WorldWideScience

Sample records for survey instrument sensitive

  1. Star Formation & Stellar Evolution: Future Surveys & Instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, C J

    2015-01-01

    The next generation of multi-object spectrographs (MOS) will deliver comprehensive surveys of the Galaxy, Magellanic Clouds and nearby dwarfs. These will provide us with the vast samples, spanning the full extent of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, that are needed to explore the chemistry, history and dynamics of their host systems. Further ahead, the Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) will have sufficient sensitivity and angular resolution to extend stellar spectroscopy well beyond the Local Group, opening-up studies of the chemical evolution of galaxies across a broad range of galaxy types and environments. In this contribution I briefly reflect on current and future studies of stellar populations, and introduce plans for the MOSAIC instrument for the European ELT.

  2. Development of the physician satisfaction survey instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo Hoo, W E; Ramer, L

    1998-01-01

    Continuous quality improvement (CQI) activities depend on valid and reliable instruments to generate data. An evaluation of internal and external customer satisfaction is one of the pillars of the CQI process. This article describes the development of a valid and reliable instrument for measuring physicians' satisfaction with the orthopedic nursing units at a major medical trauma center. The physician satisfaction survey instrument was found to be internally consistent (alpha = .95). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that 68% of the variance in physician satisfaction scores (eigenvalue = 8.14) was explained by using a single-factor model.

  3. Higher Education and Students with Orthopedic Disabilities: A Survey Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Delar K.

    A survey instrument is presented that was used in a national survey of 160 colleges and universities to explore facilities and services to students with orthopedic disabilities. The survey contains 33 items that focus on the following areas: structural accessibility, academic accessibility, dorm-living, and recreational opportunities. The total…

  4. Star Formation and Stellar Evolution: Future Surveys and Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, C. J.

    2016-10-01

    The next generation of multi-object spectrographs (MOS) will deliver comprehensive surveys of the Galaxy, Magellanic Clouds and nearby dwarfs. These will provide us with the vast samples, spanning the full extent of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, that are needed to explore the chemistry, history and dynamics of their host systems. Further ahead, the Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) will have sufficient sensitivity and angular resolution to extend stellar spectroscopy well beyond the Local Group, opening-up studies of the chemical evolution of galaxies across a broad range of galaxy types and environments. In this contribution I briefly reflect on current and future studies of stellar populations, and introduce plans for the MOSAIC instrument for the European ELT.

  5. Urbis: Instrument ofr local environmental survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, H.C.

    2000-01-01

    TNO has developed a GIS based instrument, named Urbis, which makes it possible to assess the noise situation in a municipality or region as a whole, with a high level of detail. On the basis of activity or emission data (road-traffic intensities, acoustical reports, etc.), noise loads are calculated

  6. Development of an RDECOM Workforce Motivational Survey Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    compensation and workplace environment structure to motivate the target generational workforce demographic to improve productivity. The deliverables from this...factors. We developed a closed-loop survey instrument and analysis methodology to identify distinct generational workforce motivational factors. Nine...United States Army Research Development and Engineering Command (RDECOM) supervisory engineers, General Schedule (GS) 14 and 15, reviewed the survey

  7. Inertial instrument system for aerial surveying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R.H.; Chapman, W.H.; Hanna, W.F.; Mongan, C.E.; Hursh, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    An inertial guidance system for aerial surveying has been developed under contract to the U.S. Geological Survey. This prototype system, known as the aerial profiling of terrain (APT) system, is designed to determine continuously the positions of points along an aircraft flight path, or the underlying terrain profile, to an accuracy of + or - 0.5 ft (15 cm) vertically and + or - 2 ft (61 cm) horizontally. The system 's objective thus is to accomplish, from a fixed-wing aircraft, what would traditionally be accomplished from ground-based topographic surveys combined with aerial photography and photogrammetry. The two-part strategy for measuring the terrain profile entails: (1) use of an inertial navigator for continuous determination of the three-coordinate position of the aircraft, and (2) use of an eye-safe pulsed laser profiler for continuous measurement of the vertical distance from aircraft to land surface, so that the desired terrain profile can then be directly computed. The APT system, installed in a DeHavilland Twin Otter aircraft, is typically flown at a speed of 115 mph (105 knots) at an altitude of 2,000 ft (610 m) above the terrain. Performance-evaluation flights have shown that the vertical and horizontal accuracy specifications are met. (USGS)

  8. Survey Instrument Validity Part I: Principles of Survey Instrument Development and Validation in Athletic Training Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Laura J.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Instrument validation is an important facet of survey research methods and athletic trainers must be aware of the important underlying principles. Objective: To discuss the process of survey development and validation, specifically the process of construct validation. Background: Athletic training researchers frequently employ the use of…

  9. Instrumentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Journal Scope:Instrumentation is a high quality open access peer reviewed research journal.Authors are solicited to contribute to these journals by submitting articles that illustrate most up-to-date research results,projects,surveying works and industrial experiences that describe significant advances in the instrumental science.The mission of the Instrumentation is

  10. [French residents' training in instrumental deliveries: A national survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunier, C; Raimond, E; Dupont, A; Pelissier, A; Bonneau, S; Gabriel, R; Graesslin, O

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate French residents in Obstetrics and Gynaecology's training in instrumental deliveries in 2015. We conducted a national descriptive survey among 758 residents between December 2014 and January 2015. Respondents were invited by email to specify their University Hospital, their current university term, the number of instrumental deliveries performed by vacuum extractor, forceps or spatulas, and whether they made systematic ultrasound exams before performing the extraction. Response rate was 34.7 % (n=263). There were important differences between regions in terms of type of instruments used. Vacuum extractor was the most commonly used instrument for instrumental deliveries by French residents (56.9 %), more than forceps (25.2 %) and spatulas (17.9 %). At the end of the residency, all the residents had been trained in instrumental deliveries with at least two instruments. The training of difficult techniques as well as their perfect control is required for instrumental deliveries. Yet, we are forced to note that there are substantial differences in the French residents' training in instrumental deliveries depending on their region. So, teaching at least two techniques seems essential as well as improving the training capacities and standardizing practices. A greater systematization of the teaching of the mechanics and obstetric techniques might be a solution to be considered too. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Applications of Calendar Instruments in Social Surveys: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glasner, T.J.; Vaart, van der W.

    2009-01-01

    Retrospective reports in survey interviews and questionnaires are subject to many types of recall error, which affect completeness, consistency, and dating accuracy. Concerns about this problem have led to the development of so-called calendar instruments, or timeline techniques. These aided recall

  12. The Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Course: A Survey of Available Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    Reports results of a survey in which 110 universities were selected to respond to questions regarding approximate age and cost of the instruments used in three major areas: separations, spectroscopy, and electroanalysis. Respondents (N=41) also indicated which pieces of equipment were used in undergraduate courses or were used for research. (CS)

  13. Technical evaluation of available state of Nevada survey instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-02-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is reviewing the survey research studies completed by Mountain West Research (1987-1989) for the state of Nevada`s Nuclear Waste Project Office. In this research, 14 survey instruments were used to seek data on whether perceptions of risk could be associated with the possible siting of a high-level radioactive waste repository in Nevada and could be a dominant source of potential, significant, adverse economic impacts. This report presents results from phase 1 of the review, in which ANL contracted with the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) at the University of Chicago to evaluate the technical merits of the nine survey instruments that ANL had been able to acquire. The scope of NORC`s work was limited to rating the questions and stating their strengths and weaknesses. NORC concluded that the surveys could provide valuable data about risk perceptions and potential behavioral responses. NORC identified a few minor problems with a number of questions and the calculated response rates but claimed these problems would probably not have any major biasing effect. The NORC evaluation would have been more complete if the terms used in the questionnaires had been defined, all survey instruments had been acquired, and all data had been made available to the public.

  14. Antisocial sport behaviors survey: instrument development and initial validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Miranda P; Hoar, Sharleen

    2015-04-01

    The development of a self-report instrument to measure antisocial sport behavior, labeled the Antisocial Sport Behavior Survey (ASBS), among large and diverse samples of athletes is reported. Grounded in the social cognitive theory of moral thought and action (Bandura, 1991) and interpersonal theory (Horowitz, 2004), this instrument was developed and tested in accordance with the traditions of construct validity and classical test theory (Gehlback & Brinkworth, 2011). In Phase 1, 272 college-aged competitive sport participants confirmed a theoretical structure of antisocial sport behavior including eight factors (hypercompetitive, intimidating, antagonistic, disrespectful, exploitable, overly accommodating, abetting, and melodramatic). Phase 2 reports on item development and the response structure of the instrument. In Phase 3, evidence of structural validity and external validity for the ASBS was established with 340 college-aged competitive sport participants. The ASBS presents as a promising new instrument to advance understanding of antisocial sport behavior acts committed by competitive athletes.

  15. Instrumentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Journal Scope:Instrumentation is a high quality open access peer reviewed research journal.Authors are solicited to contribute to these journals by submitting articles that illustrate most up-to-date research results,projects,surveying works and industrial experiences that describe significant advances in the instrumental science.The mission of the Instrumentation is to provide a platform for the researchers,academicians,

  16. The experienced temperature sensitivity and regulation survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Someren, Eus J. W.; Dekker, Kim; Te Lindert, Bart H. W.; Benjamins, Jeroen S.; Moens, Sarah; Migliorati, Filippo; Aarts, Emmeke; van der Sluis, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Individuals differ in thermosensitivity, thermoregulation, and zones of thermoneutrality and thermal comfort. Whereas temperature sensing and -effectuating processes occur in part unconsciously and autonomic, awareness of temperature and thermal preferences can affect thermoregulatory behavior as well. Quantification of trait-like individual differences of thermal preferences and experienced temperature sensitivity and regulation is therefore relevant to obtain a complete understanding of human thermophysiology. Whereas several scales have been developed to assess instantaneous appreciation of heat and cold exposure, a comprehensive scale dedicated to assess subjectively experienced autonomic or behavioral thermoregulatory activity has been lacking so far. We constructed a survey that specifically approaches these domains from a trait-like perspective, sampled 240 volunteers across a wide age range, and analyzed the emergent component structure. Participants were asked to report their thermal experiences, captured in 102 questions, on a 7-point bi-directional Likert scale. In a second set of 32 questions, participants were asked to indicate the relative strength of experiences across different body locations. Principal component analyses extracted 21 meaningful dimensions, which were sensitive to sex-differences and age-related changes. The questions were also assessed in a matched sample of 240 people with probable insomnia to evaluate the sensitivity of these dimensions to detect group differences in a case-control design. The dimensions showed marked mean differences between cases and controls. The survey thus has discriminatory value. It can freely be used by anyone interested in studying individual or group differences in thermosensitivity and thermoregulation. PMID:27227080

  17. Instrument and Survey Analysis Technical Report: Program Implementation Survey. Technical Report #1112

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    This technical document provides guidance to educators on the creation and interpretation of survey instruments, particularly as they relate to an analysis of program implementation. Illustrative examples are drawn from a survey of educators related to the use of the easyCBM learning system. This document includes specific sections on…

  18. Human factors survey of advanced instrumentation and controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    A survey oriented towards identifying the human factors issues in regard to the use of advanced instrumentation and controls (I C) in the nuclear industry was conducted. A number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities were participants in the survey. Human factors items, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays (CGD), controls, organizational support, training, and related topics, were discussed. The survey found the industry to be concerned about the human factors issues related to the implementation of advanced I C. Fifteen potential human factors problems were identified. They include: the need for an advanced I C guideline equivalent to NUREG-0700; a role change in the control room from operator to supervisor; information overload; adequacy of existing training technology for advanced I C; and operator acceptance and trust. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  19. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: The polarization-sensitive ACTPol instrument

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, R J; Aiola, S; Angile, F E; Amiri, M; Beall, J A; Becker, D T; Cho, H-M; Choi, S K; Corlies, P; Coughlin, K P; Datta, R; Devlin, M J; Dicker, S R; Dunner, R; Fowler, J W; Fox, A E; Gallardo, P A; Gao, J; Grace, E; Halpern, M; Hasselfield, M; Henderson, S W; Hilton, G C; Hincks, A D; Ho, S P; Hubmayr, J; Irwin, K D; Klein, J; Koopman, B; Li, Dale; Louis, T; Lungu, M; Maurin, L; McMahon, J; Munson, C D; Naess, S; Nati, F; Newburgh, L; Nibarger, J; Niemack, M D; Niraula, P; Nolta, M R; Page, L A; Pappas, C G; Schillaci, A; Schmitt, B L; Sehgal, N; Sievers, J L; Simon, S M; Staggs, S T; Tucker, C; Uehara, M; van Lanen, J; Ward, J T; Wollack, E J

    2016-01-01

    The Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) is designed to make high angular resolution measurements of anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at millimeter wavelengths. We describe ACTPol, an upgraded receiver for ACT, which uses feedhorn-coupled, polarization-sensitive detector arrays, a 3 degree field of view, 100 mK cryogenics with continuous cooling, and meta material anti-reflection coatings. ACTPol comprises three arrays with separate cryogenic optics: two arrays at a central frequency of 148 GHz and one array operating simultaneously at both 97 GHz and 148 GHz. The combined instrument sensitivity, angular resolution, and sky coverage are optimized for measuring angular power spectra, clusters via the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich and kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich signals, and CMB lensing due to large scale structure. The receiver was commissioned with its first 148 GHz array in 2013, observed with both 148 GHz arrays in 2014, and has recently completed its first full season of operations with the f...

  20. Weak Lensing from Space I: Instrumentation and Survey Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, Jason; Refregier, Alexandre; Massey, Richard; Albert, Justin; Bacon, David; Bernstein, Gary; Ellis, Richard; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Kim, Alex; Lampton, Mike; McKay, Tim; Akerlof, C.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Bercovitz, J.; Bester, M.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Carithers, W.; Commins, E.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Eriksson, M.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J.-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Harris, S.; Harvey, P.; Heetderks, H.; Holland, S.; Huterer, D.; Karcher, A.; Kolbe, W.; Kreiger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Levi, M.; Devin, D.; Linder, E.; Loken, S.; Malina, R.; McKee, S.; Miquel, R.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Pratt, R.; Prieto, E.; Robinson, K.; Roe, N.; Sholl, M.; Schubnell, M.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, G.; Spadafora, A.; Tarle, G.; Tomasch, A.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, D.; Walder, J.-P.; Wang, G.

    2003-04-23

    A wide field space-based imaging telescope is necessary to fully exploit the technique of observing dark matter via weak gravitational lensing. This first paper in a three part series outlines the survey strategies and relevant instrumental parameters for such a mission. As a concrete example of hardware design, we consider the proposed Supernova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP). Using SNAP engineering models, we quantify the major contributions to this telescope's Point Spread Function (PSF). These PSF contributions are relevant to any similar wide field space telescope. We further show that the PSF of SNAP or a similar telescope will be smaller than current ground-based PSFs, and more isotropic and stable over time than the PSF of the Hubble Space Telescope. We outline survey strategies for two different regimes - a ''wide'' 300 square degree survey and a ''deep'' 15 square degree survey that will accomplish various weak lensing goals including statistical studies and dark matter mapping.

  1. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2001-04-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor.

  2. Lateral Violence in Nursing Survey: Instrument Development and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne S. Nemeth

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available An examination of the psychometric properties of the Lateral Violence in Nursing Survey (LVNS, an instrument previously developed to measure the perceived incidence and severity of lateral violence (LV in the nursing workplace, was carried out. Conceptual clustering and principal components analysis were used with survey responses from 663 registered nurses and ancillary nursing staff in a southeastern tertiary care medical center. Where appropriate, Cronbach’s alpha (α evaluated internal consistency. The prevalence/severity of lateral violence items constitute two distinct subscales (LV by self and others with Cronbach’s alpha of 0.74 and 0.86, respectively. The items asking about potential causes of LV are unidimensional and internally consistent (alpha = 0.77 but there is no conceptually coherent theme underlying the various causes. Respondents rating a potential LV cause as “major” scored higher on both prevalence/severity subscales than those rating it a “minor” cause or not a cause. Subsets of items on the LVNS are internally reliable, supporting construct validity. Revisions of the original LVNS instrument will improve its use in future work.

  3. Sensitive radio survey of obscured quasar candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandroff, Rachael M.; Zakamska, Nadia L.; van Velzen, Sjoert; Greene, Jenny E.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2016-12-01

    We study the radio properties of moderately obscured quasars in samples at both low (z ˜ 0.5) and high (z ˜ 2.5) redshift to understand the role of radio activity in accretion, using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) at 6.0 GHz and 1.4 GHz. Our z ˜ 2.5 sample consists of optically selected obscured quasar candidates, all of which are radio-quiet, with typical radio luminosities of νLν[1.4 GHz] ≲ 1040 erg s-1. Only a single source is individually detected in our deep (rms˜10 μJy) exposures. This population would not be identified by radio-based selection methods used for distinguishing dusty star-forming galaxies and obscured active nuclei. In our pilot A-array study of z ˜ 0.5 radio-quiet quasars, we spatially resolve four of five objects on scales ˜5 kpc and find they have steep spectral indices with an average value of α = -0.75. Therefore, radio emission in these sources could be due to jet-driven or radiatively driven bubbles interacting with interstellar material on the scale of the host galaxy. Finally, we also study the additional population of ˜200 faint ( ˜ 40 μJy-40 mJy) field radio sources observed over ˜120 arcmin2 of our data. 60 per cent of these detections (excluding our original targets) are matched in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and/or Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and are, in roughly equal shares, active galactic nuclei (AGN) at a broad range of redshifts, passive galaxies with no other signs of nuclear activity and infrared-bright but optically faint sources. Spectroscopically or photometrically confirmed star-forming galaxies constitute only a small minority of the matches. Such sensitive radio surveys allow us to address important questions of AGN evolution and evaluate the AGN contribution to the radio-quiet sky.

  4. Instrumentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Journal Scope:Instrumentation is a high quality open access peer reviewed research journal,Authors are solicited to contribute to these journals by submitting articles that illustrate most up-to-date research results,projects,surveying works and industrial

  5. Development and Validation of Culture-Sensitive Physics Learning Environment Survey (CS-PLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Paz E. Morales

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The study combined qualitative approaches with quantitative research design to come up with a survey instrument called Culture-Sensitive Physics Learning Environment Survey (CS-PLES.This survey instrument is intended to extract the learners’ beliefs and expectations on the integration of culture and language in the teaching and learning process of physics concepts. Significant contribution of the instrument can be traced to establishing and defining the constructs and categories on how curriculum localization and context-based science learning can be developed aligned with students’ expectations and beliefs. The development process employed non-conventional processes adopted from literature which included pilot study to identify pre-deterministic constructs and specific categories for the items to be included in the survey. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and factor analysis to establish the categories or constructs of the survey instruments. Reliability measures of the instrument and its respective constructs were established for standardization. These categories were intended to aid researchers for an in-depth analysis when the instrument is administered for its purpose. The raw statistical categories were qualitatively paralleled with the pre-deterministic constructs to establish congruence of the survey tool to Instructional Congruence Framework (ICF.

  6. New hydrologic instrumentation in the U.S. Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latkovich, V.J.; Shope, W.G.; ,

    1991-01-01

    New water-level sensing and recording instrumentation is being used by the U.S. Geological Survey for monitoring water levels, stream velocities, and water-quality characteristics. Several of these instruments are briefly described. The Basic Data Recorder (BDR) is an electronic data logger, that interfaces to sensor systems through a serial-digital interface standard (SDI-12), which was proposed by the data-logger industry; the Incremental Shaft Encoder is an intelligent water-level sensor, which interfaces to the BDR through the SDI-12; the Pressure Sensor is an intelligent, nonsubmersible pressure sensor, which interfaces to the BDR through the SDI-12 and monitors water levels from 0 to 50 feet; the Ultrasonic Velocity Meter is an intelligent, water-velocity sensor, which interfaces to the BDR through the SDI-12 and measures the velocity across a stream up to 500 feet in width; the Collapsible Hand Sampler can be collapsed for insertion through holes in the ice and opened under the ice to collect a water sample; the Lighweight Ice Auger, weighing only 32 pounds, can auger 6- and 8-inch holes through approximately 3.5 feet of ice; and the Ice Chisel has a specially hardened steel blade and 6-foot long, hickory D-handle.

  7. Evaluation of a Brief Survey Instrument for Assessing Subtle Differences in Cognitive Function Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwal, Ashwin A; Schumm, Philip; Kern, David W; McClintock, Martha K; Waite, Linda J; Shega, Joseph W; Huisingh-Scheetz, Megan J; Dale, William

    2015-01-01

    Most measures of cognitive function used in large-scale surveys of older adults have limited ability to detect subtle differences across cognitive domains, and standard clinical instruments are impractical to administer in general surveys. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) can address this need, but has limitations in a survey context. Therefore, we developed a survey adaptation of the MoCA, called the MoCA-SA, and describe its psychometric properties in a large national survey. Using a pretest sample of older adults (n=120), we reduced MoCA administration time by 26%, developed a model to accurately estimate full MoCA scores from the MoCA-SA, and tested the model in an independent clinical sample (n=93). The validated 18-item MoCA-SA was then administered to community-dwelling adults aged 62 to 91 as part of the National Social life Health and Aging Project Wave 2 sample (n=3196). In National Social life Health and Aging Project Wave 2, the MoCA-SA had good internal reliability (Cronbach α=0.76). Using item-response models, survey-adapted items captured a broad range of cognitive abilities and functioned similarly across sex, education, and ethnic groups. Results demonstrate that the MoCA-SA can be administered reliably in a survey setting while preserving sensitivity to a broad range of cognitive abilities and similar performance across demographic subgroups.

  8. Objectively combining AR5 instrumental period and paleoclimate climate sensitivity evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Lewis (Nicholas); P.D. Grünwald (Peter)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractCombining instrumental period evidence regarding equilibrium climate sensitivity with largely independent paleoclimate proxy evidence should enable a more constrained sensitivity estimate to be obtained. Previous, subjective Bayesian approaches involved selection of a prior probability

  9. Predictions for surveys with the SPICA Mid-infrared Instrument

    CERN Document Server

    Bonato, M; Cai, Z -Y; De Zotti, G; Bressan, A; Wada, T; Kohno, K; Maiolino, R; Gruppioni, C; Pozzi, F; Lapi, A

    2015-01-01

    We present predictions for number counts and redshift distributions of galaxies detectable in continuum and in emission lines with the Mid-infrared (MIR) Instrument (SMI) proposed for the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA). We have considered 24 MIR fine-structure lines, four Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) bands (at 6.2, 7.7, 8.6 and 11.3$\\mu$m) and two silicate bands (in emission and in absorption) at 9.7$\\mu$m and 18.0$\\mu$m. Six of these lines are primarily associated with Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs), the others with star formation. A survey with the SMI spectrometers of 1 hour integration per field-of-view (FoV) over an area of $1\\,\\hbox{deg}^2$ will yield $5\\,\\sigma$ detections of $\\simeq 140$ AGN lines and of $\\simeq 5.2\\times10^{4}$ star-forming galaxies, $\\simeq 1.6\\times10^{4}$ of which will be detected in at least two lines. The combination of a shallow ($20.0\\,\\hbox{deg}^{2}$, $1.4\\times10^{-1}$ h integration per FoV) and a deep survey ($6.9\\times10^{-3}\\,\\hbox...

  10. Compact High Sensitive Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Instrument Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a versatile tool for in situ substance characterization. Existing LIBS instruments are not compact enough for space...

  11. Survey Instrument Validity Part II: Validation of a Survey Instrument Examining Athletic Trainers' Knowledge and Practice Beliefs Regarding Exertional Heat Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Laura J.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to discuss the process of developing and validating an instrument to investigate an athletic trainer's attitudes and behaviors regarding the recognition and treatment of exertional heat stroke. Background: Following up from our initial paper, which discussed the process of survey instrument design and…

  12. Effects of sensitization on the detection of an instrumental contingency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gavin D; Vugler, Anthony

    2011-11-01

    While prior exposure to drugs of abuse permanently changes many behaviors, the underlying psychological mechanisms are relatively obscure. Here, the effects of sensitization on the detection of an action-outcome relationship were assessed, using a particularly stringent contingency degradation procedure. Rats were trained to leverpress until the probability of reinforcement for a response on one lever, or alternative reinforcement for a response on a second lever was reduced to 0.05 per second. Sensitization was then carried out (1mg/kg d-amphetamine/day for 7 days). Then, one reinforcer was also made available for a lack of response on either lever (p=0.05/s), maintaining its contiguity with the original response but eliminating its contingent relationship. Sensitized animals were more active, particularly early in the contingency degradation phase, but reduced responding directed at the degraded action-outcome contingency at a similar rate as controls. However, controls also reduced responding directed at the nondegraded contingency until very late in training, while sensitized animals maintained nondegraded responding at baseline levels. It was suggested that the relatively specific response shown by sensitized animals may reflect either improved action-outcome utilization or discrimination of relevant task features.

  13. Instrumented Water Tanks can Improve Air Shower Detector Sensitivity

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, R; Berley, D; Chen, M L; Coyne, D G; Delay, R S; Dingus, B L; Dorfan, D E; Ellsworth, R W; Evans, D; Falcone, A D; Fleysher, L; Fleysher, R; Gisler, G; Goodman, J A; Haines, T J; Hoffman, C M; Hugenberger, S; Kelley, L A; Leonor, I; Macri, J R; McConnell, M; McCullough, J F; McEnery, J E; Miller, R S; Mincer, A I; Morales, M F; Némethy, P; Ryan, J M; Schneider, M; Shen, B; Shoup, A L; Sinnis, G; Smith, A J; Sullivan, G W; Thompson, T N; Tümer, T O; Wang, K; Wascko, M O; Westerhoff, S; Williams, D A; Yang, T; Yodh, G B

    1999-01-01

    Previous works have shown that water Cherenkov detectors have superior sensitivity to those of scintillation counters as applied to detecting extensive air showers (EAS). This is in large part due to their much higher sensitivity to EAS photons which are more than five times more numerous than EAS electrons. Large area water Cherenkov detectors can be constructed relatively cheaply and operated reliably. A sparse detector array has been designed which uses these types of detectors to substantially increase the area over which the Milagro Gamma Ray Observatory collects EAS information. Improvements to the Milagro detector's performance characteristics and sensitivity derived from this array and preliminary results from a prototype array currently installed near the Milagro detector will be presented.

  14. Parents' childhood fever management: community survey and instrument development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Anne; Edwards, Helen; Fraser, Jenny

    2008-08-01

    This paper is a report of a study to explore Australian parents' knowledge, beliefs, practices and information sources about fever management and develop a scale to measure parents' fever management practices. Parental fever phobia and overuse of antipyretics to reduce fever continue. No scales to measure parents' fever management practices are available. A community-based, postal survey was carried out in 2005 with 401 Australian parents of well children aged 6 months-5 years. Respondents were recruited through advertising (48.4%), face-to-face (26.4%) and snowball (24.4%) methods. A 33-item instrument was developed; construct and content validity were determined by an expert panel and item reliability by test-retest. Moderate fever (40.0 +/- 1.0 degrees C) was reported to be harmful (88%), causing febrile convulsions (77.7%). Usual practices targeted temperature reduction, antipyretic administration (87.8%), temperature monitoring (52.5%). Fewer evidence-based practices, such as encouraging fluids (49.0%) and light clothing (43.8%), were reported. Positive changes over time (36.4%) included less concern and delayed or reduced antipyretic use. Negative practice changes (22.7%) included greater concern and increased antipyretic use. Medical advice was sought for illness symptoms (48.7%) and high (37.4%) or persistent (41.5%) fevers. Fever management was learnt from doctors, family and friends and working experience, while receiving conflicting information (41.9%) increased concerns and created uncertainty about best practice. Parents need consistent evidence-based information about childhood fever management. The Parental Fever Management Scale requires further testing with different populations and in different cultures and healthcare systems to evaluate its usefulness in nursing practice and research.

  15. Surveying Instruments: Their History and Classroom Use. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Yearbook 19 [1947].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, Edmond R.

    The first four chapters trace the history of surveying instruments from beginnings in Egypt, China, and Babylonia to Greece and Rome, then Europe, Islam, and India and finally in the Renaissance in Europe. The organization of these chapters is generally by the major areas of leveling instruments, right-angle instruments, staff combinations, and…

  16. Survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring: major update. Volume 3. Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    This is the third volume of a four-volume (seven-part) series, the culmination of a comprehensive survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring. Consideration is given to instruments and techniques presently in use and to those developed for other purposes but having possible applications to radiation monitoring. The results of the survey are given as descriptions of the physical and operating characteristics of available instruments, critical comparisons among instrumentation methods, and recommendations of promising methodology and development of new instrumentation. Information is also given regarding the pollutants to be monitored, their characteristics and forms, their sources and pathways, their effects on the ecosystem, and the means of controlling them through process and regulatory controls. The discussion is presented under sections entitled radiation sources; instrumentation: by type of radiation or instrument type; and, instrumentation for specific radionuclides. (JGB)

  17. Three-dimensional sensitivity distribution and sample volume of low-induction-number electromagnetic-induction instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegary, J.B.; Ferre, T. P. A.; Groom, R.W.

    2012-01-01

    There is an ongoing effort to improve the understanding of the correlation of soil properties with apparent soil electrical conductivity as measured by low-induction-number electromagnetic-induction (LIN FEM) instruments. At a minimum, the dimensions of LIN FEM instruments' sample volume, the spatial distribution of sensitivity within that volume, and implications for surveying and analyses must be clearly defined and discussed. Therefore, a series of numerical simulations was done in which a conductive perturbation was moved systematically through homogeneous soil to elucidate the three-dimensional sample volume of LIN FEM instruments. For a small perturbation with electrical conductivity similar to that of the soil, instrument response is a measure of local sensitivity (LS). Our results indicate that LS depends strongly on the orientation of the instrument's transmitter and receiver coils and includes regions of both positive and negative LS. Integration of the absolute value of LS from highest to lowest was used to contour cumulative sensitivity (CS). The 90% CS contour was used to define the sample volume. For both horizontal and vertical coplanar coil orientations, the longest dimension of the sample volume was at the surface along the main instrument axis with a length of about four times the intercoil spacing (s) with maximum thicknesses of about 1 and 0.3 s, respectively. The imaged distribution of spatial sensitivity within the sample volume is highly complex and should be considered in conjunction with the expected scale of heterogeneity before the use and interpretation of LIN FEM for mapping and profiling. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  18. Measuring teamwork in health care settings: a review of survey instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Melissa A; Nembhard, Ingrid M; Edmondson, Amy C

    2015-04-01

    Teamwork in health care settings is widely recognized as an important factor in providing high-quality patient care. However, the behaviors that comprise effective teamwork, the organizational factors that support teamwork, and the relationship between teamwork and patient outcomes remain empirical questions in need of rigorous study. To identify and review survey instruments used to assess dimensions of teamwork so as to facilitate high-quality research on this topic. We conducted a systematic review of articles published before September 2012 to identify survey instruments used to measure teamwork and to assess their conceptual content, psychometric validity, and relationships to outcomes of interest. We searched the ISI Web of Knowledge database, and identified relevant articles using the search terms team, teamwork, or collaboration in combination with survey, scale, measure, or questionnaire. We found 39 surveys that measured teamwork. Surveys assessed different dimensions of teamwork. The most commonly assessed dimensions were communication, coordination, and respect. Of the 39 surveys, 10 met all of the criteria for psychometric validity, and 14 showed significant relationships to nonself-report outcomes. Evidence of psychometric validity is lacking for many teamwork survey instruments. However, several psychometrically valid instruments are available. Researchers aiming to advance research on teamwork in health care should consider using or adapting one of these instruments before creating a new one. Because instruments vary considerably in the behavioral processes and emergent states of teamwork that they capture, researchers must carefully evaluate the conceptual consistency between instrument, research question, and context.

  19. Designing, Testing, and Validating an Attitudinal Survey on an Environmental Topic: A Groundwater Pollution Survey Instrument for Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacosta-Gabari, Idoya; Fernandez-Manzanal, Rosario; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Dolores

    2009-01-01

    Research in environmental attitudes' assessment has significantly increased in recent years. The development of specific attitude scales for specific environmental problems has often been proposed. This paper describes the Groundwater Pollution Test (GPT), a 19-item survey instrument using a Likert-type scale. The survey has been used with…

  20. Designing, Testing, and Validating an Attitudinal Survey on an Environmental Topic: A Groundwater Pollution Survey Instrument for Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacosta-Gabari, Idoya; Fernandez-Manzanal, Rosario; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Dolores

    2009-01-01

    Research in environmental attitudes' assessment has significantly increased in recent years. The development of specific attitude scales for specific environmental problems has often been proposed. This paper describes the Groundwater Pollution Test (GPT), a 19-item survey instrument using a Likert-type scale. The survey has been used with…

  1. Survey instruments used in clinical and epidemiological research on waterpipe tobacco smoking: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunukula Sameer K

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary objective was to systematically review the medical literature for instruments validated for use in epidemiological and clinical research on waterpipe smoking. Methods We searched the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and ISI the Web of Science. We selected studies using a two-stage duplicate and independent screening process. We included papers reporting on the development and/or validation of survey instruments to measure waterpipe tobacco consumption or related concepts. Two reviewers used a standardized and pilot tested data abstraction form to collect data from each eligible study using a duplicate and independent screening process. We also determined the percentage of observational studies assessing the health effects of waterpipe tobacco smoking and the percentage of studies of prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking that have used validated survey instruments. Results We identified a total of five survey instruments. One instrument was designed to measure knowledge, attitudes, and waterpipe use among pregnant women and was shown to have internal consistency and content validity. Three instruments were designed to measure waterpipe tobacco consumption, two of which were reported to have face validity. The fifth instrument was designed to measure waterpipe dependence and was rigorously developed and validated. One of the studies of prevalence and none of the studies of health effects of waterpipe smoking used validated instruments. Conclusions A number of instruments for measuring the use of and dependence on waterpipe smoking exist. Future research should study content validity and cross cultural adaptation of these instruments.

  2. BUSINESS SURVEYS-EVALUATION INSTRUMENT OF THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC CLIMATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SECAREANU CONSTANTIN

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Business surveys or conjuncture surveys are specific statiostical researches, but complementary to traditional, official statistics.While official statistics provide quantitive information regardin the level,structure and evolution of varied economic process and phenomena, business surveys offer quality information, essential to the short term evolutional analysis of economic indicators: the diagnosis of the current situation, the timely detection of inflexion points within the economic cycle and the rapid estimation of short term tendencies of the main macroeconomic indicators (the dynamics of the gross domestic product, the index of industrial production, etc.

  3. Measuring Quality of Life: A New and Practical Survey Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenley, James R.; Greenberg, Jan Steven; Brown, Roger

    1997-01-01

    Presents a new, short, self-administered questionnaire that assesses the quality of life in seven areas. Evidence for the reliability and validity of the questionnaire was based on data gathered from 971 clients; results indicate instrument reliability. The questionnaire features low-cost administration and valid psychometric properties. (RJM)

  4. Language Awareness Surveys: A Rationale and Three Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Joe

    Noting that language study (one leg of the traditional English tripod of language, literature, and composition) has received mixed attention internationally and is almost forgotten in North America, this paper presents a rationale for researching language awareness and three instruments that can be used in such research. The paper begins with…

  5. Development and measurement properties of the Orthotics and Prosthetics Users' Survey (OPUS): a comprehensive set of clinical outcome instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, A W; Bode, R K; O'Reilly, C

    2003-12-01

    The need to measure and evaluate orthotics and prosthetics (O&P) practice has received growing recognition in the past several years. Reliable and valid self-report instruments are needed that can help facilities evaluate patient outcomes. The objective of this project was to develop a set of self-report instruments that assess functional status, quality of life, and satisfaction with devices and services that can be used in an orthotics and prosthetics clinic. Selecting items from a variety of existing instruments, the authors developed and revised four instruments that differentiate patients with varying levels of lower limb function, quality of life, and satisfaction with devices and services. Evidence of construct validity is provided by hierarchies of item difficulty that are consistent with clinical experience. For example, with the lower limb function instrument, running one block was much more difficult than walking indoors. The instruments demonstrate adequate internal consistency (0.88 for lower limb function, 0.88 for quality of life, 0.74 for service satisfaction, 0.78 for device satisfaction). The next steps in their research programme are to evaluate sensitivity and construct validity. The Orthotics and Prosthetics Users' Survey (OPUS) is a promising self-report instrument which may, with further development, allow orthotic and prosthetic practitioners to evaluate the quality and effectiveness of their services as required by accreditation standards such as those of the American Board for Certification in Orthotics and Prosthetics that mandate quality assessment.

  6. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: instrument specification and target selection

    CERN Document Server

    Bryant, J J; Robotham, A S G; Croom, S M; Driver, S P; Drinkwater, M J; Lorente, N P F; Cortese, L; Scott, N; Colless, M; Schaefer, A; Taylor, E N; Konstantopoulos, I S; Allen, J T; Baldry, I; Barnes, L; Bauer, A E; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Bloom, J V; Brooks, A M; Brough, S; Cecil, G; Couch, W; Croton, D; Davies, R; Ellis, S; Fogarty, L M R; Foster, C; Glazebrook, K; Goodwin, M; Green, A; Gunawardhana, M L; Hampton, E; Ho, I -T; Hopkins, A M; Kewley, L; Lawrence, J S; Leon-Saval, S G; Leslie, S; Lewis, G; Liske, J; Lopez-Sanchez, A R; Mahajan, S; Medling, A M; Metcalfe, N; Meyer, M; Mould, J; Obreschkow, D; O'Toole, S; Pracy, M; Richards, S N; Shanks, T; Sharp, R; Sweet, S M; Thomas, A D; Tonini, C; Walcher, C J

    2014-01-01

    The SAMI Galaxy Survey will observe 3400 galaxies with the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral-field spectrograph (SAMI) on the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) in a 3-year survey which began in 2013. We present the throughput of the SAMI system, the science basis and specifications for the target selection, the survey observation plan and the combined properties of the selected galaxies. The survey includes four volume limited galaxy samples based on cuts in a proxy for stellar mass, along with low-stellar mass dwarf galaxies all selected from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. The GAMA regions were selected because of the vast array of ancillary data available, including ultraviolet through to radio bands. These fields are on the celestial equator at 9, 12, and 14.5 hours, and cover a total of 144 square degrees (in GAMA-I). Higher density environments are also included with the addition of eight clusters. The clusters have spectroscopy from 2dFGRS and SDSS and photometry in regions covered by the Slo...

  7. Site survey instrumentation for the National New Technology Telescope (NNTT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, F. F.; Morse, D. A.; Poczulp, G. A.

    1988-10-01

    The characterization of atmospheric turbulence at and above the two candidate sites for the 15 m National New Technology Telescope (NNTT) has required the development of specialized measurement techniques. The equipment used to measure astronomical seeing, microthermals, water vapor, and temperature is discussed, along with sample data and calibration results. By use of instruments with overlapping altitude coverage, it has been possible to 'bookkeep' qualitatively all of the sources of innate degradation, especially near the ground.

  8. School Leadership Preparation and Practice Survey Instruments and Their Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounder, Diana

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the leadership preparation line of inquiry developed in the past decade by the University Council for Educational Administration/Learning and Teaching in Educational Leadership Special Interest Group Taskforce on Evaluating Leadership Preparation Programs, and it particularly addresses the series of survey instruments…

  9. Survey of instrumentation used for monitoring metals in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinby-Hunt, M.S.

    1978-06-01

    A study was conducted of instrumentation used to determine metals in water. Several of the techniques most commonly used for analysis and routine determinations of metals in water are shown in Table 1. They are atomic absorption spectroscopy, both flame and flameless, atomic emission spectroscopy using conventional flame sources and inductively-coupled plasma sources, and ultraviolet-visible absorption techniques. Other less frequently employed methods are x-ray fluorescence analysis using both photon and charged particle excitation with energy-dispersive and wavelength-dispersive spectral analysis. Also electrochemical techniques and activation analysis are studied.

  10. The New Mexico Tech Extrasolar Spectroscopic Survey Instrument (NESSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech-Eakman, Michelle J.; Jurgenson, C.; Vasisht, G.; Swain, M.; Boston, P.; Santoro, F.

    2010-01-01

    We present the design and scientific objectives behind NESSI, a near-infrared spectroscopic purpose-built for studying exoplanet atmospheres. This instrument is being designed and assembled by a team of scientists and engineers at New Mexico Tech (NMT), the Magdalena Ridge Observatory (MRO) and NASA's Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL), and is scheduled for deployment in late 2010 at the MRO 2.4m telescope. NESSI's unique design is driven by recent space and ground-based NIR spectroscopy of exoplanet atmospheres by members of our team. Optimization of the instrument to achieve 0.01% relative accuracies in spectra of exoplanetary molecular constituents requires careful attention to certain design features and a new technical approach. We present an overview of NESSI's design, including the four major subassemblies: 1) a field derotator, 2) a reimaging module, 3) an optical guiding module, and 4) a multi-object spectrograph subassembly. We also present an overview of our science program specifically designed to build the community of exoplanet researchers and students in NM. The financial support of our team and NESSI itself have been made possible by a NM NASA EPSCoR grant, matching funds from the NMT administration, and internal support for the NESSI hardware from Dr. Van Romero, NMT's Research Vice-President.

  11. The Multi-sensor Airborne Radiation Survey (MARS) Instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Aalseth, Craig E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Asner, David M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bonebrake, Christopher A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Day, Anthony R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dorow, Kevin E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fuller, Erin S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Glasgow, Brian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hossbach, Todd W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hyronimus, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jensen, Jeffrey L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Kenneth I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jordan, David V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Morgen, Gerald P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Morris, Scott J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mullen, O Dennis [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Myers, Allan W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pitts, W. Karl [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rohrer, John S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Runkle, Robert C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Seifert, Allen [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shergur, Jason M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stave, Sean C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tatishvili, Gocha [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thompson, Robert C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Todd, Lindsay C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Warren, Glen A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Willett, Jesse A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wood, Lynn S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-01-11

    The Multi-sensor Airborne Radiation Survey (MARS) project has developed a new single cryostat detector array design for high purity germanium (HPGe) gama ray spectrometers that achieves the high detection efficiency required for stand-off detection and actionable characterization of radiological threats. This approach, we found, is necessary since a high efficiency HPGe detector can only be built as an array due to limitations in growing large germanium crystals. Moreover, the system is ruggedized and shock mounted for use in a variety of field applications, including airborne and maritime operations.

  12. Adapting the SRQ for Ethiopian Populations : A Culturally-Sensitive Psychiatric Screening Instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Youngmann, Rafael; Zilber, Nelly; Workneh, Fikre; Giel, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study was to develop a culturally sensitive psychiatric screening instrument valid for Ethiopians in Ethiopia and Israel. The study sample was composed of 356 Amharic-speaking Ethiopians from Ethiopia and Israel, aged 18-55, divided into three groups: i) general population; ii)

  13. Assessing the Learning Environment for Medical Students: An Evaluation of a Novel Survey Instrument in Four Medical Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pololi, Linda H; Evans, Arthur T; Nickell, Leslie; Reboli, Annette C; Coplit, Lisa D; Stuber, Margaret L; Vasiliou, Vasilia; Civian, Janet T; Brennan, Robert T

    2017-06-01

    A practical, reliable, and valid instrument is needed to measure the impact of the learning environment on medical students' well-being and educational experience and to meet medical school accreditation requirements. From 2012 to 2015, medical students were surveyed at the end of their first, second, and third year of studies at four medical schools. The survey assessed students' perceptions of the following nine dimensions of the school culture: vitality, self-efficacy, institutional support, relationships/inclusion, values alignment, ethical/moral distress, work-life integration, gender equity, and ethnic minority equity. The internal reliability of each of the nine dimensions was measured. Construct validity was evaluated by assessing relationships predicted by our conceptual model and prior research. Assessment was made of whether the measurements were sensitive to differences over time and across institutions. Six hundred and eighty-six students completed the survey (49 % women; 9 % underrepresented minorities), with a response rate of 89 % (range over the student cohorts 72-100 %). Internal consistency of each dimension was high (Cronbach's α 0.71-0.86). The instrument was able to detect significant differences in the learning environment across institutions and over time. Construct validity was supported by demonstrating several relationships predicted by our conceptual model. The C-Change Medical Student Survey is a practical, reliable, and valid instrument for assessing the learning environment of medical students. Because it is sensitive to changes over time and differences across institution, results could potentially be used to facilitate and monitor improvements in the learning environment of medical students.

  14. Two valuation questions in one survey: Is it a recipe for sequencing and instrument context effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, K.L.; Loomis, J.B.; Johnson, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    Economic theory suggests that willingness to pay for two goods independently offered should remain unchanged when the survey instrument changes slightly. Four survey treatments consisting of comprehensive good and a subset of that good were used. The surveys alternated in the question ordering and in the embedded good which accompanied the comprehensive good. We tested for sequencing and instrument context effects using both a combined and split sample designs. In the combined sample case we found some evidence to sequencing effects in the data containing the first subset good. Likelihood ratio tests indicated that sequencing did not effect scale or location of parameters. In the test for instrument context effects, evidence was found indicating context does effect willingness to pay estimates.

  15. Nearest Neighbor Averaging and its Effect on the Critical Level and Minimum Detectable Concentration for Scanning Radiological Survey Instruments that Perform Facility Release Surveys.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, Sean Donovan; Beall, Patrick S; Miller, Mark L

    2014-08-01

    Through the SNL New Mexico Small Business Assistance (NMSBA) program, several Sandia engineers worked with the Environmental Restoration Group (ERG) Inc. to verify and validate a novel algorithm used to determine the scanning Critical Level (L c ) and Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) (or Minimum Detectable Areal Activity) for the 102F scanning system. Through the use of Monte Carlo statistical simulations the algorithm mathematically demonstrates accuracy in determining the L c and MDC when a nearest-neighbor averaging (NNA) technique was used. To empirically validate this approach, SNL prepared several spiked sources and ran a test with the ERG 102F instrument on a bare concrete floor known to have no radiological contamination other than background naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The tests conclude that the NNA technique increases the sensitivity (decreases the L c and MDC) for high-density data maps that are obtained by scanning radiological survey instruments.

  16. An integrated low 1/f noise and high-sensitivity CMOS instrumentation amplifier for TMR sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiqiang; Luan, Bo; Zhao, Jincai; Liu, Xiaowei

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a very low 1/f noise integrated Wheatstone bridge magnetoresistive sensor ASIC based on magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) technology is presented for high sensitivity measurements. The present CMOS instrumentation amplifier employs the gain-boost folded-cascode structure based on the capacitive-feedback chopper-stabilized technique. By chopping both the input and the output of the amplifier, combined with MTJ magnetoresistive sensitive elements, a noise equivalent magnetoresistance 1 nT/Hz1/2 at 2 Hz, the equivalent input noise spectral density 17 nV/Hz1/2(@2Hz) is achieved. The chip-scale package of the TMR sensor and the instrumentation amplifier is only about 5 mm × 5 mm × 1 mm, while the whole DC current dissipates only 2 mA.

  17. Using Moodle as On-line Survey Instrument in Medical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan ISTRATE

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the principal issues in any university community is the lack of communication between community categories – leadership, administration, teaching staff and students. Sometimes is important to know in a short time the opinion of one particular group, without investing a lot of resources and without being extremely formal. The aim of this study was to test if an open-source platform – Moodle – can be used for quick surveys inside the Faculty of Medicine, UMF “Iuliu Hatieganu” Cluj-Napoca community. For this, on existing Moodle platform was installed one specific survey instrument – a questionnaire module and a survey containing a real life issue to the students of Faculty of Medicine was launched. The researchers have focused on how the specific problems of a survey - preparing of the survey, the survey process and the analysis of the results can be handle in Moodle. The pilot survey was a success; the conclusion of the study was that Moodle can be used as on-line survey instrument for that community.

  18. Citation searches are more sensitive than keyword searches to identify studies using specific measurement instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Suzanne K; Kamath, Geetanjali R; Pratt, Gregory F; Saraykar, Smita S; Volk, Robert J

    2015-04-01

    To compare the effectiveness of two search methods in identifying studies that used the Control Preferences Scale (CPS), a health care decision-making instrument commonly used in clinical settings. We searched the literature using two methods: (1) keyword searching using variations of "Control Preferences Scale" and (2) cited reference searching using two seminal CPS publications. We searched three bibliographic databases [PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science (WOS)] and one full-text database (Google Scholar). We report precision and sensitivity as measures of effectiveness. Keyword searches in bibliographic databases yielded high average precision (90%) but low average sensitivity (16%). PubMed was the most precise, followed closely by Scopus and WOS. The Google Scholar keyword search had low precision (54%) but provided the highest sensitivity (70%). Cited reference searches in all databases yielded moderate sensitivity (45-54%), but precision ranged from 35% to 75% with Scopus being the most precise. Cited reference searches were more sensitive than keyword searches, making it a more comprehensive strategy to identify all studies that use a particular instrument. Keyword searches provide a quick way of finding some but not all relevant articles. Goals, time, and resources should dictate the combination of which methods and databases are used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Objectively combining AR5 instrumental period and paleoclimate climate sensitivity evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nicholas; Grünwald, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Combining instrumental period evidence regarding equilibrium climate sensitivity with largely independent paleoclimate proxy evidence should enable a more constrained sensitivity estimate to be obtained. Previous, subjective Bayesian approaches involved selection of a prior probability distribution reflecting the investigators' beliefs about climate sensitivity. Here a recently developed approach employing two different statistical methods—objective Bayesian and frequentist likelihood-ratio—is used to combine instrumental period and paleoclimate evidence based on data presented and assessments made in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. Probabilistic estimates from each source of evidence are represented by posterior probability density functions (PDFs) of physically-appropriate form that can be uniquely factored into a likelihood function and a noninformative prior distribution. The three-parameter form is shown accurately to fit a wide range of estimated climate sensitivity PDFs. The likelihood functions relating to the probabilistic estimates from the two sources are multiplicatively combined and a prior is derived that is noninformative for inference from the combined evidence. A posterior PDF that incorporates the evidence from both sources is produced using a single-step approach, which avoids the order-dependency that would arise if Bayesian updating were used. Results are compared with an alternative approach using the frequentist signed root likelihood ratio method. Results from these two methods are effectively identical, and provide a 5-95% range for climate sensitivity of 1.1-4.05 K (median 1.87 K).

  20. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described.

  1. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised.

  2. Development and validation of a survey instrument to measure children's advertising literacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendaal, E.; Opree, S.J.; Buijzen, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a survey measurement instrument for children's advertising literacy. Based on the multidimensional conceptualization of advertising literacy by 0056"> Rozendaal, Lapierre, Van Reijmersdal, and Buijzen (2011), 39 items were created to measure two d

  3. Establishing Educational Priorities through the Illinois Problems Index. Survey Instruments [and] User's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    The Illinois Problems Index (IPI), a process with supporting survey instruments, enables local school districts to assess and evaluate the adequacy of current programs and services and plan improvements where problems exist. A User's Manual provides a step-by-step "walk through" of the process, while permitting alternative techniques for…

  4. Development and validation of a survey instrument to measure children's advertising literacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendaal, E.; Opree, S.J.; Buijzen, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a survey measurement instrument for children's advertising literacy. Based on the multidimensional conceptualization of advertising literacy by 0056"> Rozendaal, Lapierre, Van Reijmersdal, and Buijzen (2011), 39 items were created to measure two

  5. Comparing NICU teamwork and safety climate across two commonly used survey instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profit, Jochen; Lee, Henry C; Sharek, Paul J; Kan, Peggy; Nisbet, Courtney C; Thomas, Eric J; Etchegaray, Jason M; Sexton, Bryan

    2016-12-01

    Measurement and our understanding of safety culture are still evolving. The objectives of this study were to assess variation in safety and teamwork climate and in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) setting, and compare measurement of safety culture scales using two different instruments (Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) and Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC)). Cross-sectional survey study of a voluntary sample of 2073 (response rate 62.9%) health professionals in 44 NICUs. To compare survey instruments, we used Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. We also compared similar scales and items across the instruments using t tests and changes in quartile-level performance. We found significant variation across NICUs in safety and teamwork climate scales of SAQ and HSOPSC (pteamwork scales (teamwork climate and teamwork within units) of the two instruments correlated strongly (safety r=0.72, pteamwork r=0.67, p<0.001). However, the means and per cent agreements for all scale scores and even seemingly similar item scores were significantly different. In addition, comparisons of scale score quartiles between the two instruments revealed that half of the NICUs fell into different quartiles when translating between the instruments. Large variation and opportunities for improvement in patient safety culture exist across NICUs. Important systematic differences exist between SAQ and HSOPSC such that these instruments should not be used interchangeably. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument for plasma thruster exhausts and diffusive plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Michael D.; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod W. [Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Group, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2009-05-15

    A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument based on a compound pendulum has been developed for use with electric propulsion devices and radio frequency driven plasmas. A laser displacement system, which builds upon techniques used by the materials science community for surface stress measurements, is used to measure with high sensitivity the displacement of a target plate placed in a plasma thruster exhaust. The instrument has been installed inside a vacuum chamber and calibrated via two different methods and is able to measure forces in the range of 0.02-0.5 mN with a resolution of 15 {mu}N. Measurements have been made of the force produced from the cold gas flow and with a discharge ignited using argon propellant. The plasma is generated using a Helicon Double Layer Thruster prototype. The instrument target is placed about 1 mean free path for ion-neutral charge exchange collisions downstream of the thruster exit. At this position, the plasma consists of a low density ion beam (10%) and a much larger downstream component (90%). The results are in good agreement with those determined from the plasma parameters measured with diagnostic probes. Measurements at various flow rates show that variations in ion beam velocity and plasma density and the resulting momentum flux can be measured with this instrument. The instrument target is a simple, low cost device, and since the laser displacement system used is located outside the vacuum chamber, the measurement technique is free from radio frequency interference and thermal effects. It could be used to measure the thrust in the exhaust of other electric propulsion devices and the momentum flux of ion beams formed by expanding plasmas or fusion experiments.

  7. A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument for plasma thruster exhausts and diffusive plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Michael D.; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod W.

    2009-05-01

    A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument based on a compound pendulum has been developed for use with electric propulsion devices and radio frequency driven plasmas. A laser displacement system, which builds upon techniques used by the materials science community for surface stress measurements, is used to measure with high sensitivity the displacement of a target plate placed in a plasma thruster exhaust. The instrument has been installed inside a vacuum chamber and calibrated via two different methods and is able to measure forces in the range of 0.02-0.5mN with a resolution of 15μN. Measurements have been made of the force produced from the cold gas flow and with a discharge ignited using argon propellant. The plasma is generated using a Helicon Double Layer Thruster prototype. The instrument target is placed about 1 mean free path for ion-neutral charge exchange collisions downstream of the thruster exit. At this position, the plasma consists of a low density ion beam (10%) and a much larger downstream component (90%). The results are in good agreement with those determined from the plasma parameters measured with diagnostic probes. Measurements at various flow rates show that variations in ion beam velocity and plasma density and the resulting momentum flux can be measured with this instrument. The instrument target is a simple, low cost device, and since the laser displacement system used is located outside the vacuum chamber, the measurement technique is free from radio frequency interference and thermal effects. It could be used to measure the thrust in the exhaust of other electric propulsion devices and the momentum flux of ion beams formed by expanding plasmas or fusion experiments.

  8. Instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehrer, W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    The present paper mediates a basic knowledge of the most commonly used experimental techniques. We discuss the principles and concepts necessary to understand what one is doing if one performs an experiment on a certain instrument. (author) 29 figs., 1 tab., refs.

  9. Adapting the SRQ for Ethiopian populations: a culturally-sensitive psychiatric screening instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngmann, Rafael; Zilber, Nelly; Workneh, Fikre; Giel, Robert

    2008-12-01

    The objective of the study was to develop a culturally sensitive psychiatric screening instrument valid for Ethiopians in Ethiopia and Israel. The study sample was composed of 356 Amharic-speaking Ethiopians from Ethiopia and Israel, aged 18-55, divided into three groups: i) general population; ii) people in non-psychiatric treatment; iii) people in psychiatric treatment. They were interviewed with the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ), modified to include 10 culturally specific items, and the Brief Psychiatric Research Scale (BPRS) as a criterion of psychopathology. Physicians also completed an encounter form about the presence of mental health symptoms in participants. To make the questions more culturespecific, the translation of 12 items on the SRQ was changed. The content, construct, and criterion validity of each question were also examined, leading to the deletion of five items. The validity of the revised instrument (SRQ-F) was superior to that of the original instrument (SRQ). This study demonstrates the need for psychiatric screening instruments to be adapted to different cultures by incorporating meaningful translations and adding culturally specific items.

