residents. Methods This was a repeated cross-sectional survey of internal medicine residents before (Group 1) and 3 years after (Group 2) the establishment of nephrology fellowship programs at two institutions. The primary outcome was the percentage of residents indicating nephrology as a career interest in Group 1 vs. Group 2. Secondary outcomes included the frequency that residents agreed with negative statements about nephrology. Results 131 (80.9%) of 162 residents completed the survey. 19 (14.8%) residents indicated interest in a nephrology career, with 8 (6.3%) indicating nephrology as their first choice. There was no difference in career interest in nephrology between residents who were exposed to nephrology fellows during residency training (Group 2) and residents who were not (Group 1). The most commonly endorsed negative perceptions of nephrology were: nephrology fellows have long hours/burdensome call (36 [28.1%] of residents agreed or strongly agreed), practicing nephrologists must take frequent/difficult call (35 [27.6%] agreed or strongly agreed), and nephrology has few opportunities for procedures (35 [27.3%] agreed or strongly agreed). More residents in Group 2 agreed that nephrology is poorly paid (8.9% in Group 1 vs. 20.8% in Group 2, P = 0.04), whereas more residents in Group 1 agreed that nephrologists must take frequent/difficult call (40.0% in Group 1 vs. 18.1% in Group 2, P = 0.02). Conclusions The initiation of a nephrology fellowship program was not associated with an increase in internal medicine residents’ interest in nephrology

  3. A national survey of policies on disclosure of conflicts of interest in biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrary, S. V.; Anderson, C. B.; Jakovljevic, J.; Khan, T.; McCullough, L. B.; Wray, N. P.; Brody, B. A.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conflicts of interest pose a threat to the integrity of scientific research. The current regulations of the U.S. Public Health Service and the National Science Foundation require that medical schools and other research institutions report the existence of conflicts of interest to the funding agency but allow the institutions to manage conflicts internally. The regulations do not specify how to do so. METHODS: We surveyed all medical schools (127) and other research institutions (170) that received more than $5 million in total grants annually from the National Institutes of Health or the National Science Foundation; 48 journals in basic science and clinical medicine; and 17 federal agencies in order to analyze their policies on conflicts of interest. RESULTS: Of the 297 institutions, 250 (84 percent) responded by March 2000, as did 47 of the 48 journals and 16 of the 17 federal agencies. Fifteen of the 250 institutions (6 percent)--5 medical schools and 10 other research institutions--reported that they had no policy on conflicts of interest. Among the institutions that had policies, there was marked variation in the definition and management of conflicts. Ninety-one percent had policies that adhered to the federal threshold for disclosure ($10,000 in annual income or equity in a relevant company or 5 percent ownership), and 9 percent had policies that exceeded the federal guidelines. Only 8 percent had policies requiring disclosure to funding agencies, only 7 percent had such policies regarding journals, and only 1 percent had policies requiring the disclosure of information to the relevant institutional review boards or to research subjects. Twenty journals (43 percent) reported that they had policies requiring disclosure of conflicts of interest. Only four federal agencies had policies that explicitly addressed conflicts of interest in extramural research, and all but one of the agencies relied primarily on institutional discretion. CONCLUSIONS

  4. The research of Chinese karst ecological hydrology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Chunqing; Wang Jiajia

    2006-01-01

    Karst environment is very common in southwest China. Soil and vegetation are the most sensitive elements for the variation of karst environment. The weathering of carbonate is important soil formation mechanism in karst area,but its soil forming ability is so poor that the thickness of soil layer becomes thin by the water erosion, though the soil loss is insignificant but serious. The karst process, the ecology process, the hydrology process are three important circulation mechanisms in the karst multiple media environment. In the Chinese North and South karst area, the eco-environmental protection and restoration has already been the important part as the national territorial resources and the environmental comprehensive development and management. The character of karst plants mainly depends on the environmental conditions, i.e. lack of water, richness of Ca, poor soil and shortage of organic matter. The plants have low growth pace and low life-form resource; it is vulnerable under the disturbance of irrational human activities. Therefore, the rocky desertification is the final result of karst ecosystem degradation. But ecological condition is severe in the North and South karst area, especially in the south karst stone mountainous area and the north arid karst area. There are many problems with the eco-environmental protection and restoration. This paper takes the karst multiple media environment as a core,comprehensively discusses the relations of the three processes - karst, hydrology, and ecology, and puts forward the direction of the research on karst ecology hydrology and the future.

  5. Surgeon-industry conflict of interest: survey of North Americans' opinions regarding surgeons consulting with industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPaola, Christian P; Dea, Nicolas; Noonan, Vanessa K; Bailey, Christopher S; Dvorak, Marcel F S; Fisher, Charles G

    2014-04-01

    Surgeon-industry conflict of interest (COI) has become a source of considerable interest. Professional medical societies, industry, and policy makers have attempted to regulate potential COI without consideration for public opinion. The objective of this study was to report on the opinions of individuals representing the general public regarding surgeon-industry consulting relationships. Web-based survey. Survey was administered using a "spine Web site," and opinions are collected on surgeon-industry consulting and regulation. Associations among responses to similar questions were assessed to ensure validity and subgroup analysis performed for respondent age, sex, education, insurance, employment, and patient status. Six hundred ten of 642 surveys had complete data. The sample population comprised more females and was older and more educated than the American population. About 80% of respondents felt it was ethical and either beneficial or of no influence to the quality of health care if surgeons were consultants for surgical device companies. Most felt disclosure of an industry relationship was important and paying surgeons royalties for devices, other than those they directly implant, would not affect quality of care. Respondents support multidisciplinary surgeon-industry COI regulation and trust doctors and their professional societies to head this effort. Despite the known potential negative impact of surgeon-industry COI on patient care, this study revealed that this does not seem to be reflected in the opinion of the general public. The respondents felt that disclosure is deemed one of the most important means of self-regulation and COI management, which is in agreement with current trends of most spine societies and journals that are increasing the stringency of disclosure policies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Pilot survey of NICU nurses' interest in the neonatal nurse practitioner role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Lynn B; Vargo, Lyn E; Reavey, Daphne A; Hunter, Kim S

    2005-02-01

    This descriptive, qualitative pilot study explored the interest and perceptions of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) nurses regarding the neonatal nurse practitioner (NNP) role. Motivating factors to become an NNP, challenges facing NNPs, and rewards of the NNP role from the perspectives of NICU nurses were explored. The convenience sample was obtained using 2 survey techniques. The first sample group included nurses who were employed in Level III NICUs located within 2 major Midwestern cities. In order to confirm the data and to expand the scope, the second sample group was recruited from NICU nurses who were attending a regional educational conference. All participants were currently employed NICU nurses and were therefore potential NNP students. Combining the participants of both enrollment techniques resulted in a potential of 696 subjects. A simple self-administered survey was used to collect data. Narrative data were qualitatively analyzed. Demographic data and categorical items were quantified. This study achieved a total 30% response rate (n = 209). Of the total participants, only 32% of Level III NICU nurses were interested in becoming an NNP. Analysis of the data revealed 6 major categories (themes) of reasons why nurses were not interested in the NNP role. The themes most often mentioned by the participants were (1) obligations to family and/or work (46%) and (2) too much responsibility in the NNP role (30%). The data also revealed several different rewards and challenges for those in the NNP role as well as factors that may motivate nurses to become an NNP. Given the current NNP shortage, an increase in the supply of NNPs for the workforce is imperative. Current enrollment in NNP academic programs does not appear to be meeting the demand. Exploring the factors that influence enrollment in NNP programs from the perspective of potential NNP students is the first step towards increasing the supply of NNPs. The majority of participants were not interested

  7. Interest in dental implantology and preferences for implant therapy: a survey of Victorian dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, M C; Kao, Plh; Lee, N; Sivathasan, D; Vong, C W; Zhu, J; Polster, A; Darby, I

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to gauge dentists' interest, knowledge and training in implantology, and to compare their treatment preferences with current literature. Subsequently, this information may be used to evaluate implantology education pathways. A cross-sectional postal survey of 600 randomly selected dentists registered with the Dental Practice Board of Victoria was conducted. Respondents were asked about background, interest and training in implantology, and implant treatment preferences. Results were analysed according to primary practice location, decade of graduation and attendance at continuing professional development (CPD) programmes. One hundred and seventy-six questionnaires were included for analysis. In general, dentists rate their implant knowledge, interest and enjoyment in restoring implants favourably. No differences were found between city and country practitioners, and different graduation decades. The level of CPD significantly influenced treatment preferences. Practitioners were generally unwilling to treat patients taking bisphosphonates, or to perform grafting procedures. Most dentists provide common services to treat peri-implant conditions. Direct-to-fixture is the most popular fixture-abutment connection. Overall, there is a high level of implant knowledge corresponding to current evidence in the literature. Level of CPD attendance is the most important factor in dentists' willingness to provide more implant therapy options. © 2016 Australian Dental Association.

  8. Loss of interest, depressed mood and impact on the quality of life: Cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gattaz Wagner F

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depressive symptoms and chronic disease have adverse effects on patients' health-related quality of life (H-RQOL. However, little is known about this effect on H-RQOL when only the two core depressive symptoms - loss of interest and depressed mood - are considered. The objective of this study is to investigate H-RQOL in the presence of loss of interest and depressed mood at a general medical outpatient unit. Methods We evaluated 553 patients at their first attendance at a general medical outpatient unit of a teaching hospital. H-RQOL was assessed with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36. Depressed mood and loss of interest were assessed by the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD-Patient Questionnaire. A physician performed the diagnosis of chronic diseases by clinical judgment and classified them in 13 possible pre-defined categories. We used multiple linear regression to investigate associations between each domain of H-RQOL and our two core depression symptoms. The presence of chronic diseases and demographic variables were included in the models as covariates. Results Among the 553 patients, 70.5% were women with a mean age of 41.0 years (range 18-85, SD ± 15.4. Loss of interest was reported by 54.6%, and depressed mood by 59.7% of the patients. At least one chronic disease was diagnosed in 59.5% of patients; cardiovascular disease was the most prevalent, affecting 20.6% of our patients. Loss of interest and depressed mood was significantly associated with decreased scores in all domains of H-RQOL after adjustment for possible confounders. The presence of any chronic disease was associated with a decrease in the domain of vitality. The analysis of each individual chronic disease category revealed that no category was associated with a decrease in more than one domain of H-RQOL. Conclusion Loss of interest and depressed mood were associated with significant decreases in H

  9. Geomorphological analysis of sinkhole and landslide hazard in a karst area of the Venetian Prealps- Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiberi, Valentina

    2010-05-01

    In the pedemountain area of the Asiago Plateau (Venetian Prealps - NE Italy) sinkholes and landslides represent in many cases a complex response to karst processes. Field survey showed that both soil and bedrock are involved, mainly represented by colluvial-alluvial sediments and carbonate rocks. Preliminary observations also reveal the key role of piping and cave-collapse phenomena and the importance of human remedial measures. Within study area, these processes cause damage mainly to agricultural and pasture activities and expose peoples and farm animals to very high hazards. This work provides preliminary results of geomorphological analysis carried out to define sinkhole and landslide hazard and his connections with karst processes. During first phases of the research program, an inventory of interesting phenomena has been elaborated employing GIS technologies. The database has been constantly revised and enriched with new field measurements and thematic maps (i.e. geomorphological, geo-structural, hydrogeological, caves development maps). Specifically, field survey focused on the morphodynamic definition of instability elements allowing to recognize a wide range of morphotypes (mainly with regard to sinkholes) and polygenic morphologies (i.e. mixed sinkholes-landslides configurations). Geomorphological analysis also revealed specific evolutionary trends of instability processes; they could be useful employed to program more effective mitigation strategies.

  10. Delineating Potential Karst Water-Bearing Structures based on Resistivity Anomalies and Microtremor Analyses-A Case Study in Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, F.; Su, C.; Liu, W.; Zhao, W.

    2016-12-01

    Heterogeneity, anisotropy and rugged landforms become challenges for geophysicists to locate drilling site by water-bearing structure profiling in Karst region. If only one geophysical method is used to achieve this objective, low resistivity anomalies deduced to be water-rich zones could actually be zones rich in marl and shale. In this study, integrated geophysical methods were used to locate a favorable drilling position for the provision of karst water to Juede village, which had been experiencing severe water shortages over a prolonged period. According to site conditions and hydrogeological data, appropriate geophysical profiles were conducted, approximately perpendicular to the direction of groundwater flow. In general, significant changes in resistivity occur between water-filled caves/ fractures and competent rocks. Thus, electrical and electromagnetic methods have been widely applied to search for karst groundwater indirectly. First, electrical resistivity tomography was carried out to discern shallow resistivity distributions within the profile where the low resistivity anomalies were of most interest. Second, one short profile of audio-frequency magnetotelluric survey was used to ascertain the vertical and horizontal extent of these low resistivity anomalies. Third, the microtremor H/V spectral ratio method was applied to identify potential water-bearing structures from low resistivity anomalies and to differentiate these from the interference of marl and shale with low resistivity. Finally, anomalous depths were estimated by interpreting Schlumberger sounding data to determine an optimal drilling site. The study shows that karst hydrogeology and geophysical methods can be effectively integrated for the purposes of karst groundwater exploration.

  11. Limestone types used from the classic Karst region in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramar, Sabina; Mirtič, Breda; Mladenović, Ana; Rožič, Boštjan; Bedjanič, Mojca; Kortnik, Jože; Šmuc, Andrej

    2014-05-01

    The paper presents a variety of limestones from the Karst Region that is one of the most interesting areas containing reserves of natural stones in Slovenia. The region is mainly composed of Cretaceous shallow-water limestone, with the most common type currently excavated being the rudist limestone of the Lipica Formation, which dates to the Santonian to Campanian. Limestones of this formation are mainly represented by a light grey, thick-bedded to massive Lipica limestone rich in (largely fragmented) rudists. Rudist shells can be either relatively well preserved (such as in Lipica Fiorito quarried limestone) or almost completely disintegrated and intensively endolitised (Lipica Unito quarried limestone). Beside the Lipica Formation, natural stone types have been excavated from two other formations or members in the Karst region: the Repen Formation (Repen and Kopriva limestones), and the Tomaj Limestone (dark, laminated limestone within the Lipica Formation). As documented, the region has been associated with the quarrying and processing of stone at least for over two thousand years, i.e. since the Roman period. Although a large number of quarries in all mentioned formations are documented in the Karst region, many are inactive nowadays. Some of the quarries are declared as geological monuments of national importance or officially protected as a natural monument. Karst limestones are considered the highest quality calcareous natural stones in Slovenia. They are characterised by high density, low water absorption and low open porosity; consequently they also exhibit high frost and salt resistance as well as high compressive and flexural strength. Besides in the Karst region and other parts of Slovenia, the Karst limestones were used in the construction of several important buildings and monuments in many other European Countries, and worldwide. Nowadays, they are most commonly used in the construction of façade cladding, pavements, window sills, staircases, indoor

  12. Contrasting definitions for the term `karst aquifer'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Stephen R. H.; Jeannin, Pierre-Yves; Alexander, E. Calvin; Davies, Gareth J.; Schindel, Geary M.

    2017-08-01

    It is generally considered that karst aquifers have distinctly different properties from other bedrock aquifers. A search of the literature found five definitions that have been proposed to differentiate karst aquifers from non-karstic aquifers. The five definitions are based upon the presence of solution channel networks, hydraulic conductivities >10-6 m/s, karst landscapes, channels with turbulent flow, and caves. The percentage of unconfined carbonate aquifers that would classify as `karst' ranges from 50%.

  13. Wildfire on Karst: an Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleborn, K.; Lupingna, A.; Flemons, I.; Nagra, G.; Treble, P. C.; Andersen, M. S.; Baker, A.; Tozer, M.; Fairchild, I. J.; Baker, A.; Meehan, S.

    2015-12-01

    Wildfires dramatically change the surface environment by removing vegetation and soil microbial communities and altering soil structure and geochemistry. Karst subsurface processes such as dissolution, cave formation and speleothem deposition are sensitive to environmental change, which is precisely why speleothems have been widely used as recorders of surface and climate change at an annual to millennial temporal scale. The effect of fire on karst processes is poorly understood. We hypothesise that a wildfire induced change at the surface will impact karst dissolution and precipitation processes. Firstly, sterilisation of the soil by heating causes a reduction in soil CO2 concentration which is a key component in dissolution processes. Secondly, removal of vegetation alters surface albedo and soil water storage properties. This could change the hydrology and isotopic signature of speleothem-forming drip water. We also hypothesise that a wildfire will produce a unique biogeochemical signature due to a change in the organic and inorganic properties of soil, which can be transported into speleothem forming drip water. Fire changes the organic matter character which is an important component in the mobilisation and transport of trace metals. Combustion of vegetation results in addition of ash derived minerals to the soil. Quantifying the biogeochemical signature from a burnt landscape will enable us to determine whether this wildfire signature is preserved in speleothems. This would provide the opportunity to use speleothems as recorders of fire history for the first time. Determining the impact of fire on karst processes would inform fire management and karst conservation policies.

  14. Reporting of financial and non-financial conflicts of interest by authors of systematic reviews: a methodological survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anouti, Sirine; Al-Gibbawi, Mounir; Abou-Jaoude, Elias A; Hasbani, Divina Justina; Guyatt, Gordon; Akl, Elie A

    2016-01-01

    Background Conflicts of interest may bias the findings of systematic reviews. The objective of this methodological survey was to assess the frequency and different types of conflicts of interest that authors of Cochrane and non-Cochrane systematic reviews report. Methods We searched for systematic reviews using the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Ovid MEDLINE (limited to the 119 Core Clinical Journals and the year 2015). We defined a conflict of interest disclosure as the reporting of whether a conflict of interest exists or not, and used a framework to classify conflicts of interest into individual (financial, professional and intellectual) and institutional (financial and advocatory) conflicts of interest. We conducted descriptive and regression analyses. Results Of the 200 systematic reviews, 194 (97%) reported authors' conflicts of interest disclosures, typically in the main document, and in a few cases either online (2%) or on request (5%). Of the 194 Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews, 49% and 33%, respectively, had at least one author reporting any type of conflict of interest (p=0.023). Institutional conflicts of interest were less frequently reported than individual conflicts of interest, and Cochrane reviews were more likely to report individual intellectual conflicts of interest compared with non-Cochrane reviews (19% and 5%, respectively, p=0.004). Regression analyses showed a positive association between reporting of conflicts of interest (at least one type of conflict of interest, individual financial conflict of interest, institutional financial conflict of interest) and journal impact factor and between reporting individual financial conflicts of interest and pharmacological versus non-pharmacological intervention. Conclusions Although close to half of the published systematic reviews report that authors (typically many) have conflicts of interest, more than half report that they do not. Authors reported individual conflicts of interest

  15. Hidrogeological features of carbonate karst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Валерій Васильович Сухов

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available On the example of loamy-chalky Upper Cretaceous strata (K2cm of Sviatogirsk brachyanticline it has been found out that carbonate karst forms with the participation of different on dynamics and chemical composition kinds of groundwater.Basic chemical reactions that lead to leaching and dissolution of carbonate rocks during their interaction with groundwater have been characterized. Geological, hydrogeological and geochemical conditions of formation of various morphogenetic types of karst - surface (epikarst and deep (hypokarst have been well-grounded.

  16. Karst morphology and groundwater vulnerability of high alpine karst plateaus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plan, Lukas; Decker, Kurt; Faber, Robert; Wagreich, Michael; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2009-07-01

    High alpine karst plateaus are recharge areas for major drinking water resources in the Alps and many other regions. Well-established methods for the vulnerability mapping of groundwater to contamination have not been applied to such areas yet. The paper characterises this karst type and shows that two common vulnerability assessment methods (COP and PI) classify most of the areas with high vulnerability classes. In the test site on the Hochschwab plateau (Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria), overlying layers are mostly absent, not protective or even enhance point recharge, where they have aquiclude character. The COP method classifies 82% of the area as highly or extremely vulnerable. The resulting maps are reasonable, but do not differentiate vulnerabilities to the extent that the results can be used for protective measures. An extension for the upper end of the vulnerability scale is presented that allows identifying ultra vulnerable areas. The proposed enhancement of the conventional approach points out that infiltration conditions are of key importance for vulnerability. The method accounts for karst genetical and hydrologic processes using qualitative and quantitative properties of karst depressions and sinking streams including parameters calculated from digital elevations models. The method is tested on the Hochschwab plateau where 1.7% of the area is delineated as ultra vulnerable. This differentiation could not be reached by the COP and PI methods. The resulting vulnerability map highlights spots of maximum vulnerability and the combination with a hazard map enables protective measures for a manageable area and number of sites.

  17. Development of a 3D GIS and its application to karst areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiang; Xu, Hua; Zhou, Wanfang

    2008-05-01

    There is a growing interest in modeling and analyzing karst phenomena in three dimensions. This paper integrates geology, groundwater hydrology, geographic information system (GIS), database management system (DBMS), visualization and data mining to study karst features in Huaibei, China. The 3D geo-objects retrieved from the karst area are analyzed and mapped into different abstract levels. The spatial relationships among the objects are constructed by a dual-linker. The shapes of the 3D objects and the topological models with attributes are stored and maintained in the DBMS. Spatial analysis was then used to integrate the data in the DBMS and the 3D model to form a virtual reality (VR) to provide analytical functions such as distribution analysis, correlation query, and probability assessment. The research successfully implements 3D modeling and analyses in the karst area, and meanwhile provides an efficient tool for government policy-makers to set out restrictions on water resource development in the area.

  18. Recognition of shallow karst water resources and cave potentials using thermal infrared image and terrain characteristics in semi-arid regions of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Nader; Saghafian, Bahram; Imanov, Farda; Museyyibov, Museyyib

    2009-12-01

    Shallow karst water resources and caves may influence land surface temperatures due to cold transfer property of rocks and evaporation from buried karst. The objective of this research was to develop a method for recognition of karst areas based on evaluating the surface characteristics that manifest itself by low land surface temperature in the satellite images. Investigation of thermal ETM + image of the study region in Iran showed that parts of carbonate rocks that bear karst water are relatively cooler compared to areas with similar terrain conditions. Relational modeling provided useful information on spatial distribution of areas that have the potential to hold karst water resources and/or caves. Further inspection of ASTER images, along with geotechnical, geophysical and geological field surveys verified the approach. Significant correlation was found between electrical resistivity and thermal band values. The method may be used as a primary exploratory tool for shallow karst water explorations in similar areas.

  19. Increasing Interest in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in the Third-Year Clerkship: Results from a Post-Clerkship Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Erin; Hollar, David; Lindsey, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors aimed to determine whether a structured clinical experience in child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) during the third-year psychiatry clerkship would impact interest in pursuing careers in psychiatry and CAP. Methods: The authors constructed and administered a post-rotation survey, the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry…

  20. Eliciting Survey Cooperation: Incentives, Self-Interest, and Norms of Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropf, Martha E.; Blair, Johnny

    2005-01-01

    Given the weaker ties to community as noted by scholars such as Robert Putnam, survey researchers should not be surprised by a decline in survey participation over the past 10 years. This research analyzes the use of incentives coupled with introductory themes emphasizing cooperation and helpfulness--cooperative norms in American society--to…

  1. Survey of CAM interest, self-care, and satisfaction with health care for type 2 diabetes at group health cooperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Ryan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very little research has explored the factors that influence interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM treatments. We surveyed persons with sub-optimally controlled type 2 diabetes to evaluate potential relationships between interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM treatments, current self-care practices, motivation to improve self-care practices and satisfaction with current health care for diabetes. Methods 321 patients from a large integrated healthcare system with type 2 diabetes, who were not using insulin and had hemoglobin A1c values between 7.5-9.5%, were telephoned between 2009-2010 and asked about their self-care behaviors, motivation to change, satisfaction with current health care and interest in trying naturopathic (ND care for their diabetes. Responses from patients most interested in trying ND care were compared with those from patients with less interest. Results 219 (68.5% patients completed the survey. Nearly half (48% stated they would be very likely to try ND care for their diabetes if covered by their insurance. Interest in trying ND care was not related to patient demographics, health history, clinical status, or self-care behaviors. Patients with greater interest in trying ND care rated their current healthcare as less effective for controlling their blood sugar (mean response 5.9 +/- 1.9 vs. 6.6 +/- 1.5, p = 0.003, and were more determined to succeed in self-care (p = 0.007. Current CAM use for diabetes was also greater in ND interested patients. Conclusions Patients with sub-optimally controlled type 2 diabetes expressed a high level of interest in trying ND care. Those patients with the greatest interest were less satisfied with their diabetes care, more motivated to engage in self-care, and more likely to use other CAM therapies for their diabetes.

  2. Studies of the Use of the Kuder Occupational Interest Survey with Mature Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, Elenor R.; Tittle, Carol K.

    Due to the increase of re-entry women in college, investigation of interest inventories for this particular population has become essential. Four studies involving 239 mature women are reported which examine the effect of changing instructions on expressed interests; the expressed satisfaction of mature women with KOIS results; the extent of…

  3. Relevance of clerkship characteristics in changing students' interest in family medicine: a questionnaire survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwig, Anna; Viehmann, Anja; Thielmann, Anika; Gesenhues, Stefan; Weltermann, Birgitta

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Exposure to family medicine (FM) can serve to promote students' interest in this field. This study aimed at identifying clerkship characteristics which decrease or increase students' interest in FM. Design This cross-sectional questionnaire study analysed students' clerkship evaluations between the years 2004 and 2014. Descriptive statistics were used to compare four predefined groups: (1) high interest in FM before and after the clerkship (Remained high), (2) poor interest before and after the clerkship (Remained low), (3) poor interest before the clerkship which improved (Increased) and (4) high interest before the clerkship which decreased (Decreased). Setting Students' evaluations of FM clerkships in the fourth of 6 years of medical school. Participants All questionnaires with complete answers on students' interest in FM and its change as a result of the clerkship (2382 of 3963; 60.1%). The students' mean age was 26 years (± 3.9), 62.7% (n=1505) were female. Outcome measure The outcome was a change in students' interest in FM after completing the clerkship. Results Interest in FM after the clerkship was as follows: 40.1% (n=954) Remained high, 5.5% (n=134) Remained low, 42.1% (n=1002) Increased and 12.3% (n=292) Decreased. Students with decreased interest had performed a below-average number of learning activities (4 vs 6 activities). A total of 45.9% (n=134 of 292) of the students with decreased interest reported that the difficulty of the challenge was inadequate for their educational level: 81.3% (n=109) felt underchallenged and 18.7% (n=25) overchallenged. Conclusions In more than 50% of cases, the clerkship changed the students' interest in FM. Those with decreased interest were more frequently underchallenged. We observed an increase in FM if at least six learning activities were trained. Our findings stress the importance of well-designed FM clerkships. There is a need for standardised educational strategies which enable teaching

  4. River-groundwater connectivity in a karst system, Wellington, New South Wales, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Mohammadreza; Baker, Andy; Kelly, Bryce F. J.; Andersen, Martin S.

    2017-03-01

    The characterization of river-aquifer connectivity in karst environments is difficult due to the presence of conduits and caves. This work demonstrates how geophysical imaging combined with hydrogeological data can improve the conceptualization of surface-water and groundwater interactions in karst terrains. The objective of this study is to understand the association between the Bell River and karst-alluvial aquifer at Wellington, Australia. River and groundwater levels were continuously monitored, and electrical resistivity imaging and water quality surveys conducted. Two-dimensional resistivity imaging mapped the transition between the alluvium and karst. This is important for highlighting the proximity of the saturated alluvial sediments to the water-filled caves and conduits. In the unsaturated zone the resistivity imaging differentiated between air- and sediment-filled karst features, and in the saturated zone it mapped the location of possible water- and sediment-filled caves. Groundwater levels are dynamic and respond quickly to changes in the river stage, implying that there is a strong hydraulic connection, and that the river is losing and recharging the adjacent aquifer. Groundwater extractions (1,370 ML, megalitres, annually) from the alluvial aquifer can cause the groundwater level to fall by as much as 1.5 m in a year. However, when the Bell River flows after significant rainfall in the upper catchment, river-leakage rapidly recharges the alluvial and karst aquifers. This work demonstrates that in complex hydrogeological settings, the combined use of geophysical imaging, hydrograph analysis and geochemical measurements provide insights on the local karst hydrology and groundwater processes, which will enable better water-resource and karst management.

  5. River-groundwater connectivity in a karst system, Wellington, New South Wales, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Mohammadreza; Baker, Andy; Kelly, Bryce F. J.; Andersen, Martin S.

    2016-12-01

    The characterization of river-aquifer connectivity in karst environments is difficult due to the presence of conduits and caves. This work demonstrates how geophysical imaging combined with hydrogeological data can improve the conceptualization of surface-water and groundwater interactions in karst terrains. The objective of this study is to understand the association between the Bell River and karst-alluvial aquifer at Wellington, Australia. River and groundwater levels were continuously monitored, and electrical resistivity imaging and water quality surveys conducted. Two-dimensional resistivity imaging mapped the transition between the alluvium and karst. This is important for highlighting the proximity of the saturated alluvial sediments to the water-filled caves and conduits. In the unsaturated zone the resistivity imaging differentiated between air- and sediment-filled karst features, and in the saturated zone it mapped the location of possible water- and sediment-filled caves. Groundwater levels are dynamic and respond quickly to changes in the river stage, implying that there is a strong hydraulic connection, and that the river is losing and recharging the adjacent aquifer. Groundwater extractions (1,370 ML, megalitres, annually) from the alluvial aquifer can cause the groundwater level to fall by as much as 1.5 m in a year. However, when the Bell River flows after significant rainfall in the upper catchment, river-leakage rapidly recharges the alluvial and karst aquifers. This work demonstrates that in complex hydrogeological settings, the combined use of geophysical imaging, hydrograph analysis and geochemical measurements provide insights on the local karst hydrology and groundwater processes, which will enable better water-resource and karst management.

  6. A Historical Survey of an Everlasting Debate: The Nature of Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ozsoy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The concept of interest has been discussed from various perspectives so far and it will be probably continued to be discussed. Contrary to the economists like Alfred Marshall, who argued for the necessity of interest for savings and capital accumulation; some other economists like J.M.Keynes, who characterized it as a barrier to capital accumulation, have been seen as well. Besides the views asserting that interest is a just and beneficial tool for the economic system to stand, some other opinions contending that it is unjust and leads to some costs more than benefits have been put into words as well. Although interest has been criticized throughout the history, it maintained its existence. At the present time, it is applied almost in every country. In this study, most of the philosophic, economic and religious interest-related thoughts from antiguity to the present will be analyzed within the framework of their arguments on the nature of interest, namely, its justness, costs and benefits. Our target is to find an answer to the question of what the nature of interest is by making use of the arguments of the thoughts in question.

  7. A Historical Survey of an Everlasting Debate: The Nature of Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Özsoy

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of interest has been discussed from various perspectives so far and it will be probably continued to be discussed. Contrary to the economists like Alfred Marshall, who argued for the necessity of interest for savings and capital accumulation; some other economists like J.M.Keynes, who characterized it as a barrier to capital accumulation, have been seen as well. Besides the views asserting that interest is a just and beneficial tool for the economic system to stand, some other opinions contending that it is unjust and leads to some costs more than benefits have been put into words as well. Although interest has been criticized throughout the history, it maintained its existence. At the present time, it is applied almost in every country. In this study, most of the philosophic, economic and religious interest-related thoughts from antiguity to the present will be analyzed within the framework of their arguments on the nature of interest, namely, its justness, costs and benefits. Our target is to find an answer to the question of what the nature of interest is by making use of the arguments of the thoughts in question.

  8. Interest and satisfaction of dentists in practicing periodontics: A survey based on treatment of gingival recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishakha Grover

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The results elucidated that periodontists had better interest and satisfaction in practicing periodontics, and were more inclined towards surgical correction of gingival recession as compared to non-periodontists.

  9. A glossary of Karst terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Watson Hiner

    1970-01-01

    This glossary includes most terms used in describing karst geomorphologic features and processes. The terms are primarily those used in the literature of English-speaking countries, but a few of the more common terms in French, German, and Spanish are included, with references to the corresponding English terms where they are available. The glossary also includes simple definitions of the more common rocks and minerals found in karst terrain, common terms of hydrology, and a number of the descriptive terms used by speleologists. The glossary does not include definitions of most biospeleological terms, geologic structure terms, varieties of carbonate rock that require microscopic techniques for identification, or names describing tools and techniques of cave exploration.

  10. The current status of mapping karst areas and availability of public sinkhole-risk resources in karst terrains of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniansky, Eve L.; Weary, David J.; Kaufmann, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Subsidence from sinkhole collapse is a common occurrence in areas underlain by water-soluble rocks such as carbonate and evaporite rocks, typical of karst terrain. Almost all 50 States within the United States (excluding Delaware and Rhode Island) have karst areas, with sinkhole damage highest in Florida, Texas, Alabama, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Pennsylvania. A conservative estimate of losses to all types of ground subsidence was $125 million per year in 1997. This estimate may now be low, as review of cost reports from the last 15 years indicates that the cost of karst collapses in the United States averages more than $300 million per year. Knowing when a catastrophic event will occur is not possible; however, understanding where such occurrences are likely is possible. The US Geological Survey has developed and maintains national-scale maps of karst areas and areas prone to sinkhole formation. Several States provide additional resources for their citizens; Alabama, Colorado, Florida, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, and Pennsylvania maintain databases of sinkholes or karst features, with Florida, Kentucky, Missouri, and Ohio providing sinkhole reporting mechanisms for the public.

  11. The current status of mapping karst areas and availability of public sinkhole-risk resources in karst terrains of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniansky, Eve L.; Weary, David J.; Kaufmann, James E.

    2016-05-01

    Subsidence from sinkhole collapse is a common occurrence in areas underlain by water-soluble rocks such as carbonate and evaporite rocks, typical of karst terrain. Almost all 50 States within the United States (excluding Delaware and Rhode Island) have karst areas, with sinkhole damage highest in Florida, Texas, Alabama, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Pennsylvania. A conservative estimate of losses to all types of ground subsidence was 125 million per year in 1997. This estimate may now be low, as review of cost reports from the last 15 years indicates that the cost of karst collapses in the United States averages more than 300 million per year. Knowing when a catastrophic event will occur is not possible; however, understanding where such occurrences are likely is possible. The US Geological Survey has developed and maintains national-scale maps of karst areas and areas prone to sinkhole formation. Several States provide additional resources for their citizens; Alabama, Colorado, Florida, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, and Pennsylvania maintain databases of sinkholes or karst features, with Florida, Kentucky, Missouri, and Ohio providing sinkhole reporting mechanisms for the public.

  12. Interest and preferences for using advanced physical activity tracking devices: results of a national cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Alley, Stephanie; Schoeppe, Stephanie; Guertler, Diana; Jennings, Cally; Duncan, Mitch J; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Pedometers are an effective self-monitoring tool to increase users' physical activity. However, a range of advanced trackers that measure physical activity 24 hours per day have emerged (eg, Fitbit). The current study aims to determine people's current use, interest and preferences for advanced trackers. Design and participants A cross-sectional national telephone survey was conducted in Australia with 1349 respondents. Outcome measures Regression analyses were used to determine wh...

  13. Caves, Carbonates and Climate: Karst Landscape Development through Environmental Forcing, Little Cayman Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, S.; Ouellette, G., Jr.; Manfrino, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Cayman Islands are situated in the west-central Caribbean Sea, between Cuba and the Yucatan Peninsula. Little Cayman Island (LCI) is relatively underdeveloped and understudied in comparison to its sister islands, Grand Cayman and Cayman Brac, and hosts less than 200 permanent residents over a 30 square kilometer area. However, like its sister islands, LCI is a small carbonate platform derived from reef building during the Oligocene, Miocene, and Quaternary. The shared geologic history of the Cayman Islands along with minimal human disturbance makes LCI an ideal site to study an island karst landscape. Conduction of field surveys, stratigraphic and petrologic comparisons between primary lithologic formations, and compilation of a geospatial inventory of karst features and lithology of LCI using GIS revealed novel insights into landscape evolution on LCI. In addition to surface karst surveys, several caves on the island were mapped. Cave morphologies suggest that evolution of LCI karst features have been driven by both hydroclimate, as well as salt and freshwater mixing, modulated by sea level fluctuations. These findings are mirrored in the lithology of partially dolomitized Miocene carbonates, which contain paleo-karst fill features and reveal hydroclimate influence, as well as enhanced resistance to dissolution in the present day, ostensibly from submersion in Mg-rich sea waters prior to the Quaternary. These findings shed light on the complex relationship of climate, geology, and karst landscape development on this particular carbonate island. This information is critical in anticipating structural and hydrogeological integrity on LCI under future climate change scenarios and serves as an example of the interplay linking climate and geologic processes to karst landscape development on small carbonate islands.

  14. Adaptation of the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Career Interest Survey (STEM-CIS) into Turkish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyunlu Unlu, Zeynep; Dokme, Ilbilge; Unlu, Veli

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education has recently become a remarkable research topic, especially in developed countries as a result of the skilled workforce required in the fields of the STEM. Considering that professional tendencies are revealed at early ages, determining students' interest in STEM…

  15. Interest groups: a survey of empirical models that try to assess their influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potters, J.J.M.; Sloof, R.

    1996-01-01

    Substantial political power is often attributed to interest groups. The origin of this power is not quite clear, though, and the mechanisms by which influence is effectuated are not yet fully understood. The last two decades have yielded a vast number of studies which use empirical models to assess

  16. A cross-sectional survey on the attitudes and interests of rural population towards expanded pharmacist prescribing in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Umair; Arief, Mohammad; Ahmad, Akram; Malik, Sadiqa; Gogoi, Lakhya Jyoti; Kalita, Manabendra; Saleem, Fahad; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad

    2017-04-01

    Background Shortage of qualified medical doctors and little or no access to basic medicines and medical facilities are the major rural health concerns in India. Expanding the role of pharmacists to provide prescribing services could improve rural health outcomes. Objective To assess the attitudes of rural population towards pharmacist prescribing and their interest in using expanded pharmacist prescribing services. Setting Rural population of Assam, India. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted for a period of 2 months from March to April 2016 in the State of Assam, India. A multi-stage sampling was used to recruit (n = 410) eligible participants. Main outcome measure Rural population attitudes towards, and interests in using, pharmacist prescribing services. Results The attitudes of participants were generally positive towards pharmacist prescribing. A large proportion of participants (81.5%) agreed that pharmacists should have a prescribing role in rural India. Participants indicated their interest in using expanded pharmacist prescribing services, with greater interests in receiving medications in emergency situations (79.7%) and getting a treatment plan for their medical problem (75.6%). Participants with low income and tertiary education had better attitudes and showed more interest towards expanded pharmacist prescribing services (p < 0.05). Conclusions Most participants had positive attitudes towards pharmacist prescribing and were interested in using expanded pharmacist prescribing services.

  17. Barriers to Office-Based Mental Health Care and Interest in E-Communication With Providers: A Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Minnie; Vigod, Simone N; Hensel, Jennifer M

    2016-08-01

    With rising availability and use of Internet and mobile technology in society, the demand and need for its integration into health care is growing. Despite great potential within mental health care and growing uptake, there is still little evidence to guide how these tools should be integrated into traditional care, and for whom. To examine factors that might inform how e-communication should be implemented in our local outpatient mental health program, including barriers to traditional office-based care, patient preferences, and patient concerns. We conducted a survey in the waiting room of our outpatient mental health program located in an urban, academic ambulatory hospital. The survey assessed (1) age, mobile phone ownership, and general e-communication usage, (2) barriers to attending office-based appointments, (3) preferences for, and interest in, e-communication for mental health care, and (4) concerns about e-communication use for mental health care. We analyzed the data descriptively and examined associations between the presence of barriers, identifying as a social media user, and interest level in e-communication. Respondents (N=68) were predominantly in the age range of 25-54 years. The rate of mobile phone ownership was 91% (62/68), and 59% (40/68) of respondents identified as social media users. There was very low existing use of e-communication between providers and patients, with high levels of interest endorsed by survey respondents. Respondents expressed an interest in using e-communication with their provider to share updates and get feedback, coordinate care, and get general information. In regression analysis, both a barrier to care and identifying as a social media user were significantly associated with e-communication interest (P=.03 and P=.003, respectively). E-communication interest was highest among people who both had a barrier to office-based care and were a social media user. Despite high interest, there were also many concerns

  18. Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2010-03-09

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

  19. Psychiatrists' attitudes towards autonomy, best interests and compulsory treatment in anorexia nervosa: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jacinta O A; Doll, Helen A; Fitzpatrick, Raymond; Stewart, Anne; Hope, Tony

    2008-12-17

    The compulsory treatment of anorexia nervosa is a contentious issue. Research suggests that psychiatrists have a range of attitudes towards patients suffering from anorexia nervosa, and towards the use of compulsory treatment for the disorder. A postal self-completed attitudinal questionnaire was sent to senior psychiatrists in the United Kingdom who were mostly general adult psychiatrists, child and adolescent psychiatrists, or psychiatrists with an interest in eating disorders. Respondents generally supported a role for compulsory measures under mental health legislation in the treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa. Compared to 'mild' anorexia nervosa, respondents generally were less likely to feel that patients with 'severe' anorexia nervosa were intentionally engaging in weight loss behaviours, were able to control their behaviours, wanted to get better, or were able to reason properly. However, eating disorder specialists were less likely than other psychiatrists to think that patients with 'mild' anorexia nervosa were choosing to engage in their behaviours or able to control their behaviours. Child and adolescent psychiatrists were more likely to have a positive view of the use of parental consent and compulsory treatment for an adolescent with anorexia nervosa. Three factors emerged from factor analysis of the responses named: 'Support for the powers of the Mental Health Act to protect from harm'; 'Primacy of best interests'; and 'Autonomy viewed as being preserved in anorexia nervosa'. Different scores on these factor scales were given in terms of type of specialist and gender. In general, senior psychiatrists tend to support the use of compulsory treatment to protect the health of patients at risk and also to protect the welfare of patients in their best interests. In particular, eating disorder specialists tend to support the compulsory treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa independently of views about their decision-making capacity, while

  20. Psychiatrists' attitudes towards autonomy, best interests and compulsory treatment in anorexia nervosa: a questionnaire survey

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart Anne; Fitzpatrick Raymond; Doll Helen A; Tan Jacinta OA; Hope Tony

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The compulsory treatment of anorexia nervosa is a contentious issue. Research suggests that psychiatrists have a range of attitudes towards patients suffering from anorexia nervosa, and towards the use of compulsory treatment for the disorder. Methods A postal self-completed attitudinal questionnaire was sent to senior psychiatrists in the United Kingdom who were mostly general adult psychiatrists, child and adolescent psychiatrists, or psychiatrists with an interest in ea...

  1. Psychiatrists' attitudes towards autonomy, best interests and compulsory treatment in anorexia nervosa: a questionnaire survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Anne

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The compulsory treatment of anorexia nervosa is a contentious issue. Research suggests that psychiatrists have a range of attitudes towards patients suffering from anorexia nervosa, and towards the use of compulsory treatment for the disorder. Methods A postal self-completed attitudinal questionnaire was sent to senior psychiatrists in the United Kingdom who were mostly general adult psychiatrists, child and adolescent psychiatrists, or psychiatrists with an interest in eating disorders. Results Respondents generally supported a role for compulsory measures under mental health legislation in the treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa. Compared to 'mild' anorexia nervosa, respondents generally were less likely to feel that patients with 'severe' anorexia nervosa were intentionally engaging in weight loss behaviours, were able to control their behaviours, wanted to get better, or were able to reason properly. However, eating disorder specialists were less likely than other psychiatrists to think that patients with 'mild' anorexia nervosa were choosing to engage in their behaviours or able to control their behaviours. Child and adolescent psychiatrists were more likely to have a positive view of the use of parental consent and compulsory treatment for an adolescent with anorexia nervosa. Three factors emerged from factor analysis of the responses named: 'Support for the powers of the Mental Health Act to protect from harm'; 'Primacy of best interests'; and 'Autonomy viewed as being preserved in anorexia nervosa'. Different scores on these factor scales were given in terms of type of specialist and gender. Conclusion In general, senior psychiatrists tend to support the use of compulsory treatment to protect the health of patients at risk and also to protect the welfare of patients in their best interests. In particular, eating disorder specialists tend to support the compulsory treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa

  2. Robust resilience and substantial interest: a survey of pharmacological cognitive enhancement among university students in the UK and Ireland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilina Singh

    Full Text Available Use of 'smart drugs' among UK students is described in frequent media reports as a rapidly increasing phenomenon. This article reports findings from the first large-scale survey of pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE among students in the UK and Ireland. Conducted from February to September 2012, a survey of a convenience sample of 877 students measured PCE prevalence, attitudes, sources, purposes and ethics. Descriptive and logistic regression statistical methods were used to analyse the data. Lifetime prevalence of PCE using modafinil, methylphenidate or Adderall was under 10%, while past regular and current PCE users of these substances made up between 0.3%-4% of the survey population. A substantial majority of students was unaware of and/or uninterested in PCE; however about one third of students were interested in PCE. PCE users were more likely to be male, British and older students; predictors of PCE use included awareness of other students using PCEs, ADHD symptomatology, ethical concerns, and alcohol and cannabis use. The survey addresses the need for better evidence about PCE prevalence and practices among university students in the UK. We recommend PCE-related strategies for universities based on the survey findings.

  3. Evaluation of Karst Hazards for Civil and Industrial Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The European part of Russia exhibits highly developed sulphate and carbonate karst. It mostly occurs within fiver valleys with relatively thin coveting deposits. These conditions may induce karst collapses, which appear to be the main danger for civil and industrial buildings. Evolution of karst rocks includes several epochs of karst development,which causes complicated distribution of karst caves in karst rocks and, as the result, irregular distribution of karst caves on the surface. Karst hazards prediction is mostly reliable within the geotechnical system "Karst-Construction", using probability methods. This approach allows creating 3 types of antikarst protection (alternative design of construction arrangement on a plan, structural protection of a construction and plugging of karst caves beneath construction foundation) and selecting the optimum or the most effective version or their rational combination.``

  4. Are medical students interested in sexual health education? A nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, D; Nieder, T O; Dekker, A; Martyniuk, U; Herrmann, L; Briken, P

    2016-09-01

    The majority of medical students and medical healthcare providers do not feel comfortable when addressing sexual problems. It was suggested that more courses in sexual health are needed at medical schools to overcome this shortcoming. To assess medical students' interest in and attitude about sexual health education at medical schools in Germany, a 13-item online questionnaire was developed. The link to the questionnaire was distributed at all medical schools in Germany. In total, 3264 medical students (69.9% female) from all 37 medical schools in Germany participated. Students from all universities indicated that contents related to sexual health are taught at their university. The majority (n=1809; 62.1%) answered that courses in sexual health should be mandatory. The types of educational experiences that were viewed as most appropriate were lectures (n=2281, 78.3%) and seminars without patient contact (n=1414, 48.5%). Students were most interested in child sexual abuse and sexually transmitted infections. It should be ensured that all medical students have acquired basic knowledge in diagnosing and treating frequent sexual problems at the end of their medical studies. Suggestions are made about how to improve current efforts of sexual health education at medical schools.

  5. Urang Cave Karst Environmental Development, as Tourism Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srijono Srijono

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Karst environment become an alternative tourist destination as well as to boost local revenues. In karst environments in Grobogan District, Central Java Province, formed Urang Cave, with an interesting endokarst phenomenon. This study aims to do zoning district Urang Cave as tourist sites. The research method is using contour maps as a base map of Urang Cave karst environment geomorphological mapping. Geomorphological data processing is using ArcView GIS 3.3 program. Land use map refers to RBI, scale 1:25.000. Geomorphological analysis refers to the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources No. 1456.K/20/MEM/2000, and petrography. Each development zone is analyzed its geophysical environmental element, then set scoring and value summation. For comprehensive environmental element analysis, chemical analysis of rocks, and water-soil chemistry. In reference to Minister of Energy Mineral Resource decrees No. 1456/K/20/MEM/2000, Urang Cave zoning defined into 3 (three zone, as follow: the Protected Zone, Cultivation Zone 1, and Cultivation Zone 2. Protected Zone, consists of Urang Cave tunnel/hallway with a unique spheleothem in it. This zone as a cave tracking site tourism, potential to produce karst water as a decent drinking water while maintaining hardness. Cultivation Zone 1 is spreading about 200 m in distance from outer appearance of spring around the cave hallway. In this zone mining of cave sediments may be done in the inactive form caves, without changing the state of the existing major exokarst morphology. Cultivation Zone 2, an outer zone, located farthest from the tunnel/hallway Urang Cave. Utilization of this zone as a limestone mining quarry, although only on a small scale.

  6. Best Interest of the Child and Parental Alienation: A Survey of State Statutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Amy J L; Asayan, Mariann; LaCheen-Baker, Alianna

    2016-07-01

    State statutes regarding the best interests of the child (BIC) in deciding disputed custody were reviewed and independently coded with respect to three issues (i) the child's preference and any limits (ii) parental alienation and (iii) psychological maltreatment. Results revealed that many states allowed for the child's preferences to be considered and none qualified that preference when undue influence has occurred; parental alienation as a term was not found in any state statutes but 70% of the states included at least one BIC factor relevant to its core construct of the parent supporting the child's relationship to the other parent; and many states included a history of domestic violence or child abuse but only three states explicitly mentioned psychological maltreatment. These findings highlight yet another way in which the BICS factors lack specificity in ways that could negatively impact children caught in their parents' conflict.

  7. MODFLOW and MODFLOW Conduit Flow Process data sets for simulation experiments of the Woodville Karst Plain, near Tallahassee, Florida with three different approaches and different stress periods

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This Data Release has 18 different groundwater flow simulation applications for the Woodville Karst Plain area near Tallahassee Florida with three variations of...

  8. The investigation of special information distilling method of land use in karst area based on CBERS-02B and analysis on application: a case study of Duyun, Guizhou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Juan; Luo, Miao; An, Yulun

    2010-09-01

    This paper explores the optimal methods for processing CBERS-02B images and using them to classify the land uses of karst mountain areas with 3S technologies, especially the RS digital image processing technology. Through multiple experiments and analysis, the difficulty of CBERS-02B images in distinguishing water from mountain shades, construction land from dry land and paddy field are satisfactorily removed. And the combination of band 421, based on OIF method, is proved optimal for classifying the land uses of karst areas. After comparing and evaluating the effect of HIS, PCA and HPC based image fusion methods, the HIS transformation based image fusion method is found best for CBERS-02B HR and CCD data fusion in the case of karst highland mountains. Based on the experiments, this paper proves that CBERS images are capable of large scale land use classification for karst areas, a competent substitute of TM images for karst mountain area land use survey.

  9. Minnesota Pharmacists and Medical Cannabis: A Survey of Knowledge, Concerns, and Interest Prior to Program Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Joy; Arneson, Tom; St. Peter, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess Minnesota pharmacists’ preparedness for the state’s medical cannabis program in terms of professional competency in policies and regulations and in pharmacotherapy, as well as their concerns and perceptions about the impact on their practice. The secondary objective was to identify pharmacists’ perceptions about ways to reduce potential gaps in knowledge. Methods A Web-based 14-item questionnaire was distributed to all pharmacists whose email addresses were registered with the Minnesota Board of Pharmacy. Results Pharmacists reported limited knowledge of Minnesota state-level cannabis policies and regulations and felt that they were inadequately trained in cannabis pharmacotherapy. Most pharmacists were unprepared to counsel patients on medical cannabis and had many concerns regarding its availability and usage. Only a small proportion felt that the medical cannabis program would impact their practice. Pharmacists’ leading topics of interest for more education included Minnesota’s regulations on the medical cannabis program, cannabis pharmacotherapy, and the types and forms of cannabis products available for commercialization. Preferred modes of receiving information were electronic-based, including email and online continuing education credit. Since the survey’s completion, educational presentations have been provided to pharmacists and health professionals in Minnesota. Conclusion Pharmacists need more training and education on the regulatory and clinical aspects of cannabis in preparation for their work with patients in the medical cannabis program. PMID:27904305

  10. Caves and Karsts of Northeast Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halliday William R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available At least potentially karstifiable rocks cover much of the surface of Egypt and northern Libya. Study of caves and other karstic features of this region has been hampered by lack of roads, rapid disintegration of the surface of friable, poorly consolidated limestone, wind-blown sand and other factors. Interbedding with marly aquicludes hampers speleogenesis locally. Calcareous and evaporite karsts are present, however, and their waters are important albeit generally limited resources. Large quantities of fresh water are lost through submarine springs downslope from Libya’s Gebel al Akhdar range; the caves and karst of that range may be among the world’s greatest. A recent attempted compendium of caves and karsts of Egypt and Libya contains several important errors; the supposed 5+ km Ain Zayanah Cave does not exist and the Zayanah System includes several smaller caves. The Bir al Ghanam gypsum karst of northwest Libya, however, has caves up to 3.5 km long. In Egypt, the Mokattam, South Galala, Ma’aza, Siwa and Western Desert karsts and the “White Desert” chalk karst of Farafra Depression are especially important. Qattara and nearby depressions may be karstic rather than structural in origin. Unique Wadi Sannur Cave is the world’s largest gour and a potential World Heritage site. Little knownsandstone karsts or pseudokarsts in southwestern Egypt may contain analogues of features recently identified on Mars. The well-publicised Uweinat caves of northwestern Sudan are talus caves.

  11. Karst in evaporites in southeastern New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachman, G.O.

    1987-09-01

    Permian evaporites in southeastern New Mexico include gypsum, anhydrite, and salt, which are subject to both blanket and local, selective dissolution. Dissolution has produced many hundreds of individual karst features including collapse sinks, karst valleys, blind valleys, karst plains, caves, and breccia pipes. Dissolution began within some formations during Permian time and has been intermittent but continual ever since. Karst features other than blanket deposits of breccia are not preserved from the early episodes of dissolution, but some karst features preserved today - such as breccia pipes - are remnants of karst activity that was active at least as early as mid-Pleistocene time. Rainfall was much more abundant during Late Pleistocene time, and many features visible today may have been formed then. The drainage history of the Pecos River is related to extensive karstification of the Pecos Valley during mid-Pleistocene time. Large-scale stream piracy and dissolution of salt in the subsurface resulted in major shifts and excavations in the channel. In spite of intensive groundwater studies that have been carried out in the region, major problems in near-surface evaporite karst remain to be solved. Among these are determination of recharge areas and time of recharge. 109 refs., 31 figs., 1 tab.

  12. A Survey of Large Molecules of Biological Interest toward Selected High Mass Star Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remijan, A.; Shiao, Y.-S.; Friedel, D. N.; Meier, D. S.; Snyder, L. E.

    2004-01-01

    We have surveyed three high mass Galactic star forming regions for interstellar methanol (CH3OH), formic acid (HCOOH), acetic acid (CH3COOH), methyl formate (HCOOCH3), methyl cyanide (CH3CN), and ethyl cyanide (CH3CH2CN) with the BIMA Array. From our observations, we have detected two new sources of interstellar HCOOH toward the hot core regions G19.61-0.23 and W75N. We have also made the first detections of CH3CH2CN and HCOOCH3 toward G19.61-0.23. The relative HCOOH/HCOOCH3 abundance ratio toward G19.61-0.23 is 0.18 which is comparable to the abundance ratios found by Liu and colleagues toward Sgr B2(N-LMH), Orion and W51(approximately 0.10). We have made the first detection of HCOOCH3 toward W75N. The relative HCOOH/HCOOCH3 abundance ratio toward W75N is 0.26 which is more than twice as large as the abundance ratios found by Liu and colleagues. Furthermore, the hot core regions around W75N show a chemical differentiation between the O and N cores similar to what is seen toward the Orion Hot Core and Compact Ridge and W3(OH) and W3(H2O). It is also apparent from our observations that the high mass star forming region G45.47+0.05 does not contain any compact hot molecular core and as a consequence its chemistry may be similar to cold dark clouds. Finally, the formation of CH3COOH appears to favor HMCs with well mixed N and O, despite the fact that CH3COOH does not contain a N atom. If proved to be true, this is an important constraint on CH3COOH formation and possibly other structurally similar biomolecules.

  13. Calculation of the Strip Foundation on Solid Elastic Base, Taking into Account the Karst Collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharapov, R.; Lodigina, N.

    2017-07-01

    Karst processes greatly complicate the construction and operation of buildings and structures. Due to the karstic deformations at different times there have been several major accidents, which analysis showed that in all cases the fundamental errors committed at different stages of building development: site selection, engineering survey, design, construction or operation of the facilities. Theory analysis of beams on elastic foundation is essential in building practice. Specialist engineering facilities often have to resort to multiple designing in finding efficient forms of construction of these facilities. In work the calculation of stresses in cross-sections of the strip foundation evenly distributed load in the event of karst. A comparison of extreme stress in the event of karst and without accounting for the strip foundation as a beam on an elastic foundation.

  14. Surgeon-industry conflict of interest: survey of opinions regarding industry-sponsored educational events and surgeon teaching: clinical article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPaola, Christian P; Dea, Nicolas; Dvorak, Marcel F; Lee, Robert S; Hartig, Dennis; Fisher, Charles G

    2014-03-01

    Conflict of interest (COI) as it applies to medical education and training has become a source of considerable interest, debate, and regulation in the last decade. Companies often pay surgeons as faculty for educational events and often sponsor and give financial support to major professional society meetings. Professional medical societies, industry, and legislators have attempted to regulate potential COI without consideration for public opinion. The practice of evidence-based medicine requires the inclusion of patient opinion along with best available evidence and expert opinion. The primary goal of this study was to assess the opinion of the general population regarding surgeon-industry COI for education-related events. A Web-based survey was administered, with special emphasis on the surgeon's role in industry-sponsored education and support of professional societies. A survey was constructed to sample opinions on reimbursement, disclosure, and funding sources for educational events. There were 501 completed surveys available for analysis. More than 90% of respondents believed that industry funding for surgeons' tuition and travel for either industry-sponsored or professional society educational meetings would either not affect the quality of care delivered or would cause it to improve. Similar results were generated for opinions on surgeons being paid by industry to teach other surgeons. Moreover, the majority of respondents believed it was ethical or had no opinion if surgeons had such a relationship with industry. Respondents were also generally in favor of educational conferences for surgeons regardless of funding source. Disclosures of a surgeon-industry relationship, especially if it involves specific devices that may be used in their surgery, appears to be important to respondents. The vast majority of respondents in this study do not believe that the quality of their care will be diminished due to industry funding of educational events, for surgeon

  15. Impact Of Online Advertising On Consumer Attitudes And Interests Buy Online Survey On Students Of Internet Users In Makassar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aqsa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The rapid development of technology today makes Internet users continues to increase. This is supported by the ease of internet users access the internet either through a PC laptop mobile phones tablets and other media. The increase in Internet users this makes the internet into a proper promotion using online advertising. With a wide reach and touch the various layers of the Internet media communities may be appropriate advice for company promotion. However an increasing number of Internet users especially in the city of Makassar is not accompanied by an increase in the number of online purchases. Based on that it is necessary to examine how the effect of online advertising on consumer buying behavior and online as well as how to control the behavior and subjective norms influence the attitudes and interests of consumers buy online. This study aims to analyze and test the effect of online advertising on consumer attitudes and purchase interest online a survey conducted on students of Internet users in the city of Makassar. The study was conducted on students of public and private universities in the city of Makassar. The method used was a quantitative analysis using the technique of purposive sampling method with a sample of 340 people. Testing this hypothesis using structural equation modeling SEM. The results showed that online advertising has an influence on consumer buying behavior and online. Dimensions interactivity of online advertising provides the highest influence on the attitudes and interests of consumers purchasing online.

  16. Bacterial dynamics in spring water of alpine karst aquifers indicates the presence of stable autochthonous microbial endokarst communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnleitner, Andreas H; Wilhartitz, Ines; Ryzinska, Gabriela; Kirschner, Alexander K T; Stadler, Hermann; Burtscher, Martina M; Hornek, Romana; Szewzyk, Ulrich; Herndl, Gerhard; Mach, Robert L

    2005-08-01

    Spring water of two alpine karst aquifers differing in hydrogeology but of nearby catchments were investigated for their bacterial population dynamics. Dolomite karst aquifer spring 1 (DKAS 1) represents a dolomitic-limestone karst aquifer spring showing high average water residence time and relative constant flow. Limestone karst aquifer spring 2 (LKAS 2) constitutes a typical limestone karst aquifer spring with a dynamic hydrological regime and discharge. Dolomite karst aquifer spring 1 yielded constantly lower cell counts and biomasses (median of 15 x 10(6) cells l(-1) and 0.22 microg C l(-1)) as the LKAS 2 (median of 63 x 10(6) cells l(-1) and 1.1 microg C l(-1)) and distribution of morphotypes and mean cell volumes was also different between the considered systems, indicating the influence of hydrogeology on microbial spring water quality. Molecular bacterial V3 16S-rDNA profiles revealed remarkable constancy within each spring water throughout the investigation period. Time course analysis of a flood event in LKAS 2 further supported the trend of the temporal constancy of the microbial community. Except for one case, retrieval of partial and full length 16S rDNA gene sequences from the relative constant DKAS 1 revealed similarities to presently known sequences between 80% to 96%, supporting the discreteness of the microbial populations. The gathered results provide first evidence for the presence of autochthonous microbial endokarst communities (AMEC). Recovery of AMEC may be considered of relevance for the understanding of alpine karst aquifer biogeochemistry and ecology, which is of interest as many alpine and mountainous karst springs are important water resources throughout the world.

  17. Forecast Verification for North American Mesoscale (NAM) Operational Model over Karst/Non-Karst regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Z.; Fan, X.

    2014-12-01

    Karst is defined as a landscape that contains especially soluble rocks such as limestone, gypsum, and marble in which caves, underground water systems, over-time sinkholes, vertical shafts, and subterranean river systems form. The cavities and voids within a karst system affect the hydrology of the region and, consequently, can affect the moisture and energy budget at surface, the planetary boundary layer development, convection, and precipitation. Carbonate karst landscapes comprise about 40% of land areas over the continental U.S east of Tulsa, Oklahoma. Currently, due to the lack of knowledge of the effects karst has on the atmosphere, no existing weather model has the capability to represent karst landscapes and to simulate its impact. One way to check the impact of a karst region on the atmosphere is to check the performance of existing weather models over karst and non-karst regions. The North American Mesoscale (NAM) operational forecast is the best example, of which historical forecasts were archived. Variables such as precipitation, maximum/minimum temperature, dew point, evapotranspiration, and surface winds were taken into account when checking the model performance over karst versus non-karst regions. The forecast verification focused on a five-year period from 2007-2011. Surface station observations, gridded observational dataset, and North American Regional Reanalysis (for certain variables with insufficient observations) were used. Thirteen regions of differing climate, size, and landscape compositions were chosen across the Contiguous United States (CONUS) for the investigation. Equitable threat score (ETS), frequency bias (fBias), and root-mean-square error (RMSE) scores were calculated and analyzed for precipitation. RMSE and mean bias (Bias) were analyzed for other variables. ETS, fBias, and RMSE scores show generally a pattern of lower forecast skills, a greater magnitude of error, and a greater under prediction of precipitation over karst than

  18. Patient interest in and familiarity with anti-aging therapies: A survey of the general dermatology clinic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darland, Allison M; Chubb, Heather A; Sachs, Dana L; Helfrich, Yolanda R

    2017-08-03

    The appearance of aging skin is a common complaint among dermatology patients. There is an expanding market for anti-aging therapies, but little information is available regarding which patients utilize these treatments and patient preferences regarding treatment. To describe the patient population utilizing anti-aging therapies, assess patient familiarity with treatment options, and learn where treatment information is most often obtained. Three hundred patients were surveyed in the University of Michigan General Dermatology Clinic. Fifty-three percent of the general dermatology patient population has used an anti-aging treatment in the past; 66% reported interest in the future use. Interest is high among all genders, ages, and incomes. Most subjects obtained treatment information from magazines, but subjects were more likely to pursue treatment if information was obtained from a dermatologist. Demographics of anti-aging therapy are changing, and a wide variety of patients pursue treatment. Patients are largely unfamiliar with most treatment options and are more likely to pursue treatment after receiving treatment information from a dermatologist. The information presented in this study is helpful to both dermatologists and marketers of anti-aging products. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Hydrological response of karst systems to large-scale climate variability for different catchments of the French karst observatory network INSU/CNRS SNO KARST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massei, Nicolas; Labat, David; Jourde, Hervé; Lecoq, Nicolas; Mazzilli, Naomi

    2017-04-01

    The french karst observatory network SNO KARST is a national initiative from the National Institute for Earth Sciences and Astronomy (INSU) of the National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS). It is also part of the new french research infrastructure for the observation of the critical zone OZCAR. SNO KARST is composed by several karst sites distributed over conterminous France which are located in different physiographic and climatic contexts (Mediterranean, Pyrenean, Jura mountain, western and northwestern shore near the Atlantic or the English Channel). This allows the scientific community to develop advanced research and experiments dedicated to improve understanding of the hydrological functioning of karst catchments. Here we used several sites of SNO KARST in order to assess the hydrological response of karst catchments to long-term variation of large-scale atmospheric circulation. Using NCEP reanalysis products and karst discharge, we analyzed the links between large-scale circulation and karst water resources variability. As karst hydrosystems are highly heterogeneous media, they behave differently across different time-scales : we explore the large-scale/local-scale relationships according to time-scales using a wavelet multiresolution approach of both karst hydrological variables and large-scale climate fields such as sea level pressure (SLP). The different wavelet components of karst discharge in response to the corresponding wavelet component of climate fields are either 1) compared to physico-chemical/geochemical responses at karst springs, or 2) interpreted in terms of hydrological functioning by comparing discharge wavelet components to internal components obtained from precipitation/discharge models using the KARSTMOD conceptual modeling platform of SNO KARST.

  20. GIS-Based Evaluation of Danger in Karst Collapse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, feasibility and advantage of GIS technology are discussed to make a quantitative evaluation of karst collapses, a fast and precise evaluation method for developing interface between the karst collapse and GIS-based evaluation model is used to predict major natural geological disasters. A complete procedure of fuzzy-hierarchical GIS-based evaluation of karst collapses is illustrated with the karst collapses in western urban area of Guilin, China.

  1. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) Applied to Karst Carbonate Aquifers: Case Study from Amdoun, Northwestern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redhaounia, Belgacem; Ilondo, Batobo Ountsche; Gabtni, Hakim; Sami, Khomsi; Bédir, Mourad

    2016-04-01

    The Amdoun region is characterized by a high degree of karstification due to the climate impact (±1500 mm year-1) and the development of fracture network. Survey using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is deployed to provide a cost-effective characterization of the subsurface karst environments. A total of seven ERT profiles with lengths of 315 m were evaluated at the Béja governorate (NW Tunisia). The area represents a small syncline of Boudabbous limestone rocks (Lower Eocene), which is covered by a thin layer of clay. In this study, an ERT survey was conducted to examine the spatial distribution and shape of underground cavities in the karst area in Jebel Sabah anticline and Aïn Sallem-Zahret Medien syncline. In this study, geological, hydro-geological and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) methods were applied to determine the geometry of the perched aquifer in the Amdoun region (NW Tunisia). The area is characterized by fractured and karstic limestone aquifer of Late Cretaceous (Abiod Fm.) and Lower Eocene (Boudabbous Fm.). The aquifers have a karstic functioning and drain aquifers of economical interest, despite some wells exploiting them. Seven resistivity profiles were conducted along the survey area at three sites. The orientation, extension and the degree of inclination of those profiles are shown in the location map. The correct resistivity data were interpreted using Earth Imager 2D software. The results of the interpreted geo-electrical sections showed that the resistivity of the carbonate aquifer varied between 2.5 to over 5794 Ωm. The thickness of the perched aquifer ranged from 15 to 50 m, while its depth from the surface lies between 10 and 60 m. The ERT not only provided precise near surface information, but was also very useful for establishing the 3D geometry and the position of several potential cavities and karts. The results show the presence of small to large isolated cavities at various depths. The low resistivity of cavities

  2. Karst landscapes and associated resources: a resource assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James F. Baichtal; Douglas N. Swanston

    1996-01-01

    The Tongass National Forest contains world-class karst features and the largest concentration of associated dissolved caves known in the state of Alaska. This paper describes the dominant karst formation processes operating in southeast Alaska, the controlling geologic and hydrologic characteristics, and the influence of karst landscapes on associated forest resources...

  3. Medical practitioners in outpatient care: who is interested in participating in EBM courses? Results of a representative postal survey in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Thorsten; Stroebel, Angelika; Raspe, Heiner

    2005-10-01

    We surveyed the attitudes of medical practitioners towards evidence-based medicine (EBM) and characterized those with an interest in participating in EBM courses. A random sample of 900 outpatient care doctors stratified by level and field of specialization was surveyed by means of a postal questionnaire. Importance of knowledge on information management, a positive attitude towards EBM and not yet doing critical appraisal were significant predictors of interest in participating in EBM courses. Low participation rates of outpatient care doctors in EBM courses are not due to attitudinal or general motivational problems. Although possible predictors of interest in participation could be specified, further factors contributing to actual participation need to be identified.

  4. NEW LANDSONAR METHOD FOR SURVEY OF GROUND IN BUSY TOWN, KARST CAVES IN MOUNTAIN AND SEA BOTTOM ON WATER%适合闹市区勘探及溶洞探查和水上勘探的物探新方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟世航; 王荣

    2013-01-01

    In busy city the geophysical exploration methods are interfered with the noise from vibration of heavy traffic and strong electromagnetic field and stray electricity.An conquering of the interference of rugged landform in mountain land also are the problem of all the geophysical method.Surveying of single karst cave with small or middle sizes is difficult.They are more required to put energy into the new development of technology and new method.Landsonar and its instrument can avoid the interference of noise from vibration of cars and pedestrains with frequency generally less than 300 Hz in city by exciting and receiving elastic waves of 10 ~4000 Hz.The instrument C-1can avoid the interference of strong electromagnetic field and stray electricity with supplying narrow frequency alternating current of 11 ~ 19 Hz.Because of the zero offset and high and wide frequency band,Landsonar can avoid the interference of landform and have high resolution on single karst cave with small to middle sizes.Because of the especial electrode arrangement,Differential Electric Sounding(DES) method can survey karst cave of 1 m high within 100m deep.KS marine acoustics prospecting instrument have better transverse and longitudinal resolution,can distinguish the silt layer,sand layer,cobble layer and riprap layer with thickness more than 1 m and geologic structure under sub-bottom,and can work with broken survey line and curve survey line.%城市闹市区的汽车、行人的震动噪声和地电及电磁干扰,使传统的物探方法难以为城铁、地铁作面积性的地质勘查.弹性波类方法必须克服噪声干扰,电法和电磁法类方则须避开地电和电磁干扰,才能在城市和公路上工作.探查中小溶洞是地质勘查的难题,也是传统物探技术的难题.崎岖山地的地形影响也是地球物理方法遇到的困难.这些都需要投入人力和资金发展新技术、新仪器.汽车、行人的震动噪声基本上在300Hz以下,陆地

  5. Facilitating Out-of-Home Caregiving Through Health Information Technology: Survey of Informal Caregivers’ Current Practices, Interests, and Perceived Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piette, John D; Jenchura, Emily C; Asch, Steven M; Rosland, Ann-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Background Many patients with chronic conditions are supported by out-of-home informal caregivers—family members, friends, and other individuals who provide care and support without pay—who, if armed with effective consumer health information technology, could inexpensively facilitate their care. Objective We sought to understand caregivers’ use of, interest in, and perceived barriers to health information technology for out-of-home caregiving. Methods We conducted 2 sequential Web-based surveys with a national sample of individuals who provide out-of-home caregiving to an adult family member or friend with a chronic illness. We queried respondents about their use of health information technology for out-of-home caregiving and used multivariable regression to investigate caregiver and care-recipient characteristics associated with caregivers’ technology use for caregiving. Results Among 316 out-of-home caregiver respondents, 34.5% (109/316) reported using health information technology for caregiving activities. The likelihood of a caregiver using technology increased significantly with intensity of caregiving (as measured by number of out-of-home caregiving activities). Compared with very low intensity caregivers, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of technology use was 1.88 (95% CI 1.01-3.50) for low intensity caregivers, 2.39 (95% CI 1.11-5.15) for moderate intensity caregivers, and 3.70 (95% CI 1.62-8.45) for high intensity caregivers. Over 70% (149/207) of technology nonusers reported interest in using technology in the future to support caregiving. The most commonly cited barriers to technology use for caregiving were health system privacy rules that restrict access to care-recipients’ health information and lack of familiarity with programs or websites that facilitate out-of-home caregiving. Conclusions Health information technology use for out-of-home caregiving is common, especially among individuals who provide more intense caregiving. Health care

  6. THE PROGRESS OF GEOPHYSICAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE DOWNTOWN AREA OF A CITY AND THE BREAKTHROUGH IN KARST CAVE SURVEY AND ROCK BURST PREDICTION OF THE TUNNEL%城市闹市区物探技术和岩溶探查的进展及隧道施工时岩爆预报技术的突破

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟世航; 王荣

    2012-01-01

    在城市闹市区的物探工作受到人、车等的振动和地电、电磁波的强烈干扰,因此目前物探难以在地铁及其他城市勘查中做面积性工作.陆地声呐法和微分电测深及C-1微测深仪在北京、济南、广州等闹市区的浅层勘查中取得了突破.探查单个中小溶洞是地质勘探的难题之一,在多处用陆地声呐等方法探查几十米深、直径1 m以上的溶洞,并得到了大量钻孔的验证,难关亦已突破.针对国际岩石力学界的重点研究难题——高应力情况下开挖地下工程发生的岩爆机理和预报,在四川锦屏二级电站用微震监测和陆地声呐法相结合监测微震事件密集发生部位、探查岩爆源位置进行岩爆预报,取得了好的效果和进展.%Geophysical technologies in busy town of city have two problems which are vibration noise of passerby, cars and the other machines and the strong interference of geoelectric and electromagnetic. So geophysical exploration can not work in area on subway and the other engineering in busy town at present. The Landsonar method and C-l electric instrument were new techniques used in recent years, which can not only advance greatly the resolution but also avoid kinds of interference and got new breakthrough on shallow engineering surveys in busy town of Beijng, Jinan and Guangzhou. Survey of the single karst caves was one of the difficult exploration problems. Landsonar had predicted single karst caves of lm diameter at several decameters far away, got many confirmations with drilling hole and achieved great breakthrough. The mechanism and prediction of rockburst of underground engineering under high stress was also a difficult problem in international rock mechanics circle, the teams of author and professor Tang Chun-an achieved great result and progress on survey of rockburst with Landsonar and Microseismic monitoring system in Jingping secondary waterpower station .

  7. Cervical screening uptake, political interest and voter turnout: a population-based survey of women in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Ana; Waller, Jo; Patnick, Julietta; Marlow, Laura

    2012-12-01

    To examine the relationship between cervical screening uptake and political engagement, and to test whether political engagement and voting behaviour mediate the association between age and cervical screening uptake. A population-based survey of women in England in 2010. Women aged 26-64 took part in home-based computer-assisted interviews (n = 890). Women were classified as 'up to date' or 'overdue/never been screened' for cervical screening. Most women (81%) were up-to-date with screening; 19% were overdue. Age and marital status were associated with screening status. Women who were not registered to vote, had not voted in previous general elections, and those who showed less interest in elections and lower intention to engage in political activities were more likely to be overdue for screening. In multivariate analyses (adjusting for all significant measures) 'being on the electoral register' was the only significant independent predictor of screening status. 'Being on the electoral register' was also the only measure of voting behaviour that mediated the association between age and screening status. We found limited evidence for the hypothesis that falling attendance for cervical screening could be associated with a broader phenomenon of disillusionment as indexed by reported voting behaviour and other measures of political engagement. Alternative explanations should be considered in order to better understand falling cervical screening uptake, particularly among younger women.

  8. Survey of the Difficulties and Interests of Students and Teachers of Elementary and High Schools Related to Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Palmieri

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The microorganisms  are present in several topics of the science curriculum  as cytology, ecology, public health,  biochemical cycles, genetics and biotechnology that sometimes cause difficulties to students and teachers  in classroom.  The  use of interactive educational resources in sciences centers  can represent a helpful  tool  in the  approach  of this  subject  and  also provide  a better understanding of it.   The present project  made a survey of the  major  doubts  and  interests of students and  teachers  related  to Microbiology.  This  survey had  the  objective of supplying  subsidies  for the  elaboration of interactive activities  that will be part of a thematic space  on Microbiology  to  be implanted by  the  Scientific Dissemination Coordination  of the  CBME,  in  order  to  complement  its  educational activities.    In the total,  114 students of elementary school (ES,  85 students of high school (HS and 18 teachers  of Sciences and Biology of Sao Carlos, SP, had participated. The survey was made through  the application of three  types of questionnaires.  The  students questionnaires were composed by open and  multiple- choice questions  related  to the  theirs  science curricula;  the teachers  questionnaire was composed  by open and  multiple-choice  questions,  related  to the  approach  in the  teaching  of this  subject.  Of the students of ES, only 41,8% were able to differentiate between  animal  and plant cell; when identifying diseases and its pathogens, 42,7% associated pneumonia  erroneously to its causative  agent; in the virus characterization, 50% mentioned  it as an unicellular being.  Of the students of HS, 40% do not associate the bacteria  to food production and 26% do not associate  fungus to decomposition;  25 to 30% of the students misled when associating  protozoa  with  its major  diseases.  The

  9. Topographic and Hydrographic GIS Datasets for the Afghanistan Geological Survey and U.S. Geological Survey 2014 Mineral Areas of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Jessica D.; Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.

    2015-11-18

    Mineral extraction and associated industries play an important role in the Afghan economy, particularly in the “transitional era” of declining foreign aid and withdrawal of foreign troops post 2014. In addition to providing a substantial source of government revenue, other potential benefits of natural resource development include boosted exports, employment opportunities, and strengthened industrialization (Joya, 2012). Continued exploration and investment in these industries has resulted in large economic improvements since 2007, when this series of studies was initiated. At that time, the “Preliminary Non-Fuel Mineral Resource Assessment of Afghanistan” was completed by members of the U.S. Geological Survey and Afghanistan Geological Survey (Peters and others, 2007). The assessment published a series of country-wide datasets, including a digital elevation model (DEM), elevation contours, hydrography, transportation routes, geophysics, and cultural datasets (Peters and others, 2007). It also delineated 20 mineralized areas for further study using a geologic-based methodology. A second data product, “Summaries of Important Areas for Mineral Investment and Production Opportunities of Nonfuel Minerals in Afghanistan,” was released by Peters and others in 2011. This work highlighted geologic, geohydrologic, and hyperspectral studies that were carried out in specific Areas of Interest (AOIs) to assess the location and characteristics of mineral resources. Also included in the 2011 publication is a collection of appendixes and inventories of Geographic Information System (GIS) datasets for each of the 24 identified AOIs. A third data product was released in 2013 (Casey and Chirico, 2013), publishing datasets for five different AOIs, two subareas, and one AOI extension. Each dataset contains vector shapefiles of the AOI boundary, streams, roads, and contours at 25-, 50-, and 100-meter (m) intervals, as well as raster files of the AOI’s DEM and hillshade.

  10. Topographic and hydrographic GIS datasets for the Afghan Geological Survey and U.S. Geological Survey 2013 mineral areas of interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Brittany N.; Chirico, Peter G.

    2013-01-01

    Afghanistan is endowed with a vast amount of mineral resources, and it is believed that the current economic state of the country could be greatly improved through investment in the extraction and production of these resources. In 2007, the “Preliminary Non-Fuel Resource Assessment of Afghanistan 2007” was completed by members of the U.S. Geological Survey and Afghan Geological Survey (Peters and others, 2007). The assessment delineated 20 mineralized areas for further study using a geologic-based methodology. In 2011, a follow-on data product, “Summaries and Data Packages of Important Areas for Mineral Investment and Production Opportunities of Nonfuel Minerals in Afghanistan,” was released (Peters and others, 2011). As part of this more recent work, geologic, geohydrologic, and hyperspectral studies were carried out in the areas of interest (AOIs) to assess the location and characteristics of the mineral resources. The 2011 publication included a dataset of 24 identified AOIs containing subareas, a corresponding digital elevation model (DEM), elevation contours, areal extent, and hydrography for each AOI. In 2012, project scientists identified five new AOIs and two subareas in Afghanistan. These new areas are Ahankashan, Kandahar, Parwan, North Bamyan, and South Bamyan. The two identified subareas include Obatu-Shela and Sekhab-ZamtoKalay, both located within the larger Kandahar AOI. In addition, an extended Kandahar AOI is included in the project for water resource modeling purposes. The dataset presented in this publication consists of the areal extent of the five new AOIs, two subareas, and the extended Kandahar AOI, elevation contours at 100-, 50-, and 25-meter intervals, an enhanced DEM, and a hydrographic dataset covering the extent of the new study area. The resulting raster and vector layers are intended for use by government agencies, developmental organizations, and private companies in Afghanistan to assist with mineral assessments, monitoring

  11. Understanding environmental problems in Dinaric karst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Nicod

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The main regions of the Dinaric karst, the Kras, the islands and low plateaus of the Dalmatian coast, present the types of land use typical of Mediterranean countries and which produce changes in the surface, e.g., deforestation and the adaptation of the karst surface for agriculture, the use of extracted stones and land reclamation. The evolution of the landscape and systems of adapting agriculture to karstic terrains in Kras and Dalmatian countries make it possible to establish comparisons with other karstic countries, i.e., Provence, the Causses and Puglia, conversely, this research provides better knowledge of the aspects and workings of Dinaric karsts, particularly the evolution of landscape, the growth of karren-fields and the geomorphological and hydrological changes in the poljes.

  12. Subsidence of residual soils in a karst terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drumm, E.C.; Kane, W.F.; Ben-Hassine, J.; Scarborough, J.A. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA)); Ketelle, R.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Siting and operating landfills for solid waste disposal in eastern Tennessee that can operate with minimum impact on groundwater is problematic. The operational requirement of thick, excavational soils and the regulatory requirement of a buffer between disposal units and an aquifer result in siting most operating East Tennessee landfills in outcrop areas of the Knox Group. However, the common occurrence of karst terrain and sinkholes in the Knox Group indicates the vulnerability of such sites to rapid groundwater recharge and flow and the potential for subsidence or collapse of soil into bedrock cavities. To address the potential for subsidence or collapse of soils at the East Chestnut Ridge site on the Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), the following activities and analyses were completed: The locations of karst features on the site were determined by field reconnaissance; several sinkholes were selected for detailed examination; soil boring, sampling, and physical testing were performed in soils located within, adjacent to, and outside of sinkholes to characterize soil strength at various depths; detailed plane surveys were made for 11 sinkholes to measure accurately their dimension and shape for use in determining profile functions for subsidence basins at the site; The stress-deformation response of a typical soil profile overlying a hypothetical bedrock cavity was analyzed numerically for a range of soil thickness and a range of cavity radii. A consistent estimate of the relationship between subsidence basin dimension, soil thickness, and cavity radius has been derived. 30 refs., 41 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Groundwater vulnerability assessment for the karst aquifer of Tanour and Rasoun spring using EPIK, COP, and travel time methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Ibraheem; Sauter, Martin; Margane, Armin; Ptak, Thomas; Wiegand, Bettina

    2016-04-01

    Key words: Karst, groundwater vulnerability, EPIK, COP, travel time, Jordan. Karst aquifers are especially sensitive to short-lived contaminants because of fast water travel times and a low storage capacity in the conduit system. Tanour and Rasoun karst springs located around 75 km northwest of the city of Amman in Jordan represent the main domestic water supply for the surrounding villages. Both springs suffer from pollution events especially during the winter season, either by microbiological contamination due to wastewater leakage from septic tanks or by wastewater discharge from local olive oil presses. To assess the vulnerability of the karst aquifer of Tanour and Rasoun spring and its sensitivity for pollution, two different intrinsic groundwater vulnerability methods were applied: EPIK and COP. In addition, a travel time vulnerability method was applied to determine the time water travels from different points in the catchment to the streams, as a function of land surface gradients and presumed lateral flow within the epikarst. For the application of the COP and EPIK, a detailed geological survey was carried out to determine karst features and the karst network development within the catchment area. In addition, parameters, such as soil data, long term daily precipitation data, land use and topographical data were collected. For the application of the travel time vulnerability method, flow length, hydraulic conductivity, effective porosity, and slope gradient was used in order to determining the travel time in days. ArcGIS software was used for map preparation. The results of the combined vulnerability methods (COP, EPIK and travel time) show a high percentage of "very high" to "moderate" vulnerable areas within the catchment area of Tanour and Rasoun karst springs. Therefore, protection of the catchment area of Tanour and Rasoun springs from pollution and proper management of land use types is urgently needed to maintain the quality of drinking water in the

  14. Electrical Resistivity Tomography monitoring reveals groundwater storage in a karst vadose zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watlet, A.; Kaufmann, O.; Van Camp, M. J.; Triantafyllou, A.; Cisse, M. F.; Quinif, Y.; Meldrum, P.; Wilkinson, P. B.; Chambers, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    Karst systems are among the most difficult aquifers to characterize, due to their high heterogeneity. In particular, temporary groundwater storage that occurs in the unsaturated zone and the discharge to deeper layers are difficult processes to identify and estimate with in-situ measurements. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) monitoring is meant to track changes in the electrical properties of the subsurface and has proved to be applicable to evidence and quantify hydrological processes in several types of environments. Applied to karst systems, it has particularly highlighted the challenges in linking electrical resistivity changes to groundwater content with usual approaches of petrophysical relationships, given the high heterogeneity of the subsurface. However, taking up the challenge, we undertook an ERT monitoring at the Rochefort Cave Laboratory (Belgium) lasting from Spring 2014 to Winter 2016. This includes 3 main periods of several months with daily measurements, from which seasonal groundwater content changes in the first meters of the vadose zone were successfully imaged. The monitoring concentrates on a 48 electrodes profile that goes from a limestone plateau to the bottom of a sinkhole. 3D UAV photoscans of the surveyed sinkhole and of the main chamber of the nearby cave were performed. Combined with lithological observations from a borehole drilled next to the ERT profile, the 3D information made it possible to project karstified layers visible in the cave to the surface and assess their potential locations along the ERT profile. Overall, this helped determining more realistic local petrophysical properties in the surveyed area, and improving the ERT data inversion by adding structural constraints. Given a strong air temperature gradient in the sinkhole, we also developed a new approach of temperature correction of the raw ERT data. This goes through the solving (using pyGIMLI package) of the 2D ground temperature field and its temporal

  15. Karst in Wadi Bani Khalid, Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, Ramadan

    2017-04-01

    There are several important in Oman. The main aquifer is surficial aquifer and fractured rocks. In fact, the geology of Oman is complex whichmake the hydraulic continuity of bedrock is limited and formaing localized aquifers. caves in Oman are varying types and length, size and geographic formations. Many caves and valleys founded in Oman. Wadi Bani Khalid hosts complex network of fractured rock. Karst in Wadi Bani Kalid made upof Limestone(Calcium, which is dissolve in water.A rain water pass through the rock it is erode the rock and form caves. The cave located in Miqil. The karst was formed in Calcium Carbonate rocks.

  16. Hydraulic evaluation of the hypogenic karst area in Budapest (Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, Ildikó; Ötvös, Viktória; Erőss, Anita; Czauner, Brigitta; Simon, Szilvia; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit

    2017-04-01

    The Buda Thermal Karst area, in central Hungary, is in the focus of research interest because of its thermal water resources and the on-going hypogenic karstification processes at the boundary of unconfined and confined carbonates. Understanding of the discharge phenomena and the karstification processes requires clarification of the groundwater flow conditions in the area. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to present a hydraulic evaluation of the flow systems based on analyses of the archival measured hydraulic data of wells. Pressure vs. elevation profiles, tomographic fluid-potential maps and hydraulic cross sections were constructed, based on the data distribution. As a result, gravitational flow systems, hydraulic continuity, and the modifying effects of aquitard units and faults were identified in the karst area. The location of natural discharge areas could be explained and the hydraulic behavior of the Northeastern Margin Fault of the Buda Hills could be determined. The flow pattern determines the differences in the discharge distribution (one- and two-component) and related cave-forming processes between the Central System (Rózsadomb area) and Southern System (Gellért Hill area) natural discharge areas. Among the premises of hypogenic karstification, regional upward flow conditions were confirmed along the main discharge zone of the River Danube.

  17. Hydraulic evaluation of the hypogenic karst area in Budapest (Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, Ildikó; Ötvös, Viktória; Erőss, Anita; Czauner, Brigitta; Simon, Szilvia; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit

    2017-09-01

    The Buda Thermal Karst area, in central Hungary, is in the focus of research interest because of its thermal water resources and the on-going hypogenic karstification processes at the boundary of unconfined and confined carbonates. Understanding of the discharge phenomena and the karstification processes requires clarification of the groundwater flow conditions in the area. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to present a hydraulic evaluation of the flow systems based on analyses of the archival measured hydraulic data of wells. Pressure vs. elevation profiles, tomographic fluid-potential maps and hydraulic cross sections were constructed, based on the data distribution. As a result, gravitational flow systems, hydraulic continuity, and the modifying effects of aquitard units and faults were identified in the karst area. The location of natural discharge areas could be explained and the hydraulic behavior of the Northeastern Margin Fault of the Buda Hills could be determined. The flow pattern determines the differences in the discharge distribution (one- and two-component) and related cave-forming processes between the Central System (Rózsadomb area) and Southern System (Gellért Hill area) natural discharge areas. Among the premises of hypogenic karstification, regional upward flow conditions were confirmed along the main discharge zone of the River Danube.

  18. Survey and Thinking of Wild Hazelnut Resources in Guizhou Karst Mountainous Area%贵州喀斯特山区野生榛子资源概况调查及思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭琴; 符裕红; 颜世龙; 彭延英; 杨云彩

    2012-01-01

    As investigated,the wild hazelnut resources in Guizhou karst mountainous area are mainly distributed in West and Southwest Guizhou Province, and in the regions of Xingren, Pu ' an, Anlong, Panxian, Xianning, etc. . The wild hazelnut resources were the richest in Southwest Guizhou Province, and then followed by that in Iiupanshui, but their utilization was very limited. In this paper, the distribution regions, living environment, accompanying plants,and utilization status of the wild hazelnut resources were investigated,and some suggestions were proposed according to the actual situation.%经调查,贵州省喀斯特山区野生榛子资源分布于贵州西部及西南部,主要分布在兴仁、普安、安龙、盘县、威宁等地区.其中黔西南州野生榛子资源最为丰富,六盘水次之,但利用都十分有限.笔者主要对贵州喀斯特山区野生榛子分布区域、生存环境、伴生植物、利用状况等进行详细调查,并根据实际情况提出利用建议.

  19. Interesting Interest Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2012-01-01

    on spatial invariance of interest points under changing acquisition parameters by measuring the spatial recall rate. The scope of this paper is to investigate the performance of a number of existing well-established interest point detection methods. Automatic performance evaluation of interest points is hard......Not all interest points are equally interesting. The most valuable interest points lead to optimal performance of the computer vision method in which they are employed. But a measure of this kind will be dependent on the chosen vision application. We propose a more general performance measure based...... position. The LED illumination provides the option for artificially relighting the scene from a range of light directions. This data set has given us the ability to systematically evaluate the performance of a number of interest point detectors. The highlights of the conclusions are that the fixed scale...

  20. Do Karst Rivers “deserve” their own biotic index? A ten years study on macrozoobenthos in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađa Biljana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present the results of a ten year survey of the aquatic macroinvertebrate fauna along four karst rivers: Jadro, Žrnovnica, Grab and Ruda, all of them situated in the Middle Dalmatia region of Croatia, in an attempt to construct the Iliric Biotic Index, which will be more applicable for the water quality analysis than the most frequently applied biotic index in Croatia, the Italian Modification of Extended Biotic Index. The rivers geologically belong to the Dinaric karst, unique geological phenomena in Europe. Benthic macroinvertebrates were collected along each river at 15 sites by standard methods of sampling along with several physicochemical parameters, including: temperature, dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, alkalinity, hardness and pH. Univariate and multivariate techniques revealed differences in the macroinvertebrate community structure as well as in physicochemical parameters between the Karst rivers and continental rivers. Based on those differences, the Iliric Biotic Index was proposed as the standard of karst river water quality in Croatia in accordance with the EU Water Framework Directive. Differences between the Iliric Biotic Index and the most commonly used biotic indices in the European Community and the USA (The Biological Monitoring Working Party (B.M.W.P. scores, i.e. Extended Biotic Index, Indice Biotique, Family Biotic Index suggest that karst rivers need a new biotic index.

  1. Local seismologic observations of karst processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malovichko, D. A.; Kadebskaya, O. I.; Shulakov, D. Yu.; Butyrin, P. G.

    2010-01-01

    The paper addresses the methodic questions of arrangement and implementation of local temporal seismologic observations targeting research on karst. We describe an approach for the quantitative assessment of the feasibility for recording the seismic effect of dynamic phenomena accompanying the karst processes. The approach copes with the specific features of excitation, propagation, and recording of seismic waves for a given karsting massif. The adequacy of this approach is supported by the results of experiments on the imitation of collapses in the test object, namely in the Kungur ice cave (Perm region). We describe the experience in application of approaches developed in “big” seismology in the choice of the optimal configuration of the local seismic group (taking into account the properties of stationary microseismic noises) and methods for data processing (identification of the nature of signals) as applied to the conditions of the study of karst processes. Based on the observations performed in Kungur, Perm region, the efficiency of the use of the local seismic group for discriminating signals of an exogenous and endogenous nature is demonstrated.

  2. Groundwater flood hazards in lowland karst terrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Owen; McCormack, Ted

    2016-04-01

    The spatial and temporal complexity of flooding in karst terrains pose unique flood risk management challenges. Lowland karst landscapes can be particularly susceptible to groundwater flooding due to a combination of limited drainage capacity, shallow depth to groundwater and a high level of groundwater-surface water interactions. Historically the worst groundwater flooding to have occurred in the Rep. of Ireland has been centred on the Gort Lowlands, a karst catchment on the western coast of Ireland. Numerous notable flood events have been recorded throughout the 20th century, but flooding during the winters of 2009 and 2015 were the most severe on record, inundating an area in excess of 20km2 and causing widespread and prolonged disruption and damage to property and infrastructure. Effective flood risk management requires an understanding of the recharge, storage and transport mechanisms during flood conditions, but is often hampered by a lack of adequate data. Using information gathered from the 2009 and 2015 events, the main hydrological and geomorphological factors which influence flooding in this complex lowland karst groundwater system under are elucidated. Observed flood mechanisms included backwater flooding of sinks, overland flow caused by the overtopping of sink depressions, high water levels in turlough basins, and surface ponding in local epikarst watersheds. While targeted small-scale flood measures can locally reduce the flood risk associated with some mechanisms, they also have the potential to exacerbate flooding down-catchment and must be assessed in the context of overall catchment hydrology. This study addresses the need to improve our understanding of groundwater flooding in karst terrains, in order to ensure efficient flood prevention and mitigation in future and thus help achieve the aims of the EU Floods Directive.

  3. Sulphate rocks as an arena for karst development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrejchuk V.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The rocks in which karst systems develop are most commonly composed of carbonate sulphate and chloride minerals. The sulphate minerals are quite numerous, but only gypsum and anhydrite form extensive masses in sedimentary sequences. Other minerals, which represent sulphates of K, Mg and Na, normally occur as minor beds (0.1-5.0 m, or as inclusions associated with chloride rocks. However some minerals precipitated in salt-generating basins, such as mirabilite and glauberite (typically formed in the Kara-Bogaz-Gol Gulf, salt lakes of Siberia and in China, form sequences up to 5-10 m thick where karst may develop. Due to the very high solubility of Na -sulphates, karst processes and features occurring in these rocks resemble salt karst. Thus, the term sulphate karst, although not strictly correct, is used mainly to indicate karst developed in gypsum and anhydrite.

  4. Karst database development in Minnesota: Design and data assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Alexander, E.C.; Tipping, R.G.

    2005-01-01

    The Karst Feature Database (KFD) of Minnesota is a relational GIS-based Database Management System (DBMS). Previous karst feature datasets used inconsistent attributes to describe karst features in different areas of Minnesota. Existing metadata were modified and standardized to represent a comprehensive metadata for all the karst features in Minnesota. Microsoft Access 2000 and ArcView 3.2 were used to develop this working database. Existing county and sub-county karst feature datasets have been assembled into the KFD, which is capable of visualizing and analyzing the entire data set. By November 17 2002, 11,682 karst features were stored in the KFD of Minnesota. Data tables are stored in a Microsoft Access 2000 DBMS and linked to corresponding ArcView applications. The current KFD of Minnesota has been moved from a Windows NT server to a Windows 2000 Citrix server accessible to researchers and planners through networked interfaces. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

  5. Hazard connected to railway tunnel construction in karstic area: applied geomorphological and hydrogeological surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Casagrande

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In a mature karstic system, the realisation of galleries using the methodology of railway tunnel boring machine (TBM involves particular problems due to the high risk of interference with groundwater (often subject to remarkable level variations and with cavities and/or thick fill deposits. In order to define groundwater features it is necessary to investigate both hydrodynamic and karstification. To define and quantify the karst phenomenon in the epikarst of the Trieste Karst (Italy, an applied geomorphological approach has been experimented with surface and cavity surveys. The surface surveys have contributed to determining the potential karst versus the different outcropping lithologies and to define the structural setting of the rocky mass also through the realisation of geostructural stations and the survey of the main lines thanks to photo-interpretation. Moreover, all the dolines and the cavities present in the area interested by the gallery have been studied by analysing the probable extension of caves and/or of the secondary fill deposits and by evaluating the different genetic models. In an area 900m large and 27km long, which has been studied because of the underground karst, there are 41 dolines having diameters superior to 100m and 93 dolines whose diameters range between 100 and 50m; the dolines whose diameters are inferior to 50m are 282. The entrances of known and registered cavities in the cadastre records are 520. The hypogeal surveys have shown 5 typologies in which it has been possible to group all the cavities present in a hypothetical intersection with the excavation. The comparison between surface and hypogeal structural data and the direction of development of cavities has allowed for the definition of highly karstified discontinuity families, thus having a higher risk. The comparison of the collected data has enabled to identify the lithologies and areas having major risk and thus to quantify the probability of

  6. Evaporite-karst processes, landforms, and environmental problems

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gutiérrez; Johnson, Kenneth; Cooper, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Evaporite karst is widespread, but relatively unknown when compared with carbonate karst; this special issue addresses that lack of familiarity. Evaporite rocks have much higher solubilities and faster dissolution rates than carbonate rocks and they also commonly have lower mechanical strengths and more ductile reheologies. Many of these factors are dependent on the local hydrogeology, and when combined they can result in areas where karst features evolve on a human time scale, rather than a ...

  7. Karst Depression Detection Using ASTER, ALOS/PRISM and SRTM-Derived Digital Elevation Models in the Bambuí Group, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Abílio de Carvalho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing has been used in karst studies to identify limestone terrain, describe exokarst features, analyze karst depressions, and detect geological structures important to karst development. The aim of this work is to investigate the use of ASTER-, SRTM- and ALOS/PRISM-derived digital elevation models (DEMs to detect and quantify natural karst depressions along the São Francisco River near Barreiras city, northeast Brazil. The study area is a karst landscape characterized by karst depressions (dolines, closed depressions in limestone, many of which contain standing water connected with the ground-water table. The base of dolines is typically sealed with an impermeable clay layer covered by standing water or herbaceous vegetation. We identify dolines by combining the extraction of sink depth from DEMs, morphometric analysis using GIS, and visual interpretation. Our methodology is a semi-automatic approach involving several steps: (a DEM acquisition; (b sink-depth calculation using the difference between the raw DEM and the corresponding DEM with sinks filled; and (c elimination of falsely identified karst depressions using morphometric attributes. The advantages and limitations of the applied methodology using different DEMs are examined by comparison with a sinkhole map generated from traditional geomorphological investigations based on visual interpretation of the high-resolution remote sensing images and field surveys. The threshold values of the depth, area size and circularity index appropriate for distinguishing dolines were identified from the maximum overall accuracy obtained by comparison with a true doline map. Our results indicate that the best performance of the proposed methodology for meso-scale karst feature detection was using ALOS/PRISM data with a threshold depth > 2 m; areas > 13,125 m2 and circularity indexes > 0.3 (overall accuracy of 0.53. The overall correct identification of around half of the true dolines suggests

  8. Improving Geologic and Engineering Models of Midcontinent Fracture and Karst-Modified Reservoirs Using New 3-D Seismic Attributes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Nissen; Saibal Bhattacharya; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton

    2009-03-31

    Our project goal was to develop innovative seismic-based workflows for the incremental recovery of oil from karst-modified reservoirs within the onshore continental United States. Specific project objectives were: (1) to calibrate new multi-trace seismic attributes (volumetric curvature, in particular) for improved imaging of karst-modified reservoirs, (2) to develop attribute-based, cost-effective workflows to better characterize karst-modified carbonate reservoirs and fracture systems, and (3) to improve accuracy and predictiveness of resulting geomodels and reservoir simulations. In order to develop our workflows and validate our techniques, we conducted integrated studies of five karst-modified reservoirs in west Texas, Colorado, and Kansas. Our studies show that 3-D seismic volumetric curvature attributes have the ability to re-veal previously unknown features or provide enhanced visibility of karst and fracture features compared with other seismic analysis methods. Using these attributes, we recognize collapse features, solution-enlarged fractures, and geomorphologies that appear to be related to mature, cockpit landscapes. In four of our reservoir studies, volumetric curvature attributes appear to delineate reservoir compartment boundaries that impact production. The presence of these compartment boundaries was corroborated by reservoir simulations in two of the study areas. Based on our study results, we conclude that volumetric curvature attributes are valuable tools for mapping compartment boundaries in fracture- and karst-modified reservoirs, and we propose a best practices workflow for incorporating these attributes into reservoir characterization. When properly calibrated with geological and production data, these attributes can be used to predict the locations and sizes of undrained reservoir compartments. Technology transfer of our project work has been accomplished through presentations at professional society meetings, peer-reviewed publications

  9. Hydrogeological approach to investigation in karst for possible modification of groundwater regime and increase of recoverable reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatina, Miomir

    1990-09-01

    An artificial contribution to groundwater reserves in the areas of interest for water supply is a principal methodological target in modern hydrogeology. Investigations directed to this goal are of increasing significance all over the world to meet the growing demand for good water, which groundwater generally can be. Progress has been made in the sphere of practical development in permeable rocks of intergranular porosity, which cannot be said of discontinuous karst media, although it seems to offer greater opportunities. The ingrained notion and fear, even among specialists, of the inherent risk and uncertainty were invariably present wherever a resource was discovered in karst of a geosynclinal area; consequently progress has been limited. The reasons, however, for such a cautious approach are diminishing, because much knowledge has been gained about these aquiferous rocks, especially through investigations in the regions of surface storage reservoirs. Better knowledge of karst features and the results achieved in construction and consolidation of surface reservoirs have indicated that large amounts of groundwater can be recovered. The conventional water investigation and recovery methods have made available only small safe yields equal to the lowest natural discharge on the order of 100 I/sec). A reasonable use of a karst water resource and its better management cannot be considered without artificial control of the groundwater regime, i.e., without adjusting the regime to human demands. Groundwater flow balance in karst is becoming one of the principal problems, and future activities should be directed to the search for a bolder solution. A multidisciplinary team of geologists, geomorphologists, hydrogeologists, hydrologists, hydraulic engineers, etc., is required. In this paper a variety of solutions for water resource utilization in naked geosynclinal karst is suggested and far greater activity in this field is encouraged.

  10. Factors influencing the career interest of medical graduates in obstetrics and gynaecology in Hong Kong: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Christy Y Y; Cheung, Charleen S Y; Hui, Annie S Y

    2016-04-01

    The trend of declining interest of medical graduates in pursuing obstetrics and gynaecology as a career has been observed in many overseas studies. This study aimed to evaluate the career interest of the most recent medical graduates in Hong Kong, especially their level of interest in obstetrics and gynaecology, and to identify key influential factors for career choice and career interest in obstetrics and gynaecology. All medical graduates from the Chinese University of Hong Kong and the University of Hong Kong who attended the pre-internship lectures in June 2015 were invited to participate in this cross-sectional questionnaire survey. The main outcome measures were the level of career interest in obstetrics and gynaecology, the first three choices of specialty as a career, key influential factors for career choice, and key influential factors for career interest in obstetrics and gynaecology. Overall, 73.7% of 323 new medical graduates participated in the study and 233 questionnaires were analysed. The median score (out of 10) for the level of career interest in obstetrics and gynaecology was 3. There were 37 (16.2%) participants in whom obstetrics and gynaecology was among their first three choices, of whom 29 (78.4%) were female. Obstetrics and gynaecology ranked as the eighth most popular career choice. By factor analysis, the strongest key influential factor for career interest in obstetrics and gynaecology was clerkship experience (variance explained 28.9%) and the strongest key influential factor for career choice was working style (variance explained 26.4%). The study confirmed a low level of career interest in obstetrics and gynaecology among medical graduates and a decreasing popularity of the specialty as a career choice. The three key influential factors for career interest in obstetrics and gynaecology and career choice were working style, clerkship experience, and career prospects.

  11. Destruction of dolines: the examples from Slovene karst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacic, G.; Ravbar, N.

    2012-04-01

    Due to the absence of soil and flat agricultural land, in karst regions, the cultivation of doline bottoms and the clearing of stones on fields and meadows were traditional methods of adapting farming practices to the landscape with limited agricultural potential. In recent years, a variety of activities resulting from comprehensive economic and urban development have increased pressure on karst landscapes. In some areas the surface and the underground are increasingly threatened by industrial activities, uncontrolled settlement and spread of infrastructure, the development of tourism, and intensive agrarian land use. Unsupervised human encroachment on karst landscapes is causing the increasingly more frequent and more widespread degradation of karst relief forms. The intensive reshaping of the landscape has expanded beyond control largely as a result of technological development and mechanization. The excessive modern filling of dolines, as one of the most distinctive karst surface features, has become a major encroachment on the environment for leveling purposes. Such kind of human influence affects the shape of karst features and the appearance of the landscape as well as the intensity of karst processes such as corrosion. Many dolines are filled with general and construction waste, which threatens the existence of unique habitats and quality of groundwater and consequently water supply. This contribution presents some cases of inappropriate management of karst landscape in Slovenia and examines the national legislative framework on spatial planning in karst regions. Unfortunately, in the current legislation, the standards and conditions for the protection of karst landscape characteristics (e.g. dolines) are loose and not fully elaborated. Principally, there are no uniform mechanisms to protect specific relief forms or for the adequate protection of karst. To a large extent, the preservation of the characteristic karst landscape is left to local communities

  12. Hazards in the coastal karst of Balai (NW Sardinia, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Laura; Uda, Michele; Pascucci, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    The coastal karst area of Balai headland is located in the central part of the Gulf of Asinara (North-West Sardinia, Italy) near the city of Porto Torres, comprised between the homonymous harbour and Platamona beach. This karst plateau has a monocline geometry truncated by the coastal escarpment, up to 40 m-high, that in the last decades has been affected by slope instability related to human activities and/or climate change. The area is characterised by a flat morphology constituted of Miocene limestone gently dipping towards the North-West. Its altitude ranges from 0 to 50 m asl. The 3 km-long cliff is locally interrupted by some small gravelly coves. Along the longitudinal profile of the headland, three main morphological steps have been identified at 15, 8 and 6.5 m asl. They represent past wave cut platforms. The shoreline is well marked and the coves cut into the land up to 50 m in length, perpendicularly to the coast. They follow the direction of a series of parallel NE-facing fractures. The modern tidal notch is well exposed along the carbonate cliff at the present sea level. Along the limestone cliff, notch development is amplified by mixing of sea and fresh water coming from submerged springs. Moreover, this marine erosion feature is a good sea level marker in microtidal conditions, such as Mediterranean Sea, and an indicator of tectonic stability, of the Sardinian microplate. In some coves, two generations of fossil notches have been observed at 6.5 m asl and -1 m bsl, respectively, along with lithophaga boreholes up to 8 m asl. Both indicate the past eustatic conditions. All these geomorphic features make Balai promontory an interesting geological spot for studying past sea level fluctuations and present slope movements, trying to distinguish hazards due to climate change from those directly related to anthropogenic forces such as wave-induced damage due to waterborne navigation.

  13. Adaptations of indigenous bacteria to fuel contamination in karst aquifers in south-central Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byl, Thomas D.; Metge, David W.; Agymang, Daniel T.; Bradley, Michael W.; Hileman, Gregg; Harvey, Ronald W.

    2014-01-01

    The karst aquifer systems in southern Kentucky can be dynamic and quick to change. Microorganisms that live in these unpredictable aquifers are constantly faced with environmental changes. Their survival depends upon adaptations to changes in water chemistry, taking advantage of positive stimuli and avoiding negative environmental conditions. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study in 2001 to determine the capability of bacteria to adapt in two distinct regions of water quality in a karst aquifer, an area of clean, oxygenated groundwater and an area where the groundwater was oxygen depleted and contaminated by jet fuel. Water samples containing bacteria were collected from one clean well and two jet fuel contaminated wells in a conduit-dominated karst aquifer. Bacterial concentrations, enumerated through direct count, ranged from 500,000 to 2.7 million bacteria per mL in the clean portion of the aquifer, and 200,000 to 3.2 million bacteria per mL in the contaminated portion of the aquifer over a twelve month period. Bacteria from the clean well ranged in size from 0.2 to 2.5 mm, whereas bacteria from one fuel-contaminated well were generally larger, ranging in size from 0.2 to 3.9 mm. Also, bacteria collected from the clean well had a higher density and, consequently, were more inclined to sink than bacteria collected from contaminated wells. Bacteria collected from the clean portion of the karst aquifer were predominantly (,95%) Gram-negative and more likely to have flagella present than bacteria collected from the contaminated wells, which included a substantial fraction (,30%) of Gram-positive varieties. The ability of the bacteria from the clean portion of the karst aquifer to biodegrade benzene and toluene was studied under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in laboratory microcosms. The rate of fuel biodegradation in laboratory studies was approximately 50 times faster under aerobic conditions as compared to anaerobic, sulfur-reducing conditions. The

  14. ADAPTATIONS OF INDIGENOUS BACTERIA TO FUEL CONTAMINATION IN KARST AQUIFERS IN SOUTH-CENTRAL KENTUCKY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byl, Thomas D.; Metge, David W.; Daniel T. Agymang,; Bradley, Michael W.; Hileman, Gregg; Harvey, Ronald W.

    2014-01-01

    The karst aquifer systems in southern Kentucky can be dynamic and quick to change. Microorganisms that live in these unpredictable aquifers are constantly faced with environmental changes. Their survival depends upon adaptations to changes in water chemistry, taking advantage of positive stimuli and avoiding negative environmental conditions. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study in 2001 to determine the capability of bacteria to adapt in two distinct regions of water quality in a karst aquifer, an area of clean, oxygenated groundwater and an area where the groundwater was oxygen depleted and contaminated by jet fuel. Water samples containing bacteria were collected from one clean well and two jet fuel contaminated wells in a conduit-dominated karst aquifer. Bacterial concentrations, enumerated through direct count, ranged from 500,000 to 2.7 million bacteria per mL in the clean portion of the aquifer, and 200,000 to 3.2 million bacteria per mL in the contaminated portion of the aquifer over a twelve month period. Bacteria from the clean well ranged in size from 0.2 to 2.5 mm, whereas bacteria from one fuel-contaminated well were generally larger, ranging in size from 0.2 to 3.9 mm. Also, bacteria collected from the clean well had a higher density and, consequently, were more inclined to sink than bacteria collected from contaminated wells. Bacteria collected from the clean portion of the karst aquifer were predominantly (,95%) Gram-negative and more likely to have flagella present than bacteria collected from the contaminated wells, which included a substantial fraction (,30%) of Gram-positive varieties. The ability of the bacteria from the clean portion of the karst aquifer to biodegrade benzene and toluene was studied under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in laboratory microcosms. The rate of fuel biodegradation in laboratory studies was approximately 50 times faster under aerobic conditions as compared to anaerobic, sulfur-reducing conditions. The

  15. Karst Collapse Mechanism and Criterion for Its Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺可强; 刘长礼; 王思敬

    2001-01-01

    Karst collapse, caused by natural or artificial abstraction of groundwater, has been a focus of environmental geological problems for its ever-increasing hazardousness. The potential erosion theory and vacuum suction erosion theory,which reveal the origin of karst collapse macroscopically, are popularly accepted. However, a mathematic prediction criterion for karst collapse cannot be established only by these two theories. From a new perspective, this paper attempts to explain the microcosmic mechanism of karst collapse on the basis of these two theories. When the shear stress surpasses the shear strength of soil, a certain point or a certain plane in the unconsolidated soil covering karst caves will fail under the mechanical effects of water and air as well as its load-pressure, and with the increase of damaged points, a breaking plane appears and the soil on karst caves is completely damaged; as a result, the karst ground collapses. On the basis of the MohrCoulomb failure theory and previous studies, the paper presents a prediction criterion of karst collapse. Finally, by taking,for example, nine typical cases of collapse caused by pumping tests in Guizhou, the paper gives the calculation process of the model and proves its reliability.``

  16. Review: The Yucatán Peninsula karst aquifer, Mexico

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Gondwe, Bibi Ruth Neuman; Charvet, Guillaume

    2011-01-01

    The Yucatán Peninsula karst aquifer is one of the most extensive and spectacular karst aquifer systems on the planet. This transboundary aquifer system extends over an area of approximately 165,000 km2 in México, Guatemala and Belize. The Triassic to Holocene Yucatán limestone platform is located...

  17. Contaminant transport in two central Missouri karst recharge areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karst watersheds with significant losing streams represent a particularly vulnerable setting for ground water contamination because of the direct connection to surface water. Because of the existing agricultural land-use and future likelihood of urbanization, two losing stream karst basins were chos...

  18. Identifying the link between lineament and cave passage trends to comprehend fractures continuity and influence on the Kinta Valley karst system, Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassa Solomon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kinta Valley karst landscape is characterised by residual limestone hills scattered all over the valley. The aim of this study is to ascertain the link between lineament and cave passage orientations, and to identify the main fracture controlling the karst features. To achieve that, standard cave surveying and direct lineament extraction techniques, from a 2.5m resolution spot image, were employed. Six trends of lineaments were obtained from the remnant limestone hills, and their main orientation appears to be in the NNW-SSE. Similarly, various caves were surveyed and mapped; their passage orientation analyses reveal that NNW-SSE is the prominent direction. The similarity of the lineaments orientation and caves passage trend attests that the karst formation is controlled by the geological structures. Such a similar trend observed in all hills enabled to infer the orientation of the primary structure responsible for the formation of the extant karst features. The multi-fracturing episodes rendered the Kinta Valley to be structurally complex and the karst features unravelled this effect, as evidenced by features such as circular and sinuous cave passage morphology, which developed ensuing fractures oriented in different directions.

  19. Geomorphometric correlations of vegetation cover properties and topographic karst features based on high-resolution LiDAR DTM of Aggtelek Karst, NE Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Székely, Balázs; Telbisz, Tamás; Koma, Zsófia; Kelemen, Kristóf; Szmorad, Ferenc; Deák, Márton; Látos, Tamás; Standovár, Tibor

    2015-04-01

    Topography and lithology are two major factors influencing the vegetation cover, its mosaic pattern and lateral transitions. In karstic areas the topography has a high diversity, microtopographic landforms influence the local ecological setting, vegetation structure. Presence of sinkholes of various sizes and geometric arrangements causes rapid lateral variation of the slope, aspect patterns as well as highly modify the soil water balance in time and space. These diversity of factors defines a mosaicked habitat pattern for vegetation assemblages. The World Heritage Site Aggtelek Karst/Slovakian Karst Caves has characteristic natural and environmental properties concerning the geomorphological as well as the ecological values. In order to be able to study the topographic influence on the ecological setting, a high-resolution digital terrain model (DTM) and digital surface model (DSM) have been derived from airborne laser scanning data depicting the karstic micro- and macrotopographic Landscape elements and the envelope surface of the canopy. Additional vegetation parameters like closure and average height have been derived from a normalized digital surface model (nDSM). Extensive mapping of vegetation properties has been carried out: centered on points of a grid array several vegetation-specific data - including composition and structure of tree and shrub layers, herbacesous vegetation and tree regeneration - have been acquired. Various classification patterns - based on trees pecies composition, vertical vegetation structure - have been derived from this data set. The comparison of the vegetation classification data and the geomorphometric DTM derivatives yielded interesting results. Certain vegetation characteristics often correlate with the geomorphometric properties. We interpret this similarity as sensitivity of vegetion to fine-scale variations in geomorphic properties like aspect, illumination conditions and soil properties. However, in many cases the

  20. Verification of the karst flow model under laboratory controlled conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotovac, Hrvoje; Andric, Ivo; Malenica, Luka; Srzic, Veljko

    2016-04-01

    Karst aquifers are very important groundwater resources around the world as well as in coastal part of Croatia. They consist of extremely complex structure defining by slow and laminar porous medium and small fissures and usually fast turbulent conduits/karst channels. Except simple lumped hydrological models that ignore high karst heterogeneity, full hydraulic (distributive) models have been developed exclusively by conventional finite element and finite volume elements considering complete karst heterogeneity structure that improves our understanding of complex processes in karst. Groundwater flow modeling in complex karst aquifers are faced by many difficulties such as a lack of heterogeneity knowledge (especially conduits), resolution of different spatial/temporal scales, connectivity between matrix and conduits, setting of appropriate boundary conditions and many others. Particular problem of karst flow modeling is verification of distributive models under real aquifer conditions due to lack of above-mentioned information. Therefore, we will show here possibility to verify karst flow models under the laboratory controlled conditions. Special 3-D karst flow model (5.6*2.6*2 m) consists of concrete construction, rainfall platform, 74 piezometers, 2 reservoirs and other supply equipment. Model is filled by fine sand (3-D porous matrix) and drainage plastic pipes (1-D conduits). This model enables knowledge of full heterogeneity structure including position of different sand layers as well as conduits location and geometry. Moreover, we know geometry of conduits perforation that enable analysis of interaction between matrix and conduits. In addition, pressure and precipitation distribution and discharge flow rates from both phases can be measured very accurately. These possibilities are not present in real sites what this model makes much more useful for karst flow modeling. Many experiments were performed under different controlled conditions such as different

  1. Effectiveness of airborne multispectral thermal data for karst groundwater resources recognition in coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatti, Stefano; Fusilli, Lorenzo; Palombo, Angelo; Santini, Federico; Pascucci, Simone

    2013-04-01

    Currently the detection, use and management of groundwater in karst regions can be considered one of the most significant procedures for solving water scarcity problems during periods of low rainfall this because groundwater resources from karst aquifers play a key role in the water supply in karst areas worldwide [1]. In many countries of the Mediterranean area, where karst is widespread, groundwater resources are still underexploited, while surface waters are generally preferred [2]. Furthermore, carbonate aquifers constitute a crucial thermal water resource outside of volcanic areas, even if there is no detailed and reliable global assessment of thermal water resources. The composite hydrogeological characteristics of karst, particularly directions and zones of groundwater distribution, are not up till now adequately explained [3]. In view of the abovementioned reasons the present study aims at analyzing the detection capability of high spatial resolution thermal remote sensing of karst water resources in coastal areas in order to get useful information on the karst springs flow and on different characteristics of these environments. To this purpose MIVIS [4, 5] and TASI-600 [6] airborne multispectral thermal imagery (see sensors' characteristics in Table 1) acquired on two coastal areas of the Mediterranean area interested by karst activity, one located in Montenegro and one in Italy, were used. One study area is located in the Kotor Bay, a winding bay on the Adriatic Sea surrounded by high mountains in south-western Montenegro and characterized by many subaerial and submarine coastal springs related to deep karstic channels. The other study area is located in Santa Cesarea (Italy), encompassing coastal cold springs, the main local source of high quality water, and also a noticeable thermal groundwater outflow. The proposed study shows the preliminary results of the two airborne deployments on these areas. The preprocessing of the multispectral thermal imagery

  2. Geoelectrical investigations by means of resistivity methods in karst areas in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofan, Horia; Povară, Ioan; Mafteiu, Mihai

    2008-07-01

    The applicability of resistivity methods to ground water investigations is well recognized. As water-saturated rock formations have a lower electrical resistivity than dry ones, an electrical resistivity survey should result in low resistivity anomalies. Normally, such anomalies are interpreted to indicate areas of potentially significant ground water flows. In karst areas, however, interpretation may not be as straightforward: for example, large electrically conductive domains can represent water bearing zones, whose fluid-permeability may be poor; alternatively, fast flow conduits, which may be unsaturated, occur as slender objects, and not as clear anomalous features. In order to deal with such extreme heterogeneities, resistivity investigations require some specific adjustments. One example is the so-called “mise à la masse” method. In Romania, it was used to trace the cold karst water inflows that detrimentally affected the commercial exploitation of a thermal spring, Hercules at Baile Herculane. Conventional geoelectrical approaches such as using resistivity highs to detect air-filled cave passages, are proved to be less efficient in the considered karst investigations.

  3. Variation of δ13C in karst soil in Yaji Karst Experiment Site,Guilin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This study deals with δ13C variation in karst soil system of Yaji Karst Experiment Site, Guilin, a typical region of humid subtropical karst formations. Samples of near ground air, plant tissue, soil and water (soil solution and karst spring) were respectively collected on site in different seasons during 1996-1999. Considerable variation of δ13C values are not only found with different carbon pools of soil organic carbon, soil air CO2 and soil water HCO-3, but also with the soil depths and with different seasons during a year.The δ13C values of CO2 both of near ground air and soil air are lower in July than those in April by 1%-4‰ PDB. Our results indicate that the δ13C values of carbon in the water and air are essentially dependent on interface carbon interaction of air-plant--soil-rock--water governed by soil organic carbon and soil CO2 in the system.

  4. Disclosure of funding sources and conflicts of interest in phase III surgical trials: survey of ten general surgery journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridoux, Valérie; Moutel, Grégoire; Schwarz, Lilian; Michot, Francis; Herve, Christian; Tuech, Jean-Jacques

    2014-10-01

    Discussions regarding disclosure of funding sources and conflicts of interest (COI) in published peer-reviewed journal articles are becoming increasingly more common and intense. The aim of the present study was to examine whether randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in leading surgery journals report funding sources and COI. All articles reporting randomized controlled phase III trials published January 2005 through December 2010 were chosen for review from ten international journals. We evaluated the number of disclosed funding sources and COI, and the factors associated with such disclosures. From a review of 657 RCT from the ten journals, we discovered that presence or absence of a funding source and COI was disclosed by 47 % (309) and 25.1 % (165), respectively. Most articles in "International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)-affiliated journals" did not disclose COI. Disclosure of funding was associated with a journal impact factor >3 (51.7 vs 41.6 %; p journal being ICMJE-affiliated (49.3 vs 40 %; p journal not being affiliated with ICMJE (36.9 vs 21.3 %; p < 0.001). Of the published studies we investigated, over half did not disclose funding sources (i.e., whether or not there was a funding source), and almost three quarters did not disclose whether COI existed. Our findings suggest the need to adopt best current practices regarding disclosure of competing interests to fulfill responsibilities to readers and, ultimately, to patients.

  5. A survey of smoking prevalence and interest in quitting among social and community service organisation clients in Australia: a unique opportunity for reaching the disadvantaged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Jamie; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine

    2011-10-26

    Social and community service organisations (SCSOs) are non-government, not-for-profit organisations that provide welfare services to disadvantaged individuals. SCSOs hold considerable potential for providing smoking cessation support to disadvantaged smokers. This study aimed to establish the prevalence of smoking, interest in quitting and interest in receiving cessation support amongst clients accessing SCSOs. Clients seeking financial or material assistance from three SCSOs in NSW, Australia, between February and October 2010 were invited to complete a 60-item general health touch screen computer survey. This included questions about smoking status, past quit attempts and interest in receiving support to quit smoking from SCSO staff. A total of 552 clients were approached to participate during the study period, of which 383 provided consent and completed the survey (69% consent rate). Daily smoking was reported by 53.5% of participants. Occasional smoking (non-daily smoking) was reported by a further 7.9% of participants. Most participants had tried to quit smoking in the past (77%) and had made an average of two quit attempts (SD = 3.2) lasting longer than 24 hours in the previous 12 months. More than half of all participants (52.8%) reported that they would like help from SCSO staff to quit smoking. For those interested in receiving help, the preferred types of help were access to free NRT (77%), cash rewards (52%) and non-cash rewards (47%) for quitting, and to receive support and encouragement from SCSO staff to quit (45%). Smoking rates among clients accessing SCSO are substantially higher than the general population rate of 15.1%. A substantial proportion of clients are interested in quitting and want support from the SCSO to do so.

  6. A survey of smoking prevalence and interest in quitting among social and community service organisation clients in Australia: a unique opportunity for reaching the disadvantaged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Christine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social and community service organisations (SCSOs are non-government, not-for-profit organisations that provide welfare services to disadvantaged individuals. SCSOs hold considerable potential for providing smoking cessation support to disadvantaged smokers. This study aimed to establish the prevalence of smoking, interest in quitting and interest in receiving cessation support amongst clients accessing SCSOs. Methods Clients seeking financial or material assistance from three SCSOs in NSW, Australia, between February and October 2010 were invited to complete a 60-item general health touch screen computer survey. This included questions about smoking status, past quit attempts and interest in receiving support to quit smoking from SCSO staff. Results A total of 552 clients were approached to participate during the study period, of which 383 provided consent and completed the survey (69% consent rate. Daily smoking was reported by 53.5% of participants. Occasional smoking (non-daily smoking was reported by a further 7.9% of participants. Most participants had tried to quit smoking in the past (77% and had made an average of two quit attempts (SD = 3.2 lasting longer than 24 hours in the previous 12 months. More than half of all participants (52.8% reported that they would like help from SCSO staff to quit smoking. For those interested in receiving help, the preferred types of help were access to free NRT (77%, cash rewards (52% and non-cash rewards (47% for quitting, and to receive support and encouragement from SCSO staff to quit (45%. Conclusions Smoking rates among clients accessing SCSO are substantially higher than the general population rate of 15.1%. A substantial proportion of clients are interested in quitting and want support from the SCSO to do so.

  7. Palaeomagnetic research on karst sediments in Slovenia

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    Zupan Hajna Nadja

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We have conducted palaeomagnetic and magnetostratigraphic research on karst sediments in Slovenia since 1997. More than 2,000samples were taken and analysed in 36 different profiles at 21 locations in caves and on the surface. Standard palaeomagnetic analyseswere used (thermal and alternating field demagnetisation, magnetic susceptibility measurements, etc.. There is no evidence of youngermarine deposition than Eocene in the SW part of Slovenia. Younger sediments occur only in caves and very rarely on the karst surface(different soils and a few remains of terrigeneous sediments. Marine and terrestrial Tertiary to Plio–Quaternary deposition occurs in theSE and E Slovenia. Chronostratigraphy of cave sediments in SW Slovenia completed by Rado Gospodarič in the 1980s was basedon Pleistocene warm/cold cycles. Later Th/U dating indicated that speleothems from different caves in Slovenia are older. New datingprincipally results from palaeomagnetism and magnetostratigraphy of cave sediments calibrated, in some sites, by Th/U, palaentologicaland geomorphological analyses. Calibrated data contributed to the reconstruction of speleogenesis, deposition in caves, and indirectly tothe evolution of karst surfaces and succession of tectonic movements. The evolution of caves in the Slovenian territory took part withinone post-Eocene karstification period. This period continues to the present, and can be subdivided into individual, but not well limited,phases related to Cenozoic palaeogeographical changes. The period contains distinct phases of massive deposition in caves with as yetstill preserved sediments dated to about 5.4–4.1 Ma (Miocene–Pliocene, 3.6–1.8 Ma (Pliocene and Quaternary, following the cessationof Miocene deposition in the Pannonian Basin in the central, E and SE Slovenia and post-Messinian evolution in the SW and W Slovenia.