  10. Environmentally Sensitive Areas Surveys Program threatened and endangered species survey: Progress report. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, A.L.; Awl, D.J.; Gabrielsen, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    The Endangered Species Act (originally passed in 1973) is a Federal statute that protects both animal and plant species. The Endangered Species Act identifies species which are, without careful management, in danger of becoming extinct and species that are considered threatened. Along with the designation of threatened or endangered, the Endangered Species Act provides for the identification of appropriate habitat for these species. Since 1993, the United States Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program has supported a program to survey the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for threatened and endangered species. The Environmentally Sensitive Areas Surveys Program initiated vascular plant surveys during fiscal year 1993 and vertebrate animal surveys during fiscal year 1994 to determine the baseline condition of threatened and endangered species on the ORR at the present time. Data collected during these surveys are currently aiding Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigations on the ORR. They also provide data for ER and Waste Management decision documents, ensure that decisions have technical and legal defensibility, provide a baseline for ensuring compliance with principal legal requirements and will increase public confidence in DOE`s adherence to all related environmental resources rules, laws, regulations, and instructions. This report discusses the progress to date of the threatened and endangered species surveys of the ORR.

  11. Understanding Teachers' Conceptions of Classroom Inquiry With a Teaching Scenario Survey Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nam-Hwa; Orgill, Marykay; Crippen, Kent J.

    2008-08-01

    A survey instrument using everyday teaching scenarios was developed to measure teacher conceptions of inquiry. Validity of the instrument was established by comparing responses for a group of secondary teachers to narrative writing and group discussion. Participating teachers used only three of the five essential features of inquiry detailed in the standards documents (NRC 2000) when expressing their ideas of classroom inquiry. The features of ‘evaluating explanations in connection with scientific knowledge’ and ‘communicating explanations’ were rarely mentioned. These missing components indicate a gap between the teachers’ conceptions of inquiry and the ideals of the reform movement.

  12. Vertical spatial sensitivity and exploration depth of low-induction-number electromagnetic-induction instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegary, J.B.; Ferre, T. P. A.; Groom, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    Vertical spatial sensitivity and effective depth of exploration (d e) of low-induction-number (LIN) instruments over a layered soil were evaluated using a complete numerical solution to Maxwell's equations. Previous studies using approximate mathematical solutions predicted a vertical spatial sensitivity for instruments operating under LIN conditions that, for a given transmitter-receiver coil separation (s), coil orientation, and transmitter frequency, should depend solely on depth below the land surface. When not operating under LIN conditions, vertical spatial sensitivity and de also depend on apparent soil electrical conductivity (??a) and therefore the induction number (??). In this new evaluation, we determined the range of ??a and ?? values for which the LIN conditions hold and how de changes when they do not. Two-layer soil models were simulated with both horizontal (HCP) and vertical (VCP) coplanar coil orientations. Soil layers were given electrical conductivity values ranging from 0.1 to 200 mS m-1. As expected, de decreased as ??a increased. Only the least electrically conductive soil produced the de expected when operating under LIN conditions. For the VCP orientation, this was 1.6s, decreasing to 0.8s in the most electrically conductive soil. For the HCP orientation, de decreased from 0.76s to 0.51s. Differences between this and previous studies are attributed to inadequate representation of skin-depth effect and scattering at interfaces between layers. When using LIN instruments to identify depth to water tables, interfaces between soil layers, and variations in salt or moisture content, it is important to consider the dependence of de on ??a. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  13. The residual stress instrument with optimized Si(220) monochromator and position-sensitive detector at HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang-Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yusung, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Myung-Kook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yusung, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: moonmk@kaeri.re.kr; Em, Vyacheslav T. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yusung, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young-Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yusung, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Jong-Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yusung, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Uk-Won [Korea Astronomy Observatory, Yusung, Daejon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Kong, Kyung-Nam [Korea Astronomy Observatory, Yusung, Daejon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-06-11

    An upgraded residual stress instrument at the HANARO reactor of the KAERI is described. A horizontally focusing bent perfect crystal Si(220) monochromator (instead of a mosaic vertical focusing Ge monochromator) is installed in a drum with a tunable (2{theta}{sub M}=0-60{sup o}) take-off angle/wavelength. A specially designed position-sensitive detector (60% efficiency for {lambda}=1.8A) with 200mm (instead of 100mm) high-active area is used. There are no Soller type collimators in the instrument. The minimum possible monochromator to sample distance, L{sub MS}=2m, and sample to detector distance, L{sub SD}=1.2m, were found to be optimal. The new PSD and bent Si(220) monochromator combined with the possibility of selecting an appropriate wavelength resulted in about a ten-fold gain in data collection rate. The optimal reflections of austenitic and ferritic steels, aluminum and nickel for stress measurements with a Si(220) monochromator were chosen experimentally. The ability of the instrument to make strain measurements deep inside the austenitic and ferritic steels has been tested. For the chosen reflections and wavelengths, no shift of peak position (apparent strain) was observed up to 56mm length of path.

  14. Development of an underground low background instrument for high sensitivity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, E.; Hahn, I. S.; Kang, W. G.; Kim, G. W.; Kim, Y. D.; Lee, M. H.; Leonard, D. S.; Park, Su Yeon

    2016-05-01

    The Center for Underground Physics has developed in collaboration with CANBERRA a low background instrument composed of 14 HPGe detectors divided in two arrays facing each other. The performance and the background of a single detector of the array have been studied in order to improve the array final configuration. An accurate material selection, through the measurements of building material samples and Monte Carlo simulations based on Geant4, has been performed to reach the lowest possible intrinsic background. Alternative materials and configurations have been considered for the final design of the array simulating the expected intrinsic background of the instrument considering the needed changes. The expected sensitivity of the improved array configuration, concerning the low background material selection for rare events physics experiments, has been evaluated through Monte Carlo simulations considering 232Th concentration in a Copper sample. Since the array can also be used for rare decays searches, the expected sensitivity on the 156Dy resonant double electron capture has thus been calculated.

  15. Understanding nature's particle accelerators using high energy gamma-ray survey instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekara, Anushka Udara

    Nature's particle accelerators, such as Pulsars, Pulsar Wind Nebulae, Active Galactic Nuclei and Supernova Remnants accelerate charged particles to very high energies that then produce high energy photons. The particle acceleration mechanisms and the high energy photon emission mechanisms are poorly understood phenomena. These mechanisms can be understood either by studying individual sources in detail or, alternatively, using the collective properties of a sample of sources. Recent development of GeV survey instruments, such as Fermi-LAT, and TeV survey instruments, such as Milagro, provides a large sample of high energy gamma-ray flux measurements from galactic and extra-galactic sources. In this thesis I provide constraints on GeV and TeV radiation mechanisms using the X-ray-TeV correlations and GeV-TeV correlations. My data sample was obtained from three targeted searches for extragalactic sources and two targeted search for galactic sources, using the existing Milagro sky maps. The first extragalactic candidate list consists of Fermi-LAT GeV extragalactic sources, and the second extragalactic candidate list consists of TeVCat extragalactic sources that have been detected by Imaging Atmospheric Cerenkov Telescopes (IACTs). In both extragalactic candidate lists Markarian 421 was the only source detected by Milagro. A comparison between the Markarian 421 time-averaged flux, measured by Milagro, and the flux measurements of transient states, measured by IACTs, is discussed. The third extragalactic candidate list is a list of potential TeV emitting BL Lac candidates that was synthesized using X-ray observations of BL Lac objects and a Synchrotron Self-Compton model. Milagro's sensitivity was not sufficient to detect any of those candidates. However, the 95% confidence flux upper limits of those sources were above the predicted flux. Therefore, these results provide evidence to conclude that the Synchrotron Self-Compton model for BL Lac objects is still a viable

  16. Spectra-resolved technique of a sensitive time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhouyi; Tian, Zhen; Jia, Yali

    2004-07-01

    The lanthanide trivalence ion and its chelates are used for marking substance in time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (TRFIA), marking the protein, hormone, antibody, nucleic acid probe or biologica alive cell, to measure the concentration of the analysis substance inside the reaction system with time-resolved fluorometry after the reaction system occurred, and attain the quantitative analysis's purpose. TRFIA has been become a kind of new and more sensitive measure method after radioisotope marking, enzymatic marking, chemiluminescence, electrochemiluminescence, it primarily is decided by the special physics and chemistry characteristic of lanthanide trivalence ion and its chelates. In this paper, the result of spectroscopic evaluation of europium trivalence ion and its chelate, and the principle of spectra-resolved technology and a sensitive time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay instrument made by ourselves are reported. In the set, a high frequency Xenon pulsed-light was adopted as exciting light, and two special filters was utilized according to spectra-resolved technique. Thus the influence of scattering light and short-lifetime fluorescence was removed. And the sensitivity is 10-12mol/L (when Eu3+ was used for marking substance), examination repeat is CV = 95% (p < 0.01).

  17. Advanced Camera for Surveys Instrument Handbook for Cycle 25 v. 16.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, R. J.

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), a third-generation instrument, was installed in the Hubble Space Telescope during Servicing Mission 3B, on March 7, 2002. Its primary purpose was to increase HST imaging discovery efficiency by about a factor of 10, with a combination of detector area and quantum efficiency that surpasses previous instruments. ACS has three independent cameras that have provided wide-field, high resolution, and ultraviolet imaging capabilities respectively, using a broad assortment of filters designed to address a large range of scientific goals. In addition, coronagraphic, polarimetric, and grism capabilities have made the ACS a versatile and powerful instrument. The ACS Instrument Handbook, which is maintained by the ACS Team at STScI, descr ibes the instrument properties, performance, operations, and calibration. It is the basic technical reference manual for the instrument, and should be used with other documents (listed in Table 1.1) for writing Phase I proposals, detailed Phase II programs, and for data analysis. (See Figure 1.1). In May 2009, Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) successfully restored the ACS Wide Field Camera (WFC) to regular service after its failure in January 2007. Unfortunately, the ACS High Resolution Camera (HRC) was not restored to operation during SM4, so it cannot be proposed for new observations. Nevertheless, this handbook retains description of the HRC to support analysis of archived observations. The ACS Solar Blind Channel (SBC) was unaffected by the January 2007 failure of WFC and HRC. The SBC has remained in steady operation, and was not serviced during SM4. It remains available for new observations.

  18. Stereo-SCIDAR: Optical turbulence profiling with high sensitivity using a modified SCIDAR instrument

    CERN Document Server

    Shepherd, H W; Wilson, R W; Butterley, T; Avila, R; Dhillon, V S; Morris, T J

    2013-01-01

    The next generation of adaptive optics (AO) systems will require tomographic reconstruction techniques to map the optical refractive index fluctuations, generated by the atmospheric turbulence, along the line of sight to the astronomical target. These systems can be enhanced with data from an external atmospheric profiler. This is important for Extremely Large Telescope scale tomography. Here we propose a new instrument which utilises the generalised SCIntillation Detection And Ranging (SCIDAR) technique to allow high sensitivity vertical profiles of the atmospheric optical turbulence and wind velocity profile above astronomical observatories. The new approach, which we refer to as 'Stereo-SCIDAR', uses a stereoscopic system with the scintillation pattern from each star of a double-star target incident on a separate detector. Separating the pupil images for each star has several advantages including: increased magnitude difference tolerance for the target stars; negating the need for re-calibration due to the...

  19. The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI): Science from the DESI Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstein, Daniel; DESI Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) will enable an ambitious redshift survey to probe dark energy by the baryon acoustic oscillation and redshift-space distortion methods. The same data set will serve numerous other goals in cosmology and astrophysics. Using a new 5000-fiber instrument and 8 square degree field of view at the Mayall telescope, the DESI survey plans to cover 14,000 square degrees and about 25 million high-redshift objects. The targets include 4M luminous red galaxies (redshift 0.4-1.0), 18M emission line galaxies (redshift 0.6-1.6), and 2.4M quasars, including 0.7M Lyman-alpha forest sight lines. With this, DESI can map the expansion history of the Universe to redshift 3, achieving unprecedented performance from the baryon acoustic oscillation method. We will describe the present state of the survey design and the cosmological forecasts for dark energy, inflation, and neutrino physics. We also give an update on the DESI Science Collaboration.

  20. The Application of Surveying Biochemistry Light Instrument in the Reaction System of Starch with Mn3+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Zhengbiao; Wu Jiagen

    2000-01-01

    The possibility of the application of Surveying Biochemistry Light Instrument (SBLI) in the reaction system of starch with Mn3+was studied. The results showed: neither starch nor initiator(Mn3+) could produce light because no factor that could produce light existed in them. But starch could produce light when it was acted by Mn3 + and the intensity of light depended on the kind and concentration of starch, the amount of Mn3 +, the temperature and pH of the reaction system. In addition, the intensity of light decreased with the reaction time because of the gradual disappearance of starch free radicals.

  1. Creation and Use of a Survey Instrument for Comparing Mobile Computing Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macri, Jennifer M.; Lee, Paul P.; Silvey, Garry M.; Lobach, David F.

    2005-01-01

    Both personal digital assistants (PDAs) and tablet computers have emerged to facilitate data collection at the point of care. However, little research has been reported comparing these mobile computing devices in specific care settings. In this study we present an approach for comparing functionally identical applications on a Palm operating system-based PDA and a Windows-based tablet computer for point-of-care documentation of clinical observations by eye care professionals when caring for patients with diabetes. Eye-care professionals compared the devices through focus group sessions and through validated usability surveys. This poster describes the development and use of the survey instrument used for comparing mobile computing devices. PMID:16779327

  2. Impact of and correction for instrument sensitivity drift on nanoparticle size measurements by single-particle ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hadri, Hind; Petersen, Elijah J; Winchester, Michael R

    2016-07-01

    The effect of ICP-MS instrument sensitivity drift on the accuracy of nanoparticle (NP) size measurements using single particle (sp)ICP-MS is investigated. Theoretical modeling and experimental measurements of the impact of instrument sensitivity drift are in agreement and indicate that drift can impact the measured size of spherical NPs by up to 25 %. Given this substantial bias in the measured size, a method was developed using an internal standard to correct for the impact of drift and was shown to accurately correct for a decrease in instrument sensitivity of up to 50 % for 30 and 60 nm gold nanoparticles. Graphical Abstract Correction of nanoparticle size measurement by spICP-MS using an internal standard.

  3. Gas chromatography coupled with atomic absorption spectrometry — a sensitive instrumentation for mercury speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emteborg, Håkan; Sinemus, Hans-Werner; Radziuk, Bernard; Baxter, Douglas C.; Frech, Wolfgang

    1996-07-01

    New instrumentation for the speciation of mercury is described, and is applied to the analysis of natural water samples. The separation of mercury species is effected using gas chromatography of derivatized mercury species on a widebore capillary column. The solvent is vented using a bypass valve and the separated mercury species are pyrolysed on-line at 800°C for production of mercury atoms. These are then detected by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) at the 253.7 and 184.9 nm lines simultaneously in a quartz cuvette. The use of the 184.9 nm line provides a more than five-fold increase in sensitivity compared with the conventional 253.7 nm line and an absolute detection limit of 0.5 pg of mercury. The dynamic range of the combined analytical lines provides a linear response over more than three orders of magnitude. A number of organic compounds not containing mercury are also detected following pyrolysis, especially at the 184.9 nm line. These background species must not co-elute at the retention times for methyl- and inorganic mercury, as otherwise a positive interference would result. By maximizing the chromatographic resolution and minimizing the band broadening in the cuvette by use of a make-up gas, the retention times of interest are freed from co-eluting background peaks. The instrumentation has been applied to the determination of ng l -1 concentrations of methyl- and inorganic mercury in Lake Constance, Germany and within the Lake Constance drinking water supply organization, Bodenseewasserversorgung (BWV). The accuracy for the sum of methyl- and inorganic mercury has been assessed by comparison with an independent method for total mercury based on AAS detection implemented at BWV. Relative detection limits using 1 litre water samples and 15 ml injections of the final hexane extract were 0.03 ng l -1 for methylmercury and 0.4 ng l -1 for inorganic mercury based on the 3j criterion.

  4. Assessing or Reaffirming Accreditation Criteria for the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS): Development of an Alumni Survey Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William L.; Johnson, Annabel M.

    The "Criteria for Accreditation" (1991) and reaffirmation published by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools were validated through a survey of alumni. The criteria were developed to assist institutions in evaluating their effectiveness. In all, 2,300 survey instruments were mailed to college alumni in the United States. Of…

  5. Predicting Student Performance in Web-Based Distance Education Courses Based on Survey Instruments Measuring Personality Traits and Technical Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Two common web-based surveys, "Is Online Learning Right for Me?' and "What Technical Skills Do I Need?", were combined into a single survey instrument and given to 228 on-campus and 83 distance education students. The students were enrolled in four different classes (business, computer information services, criminal justice, and…

  6. Psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the hospital-level consumer assessment of health plans survey (R) instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.A. Arah; A.H.A. ten Asbroek; D.M.J. Delnoij; J.S. de Koning; P.J.A. Stam; A.H. Poll; B. Vriens; P.F. Schmidt; N.S. Klazinga

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the reliability and validity of a translated version of the American Hospital-level Consumer Assessment of Health Plans Survey (R) (H-CAHPS) instrument for use in Dutch health care. Data Sources/Study Setting. Primary survey data from adults aged 18 years or more who were recen

  7. Impact of and correction for instrument sensitivity drift on nanoparticle size measurements by single-particle ICP-MS

    OpenAIRE

    El Hadri, Hind; Petersen, Elijah J.; Winchester, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of ICP-MS instrument sensitivity drift on the accuracy of NP size measurements using single particle (sp)ICP-MS is investigated. Theoretical modeling and experimental measurements of the impact of instrument sensitivity drift are in agreement and indicate that drift can impact the measured size of spherical NPs by up to 25 %. Given this substantial bias in the measured size, a method was developed using an internal standard to correct for the impact of drift and was shown to accura...

  8. Measuring determinants of career satisfaction of anesthesiologists: validation of a survey instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Anoushka M; Diaz, James H; Scher, Corey S; Beyl, Robbie A; Nair, Singh R; Kaye, Alan David

    2013-06-01

    To measure the parameter of job satisfaction among anesthesiologists. Survey instrument. Academic anesthesiology departments in the United States. 320 anesthesiologists who attended the annual meeting of the ASA in 2009 (95% response rate). The anonymous 50-item survey collected information on 26 independent demographic variables and 24 dependent ranked variables of career satisfaction among practicing anesthesiologists. Mean survey scores were calculated for each demographic variable and tested for statistically significant differences by analysis of variance. Questions within each domain that were internally consistent with each other within domains were identified by Cronbach's alpha ≥ 0.7. P-values ≤ 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Cronbach's alpha analysis showed strong internal consistency for 10 dependent outcome questions in the practice factor-related domain (α = 0.72), 6 dependent outcome questions in the peer factor-related domain (α = 0.71), and 8 dependent outcome questions in the personal factor-related domain (α = 0.81). Although age was not a variable, full-time status, early satisfaction within the first 5 years of practice, working with respected peers, and personal choice factors were all significantly associated with anesthesiologist job satisfaction. Improvements in factors related to job satisfaction among anesthesiologists may lead to higher early and current career satisfaction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Survey Instruments for Knowledge, Skills, Attitudes and Behaviour Related to Evidence-based Practice in Occupational Therapy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Helen; Siegfried, Nandi; Jelsma, Jennifer

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate, through a systematic review, assessment instruments for evidence-based practice (EBP). The specific objectives were to (1) identify survey instruments testing EBP knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviour; (2) determine the attributes measured by each instrument; (3) evaluate the psychometric properties of the instruments; and (4) evaluate the methodological quality of the instruments. Using the Cochrane approach, searches were conducted in Pubmed, EBSCOHost and Scopus from inception to February 2014. Papers were screened by two independent assessors, and data were extracted by one researcher. Forty papers reporting 34 instruments met the inclusion criteria and were included in the qualitative synthesis. Most instruments measured EBP behaviour (n = 33) and attitudes (n = 21). This review provides a single source of information to enable researchers to select the most robust descriptive instruments to measure EBP learner attributes. Instruments used only with occupational therapists may have resulted in some instruments being missed. For further research, it is recommended that attention is given to developing objective instruments with a focus on knowledge and skills. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. A Survey of Commercially Available Chemical Agent Instrumentation for Use in the Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, J S; Alcaraz, A; Andresen, B D; Pruneda, C O

    2002-03-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Forensic Science Center (FSC) has extensive experience and capabilities in the analysis of chemical agents (CA) and related compounds as well as experience in identifying these materials in the field (i.e. samples such as those found in soils, liquids, gases). An open source survey was performed to determine viable, commercially available technology that can detect, in situ, CA and also meet field-use performance criteria as specified by the Program Management Consultant (PMC). The performance requirements of the technology include accuracy, reliability, integration onto robotics, and chemical detection sensitivities that meet required specifications. Not included in this survey are technologies and methodologies to detect CA decomposition products and related waste streams.

  11. A sensitive, selective, and portable detector for contraband: The compact integrated narcotics detection instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuemer, T.O.; Doan, L.; Su, C.W.; Baritelle, J.; Rhoton, B.

    2000-07-01

    A Compact Integrated Narcotics Detection Instrument (CINDI) has been developed at NOVA R and D, Inc., in cooperation with the US Coast Guard. This detector utilizes neutrons emitted from {sup 252}Cf. Neutrons emitted from the front face of CINDI penetrate dense compartment barrier materials with little change in energy but are backscattered by hydrogen-rich materials such as drugs. The backscattered neutrons are detected, and the rate is displayed by a microprocessor-controller integrated into CINDI. The operator guides the detector along a suspected area and receives immediate feedback from the state-of-the-art electronics. For user safety, the device incorporates a highly sensitive detection scheme to permit the use of a very weak radioactive source, without compromising detectability. CINDI is capable of detecting narcotics effectively behind panels made of steel, wood, fiberglass, or even lead-lined materials. This makes it useful for inspecting marine vessels, ship bulkheads, automobiles, structure walls, or small sealed containers. Figure 2 shows three views of the CINDI instrument. CINDI responds strongly to hydrogen-rich materials such as narcotics. It has been tested at NOVA, the US Coast Guard, and Brewt Power Systems. The results of the tests show excellent response and specificity to narcotics. CINDI has led to a new technology that shows promise for identifying the concealed contraband. The new technique uses a fusion of two independent but complementary signals for detecting and possibly identifying concealed drugs in a variety of carriers such as vehicles, marine vessels, airplanes, containers, cargo, and luggage. The carriers will be scanned using both neutron and gamma-ray sources. The signal from both the neutron and gamma-ray backscattering and/or transmission can be used simultaneously to detect and possibly identify the contrabands it has been trained for. A system that can produce three-dimensional images for both signals may also be developed

  12. Sensitivity studies of SREM instrument response and spectral unfolding to particle environment anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdas, Wojtek; Xiao, Hualin; Marcinkowski, Radoslaw

    2016-04-01

    The Standard Radiation Environment Monitor (SREM) is installed on several ESA satellites to monitor space radiation environment of protons and electrons [1]. With its 15 spectroscopy channels the monitor can distinguish between particle species and provide information on their energy spectra. Measurements are based on three sensors located behind different shielding materials. Two of them are arranged into a telescope. All SREM instruments have been carefully calibrated and modelled during laboratory preparation phase. Space data are unfolded using a wide range of methods ranging from simple fit functions to response matrix inversions [2]. Cross comparisons often show discrepancies reaching even an order of magnitude. They are usually attributed to the particle environment anisotropy. Due to various thicknesses of the shielding given by SREM itself and the spacecraft mass distributions the response functions show directional sensitivity. Knowing the spacecraft orientation with respect to the magnetic field allows for more accurate spectral measurements [3]. It is not always possible as only some spacecraft with SREM on board provide such information. This study utilizes pitch angle distributions of particles in the radiation belts for improved unfolding of the SREM energy spectra. Both, random and known SREM orientations with respect to the magnetic field are investigated. Results are given for wide range of numerical studies and for space measurements based on the PROBA1 mission [4]. They contribute to improved accuracy of SREM spectral measurements and give valuable inputs to design of new spacecraft radiation instruments. Literature [1 A. Hajdas, P. Bühler, C. Eggel, P. Favre, A. Mchedlishvili, and A. Zehnder, "Radiation environment along the INTEGRAL orbit measured with the IREM monitor," Astro. Astrophys., vol. 411, pp. L43-L47, 2003. [2] I. Sandberg, I. A. Daglis, A. Anastasiadis, P. Bühler, P. Nieminen, and H. Evans, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. vol. 59, no. 4

  13. Development and validation of a survey instrument for assessing prescribers' perception of computerized drug-drug interaction alerts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kai; Fear, Kathleen; Chaffee, Bruce W; Zimmerman, Christopher R; Karls, Edward M; Gatwood, Justin D; Stevenson, James G; Pearlman, Mark D

    2011-12-01

    To develop a theoretically informed and empirically validated survey instrument for assessing prescribers' perception of computerized drug-drug interaction (DDI) alerts. The survey is grounded in the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology and an adapted accident causation model. Development of the instrument was also informed by a review of the extant literature on prescribers' attitude toward computerized medication safety alerts and common prescriber-provided reasons for overriding. To refine and validate the survey, we conducted a two-stage empirical validation study consisting of a pretest with a panel of domain experts followed by a field test among all eligible prescribers at our institution. The resulting survey instrument contains 28 questionnaire items assessing six theoretical dimensions: performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions, perceived fatigue, and perceived use behavior. Satisfactory results were obtained from the field validation; however, a few potential issues were also identified. We analyzed these issues accordingly and the results led to the final survey instrument as well as usage recommendations. High override rates of computerized medication safety alerts have been a prevalent problem. They are usually caused by, or manifested in, issues of poor end user acceptance. However, standardized research tools for assessing and understanding end users' perception are currently lacking, which inhibits knowledge accumulation and consequently forgoes improvement opportunities. The survey instrument presented in this paper may help fill this methodological gap. We developed and empirically validated a survey instrument that may be useful for future research on DDI alerts and other types of computerized medication safety alerts more generally.

  14. Measuring social exclusion in routine public health surveys: construction of a multidimensional instrument.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addi P L van Bergen

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Social exclusion is considered a major factor in the causation and maintenance of health inequalities, but its measurement in health research is still in its infancy. In the Netherlands the Institute for Social Research (SCP developed an instrument to measure the multidimensional concept of social exclusion in social and economic policy research. Here, we present a method to construct a similar measure of social exclusion using available data from public health surveys. METHODS: Analyses were performed on data from the health questionnaires that were completed by 20,877 adults in the four largest cities in the Netherlands. From each of the four questionnaires we selected the items that corresponded to those of the SCP-instrument. These were entered into a nonlinear canonical correlation analysis. The measurement properties of the resulting indices and dimension scales were assessed and compared to the SCP-instrument. RESULTS: The internal consistency of the indices and most of the dimension scales were adequate and the internal structure of the indices was as expected. Both generalisabiliy and construct validity were good: in all datasets strong associations were found between the index and a number of known risk factors of social exclusion. A limitation of content validity was that the dimension "lack of normative integration" could not be measured, because no relevant items were available. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that a measure for social exclusion can be constructed with available health questionnaires. This provides opportunities for application in public health surveillance systems in the Netherlands and elsewhere in the world.

  15. The Gaia spectrophotometric standard stars survey -II. Instrumental effects of six ground-based observing campaigns

    CERN Document Server

    Altavilla, G; Pancino, E; Galleti, S; Ragaini, S; Bellazzini, M; Cocozza, G; Bragaglia, A; Carrasco, J M; Castro, A; Di Fabrizio, L; Federici, L; Figueras, F; Gebran, M; Jordi, C; Masana, E; Schuster, W; Valentini, G; Voss, H

    2015-01-01

    The Gaia SpectroPhotometric Standard Stars (SPSS) survey started in 2006, it was awarded almost 450 observing nights, and accumulated almost 100,000 raw data frames, with both photometric and spectroscopic observations. Such large observational effort requires careful, homogeneous, and automated data reduction and quality control procedures. In this paper, we quantitatively evaluate instrumental effects that might have a significant (i.e.,$\\geq$1%) impact on the Gaia SPSS flux calibration. The measurements involve six different instruments, monitored over the eight years of observations dedicated to the Gaia flux standards campaigns: DOLORES@TNG in La Palma, EFOSC2@NTT and ROSS@REM in La Silla, CAFOS@2.2m in Calar Alto, BFOSC@Cassini in Loiano, and LaRuca@1.5m in San Pedro Martir. We examine and quantitatively evaluate the following effects: CCD linearity and shutter times, calibration frames stability, lamp flexures, second order contamination, light polarization, and fringing. We present methods to correct ...

  16. Dental Management Survey Brazil (DMS-BR): creation and validation of a management instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Paola Sampaio; Martins, Ismar Eduardo; Biazevic, Maria Gabriela Haye; Silva, Paulo Roberto da; Michel-Crosato, Edgard

    2017-04-10

    Questionnaires for the assessment of knowledge and self-perception can be useful to diagnose what a dentist knows about management and administration. The aim of the present study was to create and validate the Dental Management Survey Brazil (DMS-BR) scale, based on meetings with experts in the field. After having elaborated the first version, 10 audits were performed in dental offices in order to produce the final version, which included nine dimensions: location, patient, finance, marketing, competition, quality, staff, career, and productivity. The accuracy of the instrument was measured by intrarater and interrater reliability. In the validation phase, 247 Brazilian dentists answered a web-based questionnaire. The data were processed using Stata 13.0 and the significance level was set at 95%. The instrument had intrarater and interrater reliability (ICC-0.93 and 0.94). The overall average of respondents for the DMS-BR scale was 3.77 (SD = 0.45). Skewness and kurtosis were below absolute values 3 and 7, respectively. Internal validity measured by Cronbach's alpha was 0.925 and the correlation of each dimension with the final result of the DMS-BR ranged between 0.606 and 0.810. Correlation with the job satisfaction scale was 0.661. The SEM data ranged between 0.80 and 0.56. The questionnaire presented satisfactory indicators of dentists' self-perception about management and administration activities.

  17. Mechanical Design of NESSI: New Mexico Tech Extrasolar Spectroscopic Survey Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Fernando G.; Olivares, Andres M.; Salcido, Christopher D.; Jimenez, Stephen R.; Jurgenson, Colby A.; Hrynevych, Michael A.; Creech-Eakman, Michelle J.; Boston, Penny J.; Schmidt, Luke M.; Bloemhard, Heather; Rodeheffer, Dan; Vaive, Genevieve; Vasisht, Gautam; Swain, Mark R.; Deroo, Pieter

    2011-01-01

    NESSI: the New Mexico Tech Extrasolar Spectroscopic Survey Instrument is a ground-based multi-object spectrograph that operates in the near-infrared. It will be installed on one of the Nasmyth ports of the Magdalena Ridge Observatory (MRO) 2.4-meter Telescope sited in the Magdalena Mountains, about 48 km west of Socorro-NM. NESSI operates stationary to the telescope fork so as not to produce differential flexure between internal opto-mechanical components during or between observations. An appropriate mechanical design allows the instrument alignment to be highly repeatable and stable for both short and long observation timescales, within a wide-range of temperature variation. NESSI is optically composed of a field lens, a field de-rotator, re-imaging optics, an auto-guider and a Dewar spectrograph that operates at LN2 temperature. In this paper we report on NESSI's detailed mechanical and opto-mechanical design, and the planning for mechanical construction, assembly, integration and verification.

  18. Sensitivity analysis of helicopter IMC decelerating steep approach and landing performance to navigation system parameters. [Instrument Meteorological Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmali, M. S.; Phatak, A. V.; Bull, J. S.; Peach, L. L.; Demko, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with a sensitivity analysis of the Decelerated Steep Approach and Landing (DSAL) maneuver to on-board and ground-based navigation system parameters. The Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) DSAL maneuver involves decelerating to zero range rate while tracking the localizer and glideslope. The considered study investigated the performance of the navigation systems using Constant Deceleration Profile (CDP) guidance and a six degrees glideslope trajectory. A closed-loop computer simulation of the UH1H helicopter DSAL system was developed for the sensitivity analysis. Conclusions on system performance parameter sensitivity are discussed.

  19. EPIDEMIOLOGIC SURVEYS OF HISTOPLASMIN AND PARACOCCIDIOIDIN SENSITIVITY IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Di Camilo FAVA

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available We report here the results obtained in epidemiologic surveys of histoplasmosis and paracoccidioidomycosis carried out in Brazil using the histoplasmin and paracoccidioidin delayed hypersensitivity skin tests. Most of these data have not been previously published in scientific journals and are now reported here in two tables respectively concerning histoplasmosis (88 surveys and paracoccidioidomycosis (58 surveys. The guidelines to be followed in surveys of this nature are also commented upon.Inquéritos epidemiológicos com histoplasmina e paracoccidioidina no Brasil Esta publicação visa a tornar acessíveis os resultados obtidos em inquéritos epidemiológicos sobre histoplasmose e paracoccidioidomicose, realizados no Brazil, através das reações intradérmicas de histoplasmina e paracoccidioidina. Ela justifica-se porque os resultados aqui relacionados, em grande parte, não foram publicados em revistas científicas. Os resultados que conseguimos colecionar são apresentados nas tabelas: 1 _ sobre histoplasmose e 2 _ sobre paracoccidioidomicose. Ao todo são relacionados 88 inquéritos sobre histoplasmose e 58 sobre paracoccidioidomicose. No final da publicação são feitos comentários sobre os ítens a serem obedecidos em inquéritos desta natureza.

  20. Sensitivity analysis and related analysis : A survey of statistical techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art in five related types of analysis, namely (i) sensitivity or what-if analysis, (ii) uncertainty or risk analysis, (iii) screening, (iv) validation, and (v) optimization. The main question is: when should which type of analysis be applied; which statistical

  1. Using lunar observations to validate pointing accuracy and geolocation, detector sensitivity stability and static point response of the CERES instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Janet; Smith, G. Louis; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan

    2014-10-01

    Validation of in-orbit instrument performance is a function of stability in both instrument and calibration source. This paper describes a method using lunar observations scanning near full moon by the Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments. The Moon offers an external source whose signal variance is predictable and non-degrading. From 2006 to present, these in-orbit observations have become standardized and compiled for the Flight Models -1 and -2 aboard the Terra satellite, for Flight Models-3 and -4 aboard the Aqua satellite, and beginning 2012, for Flight Model-5 aboard Suomi-NPP. Instrument performance measurements studied are detector sensitivity stability, pointing accuracy and static detector point response function. This validation method also shows trends per CERES data channel of 0.8% per decade or less for Flight Models 1-4. Using instrument gimbal data and computed lunar position, the pointing error of each detector telescope, the accuracy and consistency of the alignment between the detectors can be determined. The maximum pointing error was 0.2o in azimuth and 0.17o in elevation which corresponds to an error in geolocation near nadir of 2.09 km. With the exception of one detector, all instruments were found to have consistent detector alignment from 2006 to present. All alignment error was within 0.1o with most detector telescopes showing a consistent alignment offset of less than 0.02o.

  2. A frailty instrument for primary care: findings from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Romero-Ortuno, Roman

    2010-01-01

    A frailty paradigm would be useful in primary care to identify older people at risk, but appropriate metrics at that level are lacking. We created and validated a simple instrument for frailty screening in Europeans aged ≥50. Our study is based on the first wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE, http:\\/\\/www.share-project.org), a large population-based survey conducted in 2004-2005 in twelve European countries.

  3. Instrument Fault Detection Sensitivity of an Empirical Model under Accident Condition in NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hwan; Hur, Seop; Cheon, Se Woo; Kim, Jung Taek [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    After the recent accident in Fukushima, Japan, it has been proven that we cannot obtain fully reliable information from instruments during severe accident conditions. Although the reactor core really melted down, the RV water level indicator showed a more optimistic value than the actual conditions. Accordingly, plant operators were under the misunderstanding that the core was not exposed. This caused confusion for the incident response. Therefore, it is necessary to be equipped with a function that informs operators of the status of the instrument integrity in real time. If plant operators verify that the instruments are working properly during accident conditions, they able to make safer decisions. In an effort to solve this problem, we considered an empirical model using a Process Equipment Monitoring (PEM) tool as a method of instrument diagnosis in a nuclear power plant.

  4. Economic instruments for obesity prevention: results of a scoping review and modified delphi survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaFrance Jeffrey

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comprehensive, multi-level approaches are required to address obesity. One important target for intervention is the economic domain. The purpose of this study was to synthesize existing evidence regarding the impact of economic policies targeting obesity and its causal behaviours (diet, physical activity, and to make specific recommendations for the Canadian context. Methods Arksey and O'Malley's (2005 methodological framework for conducting scoping reviews was adopted for this study and this consisted of two phases: 1 a structured literature search and review, and 2 consultation with experts in the research field through a Delphi survey and an in-person expert panel meeting in April 2010. Results Two key findings from the scoping review included 1 consistent evidence that weight outcomes are responsive to food and beverage prices. The debate on the use of food taxes and subsidies to address obesity should now shift to how best to address practical issues in designing such policies; and 2 very few studies have examined the impact of economic instruments to promote physical activity and clear policy recommendations cannot be made at this time. Delphi survey findings emphasised the relatively modest impact any specific economic instrument would have on obesity independently. Based on empirical evidence and expert opinion, three recommendations were supported. First, to create and implement an effective health filter to review new and current agricultural polices to reduce the possibility that such policies have a deleterious impact on population rates of obesity. Second, to implement a caloric sweetened beverage tax. Third, to examine how to implement fruit and vegetable subsidies targeted at children and low income households. Conclusions In terms of economic interventions, shifting from empirical evidence to policy recommendation remains challenging. Overall, the evidence is not sufficiently strong to provide clear policy

  5. A comparison of survey techniques on sensitive sexual behavior in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caltabiano, Marcantonio; Dalla-Zuanna, Gianpiero

    2013-01-01

    This article compares two national surveys carried out through the most commonly used procedures in Italy: CATI (computer-assisted telephone interviews) and SAQ-FI (self-answered questionnaires following interviews). Both surveys ask two identical questions concerning sensitive sexual behavior: early age at first intercourse and same-sex attraction. The SAQ-FI survey had both unit non-response and item non-response rates much lower than the CATI survey. Moreover, in the CATI survey, the groups with highest item non-response rates were also the groups with the lowest proportions of early intercourse and homosexual attraction. In addition, a differential analysis of the respondents produced diverse results for the two surveys. This is especially true of results by gender for same-sex attraction: Such behavior is more common among men (3.1%) than women (2.9%), according to the CATI survey, whereas the opposite is true of the SAQ-FI survey (6.1% of men vs. 7.7% women). In Italy at the beginning of the 21st century, CATI surveys reveal a lower level of early intercourse and same-sex attraction than SAQ-FI surveys. This article argues that the CATI survey underestimates the true level of these sensitive sexual behaviors in the Italian population.

  6. Ergonomics and design of laparoscopic instruments: results of a survey among laparoscopic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Veelen, M A; Meijer, D W

    1999-12-01

    This study determined which types of laparoscopic instruments are most often used in Europe, why they are being used, and what problems exist while using the instruments. The handles were also evaluated according to ergonomic design criteria. A questionnaire was send to 62 experienced surgeons in 19 countries. The laparoscopic instruments were divided into four groups: instruments with similar functionality and handgrip model were grouped together. Eight questions were asked for every group about the type of instrument (disposable, reusable, or semireusable), the type of handle, the reason for using a specific instrument, and the experience of discomfort while using the instrument. The handles of the instruments of the group that were associated with the greatest discomfort were ergonomically evaluated on eight aspects (dimensions, angles, and control). Half of the questionnaires were returned. In every group, about 80% of the instruments the surgeons employed were reusable. The chief reason for using a specific type was the good cost-quality of the product and satisfying experiences with other products of the brand. The discomfort was pressure on thumb and fingers (scissors handle) and fixating the tip (ratchet). The handle of the instruments that causes the most discomfort met only three of the eight ergonomic requirements. Most of the laparoscopic instruments employed by surgeons in Europe are reusable. A significant number of the instruments cause discomfort. These instruments do not meet standard ergonomic requirements.

  7. Avionics Instrument Systems Specialist Career Ladder: AFSCs 32531, 32551, 31571, and 32591. Occupational Survey Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air Force Occupational Measurement Center, Lackland AFB, TX.

    The Avionics Instrument Systems career ladder (AFSC 325X1) provides flight line and shop maintenance training on aircraft instrument systems, electromechancial instruments, components, and test equipment. Duties involve inspecting, removing, installing, repairing, operating, troubleshooting, overhauling, and modifying systems such as flight and…

  8. An Italian prospective multicenter survey on patients suspected of having non-celiac gluten sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volta, Umberto; Bardella, Maria Teresa; Calabrò, Antonino; Troncone, Riccardo; Corazza, Gino Roberto

    2014-05-23

    Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is still an undefined syndrome with several unsettled issues despite the increasing awareness of its existence. We carried out a prospective survey on NCGS in Italian centers for the diagnosis of gluten-related disorders, with the aim of defining the clinical picture of this new syndrome and to establish roughly its prevalence compared with celiac disease. From November 2012 to October 2013, 38 Italian centers (27 adult gastroenterology, 5 internal medicine, 4 pediatrics, and 2 allergy) participated in this prospective survey. A questionnaire was used in order to allow uniform and accurate collection of clinical, biochemical, and instrumental data. In total, 486 patients with suspected NCGS were identified in this 1-year period. The female/male ratio was 5.4 to 1, and the mean age was 38 years (range 3-81). The clinical picture was characterized by combined gastrointestinal (abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea and/or constipation, nausea, epigastric pain, gastroesophageal reflux, aphthous stomatitis) and systemic manifestations (tiredness, headache, fibromyalgia-like joint/muscle pain, leg or arm numbness, 'foggy mind,' dermatitis or skin rash, depression, anxiety, and anemia). In the large majority of patients, the time lapse between gluten ingestion and the appearance of symptoms varied from a few hours to 1 day. The most frequent associated disorders were irritable bowel syndrome (47%), food intolerance (35%) and IgE-mediated allergy (22%). An associated autoimmune disease was detected in 14% of cases. Regarding family history, 18% of our patients had a relative with celiac disease, but no correlation was found between NCGS and positivity for HLA-DQ2/-DQ8. IgG anti-gliadin antibodies were detected in 25% of the patients tested. Only a proportion of patients underwent duodenal biopsy; for those that did, the biopsies showed normal intestinal mucosa (69%) or mild increase in intraepithelial lymphocytes (31%). The ratio between

  9. An Italian prospective multicenter survey on patients suspected of having non-celiac gluten sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is still an undefined syndrome with several unsettled issues despite the increasing awareness of its existence. We carried out a prospective survey on NCGS in Italian centers for the diagnosis of gluten-related disorders, with the aim of defining the clinical picture of this new syndrome and to establish roughly its prevalence compared with celiac disease. Methods From November 2012 to October 2013, 38 Italian centers (27 adult gastroenterology, 5 internal medicine, 4 pediatrics, and 2 allergy) participated in this prospective survey. A questionnaire was used in order to allow uniform and accurate collection of clinical, biochemical, and instrumental data. Results In total, 486 patients with suspected NCGS were identified in this 1-year period. The female/male ratio was 5.4 to 1, and the mean age was 38 years (range 3–81). The clinical picture was characterized by combined gastrointestinal (abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea and/or constipation, nausea, epigastric pain, gastroesophageal reflux, aphthous stomatitis) and systemic manifestations (tiredness, headache, fibromyalgia-like joint/muscle pain, leg or arm numbness, 'foggy mind,' dermatitis or skin rash, depression, anxiety, and anemia). In the large majority of patients, the time lapse between gluten ingestion and the appearance of symptoms varied from a few hours to 1 day. The most frequent associated disorders were irritable bowel syndrome (47%), food intolerance (35%) and IgE-mediated allergy (22%). An associated autoimmune disease was detected in 14% of cases. Regarding family history, 18% of our patients had a relative with celiac disease, but no correlation was found between NCGS and positivity for HLA-DQ2/-DQ8. IgG anti-gliadin antibodies were detected in 25% of the patients tested. Only a proportion of patients underwent duodenal biopsy; for those that did, the biopsies showed normal intestinal mucosa (69%) or mild increase in intraepithelial

  10. GASS: The Parkes Galactic All-Sky Survey. Update: improved correction for instrumental effects and new data release

    CERN Document Server

    Kalberla, Peter M W

    2015-01-01

    The Galactic All-Sky Survey is a survey of Galactic atomic hydrogen emission in the southern sky observed with the Parkes 64-m Radio Telescope. The first data release (GASS I) concerned survey goals and observing techniques, the second release (GASS II) focused on stray radiation and instrumental corrections. We seek to remove the remaining instrumental effects and present a third data release. We use the HEALPix tessellation concept to grid the data on the sphere. Individual telescope records are compared with averages on the nearest grid position for significant deviations. All averages are also decomposed into Gaussian components with the aim of segregating unacceptable solutions. Improved priors are used for an iterative baseline fitting and cleaning. In the last step we generate 3-D FITS data cubes and examine them for remaining problems. We have removed weak, but systematic baseline offsets with an improved baseline fitting algorithm. We have unraveled correlator failures that cause time dependent oscil...

  11. The Influence of Interviewer Presence and Survey Mode on Question Sensitivity : Results From a Fake Good/Fake Bad Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegkamp, Annemiek; Ongena, Yfke; Haan, Marieke

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines whether interviewer presence and survey mode affect the sensitivity of questions in survey interviews. A comparison is made between web surveys and paper & pencil surveys. A fake good/fake bad experiment was designed to find out which questions of the European Social Survey are s

  12. New Instruments for Survey: on Line Softwares for 3d Recontruction from Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratus de Balestrini, E.; Guerra, F.

    2011-09-01

    3d scanning technologies had a significant development and have been widely used in documentation of cultural, architectural and archeological heritages. Modern methods of three-dimensional acquiring and modeling allow to represent an object through a digital model that combines visual potentialities of images (normally used for documentation) to the accuracy of the survey, becoming at the same time support for the visualization that for metric evaluation of any artefact that have an historical or artistic interest, opening up new possibilities for cultural heritage's fruition, cataloging and study. Despite this development, because of the small catchment area and the 3D laser scanner's sophisticated technologies, the cost of these instruments is very high and beyond the reach of most operators in the field of cultural heritages. This is the reason why they have appeared low-cost technologies or even free, allowing anyone to approach the issues of acquisition and 3D modeling, providing tools that allow to create three-dimensional models in a simple and economical way. The research, conducted by the Laboratory of Photogrammetry of the University IUAV of Venice, of which we present here some results, is intended to figure out whether, with Arc3D, it is possible to obtain results that can be somehow comparable, in therms of overall quality, to those of the laser scanner, and/or whether it is possible to integrate them. They were carried out a series of tests on certain types of objects, models made with Arc3D, from raster images, were compared with those obtained using the point clouds from laser scanner. We have also analyzed the conditions for an optimal use of Arc3D: environmental conditions (lighting), acquisition tools (digital cameras) and type and size of objects. After performing the tests described above, we analyzed the patterns generated by Arc3D to check what other graphic representations can be obtained from them: orthophotos and drawings. The research

  13. NEW INSTRUMENTS FOR SURVEY: ON LINE SOFTWARES FOR 3D RECONTRUCTION FROM IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fratus de Balestrini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available 3d scanning technologies had a significant development and have been widely used in documentation of cultural, architectural and archeological heritages. Modern methods of three-dimensional acquiring and modeling allow to represent an object through a digital model that combines visual potentialities of images (normally used for documentation to the accuracy of the survey, becoming at the same time support for the visualization that for metric evaluation of any artefact that have an historical or artistic interest, opening up new possibilities for cultural heritage's fruition, cataloging and study. Despite this development, because of the small catchment area and the 3D laser scanner's sophisticated technologies, the cost of these instruments is very high and beyond the reach of most operators in the field of cultural heritages. This is the reason why they have appeared low-cost technologies or even free, allowing anyone to approach the issues of acquisition and 3D modeling, providing tools that allow to create three-dimensional models in a simple and economical way. The research, conducted by the Laboratory of Photogrammetry of the University IUAV of Venice, of which we present here some results, is intended to figure out whether, with Arc3D, it is possible to obtain results that can be somehow comparable, in therms of overall quality, to those of the laser scanner, and/or whether it is possible to integrate them. They were carried out a series of tests on certain types of objects, models made with Arc3D, from raster images, were compared with those obtained using the point clouds from laser scanner. We have also analyzed the conditions for an optimal use of Arc3D: environmental conditions (lighting, acquisition tools (digital cameras and type and size of objects. After performing the tests described above, we analyzed the patterns generated by Arc3D to check what other graphic representations can be obtained from them: orthophotos and drawings

  14. Modeling the Sensitivity of Field Surveys for Detection of Environmental DNA (eDNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin T Schultz

    Full Text Available The environmental DNA (eDNA method is the practice of collecting environmental samples and analyzing them for the presence of a genetic marker specific to a target species. Little is known about the sensitivity of the eDNA method. Sensitivity is the probability that the target marker will be detected if it is present in the water body. Methods and tools are needed to assess the sensitivity of sampling protocols, design eDNA surveys, and interpret survey results. In this study, the sensitivity of the eDNA method is modeled as a function of ambient target marker concentration. The model accounts for five steps of sample collection and analysis, including: 1 collection of a filtered water sample from the source; 2 extraction of DNA from the filter and isolation in a purified elution; 3 removal of aliquots from the elution for use in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay; 4 PCR; and 5 genetic sequencing. The model is applicable to any target species. For demonstration purposes, the model is parameterized for bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp (H. molitrix assuming sampling protocols used in the Chicago Area Waterway System (CAWS. Simulation results show that eDNA surveys have a high false negative rate at low concentrations of the genetic marker. This is attributed to processing of water samples and division of the extraction elution in preparation for the PCR assay. Increases in field survey sensitivity can be achieved by increasing sample volume, sample number, and PCR replicates. Increasing sample volume yields the greatest increase in sensitivity. It is recommended that investigators estimate and communicate the sensitivity of eDNA surveys to help facilitate interpretation of eDNA survey results. In the absence of such information, it is difficult to evaluate the results of surveys in which no water samples test positive for the target marker. It is also recommended that invasive species managers articulate concentration

  15. Modeling the Sensitivity of Field Surveys for Detection of Environmental DNA (eDNA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Martin T; Lance, Richard F

    2015-01-01

    The environmental DNA (eDNA) method is the practice of collecting environmental samples and analyzing them for the presence of a genetic marker specific to a target species. Little is known about the sensitivity of the eDNA method. Sensitivity is the probability that the target marker will be detected if it is present in the water body. Methods and tools are needed to assess the sensitivity of sampling protocols, design eDNA surveys, and interpret survey results. In this study, the sensitivity of the eDNA method is modeled as a function of ambient target marker concentration. The model accounts for five steps of sample collection and analysis, including: 1) collection of a filtered water sample from the source; 2) extraction of DNA from the filter and isolation in a purified elution; 3) removal of aliquots from the elution for use in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay; 4) PCR; and 5) genetic sequencing. The model is applicable to any target species. For demonstration purposes, the model is parameterized for bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix) assuming sampling protocols used in the Chicago Area Waterway System (CAWS). Simulation results show that eDNA surveys have a high false negative rate at low concentrations of the genetic marker. This is attributed to processing of water samples and division of the extraction elution in preparation for the PCR assay. Increases in field survey sensitivity can be achieved by increasing sample volume, sample number, and PCR replicates. Increasing sample volume yields the greatest increase in sensitivity. It is recommended that investigators estimate and communicate the sensitivity of eDNA surveys to help facilitate interpretation of eDNA survey results. In the absence of such information, it is difficult to evaluate the results of surveys in which no water samples test positive for the target marker. It is also recommended that invasive species managers articulate concentration

  16. Highly sensitive rapid fluorescence detection of protein residues on surgical instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalev, Valeri I [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Bartona, James S [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Richardson, Patricia R [School of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JJ (United Kingdom); Jones, Anita C [School of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JJ (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-15

    There is a risk of contamination of surgical instruments by infectious protein residues, in particular, prions which are the agents for Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease in humans. They are exceptionally resistant to conventional sterilization, therefore it is important to detect their presence as contaminants so that alternative cleaning procedures can be applied. We describe the development of an optimized detection system for fluorescently labelled protein, suitable for in-hospital use. We show that under optimum conditions the technique can detect {approx}10 attomole/cm{sup 2} with a scan speed of {approx}3-10 cm{sup 2}/s of the test instrument's surface. A theoretical analysis and experimental measurements will be discussed.

  17. Phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensors: methodology, instrumentation and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y.H. [Department of Electronic Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT (China); Center for Environmental Sensing and Modeling, Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (Singapore); Ho, H.P. [Department of Electronic Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT (China); Kong, S.K. [Programme of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT (China); Kabashin, A.V. [Laboratoire Lasers, Plasmas et Procedes Photoniques (LP3, UMR 7341 CNRS), Faculte des Sciences de Luminy, Aix-Marseille University, 163 Avenue de Luminy, C. P. 917, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France)

    2012-11-15

    Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) has become a central tool for label-free characterization of biomolecular interactions. Based on monitoring of amplitude characteristics, conventional SPR sensors have been extensively explored, commercialized and applied for studies of many important interactions (antigen-antibody, protein-ligand etc), but this technology still lacks of sensitivity for the detection of relatively small and low copy number compounds. Phase-sensitive SPR has recently emerged as an upgrade of this technology to resolve the sensitivity issue. Profiting from a sharp phase jump under SPR and ultra-sensitive tools of its control, this technology offers up to 100-time improvement of the detection limit, giving access to the detection of trace amounts of small molecular weight analytes (drugs etc). This paper intends to provide a tutorial on basic concepts of phase detection in SPR sensing, compare the performance of phase- and amplitude-sensitive sensors, review recent progress in the development and applications of phase-sensitive SPR sensors, and outline future prospects and trends of this technology. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Incomplete categorical data design non-randomized response techniques for sensitive questions in surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Guo-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Respondents to survey questions involving sensitive information, such as sexual behavior, illegal drug usage, tax evasion, and income, may refuse to answer the questions or provide untruthful answers to protect their privacy. This creates a challenge in drawing valid inferences from potentially inaccurate data. Addressing this difficulty, non-randomized response approaches enable sample survey practitioners and applied statisticians to protect the privacy of respondents and properly analyze the gathered data.Incomplete Categorical Data Design: Non-Randomized Response Techniqu

  19. Development and Validation of an Instrument for Assessing Climate Change Knowledge and Perceptions: The Climate Stewardship Survey (CSS)

    OpenAIRE

    Scott L. WALKER; McNeal, Karen S

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Stewardship Survey (CSS) was developed to measure knowledge and perceptions of global climate change, while also considering information sources that respondents ‘trust.’ The CSS was drafted using a three-stage approach: development of salient scales, writing individual items, and field testing and analyses. Construct validity and alpha-level reliability was conducted on the 122-item test instrument to produce a refined 84-item CSS.  The field tested C...

  20. Temperature performance of portable radiation survey instruments used for environmental monitoring and clean-up activities in Fukushima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saegusa, Jun; Yanagisawa, Kayo; Hasumi, Atsushi; Shimizu, Takenori; Uchita, Yoshiaki

    2017-08-01

    Following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011, extensive radiation monitoring and environmental clean-up activities have been conducted throughout the Fukushima region. Outside air temperatures there reach 40 °C in summer and -20 °C in winter, which are beyond the quoted operational range of many radiation survey instruments. Herein, temperature performance of four types of portable Japanese radiation survey instruments widely used in Fukushima was experimentally investigated using a temperature-controlled chamber. They included two ionization chamber type instruments, Fuji NHA1 and Aloka ICS-323C, and two NaI(Tl) scintillation type ones, Fuji NHC7 and Aloka TCS-172B. Experimental results showed significantly diverse characteristics on the temperature dependences from one type of instrument to another. For example, NHA1 overestimated the ambient dose-equivalent rate by as much as 17% at -30 °C and 10% at 40 °C, whereas the TCS-172B readings underestimated the rate by 30% at -30 °C and 7% at 40 °C.

  1. Relationships Among the Knowledge, Efficacy, and Practices Instrument, Color-Blind Racial Attitudes Scale, Deamonte Driver Survey, and Defining Issues Test 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Garvan, Cynthia W

    2016-03-01

    Concordance studies indicate the degree to which instruments measure the same or similar constructs or something different. The aims of this study were to identify the factor structure of the Deamonte Driver Survey and determine the relationship between the Deamonte Driver (a measure of social class stereotyping), the Defining Issues Test 2 (DIT2; a measure of ethical sensitivity), the Color-Blind Racial Attitudes Scale (CoBRAS; a measure of racial stereotyping), and the Knowledge, Efficacy, and Practices Instrument (KEPI; a measure of cultural competence). The results showed a three-factor solution for the Deamonte Driver Survey and significant relationships between CoBRAS and DIT2 subscales and between CoBRAS and Deamonte Driver subscales. Significant relationships between the measures and exploratory variables, underrepresented minority status, age, citizenship, marital status, political stance, English as a first language, and gender were found. The lack of a significant relationship between the KEPI and Deamonte Driver, DIT2, or CoBRAS subscales suggests that the KEPI is measuring a unique construct. These findings showed how these scales contributed to the assessment of cultural competence among dental students and faculty.