  8. Environmental applications of gravity surveying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrows, L.J. (Illinois State Univ., Normal, IL (United States)); Nesbit, L.C. (KEMRON Environmental Services, Novi, MI (United States)); Khan, W.A. (Environmental Science Engineering, Phoenix, AZ (United States))

    1994-04-01

    The Allis Park Sanitary Landfill Company developed a new landfill near Onway, Michigan in an area which has glacial alluvium and glacial till overlying limestone. There are several solution karst features in the region and some critics had maintained that a new karst collapse could rupture the liner system and allow escape of leachate into the groundwater. The gravity survey was conducted to determine the extent of any karst development at the site. The first portion of the survey was two profiles over some karst features located about five miles southeast of the proposed landfill. These showed negative gravity anomalies. The survey of the proposed landfill site resulted in a 50 microGal contour map of the area and also showed a negative anomaly. This could be due to either elevation variations on the till to limestone bedrock surface or to karst development within the limestone. Because there was no evidence of historic development of new karst features in the region, the gravity anomaly was not further investigated. In another gravity survey, a large retail department store had been remodeled and extended over an area previously occupied by an auto service center. The removal of a waste oil storage tank (UST) had not been documented and the environmental consultant (KEMRON, Inc.) proposed that a gravity survey be used to find the tank location. This proposal was based on calculations of the gravity effects of a UST. The survey resulted in a four-microGal contour map which showed a couple of anomalies which could be due to a tank or a backfilled tank excavation. During the survey, a store employee identified the previous location of the tank and explained that she had personally witnessed its removal. Based on the employee's eye-witness account of the tank removal and the coincidence of her indicated tank location with one of the gravity anomalies the authors recommended the site be granted clean closure.

  9. Effect of global factors on karst formation in Nizhegorodsky oblast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudakov, V. P.; Tsyplakov, V. V.

    2011-05-01

    In studies of the dynamics of the activation of karst and suffosion processes in the karst-hazardous districts of Nizhegorodsky oblast, temporal-spectral and correlation analyses are carried out on multiyear time series data on the number of sinkholes in the town of Dzerzhinsk, fluctuations in the water level in the Oka River, fluctuations in solar activity, and variations in the speed of the Earth's rotation. It is shown that the dynamics of the karst and suffosion processes is related to variations in the regional fluid dynamics, which are controlled, in turn, by fluctuations in solar activity and in the speed of the Earth's rotation.

  10. Karst geomorphology: From hydrological functioning to palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waele, Jo; Gutierrez, Francisco; Audra, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    In January 2015, the first part of the special issue on karst, entitled "Karst geomorphology: From hydrological functioning to palaeoenvironmental reconstructions" was published (Geomorphology, Vol. 229). This second part of the special issue comprises seven research papers covering a broad geographical canvas including Japan, Slovenia, France, Spain, Croatia, and Poland-Ukraine. Both issues mainly emanate from the contributions presented in the Karst session of the 8th International Conference of Geomorphology (International Association of Geomorphologists), held in Paris in August 2013, enriched with some invited papers.

  11. Soil Ecosystem Degradation of Karst Regions in Southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Shi-you; WANG Ju

    2012-01-01

    Deeply influenced by karst geological environment, the structure of the soil ecosystem in the southwest karst area of China is characterized by strong vertical variation and space variation, structural feature of nonrenewable soil, and functional feature of poor circulation of nutrient elements and limited vegetation growth. On the basis of analyzing vulnerability in structure and function of soil ecosystem in China’s southwestern karst regions, we discussed the degradation process and mechanism of soil structure, nutrient, water and microorganism in the course of soil erosion from the perspective of material and energy cycle. Finally, we put forward some recommendations for recovery of degraded soil, transformation and rational utilization of soil.

  12. Karst groundwater: a challenge for new resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalowicz, Michel

    2005-03-01

    Karst aquifers have complex and original characteristics which make them very different from other aquifers: high heterogeneity created and organised by groundwater flow; large voids, high flow velocities up to several hundreds of m/h, high flow rate springs up to some tens of m3/s. Different conceptual models, known from the literature, attempt to take into account all these particularities. The study methods used in classical hydrogeology—bore hole, pumping test and distributed models—are generally invalid and unsuccessful in karst aquifers, because the results cannot be extended to the whole aquifer nor to some parts, as is done in non-karst aquifers. Presently, karst hydrogeologists use a specific investigation methodology (described here), which is comparable to that used in surface hydrology. Important points remain unsolved. Some of them are related to fundamental aspects suc h as the void structure - only a conduit network, or a conduit network plus a porous matrix -, the functioning - threshold effects and non-linearities -, the modeling of the functioning - double or triple porosity, or viscous flow in conduits - and of karst genesis. Some other points deal with practical aspects, such as the assessment of aquifer storage capacity or vulnerability, or the prediction of the location of highly productive zones. Los acuíferos kársticos tienen características originales y complejas que los hacen muy diferentes de otros acuíferos: alta heterogeneidad creada y organizada por el flujo de agua subterránea, espacios grandes, velocidades altas de flujo de hasta varios cientos de m/h, manantiales con ritmo alto de flujo de hasta algunas decenas de m3/s. Diferentes modelos conceptuales que se conocen en la literatura tratan de tomar en cuenta todas estas particularidades. Los métodos de estudio usados en hidrogeología clásica- pozos, pruebas de bombeo y modelos distribuidos- son generalmente inválidos y no exitosos en acuíferos kársticos, debido a que

  13. Thermal damping and retardation in karst conduits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Luhmann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Water temperature is a non-conservative tracer in the environment. Variations in recharge temperature are damped and retarded as water moves through an aquifer due to heat exchange between water and rock. However, within karst aquifers, seasonal and short-term fluctuations in recharge temperature are often transmitted over long distances before they are fully damped. Using analytical solutions and numerical simulations, we develop relationships that describe the effect of flow path properties, flow-through time, recharge characteristics, and water and rock physical properties on the damping and retardation of thermal peaks/troughs in karst conduits. Using these relationships, one can estimate the thermal retardation and damping that would occur under given conditions with a given conduit geometry. Ultimately, these relationships can be used with thermal damping and retardation field data to estimate parameters such as conduit diameter. We also examine sets of numerical experiments where we relax some of the assumptions used to develop these relationships, testing the effects of variable diameter, variable velocity, open channels, and recharge shape on thermal damping and retardation to provide some constraints on uncertainty. Finally, we discuss a tracer experiment that provides field confirmation of our relationships. High temporal resolution water temperature data are required to obtain sufficient constraints on the magnitude and timing of thermal peaks and troughs in order to take full advantage of water temperature as a tracer.

  14. South Texas Quaternary karst: Paleoclimatic implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prouty, J.S. (Corpus Christi State Univ., TX (United States)); Lovejoy, D.W. (W. Palm Beach Atlantic Coll., FL (United States))

    1993-02-01

    A beachrock correlative with the Ingleside complex of the late Pleistocene Beaumont Formation crops out discontinuously along the mainland shore of Laguna Madre, extending approximately 10 km southward from Baffin Bay, Texas. Carbon-14 dating yields ages of 23, 430 to 33,390 yrs. B.P.; the beachrock formed along a Gulf shoreline in a zone of converging longshore currents during the last sea level highstand of the late Wisconsinan. The beachrock shows intense karstification. Vertical, steep-walled solution pipes penetrate the outcrops, and reddish-brown laminated caliche crusts coat outcrop surfaces and solution-pipe walls in many places. These karst features probably formed by subaerial exposure and weathering of the beachrock during the latest sea level lowstand. Today in semiarid South Texas, rainfall averages only 28 inches per year. Local features of late Pleistocene age include river gravels coarser than modern loads of those same rivers, and relict drainage networks far denser than modern ones. Such features indicate that during the late Pleistocene this region was more humid than now. Karst is typical of humid to subhumid climates, also suggesting that during karstification of the beachrock wetter climates prevailed.

  15. Gypsum karst in Italy: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waele, Jo; Chiarini, Veronica; Columbu, Andrea; D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Piccini, Leonardo; Vattano, Marco; Vigna, Bartolomeo; Zini, Luca; Forti, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Although outcropping only rarely in Italy, gypsum karst has been described in detail since the early XXth century (Marinelli, 1917). Gypsum caves are now known from almost all Italian regions (Madonia & Forti, 2003), but are mainly localised along the northern border of the Apennine chain (Emilia Romagna and Marche regions), Calabria, and Sicily, where the major outcrops occur. Recently, important caves have also been discovered in the underground gypsum quarries in Piedmont (Vigna et al., 2010). During the late 80s and 90s several multidisciplinary studies have been carried out in many gypsum areas. All this work converged into a comprehensive overview in 2003 (Madonia & Forti, 2003). Further detailed studies focused on the gypsum areas of Emilia Romagna (Chiesi et al., 2010; Forti & Lucci, 2010; Demaria et al., 2012; De Waele & Pasini, 2013; Ercolani et al., 2013; Columbu et al., 2015; Lucci & Piastra, 2015; Tedeschi et al., 2015) and of Sicily (Madonia & Vattano, 2011). Sinkholes related to Permo-Triassic gypsum have been studied in Friuli Venezia Giulia (Zini et al., 2015). This presentation will review the state of the art regarding different aspects of evaporite karst in Italy focusing on the main new results. References Chiesi M., et al. (2010) - Origin and evolution of a salty gypsum/anhydrite karst spring: the case of Poiano (Northern Apennines, Italy). Hydrogeology Journal, 18, pp. 1111-1124. Columbu A. et al. (2015) - Gypsum caves as indicators of climate-driven river incision and aggradation in a rapidly uplifting region. Geology, 43(6), 539-542. Demaria D. et al. (Eds.) (2012), Le Grotte Bolognesi, GSB-USB, 431 p. De Waele J., Pasini G. (2013) - Intra-messinian gypsum palaeokarst in the northern Apennines and its palaeogeographic implications. Terra Nova 25, pp. 199-205. Ercolani M., et al. (Eds.) (2013), I Gessi e la Cave i Monte Tondo. Studio multidisciplinare di un'area carsica nella Vena del Gesso Romagnola. Memorie Ist. It. Spel. II(26), 559 p

  16. Main karst and caves of Switzerland; El karst y las cuevas mas importantes de Suiza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeannin, P. Y.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of the main karst areas and cave systems in Switzerland. The first part encloses descriptions of the main geological units that hold karst and caves in the country and summarizes a brief history of research and protection of the cave environments. The second part presents three regions enclosing large cave systems. Two regions in the Alps enclose some of the largest limestone caves in Europe: Siebenhengste (Siebenhengste cave system with ∼160 km and Barenschacht with 70 km) and Bodmeren-Silberen (Holloch cave system with 200 km and Silberen System with 39 km). These systems are also among the deepest with depths ranging between 880 and 1340 m. The third example is from the Jura Mountains (northern Switzerland). (Author)

  17. Climate, karst, and critters—A multidisciplinary evaluation of karst species vulnerability to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, B. J.; Musgrove, M.; Long, A. J.; Stamm, J. F.; Poteet, M. F.; Symstad, A.

    2015-12-01

    The complex hydrologic regimes of karst aquifers respond rapidly to the effects of climate change, and unique biological communities associated with karst are sensitive to hydrologic changes. To explore how climate change might affect karst-dependent species, we coupled a climate-change model, a hydrologic model, and a vulnerability assessment tool to evaluate projected hydrologic change and vulnerability of selected species at sites in the karstic Edwards aquifer (Texas) and Madison aquifer (South Dakota). The Advanced Research Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF) model was used to simulate projected climate from 2011 to 2050 at a 36-km grid spacing for 3 weather stations near the study sites. Daily climate projections from the WRF model were used as input for the hydrologic Rainfall-Response Aquifer and Watershed Flow (RRAWFLOW) model and the Climate Change Vulnerability Index (CCVI). RRAWFLOW is a lumped-parameter model that simulates hydrologic response at a single site, superposing the quick- and slow-flow responses that commonly characterize karst aquifers. CCVI uses historical and projected climate and hydrologic metrics to assess the vulnerability of a species. An upward trend in temperature was projected at all three weather stations; there was a trend (downward) in precipitation only for the Texas weather station. A downward trend in mean annual spring flow or groundwater level was projected for the three Edwards sites, but there was no significant trend for the two Madison sites. Of 16 Edwards aquifer species evaluated, 10 were scored as highly or moderately vulnerable under the projected climate change scenario. In contrast, all 8 Madison aquifer species evaluated were scored as moderately vulnerable, stable, or intermediate between the two. The inclusion of hydrologic projections in the vulnerability assessment was essential for interpreting the effects of climate change on aquatic species of conservation concern such as endemic salamanders.

  18. Stability analysis of subgrade cave roofs in karst region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋冲; 赵明华; 曹文贵

    2008-01-01

    According to the engineering features of subgrade cave roof in karst region, the clamped beam model of subgrade cave roof in karst region was set up. Based on the catastrophe theory, the cusp catastrophe model for bearing capacity of subgrade cave roof and safe thickness of subgrade cave roof in karst region was established. The necessary instability conditions of subgrade cave roof were deduced, and then the methods to determine safe thickness of cave roofs under piles and bearing capacity of subgrade cave roof were proposed. At the same time, a practical engineering project was applied to verifying this method, which has been proved successfu1ly. At last, the major factors that affect the stability on cave roof under pile in karst region were deeply discussed and some results in quality were acquired.

  19. Challenges of using electrical resistivity method to locate karst conduits-A field case in the Inner Bluegrass Region, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J.; Currens, J.C.; Dinger, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Conduits serve as major pathways for groundwater flow in karst aquifers. Locating them from the surface, however, is one of the most challenging tasks in karst research. Geophysical methods are often deployed to help locate voids by mapping variations of physical properties of the subsurface. Conduits can cause significant contrasts of some physical properties that can be detected; other subsurface features such as water-bearing fractures often yield similar contrasts, which are difficult to distinguish from the effects of the conduits. This study used electrical resistivity method to search for an unmapped karst conduit that recharges Royal Spring in the Inner Bluegrass karst region, Kentucky, USA. Three types of resistivity techniques (surface 2D survey, quasi-3D survey, and time-lapse survey) were used to map and characterize resistivity anomalies. Some of the major anomalies were selected as drilling targets to verify the existence of the conduits. Drilling near an anomaly identified by an electrical resistivity profile resulted in successful penetration of a major water-filled conduit. The drilling results also suggest that, in this study area, low resistivity anomalies in general are associated with water-bearing features. However, differences in the anomaly signals between the water-filled conduit and other water-bearing features such as water-filled fracture zones were undistinguishable. The electrical resistivity method is useful in conduit detection by providing potential drilling targets. Knowledge of geology and hydrogeology about the site and professional judgment also played important roles in locating the major conduit. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Morphostructural Development of Gunungsewu Karst, Jawa Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Tjia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i2.157Gunungsewu Karst (also known as Sewu karst in the literature is synonymous with morphology of a carbonate terrain dominated by hills crowned by accordant-level tops that developed in a humid tropical environment by comparatively more rapid dissolution and denudation. In addition, the hills are sinoid to cone-shaped. Surface drainage is negligible compared to subsurface water flow. Abandoned channel segments and spatial arrangements of karst hills have been found to correspond with fracture patterns that are genetically associated with the regional compression direction of Jawa Island. Images derived from space platforms show many landform patterns that were neither known from ground-based nor from aerial photograph study. Landforms arranged in ring, multi-ring, spiral, polygonal, and long linear to serpentine patterns are common beside the expected depressions of dolines, poljes, and uvalas. The orientations of the long linear ridges appear to change systematically from those near the coast to those located inland. These linear ridges are interpreted as depositional fronts, most likely representing breaker zones. The youngest depositional ridge fronts, located nearest to the present shoreline, are parallel to the geological strike of Jawa Island. Toward the island’s interior, linear depositional fronts deviate in orientation by as much as 40o. This is now interpreted to have resulted from counterclockwise rotation of the Gunungsewu microplate since the late Middle Miocene. Similar CCW rotations are indicated by the paleomagnetic orientations of igneous rocks located farther east in the southern range of the island. Active tectonics is expressed in stage-wise net uplift of Gunungsewu whereas regional tilting appears negligible. Stacked and often paired river terraces (thus suggesting land uplift have been used to relatively date paleoarcheological finds. Very recent uplift on the coast show up in lazy-V limestone

  1. Morphostructural Development of Gunungsewu Karst, Jawa Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Tjia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i2.157Gunungsewu Karst (also known as Sewu karst in the literature is synonymous with morphology of a carbonate terrain dominated by hills crowned by accordant-level tops that developed in a humid tropical environment by comparatively more rapid dissolution and denudation. In addition, the hills are sinoid to cone-shaped. Surface drainage is negligible compared to subsurface water flow. Abandoned channel segments and spatial arrangements of karst hills have been found to correspond with fracture patterns that are genetically associated with the regional compression direction of Jawa Island. Images derived from space platforms show many landform patterns that were neither known from ground-based nor from aerial photograph study. Landforms arranged in ring, multi-ring, spiral, polygonal, and long linear to serpentine patterns are common beside the expected depressions of dolines, poljes, and uvalas. The orientations of the long linear ridges appear to change systematically from those near the coast to those located inland. These linear ridges are interpreted as depositional fronts, most likely representing breaker zones. The youngest depositional ridge fronts, located nearest to the present shoreline, are parallel to the geological strike of Jawa Island. Toward the island’s interior, linear depositional fronts deviate in orientation by as much as 40o. This is now interpreted to have resulted from counterclockwise rotation of the Gunungsewu microplate since the late Middle Miocene. Similar CCW rotations are indicated by the paleomagnetic orientations of igneous rocks located farther east in the southern range of the island. Active tectonics is expressed in stage-wise net uplift of Gunungsewu whereas regional tilting appears negligible. Stacked and often paired river terraces (thus suggesting land uplift have been used to relatively date paleoarcheological finds. Very recent uplift on the coast show up in lazy-V limestone

  2. Chemograph analysis of two herbicides in a German karst aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillebrand, Olav; Nödler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias; Sauter, Martin; Geyer, Tobias

    2013-04-01

    The dynamic of spring discharge of mature karst aquifers shows after strong precipitation events: Karst spring discharge increases rapidly and strongly, the chemical composition of the spring water is altered and contaminants may be transported from the land-surface towards the spring with the percolating rainwater. Contrary to rapid water transport, high travel times have been observed for parts of the spring discharge, employing stable isotopes as indicators. Monitoring the concentrations of Ca2+ and Cl- in spring water after a precipitation event one may observe the following: After a first increase, the concentrations of Ca2+ drop below the pre-event value, due to dilution with lowly mineralized rain water. On the other hand the concentrations of Cl- increase quickly and return to their background values nearly as fast. This difference in behavior arises from the different origins of these two inorganic ions. Ca2+ in spring water originates mainly from the dissolution of the carbonatic bedrock, while Cl- might be transported from the land-surface (e.g. from road salt) towards the spring. To investigate the dynamic of water in the Gallusquelle catchment in southwest Germany a one year sampling campaign was conducted, using different herbicides as indicator compounds. Depending on discharge conditions the sampling interval varied between 3 hours and several days. Among others, the currently applied and chemically unstable metazachlor was observed together with atrazine, which is prohibited since more than 20 years in Germany. While the detection frequency of atrazine in the spring water samples was nearly 100%, the concentrations ranged only up to 5.2 ng/L. On the other hand, the currently applied metazachlor was only detected in 30.7% of the samples, but its maximum concentration was 71.9 ng/L. An interesting feature was the different temporal concentration pattern of the two investigated herbicides: After precipitation events the concentration of metazachlor in

  3. The karst network system of the Sierra de las Nieves (Malaga, Spain). An example of a high relief Mediterranean karst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo-Iguzquiza, E.; Duran, J. J.; Robledo-Ardila, P.; Luque-Espinar, J. A.; Martos-Rosillo, S.; Guardiola-Albert, C.; Pedrera, A.

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this work is the stochastic simulation of a network of karst conduits in a high relief karst system. The simulation completes the existing cave mapping provided by speleological exploration and connects the recharge area with the discharge at the karst springs. The Sierra de las Nieves karst system is a high relief Mediterranean karst that has allowed the development of a system of large conduits and caves. The system follows the typical pattern of an alpine karst system with two characteristic zones where the development of the caves is different. The first zone, with a mean altitude of 1 750 m a.s.l., the Hoyas del Pilar and Torrecilla, is the area with highest altitude where recharge takes place and where the entrance potholes to the system are located. In this zone the cave system has a development mainly along the vertical (with 1,000 m of vertical development along a few hundreds of metres of horizontal development) with large shafts and narrow and steep meanders, until the local base level is reached at 700 m a.s.l. In the second zone, the system has a quasi-horizontal development with 300 m of altitude difference for 7 km in the horizontal until the base level of the system at the Rio Grande Spring (450 m a.s.l.). The transition between both zones is dominated by the presence of sumps where the conduits have vertical ondulations. The connectivity between the entrance and the resurgence has been demonstrated, in the past, by tracer tests. The system of super caves has been made possible because of the favourable conjunction of lithological, structural, geomorphological, hydrogeological and climatic factors. Geomorphic indices are introduced to describe the three-dimensional karst networks so the known network can be completed (i.e. simulated), taking into account statistical and probabilistic criteria. The simulated system can be used for the mathematical flow simulation of the karst system. (Author)

  4. Karst Geomophology and Hazards in Bijie, Guizhou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dachang

    2010-05-01

    The largest intensively karstified area in China is in the Southwest China, including Guangxi, Guizhou, and Yunnan provinces. Bijie Prefecture lies in the fragile karst ecological high mountains of Guizhou, and is one of the country's poorest regions, characterized with serious soil erosion and rock desertification, companied with thin-poor soil, aridlands, waterlog, mud-rock flow, landslide, ground cracks, ground subsidence, difficulty in the rural water supply, slope degraded ecosystem, etc. To lift the people especially the farmers out of poverty and backwardness, Bijie Prefecture is set up as the national "Developing Anti-poverty, Ecological Construction" theme pilot area, providing the necessary experience of the coexist in harmony and sustainable development between man and nature. The main task is to control rock-desertification. However, most, if not all efforts, have encountered difficulties. (1) The karst water system characterized by groundriver and rapid conduit flow cannot provide a stable, adequate source of drinking water, not to mention the irrigation water. (2) Plants on the arid slopes, owing to the lack of water and fertilizer, grow slowly and unhealth and cannot help much to improve land carrying capacity in a very long period of time. (3) The current ecological rehabilitation or reconstruction measures cannot stop the continuing expansion of the land rocky desertification, and elimination of frequent droughts alternating flood disaster in many depressions. (4) The harmony is still not reached between economic development and ecosystem rehabilitation or reconstruction, and as a result, the farmers are still in poverty. It is a goal of historic significance to actively exploring the innovation and breakthrough in the scientific theory, method and technology to promote the pilot area changing from the rocky desertification to a beautiful ecological environment, endeavour to achieve economic and social growth by leaps and bounds.

  5. Management Can Reduce Mobility of Escherichia coli compared to traditional groundwater tracers within karst terrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    An understanding of fundamental processes controlling pathogen movement is necessary to protect water resources across the globe. Limited filtration and turbulent flow make karst aquifers susceptible to microbial contamination. Groundwater tracers typically used in karst terrains include fluorescent...

  6. Fracture characterization and discrimination criteria for karst and tectonic fractures in the Ellenburger Group, West Texas: Implications for reservoir and exploration models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoak, T.E. [Science Applications International Corp., Germantown, MD (United States)]|[Kestrel Geoscience, Littleton, CO (United States); Sundberg, K.R. [Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States); Deyhim, P. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Ortoleva, P. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Lab. for Computational Geodynamics

    1998-12-31

    In the Ellenburger Group fractured dolomite reservoirs of West Texas, it is extremely difficult to distinguish between multiple phases of karst-related fracturing, modifications to the karst system during burial, and overprinting tectonic fractures. From the analyses of drill core, the authors developed criteria to distinguish between karst and tectonic fractures. In addition, they have applied these criteria within the context of a detailed diagenetic cement history that allows them to further refine the fracture genesis and chronology. In these analyses, the authors evaluated the relationships between fracture intensity, morphologic attributes, host lithology, fracture cement, and oil-staining. From this analysis, they have been able to characterize variations in Ellenburger tectonic fracture intensity by separating these fractures from karst-related features. In general, the majority of fracturing in the Ellenburger is caused by karst-related fracturing although a considerable percentage is caused by tectonism. These findings underscore the importance of considering the complete geologic evolution of a karst reservoir during exploration and field development programs. The authors have been able to more precisely define the spatial significance of the fracture data sets by use of oriented core from Andector Field. They have also demonstrated the importance of these results for exploration and reservoir development programs in West Texas, and the potential to extrapolate these results around the globe. Given the historic interest in the large hydrocarbon reserves in West Texas carbonate reservoirs, results of this study will have tremendous implications for exploration and production strategies targeting vuggy, fractured carbonate systems not only in West Texas, but throughout the globe.

  7. The impact of human activities on the natural geoheritage and its effects on geodiversity. The case of the Italian karst areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureti, Lamberto

    2017-04-01

    In Italy the karst environments represent nearly half of the mountainous areas, with typical aspects characterized by a strong articulation of the relief, often induced by recent tectonic evolution, with closed depressions and plateaus, steep slopes, sharp interface soil-rocks and soil sediments inside the fissures and rock cavities. From the middle Holocene the human impact in the italian karst areas cleared the original extensive sclerophyllous forests in order to utilize space for grazing and agriculture, but favoured in this way the erosion of the soil cover and, in time, caused a nearly complete desertification of many mountain slopes. The forms of impact were and are represented by slope terracing for intensive agriculture, large use of fertilizer and pesticides, stocking of bio-masses of cattle, pigs and chickens in small areas, opening of quarries and mines, besides other interventions. Among all the forms of human impact, the mining and quarrying activities are responsible of high deterioration of the karst environment as a consequence of great rocks excavations and movements, together with metal polluted waters leaking. After the closure and the abandonment of the nearly all Italian metal mines, especially in Sardinia but also in the Alpine ore districts, the quarries excavation is really the main threat towards the Italian karst areas, because of the increase of the stony materials international market. By this regard, in this poster are showed the case studies referring to the Lombard Prealpine karst plateaus (where many interesting caves were destroyed) and to the karst systems of the Apuane Alps (Tuscany), where the quarries of the famous "Carrara marble" endangered the same great "Antro di Corchia", today preserved by the creation of a natural park.

  8. Geophysical characterization of karst features above an underground mine near Quincy, Il

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, Vitaliy Alekseyevich

    Extensive knowledge of subsurface structure is required for safe underground mining. Fractures and unexpected caves may make mining dangerous and/or impossible. The purpose of this study was to assess various geophysical methods that can identify karst cavities and associated features in bedrock to depths of up to 30 m. Two-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), azimuthal resistivity (AR), electromagnetic (EM) conductivity, seismic refraction, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys were made over a known cavity in the Mississippian Haight Creek dolomite near Quincy, IL. The dolomite is covered by approximately 20-30 m of glacial deposits. ERT and EM methods were used along multiple lines to detect spatial changes in subsurface structure, whereas AR was used to investigate electrical anisotropy in the subsurface. GPR surveys were conducted over the GPS location of the cavity. Seismic refraction surveys attempted to determine depth to bedrock in the vicinity of the karst feature. Nearby soil pipes and fractures may be a surface manifestation of this feature. The ERT surveys used a dipole-dipole array with maximum electrode spacing of 6 m and total line length of 114 m to achieve an approximate depth penetration of 24 m. AR measurements consisted of Wenner array soundings along lines of varying azimuth. EM surveys, performed with 40 m coil spacing, achieved a maximum signal response from 20-30 m depth in the vertical dipole mode. GPR surveys were made with 25 and 50 MHz antennas. Seismic experiments used a sledgehammer source and a 24-channel seismograph with 5 m geophone spacing. The EM conductivity method proved to be the most effective at delineating the target feature. Distinct high-conductivity anomalies were detected in the vicinity of the solution cavity, suggesting that it is filled with soil and/or water. Additional high-conductivity anomalies were also observed and may mean that undiscovered karst features are present to the south

  9. U.S. Geological Survey Subsidence Interest Group conference, Edwards Air Force Base, Antelope Valley, California, November 18-19, 1992; abstracts and summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Keith R.; Galloway, Devin L.; Leake, Stanley A.

    1995-01-01

    with this unprecedented increase in pumpage, substantial amounts of land subsidence were observed in several areas of the United States, most notably in Arizona, California, and Texas. Beginning in 1955, under the direction of Joseph Poland, the Geological Survey began the "Mechanics of Aquifers Project," which focused largely on the processes that resulted in land subsidence due to the withdrawal of ground water. This research team gained international renown as they advanced the scientific understanding of aquifer mechanics and land-subsidence theory. The results of field studies by members of this research group not only verified the validity of the application of Terzaghi's consolidation theory to compressible aquifers, but they also provided definitions, methods of quantification, and confirmation of the interrelation among hydraulic head declines, aquifer-system compaction, and land subsidence. In addition to conducting pioneering research, this group also formed a "center of expertise," providing a focal point within the Geological Survey for the dissemination of technology and scientific understanding in aquifer mechanics. However, when the "Mechanics of Aquifers Project" was phased out in 1984, the focal point for technology transfer no longer existed. Interest among various state and local agencies in land subsidence has persisted, and the Geological Survey has continued to participate in a broad spectrum of cooperative and Federally funded projects in aquifer mechanics and land subsidence. These projects are designed to identify and monitor areas with the potential for land subsidence, to conduct basic research in the processes that control land subsidence and the development of earth fissures, as well as to develop new quantitative tools to predict aquifer-system deformation. In 1989 an ad hoc "Aquifer Mechanics and Subsidence Interest Group" (referred to herein as the "Subsidence Interest Group") was formed

  10. Karst rocky desertification information extraction with EO-1 Hyperion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yuemin; Wang, Kelin; Zhang, Bing; Jiao, Quanjun; Yu, Yizun

    2008-12-01

    Karst rocky desertification is a special kind of land desertification developed under violent human impacts on the vulnerable eco-geo-environment of karst ecosystem. The process of karst rocky desertification results in simultaneous and complex variations of many interrelated soil, rock and vegetation biogeophysical parameters, rendering it difficult to develop simple and robust remote sensing mapping and monitoring approaches. In this study, we aimed to use Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) Hyperion hyperspectral data to extract the karst rocky desertification information. A spectral unmixing model based on Monte Carlo approach, was employed to quantify the fractional cover of photosynthetic vegetation (PV), non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) and bare substrates. The results showed that SWIR (1.9-2.35μm) portions of the spectrum were significantly different in PV, NPV and bare rock spectral properties. It has limitations in using full optical range or only SWIR (1.9-2.35μm) region of Hyperion to decompose image into PV, NPV and bare substrates covers. However, when use the tied-SWIR, the sub-pixel fractional covers of PV, NPV and bare substrates were accurately estimated. Our study indicates that the "tied-spectrum" method effectively accentuate the spectral characteristics of materials, while the spectral unmixing model based on Monte Carlo approach is a useful tool to automatically extract mixed ground objects in karst ecosystem. Karst rocky desertification information can be accurately extracted with EO-1 Hyperion. Imaging spectroscopy can provide a powerful methodology toward understanding the extent and spatial pattern of land degradation in karst ecosystem.

  11. Anthropogenic contaminants as tracers in an urbanizing karst aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara; Massei, Nicolas

    2007-04-01

    Karst aquifers are uniquely vulnerable to contamination. In the Barton Springs segment of the karstic Edwards aquifer (Texas, U.S.A.), urban contaminants such as pesticides and volatile organic compounds frequently are detected in spring base flow. To determine whether contaminant concentrations change in response to storms, and if they therefore might act as tracers of focused recharge, samples were collected from Barton Springs at closely spaced intervals following three storms. Two herbicides (atrazine and simazine), two insecticides (carbaryl and diazinon), and a solvent (tetrachloroethene) described breakthrough curves over a 1-week period following one or more storms. The breakthrough curves were decomposed into two to five log-normal subcurves, which were interpreted as representing pulses of contaminants moving through the aquifer. Each subcurve could be used in the same way as an artificial tracer to determine travel time to and recovery at the spring. The contaminants have several advantages over artificial tracers: they represent the actual compounds of interest, they are injected essentially simultaneously at several points, and they are injected under those conditions when transport is of the most interest, i.e., following storms. The response of storm discharge, specific conductance, and contaminant loading at the spring depended on initial aquifer flow conditions, which varied from very low (spring discharge of 0.48 m 3/s) to high (spring discharge of 2.7 m 3/s): concentrations and recovery were the highest when initial aquifer flow conditions were low. This behavior provides information about aquifer structure and the influence of aquifer flow condition on transport properties.

  12. Use of stable isotope-labeled Escherichia coli as a tracer in karst aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial contamination of karst aquifers is a large concern across the globe, yet bacterial transport in karst aquifers is not currently well understood. Groundwater tracers typically used in karst systems include fluorescent dyes and latex microspheres. Not only can these tracers can be cost-prohi...

  13. Equivalent Porous Media (EPM) Simulation of Groundwater Hydraulics and Contaminant Transport in Karst Aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemizadeh, Reza; Yu, Xue; Butscher, Christoph; Hellweger, Ferdi; Padilla, Ingrid; Alshawabkeh, Akram

    2015-01-01

    Karst aquifers have a high degree of heterogeneity and anisotropy in their geologic and hydrogeologic properties which makes predicting their behavior difficult. This paper evaluates the application of the Equivalent Porous Media (EPM) approach to simulate groundwater hydraulics and contaminant transport in karst aquifers using an example from the North Coast limestone aquifer system in Puerto Rico. The goal is to evaluate if the EPM approach, which approximates the karst features with a conceptualized, equivalent continuous medium, is feasible for an actual project, based on available data and the study scale and purpose. Existing National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) data and previous hydrogeological U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies were used to define the model input parameters. Hydraulic conductivity and specific yield were estimated using measured groundwater heads over the study area and further calibrated against continuous water level data of three USGS observation wells. The water-table fluctuation results indicate that the model can practically reflect the steady-state groundwater hydraulics (normalized RMSE of 12.4%) and long-term variability (normalized RMSE of 3.0%) at regional and intermediate scales and can be applied to predict future water table behavior under different hydrogeological conditions. The application of the EPM approach to simulate transport is limited because it does not directly consider possible irregular conduit flow pathways. However, the results from the present study suggest that the EPM approach is capable to reproduce the spreading of a TCE plume at intermediate scales with sufficient accuracy (normalized RMSE of 8.45%) for groundwater resources management and the planning of contamination mitigation strategies.

  14. Karst catchments exhibited higher degradation stress from climate change than the non-karst catchments in southwest China: An ecohydrological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meixian; Xu, Xianli; Wang, Dingbao; Sun, Alexander Y.; Wang, Kelin

    2016-04-01

    Karst landform represents about 10% of the continental area and plays key roles in water supplies for almost a quarter of the global population. Knowledge of ecohydrological responses of karst landform to climate change is critical for both water resources management and ecological protection in these regions. This study investigated the effects of karst landform on the elasticity of actual evapotranspiration (derived by the Budyko equation), estimated the contribution of climate change and evaluated the implications, on the basis of 13 typical catchments that have different karst landform coverages in southwest China. Catchment properties, including the vegetation coverage, portion of karst landform (POK), drainage area, surface roughness, mean topographic wetness index, mean slope, and mean aspect, were selected to test the influencing factors for the elasticity of actual evapotranspiration. Results indicate that POK is the most influencing factor for the elasticity of actual evapotranspiration in this region. Moreover, the actual evapotranspiration in karst catchments is more sensitive to precipitation change and less sensitive to the potential evapotranspiration change than that in the non-karst catchments. On the other hand, the contribution of climate change to actual evapotranspiration was generally negative in this region. Furthermore, relatively large negative contributions mainly occurred in the karst-dominated catchments, suggesting that the karst catchments were exposed to higher degradation stress brought by the climate change than that in non-karst catchments.

  15. Identifying the impact of climate and anthropic pressures on karst aquifers using wavelet analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, Jean-Baptiste; Ladouche, Bernard; Maréchal, Jean-Christophe

    2015-04-01

    This paper assesses the implications of climate and anthropic pressures on short to long-term changes in water resources in a Mediterranean karst using wavelet analysis. This approach was tested on 38-year (1974-2011) hydrogeological time series recorded at the Lez spring (South France), which is exploited for water supply. Firstly, we investigated inter-relationships in the frequency domain by cross-correlation across multiresolution levels. Our results showed that rainfall and spring discharge are highly correlated in the high frequency domain which reflects the hydrogeological response during flood events of typical highly karstified systems. Pumping and groundwater level are correlated in a lower frequency domain, illustrating seasonal to multi-year relationships. Secondly, continuous wavelet transform was applied to characterize the temporal variability of the inter-relationships involved. On the contrary to examples of "non-managed" karst aquifers in the literature, our results showed that the 10-year rainfall component was attenuate in the discharge signal. We assume that the reason is that the storage variations are strongly affected by pumping. This interesting result shows that possible long-term impacts of rainfall variability due to climate change may be masked by a high pumping rate. We showed also that despite an increase of the pumping rate from the 1980s, the stress on the groundwater resource does not increase from year to year. The present pumping strategy does not affect the drawdown in the long term, avoiding an over-exploitation of the aquifer. Finally, this study highlights the effectiveness of wavelet analysis in characterizing the response variability of karst systems where the hydrogeological regime is modified by pumping.

  16. Hydrochemistry and coal mining activity induced karst water quality degradation in the Niangziguan karst water system, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaobo; Li, Xue; Gao, Xubo

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogeochemical analysis, statistical analysis, and geochemical modeling were employed to evaluate the impacts of coal mining activities on karst water chemistry in Niangziguan spring catchment, one of the largest karst springs in Northern China. Significant water quality deterioration was observed along the flow path, evidenced from the increasing sulfate, nitrate, and TDS content in karst water. Karst water samples are Ca-Mg-HCO3 type in the recharge areas, Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4 type in the coal mining areas, and Ca-Mg-SO4-HCO3/HCO3-SO4 type in the rural areas and discharge areas. A four-factor principal component analysis (PCA) model is conducted which explains over 82.9% of the total variation. Factor 1, which explained the largest portion (45.33%) of the total variance, reveals that coal mining activities and natural water-rock interaction as the primary factors controlling karst water quality. Anthropogenic effects were recognized as the secondary factor with high positive loadings for NO3 (-) and Cl(-) in the model. The other two factors are co-precipitation removal of trace elements and silicate mineral dissolution, which explained 20.96% of the total variance. A two-end mixing modeling was proposed to estimate the percentage of coal wastewater giving on karst water chemistry, based on the groundwater sulfate chemistry constrains rather than sulfur isotopes. Uncertainty of sulfur isotope sources led to an overestimation of coal mining water contribution. According to the results of the modeling, the contribution of coal mining waste on karst water chemistry was quantified to be from 27.05 to 1.11% which is ca. three times lower than the values suggested using a sulfur isotope method.

  17. Soil nitrogen biogeochemical cycles in karst ecosystems, southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dejun; Chen, Hao; Xiao, Kongcao; Wang, Kelin

    2017-04-01

    Soil nitrogen (N) status are crucial for ecosystem development and carbon sequestration. Although most terrestrial ecosystems are proposed to be limited by N, some tropical low-land forests have been found to be N saturated. Nevertheless, soil N status in the karst ecosystems of southwest China have not been well assessed so far. In the present study, N status in the karst ecosystems were evaluated based on several lines of evidence. Bulk N content increased rapidly along a post-agricultural succession sequence including cropland, grassland, shrubland, secondary forest and primary forest. Across the sequence, soil N accumulated with an average rate of 12.4 g N m-2 yr-1. Soil N stock recovered to the primary forest level in about 67 years following agricultural abandonment. Nitrate concentrations increased while ammonium concentrations decreased with years following agricultural abandonment. N release from bedrock weathering was likely a potential N source in addition to atmospheric N deposition and biological N fixation. Both gross N mineralization and nitrification (GN) rates decreased initially and then increased greatly following agricultural abandonment. The rate of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) was highest in the shrubland while lowest in the cropland and forest. Across the vegetation types, DNRA was lowest among the gross rates. Gross ammonium immobilization (GAI) tended to decrease while there was no clear variation pattern for gross nitrate immobilization during the post-agricultural succession. DNRA and nitrate assimilation combined only accounted for 22% to 57% of gross nitrification across the vegetation types. Due to the high nitrate production while low nitrate consumption, net nitrate production was found to vary following the pattern of gross nitrification and explained 69% of soil nitrate variance. Comparison of gross N transformations between a secondary karst forest and an adjacent non-karst forest showed that the gross rates

  18. Extending GIS Technology to Study Karst Features of Southeastern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Tipping, R. G.; Alexander, E. C.; Alexander, S. C.

    2001-12-01

    This paper summarizes ongoing research on karst feature distribution of southeastern Minnesota. The main goals of this interdisciplinary research are: 1) to look for large-scale patterns in the rate and distribution of sinkhole development; 2) to conduct statistical tests of hypotheses about the formation of sinkholes; 3) to create management tools for land-use managers and planners; and 4) to deliver geomorphic and hydrogeologic criteria for making scientifically valid land-use policies and ethical decisions in karst areas of southeastern Minnesota. Existing county and sub-county karst feature datasets of southeastern Minnesota have been assembled into a large GIS-based database capable of analyzing the entire data set. The central database management system (DBMS) is a relational GIS-based system interacting with three modules: GIS, statistical and hydrogeologic modules. ArcInfo and ArcView were used to generate a series of 2D and 3D maps depicting karst feature distributions in southeastern Minnesota. IRIS ExplorerTM was used to produce satisfying 3D maps and animations using data exported from GIS-based database. Nearest-neighbor analysis has been used to test sinkhole distributions in different topographic and geologic settings. All current nearest-neighbor analyses testify that sinkholes in southeastern Minnesota are not evenly distributed in this area (i.e., they tend to be clustered). More detailed statistical methods such as cluster analysis, histograms, probability estimation, correlation and regression have been used to study the spatial distributions of some mapped karst features of southeastern Minnesota. A sinkhole probability map for Goodhue County has been constructed based on sinkhole distribution, bedrock geology, depth to bedrock, GIS buffer analysis and nearest-neighbor analysis. A series of karst features for Winona County including sinkholes, springs, seeps, stream sinks and outcrop has been mapped and entered into the Karst Feature Database

  19. Gaps in Political Interest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robison, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    sought to measure respondents’ general interest in politics by asking them how often they follow public affairs. In this article, we uncover novel sources of measurement error concerning this question. We first show that other nationally representative surveys that frequently use this item deliver......Political interest fundamentally influences political behavior, knowledge, and persuasion (Brady, Verba, & Schlozman, 1995; Delli Carpini & Keeter, 1996; Luskin, 1990; Zukin, Andolina, Keeter, Jenkins, & Delli Carpini, 2006). Since the early 1960s, the American National Election Studies (ANES) has...... drastically higher estimates of mass interest. We then use a survey experiment included on a wave of the ANES’ Evaluating Government and Society Surveys (EGSS) to explore the influence of question order in explaining this systemic gap in survey results. We show that placing batteries of political...

  20. Morphology, genesis and distribution of subsidence features in Dinaric karst in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihevc, Andrej

    2016-04-01

    Dinaric karst is built mostly of Mesozoic limestones and dolomites. Because of large uninterrupted areas of karst, long geomorphic evolution and pure karst rocks there is not much sediment cover over karst. In spite of that the appearing of subsidence are very common. They are connected to parts of karst with specific geomorphic evolution, mostly contact karst and karst poljes where thick clastic sediments are deposited. Contact karst is the karst that developed under the impact of allogenic streams. As the contact of surface and underground flow is sensitive in some past climatic conditions these areas were often zones of sedimentation. At present washing of sediments into karst prevails sedimentation causing subsidence in ponor zones of blind valleys or border depressions very frequent. Karst poljes are the areas of karst where karst water table is close to the surface. This means low vertical gradient in karst and sedimentation or good sediment preservation. However, because of regular seasonal oscillations of water level, part of the year these sediments are in conditions where piping and subsidence can occur. In both areas collapses occur after the floods or after drop of the level of karst water below surface, mostly close to ponors or estavelles. On other geomorphic settings where collapses occur like relict poljes, dry valleys or on levelled surfaces they occur after heavy rains, often connected with thawing of snow. Collapse features are mostly cylindrical or steep-sided, usually a few metres to tens of metres in diameter. With time they transform to shallow depressions or funnel like dolines. From the point of view of geohazard the main zones of subsidence are well known and respected by locals. Even land use in endangered zones is usual less intensive and the damage caused by them is relatively small. However with loosing traditional knowledge, disobeying recommendations and growth of settlements and infrastructure the likelihood of damage increases.

  1. Eogenetic karst, glacioeustatic cave pools and anchialine environments on Mallorca Island: a discussion of coastal speleogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Ginès

    2007-07-01

    10 km, as shown by scuba-diving surveys. Careful observations and detailed mapping of caves in the Upper Miocene reef rocks of Mallorca permit a better understanding of the coastal speleogenetic processes involved in a typical eogenetic karst over time ranges greater than 1 Ma. The role played by recurrent glacioeustatic oscillations of sea level and the subsequent rises and falls of the water table are emphasized in our model. There are two associated mechanisms: the triggering of breakdown by the loss of buoyant support that follows each lowering of sea level (i.e., during glaciations or smaller cold events and the later underwater solution of boulders and collapse debris (during high sea levels that correspond to interglacial events. Additionally, tidal fluctuations affecting groundwaters would enhance solutional enlargement of caves and vug-porosity connected to the sea, rather than conventional karstic flow through conduits that probably is not as important an agent in eogenetic speleogenesis.

  2. Flow Classification and Cave Discharge Characteristics in Unsaturated Karst Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariethoz, G.; Mahmud, K.; Baker, A.; Treble, P. C.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we utilize the spatial array of automated cave drip monitoring in two large chambers of the Golgotha Cave, SW Australia, developed in Quaternary aeolianite (dune limestone), with the aim of understanding infiltration water movement via the relationships between infiltration, stalactite morphology and groundwater recharge. Mahmud et al. (2015) used the Terrestrial LiDAR measurements to analyze stalactite morphology and to characterize possible flow locations in this cave. Here we identify the stalactites feeding the drip loggers and classify each as matrix (soda straw or icicle), fracture or combined-flow. These morphology-based classifications are compared with flow characteristics from the drip logger time series and the discharge from each stalactite is calculated. The total estimated discharge from each area is compared with infiltration estimates to better understand flow from the surface to the cave ceilings of the studied areas. The drip discharge data agrees with the morphology-based flow classification in terms of flow and geometrical characteristics of cave ceiling stalactites. No significant relationships were observed between the drip logger discharge, skewness and coefficient of variation with overburden thickness, due to the possibility of potential vadose-zone storage volume and increasing complexity of the karst architecture. However, these properties can be used to characterize different flow categories. A correlation matrix demonstrates that similar flow categories are positively correlated, implying significant influence of spatial distribution. The infiltration water comes from a larger surface area, suggesting that infiltration is being focused to the studied ceiling areas of each chamber. Most of the ceiling in the cave site is dry, suggesting the possibility of capillary effects with water moving around the cave rather than passing through it. Reference:Mahmud et al. (2015), Terrestrial Lidar Survey and Morphological Analysis to

  3. Impact of the hurricanes Gustav and Ike in the karst areas of the Vi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfàn Gonzalez, H.; Corvea Porras, J. L.; Martinez Maquiera, Y.; Diaz Guanche, C.; Aldana Vilas, C.; de Bustamante, I.; Parise, M.

    2009-04-01

    Among the many natural hazards affecting the island of Cuba, the hydro-meteorological hazards include extreme rainstorms, tropical cyclones and hurricanes. At Cuba, as in the rest of the Caribbean Islands, the cyclonic period generally starts at the beginning of June and ends in late November; during this time period, hurricanes represent the most powerful expression of the tropical cyclones. As shown by historical data, the effects of hurricanes interest the whole island, with a particular focus at its western regions. Intensity of these events causes severe damage to the environment and the society. Hurricanes are classified into five categories according to the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale, essentially on the basis of the velocity reached by the winds. In this scale, category I is the less intense, and V the highest. In 2008, two strong hurricanes affected the province of Pinar del Rio, in western Cuba, during August and September, with a 10-days interval between the two events. Many effects were produced by the passage of the hurricanes, especially in the karst areas of the Viñales National Park. The first hurricane (named Gustavo) was registered on August 30, 2008. Classified as category IV, it hit the area with wind velocities over 250 km/h, gusts over 300 km/h, and a total rainfall of approximately 100 mm. The hurricane affected the southern slope of the area of mogotes, that is the isolated cone or tower left by intense development of karst processes in tropical climate conditions. The vegetation cover was strongly hit, and largely stripped away, thus exposing several situations of hazards in karst that were previously undetected. Local flooding was also recorded, generally in the lowest topographic areas, and with short duration, due to bedrock characteristics. Ten days after Gustavo, the second hurricane (named Ike) affected the whole Cuba on September 9, 2008. Even though classified as category I, it caused severe damage to the man-made environment

  4. A GPGPU accelerated modeling environment for quantitatively characterizing karst systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myre, J. M.; Covington, M. D.; Luhmann, A. J.; Saar, M. O.

    2011-12-01

    The ability to derive quantitative information on the geometry of karst aquifer systems is highly desirable. Knowing the geometric makeup of a karst aquifer system enables quantitative characterization of the systems response to hydraulic events. However, the relationship between flow path geometry and karst aquifer response is not well understood. One method to improve this understanding is the use of high speed modeling environments. High speed modeling environments offer great potential in this regard as they allow researchers to improve their understanding of the modeled karst aquifer through fast quantitative characterization. To that end, we have implemented a finite difference model using General Purpose Graphics Processing Units (GPGPUs). GPGPUs are special purpose accelerators which are capable of high speed and highly parallel computation. The GPGPU architecture is a grid like structure, making it is a natural fit for structured systems like finite difference models. To characterize the highly complex nature of karst aquifer systems our modeling environment is designed to use an inverse method to conduct the parameter tuning. Using an inverse method reduces the total amount of parameter space needed to produce a set of parameters describing a system of good fit. Systems of good fit are determined with a comparison to reference storm responses. To obtain reference storm responses we have collected data from a series of data-loggers measuring water depth, temperature, and conductivity at locations along a cave stream with a known geometry in southeastern Minnesota. By comparing the modeled response to those of the reference responses the model parameters can be tuned to quantitatively characterize geometry, and thus, the response of the karst system.

  5. Humus soil as a critical driver of flora conversion on karst rock outcrops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiai; Shen, Youxin; He, Beibei; Zhao, Zhimeng

    2017-10-03

    Rock outcrop is an important habitat supporting plant communities in karst landscape. However, information on the restoration of higher biotic populations on outcrops is limited. Here, we investigated the diversity, biomass changes of higher vascular plants (VP) and humus soil (HS) on karst outcrops during a restoration process. We surveyed VP on rock outcrops and measured HS reserved by various rock microhabitats in a rock desertification ecosystem (RDE), an anthropogenic forest ecosystem (AFE), and a secondary forest ecosystem (SFE) in Shilin County, southwest China. HS metrics (e.g. quantity and nutrients content) and VP metrics (e.g. richness, diversity and biomass) were higher at AFE than at RDE, but lower than at SFE, suggesting that the restoration of soil subsystem vegetation increased HS properties and favored the succession of VP on rock outcrops. There was significantly positive correlation between VP metrics and HS amount, indicating that the succession of VP was strongly affected by availability and heterogeneity of HS in various rock microhabitats. Thus, floral succession of rock subsystem was slow owing to the limited resources on outcrops, although the vegetation was restored in soil subsystem.

  6. Karst aquifers on small islands--the island of Olib, Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahović, Tatjana; Munda, Boris

    2012-10-01

    Water supply is a major problem in the Adriatic islands, especially during the summer tourism season, and represents a limiting factor to the islands' further economic development. Much attention has been given to water supply solutions, primarily in terms of attempting to use the existing island water. Unfortunately, few islands have favourable hydrological conditions to accumulate significant quantities of surface water or groundwater. In the period from 2001 to 2004, investigations were conducted on many islands to define their own freshwater or partially brackish water resources since desalinisation technology could resolve a significant part of the water supply demand on small and distant islands. Due to the specificity and complexity of research in karst areas, the study was conducted in phases and included the geological and hydrogeological reconnaissance of the island, aimed at locating possible areas on the island where the necessary quantities of groundwater of adequate quality could be captured; a detailed hydrogeological mapping of the specified areas, geophysical investigation and test drilling; and, over several days, test pumping of the most promising borehole. One of the islands investigated was the island of Olib. The conducted surveys indicated that it is possible to pump about 3.5 L/s of groundwater from the karst aquifer of the island of Olib, which fully complies with the sanitary quality of drinking water.

  7. Conservation of Terrestrial Vertebrates in a Global Hotspot of Karst Area in Southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhenhua; Tang, Songhua; Jiang, Zhigang; Chen, Jing; Fang, Hongxia; Li, Chunwang

    2016-05-26

    The karst area of southwest China (KASC) is the largest piece of karst landscape on the earth and a global biodiversity hot-spot with high concentrations of endemic species. Although a number of nature reserves (NRs) have been established across the region, the representativeness of biodiversity of the NR system is still unknown. Based on comprehensive literature and field surveys, and intensive consultations with zoologists and wildlife managers, we compiled distributions of 1,204 terrestrial vertebrate species and 271 NRs in KASC. We found Jinxiu, Mengla, Hekou, and Jinghong have the richest amphibian species; Jinxiu has the highest species richness of reptiles; Jinghong, Menghai, and Mengla have the largest numbers of avian species; whereas, Mengla, Longzhou, and Ningming have the greatest mammalian diversity in the region. Gap analysis among NR system, species richness pattern, and five biogeographic indicators found insufficient representation of the NR system on territorial vertebrate diversity. The conservation effectiveness in Guizhou Province was much lower than that in Guangxi and Yunnan Provinces. Under-representation and over-representation simultaneously occurred in many of the ecoregions, elevation classes, vegetation types, landcover categories, and human disturbance intensity gradients. For conservation of terrestrial vertebrates in KASC, several suggestions were presented in this study.

  8. Heat exchange modeling in a multilayered karst aquifer affected by seawater intrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Vettorello

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A Feflow thermohaline model has been implemented in order to study borehole heat exchangers (BHEs activity in a coastal aquifer in the South of Italy (Province of Lecce, Puglia Region. The modeled closed-loop system consists of two double u-pipe heat exchangers, installed in 200 meters deep boreholes. The main purpose of numerical modeling was to forecast thermal plume extension in groundwater after a long period of heat exchange, calculating temperature trends in observation points during a 10 years transport simulation. The complex geological structure, including calcarenites, fractured limestones and a deep karst aquifer, has been translated into a multilayered model, with a depth-related parameter distribution, assigning different values of hydraulic, thermal and chemical properties to each layer. In particular saltwater concentration has been taken into account, considering the influence of seawater intrusion on the heat transport density-dependent model. Parameters assignment was based on experimental datasets collected during initial field investigations, including thermal characterization of soil samples and GRTs, together with historical hydrogeological and hydrochemical measures and previous groundwater surveys. After model structure configuration and aquifers parameterization, a sensitivity analysis on porosity and heat dispersivity has been conducted, to evaluate their influence on thermal transport phenomena with a multiple scenarios approach, considering in particular the uncertainty related to secondary porosity in karst systems. Feflow simulation represented the first step in environmental compatibility evaluation for the BHE plant, waiting for the necessary model calibration with groundwater temperature monitoring trends.

  9. [Genetic diversity of rhizobia isolated from common legumes in the Karst area. Northwest Guangxi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; He, Xun-yang; Xie, Qiang; Wang, Ke-lin

    2015-12-01

    Legumes, with a strong resistance to the adverse environmental conditions, are pioneer plants in degraded habitats, and play an important role in ecosystem restoration. In this study, the nodulation characteristics of 24 legumes were surveyed in the Karst area of Northwest Guangxi. A total of 39 nodule samples were collected from 15 legumes, the DNA was extracted and the 16S rDNA and nifH gene were amplified. A phylogenetic tree was then constructed to analyze the genetic diversity of rhizobia. The results showed that 15 legumes were nodulated, of which 14 belonged to the Papilionoideae, one to the Mimosaceae, and none to the Caesalpinoideae. No nodules were found on some legumes that were reported as nodulated, which might result from soil water stress in Karst. BLAST result and phylogenetic analyse indicated that most of the legumes were associated with rhizobia that belonged to the genus Bradyrhizobium, with the exception of two samples from Callerya nitida that were associated with the genus Mesorhizobium. In the phylogenetic tree, the sequences obtained from the same plot or the sequences from the same host species clustered together in most cases. This finding suggested that host selection and the ecological environment are the major factors that influence the genotype of rhizobia.

  10. Macroinvertebrate diversity in the karst Jadro River (Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađa Biljana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of 10 years of investigation of the aquatic macroinvertebrate fauna along the karst Jadro River. The Jadro is a typical karst river. Benthic macroinvertebrates were collected along the river at 15 sites by standard methods of sampling, in addition to which several physicochemical parameters were also determined. Based on qualitative and quantitative composition of the macroinvertebrate fauna, correspondence analysis divided the river course into three sections: upstream, midcourse, and downstream. Forty-three taxa were recorded. Results of saprobiological analysis based on macrozoobenthos indicate that water of the Jadro River belongs to quality classes I and II.

  11. A comparison of lineament and fracture trace extraction from LANDSAT ETM+ panchromatic band and panchromatic aerial photograph in Gunungsewu karst area, Java-Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryono, E.; Widartono, B. S.; Lukito, H.; Kusumayuda, S. B.

    2016-11-01

    This paper aims at exploring interpretability of the panchromatic band of Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) compared to the panchromatic aerial photograph in lineament and fracture trace extraction. Special interest is addressed to karst terrain where lineaments and fracture traces are expressed by aligned valleys and closed depressions. The study area is an single aerial photographic coverage in the Gunungsewu Karst, Java-Indonesia which is characterized by a lineament-controlled cone karst and labyrinth-cone karst. The result shows that the recording time of the Landsat ETM+ with respect to the shadow resulting from the sun illumination angle is the key factor in the performance of lineament and fracture traces extraction. Directional filtering and slicing techniques significantly enhance the lineament interpretability of the panchromatic band of Landsat ETM+. The two methods result in more lineaments and fracture traces which T-test affirm in 0.001 and 0.004 significant levels. Length based lineament analysis attains a better result compared to frequency based analysis.

  12. The characteristic trends of karst springs discharges in relation to climate change (examples from the Classical Karst, SE Slovenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravbar, Natasa; Kovacic, Gregor

    2016-04-01

    Changes in the large-scale hydrological cycle induced by global warming are among the biggest actual concerns. The observed records and climate simulations are consistent in projecting changing precipitation and temperature patterns worldwide. Particularly the incidence of changed precipitation amount, intensity and variability may increase changes in hydrological regimes, and could have implications on water quantity and quality in many areas. This may affect freshwater dependant ecosystems and several socio-economic activities. Groundwater resources availability, stability of access and utilisation may further provoke difficulties for many services, such as drinking water supply, agriculture, industry, hydropower, etc. Karst aquifers are due to their specific nature (i.e. rapid infiltration rates and underground water flow, highly controlled by conduits) highly dependent on respective hydrological conditions. The goal of this study was to better understand how and to what extent impacts of the climate change may affect karst groundwater resources and to quantify the role of karst aquifers in flood attenuation and baseflow maintenance. The characteristic linear trends of mean, minimal and maximal annual discharge values of nine selected karst springs in SE Slovenia have been assessed and compared with the linear trends of annual precipitation amount and air temperature covering a 52-year period (1961 - 2013). The data have also been evaluated in respect to the individual spring's catchment characteristics (e.g. storage capacity). Obtained results and analysis reveal the impacts of climate (environmental) change on karst groundwater and call for urgent adherence of standards for karst water sources protection, monitoring and rational use in the relevant management strategies.

  13. Natural hazards in the karst areas of the Viñales National Park, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govea Blanco, Darlenys; Farfan Gonzalez, Hermes; Dias Guanche, Carlos; Parise, Mario; Ramirez, Robert

    2010-05-01

    discharges have been mapped on the basis of the outcomes from inquiries carried out in the villages of the area, and of the documentation recorded in the Viñales National Park archives since the time of its foundation in year 2000. Slope movements in karst are quite difficult to map and survey, given the wilderness of the area. Thus, different methodologies were applied at this aim. Mass movements were mapped by using the PNUMA-FAO method, that allows to map the erosional features based upon a matrix analysis, and the results were checked in the field, and processed by means of GIS. As before mentioned, natural hazards from meteorological events are the most dangerous, even because of the peculiar characters of karst landforms, and the hydrologic recharge of karst territories. For instance, arrival of waters from allochtonous, non karst, territories has a great influence on the overall amount of water that is present in karst, both at the surface and underground, and the discharge from karst springs or rivers is strongly dependant upon such waters. Many caves are also conditioned by the presence of water, and periodically may become flooded, especially when located at the mountain or mogote foothills, well within the areas morelikely to be inundated. At the same time, flood occurrence greatly affects the anthropogenic activities, and is often at the origin of the main damage recorded to man and the human society. The other cited natural hazards are by far less disruptive to man, and cause minor damage when compared to floods. This because the great majority of mass movements and erosional phenomena have to be registered in sectors where the presence of man and his activities is much lower, so that economic activities are less affected; lightnings, on the other hand, are at the origin of wildfires generally limited to the highest peaks and mogotes (residual hills and ridges in Cuban tropical karst), once again rarely affecting man's activities.

  14. Viruses and bacteria in karst and fractured rock aquifers in east Tennessee, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T.B.; McKay, L.D.; Layton, A.C.; Jones, S.W.; Johnson, G.C.; Cashdollar, J.L.; Dahling, D.R.; Villegas, L.F.; Fout, G.S.; Williams, D.E.; Sayler, G.

    2011-01-01

    A survey of enteric viruses and indicator bacteria was carried out in eight community water supply sources (four wells and four springs) in East Tennessee. Seven sites derived their water from carbonate aquifers and one from fractured sandstone. Four of the sites were deemed "low-risk" based on prior monitoring of fecal indicators and factors such as presence of thick layers of overlying sediments. The remaining sites were deemed "high-risk." Enteric viruses (enterovirus and reovirus) were detected by cell culture at least once in seven of the eight wells or springs including all but one of the four low-risk sites. Viral RNA, however, was not detected in any of the samples by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Conventional indicators of microbial contamination (Escherichia coli and total coliform bacteria) were detected together with culturable viruses in seven of nine virus positive samples. Bacteroides, an alternative fecal indicator which has not previously been used in groundwater investigations, was also detected in all but one of the samples containing E. coli or total coliform bacteria, as well as in one sample where viruses were present in the absence of other bacterial indicators. The study highlights some of the challenges involved in surveys of virus occurrence and indicates that culturable enteric viruses in East Tennessee karst aquifers may be more widespread than previously observed in studies of karst aquifers in Pennsylvania (8%), the Ozark region of Missouri (< 1%), or several other states covered in a national microbial water quality survey conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (43%). Copyright ?? 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation ?? 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  15. Genetic interest assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughney, Erin

    Genetics is becoming increasingly integrated into peoples' lives. Different measures have been taken to try and better genetics education. This thesis examined undergraduate students at the University of North Texas not majoring in the life sciences interest in genetic concepts through the means of a Likert style survey. ANOVA analysis showed there was variation amongst the interest level in different genetic concepts. In addition age and lecture were also analyzed as contributing factors to students' interest. Both age and lecture were evaluated to see if they contributed to the interest of students in genetic concepts and neither showed statistical significance. The Genetic Interest Assessment (GIA) serves to help mediate the gap between genetic curriculum and students' interest.

  16. Inverse modeling approach to allogenic karst system characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörfliger, N; Fleury, P; Ladouche, B

    2009-01-01

    Allogenic karst systems function in a particular way that is influenced by the type of water infiltrating through river water losses, by karstification processes, and by water quality. Management of this system requires a good knowledge of its structure and functioning, for which a new methodology based on an inverse modeling approach appears to be well suited. This approach requires both spring and river inflow discharge measurements and a continuous record of chemical parameters in the river and at the spring. The inverse model calculates unit hydrographs and the impulse responses of fluxes from rainfall hydraulic head at the spring or rainfall flux data, the purpose of which is hydrograph separation. Hydrograph reconstruction is done using rainfall and river inflow data as model input and enables definition at each time step of the ratio of each component. Using chemical data, representing event and pre-event water, as input, it is possible to determine the origin of spring water (either fast flow through the epikarstic zone or slow flow through the saturated zone). This study made it possible to improve a conceptual model of allogenic karst system functioning. The methodology is used to study the Bas-Agly and the Cent Font karst systems, two allogenic karst systems in Southern France.

  17. Natural and anthropogenic hazards in the Bohol karst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Mick; Urich, Peter

    2010-05-01

    About 40% of the island of Bohol is karst landscape, and karstic hazards affect much of this area, which contains about 75% of the population of 1.1 million. The inland karst consists of broad, alluviated valleys or poljes punctuated by isolated residuals (mogotes) and separated by uplands which are dissected by underdrained and abandoned dry valley systems, themselves dismembered by polygonal enclosed depressions (cockpits) and bordered by sinuous residual interfluvial ridges, which adjacent to the enclosed depressions have been reduced to isolated or connected residual hills. With population and urbanization increasing, and as infrastructure is developed, karstic hazards are becoming more prevalent and risks are increasing. One major natural hazard is seasonal drought, which disrupts water supplies, particularly in upland areas where groundwater resources are poorly developed and residents depend on rainwater and springs. Conversely, seasonal flooding, particularly that associated with tropical storms and extreme events, causes property damage and human death, injury and displacement in the valleys. Ground surface subsidence and collapse threatens developing infrastructure, dwellings and livestock, but the potential for catastrophic karstic failure appears to be limited. Slope failure also occurs, but is not often recognized as a hazard and has not been studied in detail. Human impacts include quarrying, groundwater abstraction, groundwater contamination, urbanization, agricultural development and tourism. Less than ten percent of the karst area is within protected areas and the karst is the setting for contemporary civil strife.

  18. Environmental and engineering problems of karst Geology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoxian, Yuan

    1988-10-01

    Karst terrane is generally regarded as a fragile and vulnerable environment. Its underground drainage system can aggrevate both drought and flood problems; the lack of filtration in an underground conduit makes waste disposal more difficult; and the lack of soil cover in bare karstland can enhance deforestation. Moreover, karst terranes are quite often haunted by a series of engineering problems, such as water gushing into mines or transportation tunnels; leakage from reservoirs; and failure of building foundations. In China, there are more than 200 cases of karst collapse, which include many thousands of individual collapse points. Some of these are paleo and natural collapses, but most of them are modern collapses induced by human activities and they have caused serious damage. Many factors such as geologic structure, overburden thickness and character, lithologic features of karstified rock, and intensity of karstification are related to development and distribution of modern collapses. However, China's karst is mainly developed in pre-Triassic, old phase, hard, compact, carbonate rock. Consequently most modern collapses have occurred only in the overlying soil. So it is understandable that the fluctuation of the water table in the underlying karstified strata plays an important role in the process of collapse. Nevertheless, there are different explanations as to how the groundwater activities can induce collapse.

  19. Environmental and engineering problems of karst geology in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Daoxian (Inst. of Karst Geology, Guangxi (China))

    1988-10-01

    Karst terrane is generally regarded as a fragile and vulnerable environment. Its underground drainage system can aggravate both drought and flood problems; the lack of filtration in an underground conduit makes waste disposal more difficult; and the lack of soil cover in bare karstland can enhance deforestation. Moreover, karst terranes are quite often haunted by a series of engineering problems, such as water gushing into mines or transportation tunnels; leakage from reservoirs; and failure of building foundations. In China, there are more than 200 cases of karst collapse, which include many thousands of individual collapse points. Some of these are paleo and natural collapses, but most of them are modern collapses induced by human activities and they have caused serious damage. Many factors such as geologic structure, overburden thickness and character, lithologic features of karstified rock, and intensity of karstification are related to development and distribution of modern collapses. However, China's karst is mainly developed in pre-Triassic, old phase, hard, compact, carbonate rock. Consequently most modern collapses have occurred only in the overlying soil. So it is understandable that the fluctuation of the water table in the underlying karstified strata plays an important role in the process of collapse. Nevertheless, there are different explanations as to how the groundwater activities can induce collapse.

  20. Model validation for karst flow using sandbox experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, M.; Pacheco Castro, R. B.; Tao, X.; Zhao, J.

    2015-12-01

    The study of flow in karst is complex due of the high heterogeneity of the porous media. Several approaches have been proposed in the literature to study overcome the natural complexity of karst. Some of those methods are the single continuum, double continuum and the discrete network of conduits coupled with the single continuum. Several mathematical and computing models are available in the literature for each approach. In this study one computer model has been selected for each category to validate its usefulness to model flow in karst using a sandbox experiment. The models chosen are: Modflow 2005, Modflow CFPV1 and Modflow CFPV2. A sandbox experiment was implemented in such way that all the parameters required for each model can be measured. The sandbox experiment was repeated several times under different conditions. The model validation will be carried out by comparing the results of the model simulation and the real data. This model validation will allows ud to compare the accuracy of each model and the applicability in Karst. Also we will be able to evaluate if the results of the complex models improve a lot compared to the simple models specially because some models require complex parameters that are difficult to measure in the real world.

  1. Breakdown development in cover beds, and landscape features induced by intrastratal gypsum karst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrejchuk V.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrastratal karst is by far the predominant gypsum karst type. Its development may begin in deep-seated settings within rocks already buried by younger strata, and it proceeds increasingly rapidly as uplift brings gypsum sequences into progressively shallower positions. Such development commonly occurs under confined (artesian hydrogeological conditions, that subsequently change to open conditions (phreatic-water table-vadose. The general evolutionary line of intrastratal karst is typified by progressive emergence of a sequence into a shallower position, activation of groundwater circulation and development of cave systems within karst units, commencement of gravitational breakdown and its upward propagation through overlying beds, and development of a karst landscape. These processes and phenomena progress through the directed evolution of karst types as follows: deep-seated intrastratal karst (1K to subjacent 1K to entrenched 1K to denuded karst. One of the main characteristics of intrastratal karst is that it induces gravitational breakdown in cover beds. With the aid of processes other then simple breakdown, such effects may propagate upwards and may, or may not, reach the surface, depending upon the thickness and structure of the overburden. A karst landscape evolves when such features reach the surface. This paper considers the conditions and mechanisms of such development.

  2. Isotope supported recession analysis to assess hydraulic properties of karst aquifers across Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Andreas; Brielmann, Heike

    2017-04-01

    Austria obtains almost half of its drinking water from karst aquifers. To manage karst aquifers in a sustainable way, reliable estimations of available karst water resources, their renewal rates and their hydrodynamics are of utmost importance. Hydrological models, which are a common tool for water resources assessment and planning, are difficult to apply at karst aquifers as their strong heterogeneity of hydraulic properties requires detailed measurements that are mostly not available. Here, we present the preliminary results of the first attempt to assess karst aquifer hydraulic properties at a national scale. Our approach uses karst specific recession analysis that is supported by water isotope measurements. We show for a subset of test sites that isotopic information results in a more realistic description of recession properties. Through this combined approach, we can approximate the degree of karstification by comparing the recession of the slow and diffuse parts of the aquifer and the recession of the fast and concentrated parts of the karst aquifers. In the future, we will use a much larger set of water isotope measurements (>7,000 water samples) at a large number of karst springs across Austria and apply landscape descriptors, such as river network density, to upscale the approximated degree of karstification from the karst springs to all karst areas in Austria.

  3. Fractal Prediction of Grouting Volume for Treating Karst Caverns along a Shield Tunneling Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chieh Cheng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Karst geology is common in China, and buried karst formations are widely distributed in Guangdong province. In the process of shield tunneling, the abundant water resources present in karst caverns could lead to the potential for high water ingress, and a subsequent in situ stress change-induced stratum collapse. The development and distribution of karst caverns should therefore be identified and investigated prior to shield tunnel construction. Grouting is an efficient measure to stabilize karst caverns. The total volume of karst caverns along the shield tunneling alignment, and its relationship with the required volume of grouts, should be evaluated in the preliminary design phase. Conventionally, the total volume of karst caverns is empirically estimated based on limited geological drilling hole data; however, accurate results are rarely obtained. This study investigates the hydrogeology and engineering geology of Guangzhou, the capital of Guangdong province, and determines the fractal characteristics of the karst caverns along the tunnel section of Guangzhou metro line no. 9. The karst grouting coefficients (VR were found to vary from 0.11 in the case of inadequate drilling holes to 1.1 in the case where adequate drilling holes are provided. A grouting design guideline was furthermore developed in this study for future projects in karst areas.

  4. Geological-geophysical techniques applied to urban planning in karst hazardous areas. Case study of Zaragoza, NE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueyo Anchuela, O.; Soriano, A.; Casas Sainz, A.; Pocoví Juan, A.

    2009-12-01

    Industrial and urban growth must deal in some settings with geological hazards. In the last 50 years, the city of Zaragoza (NE Spain) has developed an increase of its urbanized area in a progression several orders higher than expected from its population increase. This fast growth has affected several areas around the city that were not usually used for construction. Maps of the Zaragoza city area at the end of the XIXth century and beginning of the XXth reveal the presence of karst hazards in several zones that can be observed in more modern data, as aerial photographs taken during a period ranging from 1927 to present. The urban and industrial development has covered many of these hazardous zones, even though potential risks were known. The origins of the karst problems are related to the solution of evaporites (mainly gypsum, glauberite and halite) that represent the Miocene substratum of the Zaragoza area underlying the Quaternary terraces and pediments related to the Ebro River and its tributaries. Historical data show the persistence of subsidence foci during long periods of time while in recent urbanized areas this stability is not shared, observing the increase of activity and/or radius affection in short periods of time after building over. These problems can be related to two factors: i) urban development over hazardous areas can increase the karst activity and ii) the affection radius is not properly established with the commonly applied methods. One way to develop these detailed maps can be related to the geophysical approach. The applied geophysical routine, dependent on the characteristics of the surveyed area, is based on potential geophysical techniques (magnetometry and gravimetry) and others related to the application of induced fields (EM and GPR). The obtained results can be related to more straightforward criteria as the detection of cavities in the subsoil and indirect indicators related to the long-term activity of the subsidence areas

  5. Application of groundwater aggressiveness assessment method for estimation of the karst process at main gas pipeline construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolaeva, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    Main pipelines maintenance is connected with hazard engineering and geological working conditions. The article deals with the use of groundwater aggressiveness assessment method to estimate the karst processes development during the construction of main gas pipelines. The possibility of using this method is analyzed on the example of the initial section of the designed gas pipeline “Power of Siberia” (section “Chayanda-Lensk"). The calculation of the nonequilibrium index Ca was made in accordance with the geotechnical survey data. The dependencies between the geomorphological features of the terrain and the natural waters aggressiveness were determined.

  6. Development of Landscape Architecture through Geo-eco-tourism in Tropical Karst Area to Avoid Extractive Cement Industry for Dignified and Sustainable Environment and Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyanti, Pita A. B.; Agus, Cahyono

    2017-08-01

    Karst areas in Indonesia amounted to 154,000 km2, potentially for extractive cement and wall paint industries. Exploitation of karst caused serious problems on the environment, health and social culture of the local community. Even though, karst region as a natural and cultural world heritage also have potential environmental services such as water resources, carbon sink, biodiversity, unique landscapes, natural caves, natural attractions, archaeological sites and mystic areas. Landscape architectural management of in the concept of blue revolution through the empowerment of land resources (soil, water, minerals) and biological resources (plant, animal, human), not only have adding value of economy aspect but also our dignified and sustainable environment and life through health, environmental, social, cultural, technological and management aspects. Geo-eco-tourism offers the efficiency of investment, increased creative innovation, increased funding, job creation, social capital development, stimulation of the socio-entrepreneurship in community. Community based geo-eco-tourism in Gunung Kidul Yogyakarta rapidly growing lately due to the local government banned the exploitation of karst. Landscape architecture at the caves, white sand beaches, cliffs in karst areas that beautiful, artistic and have special rare natural architecture form of stalactite and stalagmite, become the new phenomenal interested object of geo-eco-tourism. Many hidden nature objects that had been deserted and creepy could be visited by many local and foreign tourists. Landscape architectural management on hilltops with a wide view of the universe and fresh, sunset and sunrise, the clouds country are a rare sight for modern community. Local cultural attractions, local culinary, home stay with local communities will be an added attraction, but the infrastructure and human resources should be developed. Traveler photographs that widespread rapidly through social media and mass media became a

  7. Eogenetic karst hydrology: insights from the 2004 hurricanes, peninsular Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florea, Lee J; Vacher, H L

    2007-01-01

    Eogenetic karst lies geographically and temporally close to the depositional environment of limestone in warm marine water at low latitude, in areas marked by midafternoon thunderstorms during a summer rainy season. Spring hydrographs from such an environment in north-central Florida are characterized by smooth, months-long, seasonal maxima. The passage of Hurricanes Frances and Jeanne in September 2004 over three field locations shows how the eogenetic karst of the Upper Floridan Aquifer responds to unequivocal recharge events. Hydrographs at wells in the High Springs area, Rainbow Springs, and at Morris, Briar, and Bat Caves all responded promptly with a similar drawn-out rise to a maximum that extended long into the winter dry season. The timing indicates that the typical hydrograph of eogenetic karst is not the short-term fluctuations of springs in epigenic, telogenetic karst, or the smoothed response to all the summer thunderstorms, but rather the protracted response of the system to rainfall that exceeds a threshold. The similarity of cave and noncave hydrographs indicates distributed autogenic recharge and a free communication between secondary porosity and permeable matrix-both of which differ from the hydrology of epigenic, telogenetic karst. At Briar Cave, drip rates lagged behind the water table rise, suggesting that recharge was delivered by fractures, which control the cave's morphology. At High Springs, hydrographs at the Santa Fe River and a submerged conduit apparently connected to it show sharp maxima after the storms, unlike the other cave hydrographs. Our interpretation is that the caves, in general, are discontinuous.

  8. Statistical metrics for the characterization of karst network geometry and topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collon, Pauline; Bernasconi, David; Vuilleumier, Cécile; Renard, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    Statistical metrics can be used to analyse the morphology of natural or simulated karst systems; they allow describing, comparing, and quantifying their geometry and topology. In this paper, we present and discuss a set of such metrics. We study their properties and their usefulness based on a set of more than 30 karstic networks mapped by speleologists. The data set includes some of the largest explored cave systems in the world and represents a broad range of geological and speleogenetic conditions allowing us to test the proposed metrics, their variability, and their usefulness for the discrimination of different morphologies. All the proposed metrics require that the topographical survey of the caves are first converted to graphs consisting of vertices and edges. This data preprocessing includes several quality check operations and some corrections to ensure that the karst is represented as accurately as possible. The statistical parameters relating to the geometry of the system are then directly computed on the graphs, while the topological parameters are computed on a reduced version of the network focusing only on its structure. Among the tested metrics, we include some that were previously proposed such as tortuosity or the Howard's coefficients. We also investigate the possibility to use new metrics derived from graph theory. In total, 21 metrics are introduced, discussed in detail, and compared on the basis of our data set. This work shows that orientation analysis and, in particular, the entropy of the orientation data can help to detect the existence of inception features. The statistics on branch length are useful to describe the extension of the conduits within the network. Rather surprisingly, the tortuosity does not vary very significantly. It could be heavily influenced by the survey methodology. The degree of interconnectivity of the network, related to the presence of maze patterns, can be measured using different metrics such as the Howard

  9. An experimental study on the effects of exhaust gas on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hautala, E.L.; Holopainen, J.; Kaerenlampi, L. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Surakka, J.; Ruuskanen, J. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Motor vehicle exhausts are significant contributors to air pollution. Besides fine particles and inorganic gases, like CO, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, exhaust gas contains a large group of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, many of which are phytotoxic. In field studies, exhausts are found to have both direct and indirect harmful effects on roadside plants. However, only few experimental studies have been made about the effects of exhaust gas emissions on coniferous trees. The aim of this study was to survey the effects of exhausts on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) in standardized conditions. The concentrations of major exhaust gas components in the chamber atmosphere were detected simultaneously. The effects of exhaust on epistomatal waxes of first-year spruce needles are described. (author)

  10. Assessment of vulnerability in karst aquifers using a quantitative integrated numerical model: catchment characterization and high resolution monitoring - Application to semi-arid regions- Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doummar, Joanna; Aoun, Michel; Andari, Fouad

    2016-04-01

    Karst aquifers are highly heterogeneous and characterized by a duality of recharge (concentrated; fast versus diffuse; slow) and a duality of flow which directly influences groundwater flow and spring responses. Given this heterogeneity in flow and infiltration, karst aquifers do not always obey standard hydraulic laws. Therefore the assessment of their vulnerability reveals to be challenging. Studies have shown that vulnerability of aquifers is highly governed by recharge to groundwater. On the other hand specific parameters appear to play a major role in the spatial and temporal distribution of infiltration on a karst system, thus greatly influencing the discharge rates observed at a karst spring, and consequently the vulnerability of a spring. This heterogeneity can only be depicted using an integrated numerical model to quantify recharge spatially and assess the spatial and temporal vulnerability of a catchment for contamination. In the framework of a three-year PEER NSF/USAID funded project, the vulnerability of a karst catchment in Lebanon is assessed quantitatively using a numerical approach. The aim of the project is also to refine actual evapotranspiration rates and spatial recharge distribution in a semi arid environment. For this purpose, a monitoring network was installed since July 2014 on two different pilot karst catchment (drained by Qachqouch Spring and Assal Spring) to collect high resolution data to be used in an integrated catchment numerical model with MIKE SHE, DHI including climate, unsaturated zone, and saturated zone. Catchment characterization essential for the model included geological mapping and karst features (e.g., dolines) survey as they contribute to fast flow. Tracer experiments were performed under different flow conditions (snow melt and low flow) to delineate the catchment area, reveal groundwater velocities and response to snowmelt events. An assessment of spring response after precipitation events allowed the estimation of the

  11. Fractal And Multi-fractal Analysis Of The Hydraulic Property Variations Of Karst Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majone, B.; Bellin, A.; Borsato, A.

    suggesting that transport is controlled by hydraulic property variations interesting several scales of variability. However, the travel time distribution is also shaped by the spatial variability of the dissolution rate and of the rainfall, as well as by the occurrence of rate limited dissolution processes. These phenomena may conspire to hide the imprint of the hydraulic property variations on the observed signal, complicating the inference of the geostatistical model of hydraulic property variations from the E signal. The discharge at Prese Val shows a multiscale power spectrum with convexity directed upward, such that the low frequency, long range, contributions to discharge are characterized by a much smaller slope than the high frequency contri- butions, which are characterized by much shorter travel times. This interpretation is consistent with the overall structure of the karst aquifers which is composed of the intertwined arrangement of macro-structures, such as faults and karstic channels, and small-scale diffused fractures, the latter showing a fractal dimension much smaller than that of the former.

  12. Neural network modeling and geochemical water analyses to understand and forecast karst and non-karst part of flash floods (case study on the Lez river, Southern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darras, T.; Raynaud, F.; Borrell Estupina, V.; Kong-A-Siou, L.; Van-Exter, S.; Vayssade, B.; Johannet, A.; Pistre, S.

    2015-06-01

    Flash floods forecasting in the Mediterranean area is a major economic and societal issue. Specifically, considering karst basins, heterogeneous structure and nonlinear behaviour make the flash flood forecasting very difficult. In this context, this work proposes a methodology to estimate the contribution from karst and non-karst components using toolbox including neural networks and various hydrological methods. The chosen case study is the flash flooding of the Lez river, known for his complex behaviour and huge stakes, at the gauge station of Lavallette, upstream of Montpellier (400 000 inhabitants). After application of the proposed methodology, discharge at the station of Lavallette is spited between hydrographs of karst flood and surface runoff, for the two events of 2014. Generalizing the method to future events will allow designing forecasting models specifically for karst and surface flood increasing by this way the reliability of the forecasts.

  13. Karst collapse susceptibility assessment: A case study on the Amalfi Coast (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Antonio; Budetta, Paolo; Forte, Giovanni; Marino, Ermanno; Pignalosa, Antonio

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a study to evaluate the collapse susceptibility of a karst cave located along a slope on the Amalfi coast (southern Italy) and the presumable geomorphological evolution of the whole slope as a result of cave roof collapse. In the study area, several natural karst caves with volumes varying between 1000 and > 10,000 m3 were inventoried and the most likely genetic processes were identified. Some of them proved to be remnants of already collapsed caves, while others were in precarious stability conditions. The caves are usually located upslope or very close to the main populated resorts. A detailed geological, geomorphological and geostructural study was performed on a very wide, deep cave (called the ;Saraceno; cave), on which the resort town of Conca de' Marini has been built. The study was carried out through a multidisciplinary approach, which included classical field geological observations, sometimes requiring the support of rock-climbing geologists, experts in photogrammetric surveys and terrestrial laser scanning techniques (TLS). TLS surveys allowed the reconstruction of an accurate geometric and geostructural model of the cave and its relationship with the upslope Conca de' Marini resort. Furthermore, it allowed the thickness of the cave overburden to be determined in detail; ground surfaces most susceptible to collapse were also identified. In the event of possible widespread collapse, several buildings and transportation infrastructures could be involved. As the cave is located on a very steep slope, a debris avalanche could be triggered in the event of a catastrophic failure, and the landslide debris, characterized by a presumably high magnitude and velocity, could involve a wide slope area down to the coast. The failure evolution could be very similar to that which took place in Amalfi in the late 19th century.

  14. Karst: Ditambang atau Dilestarikan, Konflik Sosial Rencana Pembangunan Pabrik Semen di Kabupaten Pati Jawa Tengah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Suharko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of cement industry at regions with rich content of karst has increasingly grown in recent years. As a consequence, conflict of interest between cement company and local people groups has arised. The article aims to mapping out a natural resource based-conflict in district of Pati, province of Jawa Tengah. The social conflict has taken place at the stage of pra-construction of cement plant in the south Pati. The cement company, supported by local government, has continuously tried to establish the plant. The local people groups have always rejected it. Through organizing indigenous people, building social networks, and undertaking various collective actions, the local people groups have refused any efforts for establishing the plant. While this social conflict has continued, so far there is no an adequate conflict resolution. However, the new government of Central Java resulted from the 2013 election provides an opportunity to end the conflict.

  15. Adaptive Molecular Evolution of PHYE in Primulina, a Karst Cave Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Junjie Tao; Qingwen Qi; Ming Kang; Hongwen Huang

    2015-01-01

    Limestone Karst areas possess high levels of biodiversity and endemism. Primulina is a typical component of Karst endemic floras. The high species richness and wide distribution in various Karst microenvironments make the genus an idea model for studying speciation and local adaptation. In this study, we obtained 10 full-length sequences of the phytochrome PHYE from available transcriptome resources of Primulina and amplified partial sequences of PHYE from the genomic DNA of 74 Primulina spec...

  16. Current Status and Control Measures of Ecological Restoration in Karst Rocky Desertification Area of Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to analyze the current status and control measures of ecological restoration in Karst rocky desertification area of Guizhou.[Method] The current status and existing problems of ecological restoration in Karst rocky desertification area of Guizhou were studied firstly,and main control measures were put forward according to existing problems.[Result] At present,Karst rocky desertification area in Guizhou has suitable ecological environment,obvious control results and rich control exper...

  17. Sustainable development of agriculture in karst areas, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhua Song

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The exposed carbonate rocks aged from Sinian to Mid-Triassic Periods cover an area of 500,000 Km2 in south-west China. In karst areas with spectacular landscapes characterized by magnificent tower karst and conical karst, rare surface drainage systems and prevalent subsurface drainage systems, the environment is ecologically very fragile. The rapid increase of population, over deforested and cultivated lands, worsted the ecological system, causing a higher frequency of draught, flood and various disasters, backward economic development, low living standard of the people. In order to improve the sustainability of the agriculture the experience shows that the following operations should be adopted: (1 serious control of the population increase, emigration, extra labours and improvement of the environmental education of the local inhabitants; (2 terracing of the slopes (shi jala di as to improve the cultivated land quality, to preserve the water, soil and fertiliser and ameliorate the effective utilisation of the land; (3 development of new rural energies such as the solar energy and gas energy, and expansion of the saving-fuel stoves to reduce the load of bio-energy; (4 reforestation and bounding the hills and mountains; the ecological, economic and fuel forests model has been developed in fengcong-depression areas: the tree species with high ecological, economical and energetic characteristics, should be chosen, such as the bamboo, wild grapes, Sapium rotundifolium etc.; (5 better utilisation of the ram water and karst water resource to solve the water supply problems. The karst landscape is well developed in the 500,000 km2 carbonate terrain in Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, west Hunan and south Sichuan provinces in south-west China, where 100 million habitants live (Song, 1997. The large population and its high density, serious deforestation, over-cultivation and fragile ecological system make the environmental problems very serious and about 30

  18. Karst water resources in a changing world: Review of hydrological modeling approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, A.; Goldscheider, N.; Wagener, T.; Lange, J.; Weiler, M.

    2014-09-01

    Karst regions represent 7-12% of the Earth's continental area, and about one quarter of the global population is completely or partially dependent on drinking water from karst aquifers. Climate simulations project a strong increase in temperature and a decrease of precipitation in many karst regions in the world over the next decades. Despite this potentially bleak future, few studies specifically quantify the impact of climate change on karst water resources. This review provides an introduction to karst, its evolution, and its particular hydrological processes. We explore different conceptual models of karst systems and how they can be translated into numerical models of varying complexity and therefore varying data requirements and depths of process representation. We discuss limitations of current karst models and show that at the present state, we face a challenge in terms of data availability and information content of the available data. We conclude by providing new research directions to develop and evaluate better prediction models to address the most challenging problems of karst water resources management, including opportunities for data collection and for karst model applications at so far unprecedented scales.

  19. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...... med surveys. Denne bog gennemgår alle surveyarbejdets faser og giver en praktisk indføring i: • design af undersøgelsen og udvælgelse af stikprøver, • formulering af spørgeskemaer samt indsamling og kodning af data, • metoder til at analysere resultaterne...

  20. Analysis and treatment on the stability of highway karst cave embankment%公路路基溶洞处治及稳定性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘顺勇

    2012-01-01

    根据地勘资料显示路基下存在溶洞情况,提出注浆填充+路基底板补强的处治措施,并对该处治措施下的路基稳定性进行了数值模拟分析及现场沉降监测,监测数据表明,溶洞处治达到了预期效果。%Base area surveys the data display the subgrade existing a karst cave,suggest that slip casting filling + roadbed bottom board reinforces punishing measure.The stability has carried out the numerical value simulation analysis on to should punish the subgrade under the measure,and the settlement having carried out a scene on to punishing the queen subgrade has monitored,monitored a data indicate,the karst cave is punished reach anticipate that effect.

  1. Geophysical Identification of Filled Sinkholes and Buried Fractures in Glaciated Karst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, P. J.

    2006-05-01

    Karst aquifers are highly susceptible to contamination, with numerous points of entry for contaminants through recharge features such as sinkholes, swallow holes and soil pipes. These recharge features may be filled or obscured at the surface, requiring the use of geophysical techniques or remote sensing for their identification. This problem is particularly acute in recently glaciated terrain, where surface topography is often unrelated to underlying active karst features, as illustrated by three Illinois examples in this study. Approximately 10 km south of Rockford, IL, a network-type cave of interconnected solutionally-enlarged fractures extends over an area of approximately 1 ha, beneath a low Ordovician dolomite ridge covered with approximately 5 m of glacial till and outwash. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) profiles along the ridge top, utilizing 50 and 100 MHz antennas, showed strong diffractions over unsaturated caves and karst conduits. A trough-like feature approximately 20 m wide and 3 m deep was also identified in GPR profiles approximately 20 m west of the mapped cave passages. It probably represents an elongate filled sinkhole, similar to those observed along the wall of a quarry less than 1 km west of the cave. GPR profiles and two-dimensional electrical resistivity imaging identified clay-filled sinkholes 2-3 m wide and about 3 m deep in Bourbonnais, IL, 100 km south of Chicago, where 1 to 4 meters of loess and till overlie karstic Silurian dolomite. Penetrometer surveys revealed deeply weathered bedrock zones containing vertical clay-filled caves beneath the filled sinkholes. Surface water infiltration estimates are being made for these features, utilizing the geophysically-derived geometries, along with hydraulic conductivity and gradient data. EM conductivity profiles were combined with resistivity soundings at landfill in southern Illinois near St. Louis, where approximately 5 m of till overlies karstic limestone. Linear high conductivity

  2. Some cases of terrain unstability from the Dolenjska karst area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Čarman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some cases of terrain unstability from the Dolenjska karst area formed in the last yearsaround Žužemberk and Dolenjske Toplice. The Dolenjska karst has its own characteristic way of development. Themain features are thick soil top, mainly composed of clay, and high and strongly fluctuating water table. Presentedare a landslide, two rockfalls and a sinkhole collapse. A landslide nearby Žužemberk was initiated in soil top. Bothrockfalls appeared in tectonically highly disturbed carbonate rocks along the Žužemberk fault. The sinkhole collapsein the area around Dolenjske Toplice developed in tectonically damaged rocks inside the Dolenjska - Notranjskahorst and during a period of heavy rain.

  3. Chemical erosion and hydrologic budget for the Susure karst plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikić Zoran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The karst plateau of Susure, about 4.5 km2 in surface area, is situated on the Jadovnik eastern offset, western Serbia. The plateau is a morphologic unit higher 15 m to 30 m than the surrounding terrain. The unit consists of crushed and karstified Middle Triassic limestones. Numerous hydrogeological and geomorphologic features of the plateau are attractive for visitors in this economically underdeveloped country. Rocks building up the surrounding terrain are largely peridotites. Surface streams flow neither into nor off the plateau. Atmospheric precipitations discharge to evapotanspiration and filtration underground. More than eighteen constant springs at the limestone/peridotite tectonic contact drain fracture aquifers on the karst plateau border. Measured precipitations and springflows were the input and output data for accounting water budget of an aquifer of Middle Triassic limestones in the Susure plateau.

  4. A Karst Connection model for Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, C. A.; Eberz, N.; Buecher, R. H.

    2008-03-01

    A new model for the connection of the eastern and western Grand Canyon is proposed that involves westward flow of Redwall karst aquifer water under the Kaibab arch along the steepest hydraulic gradient to discharge at a structural low in a headward-eroding protowestern Grand Canyon. A karst-aquifer hydrological connection was first established between the eastern and western Grand Canyon, then collapse, incision, and headward erosion of the canyon followed this subterranean route. This proposed model is based on what is happening today on the northern Marble Platform where the Redwall-Muav aquifer is still intact. The three sinkhole/caves Ah Hol Sah, Indian Pit, and Black Abyss provide vertical flow routes down to the Redwall karst aquifer, joining water discharging from the Kaiparowits hydrologic basin to the Colorado River along the Fence Springs system. Projecting this process back in time and spatially southward, we propose that at around 6 Ma a sinkhole or sinkholes existed at the confluence of the Colorado River with the Little Colorado River. Little Colorado River water, then flowing northward to an interior lake basin ("Glen Lake") in southern Utah, became pirated down this sinkhole(s), thus causing a reversal of drainage (barbed tributaries) in Marble Canyon. Headward erosion then proceeded up Marble and Little Colorado Canyons from the collapsing sinkhole, with Marble Canyon incision breaching Glen Lake at around 5.5 Ma. This effected the "final connection" and total integration of the Colorado River from Colorado to the Gulf of California.

  5. Sediment carbon fate in phreatic karst (Part 1): Conceptual model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husic, A.; Fox, J.; Agouridis, C.; Currens, J.; Ford, W.; Taylor, C.

    2017-06-01

    Recent research has paid increased attention to quantifying the fate of carbon pools within fluvial networks, but few, if any, studies consider the fate of sediment organic carbon in fluviokarst systems despite that karst landscapes cover 12% of the earth's land surface. The authors develop a conceptual model of sediment carbon fate in karst terrain with specific emphasis upon phreatic karst conduits, i.e., those located below the groundwater table that have the potential to trap surface-derived sediment and turnover carbon. To assist with their conceptual model development, the authors study a phreatic system and apply a mixture of methods traditional and novel to karst studies, including electrical resistivity imaging, well drilling, instantaneous velocimetry, dye tracing, stage recording, discrete and continuous sediment and water quality sampling, and elemental and stable carbon isotope fingerprinting. Results show that the sediment transport carrying capacity of the phreatic karst water is orders of magnitude less than surface streams during storm-activated periods promoting deposition of fine sediments in the phreatic karst. However, the sediment transport carrying capacity is sustained long after the hydrologic event has ended leading to sediment resuspension and prolonged transport. The surficial fine grained laminae occurs in the subsurface karst system; but unlike surface streams, the light-limited conditions of the subsurface karst promotes constant heterotrophy leading to carbon turnover. The coupling of the hydrological processes leads to a conceptual model that frames phreatic karst as a biologically active conveyor of sediment carbon that recharges degraded organic carbon back to surface streams. For example, fluvial sediment is estimated to lose 30% of its organic carbon by mass during a one year temporary residence within the phreatic karst. It is recommended that scientists consider karst pathways when attempting to estimate organic matter stocks

  6. Spatial distribution and development of soils in tropical karst areas from the Peninsula of Yucatan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Francisco; Palacio-Aponte, Gerardo; Quintana, Patricia; Zinck, Joseph Alfred

    2011-12-01

    Better understanding of soil formation requires knowing the spatial distribution of the soils that allows constructing models of soil sequences in multiple directions along various types of gradients. This approach was applied to comprehend the soil formation from the soil distribution in the tropical karst areas of the Peninsula of Yucatan, Mexico. For soil mapping, a two-step methodology was followed. First, a geomorphic analysis was performed; subsequently, 382 soil profiles were reclassified and integrated into a geopedologic map. Additional soil survey was carried out in areas where soil information was lacking (123 soil profiles). Satellite images were used to identify flooded areas. After conducting numerous field verifications and analyses, landforms and soils were combined to make a soilscape map. Based on field observations and the soilscape map, soil development was analyzed on soil sequences. Four geomorphic environments were identified, karstic plains and hills with Leptosols, Cambisols, Luvisols, and Vertisols; coastal plains with Arenosols, Regosols, Solonchacks, and Histosols; fluvio-paludal plains with Gleysols, Histosols, Leptosols and Solonchacks; and tectono-karstic plains and hills with Leptosols, Cambisols, Luvisols, and Vertisols. Relevant soil forming factors in the Peninsula of Yucatan include time of emersion of the limestone platforms, climate, rock type, and macro- and micro-relief. Other factors such as groundwater level, fractures, also have an influence on soil formation. Karst development can be considered as a complex soil and relief forming factor. Terra Rossa soils as Leptosols, Cambisols, Luvisols, Nitisols and Vertisols in the Peninsula of Yucatan may be polygenic. In some cases, the theory of residual origin fits better the data than the theory of allochthonous origin; in other cases, it is the other way around.

  7. 西藏大学学生职业兴趣调查%The vocational interest survey of Tibet University’s students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢俊利; 杨延飞

    2013-01-01

    本文选取西藏大学的在校大学学生,采用非结构式访谈和职业兴趣问卷测评,就西藏大学的大学生对职业兴趣的关注程度、职业兴趣的表现及存在的问题进行了探讨,期望对西藏大学学生职业规划和指导的开展有所帮助。%This paper selects the College students of Tibet University, Using structured interviews and career interest questionnaire evaluation, mainly discussing their attention of the degree of Vocational interest, Interest in the performance and problems, expecting to help career planning and guidance of the Tibet University students.

  8. Development features and formation mechanisms of karst collapses in the Tailai basin,Shandong Province%山东省泰莱盆地岩溶塌陷发育特征及形成机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王延岭; 陈伟清; 蒋小珍; 管振德

    2015-01-01

    泰莱盆地位于山东省中部,截止2013年底,盆地内共发生有记录岩溶塌陷97处,161点次,严重威胁人民生命财产安全。文章在总结前人研究基础上,结合最新调查、监测成果,研究了泰莱盆地岩溶塌陷的分布特征、地质结构模式及其形成机理。结果表明:盆地内岩溶塌陷点多集中分布于岩溶地下水降落漏斗及其影响范围内;塌陷点分布受构造控制明显;塌陷区第四系厚度一般小于30 m,下伏基岩主要为奥陶纪灰岩;80%以上的塌陷集中发生于汛期。根据岩溶塌陷点土层结构、地下水动力条件的不同,建立了3种岩溶塌陷的基本地质模式:单层、双层和多层结构土层岩溶塌陷,其中单层结构土层岩溶塌陷的形成历经“真空吸蚀-崩解剥落-塌陷”3个阶段;双层土层结构岩溶塌陷形成演化过程可概括为“渗透变形-崩解垮塌-塌陷”或“真空吸蚀-渗透变形-塌陷”3个阶段;多层结构土层岩溶塌陷历经“真空吸蚀-渗透变形-崩解垮塌-塌陷”4个阶段。%The Tailai basin is located in the east of Shandong Province.By the end of 2013,the history re-cords karst collapses up to 1 61 in number,which occurred at 97 locations.Based on previous studies,the up-dated survey and monitoring results,this work makes a research on karst styles,characters and formation mechanism of karst collapses of the Tailai basin.The results show that these karst collapses are concentrated in the groundwater drawdown funnels and affected areas.Their distribution is obviously controlled by geo-logical structures.The thickness of Quaternary System above the subsidence areas is generally less than 30 meters,with underlying bedrock of Ordovician limeston.More than 80% of the karst collapses occur in flood seasons.Three geological models of karst collapses are established on the basis of stratum structures and groundwater dynamic conditions at collapse sites:(1)karst

  9. Selected Micropollutants as Indicators in a Karst Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirlewagen, Johannes; Schiperski, Ferry; Hillebrand, Olav; Nödler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias; Scheytt, Traugott

    2015-04-01

    High flow dynamics and variations in water quality are typical for karst springs and reflect the complex interaction of different flow and storage components within a karst system. Event-based monitoring of mobile micropollutants in spring water combined with information on their input is used (1) to quantify the impact of certain contamination scenarios on spring water quality and (2) to gain additional information on the intrinsic characteristics of a karst system. We employ the artificial sweeteners acesulfame and cyclamate as source specific indicators for sewage along with the herbicides atrazine and isoproturon for agriculture. The study site is the 45 km² rural catchment of the perennial karst spring Gallusquelle in SW-Germany (mean discharge: 0.5 m³/s). Overflow events of a stormwater detention basin (SDB, combined sewer system) are known to impact water quality. Most of the sewer system is situated in the SW of the catchment. Most agricultural land is found in the NE. Neither atrazine nor significant amounts of isoproturon were detected in wastewater. Concentrations and mass fluxes of acesulfame and cyclamate in wastewater were determined. The combined evaluation of the persistent compound acesulfame with the rather degradable cyclamate allows for the distinction of long and short transit times and thus slow and fast flow components. The same applies for atrazine (persistent) and isoproturon (degradable). In Germany, acesulfame was licensed in 1990, atrazine was banned shortly after, in 1991. During low flow conditions only atrazine (max. 4 ng/L) and acesulfame (max. 20 ng/L) were detected in spring water. After a recharge event without SDB overflow concentrations as well as mass fluxes of both compounds decreased, reflecting an increasing portion of event water in spring discharge. A breakthrough of isoproturon (max. 9 ng/L) indicated the arrival of water from croplands. After a recharge event accompanied by a SDB overflow cyclamate was detected at max

  10. Some new cave diving exploration results from Croatian karst area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garasic, Davor; Garasic, Mladen

    2017-04-01

    In the recent years, several international cave diving expeditions took place in the Dinaric karst of Croatia. The objectives were conducting a new research of previously known karstic springs and also exploring new ones. The deepest karst cave in Croatia filled with water is Crveno jezero (lake) near Imotski town, with water depth of 281 meters and total cave depth of 528 meters. Volume of water in this cave is about 16 millions m3. Diving expeditions were held in 1997 and 1998.The deepest karst spring in the Dinaric karst of Croatia is Vrelo of Una River (with max discharge about 100 m3/s), where divers measured depth of -248 meters. Explorations were made in 2007 and 2016. Sinac spring in Pla\\vsko Polje has been dived to the depth of -203 meters. Cave diving was done in 1984, 1999, 2003, 2007 - 2016. Furthermore, very popular springs of the river Kupa (-155 m) in Gorski Kotar (explored since1995 till 2015), river Gacka (-105 in depth, 1150m in length) in Lika, explored from 1992 to 2016, river Cetina (-110 m in depth, 1300 m in length), cave diving explored from 2000 to 2016 in the Dalmatinska Zagora, Rumin Veliki spring (- 150 m in depth) in the Sinjska Krajina (explored and dived in 2006 and 2010), than rivers Krnjeza and Krupa in Ravni kotari with diving depths of over 100 meters (in 2004 and 2005) and so on. Along the Adriatic coast in Croatia there are many deep and long submarine springs (vrulje), ie. caves under seawater springs. called - vruljas for example Vrulja Zecica with over 900 meters ine length and Vrulja Modrič with completely flooded cave channels that extend over 2300 meters in length. Cave diving was conducted from 2010 to 2016. Vrulja Dubci is also worth mentioning (dived and explored in 2000), 161 meters deep and so on. Tectonic activity plays a dominant role in the creation and function of these caves. Geological, hydrogeological and lithostratigraphic conditions are also very important in speleogenesis of these caves in Croatian karst

  11. Understanding karst environments by thermo-hygrometric monitoring: preliminary results from the Cesi Mountain karst system (Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Di Matteo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of karst systems is of paramount importance for the protection and valorisation of these environments. A multidisciplinary study is presented to investigate the possible interconnection between karst features of a karst area located in the south-western part of the Martani chain (Cesi Mountain, Central Italy. This hydrogeological structure contributes to recharge a deep regional aquifer. The latter feeds the high discharge and salinity Stifone springs. In the southwestern part of Martani chain, seven caves have been mapped, five of which are hosted in the Calcare Massiccio Formation. The analysis of thermo-hygrometric data collected since Autumn 2014 into the caves and those from external meteorological stations, showed the timing of the airflow inversion occurring on late winter/early spring and summer/ early autumn. Despite the complexity of the morphology of caves and of conceptual models of airflow pattern, these data seem to indicate that the monitored small caves could be interconnected to a considerably wider cave system. Data here presented coupled with the knowledge on hydrogeological and geological-structural setting of the limestone massif are useful to drive future speleological explorations, aiming to discover new large cavities and to better understand the water recharge process.

  12. Karst Aquifer Recharge: Comments on Somaratne, N. Characteristics of Point Recharge in Karst Aquifers. Water 2014, 6, 2782–2807

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian D. Werner

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article “Characteristics of Point Recharge in Karst Aquifers, Water 6: 2782–2807” by N. Somaratne evaluates various recharge estimation techniques applied to four limestone aquifers in South Australia. Somaratne [1] concludes that methods based on watertable fluctuations, groundwater modelling and water budgets are independent of recharge processes, and are therefore superior to the chloride mass balance (CMB approach for karst aquifers. The current comment offers alternative interpretations from existing field measurements and previous literature, in particular for the Uley South aquifer, which is the focus of much of the article by Somaratne [1]. Conclusions regarding this system are revised, partly to account for the misrepresentation of previous studies. The aeolianite sediments of Uley South are mostly unconsolidated or poorly consolidated, and dissolution features in the calcrete capping provide point infiltration into a predominantly unconsolidated vadose zone, whereas Somaratne’s [1] findings require that the system comprises well-developed conduits in otherwise low-conductivity limestone. Somaratne’s [1] assertion that the basic premise of CMB is violated in Uley South is disputable, given strong evidence of relatively well-mixed groundwater arising from mostly diffuse recharge. The characterization of karst aquifer recharge should continue to rely on multiple techniques, including environmental tracers such as chloride.

  13. Operational tools to help stakeholders to protect and alert municipalities facing uncertainties and changes in karst flash floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell Estupina, V.; Raynaud, F.; Bourgeois, N.; Kong-A-Siou, L.; Collet, L.; Haziza, E.; Servat, E.

    2015-06-01

    Flash floods are often responsible for many deaths and involve many material damages. Regarding Mediterranean karst aquifers, the complexity of connections, between surface and groundwater, as well as weather non-stationarity patterns, increase difficulties in understanding the basins behaviour and thus warning and protecting people. Furthermore, given the recent changes in land use and extreme rainfall events, knowledge of the past floods is no longer sufficient to manage flood risks. Therefore the worst realistic flood that could occur should be considered. Physical and processes-based hydrological models are considered among the best ways to forecast floods under diverse conditions. However, they rarely match with the stakeholders' needs. In fact, the forecasting services, the municipalities, and the civil security have difficulties in running and interpreting data-consuming models in real-time, above all if data are uncertain or non-existent. To face these social and technical difficulties and help stakeholders, this study develops two operational tools derived from these models. These tools aim at planning real-time decisions given little, changing, and uncertain information available, which are: (i) a hydrological graphical tool (abacus) to estimate flood peak discharge from the karst past state and the forecasted but uncertain intense rainfall; (ii) a GIS-based method (MARE) to estimate the potential flooded pathways and areas, accounting for runoff and karst contributions and considering land use changes. Then, outputs of these tools are confronted to past and recent floods and municipalities observations, and the impacts of uncertainties and changes on planning decisions are discussed. The use of these tools on the recent 2014 events demonstrated their reliability and interest for stakeholders. This study was realized on French Mediterranean basins, in close collaboration with the Flood Forecasting Services (SPC Med-Ouest, SCHAPI, municipalities).

  14. Scientists Study Ecological Development in Karst Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ As part of a consultancy project by the CAS Aca demic Divisions (CASAD)on ecological reconstruction and sustainable development in China's west, a task force headed by CAS members Yuan Xiandao and Sun Honglie conducted a six-day survey of southwest China's Guizhou Province.

  15. The World Karst Aquifer Mapping project: concept, mapping procedure and map of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhao; Auler, Augusto S.; Bakalowicz, Michel; Drew, David; Griger, Franziska; Hartmann, Jens; Jiang, Guanghui; Moosdorf, Nils; Richts, Andrea; Stevanovic, Zoran; Veni, George; Goldscheider, Nico

    2017-01-01

    Karst aquifers contribute substantially to freshwater supplies in many regions of the world, but are vulnerable to contamination and difficult to manage because of their unique hydrogeological characteristics. Many karst systems are hydraulically connected over wide areas and require transboundary exploration, protection and management. In order to obtain a better global overview of karst aquifers, to create a basis for sustainable international water-resources management, and to increase the awareness in the public and among decision makers, the World Karst Aquifer Mapping (WOKAM) project was established. The goal is to create a world map and database of karst aquifers, as a further development of earlier maps. This paper presents the basic concepts and the detailed mapping procedure, using France as an example to illustrate the step-by-step workflow, which includes generalization, differentiation of continuous and discontinuous carbonate and evaporite rock areas, and the identification of non-exposed karst aquifers. The map also shows selected caves and karst springs, which are collected in an associated global database. The draft karst aquifer map of Europe shows that 21.6% of the European land surface is characterized by the presence of (continuous or discontinuous) carbonate rocks; about 13.8% of the land surface is carbonate rock outcrop.

  16. Vulnerability of karst aquifers to agricultural contaminants: A case study in the Pennyroyal Plateau of Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karst landscapes are common in many agricultural regions in the US. Well-developed karst landscapes are characterized by shallow soils, sinkholes, sinking streams, underground conduits, and springs. In these landscapes surface runoff is minimal and most recharge enters the subsurface relatively quic...

  17. A Study on Karst Morphology Forms in Manjil Region of Gilan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Hajati Ziabari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is The Study on Karst Morphology Forms in Manjil Region of Gilan Province. Due to geological features and quantity and type of rainfalls in Gilan Province and other effective factors on formation and development of Karst and Karst water resources, it is necessary to study karst morphology forms of this region. This study has studied Manjil region. It has first studied and identified karst forms of the region and then considered their formation in relation to the regional tectonic and creation of water potentials. Karst morphology forms of the region were identified and the cause of their creation was specified. Among them, Dorfak Mountain with an altitude of 2714 m in the south- central part of Gilan Province in Rudbar City near to Manjil can be mentioned as an example. Also Manjil Cheshmeh Bad Cave with an altitude of 1400 m above sea level is among other karst phenomena of the region and is regarded as the most important karst phenomenon in Asmari limestone.

  18. Partitions, Compartments and Portals: Cave Development in internally impounded karst masses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osborne R. Armstrong L.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Dykes and other vertical bodies can act as aquicludes within bodies of karst rock. These partitions separate isolated bodies of solublerock called compartments. Speleogenetically each compartment will behave as a small impounded-karst until the partition becomesbreached. Breaches through partitions, portals, allow water, air and biota including humans to pass between sections of caves thatwere originally isolated.

  19. The World Karst Aquifer Mapping project: concept, mapping procedure and map of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhao; Auler, Augusto S.; Bakalowicz, Michel; Drew, David; Griger, Franziska; Hartmann, Jens; Jiang, Guanghui; Moosdorf, Nils; Richts, Andrea; Stevanovic, Zoran; Veni, George; Goldscheider, Nico

    2017-05-01

    Karst aquifers contribute substantially to freshwater supplies in many regions of the world, but are vulnerable to contamination and difficult to manage because of their unique hydrogeological characteristics. Many karst systems are hydraulically connected over wide areas and require transboundary exploration, protection and management. In order to obtain a better global overview of karst aquifers, to create a basis for sustainable international water-resources management, and to increase the awareness in the public and among decision makers, the World Karst Aquifer Mapping (WOKAM) project was established. The goal is to create a world map and database of karst aquifers, as a further development of earlier maps. This paper presents the basic concepts and the detailed mapping procedure, using France as an example to illustrate the step-by-step workflow, which includes generalization, differentiation of continuous and discontinuous carbonate and evaporite rock areas, and the identification of non-exposed karst aquifers. The map also shows selected caves and karst springs, which are collected in an associated global database. The draft karst aquifer map of Europe shows that 21.6% of the European land surface is characterized by the presence of (continuous or discontinuous) carbonate rocks; about 13.8% of the land surface is carbonate rock outcrop.

  20. Characterizing and Modelling Fractures and Karst in Carbonate Units - The Porocarste Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezerra, F.H.; Bertotti, G.; Cazarin, C.L.; Vieira, M.M.; Reijmer, J.; Srivastava, N.; Silva, A.T.; Nogueira, F.C.; Medeiros, W.E.; Silva, C.C.; Maia, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the Quaternary epigenic karst system in the Jandaíra Formation, a Turonian–Campanian carbonate platform in the Potiguar basin, northeastern Brazil. We concentrated our investigation in the vadose zone of the present-day karst, but also used borehole data. The leaching zones are prefe

  1. Water resources management in karst aquifers - concepts and modeling approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, M.; Schmidt, S.; Abusaada, M.; Reimann, T.; Liedl, R.; Kordilla, J.; Geyer, T.

    2011-12-01

    Water resources management schemes generally imply the availability of a spectrum of various sources of water with a variability of quantity and quality in space and time, and the availability and suitability of storage facilities to cover various demands of water consumers on quantity and quality. Aquifers are generally regarded as suitable reservoirs since large volumes of water can be stored in the subsurface, water is protected from contamination and evaporation and the underground passage assists in the removal of at least some groundwater contaminants. Favorable aquifer properties include high vertical hydraulic conductivities for infiltration, large storage coefficients and not too large hydraulic gradients / conductivities. The latter factors determine the degree of discharge, i.e. loss of groundwater. Considering the above criteria, fractured and karstified aquifers appear to not really fulfill the respective conditions for storage reservoirs. Although infiltration capacity is relatively high, due to low storativity and high hydraulic conductivities, the small quantity of water stored is rapidly discharged. However, for a number of specific conditions, even karst aquifers are suitable for groundwater management schemes. They can be subdivided into active and passive management strategies. Active management options include strategies such as overpumping, i.e. the depletion of the karst water resources below the spring outflow level, the construction of subsurface dams to prevent rapid discharge. Passive management options include the optimal use of the discharging groundwater under natural discharge conditions. System models that include the superposition of the effect of the different compartments soil zone, epikarst, vadose and phreatic zone assist in the optimal usage of the available groundwater resources, while taking into account the different water reservoirs. The elaboration and implementation of groundwater protection schemes employing well

  2. Geomorphic interaction among climate, sea levels and karst groundwater: the Taranto area (South of Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilotro, Giuseppe; Fidelibus, Maria Dolores; Argentiero, Ilenia; Pellicani, Roberta; Parisi, Alessandro; Di Modugno, Antonella

    2017-04-01

    The area of Taranto (Apulia region, Italy) has an extraordinary environmental and landscape value, which derives from its specific geological, geomorphological and hydrogeological conditions: they represent the effect of a complex mechanism of interaction in the geological time among the sea, its level variations and stands driven by climate changes, karst groundwater and the geo lithological frame. The knowledge of this interaction spans over two very different time duration: the first is subsequent to the sedimentary pleistocenic deposition and diagenesis and lasts until the late Holocene; the second spans over a more limited time durations, from the LIA until today, and its knowledge is mainly based on hystorical topographic records and reports. The general geological and stratigraphical setting is represented by marine deposits, which fill the Bradanic Trough, shaped in the upper part as marine terraces bordering the W and SW side of the Murgian carbonate platform (Apulia, South of Italy) as well. This latter constitutes an important karst hydro-structure, fed by precipitation, bordered on the opposite side of the Bradanic Trough by the Adriatic Sea. Fresh groundwater hosted in the huge coastal aquifer freely flows towards the Adriatic coast, while on the opposite W-NW side, the continuous confinement by the impermeable filling of the trough, forces the underground drainage of the aquifer towards the Ionian Sea just in the Taranto area. The overall flow rate of the groundwater through submarine and subaerial coastal springs, according to the current sea level, is significant and currently estimated in about 18 m3/sec. Climate changes have forced over geological time, but also in shorter periods, sea level changes and stands, consequently correlated to groundwater levels. This allowed genesis of selected karst levels, of regional extension, both at the surface or underground, which arise as typical forms, namely polje and karst plane inland, terraces on the sea

  3. Kajian Kerusakan Lingkungan Karst sebagai Dasar Pelestarian Sumberdaya Air (Kasus di DAS Bribin Hulu Kabupaten Gunung Kidul Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raras Endarto

    2016-09-01

    ABSTRACT Groundwater resources in Gunung Kidul Regency synonymous with underground system Bribin  (Bribin watershed. Reservoir Bribin 1, Bribin 2, and Seropan located in the Dadapayu village Semanu Sub-District utilize to comply needs of population  in Gunung Kidul Regency. Existance of Bribin Watershed is very important for continuance and welfare of population which must be managed sustainability. Environmental management in order to achieve sustainability of water resources was emphasized on water recharge, namely Bribin Watershed of upstream section. Identification extent of damage in Bribin Watershed into one of urgency things because the area as underground supplier into reservoir river of Bribin, Baron, and Seropan was utilized for the needs of population. Extent damage of karst is assessed based on morphology of karst basin. This research was conducted using field observations and literature studies related to condition os study area. Considered of  karst damage parameters, includes morphology change caused by mining, existance outlet basin, land cover, condition of springs, caves, and existance of building over the karst surface must be conducted assessment in extent of damage. Administratively, extent of damage karst is very high located in Kenteng, Karangasem, and Bedoyo Village, area of 922.27 hectares. The high levels of extent of damage karst is Ponjong, Sawahan, Sumbergiri Village, area of 9424.24 hectares. The high levels of extent of damage karst among others, existance of great mining, springs, and building over the karst surface. Efforts conservation and management strategies commits based on characteristic karst and regional. Karst management policy strategies based on characteristic karst was pressed in surface appearace(eksokarst. Karst management policy strategies based on regional are management karst area plan overall. Water resources management is related to existence of karst component (eksokarst, include management of springs

  4. The influence of land use change on karst water quality of Shuicheng Basin in Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAYanan; YUANDaoxian

    2004-01-01

    The influence of land use and land cover on ecological environment is a focus of global change research. The paper chooses an industrial city-Shuicheng in Guizhou Province-as a study area because the karst water quality around the city is deteriorating with land use and land cover change.The natural susceptibility of karst water system is an important factor leading to karst water pollution.But land use and land cover change is also a main factor according to the chemical analysis of karst water quality and land use change. So it is a good way to protect karst water through rational planning and managing of land use and land cover.

  5. Quantitative evaluation of the underground Geoheritage in karst areas: The Picos de Europa National Park, North Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Daniel; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; José Domínguez-Cuestra, María; García-Sansegundo, Joaquín; Meléndez-Asensio, Mónica

    2014-05-01

    Karst areas show a lot of kilometers of cave conduits with a hidden Geoheritage poorly investigated in previous works that concerning with their cultural, scientific and education values. The evaluation of cave Geoheritage is complex due to methodological constrains. One of the most important karst areas in the World is the Picos de Europa National Park (North Spain) that was declared as a Global Geosite in 2007 and includes 14 % of the World's Deepest Caves. The GEOCAVE research project is being developed in several caves from the Picos de Europa National Park since 2012 in order to characterize geomorphology and geochronology of the cavities, proposing and validating new methodologies adapted to these environments. The aim of this work is to evaluate the Geoheritage of the Picos de Europa caves based on the studies made in nine selected caves. The methodology includes: 1) elaboration of geomorphological maps of the nine selected caves, projecting geomorphological, geological, hydrogeological, paleontological and cultural forms on the caves surveys; and 2) definition and calculation of three indexes useful to evaluate the Geoheritage of the caves. The indexes are: a) Cave Geoheritage Extension Index (CGhEI), defined as the percentage of the area occupied by the entire features divided by the cave area (excluding the forms that represent the conduits themselves), b) Feature Extension Index (FEI), defined as the area occupied by each group of form divided by the cave area, and c) Cave Geodiversity Index (CGdI), defined as the number of forms divided by the cave area. The nine cave geomorphological maps cover 178,639 m2 of caves and include a whole of 14.9 km of karst conduits, representing these caves the 4.1 % of the conduits of the Picos de Europa. The values of the Cave Geoheritage Extension Index range from 22 to 82 %, while the values of the Feature Extension Indexes for each group of features reach the following values: Geomorphological FEI take values of 20

  6. Ophthalmic surgical training in Karnataka and Southern India: Present status and future interests from a survey of final-year residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Settings and Design: This study documents a survey of final-year ophthalmology postgraduates on the subject of their surgical training and their future plans after residency. Purpose: This survey aimed to answer the question, "What is the present status of surgical training in ophthalmic training centers?" by obtaining information from students about (1 various methods used in surgical training (2 numbers and types of surgeries performed by them in the training centers (3 their plans after residency. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire containing 21 questions was distributed to 155 students attending an intensive 4-day teaching program. The questions related to orientation training, wet lab training, facilities for training, free surgical camps and detailed information about numbers and types of surgeries observed and performed. Completed questionnaires were collected, and responses analyzed. Results: One hundred and seven completed responses were analyzed. The majority had not received formal orientation training. More than half had undergone wet lab training. Most residents performed their first ophthalmic surgery during the 1 st year of residency and went to the operation theatre multiple times a week. Most of the students planned to undergo further training after residency. More than half of the students found their surgical training to be fair or satisfactory. Conclusions: The number and frequency of ophthalmic surgeries done by residents appear satisfactory, but further efforts from trainers on enhancing the quality and range of surgical training would benefit students and improve their satisfaction.

  7. Forecasting Interest Rates and Inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chun, Albert Lee

    the best overall for short horizon forecasts of short to medium term yields and inflation. Econometric models with shrinkage perform the best over longer horizons and maturities. Aggregating over a larger set of analysts improves inflation surveys while generally degrading interest rates surveys. We...

  8. Sinkhole susceptibility in carbonate rocks of the Apulian karst (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Santo, Antonio; Fazio, Nunzio L.; Fiore, Antonio; Lollino, Piernicola; Luisi, Michele; Miccoli, Maria N.; Pagliarulo, Rosa; Parise, Mario; Perrotti, Michele; Pisano, Luca; Spalluto, Luigi; Vennari, Carmela; Vessia, Giovanna

    2016-04-01

    Apulia region, the foreland of the southern Italian Apennines, is made up of a 6-7 km-thick succession of Mesozoic shallow-water limestones and dolostones, locally covered by thin and discontinuous Tertiary and Quaternary carbonate and clastic deposits. Due to their long subaerial exposure, the Mesozoic carbonate bedrock recorded the development in the subsurface of a dense network of karst cavities, mostly controlled by tectonic discontinuities. As a result, a strong susceptibility to natural sinkholes has to be recorded in Apulia. In addition, the possibility of occurrence of other problems related to the high number of man-made cavities has to be added in the region. A great variety of different typologies of artificial cavities (mostly excavated in the Plio-Pleistocene soft calcarenites) is actually present, including underground quarries, worship sites, oil mills, civilian settlements, etc. Overall, 2200 natural and 1200 artificial cavities, respectively, have been so far surveyed in Apulia. Following the urban development in the last century in Apulia, many of these cavities lie nowadays below densely populated neighborhoods, roads or communication routes. These conditions are at the origin of the main geomorphological hazard for the human society in Apulia, which requires a careful evaluation, aimed at protecting and safeguarding the human life, and at providing the necessary information for a correct land use planning and management. The importance of the sinkhole hazard is further testified by the worrying increase in the number of events during the last 5-6 years. In response to these situations, joint research activities were started by the Institute of Research for Hydrological Protection of the National Research Council (CNR-IRPI) and the Basin Authority of Apulia, aimed at several goals, that include (but are not limited to) the collection of information on natural and anthropogenic sinkholes in Apulia, the implementation of numerical analyses for

  9. Analysis of the maximum discharge of karst springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacci, Ognjen

    2001-07-01

    Analyses are presented of the conditions that limit the discharge of some karst springs. The large number of springs studied show that, under conditions of extremely intense precipitation, a maximum value exists for the discharge of the main springs in a catchment, independent of catchment size and the amount of precipitation. Outflow modelling of karst-spring discharge is not easily generalized and schematized due to numerous specific characteristics of karst-flow systems. A detailed examination of the published data on four karst springs identified the possible reasons for the limitation on the maximum flow rate: (1) limited size of the karst conduit; (2) pressure flow; (3) intercatchment overflow; (4) overflow from the main spring-flow system to intermittent springs within the same catchment; (5) water storage in the zone above the karst aquifer or epikarstic zone of the catchment; and (6) factors such as climate, soil and vegetation cover, and altitude and geology of the catchment area. The phenomenon of limited maximum-discharge capacity of karst springs is not included in rainfall-runoff process modelling, which is probably one of the main reasons for the present poor quality of karst hydrological modelling. Résumé. Les conditions qui limitent le débit de certaines sources karstiques sont présentées. Un grand nombre de sources étudiées montrent que, sous certaines conditions de précipitations extrêmement intenses, il existe une valeur maximale pour le débit des sources principales d'un bassin, indépendante des dimensions de ce bassin et de la hauteur de précipitation. La modélisation des débits d'exhaure d'une source karstique n'est pas facilement généralisable, ni schématisable, à cause des nombreuses caractéristiques spécifiques des écoulements souterrains karstiques. Un examen détaillé des données publiées concernant quatre sources karstiques permet d'identifier les raisons possibles de la limitation de l'écoulement maximal: (1

  10. Colonization by aerobic bacteria in karst: Laboratory and in situ experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personne, J.-C.; Poty, F.; Mahler, B.J.; Drogue, C.