  2. Element Analysis of Instrumented Sharp Indentations into Pressure-sensitive Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minh-Quy LE; Seock-Sam KIM

    2007-01-01

    Finite element analysis was carried out to investigate the conical indentation response of elastic-plastic solids within the framework of the hydrostatic pressure dependence and the power law strain hardening. A large number of 40 difierent combinations of elasto-plastic properties with n ranging from 0 to 0.5 and σy/E ranging from 0.0014 to 0.03 were used in the computations. The loading curvature C and the average contact pressure Pave were considered within the concept of representative strains and the dimensional analysis.Dimensionless functions associated with these two parameters were formulated for each studied value of the pressure sensitivity. The results for pressure sensitive materials lie between those for Von Mises materials and the elastic model.

  3. Sensitivity of detection of bacteria with fluorescent and luminescent phenotypes using different instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovko, Lubov Y.; Griffiths, Mansel W.

    2000-04-01

    The problem of bacterial enumeration in different samples is of great importance in many fields of research. Construction of recombinant fluorescent and luminescent bacteria that can be easily detected by nondestructive instrumental methods proves us with an opportunity to monitor bacteria in a wide variety of clinical, environmental and food samples in real time. Three different labels were employed: Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP), Bacterial luciferase (BL) and Firefly Luciferase (FFL). Both plasmid and chromosomal transformants of different strains of E. coli, P. putida and S. enteritidis were used. For the detection of the in vivo GFP the Shimadzu RF 540 spectrofluorimeter, Labsystems FL- 500 plate fluorimeter and Night Owl LB 98 CCD-camera from EG and G Berthold supplied with excitation light source and proper spectral filters both in macroscopic and microscopic mode were used. For the detection of in vivo luminescence of BL and FFL, tube luminometer BG-P from GEM Biomedical Inc., luminometric plate reader from BioOrbit, BIQ Bioview CCD camera from Cambridge Imaging Ltd and Night Owl LB 98 CCD camera both in macroscopic and microscopic mode were used. The expression levels of the labels, their stability, stability of the signal and detection limits of tagged bacteria were investigated. The detection limits for GFP tagged bacteria were 5 X 104 - 6 X 106, for BL tagged bacteria 5 X 102 - 2 X 105, and for FFL tagged bacteria - 4 X 103 - 106 CFU/ml, depending on the instrument used. Single bacteria could be detected with the help of the Night Owl in the microscopic mode.

  4. Sensitivity of Seismic Interferometry and Conventional Reflection Seismics at a Landfil to Processing and Survey Errors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantaki, L.A.; Draganov, D.S.; Heimovaara, T.J.; Ghose, R.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how sensitive the seismic method is to errors that can occur during a seismic survey or during the processing of the seismic data is of high importance for any exploration geophysical project. Our aim is to image the subsurface of a landfill, which is typically a heterogeneous system

  5. Program Evaluation Using the Project Dakota Parent Satisfaction Survey. A Manual for Administration and Interpretation of Findings Using a Validated Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, JoAnne; Jacks, Robert

    This manual presents an instrument (the Dakota Parent Satisfaction Survey) and procedures for evaluating parent satisfaction with early intervention programs. The survey procedures have been used to evaluate seven early intervention programs each year since 1985. Development of the Survey is discussed, including the identification of program…

  6. Status of aerial survey emergency preparedness and ground support equipment, calibration, and sensitivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlstrom, T.S.

    1986-01-01

    During the course of EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. history in aerial surveillance, the scope of response has broadened from routine surveys and accident response with aerial systems, to being prepared to respond to any radiological incident with aerial, ground mobile, and hand-held instrumentation. The aerial survey system presently consists of four MBB BO-105 helicopters outfitted with gamma pods and specialized navigation systems (MRS or URS) that allow the operator and pilot to fly well-defined survey lines. Minimum detectable activities (MDA) for various isotopes range from a few tenths of a mCi to 100 mCI for point sources and from 1 to 200 pCi/g for volume sources.

  7. Nutrition knowledge and Mediterranean diet adherence in the southeast United States: Validation of a field-based survey instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottcher, Mary Rose; Marincic, Patricia Z; Nahay, Katie L; Baerlocher, Brittany E; Willis, Amy W; Park, Jieun; Gaillard, Philippe; Greene, Michael W

    2017-04-01

    The Mediterranean diet (MD) can reduce chronic disease risk and is a recommended diet for prevention and management of diabetes. Adherence to the MD in the southeast United States where obesity and diabetes are highly prevalent is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to: 1) construct a survey instrument relevant to the general population integrating both MD related nutrition knowledge and adherence questions from previously validated instruments, and 2) assess MD related nutrition knowledge and adherence in a sample population in the southest United States. Adherance was assessed using the validated short MD Adherence Screener (MEDAS). A MD nutrition knowledge (MDNK) questionnaire was developed from previously validated general nutrition knowledge questionnaires and was validated using 127 university students enrolled in three courses with varying levels of nutrition education. Cronbach's α for internal validity of MDNK was acceptable for a short questionnaire (0.653). Test-retest reliability was established (r = 0.853). Field validation of the three-part survey instrument (MEDAS, MDNK and demographic questions) was subsequently performed in 230 adults shopping at supermarkets and farmers markets in eastern Alabama. Total MDNK and MEDAS scores were significantly higher in students with formal nutrition education and in patrons of farmers markets. Greater MD adherence, assessed by dividing MEDAS scores into thirds, was found with increasing formal nutrition education in university students (p = 0.002) and in farmers market participants (p < 0.001). There was a weak but significant association between MDNK and MEDAS scores within university students and participants in the field. Together, the MDNK-MEDAS survey instrument is an effective tool for assessing baseline knowledge and adherence and can be used to target nutritional interventions to improve MD adherence for prevention and management of diabetes and other chronic disease.

  8. Wide dynamic range 500 fA sensitivity current measurement instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelemeshko Anatoly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Main technical features of Low Energy Charged Particle Sensor (LECPS are described, taking into account LECPS high sensitivity, wide dynamic range, and conditions of in-flight operation on-board a satellite. LECPS input cascade is capable of current measurement as low as 1 pA within a 120 dB dynamic range, providing error level below 20%. Statistical calculations of acquired data, measuring time considerations and implementation of input cascade auto-calibration technique were applied to gain the best possible stability and accuracy over −20° to +50°C operation temperature.

  9. Measuring children's self-reported sport participation, risk perception and injury history: development and validation of a survey instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siesmaa, Emma J; Blitvich, Jennifer D; White, Peta E; Finch, Caroline F

    2011-01-01

    Despite the health benefits associated with children's sport participation, the occurrence of injury in this context is common. The extent to which sport injuries impact children's ongoing involvement in sport is largely unknown. Surveys have been shown to be useful for collecting children's injury and sport participation data; however, there are currently no published instruments which investigate the impact of injury on children's sport participation. This study describes the processes undertaken to assess the validity of two survey instruments for collecting self-reported information about child cricket and netball related participation, injury history and injury risk perceptions, as well as the reliability of the cricket-specific version. Face and content validity were assessed through expert feedback from primary and secondary level teachers and from representatives of peak sporting bodies for cricket and netball. Test-retest reliability was measured using a sample of 59 child cricketers who completed the survey on two occasions, 3-4 weeks apart. Based on expert feedback relating to face and content validity, modification and/or deletion of some survey items was undertaken. Survey items with low test-retest reliability (κ≤0.40) were modified or deleted, items with moderate reliability (κ=0.41-0.60) were modified slightly and items with higher reliability (κ≥0.61) were retained, with some undergoing minor modifications. This is the first survey of its kind which has been successfully administered to cricketers aged 10-16 years to collect information about injury risk perceptions and intentions for continued sport participation. Implications for its generalisation to other child sport participants are discussed.

  10. Validating a Short Bulgarian Version of a Psychometric Instrument for Multidimensional Noise Sensitivity Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzhambov Angel M.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Noise sensitivity (NS is a key construct in the fields of hygiene, planning and occupational medicine. It refers to a personality trait representing the reactivity to noise and is associated with various psycho-physiological health outcomes. AIM: This study aimed to develop a shorter version of the original Noise Sensitivity Questionnaire (NoiSeQ, retaining its dimensions and assess its validity and reliability. METHODS: A test-retest study was carried out in a convenience sample of 56 participants. A short 15-item form of the original NoiSeQ (NoiSeQSF questionnaire was developed and then administered. All major analyses were based on the coeffi cient of equivalence and stability, the generalizability theory and linear regression. RESULTS: Relative (ρ = 0.83 and absolute (ρ = 0.80 G coefficients for global NS exceeded the lower reliability limit according to G- and D-studies. Sleep subscale can readily be used to assess sleep-related NS (ρ = 0.76/θ = 0.75. Moreover, NoiSeQSF predicted some cardiac symptoms (with age of participants as a moderator factor, which demonstrated nomological validity. CONCLUSION: NoiSeQSF is a reliable estimate for global NS and NS related to sleep quality. It might prove useful to experts in environmental hygiene, urban planning and occupational diseases when dealing with noise-impaired occupational, social or psycho-physiological functioning.

  11. e-VLBI... a Wide-field Imaging Instrument with milliarcsecond Resolution & microJy Sensitivity

    CERN Document Server

    Garrett, M A

    2004-01-01

    The European VLBI Network (EVN) is in the process of establishing an e-VLBI array in which the radio telescopes and the EVN correlator at JIVE are connected in real-time, via high-speed national fibre optic networks and the pan-European research network, GEANT. This paper reports on recent test results, including the production of the first real-time e-VLBI astronomical image. In a parallel and related development, the field-of-view of VLBI is also expanding by many orders of magnitude, and the first results of deep, wide-field surveys capable of detecting many sources simultaneously are summarised. The detection of sources as faint as 10 microJy should soon be possible in the era of ``Mk5'' and e-VLBI.

  12. The Mathematics Attitudes and Perceptions Survey: an instrument to assess expert-like views and dispositions among undergraduate mathematics students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Code, Warren; Merchant, Sandra; Maciejewski, Wes; Thomas, Matthew; Lo, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    One goal of an undergraduate education in mathematics is to help students develop a productive disposition towards mathematics. A way of conceiving of this is as helping mathematical novices transition to more expert-like perceptions of mathematics. This conceptualization creates a need for a way to characterize students' perceptions of mathematics in authentic educational settings. This article presents a survey, the Mathematics Attitudes and Perceptions Survey (MAPS), designed to address this need. We present the development of the MAPS instrument and its validation on a large (N = 3411) set of student data. Results from various MAPS implementations corroborate results from analogous instruments in other STEM disciplines. We present these results and highlight some in particular: MAPS scores correlate with course grades; students tend to move away from expert-like orientations over a semester or year of taking a mathematics course; and interactive-engagement type lectures have less of a negative impact, but no positive impact, on students' overall orientations than traditional lecturing. We include the MAPS instrument in this article and suggest ways in which it may deepen our understanding of undergraduate mathematics education.

  13. Ultra-Sensitive Instrumentation in the UV-Vis-NIR Spectral Region with Applications on Overtone Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camejo, David

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is a technique widely used in molecular spectroscopy. Technology advancements are such that FT-IR spectrometers can measure vibrational transitions occurring well within the visible (Vis) region of the electromagnetic spectrum. High overtone transitions of C-H, N-H, and O-H can be measured in the near-infrared (NIR) and the Vis regions using long path cells. Despite the large sensitivity of the FT-IR spectrometers and the use of long path cells, the absorption intensities of these transitions are so low that commercial FT-IR spectrometers would not register the absorption bands. Phase shift cavity ring down (PS-CRD) and thermal lens spectroscopy (TLS) are ultra-sensitive instrumental absorption techniques very commonly used in our laboratory. These are very powerful techniques for the detection of weak absorptions in the NIR-Vis region. In the case of high overtone spectra, CRD is ideal for gas samples whereas TLS is great for liquid samples. In our laboratory we use FT-IR and UV-Vis spectrometers as complementary techniques to CRDS and TLS. In order to simulate conditions in the atmospheres of other planets, we couple our instruments to a low temperature cryostat. In this way, these ultra-sensitive techniques can be applied to the study of gases in the atmosphere and liquid cryo-solutions to simulate the lakes of Saturn's largest moon, Titan. This work shows the use of signal-to-noise ratios to determine the spectral quality of spectra obtained with the PS-CRD technique, particularly in situations where human eye cannot perceive the small differences. We evaluate the impact of some instrumental parameters involved in data acquisition process of the PS-CRD technique, as well as evaluate the spectral quality as a function of the On-Axis/Off-Axis position of the incoming beam. This work also introduces the use of a second pumping laser for the analysis of multi-component samples in thermal lens. The design facilitates

  14. Use of electronic microprocessor-based instrumentation by the U.S. geological survey for hydrologic data collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shope, William G.; ,

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is acquiring a new generation of field computers and communications software to support hydrologic data-collection at field locations. The new computer hardware and software mark the beginning of the Survey's transition from the use of electromechanical devices and paper tapes to electronic microprocessor-based instrumentation. Software is being developed for these microprocessors to facilitate the collection, conversion, and entry of data into the Survey's National Water Information System. The new automated data-collection process features several microprocessor-controlled sensors connected to a serial digital multidrop line operated by an electronic data recorder. Data are acquired from the sensors in response to instructions programmed into the data recorder by the user through small portable lap-top or hand-held computers. The portable computers, called personal field computers, also are used to extract data from the electronic recorders for transport by courier to the office computers. The Survey's alternative to manual or courier retrieval is the use of microprocessor-based remote telemetry stations. Plans have been developed to enhance the Survey's use of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite telemetry by replacing the present network of direct-readout ground stations with less expensive units. Plans also provide for computer software that will support other forms of telemetry such as telephone or land-based radio.

  15. A systematic survey instrument translation process for multi-country, comparative health workforce studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Squires, A.; Aiken, L.H.; Heede, K. Van den; Sermeus, W.; Bruyneel, L.; Lindqvist, R.; Schoonhoven, L.; Stromseng, I.; Busse, R.; Brzostek, T.; Ensio, A.; Moreno-Casbas, M.; Rafferty, A.M.; Schubert, M.; Zikos, D.; Matthews, A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As health services research (HSR) expands across the globe, researchers will adopt health services and health worker evaluation instruments developed in one country for use in another. This paper explores the cross-cultural methodological challenges involved in translating HSR in the

  16. Measuring patient experiences with diabetes care in The Netherlands: the validity of a new survey instrument.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asbroek, G. ten; Delnoij, D.M.J.; Arah, O.A.; Sixma, H.; Koning, J.S. de; Rupp, I.; Poll, A.; Stam, P.J.A.; Schmidt, P.; Vriens, B.; Klazinga, N.S.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The introduction of market mechanisms in Dutch healthcare engages insurance companies in competition. Patient experience surveys are increasingly applied to generate performance information guiding consumers and insurers to choose and contract high performers, as well as holding them acc

  17. GASS: The Parkes Galactic All-Sky Survey. Update: improved correction for instrumental effects and new data release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalberla, P. M. W.; Haud, U.

    2015-06-01

    Context. The Galactic All-Sky Survey (GASS) is a survey of Galactic atomic hydrogen (H i) emission in the southern sky observed with the Parkes 64-m Radio Telescope. The first data release (GASS I) concerned survey goals and observing techniques, the second release (GASS II) focused on stray radiation and instrumental corrections. Aims: We seek to remove the remaining instrumental effects and present a third data release. Methods: We use the HEALPix tessellation concept to grid the data on the sphere. Individual telescope records are compared with averages on the nearest grid position for significant deviations. All averages are also decomposed into Gaussian components with the aim of segregating unacceptable solutions. Improved priors are used for an iterative baseline fitting and cleaning. In the last step we generate 3D FITS data cubes and examine them for remaining problems. Results: We have removed weak, but systematic baseline offsets with an improved baseline fitting algorithm. We have unraveled correlator failures that cause time dependent oscillations; errors cause stripes in the scanning direction. The remaining problems from radio frequency interference (RFI) are spotted. Classifying the severeness of instrumental errors for each individual telescope record (dump) allows us to exclude bad data from averages. We derive parameters that allow us to discard dumps without compromising the noise of the resulting data products too much. All steps are reiterated several times: in each case, we check the Gaussian parameters for remaining problems and inspect 3D FITS data cubes visually. We find that in total ~1.5% of the telescope dumps need to be discarded in addition to ~0.5% of the spectral channels that were excluded in GASS II. Conclusions: The new data release (GASS III) facilitates data products with improved quality. A new web interface, compatible with the previous version, is available for download of GASS III FITS cubes and spectra.

  18. Arecibo Pulsar Survey Using ALFA. IV. Mock Spectrometer Data Analysis, Survey Sensitivity, and the Discovery of 41 Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarus, P; Hessels, J W T; Karako-Argaman, C; Kaspi, V M; Lynch, R; Madsen, E; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Scholz, P; Swiggum, J; Zhu, W W; Allen, B; Bogdanov, S; Camilo, F; Cardoso, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J S; Ferdman, R; Freire, P C C; Jenet, F A; Knispel, B; Lee, K J; van Leeuwen, J; Lorimer, D R; Lyne, A G; McLaughlin, M A; Siemens, X; Spitler, L G; Stairs, I H; Stovall, K; Venkataraman, A

    2015-01-01

    The on-going PALFA survey at the Arecibo Observatory began in 2004 and is searching for radio pulsars in the Galactic plane at 1.4 GHz. Observations since 2009 have been made with new wider-bandwidth spectrometers than were previously employed in this survey. A new data reduction pipeline has been in place since mid-2011 which consists of standard methods using dedispersion, searches for accelerated periodic sources, and search for single pulses, as well as new interference-excision strategies and candidate selection heuristics. This pipeline has been used to discover 41 pulsars, including 8 millisecond pulsars (MSPs; P = 100 ms that gradually becomes up to a factor of ~10 worse for P > 4 s at DM < 150 pc/cc. This degradation of sensitivity at long periods is largely due to red noise. We find that 35 +- 3% of pulsars are missed despite being bright enough to be detected in the absence of red noise. This reduced sensitivity could have implications on estimates of the number of long-period pulsars in the Gal...

  19. A sensitive spectral survey of interstellar features in the near-UV [3050-3700{\\AA}

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatt, Neil Hemant

    2014-01-01

    We present a comprehensive and sensitive unbiased survey of interstellar features in the near-UV range (3050-3700 {\\AA}). We combined a large number of VLT/UVES archival observations of a sample of highly reddened early type stars -- typical diffuse interstellar band (DIB) targets -- and unreddened standards. We stacked the individual observations to obtain a reddened "superspectrum" in the interstellar rest frame with a signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio exceeding 1500. We compared this to the analogous geocentric and stellar rest frame superspectra as well as to an unreddened superspectrum to find interstellar absorption features. We find 30 known features (11 atomic and 19 molecular) and tentatively detect up to 7 new interstellar absorption lines of unknown origin. Our survey is sensitive to narrow and weak features; telluric residuals preclude us from detecting broader features. For each sightline, we measured fundamental parameters (radial velocities, line widths, and equivalent widths) of the detected interst...

  20. A search for IRSL-Active dosimeters with enhanced sensitivity : a spectroscopic survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poolton, N.R.J.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Johnson, O.

    1997-01-01

    The spectral and radiation dose characteristics of a range of previously uninvestigated alumine-silicate materials are surveyed, with the intention of searching for alternative, high sensitivity materials that could potentially be used as InfraRed Stimulated Luminescence (IRSL) dosemeters for the...... in the IRSL process, but rather they act as catalysts in the creation of native lattice defects. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  1. Survey Instrument Development for Consumer Perception Testing to RTE Product in Convenience Store

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Lestari Widaningrum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Global trade and the abolition of trade barriers lead to the proliferation of imported food products such as various types of fast food products (RTE: ready-to-eat food sold by convenience stores mainly scattered in Jakarta. The question is what causes consumers choose certain convenience store to buy RTE Product and not choose another outlet category. To understand consumer perceptions, it is necessary to develop an instrument for measuring consumer perceptions of the option to purchase RTE Product at convenience stores. Variables used in this research are the perception and knowledge of the public/consumers against food safety, store attributes, service, and product attributes. The instrument used in this study is a questionnaire with a scalemeasuring1-5 to see the relationship between variables, we used the method of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The sample used in this study was 223 respondents that were divided into five areas in Jakarta, namely Central Jakarta, West Jakarta, South Jakarta, East Jakarta, and North Jakarta. The final outcome of the instrument development process was 25 observed variables, consisting of 4 indicators, which valid and reliable, with T-values for each observed variable is above 2,58, and Construct Reliability values range between 0,76 to 0,853.

  2. Proposing a survey instrument for measuring operational, formal, information and strategic Internet skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deursen, van A.J.A.M.; Dijk, van J.A.G.M.; Peters, O.

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies prove to be very suitable to provide a realistic view of people's Internet skills. However, their cost and time are a strong limitation for large-scale data gathering. A useful addition to the measurement of Internet skills would be the development of survey questions for measu

  3. The Calern Asteroid Polarimetric Survey using the Torino polarimeter: assessment of instrument performances and first scientific results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devogèle, M.; Cellino, A.; Bagnulo, S.; Rivet, J. P.; Bendjoya, P.; Abe, L.; Pernechele, C.; Massone, G.; Vernet, D.; Tanga, P.; Dimur, C.

    2017-03-01

    A new polarimeter based on the wedged double Wollaston concept has been built at the Torino Observatory and installed on a 1-m telescope at the Calern observing station of the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, France. Its main purpose is to carry out a polarimetric survey of minor Solar system objects, which is called the Calern Asteroid Polarimetric Survey. In this paper, we describe the new Torino polarimeter and the results of preliminary scientific validation tests. A number of standard stars with known polarization states, as well as a number of asteroids for which the polarimetric properties are known, have been observed in order to assess the instrument's accuracy. The instrumental polarization has been found to be stable within a few 10-4 units. A total of 124 new polarimetric observation of 78 asteroids are presented. In the case of asteroids already observed in the past, the new data are in agreement with available phase-polarization curves with error bars smaller than most previously published data. We also present data for 21 asteroids that have never been observed before in polarimetry.

  4. Survey of Hospitals and Manufacturers of Biomedical Instrumentation Concerning Variables Related to the Development and Implementation of a Bio-Med Instrumentation Technologist Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaumberg, Gary F.

    The Bio-Med Instrumentation Technologist Questionnaire was sent to 105 hospitals in the Southern California area that had electronic instrumentation for patient monitoring purposes. Sixty completed questionnaires were returned. Twenty manufacturers of bio-medical instrumentation were sent the questionnaires and seven responded. Some of the…

  5. Development and testing of a survey instrument to measure benefits of a nursing information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdrbo, Amany A; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A; Hudak, Christine A; Anthony, Mary K

    2011-01-01

    Information systems (IS) benefits for nurses are outcomes related to the tangible products or improvements that nurses realize from using IS. This study examined the development and psychometric testing of a measure of nurses' benefits from IS. A random sample of 570 nurses working in hospitals, providing direct patient care, and using IS completed the study questionnaire. The internal consistency reliability of the results was .97. Exploratory factor analysis, using principal components extraction and varimax rotation, revealed items loaded on four factors (saving time and efficiency, quality of care, charting, and professional practice) that were confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. Continued refinement of the instrument is needed with more diverse samples of nurses.

  6. Organizational member involvement in physical activity coalitions across the United States: development and testing of a novel survey instrument for assessing coalition functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Daniel B; Pate, Russell R; Beets, Michael W; Saunders, Ruth P; Blair, Steven N

    2015-06-01

    Coalitions are often composed of member organizations. Member involvement is thought to be associated with coalition success. No instrument currently exists for evaluating organizational member involvement in physical activity coalitions. This study aimed to develop a survey instrument for evaluating organizational member involvement in physical activity coalitions. The study was carried out in three phases: (a) developing a draft survey, (b) assessing the content validity of the draft survey, and (c) assessing the underlying factor structure, reliability, and validity of the survey. A cross-sectional design was employed. In Phase 1, a team of experts in survey development produced a draft survey. In Phase 2, the content validity of the draft survey was evaluated by a panel of individuals with expertise in physical activity coalitions. In Phase 3, the survey was administered to 120 individuals on local-, state-, and national-level physical activity coalitions. Responses were subjected to an exploratory factor analysis in order to determine the survey's underlying factor structure, reliability, and validity. Phases 1 and 2yielded a survey instrument with demonstrated content validity. Phase 3 yielded a three-factor model with three subscales: Strategic Alignment, Organizational Alignment, and Providing Input. Each subscale demonstrated high internal consistency reliability and construct validity. The survey instrument developed here demonstrated sound psychometric properties and provides new insight into organizational member involvement in physical activity coalitions. This instrument may be an important tool in developing a more complete picture of coalition functioning in physical activity coalitions specifically and health-based coalitions overall. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  7. Sensitivity to heat in MS patients: a factor strongly influencing symptomology - an explorative survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söderhamn Olle

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many individuals diagnosed with Multiple Sclerosis (MS are sensitive to increased body temperature, which has been recognized as correlating with the symptom of fatigue. The need to explore this association has been highlighted. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of heat sensitivity and its relations to disease course, disability, common MS-related symptoms and ongoing immunosuppressive treatments among individuals 65 years of age or younger diagnosed with MS. Methods A cross-sectional designed survey was undertaken. A questionnaire was sent to MS-patients with an Expanded Disability Status Score (EDSS in the interval of 0-6.5 and who were between 20 and 65 years of age, living in an eastern region of Sweden (n = 334. Besides occurrence of heat sensitivity (Yes/No and corresponding questions, the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS, the MS-related symptom checklist and the Perceived Deficit Questionnaire (PDQ were included. Data were analysed in relation to data level using Chi-square, Mann Whitney U-test, and Student's t-test. Pearson's and Spearman's correlations were calculated. In the logistic regression analyses (enter dichotomized MS-symptoms were used as dependent variables, and EDSS, disease-course, time since onset, heat-sensitivity, age and sex (female/male were independent variables. In the linear regression analyses, enter, mean FSS and summarized PDQ were entered as dependent variables and EDSS, disease-course, time since onset, heat sensitivity, age and sex (female/male were independent variables. Results Of the responding patients (n = 256, 58% reported heat sensitivity. The regression analyses revealed heat sensitivity as a significant factor relating not only to fatigue (p Conclusions Heat sensitivity in MS patients is a key symptom that is highly correlated with disabling symptoms such as fatigue, pain, concentration difficulty and urination urgency.

  8. Development of a respiratory protection survey instrument for occupational health nurses: an educational project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taormina, Deborah; Burgel, Barbara J

    2013-02-01

    The Institute of Medicine (2011) report Occupational Health Nurses and Respiratory Protection: Improving Education and Training outlined seven recommendations to improve the competency of occupational health nurses in respiratory protection. An advisory group was convened in December 2011, with stakeholder representation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health/National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory, American Association of Occupational Health Nurses, Inc., American Board for Occupational Health Nurses, Inc., Association of Occupational Health Professionals in Healthcare, American Nurses Association, and Institute of Medicine Standing Committee on Personal Protective Equipment for Workplace Safety and Health. The initial work of the advisory group included developing and administering a survey to assess current occupational health nurse roles and responsibilities relevant to respiratory protection. Development of the survey was led by a master's student and advisor who worked with the advisory group. The process of tool development and preliminary findings are presented in this article.

  9. NEW INSTRUMENTS FOR SURVEY: ON LINE SOFTWARES FOR 3D RECONTRUCTION FROM IMAGES

    OpenAIRE

    E. Fratus de Balestrini; Guerra, F.

    2012-01-01

    3d scanning technologies had a significant development and have been widely used in documentation of cultural, architectural and archeological heritages. Modern methods of three-dimensional acquiring and modeling allow to represent an object through a digital model that combines visual potentialities of images (normally used for documentation) to the accuracy of the survey, becoming at the same time support for the visualization that for metric evaluation of any artefact that have an historic...

  10. Measuring stigma among abortion providers: assessing the Abortion Provider Stigma Survey instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lisa A; Debbink, Michelle; Hassinger, Jane; Youatt, Emily; Eagen-Torkko, Meghan; Harris, Lisa H

    2014-01-01

    We explored the psychometric properties of 15 survey questions that assessed abortion providers' perceptions of stigma and its impact on providers' professional and personal lives referred to as the Abortion Provider Stigma Survey (APSS). We administered the survey to a sample of abortion providers recruited for the Providers' Share Workshop (N = 55). We then completed analyses using Stata SE/12.0. Exploratory factor analysis, which resulted in 13 retained items and identified three subscales: disclosure management, resistance and resilience, and discrimination. Stigma was salient in abortion provider's lives: they identified difficulties surrounding disclosure (66%) and felt unappreciated by society (89%). Simultaneously, workers felt they made a positive contribution to society (92%) and took pride in their work (98%). Paired t-test analyses of the pre- and post-Workshop APSS scores showed no changes in the total score. However, the Disclosure Management subscale scores were significantly lower (indicating decreased stigma) for two subgroups of participants: those over the age of 30 and those with children. This analysis is a promising first step in the development of a quantitative tool for capturing abortion providers' experiences of and responses to pervasive abortion stigma.

  11. Long-term stability, reproducibility, and statistical sensitivity of a telemetry-instrumented dog model: A 27-month longitudinal assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Ryan M; Ng, Khing Jow; Chi, Liguo; Jin, Xidong; Reinhart, Glenn A

    2015-01-01

    ICH guidelines, as well as best-practice and ethical considerations, provide strong rationale for use of telemetry-instrumented dog colonies for cardiovascular safety assessment. However, few studies have investigated the long-term stability of cardiovascular function at baseline, reproducibility in response to pharmacologic challenge, and maintenance of statistical sensitivity to define the usable life of the colony. These questions were addressed in 3 identical studies spanning 27months and were performed in the same colony of dogs. Telemetry-instrumented dogs (n=4) received a single dose of dl-sotalol (10mg/kg, p.o.), a β1 adrenergic and IKr blocker, or vehicle, in 3 separate studies spanning 27months. Systemic hemodynamics, cardiovascular function, and ECG parameters were monitored for 18h post-dose; plasma drug concentrations (Cp) were measured at 1, 3, 5, and 24h post-dose. Baseline hemodynamic/ECG values were consistent across the 27-month study with the exception of modest age-dependent decreases in heart rate and the corresponding QT-interval. dl-Sotalol elicited highly reproducible effects in each study. Reductions in heart rate after dl-sotalol treatment ranged between -22 and -32 beats/min, and slight differences in magnitude could be ascribed to variability in dl-sotalol Cp (range=3230-5087ng/mL); dl-sotalol also reduced LV-dP/dtmax 13-22%. dl-Sotalol increased the slope of the PR-RR relationship suggesting inhibition of AV-conduction. Increases in the heart-rate corrected QT-interval were not significantly different across the 3 studies and results of a power analysis demonstrated that the detection limit for QTc values was not diminished throughout the 27month period and across a range of power assumptions despite modest, age-dependent changes in heart rate. These results demonstrate the long-term stability of a telemetry dog colony as evidenced by a stability of baseline values, consistently reproducible response to pharmacologic challenge and no

  12. A high sensitivity HI survey of the sky at delta < -25 deg Final data release

    CERN Document Server

    Bajaja, E; Larrarte, J J; Morras, R; Poppel, W G L; Kalberla, P M W

    2005-01-01

    We present the final data release of the high sensitivity lambda 21-cm neutral hydrogen survey of the sky south of delta < -25 degr. A total of 50980 positions lying on a galactic coordinate grid with points spaced by (Delta l, Delta b) = ((0.5 deg)/cos b, 0.5 deg) were observed with the 30-m dish of the Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomia (IAR). The angular resolution of the survey is HPBW = 0.5 deg and the velocity coverage spans the interval -450 km/s to +400 km/s (LSR). The velocity resolution is 1.27 km/s and the final rms noise of the entire database is 0.07 K. The data are corrected for stray radiation and converted to brightness temperatures.

  13. [First stage of the cross-cultural adaptation of the instrument The Vulnerable Elders Survey (VES-13) to Portuguese].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Laércio Lima; Santiago, Lívia Maria; Silva, João Francisco Santos da; Mattos, Inês Echenique

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the initial stages of the cross-cultural adaptation of the instrument The Vulnerable Elders Survey (VES-13) for use in the context of cancer care in Brazil. Two translations into Portuguese and two back-translations into English were carried out independently, and a formal assessment of the general and referential meanings was performed in order to obtain a synthesis version. Understanding of the synthesis version was evaluated in a pretest applied to 33 patients in an oncologic hospital of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS). The version was easily applied in the intended context and was well-accepted by elders. The Portuguese version of the VES-13 proved to be well understood and adequate for testing its psychometric qualities. The latter step is currently in the final phase.

  14. A survey on the high reliability software verification and validation technology for instrumentation and control in NPP.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Kee Choon; Lee, Chang Soo; Dong, In Sook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-01-01

    This document presents the technical status of the software verification and validation (V and V) efforts to support developing and licensing digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in nuclear power plants. We have reviewed codes and standards to be concensus criteria among vendor, licensee and licenser. Then we have described the software licensing procedures under 10 CFR 50 and 10 CFR 52 of the United States cope with the licensing barrier. At last, we have surveyed the technical issues related to developing and licensing the high integrity software for digital I and C systems. These technical issues let us know the development direction of our own software V and V methodology. (Author) 13 refs., 2 figs.,.

  15. Measuring high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T blood concentration in population surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindell, Jennifer S.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The blood test for high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (HS-CTnT) has been proposed as a marker of cardiovascular risk in the general population, as it is associated with subsequent incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality. We aimed at evaluating the feasibility of HS-CTnT testing within large nationally-representative population surveys in which blood samples are collected during household visits, shipped using the standard civil postal service, and then frozen for subsequent analyses. Methods The Health Survey for England (HSE) consists of a series of annual surveys beginning in 1991. It is designed to provide regular information on various aspects of the nation’s health and risk factors. We measured HS-CTnT in the blood of 200 people from the HSE 2016 wave, then froze and stored their blood samples at -40°C for 5–10 weeks, and then thawed and retested them to appreciate the extent of within-person agreement or test-retest reliability of the two measurements. Results The Cronbach's Alpha (Scale Reliability Coefficient) and the Interclass Correlation Coefficient (two-way mixed-effects model for consistency of agreement at individual level) were 0.97 (95%CI = 0.96–0.99) and 0.95 (95%CI = 0.94–0.96) respectively. The time delay from blood withdrawal to analysis and storage (1–4 days) did not affect the results, nor did the freezing time before the retest (5–10 weeks). Conclusion The measurement of HS-CTnT plasma concentration within large nationally-representative surveys such as the Health Survey for England is feasible. PMID:28141863

  16. Sensitivity of thermal infrared nadir instruments to the chemical and microphysical properties of UTLS secondary sulfate aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellitto, P.; Legras, B.

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring upper-tropospheric-lower-stratospheric (UTLS) secondary sulfate aerosols and their chemical and microphysical properties from satellite nadir observations is crucial to better understand their formation and evolution processes and then to estimate their impact on UTLS chemistry, and on regional and global radiative balance. Here we present a study aimed at the evaluation of the sensitivity of thermal infrared (TIR) satellite nadir observations to the chemical composition and the size distribution of idealised UTLS sulfate aerosol layers. The extinction properties of sulfuric acid/water droplets, for different sulfuric acid mixing ratios and temperatures, are systematically analysed. The extinction coefficients are derived by means of a Mie code, using refractive indices taken from the GEISA (Gestion et Étude des Informations Spectroscopiques Atmosphériques: Management and Study of Spectroscopic Information) spectroscopic database and log-normal size distributions with different effective radii and number concentrations. IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) pseudo-observations are generated using forward radiative transfer calculations performed with the 4A (Automatized Atmospheric Absorption Atlas) radiative transfer model, to estimate the impact of the extinction of idealised aerosol layers, at typical UTLS conditions, on the brightness temperature spectra observed by this satellite instrument. We found a marked and typical spectral signature of these aerosol layers between 700 and 1200 cm-1, due to the absorption bands of the sulfate and bisulfate ions and the undissociated sulfuric acid, with the main absorption peaks at 1170 and 905 cm-1. The dependence of the aerosol spectral signature to the sulfuric acid mixing ratio, and effective number concentration and radius, as well as the role of interfering parameters like the ozone, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide and ash absorption, and temperature and water vapour profile uncertainties

  17. Survey of in vivo sensitivity to chloroquine by Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax in Lombok, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryauff, D J; Baird, J K; Candradikusuma, D; Masbar, S; Sutamihardja, M A; Leksana, B; Tuti, S; Marwoto, H; Richie, T; Romzan, A

    1997-02-01

    A malariometric survey was conducted in 14 villages of Sekotong district, in Lombok, Indonesia during October 1994. Point prevalence of malaria ranged from 0% to 15% in the surveyed villages, averaging 6% overall, and Plasmodium falciparum accounted for 63% of the infections. Forty-nine patients with uncomplicated malaria and parasite counts ranging from 40 to 10,800 asexual forms/microliter were enrolled in a 28-day in vivo test of chloroquine sensitivity. All subjects received a supervised therapeutic regimen of chloroquine (25 mg base/kg over a 48-hr period) and parasitemia and symptoms were closely monitored for 28 days. Asexual parasites were eliminated within four days in the 29 P. falciparum and 20 P. vivax study patients enrolled. The cumulative incidence of therapeutic failure (recurrent symptomatic parasitemia) among P. falciparum cases at days 7, 14, and 28 was 7%, 10%, and 14% (4 of 29), respectively. However in all four cases, parasitemias recurred against chloroquine blood levels below the minimally effective concentration (MEC) of 200 ng/ml and do not confirm chloroquine resistance. All 20 P. vivax parasitemias were sensitive to chloroquine and the blood remained clear, with the exception of one case in which an asymptomatic parasitemia appeared on day 28. Parasitemias by P. falciparum and P. vivax that were observed before supervised therapy, but in the presence of whole blood chloroquine above normally suppressive MEC levels, suggest resistance to suppressive or prophylactic regimens of chloroquine.

  18. Modified ERT instrumentation for geo-scientific surveys in the historical centre of Mesagne (Brindisi, Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leucci, Giovanni; De Giorgi, Lara; Terenzio Gizzi, Fabrizio; Persico, Raffaele

    2016-04-01

    The town of Mesagne is one of the sites at greatest geological risk in the north Salento peninsula. In the last few decades, the historical centre of Mesagne has been affected by a series of subsidence events, which have, in some cases, resulted in the partial collapse of buildings and road surfaces. The last event was in the January 2014. It caused subsidence phenomenon in a wide area and many families have been forced from their homes. These events have had both social repercussions, causing alarm and emergency situations, and economic repercussions in terms of the expense of restoration. In order to determine the causes of the ground subsidence events, integrated geophysical surveys were undertaken in the historical centre of Mesagne. In addition, the analysis of several wells allowed the 3D model reconstruction related both to the geology and to the groundwater depth in the surveyed areas. With the purpose of estimating the dimensions of the phenomenon and its possible relationship with both specific environmental conditions (for instance groundwater depth variation) and anthropic conditions (for instance the losses in water supply and sanitation) some geophysical measurements were repeated in the time. For this purpose a modified ERT instrumentation together GPR were used. The study led to the production of a detailed description of the subsidence causes that allows a quick action to restore security conditions in the area.

  19. Developing a survey instrument to assess the readiness of primary care data, genetic and disease registries to conduct linked research: TRANSFoRm International Research Readiness (TIRRE survey instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Leppenwell

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Clinical data are collected for routine care in family practice; there are also a growing number of genetic and cancer registry data repositories. The Translational Research and Patient Safety in Europe (TRANSFoRm project seeks to facilitate research using linked data from more than one source. We performed a requirements analysis which identified a wide range of data and business process requirements that need to be met before linking primary care and either genetic or disease registry data.Objectives To develop a survey to assess the readiness of data repositories to participate in linked research – the Transform International Research Readiness (TIRRE survey.Method We develop the questionnaire based on our requirement analysis; with questions at micro-, meso- and macro levels of granularity, study-specific questions about diabetes and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD, and research track record. The scope of the data required was extensive. We piloted this instrument, conducting ten preliminary telephone interviews to evaluate the response to the questionnaire.Results Using feedback gained from these interviews we revised the questionnaire; clarifying questions that were difficult to answer and utilising skip logic to create different series of questions for the various types of data repository. We simplified the questionnaire replacing free-text responses with yes/no or picking list options, wherever possible. We placed the final questionnaire online and encouraged its use (www.clininf.eu/jointirre/info.html.Conclusion Limited field testing suggests that TIRRE is capable of collecting comprehensive and relevant data about the suitability and readiness of data repositories to participate in linked data research.

  20. Patient experience and satisfaction with inpatient service: development of short form survey instrument measuring the core aspect of inpatient experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza L Y Wong

    Full Text Available Patient experience reflects quality of care from the patients' perspective; therefore, patients' experiences are important data in the evaluation of the quality of health services. The development of an abbreviated, reliable and valid instrument for measuring inpatients' experience would reflect the key aspect of inpatient care from patients' perspective as well as facilitate quality improvement by cultivating patient engagement and allow the trends in patient satisfaction and experience to be measured regularly. The study developed a short-form inpatient instrument and tested its ability to capture a core set of inpatients' experiences. The Hong Kong Inpatient Experience Questionnaire (HKIEQ was established in 2010; it is an adaptation of the General Inpatient Questionnaire of the Care Quality Commission created by the Picker Institute in United Kingdom. This study used a consensus conference and a cross-sectional validation survey to create and validate a short-form of the Hong Kong Inpatient Experience Questionnaire (SF-HKIEQ. The short-form, the SF-HKIEQ, consisted of 18 items derived from the HKIEQ. The 18 items mainly covered relational aspects of care under four dimensions of the patient's journey: hospital staff, patient care and treatment, information on leaving the hospital, and overall impression. The SF-HKIEQ had a high degree of face validity, construct validity and internal reliability. The validated SF-HKIEQ reflects the relevant core aspects of inpatients' experience in a hospital setting. It provides a quick reference tool for quality improvement purposes and a platform that allows both healthcare staff and patients to monitor the quality of hospital care over time.

  1. A Frailty Instrument for primary care: findings from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero-Ortuno Roman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A frailty paradigm would be useful in primary care to identify older people at risk, but appropriate metrics at that level are lacking. We created and validated a simple instrument for frailty screening in Europeans aged ≥50. Our study is based on the first wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE, http://www.share-project.org, a large population-based survey conducted in 2004-2005 in twelve European countries. Methods Subjects: SHARE Wave 1 respondents (17,304 females and 13,811 males. Measures: five SHARE variables approximating Fried's frailty definition. Analyses (for each gender: 1 estimation of a discreet factor (DFactor model based on the frailty variables using LatentGOLD®. A single DFactor with three ordered levels or latent classes (i.e. non-frail, pre-frail and frail was modelled; 2 the latent classes were characterised against a biopsychosocial range of Wave 1 variables; 3 the prospective mortality risk (unadjusted and age-adjusted for each frailty class was established on those subjects with known mortality status at Wave 2 (2007-2008 (11,384 females and 9,163 males; 4 two web-based calculators were created for easy retrieval of a subject's frailty class given any five measurements. Results Females: the DFactor model included 15,578 cases (standard R2 = 0.61. All five frailty indicators discriminated well (p N = 10,420; 66.9%, pre-frail (N = 4,025; 25.8%, and frail (N = 1,133; 7.3%. Relative to the non-frail class, the age-adjusted Odds Ratio (with 95% Confidence Interval for mortality at Wave 2 was 2.1 (1.4 - 3.0 in the pre-frail and 4.8 (3.1 - 7.4 in the frail. Males: 12,783 cases (standard R2 = 0.61, all frailty indicators had p N = 10,517; 82.3%, pre-frail (N = 1,871; 14.6%, and frail (N = 395; 3.1%; age-adjusted OR (95% CI for mortality: 3.0 (2.3 - 4.0 in the pre-frail, 6.9 (4.7 - 10.2 in the frail. Conclusions The SHARE Frailty Instrument has sufficient construct and

  2. Local verification and assignment of mean normal prothrombin time and International Sensitivity Index values across various instruments: recent experience and outcome from North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tange, Julie I; Grill, Diane; Koch, Christopher D; Ybabez, Roxanne J; Krekelberg, Benjamin J; Fylling, Kara A; Wiese, Cynthia R; Baumann, Nikola A; Block, Darci R; Karon, Brad S; Chen, Dong; Pruthi, Rajiv K

    2014-02-01

    Warfarin dosing relies on accurate measurements of international normalized ratio (INR), which is calculated from the prothrombin time (PT), International Sensitivity Index international sensitivity index (ISI) of the thromboplastin, and the geometric mean of normal PT (MNPT). However, ISI assignments of certain reagent/instrument combinations are frequently unavailable, especially when the reagent and instrument are not from the same manufacturer. The effort to be in compliance with widely endorsed Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines by locally verifying or assigning an ISI to an unsupported reagent/instrument combination is further hindered by the lack of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved certified plasmas designated for a particular reagent/instrument combination. The objectives of the study include development of a process to verify/assign ISI and MNPT of a single thromboplastin reagent from one manufacturer across multiple instruments including several from another manufacturer and across several campuses of a single institution, the Mayo Clinic. In this study, RecombiPlasTin 2G (R2G), was evaluated on the ACL TOP 700 (IL), STA-R Evolution, STA Compact, and STA Satellite. Random normal donor samples (n = 25) were used to verify/assign MNPT. A subset of the normal donors (n = 8) and 13 warfarin pools (INR range: 1.3-3.9), created from stable warfarin patient plasma, were used for ISI verification/assignment. The manufacturer's assigned ISI was first verified on the ACL TOP 700 (reference method), then assigned on three unsupported instruments using orthogonal regression analysis. The MNPT and manufacturer assigned ISI (11.0, 0.95) were verified on the ACL TOP 700 and subsequently assigned on the STA-R Evolution (11.6, 1.04); STA Compact (11.5, 1.02); and STA Satellite (10.9, 0.99). Linear correlations of the INR results from all the four instruments demonstrated an r2 > 0.99. This process provides a reproducible approach

  3. Improving and Assessing Planet Sensitivity of the GPI Exoplanet Survey with a Forward Model Matched Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffio, Jean-Baptiste; Macintosh, Bruce; Wang, Jason J.; Pueyo, Laurent; Nielsen, Eric L.; De Rosa, Robert J.; Czekala, Ian; Marley, Mark S.; Arriaga, Pauline; Bailey, Vanessa P.; Barman, Travis; Bulger, Joanna; Chilcote, Jeffrey; Cotten, Tara; Doyon, Rene; Duchêne, Gaspard; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Follette, Katherine B.; Gerard, Benjamin L.; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Graham, James R.; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z.; Hibon, Pascale; Hung, Li-Wei; Ingraham, Patrick; Kalas, Paul; Konopacky, Quinn; Larkin, James E.; Maire, Jérôme; Marchis, Franck; Marois, Christian; Metchev, Stanimir; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A.; Morzinski, Katie M.; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Palmer, David; Patience, Jennifer; Perrin, Marshall; Poyneer, Lisa; Rajan, Abhijith; Rameau, Julien; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.; Savransky, Dmitry; Schneider, Adam C.; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Soummer, Remi; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J. Kent; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Wiktorowicz, Sloane; Wolff, Schuyler

    2017-06-01

    We present a new matched-filter algorithm for direct detection of point sources in the immediate vicinity of bright stars. The stellar point-spread function (PSF) is first subtracted using a Karhunen-Loéve image processing (KLIP) algorithm with angular and spectral differential imaging (ADI and SDI). The KLIP-induced distortion of the astrophysical signal is included in the matched-filter template by computing a forward model of the PSF at every position in the image. To optimize the performance of the algorithm, we conduct extensive planet injection and recovery tests and tune the exoplanet spectra template and KLIP reduction aggressiveness to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the recovered planets. We show that only two spectral templates are necessary to recover any young Jovian exoplanets with minimal S/N loss. We also developed a complete pipeline for the automated detection of point-source candidates, the calculation of receiver operating characteristics (ROC), contrast curves based on false positives, and completeness contours. We process in a uniform manner more than 330 data sets from the Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey and assess GPI typical sensitivity as a function of the star and the hypothetical companion spectral type. This work allows for the first time a comparison of different detection algorithms at a survey scale accounting for both planet completeness and false-positive rate. We show that the new forward model matched filter allows the detection of 50% fainter objects than a conventional cross-correlation technique with a Gaussian PSF template for the same false-positive rate.

  4. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Survey Boundaries, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_survey_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains vector polygons representing survey boundaries for the various data collection efforts used as sources in the larger Louisiana G-WIS database....

  5. Wetland and Sensitive Species Survey Report for Y-12: Proposed Uranium Processing Facility (UPF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giffen, N.; Peterson, M.; Reasor, S.; Pounds, L.; Byrd, G.; Wiest, M. C.; Hill, C. C.

    2009-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of an environmental survey conducted at sites associated with the proposed Uranium Processing Facility (UPF) at the Y-12 National Security Complex in September-October 2009. The survey was conducted in order to evaluate potential impacts of the overall project. This project includes the construction of a haul road, concrete batch plant, wet soil storage area and dry soil storage area. The environmental surveys were conducted by natural resource experts at ORNL who routinely assess the significance of various project activities on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Natural resource staff assistance on this project included the collection of environmental information that can aid in project location decisions that minimize impacts to sensitive resource such as significant wildlife populations, rare plants and wetlands. Natural resources work was conducted in various habitats, corresponding to the proposed areas of impact. Thc credentials/qualifications of the researchers are contained in Appendix A. The proposed haul road traverses a number of different habitats including a power-line right-of-way. wetlands, streams, forest and mowed areas. It extends from what is known as the New Salvage Yard on the west to the Polaris Parking Lot on the east. This haul road is meant to connect the proposed concrete batch plant to the UPF building site. The proposed site of the concrete batch plant itself is a highly disturbed fenced area. This area of the project is shown in Fig. 1. The proposed Wet Soils Disposal Area is located on the north side of Bear Creek Road at the former Control Burn Study Area. This is a second growth arce containing thick vegetation, and extensive dead and down woody material. This area of the project is shown in Fig. 2. Thc dry soils storage area is proposed for what is currently known as the West Borrow Area. This site is located on the west side of Reeves Road south of Bear Creek Road. The site is an early successional

  6. Effect of higher-order aberrations and intraocular scatter on contrast sensitivity measured with a single instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junlei; Xiao, Fei; Zhao, Haoxin; Dai, Yun; Zhang, Yudong

    2017-01-01

    Higher-order aberrations (HOAs) and intraocular scatter lead to the degradation of image quality on the retina, and consequently deteriorate subjective visual performance. In this article, we modified an adaptive optics double-pass system to combine objective and subjective visual testing capabilities. Employing the modified DP system, we investigated the effects of HOAs and intraocular scatter on contrast sensitivity. Contrast sensitivity measurements were performed with HOAs either retained or corrected by adaptive optics, and with scatter either remaining at the natural eye-induced level or further enhanced by a set of three different scatter filters. Contrast sensitivity was found to be worse when HOAs were uncorrected or scatter increased. Quantitative analysis indicated that the joint effect of HOAs and scatter on contrast sensitivity was not a simple summation of each contributing factor, suggesting a potential compensatory mechanism between HOAs and intraocular scatter on contrast sensitivity. PMID:28736660

  7. Development and pilot testing of an Internet-based survey instrument to measure the alcohol brand preferences of U.S. youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; DiLoreto, Joanna; Johnson, Andrea; Fortunato, Erin K; DeJong, William

    2011-04-01

    Although we know a great deal about the percentage of youth who drink alcohol, we know very little about the specific brands they choose to drink. This information gap needs to be addressed if public health officials are to develop more effective interventions. Unfortunately, there are no national youth surveys that collect data on alcohol brand consumption. In this paper, we describe the development and pilot testing of what we believe to be the first comprehensive, Internet-based youth survey of brand-specific alcohol use. We used online advertising in 3 U.S. cities to recruit a convenience sample of 241 respondents, ages 16 to 18 years. We used Craigslist, a network of online communities that features local classified advertisements, to recruit the sample. We used SurveyGizmo, an online software program for designing Internet surveys, collecting data, and performing basic analysis, to survey these respondents about their brand-specific alcohol consumption patterns. The survey instrument assessed each respondent's 30-day drinking history, including the frequency of consumption for each alcohol brand. Using Internet survey technology, we were able to collect information on 366 brands and still have respondents complete the instrument quickly and easily. The total number of brands consumed in the past 30 days ranged from 1 to 18, with a median of 4 brands. The top 5 brands consumed were beer brands, as were eleven of the top 15 brands. The remaining 4 brands in the top 15 included 3 brands of flavored alcoholic beverages and 1 brand of mixed drink. Among the top 15 alcohol brands consumed during heavy drinking episodes were 8 brands of beer, 4 brands of flavored alcoholic beverages, 2 brands of wine, and 1 brand of mixed drink. This pilot study helps establish the feasibility of including brand-specific questions on federal or other national youth alcohol surveys. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  8. Results of a healthcare worker (HCW) survey on environmental awareness as an instrument for the preparation of an environmental report for the University Medicine Greifswald.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiden, Jens-Uwe; Kramer, Axel; Bornewasser, Manfred; Lemanski, Sandra; Below, Harald

    2011-01-01

    Environmental reporting is increasingly important for medical facilities. Currently, hospitals can determine the content of an environmental report as they see fit. To examine the utility and scope of an employee survey as an instrument for the preparation of an environmental report at the University Hospital Greifswald. For this purpose a questionnaire was developed with a focus on environmental behaviour and the significance attached to the protection of the environment. The employees of the University Medicine Greifswald attach an unexpectedly high significance to the protection of the environment. Based on this finding, this potential should be used to promote the optimal implementation of ecological-economic behaviour within the University Medicine. An employee survey is a useful instrument in the preparation of an environmental report.

  9. Evaluation of the two non-consecutive 24-h recall instrument for pan-European food consumption surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crispim, S.P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The comparability of food consumption data originating from national nutritional surveys in Europe is currently hampered because of different methodologies used. Therefore, experts in the European Food Consumption Survey Method (EFCOSUM) consortium proposed to use two non-consecutive

  10. Influence of the Earth on the background and the sensitivity of the GRM and ECLAIRs instruments aboard the Chinese-French mission SVOM

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Donghua; Sizun, Patrick; Wu, Bobing; Dong, Yongwei; Schanne, Stéphane; Song, Liming; Liu, Jiangtao

    2012-01-01

    SVOM (Space-based multi-band astronomical Variable Object Monitor) is a future Chinese-French satellite mission which is dedicated to Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) studies. Its anti-solar pointing strategy makes the Earth cross the field of view of its payload every orbit. In this paper, we present the variations of the gamma-ray background of the two high energy instruments aboard SVOM, the Gamma-Ray Monitor (GRM) and ECLAIRs, as a function of the Earth position. We conclude with an estimate of the Earth influence on their sensitivity and their GRB detection capability.

  11. Conference Discussion: The Challenges in Multi-Object Spectroscopy Instrument and Survey Design, and in Data Processing and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcells, M.; Skillen, I.

    2016-10-01

    The final session of the conference Multi-Object Spectroscopy in the Next Decade: Big Questions, Large Surveys, and Wide Fields, held in La Palma 2-6 March 2015, was devoted to a discussion of the challenges in designing and operating the next-generation survey spectrographs, and planning and carrying out their massive surveys. The wide-ranging 1.5-hour debate was recorded on video tape, and in this paper we report the edited transcription of the dialog.

  12. Evaluation of the two non-consecutive 24-h recall instrument for pan-European food consumption surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crispim, S.P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The comparability of food consumption data originating from national nutritional surveys in Europe is currently hampered because of different methodologies used. Therefore, experts in the European Food Consumption Survey Method (EFCOSUM) consortium proposed to use two non-consecutive 24-

  13. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA - a sensitive screening instrument for detecting cognitive impairment in chronic hemodialysis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances E Tiffin-Richards

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD therapy have an increased risk of developing cognitive impairment and dementia, which are known relevant factors in disease prognosis and therapeutic success, but still lack adequate screening in clinical routine. We evaluated the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA for suitability in assessing cognitive performance in HD patients in comparison to the commonly used Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and a detailed neuropsychological test battery, used as gold standard. METHODS: 43 HD patients and 42 healthy controls with an average age of 58 years, were assessed with the MoCA, the MMSE and a detailed neuropsychological test battery, covering the domains of memory, attention, language, visuospatial and executive functions. Composite scores were created for comparison of cognitive domains and test results were analyzed using Spearman's correlation and linear regression. Cognitive dysfunction was defined using z-score values and predictive values were calculated. Sensitivity and specificity of the MoCA were determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis. RESULTS: HD patients performed worse in all cognitive domains, especially in memory recall and executive functions. The MoCA correlated well with the detailed test battery and identified patients with cognitive impairment with a sensitivity of 76.7% and specificity of 78.6% for a cut-off value of ≤24 out of 30 points. In the detailed assessment executive functions accounted significantly for performance in the MoCA. The MMSE only discriminated weakly between groups. CONCLUSIONS: The MoCA represents a suitable cognitive screening tool for hemodialysis patients, demonstrating good sensitivity and specificity levels, and covering executive functions, which appear to play an important role in cognitive performance of HD patients.