    2004-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to investigate the potential for bacterial colonization of different substrates in karst aquifers and the nature of the colonizing bacteria. Laboratory batch experiments were performed using limestone and PVC as substrates, a natural bacterial isolate and a known laboratory strain (Escherichia coli [E. coli]) as inocula, and karst ground water and a synthetic formula as growth media. In parallel, fragments of limestone and granite were submerged in boreholes penetrating two karst aquifers for more than one year; the boreholes are periodically contaminated by enteric bacteria from waste water. Once a month, rock samples were removed and the colonizing bacteria quantified and identified. The batch experiments demonstrated that the natural isolate and E. coli both readily colonized limestone surfaces using karst ground water as the growth medium. In contrast, bacterial colonization of both the limestone and granite substrates, when submerged in the karst, was less intense. More than 300 bacterial strains were isolated over the period sampled, but no temporal pattern in colonization was seen as far as strain, and colonization by E. coli was notably absent, although strains of Salmonella and Citrobacter were each observed once. Samples suspended in boreholes penetrating highly fractured zones were less densely colonized than those in the borehole penetrating a less fractured zone. The results suggest that contamination of karst aquifers by enteric bacteria is unlikely to be persistent. We hypothesize that this may be a result of the high flow velocities found in karst conduits, and of predation of colonizing bacteria by autochthonous zooplankton.

  11. Sediment carbon fate in phreatic karst (Part 2): Numerical model development and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husic, A.; Fox, J.; Ford, W.; Agouridis, C.; Currens, J.; Taylor, C.

    2017-06-01

    The authors develop a numerical model to elucidate time-distributed processes controlling sediment carbon fate in phreatic karst. Sediment carbon processes simulated in the new numerical model include in-conduit erosion and deposition, sediment carbon transport, surficial fine grained laminae evolution, carbon pool mixing, microbial oxidation, and the understudied process of sediment carbon exchange during equilibrium transport. The authors perform a model evaluation procedure that includes generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation to quantify uncertainty of the model results. Modeling results suggest that phreatic karst conduits sustain sediment transport activity long after surface storm events cease. The sustained sediment transport has the potential to shift the baseflow sediment yield of the phreatic karst to be on par with stormflow sediment yield. The sustained activity is suggested to promote the exchange of sediment carbon between the water column and subsurface karst deposits during equilibrium sediment transport conditions. In turn, the sediment carbon exchange impacts the mixing of new and old carbon pools and the flux of carbon from phreatic karst. Integrated numerical model results from this study support the concept that phreatic karst act as a biologically active conveyor of sediment carbon that temporarily stores sediment, turns over carbon at higher rates than surface streams, and recharges degraded carbon back to the fluvial system. The numerical modeling method adopted in this paper shows the efficacy of coupling carbon isotope fingerprinting with water quality modeling to study sediment carbon in phreatic karst.

  12. First Job Search of Residents in the United States: A Survey of Anesthesiology Trainees' Interest in Academic Positions in Cities Distant from Previous Residences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Franklin; De Oliveira, Gildasio S; McCarthy, Robert J

    2016-01-15

    We surveyed anesthesiology residents to evaluate the predictive effect of prior residence on desired location for future practice opportunities. One thousand five hundred United States anesthesiology residents were invited to participate. One question asked whether they intend to enter academic practice when they graduate from their residency/fellowship training. The analysis categorized the responses into "surely yes" and "probably" versus "even," "probably not," and "surely no." "After finishing your residency/fellowship training, are you planning to look seriously (e.g., interview) at jobs located more than a 2-hour drive from a location where you or your family (e.g., spouse or partner/significant other) have lived previously?" Responses were categorized into "very probably" and "somewhat probably" versus "somewhat improbably" and "not probable." Other questions explored predictors of the relationships quantified using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (area under the curve) ± its standard error. Among the 696 respondents, 36.9% (N = 256) would "probably" consider an academic practice. Fewer than half of those (P job applicant is whether the applicant or the applicant's family has previously lived in the area.

  13. State-space prediction of spring discharge in a karst catchment in southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenwei; Xu, Xianli; Liu, Meixian; Li, Xuezhang; Zhang, Rongfei; Wang, Kelin; Xu, Chaohao

    2017-06-01

    Southwest China represents one of the largest continuous karst regions in the world. It is estimated that around 1.7 million people are heavily dependent on water derived from karst springs in southwest China. However, there is a limited amount of water supply in this region. Moreover, there is not enough information on temporal patterns of spring discharge in the area. In this context, it is essential to accurately predict spring discharge, as well as understand karst hydrological processes in a thorough manner, so that water shortages in this area could be predicted and managed efficiently. The objectives of this study were to determine the primary factors that govern spring discharge patterns and to develop a state-space model to predict spring discharge. Spring discharge, precipitation (PT), relative humidity (RD), water temperature (WD), and electrical conductivity (EC) were the variables analyzed in the present work, and they were monitored at two different locations (referred to as karst springs A and B, respectively, in this paper) in a karst catchment area in southwest China from May to November 2015. Results showed that a state-space model using any combinations of variables outperformed a classical linear regression, a back-propagation artificial neural network model, and a least square support vector machine in modeling spring discharge time series for karst spring A. The best state-space model was obtained by using PT and RD, which accounted for 99.9% of the total variation in spring discharge. This model was then applied to an independent data set obtained from karst spring B, and it provided accurate spring discharge estimates. Therefore, state-space modeling was a useful tool for predicting spring discharge in karst regions in southwest China, and this modeling procedure may help researchers to obtain accurate results in other karst regions.

  14. A Survey Report of Career Interests of Normal College Students%高师大学生职业兴趣现状调查--以陇东学院为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎晓娜; 安广秦; 何兴艳

    2013-01-01

    为了解高师大学生职业兴趣的现状,采用陈社育于1997年依据霍兰德的职业兴趣量表修订的基于中国国情的职业兴趣问卷,运用问卷调查法和数据统计法,对110名在校大学生实施调查。结果显示,高师大学生职业兴趣在性别、生源地、学科方面差异非常显著,在年级方面差异不显著。由此可以得出结论:大学生职业兴趣呈现多元化发展。%To understand the present conditions of vocational interests of normal college students ,the research adopts the career interests questionnaire based on the situation of China as a survey tool , which was developed by Chen Sheyu on the theory of Holland in 1997 .By the survey method and statistical analysis ,the study investigates 100 col-lege students in Longdong University .The result shows that:The career interests of normal college students have a clear difference in the aspects of gender ,origin of students ,and discipline ,except the grade .So the conclusion could been drawn that the career interest of college students has been developed diversely .

  15. U.S. Geological Survey Subsidence Interest Group Conference; proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Las Vegas, Nevada, February 14-16, 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Keith R.; Leake, Stanley A.

    1997-01-01

    Introducation to Papers: This report is a compilation of short papers that are based on oral presentations summarizing the results of recent research that were given at the third meeting of the Subsidence Interest Group held in Las Vegas, Nevada, February 14?16, 1995. The report includes case studies of land subsidence and aquifer-system deformation resulting from fluid withdrawal, geothermal development, and mine collapse. Methods for monitoring land subsidence using Global Positioning System technology for the rapid and accurate measurement of changes in land-surface altitude also are described. The current status of numerical simulation of land subsidence in the USGS is summarized, and several of the short papers deal with the development and application of new numerical techniques for simulation and quantification of aquifersystem deformation. Not all oral presentations made at the meeting are documented in this report. Several of the presentations were of ongoing research and as such, the findings were provisional in nature and were offered at the meeting to stimulate scientific discussion and debate among colleagues. The information presented in this report, although only a subset of the proceedings of the meeting in Las Vegas, should help expand the scientific basis for management decisions to mitigate or control the effects of land subsidence. The short papers describing the results of these studies provide a cross section of ongoing research in aquifer mechanics and land subsidence and also form an assessment of the current technology and 'state of the science.' The analytical and interpretive methods described in this report will be useful to scientists involved in studies of ground-water hydraulics and aquifer-system deformation.

  16. Karst hazard assessment in the design of the main gas pipeline (South Yakutia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strokova, L. A.; Dutova, E. M.; Ermolaeva, A. V.; Alimova, I. N.; Strelnikova, A. B.

    2015-11-01

    The paper represents the description of the zonal and regional geological factors of geoengineering conditions which characterize the territory in South Yakutia crossed by the designed main gas pipeline. Cryogenic processes and karst are considered to be the most dangerous hazards for gas pipeline maintenance. Karst hazard assessment of the gas pipeline section made in the course of the research has involved a complex of geological methods: geoengineering, geophysical, hydrogeological, and mapping. Sections prone to karst development have been identified. The authors have suggested the measures to protect potentially hazardous sections and to ensure timely informing on sinkhole collapses.

  17. Movement characteristics of Karst water in a deep mining area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAO Chen-ming; BAI Hai-bo; MIAO Xie-xing; YAO Bang-hua

    2009-01-01

    In order to study the movement characteristics of groundwater in a deep mining area and solve the dispute of the distri-bution rule of hydro-chemical zoning which is contradicted by lixiviation water zoning in a horizontal direction, we directed our attention to the source of deep groundwater, its seepage and hydro-chemical characteristics in a typical mining area. We used a neotectonic water-control theory, chemical and isotope methods, as well as a method for analyzing dynamic groundwater conditions. The results indicate that 1) Karst water in the deep and medium parts of this mining area is recharged by vertical leakage through neotectonic fractures rather than seepage along strata from subcrop parts or surrounding flows; 2) from surface to deep leakage paths, the variation in the types of chemical groundwater agrees with the normal lixiviation water distribution rule and the age of mixed groundwater increases; 3) the water-rich zones along neotectonic fractures correspond with water-diluted zones in a hori-zontal direction; 4) the leakage coefficient and water capacity of aquifers increases during the flow process of Kant water along the antidip direction (from west to east) and 5) Karst water in shallow mining areas forms a strong runoff belt along strikes and quickly dilutes the water from deep and medium mining areas. Overall, chemical and dynamic water characteristics actually agree with in terms of the entire consideration for differences in vertical leakage and abnormalities in the zone of water chemical distribution, along a horizontal runoff direction.

  18. Application of a karst disturbance index in Hillsborough County, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beynen, Philip; Feliciano, Nilda; North, Leslie; Townsend, Kaya

    2007-02-01

    Hillsborough County, Florida, is a karst region that is heavily urbanized, yet no study has been undertaken measuring the degree of human disturbance. Van Beynen and Townsend (2005) created a hierarchical and standardized disturbance index specifically designed for karst environments. To address the problem of determining human disturbance in the county, the above index was successfully applied and it was found that Hillsborough was highly disturbed (disturbance score of 0.69 of 1.0) because of its predominant urban and rural land use. Furthermore, the application of the index allowed for its refinement and the highlighting of environmental aspects in need of remediation such as soil compaction, deforestation, disturbance of archaeological sites, and the expanding urban footprint. Several minor issues arose during the application: the need for broader indicator descriptions that encompass a variety of scenarios, the need for a revised water quality indicator, inadequate data on sinkholes, and a lack of data for species richness and species population density. The utility of the index to resource managers arises from emphasizing certain areas of the environment that require immediate attention and determining temporal changes in environmental quality. Future application of the index requires potential retooling of the biota indicators, tightening of scoring descriptions for certain indicators, and further examination of the scale at which the index can be applied.

  19. Classification of Thermal Patterns at Karst Springs and Cave Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, A.J.; Covington, M.D.; Peters, Albert J.; Alexander, S.C.; Anger, C.T.; Green, J.A.; Runkel, Anthony C.; Alexander, E.C.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal patterns of karst springs and cave streams provide potentially useful information concerning aquifer geometry and recharge. Temperature monitoring at 25 springs and cave streams in southeastern Minnesota has shown four distinct thermal patterns. These patterns can be divided into two types: those produced by flow paths with ineffective heat exchange, such as conduits, and those produced by flow paths with effective heat exchange, such as small fractures and pore space. Thermally ineffective patterns result when water flows through the aquifer before it can equilibrate to the rock temperature. Thermally ineffective patterns can be either event-scale, as produced by rainfall or snowmelt events, or seasonal scale, as produced by input from a perennial surface stream. Thermally effective patterns result when water equilibrates to rock temperature, and the patterns displayed depend on whether the aquifer temperature is changing over time. Shallow aquifers with seasonally varying temperatures display a phase-shifted seasonal signal, whereas deeper aquifers with constant temperatures display a stable temperature pattern. An individual aquifer may display more than one of these patterns. Since karst aquifers typically contain both thermally effective and ineffective routes, we argue that the thermal response is strongly influenced by recharge mode. ?? 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation ?? 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  20. Modelling karst aquifer evolution in fractured, porous rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Georg

    2016-12-01

    The removal of material in soluble rocks by physical and chemical dissolution is an important process enhancing the secondary porosity of soluble rocks. Depending on the history of the soluble rock, dissolution can occur either along fractures and bedding partings of the rock in the case of a telogenetic origin, or within the interconnected pore space in the case of eogenetic origin. In soluble rocks characterised by both fractures and pore space, dissolution in both flow compartments is possible. We investigate the dissolution of calcite both along fractures and within the pore space of a limestone rock by numerical modelling. The limestone rock is treated as fractured, porous aquifer, in which the hydraulic conductivity increases with time both for the fractures and the pore spaces. We show that enlargement of pore space by dissolution will accelerate the development of a classical fracture-dominated telogenetic karst aquifer, breakthrough occurs faster. In the case of a pore-controlled aquifer as in eogenetic rocks, enlargement of pores results in a front of enlarged pore spaces migrating into the karst aquifer, with more homogeneous enlargement around this dissolution front, and later breakthrough.

  1. [Soil water and its karst effect in epikarst dynamic system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yan; Qin, Xing-Ming; Jiang, Zhong-Cheng; Luo, Wei-Qun; Qi, Xiao-Fan

    2009-07-01

    This paper studied the soil physical properties, soil CO2, soil water and spring water chemistry in a mature forest and a shrub in Nongla of Guangxi, China, as well as the relationships between the chemistry of soil water and spring water, aimed to understand the karst effect of the soil water in Nongla epikarst dynamic system. Significant differences were observed in the soil bulk density and non-capillary porosity under forest and shrub, which affected soil water content. The fixed CO2 in soil water had a significant negative correlation with soil CO2, and the free CO2 in soil water was 0 mg x m(-3) in the forest and 5.33 x 10(3) mg x m(-3) in the shrub. In soil water and spring water, there was a negative correlation between pH and Ca2+, Mg2+, and Cl- concentrations, and a positive correlation between K+, Na+, and HCO3- concentrations and organic C content. After the eluviation of rain water, the ion concentrations in leached soil water increased greatly, and accordingly, its corrosion ability enhanced greatly. The karst process in forest environment was stable and intensive, while that in shrub environment was active but weak.

  2. Water Flow in Karst Aquifer Considering Dynamically Variable Saturation Conduit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chaoqun; Hu, Bill X.

    2017-04-01

    The karst system is generally conceptualized as dual-porosity system, which is characterized by low conductivity and high storage continuum matrix and high conductivity and quick flow conduit networks. And so far, a common numerical model for simulating flow in karst aquifer is MODFLOW2005-CFP, which is released by USGS in 2008. However, the steady-state approach for conduit flow in CFP is physically impractical when simulating very dynamic hydraulics with variable saturation conduit. So, we adopt the method proposed by Reimann et al. (2011) to improve current model, in which Saint-Venant equations are used to model the flow in conduit. Considering the actual background that the conduit is very big and varies along flow path and the Dirichlet boundary varies with rainfall in our study area in Southwest China, we further investigate the influence of conduit diameter and outflow boundary on numerical model. And we also analyze the hydraulic process in multi-precipitation events. We find that the numerical model here corresponds well with CFP for saturated conduit, and it could depict the interaction between matrix and conduit during very dynamic hydraulics pretty well compare with CFP.

  3. Development of Karst Formation in Area 4 of Tahe Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ying-jie; DU Yu-shan; ZHANG Jing-xuan; QU Quan-gong; LI Jing-hao; WU Qiang

    2003-01-01

    The main oil-bearing formation of Area 4 of Tahe oilfield is in Yingshan Group of Ordovician consisted of thick pure limestone. The types of the pore space contain the pore, fissure, cave as well as fracture formed by solution collapse. The primary porosity and tectonic fracture are of poor growth. Therefore, the formation growth is mainly controlled by hydraulic units of the palaeo-karst. There are three palaeo-hydraulic zones: vadose zone (including infiltration sub-zone and percolation sub-zone), phreatic zone and tranquil zone. They are identified by retrieving the palaeo-geographical karst environment. The pore space of the infiltration zone is mainly solution fissures, small solution cavities and solution pores. The growth and lateral connection of the formation are favorable. The reservoir/formation ratio is 0.54. The pore space of the phreatic zone developed large size cavities and fractures related to cave collapse. The height of the cavity can reach 71m. The fractures by collapse have a influencing range of more than 100m, and its reservoir/formation ratio is 0. 51. But the lateral connection is unfavorable. The percolation subzone and the tranquil zone are of relatively poor growth with the reservoir/tormation ratio less than 0. 3.

  4. Classification of thermal patterns at karst springs and cave streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Andrew J; Covington, Matthew D; Peters, Andrew J; Alexander, Scott C; Anger, Cale T; Green, Jeffrey A; Runkel, Anthony C; Alexander, E Calvin

    2011-01-01

    Thermal patterns of karst springs and cave streams provide potentially useful information concerning aquifer geometry and recharge. Temperature monitoring at 25 springs and cave streams in southeastern Minnesota has shown four distinct thermal patterns. These patterns can be divided into two types: those produced by flow paths with ineffective heat exchange, such as conduits, and those produced by flow paths with effective heat exchange, such as small fractures and pore space. Thermally ineffective patterns result when water flows through the aquifer before it can equilibrate to the rock temperature. Thermally ineffective patterns can be either event-scale, as produced by rainfall or snowmelt events, or seasonal scale, as produced by input from a perennial surface stream. Thermally effective patterns result when water equilibrates to rock temperature, and the patterns displayed depend on whether the aquifer temperature is changing over time. Shallow aquifers with seasonally varying temperatures display a phase-shifted seasonal signal, whereas deeper aquifers with constant temperatures display a stable temperature pattern. An individual aquifer may display more than one of these patterns. Since karst aquifers typically contain both thermally effective and ineffective routes, we argue that the thermal response is strongly influenced by recharge mode.

  5. 岩溶地区公路修筑技术研究%Research on Innovative Technologies for Highway Engineering in Karst Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康厚荣; 罗强; 梅世龙; 余崇俊; 周正峰

    2009-01-01

    To solve many challengeable problems such as engineering techniques, environment protection and sustainable development, etc.encountered in highway construction in karst areas, the key techniques including engineering geological survey, evaluation on highway foundation stability, utilization of pavement materials, treatments for karst diseases and environmental protection were studied comprehensively by massive investigation, experiments, field tests, theoretical analysis and numerical simulation.The in-situ technique and devices to monitor the deformation of underground cavity roof rock, the precise investigation techniques for underground cavity, and the systemic geological survey techniques for road engineering in karst areas were developed.The methods to evaluate the stability of subgrade which contains karst cavity and to determine the bearing strength of the bridge pile under karst cavity were addressed.The deformation damage mechanism of embankment caused by karst water was revealed and corresponding treatment techniques were proposed.The anti-skid pavement aggregates and high performance concrete mixed with manufactured sand were developed.The methods for environmental impact assessment, the change regularity of vegetation close to highway, and treatment techniques and equipments for karst water pollution were proposed.%为解决岩溶地区公路建设面临的工程技术、环境保护和可持续发展等诸多难题,通过大量调研分析、室内外试验、理论分析和数值计算,对岩溶地区公路建设中地质勘察、基础稳定性评价、筑路材料资源利用、工程病害处治和岩溶环境保护等五大方面的关键技术进行系统研究.开发了隐伏溶洞顶板变形监测技术与装置,隐伏溶洞精细探测技术,建立岩溶地区公路工程综合勘察技术体系;提出含隐伏溶洞地基公路路基稳定性评价方法、桥基承载力确定新方法;揭示岩溶水作用下路基变形破坏机理,提

  6. The engineering classification of karst with respect to the role and influence of caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waltham Tony

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The engineering classification of karst defines various complexities of ground conditions, in terms of the hazards that they provide to potential construction. Karst is divided into five classes (from immature to extreme. The three key parameters within the classification are caves (size and extent, sinkholes (abundance and collapse frequency and rockhead (profile and relief. As one component of karst, caves are a hazard to foundation integrity, though natural surface collapses over caves are extremely rare. A cave roof is normally stable under engineering loading where the roof thickness is greater than 70% of the cave width. Construction can proceed over or around caves that are known. The main difficulty is finding unseen voids; ground investigation in mature karst may require extensive borehole probing, and microgravity is the most useful geophysical technique.

  7. Vulnerability mapping and protection zoning of karst springs. Validation by multitracer tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, A I; Andreo, B; Mudarra, M

    2015-11-01

    Protection zoning of karst springs and wells used for water supply is a key aspect in many countries, calling for specific methodologies adapted to the particular characteristics of karst media. This work presents a new approach, in view of the present state of the art and based on experiences with contamination vulnerability mapping at the pilot site of the Villanueva del Rosario karst system (southern Spain). Source (intrinsic) vulnerability maps were prepared and compared using three European procedures for karst aquifers. The vulnerability maps were then tested using dye tracers. The COP+K method and Slovene Approach appear to provide reliable results in terms of intrinsic vulnerability mapping. Nevertheless, all the methods have a margin of error. The COP+K map is adopted as the baseline to delineate the protection zones, through the conversion from vulnerability classes to degrees of protection.

  8. Contact karst of Kočevski Rog and Kočevska Mala gora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Gostinčar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available On high Dinaric karst plateaus of Kočevski Rog and Kočevska Mala gora, the so-called contact karst is present. Geomorphic processes and landforms of four case study areas of contact karst were researched in detail. Two types of contact karst were recognized: between non-carbonate and carbonate rocks and between different carbonate rocks. In the first case, ponors and blind valleys (active and fossil were formed and concave forms near the contact are infilled with non-carbonate sediments. On the contact between different carbonate rocks (dolomite and limestone, the forms are similar but less evident, e.g. ponors (active and fossil, ponor steepheads and dry valleys.

  9. The role of the epikarst zone in karst aquifer recharge processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Trček

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of Orangeville Rise (USA, Indiana and Hubelj (SW Slovenia karst springs’storm hydrographs was the principal theme of our research. We used three and four component hydrograph separation techniques that were based on natural tracers. The resultsare similar in both study areas. They are in agreement with actual research hypothesis where it is supposed that an important part of the karst aquifer’s recharge arrives, rapidly and in concentrated form, from the epikrarst zone. The synthesis of data demonstrates thatepikarst water could occupy up to 50 % of the karst spring discharge during the precipitation event that should not be neglected in karst aquifer’s protection strategies.

  10. Modeling Flow and Pollutant Transport in a Karst Watershed with SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karst hydrology is characterized by multiple springs, sinkholes, and losing streams resulting from acidic water percolating through limestone. These features provide direct connections between surface water and groundwater and increase the risk of groundwater, springs and stream contamination. Anthr...

  11. 高师化学学生学习兴趣的调查与分析%Survey and Analysis on the Learning Interest of Higher Normal Students Majoring in Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡益强

    2014-01-01

    Through a survey on freshmen, sophomores and juniors majoring in chemistry education from seven universities in Hu'nan, this paper studied chemistry students' recognition on the importance of chemistry, their learning interest at the high school stage, their learning interest at the university stage, and the cur-rent situation of their love for chemistry, aiming to learn about the current situation of higher normal students' interest in chemistry learning, and provide basis for the improvement of chemistry teaching quality.%通过对湖南七所高校大一、大二、大三化学师范专业的学生进行调查,研究高师化学学生对化学学科的重要性认识、中学阶段的学习兴趣、大学阶段的学习兴趣、现阶段对化学的喜爱程度等状况,旨在了解高师化学学生学习兴趣的现状,为提高化学教学质量提供依据。

  12. Evolution of collapse valleys in karst - examples from the Carpatho-Balkanides of Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Aleksandar S.; Ćalić, Jelena; Spalević, Aleksandra; Pantić, Marko

    2016-04-01

    Development of valleys in karst is an issue which has not been sufficiently studied in karst surface morphology. THESE valleys are long linear forms whose orthogonal projections resemble normal valleys, but most of their characteristics are strongly influenced by karst process. In largest number of relevant references, this subject is either only briefly mentioned or completely lacking. This paper presents the examples of a particular type of valley in karst formed by cave ceiling collapse close to the topographical surface. Karst of the Carpatho-Balkanides in eastern Serbia is characterized by uneven spatial distribution in several large massifs, but also in a large number of relatively small outcrops (patches and belts), which enable the development of contact karst and fluviokarst. Many morphological elements are of fluvial origin, subsequently modified by karst process. Collapse valleys occur mostly at the downstream contacts (where a seasonal watercourse leaves limestones) or in karst/limestone belts. In the first phase, which is visible on the example of the Radovanska Reka, the river course sinks to the swallets in the riverbed and forms a blind valley. After sinking, the water flows through the tunnel cave, while largest part of the valley remains above the cave. The bottom of the dry valley is dissected by deep dolines, reaching almost to the cave roof. In this part of the study, the area was scanned by a multistation Leica Nova MS 50 (resolution 20 cm @ 10 m). In the second phase, the doline bottoms reach the cave ceilings which develop holes at certain points, as it is case at the Zamna River valley. These hollows tend to enlarge with time, and the surface of the cave ceiling is reduced. The third, final phase is characterised by collapse of larger segments of cave ceilings. Only the natural bridges remain, as the remnants of former caves (e.g. in the Vratna River valley, Ravna Reka valley). These parts of valleys in karst are usually narrow, steep

  13. 基于霍兰德职业类型理论的大学生职业兴趣调查与分析%The Survey and Analysis of College Students' Vocational Interest Based on the Theory of Holland Vocational Interest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋文琤

    2016-01-01

    根据霍兰德职业类型理论以福建江夏学院学生为样本进行职业兴趣倾向调查,分析了样本的总体职业兴趣倾向、倾向水平,并以性别和专业为因子进行方差分析。研究发现,大学生职业兴趣倾向的顺序排名(从高到低)为企业型、社会型、常规型、艺术型、研究型与现实型;性别和专业对于大学生的职业兴趣倾向的分布有显著影响;大多数学生的兴趣分化水平不高。在此基础上,提出了针对政府与学校的生涯教育、企业招聘和学生个体生涯发展的建议。%According to the of Holland's vocational theory,we survey students'vocational interest of Fujian Jiangxia University,analyzes the overall sample's tendency and level,and analysis of variance for gender and major.Results show that the order of the college students'vocational interest (from high to low) is enterprising,social,conventional,artistic,investigative and realistic.Gender and major have significant impact on the distribution of college students'vocational interest.The level of college students'vocational interest is low tendency group (24.1%),medium level group (70.4%),high level group (5.5%).On this basis,we present some suggestions for school career education,enterprise recruitment,the government and the students themselves.

  14. An Experimental Study of Mixture Corrosion Effects of Carbonate Rocks in the Transitional Zone of Littoral Karst Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鸿汉; 邹胜章; 朱远峰; 陈从喜

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism for development of littoral karst differs from that of inland karst, and the mixture corrosion effects are one of the most important factors that control the development of littoral karst. Through seven groups of static experiments carried out in a closed CO2-H2O system, basic conclusions can be drawn as follows: (1) the basic law of corrosion process in a transitional zone of seawater-freshwater in littoral karst areas is identical with that in the fresh water,i.e., the lithologic characteristics and rock structure are the main factors which control the development of littoral karst; (2)the mixture corrosion rate of the carbonate rock in the above transitional zone is faster than that in fresh water or seawater;(3) the mechanism for development of carbonate rocks differs at various pressures of CO2 in a transitional zone in littoral karst areas.``

  15. Hydrogeophysical Characterization of shallow karst using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) in a limestone mining area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H.; Qi, Z.; Li, X., Sr.; Ma, X.; Xue, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X.

    2016-12-01

    Karst is a kind of geological phenomenon under the chemical erosion process from water to soluble rock, such as limestone, gypsum, salt rock etc. Karst is widely distributed around the world and also in southwest of China. The Guangxi area is famous as the highly degree of karstification due to long time groundwater erosion and the development of fracture network. The hydrogeological units become complex involving subsurface karst pipes, caves, eroded groove, etc. Moreover, the complex system is hard to evaluate. The karst collapse may cause many kind of disaster which will influence the human activities. Classical hydrogeological methods, such as pumping tests and tracer tests, to estimate the hydraulic conductivity distribution in an aquifer are hard to finish in some condition with large area and high resolution required. Because a large number of wells are needed, which is uncommon because of the high drilling costs. However, geophysical method is cost-effective in mapping underground structures. And geophysical imaging is highly linked with the subsurface hydrological parameters. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is a widely used geophysical method in environmental and engineering applications. It detect and identify targets with different resistivity to the background by measuring the potential difference between different electric nodes. When the target has lower resistivity than the background, such as water resource, karst, evaluation of marine transgression etc., the acquired data show higher voltage corresponding to low resistivity. While when the target has higher resistivity than the background, such as empty holes, sliding surface for dry landslide and archaeological geophysics etc., the acquired data show opposite phenomenon. One can obtain the real resistivity profile of the subsurface by inverting the acquired data. We study the characterization of shallow karst using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) which is the most cost effective

  16. Assessing the vulnerability of a karst groundwater system to contamination by pharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einsiedl, Florian; Radke, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Contamination of drinking water supplies is a serious problem and a potential threat to public health. Organic micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products are identified as an environmental risk and concern has been raised about their environmental presence and fate. These compounds are present in effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in concentrations of up to several µg/L, and they have frequently been detected in surface waters and groundwater systems. A popular method for wastewater disposal in karst areas is the injection of wastewater into open sinkholes. Subsequently, the wastewater infiltrates rapidly along conduits and through the fractured karst aquifer. This is a major contributing factor to the contamination of karst aquifers. To address the vulnerability of such systems against relatively mobile organic micropollutants, we investigated the occurrence of two pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, ibuprofen) in combination with the groundwater heterogeneity and flow pathways in the aquifer. Groundwater samples and effluents of three WWTPs were repeatedly collected during a field campaign in the Franconian Alb karst system which is located in southern Germany. These results were coupled with hydrogeological investigations such as tracer tests, application of environmental isotopes (3H), and modeling. The results of this study demonstrated that (i) both pharmaceuticals are mobile in the karst aquifer and thus represent a risk for contamination of karst water, (ii) the transport of pharmaceuticals in the fractured system with mean transit times of some years affects the karst groundwater contamination, and (iii) long-term wastewater injection containing organic micropollutants into karst ecosystems may contribute to water quality deterioration over years.

  17. Vegetation in karst terrain of southwestern China allocates more biomass to roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In mountainous areas of southwestern China, especially Guizhou Province, continuous, broadly distributed karst landscapes with harsh and fragile habitats often lead to land degradation. Research indicates that vegetation located in karst terrains has low aboveground biomass, and land degradation reduces vegetation biomass, but belowground biomass measurements are rarely reported. Using the soil pit method, we investigated the root biomass of karst vegetation in five degraded (successional stages: grassland, grass-scrub tussock, thorn-scrub shrubland, scrub-tree forest, and mixed evergreen and deciduous forest in Maolan, southern Guizhou Province, growing in two different soil-rich and rock-dominated habitats. The results show that roots in karst vegetation, especially the coarse roots, and roots in rocky habitats, are mostly distributed in the topsoil layers (89% on the surface up to 20 cm depth. The total root biomass in all habitats of all vegetation degradation periods is 18.77 Mg ha−1, in which roots in rocky habitat have higher biomass than in earthy habitat, and coarse root biomass is larger than medium and fine root biomass. The root biomass of mixed evergreen and deciduous forest in karst habitat (35.83 Mg ha−1 is not greater than that of most typical, non-karst evergreen broad-leaved forests in subtropical regions of China, but the ratio of root to aboveground biomass in karst forest (0.37 is significantly greater than the mean ratio (0.26±0.07 of subtropical evergreen forests. Vegetation restoration in degraded karst terrain will significantly increase the belowground carbon stock, forming a potential regional carbon sink.

  18. Morphometric analysis of sinkholes in a karst coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, A.; Bruno, E.; Parise, M.; Pepe, M.

    2012-04-01

    Salento, the southern portion of Apulia region (SE Italy) is a narrow and elongated peninsula in carbonate rocks, with prevailing low coastlines, locally interrupted by high rock cliffs. The long stretches of low coasts are marked by typical karst landforms consisting of collapse sinkholes. These are locally designated with the dialectal term "spunnulate" (deriving from the verb "spunnare", which means to break, to sink; PARISE et al., 2003). As observed in many other karst coastal settings worldwide (FORTH et al., 1999), development of sinkholes may be particularly severe along the coast, where both natural and anthropogenic processes contribute to accelerate the dissolution of carbonate rocks and subsidence processes, influencing the coastline evolution. Following a previous study, where the main features of sinkholes at Torre Castiglione (Taranto province) were investigated and described, and a preliminary susceptibility map produced (BRUNO et al., 2008), in the present paper we perform a detailed morphometric analysis on the sample of identified sinkholes. The main morphometric parameters generally used for sinkhole characterization have been considered in this study: shape of the sinkhole, azimuth and length of major and minimum axes, depth, elongation ratio, distance from the shorelines. Each of them is described, both as individual parameter and in conjunction with the others, in the attempt to identify the main factors controlling development of sinkholes in the area, and their evolution as well. As regards this latter aspect, beside simple morphometry of the sample of sinkholes at Torre Castiglione, we also focused our attention on the likely relationships existing between distribution and shape of the sinkholes and the tectonic discontinuities. The role played by discontinuities in controlling both distribution and evolution of sinkholes has been pointed out by several authors (WHITE & WHITE, 1987; DENIZMAN, 2003; FLOREA, 2005). To investigate the matter

  19. Identification of depositional hiatuses in karst infillings – Example from Divje babe I cave (Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Turk

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Divje babe I cave is world known Paleolithic site in western Slovenia. In this paper, special interest is given to the identification of sedimentary hiatuses in karst infillings. Hiatuses can be the most reliably identified by detailed radiometric dating throughout the profile. However, this method is very expensive from economical point of view. New approach was developed in Divje babe I cave. Study of morphological characteristics of clast, may revealthe position of hiatuses. Four presumable hiatuses were assessed in sedimentary profile ranging from depth - 281 cmto - 481 cm below the contemporary ground floor in Divje babe I cave. Two hiatuses can be confirmed by results of radiometric datings, but another two hiatuses are doubtful. However, the identification of hiatuses by radiometric dating greatly depends on vertical length between two dated levels. Larger the length, greater the probability that hiatus was overlooked. Reliability of two presumable hiatuses can be confirmed by additional radiometric datings or with another analysis, such as measurement of degree of weathering.

  20. A compact field fluorometer and its application to dye tracing in karst environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulain, Amaël; Rochez, Gaëtan; Van Roy, Jean-Pierre; Dewaide, Lorraine; Hallet, Vincent; De Sadelaer, Geert

    2017-03-01

    Dye tracing is a classic technique in hydrogeology to investigate surface-water or groundwater flow characteristics, and it is useful for many applications including natural or industrial issues. The Fluo-Green field fluorometer has been successfully tested in a karst environment and is specifically suitable for in-cave karst water monitoring. Karst research often uses dyes to obtain information about groundwater flow in unexplored cave passages. The compact device, alternatively named Fluo-G, meets the requirements of cave media: small (10 × 16 × 21 cm), lightweight (0.75 kg without ballast) and simple in conception. It is easy for cavers to set up and handle compared to other sampling methods. The fluorometer records uranine, turbidity and temperature with a user-defined time-step (1 min - 1 day). Very low energy consumption allows 9,000 measurements with six AA batteries. The device was calibrated and tested in the laboratory and in field conditions in Belgian karst systems. Results are in good fit with other sampling methods: in-situ fluorometers and automatic water sampling plus laboratory analysis. Recording high quality data (breakthrough curves) in karst with in-cave monitoring is valuable to improve knowledge of karst systems. Many hydrological and hydrogeological applications can benefit from such a low-cost and compact device, and finding the best compromise between resources and quality data is essential. Several improvements are possible but preliminary field tests are very promising.

  1. Dynamics and anthropogenic impacts of multiple karst flow systems in a mountainous area of South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Mingming; Chen, Zhihua; Criss, Robert E.; Zhou, Hong; Huang, He; Han, Zhaofeng; Shi, Tingting

    2016-12-01

    The Xiangxi River basin, South China, is a steep terrane with well-developed karst features and an important Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer. Meteoric water in this mountainous area features a mean δ18O elevation gradient of -2.4 ‰/km. This gradient was used to estimate mean recharge elevations of 760 m for Shuimoxi (SMX) spring, 1,060 m for Xiangshuidong (XSD) spring, and 1,430 m for drill hole ZK03, indicating multiple flow paths in the Cambrian-Ordovician karst aquifer. Mean residence times of 230 and 320 days and ˜2 years were estimated for these features, respectively, using the damped running average model that predicts the isotopic variations in groundwater from those in precipitation. Groundwater in the regional karst flow system has the longest residence time, the highest recharge elevation, the longest flow paths, the lowest addition of anthropogenic components, and the greatest amount of water-rock interaction as indicated by its higher dissolved solids, Mg2+ concentrations and Mg/Ca ratios than the springs. In contrast, the local and shallow karst flow systems respond rapidly to recharge events. Artificial tracer tests prove that these shallow karst systems can also quickly transmit anthropogenic contaminants, indicating that they are highly vulnerable to human impacts, which include the enrichment of NO3 -. The intensity of water-rock interaction and groundwater vulnerability are mainly determined by the structure and dynamics of the multiple karst flow systems.

  2. A compact field fluorometer and its application to dye tracing in karst environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulain, Amaël; Rochez, Gaëtan; Van Roy, Jean-Pierre; Dewaide, Lorraine; Hallet, Vincent; De Sadelaer, Geert

    2017-08-01

    Dye tracing is a classic technique in hydrogeology to investigate surface-water or groundwater flow characteristics, and it is useful for many applications including natural or industrial issues. The Fluo-Green field fluorometer has been successfully tested in a karst environment and is specifically suitable for in-cave karst water monitoring. Karst research often uses dyes to obtain information about groundwater flow in unexplored cave passages. The compact device, alternatively named Fluo-G, meets the requirements of cave media: small (10 × 16 × 21 cm), lightweight (0.75 kg without ballast) and simple in conception. It is easy for cavers to set up and handle compared to other sampling methods. The fluorometer records uranine, turbidity and temperature with a user-defined time-step (1 min - 1 day). Very low energy consumption allows 9,000 measurements with six AA batteries. The device was calibrated and tested in the laboratory and in field conditions in Belgian karst systems. Results are in good fit with other sampling methods: in-situ fluorometers and automatic water sampling plus laboratory analysis. Recording high quality data (breakthrough curves) in karst with in-cave monitoring is valuable to improve knowledge of karst systems. Many hydrological and hydrogeological applications can benefit from such a low-cost and compact device, and finding the best compromise between resources and quality data is essential. Several improvements are possible but preliminary field tests are very promising.

  3. Dynamics and anthropogenic impacts of multiple karst flow systems in a mountainous area of South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Mingming; Chen, Zhihua; Criss, Robert E.; Zhou, Hong; Huang, He; Han, Zhaofeng; Shi, Tingting

    2016-08-01

    The Xiangxi River basin, South China, is a steep terrane with well-developed karst features and an important Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer. Meteoric water in this mountainous area features a mean δ18O elevation gradient of -2.4 ‰/km. This gradient was used to estimate mean recharge elevations of 760 m for Shuimoxi (SMX) spring, 1,060 m for Xiangshuidong (XSD) spring, and 1,430 m for drill hole ZK03, indicating multiple flow paths in the Cambrian-Ordovician karst aquifer. Mean residence times of 230 and 320 days and ˜2 years were estimated for these features, respectively, using the damped running average model that predicts the isotopic variations in groundwater from those in precipitation. Groundwater in the regional karst flow system has the longest residence time, the highest recharge elevation, the longest flow paths, the lowest addition of anthropogenic components, and the greatest amount of water-rock interaction as indicated by its higher dissolved solids, Mg2+ concentrations and Mg/Ca ratios than the springs. In contrast, the local and shallow karst flow systems respond rapidly to recharge events. Artificial tracer tests prove that these shallow karst systems can also quickly transmit anthropogenic contaminants, indicating that they are highly vulnerable to human impacts, which include the enrichment of NO3 -. The intensity of water-rock interaction and groundwater vulnerability are mainly determined by the structure and dynamics of the multiple karst flow systems.

  4. DESIGN AND APPLICATION OF DYNAMIC MONITORING AND VISUALIZATION MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM OF KARST LAND ROCKY DESERTIFICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Bao-qing; LIAO Chi-mei; YAN Zhi-qiang; LI Ling; QIN Kai-xian

    2004-01-01

    In order to study the spatial-temporal change and environmental management of regional karst LUCC (land use and land cover change) and its causative environmental effect-rocky desertification by integrating qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis, and relying on RS, GIS and GPS (3S) techniques, karst land rocky derification dynamic monitoring and visualization management information system (KLRD.DMVM.IS) is framed, which includes design aim and structure model, function design, database design and model system design. The model system design gives priority to dynamic monitoring, drive force diagnosis, comprehensive evaluation and decision support of karst rocky desertification. From the viewpoint of model type, mathematic expression and its meaning, the dynamic monitoring models are concretely devised to reflect the spatial and temporal changing features and the trend of karst LUCC and rocky desertification. Taking Du'an Yao Autonomic County of Guangxi as an example, the KLRD.DMVM.IS is systematically analyzed in the application of the process and trend of karst LUCC and rocky desertification in Du'an County, and it provides the technical support for the study on karst land rocky desertification.

  5. Multi-component mapping of karst features with remote sensing, digital elevation data and GIS: a case study from Central Crete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siart, C.; Bubenzer, O.; Eitel, B.

    2009-04-01

    The application of remote sensing (RS) and GIS techniques based on high resolution satellite imagery in combination with digital elevation models (DEMs) can provide detailed information for geomorphologic purposes such as karst feature mapping. Moreover, area wide surveying is significantly improved and supported, as computer applications allow a very cost and time effective proceeding. The exemplary focus of the project at hand is on the Ida-Ori in Central Crete, a high mountain range predominantly consisting of Palaeozoic to Mesozoic limestones and dolomites. Subdivided into several vast high plateaus, its main geomorphologic characteristics are dry valleys of Miocene age and an intense karstification reaching from the base up to the highest peak at 2456 m a.s.l. Nearly all types of karst forms appear in immediate adjacency, while dolines, uvalas and poljes are the most frequent objects. Such depressions provide sediment traps for eroded soils or aeolian deposits and, thus, can be significantly filled with colluvial materials. Since the area wide karstification of Mount Ida has not been fully explored so far, the prime objective is to evaluate the potential and suitability of satellite data and DEMs (SRTM 90m, ASTER 15m) for the precise mapping of those structures. Furthermore, the dominant influencing variables of karst processes are investigated. To acquire spatially comprehensive information, Quickbird MS tiles (0.6 m resolution) were used for land surface classifications with RS-techniques. Subsequent to image correction and enhancement, a hybrid parallelepiped maximum likelihood classification approach was carried out. Postprocessing and conversion of raster data into vector format finally allowed spatial analyses in a GIS environment. Derivatives of DEMs (slope, aspect, contours, curvature, hydrologic drainage pattern) were generated in order to assess their suitability for karst mapping and to specify the remote sensing outcomes, particularly by conducting

  6. Mechanisms of karst breakdown formation in the gypsum karst of the fore-Ural region, Russia (from observations in the Kungurskaja cave.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimchouk Alexander

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The fore-Ural is a classical region of intrastratal gypsum karst. The intensive development of karst in the Permian gypsums and anhydrites causes numerous practical problems, the subsidence hazard being the most severe. Mechanisms of karst breakdown formation were studied in detail in the Kunguskaya Cave area. The cave and its setting are characteristic to the region and, being a site of detalied stationary studies for many years, the cave represents a convenient location for various karst and speleological investigations. Breakdown structures related to cavities of the Kungurskaya Cave type develop by two mechanisms: gravitational (sagging and fall-in of the ceilings of cavities and filtrational/gravitational (crumbling and fall-in of the ceilings of vertical solution pipes, facilitated by percolation. The former implies upward stoping of the breakout roof and cessation of the process at some height above the floor of the cave due to complete infilling by fallen clasts. This mechanism cannot generate surface deformation where the overburden thickness exceeds a certain value. The latter mechanism implies that breakdown will almost inevitably express itself at the surface, most commonly as a sudden collapse, even where the thickness of the overburden is large. These mechanisms resuit in different appearance, distribution and further evolution of the respective surface forms, so that subsidence hazard assessment should be performed differently for these types of breakdown. The conclusions reached by this study are representative for the region, although some of them bear more general validity for intrastratal karst conditions. This study underlines the ultimate importance of speleological investigations to the understanding of karst breakdown mechanisms.

  7. Human impact on Karst: the example of Lusaka (Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Waele Jo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Lusaka, the capital of Zambia with over 2,000,000 inhabitants, is built on an extensive plateau composed mainly of schists and dolomitic marbles, constituting a very important aquifer that provides the city with almost half of its drinking water needs. Recent demographic growth, leading to uncontrolled urban expansion, and mismanagement of the water resource and of urban waste has lead, in the past 20 years, to an overexploitation of the aquifer and to a generalised water quality depletion, putting in serious danger the future social and economical development of the capital. This third world city has, for these reasons, become a terrifying example of human impact on a vulnerable karst environment, and if no measures will be taken in the very near future, quality of life in the city will be at serious risk.

  8. Teaching resources in speleology and karst: a valuable educational tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Waele Jo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing need in the speleological community of tools that make teaching of speleology and karst much easier. Despite the existence of a wide range of major academic textbooks, often the caver community has a difficult access to such material. Therefore, to fill this gap, the Italian Speleological Society, under the umbrella of the Union International de Spéléologie, has prepared a set of lectures, in a presentation format, on several topics including geology, physics, chemistry, hydrogeology, mineralogy, palaeontology, biology, microbiology, history, archaeology, artificial caves, documentation, etc. These lectures constitute the “Teaching Resources in Speleology and Karst”, available online. This educational tool, thanks to its easily manageable format, can constantly be updated and enriched with new contents and topics.

  9. Overexploitation of karst spring as a measure against water scarcity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimkić, Dejan; Dimkić, Milan; Soro, Andjelko; Pavlović, Dusan; Jevtić, Goran; Lukić, Vladimir; Svrkota, Dragan

    2017-05-11

    Water scarcity, especially in the hydrologically critical part of the year, is a problem often present in many cities and regions, particularly in arid and sub-arid areas. Climate change and human water demand compound the problem. This paper discusses a climate change adaptation measure-the possibility of karst spring overexploitation, where there is a siphon-shaped cavity inside the mountain. The pilot area is near the city of Niš, where a decreasing precipitation trend has already been observed and is expected to continue in the future. The paper also presents some basic information related to the pilot area and undertaken investigations. The project, successfully implemented in 2004, has provided the city of Niš with an additional amount of 200 l/s of spring water during the most critical part of the year.

  10. SWISSKARST Project - how to document the karst aquifers in Switzerland using the KARSYS approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malard, A.; Vouillamoz, J.; Jeannin, P.-Y.; Weber, E.; Eichenberger, U.

    2012-04-01

    Swiss karst aquifers are poorly documented although they represent a resource estimated to around 120 km3 of fresh water - which is comparable to the water volume of all Swiss lakes. Within the framework of the Swiss National Research Program 61 an opportunity was given to develop a systematic way to characterize karst aquifers and to describe their hydrological behaviour. The project aims at providing methodologies or guidelines to approach karst systems and to improve their management. This covers a large range of fields such as water supply, civil engineering, renewable energies, natural hazards, etc. In this context SISKA developed a dedicated approach named KARSYS for KARst SYStems characterization. It is based on iterations of 3D geological models combined with some basic hydraulic principles taking place in karst media. The main principles are: (i) The 3D geometry of the aquifer set the framework in which flow processes take place (ii) Aquifers are flooded below the level of the main perennial springs (iii) The expansion of the water table upstream of the main springs is lower than 1% (low water stage). High water gradients are simulated according to the elevation of temporary springs or observations in existing boreholes or caves. The approach explicitly shows through 3D visual that some groundwater bodies may be separated at low water stage and connected at high water. Such 3D views bring often explanations to the interpretation of "strange" or "not repeatable" dye tracer's results. A major input of KARSYS approach is to provide a systematic construction of a conceptual model for all hydrological karst systems. It also considers interactions between adjacent systems, providing new concepts on the delineation of karst systems. KARSYS approach can be applied in a quick and approximate way and improved along in order to reach a precision according to the question to be addressed. Results of KARSYS applications are: (i) The delineation of catchment areas of

  11. Diurnal hydrochemical variations in a karst spring and two ponds, Maolan Karst Experimental Site, China: Biological pump effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Liu, Zaihua; Macpherson, G. L.; Yang, Rui; Chen, Bo; Sun, Hailong

    2015-03-01

    A karst spring and two downstream ponds fed by the spring at the Maolan Karst Experimental Site, Guizhou Province, China, were used to investigate the effect of submerged plants on the CO2-H2O-CaCO3 system during a time of spring base flow in summer when underwater photosynthesis was strongest. Temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and dissolved oxygen (DO) were recorded at 15 min intervals for a period of 30 h (12:00 29 August-18:00 30 August, 2012). [Ca2+], [HCO3-], CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) and saturation index of calcite (SIC) were estimated from the high-frequency measurements. Water samples were also collected three times a day (early morning, midday and evening) for δ13CDIC determination. A floating CO2-flux monitoring chamber was used to measure CO2 flux at the three locations. Results show that there was little or no diurnal variation in the spring water parameters. In the midstream pond with flourishing submerged plants, however, all parameters show distinct diurnal changes: temperature, pH, DO, SIc, δ13CDIC increased during the day and decreased at night, while EC, [HCO3-], [Ca2+], and pCO2 behaved in the opposite sense. In addition, maximum DO values (16-23 mg/L) in the midstream pond at daytime were two to three times those of water equilibrated with atmospheric O2, indicating strong aquatic photosynthesis. The proposed photosynthesis is corroborated by the low calculated pCO2 of 20-200 ppmv, which is much less than atmospheric pCO2. In the downstream pond with fewer submerged plants but larger volume, all parameters displayed similar trends to the midstream pond but with much less change, a pattern that we attribute to the lower biomass/water volume ratio. The diurnal hydrobiogeochemical variations in the two ponds depended essentially on illumination, indicating that photosynthesis and respiration by the submerged plants are the dominant controlling processes. The large loss of DIC between the spring and midstream pond, attributed to

  12. Ecosystem services provided by groundwater dependent wetlands in karst areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimo Delle Grazie, Fabio; Gill, Laurence

    2017-04-01

    Ecosystem services provided by groundwater dependent wetlands in karst areas Turloughs are topographic depressions in karst, which are intermittently flooded on an annual cycle via groundwater sources and have substrate and/or ecological communities characteristic of wetlands. Turloughs are designated a Priority Habitat in Annex 1 of the EU Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) as well as GWDTEs under the Water Framework Directive (WFD). Hydrology is the primary driver of these unique ecosystems and so a rigorous understanding of the flooding regime is required in order to assess their conservation and future sustainability. This research aims to identify and quantify the ecosystem services associated with turloughs, particularly in relation to the need for habitat conservation in the face of external pressures associated with agriculture, road drainage schemes, water supply and wastewater disposal. The research focuses primarily on quantifying the ecosystem functions responsible for producing terrestrial hydrologic and climatic services, as well as intrinsic biodiversity services, and uses this context to lay out a blueprint for a more detailed ecosystem service assessment. These services have been quantified in appropriate units (biophysical or otherwise), based on actual or potential sustainable use levels. Available data and field studies have been used to assess the hydrological conditions necessary to sustain the biodiversity of vegetation as well as to better understand the connections between hydrology and biogeochemical cycles. The benefits of the turlough services have then been analyzed and quantified in appropriate units (ecological, socio-cultural and economic indicators) as well as monetary values. This has been done using the inVEST tool. InVEST includes models for quantifying, mapping, and valuing the benefits provided by terrestrial, freshwater, and marine systems. In particular the Habitat Risk Assessment and the Nutrient Delivery Ratio modules have been

  13. Survey of Army Personnel Interested in Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    Demographic prof’de CurrentActive Army Personnel rent Teachers Actie - ifl~ = -Employment Active Actve Active Outside Army Officers Enlted Educaion Base: 607...Base: 607 345 206 301 1144 2380 0^ PA Desire to work with young people 71 69 70 64 70 78 Value or significance of education in society 69 68 68 75

  14. Characteristics of Karst Ecosystems of Vietnam and Their Vulnerability to Human Impact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Karst in Vietnam covers an area of about 60,000 km2, i.e. 18 % of the surface of the country. The country has an annual average temperature of 24 ℃, an annual average rainfall of 2300 mm and a relative humidity of about 90%. Karst in Vietnam is typified by peak cluster-depression landscapes ranging in elevation from 200 to over 2000 m. Tower and coastal karst landscapes also exit. Because of naturally favourable conditions, karst ecosystems are diverse and very rich.Higher plants (cormophytes) are abundant. They are represented by approximately 2000 species, 908 genera, 224 families,86 orders and 7 phyla. They form a thick vegetation cover of evergreen tropical rainforest. Knowledge about lower plants is limited. The fauna is rich and diverse. Phyla such as Protozoa, Vermes, Mollusca and Arthropoda are yet ill known.Preliminary results show that the phylum Chordata is represented by 541 species from 80 families, 40 orders and 5 classes.There exist many precious and rare mammals, in particular some endemic species such as Trachypithecuspoliocephalus, T.delacouri, Rhinopithecus avanculus, Rhinolophus rouxi, Seotoma dineties and Silurus cuephuongensis. The class Insecta has about 2000 species.``The fast population growth, particularly in the mountainous areas of the country, triggers an increasing demand for land and therefore threatens the ecosystem. To obtain land for farming, people have cut, burned and destroyed natural forest cover; resulting in occurrence of hazards such as soil-loss, water-loss, flash floods, mud-rock flows, rock-falls, severe drought, water logging and changes of karstic aquifers etc. Poaching precious animals and illegal logging are increasing. In contrast to other natural systems, karst ecosystems cannot be reestablished once damaged. Living karst landscapes will become rocky desert ones without life. Conservation of karstic environmental systems in general and karstic ecosystems in particular should not be the sole vocation of scientists

  15. The Opening Ceremony of the International Research Center on Karst under the Auspices of UNESCO was held in Guilin on 15 December,2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Yuexia

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Opening Ceremony of the International Research Center on Karst under the Auspices of UNESCO was held in the Institute of Karst Geology,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences in Guilin on 15 December,2008.

  16. Bullita cave system, Judbarra / Gregory Karst, tropical Australia; Sistemas de cuevas de Bullita, Judbarra / Gregory Karst, Australia tropical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, K. G.; Martini, J. E. J.

    2016-07-01

    In the monsoon tropics of northern Australia, Bullita Cave is the largest (123 km) of a group of extensive, horizontal, joint-controlled, dense network maze caves which are epikarst systems lying at shallow depth beneath a well-developed karrenfield. The Judbarra / Gregory Karst and its caves are restricted to the outcrop belt of the thin, sub-horizontal, Proterozoic Supplejack Dolostone. Karst is further restricted to those parts of the Supplejack that have escaped a secondary dolomitisation event. The karrenfield and underlying cave system are intimately related and have developed in step as the Supplejack surface was exposed by slope retreat. Both show a lateral zonation of development grading from youth to old age. Small cave passages originate under the recently exposed surface, and the older passages at the trailing edge become un roofed or destroyed as the, by then deeply-incised, karrenfield breaks up into isolated ruiniform blocks and pinnacles. Vertical development of the cave has been generally restricted to the epikarst zone by a 3m bed of impermeable and incompetent shale beneath the Supplejack which first perched the water-table, forming incipient phreatic passages above it, and later was eroded by vadose flow to form an extensive horizontal system of passages 10-20m below the karren surface. Some lower cave levels in underlying dolostone occur adjacent to recently incised surface gorges. Speleogenesis is also influenced by the rapid, diffuse, vertical inflow of storm water through the karrenfield, and by ponding of the still-aggressive water within the cave during the wet season dammed up by levees of sediment that accumulate beneath the degraded trailing edge of the karrenfield. The soil, and much biological activity, is not at the bare karren surface, but down on the cave floors, which aids epikarstic solution at depth rather than on the surface. (Author)

  17. Organic carbon storage in four ecosystem types in the karst region of southwestern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguo Liu

    Full Text Available Karst ecosystems are important landscape types that cover about 12% of the world's land area. The role of karst ecosystems in the global carbon cycle remains unclear, due to the lack of an appropriate method for determining the thickness of the solum, a representative sampling of the soil and data of organic carbon stocks at the ecosystem level. The karst region in southwestern China is the largest in the world. In this study, we estimated biomass, soil quantity and ecosystem organic carbon stocks in four vegetation types typical of karst ecosystems in this region, shrub grasslands (SG, thorn shrubbery (TS, forest - shrub transition (FS and secondary forest (F. The results showed that the biomass of SG, TS, FS, and F is 0.52, 0.85, 5.9 and 19.2 kg m(-2, respectively and the corresponding organic cabon storage is 0.26, 0.40, 2.83 and 9.09 kg m(-2, respectively. Nevertheless, soil quantity and corresponding organic carbon storage are very small in karst habitats. The quantity of fine earth overlaying the physical weathering zone of the carbonate rock of SG, TS, FS and F is 38.10, 99.24, 29.57 and 61.89 kg m(-2, respectively, while the corresponding organic carbon storage is only 3.34, 4.10, 2.37, 5.25 kg m(-2, respectively. As a whole, ecosystem organic carbon storage of SG, TS, FS, and F is 3.81, 4.72, 5.68 and 15.1 kg m(-2, respectively. These are very low levels compared to other ecosystems in non-karst areas. With the restoration of degraded vegetation, karst ecosystems in southwestern China may play active roles in mitigating the increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere.

  18. Advances in Dynamic Transport of Organic Contaminants in Karst Groundwater Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, I. Y.; Vesper, D.; Alshawabkeh, A.; Hellweger, F.

    2011-12-01

    Karst groundwater systems develop in soluble rocks such as limestone, and are characterized by high permeability and well-developed conduit porosity. These systems provide important freshwater resources for human consumption and ecological integrity of streams, wetlands, and coastal zones. The same characteristics that make karst aquifers highly productive make them highly vulnerable to contamination. As a result, karst aquifers serve as an important route for contaminants exposure to humans and wildlife. Transport of organic contaminants in karst ground-water occurs in complex pathways influenced by the flow mechanism predominating in the aquifer: conduit-flow dominated systems tend to convey solutes rapidly through the system to a discharge point without much attenuation; diffuse-flow systems, on the other hand, can cause significant solute retardation and slow movement. These two mechanisms represent end members of a wide spectrum of conditions found in karst areas, and often a combination of conduit- and diffuse-flow mechanisms is encountered, where both flow mechanisms can control the fate and transport of contaminants. This is the case in the carbonate aquifers of northern Puerto Rico. This work addresses advances made on the characterization of fate and transport processes in karst ground-water systems characterized by variable conduit and/or diffusion dominated flow under high- and low-flow conditions. It involves laboratory-scale physical modeling and field-scale sampling and historical analysis of contaminant distribution. Statistical analysis of solute transport in Geo-Hydrobed physical models shows the heterogeneous character of transport dynamics in karstic units, and its variability under different flow regimes. Field-work analysis of chlorinated volatile organic compounds and phthalates indicates a large capacity of the karst systems to store and transmit contaminants. This work is part of the program "Puerto Rico Testsite for Exploring Contamination

  19. Estimating annual effective infiltration coefficient and groundwater recharge for karst aquifers of the southern Apennines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Allocca

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To assess the mean annual groundwater recharge of the karst aquifers in southern Apennines (Italy, the estimation of the mean annual effective infiltration coefficient (AEIC was conducted by means of an integrated approach based on hydrogeological, hydrological, geomorphological, land use and soil cover analyses. We studied a large part of the southern Apennines that is covered by a meteorological network and containing 40 principal karst aquifers. Using precipitation and air temperature time series gathered through monitoring stations operating in the period 1926–2012, the annual effective precipitation (AEP was estimated, and its distribution was modelled, by considering the orographic barrier and rain shadow effects of the Apennines chain, as well as the altitudinal control. Four sample karst aquifers with available long spring discharge time series were identified for estimating the AEIC by means of the hydrological budget equation. The resulting AEIC values were correlated with other parameters that control groundwater recharge, such as the extension of outcropping karst-rock, morphological settings, land use and covering soil type. A simple correlation relationship between AEIC, lithology and the summit flat and endorheic areas was found. This empirical model has been used to estimate AEIC and mean annual groundwater recharge in other regional karst aquifers. The estimated AEIC values ranged between 48% and 78%, thus matching intervals estimated for other karst aquifers in European and Mediterranean countries. These results represent a deeper understanding of an aspect of groundwater hydrology in karst aquifers which is fundamental for the formulation of appropriate management models of groundwater resources, also taking into account mitigation strategies for climate change impacts. Finally, the proposed hydrological characterisations are also perceived as useful for the assessment of mean annual runoff over carbonate mountains, which is

  20. 川东南地区茅口组岩溶古地貌恢复及特征%The restoration of karst ancient landform of the Maokou Formation in southeastern Sichuan basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡修权; 施泽进; 田亚铭; 王长城

    2014-01-01

    The Dongwu Movement caused the exposure of Maokou limestone on the earth's surface and made it experience the su-pergene weathering process. Drilling reveals that the gas reservoir is closely related to the location and intensity of ancient landforms. Palaeogeomorphology is the main factor that affects the development and distribution of ancient karst. Southeastern Sichuan basin has had less drilling and is unevenly distributed, with insufficient exploration. Combining drilling with seismic survey, the authors exqui-sitely restored ancient karst landform of Maokou by applying the impression method and the residual method. A comparison of these two methods show that both methods can recover the same basic trend palaeogeomorphology. According to the geological features and practical data of the study area, the authors hold that the impression method has higher reliability. Based on an analysis of the an-cient water system, the authors divided the study area into karst highland, karst slope and karst basin by combining it with paleogeo-logic map and drilling. The NW-SE trending karst highland in the southwest of the study area has the same highland as the karst highland in Shunan area, but it is higher than Shunan area. The groundwater runoff and corrosion holes of the karst slope area make it a favorable area for karst exploration.%东吴运动造成茅口组灰岩暴露地表并经历了表生风化作用。钻井揭示,气藏储层段与古岩溶所处的位置及强度密切相关,古地貌是控制古岩溶发育与分布的主要因素。针对钻井较少且分布不均、勘探程度不高的川东南地区,将钻井与地震紧密结合,分别运用残余厚度法与印模法对茅口组岩溶古地貌进行恢复,结果对比发现,这2种方法恢复出来的古地貌趋势基本一致。结合研究区的地质特征和实际资料,认为印模法可信度更高。在古水系特征分析的基础上,结合古地质图和钻井资料,把

  1. Comprehensive surface geophysical investigation of karst caves ahead of the tunnel face: A case study in the Xiaoheyan section of the water supply project from Songhua River, Jilin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Liu; Zhengyu, Liu; Shucai, Li; Lichao, Nie; Maoxin, Su; Huaifeng, Sun; Kerui, Fan; Xinxin, Zhang; Yonghao, Pang

    2017-09-01

    This paper describes the application of a comprehensive surface geophysical investigation of underground karst systems ahead of the tunnel face in the Xiaoheyan section in the main line of the water supply project from Songhua River, located in Jilin, China. To make an accurate investigation, Surface Electrical Resistivity Tomography (S-ERT), Transient Electromagnetic Method (TEM), Geological Drilling (Geo-D) and Three-dimensional Cross-hole Electrical Resistivity Tomography (3D cross-hole ERT) were applied to gain a comprehensive interpretation. To begin with, S-ERT and TEM are adopted to detect and delineate the underground karst zone. Based on the detection results, surface and in-tunnel Geo-D are placed in major areas with more specific and accurate information gained. After that, survey lines of 3D cross-hole ERT are used to conduct detailed exploration towards underground karst system. In the comprehensive investigation, it is the major question to make the best of prior information so as to promote the quality of detection. The paper has put forward strategies to make the full use of effective information in data processing and the main ideas of those strategies include: (1) Take the resistivity distribution of the subsurface stratum gained by S-ERT inversion as the initial model of TEM inversion; (2) Arrange borehole positions with the results of S-ERT and TEM. After that, gain more accurate information about resistivity of subsurface stratum using those boreholes located; (3) Through the comprehensive analysis of the information about S-ERT, TEM and Geo-D, set the initial model of 3D cross-hole resistivity inversion and meanwhile, gain the variation range of stratum resistivity. At last, a 3D cross-hole resistivity inversion based on the incorporated initial model and inequality constraint is conducted. Constrained inversion and joint interpretation are realized by the effective use of prior information in comprehensive investigation, helping to suppress

  2. Dialectical roots for interest prohibition theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Bergstra

    2011-01-01

    It is argued that arguments for strict prohibition of interests must be based on the use of arguments from authority. This is carried out by first making a survey of so-called dialectical roots for interest prohibition and then demonstrating that for at least one important positive interest bearing

  3. Carbonate speleothems from western Mediterranean gypsum karst: palaeoclimate implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbu, Andrea; Drysdale, Russell; Woodhead, Jon; Chiarini, Veronica; De Waele, Jo; Hellstrom, John; Forti, Paolo; Sanna, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Gypsum caves are uncommon environments for carbonate speleothems (cave deposits). Contrary to limestone caves, the only source of non-atmospheric carbon is from biogenic CO2 produced by the overlying soils. Enhanced CO2 content in soils is in turn related with climate, where warm temperatures and high humidity favour plant activity .().....(Fairchild and Baker, 2012). Although poorly decorated, the exploration of northern Italian and Spanish gypsum karst systems reveals the existence of several generations of carbonate speleothems, which have been dated with the U-Th series method .()......(Hellstrom, 2003; Scholz and Hoffmann, 2008). Their ages coincide with current and previous two interglacials (MIS 1, 5e and 7e and Greenland interstadials (GIS) 19, 20, 21 and 24. Considering that these periods are amongst the most pronounced warm-wet pulsations over the last 250,000 ...(Martrat et al., 2007; NGRIP, 2004), and that CO2 has a fundamental role in this karst process, this study explores the climate-driven hydrogeological conditions necessary to trigger carbonate deposition in gypsum voids. The further correlation with sapropel events 5, 4, 3 and 1, considered symptomatic of enhanced rainfall across the whole Mediterranean basin .(.)(Emeis et al., 1991), highlights the importance of flow-rate in the fracture network and infiltration of meteoric water into the caves. The combination of high CO2 and a phreatic status of the fracture network is thus indispensable for the formation of carbonate speleothems in gypsum karst. This condition appears to be triggered by periods of orbital precession minimum, when the monsoonal activity peaked in the Atlantic area. Stable oxygen isotope signatures suggest that the speleothems did not grow during any interglacial-glacial or main interstadial-stadial transitions, confirming that variations from optimum climate conditions may hamper the formation of this category of speleothems. New speleological exploration and sampling campaign

  4. Natural and Artificial (fluorescent) Tracers to Characterise Hydrogeological Functioning and to Protect Karst Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreo, B.; Mudarra, M.; Marin, A. I.; Barberá, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    The hydrogeological functioning and response of karst aquifers can be determined by the joint use of natural hydrogeochemical tracers, especially total organic carbon (TOC) and intrinsic fluorescence of water, together with artificial (fluorescent) tracers, under the same hydrodynamic conditions. Sharp and rapid variations in discharge, temperature, electrical conductivity and water chemistry, particularly of natural tracers of infiltration (TOC, intrinsic fluorescence and NO3-) recorded in karst spring water, confirm the existence of well developed karst conduits in the sector of the aquifer being drained, with rapid flows and very short water transit times from the surface to the springs (Mudarra et al., 2011). This is in agreement with the evidence obtained from breakthrough curves of fluorescent dye tracers (uranine, eosine, etc.). However, time lags between maximum concentrations of natural (especially TOC and intrinsic fluorescence) and artificial tracers show that the global system response is faster than that produced from a recharge concentrated at a point on the surface, even in karst sinkholes. Response and transit times of water through the karst can be calculated using both natural and artificial tracers, but flow velocities can really only be quantified using artificial tracers. Analysis of the responses obtained by natural tracers of infiltration (global system response) and artificial tracers (single response) in karst waters has revealed the usefulness and complementarity of both techniques for characterising the hydrogeological functioning of karst aquifers and, even more important, for validating contamination vulnerability mapping in these medium (Zwahlen, 2004; Andreo et al., 2006). In recent decades, several methods have been developed for such vulnerability mapping, but little progress has been made in validating their results. This validation is essential for the adequate protection of water resources in karst media, as has been shown in

  5. The Role of Attached and Free-Living Bacteria in Biodegradation in Karst Aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Kheder

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural attenuation of groundwater contamination occurs at some level for all aquifers impacted with organic contaminants. The issues regarding natural attenuation are whether it takes place at a sufficient rate to be protective of human health and the environment. Implementation of a Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA remedial alternative for groundwater requires parties responsible for the contamination to demonstrate to regulators and the public that MNA is protective at a given site. Analysis of MNA for remediation of karst aquifers is hampered by a lack of understanding of biodegradation in karst environments. The lack of studies examining biodegradation in karst aquifers may in large part be due to the widespread perception that contaminants are rapidly flushed out of karst aquifers resulting in insufficient residence times for contaminants to biodegrade. In highly developed and well-connected conduit systems, the rate of contaminant migration is perceived to be much faster than the rate of biodegradation. This perception of contaminant transport is largely incorrect. Tracer studies for karst aquifers often indicate that these aquifers are characterized by diverse flow regimes and storage capabilities. Additionally, it is also believed that if bioremediation in bedrock aquifers is dependent upon contact between surface-attached bacteria and contaminants, then bioremediation would be limited by the low surface-area-to-volume ratio (SA/V of karst aquifers. A quantitative basis, however, for accepting or rejecting the assumption that attached bacteria dominate the biodegradation process in karst conduits has not been shown. The objective of this research was to determine if free-living karst bacteria from contributed as much to toluene biodegradation as attached bacteria. This is an important area of research. Research indicates bacteria are both attached and free-living in karst aquifers and it is unrealistic to think that only the attached

  6. Reduction of the ambiguity of karst aquifer modeling through pattern matching of groundwater flow and transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehlmann, Sandra; Geyer, Tobias; Licha, Tobias; Sauter, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Distributive numerical simulations are an effective, process-based method for predicting groundwater resources and quality. They are based on conceptual hydrogeological models that characterize the properties of the catchment area and aquifer. Karst systems play an important role in water supply worldwide. Conceptual models are however difficult to build because of the highly developed heterogeneity of the systems. The geometry and properties of highly conductive karst conduits are generally unknown and difficult to characterize with field experiments. Due to these uncertainties numerical models of karst areas usually cannot simulate the hydraulic head distribution in the area, spring discharge and tracer breakthrough curves simultaneously on catchment scale. Especially in complex hydrogeological systems, this approach would reduce model ambiguity, which is prerequisite to predict groundwater resources and pollution risks. In this work, a distributive numerical groundwater flow and transport model was built for a highly heterogeneous karst aquifer in south-western Germany. For this aim, a solute transport interface for one-dimensional pipes was implemented in the software Comsol Multiphysics® and coupled to the standard three-dimensional solute transport interface for domains. The model was calibrated and hydraulic parameters could be obtained. The simulation was matched to the steady-state hydraulic head distribution in the model area, the spring discharge of several springs and the transport velocities of two tracer tests. Furthermore, other measured parameters such as hydraulic conductivity of the fissured matrix and the maximal karst conduit volume were available for model calibration. Parameter studies were performed for several karst conduit geometries to analyze their influence in a large-scale heterogeneous karst system. Results show that it is not only possible to derive a consistent flow and transport model for a 150 km2 karst area to be employed as a

  7. Method of calculating pilestrip foundations in case of karst hole formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotman Al'fred Leonidovich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents pile strip foundations in the areas with karst risk. The analysis of karst hole formation mechanism shows the lateral soil pressure on the piles caused by the downfallen soil on the hole rims, which transfers around the hole edges during karst hole formation. In this case, the horizontal pressure of the pile reactive force in the area of the pile connection with the raft is transferred to the raft. Pile failure at the hole boundaries will lead to the increase of the raft bearing distance above the karst hole. The inadequate raft bearing capacity can provoke the emergency situation. The existing Codes on karst protective foundations design do not contain the analysis of pile and raft horizontal pressure under the downfallen soil.The goal of this work is to develop the method of pile strip foundations analysis in the areas with karst risk in case of karst hole formation. The analysis of stress-strain state of the system “foundation soil — pile foundation” was carried out using numerical modeling in geotechnical program MIDAS GTS. As a result of numerical investigations, the diagrams of lateral soil pressure onto the piles and the raft are plotted. The pile pressure is approximated with the linear or bilinear function in dependence on geometrical dimensions of the karst hole and strength characteristics of soil that generates the horizontal pressure.In the Codes, the analysis of a pile under lateral soil pressure is given for a pile with the free end. In the problem examined, the pile head has the hinged bearing in place of the connection with the raft. In view of the given boundary data, the pile design scheme is plotted. The inner forces and displacements of the pile are determined by integrating the differential equation of a pile bending. The consistent integrations are evaluated out of the boundary conditions. The boundary values of inner forces and displacements are evaluated from the equality conditions of

  8. Evaluation of karst water quality as an early reference of land suitability mapping for vaname shrimp (Litopenaeusvannamei) culture media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildan, D. M.; Affandi, R.; Pratiwi, N. T. M.; Krisanti, M.; Ayu, I. P.; Iswantari, A.

    2017-01-01

    Vaname shrimp (Litopenaeusvannamei) is one of the excellent fishery commodities in Indonesia. Vaname shrimp farming can be conducted in low salinity water. Low salinity water sources which could be used as culture media is karst water because it has a high mineral. The research was aimedto evaluate land suitability mapping for pond as the vaname shrimpculture mediaseen from the water quality. Research was conducted in May and August 2016. Water sampling was conducted in several locations; Ancol-Jakarta (seawater), Ciseeng-Bogor (karst water salinity), Ciampea-Bogor (karst freshwater), and Situ Gede Bogor (freshwater). Evaluating the suitability of karst water quality for vaname shrimp culture media, done by the results of karst water quality analysis compared with seawater and SNI 01-7246-2006 on shrimp vaname culture media. The results showed that Karst water of Ciseeng and Ciampea could not directly use as vaname shrimp culture media. It is needed water quality treatment of ozonation and aeration of karst water to improve water quality. Ozonation and aeration treatments were able to improve the quality of karst water up to approach the living quality standard of vaname shrimp media.

  9. Remote Sensing and GIS Contribution to the Investigation of Karst Landscapes in NW-Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Theilen-Willige

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS methods were used for karst research in the coastal area of Northwest Morocco near the city of Safi in order to identify karst landscapes, to describe karst features and to detect geological structures relevant to karst development. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of different satellite data, such as Landsat, RapidEye and IKONOS imagery, as well as ASTER- and SRTM-derived digital elevation models (DEMs for the analysis of karst features. Dolines were identified by visual interpretations based on high resolution satellite imagery and aerial photographs. Digital image processing of the satellite data, such as deriving vegetation and water index images, helped to identify regions with relatively higher surface water input, where karstification processes might be more intense than in surrounding areas. ArcGIS-integrated weighted overlay tools were used for this purpose as well by aggregating of morphometric, causal factors (lowest and flattest areas influencing the susceptibility to higher surface water input. Lineament analysis based on the different satellite data contributed to the detection of near-surface fault and fracture zones with potential influence on dissolution processes in sub-terrain waterways.

  10. Validation of a numerical indicator of microbial contamination for karst springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butscher, Christoph; Auckenthaler, Adrian; Scheidler, Stefan; Huggenberger, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Rapid changes in spring water quality in karst areas due to rapid recharge of bacterially contaminated water are a major concern for drinking water suppliers and users. The main objective of this study was to use field experiments with fecal indicators to verify the vulnerability of a karst spring to pathogens, as determined by using a numerical modeling approach. The groundwater modeling was based on linear storage models that can be used to simulate karst water flow. The vulnerability of the karst groundwater is estimated using such models to calculate criteria that influence the likelihood of spring water being affected by microbial contamination. Specifically, the temporal variation in the vulnerability, depending on rainfall events and overall recharge conditions, can be assessed and quantified using the dynamic vulnerability index (DVI). DVI corresponds to the ratio of conduit to diffuse flow contributions to spring discharge. To evaluate model performance with respect to predicted vulnerability, samples from a spring were analyzed for Escherichia coli, enterococci, Clostridium perfringens, and heterotrophic plate count bacteria during and after several rainfall events. DVI was shown to be an indication of the risk of fecal contamination of spring water with sufficient accuracy to be used in drinking water management. We conclude that numerical models are a useful tool for evaluating the vulnerability of karst systems to pathogens under varying recharge conditions.

  11. Peculiarity and vulnerability of karst settings, analyzed through a review of available environmental indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parise, Mario; Mazzei, Marianna

    2016-04-01

    Karst is a unique environment on Earth, characterized by a variety of peculiar geological and hydrological features, that are expressed by typical landforms at the surface (doline, ponor, polje, etc.) and underground (single cave, sinkhole, complex hypogean systems consisting of sequences of pits and galleries, etc.). Among the main characters of karst, the direct connection between the surface and the underground is at the origin of the fragility of karst settings, and the related high vulnerability. Many different types of natural geological hazards (or geo-hazards) may potentially affect karst lands, with sinkholes and flash floods being the most frequent and typical. In addition, karst is exposed to a variety of anthropogenic disturbances as well, including loss of natural landscapes, destruction of caves and speleothems, and contamination and pollution problems. At this latter regard, it has to be reminded that karst aquifers host high quality groundwaters, that are used as source of drinking water worldwide, with estimates indicating that the supply of drinking water from karst is going to have a significant increase in the next decades, From all of this, the importance in fully defining the karst setting, and in a detail examination of all the natural and anthropogenic events that may cause negative effects on it, comes out. Uniqueness of karst has been acknowledged since a long time, but only in recent years efforts have been made to develop approaches and methods specifically dedicated to this peculiar environment. Such approaches represent definitely a mandatory step in the correct management of karst terranes, providing useful elements to stakeholders, land managers and people living in karst lands about their fragility, and the need to safeguard them and the natural resources therein contained. Starting from these considerations, in this contribution we review the main environmental indices dedicated to karst that have been recently proposed in the

  12. Estimation of underground river water availability based on rainfall in the Maros karst region, South Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsyad, Muhammad; Ihsan, Nasrul; Tiwow, Vistarani Arini

    2016-02-01

    Maros karst region, covering an area of 43.750 hectares, has water resources that determine the life around it. Water resources in Maros karst are in the rock layers or river underground in the cave. The data used in this study are primary and secondary data. Primary data includes characteristics of the medium. Secondary data is rainfall data from BMKG, water discharge data from the PSDA, South Sulawesi province in 1990-2010, and the other characteristics data Maros karst, namely cave, flora and fauna of the Bantimurung Bulusaraung National Park. Data analysis was conducted using laboratory test for medium characteristics Maros karst, rainfall and water discharge were analyzed using Minitab Program 1.5 to determine their profile. The average rainfall above 200 mm per year occurs in the range of 1999 to 2005. The availability of the water discharge at over 50 m3/s was happened in 1993 and 1995. Prediction was done by modeling Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), with the rainfall data shows that the average precipitation for four years (2011-2014) will sharply fluctuate. The prediction of water discharge in Maros karst region was done for the period from January to August in 2011, including the type of 0. In 2012, the addition of the water discharge started up in early 2014.

  13. Influence of aquifer heterogeneity on karst hydraulics and catchment delineation employing distributive modeling approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Oehlmann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to their heterogeneous nature, karst aquifers pose a major challenge for hydrogeological investigations. Important procedures like the delineation of catchment areas for springs are hindered by the unknown locations and hydraulic properties of highly conductive karstic zones. In this work numerical modeling was employed as a tool in delineating catchment areas of several springs within a karst area in southwestern Germany. For this purpose, different distributive modeling approaches were implemented in the Finite Element simulation software Comsol Multiphysics®. The investigation focuses on the question to which degree the effect of karstification has to be taken into account for accurately simulating the hydraulic head distribution and the observed spring discharges. The results reveal that the representation of heterogeneities has a large influence on the delineation of the catchment areas. Not only the location of highly conductive elements but also their geometries play a major role for the resulting hydraulic head distribution and thus for catchment area delineation. The size distribution of the karst conduits derived from the numerical models agrees with knowledge from karst genesis. It was thus shown that numerical modeling is a useful tool for catchment delineation in karst aquifers based on results from different field observations.

  14. Adaptive Molecular Evolution of PHYE in Primulina, a Karst Cave Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Junjie; Qi, Qingwen; Kang, Ming; Huang, Hongwen

    2015-01-01

    Limestone Karst areas possess high levels of biodiversity and endemism. Primulina is a typical component of Karst endemic floras. The high species richness and wide distribution in various Karst microenvironments make the genus an idea model for studying speciation and local adaptation. In this study, we obtained 10 full-length sequences of the phytochrome PHYE from available transcriptome resources of Primulina and amplified partial sequences of PHYE from the genomic DNA of 74 Primulina species. Then, we used maximum-likelihood approaches to explore molecular evolution of PHYE in this Karst cave plant. The results showed that PHYE was dominated by purifying selection in both data sets, and two sites were identified as potentially under positive selection. Furthermore, the ω ratio varies greatly among different functional domains of PHYE and among different species lineages. These results suggest that potential positive selection in PHYE might have played an important role in the adaption of Primulina to heterogeneous light environments in Karst regions, and different species lineages might have been subjected to different selective pressures.

  15. Adaptive Molecular Evolution of PHYE in Primulina, a Karst Cave Plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Tao

    Full Text Available Limestone Karst areas possess high levels of biodiversity and endemism. Primulina is a typical component of Karst endemic floras. The high species richness and wide distribution in various Karst microenvironments make the genus an idea model for studying speciation and local adaptation. In this study, we obtained 10 full-length sequences of the phytochrome PHYE from available transcriptome resources of Primulina and amplified partial sequences of PHYE from the genomic DNA of 74 Primulina species. Then, we used maximum-likelihood approaches to explore molecular evolution of PHYE in this Karst cave plant. The results showed that PHYE was dominated by purifying selection in both data sets, and two sites were identified as potentially under positive selection. Furthermore, the ω ratio varies greatly among different functional domains of PHYE and among different species lineages. These results suggest that potential positive selection in PHYE might have played an important role in the adaption of Primulina to heterogeneous light environments in Karst regions, and different species lineages might have been subjected to different selective pressures.

  16. The Geochemical Features and Evolution of Laterite in the Karst Areas of Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱立军; 林进也

    1996-01-01

    Guizhou is one of the dominating karst regions,where laterite is widespread,in China.Seventy-two laterite samples were taken from twelve laterite sections in the karst areas of Guizhou Province,which are possessed of typical subtropical karst geomphological and ecological environmental features and have evolved completely from dolostones and limestones.In terms of the major,trace and REE deta for thd samples this paper discusses the geochemical characteristics of laterite in the karst areas with an attempt to disclose the geochemical process and evolutionary rule of laterite formation.There have been involved three important pedogenetic geochemical precesses in the formation of laterite in the karst areas:(1)enrichment of silicon and aluminum and depletion of calcium and magnesium;(2)enrichment of iron and manganese;and(3) enrichment of aluminum and depletion of silicon.During the formation and evolution of laterite,obvious enrichment and differentiation of trace elements such as Cu,Pb,Zn,Ni,Co,Cr,Pb,F,Cl,and As can be observed,but for the rare-earth elements,their enrichment is remarkable against a weak differentiation.The REE distribution patterns in the laterite are similar to those of its parental carbonate rocks.

  17. 西南岩溶地区植被喀斯特效应%Vegetation Karst Effects on the Karst Area of Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚长宏; 蒋忠诚; 袁道先

    2001-01-01

    Southwest karst area is one of the main karst zones in China and also the research focus in the world. Large population and heavy environmental pressure have seriously destroyed the vegetation in the research region and even brought about a series of environmental problems due to human activities in some areas. In this paper, based on the vegetation succession principle in the karst area, the authors studied the different vegetation habitats and analyzed the karst effect of vegetation in the karst area, especially in the epikarst area, by comparing the hydrochemical characteristics in diverse epikarst springs and the content of CO2 in surficial layer soil.Here are some conclusions drawn from the study:   (1) In the Southwest karst area, different vegetation coverages result in different contents of CO2 in surficial soil and different chemical powers. Thus the dissolubilities are different. The higher the vegetation coverage, the higher the carbon dioxide content and the stronger the dissolubility of soil solution to carbonate rock.   (2) Soils of different vegetation coverages have different water retention capacities.In general, in areas with higher vegetation coverage the water retention and fertilizer-holding capacity is stronger due to the effect of root system and litter layer.As a result, physicochemical reaction occurs between soil solutions more completely for a longer time. For example, the average content of HCO-3 in the epikarst spring in Yajicun (Guilin) covered mainly with bush is 5.56 mmol/L,whereas the average content of HCO-3in epikarst spring in Meihuashan (Liupanshui) covered mainly with grass is only 3.25 mmol/L.   (3) As presented in many references, vegetation can improve water and soil retention, which is important to the karst area with a fragile environment. On the one hand, barely poor soil can be kept to provide vegetation with necessary nutrient and water resource. On the other hand, improving dissolubility can enhance soil

  18. Evolution of dissolution patterns by mixing corrosion in karst systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza, Yoar; Hidalgo, Juan J.; Dentz, Marco; Carrera, Jesús

    2014-05-01

    Conduit enlargement in a karst system is usually assumed to be controlled by non-linear kinetics that allow aggressive water to penetrate along fractures (Gabrovšek and Dreybrodt, 2000, Water. Resour. Res.). However, other mechanism known as mixing corrosion may be decisive for the geometry of the resulting dissolution patterns, at least at depth. Mixing corrosion is caused by the renovation of the dissolution capacity that happens when two waters saturated with respect to calcite but with different CO2 partial pressure mix. In this case, the reaction rate is mixing-controlled and can be quantified in terms of the mixing proportion of the conservative components of the chemical system (De Simoni et al. 2005, Water. Resour. Res.). Therefore, the porosity creation governed by the reaction rate will depend on the chemical differences between the end members and by the degree of mixing. The aim of this work is to study the evolution of the porosity and permeability within a carbonate matrix by mixing-driven dissolution under different diffusion regimes. The speciation of the chemical system is calculated using CHEPROO. Flow and transport are modeled using an ad hoc code that accounts for feedback between reactions, porosity creation and permeability changes. The effects of the initial porosity field, water chemistry and the resulting geometry of the dissolution patterns are explored for different scenarios.

  19. [Hydrogeochemical characteristics of a typical karst groundwater system in Chongqing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping-Heng; Lu, Bing-Qing; He, Qiu-Fang; Chen, Xue-Bin

    2014-04-01

    The two-year hydrologic process, hydrochemistry, and a portion of deltaD, delta18O of both the surface water at the inlet and the groundwater at the outlet, were investigated to identify the spatial and temporal variations of hydrogeochemistry in the Qingmuguan karst groundwater system. Research results show that there are wet and dry periods in the groundwater system owing to the striking influence of seasonal rainfall. The evolution of the chemical compositions in the groundwater is significantly influenced by the water and rock interaction, anthropogenic activities and rainwater dilution. The variations of the chemical compositions in the groundwater exhibit obvious spatiality and temporality. The deltaD and delta18O of the surface water beneath the local Meteoric Water Line of Chonqing indicate that the surface water is strongly evaporated. Furthermore, the deltaD and delta18O of the surface water are more positive in the dry period than in the wet period, showing a distinct seasonal effect. The deltaD and delta18O of the groundwater are quite stable and much negative compared with those of the surface water, which suggests that the rainwater recharge the groundwater via two pathways, one directly through sinkholes and the other via the vadose zone.

  20. Hydrogeology of Pico Frentes Karst system (Iberian range, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas, P.; Sanz, E.; Menendez-Pidal, I.

    2016-07-01

    The karst system of Pico Frentes has developed within an Upper Cretaceous calcareous series whose welldefined folded geometry determines that its aquifer reserves are held mainly in three hydraulically-connected synclines, with a groundwater capacity of between 5 and 7 hm3 . The recharge to this unconfined peneplain aquifer is autogenous and diffuse. On a large scale, groundwater flow is directed by the base of the synclines, while on a small scale, it flows along groundwater conduits towards the Fuentetoba Spring (210 l/s) and source of the River Mazos (50 l/s), following a highly variable flow regime of low inertia, with other smaller discharges emanating during periods of high water. Analysis of hydrographs of these springs indicates a very variable rate system and little power regulating natural, characteristic of a typical karstic aquifer, with great capacity for renewal and low residence time. Using hydrogram simulations of these upwellings using a mathematical rainfall-runoff model, a detailed quantification of the average water balance was made for a twenty-year time series. This water balance consists of 16,86 hm3 rainfall (100%); natural recharge, 8,35 hm3 (49,53%); EVT 8,50 hm3 (50,41%); pumped groundwater abstractions, 0,01hm3 (0,06%); surface runoff, 0 hm3, groundwater transfers to other aquifer, 0 hm3. (Author)

  1. Drinking water treatment for a rural karst region in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthies, K.; Schott, C.; Anggraini, A. K.; Silva, A.; Diedel, R.; Mühlebach, H.; Fuchs, S.; Obst, U.; Brenner-Weiss, G.

    2016-09-01

    An interdisciplinary German-Indonesian joint research project on Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) focused on the development and exemplary implementation of adapted technologies to improve the water supply situation in a model karst region in southern Java. The project involving 19 sub-projects covers exploration of water resources, water extraction, distribution as well as water quality assurance, and waste water treatment. For the water quality assurance, an appropriate and sustainable drinking water treatment concept was developed and exemplarily implemented. Monitoring results showed that the main quality issue was the contamination with hygienically relevant bacteria. Based on the gained results, a water treatment concept was developed consisting of a central sand filtration prior to the distribution network, a semi-central hygienization where large water volumes are needed to remove bacteria deriving from water distribution and a final point-of-use water treatment. This paper focuses on the development of a central sand filtration plant and some first analysis for the development of a recipe for the local production of ceramic filters for household water treatment. The first results show that arsenic and manganese are leaching from the filters made of local raw material. Though discarding the first, filtrates should be sufficient to reduce arsenic and manganese concentration effectively. Moreover, hydraulic conductivities of filter pots made of 40 % pore-forming agents are presented and discussed.

  2. Fractal dimension, walk dimension and conductivity exponent of karst networks around Tulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick, Martin; Renard, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the complex structure of karst networks is a challenge. In this work, we characterize the fractal properties of some of the largest coastal karst network systems in the world. They are located near the town of Tulum (Quintana Roo, Mexico). Their fractal dimension d_f, conductivity exponent ˜{μ} and walk dimension d_w are estimated using real space renormalization and numerical simulations. We obtain the following values for these exponents: d_f≈ 1.5, d_w≈ 2.4, ˜{μ}≈ 0.9. We observe that the Einstein relation holds for these structures ˜{μ} ≈ -d_f + d_w. These results indicate that coastal karst networks can be considered as critical systems and this provides some foundations to model them within this framework.

  3. Hydraulic linkage of a storm water tank to a karst spring (Gallusquelle)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranter, Morgan; Schiperski, Ferry; Zirlewagen, Johannes; Scheytt, Traugott

    2017-03-01

    A significant proportion of the global water supply is ensured by karst aquifers. However, these are often highly vulnerable to contamination. A storm water tank located in the rural karst catchment area of the Gallusquelle spring (Swabian Alb, southwest Germany) about 9.1 km away was identified as a potential source of contamination. A tracer experiment was carried out in order to evaluate this hydraulic connection. For this, 2.5 kg of the fluorescence dye sulforhodamine G was injected directly at the spillway location. The proposed hydraulic connectivity of the storm water tank to the Gallusquelle spring has been confirmed with this experiment. The maximum tracer velocity of 149 m h-1 highlights rapid groundwater flow through karst conduits. The low tracer mass recovery rate of 14.1% is an indication of a retention capacity along the flow path. This was confirmed by a release of withheld tracer triggered by a heavy storm event 16 days after the injection.

  4. Late Pleistocene-early Holocene karst features, Laguna Madre, south Texas: A record of climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prouty, J.S. [Texas A& M Univ., Corpus Christi, TX (United States)

    1996-09-01

    A Pleistocene coquina bordering Laguna Madre, south Texas, contains well-developed late Pleistocene-early Holocene karst features (solution pipes and caliche crusts) unknown elsewhere from coastal Texas. The coquina accumulated in a localized zone of converging longshore Gulf currents along a Gulf beach. The crusts yield {sup 14}C dates of 16,660 to 7630 B.P., with dates of individual crust horizons becoming younger upwards. The karst features provide evidence of regional late Pleistocene-early Holocene climate changes. Following the latest Wisconsinan lowstand 18,000 B.P. the regional climate was more humid and promoted karst weathering. Partial dissolution and reprecipitation of the coquina formed initial caliche crust horizons; the crust later thickened through accretion of additional carbonate laminae. With the commencement of the Holocene approximately 11,000 B.P. the regional climate became more arid. This inhibited karstification of the coquina, and caliche crust formation finally ceased about 7000 B.P.

  5. Possible karst landforms in two unnamed craters in Tyrrhena Terra, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baioni, Davide; Tramontana, Mario

    2016-11-01

    Tyrrhena Terra, an area in the cratered highlands south of the Martian equator, contains two unnamed craters. The mineralogical composition of light-toned deposits (LTDs) within these craters is unknown. We performed morphologic and morphometric analyses of the surfaces of these LTDs through an integrated study of images available through the Reconnaissance Mars Orbiter High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment. Our analysis revealed that the Martian landforms contain dolines of polygenetic origin. These dolines are similar to karst landforms observed in different karst terrains on Earth and other regions on Mars. The observed karst landforms might highlight the possible evaporitic origin of these materials, suggesting a climatic change and the presence of liquid water caused by ice melting during the Amazonian age.

  6. Karst spring real time monitoring to identify the groundwater circulation in the feeding aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappa, Giuseppe; Ferranti, Flavia; De Filippi, Francesco M.; Cardilo, Giulia

    2017-04-01

    About one quarter of the world's population is largely or entirely dependent on groundwater from karst systems. However, karst aquifers have specific hydraulic and hydrogeological characteristics that render them highly vulnerable to pollution from human activities. Intrinsic vulnerability of a karst aquifer takes account of the inherent geological, hydrological and hydrogeological characteristics of an area; however, it is independent of the nature of contaminants. Groundwater circulation is usually very rapidly as a function of high rainfall input. As consequence, in case of contamination, these systems are characterized by limited attenuation processes in the unsaturated zone. The analysis of karst spring responses to rainfall events, at the catchment scale, is one promising approach for groundwater flow characterization. Karst springs are, in fact, an important source of information in order to understand the circulation characteristics in such complex systems. The karst Pertuso Spring, located in the Upper Valley of Aniene River, is the main outlet of a large aquifer which is one of the most important water resource in the southeast part of Latium Region, Central Italy, used for drinking, agriculture and hydroelectric supplies. This paper deals with Pertuso Spring data collected from December 2014 to March 2016, using a multiparametric probe which directly interfaces with a data logger for real-time recording of hourly data. This instrument simultaneously measures up to 6 parameters (pH, groundwater level, temperature, electric conductivity, redox and dissolved oxygen). In particular, water temperature, electrical conductivity and rainfall data coming from meteorological stations have been studied to identify the groundwater circulation in the aquifer feeding Pertuso Spring. The study of the lag time between peak rainfall and peak of T and EC allow to highlight the seasonal vulnerability of this aquifer.

  7. The effects of monsoons and climate teleconnections on the Niangziguan Karst Spring discharge in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Hao, Yonghong; Hu, Bill X.; Huo, Xueli; Hao, Pengmei; Liu, Zhongfang

    2017-01-01

    Karst aquifers supply drinking water for 25 % of the world's population, and they are, however, vulnerable to climate change. This study is aimed to investigate the effects of various monsoons and teleconnection patterns on Niangziguan Karst Spring (NKS) discharge in North China for sustainable exploration of the karst groundwater resources. The monsoons studied include the Indian Summer Monsoon, the West North Pacific Monsoon and the East Asian Summer Monsoon. The climate teleconnection patterns explored include the Indian Ocean Dipole, E1 Niño Southern Oscillation, and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. The wavelet transform and wavelet coherence methods are used to analyze the karst hydrological processes in the NKS Basin, and reveal the relations between the climate indices with precipitation and the spring discharge. The study results indicate that both the monsoons and the climate teleconnections significantly affect precipitation in the NKS Basin. The time scales that the monsoons resonate with precipitation are strongly concentrated on the time scales of 0.5-, 1-, 2.5- and 3.5-year, and that climate teleconnections resonate with precipitation are relatively weak and diverged from 0.5-, 1-, 2-, 2.5-, to 8-year time scales, respectively. Because the climate signals have to overcome the resistance of heterogeneous aquifers before reaching spring discharge, with high energy, the strong climate signals (e.g. monsoons) are able to penetrate through aquifers and act on spring discharge. So the spring discharge is more strongly affected by monsoons than the climate teleconnections. During the groundwater flow process, the precipitation signals will be attenuated, delayed, merged, and changed by karst aquifers. Therefore, the coherence coefficients between the spring discharge and climate indices are smaller than those between precipitation and climate indices. Further, the fluctuation of the spring discharge is not coincident with that of precipitation in most

  8. Research on Mycorrhiza of Karst Secondary Scrubs in Qiannan Region%黔南喀斯特次生灌丛群落菌根调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向旭; 赵洪; 邓功成

    2009-01-01

    对黔南喀斯特次生灌丛木本植物与菌根真菌共生状况进行调查,结果表明,调查的17科29种植物中,89.66%的植物受菌根真菌侵染,72.41%的物种侵染率等级在中度以上.这表明喀斯特次生灌丛的植物与菌根真菌的共生现象普遍存在.%The mutualism between secondary thicket and mycorrhizas fungus in Qiannan karst region was surveyed.The results indicatied that 89.66% of the plants belonging to 17 families and 29 species were invaded by mycorrhizas fungus, 72.41% species were colonized up to middle range or above.It clearly showed that there was a universal mutualism between the plant species and the mycorrihizas fungus in karst region.

  9. DEVELOPMENT AND DESIGN OF A DISASTER INFORMATION SYSTEM ON REGIONAL KARST ROCKY DESERTIFICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Based on a systematic analysis about the design principles, systematic objectives, clients' demands and functional modules of the regional karst desertification disaster information system, a systematic application plan was proposed in this paper that the mainstream technologies like COMGIS, etc. can be used for secondary development, and Du'an Yao Autonomous County of Guangxi was taken as an example to illustrate the application of geographical information system in development of karst desertification disaster information system, and to provide a feasible plan for realization of accessory decision information aiming for sustainable development ofkarst desertification area.

  10. Water supply from the karst aquifers in the Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Mircovski, Vojo; Spasovski, Orce

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents data on the most important kast aquifers in the Republic of Macedonia whose water is used for the water supply in several municipalities. Ground waters from karst aquifers are important for the water supply of a number of large cites such as Skopje, Dojran, Kavadarci, Negotino, Gostivar, Ohrid, Kruševo, Prilep, Kićevo, Valandovo, Oslomej, Makedonski Brod etc. Investigations carried out so far indicate that the waters of karst aquifers have the most promising potential for w...

  11. CAS, Guangxi to join forces for eco-environmental restoration in Karst areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ CAS has recently signed a protocol with the Government of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region to jointly rehabilitate the depleted ecosystem in the local Karst areas. Early and effective partnership has been formed between the two sides to eliminate the local poverty with S&T means and improve the ecological setting in the Karst areas of the Region. Since the conclusion of a cooperative pact between the two sides to exploit the stony mountains of the region in 1993, for example, a batch of key research results and effects of applicable demonstration has been achieved.

  12. Interest rate derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikkel

    This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered.......This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered....

  13. Unprotected karst resources in western Iran: the environmental impacts of intensive agricultural pumping on the covered karstic aquifer, a case in Kermanshah province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Kamal; Taheri, Milad; Parise, Mario

    2015-04-01

    Bare and covered karst areas, with developed karstic aquifers, cover 35 percent of the Kermanshah province in western Iran. These aquifers are the vital sources for drinking and agricultural water supplies. Over the past decade, intensive groundwater use (exploitation) for irrigation imposed a significant impact on the carbonate environments. The huge amount of groundwater over-exploitations has been carried out and still goes on by local farmers in the absence of appropriate governance monitoring control. Increasing in water demands, for more intense crop production, is an important driving force toward groundwater depletion in alluvial aquifers. Progressive groundwater over-exploitations from underlying carbonate rocks have led to dramatic drawdown in alluvial aquifers and deep karst water tables. Detecting new sources of groundwater extractions and prohibiting the karst water utilization for agricultural use could be the most effective strategy to manage the sustainability of covered karst aquifers. Anthropogenic pressures on covered karst aquifers have magnified the drought impacts and caused dryness of most of the karst springs and deep wells. In this study, the combination of geophysical and geological studies was used to estimate the most intensively exploited agricultural zones of Islam Abad plain in the southwestern Kermanshah province using GIS. The results show that in the past decade a great number of deep wells were drilled through the overburden alluvial aquifer and reached the deep karst water resources. However, the difficulties involved in monitoring deep wells in covered karst aquifer were the main cause of karst water depletion. Overexploitation from both alluvial and karst aquifers is the main reason for drying out the Arkawazi, Sharafshah, Gawrawani karst springs, and the karst drinking water wells 1, 3 and 5 of Islam Abad city. Karst spring landscape destructions, fresh water supply deficit for inhabitants, decreasing of tourism and

  14. 高密度电法与微动技术组合在岩溶塌陷分区中的应用分析--以广西来宾吉利塌陷为例%Application analysis of combining high density resistivity and microtremor survey methods in areas of karst collapse:A case study of the collapse in Jili village,Laibin,Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 甘伏平; 赵伟; 陈玉玲

    2014-01-01

    In order to verify the applicability of geophysical prospecting technology to the investigation of karst col-lapse,the field research was carried out employing high density resistivity and micro technology methods in Jili vil-lage,Laibin City,Guangxi.It showed that the high density symmetric quadrupole sounding method intuitively re-flected the thickness of the Quaternary overburden layer and the depth of the low resistivity section underground, while micro technology qualitatively analyzed the surface proj ection of the underground river and karst fracture zone. This would be more accurate in the case of circling collapse and unfavorable geologic bodies which caused collapse, such as caves,underground rivers,fault fracture zones and soft soil by combing two methods.It also showed that a low resistivity orthogonal point appeared in the high density profiling curve and its value was about 250Ω·m when the polar distance was 45 m while a great value anomaly appeared on the H/V spectrum and the maximum character-istic frequency was in the range of 2-6 Hz above the underground river or karst fracture zone.On the basis of anom-alies in the high density resistivity method and micro method of the line 2,the two sections circled were easy to col-lapse and one selected to be verified by drilling.Drilling revealed eight caves in limestone covered by a 42 m thick Quaternary overburden,of which the largest cave was up to 5 .7 m in height.%为了验证物探技术在岩溶塌陷调查中的应用效果,本文于广西来宾市吉利村开展了高密度电法和微动技术野外探测研究。结果表明:高密度对称四极电测深能直观地反映第四系覆盖层的厚度和低阻异常的深度,微动技术能定性地判定地下暗河和岩溶破碎带在地表的平面投影,将两种方法相结合能更加准确地圈出塌陷,以及引起塌陷的溶洞、地下河、断层破碎带及软土分布范围。地下暗河或岩溶破碎带在高密度联

  15. Stormwater infiltration and the 'urban karst' - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneau, Jeremie; Fletcher, Tim D.; Costelloe, Justin F.; Burns, Matthew J.

    2017-09-01

    The covering of native soils with impervious surfaces (e.g. roofs, roads, and pavement) prevents infiltration of rainfall into the ground, resulting in increased surface runoff and decreased groundwater recharge. When this excess water is managed using stormwater drainage systems, flow and water quality regimes of urban streams are severely altered, leading to the degradation of their ecosystems. Urban streams restoration requires alternative approaches towards stormwater management, which aim to restore the flow regime towards pre-development conditions. The practice of stormwater infiltration-achieved using a range of stormwater source-control measures (SCMs)-is central to restoring baseflow. Despite this, little is known about what happens to the infiltrated water. Current knowledge about the impact of stormwater infiltration on flow regimes was reviewed. Infiltration systems were found to be efficient at attenuating high-flow hydrology (reducing peak magnitudes and frequencies) at a range of scales (parcel, streetscape, catchment). Several modelling studies predict a positive impact of stormwater infiltration on baseflow, and empirical evidence is emerging, but the fate of infiltrated stormwater remains unclear. It is not known how infiltrated water travels along the subsurface pathways that characterise the urban environment, in particular the 'urban karst', which results from networks of human-made subsurface pathways, e.g. stormwater and sanitary sewer pipes and associated high permeability trenches. Seepage of groundwater into and around such pipes is possible, meaning some infiltrated stormwater could travel along artificial pathways. The catchment-scale ability of infiltration systems to restore groundwater recharge and baseflow is thus ambiguous. Further understanding of the fate of infiltrated stormwater is required to ensure infiltration systems deliver optimal outcomes for waterway flow regimes.

  16. The karst system of the Fontaine de Vaucluse (Southeastern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blavoux, Bernard; Mudry, Jacques; Puig, Jean-Michel

    1992-05-01

    The intake area of the Fontaine de Vauctuse system covers over 1,100 km2; its mean altitude is 870 m. The Lower Cretaceous limestones (1,500 m thick) give the system a very thick (800 m) unsaturated zone. Karstification is very well developed, both on the intake area (four sinkholes are more than 500 m deep) and on the lower part (sunken cave of 300 m depth under the spring). The bottoms of the sinkholes of the plateau do not reach the saturated zone of the karst, as their flows have chemical composition similar to seepage water. The maximum hydraulic gradient between the plateau and the spring is low, only 0.3%. Dye tracings allow assigning the Ventoux-Lure range (including its calcareous northern side with a southward dipping) and the Vaucluse Plateau to the intake area. The moisture balance, calculated for each altitude belt, shows that the effective rainfall strongly increases with altitude: 120 mm below 200 m, 1,300 mm over 1,800 m. The working of the system, studied by means of discharge, physical and chemical content, is one of a well-karstified milieu that reacts with a light inertia upon rainy periods. The system is made up of important reserves, peculiarly within the unsaturated zone, which maintain long decline and depletion episodes. Despite its large average discharge (21 m3·sec-1), the spring is not harnessed and thus no general protection exists on the intake area. Only local protection is provided by protection areas around some piped little springs of the plateau. A Biosphere Preserve will protect as a whole the higher part of the intake area—Mount Ventoux.

  17. Discrimination of tower-, cockpit-, and non-karst landforms in Guilin, Southern China, based on morphometric characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fuyuan; Xu, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Depressions are well developed in certain types of karst landform assemblages. These natural depressions should not be simply filled and removed during the preparation of DEMs. This study presents a research to distinguish karst landform assemblages which tend to have natural depressions from other karst landform assemblages and non-karst landforms in the Guilin area of China, by examining their morphometric characteristics derived from a 30-m resolution DEM. The variations in the morphometric characteristics are examined at neighborhood level instead of pixel level. The DEM is divided into square tiles with a specific spatial scale. Statistical indicators of typical morphometric characteristics such as the area ratio, elevation, slope, and curvature are calculated for each tile. Discriminant analysis (DA) is then performed to discriminate tower karst, cockpit karst, and non-karst landforms. These procedures are repeated at the scales of 0.45, 0.9, 1.8, 2.7, 3.6, and 4.6 km. Comparison of the mapping results with a reference geomorphic map shows that the DA works best for the 2.7 km tiles with an overall accuracy of 80.06%. The resulting map can be used to guide whether depressions should be retained or removed during DEM preparation. This method, with appropriate modifications and improvements, can also be used to map the karst landforms of the whole of southern China. With such a comprehensive map, geomorphologists would be able to examine the development of karst landform assemblages at a broader view to unveil their genesis and evolution processes.

  18. Hydrology of autogenic percolation systems in some tropical karst outcrops, West Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports on the flow regimes of underground seepages in three tower-karst outcrops and in the Setul Boundary Range, West Malaysia. Groundwater movement in the tower-karst hills, which comprise very pure, massive marbles, is confined to vertical and subvertical joints. Although flow is primarily diffuse and the discharges of the majority of seepages correlate most closely with rainfall in antecedent periods of 1-16 days or more, some stormflow occurs along conduits in the upper parts of these aquifers. Many of these conduits appear to peter out at depth into tight rock fractures, thereby forming funnel-shaped underground reservoirs which serve to moderate discharge variations. In contrast, the limestones of the Setul Boundary Range are less pure and retain much of their original bedding. The presence of near-horizontal bedding plane fractures favours lateral groundwater movement and the development of integrated drainage networks within the rock. Compared with the tower-karst caves, seepage rates are generally higher and more responsive to short-term variations in rainfall. The marked difference in topography between the tower-karst hills and the Setul Boundary Range is largely attributable to the contrasted geohydrological properties of the limestones.

  19. Characterizing the interaction of groundwater and surface water in the karst aquifer of Fangshan, Beijing (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Haibo; Wei, Jiahua; Wang, Rong; Xin, Baodong

    2016-12-01

    Correct understanding of groundwater/surface-water (GW-SW) interaction in karst systems is of greatest importance for managing the water resources. A typical karst region, Fangshan in northern China, was selected as a case study. Groundwater levels and hydrochemistry analyses, together with isotope data based on hydrogeological field investigations, were used to assess the GW-SW interaction. Chemistry data reveal that water type and the concentration of cations in the groundwater are consistent with those of the surface water. Stable isotope ratios of all samples are close to the local meteoric water line, and the 3H concentrations of surface water and groundwater samples are close to that of rainfall, so isotopes also confirm that karst groundwater is recharged by rainfall. Cross-correlation analysis reveals that rainfall leads to a rise in groundwater level with a lag time of 2 months and groundwater exploitation leads to a fall within 1 month. Spectral analysis also reveals that groundwater level, groundwater exploitation and rainfall have significantly similar response periods, indicating their possible inter-relationship. Furthermore, a multiple nonlinear regression model indicates that groundwater level can be negatively correlated with groundwater exploitation, and positively correlated with rainfall. The overall results revealed that groundwater level has a close correlation with groundwater exploitation and rainfall, and they are indicative of a close hydraulic connection and interaction between surface water and groundwater in this karst system.

  20. Factors affecting public-supply well vulnerability in two karst aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, MaryLynn; Katz, Brian G; Fahlquist, Lynne S; Crandall, Christy A; Lindgren, Richard J

    2014-09-01

    Karst aquifers occur in a range of climatic and geologic settings. Nonetheless, they are commonly characterized by their vulnerability to water-quality impairment. Two karst aquifers, the Edwards aquifer in south-central Texas and the Upper Floridan aquifer in western Florida, were investigated to assess factors that control the movement of contaminants to public-supply wells (PSWs). The geochemistry of samples from a selected PSW or wellfield in each aquifer was compared with that from nearby monitoring wells and regional PSWs. Geochemistry results were integrated with age tracers, flow modeling, and depth-dependent data to refine aquifer conceptual models and to identify factors that affect contaminant movement to PSWs. The oxic Edwards aquifer is vertically well mixed at the selected PSW/wellfield, although regionally the aquifer is geochemically variable downdip. The mostly anoxic Upper Floridan aquifer is affected by denitrification and also is geochemically variable with depth. In spite of considerable differences in geology and hydrogeology, the two aquifers are similarly vulnerable to anthropogenic contamination. Vulnerability in studied PSWs in both aquifers is strongly influenced by rapid karst flowpaths and the dominance of young (aquifers (nitrate, atrazine, deethylatrazine, tetrachloroethene, and chloroform). Specific consideration of water-quality protection efforts, well construction and placement, and aquifer response times to land-use changes and contaminant loading are discussed, with implications for karst groundwater management.

  1. Characterizing the interaction of groundwater and surface water in the karst aquifer of Fangshan, Beijing (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Haibo; Wei, Jiahua; Wang, Rong; Xin, Baodong

    2017-03-01

    Correct understanding of groundwater/surface-water (GW-SW) interaction in karst systems is of greatest importance for managing the water resources. A typical karst region, Fangshan in northern China, was selected as a case study. Groundwater levels and hydrochemistry analyses, together with isotope data based on hydrogeological field investigations, were used to assess the GW-SW interaction. Chemistry data reveal that water type and the concentration of cations in the groundwater are consistent with those of the surface water. Stable isotope ratios of all samples are close to the local meteoric water line, and the 3H concentrations of surface water and groundwater samples are close to that of rainfall, so isotopes also confirm that karst groundwater is recharged by rainfall. Cross-correlation analysis reveals that rainfall leads to a rise in groundwater level with a lag time of 2 months and groundwater exploitation leads to a fall within 1 month. Spectral analysis also reveals that groundwater level, groundwater exploitation and rainfall have significantly similar response periods, indicating their possible inter-relationship. Furthermore, a multiple nonlinear regression model indicates that groundwater level can be negatively correlated with groundwater exploitation, and positively correlated with rainfall. The overall results revealed that groundwater level has a close correlation with groundwater exploitation and rainfall, and they are indicative of a close hydraulic connection and interaction between surface water and groundwater in this karst system.

  2. Applications of GIS and database technologies to manage a Karst Feature Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Tipping, R.G.; Alexander, E.C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the management of a Karst Feature Database (KFD) in Minnesota. Two sets of applications in both GIS and Database Management System (DBMS) have been developed for the KFD of Minnesota. These applications were used to manage and to enhance the usability of the KFD. Structured Query Language (SQL) was used to manipulate transactions of the database and to facilitate the functionality of the user interfaces. The Database Administrator (DBA) authorized users with different access permissions to enhance the security of the database. Database consistency and recovery are accomplished by creating data logs and maintaining backups on a regular basis. The working database provides guidelines and management tools for future studies of karst features in Minnesota. The methodology of designing this DBMS is applicable to develop GIS-based databases to analyze and manage geomorphic and hydrologic datasets at both regional and local scales. The short-term goal of this research is to develop a regional KFD for the Upper Mississippi Valley Karst and the long-term goal is to expand this database to manage and study karst features at national and global scales.

  3. Comparison of a karst groundwater model with and without discrete conduit flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saller, Stephen P.; Ronayne, Michael J.; Long, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Karst aquifers exhibit a dual flow system characterized by interacting conduit and matrix domains. This study evaluated the coupled continuum pipe-flow framework for modeling karst groundwater flow in the Madison aquifer of western South Dakota (USA). Coupled conduit and matrix flow was simulated within a regional finite-difference model over a 10-year transient period. An existing equivalent porous medium (EPM) model was modified to include major conduit networks whose locations were constrained by dye-tracing data and environmental tracer analysis. Model calibration data included measured hydraulic heads at observation wells and estimates of discharge at four karst springs. Relative to the EPM model, the match to observation well hydraulic heads was substantially improved with the addition of conduits. The inclusion of conduit flow allowed for a simpler hydraulic conductivity distribution in the matrix continuum. Two of the high-conductivity zones in the EPM model, which were required to indirectly simulate the effects of conduits, were eliminated from the new model. This work demonstrates the utility of the coupled continuum pipe-flow method and illustrates how karst aquifer model parameterization is dependent on the physical processes that are simulated.

  4. Research on Functional Characteristics of Karst Eco-economic Compound System in Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the eco-economy theory,this paper analyzed the characteristics of the components of eco-economic compound system of karst region in Guizhou Province.The functional characteristics of eco-economic compound system of karst region in Guizhou Province were analyzed.The functional characteristics were as follows:low biological production of Guizhou Province;weak capacity of ecosystem;slow speed of storage and accumulation of material and serious environmental pollution;low production and efficiency of energy;serious wastes of energy.On the basis of functional characteristics of eco-economic compound System in Karst region.Some views in terms of maintenance and reconstruction of compound system,were put forward,including laying stress on improving ecological system;choosing and cultivating the advanced species that suit the Karst region;improving the amount and speed of material accumulation,at the same time,introducing into advanced production technologies and management experience;reducing the energy efficiency of each section in economic system and improving the transformation efficiency of energy.

  5. Molecular characters of melon (Cucumismelo L. "Tacapa") in response to karst critical land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati, Yuanita; Daryono, Budi Setiadi; Aristya, Ganies Riza

    2017-06-01

    Yogyakarta district has 158.600 ha critical land and spread off in three Agro Ecosystem zones. Two of them are karsts critical land. Critical lands which contain calcium carbonate in high concentration and water dehydration in upper surface give abiotic stress in wide range of plant. Melon cultivar TACAPA has superior characteristic derived from parental crossing, ♀ Action 434 and ♂ PI 371795 and potential to be developed in karsts critical land. Abscicic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone expressed by plant in abiotic stress condition. CmBG1 is a gene which regulate ABA hormone in melon. The purposes of this research were examining the molecular character of melon cultivar TACAPA in response to karsts critical land in order to study molecular characterization of CmBG1 gene. Analysis was done qualitatively by using Reverse Transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) and Electrophoresis, while quantitative analysis was conducted by observing absorbance score in spectrophotometer. CmBG1 gene expression is examined by using Real time PCR (qPCR). Molecular characters obtained are CmBG1 detected in size ±1258 bp, CmBG1 gene concentrations in melon which planted in control media are lower than melon in critical lands media. These results are similar with the real time quantitative analysis method. It also be revealed that melon TACAPA is more potential plant compared to another cultivar that can be developed in karst critical land area.

  6. Going Underground: A Field Investigation and Lab Activity on Karst Topography and Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Gary; Gonzalez-Espada, Wilson

    2011-01-01

    Students learn science best with activities that mirror the way scientists work. This article describes how geologists investigate groundwater flow systems in areas of karst topography--geologic formations shaped by dissolving bedrock--and provides a way for students to replicate this research. Students also use electric current to model water…

  7. Interaction between karst terrain and bauxites: evidence from Quaternary orebody distribution in Guangxi, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Wang, Qingfei; Zhang, Qizuan; Carranza, Emmanuel John M; Liu, Huan; Liu, Xuefei; Deng, Jun

    2017-09-19

    Most bauxite in China is located upon the karst surface, yet the relation between karstification process and bauxite formation is barely known. Here we discuss how the relation affects the karst and bauxite evolution through analyzing distributions of orebody parameters from 9,007 exploration wells (434 orebodies) in western Guangxi, South China block. In high-elevation karst terrain dominated by peaks, orebodies have greater average thickness, lower Al2O3 and higher Fe2O3(T) than those in low-elevation region dominated by depressions. Principal component and multifractal analyses show that the Al2O3, Fe2O3(T) and LOI and the orebody thickness, determined by depression geometry, have more even distributions in high-elevation terrain. This explains that the interaction between the oxidized, alkaline water in karst surface and the ferrous clay minerals that released H(+) during bauxite secondary weathering was more intensive in high-elevation terrain than in low-elevation one. The interaction with self-organized nature is considered responsible for the even development of karstic depressions and bauxite orebody thicknesses in high-elevation terrain. In comparison, SiO2 distribution is more even in low-elevation terrain, where connected depressions near the phreatic zone facilitated SiO2 mobilization and even distribution.

  8. Carbamazepine breakthrough as indicator for specific vulnerability of karst springs: application on the Jeita spring, Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doummar, J.; Geyer, T.; Noedler, K.; Sauter, M.

    2014-12-01

    The pharmaceutical drug carbamazepine is considered an effective wastewater marker. The varying concentration of this drug was analyzed in a mature karst spring following a precipitation event. The results show that carbamazepine is an indicator of wastewater entering the system through a fast flow pathway, leading to an increase of the drug concentrations in spring water shortly after a strong rainfall event. The analysis of the breakthrough curve of carbamazepine along with the electrical conductivity signal and major ions chemograph allowed the development of a conceptual model for precipitation event-based flow and transport in the investigated karst system. Furthermore the amount of newly recharged water and the mass of carbamazepine reaching the aquifer system during the event could be estimated using a simple mixing approach. The distance between the karst spring and the potential carbamazepine source was estimated by the combination of results from artificial tracer tests and the carbamazepine breakthrough curve. The assessment of spring responses to precipitation event using persistent drugs like carbamazepine helps assess the effect of waste water contamination at a spring and gives therefore insights to the specific vulnerability of a karst spring.

  9. Stable sulfur and oxygen isotopes as geochemical tracers of sulfate in karst waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Kobayashi, Tatsuaki; Strosnider, William H. J.; Wu, Pan

    2017-08-01

    Karst water resources, which are extremely sensitive to mining activities, are critical for the support of human societies and ecological systems in many regions worldwide. In order to determine the sources and fate of dissolved sulfate in low-pH karst waters, hydrochemical variations of karst waters with and without acid mine drainage (AMD) impacts were investigated along with stable isotope dynamics. As expected, hydrochemical characteristics and isotopic compositions of the AMD and AMD-downstream water (ADW) were dramatically different from that of the non-AMD-impacted water (NAW). The sources of sulfur isotopes in sulfate were predominantly pyrite oxidation for the AMD and ADW, and atmospheric deposition for the NAW. Based on the general isotope-balance model, the relative proportions of sulfate oxygen derived from water and air were calculated. The mean proportion of sulfate oxygen derived from water in ADW was roughly double that of AMD. This suggests that the sulfate associated with AMD is predominantly influenced by aerobic pyrite oxidation, while that of ADW is likely affected by the dissolution of pyrite under anaerobic conditions in reservoir sediment. This observation was coincident with the noted variations of hydrochemical characteristics and was supported by principal component analysis. These results provide a better understanding of how stable isotopes of sulfate and water can be used to track mining contamination in karst aquifers, which could benefit remediation planning for these distinctive systems.

  10. Heterogeneous fluid flow in fractured layered carbonates and its implication for generation of incipient karst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Lei, Q.; Lonergan, L.; Jourde, H.; Gosselin, O.; Cosgrove, J.

    2017-09-01

    We use numerical models to investigate fluid flow in layered fractured carbonate rocks, and specifically to investigate the effects of the structural and hydraulic properties of both joints and bedding planes on flow localization. Synthetic fracture networks made up of two jointed layers separated by a horizontal bedding plane are generated to represent the typical layered fracture systems often formed in carbonate rocks. A uniform aperture field is assumed for each joint set and for the bedding plane, but different joint sets and the bedding plane can have non-identical values. The aperture ratio of the joint sets to the bedding plane is found to dominate the behaviour of flow heterogeneity on the bedding plane. Three distinct flow regimes, i.e. joint-dominated, transitional and bedding plane-dominated, are recognized. The magnitude of the aperture ratio controls which flow regime develops. We further suggest that the different flow regimes may be responsible for the initiation of different types of incipient karst morphologies observed in nature: pipe karst, stripe karst and sheet karst.

  11. A model of karst systems of the Usturt plateau (Middle Asia); Un modelo de sistemas karsticos de la meseta Usturt (Asia central)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victorov, A. S.

    2016-07-01

    The issues relating to the structure and development of desert karst is currently one of the least studied problems. The goal of the research efforts presented in this paper was to create a model of karst systems in the Usturt Plateau and, primarily, of the systems formed by the prevailing numerous surface karst landforms. The model is based on the following main assumptions: the process of emergence of the karst phenomena is probabilistic and occurs independently at non-intersecting sites; the probability of emergence of one depression at a reference site depends only on its area. The increase of the dimensions of a karst landform is a random process that occurs independently of other karst landforms, its speed is governed by random factors, and it is directly proportionate to the existing dimensions of the landform. The model does not assume constancy of climatic characteristics. The testing was conducted at several reference sites of the Usturt Plateau. The research allowed us to reach the following conclusions: the karst depressions of the Usturt Plateau, which are the typical forms of desert karst, are governed by the Poisson distribution of their centres and by the lognormal distribution of their dimensions, similar to the karst depressions in a humid climate. The results may be used in assessments of karst hazard for linear and areal structures, as well as for small-dimensional structures. (Author)

  12. The origin and evolution of the term "karst"%术语"Karst"的起源和演化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrej Kranjc

    2011-01-01

    对于术语“karst”的起源和演化,不少文献(包括手册、教科书、字典等)仍有不准确、不一致甚至错误的论述.鉴于此,本文不仅重述了众所周知的关于“karst”起源的事实,而且介绍了“karst”起源和演化的最新语言学研究结果.“karst”是由喀尔斯(Kras)高地的名称演化而来的.喀尔斯位于亚得里亚海的里雅斯特湾(Gulf of Trieste)达尔马提亚(Dalmatia)海岸地区,其大部分属于斯洛文尼亚.喀尔斯是一处海拔150~450 m,覆盖面积550 km2(长约40 km,宽约13 km)的碳酸盐岩高地.斯洛文尼亚语、意大利语和德语分别称之为Kras、Carso和Karst.喀尔斯高地表面大致平坦,但从局部看,喀斯特洼地遍布,各种典型的喀斯特地貌形态随处可见,包括坡立谷、大小溶斗(包括大的塌陷溶斗)、喀斯特干谷和溶洞.这些形态规模较小,起伏平缓.喀尔斯高地的名称起源于前罗马时期,其古典拉丁语名称(也是目前已知最早的名称)为Carsus.该词的词根* kar(u)S-是由意思为“石头或岩石”的词根*kar-演化而来.从欧洲众多文献中可以发现有许多名词来自前印欧语系的词根kar(r)a/gar(r)a.这些词根最初意思指石头或岩石,而后发展为石头筑成的遮盖物——一间房屋,一座城堡,甚至一个村落,这些词根还演化成喀斯特相关术语.由Carsus的宾格形式Carsum演变成现代意大利语名称Carso;同样的宾格依据前斯洛文尼亚语言规则(即r或l出现在元音和辅音字母之间时,须将其移至元音字母之前.)演变成Kras;德语Karst则是由意大利语Carso 依据德语变化规则(以s结束的单词末尾须添加t)演变而来.由此可见,Kras、Karst和Carso均源于古拉丁文Carsus,该词含有词根*kar(u)s-.印刷技术的改进和新大陆的发现,带动了地图和地图集的出版.喀尔斯高地的名称不仅出现在地方性地图上,而且被大尺度区域性地图所标示

  13. Hydrogeological studies in high mountains karst environment: the example of Picos de Europa (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndez, Mónica; Ballesteros, Daniel; Jiménez-Sanchez, Montserrat; García-Sansegundo, Joaquín

    2015-04-01

    Karst aquifers are very vulnerable to contamination due their high infiltration coefficient, elevated hydraulic conductivity, high speed of circulation, and very low self-purification capacities. The functioning of that type of aquifer is quite complicated by the high heterogeneity and anisotropy of the karst and the presence of three different types of porosity. It is necessary to understand the functioning of a karst aquifer in order to protect and manage them properly. Therefore, it is necessary to develop working methods to establish the aquifer hydrodynamics, especially in high mountain areas with many methodological constrains (e. g. difficulty to access). The Picos de Europa karst aquifer, located in theNational Park of Picos de Europa (North Spain), presents a high environmental, geomorphological and hydrogeological value; it is included in the "Spanish geological contexts with global relevance" by the Law of Natural Heritage and Biodiversity of Spain, being considered as a Global Geosite by the Geological and Mining Institute of Spain. In addition, the karst massif is included in several figures of environmental protection, both at global and national levels. Hydrogeological and geomorphological research is developed together in this area under the GEOCAVE project (MAGRAMA-580/12 OAPN) and the "Investigación hidrogeológica en las masas de agua subterránea 012.014 Picos de Europa-Panes y 012.018 Alto Deva-Alto Cares. (IGME-73.3.00.41.00/2013)". The aim of this study is to characterize the hydrodynamics of the karst aquifer, considering the snow as an important component of the aquifer recharge. The proposed methodology includes the installation of an integrated pressure sensor and data logger for level and temperature measurement in two karst spring related to two groundwater bodies (GWB) with 86 and 14 km2 extension. The store of data to regular intervals with punctual values of discharge measures has provided, at least, an annual series of data in

  14. Karst Groundwater Tracer Test and Analysis of Peak Forest Plain Area in Eastern Guilin%桂林东区峰林平原岩溶地下水示踪试验与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王开然; 姜光辉; 郭芳; 周文亮; 陈国富; 梁毅

    2013-01-01

    In order to find out the groundwater system structure characteristics of Peak Forest plain, based on the karst hydrogeology survey, and through the artificial sampling and using high resolution field fluorescence spectrometer, the reception of the injected tracer sodium fluorescein in Peak Forest plain of eastern Guilin was detected. The results showed as follows. The plain area of groundwater was exposed mainly in ditches, lakes and wells; and the injected tracer of the number 1 point appeared after 22 days; the maximum flow rate was 19. 5 m/d, with an average flow rate of 4. 9 m/d; in this test section the groundwater runoff belonged to typical face-like flow pattern, and the karst aquifer media was developed even. The district had a high karstification degree of karst aquifer structure, presenting network-like; there was a uniform water level, and karst development was relatively uniform, as well as large fissures or even large-scale pipelines and underground river system, easy for the formation of karst groundwater preferential flow.%为查明桂林东区峰林平原地下水系统的结构特征,在岩溶水文地质调查的基础上,通过人工取样并采用高分辨率野外荧光仪,对桂林东区峰林平原区投放的示踪剂荧光素钠的接收情况进行检测.结果表明:峰林平原区地下水的出露比较多,主要以沟渠、湖塘、民井等为主,其中1号点初现时间为第22天,最大视流速为19.5 m/d,平均视流速4.9 m/d,说明本试验段内地下径流为典型的面状流态,岩溶含水介质比较均匀.峰林平原区岩溶含水层结构岩溶化程度很高,呈网络状,存在统一的地下水位,岩溶发育较均一,同时也存在较大的裂隙甚至较大规模的管道和地下河系统,容易形成岩溶地下水优先流.