  14. Management of Nonceliac Gluten Sensitivity by Gastroenterology Specialists: Data from an Italian Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Federica Branchi; Francesca Ferretti; Lorenzo Norsa; Leda Roncoroni; Dario Conte; Maria Teresa Bardella; Luca Elli

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim. Nonceliac gluten sensitivity is syndrome characterized by symptoms disappearing after a gluten-free diet. Its existence is still argument of discussion among specialists. Our aim was to evaluate the knowledge about nonceliac gluten sensitivity among gastroenterology specialists. Methods. During October 2013 a questionnaire was sent through a medical newsletter to Italian gastroenterologists. Twelve questions investigated their knowledge on nonceliac gluten sensitivity, inc...

  15. Silicon-Based Antenna-Coupled Polarization-Sensitive Millimeter-Wave Bolometer Arrays for Cosmic Microwave Background Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Rostem, Karwan; Appel, John W; Bennett, Charles L; Brown, Ari; Chang, Meng-Ping; Chuss, David T; Colazo, Felipe A; Costen, Nick; Denis, Kevin L; Essinger-Hileman, Tom; Hu, Ron; Marriage, Tobias A; Moseley, Samuel H; Stevenson, Thomas R; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward J; Xu, Zhilei

    2016-01-01

    We describe feedhorn-coupled polarization-sensitive detector arrays that utilize monocrystalline silicon as the dielectric substrate material. Monocrystalline silicon has a low-loss tangent and repeatable dielectric constant, characteristics that are critical for realizing efficient and uniform superconducting microwave circuits. An additional advantage of this material is its low specific heat. In a detector pixel, two Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers are antenna-coupled to in-band radiation via a symmetric planar orthomode transducer (OMT). Each orthogonal linear polarization is coupled to a separate superconducting microstrip transmission line circuit. On-chip filtering is employed to both reject out-of-band radiation from the upper band edge to the gap frequency of the niobium superconductor, and to flexibly define the bandwidth for each TES to meet the requirements of the application. The microwave circuit is compatible with multi-chroic operation. Metalized silicon platelets are used to define th...

  16. Participant recruitment in sensitive surveys: a comparative trial of 'opt in' versus 'opt out' approaches

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hunt, Katherine J; Shlomo, Natalie; Addington-Hall, Julia

    2013-01-01

    ... by returning a reply slip is frequently adopted. However, in observational research the risk to participants is lower than in clinical research and so some surveys have used an 'opt-out' system...

  17. Trends in caesarean section and instrumental deliveries in relation to Body Mass Index: a clinical survey during 1978 - 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefsson Ann

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last 20 years the rate of CS has increased in Sweden as it has in many other countries. The proportion of pregnant women suffering from a high BMI has also increased rapidly during the same time period. It would therefore be of interest to study both how and if these two observations are related to each other. The aim was therefore to study trends in mode of caesarean section (CS and instrumental deliveries among women in three BMI groups over a time span of almost 25 years with special focus on the observed body weight of pregnant women. Method The design is a retrospective cohort study using medical records of consecutively delivered women at two delivery wards in South East Sweden during the years 1978, 1986, 1992, 1997 and 2001. Results No significant time-trends were found for CS and instrumental delivery within each BMI-group for the time period studied. The proportion of women with BMI ≥ 25 delivered by means of CS or instrumental delivery increased quite dramatically from 1978 to 2001 (χ2 test for trend; p Conclusion Overweight and obese pregnant women constitute a rapidly growing proportion of the total number of CS and instrumental deliveries. Planning and allocation of health resources must be adjusted to this fact and its implications.

  18. The Development of a Survey Instrument on South Dakota's School District Leadership Climate as Related to Deming's Fourteen Points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Lawrence W. O.; And Others

    Development of an instrument to measure baseline levels of applied Total Quality Management (TQM) practices in South Dakota before the introduction and dissemination of TQM theory to the state's educational leaders is described. Using the interpretation of Deming's 14 points that was developed by J. J. Bonstigl, a 115-item initial item pool was…

  19. Management of Nonceliac Gluten Sensitivity by Gastroenterology Specialists: Data from an Italian Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branchi, Federica; Ferretti, Francesca; Norsa, Lorenzo; Roncoroni, Leda; Conte, Dario; Bardella, Maria Teresa; Elli, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Nonceliac gluten sensitivity is syndrome characterized by symptoms disappearing after a gluten-free diet. Its existence is still argument of discussion among specialists. Our aim was to evaluate the knowledge about nonceliac gluten sensitivity among gastroenterology specialists. During October 2013 a questionnaire was sent through a medical newsletter to Italian gastroenterologists. Twelve questions investigated their knowledge on nonceliac gluten sensitivity, including their diagnostic and therapeutic approach. A total of 212 gastroenterologists filled in the questionnaire. The 98.6% were aware of the existence of a syndrome called "nonceliac gluten sensitivity" and 77% believe in its existence. However, only 56% gave a correct definition of the term. The majority of specialists diagnosed gluten sensitive patients and the number of diagnoses was not statistically different from that of celiac disease. Moreover, a gluten-free diet was prescribed by 64% of the specialists and among them the 73% noted an increase of gluten sensitive patients attending their outpatient services. Our study indicated that most of the specialists recognize nonceliac gluten sensitivity and prescribe gluten-free diet, although 44% of the specialists are not able to give its correct definition; underlining the necessity of medical education on this topic is needed.

  20. Silicon-based antenna-coupled polarization-sensitive millimeter-wave bolometer arrays for cosmic microwave background instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostem, Karwan; Ali, Aamir; Appel, John W.; Bennett, Charles L.; Brown, Ari; Chang, Meng-Ping; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe A.; Costen, Nick; Denis, Kevin L.; Essinger-Hileman, Tom; Hu, Ron; Marriage, Tobias A.; Moseley, Samuel H.; Stevenson, Thomas R.; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward J.; Xu, Zhilei

    2016-07-01

    We describe feedhorn-coupled polarization-sensitive detector arrays that utilize monocrystalline silicon as the dielectric substrate material. Monocrystalline silicon has a low-loss tangent and repeatable dielectric constant, characteristics that are critical for realizing efficient and uniform superconducting microwave circuits. An additional advantage of this material is its low specific heat. In a detector pixel, two Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers are antenna-coupled to in-band radiation via a symmetric planar orthomode transducer (OMT). Each orthogonal linear polarization is coupled to a separate superconducting microstrip transmission line circuit. On-chip filtering is employed to both reject out-of-band radiation from the upper band edge to the gap frequency of the niobium superconductor, and to flexibly define the bandwidth for each TES to meet the requirements of the application. The microwave circuit is compatible with multi-chroic operation. Metalized silicon platelets are used to define the backshort for the waveguide probes. This micro-machined structure is also used to mitigate the coupling of out-of-band radiation to the microwave circuit. At 40 GHz, the detectors have a measured efficiency of ˜90%. In this paper, we describe the development of the 90 GHz detector arrays that will be demonstrated using the Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) ground-based telescope.

  1. Management of Nonceliac Gluten Sensitivity by Gastroenterology Specialists: Data from an Italian Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Branchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. Nonceliac gluten sensitivity is syndrome characterized by symptoms disappearing after a gluten-free diet. Its existence is still argument of discussion among specialists. Our aim was to evaluate the knowledge about nonceliac gluten sensitivity among gastroenterology specialists. Methods. During October 2013 a questionnaire was sent through a medical newsletter to Italian gastroenterologists. Twelve questions investigated their knowledge on nonceliac gluten sensitivity, including their diagnostic and therapeutic approach. Results. A total of 212 gastroenterologists filled in the questionnaire. The 98.6% were aware of the existence of a syndrome called “nonceliac gluten sensitivity” and 77% believe in its existence. However, only 56% gave a correct definition of the term. The majority of specialists diagnosed gluten sensitive patients and the number of diagnoses was not statistically different from that of celiac disease. Moreover, a gluten-free diet was prescribed by 64% of the specialists and among them the 73% noted an increase of gluten sensitive patients attending their outpatient services. Conclusions. Our study indicated that most of the specialists recognize nonceliac gluten sensitivity and prescribe gluten-free diet, although 44% of the specialists are not able to give its correct definition; underlining the necessity of medical education on this topic is needed.

  2. The balanced scorecard as a potential instrument for supporting planning and improvement in accounting education: Comparative survey findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CJ Cronje

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is firstly a comparison of the components of a potential balanced scorecard for accounting departments of universities in South Africa and Australia. Secondly, the various suggested measurement criteria of the balanced scorecard components are also compared. The findings of the research paper indicate no significant differences. The conclusion is that the balanced scorecard constitutes a potential instrument for supporting the planning and improvement of the accounting education environment.

  3. A Fast and Sensitive New Satellite SO2 Retrieval Algorithm based on Principal Component Analysis: Application to the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Joiner, Joanna; Krotkov, A.; Bhartia, Pawan K.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new algorithm to retrieve SO2 from satellite-measured hyperspectral radiances. We employ the principal component analysis technique in regions with no significant SO2 to capture radiance variability caused by both physical processes (e.g., Rayleigh and Raman scattering and ozone absorption) and measurement artifacts. We use the resulting principal components and SO2 Jacobians calculated with a radiative transfer model to directly estimate SO2 vertical column density in one step. Application to the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) radiance spectra in 310.5-340 nm demonstrates that this approach can greatly reduce biases in the operational OMI product and decrease the noise by a factor of 2, providing greater sensitivity to anthropogenic emissions. The new algorithm is fast, eliminates the need for instrument-specific radiance correction schemes, and can be easily adapted to other sensors. These attributes make it a promising technique for producing longterm, consistent SO2 records for air quality and climate research.

  4. Market assessment for active solar heating and cooling products. Category B: A survey of decision makers in the HVAC market place. Survey instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilien, G. L.; Johnston, P. E.

    1980-09-01

    Telephone screener questionnaires and mail-out questionnaires for marketing surveys for solar heating and cooling equipment are presented. Questionnaires are included for the residential segment, industrial segment, HVAC professionals segment, builder/developer segment, and the commercial segment. No results are reported. (WHK)

  5. The StEllar Counterparts of COmpact high velocity clouds (SECCO) survey. II. Sensitivity of the survey and an Atlas of Synthetic Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Beccari, G; Battaglia, G; Ibata, R; Martin, N; Testa, V; Cignoni, M; Correnti, M

    2016-01-01

    SECCO is a survey devoted to the search for stellar counterparts within Ultra Compact High Velocity Clouds. In this contribution we present the results of a set of simulations aimed at the quantitative estimate of the sensitivity of the survey as a function of the total luminosity, size and distance of the stellar systems we are looking for. For all our synthetic galaxies we assumed an exponential surface brightness profile and an old and metal-poor population. The synthetic galaxies are simulated both on the images and on the photometric catalogs, taking into account all the observational effects. In the fields where the available observational material is of the top quality we detect synthetic galaxies as >=5 sigma over-densities of resolved stars down to muV,h=30.0 mag/arcsec2, for D<=1.5 Mpc, and down to muV,h~29.5 mag/arcsec2, for D<=2.5 Mpc. In the field with the worst observational material of the whole survey we detect synthetic galaxies with muV,h<=28.8 mag/arcsec2 out to D<=1.0 Mpc, and ...

  6. Comparison of alternative survey methods for sensitive self-reported behaviours in a follow-up study of isotretinoin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, R S; Glynn, R J; Werler, M M; Van Bennekom, C M; Mitchell, A A

    2000-01-01

    Responses to questions on sensitive behaviours can be affected by when and how questions are asked. Using data from an ongoing survey of women taking isotretinoin (a teratogenic drug used to treat acne), we compared answers to questions on contraceptive use during therapy among 126966 women who had begun treatment in 1990-93. 20503 were randomly assigned to a group which was surveyed by telephone at the start of treatment, during treatment and 6 months after treatment ended (DAT group). 106463 received a mail survey 6 months after treatment ended (AT group). Women who could not be contacted during treatment, along with the non-respondents in the AT group, received follow-up surveys by US mail, air courier and, if necessary, were called by telephone. The response rate was higher in the DAT group (96.4%) than in the AT group (84.8%). Among respondents, the odds of reported contraceptive use in the AT group compared with the DAT group (asked at 6 months after treatment) was 1.41 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.36-1.46]. However, rates of oral contraceptive (OC) use were virtually identical in the two groups. In both groups, women surveyed by telephone reported lower rates of contraceptive use than women surveyed by mail. In the AT group, a late response was associated with a significantly lower rate of contraceptive use. Both mode of data collection (phone versus mail) and time to response affected reported rates of contraceptive use. Reasonable assumptions about the effect of non-response could not account for the difference between the AT and DAT groups. We found that contacting women during their treatment did not increase their reported use of contraceptives.

  7. Development of a Survey Instrument to Measure TEFL Academics' Perceptions about, Individual and Workplace Characteristics for Conducting Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Li; Hudson, Peter; Millwater, Jan; Tones, Megan

    2013-01-01

    A 30-item survey was devised to determine Chinese TEFL (Teaching English as a Foreign Language) academics' potential for conducting research. A five-part Likert scale was used to gather data from 182 academics on four factors: (1) perceptions on teaching-research nexus, (2) personal perspectives for conducting research, (3) predispositions for…

  8. Survey of sampling-based methods for uncertainty and sensitivity analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jay Dean; Helton, Jon Craig; Sallaberry, Cedric J. PhD. (.; .); Storlie, Curt B. (Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO)

    2006-06-01

    Sampling-based methods for uncertainty and sensitivity analysis are reviewed. The following topics are considered: (1) Definition of probability distributions to characterize epistemic uncertainty in analysis inputs, (2) Generation of samples from uncertain analysis inputs, (3) Propagation of sampled inputs through an analysis, (4) Presentation of uncertainty analysis results, and (5) Determination of sensitivity analysis results. Special attention is given to the determination of sensitivity analysis results, with brief descriptions and illustrations given for the following procedures/techniques: examination of scatterplots, correlation analysis, regression analysis, partial correlation analysis, rank transformations, statistical tests for patterns based on gridding, entropy tests for patterns based on gridding, nonparametric regression analysis, squared rank differences/rank correlation coefficient test, two dimensional Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, tests for patterns based on distance measures, top down coefficient of concordance, and variance decomposition.

  9. An analysis of determinants influencing use of ayurvedic medication in Pune region utilizing a questionnaire survey instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyawahare Neeraj

    2009-01-01

    The survey revealed that consumption of Ayurvedic medication in Pune region is increasing, wherein safety and faith are important parameters, however, like allopathic medication; people usually stick to the prescription issued by the physician. The increasing trend of self medication and lack of knowledge of herb drug interaction especially in non graduates are the major concerns need to be addressed for better outcome of the therapy.

  10. Isolation and survey of antibiotic sensitivity in nosocomial infections in north Maharashtra region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Arun; Patil, Kavita; Pawar, Pankaj; Maheshwari, Vijay

    2013-07-01

    The present work was aimed to study the prevalence of the drug resistance among Gram positive and Gram negative organisms isolated from clinical samples obtained from various private nursing homes of Jalgaon city and surrounding areas in the state of Maharashtra. Different pathogenic organisms were isolated from one thousand seven hundred and ninety clinical samples obtained from various nursing homes of Jalgaon region of North Maharashtra, MS, India during the period of August, 2010 to July, 2011. Antibiotic sensitivity testing of isolated pathogenic organisms was done with fifty different antibiotics of 13 different groups by the disk diffusion technique using Mueller Hinton Agar Plates according to CLSI (formerly NCCLS) guidelines. Out of total samples analyzed 1171 samples showed the presence of infection while in 619 samples no growth of organisms was seen on culture medium. Microbial growth revealed presence of 11 different organisms (E. coli, Klebsiella spp., Proteus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Acinetobater spp., Streptococccus spp., Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and MSSA)) including Candida spp. Sensitivity profile of these organisms towards different antibiotics is reported here. The study resulted in generation of representative status of the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of commonly found organisms in nosocomial infections in the region. This could be useful for the clinicians to choose correct antibiotic and ensure the judicious use of the same for their patients.

  11. Computerized motion sensitivity screening tests in a multicountry rural onchocercal community survey in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babalola O

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine whether the Wu-Jones Motion Sensitivity Screening Test (MSST accurately reflects the burden of optic nerve disease in several onchoendemic communities in Africa. Materials and Methods: The MSST was used to evaluate subjects in the communities of Raja in Sudan, Bushenyi in Uganda, Morogoro in Tanzania, and Ikon, Olomboro, and Gembu in Nigeria. Motion sensitivity was expressed as a percentage of motion detected in the individual eye, and this was averaged for the community. A perfectly normal eye would detect all motion and score 100%. Results: In this study, 3858 eyes of 2072 subjects were tested. The test was completed in 76% of respondents. Acceptability was high. Average test time was 120.4 s. The overall mean motion sensitivity of all eyes tested was 88.49%, ±17.49. Using a cutoff level of 50%, 6.4% of all subjects tested were subnormal. The highest proportion of subnormals recorded was in Morogoro at 12.7%. Severe defects in a community best correlated with optic nerve disease prevalence, while the proportion of the defect from a higher cutoff level best correlated with overall ocular morbidity. A repeat examination in the next 5 years following ivermectin treatment will show the influence, if any, on community-wide MSST performance. Conclusion: A wide range in community scores reflected disease diversity. The MSST appears to be a useful test in community-wide screening and diagnosis as it reflects the general level of ocular pathology and specifically, optic nerve disease.

  12. Automating Telephone Surveys: Using T-ACASI to Obtain Data on Sensitive Topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Philip C; Miller, Heather G; Gribble, James N; Turner, Charles F

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a new interview data collection system that uses a personal computer equipped with a telephone interface card. This system, telephone audio computer-assisted self-interviewing or T-ACASI, offers the economy of telephone interviews while providing the privacy of self-administered questionnaires. We describe T-ACASI design considerations and operational characteristics. In addition, we present data from recent studies indicating that the T-ACASI system is stable, robust, and suitable for administering relatively long and complex questionnaires on sensitive topics, including drug use and sexual behaviors associated with HIV and other STDs.

  13. Non-instrumented incubation of a recombinase polymerase amplification assay for the rapid and sensitive detection of proviral HIV-1 DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Lillis

    Full Text Available Sensitive diagnostic tests for infectious diseases often employ nucleic acid amplification technologies (NAATs. However, most NAAT assays, including many isothermal amplification methods, require power-dependent instrumentation for incubation. For use in low resource settings (LRS, diagnostics that do not require consistent electricity supply would be ideal. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA is an isothermal amplification technology that has been shown to typically work at temperatures ranging from 25-43°C, and does not require a stringent incubation temperature for optimal performance. Here we evaluate the ability to incubate an HIV-1 RPA assay, intended for use as an infant HIV diagnostic in LRS, at ambient temperatures or with a simple non-instrumented heat source. To determine the range of expected ambient temperatures in settings where an HIV-1 infant diagnostic would be of most use, a dataset of the seasonal range of daily temperatures in sub Saharan Africa was analyzed and revealed ambient temperatures as low as 10°C and rarely above 43°C. All 24 of 24 (100% HIV-1 RPA reactions amplified when incubated for 20 minutes between 31°C and 43°C. The amplification from the HIV-1 RPA assay under investigation at temperatures was less consistent below 30°C. Thus, we developed a chemical heater to incubate HIV-1 RPA assays when ambient temperatures are between 10°C and 30°C. All 12/12 (100% reactions amplified with chemical heat incubation from ambient temperatures of 15°C, 20°C, 25°C and 30°C. We also observed that incubation at 30 minutes improved assay performance at lower temperatures where detection was sporadic using 20 minutes incubation. We have demonstrated that incubation of the RPA HIV-1 assay via ambient temperatures or using chemical heaters yields similar results to using electrically powered devices. We propose that this RPA HIV-1 assay may not need dedicated equipment to be a highly sensitive tool to diagnose

  14. Validation of a survey instrument to assess home environments for physical activity and healthy eating in overweight children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crane Lori A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few measures exist to measure the overall home environment for its ability to support physical activity (PA and healthy eating in overweight children. The purpose of this study was to develop and test the reliability and validity of such a measure. Methods The Home Environment Survey (HES was developed to reflect availability, accessibility, parental role modelling, and parental policies related to PA resources, fruits and vegetables (F&V, and sugar sweetened drinks and snacks (SS. Parents of overweight children (n = 219 completed the HES and concurrent behavioural assessments. Children completed the Block Kids survey and wore an accelerometer for one week. A subset of parents (n = 156 completed the HES a second time to determine test-retest reliability. Finally, 41 parent dyads living in the same home (n = 41 completed the survey to determine inter-rater reliability. Initial psychometric analyses were completed to trim items from the measure based on lack of variability in responses, moderate or higher item to scale correlation, or contribution to strong internal consistency. Inter-rater and test-retest reliability were completed using intraclass correlation coefficients. Validity was assessed using Pearson correlations between the HES scores and child and parent nutrition and PA. Results Eight items were removed and acceptable internal consistency was documented for all scales (α = .66–84 with the exception of the F&V accessibility. The F&V accessibility was reduced to a single item because the other two items did not meet reliability standards. Test-retest reliability was high (r > .75 for all scales. Inter-rater reliability varied across scales (r = .22–.89. PA accessibility, parent role modelling, and parental policies were all related significantly to child (r = .14–.21 and parent (r = .15–.31 PA. Similarly, availability of F&V and SS, parental role modelling, and parental policies were related to child (r

  15. Effect of survey instrument on participation in a follow-up study: a randomization study of a mailed questionnaire versus a computer-assisted telephone interview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocheleau Carissa M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many epidemiological and public health surveys report increasing difficulty obtaining high participation rates. We conducted a pilot follow-up study to determine whether a mailed or telephone survey would better facilitate data collection in a subset of respondents to an earlier telephone survey conducted as part of the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Methods We randomly assigned 392 eligible mothers to receive a self-administered, mailed questionnaire (MQ or a computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI using similar recruitment protocols. If mothers gave permission to contact the fathers, fathers were recruited to complete the same instrument (MQ or CATI as mothers. Results Mothers contacted for the MQ, within all demographic strata examined, were more likely to participate than those contacted for the CATI (86.6% vs. 70.6%. The median response time for mothers completing the MQ was 17 days, compared to 29 days for mothers completing the CATI. Mothers completing the MQ also required fewer reminder calls or letters to finish participation versus those assigned to the CATI (median 3 versus 6, though they were less likely to give permission to contact the father (75.0% vs. 85.8%. Fathers contacted for the MQ, however, had higher participation compared to fathers contacted for the CATI (85.2% vs. 54.5%. Fathers recruited to the MQ also had a shorter response time (median 17 days and required fewer reminder calls and letters (median 3 reminders than those completing the CATI (medians 28 days and 6 reminders. Conclusions We concluded that offering a MQ substantially improved participation rates and reduced recruitment effort compared to a CATI in this study. While a CATI has the advantage of being able to clarify answers to complex questions or eligibility requirements, our experience suggests that a MQ might be a good survey option for some studies.

  16. The Swiss Health Literacy Survey: development and psychometric properties of a multidimensional instrument to assess competencies for health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jen; Thombs, Brett D.; Schmid, Margareta R.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background  Growing recognition of the role of citizens and patients in health and health care has placed a spotlight on health literacy and patient education. Objective  To identify specific competencies for health in definitions of health literacy and patient‐centred concepts and empirically test their dimensionality in the general population. Methods  A thorough review of the literature on health literacy, self‐management, patient empowerment, patient education and shared decision making revealed considerable conceptual overlap as competencies for health and identified a corpus of 30 generic competencies for health. A questionnaire containing 127 items covering the 30 competencies was fielded as a telephone interview in German, French and Italian among 1255 respondents randomly selected from the resident population in Switzerland. Findings  Analyses with the software MPlus to model items with mixed response categories showed that the items do not load onto a single factor. Multifactorial models with good fit could be erected for each of five dimensions defined a priori and their corresponding competencies: information and knowledge (four competencies, 17 items), general cognitive skills (four competencies, 17 items), social roles (two competencies, seven items), medical management (four competencies, 27 items) and healthy lifestyle (two competencies, six items). Multiple indicators and multiple causes models identified problematic differential item functioning for only six items belonging to two competencies. Conclusions  The psychometric analyses of this instrument support broader conceptualization of health literacy not as a single competence but rather as a package of competencies for health. PMID:22390287

  17. Development and testing of the Survey of Family Environment (SFE): a novel instrument to measure family functioning and needs for family support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohashi, Naohiro; Honda, Junko

    2012-01-01

    Hohashi's Concentric Sphere Family Environment Model (CSFEM; Hohashi & Honda, 2011) is a newly proposed family nursing theory for holistically understanding the family environment that acts on family well-being. The purpose of this article is to develop and psychometrically test the Japanese version of the Survey of Family Environment (SFE-J), grounded in the CSFEM, for measuring family's perceived family functioning and family's perceived needs for family support. The SFE-J is a 30-item self-administered instrument that assesses five domains (suprasystem, macrosystem, microsystem, family internal environment system, and chronosystem) and has been subjected to rigorous reliability and validity investigations among paired partners in child-rearing families (N of family = 1,990). Internal consistency reliability was high as measured by Cronbach's alpha coefficients. Temporal stability over a 2-week interval was supported by high (substantial or perfect) and significant intraclass correlation coefficients. The total score for the SFE-J was significantly correlated with the Japanese version of the Feetham Family Functioning Survey (FFFS-J), indicating an acceptable concurrent validity. Construct validity was supported by a confirmatory factor analysis that evaluated the five-factor structure to measure the concept of CSFEM. Results also demonstrate that the SFE-J family functioning scores show no significant differences between paired partners. The SFE-J is a reliable and valid instrument to assess not only intrafamily functioning but also interfamily functioning and, by identifying items/domains with high requirements for family support, serves to facilitate the providing of appropriate support to families.

  18. Technical note: Sensitivity of instrumental line shape monitoring for the ground-based high-resolution FTIR spectrometer with respect to different optical attenuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Youwen; Palm, Mathias; Weinzierl, Christine; Petri, Christof; Notholt, Justus; Wang, Yuting; Liu, Cheng

    2017-03-01

    The TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network) and most NDACC (Network for Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change) sites assume an ideal ILS (instrumental line shape) for analysis of the spectra. In order to adapt the radiant energy received by the detector, an attenuator or different sizes of field stop can be inserted in the light path. These processes may alter the alignment of a high-resolution FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectrometer, and may result in bias due to ILS drift. In this paper, we first investigated the sensitivity of the ILS monitoring with respect to application of different kinds of attenuators for ground-based high-resolution FTIR spectrometers within the TCCON and NDACC networks. Both lamp and sun cell measurements were conducted after the insertion of five different attenuators in front of and behind the interferometer. The ILS characteristics derived from lamp and sun spectra are in good agreement. ILSs deduced from all lamp cell measurements were compared. As a result, the disturbances to the ILS of a high-resolution FTIR spectrometer with respect to the insertion of different attenuators at different positions were quantified. A potential strategy to adapt the incident intensity of a detector was finally deduced.

  19. Satellite oceanography - The instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that no instrument is sensitive to only one oceanographic variable; rather, each responds to a combination of atmospheric and oceanic phenomena. This complicates data interpretation and usually requires that a number of observations, each sensitive to somewhat different phenomena, be combined to provide unambiguous information. The distinction between active and passive instruments is described. A block diagram illustrating the steps necessary to convert data from satellite instruments into oceanographic information is included, as is a diagram illustrating the operation of a radio-frequency radiometer. Attention is also given to the satellites that carry the various oceanographic instruments.

  20. The Taurus Spitzer Survey: New Candidate Taurus Members Selected Using Sensitive Mid-Infrared Photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Rebull, L M; McCabe, C -E; Hillenbrand, L A; Stapelfeldt, K R; Noriega-Crespo, A; Carey, S J; Brooke, T; Huard, T; Terebey, S; Audard, M; Monin, J -L; Fukagawa, M; Guedel, M; Knapp, G R; Menard, F; Allen, L E; Angione, J R; Baldovin-Saavedra, C; Bouvier, J; Briggs, K; Dougados, C; Evans, N J; Flagey, N; Guieu, S; Grosso, N; Glauser, A M; Harvey, P; Hines, D; Latter, W B; Skinner, S L; Strom, S; Tromp, J; Wolf, S

    2009-01-01

    We report on the properties of pre-main-sequence objects in the Taurus molecular clouds as observed in 7 mid- and far-infrared bands with the Spitzer Space Telescope. There are 215 previously-identified members of the Taurus star-forming region in our ~44 square degree map; these members exhibit a range of Spitzer colors that we take to define young stars still surrounded by circumstellar dust (noting that ~20% of the bonafide Taurus members exhibit no detectable dust excesses). We looked for new objects in the survey field with similar Spitzer properties, aided by extensive optical, X-ray, and ultraviolet imaging, and found 148 candidate new members of Taurus. We have obtained follow-up spectroscopy for about half the candidate sample, thus far confirming 34 new members, 3 probable new members, and 10 possible new members, an increase of 15-20% in Taurus members. Of the objects for which we have spectroscopy, 7 are now confirmed extragalactic objects, and one is a background Be star. The remaining 93 candida...

  1. The StEllar Counterparts of COmpact high velocity clouds (SECCO) survey. II. Sensitivity of the survey and the atlas of synthetic dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccari, G.; Bellazzini, M.; Battaglia, G.; Ibata, R.; Martin, N.; Testa, V.; Cignoni, M.; Correnti, M.

    2016-06-01

    The searching for StEllar Counterparts of COmpact high velocity clouds (SECCO) survey is devoted to the search for stellar counterparts within ultra compact high velocity clouds that are candidate low-mass, low-luminosity galaxies. We present the results of a set of simulations aimed at the quantitative estimate of the sensitivity of the survey as a function of the total luminosity, size, and distance of the stellar systems we are looking for. For all of our synthetic galaxies we assumed an exponential surface brightness profile and an old and metal-poor population. The synthetic galaxies are simulated both on the images and on the photometric catalogues, taking all the observational effects into account. In the fields where the available observational material is of top quality (≃36% of the SECCO fields), we detect synthetic galaxies as ≥5σ over-densities of resolved stars down to μV,h ≃ 30.0 mag/arcsec2, for D ≤ 1.5 Mpc, and down to μV,h ≃ 29.5 mag/arcsec2, for D ≤ 2.5 Mpc. In the field with the worst observational material of the whole survey, we detect synthetic galaxies with μV,h ≤ 28.8 mag/arcsec2 out to D ≤ 1.0 Mpc, and those with μV,h ≤ 27.5 mag/arcsec2 out to D ≤ 2.5 Mpc. Dwarf galaxies with MV = -10.0, with sizes in the range spanned by known dwarfs, are detected by visual inspection of the images up to D = 5 Mpc independent of the image quality. In the best quality images, dwarfs are partially resolved into stars up to D = 3.0 Mpc and completely unresolved at D = 5 Mpc. As an independent test of the sensitivity of our images to low surface brightness galaxies, we report on the detection of several dwarf spheroidal galaxies probably located in the Virgo cluster with MV ≲ -8.0 and μV,h ≲ 26.8 mag/arcsec2. The nature of the previously discovered SECCO 1 stellar system, also likely located in the Virgo cluster, is rediscussed in comparison with these dwarfs. While specific for the SECCO survey, our study may also provide general

  2. Instrumentation in Earthquake Seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havskov, Jens; Alguacil, Gerardo

    Here is unique and comprehensive coverage of modern seismic instrumentation, based on the authors' practical experience of a quarter-century in seismology and geophysics. Their goal is to provide not only detailed information on the basics of seismic instruments but also to survey equipment on the market, blending this with only the amount of theory needed to understand the basic principles. Seismologists and technicians working with seismological instruments will find here the answers to their practical problems.

  3. [Survey of analytical works for drugs at emergency and critical care centers with high-performance instruments provided by the Ministry of Health and Welfare (at present: Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare) in fiscal 1998--continuation of survey with 2008 survey results as point of reference].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takeshi; Tominaga, Aya; Nozawa, Mayu; Unei, Hiroko; Hatano, Yayoi; Fujita, Yuji; Iseki, Ken; Hori, Yasushi

    2013-09-01

    In a 2008 survey of the 73 emergency and critical care centers around the nation that were equipped with the drug and chemical analytical instrument provided by the Ministry of Welfare (currently the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare) in 1998, 36 of those facilities were using the analytical instruments. Of these 36 facilities, a follow-up survey of the 17 facilities that recorded 50 or analyses per year. Responses were gained from 16 of the facilities and we learned that of those, 14 facilities (87.5%) were conducting analyses using the instrument. There was a positive mutual correlation between the annual number of cases of the 14 facilities conducting analyses with the instrument and the number of work hours. Depending on the instrument in use, average analytical instrument parts and maintenance expenses were roughly three million yen and consumables required a maximum three million yen for analysis of 51-200 cases per year. From this, we calculate that such expenses can be covered under the allowed budget for advanced emergency and critical care centers of 5,000 NHI points (1 point = 10 yen). We found there were few facilities using the instrument for all 15 of the toxic substances recommended for testing by the Japanese Society for Clinical Toxicology. There tended to be no use of the analytical instrument for compounds with no toxicology cases. However, flexible responses were noted at each facility in relation to frequently analyzed compounds. It is thought that a reevaluation of compounds subject to analysis is required.

  4. I Environmental DNA sampling is more sensitive than a traditional survey technique for detecting an aquatic invader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Adam S; Tingley, Reid; Weeks, Andrew R; van Rooyen, Anthony R; McCarthy, Michael A

    2015-10-01

    Effective management of alien species requires detecting populations in the early stages of invasion. Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling can detect aquatic species at relatively low densities, but few studies have directly compared detection probabilities of eDNA sampling with those of traditional sampling methods. We compare the ability of a traditional sampling technique (bottle trapping) and eDNA to detect a recently established invader, the smooth newt Lissotriton vulgaris vulgaris, at seven field sites in Melbourne, Australia. Over a four-month period, per-trap detection probabilities ranged from 0.01 to 0.26 among sites where L. v. vulgaris was detected, whereas per-sample eDNA estimates were much higher (0.29-1.0). Detection probabilities of both methods varied temporally (across days and months), but temporal variation appeared to be uncorrelated between methods. Only estimates of spatial variation were strongly correlated across the two sampling techniques. Environmental variables (water depth, rainfall, ambient temperature) were not clearly correlated with detection probabilities estimated via trapping, whereas eDNA detection probabilities were negatively correlated with water depth, possibly reflecting higher eDNA concentrations at lower water levels. Our findings demonstrate that eDNA sampling can be an order of magnitude more sensitive than traditional methods, and illustrate that traditional- and eDNA-based surveys can provide independent information on species distributions when occupancy surveys are conducted over short timescales.

  5. Development and validation of a sensitive UPLC-MS/MS instrumentation and alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation method for the determination of lignin monomers in wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Mengjing; Gu, Shubo; Chen, Jin; Luo, Yongli; Li, Wenqian; Ni, Jun; Li, Yong; Wang, Zhenlin

    2017-06-15

    A method to determine the lignin monomers (p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, vanillin and syringaldehyde) in plant cell wall of wheat internode was developed and validated using a high-throughput nitrobenzene oxidation step and ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for quantification. UPLC analyses were carried out using an reversed phase C18 column (ACQUITY UPLC BEH, 1.7μm, 2.1×100mm) and gradient elution with water and acetonitrile. This method was completely validated in terms of analyzing speed, linearity, sensitivity, limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs).The three lignin monomers were successfully separated within 6min and only 2min were required to regain its equilibrium. The method linearity with regression coefficients values (R2) greater than 0.997. Additionally, LODs ranged from 0.21 to 0.89μgL(-1) and LOQs ranged from 0.69 to 2.95μgL(-1). The applicability of this analytical approach for determining the three lignin monomers was confirmed by the successful analysis of real samples of wheat stem internodes. The nitrobenzene oxidation method was used for the analysis of lignin monomers. We have optimized the treatment temperature (170°C, 1h) and realized the high-throughput using the microwave digestion instrument. Recovery of this extraction method ranged from 68.4% to 77.7%. The analysis result showed that the guaiacyl unit (G) was the major component of lignin and there was a higher content of the syringyl unit (S) than that of the hydroxybenzyl unit (H). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...... med surveys. Denne bog gennemgår alle surveyarbejdets faser og giver en praktisk indføring i: • design af undersøgelsen og udvælgelse af stikprøver, • formulering af spørgeskemaer samt indsamling og kodning af data, • metoder til at analysere resultaterne...

  7. Testing of the Bio-Seeq (Smiths Detection Handheld PCR Instrument): Sensitivity, Specificity, and Effect of Interferents on Yersinia Pestis Assay Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    Smiths Detection-Edgewood (SDE), Inc., recently developed a handheld PCR instrument, the Bio -Seeq(Federal Registration), an updated, redesigned...version of a small, portable PCR instrument previously known as Handheld Advanced Nucleic Acid Analyzer (HANAA). The SDE developed the Bio -Seeq(Federal

  8. Testing of the Bio-Seeq (Smiths Detection Handheld PCR Instrument): Sensitivity, Specificity, and Effect of Interferents on Bacillus Assay Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Smiths Detection-Edgewood (SDE), Inc., recently developed a handheld PCR instrument, the Bio -Seeq(Trademark), an updated, redesigned version of the...small, portable PCR instrument previously known as the Handheld Advanced Nucleic Acid Analyzer (HANAA). The SDE developed the Bio -Seeq(Trademark) to

  9. Using the Web to Collect Data on Sensitive Behaviours: A Study Looking at Mode Effects on the British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Burkill

    Full Text Available Interviewer-administered surveys are an important method of collecting population-level epidemiological data, but suffer from declining response rates and increasing costs. Web surveys offer more rapid data collection and lower costs. There are concerns, however, about data quality from web surveys. Previous research has largely focused on selection biases, and few have explored measurement differences. This paper aims to assess the extent to which mode affects the responses given by the same respondents at two points in time, providing information on potential measurement error if web surveys are used in the future.527 participants from the third British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3, which uses computer assisted personal interview (CAPI and self-interview (CASI modes, subsequently responded to identically-worded questions in a web survey. McNemar tests assessed whether within-person differences in responses were at random or indicated a mode effect, i.e. higher reporting of more sensitive responses in one mode. An analysis of pooled responses by generalized estimating equations addressed the impact of gender and question type on change.Only 10% of responses changed between surveys. However mode effects were found for about a third of variables, with higher reporting of sensitive responses more commonly found on the web compared with Natsal-3.The web appears a promising mode for surveys of sensitive behaviours, most likely as part of a mixed-mode design. Our findings suggest that mode effects may vary by question type and content, and by the particular mix of modes used. Mixed-mode surveys need careful development to understand mode effects and how to account for them.

  10. OBSERVATIONS OF BINARY STARS WITH THE DIFFERENTIAL SPECKLE SURVEY INSTRUMENT. V. TOWARD AN EMPIRICAL METAL-POOR MASS–LUMINOSITY RELATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horch, Elliott P. [Department of Physics, Southern Connecticut State University, 501 Crescent Street, New Haven, CT 06515 (United States); Van Altena, William F.; Demarque, Pierre [Department of Astronomy, Yale University P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Howell, Steve B. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Everett, Mark E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Ciardi, David R. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Mail Code 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Teske, Johanna K. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism and Carnegie Observatories, Carnegie Institute of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Henry, Todd J.; Winters, Jennifer G., E-mail: horche2@southernct.edu, E-mail: william.vanaltena@yale.edu, E-mail: pierre.demarque@yale.edu, E-mail: steve.b.howell@nasa.gov, E-mail: everett@noao.edu, E-mail: ciardi@ipac.caltech.edu, E-mail: jteske@carnegiescience.edu, E-mail: thenry@astro.gsu.edu, E-mail: winters@astro.gsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    In an effort to better understand the details of the stellar structure and evolution of metal-poor stars, the Gemini North telescope was used on two occasions to take speckle imaging data of a sample of known spectroscopic binary stars and other nearby stars in order to search for and resolve close companions. The observations were obtained using the Differential Speckle Survey Instrument, which takes data in two filters simultaneously. The results presented here are of 90 observations of 23 systems in which one or more companions was detected, and six stars where no companion was detected to the limit of the camera capabilities at Gemini. In the case of the binary and multiple stars, these results are then further analyzed to make first orbit determinations in five cases, and orbit refinements in four other cases. The mass information is derived, and since the systems span a range in metallicity, a study is presented that compares our results with the expected trend in total mass as derived from the most recent Yale isochrones as a function of metal abundance. These data suggest that metal-poor main-sequence stars are less massive at a given color than their solar-metallicity analogues in a manner consistent with that predicted from the theory.

  11. Observations of Binary Stars with the Differential Speckle Survey Instrument. V. Toward an Empirical Metal-Poor Mass-Luminosity Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horch, Elliott P.; van Altena, William F.; Demarque, Pierre; Howell, Steve B.; Everett, Mark E.; Ciardi, David R.; Teske, Johanna K.; Henry, Todd J.; Winters, Jennifer G.

    2015-05-01

    In an effort to better understand the details of the stellar structure and evolution of metal-poor stars, the Gemini North telescope was used on two occasions to take speckle imaging data of a sample of known spectroscopic binary stars and other nearby stars in order to search for and resolve close companions. The observations were obtained using the Differential Speckle Survey Instrument, which takes data in two filters simultaneously. The results presented here are of 90 observations of 23 systems in which one or more companions was detected, and six stars where no companion was detected to the limit of the camera capabilities at Gemini. In the case of the binary and multiple stars, these results are then further analyzed to make first orbit determinations in five cases, and orbit refinements in four other cases. The mass information is derived, and since the systems span a range in metallicity, a study is presented that compares our results with the expected trend in total mass as derived from the most recent Yale isochrones as a function of metal abundance. These data suggest that metal-poor main-sequence stars are less massive at a given color than their solar-metallicity analogues in a manner consistent with that predicted from the theory.

  12. Observations of Binary Stars with the Differential Speckle Survey Instrument. V. Toward an Empirical Metal-Poor Mass-Luminosity Relation

    CERN Document Server

    Horch, Elliott P; Demarque, Pierre; Howell, Steve B; Everett, Mark E; Ciardi, David R; Teske, Johanna K; Henry, Todd J; Winters, Jennifer G

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the details of the stellar structure and evolution of metal poor stars, the Gemini North telescope was used on two occasions to take speckle imaging data of a sample of known spectroscopic binary stars and other nearby stars in order to search for and resolve close companions. The observations were obtained using the Differential Speckle Survey Instrument, which takes data in two filters simultaneously. The results presented here are of 90 observations of 23 systems in which one or more companions was detected, and 6 stars where no companion was detected to the limit of the camera capabilities at Gemini. In the case of the binary and multiple stars, these results are then further analyzed to make first orbit determinations in five cases, and orbit refinements in four other cases. Mass information is derived, and since the systems span a range in metallicity, a study is presented that compares our results with the expected trend in total mass as derived from the most recent Ya...

  13. Validity and reliability of the Patient-Reported Arthralgia Inventory: validation of a newly-developed survey instrument to measure arthralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castel LD

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Liana D Castel,1 Kenneth A Wallston,2 Benjamin R Saville,3 JoAnn R Alvarez,3 Bradley D Shields,4 Irene D Feurer,3 David Cella5 1Meharry-Vanderbilt Alliance, Nashville, TN, USA; 2Psychology in Nursing, Vanderbilt University School of Nursing, Nashville, TN, USA; 3Surgery and Biostatistics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA; 4Medical Sciences, University of Arkansas School of Medicine, Little Rock, AR, USA; 5Medical Social Sciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA Background: There is a need for a survey instrument to measure arthralgia (joint pain that has been psychometrically validated in the context of existing reference instruments. We developed the 16-item Patient-Reported Arthralgia Inventory (PRAI to measure arthralgia severity in 16 joints, in the context of a longitudinal cohort study to assess aromatase inhibitor-associated arthralgia in breast cancer survivors and arthralgia in postmenopausal women without breast cancer. We sought to evaluate the reliability and validity of the PRAI instrument in these populations, as well as to examine the relationship of patient-reported morning stiffness and arthralgia. Methods: We administered the PRAI on paper in 294 women (94 initiating aromatase inhibitor therapy and 200 postmenopausal women without breast cancer at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, and 52, as well as once in 36 women who had taken but were no longer taking aromatase inhibitor therapy. Results: Cronbach's alpha was 0.9 for internal consistency of the PRAI. Intraclass correlation coefficients of test-retest reliability were in the range of 0.87–0.96 over repeated PRAI administrations; arthralgia severity was higher in the non-cancer group at baseline than at subsequent assessments. Women with joint comorbidities tended to have higher PRAI scores than those without (estimated difference in mean scores: -0.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.5, -0.2; P<0.001. The PRAI was

  14. The discriminative power of the EuroQol visual analog scale is sensitive to survey language in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Nan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing evidence for validity of the visual analog scale of the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire (EQ-VAS is weak in Chinese-speaking respondents in Singapore. We therefore investigated the validity of the Chinese (Singapore version of EQ-VAS in patients with diabetes. Methods In a cross-sectional survey, patients with type 2 diabetes seen in a primary care facility completed an identical Chinese or English questionnaire containing the EQ-5D-3L and questions assessing other health and disease-related characteristics. Convergent and known-groups validity of the EQ-VAS was examined for Chinese- and English-speaking respondents separately. Results The EQ-VAS was correlated with the EQ-5D-3L health index and a 5-point Likert-type scale for assessing global health in both Chinese-speaking (N = 335 and English-speaking respondents (N = 298, suggesting convergent validity. The mean EQ-VAS scores differed between English-speaking patients with differing duration of diabetes ( Conclusions Chinese- and English-speaking Singaporeans respond differently to the EQ-VAS. The Chinese version of EQ-VAS appears less sensitive than its English version for measuring global health in patient populations in Singapore.

  15. Radioisotope instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, J F; Silverleaf, D J

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Nuclear Energy, Volume 107: Radioisotope Instruments, Part 1 focuses on the design and applications of instruments based on the radiation released by radioactive substances. The book first offers information on the physical basis of radioisotope instruments; technical and economic advantages of radioisotope instruments; and radiation hazard. The manuscript then discusses commercial radioisotope instruments, including radiation sources and detectors, computing and control units, and measuring heads. The text describes the applications of radioisotop

  16. The Effects of Survey Administration on Disclosure Rates to Sensitive Items Among Men: A Comparison of an Internet Panel Sample with a RDD Telephone Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Denise A; Douglas, Emily M; Mahmood, Sehar

    2010-11-01

    Research using Internet surveys is an emerging field, yet research on the legitimacy of using Internet studies, particularly those targeting sensitive topics, remains under-investigated. The current study builds on the existing literature by exploring the demographic differences between Internet panel and RDD telephone survey samples, as well as differences in responses with regard to experiences of intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization, alcohol and substance use/abuse, PTSD symptomatology, and social support. Analyses indicated that after controlling for demographic differences, there were few differences between the samples in their disclosure of sensitive information, and that the online sample was more socially isolated than the phone sample. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for using Internet samples in research on sensitive topics.

  17. Z-Spec: A broadband spectrometer for millimeter-wave astrophysics---Instrument development and results of a molecular line survey of nearby star-forming galaxy NGC 253

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Lieko

    We have built Z-Spec, a broadband spectrometer for millimeter-wave astrophysics. The instrument's instantaneous bandwidth of 185-305 GHz covers the entire 1 millimeter atmospheric transmission window with a moderate resolving power ( R = n/Dn) of 250-350. The spectrometer employs a novel architecture called WaFIRS (Waveguide Far-Infrared Spectrometer) which confines the light propagation for a curved diffraction grating within a parallel-plate waveguide, resulting in a minimum mechanical envelope. An array of 160 silicon- nitride micromesh bolometers is cooled to 60 mK via an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) backed by a closed-cycle 3 He- 4 He sorption pump refrigerator. Z-Spec's compact design serves as a concept demonstration for a future far-infrared spectrometer aboard a cold telescope in space. Routine observations with Z-Spec from the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory on Mauna Kea have been conducted since April 2006, and the instrument currently achieves good sensitivities that are within a factor of two of the photon background limit set by the atmosphere and telescope. Z-Spec's primary science objectives are to determine the redshifts of faint submillimeter galaxies using the 12 CO rotational ladder, and to conduct systematic line surveys of local galaxies. The millimeter waveband hosts low- to mid- J rotational transitions for several molecular species which trace the dense interstellar gas associated with active star formation. Z-Spec's bandwidth offers a unique advantage over the traditional single-dish heterodyne approach: the spectral lines and the corresponding continua are all observed simultaneously, greatly reducing relative uncertainties in flux calibration and line-to-continuum ratios. The starburst galaxy NGC 253 was observed with Z-Spec in November 2006, for a total integration of 3.49 hours over two nights. NGC 253 is one of the brightest neighbors outside the Local Group of galaxies and its compact nuclear region is a site of

  18. A Sensitive CO(1-0) Survey in Pegasus-Pisces; Reducing the Dark Gas Inventory the Old-Fashioned Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, Loris A.; Donate, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    The idea that substantial molecular gas is present in the ISM but is not detectable by the CO(1-0) emission line at 115 GHz has become fairly prevalent in the last decade. This component has come to be known as “dark gas” in the sense that it is hard to trace using the standard spectral line tracers. It is usually identified by gamma-ray or infrared emission, or via the C+ spectral line at 158 microns. However, in determining the dark gas component and comparing it to the molecular gas traced by the CO(1-0) line, existing CO surveys of varying sensitivity are employed. Even the most sensitive CO surveys typically employed in this fashion have at best 1-sigma rms values of about 0.1 K in antenna temperature. We surveyed a small region in the vicinity of the high-latitude molecular cloud MBM 55 in the CO(1-0) line using the Arizona Radio Observatory 12-meter telescope. The 1-sigma rms of our survey (0.02 - 0.03 K) was significantly better than that of typical CO surveys. We detected more CO emission than previous work had found and increased the known H2 in the region by nearly 80%, thereby reducing significantly the contribution from dark gas.

  19. 星源通掌上森林调查仪面积测量精度研究%A Study of Area Survey Precision Based on Xingyuantong Handhold Forest Inventory Instrument

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李崇贵; 陈华安; 李春干

    2005-01-01

    Xingyuangtong handhold forest inventory instrument is a microcomputer-based Hi-tech product integrating remote sensing, mobile GIS and GPS, which is developed by 3S research center of Shenzhen Polytechnic. It can be used in forest resource inventory, area calculation on map, area survey on the spot, compartment and sub-compartment mapping and editing based on remote sensing images or scanned relief maps, interactive query and amendment between graphics and its attributes,etc. On the basis of theory analysis of area survey principle, the practical area survey precision of nine different-sized plots in different period of time and under different interfered conditions is analyzed in order to study the possible precision of area survey on the spot by using this product. It is demonstrated that Xinyuantong handhold forest resource inventory instrument can meet the precision needs of returning the grain plots to forestry, acceptance check of forestation land, area survey of compartment and subcompartment, etc. This product can be widely used in forest resource inventory.

  20. Instrumentation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Provides instrumentation support for flight tests of prototype weapons systems using a vast array of airborne sensors, transducers, signal conditioning and encoding...

  1. Hetdex: Virus Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hanshin; Hill, G. J.; DePoy, D. L.; Tuttle, S.; Marshall, J. L.; Vattiat, B. L.; Prochaska, T.; Chonis, T. S.; Allen, R.; HETDEX Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Visible Integral-field-unit Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument is made up of 150+ individually compact and identical spectrographs, each fed by a fiber integral-field unit. The instrument provides integral field spectroscopy at wavelengths between 350nm and 550nm of over 33,600 spatial elements per observation, each 1.8 sq. arcsec on the sky, at R 700. The instrument will be fed by a new wide-field corrector (WFC) of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) with increased science field of view as large as 22arcmin diameter and telescope aperture of 10m. This will enable the HETDEX, a large area blind survey of Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies at redshift z VIRUS instrument construction is summarized.

  2. Surveys: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenfeld, Gordon D

    2004-10-01

    Surveys are a valuable research tool for studying the knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of a study population. This article explores quantitative analyses of written questionnaires as instruments for survey research. Obtaining accurate and precise information from a survey requires minimizing the possibility of bias from inappropriate sampling or a flawed survey instrument, and this article describes strategies to minimize sampling bias by increasing response rates, comparing responders to nonresponders, and identifying the appropriate sampling population. It is crucial that the survey instrument be valid, meaning that it actually measures what the investigator intends it to measure. In developing a valid survey instrument, it can be useful to adapt survey instruments that were developed by other researchers and to conduct extensive pilot-testing of your survey instrument.

  3. Islamic Astronomical Instruments and Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarzadeh, Tofigh

    This chapter is a brief survey of astronomical instruments being used and developed in Islamic territories from the eighth to the fifteenth centuries as well as a concise account of major observatories and observational programs in this period.

  4. Spitzer/MIPS 24 {mu}m OBSERVATIONS OF HD 209458b: THREE ECLIPSES, TWO AND A HALF TRANSITS, AND A PHASE CURVE CORRUPTED BY INSTRUMENTAL SENSITIVITY VARIATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crossfield, Ian J. M. [Department of Physics, and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Knutson, Heather [Caltech Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Showman, Adam P. [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Cowan, Nicolas B. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Deming, Drake, E-mail: ianc@astro.ucla.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2012-06-20

    We report the results of an analysis of all Spitzer/MIPS 24 {mu}m observations of HD 209458b, one of the touchstone objects in the study of irradiated giant planet atmospheres. Altogether, we analyze two and a half transits, three eclipses, and a 58 hr near-continuous observation designed to detect the planet's thermal phase curve. The results of our analysis are: (1) a mean transit depth of 1.484% {+-} 0.033%, consistent with previous measurements and showing no evidence of variability in transit depth at the 3% level. (2) A mean eclipse depth of 0.338% {+-} 0.026%, somewhat higher than that previously reported for this system; this new value brings observations into better agreement with models. From this eclipse depth we estimate an average dayside brightness temperature of 1320 {+-} 80 K; the dayside flux shows no evidence of variability at the 12% level. (3) Eclipses in the system occur 32 {+-} 129 s earlier than would be expected from a circular orbit, which constrains the orbital quantity ecos {omega} to be 0.00004 {+-} 0.00033. This result is fully consistent with a circular orbit and sets an upper limit of 140 m s{sup -1} (3{sigma}) on any eccentricity-induced velocity offset during transit. The phase curve observations (including one of the transits) exhibit an anomalous trend similar to the detector ramp seen in previous Spitzer/IRAC observations; by modeling this ramp we recover the system parameters for this transit. The long-duration photometry which follows the ramp and transit exhibits a gradual {approx}0.2% decrease in flux over {approx}30 hr. This effect is similar to that seen in pre-launch calibration data taken with the 24 {mu}m array and is better fit by an instrumental model than a model invoking planetary emission. The large uncertainties associated with this poorly understood, likely instrumental effect prevent us from usefully constraining the planet's thermal phase curve. Our observations highlight the need for a thorough

  5. Intensity-Stabilized Fast-Scanned Direct Absorption Spectroscopy Instrumentation Based on a Distributed Feedback Laser with Detection Sensitivity down to 4 × 10−6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gang; Tan, Wei; Jia, Mengyuan; Hou, Jiajuan; Ma, Weiguang; Dong, Lei; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Xiaoxia; Wu, Xuechun; Yin, Wangbao; Xiao, Liantuan; Axner, Ove; Jia, Suotang

    2016-01-01

    A novel, intensity-stabilized, fast-scanned, direct absorption spectroscopy (IS-FS-DAS) instrumentation, based on a distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser, is developed. A fiber-coupled polarization rotator and a fiber-coupled polarizer are used to stabilize the intensity of the laser, which significantly reduces its relative intensity noise (RIN). The influence of white noise is reduced by fast scanning over the spectral feature (at 1 kHz), followed by averaging. By combining these two noise-reducing techniques, it is demonstrated that direct absorption spectroscopy (DAS) can be swiftly performed down to a limit of detection (LOD) (1σ) of 4 × 10−6, which opens up a number of new applications. PMID:27657082

  6. Intensity-Stabilized Fast-Scanned Direct Absorption Spectroscopy Instrumentation Based on a Distributed Feedback Laser with Detection Sensitivity down to 4 × 10−6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel, intensity-stabilized, fast-scanned, direct absorption spectroscopy (IS-FS-DAS instrumentation, based on a distributed feedback (DFB diode laser, is developed. A fiber-coupled polarization rotator and a fiber-coupled polarizer are used to stabilize the intensity of the laser, which significantly reduces its relative intensity noise (RIN. The influence of white noise is reduced by fast scanning over the spectral feature (at 1 kHz, followed by averaging. By combining these two noise-reducing techniques, it is demonstrated that direct absorption spectroscopy (DAS can be swiftly performed down to a limit of detection (LOD (1σ of 4 × 10−6, which opens up a number of new applications.

  7. Instrument contributions to resolution and sensitivity in ultra high performance liquid chromatography using small bore columns: comparison of diode array and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckenmaier, Stephan; Miller, Christine A; van de Goor, Tom; Dittmann, Monika M

    2015-01-16

    UHPLC with DAD-UV detection or in combination with mass spectrometry (MS) has proven to be a robust and widely applicable platform for high sensitivity analyses of many types of chemical compounds. The majority of users employ narrow bore columns with 2.1mm internal diameter (ID) typically exhibiting very high efficiencies (>200,000 plates/m). This ultimately sets stringent demands upon the chromatographic system as the separation efficiency can be compromised by external contributions to dispersion caused by connection capillaries, auto-sampler and/or the detection device. Sample limited applications often use reduced column diameters down to capillary- or even nano-column format. Capillary (ID≤0.5mm) or small-bore columns (ID≤1mm) can be a good compromise between system robustness and enhanced sensitivity. Yet in this case, extra-column dispersion gains additional importance due to reduced peak volumes. To design an optimized system configuration for specific column dimensions and applications it is crucial to understand the dispersion contributions of individual extra-column components. This was subject to many studies done within our group and by others. Here, we employed a fully optimized UHPLC/UV system to investigate the contribution to peak dispersion obtained from columns ranging from capillary to narrow bore (0.3, 0.5, 1, 2.1mm) using a set of small molecules that were analyzed in gradient mode. Further UV detection was replaced by a triple quadrupole (QQQ) MS in order to evaluate its contribution to band broadening. In this context the impact of column-ID upon MS sensitivity when interfaced with an Agilent Jet Stream source was investigated. Data obtained from our test suite of compounds shows mostly mass-sensitive behavior of this advanced electrospray technology.

  8. Instrumentation for gamma-ray astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, David L.; Fichtel, Carl E.; Trombka, Jacob I.

    1988-01-01

    The current status of gamma-ray-telescope technology for ground, airborne, and space observations is surveyed and illustrated with drawings, diagrams, and graphs and tables of typical data. For the low- and medium-energy ranges, consideration is given to detectors and detector cooling systems, background-rejection methods, radiation damage, large-area detectors, gamma-ray imaging, data analysis, and the Compton-interaction region. Also discussed are the gamma-ray interaction process at high energies; multilevel automated spark-chamber gamma-ray telescopes; the Soviet Gamma-1 telescope; the EGRET instrument for the NASA Gamma-Ray Observatory; and Cerenkov, air-shower, and particle-detector instruments for the TeV and PeV ranges. Significant improvements in resolution and sensitivity are predicted for the near future.

  9. Smartphones vs PCs: Does the Device Affect the Web Survey Experience and the Measurement Error for Sensitive Topics? - A Replication of the Mavletova & Couper’s 2013 Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Toninelli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available More and more respondents use mobile devices to complete web surveys. These devices have different characteristics, if compared to PCs (e.g. smaller screen sizes and higher portability. These characteristics can affect the survey responses, mostly when a questionnaire includes sensitive questions. This topic was already studied by Mavletova and Couper (2013, through a two-wave experiment comparing PCs and mobile devices results for the same respondents in a Russian opt-in panel. We replicated this cross-over design, focusing on an opt-in panel for Spain, involving 1,800 panellists and comparing PCs and smartphones. Our results support most of Mavletova and Couper’s (2013 findings (e.g. generally the used device does not significantly affect the reporting of sensitive information, confirming their robustness over the two studied countries. For other results (e.g. trust in data confidentiality, we found differences that can be justified by the diverse context/culture or by the quick changes that are still characterizing the mobile web survey participation.

  10. Social Intelligence and Communication Competence: Predictors of Students' Intercultural Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosuwon, Takwa

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the level of intercultural sensitivity of foreign international undergraduates and its possible predictors. Sample participants included 269 foreign international undergraduates of both government and private universities in Thailand. The research instrument was the three-page survey constructed questionnaire based on the…

  11. A Survey of Florida High School Instrumental Music Programs: Rationale for the Inclusion of Jazz Ensemble Experience in Music Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Jonathan R.

    2011-01-01

    During the past 60 years, jazz music has slowly become recognized as a genre worthy of study in high school music programs throughout the United States. Only a few researchers have analyzed large samples of jazz-related instruction in instrumental music programs, and of these studies no data were collected to investigate the inclusion of jazz in…

  12. A Survey of Florida High School Instrumental Music Programs: Rationale for the Inclusion of Jazz Ensemble Experience in Music Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Jonathan R.

    2011-01-01

    During the past 60 years, jazz music has slowly become recognized as a genre worthy of study in high school music programs throughout the United States. Only a few researchers have analyzed large samples of jazz-related instruction in instrumental music programs, and of these studies no data were collected to investigate the inclusion of jazz in…

  13. The Einstein@Home Gamma-ray Pulsar Survey I: Search Methods, Sensitivity and Discovery of New Young Gamma-ray Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, C J; Pletsch, H J; Guillemot, L; Allen, B; Aulbert, C; Beer, C; Bock, O; Cuéllar, A; Eggenstein, H B; Fehrmann, H; Kramer, M; Machenschalk, B; Nieder, L

    2016-01-01

    We report on the results of a recent blind search survey for gamma-ray pulsars in Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data being carried out on the distributed volunteer computing system, Einstein@Home. The survey has searched for pulsations in 118 unidentified pulsar-like sources, requiring about 10,000 years of CPU core time. In total, this survey has resulted in the discovery of 17 new gamma-ray pulsars, of which 13 are newly reported in this work, and an accompanying paper. These pulsars are all young, isolated pulsars with characteristic ages between 12 kyr and 2 Myr, and spin-down powers between $10^{34}$ and $4\\times10^{36}$ erg/s. Two of these are the slowest spinning gamma-ray pulsars yet known. One pulsar experienced a very large glitch $\\Delta f/f \\approx 3.5\\times10^{-6}$ during the Fermi mission. In this, the first of two associated papers, we describe the search scheme used in this survey, and estimate the sensitivity of our search to pulsations in unidentified Fermi-LAT sources. One such estimate ...

  14. The Einstein@Home Gamma-ray Pulsar Survey. I. Search Methods, Sensitivity, and Discovery of New Young Gamma-Ray Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C. J.; Wu, J.; Pletsch, H. J.; Guillemot, L.; Allen, B.; Aulbert, C.; Beer, C.; Bock, O.; Cuéllar, A.; Eggenstein, H. B.; Fehrmann, H.; Kramer, M.; Machenschalk, B.; Nieder, L.

    2017-01-01

    We report on the results of a recent blind search survey for gamma-ray pulsars in Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data being carried out on the distributed volunteer computing system, Einstein@Home. The survey has searched for pulsations in 118 unidentified pulsar-like sources, requiring about 10,000 years of CPU core time. In total, this survey has resulted in the discovery of 17 new gamma-ray pulsars, of which 13 are newly reported in this work, and an accompanying paper. These pulsars are all young, isolated pulsars with characteristic ages between 12 kyr and 2 Myr, and spin-down powers between 1034 and 4 × 1036 erg s‑1. Two of these are the slowest spinning gamma-ray pulsars yet known. One pulsar experienced a very large glitch {{Δ }}f/f≈ 3.5× {10}-6 during the Fermi mission. In this, the first of two associated papers, we describe the search scheme used in this survey, and estimate the sensitivity of our search to pulsations in unidentified Fermi-LAT sources. One such estimate results in an upper limit of 57% for the fraction of pulsed emission from the gamma-ray source associated with the Cas A supernova remnant, constraining the pulsed gamma-ray photon flux that can be produced by the neutron star at its center. We also present the results of precise timing analyses for each of the newly detected pulsars.

  15. The Student Human Papillomavirus Survey: Nurse-Led Instrument Development and Psychometric Testing to Increase Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Series Completion in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tami; Dalmida, Safyia; Higgins, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    The Student Human Papillomavirus Survey (SHPVS) was developed to examine students' perceived benefits or barriers to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. Survey development included (a) 2-phase integrative literature reviews; (b) draft of survey items based on the literature; (c) critique of survey items by young adults, nursing and psychology faculty, and health care providers; and (d) pilot testing. The psychometric properties of the SHPVS were evaluated using classical item analysis and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) among a sample of 527 university students' ages 18-24 years. The estimated Cronbach's alpha for the SHPVS is .74. The SHPVS is a measure of young adults HPV perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, perceived barriers, and perceived benefits of HPV vaccination.

  16. Luminescence Instrumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank; Bøtter-Jensen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives an introduction to instrumentation for stimulated luminescence studies, with special focus on luminescence dating using the natural dosimeters, quartz and feldspars. The chapter covers basic concepts in luminescence detection, and thermal and optical stimulation, and reference...

  17. Exoplanetary Science: Instrumentation, Observations, and Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElwain, Michael

    2011-01-01

    More than 700 exoplanets have been discovered and studied using indirect techniques, leading our field into the exciting new era of comparative exoplanetology. However, the direct detection of exoplanetary systems still remains at the sensitivity limits of both ground- and space-based observatories. The development of new technologies for adaptive optics systems and high contrast instruments continues to increase the ability to directly study exoplanets. The scientific impact of these developments has promising prospects for both short and long timescales. In my talk, I will discuss recent highlights from the SEEDS survey and the current instrumentation in use at the Subaru telescope. SEEDS is a high contrast imaging strategic observing program with 120 nights of time allocated at the NAOJ's flagship optical and infrared telescope. I will also describe new instrumentation I designed to improve the SEEDS capabilities and efficiency. Finally, I will briefly discuss the conceptual design of a transiting planet camera to fly as a potential second generation instrument on-board NASA's SOFIA observatory.

  18. Instrumented SSH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Scott; Campbell, Scott

    2009-05-27

    NERSC recently undertook a project to access and analyze Secure Shell (SSH) related data. This includes authentication data such as user names and key fingerprints, interactive session data such as keystrokes and responses, and information about noninteractive sessions such as commands executed and files transferred. Historically, this data has been inaccessible with traditional network monitoring techniques, but with a modification to the SSH daemon, this data can be passed directly to intrusion detection systems for analysis. The instrumented version of SSH is now running on all NERSC production systems. This paper describes the project, details about how SSH was instrumented, and the initial results of putting this in production.

  19. Development of Tiled Imaging CZT Detectors for Sensitive Wide-Field Hard X-Ray Surveys to EXIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindlay, J.; Hong, J.; Allen, B.; Barthelmy, S.; Baker, R.

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by the proposed EXIST mission, a "medium-class" space observatory to survey black holes and the Early Universe proposed to the 2010 NAS/NRC Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey, we have developed the first "large" area 256 sq cm close-tiled (0.6 mm gaps) hard X-ray (20-600 keV) imaging detector employing pixelated (2.5 mm) CdZnTe (CZT) detectors, each 2 x 2 x 0.5 cubic cm. We summarize the design, development and operation of this detector array (8 x 8 CZTs) and its performance as the imager for a coded aperture telescope on a high altitude (40 km) balloon flight in October. 2009, as the ProtoEX1STl payload. We then outline our current development of a second-generation imager, ProtcEXIST2. with 0.6 mm pixels on a 32 x 32 array on each CZT, and how it will lead to the ultimate imaging system needed for EXIST. Other applications of this technology will also be mentioned.

  20. [Evaluation of the level of dependency of persons placed in establishments for chronic patients. Development of a survey instrument and studies of validity, pertinence and performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, P; Martin, J

    1984-01-01

    With the aim to achieve a more equitable budgetary allocation to nursing homes, an instrument for the evaluation of the patients' dependency has been developed and tested in 55 institutions, for a total of about 23000 observations. Statistical analyses show that the internal validity of the gathered data is quite good. The tool criteria are judged relevant by experts, and the tool performance is adequate: its use should permit the constitution of groups (clustering) of nursing homes homogeneous from the point of view of their nursing care load.

  1. Validation of the Care-Related Quality of Life Instrument in different study settings: findings from The Older Persons and Informal Caregivers Survey Minimum DataSet (TOPICS-MDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutomski, J E; van Exel, N J A; Kempen, G I J M; Moll van Charante, E P; den Elzen, W P J; Jansen, A P D; Krabbe, P F M; Steunenberg, B; Steyerberg, E W; Olde Rikkert, M G M; Melis, R J F

    2015-05-01

    Validity is a contextual aspect of a scale which may differ across sample populations and study protocols. The objective of our study was to validate the Care-Related Quality of Life Instrument (CarerQol) across two different study design features, sampling framework (general population vs. different care settings) and survey mode (interview vs. written questionnaire). Data were extracted from The Older Persons and Informal Caregivers Minimum DataSet (TOPICS-MDS, www.topics-mds.eu ), a pooled public-access data set with information on >3,000 informal caregivers throughout the Netherlands. Meta-correlations and linear mixed models between the CarerQol's seven dimensions (CarerQol-7D) and caregiver's level of happiness (CarerQol-VAS) and self-rated burden (SRB) were performed. The CarerQol-7D dimensions were correlated to the CarerQol-VAS and SRB in the pooled data set and the subgroups. The strength of correlations between CarerQol-7D dimensions and SRB was weaker among caregivers who were interviewed versus those who completed a written questionnaire. The directionality of associations between the CarerQol-VAS, SRB and the CarerQol-7D dimensions in the multivariate model supported the construct validity of the CarerQol in the pooled population. Significant interaction terms were observed in several dimensions of the CarerQol-7D across sampling frame and survey mode, suggesting meaningful differences in reporting levels. Although good scientific practice emphasises the importance of re-evaluating instrument properties in individual research studies, our findings support the validity and applicability of the CarerQol instrument in a variety of settings. Due to minor differential reporting, pooling CarerQol data collected using mixed administration modes should be interpreted with caution; for TOPICS-MDS, meta-analytic techniques may be warranted.

  2. Active instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Miguel Antonio; Ørberg, Jakob Williams

    2017-01-01

    ) show the dynamic nature of policy processes, and (3) consider the search for policy reference points among the different actors. We present rankers in motion, policies in motion, and finally the complex nature of the ranking device that needs to be both a relevant and malleable policy instrument...

  3. Parental Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Survey (PHPVS): nurse-led instrument development and psychometric testing for use in research and primary care screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tami Lynn; Strickland, Ora L; DiClemente, Ralph; Higgins, Melinda; Williams, Bryan; Hickey, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine was approved for girls aged 9-24 years in 2006 to prevent HPV infection and cervical cancer. The Parental Human Papillomavirus Survey (PHPVS) was framed on theoretical constructs of the health belief model (HBM) and developed to survey parents regarding their HPV knowledge, attitudes, and intent to vaccinate. We evaluated the psychometric properties of the PHPVS using classical item analysis and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) among a sample of 200 parents/caregivers. The EFA yielded a 4-factor unidimensional model that explained between 62% and 68% of the total variance depending on the extraction method used. The estimated Cronbach's alpha for the PHPVS was .96. The PHPVS is a reliable measure of HPV knowledge, attitudes, and intent to vaccinate.

  4. Criteria for Sample Selection to Maximize Planet Sensitivity and Yield from Space-Based Microlens Parallax Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Yee, Jennifer C; Beichman, Charles; Novati, Sebastiano Calchi; Carey, Sean; Gaudi, B Scott; Henderson, Calen; Nataf, David; Penny, Matthew; Shvartzvald, Yossi; Zhu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Space-based microlens parallax measurements are a powerful tool for understanding planet populations, especially their distribution throughout the Galaxy. However, if space-based observations of the microlensing events must be specifically targeted, it is crucial that microlensing events enter the parallax sample without reference to the known presence or absence of planets. Hence, it is vital to define objective criteria for selecting events where possible and to carefully consider and minimize the selection biases where not possible so that the final sample represents a controlled experiment. We present objective criteria for initiating observations and determining their cadence for a subset of events, and we define procedures for isolating subjective decision making from information about detected planets for the remainder of events. We also define procedures to resolve conflicts between subjective and objective selections. These procedures maximize planet sensitivity of the sample as a whole by allowing f...

  5. Chandra Survey in the AKARI North Ecliptic Pole Deep Field. I. X-ray Data, Point-like Source Catalog, Sensitivity Maps, and Number Counts

    CERN Document Server

    Krumpe, M; Brunner, H; Hanami, H; Ishigaki, T; Takagi, T; Markowitz, A G; Goto, T; Malkan, M A; Matsuhara, H; Pearson, C; Ueda, Y; Wada, T

    2014-01-01

    We present data products from the 300 ks Chandra survey in the AKARI North Ecliptic Pole (NEP) deep field. This field has a unique set of 9-band infrared photometry covering 2-24 micron from the AKARI Infrared Camera, including mid-infrared (MIR) bands not covered by Spitzer. The survey is one of the deepest ever achieved at ~15 micron, and is by far the widest among those with similar depths in the MIR. This makes this field unique for the MIR-selection of AGN at z~1. We design a source detection procedure, which performs joint Maximum Likelihood PSF fits on all of our 15 mosaicked Chandra pointings covering an area of 0.34 square degree. The procedure has been highly optimized and tested by simulations. We provide a point source catalog with photometry and Bayesian-based 90 per cent confidence upper limits in the 0.5-7, 0.5-2, 2-7, 2-4, and 4-7 keV bands. The catalog contains 457 X-ray sources and the spurious fraction is estimated to be ~1.7 per cent. Sensitivity and 90 per cent confidence upper flux limit...

  6. Pancreatitis Quality of Life Instrument: Development of a new instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahid Wassef

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The goal of this project was to develop the first disease-specific instrument for the evaluation of quality of life in chronic pancreatitis. Methods: Focus groups and interview sessions were conducted, with chronic pancreatitis patients, to identify items felt to impact quality of life which were subsequently formatted into a paper-and-pencil instrument. This instrument was used to conduct an online survey by an expert panel of pancreatologists to evaluate its content validity. Finally, the modified instrument was presented to patients during precognitive testing interviews to evaluate its clarity and appropriateness. Results: In total, 10 patients were enrolled in the focus groups and interview sessions where they identified 50 items. Once redundant items were removed, the 40 remaining items were made into a paper-and-pencil instrument referred to as the Pancreatitis Quality of Life Instrument. Through the processes of content validation and precognitive testing, the number of items in the instrument was reduced to 24. Conclusions: This marks the development of the first disease-specific instrument to evaluate quality of life in chronic pancreatitis. It includes unique features not found in generic instruments (economic factors, stigma, and spiritual factors. Although this marks a giant step forward, psychometric evaluation is still needed prior to its clinical use.

  7. Human performance in radiological survey scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Abelquist, E.W. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The probability of detecting residual contamination in the field using portable radiological survey instruments depends not only on the sensitivity of the instrumentation used in scanning, but also on the surveyor`s performance. This report provides a basis for taking human performance into account in determining the minimum level of activity detectable by scanning. A theoretical framework was developed (based on signal detection theory) which allows influences on surveyors to be anticipated and understood, and supports a quantitative assessment of performance. The performance of surveyors under controlled yet realistic field conditions was examined to gain insight into the task and to develop means of quantifying performance. Then, their performance was assessed under laboratory conditions to quantify more precisely their ability to make the required discriminations. The information was used to characterize surveyors` performance in the scanning task and to provide a basis for predicting levels of radioactivity that are likely to be detectable under various conditions by surveyors using portable survey instruments.

  8. Coseismic Deformations Associated with the M=7.2, April 04, 2010, El Mayor-Cucapah Earthquake, Observed from Leveling Survey, Geotechnical Instruments and Water Level Changes in the Mexicali Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacka, E.; Robles, B.; Vázquez, R.; Sarychikhina, O.; Suárez-Vidal, F.; Ramirez, J.; Nava Pichardo, F. A.; Farfan, F.; Diaz de Cossio, G.

    2010-12-01

    A first order, second class leveling survey in the Mexicali Valley had been just finished in February 2010, for a project carried out by CICESE (Center for Scientific Research and Higher Education of Ensenada), IMTA (Mexican Institute of Water Technology) and CONAGUA (National Water Comission). Immediately after the M=7.2 earthquake the survey was repeated along 240 km of the profiles in the area of the Cerro Prieto pull-apart basin. The leveling started at the LN00 GPS monument in La Puerta. Overall, an uplift of about 30 cm towards the NE, along the 38 km line, in direction SW-NE is observed with larger gradient to the South of the area. Three subsidence bowls differ from this general pattern. One, south from Ejido Saltillo, with the relative subsidence of 19 cm (considering the displacement at LN00 as zero subsidence), probably reflects subsidence of the Saltillo-Guerrero graben; the second, with a subsidence of 23 cm, is situated south from Ejido Nuevo Leon and can be related to the subsidence triggered by the earthquake in the production area of Cerro Prieto IV. For the third one, with relative depth of 36 cm, situated close to Zacamoto, the southeastern limit cannot be determined, so only a comparison with other methods can explain the origin of this anomaly. All the subsidence bowls are associated with liquefaction observed in the area, with more liquefaction observed close to Zacamoto. Since 1996, CICESE has been operating a network of geotechnical instruments (REDECVAM) for continuous recording of deformation related to tectonic (seismic and interseismic) phenomena, as well as anthropogenic deformation caused by the deep fluid extraction at the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field. The instruments are installed along the faults which limit the Cerro Prieto pull-apart basin at a distance from 8 to 15 km from the epicenter. Coseismic step-like groundwater level changes ranging from 0.4 to 5.0 meters were recorded at 4 wells in the Cerro Prieto Pull apart

  9. Policy Dialogue and Engagement between Non-Governmental Organizations and Government: A Survey of Processes and Instruments of Canadian Policy Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Mitchell Evans

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Various analysts have raised concerns respecting declining research, evaluation and analytical capacities within public services. Typically, the decline is attributed to reforms associated with neoliberal restructuring of the state and its concomitant managerial expression in New Public Management (NPM.  This has given rise to a conceptual shift now commonly captured as a movement from ‘government’ to ‘governance’. Policy advising from a new governance perspective entails an image of a more distributed policy advisory system where a plurality of actors, including non-state actors, engages with government in deliberating policy interventions to address collective problems.The original research presented here suggests that those responsible for policy work across four policy communities in the three Canadian provinces surveyed differ in terms of their capacities, depth of commitment to a specific policy file/field, roles and functions, as well as perceptions of the policy work that they undertake. Over the past several years, a number of primarily quantitative analyses examining the processes, tools and perspectives of Canadian federal and provincial government policy analysts have been published.  Consequently, a significant knowledge-base has been acquired respecting what government policy analysts do and their attitudes toward their work but very little is known about external interactions with non-governmental organizations (NGOs.

  10. 基于虚拟仪器LabView的数字相敏检波算法仿真研究%Simulation Study of Digital Phase Sensitive Detector Algorithm Based on LabView Virtual Instrument

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁培艳

    2012-01-01

    Weak signal detection play a crucial role in the development of science and technology.Its detection accuracy affect the astronomical,biochemical,physics and other science development progress directly.This paper introduces weak signal detection of square wave based on virtual instrument technology and digital detection phase sensitive algorithm of subsection accumulating and relating.This method can be used to detect weak dc signal.Through simulation this method can detect the amplitude effectively of weak square wave signal and can be used to detect amplitude of weak dc signal.%微弱信号检测在现在科技发展中起着至关重要的作用,它的检测精度直接影响着天文,生化,物理等科技的发展进度。该文介绍了基于虚拟仪器技术和分段累加相关数字相敏检波算法对于微弱方波信号的检测,用于检测微弱直流信号。通过仿真此方法能有效地检测到微弱方波信号的幅值,进而可以用于检测微弱直流信号的幅值。

  11. Current and Nascent SETI Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Siemion, Andrew P V; Chen, Henry; Cordes, Jim; Filiba, Terry; Foster, Griffin; Fries, Adam; Howard, Andrew; von Korff, Josh; Korpela, Eric; Lebofsky, Matt; McMahon, Peter L; Parsons, Aaron; Spitler, Laura; Wagner, Mark; Werthimer, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Here we describe our ongoing efforts to develop high-performance and sensitive instrumentation for use in the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence (SETI). These efforts include our recently deployed Search for Extraterrestrial Emissions from Nearby Developed Intelligent Populations Spectrometer (SERENDIP V.v) and two instruments currently under development; the Heterogeneous Radio SETI Spectrometer (HRSS) for SETI observations in the radio spectrum and the Optical SETI Fast Photometer (OSFP) for SETI observations in the optical band. We will discuss the basic SERENDIP V.v instrument design and initial analysis methodology, along with instrument architectures and observation strategies for OSFP and HRSS. In addition, we will demonstrate how these instruments may be built using low-cost, modular components and programmed and operated by students using common languages, e.g. ANSI C.

  12. Evaluating the Relational Coordination instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Lundstrøm, Sanne Lykke

    2014-01-01

    and surgical performance. This has prompted the attention of both practitioners and politicians some of who perceive relational coordination as a means to attain better performance. The relational coordination instrument has been validated as a measure of teamwork from the following perspectives: internal...... consistency, interrater agreement and reliability, structural validity, content validity. However as relational coordination is being used as a diagnostics tool it is important to examine further if the instrument can measure changes. Indeed we need to know how precise and sensitive the instrument is when...

  13. Pesticide reducing instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars-Bo; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Andersen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    the cost and to calculate general economic and sectoral consequences. This CGE model is linked to an agricultural sector model calculating the optimal use of land, and the agricultural sector model is then linked to a biological agent based simulation model (ABM) calculating changes in the population...... for improving bio-diversity and securing drinking water. That is, combining economic modeling with physical biological modeling and geological evaluation allows us to select unsprayed field margins as the most effective instrument. Sensitivity analysis conducted on bio-diversity suggest that this result...

  14. Optical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Precision Lapping and Optical Co. has developed a wide variety of hollow retroreflector systems for applications involving the entire optical spectrum; they are, according to company literature, cheaper, more accurate, lighter and capable of greater size than solid prisms. Precision Lapping's major customers are aerospace and defense companies, government organizations, R&D and commercial instrument companies. For example, Precision Lapping supplies hollow retroreflectors for the laser fire control system of the Army's Abrams tank, and retroreflectors have been and are being used in a number of space tests relative to the Air Force's Strategic Defense Initiative research program. An example of a customer/user is Chesapeake Laser Systems, producer of the Laser Tracker System CMS-2000, which has applications in SDI research and industrial robotics. Another customer is MDA Scientific, Inc., manufacturer of a line of toxic gas detection systems used to monitor hazardous gases present in oil fields, refineries, offshore platforms, chemical plants, waste storage sites and other locations where gases are released into the environment.

  15. The First Systematic Survey for Lyman Alpha Emitters at z=7.3 with Red-sensitive Subaru/Suprime-Cam

    CERN Document Server

    Shibuya, Takatoshi; Ota, Kazuaki; Iye, Masanori; Ouchi, Masami; Furusawa, Hisanori; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Hattori, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    We have performed deep imaging surveys for Lyman Alpha emitters (LAEs) at redshift ~ 7.3 in two blank fields, the Subaru Deep Field (SDF) and the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Field (SXDF), using the Subaru/Suprime-Cam equipped with new red-sensitive CCDs and a new narrow-band filter, NB1006 (lambda_c=10,052A, FWHM=214A). By comparing the NB1006 magnitudes of detected objects with those at other shorter wavelength bands, we identified four objects as LAE candidates that exhibit luminosity excess in NB1006. By carrying out deep follow-up spectroscopy for three of them using Subaru/FOCAS and Keck/DEIMOS, a definitively asymmetric emission line is detected for one of them, SXDF-NB1006-2. Assuming this line is LyA, this object is a LAE at z=7.215 which has luminosity of 1.2^{+1.5}_{-0.6} x 10^{43} erg s-1, star formation rate (SFR) of 11 Mo yr-1 estimated from the LyA emission line, and a weighted skewness S_w = 4.90+-0.86. Another object, SDF-NB1006-2, shows variable photometry and is thus probably a quasar (QSO) or an...

  16. CARMENES instrument overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirrenbach, A.; Amado, P. J.; Caballero, J. A.; Mundt, R.; Reiners, A.; Ribas, I.; Seifert, W.; Abril, M.; Aceituno, J.; Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; Ammler-von Eiff, M.; Antona Jiménez, R.; Anwand-Heerwart, H.; Azzaro, M.; Bauer, F.; Barrado, D.; Becerril, S.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Benítez, D.; Berdiñas, Z. M.; Cárdenas, M. C.; Casal, E.; Claret, A.; Colomé, J.; Cortés-Contreras, M.; Czesla, S.; Doellinger, M.; Dreizler, S.; Feiz, C.; Fernández, M.; Galadí, D.; Gálvez-Ortiz, M. C.; García-Piquer, A.; García-Vargas, M. L.; Garrido, R.; Gesa, L.; Gómez Galera, V.; González Álvarez, E.; González Hernández, J. I.; Grözinger, U.; Guàrdia, J.; Guenther, E. W.; de Guindos, E.; Gutiérrez-Soto, J.; Hagen, H.-J.; Hatzes, A. P.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Helmling, J.; Henning, T.; Hermann, D.; Hernández Castaño, L.; Herrero, E.; Hidalgo, D.; Holgado, G.; Huber, A.; Huber, K. F.; Jeffers, S.; Joergens, V.; de Juan, E.; Kehr, M.; Klein, R.; Kürster, M.; Lamert, A.; Lalitha, S.; Laun, W.; Lemke, U.; Lenzen, R.; López del Fresno, Mauro; López Martí, B.; López-Santiago, J.; Mall, U.; Mandel, H.; Martín, E. L.; Martín-Ruiz, S.; Martínez-Rodríguez, H.; Marvin, C. J.; Mathar, R. J.; Mirabet, E.; Montes, D.; Morales Muñoz, R.; Moya, A.; Naranjo, V.; Ofir, A.; Oreiro, R.; Pallé, E.; Panduro, J.; Passegger, V.-M.; Pérez-Calpena, A.; Pérez Medialdea, D.; Perger, M.; Pluto, M.; Ramón, A.; Rebolo, R.; Redondo, P.; Reffert, S.; Reinhardt, S.; Rhode, P.; Rix, H.-W.; Rodler, F.; Rodríguez, E.; Rodríguez-López, C.; Rodríguez-Pérez, E.; Rohloff, R.-R.; Rosich, A.; Sánchez-Blanco, E.; Sánchez Carrasco, M. A.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Sarmiento, L. F.; Schäfer, S.; Schiller, J.; Schmidt, C.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Solano, E.; Stahl, O.; Storz, C.; Stürmer, J.; Suárez, J. C.; Ulbrich, R. G.; Veredas, G.; Wagner, K.; Winkler, J.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Zechmeister, M.; Abellán de Paco, F. J.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; del Burgo, C.; Klutsch, A.; Lizon, J. L.; López-Morales, M.; Morales, J. C.; Perryman, M. A. C.; Tulloch, S. M.; Xu, W.

    2014-07-01

    This paper gives an overview of the CARMENES instrument and of the survey that will be carried out with it during the first years of operation. CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exoearths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs) is a next-generation radial-velocity instrument under construction for the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory by a consortium of eleven Spanish and German institutions. The scientific goal of the project is conducting a 600-night exoplanet survey targeting ~ 300 M dwarfs with the completed instrument. The CARMENES instrument consists of two separate echelle spectrographs covering the wavelength range from 0.55 to 1.7 μm at a spectral resolution of R = 82,000, fed by fibers from the Cassegrain focus of the telescope. The spectrographs are housed in vacuum tanks providing the temperature-stabilized environments necessary to enable a 1 m/s radial velocity precision employing a simultaneous calibration with an emission-line lamp or with a Fabry-Perot etalon. For mid-M to late-M spectral types, the wavelength range around 1.0 μm (Y band) is the most important wavelength region for radial velocity work. Therefore, the efficiency of CARMENES has been optimized in this range. The CARMENES instrument consists of two spectrographs, one equipped with a 4k x 4k pixel CCD for the range 0.55 - 1.05 μm, and one with two 2k x 2k pixel HgCdTe detectors for the range from 0.95 - 1.7μm. Each spectrograph will be coupled to the 3.5m telescope with two optical fibers, one for the target, and one for calibration light. The front end contains a dichroic beam splitter and an atmospheric dispersion corrector, to feed the light into the fibers leading to the spectrographs. Guiding is performed with a separate camera; on-axis as well as off-axis guiding modes are implemented. Fibers with octagonal cross-section are employed to ensure good stability of the output in the presence of residual guiding errors. The

  17. The integration of similar clinical research data collection instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Dorothy B; Frawley, Sandra J; Shifman, Mark A; Miller, Perry L; Brandt, Cynthia

    2003-01-01

    We devised an algorithm for integrating similar clinical research data collection instruments to create a common measurement instrument. We tested this algorithm using questions from several similar surveys. We encountered differing levels of granularity among questions and responses across surveys resulting in either the loss of granularity or data. This algorithm may make survey integration more systematic and efficient.

  18. Sensitivity of high-spectral resolution and broadband thermal infrared nadir instruments to the chemical and microphysical properties of secondary sulfate aerosols in the upper-troposphere/lower-stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellitto, Pasquale; Legras, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    The observation of upper-tropospheric/lower-stratospheric (UTLS) secondary sulfate aerosols (SSA) and their chemical and microphysical properties from satellite nadir observations (with better spatial resolution than limb observations) is a fundamental tool to better understand their formation and evolution processes and then to estimate their impact on UTLS chemistry, and on regional and global radiative balance. Thermal infrared (TIR) observations are sensitive to the chemical composition of the aerosols due to the strong spectral variations of the imaginary part of the refractive index in this band and, correspondingly, of the absorption, as a function of the composition Then, these observations are, in principle, well adapted to detect and characterize UTLS SSA. Unfortunately, the exploitation of nadir TIR observations for sulfate aerosol layer monitoring is today very limited. Here we present a study aimed at the evaluation of the sensitivity of TIR satellite nadir observations to the chemical composition and the size distribution of idealised UTLS SSA layers. The sulfate aerosol particles are assumed as binary systems of sulfuric acid/water solution droplets, with varying sulphuric acid mixing ratios. The extinction properties of the SSA, for different sulfuric acid mixing ratios and temperatures, are systematically analysed. The extinction coefficients are derived by means of a Mie code, using refractive indices taken from the GEISA (Gestion et Étude des Informations Spectroscopiques Atmosphériques: Management and Study of Spectroscopic Information) spectroscopic database and log-normal size distributions with different effective radii and number concentrations. High-spectral resolution pseudo-observations are generated using forward radiative transfer calculations performed with the 4A (Automatized Atmospheric Absorption Atlas) radiative transfer model, to estimate the impact of the extinction of idealised aerosol layers, at typical UTLS conditions, on

  19. The QUIET Instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, C.; et al.

    2012-07-01

    The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) is designed to measure polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background, targeting the imprint of inflationary gravitational waves at large angular scales ({approx}1{sup o}). Between 2008 October and 2010 December, two independent receiver arrays were deployed sequentially on a 1.4m side-fed Dragonian telescope. The polarimeters which form the focal planes use a highly compact design based on High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) that provides simultaneous measurements of the Stokes parameters Q, U, and I in a single module. The 17-element Q-band polarimeter array, with a central frequency of 43.1 GHz, has the best sensitivity (69 {mu}Ks{sup 1/2}) and the lowest instrumental systematic errors ever achieved in this band, contributing to the tensor-to-scalar ratio at r < 0:1. The 84-element W-band polarimeter array has a sensitivity of 87 {mu}Ks{sup 1/2} at a central frequency of 94.5 GHz. It has the lowest systematic errors to date, contributing at r < 0:01. The two arrays together cover multipoles in the range {ell} {approx} 25 -- 975. These are the largest HEMT-based arrays deployed to date. This article describes the design, calibration, performance of, and sources of systematic error for the instrument.

  20. Instrumental variables and Mendelian randomization with invalid instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyunseung

    inferential results that are robust to mis-specifications of the covariate-outcome model. We also provide a sensitivity analysis should the instrument turn out to be invalid, specifically violate (A3). Fourth, in application work, we study the causal effect of malaria on stunting among children in Ghana. Previous studies on the effect of malaria and stunting were observational and contained various unobserved confounders, most notably nutritional deficiencies. To infer causality, we use the sickle cell genotype, a trait that confers some protection against malaria and was randomly assigned at birth, as an IV and apply our nonparametric IV method. We find that the risk of stunting increases by 0.22 (95% CI: 0.044,1) for every malaria episode and is sensitive to unmeasured confounders.

  1. Plane and geodetic surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Aylmer

    2004-01-01

    Plane and Geodetic Surveying blends theory and practice, conventional techniques and GPS, to provide the ideal book for students of surveying.Detailed guidance is given on how and when the principle surveying instruments (theodolites, Total Stations, levels and GPS) should be used. Concepts and formulae needed to convert instrument readings into useful results are explained. Rigorous explanations of the theoretical aspects of surveying are given, while at the same time a wealth of useful advice about conducting a survey in practice is provided. An accompanying least squares adjustment program

  2. Optimising the effect of policy instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Branth; Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Christensen, Tove

    2012-01-01

    as a case, this paper examines whether non-economic rationales may trump economic ones in farmer decisions, and, unlike previous research, we quantify how widespread non-economic values are compared to more economic values. Data derive from a survey (1164 responses) of Danish conventional farmers' decision...... to policy instruments; farmers who focus on yield indicate less responsiveness to economic policy instruments. The results imply that it is important to implement a broad array of policy instruments to match different farmer rationales....

  3. Instrumentation for Environmental Monitoring: Water, Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Univ., Berkeley. Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

    This volume is one of a series discussing instrumentation for environmental monitoring. Each volume contains an overview of the basic problems, comparisons among the basic methods of sensing and detection, and notes that summarize the characteristics of presently available instruments and techniques. The text of this survey discusses the…

  4. The 4MOST instrument concept overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haynes, Roger; Barden, Samuel; de Jong, Roelof; Schnurr, Olivier; Bellido, Olga; Walcher, Jakob; Haynes, Dionne; Winkler, Roland; Bauer, Svend-Marian; Dionies, Frank; Saviauk, Allar; Chiappini, Cristina; Schwope, Axel; Brynnel, Joar; Steinmetz, Matthias; McMahon, Richard; Feltzing, Sofia; Francois, Patrick; Trager, Scott; Parry, Ian; Irwin, Mike; Walton, Nicholas; King, David; Sun, David; Gonzalez-Solares, Eduaro; Tosh, Ian; Dalton, Gavin; Middleton, Kevin; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Jagourel, Pascal; Mignot, Shan; Cohen, Mathieu; Amans, Jean-Philippe; Royer, Frederic; Sartoretti, Paola; Pragt, Johan; Gerlofsma, Gerrit; Roelfsema, Ronald; Navarro, Ramon; Thimm, Guido; Seifert, Walter; Christlieb, Norbert; Mandel, Holger; Trifonov, Trifon; Xu, Wenli; Lang-Bardl, Florian; Muschielok, Bernard; Schlichter, Jörg; Hess, Hans-Joachim; Grupp, Frank; Boehringer, Hans; Boller, Thomas; Dwelly, Tom; Bender, Ralf; Rosati, Piero; Iwert, Olaf; Finger, Gert; Lizon L'Allemand, Jean-Louis; Saunders, Will; Sheinis, Andrew; Frost, Gabriella; Farrell, Tony; Waller, Lewis; Depagne, Eric; Laurent, Florence; Caillier, Patrick; Kosmalski, Johan; Richard, Johan; Bacon, Roland; Ansorge, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The 4MOST[1] instrument is a concept for a wide-field, fibre-fed high multiplex spectroscopic instrument facility on the ESO VISTA telescope designed to perform a massive (initially >25x106 spectra in 5 years) combined all-sky public survey. The main science drivers are: Gaia follow up of chemo-dyna

  5. 浅谈新技术、新仪器在城市测绘中的应用%Discussion on New Technologies and New Instruments in Urban Surveying Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯惠儒

    2012-01-01

    伴随着测绘科学技术的不断进步发展,城市测绘涌现出很多新技术、新仪器。GPS网络RTK技术、电子水准仪、三维全景采集车、数字城市、探地雷达、三维地下管线信息系统正是这些科技发展的前沿。介绍了这几种常见新技术、新仪器在城市测绘中的应用。%With the development of science and technology of surveying, lots of new technologies and new instruments come out. This paper introduces the following information--GPS network RTK technology, electronic level, 3D panoramic acquisition vehicle, digital city, Ground Penetrating Radar, 3D underground pipeline integrated management system, which are the forefront development of the science and technology.

  6. Nationwide survey of the development of drug-resistant pathogens in the pediatric field in 2007 and 2010: drug sensitivity of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Japan (second report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Takeshi; Sato, Yoshitake; Toyonaga, Yoshikiyo; Hanaki, Hideaki; Sunakawa, Keisuke

    2013-06-01

    We previously conducted nationwide surveillance of Streptococcus pneumoniae in 2000-2001 (period 1) and 2004 (period 2) and reported the findings. Subsequent surveillance surveys conducted in 2007 (period 3) and 2010 (period 4) are now reported. Bacterial strains were clinically isolated from children with meningitis, sepsis, and respiratory tract infections at 27 hospitals participating in the Drug-Resistant Pathogen Surveillance Group in Pediatric Infectious Disease. Twenty-one drugs were investigated for 283 isolated strains in period 3, and 24 drugs were investigated for 459 strains in period 4. In period 3, 43.8 % of strains were penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae (PSSP), 52.3 % were penicillin-intermediate S. pneumoniae (PISP), and 3.9 % were penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP). In period 4, the percentages were PSSP 23.1 %, PISP 49.9 %, and PRSP 27.0 %. The resistance rates were 56.2 % and 76.9 %, respectively. Drug sensitivity was best with panipenem, at a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)90 ≤0.063 μg/ml in period 3, and with tebipenem (MIC90 ≤ 0.063 μg/ml) in period 4. Patients' background factors related to increased bacterial resistance were investigated, and significant differences were found depending on whether a child had siblings (P = 0.0056) or was a daycare center attendee (P = 0.0195) in period 3, and age category (P = 0.0256) in period 4. No factors were common to both periods 3 and 4. Pneumococcus is a major causative organism of pediatric infectious disease, and we plan to continue conducting surveillance and providing information in the future.

  7. The Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, Peter J.; Pollacco, Don L.; Queloz, Didier; Rauer, Heike; Watson, Christopher A.; West, Richard G.; Chazelas, Bruno; Louden, Tom M.; Walker, Simon; Bannister, Nigel; Bento, Joao; Burleigh, Matthew; Cabrera, Juan; Eigmüller, Philipp; Erikson, Anders; Genolet, Ludovic; Goad, Michael; Grange, Andrew; Jordán, Andrés; Lawrie, Katherine; McCormac, James; Neveu, Marion

    2013-04-01

    The Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS) is a new ground-based sky survey designed to find transiting Neptunes and super-Earths. By covering at least sixteen times the sky area of Kepler, we will find small planets around stars that are sufficiently bright for radial velocity confirmation, mass determination and atmospheric characterisation. The NGTS instrument will consist of an array of twelve independently pointed 20 cm telescopes fitted with red-sensitive CCD cameras. It will be constructed at the ESO Paranal Observatory, thereby benefiting from the very best photometric conditions as well as follow up synergy with the VLT and E-ELT. Our design has been verified through the operation of two prototype instruments, demonstrating white noise characteristics to sub-mmag photometric precision. Detailed simulations show that about thirty bright super-Earths and up to two hundred Neptunes could be discovered. Our science operations are due to begin in 2014.

  8. The Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goad Michael

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS is a new ground-based sky survey designed to find transiting Neptunes and super-Earths. By covering at least sixteen times the sky area of Kepler, we will find small planets around stars that are sufficiently bright for radial velocity confirmation, mass determination and atmospheric characterisation. The NGTS instrument will consist of an array of twelve independently pointed 20 cm telescopes fitted with red-sensitive CCD cameras. It will be constructed at the ESO Paranal Observatory, thereby benefiting from the very best photometric conditions as well as follow up synergy with the VLT and E-ELT. Our design has been verified through the operation of two prototype instruments, demonstrating white noise characteristics to sub-mmag photometric precision. Detailed simulations show that about thirty bright super-Earths and up to two hundred Neptunes could be discovered. Our science operations are due to begin in 2014.

  9. The Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS)

    CERN Document Server

    Wheatley, Peter J; Queloz, Didier; Rauer, Heike; Watson, Christopher A; West, Richard G; Chazelas, Bruno; Louden, Tom M; Walker, Simon; Bannister, Nigel; Bento, Joao; Burleigh, Matthew; Cabrera, Juan; Eigmueller, Philipp; Erikson, Anders; Genolet, Ludovic; Goad, Michael; Grange, Andrew; Jordan, Andres; Lawrie, Katherine; McCormac, James; Neveu, Marion

    2013-01-01

    The Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS) is a new ground-based sky survey designed to find transiting Neptunes and super-Earths. By covering at least sixteen times the sky area of Kepler we will find small planets around stars that are sufficiently bright for radial velocity confirmation, mass determination and atmospheric characterisation. The NGTS instrument will consist of an array of twelve independently pointed 20cm telescopes fitted with red-sensitive CCD cameras. It will be constructed at the ESO Paranal Observatory, thereby benefiting from the very best photometric conditions as well as follow up synergy with the VLT and E-ELT. Our design has been verified through the operation of two prototype instruments, demonstrating white noise characteristics to sub-mmag photometric precision. Detailed simulations show that about thirty bright super-Earths and up to two hundred Neptunes could be discovered. Our science operations are due to begin in 2014.

  10. Evaluation of an immunosuppressant side effect instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsett, Rebecca P; Arheart, Kris; Stratta, Robert J; Alloway, Rita; Wicks, Mona N; Gaber, A Osama; Hathaway, Donna K

    2004-09-01

    Clinicians continue to be compelled to evaluate the impact of immunosuppressive medication side effects on the quality of life of transplant recipients. We Were asked to develop an instrument to measure side effects in immunosuppressed transplant recipients. To construct an instrument that measures the impact and severity of side effects of immunosuppressive medications used in transplantation and to assess the reliability and validity of the newly developed instrument called the Memphis Survey. The instrument was constructed by a panel of physicians, nurses, and pharmacists with experience in treating transplant recipients. A small group of kidney transplant recipients (n= 13) provided pilot data for refining and testing the instrument. A national sample of kidney, liver, and heart transplant recipients (n = 505) provided data that were used to further develop the instrument. Factor analysis was used to determine the psychological dimensions underlying the instrument and to guide the construction of scales from the survey items. The instrument scales were then computed from the dataset of 505 transplant recipients to quantify the impact of immunosuppressant side effects on the quality of life of transplant recipients. Analyses showed the final instrument scales to be valid and reliable. Exploratory analysis suggests the need for further testing of the instrument to determine gender differences.

  11. Application of super total station instrument technology in the complex topographic survey%超站仪技术在复杂地形测量中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国明; 李国庆; 吕健; 吴晓萍

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, due to the rapid development of infrastructure and the conduct of the 5. 12 post-disaster reconstruction in China, topographic measurements increased significantly. However, as many of the construction area of the terrain is more complicated, for measurements made new demands, in addition to improving the conventional measurement methods, more efficient e-quipment are also needed to provide technical support. In this paper, taking Xianxugou 1:500 post-earthquake Geological Disaster Engineering Projects in Jiuzhaigou County of Sichuan Province for example, it introduced the principle of super total station in topographic measurement Combined with the construction area, it discussed the implementation methods, notes, measuring result' s repeatability and reproducibility and so on were analyzed. Finally, a method of measuring in complex terrain was taken. Super total station had more advantage than common measurement instruments in complex topographical surveys. This method would have a significant impact on other surveys.%由于很多施工区域的地形较为复杂,对测量工作提出了新的要求,除改进常规测量方法外,同时需要更高效的仪器提供技术保障.本文以震后四川省九寨沟县鲜浒沟地质灾害工程1:500地形测绘项目为例,介绍了超站仪在地形测量中的应用原理,结合施工区,讨论了其实施方法、注意事项、对测量成果的重复性、复现性等问题进行了分析,提出了复杂地形测量的新方法.实践证明,超站仪在复杂地形测量工作中较常规测量仪器有较大的优势.

  12. Validation of novel wheeze phenotypes using longitudinal airway function and atopic sensitization data in the first 6 years of life: evidence from the Southampton Women's survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Samuel A; Pike, Katharine C; Inskip, Hazel M; Godfrey, Keith M; Roberts, Graham; Holloway, John W; Lucas, Jane S A

    2013-07-01

    In 1995 the Tucson Children's Respiratory Study (TCRS) identified clinically distinct phenotypes amongst early wheezers; the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents And Children (ALSPAC) has recently re-examined these. To validate statistically derived ALSPAC phenotypes in the Southampton Women's Survey (SWS) using infant and 6-year lung function, and allergic sensitization at 1, 3, and 6 years, comparing these with TCRS phenotypes. Complete 6-year follow-up data were available for 926 children, selected from 1,973 infants born to 12,579 women characterized pre-conception. Ninety-five children had V'maxFRC and FEV0.4 measured age 5-14 weeks using rapid compression/raised volume techniques. At 6 years we performed spirometry (n = 791), fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO, n = 589) and methacholine challenge (n = 234). Skin prick testing was performed at 12m, 3 and 6 years (n = 1,494, 1,255, 699, respectively). Using wheeze status questionnaire data at 6m, 12m, 2, 3 and 6 years we classified children into TCRS (never, transient early, persistent, late-onset) and ALSPAC based groups (never, early, transient, intermediate-onset, late-onset, persistent). Amongst ALSPAC groups, persistent and late-onset wheeze were associated with atopy at 3 and 6 years, whilst intermediate-onset wheeze showed earlier atopic association at 1 year; all three were associated with FeNO at 6 years. Persistent wheezers had lower infant (V'maxFRC P function (FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and FEF(25-75), P function deficits. Transient wheezers were non-atopic but showed persistent lung function deficits (V'maxFRC in infancy, FEV1 and FEF(25-75) at 6 years, all P function deficits. No associations were seen with 6 years bronchial hyper-responsiveness or infancy FEV0.4. SWS cohort data validates the statistically derived ALSPAC six-class model. In particular, lung function and atopy successfully differentiate persistent, late-onset and intermediate-onset wheeze, whilst the Tucson "transient early" wheeze

  13. Process, practice and priorities — key lessons learnt undertaking sensitive social reconnaissance research as part of an (UNESCO-IOC) International Tsunami Survey Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zijll de Jong, Shona L.; Dominey-Howes, Dale; Roman, Carolina E.; Calgaro, Emma; Gero, Anna; Veland, Siri; Bird, Deanne K.; Muliaina, Tolu; Tuiloma-Sua, Dawn; Afioga, Taulagi Latu

    2011-07-01

    The 29 September 2009 South Pacific tsunami has had a lasting impact upon local coastal villages and global collaborative research efforts. Locally, the impact of the tsunami is one of the most severe disasters Samoa has experienced in the last several decades. Within one week of the event, 143 people died. Approximately 6000 traumatized men, women and children - terrified of the sea - refused to return to live or work in their rural, coastal villages, which in turn has had broad consequences for humanitarian emergency relief distribution networks and early recovery planning efforts. Researchers came from all over the world to participate in the UNESCO International Oceanographic Commission (IOC) Samoa International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST). Focusing on the need for interdisciplinary research, for the first time, a social impact assessment team (SIT) was expressly invited to participate. Within days of the tsunami, a group of Australian, New Zealand, American, Fijian, and Japanese disaster researchers began to discuss how they might develop a social science reconnaissance research plan using innovative approaches and best practice. This paper presents an overview of challenges faced by the social impact assessment team with a focus on lessons to be learnt from this experience. We discuss the need to clarify project boundaries, develop a core research agenda and project milestones, and develop day-to-day fieldwork work plans and at the same time be sensitive to the emotional needs of the interviewees as well as the researchers. We also make several practical suggestions for future social reconnaissance research with a set of recommendations to support disaster researchers as they plan their own research projects. The inclusion of a social impacts assessment group within a UNESCO-IOC ITST was a valuable response to the increasing need for responsible social research in sensitive topics of post-disaster analysis. Social scientists are aware that disaster social

  14. Evaluating musical instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D. Murray

    2014-04-01

    Scientific measurements of sound generation and radiation by musical instruments are surprisingly hard to correlate with the subtle and complex judgments of instrumental quality made by expert musicians.

  15. Quantifying methane emission from fugitive sources by combining tracer release and downwind measurements – A sensitivity analysis based on multiple field surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønster, Jacob; Samuelsson, Jerker; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Using a dual species methane/acetylene instrument based on cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS), the dynamic plume tracer dispersion method for quantifying the emission rate of methane was successfully tested in four measurement campaigns: (1) controlled methane and trace gas release with different...... trace gas configurations, (2) landfill with unknown emission source locations, (3) landfill with closely located emission sources, and (4) comparing with an Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) instrument using multiple trace gasses for source separation. The new real-time, high precision...... instrument can measure methane plumes more than 1.2km away from small sources (about 5kgh−1) in urban areas with a measurement frequency allowing plume crossing at normal driving speed. The method can be used for quantification of total methane emissions from diffuse area sources down to 1kg per hour and can...

  16. Compact Instrument for Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Southwest Sciences proposed the development of a rugged, compact, and automated instrument for the high sensitivity measurement of tropospheric carbon monoxide...

  17. Compact Instrument for Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Southwest Sciences proposes to continue the development of a rugged, compact, and automated instrument for the high sensitivity measurement of tropospheric carbon...

  18. The Einstein@Home Gamma-ray Pulsar Survey. I. Search Methods, Sensitivity and Discovery of New Young Gamma-ray Pulsars

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, C J; Wu, J.; Pletsch, H. J.; Guillemot, L.; Allen, B.; Aulbert, C.; Beer, C; Bock, O.; Cuéllar, A.; Eggenstein, H. B.; Fehrmann, H.; Kramer, M.; Machenschalk, B.; Nieder, L.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the results of a recent blind search survey for gamma-ray pulsars in Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data being carried out on the distributed volunteer computing system, Einstein@Home. The survey has searched for pulsations in 118 unidentified pulsar-like sources, requiring about 10,000 years of CPU core time. In total, this survey has resulted in the discovery of 17 new gamma-ray pulsars, of which 13 are newly reported in this work, and an accompanying paper. These pulsars are...

  19. RHEED streaks and instrument response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hove, J.M.; Pukite, P.; Cohen, P.I.; Lent, C.S.

    1983-04-01

    Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) is so sensitive to surface morphology that it is difficult to separate the roles of instrument response and surface imperfection in the diffraction. To address this difficulty we have used MBE grown GaAs(001) as a test surface to study the angular dimensions of the diffracted beams. This is important if RHEED is to be useful as a quantitive probe of surface structure for in situ studies of crystal growth. The limitations placed by instrumental uncertainties on the maximum resolvable distance are estimated. Measurements of the angular length of the RHEED steaks versus angle of incidence are presented which show the changes expected from a combination of a uniformly broadened reciprocal lattice rod and an instrument limit due to angular uncertainties. Resolvable distances are obtained with RHEED that are much larger than those typically obtained with low-energy electron diffraction.

  20. Sensitive skin and the influence of female hormone fluctuations: results from a cross-sectional digital survey in the Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falcone, D.; Richters, R.J.H.; Uzunbajakava, N.E.; Erp, P.E.J. van; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de

    2017-01-01

    Sensitive skin is a widespread condition, which is most frequently reported by women. Changing hormone levels during the menstrual cycle and menopause have been suggested among the stimuli triggering sensitive skin. To investigate the perceived influence of fluctuating hormone levels on

  1. SCUBA-2 instrument: an application of large-format superconducting bolometer arrays for submillimetre astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollister, Matthew Ian

    2009-01-01

    This thesis concerns technical aspects related to the design and operation of the submillimetre common-user bolometer array 2 (SCUBA-2) instrument, a new wide-field camera for submillimetre astronomy currently undergoing commissioning on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Offering unprecedented sensitivity and mapping capabilities, SCUBA-2 is expected to make a major impact in surveys of the sky at submillimetre wavelengths, a largely unexplored part of the electromagnetic spectrum, and provide better understanding of the formation and evolution of galaxies, stars and planets by providing large, unbiased samples of such objects. SCUBA-2 uses large arrays of bolometers, with superconducting transition edge sensors (TESs) as the temperature-sensitive element. TES devices are a relatively new technology, utilising the sharp resistance change between the normal and superconducting states to make a sensitive thermistor. Kilopixel arrays of such devices are multiplexed using superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). This thesis derives the key detector performance parameters, and presents analysis of engineering data to confirm the detector performance on array scales. A key issue for bolometric instruments for far infrared and submillimetre astronomy is the need to operate at extremely low temperatures in the sub-kelvin and millikelvin ranges to achieve the necessary detector sensitivity. This work describes the design, testing and performance of the liquid cryogen-free millikelvin cryostat, the first such instrument to be deployed for astronomy. Subsequent chapters detail the design and testing of a magnetic shielding scheme for the instrument, an important aspect of the operation of superconducting devices. Based on experience with the construction and testing of this instrument, a number of potential improvements for future instruments are presented and discussed.