  15. Research about the Control of Geological Structure on Karst Groundwater system in Zhangfang, Beijing,China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, X.

    2015-12-01

    Carbonate formations are intensively distributed throughout Zhangfang, fangshan, in West Mountain area in Beijing. Karst groundwater exits among the geological fracture network which is characterized by the different arrangements and levels in different types of fracture networks and structures. The influence of the tectonic environment on the dynamic change rule and the enrichment regulation of karst system is significant for the exploitation and protection of karst groundwater resources. From the control function of fault and fracture point of view, based on the developmental and distribution pattern of multi-episodic tectonism, this study analyzed fractures in the three-fold structural units characterized by NE-NW and NS trends and discussed the influence of multi-episodic tectonism on the groundwater flow system and rich water zones. The results showed that the geological fracture underwent two episodes of tectonism, thrusting nappe in the Jurassic and extension in the Cretaceous. The overprint of two episodes resulted in a number of faults with high hydraulic conductivity, which serve as conduits. The superiority joints groups are in the NE and NW directions, with conjugated characteristics. The high-angle or vertical dips directly benefit infiltration. The fractures in the intersection areas have formed groundwater runoff channels and strong space, controlling water-rich zones such as Baidai, Ganchi-Changgou and Gaozhuang-Shiwo. Magmatic rock and the aquiclude also contribute to the rich water zones and the location of springs, all of which have important significance for water supply. Keywords: system of Karst groundwater, geological structure, fracture network, hydrogeological flow field, Zhangfang karst area

  16. Mobilisation or dilution? Nitrate response of karst springs to high rainfall events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Huebsch

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate (NO3- contamination of groundwater associated with agronomic activity is of major concern in many countries. Where agriculture, thin free draining soils and karst aquifers coincide, groundwater is highly vulnerable to nitrate contamination. As residence times and denitrification potential in such systems are typically low, nitrate can discharge to surface waters unabated. However, such systems also react quickest to agricultural management changes that aim to improve water quality. In response to storm events, nitrate concentrations can alter significantly, i.e., rapidly decreasing or increasing concentrations. The current study examines the response of a specific karst spring situated on a grassland farm in south Ireland to rainfall events utilising high-resolution nitrate and discharge data together with on-farm borehole groundwater fluctuation data. Specifically, the objectives of the study are to formulate a scientific hypothesis of possible scenarios relating to nitrate responses during storm events, and to verify this hypothesis using additional case studies from the literature. This elucidates the controlling key factors that lead to mobilisation and/or dilution of nitrate concentrations during storm events. These were land use, hydrological condition and karstification, which in combination can lead to differential responses of mobilised and/or diluted nitrate concentrations. Furthermore, the results indicate that nitrate response in karst is strongly dependent on nutrient source, whether mobilisation and/or dilution occur and the pathway taken. This will have consequences for the delivery of nitrate to a surface water receptor. The current study improves our understanding of nitrate responses in karst systems and therefore can guide environmental modellers, policy makers and drinking water managers with respect to the regulations of the European Union (EU Water Framework Directive (WFD. In future, more research should focus on

  17. The water relations of two evergreen tree species in a karst savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinning, Susanne

    2008-12-01

    The ecohydrology of karst has not received much attention, despite the disproportionally large contribution of karst aquifers to freshwater supplies. Karst savannas, like many savannas elsewhere, are encroached by woody plants, with possibly negative consequences on aquifer recharge. However, the role of savanna tree species in hydrological processes remains unclear, not least because the location and water absorption zones of tree roots in the spatially complex subsurface strata are unknown. This study examined the water sources and water relations of two savanna trees, Quercus fusiformis (Small) and Juniperus ashei (Buchholz) in the karst region of the eastern Edwards Plateau, Texas (USA). Stable isotope analysis of stem water revealed that both species took up evaporatively enriched water during the warm season, suggesting a relatively shallow water source in the epikarst, the transition zone between soil and bedrock. Q. fusiformis had consistently higher predawn water potentials than J. ashei during drought, and thus was probably deeper-rooted and less capable of maintaining gas exchange at low water potentials. Although the water potential of both species recovered after drought-breaking spring and summer rain events, associated shifts in stem water isotope ratios did not indicate significant uptake of rainwater from the shallow soil. A hypothesis is developed to explain this phenomenon invoking a piston-flow mechanism that pushes water stored in macropores into the active root zones of the trees. Epikarst structure varied greatly with parent material and topography, and had strong effects on seasonal fluctuations in plant water status. The study suggests that tree species of the Edwards Plateau do not commonly reduce aquifer recharge by tapping directly into perched water tables, but more likely by reducing water storage in the epikarst. A more general conclusion is that models of savanna water relations based on Walter's two-layer model may not apply

  18. Mobilisation or dilution? Nitrate response of karst springs to high rainfall events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebsch, M.; Fenton, O.; Horan, B.; Hennessy, D.; Richards, K. G.; Jordan, P.; Goldscheider, N.; Butscher, C.; Blum, P.

    2014-11-01

    Nitrate (NO3-) contamination of groundwater associated with agronomic activity is of major concern in many countries. Where agriculture, thin free draining soils and karst aquifers coincide, groundwater is highly vulnerable to nitrate contamination. As residence times and denitrification potential in such systems are typically low, nitrate can discharge to surface waters unabated. However, such systems also react quickest to agricultural management changes that aim to improve water quality. In response to storm events, nitrate concentrations can alter significantly, i.e. rapidly decreasing or increasing concentrations. The current study examines the response of a specific karst spring situated on a grassland farm in South Ireland to rainfall events utilising high-resolution nitrate and discharge data together with on-farm borehole groundwater fluctuation data. Specifically, the objectives of the study are to formulate a scientific hypothesis of possible scenarios relating to nitrate responses during storm events, and to verify this hypothesis using additional case studies from the literature. This elucidates the controlling key factors that lead to mobilisation and/or dilution of nitrate concentrations during storm events. These were land use, hydrological condition and karstification, which in combination can lead to differential responses of mobilised and/or diluted nitrate concentrations. Furthermore, the results indicate that nitrate response in karst is strongly dependent on nutrient source, whether mobilisation and/or dilution occur and on the pathway taken. This will have consequences for the delivery of nitrate to a surface water receptor. The current study improves our understanding of nitrate responses in karst systems and therefore can guide environmental modellers, policy makers and drinking water managers with respect to the regulations of the European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive (WFD). In future, more research should focus on the high

  19. Evaluating disturbance on mediterranean karst areas: the example of Sardinia (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waele, Jo

    2009-07-01

    Evaluating the human disturbance on karst areas is a difficult task because of the complexity of these peculiar and unique environments. The human impact on karstic geo-ecosystems is increasingly important and there is an increasing need for multidisciplinary tools to assess the environmental changes in karst areas. Many disciplines, such as biology, geomorphology, hydrology and social-economical sciences are to be considered to sufficiently evaluate the impact on these intrinsically vulnerable areas. This article gives an overview of the evolution of environmental impact on karst areas of the island Sardinia (Italy). For this particular case, the most important impacts in the past 50 years are derived from the following activities, in decreasing importance: (1) mining and quarrying; (2) deforestation, agriculture and grazing; (3) building (widespread urbanisation, isolated homes, etc.) and related infrastructures (roads, sewer systems, aqueducts, waste dumps, etc.); (4) tourism; (5) military activities. To evaluate the present environmental state of these areas the Disturbance Index for Karst environments [Van Beynen and Townsend (Environ Manage 36:101-116)] is applied in a slightly modified version. Instead of considering the indicators of environmental disturbances used in the original method, this slightly modified index evaluates the disturbances causing the deterioration of the environmental attributes. In the Sardinian case study, 27 disturbances have been evaluated, giving rise to the definition of a Disturbance Index ranging between 0 (Pristine) and 1 (highly disturbed). This Disturbance Index simplifies the original KDI method, appears to adequately measure disturbance on Mediterranean karst areas and could be applied with success to other similar regions.

  20. Understanding Interest Rate Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volker, Desi

    This thesis is the result of my Ph.D. studies at the Department of Finance of the Copenhagen Business School. It consists of three essays covering topics related to the term structure of interest rates, monetary policy and interest rate volatility. The rst essay, \\Monetary Policy Uncertainty...... and Interest Rates", examines the role of monetary policy uncertainty on the term structure of interest rates. The second essay, \\A Regime-Switching A ne Term Structure Model with Stochastic Volatility" (co-authored with Sebastian Fux), investigates the ability of the class of regime switching models...... with and without stochastic volatility to capture the main stylized features of U.S. interest rates. The third essay, \\Variance Risk Premia in the Interest Rate Swap Market", investigates the time-series and cross-sectional properties of the compensation demanded for holding interest rate variance risk. The essays...

  1. Research on the content construction of karst cave guide words based on the AHP method%基于 AHP 法的喀斯特洞穴导游解说词内容构建研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向旭; 杨晓霞; 石定芳

    2015-01-01

    喀斯特洞穴景观与环境蕴含的科学性与专业性,导游解说词在洞穴旅游中具有极其重要的作用。文章在构建喀斯特洞穴导游解说词内容指标体系的基础上,通过对游客和洞穴专家进行问卷调查,并运用 AHP法计算出导游解说词各指标的权重。结果表明:(1)喀斯特洞穴导游解说词的撰写应全面、系统,包含“欢迎词”、“游览须知”、“洞穴概况”、“洞穴景点讲解”、“欢送词”5部分;(2)喀斯特洞穴导游解说词的内容应加大对“游览须知”的阐述,注重对游客的引导和教育;(3)喀斯特洞穴导游解说词的“洞穴概况”和“景点讲解”都应以洞穴科学知识为主线,适当穿插相关神话故事,兼具科学性与趣味性。%The guide words play an extremely important role in the cave tourism for the karst cave’s scienti-ficity and specialty.Based on the construction of content index system of karst cave guide words,this paper used the AHP method to calculate the weight of each guide words’index through the questionnaire to tour-ists and cave experts.As the following conclusions have been drawn from this research:(1)Karst cave guide words should be comprehensive,and consist of five parts:Welcome Speech,Practical Tips,Cave Overview, Scenic Spot Explanation and Sendoff Words;(2)Karst cave guide words should pay more attention to the Practical Tips,and enhance the guidance and education to tourists;(3)Karst cave guide words should take the cave science as the main line and intersperse with related myth,which make the guide words more scien-tific and interesting.

  2. Geological and environmental implications of the evaporite karst in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, F.; Calaforra, J. M.; Cardona, F.; Ortí, F.; Durán, J. J.; Garay, P.

    2008-01-01

    In Spain, evaporite outcrops cover approximately 7% of the total area of the country. Most of the evaporitic formations are made up of Ca-sulfates (gypsum/anhydrite) or Ca-sulfates and halite. Certain Paleogene marine evaporites also contain K-Mg-chlorides, and some Tertiary continental formations bear substantial amounts of Na-sulfates in the subsurface (glauberite and thenardite). Mesozoic evaporitic formations commonly wedge out towards the ground surface, passing into condensed sequences and dissolution-collapse breccias. Some of these highly porous breccias constitute major regional aquifers. In several areas, interstratal karstification of the evaporites has given rise to gravitational deformations such as basin structures, monoclines, and collapse structures covering several square kilometers that record a cumulative subsidence in excess of 200 m (Teruel and Calatayud Grabens). A widespread consequence of evaporite dissolution processes in Spain is the hydrochemical degradation of surface waters. Some of the largest and most outstanding lake systems, from an environmental perspective, occur in karstic depressions developed in evaporitic formations (Fuente de Piedra, Gallocanta, Bujaraloz, and Bañolas lakes). Sinkhole activity is a major geohazard in several evaporite karst areas. The sinkhole risk has a particularly high impact in sectors where Tertiary evaporites are overlain by Quaternary alluvial aquifers (Calatayud, Zaragoza, and Madrid areas). Some of the detrimental effects of subsidence include severe damage to historical monuments (Calatayud), the demolition of a whole village (Puilatos), or the derailment of a freight train (Zaragoza area). The deepest gypsum caves are found in Triassic diapiric structures (El Sumidor Cave, 210 m deep), and the longest ones are developed in horizontally lying Neogene sequences (Sorbas caves, and Estremera maze cave). The Cardona diapir hosts salt caves up to 4,300 m long whose genesis is related to flooding of mine

  3. Nutrient pressures and legacies in a small agricultural karst catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Owen; Mellander, Per-Erik; Daly, Karen; Wall, David P.; Jahangir, Mohammad M.; Jordan, Phil; Hennessey, Deirdre; Huebsch, Manuela; Blum, Philipp; Vero, Sara; Richards, Karl G.

    2017-04-01

    Catchments with short subsurface hydrologic time lags are commonly at risk for leached losses of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). Such catchments are suitable for testing the efficacy of mitigation measures as management changes. In some sites, however, N and P may be retained in the soil and subsoil layers, and then leached, mobilised or attenuated over time. This biogeochemical time lag may therefore have enduring effects on the water quality. The aim of this study was to improve the understanding of N and P retention, attenuation and distribution of subsurface pathway in an intensively managed agricultural karst catchment with an oxidised aquifer setting, and also to inform how similar sites can be managed in the future. Results showed that in the years pre-2000 slurry from an on-site integrated pig production unit had been applied at rates of 33 t/ha annually, which supplied approximately 136 kg/ha total N and approximately 26 kg/ha total P annually. This practice contributed to large quantities of N (total N and NH4-N) and elevated soil test P (Morgan extractable P), present to a depth of 1 m. This store was augmented by recent surpluses of 263 kg N/ha, with leached N to groundwater of 82.5 kg N/ha and only 2.5 kg N/ha denitrified in the aquifer thereafter. Sub hourly spring data showed the largest proportion of N loss from small (54-88%) and medium fissure pathways (7- 21%) with longer hydrologic time lags, with smallest loads from either large fissure (1-13%) or conduit (1-10%) pathways with short hydrologic time lags (reaction time at the spring from onset of a rainfall event is within hours). Although soils were saturated in P and in mobile forms to 0.5 m, dissolved reactive P concentrations in groundwater remained low due to Ca and Mg limestone chemistry. Under these conditions a depletion of the legacy store, with no further inputs, would take approximately 50 years and with NO3-N concentrations in the source area dropping to levels that could sustain

  4. THE FEATURES AND INVESTIGATION OUTLINE OF KARST WATER SYSTEMS IN YUNNAN PROVINCE, CHINA%云南省岩溶水系统特征及调查要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇; 袁道先; 杨世瑜

    2007-01-01

    First, the regional karst condition and features of karst drainage basin in Yunnan are delineated. And then, the karst water systems are divided into the different grades according to the differences of hydrogeological condition and features. The first grade is the karst water system. The second grade includes shallow-circulating and deep-circulating karat water systems. The third grade of karst water systems includes five basic types: exposed; exposed-covered; exposed-buried; stratabound and fault zone. Furthermore, the hydrogeological features and investigation outline of each type of karst water are put forward in this paper.

  5. Characteristics of distribution and transport of petroleum contaminants in fracture-karst water in Zibo Area, Shandong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱学愚; 刘建立; 朱俊杰; 陈余道

    2000-01-01

    Fracture-karst water is an important water resource for the water supply in North China. Petroleum contamination is one of the most problematic types of the groundwater pollution. The characteristics of distribution and transport of the petroleum contaminants in fracture-karst water are different from those in porous water. The flow velocity of fracture-karst water is much faster than the velocity of porous water on an average. Therefore, contaminant transport in fracture-karst water is an absolute advection-dominated problem. The plume of the petroleum contamination may extend to several kilometers from pollution sources. It was not caused by the oil pool floating on the water table but by the oil components dissolved and scattered in groundwater. The distribution of the petroleum contaminants over space are concentrated in the strong conductive zone on the plane. On the vertical section the highest concentration of the oil contaminants appeared in the strata where the contamination sources were located

  6. KARST WATER EFFECTIVE DEVELOPMENT PLANNING DIVISION IN THE KARST AREA,SOUTHWEST OF CHINA%西南岩溶区岩溶水有效开发利用规划分区

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫; 覃小群; 易连兴; 凌泽民

    2001-01-01

    我国西南岩溶地区由于自然地理、地质构造背景特征,造成了岩溶水补给、径流、排泄及动态的差异,以及在开发利用岩溶水资源的方式和途径上的不同。本文以岩溶水赋存条件及其地质环境条件为基础,依据岩溶水的富水性、开发意义、开发的紧迫性以及开发方式和社会效益,进行岩溶水有效开发利用规划分区,为该地区的岩溶水有效开发提供参考。%Karst groundwater recharge,runoff,discharge and dynamic,and also groundwater resoures development methods have resulted from the natural geographical conditions and geological structure in the south-west karst area,China. This paper,based on karst water storage conditions and geological conditions,has made karst ground water effective development planning divisions according to karst groundwater abundance,development importance,urgence,methods,social benefit and so on in the study area. The study provide bases for karst groundwater effective development for the area and other areas with same conditions.

  7. GPR detection of karst and archaeological targets below the historical centre of Merida, Yucatán, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Barba

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Historical Center of Merida has been classified as a “zone of high patrimonial value” based on the study of topography and the historical documents that show a long-term occupation, non-interrupted since pre-Columbian times when T’Hó was the great capital of the northern region of the Maya area. For the local government, rehabilitation of the Historical Center of Merida has been a great priority. Among others, this project includes preservation of archaeological remains (pre-Columbian or colonial and detection of karstic zones under the city. In order to prevent damage to the patrimony, ground penetrating radar (GPR surveys were carried out employing 200 and 400 MHz antennas along 16,5 Km of the city streets. After data analysis, it was possible to build a map showing the locations of subsurface karst features and archaeological remains below the street pavement, many of which correlate with archaeological platforms proposed in historic documents as well as some of the cenotes recorded in popular memory. As result, for the first time in Mexico, a local government has information available that will allow them to minimize damage to archaeological remains and mitigate risks associated with construction above shallow subsurface karstic zones within this important modern city.

  8. Investigation on the Concurrent-Business Behavior of Peasant Households during the Planting Structure Adjustment in Karst Mountainous Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the survey data of 150 peasant households in typical Karst mountainous area in the year 2009, causations, characteristics and influence factors of the concurrent-business behavior of peasant households during planting structure adjustment are analyzed. Result shows that there is significant positive correlation between the concurrent-business income and the household income of farmers. And the concurrent-business behavior has the tendency to be popular among the young farmers with the characteristics of relative concentration, strong will of farmers and the significant impact of education degree on the concurrent-business income. Information, capital, skill, and market awareness are the main factors affecting the concurrent-business behavior of peasant households. Countermeasures to optimize the concurrent-business behavior of peasant households are put forward, such as strengthening the skills training for farmers to improve the cultural quality of peasant households, establishing modern rural financial service system to offer capital support for the development of peasant households, setting up information base of rural labor force to provide more information and channels for the concurrent-business behavior of peasant households, and enhancing the cultivation of farmers’ market awareness to improve their ability to adapt to market economy.

  9. Reducing the ambiguity of karst aquifer models by pattern matching of flow and transport on catchment scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Oehlmann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the hydraulic parameters of karst aquifers is a challenge due to their high degree of heterogeneity. The unknown parameter field generally leads to a high ambiguity for flow and transport calibration in numerical models of karst aquifers. In this study, a distributive numerical model was built for the simulation of groundwater flow and solute transport in a highly heterogeneous karst aquifer in south western Germany. Therefore, an interface for the simulation of solute transport in one-dimensional pipes was implemented into the software Comsol Multiphysics® and coupled to the three-dimensional solute transport interface for continuum domains. For reducing model ambiguity, the simulation was matched for steady-state conditions to the hydraulic head distribution in the model area, the spring discharge of several springs and the transport velocities of two tracer tests. Furthermore, other measured parameters such as the hydraulic conductivity of the fissured matrix and the maximal karst conduit volume were available for model calibration. Parameter studies were performed for several karst conduit geometries to analyse the influence of the respective geometric and hydraulic parameters and develop a calibration approach in a large-scale heterogeneous karst system. Results show that it is not only possible to derive a consistent flow and transport model for a 150 km2 karst area, but that the combined use of groundwater flow and transport parameters greatly reduces model ambiguity. The approach provides basic information about the conduit network not accessible for direct geometric measurements. The conduit network volume for the main karst spring in the study area could be narrowed down to approximately 100 000 m3.

  10. Chemical characterization and antioxidant activity of Amazonian (Ecuador) Caryodendron orinocense Karst. and Bactris gasipaes Kunth seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radice, Matteo; Viafara, Derwin; Neill, David; Asanza, Mercedes; Sacchetti, Gianni; Guerrini, Alessandra; Maietti, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, data concerning the composition of Caryodendron orinocense Karst. (Euphorbiaceae) and Bactris gasipaes Kunth (Arecaceae) seed oils are lacking. In light of this fact, in this paper fatty acids and unsaponifiable fraction composition have been determined using GC-MS, HPLC-DAD (Diode Array Detector), NMR approaches and possible future applications have been preliminary investigated through estimation of antioxidant activity, performed with DPPH test. For C. orinocense linoleic acid (85.59%) was the main component, lauric (33.29%) and myristic (27.76%) acids were instead the most abundant in B. gasipaes. C. orinocense unsaponifiable fraction (8.06%) evidenced a remarkable content of β-sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, squalene and vitamin E (816 ppm). B. gasipaes revealed instead β-sitosterol and squalene as main constituents of unsaponifiable matter (3.01%). Antioxidant capacity evidenced the best performance of C. orinocense seed oil. These preliminary results could be interesting to suggest the improvement of the population's incomes from Amazonian basin. In particular the knowledge of chemical composition of C. orinocense and B. gasipaes oils could be helpful to divulge and valorize these autochthones plants.

  11. Legacy seismic investigations of karst surfaces: Implications for heavy oil extraction from the Devonian Grosmont Formation, northeastern Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bown, Todd Dylan

    The Devonian Grosmont Formation in northeastern Alberta, Canada is the world's largest accumulation of heavy oil in carbonate rock with estimated bitumen in place of 64.5×109 m 3. At the studies location the eroded and buried surface of the Grosmont, referred here as the SubMannville uncoformity (SMU), was analyzed and interpret for a karsted surface. Results from legacy seismic data and available well log information were able to define the SMU as a mature karst surface within observable features such as dolines, karst valleys, karst plain and poljie and a ridge. The large scale topography of the ridge and poljie were geologically controlled by the underlying the Paleozoic rocks. Furthermore, the poljie was observed to contain the majority of the dolines in the area, noted to occur elsewhere. That said, dolines and karst valleys and other such dissolution features have the potential to erode the bitumen reservoir of the upper Grosmont members C and D. It is important for future oil prospectors to map and avoid areas such as the poljie, dolines and karst valley to increase certainty of reservoir presence. A preliminary rock-physics model was developed for the Grosmont reservoir of a bitumen-saturated dolomite. Results suggest that elastic properties of the Grosmont reservoir are temperature-frequency dispersive. This implies that there is a potential to use time-lapse seismic to map and monitor heating of the reservoir.

  12. New insights on fractures deformation from tiltmeter data measured inside the Fontaine de Vaucluse karst system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesparre, Nolwenn; Boudin, Frédérick; Champollion, Cédric; Chéry, Jean; Danquigny, Charles; Seat, Han Cheng; Cattoen, Michel; Lizion, Françoise; Longuevergne, Laurent

    2016-12-01

    Tilt fluctuations can potentially reflect the response of hydrosystems to important rainfall. In this context, long baseline tiltmeters have been installed in an underground tunnel penetrating the Fontaine de Vaucluse karst to study the medium deformation related to solicitations exerted by water infiltrating the hydrosystem. The instruments monitor the tilt as well as its spatial variation. Northward tilts reaching a 1 μrad amplitude are observed consecutively to rainfalls. The tilt amplitude is highly correlated with the Fontaine de Vaucluse outlet flow fluctuations. The measured tilt signal is also relatively homogeneous over a 150 m length. Different types of structure likely to produce such observations are tested in order to identify their location with respect to the tiltmeters, their dimension as well as the amount of water level variation in the structure. Following rainfalls, the infiltration of water modifies the pore pressure, inducing a medium deformation. The hypothesis of an homogeneous surface loading on the Vaucluse plateau is first refuted since the related tilt is much lower than the one measured. The water supplied by rainfalls has to accumulate in discontinuities in order to generate a higher tilt. So, the deformation related to a pressure exerted on a fracture filled by water is assessed. A first study reveals the interest of the tilt homogeneity information that constrains strongly the fracture properties. Thus, the fracture must be located at a distance more than a few hundreds metres from the tiltmeters in order to produce a tilt homogeneous in space. If the fracture is initially dry, it must also be filled on a height higher than 150 m consecutive to a rainfall in order to generate a tilt amplitude in the same magnitude as the one measured. Then, we explore the influence of water level variations on the tilt produced by a fracture located at the interface between the saturated and unsaturated zones, which are thereby permanently flooded

  13. New insights on fractures deformation from tiltmeter data measured inside the Fontaine de Vaucluse karst system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesparre, Nolwenn; Boudin, Frédérick; Champollion, Cédric; Chéry, Jean; Danquigny, Charles; Seat, Han Cheng; Cattoen, Michel; Lizion, Françoise; Longuevergne, Laurent

    2017-03-01

    Tilt fluctuations can potentially reflect the response of hydrosystems to important rainfall. In this context, long baseline tiltmeters have been installed in an underground tunnel penetrating the Fontaine de Vaucluse karst to study the medium deformation related to solicitations exerted by water infiltrating the hydrosystem. The instruments monitor the tilt as well as its spatial variation. Northward tilts reaching a 1 μrad amplitude are observed consecutively to rainfalls. The tilt amplitude is highly correlated with the Fontaine de Vaucluse outlet flow fluctuations. The measured tilt signal is also relatively homogeneous over a 150 m length. Different types of structure likely to produce such observations are tested in order to identify their location with respect to the tiltmeters, their dimension as well as the amount of water level variation in the structure. Following rainfalls, the infiltration of water modifies the pore pressure, inducing a medium deformation. The hypothesis of a homogeneous surface loading on the Vaucluse plateau is first refuted since the related tilt is much lower than the one measured. The water supplied by rainfalls has to accumulate in discontinuities in order to generate a higher tilt. So, the deformation related to a pressure exerted on a fracture filled by water is assessed. A first study reveals the interest of the tilt homogeneity information that constrains strongly the fracture properties. Thus, the fracture must be located at a distance more than a few hundred metres from the tiltmeters in order to produce a tilt homogeneous in space. If the fracture is initially dry, it must also be filled on a height higher than 150 m consecutive to a rainfall in order to generate a tilt amplitude in the same magnitude as the one measured. Then, we explore the influence of water level variations on the tilt produced by a fracture located at the interface between the saturated and unsaturated zones, which are thereby permanently flooded

  14. Assessment of the potential for karst in the Rustler Formation at the WIPP site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, John Clay

    2006-01-01

    This report is an independent assessment of the potential for karst dissolution in evaporitic strata of the Rustler Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. Review of the available data suggests that the Rustler strata thicken and thin across the area in depositional patterns related to lateral variations in sedimentary accommodation space and normal facies changes. Most of the evidence that has been offered for the presence of karst in the subsurface has been used out of context, and the different pieces are not mutually supporting. Outside of Nash Draw, definitive evidence for the development of karst in the Rustler Formation near the WIPP site is limited to the horizon of the Magenta Member in drillhole WIPP-33. Most of the other evidence cited by the proponents of karst is more easily interpreted as primary sedimentary structures and the localized dissolution of evaporitic strata adjacent to the Magenta and Culebra water-bearing units. Some of the cited evidence is invalid, an inherited baggage from studies made prior to the widespread knowledge of modern evaporite depositional environments and prior to the existence of definitive exposures of the Rustler Formation in the WIPP shafts. Some of the evidence is spurious, has been taken out of context, or is misquoted. Lateral lithologic variations from halite to mudstone within the Rustler Formation under the WIPP site have been taken as evidence for the dissolution of halite such as that seen in Nash Draw, but are more rationally explained as sedimentary facies changes. Extrapolation of the known karst features in Nash Draw eastward to the WIPP site, where conditions are and have been significantly different for half a million years, is unwarranted. The volumes of insoluble material that would remain after dissolution of halite would be significantly less than the observed bed thicknesses, thus dissolution is an unlikely explanation for the lateral variations from halite to mudstone and siltstone

  15. Carbon dioxide, ground air and carbon cycling in Gibraltar karst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattey, D. P.; Atkinson, T. C.; Barker, J. A.; Fisher, R.; Latin, J.-P.; Durrell, R.; Ainsworth, M.

    2016-07-01

    We put forward a general conceptual model of CO2 behaviour in the vadose zone of karst aquifers, based on physical principles of air flow through porous media and caves, combined with a geochemical interpretation of cave monitoring data. This 'Gibraltar model' links fluxes of water, air and carbon through the soil with the porosity of the vadose zone, the circulation of ground air and the ventilation of caves. Gibraltar hosts many natural caves whose locations span the full length and vertical range of the Rock. We report results of an 8-year monitoring study of carbon in soil organic matter and bedrock carbonate, dissolved inorganic carbon in vadose waters, and gaseous CO2 in soil, cave and ground air. Results show that the regime of cave air CO2 results from the interaction of cave ventilation with a reservoir of CO2-enriched ground air held within the smaller voids of the bedrock. The pCO2 of ground air, and of vadose waters that have been in close contact with it, are determined by multiple factors that include recharge patterns, vegetation productivity and root respiration, and conversion of organic matter to CO2 within the soil, the epikarst and the whole vadose zone. Mathematical modelling and field observations show that ground air is subject to a density-driven circulation that reverses seasonally, as the difference between surface and underground temperatures reverses in sign. The Gibraltar model suggests that cave air pCO2 is not directly related to CO2 generated in the soil or the epikarstic zone, as is often assumed. Ground air CO2 formed by the decay of organic matter (OM) washed down into the deeper unsaturated zone is an important additional source of pCO2. In Gibraltar the addition of OM-derived CO2 is the dominant control on the pCO2 of ground air and the Ca-hardness of waters within the deep vadose zone. The seasonal regime of CO2 in cave air depends on the position of a cave in relation to the density-driven ground air circulation pattern which

  16. Geophysical Surveys of a Known Karst Feature, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, P.J.; Carr, B.J.; Doll, W.E.; Kaufmann, R.D.; Nyquist, J.E.

    1999-11-14

    Geophysical data were acquired at a site on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee to determine the characteristics of a mud-filled void and to evaluate the effectiveness of a suite of geophysical methods at the site. Methods that were used included microgravity, electrical resistivity, and seismic refraction. Both microgravity and resistivity were able to detect the void as well as overlying structural features. The seismic data provide bedrock depth control for the other two methods, and show other effects that are caused by the void.

  17. Heavy Metal Bioaccumulation Capability of Woody Plants in Mine wasteland of Karst Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiuru, Wang; Zhongliang, Huang; Xuan, Zhang; Zijian, Wu

    2017-04-01

    The bioaccumulation capability and transfer characteristics of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in soil and 6 different woody plants collected from a typical lead-zinc mine wasteland of Karst area, Hunan province were investigated, including Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.) Hook., Swida wilsoniana (Wanger.), Koelreuteria paniculata, Paulownia., Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl., and Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. The results showed that the 6 plants could adapt to the heavy metal polluted environment, and there was a positive correlation between the heavy metal content in plants and soil.Swida wilsoniana (Wanger.) and Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. had the largest Pb bioaccumulation factor of 0.03; Paulownia. had the highest Zn bioaccumulation factor of 0.37; the largest Pb transfer factor of 1.31 were found in Koelreuteria paniculata; and Zn transfer factor of Paulownia. reached 1.45. These 4 woody plants are suitable for phytoremediation of mine wasteland of Karst areas.

  18. Trends in vegetation change under different karst terrain conditions, southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiaowei; Wang, Kelin; Yue, Yuemin; Liao, Chujie

    2013-10-01

    Trends in vegetation change and their relationships with terrain conditions are significant to understand and evaluate the efficiency of ecological engineering implemented in karst regions, Southwest China. This study aimed to identify vegetation change trends in Hechi, Guangxi, China using time-series of SPOT-VGT NDVI data (1999-2010) and DEM. Linear trend analysis was applied to examine NDVI change trends. The results indicated that most of NDVI values had increased during this time period. There were spatial variations in NDVI change trends, which could be partiallly explained by different karst terrain conditions. The areas of most obviously positive trends in NDVI change were found at the elevation of 500-1000m and the relief amplitude between 200 and 500 m. Negative trends in NDVI change were appeared on slopes of south (sunlit) and west (semi-sunlit) aspect and at the elevation of 200 - 500 m, where were mainly due to human activities.

  19. Numerical modeling of geothermal groundwater flow in karst aquifer system in eastern Weibei, Shaanxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ming; LI GuoMin; YANG Liao; DANG XueYa; ZHAO ChunHu; HOU GuangCai; ZHANG MaoSheng

    2007-01-01

    The quantitative assessment of geothermal water resources is important to the exploitation and utilization of geothermal resources. In the geothermal water systems the density of groundwater changes with the temperature, therefore the variations in hydraulic heads and temperatures are very complicated. A three-dimensional density-dependent model coupling the groundwater flow and heat transport is established and used to simulate the geothermal water flow in the karst aquifers in eastern Weibei,Shaanxi Province, China. The multilayered karst aquifer system in the study area is cut by some major faults which control the regional groundwater flow. In order to calibrate and simulate the effect of the major faults, each fault is discretized as a belt of elements with special hydrological parameters in the numerical model. The groundwater dating data are used to be integrated with the groundwater flow pattern and calibrate the model. Simulation results show that the calculated hydraulic heads and temperature fit with the observed data well.

  20. Community diversity, structure and carbon footprint of nematode food web following reforestation on degraded Karst soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ning; Li, Hui; Tang, Zheng; Li, Zhongfang; Tian, Jing; Lou, Yilai; Li, Jianwei; Li, Guichun; Hu, Xiaomin

    2016-06-01

    We examined community diversity, structure and carbon footprint of nematode food web along a chronosequence of T. Sinensis reforestation on degraded Karst. In general, after the reforestation: a serious of diversity parameters and community indices (Shannon-Weinier index (H‧), structure index (SI), etc.) were elevated; biomass ratio of fungivores to bacterivores (FFC/BFC), and fungi to bacteria (F/B) were increased, and nematode channel ratio (NCR) were decreased; carbon footprints of all nematode trophic groups, and biomass of bacteria and fungi were increased. Our results indicate that the Karst aboveground vegetation restoration was accompanied with belowground nematode food web development: increasing community complexity, function and fungal dominance in decomposition pathway, and the driving forces included the bottom-up effect (resource control), connectedness of functional groups, as well as soil environments.

  1. Well water in karst regions of northeastern Wisconsin contains estrogenic factors, nitrate, and bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Angela C; Wingert, Sarah; Fermanich, Kevin J; Zorn, Michael E

    2013-04-01

    Well water in karst regions is particularly susceptible to contamination by various nonpoint source pollutants such as nitrate, fecal bacteria, and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). This study analyzed 40 wells in heavily farmed karst areas of northeastern Wisconsin to determine whether these and other pollutants are present, and if so, whether their presence is (1) correlated with other contaminants and (2) exhibits seasonal variation. Nitrate, bacteria, and estrogenicity (indicating the presence of EDCs) were present in at least some of well water samples collected over the course of four time periods between the summers of 2008 and 2009. Although estrogenicity was greatest during the summer months, bacterial contamination was most prevalent during snowmelt. Levels of estrogenicity present in some well water samples approached a threshold concentration that is known to exert endocrine disruption in wildlife. Strong correlations between estrogenicity and other water quality parameters were not found.

  2. The occurrence of coliform bacteria in the cave waters of Slovak Karst, Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seman, Milan; Gaálová, Barbora; Cíchová, Marianna; Prokšová, Miloslava; Haviarová, Dagmar; Fľaková, Renáta

    2015-05-01

    The diversity and abundance of coliform bacteria (taxonomically enterobacterias), an important quality water indicator, were determined for four representative caves in Slovak Karst: Domica Cave, Gombasecká Cave, Milada Cave and Krásnohorská Cave. Three hundred and fifty-two enterobacterial isolates were successfully identified by biochemical testing (commercial ENTEROtest 24) and selected isolates confirmed by molecular techniques (PCR, 16S rDNA sequence analysis). A total of 39 enterobacterial species were isolated from cave waters, with predominance of Escherichia coli, Serratia spp. and Enterobacter spp. PCR amplification of lacZ gene is not specific enough to provide a reliable detection of coliform bacteria isolated from the environment. Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA confirmed that all of the selected isolates belong to the family Enterobacteriaceae. In general, physical and chemical parameters of cave waters in Slovak Karst corresponded to national drinking water quality standards.

  3. Karst groundwater budget and discharge regime of Banja Spring near Petnica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić-Vakanjac Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Detailed hydrological and hydrogeological assessments of karst spring discharge require information about the groundwater regime in the study area/watershed. However, groundwater regime monitoring is often organized locally and sporadically, as required for specific studies or projects, and seldom lasts longer than one year. On the other hand, if time series of quantitative parameters are shorter than 15 years, the watershed is considered to be ungauged. As a result, discharge regime and karst aquifer budget assessments of ungauged watersheds can be misleading. To minimize water budget assessment errors, available time series need to be extended as far as possible. Regression models are commonly used to extend, simulate or fill gaps in existing time series. The paper presents an application of multiple linear regression to extend the existing time series of mean monthly discharges of Banja Spring (at Petnica, western Serbia, in order to cover the entire study period (1960-2006.

  4. Hydrogeochemistry of karst underground waters at shallow depth in Guiyang City, Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Zhifen; ZHU Lijun; WU Pan; SHEN Zheng; FENG Zhiyong

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to shed light on the hydrogeochemical characteristics of karst underground waters at shallow depth in Guiyang City, Guizhou Province with an emphasis on the geochemistry of major elements. Guiyang City bears abundant underground waters and it is also an important representative of the karst areas throughout the world. Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ are the dominant cations, accounting for 81%- 99.7% of the total, and HCO -3 and SO 2- 4 are the dominant anions. Weathering of limestones and dolostones is the most important factor controlling the hydrogeochemistry of underground waters, and weathering of sulfate and evaporite rocks is less important. Moreover, the precipitation and human activities also have a definite influence on the hydrogeochemistry of underground waters in the region studied.

  5. Nitrogen cycle model of agroecosystem in the karst region of Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ye; LIAN Bin

    2010-01-01

    According to the transport theory of soil solutes and the conditions of soil, geology and climate in the karst region of Guizhou Province, a numerical simulation model of edaphic nitrogen element transport under field conditions is initially established. In this model, NO-3 and NH+4 are regarded as soil solutes. Transformation mechanisms such as biological release, bio-immobilization, ammonium adsorption-desorption, nitration-denitrification and factors of crop root uptaking are considered in this model. It is hoped that the data from this model could directly be used to guide agricultural production in this region and offer feasible ways to improve the use of nitrogen element, sustainable development of agriculture in karst mountainous areas and natural environment.

  6. Application of carbon isotope for discriminating sources of soil CO2 in karst area, Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎廷宇; 王世杰

    2001-01-01

    Using carbon isotope of soil CO2 this paper discussed the sources of soil CO2 in karst area, Guizhou Province, China. Oxidation-decomposition of organic matter, respiration of plant root and activity of microbe are thought to be the major sources of soil CO2. However, in karst area, the contribution of dissolution of underlying carbonate rock to soil CO2 should be considered as in acidic environment. Atmospheric CO2 is the major composition of soil CO2 in surface layer of soil profiles and its proportion in soil CO2 decreases with increase of soil depth. CO2 produced by dissolution of carbonate rock contributes 34%-46% to soil CO2 below the depth of 10cm in the studied soil profiles covered by grass.

  7. Community diversity, structure and carbon footprint of nematode food web following reforestation on degraded Karst soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ning; Li, Hui; Tang, Zheng; Li, Zhongfang; Tian, Jing; Lou, Yilai; Li, Jianwei; Li, Guichun; Hu, Xiaomin

    2016-01-01

    We examined community diversity, structure and carbon footprint of nematode food web along a chronosequence of T. Sinensis reforestation on degraded Karst. In general, after the reforestation: a serious of diversity parameters and community indices (Shannon-Weinier index (H′), structure index (SI), etc.) were elevated; biomass ratio of fungivores to bacterivores (FFC/BFC), and fungi to bacteria (F/B) were increased, and nematode channel ratio (NCR) were decreased; carbon footprints of all nematode trophic groups, and biomass of bacteria and fungi were increased. Our results indicate that the Karst aboveground vegetation restoration was accompanied with belowground nematode food web development: increasing community complexity, function and fungal dominance in decomposition pathway, and the driving forces included the bottom-up effect (resource control), connectedness of functional groups, as well as soil environments. PMID:27311984

  8. FWS Interest Simplified

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These boundaries are simplified from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Real Estate Interest data layer containing polygons representing tracts of land (parcels) in...

  9. FWS Interest Simplified

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These boundaries are simplified from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Real Estate Interest data layer containing polygons representing tracts of land (parcels) in...

  10. Interest Rates and Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Coopersmith

    2011-01-01

    A relation between interest rates and inflation is presented using a two component economic model and a simple general principle. Preliminary results indicate a remarkable similarity to classical economic theories, in particular that of Wicksell.

  11. Debenture Interest Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Interest rates to be paid on debentures issued with respect to a loan or mortgage insured by the Federal Housing Commissioner under the provisions of the National...

  12. Case History: Merging the Tools of DC Resistivity and Fracture Trace Analysis for Locating High Yield Domestic Water Wells in Karst Terrain, Shenandoah Valley, Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangos, W.; Eaton, L. S.

    2004-05-01

    The karstic eastern margin of Virginia's Shenandoah Valley hosts large volumes of high quality ground water in discrete zones or pockets. Industrial and culinary exploitation poses a challenging exploration problem. Recent work by the authors using geophysical and aerial photogrammetric techniques resulted in the successful location of three high- yield water wells. This indirect methodology increases the probability of locating valuable wells by locating geologic features that may harbor water-bearing zones. The eastern Shenandoah Valley is geologically complex. The underlying bedrock is dominantly limestones, dolomites, and shales of Cambrian age that have been extensively folded, fractured, and faulted. Geomorphologic features such as solution cavities, caves, disappearing streams, and sinkholes are common. Extensive alluvial fan and river terrace deposits, comprised dominantly of quartzite gravel and sand, cover much of the land surface, and fill surface depressions. The combination of sand and gravel filtering and large storage capacity in the voids makes this region ideal for producing a large quantity of high quality groundwater. Two sites were investigated for karst aquifers near the town of Stuarts Draft. Interbedded limestones and dolomites underlie Barth Farm, situated on the north bank of the South River. The owners attempted to installed a water well to service an active vineyard. The drilling located a previously unknown, water-filled cavern ~5 m below the surface; subsequent high pumping rates in finishing the well resulted in a surface collapse and the creation of a sinkhole. A second effort, offset by ~30 meters, resulted in a catastrophic collapse, and seriously endangered the lives of the drillers. A subsequent dipole-dipole DC resistivity survey delineated a conductive zone coincident with the two sinkholes. Fracture trace analysis of pre-drilling aerial photographs indicates the presence of lineaments that pass through this drilling site

  13. Source, variability, and transformation of nitrate in a regional karst aquifer: Edwards aquifer, central Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, M; Opsahl, S P; Mahler, B J; Herrington, C; Sample, T L; Banta, J R

    2016-10-15

    Many karst regions are undergoing rapid population growth and expansion of urban land accompanied by increases in wastewater generation and changing patterns of nitrate (NO3(-)) loading to surface and groundwater. We investigate variability and sources of NO3(-) in a regional karst aquifer system, the Edwards aquifer of central Texas. Samples from streams recharging the aquifer, groundwater wells, and springs were collected during 2008-12 from the Barton Springs and San Antonio segments of the Edwards aquifer and analyzed for nitrogen (N) species concentrations and NO3(-) stable isotopes (δ(15)N and δ(18)O). These data were augmented by historical data collected from 1937 to 2007. NO3(-) concentrations and discharge data indicate that short-term variability (days to months) in groundwater NO3(-) concentrations in the Barton Springs segment is controlled by occurrence of individual storms and multi-annual wet-dry cycles, whereas the lack of short-term variability in groundwater in the San Antonio segment indicates the dominance of transport along regional flow paths. In both segments, longer-term increases (years to decades) in NO3(-) concentrations cannot be attributed to hydrologic conditions; rather, isotopic ratios and land-use change indicate that septic systems and land application of treated wastewater might be the source of increased loading of NO3(-). These results highlight the vulnerability of karst aquifers to NO3(-) contamination from urban wastewater. An analysis of N-species loading in recharge and discharge for the Barton Springs segment during 2008-10 indicates an overall mass balance in total N, but recharge contains higher concentrations of organic N and lower concentrations of NO3(-) than does discharge, consistent with nitrification of organic N within the aquifer and consumption of dissolved oxygen. This study demonstrates that subaqueous nitrification of organic N in the aquifer, as opposed to in soils, might be a previously unrecognized

  14. Chemical Source Tracking of Bacterial Contamination Using Micropollutants - A Karst Aquifer Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirlewagen, Johannes; Hillebrand, Olav; Nödler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias; Schiperski, Ferry; Stange, Claudia; Tiehm, Andreas; Scheytt, Traugott

    2015-04-01

    Karst aquifers are important drinking water resources in many parts of the world, though they are well known for their high vulnerability to contamination. Rainfall and snowmelt often trigger temporary contamination of karst water resources. Free-range animal breeding and application of manure on the one hand and sewage leakage or spillage on the other hand are usually regarded as main sources for fecal contamination. But distinction of their respective contributions is difficult. This study investigates the feasibility to track the origin of fecal contamination from the occurrences of indicator bacteria and chemical source indicators in karst spring water. The study site is the 45 km² rural catchment of the perennial karst spring Gallusquelle in SW-Germany (mean discharge: 0.5 m³/s). Overflow events of a stormwater detention basin (combined sewer system) are known to impact water quality at the spring. There is no free-range animal breeding in the catchment but intense application of manure. Following two heavy rainfall events with overflow of the stormwater detention basin, spring water was sampled over several days. Samples were analysed for indicator bacteria (total Coliform, E. coli, Enterococci) and 57 micropollutants, among them cyclamate and metazachlor. For the Gallusquelle catchment the artificial sweetener cyclamate and the herbicide metazachlor have been established as source specific indicators, the former for the sewer system and the latter for cropland. Though recharge in the Gallusquelle catchment is predominantly diffuse, there is a significant portion of direct recharge reflected by distinct breakthrough curves for cyclamate and metazachlor. The breakthrough of indicator bacteria coincides very well with the occurrence of both, cyclamate and metazachlor. However, indicator bacteria cannot be unambiguously tracked back to a specific source.

  15. Karst Aquifer Recharge: A Case History of over Simplification from the Uley South Basin, South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Somaratne

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article “Karst aquifer recharge: Comments on ‘Characteristics of Point Recharge in Karst Aquifers’, by Adrian D. Werner, 2014, Water 6, doi:10.3390/w6123727” provides misrepresentation in some parts of Somaratne [1]. The description of Uley South Quaternary Limestone (QL as unconsolidated or poorly consolidated aeolianite sediments with the presence of well-mixed groundwater in Uley South [2] appears unsubstantiated. Examination of 98 lithological descriptions with corresponding drillers’ logs show only two wells containing bands of unconsolidated sediments. In Uley South basin, about 70% of salinity profiles obtained by electrical conductivity (EC logging from monitoring wells show stratification. The central and north central areas of the basin receive leakage from the Tertiary Sand (TS aquifer thereby influencing QL groundwater characteristics, such as chemistry, age and isotope composition. The presence of conduit pathways is evident in salinity profiles taken away from TS water affected areas. Pumping tests derived aquifer parameters show strong heterogeneity, a typical characteristic of karst aquifers. Uley South QL aquifer recharge is derived from three sources; diffuse recharge, point recharge from sinkholes and continuous leakage of TS water. This limits application of recharge estimation methods, such as the conventional chloride mass balance (CMB as the basic premise of the CMB is violated. The conventional CMB is not suitable for accounting chloride mass balance in groundwater systems displaying extreme range of chloride concentrations and complex mixing [3]. Over simplification of karst aquifer systems to suit application of the conventional CMB or 1-D unsaturated modelling as described in Werner [2], is not suitable use of these recharge estimation methods.

  16. Evaluating susceptibility of karst dolines (sinkholes) for collapse in Sango, Tennessee, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siska, Peter P; Goovaerts, Pierre; Hung, I-K

    2016-08-01

    Dolines or sinkholes are earth depressions that develop in soluble rocks complexes such as limestone, dolomite, gypsum, anhydrite, and halite; dolines appear in a variety of shapes from nearly circular to complex structures with highly curved perimeters. The occurrence of dolines in the studied karst area is not random; they are the results of geomorphic, hydrologic, and chemical processes that have caused partial subsidence, even the total collapse of the land surface when voids and caves are present in the bedrock and the regolith arch overbridging these voids is unstable. In the study area, the majority of collapses occur in the regolith (bedrock cover) that bridges voids in the bedrock. Because these collapsing dolines may result in property damage and even cause the loss of lives, there is a need to develop methods for evaluating karst hazards. These methods can then be used by planners and practitioners for urban and economic development, especially in regions with a growing population. The purpose of this project is threefold: 1) to develop a karst feature database, 2) to investigate critical indicators associated with doline collapse, and 3) to develop a doline susceptibility model for potential doline collapse based on external morphometric data. The study has revealed the presence of short range spatial dependence in the distribution of the dolines' morphometric parameters such as circularity, the geographic orientation of the main doline axes, and the length-to-width doline ratios; therefore, geostatistics can be used to spatially evaluate the susceptibility of the karst area for doline collapse. The partial susceptibility estimates were combined into a final probability map enabling the identification of areas where, until now, undetected dolines may cause significant hazards.

  17. [Genetic control of isozymes in European spruces (Picea abies (L) Karst) of the Ukrainian Carpathian mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privalikhin, S N; Korshikov, I I; Pirko, N N; Velikorid'ko, T I; Pirko, Ia V

    2006-01-01

    Genetical control of the enzymes GOT, GDH, DIA, MDH, SOD, FDH, ADH, ACP and LAP has been studied in nine natural Carpathian populations of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) using polyacrylamide gel elecrophoresis and analysis of isozyme variability in 346 trees. Seventy one allel products of 20 gene loci have been clearly established. Segregation analysis of the revealed allele variants confirms their monogenic inheritance.

  18. Ecological Restoration of Rocky Desertification in Hongfeng Lake Karst Area Based on SWOT Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In order to provide a reference for rocky desertification control in karst areas,we take the case of Hongfeng Lake Rocky Desertification Comprehensive Control Demonstration Area in Qingzhen City of Guizhou Province,and expound strength,weakness,opportunity and challenge in its ecological restoration,using SWOT analysis method in management sciences.And we finally put forth scientific strategies for ecological restoration in this demonstration area.

  19. Possible conduit-matrix water exchange signatures outlined at a karst spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofan, Horia; Marin, Constantin; Povară, Ioan

    2015-04-01

    During a significant flood event, reversible water exchanges may occur between a karst conduit and its adjacent porous rock (frequently designated as "matrix"): while the flood pulse rises, some conduit-derived water is forced into the matrix; then, as the flood recedes, the same water flows back into the stream passage. The present note addresses such a karst setting in the Carpathian Mountains (Romania), where in addition, a usually stable flux of chloride originating in a natural saline inflow, was being mixed with a variable flow of karst freshwater. For that particular case, with the above-mentioned process of matrix storage/release from storage assumedly taking place downstream of the mixing site, two distinct chemical signatures could be noticed during a flood event: an initial depletion in the spring flow chloride flux, subsequently followed by a comparable chloride flux enrichment (the depletion and the enrichment being outlined with respect to the essentially stable chloride flux value that had been noticed to persist at the spring over a long period of flow rate recession). Concomitantly with such flood-induced fluctuations in the spring chloride flux, the spring discharge displayed, for long periods, abnormally slow variations: the latter likely indicated that the spring supply rate actual oscillations were buffered by the reversible water exchanges which took place between the karst conduit and its adjacent matrix. On the whole, these results show that conduit-matrix water exchanges could be interpreted by simple mass balance calculations that involved fluxes of a conservative tracer (the chloride ion in that particular case). © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  20. Transport of road salt contamination in karst aquifers and soils over multiple timescales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Heather K; Hasenmueller, Elizabeth A

    2017-12-15

    Road deicing has caused widespread environmental Na(+) and Cl(-) release for decades, yet the transport and retention of these contaminants in karst aquifers and soils are poorly understood. We examined the transport dynamics of Na(+) and Cl(-) from road salt in shallow groundwater during flooding and over seasonal timescales by intensively monitoring an urban and a rural karst spring over approximately 2 years. Furthermore, we used a 20-year dataset for the rural spring to determine how salt retention affected long-term geochemical trends in the shallow groundwater. Salt transport was governed by hydrologic pathways through karst aquifers: during winter and early spring floods, flow through preferential pathways rapidly transported salty meltwater or stormwater over hours to days, while the remaining salt-contaminated water moved diffusely through the rock matrix on timescales of months to years. Flood hydrograph separations revealed that event water constituted 61.2% of stormflow on average at the urban spring, leading to more extreme variability in salt concentrations during flooding and throughout the year. This variability indicates that baseflow contributions to urban streams overlying karst aquifers with preferential flowpaths are likely less effective at buffering salt concentrations. In contrast, salt concentrations were less variable in the baseflow-dominated rural spring (28.7% event water). Furthermore, salt was episodically released from soils to shallow groundwater throughout the year during first flush events. A Cl(-) mass balance indicates that Cl(-) applied during previous winters persists within the springs' recharge basins for more than a year, raising baseline concentrations as road salt is introduced faster than it can be flushed from the basin. Inter-annual salt retention by soils or slow groundwater movement likely caused significant Cl(-) and specific conductivity (SpC) increases at the rural spring from 1996 to 2016. Accumulation of salt in

  1. Predictability, stationarity, and classification of hydraulic responses to recharge in two karst aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Long

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Karst aquifers, many of which are rapidly filled and depleted, are likely to be highly susceptible to changes in short-term climate variability. Here we explore methods that could be applied to model site-specific hydraulic responses, with the intent of simulating these responses to different climate scenarios from high-resolution climate models. We compare hydraulic responses (spring flow, groundwater level, and stream base flow at several sites in two karst aquifers: the Edwards aquifer (Texas, USA and the Madison aquifer (South Dakota, USA. A one-dimensional, lumped-parameter model simulates nonstationary soil moisture changes for estimation of recharge, and a nonstationary convolution model simulates the aquifer response to this recharge. Model fit to data was 4% better for calibration periods than for validation periods. We use metrics that describe the shapes of the impulse-response functions (IRFs obtained from convolution modeling to make comparisons in the distribution of response times among sites and among aquifers. Combined principal component analysis and cluster analysis of metrics describing the shapes of the IRFs separated those sites with IRFs having a large ratio of the mean response time to the system memory from those with large skewness and kurtosis. Classification of the IRF metrics indicate that there is a range of IRF characteristics for different site types (i.e., spring flow, groundwater level, base flow within a karst system. Further, similar site types did not necessarily display similar IRFs. Results indicate that the differences existing within either aquifer are larger than the differences between the two aquifers and that the two aquifers are similar according to this classification. The use of multiple metrics to describe the IRFs provides a novel way to characterize and compare the way in which multiple sites respond to recharge. As convolution models are developed for additional aquifers, they could contribute

  2. Rational Exploitation of Resources and Prevention of Geohazards in Karst Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢耀如

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the rational exploitation of main resources and prevention of geohazards in karst regions. There exist relationship chains between natural disasters in the earth, which include the chain between geological hazards and climatic hazards, the chain between geological hazards and biogenic hazards as well as the one between geological hazards. Irrational exploitation of all resources will inevitably cause hazards. Therefore it is very important to discuss the problem related to prevention of geohazards by rational exploitation of resources.``

  3. Karst groundwater protection in the Kupa River catchment area and sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondić, B.; Biondić, R.; Kapelj, S.

    2006-03-01

    One of the most significant water resources in the Republic of Croatia is the catchment area of the Kupa River, located in the region bordering the Republic of Slovenia. About 88% of the total amount of water in this catchment originates in Croatia and just 12% from Slovenia; therefore, the largest part of the catchment area (about 1000 km2) is on the Croatian side of the border. It is a typical karst area of the Dinarides with aquifers characterized by a relatively rapid water exchange, high groundwater flow velocities and aquifers open to human impact from the surface. Consequently, the aquifers are highly vulnerable and at risk. Due to the availability of large quantities of high-quality spring water (about 6 m3/s), the entire area has a strategic importance within the context of any future development strategy pertaining to the western part of Croatia. The catchment area on the Croatian side was investigated using a wide range of research methods that included a classical hydrogeological approach, the detailed hydrologic calculation of water balance to the hydrogeochemical analyses and modelling. The objective was to determine protection zones and protection measures for the whole area. The difficulties are increased due to the fact that the karst catchment area is crossed by major traffic corridors, oil pipelines and a railway and that many settlements and a highly developed wood industry are present. The combination of protecting water resources with adequate prevention measures and necessary remedial activities that should satisfy the very strict requirements necessary for the protection of the karst aquifers while still allowing for present and future human activities is difficult but not impossible to achieve. One good example is the present highway with a closed dewatering system and waste water treatment before the water passes into the karst underground system.

  4. MAX and Survey Linkages

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS is interested in linking MAX files with survey data, including four surveys conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) - the National Health...

  5. MAX and Survey Linkages

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS is interested in linking MAX files with survey data, including four surveys conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) - the National Health...

  6. Tracing fecal pollution sources in karst groundwater by Bacteroidales genetic biomarkers, bacterial indicators, and environmental variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya; Kelly, Walton R; Panno, Samuel V; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2014-08-15

    Fecal contamination in Midwestern karst regions was evaluated by simultaneously measuring traditional bacterial indicators (coliforms and Escherichia coli), Bacteroidales-based biomarkers, and environmental variables. Water samples from springs and wells were collected from karst regions in Illinois (IL), Wisconsin (WI), Kentucky (KY), and Missouri (MO). Quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) with seven primer sets targeting different members of Bacteroidales was used to determine the origin of fecal contamination (i.e., from human waste, livestock waste, or both). Most samples were contaminated by both human and animal waste, with a few samples showing pollution solely by one or the other. Spring water tended to have higher levels of contamination than well water, and higher concentrations of fecal biomarkers were detected in urban springs compared to rural spring systems. However, there were discrepancies on contamination profile determined by Bacteroidales-based biomarkers and by traditional bacterial indicators. Among all the environmental parameters examined, E. coli, sulfate, total dissolved solids (TDS), and silicon were significantly correlated (pgroundwater systems in Midwestern regions, and the inclusion of traditional bacterial indicators, environmental variables, and Bacteroidales-based MST is an effective approach for identifying fecal contamination in karst regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Pepino (Solanum muricatum) planting increased diversity and abundance of bacterial communities in karst area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinxiang; Yang, Hui; Long, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed

    2016-02-01

    Soil nutrients and microbial communities are the two key factors in revegetation of barren environments. Ecological stoichiometry plays an important role in ecosystem function and limitation, but the relationships between above- and belowground stoichiometry and the bacterial communities in a typical karst region are poorly understood. We used pepino (Solanum muricatum) to examine the stoichiometric traits between soil and foliage, and determine diversity and abundance of bacteria in the karst soil. The soil had a relatively high pH, low fertility, and coarse texture. Foliar N:P ratio and the correlations with soil nitrogen and phosphorus suggested nitrogen limitation. The planting of pepino increased soil urease activity and decreased catalase activity. Higher diversity of bacteria was determined in the pepino rhizosphere than bulk soil using a next-generation, Illumina-based sequencing approach. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the dominant phyla in all samples, accounting for more than 80% of the reads. On a genus level, all 625 detected genera were found in all rhizosphere and bulk soils, and 63 genera showed significant differences among samples. Higher Shannon and Chao 1 indices in the rhizosphere than bulk soil indicated that planting of pepino increased diversity and abundance of bacterial communities in karst area.

  8. Soil gas screening for chlorinated solvents at three contaminated karst sites in Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, W.J.; Williams, S.D.