  2. Position-sensitive radiation monitoring (surface contamination monitor). Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-06-01

    The Shonka Research Associates, Inc. Position-Sensitive Radiation Monitor both detects surface radiation and prepares electronic survey map/survey report of surveyed area automatically. The electronically recorded map can be downloaded to a personal computer for review and a map/report can be generated for inclusion in work packages. Switching from beta-gamma detection to alpha detection is relatively simple and entails moving a switch position to alpha and adjusting the voltage level to an alpha detection level. No field calibration is required when switching from beta-gamma to alpha detection. The system can be used for free-release surveys because it meets the federal detection level sensitivity limits requires for surface survey instrumentation. This technology is superior to traditionally-used floor contamination monitor (FCM) and hand-held survey instrumentation because it can precisely register locations of radioactivity and accurately correlate contamination levels to specific locations. Additionally, it can collect and store continuous radiological data in database format, which can be used to produce real-time imagery as well as automated graphics of survey data. Its flexible design can accommodate a variety of detectors. The cost of the innovative technology is 13% to 57% lower than traditional methods. This technology is suited for radiological surveys of flat surfaces at US Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) sites or similar public or commercial sites.

  3. Detectors for Tomorrow's Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Cryogenically cooled superconducting detectors have become essential tools for a wide range of measurement applications, ranging from quantum limited heterodyne detection in the millimeter range to direct searches for dark matter with superconducting phonon detectors operating at 20 mK. Superconducting detectors have several fundamental and practical advantages which have resulted in their rapid adoption by experimenters. Their excellent performance arises in part from reductions in noise resulting from their low operating temperatures, but unique superconducting properties provide a wide range of mechanisms for detection. For example, the steep dependence of resistance with temperature on the superconductor/normal transition provides a sensitive thermometer for calorimetric and bolometric applications. Parametric changes in the properties of superconducting resonators provides a mechanism for high sensitivity detection of submillimeter photons. From a practical point of view, the use of superconducting detectors has grown rapidly because many of these devices couple well to SQUID amplifiers, which are easily integrated with the detectors. These SQUID-based amplifiers and multiplexers have matured with the detectors; they are convenient to use, and have excellent noise performance. The first generation of fully integrated large scale superconducting detection systems are now being deployed. I will discuss the prospects for a new generation of instruments designed to take full advantage of the revolution in detector technology.

  4. IOT Overview: IR Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, E.

    In this instrument review chapter the calibration plans of ESO IR instruments are presented and briefly reviewed focusing, in particular, on the case of ISAAC, which has been the first IR instrument at VLT and whose calibration plan served as prototype for the coming instruments.

  5. The QUIJOTE CMB Experiment: status and first results with the multi-frequency instrument

    CERN Document Server

    López-Caniego, M; Aguiar, M; Génova-Santos, R; Gómez-Reñasco, F; Gutierrez, C; Herreros, J M; Hoyland, R J; López-Caraballo, C; Santos, A E Pelaez; Poidevin, F; Rubiño-Martín, J A; de la Rosa, V Sanchez; Tramonte, D; Vega-Moreno, A; Viera-Curbelo, T; Vignaga, R; Martínez-González, E; Barreiro, R B; Casaponsa, B; Casas, F J; Diego, J M; Fernández-Cobos, R; Herranz, D; Ortiz, D; Vielva, P; Artal, E; Aja, B; Cagigas, J; Cano, J L; de la Fuente, L; Mediavilla, A; Terán, J V; Villa, E; Piccirillo, L; Battye, R; Blackhurst, E; Brown, M; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; Dickinson, C; Grainge, K; Harper, S; Maffei, B; McCulloch, M; Melhuish, S; Pisano, G; Watson, R A; Hobson, M; Lasenby, A; Saunders, R; Scott, P

    2014-01-01

    The QUIJOTE (Q-U-I JOint Tenerife) CMB Experiment is designed to observe the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background and other Galactic and extragalactic signals at medium and large angular scales in the frequency range of 10-40 GHz. The first of the two QUIJOTE telescopes and the multi-frequency (10-20 GHz) instrument have been in operation since November 2012. In 2014 a second telescope and a new instrument at 30GHz will be ready for commissioning, and an additional instrument at 40 GHz is in its final design stages. After three years of effective observations, the data obtained by these telescopes and instruments will have the required sensitivity to detect a primordial gravitational-wave component if the tensor-to-scalar ratio is larger than r = 0.05. At the moment, we have completed half of the wide Galactic survey with the multi-frequency instrument covering 18 000 square degrees of the Northern hemisphere. When we finish this survey in early 2014, we shall have reached approximately 14{\\mu}K pe...

  6. SPHEREx: An All-Sky Spectral Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, James; SPHEREx Science Team

    2016-01-01

    SPHEREx, a mission in NASA's Small Explorer (SMEX) program that was selected for Phase A in July 2015, is an all-sky survey satellite designed to address all three science goals in NASA's astrophysics division, in a single survey, with a single instrument. We will probe the physics of inflation by measuring non-Gaussianity by studying large-scale structure, surveying a large cosmological volume at low redshifts, complementing high-z surveys optimized to constrain dark energy. The origin of water and biogenic molecules will be investigated in all phases of planetary system formation - from molecular clouds to young stellar systems with protoplanetary disks - by measuring ice absorption spectra. We will chart the origin and history of galaxy formation through a deep survey mapping large-scale spatial power. Finally, SPHEREx will be the first all-sky near-infrared spectral survey, creating a legacy archive of spectra (0.75 - 4.8 um at R = 41.5 and 150) with high sensitivity using a cooled telescope with large mapping speed.SPHEREx will observe from a sun-synchronous low-earth orbit, covering the entire sky in a manner similar to IRAS, COBE and WISE. During its two-year mission, SPHEREx will produce four complete all-sky maps for constraining the physics of inflation. These same maps contain numerous high signal-to-noise absorption spectra to study water and biogenic ices. The orbit naturally covers two deep regions at the celestial poles, which we use for studying galaxy evolution. All aspects of the SPHEREx instrument and spacecraft have high heritage. SPHEREx requires no new technologies and carries large technical and resource margins on every aspect of the design. The projected instrument sensitivity, based on conservative performance estimates, meets the driving point source sensitivity requirement with 300 % margin.SPHEREx is a partnership between Caltech and JPL, following the successful management structure of the NuSTAR and GALEX SMEX missions. The spacecraft

  7. Analytical specificity and sensitivity of the APTIMA Combo 2 and APTIMA GC assays for detection of commensal Neisseria species and Neisseria gonorrhoeae on the Gen-Probe Panther instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golparian, Daniel; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Unemo, Magnus

    2013-02-01

    Genetic detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is replacing culture for increased diagnostic sensitivity. Specificity of several nucleic acid amplification tests is suboptimal. Herein, the Gen-Probe APTIMA Combo 2 and APTIMA GC assays had 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity after confirmatory testing, when testing 298 isolates of nongonococcal Neisseria and related species and 205 gonococcal isolates.

  8. Rate Gyroscopic Wellbore Survey System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Limin

    1997-01-01

    @@ The rate gyroscopic wellbore survey system as a new type of survey instruments adopts the inertial-grade rate gyro and quartz flexible accelerometers to compose a gyrocompassing system, transiting data to surface instrument by single core cable. The azimuth, inclination and tool-face angle can be computed from these data by surface computer.

  9. Development of the emergency physician job satisfaction measurement instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, S; Streiner, D; Hahn, E; Shannon, S

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a valid and reliable instrument to measure the job satisfaction of physicians practicing emergency medicine. A prospective survey involving four separate stages (an item evaluation and reduction stage, a factor analysis stage, a construct validity stage, and a reliability stage) was distributed in Canada to full-time emergency physicians. Three separate survey instruments were administered (an initial draft instrument with 228 items, a pilot instrument with 142 items, and the final instrument with 79 items). Construct validity of the final instrument was tested by evaluating the correlation between physician scores on the instrument, and scores on two instruments measuring the same construct, and three measuring different but related constructs. A draft instrument with 228 items and six hypothetical domains was tested on 61 physicians. Evaluation for frequency endorsement, redundancy, and homogeneity reduced the item pool to 157. The remaining 157 items were used as a pilot instrument and tested on 223 physicians. Factor analysis eliminated 66 items from the pilot instrument, creating a final instrument with 79 items, 11 factors, and six domains. Cronbach's coefficient alpha for the final instrument domains is 0.81, and all domain-total correlations are greater than 0.4. All correlations between the final instrument and the construct validity instruments were statistically significant (P job satisfaction, which is both internally consistent and stable.

  10. Graduate Assessment Survey Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Fe Community Coll., Gainesville, FL. Office of Institutional Research and Planning.

    Determines the degree to which Santa Fe Community College (Florida) is providing quality educational programs and services to its students. Surveys outgoing students to gather their opinions and perceptions of the educational experiences and services they received while attending the college. The survey instrument is divided into three sections:…

  11. Herschel observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources (HEXOS): The present and future of spectral surveys with Herschel/HIFI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergin, E. A.; Phillips, T. G.; Comito, C.; Crockett, N. R.; Lis, D. C.; Schilke, P.; Wang, S.; Bell, T. A.; Blake, G. A.; Bumble, B.; Caux, E.; Cabrit, S.; Ceccarelli, C.; Cernicharo, J.; Daniel, F.; de Graauw, Th.; Dubernet, M.-L.; Emprechtinger, M.; Encrenaz, P.; Falgarone, E.; Gerin, M.; Giesen, T. F.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Gupta, H.; Hartogh, P.; Helmich, F. P.; Herbst, E.; Joblin, C.; Johnstone, D.; Kawamura, J. H.; Langer, W. D.; Latter, W. B.; Lord, S. D.; Maret, S.; Martin, P. G.; Melnick, G. J.; Menten, K. M.; Morris, P.; Müller, H. S. P.; Murphy, J. A.; Neufeld, D. A.; Ossenkopf, V.; Pagani, L.; Pearson, J. C.; Pérault, M.; Plume, R.; Roelfsema, P.; Qin, S.-L.; Salez, M.; Schlemmer, S.; Stutzki, J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Trappe, N.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Vastel, C.; Yorke, H. W.; Yu, S.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2010-01-01

    We present initial results from the Herschel GT key program: Herschel observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources (HEXOS) and outline the promise and potential of spectral surveys with Herschel/HIFI. The HIFI instrument offers unprecedented sensitivity, as well as continuous spectral coverage across the

  12. Science with OCTOCAM: a new workhorse instrument proposed for Gemini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thöne, Christina C.; de Ugarte Postigo, Antonio; van der Horst, Alexander; Roming, Pete

    2016-08-01

    OCTOCAM is an 8-channel VIS-IR (g to K-band) simultaneous imager and medium-resolution spectrograph proposed as new workhorse instrument for the 8m Gemini telescopes. It also offers additional observing modes of high time resolution, integral-field spectroscopy and spectropolarimetry, making it a very versatile instrument for many science cases in the 2020ies. A special focus of OCTOCAM will be the detection and follow-up of transient sources such as gamma-ray bursts, supernovae, magnetars, active galactic nuclei and yet to be discovered new objects, delivered by large-scale surveys like LSST available in the 2020ies. The diverse nature of transients will require the full range of OCTOCAM capabilities allowing more information in very short time about the source than with any other current instrument and adaptable almost in real time. Another main science topic will be to probe the high redshift Universe and the first stars for which OCTOCAM will be highly suited due to its wide wavelength coverage and high sensitivity. However, OCTOCAM is also suited for a large range of other science cases including transneptunian objects, exoplanets, stellar evolution and supermassive black holes. Our science team comprises more than 50 researchers reflecting the large interest of the Gemini community in the capabilities of OCTOCAM. We will highlight a few important science cases demonstrating the different capabilities of OCTOCAM and their need for the scientific community.

  13. Instrument Modeling and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Andrew B.; Beauchamp, James W.

    During the 1970s and 1980s, before synthesizers based on direct sampling of musical sounds became popular, replicating musical instruments using frequency modulation (FM) or wavetable synthesis was one of the “holy grails” of music synthesis. Synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 allowed users great flexibility in mixing and matching sounds, but were notoriously difficult to coerce into producing sounds like those of a given instrument. Instrument design wizards practiced the mysteries of FM instrument design.

  14. Performing the Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpaa, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The genre of contemporary classical music has seen significant innovation and research related to new super, hyper, and hybrid instruments, which opens up a vast palette of expressive potential. An increasing number of composers, performers, instrument designers, engineers, and computer programmers...... provides the performer extensive virtuoso capabilities in terms of instrumental range, harmony, timbre, or spatial, textural, acoustic, technical, or technological qualities. The discussion will be illustrated by a composition case study involving augmented musical instrument electromagnetic resonator...

  15. Performing the Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpaa, Maria

    2016-01-01

    provides the performer extensive virtuoso capabilities in terms of instrumental range, harmony, timbre, or spatial, textural, acoustic, technical, or technological qualities. The discussion will be illustrated by a composition case study involving augmented musical instrument electromagnetic resonator......The genre of contemporary classical music has seen significant innovation and research related to new super, hyper, and hybrid instruments, which opens up a vast palette of expressive potential. An increasing number of composers, performers, instrument designers, engineers, and computer programmers...

  16. Aeroacoustics of Musical Instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabre, B.; Gilbert, J.; Hirschberg, A.; Pelorson, X.

    2012-01-01

    We are interested in the quality of sound produced by musical instruments and their playability. In wind instruments, a hydrodynamic source of sound is coupled to an acoustic resonator. Linear acoustics can predict the pitch of an instrument. This can significantly reduce the trial-and-error process

  17. Numerical modeling to assess the sensitivity and resolution of long-electrode electrical resistance tomography (LEERT) surveys to monitor CO2 migration, Phase 1B area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Abelardo L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-05-18

    This document describes the results of a numerical modeling study that evaluated whether LEERT could be used successfully to monitor CO2 distribution in the Weyburn- Midale reservoir, Phase 1B area. The magnitude of electrical resistivity changes and the technique’s resolution depend on many site-specific factors including well separation distances, casing lengths, reservoir depth, thickness, and composition, and the effect of CO2 on the electrical properties of the reservoir. Phase 1B-specific numerical modeling of the electrical response to CO2 injection has been performed to assess sensitivity and resolution of the electrical surveys.

  18. [Survey of analytical work done for drugs at the emergency and critical care centers equipped with high-performance instruments provided by the Ministry of Health and Welfare (at present: Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare) in fiscal 1998].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Yasushi; Iseki, Ken; Suzuki, Koichiro; Namera, Akira; Fukumoto, Mariko; Fuke, Chiaki; Mori, Hiromi; Soma, Kazui

    2010-09-01

    A questionnaire was sent to 73 emergency and critical care centers where high-performance instruments for analyzing drugs and chemicals were provided by the Ministry of Health and Welfare (currently Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare) in fiscal 1998. 52 centers (71.2%) responded to the questionnaire. Among these, the instruments have been in operation at 36 centers. This means that analytical work has been performed in at least 49.3% (36/73) of facilities with the instruments. A positive correlation was observed between the annual number of patients tested for drugs and chemicals and analytical work hours at the 36 facilities. The results indicated that 150 cases may be tested for drugs and chemicals in a year on the condition that 100 hours a month of analytical work are secured, and 200 or more cases may be tested if 200 hours a month are secured. As for the running costs required for the operation of the instruments, the instrument maintenance and repair cost was estimated at 2 million yen a year, and it was calculated that 100 cases could be handled with a maximum annual supply expense of 1 million yen and 150 cases could be handled with a maximum annual supply expense of 2 million yen. These results suggest that the instrument running cost would be fully covered at nationwide emergency and critical care centers if the additional 5,000 NHI points (1 point = 10 yen) for hospital admission, which is approved for advanced emergency and critical care centers, were applicable to all facilities. Among the 36 facilities, the implementation of analysis varied for each of the 15 toxic substances recommended for analysis by the Japanese Society for Clinical Toxicology. Further research will be necessary to investigate and assess the frequency of analysis requests and combination of simple qualitative and instrumental analyses for each of the 15 substances, in order to evaluate the approach to the 15 substances in analytical work.

  19. Evaluation on reliability,sensitivity and feasibility of SF- 36 instrument with the quality of life in DM and IGT%SF-36量表在糖尿病和糖耐量减低患者生命质量研究 中的信度、敏感性和可行性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the reliability,sensitivity and feasibility of SF- 36 instrument with the quality of life in DM and IGT.Methods:With the self assessed data of quality of life in subjects with DM,IGT and NGT from a prevalence study,the reliability,sensitivity and feasibility of SF- 36 instrument have been evaluated.Results:In patients with DM and IGT,the spilt half reliability was 0.93 and 0.84 respectively,cronbach's α coefficient,theta(θ ) coefficient and omegea(Ω ) coefficient of SF- 36 instrument was over 0.9,the SF- 36 instrument including eight multitem dimemsions,except in vitality(the lowest was 0.57),the three coefficients(at least one of them)attained or exceed the accepatable criterion(≥ 0.8 is excellent,≥ 0.7 is good).Most of mean(18/24) score of quality of life in dimensions and instrument was the lowest in DM and the highest in NGT,mean score of four dimensions and the instrument in DM was apparently differenct with in NGT(P<0.05),while compared in DM and in IGT,mean score of two dimensions was apparently different,the acceptable and completed rate was 100 percent,the average completed time was 5 minutes.Conclusion :The reliability,sensitivity of SF- 36 instrument are excellent,it's feasibility is satisfying.the SF- 36 is a suitable instrument in DM and IGT in China.%目的:评价SF-36量表在我国糖尿病(DM)和糖耐量低减(IGT)患者生命质量研究中的信度、敏感性和可行性。方法:通过对DM、IGT患者和糖耐量正常者(NGT)使用SF-36量表的生命质量(QualityofLifeQL)自评数据进行评价。结果:DM和IGT的劈半信度分别为0.93和0.84;总量表的Cronbach'sα系数、θ系数和Ω系数均>0.9,分量表的8个维度除了精力分项(最低为0.57)外,其余各维度的三系数(至少有一项)均达到一般认可的标准以上;QL各维度评分的大多数(18/24)和综合评分为DM

  20. Applying neural networks to optimize instrumentation performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Start, S.E.; Peters, G.G.

    1995-06-01

    Well calibrated instrumentation is essential in providing meaningful information about the status of a plant. Signals from plant instrumentation frequently have inherent non-linearities, may be affected by environmental conditions and can therefore cause calibration difficulties for the people who maintain them. Two neural network approaches are described in this paper for improving the accuracy of a non-linear, temperature sensitive level probe ised in Expermental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) that was difficult to calibrate.

  1. Moral sensitivity relating to the application of the code of ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Soon; Kang, Se-Won; Ahn, Jeong-Ah

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the clinical application of the 2006 Third Revised Korean Nurses' Code of Ethics and the moral sensitivity of nurses. A total of 303 clinical nurses in South Korea participated in the survey in May and June 2011. As instruments of this study, we used the 15 statements of the Korean Nurses' Code of Ethics and Korean Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire. The mean score for application was 3.77 ± 0.59 (out of 5), and the mean score for moral sensitivity was 5.14 ± 0.55 (out of 7). The correlation coefficient (r) of the application and moral sensitivity was 0.336 (p moral sensitivity also scored high on application (t = -5.018, p moral sensitivity of nurses are necessary for improving the application of the code of ethics.

  2. The microbial temperature sensitivity to warming is controlled by thermal adaptation and is independent of C-quality across a pan-continental survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Eva; Rousk, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    Climate models predict that warming will result in an increased loss of soil organic matter (SOM). However, field experiments suggest that although warming results in an immediate increase in SOM turnover, the effect diminishes over time. Although the use and subsequent turnover of SOM is dominated by the soil microbial community, the underlying physiology underpinning warming responses are not considered in current climate models. It has been suggested that a reduction in the perceived quality of SOM to the microbial community, and changes in the microbial thermal adaptation, could be important feed-backs to soil warming. Thus, studies distinguishing between temperature relationships and how substrate quality influences microbial decomposition are a priority. We examined microbial communities and temperature sensitivities along a natural climate gradient including 56 independent samples from across Europe. The gradient included mean annual temperatures (MAT) from ca -4 to 18 ˚ C, along with wide spans of environmental factors known to influence microbial communities, such as pH (4.0 to 8.8), nutrients (C/N from 7 to 50), SOM (from 4 to 94%), and plant communities, etc. The extensive ranges of environmental conditions resulted in wide ranges of substrate quality, indexed as microbial respiration per unit SOM, from 5-150 μg CO2g-1 SOM g-1 h-1. We hypothesised microbial communities to (1) be adapted to the temperature of their climate, leading to warm adapted bacterial communities that were more temperature sensitive (higher Q10s) at higher MAT; (2) have temperature sensitivities affected by the quality of SOM, with higher Q10s for lower quality SOM. To determine the microbial use of SOM and its dependence on temperature, we characterized microbial temperature dependences of bacterial growth (leu inc), fungal growth (ac-in-erg) and soil respiration in all 56 sites. Temperature dependences were determined using brief (ca. 1-2 h at 25˚ C) laboratory incubation

  3. The Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Ashby, M L N; Brodwin, M; Griffith, R; Eisenhardt, P; Kozlowski, S; Kochanek, C S; Bock, J J; Borys, C; Brand, K; Brown, M J I; Cool, R; Cooray, A R; Croft, S; Dey, A; Eisenstein, D; González, A H; Gorjian, V; Grogin, N A; Ivison, R J; Jacob, J; Jannuzi, B T; Mainzer, A; Moustakas, L A; Röttgering, H J A; Seymour, N; Smith, H A; Stanford, S A; Stauffer, J R; Sullivan, I; Van Breugel, W; Willner, S P; Wright, E L

    2009-01-01

    The Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey (SDWFS) is a four-epoch infrared survey of ten square degrees in the Bootes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey using the IRAC instrument on the Spitzer Space Telescope. SDWFS, a Cycle four Spitzer Legacy project, occupies a unique position in the area-depth survey space defined by other Spitzer surveys. The four epochs that make up SDWFS permit -- for the first time -- the selection of infrared-variable and high proper motion objects over a wide field on timescales of years. Because of its large survey volume, SDWFS is sensitive to galaxies out to z~3 with relatively little impact from cosmic variance for all but the richest systems. The SDWFS datasets will thus be especially useful for characterizing galaxy evolution beyond z~1.5. This paper explains the SDWFS observing strategy and data processing, presents the SDWFS mosaics and source catalogs, and discusses some early scientific findings. The publicly-released, full-depth catalogs contain 6.78, 5.23, 1.20, and 0.9...

  4. The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaugher, Brenna; Bebek, Chris

    2014-07-01

    The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) is a Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment that will study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of structure through redshift-space distortions with a wide-area galaxy and quasar spectroscopic redshift survey. The DESI instrument consists of a new wide-field (3.2 deg. linear field of view) corrector plus a multi-object spectrometer with up to 5000 robotically positioned optical fibers and will be installed at prime focus on the Mayall 4m telescope at Kitt Peak, Arizona. The fibers feed 10 three-arm spectrographs producing spectra that cover a wavelength range from 360-980 nm and have resolution of 2000-5500 depending on the wavelength. The DESI instrument is designed for a 14,000 sq. deg. multi-year survey of targets that trace the evolution of dark energy out to redshift 3.5 using the redshifts of luminous red galaxies (LRGs), emission line galaxies (ELGs) and quasars. DESI is the successor to the successful Stage-III BOSS spectroscopic redshift survey and complements imaging surveys such as the Stage-III Dark Energy Survey (DES, currently operating) and the Stage-IV Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST, planned start early in the next decade).

  5. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  6. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  7. Public surveys at ESO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaboldi, Magda; Delmotte, Nausicaa; Hilker, Michael; Hussain, Gaitee; Mascetti, Laura; Micol, Alberto; Petr-Gotzens, Monika; Rejkuba, Marina; Retzlaff, Jörg; Mieske, Steffen; Szeifert, Thomas; Ivison, Rob; Leibundgut, Bruno; Romaniello, Martino

    2016-07-01

    ESO has a strong mandate to survey the Southern Sky. In this article, we describe the ESO telescopes and instruments that are currently used for ESO Public Surveys, and the future plans of the community with the new wide-field-spectroscopic instruments. We summarize the ESO policies governing the management of these projects on behalf of the community. The on-going ESO Public Surveys and their science goals, their status of completion, and the new projects selected during the second ESO VISTA call in 2015/2016 are discussed. We then present the impact of these projects in terms of current numbers of refereed publications and the scientific data products published through the ESO Science Archive Facility by the survey teams, including the independent access and scientific use of the published survey data products by the astronomical community.

  8. Future HI Surveys on the road to the SKA

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Robert

    2007-01-01

    In this short contribution we consider what types of surveys might be optimally pursued with path-finding instruments of 1%, 10% and finally 100% of the projected SKA sensitivity from the perspective of scientific applications that utilize the red-shifted 21 cm emission line. Achieving interesting HI galaxy sample sizes with 1% SKA surveys requires very substantial survey durations, of about 1000 days. Good sampling (log(N)~5) down to below M_HI* can then be achieved out to z=0.2 over 8000 deg^2 of survey area or even to z=0.5 over 800 deg^2. The same surveys will permit the resolved imaging of order 1000 galaxies in each of several red-shift bins as well as detection of faint neutral filaments in the vicinity of galaxies with a column density of about 10^18 cm^-2. Once 10% SKA sensitivities are achieved, then ground-breaking surveys are possible with only 100 day duration. Sample sizes of log(N)~6 extending below M_HI* are possible over 800 deg^2 out to z=0.5 and over 80 deg^2 out to z=1. Such surveys will p...

  9. Sensitive CO and 13CO survey of water fountain stars. Detections towards IRAS 18460-0151 and IRAS 18596+0315

    CERN Document Server

    Rizzo, J R; Miranda, L F; Osorio, M; Suarez, O; Duran-Rojas, M C

    2013-01-01

    Water fountain stars represent a stage between the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and planetary nebulae phases, when the mass loss changes from spherical to bipolar. These types of evolved objects are characterized by high-velocity jets in the 22 GHz water maser emission. We surveyed the CO and 13CO line emission towards a sample of ten water fountain stars through observing the J=1-0 and 2-1 lines of CO and 13CO, using the 30m IRAM radio telescope at Pico Veleta. All the water fountains visible from the observatory were surveyed. Most of the line emission arises from foreground or background Galactic clouds, and we had to thoroughly analyse the spectra to unveil the velocity components related to the stars. In two sources, IRAS 18460-0151 and IRAS 18596+0315, we identified wide velocity components with a width of 35-40 km/s that are centred at the stellar velocities. These wide components can be associated with the former AGB envelope of the progenitor star. A third case, IRAS 18286-0959, is reported as tenta...

  10. Marine chemistry, fish / shell-fish surveys, benthic organisms, and marine toxic substances and pollutants data from current meter and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from 26 January 1993 to 13 June 1994 (NODC Accession 9500088)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine chemistry, fish / shell-fish surveys, benthic organisms, and marine toxic substances and pollutants data were collected using current meter and other...

  11. VIRUS instrument enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2014-08-01

    The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

  12. Gemini Instrument Upgrade Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Ruben; Goodsell, Stephen; Kleinman, Scot

    2016-08-01

    The Gemini Observatory* remains committed to keeping its operational instrumentation competitive and serving the needs of its user community. Currently the observatory operates a 4 instruments + 1 AO system at each site. At Gemini North the GMOS-N, GNIRS, NIFS and NIRI instruments are offered supported by the ALTAIR AO system. In the south, GMOS-S, F-2, GPI and GSAOI are offered instrumentation and GeMS is the provided AO System. This paper reviews our strategy to keep our instrumentation suite competitive, examines both our current funded upgrade projects and our potential future enhancements. We summarize the work done and the results so far obtained within the instrument upgrade program.

  13. Instrumentation a reader

    CERN Document Server

    Pope, P

    1990-01-01

    This book contains a selection of papers and articles in instrumentation previously pub­ lished in technical periodicals and journals of learned societies. Our selection has been made to illustrate aspects of current practice and applications of instrumentation. The book does not attempt to be encyclopaedic in its coverage of the subject, but to provide some examples of general transduction techniques, of the sensing of particular measurands, of components of instrumentation systems and of instrumentation practice in two very different environments, the food industry and the nuclear power industry. We have made the selection particularly to provide papers appropriate to the study of the Open University course T292 Instrumentation. The papers have been chosen so that the book covers a wide spectrum of instrumentation techniques. Because of this, the book should be of value not only to students of instrumen­ tation, but also to practising engineers and scientists wishing to glean ideas from areas of instrumen...

  14. Towards an Enterprise Architecture Benefits Measurement Instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plessius, Henk; Steenbergen, van Marlies; Slot, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Author supplied: Based on the Enterprise Architecture Value Framework (EAVF) - a generic framework to classify benefits of Enterprise Architecture (EA) - a measurement instrument for EA benefits has been developed and tested in a survey with 287 respondents. In this paper we present the results of

  15. Locating Tests and Measurement Instruments for Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastel, Kristen; Morris-Knower, Jim; Marsalis, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Extension educators, staff, and specialists need to use surveys and other measurement instruments to assess their programming and conduct other research. Challenges in locating tests and measurement tools, however, include lack of time and lack of familiarity with techniques that can be used to find them. This article discusses library resources…

  16. Aircrew Screening Instruments Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    available tools . Several vendors indicated that they will have new selection instruments available within a few months. These are not listed. As noted...AFCAPS-FR-2011-0012 AIRCREW SCREENING INSTRUMENTS REVIEW Diane L. Damos Damos Aviation Services, Inc...June 2007 – August 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Aircrew Screening Instruments Review 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA3089-06-F-0385 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  17. Thermoluminescence survey of 12 meteorites collected by the European 1988 Antarctic meteorite expedition to Allan Hills and the importance of acid washing for thermoluminescence sensitivity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, P. H.; Sears, H.; Sears, D. W. G.

    1991-01-01

    Natural and induced thermoluminescence (TL) data are reported for 12 meteorites recovered from the Allan Hills region of Antarctica by the European field party during the 1988/1989 field season. The samples include one with extremely high natural TL, ALH88035, suggestive of exposure to unusually high radiation doses (i.e., low degrees of shielding), and one, ALH88034, whose low natural TL suggests reheating within the last 100,000 years. The remainder have natural TL values suggestive of terrestrial ages similar to those of other meteorites from Allan Hills. ALH88015 (L6) has induced TL data suggestive of intense shock. TL sensitivities of these meteorites are generally lower than observed falls of their petrologic types, as is also observed for Antarctic meteorites in general. Acid-washing experiments indicate that this is solely the result of terrestrial weathering rather than a nonterrestrial Antarctic-non-Antarctic difference. However, other TL parameters, such as natural TL and induced peak temperature-width, are unchanged by acid washing and are sensitive indicators of a meteorite's metamorphic and recent radiation history.

  18. [Controlling instruments in radiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, M

    2013-10-01

    Due to the rising costs and competitive pressures radiological clinics and practices are now facing, controlling instruments are gaining importance in the optimization of structures and processes of the various diagnostic examinations and interventional procedures. It will be shown how the use of selected controlling instruments can secure and improve the performance of radiological facilities. A definition of the concept of controlling will be provided. It will be shown which controlling instruments can be applied in radiological departments and practices. As an example, two of the controlling instruments, material cost analysis and benchmarking, will be illustrated.

  19. Ocean Optics Instrumentation Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides instrumentation suites for a wide variety of measurements to characterize the ocean’s optical environment. These packages have been developed to...

  20. Networked Instrumentation Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers have developed a networked instrumentation system that connects modern experimental payloads to existing analog and digital communications...

  1. Analyses of Sensitivity to the Missing-at-Random Assumption Using Multiple Imputation With Delta Adjustment: Application to a Tuberculosis/HIV Prevalence Survey With Incomplete HIV-Status Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leacy, Finbarr P; Floyd, Sian; Yates, Tom A; White, Ian R

    2017-01-10

    Multiple imputation with delta adjustment provides a flexible and transparent means to impute univariate missing data under general missing-not-at-random mechanisms. This facilitates the conduct of analyses assessing sensitivity to the missing-at-random (MAR) assumption. We review the delta-adjustment procedure and demonstrate how it can be used to assess sensitivity to departures from MAR, both when estimating the prevalence of a partially observed outcome and when performing parametric causal mediation analyses with a partially observed mediator. We illustrate the approach using data from 34,446 respondents to a tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence survey that was conducted as part of the Zambia-South Africa TB and AIDS Reduction Study (2006-2010). In this study, information on partially observed HIV serological values was supplemented by additional information on self-reported HIV status. We present results from 2 types of sensitivity analysis: The first assumed that the degree of departure from MAR was the same for all individuals with missing HIV serological values; the second assumed that the degree of departure from MAR varied according to an individual's self-reported HIV status. Our analyses demonstrate that multiple imputation offers a principled approach by which to incorporate auxiliary information on self-reported HIV status into analyses based on partially observed HIV serological values.

  2. PEP Laser Surveying System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, T.; Sah, R.C.

    1979-03-01

    A Laser Surveying System has been developed to survey the beam elements of the PEP storage ring. This system provides automatic data acquisition and analysis in order to increase survey speed and to minimize operator error. Two special instruments, the Automatic Readout Micrometer and the Small Automatic Micrometer, have been built for measuring the locations of fiducial points on beam elements with respect to the light beam from a laser. These instruments automatically encode offset distances and read them into the memory of an on-line computer. Distances along the beam line are automatically encoded with a third instrument, the Automatic Readout Tape Unit. When measurements of several beam elements have been taken, the on-line computer analyzes the measured data, compared them with desired parameters, and calculates the required adjustments to beam element support stands.

  3. High-Sensitivity Magnetization Measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The three most common instruments for high-sensitivity magnetization measurements (the vibrating-sample magnetometer, the alternating gradient magnetometer, and the SQUID magne tometer) are described and their limiting sensitivities are discussed. The advantages and disad vantages of each are described. Magnetometers using micro-machined force detectors are briefly mentioned.

  4. Instrumentation Design and Development Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — RTTC has facilities for design, development and fabrication of: custominstrumentation, mobile instrumentation, miniaturized instrumentation, wirelessinstrumentation,...

  5. New uses of position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jeffrey S.; Redus, Robert H.; Nagarkar, Vivek V.; Squillante, Michael R.

    1992-12-01

    Recent advances in photomultiplier tube technology have led to the availability of position sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMTs). These tubes make it possible to build a new generation of imaging instruments for gamma rays and other types of ionizing radiation. We have investigated the use of these tubes for the construction of several prototype instruments. The first application investigated measures the quantity and distribution of radioactive compounds on filter papers used in microbiology research. The intent of this instrument is to replace film autoradiography with an electronic imaging system which can analyze samples 75 to 110 times faster than film. The second application involved the development of an intraoperative imaging probe to help surgeons identify cancerous tissue and ensure its complete removal. This instrument will replace a non-imaging probe now in use at many hospitals. A third prototype instrument under evaluation is an imaging nuclear survey system which obtains both a video and gamma ray image for the purpose of locating and quantifying radioactive materials. This system would be used at nuclear power plants and radioactive materials preparation facilities. A modification of this system could be built into robots used for inspecting and repairing power plants.

  6. The APEX-SZ Instrument

    CERN Document Server

    Schwan, Daniel; Basu, Kaustuv; Bender, Amy N; Bertoldi, Frank; Cho, Hsaio-Mei; Chon, Guyong; Clarke, John; Dobbs, Matt; Ferrusca, Daniel; Gusten, Rolfe; Halverson, Nils W; Holzapfel, William L; Horellou, Cathy; Johansson, Daniel; Johnson, Bradley R; Kennedy, James; Kermish, Zigmund; Kneissl, Ruediger; Lanting, Trevor; Lee, Adrian T; Lueker, Martin; Mehl, Jared; Menten, Karl M; Muders, Dirk; Pacaud, Florian; Plagge, Thomas; Reichardt, Christian L; Richards, Paul L; Schaaf, Rienhold; Schilke, Peter; Sommer, Martin W; Spieler, Helmuth; Tucker, Carole; Weiss, Axel; Westbrook, Benjamin; Zahn, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    The APEX-SZ instrument is a millimeter-wave cryogenic receiver designed to observe galaxy clusters via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect from the 12 m APEX telescope on the Atacama plateau in Chile. The receiver contains a focal plane of 280 superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers instrumented with a frequency-domain multiplexed readout system. The bolometers are cooled to 280 mK via a three-stage helium sorption refrigerator and a mechanical pulse-tube cooler. Three warm mirrors, two 4 K lenses, and a horn array couple the TES bolometers to the telescope. APEX-SZ observes in a single frequency band at 150 GHz with 1' angular resolution and a 22' field-of-view, all well suited for cluster mapping. The APEX-SZ receiver has played a key role in the introduction of several new technologies including TES bolometers, the frequency-domain multiplexed readout, and the use of a pulse-tube cooler with bolometers. As a result of these new technologies, the instrument has a higher instantaneous sensitivity a...

  7. BAA instrument no. 93

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, R. A.

    2006-12-01

    Instrument no. 93 has been in almost continual use for more than a hundred years. Since it left the workshop of its maker, George Calver, it has kept company with several other notable instruments and has been used by many eminent astronomers. It was added to the Association's collection in 1945.

  8. Instrumentation in endourology

    OpenAIRE

    Khanna, Rakesh; Monga,Manoj

    2011-01-01

    Success with endourological procedures requires expertise and instrumentation. This review focuses on the instrumentation required for ureteroscopy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy, and provides a critical assessment of in vitro and clinical studies that have evaluated the comparative effectiveness of these medical devices.

  9. Intraoral Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Goss, Clinton F

    2013-01-01

    High intraoral pressure generated when playing some wind instruments has been linked to a variety of health issues. Prior research has focused on Western classical instruments, but no work has been published on ethnic wind instruments. This study measured intraoral pressure when playing six classes of ethnic wind instruments (N = 149): Native American flutes (n = 71) and smaller samples of ethnic duct flutes, reed instruments, reedpipes, overtone whistles, and overtone flutes. Results are presented in the context of a survey of prior studies, providing a composite view of the intraoral pressure requirements of a broad range of wind instruments. Mean intraoral pressure was 8.37 mBar across all ethnic wind instruments and 5.21 +/- 2.16 mBar for Native American flutes. The range of pressure in Native American flutes closely matches pressure reported in other studies for normal speech, and the maximum intraoral pressure, 20.55 mBar, is below the highest subglottal pressure reported in other studies during singing...

  10. INSTRUMENTATION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING--Radiation--Vol3Pt1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various

    1972-01-02

    A comprehensive survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring is being carried out by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory originally under a grant from the National Science Foundation and now by the Office of Health and Environmental Research of the Department of Energy. Instruments being investigated are those useful for measurements in Air Quality, Water Quality, Radiation, and Biomedicine related to environmental research and monitoring. Consideration is given to instruments and techniques presently in use and to those developed for other purposes but having possible applications to this work. The results of the survey are given as (a) descriptions of the physical and operating characteristics of available instruments, (b) critical comparisons among instrumentation methods, and (c) recommendations of promising methodology and development of new instrumentation. Information is also given regarding the pollutants to be monitored: their characteristics and forms, their sources and pathways, their effects on the ecosystem, and the means of controlling them through process and regulatory controls.

  11. The NuSTAR extragalactic survey: a first sensitive look at the high-energy cosmic x-ray background population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, D. M.; Stern, D.; Del Moro, A.;

    2013-01-01

    of broad-band ≈ 0.5-32 keV spectroscopy, optical spectroscopy, and broad-band ultraviolet-to-mid-infrared spectral energy distribution analyses. We find that the dominant source population is quasars with L10-40 keV > 1044 erg s-1, of which ≈ 50% are obscured with NH ≳ 1022 cm-2. However, none of the 10 NuSTAR......We report on the first 10 identifications of sources serendipitously detected by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array ( NuSTAR ) to provide the first sensitive census of the cosmic X-ray background source population at ≳ 10 keV. We find that these NuSTAR -detected sources are ≈ 100 times...... times higher than the median stellar mass of nearby high-energy selected AGNs, which may be at least partially driven by the order of magnitude higher X-ray luminosities of the NuSTAR sources. Within the low source-statistic limitations of our study, our results suggest that the overall properties...

  12. Report on the FY 1999 R and D survey on ultra-high sensitive photoelectric converter; 1999 nendo chokokando koden henkan soshi ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    By the ICB method which is one of the ion engineering methods, photomultipliers were formed using organic dye thin films. By changing the energy to bond traps on thin film/metal electrode interface and electric charges by change of acceleration energy of ion beams, a technology was developed for adjusting the optimum operating temperature between -20 degrees C and +100 degrees C. The wide range of operating temperature and favorable SN ratio can be realized. It was made clear that the dark current of the photomultiplier is composed of two components of contribution by the residual charge stored on the interface at photomultiplying and of contribution by charge injection from the Schottky barrier. Based on this, the residual electric charge removal method by heating and applied pulse voltage was developed. The development for practical use was studied of ultra-high sensitive photoelectric converters. As an intelligent photo sensor, a biomimetic visual photosensor was proposed which uses amplification/memory/arithmetic functions and film formation/processability of organic thin films. The paper also described the image sensor. (NEDO)

  13. The price sensitivity of cigarette consumption in Bangladesh: evidence from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Bangladesh Wave 1 (2009) and Wave 2 (2010) Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nargis, Nigar; Ruthbah, Ummul H; Hussain, A K M Ghulam; Fong, Geoffrey T; Huq, Iftekharul; Ashiquzzaman, S M

    2014-03-01

    In Bangladesh, the average excise tax on cigarettes accounted for just 38% of the average retail price of cigarettes in 2009, and 45% in 2010. Both these rates are well below the WHO recommended share of 70% of the retail price at a minimum. There is thus ample room for raising taxes on cigarettes in Bangladesh. The objective of the present work was therefore to estimate the price elasticity of demand for cigarettes and the effect of tax increases on the consumption of cigarettes and on tax revenue in Bangladesh. Based on data from Wave 1 (2009) and Wave 2 (2010) of the International Tobacco Control Bangladesh Survey, we estimated the overall impact of a price change on cigarette demand using a two-part model. The total price elasticity of cigarettes was measured by the sum of the elasticity of smoking prevalence and the elasticity of average daily consumption conditional on smoking participation. The price elasticity estimates were used in a simulation model to predict changes in cigarette consumption and tax revenue from tax and price increases. The total price elasticity of demand for cigarettes was estimated at -0.49. The elasticity of smoking prevalence accounted for 59% of the total price elasticity. The price elasticity of cigarette consumption is higher for people belonging to lower socioeconomic status. Increases in taxes would result in a significant reduction in cigarette consumption while increasing tax revenue. Raising cigarette prices through increased taxation could lead to a win-win-win situation in Bangladesh: it would reduce cigarette consumption, increase tobacco tax revenue and potentially decrease socioeconomic inequities.

  14. Human factors aspects of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    An important consideration in regards to the use of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry is the interface between the instrumentation system and the human. A survey, oriented towards identifying the human factors aspects of digital instrumentation, was conducted at a number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities. Human factors issues, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays, controls, organizational support, training, and related topics were identified. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. CONNECTING GRBs AND ULIRGs: A SENSITIVE, UNBIASED SURVEY FOR RADIO EMISSION FROM GAMMA-RAY BURST HOST GALAXIES AT 0 < z < 2.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perley, D. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Perley, R. A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Hjorth, J.; Malesani, D. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Michałowski, M. J. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Cenko, S. B. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Jakobsson, P. [Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhagi 5, 107 Reykjavík (Iceland); Krühler, T. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Levan, A. J. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Tanvir, N. R., E-mail: dperley@astro.caltech.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-10

    Luminous infrared galaxies and submillimeter galaxies contribute significantly to stellar mass assembly and provide an important test of the connection between the gamma-ray burst (GRB) rate and that of overall cosmic star formation. We present sensitive 3 GHz radio observations using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array of 32 uniformly selected GRB host galaxies spanning a redshift range from 0 < z < 2.5, providing the first fully dust- and sample-unbiased measurement of the fraction of GRBs originating from the universe's most bolometrically luminous galaxies. Four galaxies are detected, with inferred radio star formation rates (SFRs) ranging between 50 and 300 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. Three of the four detections correspond to events consistent with being optically obscured 'dark' bursts. Our overall detection fraction implies that between 9% and 23% of GRBs between 0.5 < z < 2.5 occur in galaxies with S {sub 3GHz} > 10 μJy, corresponding to SFR > 50 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} at z ∼ 1 or >250 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} at z ∼ 2. Similar galaxies contribute approximately 10%-30% of all cosmic star formation, so our results are consistent with a GRB rate that is not strongly biased with respect to the total SFR of a galaxy. However, all four radio-detected hosts have stellar masses significantly lower than IR/submillimeter-selected field galaxies of similar luminosities. We suggest that the GRB rate may be suppressed in metal-rich environments but independently enhanced in intense starbursts, producing a strong efficiency dependence on mass but little net dependence on bulk galaxy SFR.

  16. Repeated stool sampling and use of multiple techniques enhance the sensitivity of helminth diagnosis: a cross-sectional survey in southern Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayasone, Somphou; Utzinger, Jürg; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Odermatt, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are common in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). We investigated the accuracy of the Kato-Katz (KK) technique in relation to varying stool sampling efforts, and determined the effect of the concurrent use of a quantitative formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique (FECT) for helminth diagnosis and appraisal of concomitant infections. The study was carried out between March and May 2006 in Champasack province, southern Lao PDR. Overall, 485 individuals aged ≥6 months who provided three stool samples were included in the final analysis. All stool samples were subjected to the KK technique. Additionally, one stool sample per individual was processed by FECT. Diagnosis was done under a light microscope by experienced laboratory technicians. Analysis of three stool samples with KK plus a single FECT was considered as diagnostic 'gold' standard and resulted in prevalence estimates of hookworm, Opisthorchis viverrini, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Schistosoma mekongi infection of 77.9%, 65.0%, 33.4%, 26.2% and 24.3%, respectively. As expected, a single KK and a single FECT missed a considerable number of infections. While our diagnostic 'gold' standard produced similar results than those obtained by a mathematical model for most helminth infections, the 'true' prevalence predicted by the model for S. mekongi (28.1%) was somewhat higher than after multiple KK plus a single FECT (24.3%). In the current setting, triplicate KK plus a single FECT diagnosed helminth infections with high sensitivity. Hence, such a diagnostic approach might be utilised for generating high-quality baseline data, assessing anthelminthic drug efficacy and rigorous monitoring of community interventions.

  17. Survey on opioid addicts' sensitivity to related environments and influential factors%阿片类药物依赖患者对相关环境敏感程度及影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯燕; 王莹; 何倩; 王增珍

    2008-01-01

    目的 应用自行开发的敏感性量表评定阿片类药物依赖患者对其吸毒相关环境的敏感性及影响因素.方法 采用分层随机整群抽样对全国5个城市强制戒毒所1096例阿片类药物依赖患者进行敏感性调查.结果 阿片类药物依赖患者对吸毒直接相关环境和社会家庭环境比较敏感,尤其是"缺乏亲情"和"看到别人吸毒",反映强烈的分别达59.40%和59.05%.毒龄(吸毒时间)长、吸毒频率高、有亲人吸毒、消极的亲人态度是对与吸毒直接相关环境敏感性的危险因素(F=17.10,P<0.0001);女性、年龄小、毒龄长、消极的亲人态度是对社会家庭环境敏感性的危险因素(F=8.52,P<0.0001);毒龄长、吸毒频率高、消极的亲人态度是对与吸毒间接相关环境敏感性的危险因素(F=10.08.P<0.0001).结论 阿片类药物依赖患者对相关环境很敏感,其程度受性别、年龄、毒龄、吸毒频率、家人是否吸毒及亲人态度的影响.%Objective We developed a scale on opioid addicts' sensitivity to drug-related environments for assessing addicts sensitivity and influential factors, which could provide evidence for psychological interventions on detoxification. Methods The survey on opioid addicts' sensitivity was administered to 1096 opioid addicts through stratified random cluster sampling in mandatory detoxification centers from 5 cities in China. Results Patients were more sensitive to environments directly related to drug abuse, social and family environments, especially in those cases that lack of love from family or watching drug use from others, with percentages of persons having strong response reaching 59.40% and 59.05%, respectively. The risk factors of patients' sensitivity to environments directly related to drug abuse would include long period of drug use, high frequency of drug abuse, drug abuse in family members and negative family attitudes ( F = 17.10, P< 0. 0001 ). Being female, younger of

  18. Instrumentation reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Boyes, Walt

    2002-01-01

    Instrumentation is not a clearly defined subject, having a 'fuzzy' boundary with a number of other disciplines. Often categorized as either 'techniques' or 'applications' this book addresses the various applications that may be needed with reference to the practical techniques that are available for the instrumentation or measurement of a specific physical quantity or quality. This makes it of direct interest to anyone working in the process, control and instrumentation fields where these measurements are essential.* Comprehensive and authoritative collection of technical information* Writte

  19. Jones' instrument technology

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Ernest Beachcroft; Kingham, Edward G; Radnai, Rudolf

    1985-01-01

    Jones' Instrument Technology, Volume 5: Automatic Instruments and Measuring Systems deals with general trends in automatic instruments and measuring systems. Specific examples are provided to illustrate the principles of such devices. A brief review of a considerable number of standards is undertaken, with emphasis on the IEC625 Interface System. Other relevant standards are reviewed, including the interface and backplane bus standards. This volume is comprised of seven chapters and begins with a short introduction to the principles of automatic measurements, classification of measuring system

  20. Medical instruments in museums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söderqvist, Thomas; Arnold, Ken

    2011-01-01

    This essay proposes that our understanding of medical instruments might benefit from adding a more forthright concern with their immediate presence to the current historical focus on simply decoding their meanings and context. This approach is applied to the intriguingly tricky question of what...... actually is meant by a "medical instrument." It is suggested that a pragmatic part of the answer might lie simply in reconsidering the holdings of medical museums, where the significance of the physical actuality of instruments comes readily to hand....

  1. Mass spectrometers: instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooks, R. G.; Hoke, S. H., II; Morand, K. L.; Lammert, S. A.

    1992-09-01

    Developments in mass spectrometry instrumentation over the past three years are reviewed. The subject is characterized by an enormous diversity of designs, a high degree of competition between different laboratories working with either different or similar techniques and by extremely rapid progress in improving analytical performance. Instruments can be grouped into genealogical charts based on their physical and conceptual interrelationships. This is illustrated using mass analyzers of different types. The time course of development of particular instrumental concepts is illustrated in terms of the s-curves typical of cell growth. Examples are given of instruments which are at the exponential, linear and mature growth stages. The prime examples used are respectively: (i) hybrid instruments designed to study reactive collisions of ions with surfaces: (ii) the Paul ion trap; and (iii) the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. In the area of ion/surface collisions, reactive collisions such as hydrogen radical abstraction from the surface by the impinging ion are studied. They are shown to depend upon the chemical nature of the surface through the use of experiments which utilize self-assembled monolayers as surfaces. The internal energy deposited during surface-induced dissociation upon collision with different surfaces in a BEEQ instrument is also discussed. Attention is also given to a second area of emerging instrumentation, namely technology which allows mass spectrometers to be used for on-line monitoring of fluid streams. A summary of recent improvements in the performance of the rapidly developing quadrupole ion trap instrument illustrates this stage of instrument development. Improvements in resolution and mass range and their application to the characterization of biomolecules are described. The interaction of theory with experiment is illustrated through the role of simulations of ion motion in the ion trap. It is emphasized that mature instruments play a

  2. Manual of Surgical Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Lidia Sánchez Sarría

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Surgical instruments are the group of tools used in surgical procedures. They are very expensive and sophisticated. Consequently, a standardized and meticulous care is essential; they should go through the decontamination, cleaning and sterilization process. These instruments are designed in order to provide surgeons with tools that help them to perform a basic surgical procedure; there are multiple variations and the design depends on their function. This paper aims at showing all surgical instruments that can be used in an operating room during surgery and are not generally included in the medical literature.

  3. Biomedical Sensors and Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Tagawa, Tatsuo

    2011-01-01

    The living body is a difficult object to measure: accurate measurements of physiological signals require sensors and instruments capable of high specificity and selectivity that do not interfere with the systems under study. As a result, detailed knowledge of sensor and instrument properties is required to be able to select the "best" sensor from one of the many designed to meet these challenges. From the underlying principles to practical applications, this updated edition of Biomedical Sensors and Instruments provides an easy-to-understand introduction to the various kinds of biome

  4. Cultural Competence Assessment Instrument: Initial Italian validation and proposed refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricati, Luca; Dicembrino, Rita Bruna; Gionti, Luciano; Petre, Lucica; Ungurean, Liana

    2015-09-09

    Italy has become a target of immigration in the last three decades. Accordingly, the Italian population is progressively changing, becoming increasingly culturally different. Cultural competences are a fundamental requirement for many industries and, especially, for healthcare organizations. The aim of this paper is to propose an initial Italian validation of the Cultural Competence Assessment Instrument (CCAI) and to propose a refinement of this scale in terms of measured constructs. The CCAI was translated into Italian through a team-based iterative approach and then administered to a sample of 289 nurses with symbolic and realistic threat scale and social dominance orientation scale. An on-line cross-sectional survey questionnaire was used. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the original two dimensions of the CCAI can be divided into two other sub-scales, thus leaving us with the following dimensions: cultural awareness, cultural sensitivity, seeking information and active behavior. These dimensions appeared to be sufficiently reliable and independent one from another. Moreover, they showed specific and different correlations with other measured constructs. The Italian version of the CCAI would seem to be a useful instrument for measuring both attitudes and behavioral intention of nurses with respect to intercultural care. Using four dimensions instead of two appears to increase the understanding of professionals' cultural competence and supply a deeper picture of dimensions which compose cultural competence in healthcare settings.

  5. The Green Bank Northern Celestial Cap Pulsar Survey - I: Survey Description, Data Analysis, and Initial Results

    CERN Document Server

    Stovall, K; Ransom, S M; Archibald, A M; Banaszak, S; Biwer, C M; Boyles, J; Dartez, L P; Day, D; Ford, A J; Flanigan, J; Garcia, A; Hessels, J W T; Hinojosa, J; Jenet, F A; Kaplan, D L; Karako-Argaman, C; Kaspi, V M; Kondratiev, V I; Leake, S; Lorimer, D R; Lunsford, G; Martinez, J G; Mata, A; McLaughlin, M A; Roberts, M S E; Rohr, M D; Siemens, X; Stairs, I H; van Leeuwen, J; Walker, A N; Wells, B L

    2014-01-01

    We describe an ongoing search for pulsars and dispersed pulses of radio emission, such as those from rotating radio transients (RRATs) and fast radio bursts (FRBs), at 350 MHz using the Green Bank Telescope. With the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument, we record 100 MHz of bandwidth divided into 4,096 channels every 81.92 $\\mu s$. This survey will cover the entire sky visible to the Green Bank Telescope ($\\delta > -40^\\circ$, or 82% of the sky) and outside of the Galactic Plane will be sensitive enough to detect slow pulsars and low dispersion measure ($<$30 $\\mathrm{pc\\,cm^{-3}}$) millisecond pulsars (MSPs) with a 0.08 duty cycle down to 1.1 mJy. For pulsars with a spectral index of $-$1.6, we will be 2.5 times more sensitive than previous and ongoing surveys over much of our survey region. Here we describe the survey, the data analysis pipeline, initial discovery parameters for 62 pulsars, and timing solutions for 5 new pulsars. PSR J0214$+$5222 is an MSP in a long-period (512 days) orbit a...

  6. Canadian contributions studies for the WFIRST instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, J.-F.; Rowlands, N.; Grandmont, F. J.; Lafrenière, D.; Marois, C.; Daigle, O.; Thibault, S.; Schade, D.; Artigau, É.; Brousseau, D.; Maire, J.; Cretot-Richert, G.; Ducharme, M.-È.; Levesque, L. E.; Laurin, D.; Dupuis, J.