    2002-01-01

    Soil gas was sampled using active sampling techniques and passive collectors at three sites in Tennessee to evaluate the effectiveness of these techniques for locating chlorinated solvent sources and flowpaths in karst aquifers. Actively collected soil gas samples were analyzed in the field with a portable gas chromatograph, and the passive soil gas collectors were analyzed in the lab with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results of the sampling indicate that the effectiveness of both techniques is highly dependent on the distribution of the contaminants in the subsurface, the geomorphic and hydrogeologic characteristics of the site, and, in one case, on seasonal conditions. Both active and passive techniques identified areas of elevated subsurface chlorinated solvent concentrations at a landfill site where contamination remains concentrated in the regolith. Neither technique detected chlorinated solvents known to be moving in the bedrock at a manufacturing site characterized by thick regolith and an absence of surficial karst features. Passive soil gas sampling had varied success detecting flowpaths for chloroform in the bedrock at a train derailment site characterized by shallow regolith and abundant surficial karst features. At the train derailment site, delineation of the contaminant flowpath through passive soil gas sampling was stronger and more detailed under Winter conditions than summer.

  9. Subsurface flow in a soil-mantled subtropical dolomite karst slope: A field rainfall simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Z. Y.; Chen, H. S.; Zhang, W.; Xu, Q. X.; Wang, S.; Wang, K. L.

    2015-12-01

    Soil and epikarst co-evolve resulting in complex structures, but their coupled structural effects on hydrological processes are poorly understood in karst regions. This study examined the plot-scale subsurface flow characteristics from an integrated soil-epikarst system perspective in a humid subtropical cockpit karst region of Southwest China. A trench was excavated to the epikarst lower boundary for collecting individual subsurface flows in five sections with different soil thicknesses. Four field rainfall simulation experiments were carried out under different initial moisture conditions (dry and wet) and rainfall intensities (114 mm h- 1 (high) and 46 mm h- 1 (low) on average). The soil-epikarst system was characterized by shallow soil overlaying a highly irregular epikarst surface with a near-steady infiltration rate of about 35 mm h- 1. The subsurface flows occurred mainly along the soil-epikarst interface and were dominated by preferential flow. The subsurface flow hydrographs showed strong spatial variability and had high steady-state coefficients (0.52 and 0.36 for high and low rainfall intensity events). Irregular epikarst surface combining with high vertical drainage capacity resulted in high threshold rainfall depths for subsurface flows: 67 mm and 263 mm for initial wet and dry conditions, respectively. The above results evidenced that the irregular and permeable soil-epikarst interface was a crucial component of soil-epikarst architecture and consequently should be taken into account in the hydrological modeling for karst regions.

  10. Investigations into Salmonella contamination in feed production chain in Karst rural areas of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shenglin; Wu, Zongfen; Lin, Wei; Xu, Longxin; Cheng, Long; Zhou, Lin

    2017-01-01

    In order to understand the status of Salmonella contamination of feed production chain in Karst rural areas, southwest of China, a total of 1077 feed samples including animal feed materials and feed products were randomly collected from different sectors of feed chain covering feed mills, farms, and feed sales in nine regions of Karst rural areas between 2009 and 2012, to conduct Salmonella test. The different positive rates with Salmonella contamination were detected, the highest was 4.7 % in 2009, the lowest was 0.66 % in 2011, while 4.3 % in 2010, 2.8 % in 2012, respectively. Twelve types of feed including concentrate, complete, self-made, and feed ingredients were inspected. Salmonella contamination mainly concentrated on animal protein material such as meat meal, meat and bone meal, feather meal, blood meal, and fish meal. No Salmonella contamination was detected in feed yeast, microbial protein, rapeseed, and soybean meal. Salmonella contamination existed in each sector of feed production chain. This investigation provided a basic reference for feed production management and quality control in feed production chain in Karst rural areas of China.

  11. [Kriging analysis of vegetation index depression in peak cluster karst area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi-Yong; Jiang, Zhong-Cheng; Ma, Zu-Lu; Cao, Jian-Hua; Luo, Wei-Qun; Li, Wen-Jun; Duan, Xiao-Fang

    2012-04-01

    In order to master the spatial variability of the normal different vegetation index (NDVI) of the peak cluster karst area, taking into account the problem of the mountain shadow "missing" information of remote sensing images existing in the karst area, NDVI of the non-shaded area were extracted in Guohua Ecological Experimental Area, in Pingguo County, Guangxi applying image processing software, ENVI. The spatial variability of NDVI was analyzed applying geostatistical method, and the NDVI of the mountain shadow areas was predicted and validated. The results indicated that the NDVI of the study area showed strong spatial variability and spatial autocorrelation resulting from the impact of intrinsic factors, and the range was 300 m. The spatial distribution maps of the NDVI interpolated by Kriging interpolation method showed that the mean of NDVI was 0.196, apparently strip and block. The higher NDVI values distributed in the area where the slope was greater than 25 degrees of the peak cluster area, while the lower values distributed in the area such as foot of the peak cluster and depression, where slope was less than 25 degrees. Kriging method validation results show that interpolation has a very high prediction accuracy and could predict the NDVI of the shadow area, which provides a new idea and method for monitoring and evaluation of the karst rocky desertification.

  12. Weathering of Carbonate Rocks by Biological Soil Crusts in Karst Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Chen; Bin Lian; Zuoying Yin; Yuan Tang

    2014-01-01

    The weathering of carbonate rocks by biological soil crusts (BSC) in karst areas is very common. It is helpful to understand the weathering mechanisms and processes for avoiding karst rock-desertification. The weathering of carbonate rocks by BSC in karst areas, namely the expansion, contraction and curl resulting from environmental wetting-drying cycles, was investigated and ana-lyzed in this paper. The bulk density, area and thickness of BSC were determined and the weathering amount of limestone and dolomite per unit area of BSC was calculated as 3 700 and 3 400 g·m-2; the amount of biomass on the surface of limestone and dolomite was calculated as 1 146 and 1 301 g·m-2, respectively. Such an increased weathering amount was not only the result of chemical and physical weathering of BSC on carbonate rocks, but also the attachment and cementation of BSC to clay parti-cles, dust-fall, sand particles, solid particles brought by strong air currents, wind and other factors in the surrounding environment, which may also be related to the special environment and the special time period. Based on the results obtained, a weathering mode of BSC is studied, and the mechanisms of weathering by BSC are discussed. In conclusion, we suggest that the mechanical force exerted by the expansion and constriction of gelatinous and mucilaginous substances through wetting and drying of BSC play a significant role in the physical weathering process of the carbonate substrates.

  13. Characterization of the hydrogeology of the sacred Gihon Spring, Jerusalem: a deteriorating urban karst spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiel, Ronit Benami; Grodek, Tamir; Frumkin, Amos

    2010-09-01

    The Gihon Spring, Jerusalem, is important for the major monotheistic religions. Its hydrogeology and hydrochemistry is studied here in order to understand urbanization effects on karst groundwater resources, and promote better water management. High-resolution monitoring of the spring discharge, temperature and electrical conductivity, was performed, together with chemical and bacterial analysis. All these demonstrate a rapid response of the spring to rainfall events and human impact. A complex karst system is inferred, including conduit flow, fissure flow and diffuse flow. Electrical conductivity, Na+ and K+ values (2.0 mS/cm, 130 and 50 mg/l respectively) are very high compared to other nearby springs located at the town margins (0.6 mS/cm, 15 and <1 mg/l respectively), indicating considerable urban pollution in the Gihon area. The previously cited pulsating nature of the spring was not detected during the present high-resolution monitoring. This phenomenon may have ceased due to additional water sources from urban leakage and irrigation feeding the spring. The urbanization of the recharge catchment thus affects the spring water dramatically, both chemically and hydrologically. Appropriate measures should therefore be undertaken to protect the Gihon Spring and other karst aquifers threatened by rapid urbanization.

  14. Benefit Evaluation on the Control Mode for Typical Karst Rocky Desertification in Guizhou Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Control mode for typical karst rocky desertification in Guizhou Province,China is selected as the research object.The ecological benefit,the social and economic benefit and the popularization prospect of mode are selected as evaluation indices.Evaluation index system of control modebenefits for karst rocky desertification is established.The Dingtan mode and the Wangjiazhai-Yangchangdong small watershed control mode are se-lected as evaluation objects.Preliminary assessment on the two modes are carried out by Analytic Hierarchy Process,grading evaluation,and com-prehensive evaluation method.Result shows that comprehensive score of Dingtan mode is 3.81,which is higher than the score of Wangjiazhai-Yangchangdong small watershed control mode(3.11).In the aspects of ecological benefit and social and economic benefit,Dingtan mode(4.83and 3.258) is superior than the Wangjiazhai-Yangchangdong small watershed control mode(3.38 and 2.531).In the aspect of popularization pros-pect of mode,score of Dingtan mode(3) is lower than that of Wangjiazhai-Yangchangdong small watershed control mode(3.333).Therefore,theevaluation index system has certain science and offers reference and guidance for the karst rocky desertification control in southwest China.

  15. Essentials of the construction and exploitation of hydraulic tunnels in karst of eastern Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golijanin Aleksandar R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main problem in the process of construction, and it also proved in practice during exploitation of hydrotechnical tunnels constructed in the karst of eastern Herzegovina, are caverns. Of all the problems that may occur in the process of construction and during exploitation of hydrotechnical tunnels constructed in the Upper Cretaceous limestone rocks, only caverns have the characteristics (size, shape, type of backfill, water inflow which, in extreme cases, represent a problem that is difficult to solve. In such circumstances, the tunnel construction is subject to unpredictable and sometimes devastating impairments. Cavern is a term that represents a wider area within the karst sediments, which can be partially backfilled with debris, sometimes completely empty, connected with the ground surface by karst channels. Accumulation tunnels for power plants, i.e. the tunnels where the water flow is under pressure, are particularly susceptible to these impairments. This study introduces practical problems that have occurred in hydrotechnical tunnels constructed in the hydropower system of Trebišnjica.

  16. Caffeine as an indicator for the quantification of untreated wastewater in karst systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillebrand, Olav; Nödler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias; Sauter, Martin; Geyer, Tobias

    2012-02-01

    Contamination from untreated wastewater leakage and related bacterial contamination poses a threat to drinking water quality. However, a quantification of the magnitude of leakage is difficult. The objective of this work is to provide a highly sensitive methodology for the estimation of the mass of untreated wastewater entering karst aquifers with rapid recharge. For this purpose a balance approach is adapted. It is based on the mass flow of caffeine in spring water, the load of caffeine in untreated wastewater and the daily water consumption per person in a spring catchment area. Caffeine is a source-specific indicator for wastewater, consumed and discharged in quantities allowing detection in a karst spring. The methodology was applied to estimate the amount of leaking and infiltrating wastewater to a well investigated karst aquifer on a daily basis. The calculated mean volume of untreated wastewater entering the aquifer was found to be 2.2 ± 0.5 m(3) d(-1) (undiluted wastewater). It corresponds to approximately 0.4% of the total amount of wastewater within the spring catchment.

  17. Chemical parameters as natural tracers in hydrogeology: a case study of Louros karst system, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsanou, K.; Lambrakis, N.; D'Alessandro, W.; Siavalas, G.

    2017-03-01

    The Louros Basin hosts one of the most important karst systems of Epirus Prefecture (Greece) and plays a key role in supplying three counties with drinking water. Aiming to investigate the origin of groundwater and its flow patterns, a multi-tracer approach was used to describe and evaluate the hydrogeology of the system. Therefore, 271 surface water and groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for physicochemical parameters, major ions, and trace and rare earth elements, as well as stable isotopes (δ18O and δ2H). These data provided meaningful tracing of the water origin, water-rock interaction processes, and relationships among the aquifers. In particular, the elaboration of the major ions supported by the distribution of rare earth elements indicated that there are three aquifers located at different levels hosted in the Senonian and Pantokrator limestone formations. These aquifers are hydraulically interconnected by a cascade and constitute the Louros karst system which is drained by the homonymous river. Hydrochemical and isotopic data revealed that the Louros karst system is isolated from the adjacent northern Ioannina Basin and it is being recharged by precipitation. Higher groundwater salinity, where present, is mainly associated with increased water-rock interaction due to longer and deeper hydrologic flow, favoring the dissolution of evaporitic, carbonate and phosphate minerals.

  18. Development of a new P3 (Probability, Protection, and Precipitation) method for vulnerability, hazard, and risk intensity index assessments in karst watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Timothy P.; Gao, Yongli

    2017-06-01

    Vulnerability, hazard, and risk intensity index (RII) maps are valuable tools for water managers to protect aquifers from contamination. However, in karst aquifers the development of vulnerability and RII maps is subject to explorational bias due to the impracticality of identifying all karst features within watersheds. The P3 method (Probability, Protection, and Precipitation) is proposed to minimize explorational bias through a decision tree model generated from probability maps and nearest neighbor analysis to assign a reduction in aquifer protection based on the probability of encountering karst features. This new method was used in conjunction with previously mapped hazards to assess the vulnerability and RII of nitrate contamination in 2 karst watersheds in semi-arid climate conditions. Validation of the P3 method was conducted with spring hydrographs, tracer tests, nitrate results, and output from a previously developed SWAT model. The maps generated with the P3 method were compared with maps generated from the COP method (Concentration of flow, Overlying layers, Precipitation) using known karst features as well as karst features inferred from analyzing a high resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) (COP-DEM method). Validation results show the P3 method most closely estimates the aquifer's vulnerability and RII by minimizing explorational bias. Conversely, the COP method using known karst features underestimates vulnerability and RII by not accounting for all karst features and the COP-DEM method overestimates vulnerability and RII due to false positives of karst features. The P3 method is suitable for all karst aquifers and offers improvements over existing vulnerability mapping methodologies. Namely, the P3 method minimizes explorational bias without requiring knowledge of the location of all karst features within a study area.

  19. Attenuation of arsenic in a karst subterranean stream and correlation with geochemical factors: a case study at Lihu, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liankai; Yang, Hui; Tang, Jiansheng; Qin, Xiaoqun; Yu, Au Yik

    2014-11-01

    Arsenic (As) pollutants generated by human activities in karst areas flow into subterranean streams and contaminate groundwater easily because of the unique hydrogeological characteristics of karst areas. To elucidate the reaction mechanisms of arsenic in karst subterranean streams, physical-chemical analysis was conducted by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer and an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. The results show that inorganic species account for most of the total arsenic, whereas organic arsenic is not detected or occurs in infinitesimal amounts. As(III) accounts for 51.0%±9.9% of the total inorganic arsenic. Arsenic attenuation occurs and the attenuation rates of total As, As(III) and As(V) in the Lihu subterranean stream are 51%, 36% and 59%, respectively. To fully explain the main geochemical factors influencing arsenic attenuation, SPSS 13.0 and CANOCO 4.5 bundled with CanoDraw for Windows were used for simple statistical analysis and redundancy analysis (RDA). Eight main factors, i.e., sediment iron (SFe), sediment aluminum (SAl), sediment calcium (SCa), sediment organic matter (SOM), sediment manganese (SMn), water calcium (WCa(2+)), water magnesium (WMg(2+)), and water bicarbonate ion (WHCO3(-)) were extracted from thirteen indicators. Their impacts on arsenic content rank as: SFe>SCa>WCa(2+)>SAl>WHCO3(-)>SMn>SOM>WMg(2+). Of these factors, SFe, SAl, SCa, SOM, SMn, WMg(2+) and WCa(2+) promote arsenic attenuation, whereas WHCO3(-) inhibits it. Further investigation revealed that the redox potential (Eh) and pH are adverse to arsenic removal. The dramatic distinction between karst and non-karst terrain is that calcium and bicarbonate are the primary factors influencing arsenic migration in karst areas due to the high calcium concentration and alkalinity of karst water.

  20. A multi-method approach for groundwater resource assessment in coastal carbonate (karst) aquifers: the case study of Sierra Almijara (southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreo, B.; Barberá, J. A.; Mudarra, M.; Marín, A. I.; García-Orellana, J.; Rodellas, V.; Pérez, I.

    2017-08-01

    Understanding the transference of water resources within hydrogeological systems, particularly in coastal aquifers, in which groundwater discharge may occur through multiple pathways (through springs, into rivers and streams, towards the sea, etc.), is crucial for sustainable groundwater use. This research aims to demonstrate the usefulness of the application of conventional recharge assessment methods coupled to isotopic techniques for accurately quantifying the hydrogeological balance and submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) from coastal carbonate aquifers. Sierra Almijara (Southern Spain), a carbonate aquifer formed of Triassic marbles, is considered as representative of Mediterranean coastal karst formations. The use of a multi-method approach has permitted the computation of a wide range of groundwater infiltration rates (17-60%) by means of direct application of hydrometeorological methods (Thornthwaite and Kessler) and spatially distributed information (modified APLIS method). A spatially weighted recharge rate of 42% results from the most coherent information on physiographic and hydrogeological characteristics of the studied system. Natural aquifer discharge and groundwater abstraction have been volumetrically quantified, based on flow and water-level data, while the relevance of SGD was estimated from the spatial analysis of salinity, 222Rn and the short-lived radium isotope 224Ra in coastal seawater. The total mean aquifer discharge (44.9-45.9 hm3 year-1) is in agreement with the average recharged groundwater (44.7 hm3 year-1), given that the system is volumetrically equilibrated during the study period. Besides the groundwater resources assessment, the methodological aspects of this research may be interesting for groundwater management and protection strategies in coastal areas, particularly karst environments.

  1. Factors affecting ground-water exchange and catchment size for Florida lakes in mantled karst terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Terrie Mackin

    2002-01-01

    In the mantled karst terrain of Florida, the size of the catchment delivering ground-water inflow to lakes is often considerably smaller than the topographically defined drainage basin. The size is determined by a balance of factors that act individually to enhance or diminish the hydraulic connection between the lake and the adjacent surficial aquifer, as well as the hydraulic connection between the surficial aquifer and the deeper limestone aquifer. Factors affecting ground-water exchange and the size of the ground-water catchment for lakes in mantled karst terrain were examined by: (1) reviewing the physical and hydrogeological characteristics of 14 Florida lake basins with available ground-water inflow estimates, and (2) simulating ground-water flow in hypothetical lake basins. Variably-saturated flow modeling was used to simulate a range of physical and hydrogeologic factors observed at the 14 lake basins. These factors included: recharge rate to the surficial aquifer, thickness of the unsaturated zone, size of the topographically defined basin, depth of the lake, thickness of the surficial aquifer, hydraulic conductivity of the geologic units, the location and size of karst subsidence features beneath and onshore of the lake, and the head in the Upper Floridan aquifer. Catchment size and the magnitude of ground-water inflow increased with increases in recharge rate to the surficial aquifer, the size of the topographically defined basin, hydraulic conductivity in the surficial aquifer, the degree of confinement of the deeper Upper Floridan aquifer, and the head in the Upper Floridan aquifer. The catchment size and magnitude of ground-water inflow increased with decreases in the number and size of karst subsidence features in the basin, and the thickness of the unsaturated zone near the lake. Model results, although qualitative, provided insights into: (1) the types of lake basins in mantled karst terrain that have the potential to generate small and large

  2. Nitrogen budget of a typical subterranean river in peak cluster karst area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fang; Jiang, Guanghui

    2009-10-01

    Karst groundwater is one of the important water resources for people in the world. There is an estimate that by 2028 karst groundwater will supply more than 80% of people in the world. However, several areas in the world are characterized by high nitrate concentrations in karst aquifers. In China, karst groundwater is also threatened by extensive use of fertilizer and pesticides, industry waste, septic systems and poultry, hog or cattle manure. In order to understand the water quality of a subterranean river in south China, especially the dynamic variation of nitrate, nitrogen input and output were determined via auto-monitored apparatus, manual observation and samples from 2004 to 2008 in Guancun subterranean river drainage area. Land use and anthropogenic activities were also investigated frequently. The results showed the range of nitrate variation was 2.56-15.40 mg l-1, with an average value of 6.60 mg l-1. Spatial variation of nitrate concentrations showed nitrate rose where there were villages and agriculture distribution. Long series of nitrate and discharge monitoring revealed there was a nitrate peak in spring just before the beginning of rainy season. Three rainfall events were selected for analysis of relations among hydrological process, water chemistry, and nitrate of the spring. The flood processes of the spring were divided into three or four phases according to change of water level and water chemistry. They were dominated by initial condition of aquifer, piston flow in soil and vadose, piston flow in conduit, diffuse recharge, and bypass recharge. The original condition of aquifer and rainfall pulse controlled recharge flow and changes of nitrate and hydro-chemical graphs of the spring. The quantity of nitrogen input in a year was 66.61 t, and the output was 21.24 t. Nitrogen leaching loss in base flow accounted for 76.11% in a year. Some measures should be taken to protect karst water in the very near future, so that health risks to the local

  3. Linking climate change and karst hydrology to evaluate species vulnerability: The Edwards and Madison aquifers (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, B. J.; Long, A. J.; Stamm, J. F.; Poteet, M.; Symstad, A.

    2013-12-01

    Karst aquifers present an extreme case of flow along structurally variable pathways, making them highly dynamic systems and therefore likely to respond rapidly to climate change. In turn, many biological communities and ecosystems associated with karst are sensitive to hydrologic changes. We explored how three sites in the Edwards aquifer (Texas) and two sites in the Madison aquifer (South Dakota) might respond to projected climate change from 2011 to 2050. Ecosystems associated with these karst aquifers support federally listed endangered and threatened species and state-listed species of concern, including amphibians, birds, insects, and plants. The vulnerability of selected species associated with projected climate change was assessed. The Advanced Research Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF) model was used to simulate projected climate at a 36-km grid spacing for three weather stations near the study sites, using boundary and initial conditions from the global climate model Community Climate System Model (CCSM3) and an A2 emissions scenario. Daily temperature and precipitation projections from the WRF model were used as input for the hydrologic Rainfall-Response Aquifer and Watershed Flow (RRAWFLOW) model and the Climate Change Vulnerability Index (CCVI) model. RRAWFLOW is a lumped-parameter model that simulates hydrologic response at a single site, combining the responses of quick and slow flow that commonly characterize karst aquifers. CCVI uses historical and projected climate and hydrologic metrics to determine the vulnerability of selected species on the basis of species exposure to climate change, sensitivity to factors associated with climate change, and capacity to adapt to climate change. An upward trend in temperature was projected for 2011-2050 at all three weather stations; there was a trend (downward) in annual precipitation only for the weather station in Texas. A downward trend in mean annual spring flow or groundwater level was projected for

  4. Variation of karst spring discharge in the recent five decades as an indicator of global climate change: A case study at Shanxi, northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO; Qinghai; WANG; Yanxin; MA; Teng; LI; Luxiu

    2005-01-01

    Karst in Shanxi Province is representative of that in northern China, and karst water systems discharge in the form of springs that are among the most important sources for local water supply. Since the 1950s, attenuation has been the major trend of discharge variation of most karst springs at Shanxi. Based on the case study of 7 karst springs including Niangziguan, Xin'an, Guozhuang, Shentou, Jinci, Lancun, and Hongshan springs, the discharge variation process of karst springs was divided into natural fluctuation phase and anthropogenic impact phase. Discharge attenuation of the 7 karst springs was controlled mainly by climate and human activities, with their contributions being respectively about 60% and 40%. According to the difference of the effect of climate and human activities for each spring, attenuation modes of spring discharge fall into three types: natural process dominated attenuation type, exploitation induced process dominated attenuation type, and mixed attenuation type. The total restored discharge variation of 7 karst springs matched well with the global air temperature change in 1956―2000, clearly indicating the trend of global warming and aridity in the last several decades, and the analysis of discharge variation processes of karst springs can be used as a new tool for global change studies.

  5. Determination of pollution and recovery time of karst springs, an example from a carbonate aquifer in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magal, Einat; Arbel, Yuval; Caspi, Sarit; Glazman, Hilel; Greenbaum, Noam; Yechieli, Yoseph

    2013-02-01

    This work combines the monitoring of two incidents of spring water pollution in the Western Galilee region of Israel, together with artificial tracer tests that provided valuable information regarding karst system connections and direct estimation of groundwater velocities. Almost simultaneous contamination of seven springs endangered the water supply for the region. The variations over time in contaminant concentration in the different springs were not similar, indicating more than one contamination source. Tracer tests revealed two different pollution sources that contributed to two different conduit pathways in the karst system. Breakthrough data for the tracers were modeled by a two-region non-equilibrium transport model, which provided the transport parameters of the karst conduit. Groundwater velocities in the conduits were found to be in a range of 2-3 km/day. The rapid response of the system was also demonstrated by the short recovery time of the springs, where, after the elimination of the pollution source, most water quality parameters reverted to their background concentrations in less than 3 months. The coexistence of highly polluted springs and uncontaminated groundwater in boreholes penetrating into the same aquifer demonstrates the complexity of groundwater flow in karst systems. In such systems, the fast groundwater flow in localized karst conduits seems to coexist with a slower flow within other portions of the aquifer.

  6. First definitive record of a stygobiotic fish (Percopsiformes, Amblyopsidae, Typhlichthys from the Appalachians karst region in the eastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L. Niemiller

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the central and eastern United States, cavefishes have been known historically only from the Interior Low Plateau and Ozarks karst regions. Previously, cavefishes were unknown from the Appalachians karst region, which extends from southeastern New York southwestward into eastern Tennessee, northwestern Georgia, and northeastern Alabama. Here we report the discovery of a new population of the amblyopsid cavefish Typhlichthys subterraneus Girard, 1859 from a cave in Catoosa County, Georgia, that significantly extends the known distribution of the species. The cave is located in the Appalachian Valley and Ridge physiographic province and Appalachians karst region, and represents the first definitive report of a stygobiotic fish from the Appalachians karst region. Genetic analyses of one mitochondrial and one nuclear locus from the cavefish indicate this population is closely allied with populations that occur along the western margins of Lookout and Fox mountains in Dade County, Georgia, and populations to the northwest in southern Marion County, Tennessee. It is likely that these populations are also related to those from Wills Valley, DeKalb County, Alabama. The distribution of this new population of T. subterraneus and its close allies pre-dates the emergence of a Tennessee-Coosa River drainage divide in the Pliocene. The potential exists to discover additional populations in caves within the Appalachians karst region in Catoosa County and northward into Hamilton County, Tennessee.

  7. Interest Check List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Employment Security (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The original edition of the Department of Labor Interest Check List aims at helping students decide what kinds of work they would like and lists activities that are found in a broad range of industries and occupations. The student is advised to read each of approximately 175 items and indicate how he feels about the activity described by placing a…

  8. Spousal Conflicts of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Shana R.

    2005-01-01

    Romantic relationships bud and sometimes bloom in the school district workplace. When those relationships involve a sitting member of a school board or an administrator with responsibility for managing other employees, questions about a conflict of interest will be raised. Most states have laws prohibiting a public official from taking official…

  9. Pronounced Practice & Learners’ Interest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈作棋

    2009-01-01

    <正>The present s tudy presents a detailed report of the project implemented to solve the problem that most of my students don’t like doing the oral practice I assign them to do after class. It is hypothesized that learners’ interest in pronunciation after class will be increased by a better organization in this

  10. Forecasting interest rates with shifting endpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Dijk, Dick; Koopman, Siem Jan; Wel, Michel van der

    2014-01-01

    We consider forecasting the term structure of interest rates with the assumption that factors driving the yield curve are stationary around a slowly time-varying mean or ‘shifting endpoint’. The shifting endpoints are captured using either (i) time series methods (exponential smoothing) or (ii......) long-range survey forecasts of either interest rates or inflation and output growth, or (iii) exponentially smoothed realizations of these macro variables. Allowing for shifting endpoints in yield curve factors provides substantial and significant gains in out-of-sample predictive accuracy, relative...... to stationary and random walk benchmarks. Forecast improvements are largest for long-maturity interest rates and for long-horizon forecasts....

  11. Review: Groundwater flow and transport modeling of karst aquifers, with particular reference to the North Coast Limestone aquifer system of Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemizadeh, Reza; Hellweger, Ferdinand; Butscher, Christoph; Padilla, Ingrid; Vesper, Dorothy; Field, Malcolm; Alshawabkeh, Akram

    2012-12-01

    Karst systems have a high degree of heterogeneity and anisotropy, which makes them behave very differently from other aquifers. Slow seepage through the rock matrix and fast flow through conduits and fractures result in a high variation in spring response to precipitation events. Contaminant storage occurs in the rock matrix and epikarst, but contaminant transport occurs mostly along preferential pathways that are typically inaccessible locations, which makes modeling of karst systems challenging. Computer models for understanding and predicting hydraulics and contaminant transport in aquifers make assumptions about the distribution and hydraulic properties of geologic features that may not always apply to karst aquifers. This paper reviews the basic concepts, mathematical descriptions, and modeling approaches for karst systems. The North Coast Limestone aquifer system of Puerto Rico (USA) is introduced as a case study to illustrate and discuss the application of groundwater models in karst aquifer systems to evaluate aquifer contamination.

  12. Review: Groundwater flow and transport modeling of karst aquifers, with particular reference to the North Coast Limestone aquifer system of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemizadeh, Reza; Hellweger, Ferdinand; Butscher, Christoph; Padilla, Ingrid; Vesper, Dorothy; Field, Malcolm; Alshawabkeh, Akram

    2013-01-01

    Karst systems have a high degree of heterogeneity and anisotropy, which makes them behave very differently from other aquifers. Slow seepage through the rock matrix and fast flow through conduits and fractures result in a high variation in spring response to precipitation events. Contaminant storage occurs in the rock matrix and epikarst, but contaminant transport occurs mostly along preferential pathways that are typically inaccessible locations, which makes modeling of karst systems challenging. Computer models for understanding and predicting hydraulics and contaminant transport in aquifers make assumptions about the distribution and hydraulic properties of geologic features that may not always apply to karst aquifers. This paper reviews the basic concepts, mathematical descriptions, and modeling approaches for karst systems. The North Coast Limestone aquifer system of Puerto Rico (USA) is introduced as a case study to illustrate and discuss the application of groundwater models in karst aquifer systems to evaluate aquifer contamination. PMID:23645996

  13. Situational interest in engineering design activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Niels Bonderup

    2013-01-01

    of a descriptive interpretative analysis of qualitative data from classroom observations and informal interviews. The analysis was complemented by a self-report survey to validate findings and determine prevalence. The analysis revealed four main sources of interest: designing inventions, trial......The aim of the present mixed-method study was to investigate task-based situational interest of sixth grade students (n=46), between 12 and 14 years old, during an eight-week engineering design programme in a Science & Technology-class. Students’ interests were investigated by means......-and-error experimentation, achieved functionality of invention, and collaboration. These sources differ in terms of stimuli factors, such as novelty, autonomy (choice), social involvement, self-generation of interest, and task goal orientation. The study shows that design tasks stimulated interest, but only to the extent...

  14. Situational Interest in Engineering Design Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonderup Dohn, Niels

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the present mixed-method study was to investigate task-based situational interest of sixth grade students (n = 46), between 12 and 14 years old, during an eight-week engineering design programme in a Science & Technology-class. Students' interests were investigated by means of a descriptive interpretative analysis of qualitative data from classroom observations and informal interviews. The analysis was complemented by a self-report survey to validate findings and determine prevalence. The analysis revealed four main sources of interest: designing inventions, trial-and-error experimentation, achieved functionality of invention, and collaboration. These sources differ in terms of stimuli factors, such as novelty, autonomy (choice), social involvement, self-generation of interest, and task goal orientation. The study shows that design tasks stimulated interest, but only to the extent that students were able to self-regulate their learning strategies.

  15. Innovation and social interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vratuša-Žunjić Vera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on socially and historically structured circumstances surrounding and moral problems involved in the pragmatic definition of innovation as 'novelty proven useful by its users'. Contending conceptions and strategies of innovation of the organization of social relations in dialectical social systems are compared and socially and historically contextualized in the so-called 'transition countries' on the new Eastern border of the European Union. The conclusion is that the cited pragmatic definition of innovation may be misused for an apology of morally dubious new ends and means in the narrow interest of particular groups of users, often at the expense and against the interest of a majority of other individuals and social groups.

  16. Managing conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sade, Robert M; Akins, Cary W; Weisel, Richard D

    2015-04-01

    The more extensive conflict of interest information will permit reviewers and editors to ensure the accuracy, balance,and lack of bias of papers accepted for publication.Therefore, a brief conflict statement will be published on the cover page and a more extensive description will be published at the end of the paper to allow concerned readers to make their own judgments about the quality of the information reported.

  17. Hydrochemical features of groundwater in a coastal gypsum karst (Marina di Lesina, Gargano, Southern Italy) in relation to tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidelibus, Maria Dolores; Campana, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    As part of a complex monitoring aimed at collecting suitable data for conceptual and numerical modelling of the coastal gypsum karst of Marina di Lesina (Gargano, Southern Italy), 64 groundwater samples were collected during three surveys at different depths from 9 monitoring wells aligned along two transects. The transects, perpendicular to the Acquarotta canal, are less of 1 Km long. The canal is directly connected to the sea and to the Lesina Lagoon and behaves as an oscillating border following sea tides. The sampling campaigns were carried out concurrently to phases of increasing, decreasing, and low tide and provide different frameworks of the chemical composition of ground waters. TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) of ground water samples ranges from 0.2 g/l to 35 g/l and increases generally along the flow lines towards the canal, and downward. The concentrations of the major ions deviate from theoretical ones defined by non-reactive mixing lines, which have as saline end-member either standard seawater or local seawater sampled offshore.Owing to the multi-component character of the hydrochemical system, the cation concentrations are controlled by competition among concurrent water-rock interaction processes that overlap to non-reactive freshwater-saltwater (FW-SW) mixing, being even triggered and/or enhanced by the same mixing, with feedback loops: gypsum and calcite dissolution, ion exchange (with direction depending on hydrodynamic conditions mainly driven by tides, and justified due to the presence of clay in the gypsum bedrock), and dedolomitization. The geochemical study also highlights the involvement of saline ground waters belonging to regional circuits that develop in the huge Mesozoic carbonate basement. The study highlights that in the saturated thickness of the gypsum coastal aquifer closer to the coast, the hydrochemical system is extremely reactive and strongly influenced by the different groundwater hydraulic conditions induced by the tide phases.

  18. Investigating Hydrogeologic Controls on Sandhill Wetlands in Covered Karst with 2D Resistivity and Ground Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, C. M.; Nowicki, R. S.; Rains, M. C.; Kruse, S.

    2015-12-01

    In west-central Florida, wetland and lake distribution is strongly controlled by karst landforms. Sandhill wetlands and lakes are sand-filled upland basins whose water levels are groundwater driven. Lake dimensions only reach wetland edges during extreme precipitation events. Current wetland classification schemes are inappropriate for identifying sandhill wetlands due to their unique hydrologic regime and ecologic expression. As a result, it is difficult to determine whether or not a wetland is impacted by groundwater pumping, development, and climate change. A better understanding of subsurface structures and how they control the hydrologic regime is necessary for development of an identification and monitoring protocol. Long-term studies record vegetation diversity and distribution, shallow ground water levels and surface water levels. The overall goals are to determine the hydrologic controls (groundwater, seepage, surface water inputs). Most recently a series of geophysical surveys was conducted at select sites in Hernando and Pasco County, Florida. Electrical resistivity and ground penetrating radar were employed to image sand-filled basins and the top of the limestone bedrock and stratigraphy of wetland slopes, respectively. The deepest extent of these sand-filled basins is generally reflected in topography as shallow depressions. Resistivity along inundated wetlands suggests the pools are surface expressions of the surficial aquifer. However, possible breaches in confining clay layers beneath topographic highs between depressions are seen in resistivity profiles as conductive anomalies and in GPR as interruptions in otherwise continuous horizons. These data occur at sites where unconfined and confined water levels are in agreement, suggesting communication between shallow and deep groundwater. Wetland plants are observed outside the historic wetland boundary at many sites, GPR profiles show near-surface layers dipping towards the wetlands at a shallower

  19. Dynamic Vulnerability of Karst Systems: a Concept to understand qualitative and quantitative Aspects of Karst springs due to Changes in Groundwater Recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggenberger, P.; Butscher, C.; Epting, J.; Auckenthaler, A.

    2015-12-01

    Karst groundwater resources represent valuable water resources, which may be affected by different types of pollution and changes of groundwater recharge by climate change. In many parts of Europe, it has been predicted that record-breaking heat waves, such as the one experienced in 2003 and 2015, will become more frequent. At the same time, even as summers become drier, the incidence of severe precipitation events could increase. What is the influence such changes to the quantitative and qualitative aspects of Karst groundwater systems? A factor to be considered in conjunction with groundwater quality is the vulnerability of the resource, which is defined as the sensitivity of a groundwater system to pollution. Intrinsic vulnerability refers to the sensitivity to pollution when considering only natural, geogenic conditions without the effects of human activities such as contaminant release. Intrinsic vulnerability depends on the recharge conditions, which are dependent on the surface and subsurface structure and on precipitation and evaporation patterns. The latter are highly time dependent. Therefore, our groundwater vulnerability concept also includes dynamic aspects of the system, the variations of spatial and temporal components. We present results of combined monitoring and modelling experiments of several types of Karst systems in the Tabular and the Folded Jura of NW Switzerland. The recharge, conduit flow, diffuse flow(RCD) rainfall-discharge model "RCD-seasonal" was used to simulate the discharge and substance concentration of several spring. This lumped parameter model include: the recharge system (soil and epikarst system), the conduit flow system, and the diffuse flow system. The numerically derived Dynamic Vulnerability Index (DVI) can indicate qualitative changes of spring water with sufficient accuracy to be used for drinking water management. In addition, the results obtained from the test sites indicate a decrease in short-lived contaminants in

  20. SPATIAL CORRELATION ANALYSIS BETWEEN KARST ROCKY DESERTIFICATION AND LITHOLOGY IN DU'AN YAO AUTONOMOUS COUNTY IN GUANGXI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Baoqing; JIANG Shufang; LIAO Chimei; HUANG Qiuyan; ZHOU Dequan

    2004-01-01

    Du'an Yao Autonomous County is a typical area for the distribution of karst rocky desertification in Guangxi.The indices for the grades of rocky desertification are selected according to the scientific meaning of karst rocky desertification and after the interpretative symbol system of rocky desertification. RS images are established by the landscape characteristics of Du'an karst and its TM image. Relying on RS & GIS means and taking land use map as base map, this paper conducts synthetic analysis on the 1999a TM image (126-043) and the correlation data involving landform, soil, geological map and GPS-database and photo on the spot, and brings forth a map showing the Du'an rocky desertification grades and a digital lithology map. As can be viewed from spatial correlation, the inherent connection is also illuminated between the various levels of rocky desertification and the carbonate lithology.

  1. An evaluation method of the sustainability of water resource in karst region: a case study of Zunyi, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Wang, Ganlu; Ding, Hanghang; Chen, Yulong

    2017-06-01

    Water resource is of great significance to the survival and development of human. However, the water resource system in karst regions is sensitive to external interference owing to the special geological processes which cause soil impoverishment, severe rocky desertification and large topographic height difference. Therefore, evaluating the sustainability of the water resource in karst regions is beneficial to reasonably use and protect water resource. This paper puts forward to evaluate the water resource from four aspects, including water resources system, water requirement system, ecosystem and social economic system. Moreover, on this basis, 18 evaluation indexes were selected to construct the sustainability evaluation index system and method. This method was used to evaluate the sustainability of the water resource in the typical karst region—Zunyi, Guizhou province, China, and was verified according to the actual situation in the research area. All these provide reference for the evaluation of the sustainability of the water resource in similar regions.

  2. Spatial analysis for susceptibility of second-time karst sinkholes: A case study of Jili Village in Guangxi, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guoqing; Yan, Hongbo; Chen, Kunhua; Zhang, Rongting

    2016-04-01

    After a big karst sinkhole happened in Jili Village of Guangxi, China, the local government was eager to quantitatively analyze and map susceptible areas of the potential second-time karst sinkholes in order to make timely decisions whether the residents living in the first-time sinkhole areas should move. For this reason, karst sinkholes susceptibility geospatial analysis is investigated using multivariate spatial data, logistic regression model (LRM) and Geographical Information System (GIS). Ten major karst sinkholes related factors, including (1) formation lithology, (2) soil structure, (3) profile curvature, (4) groundwater depth, (5) fluctuation of groundwater level, (6) percolation rate of soil, (7) degree of karst development, (8) distance from fault, (9) distance from the traffic route, and (10) overburden thickness were selected, and then each of factors was classified and quantitated with the three or four levels. The LRM was applied to evaluate which factor makes significant contributions to sinkhole. The results demonstrated that formation lithology, soil structure, profile curvature, groundwater depth, ground water level, percolation rate of soil, and degree of karst development, the distance from fault, and overburden thickness are positive, while one factor, the distance from traffic routes is negative, which is deleted from LRM model. The susceptibility of the potential sinkholes in the study area is estimated and mapped using the solved impact factors. The susceptible degrees of the study area are classified into five levels, very high, high, moderate, low, and ignore susceptibility. It has been found that that both very high and high susceptibility areas are along Datou Hill and the foothills of the study area. This finding is verified by field observations. With the investigations conducted in this paper, it can be concluded that the susceptibility maps produced in this paper are reliable and accurate, and useful as a reference for local

  3. 川内两所师范院校女生对体育选项课程的兴趣选择%Survey of Girl Students" Learning Interest of Sports at Normal Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张峻熊; 张楠

    2012-01-01

    By using literature, questionnaire, mathematical statistics, girl students" learning interest of sports at normal universities was discussed, aiming at greatly stimulating their learning interest of sports, making them master some practical skills of fitness, and carrying out the perfect combination of sports classes and lifelong exercises.%运用文献资料、调查问卷法、数理统计法等方法,对师范院校非体育专业女大学生在体育选项课程中学习兴趣存在的问题进行了探讨,能最大限度地激发女大学生对体育兴趣爱好,使女学生在体育选项课程学习中真正学习和掌握科学实用的健身知识技能,实现了体育课程与终身体育的完善结合。

  4. Single event time series analysis in a binary karst catchment evaluated using a groundwater model (Lurbach system, Austria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayaud, C; Wagner, T; Benischke, R; Birk, S

    2014-04-16

    The Lurbach karst system (Styria, Austria) is drained by two major springs and replenished by both autogenic recharge from the karst massif itself and a sinking stream that originates in low permeable schists (allogenic recharge). Detailed data from two events recorded during a tracer experiment in 2008 demonstrate that an overflow from one of the sub-catchments to the other is activated if the discharge of the main spring exceeds a certain threshold. Time series analysis (autocorrelation and cross-correlation) was applied to examine to what extent the various available methods support the identification of the transient inter-catchment flow observed in this binary karst system. As inter-catchment flow is found to be intermittent, the evaluation was focused on single events. In order to support the interpretation of the results from the time series analysis a simplified groundwater flow model was built using MODFLOW. The groundwater model is based on the current conceptual understanding of the karst system and represents a synthetic karst aquifer for which the same methods were applied. Using the wetting capability package of MODFLOW, the model simulated an overflow similar to what has been observed during the tracer experiment. Various intensities of allogenic recharge were employed to generate synthetic discharge data for the time series analysis. In addition, geometric and hydraulic properties of the karst system were varied in several model scenarios. This approach helps to identify effects of allogenic recharge and aquifer properties in the results from the time series analysis. Comparing the results from the time series analysis of the observed data with those of the synthetic data a good agreement was found. For instance, the cross-correlograms show similar patterns with respect to time lags and maximum cross-correlation coefficients if appropriate hydraulic parameters are assigned to the groundwater model. The comparable behaviors of the real and the

  5. Single event time series analysis in a binary karst catchment evaluated using a groundwater model (Lurbach system, Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayaud, C.; Wagner, T.; Benischke, R.; Birk, S.

    2014-04-01

    The Lurbach karst system (Styria, Austria) is drained by two major springs and replenished by both autogenic recharge from the karst massif itself and a sinking stream that originates in low permeable schists (allogenic recharge). Detailed data from two events recorded during a tracer experiment in 2008 demonstrate that an overflow from one of the sub-catchments to the other is activated if the discharge of the main spring exceeds a certain threshold. Time series analysis (autocorrelation and cross-correlation) was applied to examine to what extent the various available methods support the identification of the transient inter-catchment flow observed in this binary karst system. As inter-catchment flow is found to be intermittent, the evaluation was focused on single events. In order to support the interpretation of the results from the time series analysis a simplified groundwater flow model was built using MODFLOW. The groundwater model is based on the current conceptual understanding of the karst system and represents a synthetic karst aquifer for which the same methods were applied. Using the wetting capability package of MODFLOW, the model simulated an overflow similar to what has been observed during the tracer experiment. Various intensities of allogenic recharge were employed to generate synthetic discharge data for the time series analysis. In addition, geometric and hydraulic properties of the karst system were varied in several model scenarios. This approach helps to identify effects of allogenic recharge and aquifer properties in the results from the time series analysis. Comparing the results from the time series analysis of the observed data with those of the synthetic data a good agreement was found. For instance, the cross-correlograms show similar patterns with respect to time lags and maximum cross-correlation coefficients if appropriate hydraulic parameters are assigned to the groundwater model. The comparable behaviors of the real and the

  6. Single event time series analysis in a binary karst catchment evaluated using a groundwater model (Lurbach system, Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayaud, C.; Wagner, T.; Benischke, R.; Birk, S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The Lurbach karst system (Styria, Austria) is drained by two major springs and replenished by both autogenic recharge from the karst massif itself and a sinking stream that originates in low permeable schists (allogenic recharge). Detailed data from two events recorded during a tracer experiment in 2008 demonstrate that an overflow from one of the sub-catchments to the other is activated if the discharge of the main spring exceeds a certain threshold. Time series analysis (autocorrelation and cross-correlation) was applied to examine to what extent the various available methods support the identification of the transient inter-catchment flow observed in this binary karst system. As inter-catchment flow is found to be intermittent, the evaluation was focused on single events. In order to support the interpretation of the results from the time series analysis a simplified groundwater flow model was built using MODFLOW. The groundwater model is based on the current conceptual understanding of the karst system and represents a synthetic karst aquifer for which the same methods were applied. Using the wetting capability package of MODFLOW, the model simulated an overflow similar to what has been observed during the tracer experiment. Various intensities of allogenic recharge were employed to generate synthetic discharge data for the time series analysis. In addition, geometric and hydraulic properties of the karst system were varied in several model scenarios. This approach helps to identify effects of allogenic recharge and aquifer properties in the results from the time series analysis. Comparing the results from the time series analysis of the observed data with those of the synthetic data a good agreement was found. For instance, the cross-correlograms show similar patterns with respect to time lags and maximum cross-correlation coefficients if appropriate hydraulic parameters are assigned to the groundwater model. The comparable behaviors of the real and

  7. Exploration of Water Resource and Multiple Model for Water Resource Development in Karst Areas with the Preferred Plane Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    According to the theory of preferred plane, preferred planes (faults) always control the distribution of bedrock fissure water and hold abundant groundwater. Thus, the exploration of fissure or karst water can be converted into searching for the watery preferred plane (WPP). In the paper, the characteristic of watery preferred planes is analyzed and a series of superior indices has been set up. It is introduced that WPPs are determined by the methods of geological analysis, superior index and complex geophysical analysis. Meanwhile, new multiple model for water resource development in the water-scarce areas of karst mountainous regions are advanced.

  8. Two Interesting Southern Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyulbudaghian, A. L.

    2016-06-01

    Two southern objects are studied. The first, the planetary nebula PK 349-01.1, is of interest because it has a chain of jets ejected from the central star. 12C(1-0) observations of the vicinity of this object reveal red- and blue-shifted molecular outflows. The second object is a star formation region consisting of two groups of IR stars. These groups have a trapezium-like configuration. Two stars in one of these groups are associated with a ring-shaped nebulae. This star formation region is associated with a new radial system of dark globules.

  9. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evan Hughes

    2009-01-08

    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

  10. Serving the Public Interest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    system is likely to produce good governance. That is, if benevolent candidates are common, if the president has little discretionary power, and if the public sector is effective. We analyze the role of institutions like investigative media and re-election and show that they can improve or further hamper......We present a model of political selection in which voters elect a president from a set of candidates. We assume that some of the candidates are benevolent and that all voters prefer a benevolent president, i.e. a president who serves the public interest. Yet, political selection may fail in our...

  11. Monitoring plant water status and rooting depth for precision irrigation in the vineyards of Classic Karst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, Tadeja; Moretti, Elisa; Dal Borgo, Anna; Petruzzellis, Francesco; Stenni, Barbara; Bertoncin, Paolo; Dreossi, Giuliano; Zini, Luca; Martellos, Stefano; Nardini, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    The extreme summer drought and heat waves that occurred in South-Europe in 2003 and 2012 have led to the loss of more than 50% of winery production in the Classic Karst (NE Italy). The irrigation of vineyards in this area is not appropriately developed and, when used, it does not consider the actual water status and needs of plants, posing risks of inappropriate or useless usage of large water volumes. The predicted future increase in frequency and severity of extreme climate events poses at serious risk the local agriculture based on wine business. We monitored seasonal trends of pre-dawn (Ψpd) and minimum (Ψmin) leaf water potential, and stomatal conductance (gL) of 'Malvasia' grapevine in one mature (MV, both in 2015 and 2016) and one young vineyard (YV, in 2016). Moreover, we extracted xylem sap form plant stems and soil water from samples collected in nearby caves, by cryo-vacuum distillation. We also collected precipitation and irrigation water in different months. Oxygen isotope composition (δ18O) of atmospheric, plant, soil and irrigation water was analyzed to get information about rooting depth. In 2015, at the peak of summer aridity, two irrigation treatments were applied according to traditional management practices. The treatments were performed in a sub-area of the MV, followed by physiological analysis and yield measurements at grape harvest. In 2016, the soil water potential (Ψsoil) at 50 cm depth was also monitored throughout the season. Under harsh environmental conditions the apparently deep root system ensured relatively favorable plant water status in both MV and YV and during both growing seasons. The Ψsoil at 50 cm depth gradually decreased as drought progressed, reaching a minimum value of about -1.7 MPa, far more negative than Ψpd recorded in plants (about -0.5 MPa). In July, significant stomatal closure was observed, but Ψmin never surpassed the critical threshold of -1.3 MPa, indicating that irrigation was not needed. The xylem sap

  12. Karst and Caves of the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA; Karst y cuevas de las Black Hills, Dakota del Sur, EE.UU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A. N.

    2016-07-01

    The caves of the Black Hills are located in Carboniferous limestone and dolomite of the Madison Formation in western South Dakota. The climate is semi-arid, and surface karst features are few. Entrances to known caves are rather small, and the two largest caves, Wind Cave and Jewel Cave, were discovered only in the late 1880s and in 1900, respectively. Intermittent exploration and mapping have been conducted by local volunteers, National Park Service staff, and the National Speleological Society. Jewel Cave, in Jewel Cave National Monument, contains 290 km of mapped passages; and Wind Cave, in Wind Cave National Park, contains 230 km. They are the third and sixth longest known caves in the world. (Author)

  13. Lanthanide-labeled clay: A new method for tracing sediment transport in Karst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, B.J.; Bennett, P.C.; Zimmerman, M.

    1998-01-01

    Mobile sediment is a fundamental yet poorly characterized aspect of mass transport through karst aquifers. Here the development and field testing of an extremely sensitive particle tracer that may be used to characterize sediment transport in karst aquifers is described. The tracer consists of micron-size montmorillonite particles homoionized to the lanthanide form; after injection and retrieval from a ground water system, the lanthanide ions are chemically stripped from the clay and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. The tracer meets the following desired criteria: low detection limit; a number of differentiable signatures; inexpensive production and quantification using standard methods; no environmental risks; and hydrodynamic properties similar to the in situ sediment it is designed to trace. The tracer was tested in laboratory batch experiments and field tested in both surface water and ground water systems. In surface water, arrival times of the tracer were similar to those of a conservative water tracer, although a significant amount of material was lost due to settling. Two tracer tests were undertaken in a karst aquifer under different flow conditions. Under normal flow conditions, the time of arrival and peak concentration of the tracer were similar to or preceded that of a conservative water tracer. Under low flow conditions, the particle tracer was not detected, suggesting that in low flow the sediment settles out of suspension and goes into storage.Mobile sediment is a fundamental yet poorly characterized aspect of mass transport through karst aquifers. Here the development and field testing of an extremely sensitive particle tracer that may be used to characterize sediment transport in karst aquifers is described. The tracer consists of micron-size montmorillonite particles homoionized to the lanthanide form; after injection and retrieval from a ground water system, the lanthanide ions are chemically stripped from the clay and

  14. A Survey of Vocational Interest and Self-efficacy in Students Mayored in Nurse%护理专业大学生职业兴趣与自我效能感调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江景华

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate vocational interests and self-ef icacy in nursing students. Methods 102 senior graduates mayored in Nurse from three medical col eges in Shandong were randomly selected as the research object. Hol and Vocational Interest Tests and General Self-ef icacy Scale was used and result of dif erent genders was compared. Results ①Enterprise-based and social dimension of nursing students showed significant gender dif erences, and the actual type, research and artistic type dimension showed no statistical dif erence.②Self-ef icacy of female col ege nursing students was significantly higher than male students, the dif erence was statistical y significant. Conclusion The nursing students of dif erent genders have dif erent career interests and self-ef icacy show significant dif erences.%目的调查了解护理专业大学生职业兴趣与自我效能感。方法随机抽取选取山东省三所医学院校护理专业102名大四毕业生为研究对象,采用Hol and职业兴趣测验和一般自我效能感量表,并对不同性别的大学生进行比较。结果①不同性别的护理专业大学生在社会型和企业型维度表现出显著的性别差异,实际型、研究型和艺术型维度未见统计学差异。②护理专业大学生中,女大学生的自我效能感要显著高于男大学生,差异具有统计学意义。结论护理专业大学生不同性别存在不同的职业兴趣,并表现出显著性差异的自我效能感。

  15. Spatially resolved information on karst conduit flow from in-cave dye tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauber, U.; Ufrecht, W.; Goldscheider, N.

    2014-02-01

    Artificial tracers are powerful tools for investigating karst systems. Tracers are commonly injected into sinking streams or dolines, while springs serve as monitoring sites. The obtained flow and transport parameters represent mixed information from the vadose, epiphreatic and phreatic zones (that is, the aquifer remains a black box). Accessible active caves constitute valuable but underexploited natural laboratories to gain detailed insights into the hydrologic functioning of the aquifer. Two multi-tracer tests in the catchment of a major karst spring (Blautopf, Germany) with injections and monitoring in two associated water caves aimed at obtaining spatially and temporally resolved information on groundwater flow in different compartments of the system. Two tracers were injected into the caves to characterize the hydraulic connections between them and with the spring. Two injections at the land surface, far from the spring, aimed at resolving the aquifer's internal drainage structure. Tracer breakthrough curves were monitored by field fluorimeters in caves and at the spring. Results demonstrate the dendritic drainage structure of the aquifer. It was possible to obtain relevant flow and transport parameters for different sections of this system. The highest mean flow velocities (275 m h-1) were observed in the near-spring epiphreatic section (open-channel flow), while velocities in the phreatic zone (pressurized flow) were one order of magnitude lower. Determined conduit water volumes confirm results of water balances and hydrograph analyses. In conclusion, experiments and monitoring in caves can deliver spatially resolved information on karst aquifer heterogeneity and dynamics that cannot be obtained by traditional investigative methods.

  16. A model of depressional wetland formation in low-relief karst landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, J. B.; Murray, A. B.; Cohen, M. J.; Martin, J. B.; Mclaughlin, D. L.; Bianchi, T. S.; Watts, A.

    2014-12-01

    Karst landscapes are formed by the self-reinforcing dissolution of limestone and other soluble rocks, and these positive feedbacks can create a variety of landforms depending on initial topography, climate, bedrock characteristics, and potentially, the activity of biota. In Big Cypress National Preserve (BICY), a low-relief karst landscape in southwestern FL (USA), depressional wetlands, are interspersed within an upland matrix in a regular pattern. This landscape is characterized by over-dispersion of wetland patches, periodic variation in bedrock depth and soil thickness, and distinct bi-modality of these and other soil properties. We hypothesize that the structure of the BICY landscape reflects the concurrent effects of local positive feedbacks among hydroperiod, vegetation productivity and bedrock dissolution; these local processes may ultimately be constrained by landscape scale limitations of water volume. We further hypothesize that low relief and shallow water tables are essential boundary conditions for the emergence of regular patterning of wetlands. To explore these hypotheses, we have developed a quasi-spatial model of a single nascent wetland and its catchment, where the expansion of the wetland basin is driven by acidity associated with belowground root production and aquatic metabolism and their effects on carbonate mineral dissolution, and by the lateral and vertical discharge of water between wetlands and bedrock porosity. This model can, depending on boundary conditions, recreate a range of karst features, including vertical dissolution holes, extensive wetlands that overtake the entire basin, or smaller wetlands whose size equilibrates at a small proportion of the catchment area. This last endpoint, a landform similar to those observed in BICY, occurs only in response to relatively shallow water tables, limited hydrologic inputs, and strong positive feedbacks of biotic activity on dissolution.

  17. Determining the groundwater potential recharge zone and karst springs catchment area: Saldoran region, western Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Gholam Hossein; Bagheri, Rahim; Rahimi, Fahimeh

    2016-12-01

    Assessing the groundwater recharge potential zone and differentiation of the spring catchment area are extremely important to effective management of groundwater systems and protection of water quality. The study area is located in the Saldoran karstic region, western Iran. It is characterized by a high rate of precipitation and recharge via highly permeable fractured karstic formations. Pire-Ghar, Sarabe-Babaheydar and Baghe-rostam are three major karstic springs which drain the Saldoran anticline. The mean discharge rate and electrical conductivity values for these springs were 3, 1.9 and 0.98 m3/s, and 475, 438 and 347 μS/cm, respectively. Geology, hydrogeology and geographical information system (GIS) methods were used to define the catchment areas of the major karstic springs and to map recharge zones in the Saldoran anticline. Seven major influencing factors on groundwater recharge rates (lithology, slope value and aspect, drainage, precipitation, fracture density and karstic domains) were integrated using GIS. Geology maps and field verification were used to determine the weights of factors. The final map was produced to reveal major zones of recharge potential. More than 80 % of the study area is terrain that has a recharge rate of 55-70 % (average 63 %). Evaluating the water budget of Saldoran Mountain showed that the total volume of karst water emerging from the Saldoran karst springs is equal to the total annual recharge on the anticline. Therefore, based on the geological and hydrogeological investigations, the catchment area of the mentioned karst springs includes the whole Saldoran anticline.

  18. Soil erosion evolution and spatial correlation analysis in a typical karst geomorphology using RUSLE with GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Cheng; Wang, Shijie; Bai, Xiaoyong; Li, Yangbing; Tian, Yichao; Li, Yue; Wu, Luhua; Luo, Guangjie

    2017-07-01

    Although some scholars have studied soil erosion in karst landforms, analyses of the spatial and temporal evolution of soil erosion and correlation analyses with spatial elements have been insufficient. The lack of research has led to an inaccurate assessment of environmental effects, especially in the mountainous area of Wuling in China. Soil erosion and rocky desertification in this area influence the survival and sustainability of a population of 0.22 billion people. This paper analyzes the spatiotemporal evolution of soil erosion and explores its relationship with rocky desertification using GIS technology and the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE). Furthermore, this paper analyzes the relationship between soil erosion and major natural elements in southern China. The results are as follows: (1) from 2000 to 2013, the proportion of the area experiencing micro-erosion and mild erosion was at increasing risk in contrast to areas where moderate and high erosion are decreasing. The area changes in this time sequence reflect moderate to high levels of erosion tending to convert into micro-erosion and mild erosion. (2) The soil erosion area on the slope, at 15-35°, accounted for 60.59 % of the total erosion area, and the corresponding soil erosion accounted for 40.44 %. (3) The annual erosion rate in the karst region decreased much faster than in the non-karst region. Soil erosion in all of the rock outcrop areas indicates an improving trend, and dynamic changes in soil erosion significantly differ among the various lithological distribution belts. (4) The soil erosion rate decreased in the rocky desertification regions, to below moderate levels, but increased in the severe rocky desertification areas. The temporal and spatial variations in soil erosion gradually decreased in the study area. Differences in the spatial distribution between lithology and rocky desertification induced extensive soil loss. As rocky desertification became worse, the erosion

  19. Persistent organic pollutants in shallow percolated water of the Alps Karst system (Zugspitze summit, Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Walkiria; Pandelova, Marchela; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Bernhöft, Silke; Fischer, Norbert; Antritter, Felix; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2017-02-01

    In the German Calcareous Alps at the Zugspitze, percolated water close to a permafrost bedrock in a tunnel system was monitored long-term for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 28 organochlorine pesticides (OCP). Semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMD) were deployed in a temporary surface water system at the Zugspitze plateau and analysed for PCB, PAH, and OCP. The high-volume water sampling was successfully implemented and all compounds were identified in the water percolated through the Karst system. However, the percentage distribution of contaminants in the percolated water differed significantly from that found in surface waters. The highest chlorinated PCDD homologues were the predominant compounds of the PCDD/F family, whereas percentages of PCB #52 increased in percolated water. Toxic equivalent values (TEQ) of samples ranged from 2.0 to 4.2pgTEQ/m(3) and from 0.017 to 0.069pgTEQ/m(3) for PCDD/F and PCB, respectively. Low and intermediate molecular weight PAH were the prevailing compounds in the samples. Endosulfan sulfate, endrin, and cis-heptachlor epoxide were enhanced after water percolation through the Karst system in comparison with the surface waters (wet deposition). The relative enrichment on these pesticides was related to the environmental bedrock conditions and glacier melting sources. In summary, the Karst system highly influenced the fate of organic persistent pollutants generating different chemical patterns in their percolated waters than those found at the surface systems.

  20. Solute transport characterization in karst aquifers by tracer injection tests for a sustainable water resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, T.; Angulo, B.; Uriarte, J. A.; Olazar, M.; Arandes, J. M.; Antiguedad, I.

    2017-04-01

    Protection of water resources is a major challenge today, given that territory occupation and land use are continuously increasing. In the case of karst aquifers, its dynamic complexity requires the use of specific methodologies that allow establishing local and regional flow and transport patterns. This information is particularly necessary when springs and wells harnessed for water supply are concerned. In view of the present state of the art, this work shows a new approach based on the use of a LiCl based tracer injection test through a borehole for transport characterization from a local to a regional scale. Thus a long term tracer injection test was conducted in a particularly sensitive sector of the Egino karst massif (Basque Country, Spain). The initial displacement of tracer in the vicinity of the injection was monitored in a second borehole at a radial distance of 10.24 m. This first information, assessed by a radial divergent model, allows obtaining transport characteristic parameters in this immediate vicinity during injection. At a larger (regional) scale, the tracer reaches a highly transmissive network with mean traveling velocities to the main springs being from 4.3 to 13.7 m/h. The responses obtained, particularly clear in the main spring used for water supply, and the persistence of part of the tracer in the injection zone, pose reconsidering the need for their protection. Thus, although the test allows establishing the 24-h isochrone, which is the ceiling value in present European vulnerability approaches, the results obtained advise widening the zone to protect in order to guarantee water quality in the springs. Overall, this stimulus-response test allows furthering the knowledge on the dynamics of solute transport in karst aquifers and is a particularly useful tool in studies related to source vulnerability and protection in such a complex medium.

  1. Determining the groundwater potential recharge zone and karst springs catchment area: Saldoran region, western Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Gholam Hossein; Bagheri, Rahim; Rahimi, Fahimeh

    2016-08-01

    Assessing the groundwater recharge potential zone and differentiation of the spring catchment area are extremely important to effective management of groundwater systems and protection of water quality. The study area is located in the Saldoran karstic region, western Iran. It is characterized by a high rate of precipitation and recharge via highly permeable fractured karstic formations. Pire-Ghar, Sarabe-Babaheydar and Baghe-rostam are three major karstic springs which drain the Saldoran anticline. The mean discharge rate and electrical conductivity values for these springs were 3, 1.9 and 0.98 m3/s, and 475, 438 and 347 μS/cm, respectively. Geology, hydrogeology and geographical information system (GIS) methods were used to define the catchment areas of the major karstic springs and to map recharge zones in the Saldoran anticline. Seven major influencing factors on groundwater recharge rates (lithology, slope value a