    2016-07-01

    WFIRST-AFTA is the NASA's highest ranked astrophysics mission for the next decade that was identified in the New World, New Horizon survey. The mission scientific drivers correspond to some of the deep questions identified in the Canadian LRP2010, and are also of great interest for the Canadian scientists. Given that there is also a great interest in having an international collaboration in this mission, the Canadian Space Agency awarded two contracts to study a Canadian participation in the mission, one related to each instrument. This paper presents a summary of the technical contributions that were considered for a Canadian contribution to the coronagraph and wide field instruments.

  7. The DESI Experiment Part II: Instrument Design

    OpenAIRE

    DESI Collaboration; Aghamousa, Amir; Aguilar, Jessica; Ahlen, Steve; Alam, Shadab; Allen, Lori E.; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Annis, James; Bailey, Stephen; Balland, Christophe; Ballester, Otger; Baltay, Charles; Beaufore, Lucas; Bebek, Chris; Beers, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    DESI (Dark Energy Spectropic Instrument) is a Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment that will study baryon acoustic oscillations and the growth of structure through redshift-space distortions with a wide-area galaxy and quasar redshift survey. The DESI instrument is a robotically-actuated, fiber-fed spectrograph capable of taking up to 5,000 simultaneous spectra over a wavelength range from 360 nm to 980 nm. The fibers feed ten three-arm spectrographs with resolution $R= \\lambda/\\Delta...

  8. Challenges in marine instrumentation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Afzulpurkar, S.; Desa, E.; Joseph, A.; Chakraborty, B.; Nayak, M.R.; Ranade, G.

    . Acoustic and optical instrumentation combined on the same platform would be able to address these problems. For this autonomous vehicles with extremely low power requirements, long term deployment and data transmission capability via satellites after...

  9. UV and EUV Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, K

    2010-01-01

    We describe telescopes and instruments that were developed and used for astronomical research in the ultraviolet (UV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The wavelength ranges covered by these bands are not uniquely defined. We use the following convention here: The EUV and UV span the regions ~100-912 and 912-3000 Angstroem respectively. The limitation between both ranges is a natural choice, because the hydrogen Lyman absorption edge is located at 912 Angstroem. At smaller wavelengths, astronomical sources are strongly absorbed by the interstellar medium. It also marks a technical limit, because telescopes and instruments are of different design. In the EUV range, the technology is strongly related to that utilized in X-ray astronomy, while in the UV range the instruments in many cases have their roots in optical astronomy. We will, therefore, describe the UV and EUV instruments in appropriate conciseness and refer to the respective chapters of this volume for more technic...

  10. Fiber Optics Instrumentation Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Patrick Hon Man; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Richards, W. Lance

    2010-01-01

    This is a general presentation of fiber optics instrumentation development work being conducted at NASA Dryden for the past 10 years and recent achievements in the field of fiber optics strain sensors.

  11. Instrumentation for Materials Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, Richard S.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses how sophisticated instrumentation techniques yield practical results in three typical materials problems: fracture analysis, joining, and compatibility. Describes techniques such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and Auger spectroscopy. (MLH)

  12. VIRUS instrument collimator assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jennifer L.; DePoy, Darren L.; Prochaska, Travis; Allen, Richard D.; Williams, Patrick; Rheault, Jean-Philippe; Li, Ting; Nagasawa, Daniel Q.; Akers, Christopher; Baker, David; Boster, Emily; Campbell, Caitlin; Cook, Erika; Elder, Alison; Gary, Alex; Glover, Joseph; James, Michael; Martin, Emily; Meador, Will; Mondrik, Nicholas; Rodriguez-Patino, Marisela; Villanueva, Steven; Hill, Gary J.; Tuttle, Sarah; Vattiat, Brian; Lee, Hanshin; Chonis, Taylor S.; Dalton, Gavin B.; Tacon, Mike

    2014-07-01

    The Visual Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument is a baseline array 150 identical fiber fed optical spectrographs designed to support observations for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). The collimator subassemblies of the instrument have been assembled in a production line and are now complete. Here we review the design choices and assembly practices used to produce a suite of identical low-cost spectrographs in a timely fashion using primarily unskilled labor.

  13. Modeling of Musical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Rolf; Hansen, Uwe

    Signal processing techniques in acoustics address many concerns. Included are such things as wave propagation variables, amplitude considerations, spectral content, wavelength, and phase. Phase is primarily of concern when waves interact with each other, as well as with a medium, and the imposition of boundary conditions leads to normal mode vibrations. Such conditions are prevalent in all musical instruments, and thus relevant signal processing techniques are essential to both understanding and modeling the structure of musical instruments and the sound radiated.

  14. The NuSTAR Extragalactic Survey: A First Sensitive Look at the High-Energy Cosmic X-Ray Background Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, D. M.; Stern, D.; DelMoro, A.; Lansbury, G. B.; Assef, R. J.; Aird, J.; Ajello, M.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We report on the first 10 identifications of sources serendipitously detected by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) to provide the first sensitive census of the cosmic X-ray background source population at approximately greater than 10 keV. We find that these NuSTAR-detected sources are approximately 100 times fainter than those previously detected at approximately greater than 10 keV and have a broad range in redshift and luminosity (z = 0.020-2.923 and L(sub 10-40 keV) approximately equals 4 × 10(exp 41) - 5 × 10(exp 45) erg per second; the median redshift and luminosity are z approximately equal to 0.7 and L(sub 10-40 keV) approximately equal to 3 × 10(exp 44) erg per second, respectively. We characterize these sources on the basis of broad-band approximately equal to 0.5 - 32 keV spectroscopy, optical spectroscopy, and broad-band ultraviolet-to-mid-infrared spectral energy distribution analyses. We find that the dominant source population is quasars with L(sub 10-40 keV) greater than 10(exp 44) erg per second, of which approximately 50% are obscured with N(sub H) approximately greater than 10(exp 22) per square centimeters. However, none of the 10 NuSTAR sources are Compton thick (N(sub H) approximately greater than 10(exp 24) per square centimeters) and we place a 90% confidence upper limit on the fraction of Compton-thick quasars (L(sub 10-40 keV) greater than 10(exp 44) erg per second) selected at approximately greater than 10 keV of approximately less than 33% over the redshift range z = 0.5 - 1.1. We jointly fitted the rest-frame approximately equal to 10-40 keV data for all of the non-beamed sources with L(sub 10-40 keV) greater than 10(exp 43) erg per second to constrain the average strength of reflection; we find R less than 1.4 for gamma = 1.8, broadly consistent with that found for local active galactic nuclei (AGNs) observed at approximately greater than 10 keV. We also constrain the host-galaxy masses and find a median stellar

  15. Multi-wavelength extragalactic surveys and the role of MeerKAT and SALT

    CERN Document Server

    Jarvis, Matt J

    2011-01-01

    In these proceedings I discuss a range of surveys that are currently underway at optical, near-infrared and far-infrared wavelengths that have large components accessible to both the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) and the Meer Karoo Array Telescope (MeerKAT). Particular attention is paid to the surveys currently underway with ESO's VISTA telescope, which will provide the ideal data from which to select targets for SALT spectroscopy whilst also providing the necessary depth and photometric redshift accuracy to trace the uJy radio population, found through the proposed MeerKAT surveys. Such surveys will lead to an accurate picture of evolution of star-formation and accretion activity traced at radio wavelengths. Furthermore, SALT spectroscopy could play a crucial role in following up Herschel surveys with its large collecting area and blue sensitivity which occupies a niche in instrumentation on 8- and 10-m class telescopes.

  16. The Survey Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Lois A. Ed.; Sue, Valerie M., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Internet-based surveys are still relatively new, and researchers are just beginning to articulate best practices for questionnaire design. Online questionnaire design has generally been guided by the principles applying to other self-administered instruments, such as paper-based questionnaires. Web-based questionnaires, however, have the potential…

  17. Novel Instrumentation for Lunar Regolith Oxygen Production Facilities Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Phase I is to develop, demonstrate and test novel instrumentation based on ultrasensitive laser absorption spectroscopy for sensitive real-time...

  18. Increased Science Instrumentation Funding Strengthens Mars Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Lee D.; Graff, T. G.

    2012-01-01

    As the strategic knowledge gaps mature for the exploration of Mars, Mars sample return (MSR), and Phobos/Deimos missions, one approach that becomes more probable involves smaller science instrumentation and integrated science suites. Recent technological advances provide the foundation for a significant evolution of instrumentation; however, the funding support is currently too small to fully utilize these advances. We propose that an increase in funding for instrumentation development occur in the near-term so that these foundational technologies can be applied. These instruments would directly address the significant knowledge gaps for humans to Mars orbit, humans to the Martian surface, and humans to Phobos/ Deimos. They would also address the topics covered by the Decadal Survey and the Mars scientific goals, objectives, investigations and priorities as stated by the MEPAG. We argue that an increase of science instrumentation funding would be of great benefit to the Mars program as well as the potential for human exploration of the Mars system. If the total non-Earth-related planetary science instrumentation budget were increased 100% it would not add an appreciable amount to the overall NASA budget and would provide the real potential for future breakthroughs. If such an approach were implemented in the near-term, NASA would benefit greatly in terms of science knowledge of the Mars, Phobos/Deimos system, exploration risk mitigation, technology development, and public interest.

  19. Plane and geodetic surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Aylmer

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionAim And ScopeClassification Of SurveysThe Structure Of This BookGeneral Principles Of SurveyingErrorsRedundancyStiffnessAdjustmentPlanning And Record KeepingPrincipal Surveying ActivitiesEstablishing Control NetworksMappingSetting OutResectioningDeformation MonitoringAngle MeasurementThe Surveyor's CompassThe ClinometerThe Total StationMaking ObservationsChecks On Permanent AdjustmentsDistance MeasurementGeneralTape MeasurementsOptical Methods (Tachymetry)Electromagnetic Distance Measurement (EDM)Ultrasonic MethodsGNSSLevellingTheoryThe InstrumentTechniqueBookingPermanent Adjustmen

  20. The effects of nuclear power generators upon electronic instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. G.; Truscello, V. C.

    1970-01-01

    Radiation sensitivity of electronic instruments susceptible to neutron and gamma radiation is evaluated by means of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator /RTG/. The gamma field of the RTG affects instrument operation and requires shielding, the neutron field does not affect operation via secondary capture-gamma production.

  1. Research and Development on a Public Attitude Instrument for Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Louis, Kenneth O.

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes research associated with the development of the "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering" ("POSHA-S"), a survey instrument designed to provide a worldwide standard measure of public attitudes toward stuttering. Pilot studies with early experimental prototypes of the "POSHA-S" are summarized that relate to…

  2. Research and Development on a Public Attitude Instrument for Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Louis, Kenneth O.

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes research associated with the development of the "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering" ("POSHA-S"), a survey instrument designed to provide a worldwide standard measure of public attitudes toward stuttering. Pilot studies with early experimental prototypes of the "POSHA-S" are summarized that relate to…

  3. Dark matter substructure modelling and sensitivity of the Cherenkov Telescope Array to Galactic dark halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hütten, M.; Combet, C.; Maier, G.; Maurin, D.

    2016-09-01

    Hierarchical structure formation leads to a clumpy distribution of dark matter in the Milky Way. These clumps are possible targets to search for dark matter annihilation with present and future γ-ray instruments. Many uncertainties exist on the clump distribution, leading to disputed conclusions about the expected number of detectable clumps and the ensuing limits that can be obtained from non-detection. In this paper, we use the CLUMPY code to simulate thousands of skymaps for several clump distributions. This allows us to statistically assess the typical properties (mass, distance, angular size, luminosity) of the detectable clumps. Varying parameters of the clump distributions allows us to identify the key quantities to which the number of detectable clumps is the most sensitive. Focusing our analysis on two extreme clump configurations, yet consistent with results from numerical simulations, we revisit and compare various calculations made for the Fermi-LAT instrument, in terms of number of dark clumps expected and the angular power spectrum for the Galactic signal. We then focus on the prospects of detecting dark clumps with the future CTA instrument, for which we make a detailed sensitivity analysis using open-source CTA software. Based on a realistic scenario for the foreseen CTA extragalactic survey, and accounting for a post-trial sensitivity in the survey, we show that we obtain competitive and complementary limits to those based on long observation of a single bright dwarf spheroidal galaxy.

  4. Dark matter substructure modelling and sensitivity of the Cherenkov Telescope Array to Galactic dark halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huetten, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Humboldt Univ. Berlin (Germany); Combet, C.; Maurin, D. [Grenoble-Alpes Univ., CNRS/IN2P3, Grenoble (France). LPSC; Maier, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    Hierarchical structure formation leads to a clumpy distribution of dark matter in the Milky Way. These clumps are possible targets to search for dark matter annihilation with present and future γ-ray instruments. Many uncertainties exist on the clump distribution, leading to disputed conclusions about the expected number of detectable clumps and the ensuing limits that can be obtained from non-detection. In this paper, we use the CLUMPY code to simulate thousands of skymaps for several clump distributions. This allows us to statistically assess the typical properties (mass, distance, angular size, luminosity) of the detectable clumps. Varying parameters of the clump distributions allows us to identify the key quantities to which the number of detectable clumps is the most sensitive. Focusing our analysis on two extreme clump configurations, yet consistent with results from numerical simulations, we revisit and compare various calculations made for the Fermi-LAT instrument, in terms of number of dark clumps expected and the angular power spectrum for the Galactic signal. We then focus on the prospects of detecting dark clumps with the future CTA instrument, for which we make a detailed sensitivity analysis using open-source CTA software. Based on a realistic scenario for the foreseen CTA extragalactic survey, and accounting for a post-trial sensitivity in the survey, we show that we obtain competitive and complementary limits to those based on long observation of a single bright dwarf spheroidal galaxy.

  5. Sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003741.htm Sensitivity analysis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Sensitivity analysis determines the effectiveness of antibiotics against microorganisms (germs) ...

  6. Latest Progress on the QUBIC Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghribi, A.; Aumont, J.; Battistelli, E. S.; Bau, A.; Bélier, B.; Bergé, L.; Bernard, J.-Ph.; Bersanelli, M.; Bigot-Sazy, M.-A.; Bordier, G.; Bunn, E. T.; Cavaliere, F.; Chanial, P.; Coppolecchia, A.; Decourcelle, T.; De Bernardis, P.; De Petris, M.; Drilien, A.-A.; Dumoulin, L.; Falvella, M. C.; Gault, A.; Gervasi, M.; Giard, M.; Gradziel, M.; Grandsire, L.; Gayer, D.; Hamilton, J.-Ch.; Haynes, V.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Holtzer, N.; Kaplan, J.; Korotkov, A.; Lande, J.; Lowitz, A.; Maffei, B.; Marnieros, S.; Martino, J.; Masi, S.; Mennella, A.; Montier, L.; Murphy, A.; Ng, M. W.; Olivieri, E.; Pajot, F.; Passerini, A.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Piccirillo, L.; Pisano, G.; Prêle, D.; Rambaud, D.; Rigaut, O.; Rosset, C.; Salatino, M.; Schillaci, A.; Scully, S.; O'Sullivan, C.; Tartari, A.; Timbie, P.; Tucker, G.; Vibert, L.; Voisin, F.; Watson, B.; Zannoni, M.

    2014-09-01

    QUBIC is a unique instrument that crosses the barriers between classical imaging architectures and interferometry taking advantage from both high sensitivity and systematics mitigation. The scientific target is to detect primordial gravitational waves created by inflation by the polarization they imprint on the cosmic microwave background—the holy grail of modern cosmology. In this paper, we show the latest advances in the development of the architecture and the sub-systems of the first module of this instrument to be deployed at Dome Charlie Concordia base—Antarctica in 2015.

  7. Latest Progress on the QUBIC Instrument

    CERN Document Server

    Ghribi, A; Battistelli, E S; Bau, A; Bergé, L; Bernard, J-Ph; Bersanelli, M; Bigot-Sazy, M-A; Bordier, G; Bunn, E T; Cavaliere, F; Chanial, P; Coppolecchia, A; Decourcelle, T; De Bernardis, P; De Petris, M; Drilien, A-A; Dumoulin, L; Falvella, M C; Gault, A; Gervasi, M; Giard, M; Gradziel, M; Grandsire, L; Gayer, D; Hamilton, J-Ch; Haynes, V; Hiraut, Y-G; Holtzer, N; Kaplan, J; Korotkov, A; Lande, J; Lowitz, A; Maffei, B; Marnieros, S; Martino, J; Masi, S; Mennella, A; Montier, L; Murphy, A; Ng, M W; Olivieri, E; Pajot, F; Passerini, A; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Piccirillo, L; Pisano, G; Prêle, D; Rambaud, D; Rigaut, O; Rosset, C; Salatino, M; Schillaci, A; Scully, S; O'Sullivan, C; Tartari, A; Timbie, P; Tucker, G; Vibert, L; Voisin, F; Watson, B; Zannoni, M

    2013-01-01

    QUBIC is a unique instrument that crosses the barriers between classical imaging architectures and interferometry taking advantage from both for high sensitivity and systematics mitigation. The scientific target is the detection of the primordial gravitational waves imprint on the Cosmic Microwave Background which are the proof of inflation, holy grail of modern cosmology. In this paper, we show the latest advances in the development of the architecture and the sub-systems of the first module of this instrument to be deployed in Dome Charlie Concordia base - Antarctica in 2015.

  8. Recent contributions for improving sensitivity in chiral CE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creg, Antonio L; Mateos, María; Nozal, Leonor

    2017-09-29

    The flexibility and versatility of the chiral CE are unrivaled and the same instrumentation can be used to separate a diverse range of analytes, both large and small molecules, whether charged or uncharged. However, one of the disadvantages is generally thought to be the poor sensitivity of UV detection, which is the most popular among CE detectors. This review focuses on methodologies and applications regarding improvements of sensitivity in chiral CE published from the last 2 years (June 2015 until May 2017). This contribution continues to update this series of biannual reviews, first published in Electrophoresis in 2006. The main body of the review brings a survey of publications organized according to different approaches to detect a low amount of analytes, either by sample treatment procedures or by in-capillary sample preconcentration techniques, both using UV detection, or even by employing detection systems more sensitive than UV absorption, such as LIF or MS. This review provides comprehensive tables listing the new approaches in sensitive chiral CE with categorizing by the fundamental mechanism to enhance the sensitivity, which provide relevant information on the strategies employed. The concluding remarks in the final part of the review evaluate present state of art and the trends for sensitivity enhancement in chiral CE. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. The keyboard instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester, Ralph A

    2014-06-01

    Now that the field of performing arts medicine has been in existence for over three decades, we are approaching a key point: we should start to see more articles that bring together the data that have been collected from several studies in order to draw more robust conclusions. Review articles and their more structured relative, the meta-analysis, can help to improve our understanding of a particular topic, comparing and synthesizing the results of previous research that has been done on that subject area. One way this could be done would be to review the research that has been carried out on the performance-related problems associated with playing a particular instrument or group of instruments. While I am not going to do that myself, I hope that others will. In this editorial, I will do a very selective review of the playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs) associated with one instrument group (the keyboard instruments), focusing on the most played instrument in that group (the piano;).

  10. Expanding the Chara/fluor Hot Disks Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennesson, B.; Scott, N.; Ten Brummelaar, T.; Bryden, G.; Turner, N.; Absil, O.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Coude Du Foresto, V.; Augereau, J. C.; Ridgway, S.; Lebreton, J.; Marion, L.

    Little is presently known about the hot (>300 K) dust component of debris disks surrounding main sequence stars, similar to the zodiacal dust cloud found in the inner solar system. While extensive surveys have been carried out from space, the majority of detections have surprisingly come from the ground, where near infrared interferometric observations have recently revealed small ( 1%) resolved excesses around a dozen nearby main sequence stars. Most of these results have come from the CHARA array "FLUOR" instrument (Mt. Wilson, CA), which has demonstrated the best sensitivity worldwide so far for this type of studies, and has carried out an initial survey of 40 stars. In order to further understand the origin of this "hot dust phenomenon", we will extend this initial survey to a larger number of stars and lower excess detection limits, i.e. higher visibility accuracy providing higher contrast measurements. To this end, two major instrumental developments are underway at CHARA. The first one aims at improving FLUOR's sensitivity to a median K-band magnitude limit of 5 (making 200 targets available). The second development is based on a method that we recently developed for accurate (better than 0.1%) null depth measurements of stars, and that can be extended to regular interferometric visibility measurements.

  11. Instrumentation for mass spectrometry: 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLuckey, S.A.

    1997-08-01

    All mass spectrometry experiments involve the manipulation of material, an interface with the mass spectrometer, ionization, ion manipulation/analysis, detection and data collection/reduction. Each of these elements involve instrumentation. The wide range of species now amenable to mass spectrometry and the diverse areas of physical science in which it plays a role have led to a seemingly unlimited array of instrumental combinations. However, only a limited number of mass analyzers, and their combinations, dominate. The dominant analyzers include time-of-flight, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance, the Paul trap, the mass filter, and the sector mass spectrometer. Why there are so few (or so many, depending upon one`s point of view) can be understood upon consideration of a set of mass analyzer figures of merit. These include mass resolution, mass accuracy, mass range, dynamic range, abundance sensitivity, precision, efficiency, speed, MS{sup n} capability, compatibility with the ionizer, cost, and size. The most appropriate form of mass spectrometry is determined by the priorities of the particular measurement placed on the various mass analyzer characteristics and the relative strengths of the analyzers in meeting the requirements. Each of the analyzer types has a unique set of figures of merit that makes it optimally suited for particular applications. This paper discusses these figures of merit, provides data illustrating recent developments for each analyzer type, and gives the figures of merit of each type of analyzer as they stand in 1997. 101 refs., 24 figs.

  12. A review of health-related workplace productivity loss instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofland, Jennifer H; Pizzi, Laura; Frick, Kevin D

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this review was to identify health-related workplace productivity loss survey instruments, with particular emphasis on those that capture a metric suitable for direct translation into a monetary figure. A literature search using Medline, HealthSTAR, PsycINFO and Econlit databases between 1966 and 2002, and a telephone-administered survey of business leaders and researchers, were conducted to identify health-related workplace productivity measurement survey instruments. This review was conducted from the societal perspective. Each identified instrument was reviewed for the following: (i). reliability; (ii). content validity; (iii). construct validity; (iv). criterion validity; (v). productivity metric(s); (vi). instrument scoring technique; (vii). suitability for direct translation into a monetary figure; (viii). number of items; (ix). mode(s) of administration; and (x). disease state(s) in which it had been tested. Reliability and validity testing have been performed for 8 of the 11 identified surveys. Of the 11 instruments identified, six captured metrics that are suitable for direct translation into a monetary figure. Of those six, one instrument measured absenteeism, while the other five measured both absenteeism and presenteeism. All of the identified instruments except for one were available as paper, self-administered questionnaires and many were available in languages other than English. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the published, peer-reviewed survey instruments available to measure health-related workplace productivity loss. As the field of productivity measurement matures, tools may be developed that will allow researchers to accurately calculate lost productivity costs when performing cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses. Using data captured by these instruments, society and healthcare decision makers will be able to make better informed decisions concerning the value of the medications, disease management and

  13. Biochemistry Instrumentation Core Technology Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The UCLA-DOE Biochemistry Instrumentation Core Facility provides the UCLA biochemistry community with easy access to sophisticated instrumentation for a wide variety...

  14. Heat Flux Instrumentation Laboratory (HFIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The Heat Flux Instrumentation Laboratory is used to develop advanced, flexible, thin film gauge instrumentation for the Air Force Research Laboratory....

  15. ONLINE INSTRUMENTS IN QUANTITATIVE MARKETING RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    STOICA, Ivona

    2011-01-01

    The Internet has brought great benefits, revolutionizing the world of marketing instruments used for advertising, bringing new areas such as search engine marketing, online marketing research, is a mediator of diverse individuals gathered in communities where borders no longer matter, and information is immeasurable. The impact of Internet use in marketing research refers to collecting data through online quantitative survey. This paper has its duty to reveal the importance of online cantitat...

  16. Aethalometer™ Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlacek, Arthur J [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Aethalometer is an instrument that provides a real-time readout of the concentration of “Black” or “Elemental” carbon aerosol particles (BC or E) in an air stream (see Figure 1 and Figure 2). It is a self-contained instrument that measures the rate of change of optical transmission through a spot on a filter where aerosol is being continuously collected and uses the information to calculate the concentration of optically absorbing material in the sampled air stream. The instrument measures the transmitted light intensities through the “sensing” portion of the filter, on which the aerosol spot is being collected, and a “reference” portion of the filter as a check on the stability of the optical source. A mass flowmeter monitors the sample air flow rate. The data from these three measurements is used to determine the mean BC content of the air stream.

  17. 3D Spectroscopic Instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Bershady, Matthew A

    2009-01-01

    In this Chapter we review the challenges of, and opportunities for, 3D spectroscopy, and how these have lead to new and different approaches to sampling astronomical information. We describe and categorize existing instruments on 4m and 10m telescopes. Our primary focus is on grating-dispersed spectrographs. We discuss how to optimize dispersive elements, such as VPH gratings, to achieve adequate spectral resolution, high throughput, and efficient data packing to maximize spatial sampling for 3D spectroscopy. We review and compare the various coupling methods that make these spectrographs ``3D,'' including fibers, lenslets, slicers, and filtered multi-slits. We also describe Fabry-Perot and spatial-heterodyne interferometers, pointing out their advantages as field-widened systems relative to conventional, grating-dispersed spectrographs. We explore the parameter space all these instruments sample, highlighting regimes open for exploitation. Present instruments provide a foil for future development. We give an...

  18. Micro mushroom instrumentation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, W. F.

    1986-01-01

    An electronics circuit which provides for the recording of instrumentation data on an optical disk is disclosed. The optical disk is formatted in a spiral format instead of concentric tracks. The spiral format allows data to be recorded without the gaps that would be associated with concentric tracks. The instrumentation system provides each channel with a program instrumentation amplifier, a six pole lowpass switched capacitor filter, a sample and hold amplifier, and a digital to analog converter to provide automatic offset capability. Since each channel has its own components, simultaneous samples of every channel can be captured. All of the input signal's channel variables can be captured. All of the input signal's channel variables can be changed under software control without hardware changes. A single board computer is used for a system controller.

  19. ISSUERS OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian GHEORGHE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The rules laid down by Romanian Capital Market Law and the regulations put in force for its implementation apply to issuers of financial instruments admitted to trading on the regulated market established in Romania. But the issuers remain companies incorporated under Company Law of 1990. Such dual regulations need increased attention in order to observe the legal status of the issuers/companies and financial instruments/shares. Romanian legislator has chosen to implement in Capital Market Law special rules regarding the administration of the issuers of financial instruments, not only rules regarding admitting and maintaining to a regulated market. Thus issuers are, in Romanian Law perspective, special company that should comply special rule regarding board of administration and general shareholders meeting.

  20. Calibration of Geodetic Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Bajtala

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of metrology and security systems of unification, correctness and standard reproducibilities belong to the preferred requirements of theory and technical practice in geodesy. Requirements on the control and verification of measured instruments and equipments increase and the importance and up-to-date of calibration get into the foreground. Calibration possibilities of length-scales (of electronic rangefinders and angle-scales (of horizontal circles of geodetic instruments. Calibration of electronic rangefinders on the linear comparative baseline in terrain. Primary standard of planar angle – optical traverse and its exploitation for calibration of the horizontal circles of theodolites. The calibration equipment of the Institute of Slovak Metrology in Bratislava. The Calibration process and results from the calibration of horizontal circles of selected geodetic instruments.

  1. Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation is based on the concept of smart sensor technology for testing with intelligence needed to perform sell-diagnosis of health, and to participate in a hierarchy of health determination at sensor, process, and system levels. A virtual sensor test instrumentation consists of five elements: (1) a common sensor interface, (2) microprocessor, (3) wireless interface, (4) signal conditioning and ADC/DAC (analog-to-digital conversion/ digital-to-analog conversion), and (5) onboard EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) for metadata storage and executable software to create powerful, scalable, reconfigurable, and reliable embedded and distributed test instruments. In order to maximize the efficient data conversion through the smart sensor node, plug-and-play functionality is required to interface with traditional sensors to enhance their identity and capabilities for data processing and communications. Virtual sensor test instrumentation can be accessible wirelessly via a Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP) or a Smart Transducer Interlace Module (STIM) that may be managed under real-time rule engines for mission-critical applications. The transducer senses the physical quantity being measured and converts it into an electrical signal. The signal is fed to an A/D converter, and is ready for use by the processor to execute functional transformation based on the sensor characteristics stored in a Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS). Virtual sensor test instrumentation is built upon an open-system architecture with standardized protocol modules/stacks to interface with industry standards and commonly used software. One major benefit for deploying the virtual sensor test instrumentation is the ability, through a plug-and-play common interface, to convert raw sensor data in either analog or digital form, to an IEEE 1451 standard-based smart sensor, which has instructions to program sensors for a wide variety of

  2. The DESI Experiment Part II: Instrument Design

    CERN Document Server

    Aghamousa, Amir; Ahlen, Steve; Alam, Shadab; Allen, Lori E; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Annis, James; Bailey, Stephen; Balland, Christophe; Ballester, Otger; Baltay, Charles; Beaufore, Lucas; Bebek, Chris; Beers, Timothy C; Bell, Eric F; Bernal, José Luis; Besuner, Robert; Beutler, Florian; Blake, Chris; Bleuler, Hannes; Blomqvist, Michael; Blum, Robert; Bolton, Adam S; Briceno, Cesar; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth; Burden, Angela; Burtin, Etienne; Busca, Nicolas G; Cahn, Robert N; Cai, Yan-Chuan; Carlberg, Raymond G; Carton, Pierre-Henri; Casas, Ricard; Castander, Francisco J; Claybaugh, Todd M; Close, Madeline; Coker, Carl T; Cole, Shaun; Cooper, Andrew P; Cousinou, M -C; Crocce, Martin; Cuby, Jean-Gabriel; Cunningham, Daniel P; Davis, Tamara; Dawson, Kyle S; de la Macorra, Axel; De Vicente, Juan; Delubac, Timothée; Derwent, Mark; Dey, Arjun; Dhungana, Govinda; Ding, Zhejie; Duan, Yutong T; Ealet, Anne; Edelstein, Jerry; Eftekharzadeh, Sarah; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Elliott, Ann; Escoffier, Stephanie; Evatt, Matthew; Fagrelius, Parker; Fan, Xiaohui; Fanning, Kevin; Farahi, Arya; Favole, Ginevra; Feng, Yu; Fernandez, Enrique; Findlay, Joseph R; Finkbeiner, Douglas P; Fitzpatrick, Michael J; Flaugher, Brenna; Flender, Samuel; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Forero-Romero, Jaime E; Fosalba, Pablo; Frenk, Carlos S; Fumagalli, Michele; Garcia-Bellido, Juan; Gaztanaga, Enrique; Gershkovich, Irina; Gillet, Denis; Gonzalez-de-Rivera, Guillermo; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Gott, Shelby; Graur, Or; Gutierrez, Gaston; Guy, Julien; Habib, Salman; Heetderks, Henry; Heetderks, Ian; Heitmann, Katrin; Hellwing, Wojciech A; Herrera, David A; Ho, Shirley; Honscheid, Klaus; Huff, Eric; Hutchinson, Timothy A; Huterer, Dragan; Hwang, Ho Seong; Laguna, Joseph Maria Illa; Ishikawa, Yuzo; Jacobs, Dianna; Jeffrey, Niall; Jelinsky, Patrick; Jiang, Linhua; Jimenez, Jorge; Johnson, Jennifer; Joyce, Richard; Jullo, Eric; Juneau, Stephanie; Kama, Sami; Karcher, Armin; Karkar, Sonia; Kehoe, Robert; Kennamer, Noble; Kent, Stephen; Kilbinger, Martin; Kim, Alex G; Kirkby, David; Kisner, Theodore; Kitanidis, Ellie; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Koposov, Sergey; Kovacs, Eve; Kremin, Anthony; Kron, Richard; Kronig, Luzius; Kueter-Young, Andrea; Lacey, Cedric G; Lafever, Robin; Lahav, Ofer; Lambert, Andrew; Landriau, Martin; Lang, Dustin; Name, Publication; Lauer, Tod R; Goff, Jean-Marc Le; Guillou, Laurent Le; Van Suu, Auguste Le; Lee, Jae Hyeon; Lee, Su-Jeong; Leitner, Daniela; Levi, Michael E; L'Huillier, Benjamin; Li, Baojiu; Liang, Ming; Lin, Huan; Linder, Eric; Loebman, Sarah R; Lukić, Zarija; MacCrann, Niall; Magneville, Christophe; Makarem, Laleh; Manera, Marc; Manser, Christopher J; Marshall, Robert; Martini, Paul; Massey, Richard; Matheson, Thomas; McCauley, Jeremy; McDonald, Patrick; McGreer, Ian D; Meisner, Aaron; Metcalfe, Nigel; Miller, Timothy N; Miquel, Ramon; Moustakas, John; Myers, Adam; Naik, Milind; Newman, Jeffrey; Nichol, Robert C; Nicola, Andrina; da Costa, Luiz Nicolati; Niz, Gustavo; Norberg, Peder; Nord, Brian; Norman, Dara; Nugent, Peter; O'Brien, Thomas; Oh, Minji; Olsen, Knut A G; Padilla, Cristobal; Padmanabhan, Hamsa; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Palmese, Antonella; Pappalardo, Daniel; Park, Changbom; Patej, Anna; Peacock, John A; Peiris, Hiranya V; Percival, Will J; Perruchot, Sandrine; Pieri, Matthew M; Pogge, Richard; Poppett, Claire; Probst, Ronald G; Rabinowitz, David; Ree, Chang Hee; Refregier, Alexandre; Regal, Xavier; Reid, Beth; Reil, Kevin; Rezaie, Mehdi; Rockosi, Connie; Roe, Natalie; Ronayette, Samuel; Roodman, Aaron; Ross, Ashley J; Ross, Nicholas P; Rossi, Graziano; Rozo, Eduardo; Ruhlmann-Kleider, Vanina; Rykoff, Eli; Sabiu, Cristiano; Samushia, Lado; Sanchez, Javier; Schlegel, David J; Schneider, Michael; Schubnell, Michael; Secroun, Aurélia; Seljak, Uros; Seo, Hee-Jong; Serrano, Santiago; Shafieloo, Arman; Shan, Huanyuan; Sholl, Michael J; Shourt, William V; Silber, Joseph H; Silva, David R; Sirk, Martin M; Slosar, Anze; Smith, Alex; Smoot, George; Som, Debopam; Song, Yong-Seon; Sprayberry, David; Staten, Ryan; Stefanik, Andy; Tarle, Gregory; Tie, Suk Sien; Tinker, Jeremy L; Tojeiro, Rita; Valdes, Francisco; Valenzuela, Octavio; Valluri, Monica; Vargas-Magana, Mariana; Verde, Licia; Walker, Alistair R; Wang, Yuting; Weaver, Benjamin A; Weaverdyck, Curtis; Wechsler, Risa; Weinberg, David H; White, Martin; Yang, Qian; Yeche, Christophe; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Zheng, Yi; Zhu, Yaling; Zou, Hu; Zu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    DESI (Dark Energy Spectropic Instrument) is a Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment that will study baryon acoustic oscillations and the growth of structure through redshift-space distortions with a wide-area galaxy and quasar redshift survey. The DESI instrument is a robotically-actuated, fiber-fed spectrograph capable of taking up to 5,000 simultaneous spectra over a wavelength range from 360 nm to 980 nm. The fibers feed ten three-arm spectrographs with resolution $R= \\lambda/\\Delta\\lambda$ between 2000 and 5500, depending on wavelength. The DESI instrument will be used to conduct a five-year survey designed to cover 14,000 deg$^2$. This powerful instrument will be installed at prime focus on the 4-m Mayall telescope in Kitt Peak, Arizona, along with a new optical corrector, which will provide a three-degree diameter field of view. The DESI collaboration will also deliver a spectroscopic pipeline and data management system to reduce and archive all data for eventual public use.

  3. The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI): Data Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Stephen; Bolton, Adam S.; Cahn, Robert N.; Dawson, Kyle; Forero Romero, Jaime; Guy, Julien; Kisner, Theodore; Moustakas, John; Nugent, Peter E.; Schlegel, David J.; Stark, Casey; Weaver, Benjamin; DESI Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    We present the design, status, and plans for the data systems of the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), a spectroscopic redshift survey of 25 million galaxies, quasars, and stars to be operated at the Kitt Peak National Observatory 4-m Mayall telescope from 2018-2023. DESI will obtain 5000 spectra (3600-9800 Å) per exposure using robotically positioned fibers. DESI data systems include the target selection pipeline, survey planning and operations, the spectroscopic data reduction pipeline, instrument simulations, and data transfer, archive, and distribution. While building on the heritage of previous galaxy redshift surveys, DESI is upgrading all aspects of the algorithms and pipelines to maximize the science reach of the new instrument and survey.

  4. Kiso Supernova Survey (KISS): Survey Strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Morokuma, Tomoki; Tanaka, Masaomi; Mori, Kensho; Matsumoto, Emiko; Kikuchi, Yuki; Shibata, Takumi; Sako, Shigeyuki; Aoki, Tsutomu; Doi, Mamoru; Kobayashi, Naoto; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Mito, Hiroyuki; Miyata, Takashi; Nakada, Yoshikazu; Soyano, Takao; Tarusawa, Ken'ichi; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Nakata, Fumiaki; Okada, Norio; Sarugaku, Yuki; Richmond, Michael W; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Aldering, Greg; Arimatsu, Ko; Contreras, Carlos; Horiuchi, Takashi; Hsiao, Eric Y; Itoh, Ryosuke; Iwata, Ikuru; Koji,; Kawabata, S; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kitagawa, Yutaro; Kokubo, Mitsuru; Kuroda, Daisuke; Paolo,; Mazzali,; Misawa, Toru; Moritani, Yuki; Morrell, Nidia; Okamoto, Rina; Pavlyuk, Nikolay; Phillips, Mark M; Pian, Elena; Sahu, Devendra; Saito, Yoshihiko; Sano, Kei; Stritzinger, Maximilian D; Tachibana, Yutaro; Taddia, Francesco; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Tateuchi, Ken; Tomita, Akihiko; Tsvetkov, Dmitry; Ui, Takahiro; Ukita, Nobuharu; Urata, Yuji; Walker, Emma S; Yoshii, Taketoshi

    2014-01-01

    The Kiso Supernova Survey (KISS) is a high-cadence optical wide-field supernova (SN) survey. The primary goal of the survey is to catch the very early light of a SN, during the shock breakout phase. Detection of SN shock breakouts combined with multi-band photometry obtained with other facilities would provide detailed physical information on the progenitor stars of SNe. The survey is performed using a 2.2x2.2 deg field-of-view instrument on the 1.05-m Kiso Schmidt telescope, the Kiso Wide Field Camera (KWFC). We take a three-minute exposure in g-band once every hour in our survey, reaching magnitude g~20-21. About 100 nights of telescope time per year have been spent on the survey since April 2012. The number of the shock breakout detections is estimated to be of order of 1 during our 3-year project. This paper summarizes the KISS project including the KWFC observing setup, the survey strategy, the data reduction system, and CBET-reported SNe discovered so far by KISS.

  5. Kiso Supernova Survey (KISS): Survey strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morokuma, Tomoki; Tominaga, Nozomu; Tanaka, Masaomi; Mori, Kensho; Matsumoto, Emiko; Kikuchi, Yuki; Shibata, Takumi; Sako, Shigeyuki; Aoki, Tsutomu; Doi, Mamoru; Kobayashi, Naoto; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Mito, Hiroyuki; Miyata, Takashi; Nakada, Yoshikazu; Soyano, Takao; Tarusawa, Ken'ichi; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Nakata, Fumiaki; Okada, Norio; Sarugaku, Yuki; Richmond, Michael W.; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Aldering, Greg; Arimatsu, Ko; Contreras, Carlos; Horiuchi, Takashi; Hsiao, Eric Y.; Itoh, Ryosuke; Iwata, Ikuru; Kawabata, Koji S.; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kitagawa, Yutaro; Kokubo, Mitsuru; Kuroda, Daisuke; Mazzali, Paolo; Misawa, Toru; Moritani, Yuki; Morrell, Nidia; Okamoto, Rina; Pavlyuk, Nikolay; Phillips, Mark M.; Pian, Elena; Sahu, Devendra; Saito, Yoshihiko; Sano, Kei; Stritzinger, Maximilian D.; Tachibana, Yutaro; Taddia, Francesco; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Tateuchi, Ken; Tomita, Akihiko; Tsvetkov, Dmitry; Ui, Takahiro; Ukita, Nobuharu; Urata, Yuji; Walker, Emma S.; Yoshii, Taketoshi

    2014-12-01

    The Kiso Supernova Survey (KISS) is a high-cadence optical wide-field supernova (SN) survey. The primary goal of the survey is to catch the very early light of a SN, during the shock breakout phase. Detection of SN shock breakouts combined with multi-band photometry obtained with other facilities would provide detailed physical information on the progenitor stars of SNe. The survey is performed using a 2.2° × 2.2° field-of-view instrument on the 1.05-m Kiso Schmidt telescope, the Kiso Wide Field Camera (KWFC). We take a 3-min exposure in g-band once every hour in our survey, reaching magnitude g ˜ 20-21. About 100 nights of telescope time per year have been spent on the survey since 2012 April. The number of the shock breakout detections is estimated to be of the order of 1 during our three-year project. This paper summarizes the KISS project including the KWFC observing setup, the survey strategy, the data reduction system, and CBET-reported SNe discovered so far by KISS.

  6. Standard NIM instrumentation system

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    NIM is a standard modular instrumentation system that is in wide use throughout the world. As the NIM system developed and accommodations were made to a dynamic instrumentation field and a rapidly advancing technology, additions, revisions and clarifications were made. These were incorporated into the standard in the form of addenda and errata. This standard is a revision of the NIM document, AEC Report TID- 20893 (Rev 4) dated July 1974. It includes all the addenda and errata items that were previously issued as well as numerous additional items to make the standard current with modern technology and manufacturing practice.

  7. Animation of MARDI Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the animation This animation shows a zoom into the Mars Descent Imager (MARDI) instrument onboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The Phoenix team will soon attempt to use a microphone on the MARDI instrument to capture sounds of Mars. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. Virtual Reality Musical Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Erkut, Cumhur; Kojs, Juraj

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development and availability of low-cost technologies have created a wide interest in virtual reality. In the field of computer music, the term “virtual musical instruments” has been used for a long time to describe software simulations, extensions of existing musical instruments......, and ways to control them with new interfaces for musical expression. Virtual reality musical instruments (VRMIs) that include a simulated visual component delivered via a head-mounted display or other forms of immersive visualization have not yet received much attention. In this article, we present a field...

  9. Spectroelectrochemical Instrument Measures TOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounaves, Sam

    2011-01-01

    A spectroelectrochemical instrument has been developed for measuring the total organic carbon (TOC) content of an aqueous solution. Measurements of TOC are frequently performed in environmental, clinical, and industrial settings. Until now, techniques for performing such measurements have included, various ly, the use of hazardous reagents, ultraviolet light, or ovens, to promote reactions in which the carbon contents are oxidized. The instrument now being developed is intended to be a safer, more economical means of oxidizing organic carbon and determining the TOC levels of aqueous solutions and for providing a low power/mass unit for use in planetary missions.

  10. [Hardening of dental instruments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasev, G P

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of prolonging the service life of stomatological instruments by the local hardening of their working parts is discussed. Such hardening should be achieved by using hard and wear-resistant materials. The examples of hardening dental elevators and hard-alloy dental drills are given. New trends in the local hardening of instruments are the treatment of their working parts with laser beams, the application of coating on their surface by the gas-detonation method. The results of research work and trials are presented.

  11. Celadon Figurines Play Instruments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    This group of figurines, each 0.15m tall, were unearthed from a Tang Dynasty tomb in Changsha in 1977. Music was very developed in the Tang Dynasty. Colorful musical instruments and dances were popular both among the people and in the palace. These vivid-looking figurines wear pleated skirts with small sleeves and open chest, a style influenced by the non-Han nationalities living in the north and west of China. Some of the musical instruments were brought from the Western Regions. The figurines are playing the xiao (a vertical bamboo flute), the konghou (an

  12. Virtual Reality Musical Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Erkut, Cumhur; Kojs, Juraj

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development and availability of low-cost technologies have created a wide interest in virtual reality. In the field of computer music, the term “virtual musical instruments” has been used for a long time to describe software simulations, extensions of existing musical instruments......, and ways to control them with new interfaces for musical expression. Virtual reality musical instruments (VRMIs) that include a simulated visual component delivered via a head-mounted display or other forms of immersive visualization have not yet received much attention. In this article, we present a field...

  13. The Experienced Temperature Sensitivity and Regulation Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Someren, Eus; Dekker, Kim; te Lindert, Bart; Benjamins, J.S.; Moens, Sarah; Migliorati, Filippo; Aarts, Emmeke; van der Sluis, Sophie

    Individuals differ in thermosensitivity, thermoregulation, and zones of thermoneutrality and thermal comfort. Whereas temperature sensing and -effectuating processes occur in part unconsciously and autonomic, awareness of temperature as well as thermal preferences can affect thermoregulatory

  14. The experienced temperature sensitivity and regulation survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Someren, Eus J W; Dekker, Kim; Te Lindert, Bart H W; Benjamins, Jeroen S; Moens, Sarah; Migliorati, Filippo; Aarts, Emmeke; van der Sluis, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Individuals differ in thermosensitivity, thermoregulation, and zones of thermoneutrality and thermal comfort. Whereas temperature sensing and -effectuating processes occur in part unconsciously and autonomic, awareness of temperature and thermal preferences can affect thermoregulatory behavior as

  15. Sensitive Radio Survey of Obscured Quasar Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandroff, Rachael M; van Velzen, Sjoert; Greene, Jenny E; Strauss, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    We study the radio properties of moderately obscured quasars over a range of redshifts to understand the role of radio activity in accretion using the Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) at 6.0GHz and 1.4GHz. Our z~2.5 sample consists of optically-selected obscured quasar candidates, all of which are radio-quiet, with typical radio luminosities of $\

  16. Economic Policy Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Børge

    2007-01-01

    Økonomiske instrumenter begrundes med behovet for politiske indgreb, der muliggør internaliseringen af omkostningerne ved de miljøpåvirkninger, produktion and levevis afstedkommer, således at hensyntagen til miljøet bliver en del af virksomheders og husholdningers omkostninger og dermed en tilsky...

  17. The ozone monitoring instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.F.; Oord, G.H.J. van den; Dobber, M.R.; Mälkki, A.; Visser, H.; Vries, J. de; Stammes, P.; Lundell, J.O.V.; Saari, H.

    2006-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) flies on the National Aeronautics and Space Adminsitration's Earth Observing System Aura satellite launched in July 2004. OMI is a ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) nadir solar backscatter spectrometer, which provides nearly global coverage in one day with a spatial

  18. Creating a Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpää, Maria; Gasselseder, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Thanks to the development of new technology, musical instruments are no more tied to their existing acoustic or technical limitations as almost all parameters can be augmented or modified in real time. An increasing number of composers, performers, and computer programmers have thus become intere...

  19. Neutron instrumentation for biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, S.A. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France)

    1994-12-31

    In the October 1994 round of proposals at the ILL, the external biology review sub- committee was asked to allocate neutron beam time to a wide range of experiments, on almost half the total number of scheduled neutron instruments: on 3 diffractometers, on 3 small angle scattering instruments, and on some 6 inelastic scattering spectrometers. In the 3.5 years since the temporary reactor shutdown, the ILL`s management structure has been optimized, budgets and staff have been trimmed, the ILL reactor has been re-built, and many of the instruments up-graded, many powerful (mainly Unix) workstations have been introduced, and the neighboring European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has established itself as the leading synchrotron radiation source and has started its official user program. The ILL reactor remains the world`s most intense dedicated neutron source. In this challenging context, it is of interest to review briefly the park of ILL instruments used to study the structure and energetics of small and large biological systems. A brief summary will be made of each class of experiments actually proposed in the latest ILL proposal round.

  20. Advanced instrumentation and teleoperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    1998-07-01

    SCK-CEN's advanced instrumentation and teleoperation project aims at evaluating the potential of a telerobotic approach in a nuclear environment and, in particular, the use of remote-perception systems. Main achievements in 1997 in the areas of R and D on radiation tolerance for remote sensing, optical fibres and optical-fibre sensors, and computer-aided teleoperation are reported.

  1. Economic Policy Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Børge

    2007-01-01

    Økonomiske instrumenter begrundes med behovet for politiske indgreb, der muliggør internaliseringen af omkostningerne ved de miljøpåvirkninger, produktion and levevis afstedkommer, således at hensyntagen til miljøet bliver en del af virksomheders og husholdningers omkostninger og dermed en...

  2. Instrument for assaying radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Jody Rustyn; Farfan, Eduardo B.

    2016-03-22

    An instrument for assaying radiation includes a flat panel detector having a first side opposed to a second side. A collimated aperture covers at least a portion of the first side of the flat panel detector. At least one of a display screen or a radiation shield may cover at least a portion of the second side of the flat panel detector.

  3. Integrating Nephelometer Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uin, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Integrating Nephelometer (Figure 1) is an instrument that measures aerosol light scattering. It measures aerosol optical scattering properties by detecting (with a wide angular integration – from 7 to 170°) the light scattered by the aerosol and subtracting the light scattered by the carrier gas, the instrument walls and the background noise in the detector (zeroing). Zeroing is typically performed for 5 minutes every day at midnight UTC. The scattered light is split into red (700 nm), green (550 nm), and blue (450 nm) wavelengths and captured by three photomultiplier tubes. The instrument can measure total scatter as well as backscatter only (from 90 to 170°) (Heintzenberg and Charlson 1996; Anderson et al. 1996; Anderson and Ogren 1998; TSI 3563 2015) At ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement), two identical Nephelometers are usually run in series with a sample relative humidity (RH) conditioner between them. This is possible because Nephelometer sampling is non-destructive and the sample can be passed on to another instrument. The sample RH conditioner scans through multiple RH values in cycles, treating the sample. This kind of setup allows to study how aerosol particles’ light scattering properties are affected by humidification (Anderson et al. 1996). For historical reasons, the two Nephelometers in this setup are labeled “wet” and “dry”, with the “dry” Nephelometer usually being the one before the conditioner and sampling ambient air (the names are switched for the MAOS measurement site due to the high RH of the ambient air).

  4. Instruments of Transformative Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana

    production and distribution channels. PDPs aim at overcoming current market and government failures by pooling resources in the attempt to solve this global social challenge. Thus, PDPs are a case of instruments of transformative research and innovation, operating in a transnational governance context...

  5. The tropospheric monitoring instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voert, M.J. te; Brakel, R. van; Witvoet, G.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal and opto-mechanical design and analysis work has been done on the Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI), a spectrometer on the Copernicus Sentinel 5 Precursor satellite. To verify compliance with the stringent opto-mechanical stability requirements, detailed thermal and thermo-mechani

  6. Virtual reality musical instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Erkut, Cumhur; Kojs, Juraj

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development and availability of low cost technologies has created a wide interest in virtual reality (VR), but how to design and evaluate multisensory interactions in VR remains as a challenge. In this paper, we focus on virtual reality musical instruments, present an overview of our...

  7. The ozone monitoring instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.F.; Oord, G.H.J. van den; Dobber, M.R.; Mälkki, A.; Visser, H.; Vries, J. de; Stammes, P.; Lundell, J.O.V.; Saari, H.

    2006-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) flies on the National Aeronautics and Space Adminsitration's Earth Observing System Aura satellite launched in July 2004. OMI is a ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) nadir solar backscatter spectrometer, which provides nearly global coverage in one day with a spatial

  8. Payment Instrument Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jacques; Kjeldsen, Martin; Hedman, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    payment innovations. Using the Repertory Grid technique to explore 15 payers’ perception of six payment instruments, including coins, banknotes, debit cards, credit cards, mobile payments, and on-line banking, we identify 16 payment characteristics. The characteristics aggregate seventy-six unique...

  9. Specification for Instrumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This paper is intended to give an overview on instrumentation for monitoring the efficiency of the Converter and the performance of the device. Real-time control of plant and data monitoring and storage are the main objectives of the control system....

  10. Scintillator correlation and Columbia River radiation survey, March--April 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConiga, M.W.; Rising, F.L.

    1959-09-15

    The purpose of the work documented herein was to correlate a new sensitive scintillator for the measurement of gamma dose rates from the reactor effluent isotopic spectrum in the Columbia River. Previous scintillation devices lacked the desired sensitivity for estimating these dose rates. A portable scintillation device was calibrated against ionization chambers over essentially full range of dose rates from the reactor effluent spectrum in the Columbia River. A river survey was then made, combining scintillator readings with pulse pencil and portable instrument readings from 1--1/2 miles above the reactors to about 57 miles downstream. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Preventing intentional food contamination: a survey to assess restaurant preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xirasagar, Sudha; Kanwat, C P; Qu, Haiyan; Smith, Lillian U; Patterson, Nathaniel J; Shewchuk, Richard M

    2010-01-01

    In the age of preparedness, public health agencies are concerned with intentional acts of food contamination in restaurants, in addition to food safety. Food safety consists of applying standard norms of practice and infrastructure, which, if violated, cause food-borne illness. In contrast, food defense requires an institutionalized mindset of informed alertness to unusual variations from the norms, combined with preemptive practices best suited to each restaurant. Therefore, while food safety lends itself to regulation to ensure standard practices, food defense is best served by advisory guidelines for autonomous application, preserving the restaurant industry's core values of hospitality and customer service. To address this challenge, public health agencies need survey tools that can yield action-relevant data on the knowledge and practice gaps in food defense preparedness and on educational messages and support services to be developed for maximum impact potential. This article presents a mail survey instrument, developed using qualitative research to ensure content and face validity. Instrument development involved drafting the survey on the basis of expert consultations, validating its content by using focus groups (representing all restaurant categories and geographic regions), and ensuring face validity through cognitive interviews. The resulting survey remains sensitive to the hospitality industry while encompassing all vulnerable points.

  12. Diamond color measurement instrument based on image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H.; Mandal, S.; Toosi, M.; Zeng, J.; Wang, W.

    2016-09-01

    Gemological Institute of America (GIA) has developed a diamond color measurement instrument that can provide accurate and reproducible color measurement results. The instrument uses uniform illumination by a daylight-approximating light source; observations from a high-resolution color-camera with nearly zero-distortion bi-telecentric lens, and image processing to calculate color parameters of diamonds. Experiments show the instrument can provide reproducible color measurement results and also identify subtle color differences in diamonds with high sensitivity. The experimental setup of the prototype instrument and the image processing method for calculating diamond color parameters are presented in this report.

  13. Radiation effects on science instruments in Grand Tour type missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    The extent of the radiation effects problem is delineated, along with the status of protective designs for 15 representative science instruments. Designs for protecting science instruments from radiation damage is discussed for the various instruments to be employed in the Grand Tour type missions. A literature search effort was undertaken to collect science instrument components damage/interference effects data on the various sensitive components such as Si detectors, vidicon tubes, etc. A small experimental effort is underway to provide verification of the radiation effects predictions.

  14. Robotic and Survey Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Przemysław

    Robotic telescopes are revolutionizing the way astronomers collect their dataand conduct sky surveys. This chapter begins with a discussion of principles thatguide the process of designing, constructing, and operating telescopes andobservatories that offer a varying degree of automation, from instruments remotelycontrolled by observers to fully autonomous systems requiring no humansupervision during their normal operations. Emphasis is placed on designtrade-offs involved in building end-to-end systems intended for a wide range ofscience applications. The second part of the chapter contains descriptions ofseveral projects and instruments, both existing and currently under development.It is an attempt to provide a representative selection of actual systems thatillustrates state of the art in technology, as well as important ideas and milestonesin the development of the field. The list of presented instruments spans the fullrange in size starting from small all-sky monitors, through midrange robotic andsurvey telescopes, and finishing with large robotic instruments and surveys.Explosive growth of telescope networking is enabling entirely new modesof interaction between the survey and follow-up observing. Increasingimportance of standardized communication protocols and software is stressed.These developments are driven by the fusion of robotic telescope hardware,massive storage and databases, real-time knowledge extraction, and datacross-correlation on a global scale. The chapter concludes with examplesof major science results enabled by these new technologies and futureprospects.

  15. Magnetoresistive sensors for string instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenssen, K.-M. H.; Somers, G. H. J.; van Zon, J. B. A. D.

    2002-05-01

    Pickup elements for string instruments, in particular for electric guitars, represent a new application area for magnetoresistive sensors. Recently we developed a sensor configuration with permanent magnets for this purpose. For the first experiments we used commercial anisotropic magnetoresistance sensors (Philips KMZ10) mounted on small ferrite bias magnets. Recently we equipped an electric guitar with prototypes comprising giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensors. These prototype MR pickup elements showed several clear advantages compared to the presently commonly used inductive pickup units. They are much less sensitive to disturbing electromagnetic fields (>1000×at 5 kHz), mainly because their active sensor area is several orders of magnitude smaller (a few mm2 instead of cm2). Also the larger freedom in the choice of the permanent magnets (due to the larger sensitivity of the GMR elements) is advantageous: employing smaller magnets reduces the damping and thus significantly improves the sustain, the magnets can be less expensive and more stable magnet materials can be chosen so that aging effects are eliminated.

  16. The Science of String Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Rossing, Thomas D

    2010-01-01

    Many performing musicians, as well as instrument builders, are coming to realize the importance of understanding the science of musical instruments. This book explains how string instruments produce sound. It presents basic ideas in simple language, and it also translates some more sophisticated ideas in non-technical language. It should be of interest to performers, researchers, and instrument makers alike.

  17. Trends in mass spectrometry instrumentation for proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard D

    2002-12-01

    Mass spectrometry has become a primary tool for proteomics because of its capabilities for rapid and sensitive protein identification and quantitation. It is now possible to identify thousands of proteins from microgram sample quantities in a single day and to quantify relative protein abundances. However, the need for increased capabilities for proteome measurements is immense and is now driving both new strategies and instrument advances. These developments include those based on integration with multi-dimensional liquid separations and high accuracy mass measurements and promise more than order of magnitude improvements in sensitivity, dynamic range and throughput for proteomic analyses in the near future.

  18. Artifacts Of Spectral Analysis Of Instrument Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, James H.

    1995-01-01

    Report presents experimental and theoretical study of some of artifacts introduced by processing outputs of two nominally identical low-frequency-reading instruments; high-sensitivity servo-accelerometers mounted together and operating, in conjunction with signal-conditioning circuits, as seismometers. Processing involved analog-to-digital conversion with anti-aliasing filtering, followed by digital processing including frequency weighting and computation of different measures of power spectral density (PSD).

  19. Work group I: Measures of the food and physical activity environment: instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saelens, Brian E; Glanz, Karen

    2009-04-01

    A work group was convened to identify the core challenges, content gaps, and corresponding possible solutions for improving food- and physical activity-environment instrumentation. Identified challenges included instrument proliferation, the scaling or grain of instruments and appropriate aggregation to the neighborhood or community level, and unknown sensitivity to change of most instruments. Solutions for addressing these challenges included establishing an interactive and real-time instrument repository, developing and enforcing high standards for instrument reporting, increasing community-researcher collaborations, and implementing surveillance of food and physical activity environment. Solid instrumentation will accelerate a better understanding of food- and physical activity-environment effects on eating and physical activity behaviors.

  20. UC Merced NMR Instrumentation Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-18

    UC Merced NMR Instrumentation Acquisition For the UC Merced NMR Instrumentation Acquisition proposal, a new 400 MHz and an upgraded 500 MHz NMR ...UC Merced NMR Instrumentation Acquisition Report Title For the UC Merced NMR Instrumentation Acquisition proposal, a new 400 MHz and an upgraded 500...MHz NMR have been delivered, installed, and incorporated into research and two lab courses. While no results from these instruments have been

  1. netherland hydrological modeling instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogewoud, J. C.; de Lange, W. J.; Veldhuizen, A.; Prinsen, G.

    2012-04-01

    Netherlands Hydrological Modeling Instrument A decision support system for water basin management. J.C. Hoogewoud , W.J. de Lange ,A. Veldhuizen , G. Prinsen , The Netherlands Hydrological modeling Instrument (NHI) is the center point of a framework of models, to coherently model the hydrological system and the multitude of functions it supports. Dutch hydrological institutes Deltares, Alterra, Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, RWS Waterdienst, STOWA and Vewin are cooperating in enhancing the NHI for adequate decision support. The instrument is used by three different ministries involved in national water policy matters, for instance the WFD, drought management, manure policy and climate change issues. The basis of the modeling instrument is a state-of-the-art on-line coupling of the groundwater system (MODFLOW), the unsaturated zone (metaSWAP) and the surface water system (MOZART-DM). It brings together hydro(geo)logical processes from the column to the basin scale, ranging from 250x250m plots to the river Rhine and includes salt water flow. The NHI is validated with an eight year run (1998-2006) with dry and wet periods. For this run different parts of the hydrology have been compared with measurements. For instance, water demands in dry periods (e.g. for irrigation), discharges at outlets, groundwater levels and evaporation. A validation alone is not enough to get support from stakeholders. Involvement from stakeholders in the modeling process is needed. There fore to gain sufficient support and trust in the instrument on different (policy) levels a couple of actions have been taken: 1. a transparent evaluation of modeling-results has been set up 2. an extensive program is running to cooperate with regional waterboards and suppliers of drinking water in improving the NHI 3. sharing (hydrological) data via newly setup Modeling Database for local and national models 4. Enhancing the NHI with "local" information. The NHI is and has been used for many

  2. Developments in analytical instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, G.

    The situation regarding photogrammetric instrumentation has changed quite dramatically over the last 2 or 3 years with the withdrawal of most analogue stereo-plotting machines from the market place and their replacement by analytically based instrumentation. While there have been few new developments in the field of comparators, there has been an explosive development in the area of small, relatively inexpensive analytical stereo-plotters based on the use of microcomputers. In particular, a number of new instruments have been introduced by manufacturers who mostly have not been associated previously with photogrammetry. Several innovative concepts have been introduced in these small but capable instruments, many of which are aimed at specialised applications, e.g. in close-range photogrammetry (using small-format cameras); for thematic mapping (by organisations engaged in environmental monitoring or resources exploitation); for map revision, etc. Another innovative and possibly significant development has been the production of conversion kits to convert suitable analogue stereo-plotting machines such as the Topocart, PG-2 and B-8 into fully fledged analytical plotters. The larger and more sophisticated analytical stereo-plotters are mostly being produced by the traditional mainstream photogrammetric systems suppliers with several new instruments and developments being introduced at the top end of the market. These include the use of enlarged photo stages to handle images up to 25 × 50 cm format; the complete integration of graphics workstations into the analytical plotter design; the introduction of graphics superimposition and stereo-superimposition; the addition of correlators for the automatic measurement of height, etc. The software associated with this new analytical instrumentation is now undergoing extensive re-development with the need to supply photogrammetric data as input to the more sophisticated G.I.S. systems now being installed by clients, instead

  3. Instrument Performance Monitoring at Gemini North

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emig, Kimberly; Pohlen, M.; Chene, A.

    2014-01-01

    An instrument performance monitoring (IPM) project at the Gemini North Observatory evaluates the delivered throughput and sensitivity of, among other instruments, the Near-Infrared Integral Field Spectrometer (NIFS), the Gemini Near-Infrared Spectrograph (GNIRS), and the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS-N). Systematic observations of standard stars allow the quality of the instruments and mirror to be assessed periodically. An automated pipeline has been implemented to process and analyze data obtained with NIFS, GNIRS cross-dispersed (XD) and long slit (LS) modes, and GMOS (photometry and spectroscopy). We focus the discussion of this poster on NIFS and GNIRS. We present the spectroscopic throughput determined for ZJHK bands on NIFS, the XJHKLM band for GNIRS XD mode and the K band for GNIRS LS. Additionally, the sensitivity is available for the JHK bands in NIFS and GNIRS XD, and for the K band in GNIRS LS. We consider data taken as early as March 2011. Furthermore, the pipeline setup and the methods used to determine throughput and sensitivity are described.

  4. "The Burden of Pregnancy"; heavier for the heaviest? The changes in Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) assessed by the 15D instrument during pregnancy and postpartum in different body mass index groups: a longitudinal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahrakorpi, Niina; Koivusalo, Saila B; Stach-Lempinen, Beata; Eriksson, Johan G; Kautiainen, Hannu; Roine, Risto P

    2017-03-01

    Only little information is available on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and its changes during the course of a normal pregnancy. We studied changes in HRQoL in a pregnant population during pregnancy and until 1 year postpartum in different body mass index (BMI) groups. Seven hundred and fifty pregnant women attending the first ultrasound examination before gestational week 14 were invited to participate in a longitudinal, communal-based survey. The participants were divided into three groups according to their BMI; <25, 25-29.9, and ≥30 kg/m(2) . The women were asked to fill in questionnaires assessing HRQoL (15D), depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Depression Scale, EPDS), medical, obstetric and socioeconomic status at baseline. HRQoL and EPDS were re-assessed at 30 weeks of gestation, and 6 weeks, 3 and 12 months postpartum. Of the invited 750 mothers, 325 (43%) returned the questionnaires and at least one follow-up questionnaire. At baseline, mean 15D scores decreased with increasing BMI but the difference was not statistically significant when adjusted for age, educational attainment, parity or EPDS-scores (0.929, 0.921 and 0.916, p = 0.16). During the course of pregnancy, the HRQoL of all women decreased but this decrease was significantly greater in the obese group (-0.088; 95% CI -0.110 to -0.065) than in the other groups [-0.054 (95% CI -0.062 to -0.045) and -0.051 (95% CI -0.068 to -0.033), p = 0.019]. Within 3 months postpartum the mean HRQoL recovered in all BMI groups to baseline levels, irrespective of the mode of delivery or pregnancy-related complications. The burden of pregnancy is heavier for the heaviest. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  5. A Life in the Universe Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.; Hubble-Zdanowski, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The "Life in the Universe Survey" is a twelve-question assessment instrument. Largely based on the factors of the Drake equation, it is designed to survey students' initial estimates of its factors and to gauge how estimates change with instruction. The survey was used in sections of a seminar course focusing specifically on life in the universe…

  6. A Life in the Universe Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.; Hubble-Zdanowski, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The "Life in the Universe Survey" is a twelve-question assessment instrument. Largely based on the factors of the Drake equation, it is designed to survey students' initial estimates of its factors and to gauge how estimates change with instruction. The survey was used in sections of a seminar course focusing specifically on life in the universe…

  7. Instrumentation problems for physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, G O

    1980-01-01

    The physician has, for whatever reasons, diminished his or her level of involvement on the team dedicated to developing, refining, and evaluating medical technology. As a result, the challenge confronting the physician and the technology development team today is to orchestrate a team structure that will ensure the greatest input and commitment from physicians and other professionals during current and future technology development. The charges of cost escalation and dehumanization in our system of health care delivery will also be discussed, as will the lack of, or confusion about, access to data concerning cost of a given instrument, and fuzzy semantics and perspectives on technology and instrumentation. The author suggests answers to, or means to ameliorate, the problems.

  8. KEKB beam instrumentation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinaga, M.; Flanagan, J.; Hiramatsu, S.; Ieiri, T.; Ikeda, H.; Ishii, H.; Kikutani, E.; Mimashi, T.; Mitsuhashi, T.; Mizuno, H.; Mori, K.; Tejima, M.; Tobiyama, M.

    2003-02-01

    For the stable high-luminosity operation and luminosity increase, the electron and positron storage rings of the KEK B-Factory (KEKB) is equipped with various beam instrumentations, which have been working well since the start of the commissioning in December, 1998. Details and performance of the beam-position monitor system based on the spectrum analysis using DSPs, the turn-by-turn BPM with four-dimensional function available for measurements of the individual bunch position, phase and intensity, the parametric beam-DCCTs designed so as to avoid the magnetic-core-selection problems for the parametric flux modulation, the bunch-by-bunch feedback system indispensable to suppress the strong multibunch instabilities in KEKB, the various optical beam diagnostic systems, such as synchrotron radiation interferometers for precise beam-size measurement, the tune meters, the bunch length monitors and the beam-loss monitors are described. Delicate machine tuning of KEKB is strongly supported by these instrumentations.

  9. Data acquisition instruments: Psychopharmacology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, D.S. III

    1998-01-01

    This report contains the results of a Direct Assistance Project performed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., for Dr. K. O. Jobson. The purpose of the project was to perform preliminary analysis of the data acquisition instruments used in the field of psychiatry, with the goal of identifying commonalities of data and strategies for handling and using the data in the most advantageous fashion. Data acquisition instruments from 12 sources were provided by Dr. Jobson. Several commonalities were identified and a potentially useful data strategy is reported here. Analysis of the information collected for utility in performing diagnoses is recommended. In addition, further work is recommended to refine the commonalities into a directly useful computer systems structure.

  10. An ice lithography instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Anpan; Chervinsky, John; Branton, Daniel; Golovchenko, J. A.

    2011-06-01

    We describe the design of an instrument that can fully implement a new nanopatterning method called ice lithography, where ice is used as the resist. Water vapor is introduced into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum chamber above a sample cooled down to 110 K. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of ice. To form a lift-off mask, ice is removed by the SEM electron beam (e-beam) guided by an e-beam lithography system. Without breaking vacuum, the sample with the ice mask is then transferred into a metal deposition chamber where metals are deposited by sputtering. The cold sample is then unloaded from the vacuum system and immersed in isopropanol at room temperature. As the ice melts, metal deposited on the ice disperses while the metals deposited on the sample where the ice had been removed by the e-beam remains. The instrument combines a high beam-current thermal field emission SEM fitted with an e-beam lithography system, cryogenic systems, and a high vacuum metal deposition system in a design that optimizes ice lithography for high throughput nanodevice fabrication. The nanoscale capability of the instrument is demonstrated with the fabrication of nanoscale metal lines.

  11. Impact dynamics instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccormck, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    One of the tasks specified in the NASA Langley controlled impact demonstration (CID) work package was to furnish dynamic instrumentation sensors. The types of instrumentation sensors required were accelerometers for aircraft structural loads measurements, seat belt load cells to measure anthropomorphic dummy responses to the aircraft impact, and strain gage bending bridges to measure the aircraft fuselage and wing bending during impact. The objective in the selection of dynamic instrumentation for the CID was to provide 352 of the highest quality transducers and remain within budget allocation. The transducers that were selected for the CID evaluation process were each subjected to rigorous laboratory acceptance tests and to aircraft fuselage section drop tests at the LaRC Impact Dynamics Research Facility. Data compiled from this series of tests showed the selected transducers to be best suited for the CID mission requirement. The transducers installation technique on the airframe proved successful. The transducer quality assurance was guaranteed through rigorous acceptance testing. Data acquired was 97.0%.

  12. A High Contrast Imaging Survey of SIM Lite Planet Search Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Tanner, Angelle M; Law, Nicholas M

    2010-01-01

    With the development of extreme high contrast ground-based adaptive optics instruments and space missions aimed at detecting and characterizing Jupiter- and terrestrial-mass planets, it is critical that each target star be thoroughly vetted to determine whether it is a viable target given both the instrumental design and scientific goals of the program. With this in mind, we have conducted a high contrast imaging survey of mature AFGKM stars with the PALAO/PHARO instrument on the Palomar 200 inch telescope. The survey reached sensitivities sufficient to detect brown dwarf companions at separations of > 50 AU. The results of this survey will be utilized both by future direct imaging projects such as GPI, SPHERE and P1640 and indirect detection missions such as SIM Lite. Out of 84 targets, all but one have no close-in (0.45-1") companions and 64 (76%) have no stars at all within the 25" field-of-view. The sensitivity contrasts in the Ks passband ranged from 4.5 to 10 for this set of observations. These stars we...

  13. Survey of the Frequency Dependent Latitudinal Distribution of the Fast Magnetosonic Wave Mode from Van Allen Probes Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument and Integrated Science Waveform Receiver Plasma Wave Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardsen, Scott A.; Hospodarsky, George B.; Kletzing, Craig A.; Engebretson, Mark J.; Pfaff, Robert F.; Wygant, John R.; Kurth, William S.; Averkamp, Terrance F.; Bounds, Scott R.; Green, Jim L.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present a statistical survey of the latitudinal structure of the fast magnetosonic wave mode detected by the Van Allen Probes spanning the time interval of 21 September 2012 to 1 August 2014. We show that statistically, the latitudinal occurrence of the wave frequency (f) normalized by the local proton cyclotron frequency (f(sub cP)) has a distinct funnel-shaped appearance in latitude about the magnetic equator similar to that found in case studies. By comparing the observed E/B ratios with the model E/B ratio, using the observed plasma density and background magnetic field magnitude as input to the model E/B ratio, we show that this mode is consistent with the extra-ordinary (whistler) mode at wave normal angles (theta(sub k)) near 90 deg. Performing polarization analysis on synthetic waveforms composed from a superposition of extra-ordinary mode plane waves with theta(sub k) randomly chosen between 87 and 90 deg, we show that the uncertainty in the derived wave normal is substantially broadened, with a tail extending down to theta(sub k) of 60 deg, suggesting that another approach is necessary to estimate the true distribution of theta(sub k). We find that the histograms of the synthetically derived ellipticities and theta(sub k) are consistent with the observations of ellipticities and theta(sub k) derived using polarization analysis.We make estimates of the median equatorial theta(sub k) by comparing observed and model ray tracing frequency-dependent probability occurrence with latitude and give preliminary frequency dependent estimates of the equatorial theta(sub k) distribution around noon and 4 R(sub E), with the median of approximately 4 to 7 deg from 90 deg at f/f(sub cP) = 2 and dropping to approximately 0.5 deg from 90 deg at f/f(sub cP) = 30. The occurrence of waves in this mode peaks around noon near the equator at all radial distances, and we find that the overall intensity of these waves increases with AE*, similar to findings of other studies.

  14. [Analysis on the sensitivity to beta-lactam antibiotics of respiratory-infectious isolates on the second survey on the sensitivity of isolates conducted by the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy in 2007--concerning the aspect of PK/PD break points].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niki, Yoshihito; Kohno, Shigeru; Watanabe, Akira; Aoki, Nobuki

    2009-06-01

    Sensitivity to beta-lactam antibiotics of isolates clinically obtained from respiratory infection sites in adults on the second survey on sensitivity of isolates conducted by the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy in 2007 was investigated according to the classification of the "Guideline for treatment for adult nosocomial pneumonia in 2008". Among the primary antibacterial drugs for mild (A) and moderate (B) nosocomial pneumonia in adults, beta-lactam antibiotics; ceftriaxone (CTRX), sulbactam/ampicillin (SBT/ABPC), panipenem/betamipron (PAPM/BP), tazobactam/piperacillin (TAZ/PIPC), imipenem/cilastatin (IPM/CS), meropenem (MEPM), doripenem (DRPM), biapenem (BIPM) were studied to evaluate their clinical efficacy. The covering rate was analyzed using the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and break point of pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD). Consequently, the results with methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Klebsiella pneumoniae revealed the MIC90 of all antibacterial drugs to be at low levels, while almost 100% of isolates were within the range of PK/PD break points except BIPM and SBT/ABPC to H. influenzae, and SBT/ABPC to K. pneumoniae. However, the analysis of P. aeruginosa didn't reach 100% for the covering rates of isolates, indicating that these drugs did not have a complete inhibitory action to restrict bacterial proliferation. The analysis of all 5 carbapenem drugs showed superiority to TAZ/PIPC in MIC90 while covering rates of isolates at PK/PD break points showed inferiority to TAZ/PIPC. This tendency was found to be more significant in covering the rates of isolates on the regular dose with maximal bactericidal action and on the maximum dose. This is because the maximum dose approved in Japan is as low as half that in IPM/CS and 1/3 that in MEPM in Western countries.

  15. Advancements in Actuated Musical Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overholt, Daniel; Berdahl, Edgar; Hamilton, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This article presents recent developments in actuated musical instruments created by the authors, who also describe an ecosystemic model of actuated performance activities that blur traditional boundaries between the physical and virtual elements of musical interfaces. Actuated musical instrument...... that these instruments enable. We look at some of the conceptual and perceptual issues introduced by actuated musical instruments, and finally we propose some directions in which such research may be headed in the future.......This article presents recent developments in actuated musical instruments created by the authors, who also describe an ecosystemic model of actuated performance activities that blur traditional boundaries between the physical and virtual elements of musical interfaces. Actuated musical instruments...... are physical instruments that have been endowed with virtual qualities controlled by a computer in real-time but which are nevertheless tangible. These instruments provide intuitive and engaging new forms of interaction. They are different from traditional (acoustic) and fully automated (robotic) instruments...

  16. FHR Process Instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride salt-cooled High temperature Reactors (FHRs) are entering into early phase engineering development. Initial candidate technologies have been identified to measure all of the required process variables. The purpose of this paper is to describe the proposed measurement techniques in sufficient detail to enable assessment of the proposed instrumentation suite and to support development of the component technologies. This paper builds upon the instrumentation chapter of the recently published FHR technology development roadmap. Locating instruments outside of the intense core radiation and high-temperature fluoride salt environment significantly decreases their environmental tolerance requirements. Under operating conditions, FHR primary coolant salt is a transparent, low-vapor-pressure liquid. Consequently, FHRs can employ standoff optical measurements from above the salt pool to assess in-vessel conditions. For example, the core outlet temperature can be measured by observing the fuel s blackbody emission. Similarly, the intensity of the core s Cerenkov glow indicates the fission power level. Short-lived activation of the primary coolant provides another means for standoff measurements of process variables. The primary coolant flow and neutron flux can be measured using gamma spectroscopy along the primary coolant piping. FHR operation entails a number of process measurements. Reactor thermal power and core reactivity are the most significant variables for process control. Thermal power can be determined by measuring the primary coolant mass flow rate and temperature rise across the core. The leading candidate technologies for primary coolant temperature measurement are Au-Pt thermocouples and Johnson noise thermometry. Clamp-on ultrasonic flow measurement, that includes high-temperature tolerant standoffs, is a potential coolant flow measurement technique. Also, the salt redox condition will be monitored as an indicator of its corrosiveness. Both

  17. Climate Sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindzen, Richard [M.I.T.

    2011-11-09

    Warming observed thus far is entirely consistent with low climate sensitivity. However, the result is ambiguous because the sources of climate change are numerous and poorly specified. Model predictions of substantial warming aredependent on positive feedbacks associated with upper level water vapor and clouds, but models are notably inadequate in dealing with clouds and the impacts of clouds and water vapor are intimately intertwined. Various approaches to measuring sensitivity based on the physics of the feedbacks will be described. The results thus far point to negative feedbacks. Problems with these approaches as well as problems with the concept of climate sensitivity will be described.

  18. Satisfaction measurement instruments for healthcare service users: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Santos de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patient satisfaction surveys can be an interesting way to improve quality and discuss the concept of patient-centered care. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review of the validated patient satisfaction measurement instruments applied in healthcare. The systematic review searched the MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, Scopus and Web of Knowledge. The search strategy used the terms: "Patient Satisfaction" AND "Patient centered care" AND "Healthcare survey OR Satisfaction questionnaire" AND "Psychometric properties". 37 studies were included and almost all studies showed that satisfaction is a multidimensional construct. In these studies, 34 different instruments were used and most surveys contained the dimension patient-healthcare professional interactions, physical environment and management process. The COSMIN score for methodological quality showed that most of them scored a good or fair average. We can conclude that there is not a gold standard instrument for patient satisfaction assessment but some dimensions are essential for this construct.

  19. Survey strategy optimization for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bernardis, F.; Stevens, J. R.; Hasselfield, M.; Alonso, D.; Bond, J. R.; Calabrese, E.; Choi, S. K.; Crowley, K. T.; Devlin, M.; Dunkley, J.; Gallardo, P. A.; Henderson, S. W.; Hilton, M.; Hlozek, R.; Ho, S. P.; Huffenberger, K.; Koopman, B. J.; Kosowsky, A.; Louis, T.; Madhavacheril, M. S.; McMahon, J.; Næss, S.; Nati, F.; Newburgh, L.; Niemack, M. D.; Page, L. A.; Salatino, M.; Schillaci, A.; Schmitt, B. L.; Sehgal, N.; Sievers, J. L.; Simon, S. M.; Spergel, D. N.; Staggs, S. T.; van Engelen, A.; Vavagiakis, E. M.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-07-01

    In recent years there have been significant improvements in the sensitivity and the angular resolution of the instruments dedicated to the observation of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). ACTPol is the first polarization receiver for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) and is observing the CMB sky with arcmin resolution over 2000 sq. deg. Its upgrade, Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT), will observe the CMB in five frequency bands and over a larger area of the sky. We describe the optimization and implementation of the ACTPol and AdvACT surveys. The selection of the observed fields is driven mainly by the science goals, that is, small angular scale CMB measurements, B-mode measurements and cross-correlation studies. For the ACTPol survey we have observed patches of the southern galactic sky with low galactic foreground emissions which were also chosen to maximize the overlap with several galaxy surveys to allow unique cross-correlation studies. A wider field in the northern galactic cap ensured significant additional overlap with the BOSS spectroscopic survey. The exact shapes and footprints of the fields were optimized to achieve uniform coverage and to obtain cross-linked maps by observing the fields with different scan directions. We have maximized the efficiency of the survey by implementing a close to 24 hour observing strategy, switching between daytime and nighttime observing plans and minimizing the telescope idle time. We describe the challenges represented by the survey optimization for the significantly wider area observed by AdvACT, which will observe roughly half of the low-foreground sky. The survey strategies described here may prove useful for planning future ground-based CMB surveys, such as the Simons Observatory and CMB Stage IV surveys.

  20. Tool – Material, Metaphor – Metonymy, Instrument(ness)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Breinbjerg, Morten; Pold, Søren

    2008-01-01

    This paper, presents in an abbreviated form the argument presented in an earlier paper[1], and tries to relate it to the theme, "retro in the interface". We introduce the concept instrumentness as a quality of human-computer interfaces. Instrumentness points to the way musical instruments are con...

  1. NRAO Makes Available VLA Sky Survey Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    An original and comprehensive data set potentially full of scientific surprises now is available to astronomers, students and the public through the information superhighway. Radio images of the sky produced by the Very Large Array radio telescope -- one of the premier astronomical instruments in the world -- as part of a massive survey now are stored in an electronic repository avail- able over the Internet computer communications network. "Each of these sensitive new sky maps shows about a thou- sand radio-emitting objects, most of which have never been seen before," said Dr. J. J. Condon, leader of the National Radio As- tronomy Observatory (NRAO) survey team. "We are releasing them as soon as they are completed because they contain more data than we could possibly analyze by ourselves." "By using electronic distribution, we can open this tre- mendous resource of information for computer analysis by all as- tronomers immediately, without waiting for traditional publication," Condon added. The radio images are copyright NRAO/ AUI. Permission is granted for use of the material without charge for scholarly, educational and private non-commercial purposes. "It is entirely conceivable -- even probable -- that valuable discoveries will be made by students or amateur astrono- mers who devote the time to study these maps carefully," said team member Dr. W. D. Cotton. "Making this new information available electronically means that more people can participate in adding to its scientific value." The maps are a product of the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS), which began its observational phase in September of 1993 and will cover 82 percent of the sky when completed by the end of 1996. The NVSS is expected to produce a catalog of more than two million ra- dio-emitting objects in the sky, and it is the first sky survey sensitive to linearly polarized emission from radio sources beyond our own Milky Way galaxy. "The NVSS is being made as a service to the entire astronomical

  2. Gluten Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluten is a protein found in wheat, rye, and barley. It is found mainly in foods but ... products like medicines, vitamins, and supplements. People with gluten sensitivity have problems with gluten. It is different ...

  3. ZBLAN Viscosity Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaukler, William

    2001-01-01

    The past year's contribution from Dr. Kaukler's experimental effort consists of these 5 parts: a) Construction and proof-of-concept testing of a novel shearing plate viscometer designed to produce small shear rates and operate at elevated temperatures; b) Preparing nonlinear polymeric materials to serve as standards of nonlinear Theological behavior; c) Measurements and evaluation of above materials for nonlinear rheometric behavior at room temperature using commercial spinning cone and plate viscometers available in the lab; d) Preparing specimens from various forms of pitch for quantitative comparative testing in a Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer, Thermal Mechanical Analyzer; and Archeological Analyzer; e) Arranging to have sets of pitch specimens tested using the various instruments listed above, from different manufacturers, to form a baseline of the viscosity variation with temperature using the different test modes offered by these instruments by compiling the data collected from the various test results. Our focus in this project is the shear thinning behavior of ZBLAN glass over a wide range of temperature. Experimentally, there are no standard techniques to perform such measurements on glasses, particularly at elevated temperatures. Literature reviews to date have shown that shear thinning in certain glasses appears to occur, but no data is available for ZBLAN glass. The best techniques to find shear thinning behavior require the application of very low rates of shear. In addition, because the onset of the thinning behavior occurs at an unknown elevated temperature, the instruments used in this study must provide controlled low rates of shear and do so for temperatures approaching 600 C. In this regard, a novel shearing parallel plate viscometer was designed and a prototype built and tested.

  4. Payment Instrument Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jacques; Kjeldsen, Martin; Hedman, Jonas;

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, we have witnessed payment innovations that fundamentally have changed the ways we pay. Payment innovations, such as mobile payments and on-line banking, include characteristics or features that are essential to understand if we want to know how and why payers choose among...... payment innovations. Using the Repertory Grid technique to explore 15 payers’ perception of six payment instruments, including coins, banknotes, debit cards, credit cards, mobile payments, and on-line banking, we identify 16 payment characteristics. The characteristics aggregate seventy-six unique...

  5. Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Strehl, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This treatise covers all aspects of the design and the daily operations of a beam diagnostic system for a large particle accelerator. A very interdisciplinary field, it involves contributions from physicists, electrical and mechanical engineers and computer experts alike so as to satisfy the ever-increasing demands for beam parameter variability for a vast range of operation modi and particles. The author draws upon 40 years of research and work, most of them spent as the head of the beam diagnostics group at GSI. He has illustrated the more theoretical aspects with many real-life examples that will provide beam instrumentation designers with ideas and tools for their work.

  6. Beam Instrument Development System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-01-08

    Beam Instrumentation Development System (BIDS) is a collection of common support libraries and modules developed during a series of Low-Level Radio Frequency (LLRF) control and timing/synchronization projects. BIDS includes a collection of Hardware Description Language (HDL) libraries and software libraries. The BIDS can be used for the development of any FPGA-based system, such as LLRF controllers. HDL code in this library is generic and supports common Digital Signal Processing (DSP) functions, FPGA-specific drivers (high-speed serial link wrappers, clock generation, etc.), ADC/DAC drivers, Ethernet MAC implementation, etc.

  7. Calibration of "Babyline" RP instruments

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

      If you have old RP instrumentation of the “Babyline” type, as shown in the photo, please contact the Radiation Protection Group (Joffrey Germa, 73171) to have the instrument checked and calibrated. Thank you. Radiation Protection Group

  8. Assessing the Sensitivity of Mountain Forests to Site Degradation in the Northern Limestone Alps, Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Reger

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Because of some land-use practices (such as overstocking with wild ungulates, historical clear-cuts for mining, and locally persisting forest pasture, protective forests in the montane vegetation belt of the Northern Limestone Alps are now frequently overaged and poorly structured over large areas. Windthrow and bark beetle infestations have generated disturbance areas in which forests have lost their protective functions. Where unfavorable site conditions hamper regeneration for decades, severe soil loss may ensue. To help prioritize management interventions, we developed a geographic information system-based model for assessing sensitivity to site degradation and applied it to 4 test areas in the Northern Limestone Alps of Austria and Bavaria. The model consists of (1 analysis of site conditions and forest stand structures that could increase sensitivity to degradation, (2 evaluation of the sensitivity of sites and stands, and (3 evaluation and mapping of mountain forests' sensitivity to degradation. Site conditions were modeled using regression algorithms with data on site parameters from pointwise soil and vegetation surveys as responses and areawide geodata on climate, relief, and substrate as predictors. The resulting predictor–response relationships were applied to test areas. Stand structure was detected from airborne laser scanning data. Site and stand parameters were evaluated according to their sensitivity to site degradation. Sensitivities of sites and stands were summarized in intermediate-scale sensitivity maps. High sensitivity was identified in 3 test areas with pure limestone and dolomite as the prevailing sensitivity level. Moderately sensitive forests dominate in the final test area, Grünstein, where the bedrock in some strata contains larger amounts of siliceous components (marl, mudstone, and moraines; degraded and slightly sensitive forests were rare or nonexistent in all 4 test areas. Providing a comprehensive overview

  9. Keyboard Emulation For Computerized Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, P. M.; Crouch, S. R.

    1989-01-01

    Keyboard emulator has interface at same level as manual keyboard entry. Since communication and control take place at high intelligence level in instrument, all instrument circuitry fully utilized. Little knowledge of instrument circuitry necessary, since only task interface performs is key closure. All existing logic and error checking still performed by instrument, minimizing workload of laboratory microcomputer. Timing constraints for interface operation minimal at keyboard entry level.

  10. TAIPAN instrument fibre positioner and Starbug robots: engineering overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszak, Nicholas F.; Lawrence, Jon; Brown, David M.; Brown, Rebecca; Zhelem, Ross; Goodwin, Michael; Kuehn, Kyler; Lorente, Nuria P. F.; Nichani, Vijay; Waller, Lew; Case, Scott; Content, Robert; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Klauser, Urs; Pai, Naveen; Mueller, Rolf; Mali, Slavko; Vuong, Minh V.

    2016-07-01

    TAIPAN will conduct a stellar and galaxy survey of the Southern sky. The TAIPAN positioner is being developed as a prototype for the MANIFEST instrument on the GMT. The design for TAIPAN incorporates 150 optical fibres (with an upgrade path to 300) situated within independently controlled robotic positioners known as Starbugs. Starbugs allow precise parallel positioning of individual fibres, thus significantly reducing instrument configuration time and increasing the amount of observing time. Presented is an engineering overview of the UKST upgrade of the completely new Instrument Spider Assembly utilized to support the Starbug Fibre Positioning Robot and current status of the Starbug itself.

  11. Assessing Specific Sexual Behavior: Instrument Development and Validation Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Monica C; Chaney, J Don; Chen, W William; Dodd, Virginia J; Huang, I-Chan; Sanders, Sadie

    2015-02-01

    Through the use of multi-modal methods, the purpose of this study was to develop and assess measurement properties of an instrument evaluating specific sexual behaviors of college students and the role alcohol intoxication plays in one's intention to participate in these behaviors. A modified version of N. Krause's instrument development process was applied to create a behavior-specific instrument assessing oral, vaginal, and anal sex behaviors. The process included a review by expert scholars in relevant fields, cognitive interviews with the target population using screen-capture program Camtasia, piloting to assess measurement scales, and a formal investigation. The applied instrument development process employed screen capture software and web-based surveying in a cost-effective format suitable for mixed-method measurement development. The development and application of the instrument provides a clearer understanding of the relationship between alcohol use and sexual activity and aids in the development of effective public health interventions and policies.

  12. Advancements in Actuated Musical Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overholt, Daniel; Berdahl, Edgar; Hamilton, Robert

    2011-01-01

    are physical instruments that have been endowed with virtual qualities controlled by a computer in real-time but which are nevertheless tangible. These instruments provide intuitive and engaging new forms of interaction. They are different from traditional (acoustic) and fully automated (robotic) instruments...

  13. Electronic Instruments -- Played or Used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulveland, Randall Dana

    1998-01-01

    Compares the experience of playing an acoustic instrument to an electronic instrument by analyzing the constant structures and relationships between the experiences. Concludes that students' understanding of the physical experience of making music increases when experiences with acoustic instruments precede their exposure to electronic…

  14. Mallet Instruments Challenge Beginning Percussionists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grumley, Fred

    1983-01-01

    Orff mallet instruments should be used in beginning band classes. Adding mallet instruments would expand a beginner's concept of percussion instruments. Just as important, the percussion section would provide a solid melodic and harmonic foundation to assist beginning wind instrumentalists with their insecurities about pitch. (RM)

  15. An Instrumental Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Think of guitars and you think of rock and country music, or the vigorous rhythms of the gypsy flamenco, or perhaps the classical strumming of a Segovia. About the last thing you would associate with guitars is aerospace technology. Yet there is a connection. A whole family of quality guitars is an outgrowth of helicopter rotor research conducted for the military services and NASA by an aerospace contractor. These musical spinoffs, commercially available and rapidly gaining in popularity, are the Ovation guitar line, manufactured by Ovation Instruments, Inc., Bloomfield, Connecticut. Ovation Instruments is a subsidiary of Kaman Corporation, a diversified company originally formed to develop and build helicopters. A helicopter's rotor system, with thousands of moving parts, is highly susceptible to vibration. For rotor efficiency, vibration must be "dampened," or reduced. Like other helicopter builders, Kaman Corporation spent years of research toward that end. The technology thus developed, together with the availability of staff experts in vibration engineering, sparked an idea in the mind of the company's president and founder, Charles H. Karnan. A guitarist of professional caliber, Kaman reasoned that vibration-dampening technology could be turned around to enhance vibration and thereby produce a guitar with superior sound.

  16. Balances instruments, manufacturers, history

    CERN Document Server

    Robens, Erich; Kiefer, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The book deals mainly with direct mass determination by means of a conventional balances. It covers the history of the balance from the beginnings in Egypt earlier than 3000 BC to recent developments. All balance types are described with emphasis on scientific balances. Methods of indirect mass determination, which are applied to very light objects like molecules and the basic particles of matter and celestial bodies, are included.  As additional guidance, today’s manufacturers are listed and the profile of important companies is reviewed. Several hundred photographs, reproductions and drawings show instruments and their uses. This book includes commercial weighing instruments for merchandise and raw materials in workshops as well as symbolic weighing in the ancient Egyptian’s ceremony of ‘Weighing of the Heart’, the Greek fate balance, the Roman  Justitia, Juno Moneta and Middle Ages scenes of the Last Judgement with Jesus or St. Michael and of modern balances. The photographs are selected from the...

  17. Instrument Remote Control via the Astronomical Instrument Markup Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sall, Ken; Ames, Troy; Warsaw, Craig; Koons, Lisa; Shafer, Richard

    1998-01-01

    The Instrument Remote Control (IRC) project ongoing at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Information Systems Center (ISC) supports NASA's mission by defining an adaptive intranet-based framework that provides robust interactive and distributed control and monitoring of remote instruments. An astronomical IRC architecture that combines the platform-independent processing capabilities of Java with the power of Extensible Markup Language (XML) to express hierarchical data in an equally platform-independent, as well as human readable manner, has been developed. This architecture is implemented using a variety of XML support tools and Application Programming Interfaces (API) written in Java. IRC will enable trusted astronomers from around the world to easily access infrared instruments (e.g., telescopes, cameras, and spectrometers) located in remote, inhospitable environments, such as the South Pole, a high Chilean mountaintop, or an airborne observatory aboard a Boeing 747. Using IRC's frameworks, an astronomer or other scientist can easily define the type of onboard instrument, control the instrument remotely, and return monitoring data all through the intranet. The Astronomical Instrument Markup Language (AIML) is the first implementation of the more general Instrument Markup Language (IML). The key aspects of our approach to instrument description and control applies to many domains, from medical instruments to machine assembly lines. The concepts behind AIML apply equally well to the description and control of instruments in general. IRC enables us to apply our techniques to several instruments, preferably from different observatories.

  18. River Ice Data Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    edge in the field of ice engineering expands. For example, ice concentration and freezeup stage are not considered by the survey respondents to...im- pacts both freezeup and breakup jam formation Table 2. Ice parameters currently monitored, by Divisions (as of 1995). Ice parameters currently...V V V V Date of ice in V V V V Ice concentration V V V V Freezeup stage V V V V V Note: Southwestern Division does not currently monitor ice

  19. KAPAO: A Pomona College Adaptive Optics Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Philip I.; Severson, S. A.; Rudy, A. R.; Gilbreth, B. N.; Contreras, D. S.; McGonigle, L. P.; Chin, R. M.; Horn, B.; Hoidn, O.; Spjut, E.; Baranec, C.; Riddle, R.

    2011-01-01

    We describe our project (KAPAO) to develop and deploy a low-cost, remote-access, natural guide star adaptive optics system for the Pomona College Table Mountain Observatory (TMO) 1-meter telescope. The system will offer simultaneous dual-band, diffraction-limited imaging at visible and near-infrared wavelengths and will deliver an order-of-magnitude improvement in point source sensitivity and angular resolution relative to the current TMO seeing limits. In order to ensure reliability, minimize costs and encourage replication efforts, off-the-shelf components that include a MEMS deformable mirror, a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and a piezo-electric tip-tilt mirror are being adopted for the core hardware elements. We present: the instrument design; performance predictions based on AO simulations; and the current status of the testbed instrument and high-speed control system. Beyond the expanded scientific capabilities enabled by AO-enhanced resolution and sensitivity, the interdisciplinary nature of the instrument development effort provides an exceptional opportunity to train a broad range of undergraduate STEM students in AO technologies and techniques. The breadth of our collaboration, which includes both public (Sonoma State University) and private (Pomona and Harvey Mudd Colleges) undergraduate institutions has enabled us to engage students ranging from physics, astronomy, engineering and computer science in the early stages of this project. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0960343.

  20. Victimisation surveys: What are they good for?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aromaa Kauko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the usefulness of victimization surveys. The paper is focused of surveys in which nationally representative population samples are surveyed for their personal victimisation experiences, and their attitudes and opinions of issues related to crime and crime control. The author points out the benefits of using victimization surveys, but also explains why most countries have failed to make systematic use of this instrument.

  1. Planck early results. VI. The High Frequency Instrument data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck HFI Core Team; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Ansari, R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Banday, A. J.; Bartelmann, M.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bradshaw, T.; Bucher, M.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, C.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colley, J.-M.; Colombi, S.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Cressiot, C.; Crill, B. P.; Crook, M.; de Bernardis, P.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Efstathiou, G.; Filliard, C.; Forni, O.; Fosalba, P.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Girard, D.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gispert, R.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Griffin, M.; Guyot, G.; Haissinski, J.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hills, R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jones, W. C.; Kaplan, J.; Kneissl, R.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lange, A. E.; Lasenby, A.; Lavabre, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Mandolesi, N.; Mann, R.; Marleau, F.; Marshall, D. J.; Masi, S.; Matsumura, T.; McAuley, I.; McGehee, P.; Melin, J.-B.; Mercier, C.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Mortlock, D.; Murphy, A.; Nati, F.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; North, C.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Osborne, S.; Pajot, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peacocke, T.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Ponthieu, N.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Reach, W. T.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Riazuelo, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Saha, R.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B. M.; Shellard, P.; Spencer, L.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Thum, C.; Torre, J.-P.; Touze, F.; Tristram, M.; van Leeuwen, F.; Vibert, L.; Vibert, D.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, S. D. M.; Wiesemeyer, H.; Woodcraft, A.; Yurchenko, V.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.

    2011-12-01

    We describe the processing of the 336 billion raw data samples from the High Frequency Instrument (HFI) which we performed to produce six temperature maps from the first 295 days of Planck-HFI survey data. These maps provide an accurate rendition of the sky emission at 100, 143, 217, 353, 545 and 857 GHz with an angular resolution ranging from 9.9 to 4.4'. The white noise level is around 1.5 μK degree or less in the 3 main CMB channels (100-217 GHz). The photometric accuracy is better than 2% at frequencies between 100 and 353 GHz and around 7% at the two highest frequencies. The maps created by the HFI Data Processing Centre reach our goals in terms of sensitivity, resolution, and photometric accuracy. They are already sufficiently accurate and well-characterised to allow scientific analyses which are presented in an accompanying series of early papers. At this stage, HFI data appears to be of high quality and we expect that with further refinements of the data processing we should be able to achieve, or exceed, the science goals of the Planck project. Corresponding author: F. R. Bouchet, e-mail: bouchet@iap.fr

  2. Planck Early Results: The High Frequency Instrument data processing

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Ansari, R; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Banday, A J; Bartelmann, M; Bartlett, J G; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bradshaw, T; Bucher, M; Cardoso, J -F; Castex, G; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chen, X; Chiang, C; Church, S; Clements, D L; Colley, J -M; Colombi, S; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Cressiot, C; Crill, B P; Crook, M; de Bernardis, P; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Désert, F -X; Dolag, K; Dole, H; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dunkley, J; Efstathiou, G; Filliard, C; Forni, O; Fosalba, P; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Girard, D; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gispert, R; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Griffin, M; Guyot, G; Haissinski, J; Harrison, D; Helou, G; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Hildebrandt, S R; Hills, R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Huffenberger, K M; Jaffe, A H; Jones, W C; Kaplan, J; Kneissl, R; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lange, A E; Lasenby, A; Lavabre, A; Lawrence, C R; Jeune, M Le; Leroy, C; Lesgourgues, J; Lewis, A; Macías-Pérez, J F; MacTavish, C J; Maffei, B; Mandolesi, N; Mann, R; Marleau, F; Marshall, D J; Masi, S; Matsumura, T; McAuley, I; McGehee, P; Melin, J -B; Mercier, C; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Mortlock, D; Murphy, A; Nati, F; Netterfield, C B; N\\orgaard-Nielsen, H U; North, C; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Osborne, S; Pajot, F; Patanchon, G; Peacocke, T; Pearson, T J; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Ponthieu, N; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Reach, W T; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Riazuelo, A; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Roudier, G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Rusholme, B; Saha, R; Santos, D; Savini, G; Schaefer, B M; Shellard, P; Spencer, L; Starck, J -L; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Thum, C; Torre, J -P; Touze, F; Tristram, M; Van Leeuwen, F; Vibert, L; Vibert, D; Wandelt, B D; White, S D M; Wiesemeyer, H; Woodcraft, A; Yurchenko, V; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A

    2011-01-01

    We describe the processing of the 334 billion raw data samples from the High Frequency Instrument (hereafter HFI) which we performed to produce six temperature maps from the first 295 days of Planck-HFI survey data. These maps provide an accurate rendition of the sky emission at 100, 143, 217, 353, 545 and 857GHz with an angular resolution ranging from 9.9 to 4.4 arcmin. The white noise level is around 1.5 microK.degree or less in the 3 main CMB channels (100-217GHz). The photometric accuracy is better than 2% at frequencies lower or equal to 353GHz, and around 7% at the two highest frequencies. The maps created by the HFI Data Processing Centre reach our goals in terms of sensitivity, resolution, and photometric accuracy. They are already sufficiently accurate and well-characterised to allow scientific analyses which are presented in an accompanying series of early papers. At this stage, HFI data appears to be of high quality and we expect that with further refinements of the data processing we should be abl...

  3. Media Lityeracy of Teachers: An Instrument for Assessing Their Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicent Gozálvez Pérez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the process to elaborate and validate a survey that aims to identify and evaluate the media literacy level of non-university teachers.Currently, in a highly connected environment where media and communication technologies are increasingly relevant in the educational scope, it is essential to design an instrument that allows us to measure teachers media literacy level. This survey may support the enhancement of pedagogical proposals in order to improve teachers practice as well as teacher professional training. To validate the survey content, Delphi methodology was used by experts of seven Spanish universities. Converging validation has been done on the basis of a sample of 906 teachers from nine Spanish Autonomous Communities. The conclusion after survey psychometric analysis is that this instrument is adequate to measure media literacy level of non-university teachers.

  4. Spectroscopic Instrumentation in Undergraduate Astronomy Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludovici, Dominic; Mutel, Robert Lucien; Lang, Cornelia C.

    2017-01-01

    We have designed and built two spectrographs for use in undergraduate astronomy laboratories at the University of Iowa. The first, a low cost (appx. $500) low resolution (R ~ 150 - 300) grating-prism (grism) spectrometer consists of five optical elements and is easily modified to other telescope optics. The grism spectrometer is designed to be used in a modified filter wheel. This type of spectrometer allows students to undertake projects requiring sensitive spectral measurements, such as determining the redshifts of quasars. The second instrument is a high resolution (R ~ 8000), moderate cost (appx. $5000) fiber fed echelle spectrometer. The echelle spectrometer will allow students to conduct Doppler measurements such as those used to study spectroscopic binaries. Both systems are designed to be used with robotic telescope systems. The availability of 3D printing enables both of these spectrographs to be constructed in hands-on instrumentation courses where students build and commission their own instruments. Additionally, these instruments enable introductory majors and non-majors laboratory students to gain experience conducting their own spectroscopic observations.

  5. Back to Basics: Instrument Cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Lisa

    2017-03-01

    Adequately cleaning and processing surgical instruments may be challenging for perioperative team members; however, the cleaning and processing of instruments are critical steps in making instruments safe to use on patients and achieving an appropriately safe OR environment. Instruments that are cleaned properly have had organic debris and soil removed, rendering them ready for sterilization or disinfection. This Back to Basics article covers the basic steps and considerations for cleaning and processing instruments before sterilization. Copyright © 2017 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. VISION - Vienna survey in orion : I. VISTA orion A survey

    OpenAIRE

    Meingast, S.; Alves,J.; Mardones, D.; Teixeira, P. S.; Lombardi, M.; Großschedl, J.; Ascenso, J.; Bouy, H.; Forbrich, J.; Goodman, A; Hacar, A.; Hasenberger, B.; Kainulainen, J.; Kubiak, K.; Lada, C.

    2016-01-01

    Orion A hosts the nearest massive star factory, thus offering a unique opportunity to resolve the processes connected with the formation of both low- and high-mass stars. Here we present the most detailed and sensitive near-infrared (NIR) observations of the entire molecular cloud to date. With the unique combination of high image quality, survey coverage, and sensitivity, our NIR survey of Orion A aims at establishing a solid empirical foundation for further studies of this important cloud. ...

  7. Path Sensitization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵著行; 闵应骅; 等

    1997-01-01

    For different delay models,the concept of sensitization can be very different.Traditonal concepts of sensitization cannot precisely describe circuit behavior when the input vectors change very fast.Using Boolean process aporoach,this paper presents a new definition of sensitization for arbitrary input waveforms.By this new concept it is found that if the inputs of a combinational circuit can change at any time,and each gate's delay varies within an interval (bounded gate delay model),then every path,which is not necessarily a single topological path,is sensitizable.From the experimental results it can be seen that,all nonsensitizable paths for traditional concepts actually can propagate transitions along them for some input waveforms.However,specified time between input transitions(STBIT) and minimum permissible pulse width(ε)are two major factors to make some paths non-sensitizable.

  8. The HAWC Galactic Plane Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Michelle

    2016-03-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory is an all-sky surveying instrument that covers 2/3 of the sky in 24 hours. It is designed with an emphasis on continuous sky coverage for transient events, and on the measurement of extended and large-scale structures. The array is located in Sierra Negra, Mexico at an elevation of 4,100 m and was inaugurated in March 2015. The HAWC array consists of 300 water Cherenkov detectors and is sensitive to extensive air showers triggered by cosmic rays and gamma rays from 100 GeV to >100 TeV. Thanks to its modular design, data taking began in Summer 2013 with 1/3 of the array. Analysis of the first year of data with the partial array shows detections that are coincident with known TeV supernova remnants and pulsar wind nebulae along the Galactic plane. Spectral and morphological analyses are ongoing to study the particle population and acceleration mechanism of these objects. With a growing data set taken with the completed array, source searches are underway for both point-like and extended emission along the Galactic plane, which contain many objects such as pulsar wind nebulae, young star clusters, and binaries.

  9. Crestridge Plant Surveys [ds210

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Sensitive plant surveys were conducted in 2000 for development of a Habitat Management and Monitoring Plan by Patricia Gordon-Reedy of the Conservation Biology...

  10. A Systematic Review of Student Self-Report Instruments That Assess Student-Teacher Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipo, Kate; Conner, Jerusha Osber; Davidson, Shannon; Pope, Denise

    2017-01-01

    Background: A large body of survey-based research asserts that the quality and strength of student-teacher relationships (STRs) predict a host of academic and nonacademic outcomes; however, advances in survey design research have led some to question existing survey instruments' psychometric soundness. Concurrently, qualitative research on STRs…

  11. Astronomical Instrumentation System Markup Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbaum, Jesse M.

    2016-05-01

    The Astronomical Instrumentation System Markup Language (AISML) is an Extensible Markup Language (XML) based file format for maintaining and exchanging information about astronomical instrumentation. The factors behind the need for an AISML are first discussed followed by the reasons why XML was chosen as the format. Next it's shown how XML also provides the framework for a more precise definition of an astronomical instrument and how these instruments can be combined to form an Astronomical Instrumentation System (AIS). AISML files for several instruments as well as one for a sample AIS are provided. The files demonstrate how AISML can be utilized for various tasks from web page generation and programming interface to instrument maintenance and quality management. The advantages of widespread adoption of AISML are discussed.

  12. Reconfigurable laser ranging instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiter, John

    1994-03-01

    This paper describes the design and operation of a fast, flexible, non-contact, eye-safe laser ranging instrument useful in a variety of industrial metrology situations, such as in-process machining control and part inspection. The system has variable computer-controlled standoff and depth of field, and can obtain 3-D images of surfaces within a range of from 1.5 ft to almost 10 ft from the final optical element. The minimum depth of field is about 3.5 in. at 1.5 ft and about 26 in. at the far range. The largest depth of field for which useful data are available is about 41 in. Resolution, with appropriate averaging, is about one part in 4000 of the depth of field, which implies a best case resolution for this prototype of 0.00075 in. System flexibility is achieved by computer controlled relative positioning of optical components.

  13. Portable musical instrument amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, David E. (Danbury, CT)

    1990-07-24

    The present invention relates to a musical instrument amplifier which is particularly useful for electric guitars. The amplifier has a rigid body for housing both the electronic system for amplifying and processing signals from the guitar and the system's power supply. An input plug connected to and projecting from the body is electrically coupled to the signal amplifying and processing system. When the plug is inserted into an output jack for an electric guitar, the body is rigidly carried by the guitar, and the guitar is operatively connected to the electrical amplifying and signal processing system without use of a loose interconnection cable. The amplifier is provided with an output jack, into which headphones are plugged to receive amplified signals from the guitar. By eliminating the conventional interconnection cable, the amplifier of the present invention can be used by musicians with increased flexibility and greater freedom of movement.

  14. The MICE PID Instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Bonesini, M

    2008-01-01

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will carry out a systematic investigation of ionization cooling of a muon beam. As the emittance measurement will be done on a particle-by-particle basis, sophisticated beam instrumentation is needed to measure particle coordinates and timing vs RF. A PID system based on three time-of-flight stations, two Aerogel Cerenkov detectors and a KLOE-like calorimeter has been constructed in order to keep beam contamination ($e, \\pi$) well below 1%. The MICE time-of-flight system will measure timing with a resolution better than 70 ps per plane, in a harsh environment due to high particle rates, fringe magnetic fields and electron backgrounds from RF dark current.

  15. Instrumented Architectural Simulation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delagi, B. A.; Saraiya, N.; Nishimura, S.; Byrd, G.

    1987-01-01

    Simulation of systems at an architectural level can offer an effective way to study critical design choices if (1) the performance of the simulator is adequate to examine designs executing significant code bodies, not just toy problems or small application fragements, (2) the details of the simulation include the critical details of the design, (3) the view of the design presented by the simulator instrumentation leads to useful insights on the problems with the design, and (4) there is enough flexibility in the simulation system so that the asking of unplanned questions is not suppressed by the weight of the mechanics involved in making changes either in the design or its measurement. A simulation system with these goals is described together with the approach to its implementation. Its application to the study of a particular class of multiprocessor hardware system architectures is illustrated.

  16. Instrumented Pipeline Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

    2010-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

  17. Ideology as instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Michael; Karno, Donna

    2007-12-01

    Comments on the article by J. T. Jost, which argued that the end-of-ideology claims that emerged in the aftermath of World War II were both incorrect and detrimental to the field of political psychology. M. Glassman and D. Karno make three critical points. First, Jost objectified ideology as a grand strategy implemented at the individual level, rather than as an instrument used for a specific purpose in activity. In doing so, he set ideology up as an "object" that guides human behavior rather than as a rational part of human experience. Second, they take issue with the idea that, because somebody acts in a manner that can be categorized as ideological, there actually is such a thing as ideology separate from that event and/or political experience and that psychologists ought to understand the meaning of ideology in order to understand future human activities as outside observers. Third, Jost seems to see this objective ideology as a unidirectional, causal mechanism for activity, a mechanism that assumes individuals act according to ideology, which eclipses the possibility that immediate ideological positions are the residue of purposeful activity. Glassman and Karno suggest that it may be better to take a pluralistic view of ideology in human action. Where ideology does exist, it is as a purposeful instrument--part of a logically based action to meet some ends-in-view--a mixture of immediate goals tied to secondary belief systems (which have been integrated to serve the material purposes of the purveyors of these ideologies). So if we are to understand ideology, we can only understand it through its use in human activity. (Copyright) 2007 APA.

  18. Aprendizaje instrumental en anfibios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén N. Muzio

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta una revisión de los estudios realizados acerca de los mecanismos de aprendizaje en anfibios. Se conoce muy poco acerca de los procesos de aprendizaje en anfibios, y aún menos respecto de las relaciones cerebro-aprendizaje. Recientemente hemos comenzado el estudio sistemático del aprendizaje instrumental en el sapo Bufo arenarum dentro de un marco comparativo. Se observaron diversos fenómenos de aprendizaje comunes a una amplia variedad de vertebrados, tales como la adquisición bajo condiciones de entrenamiento masivo y espaciado, la extinción, la recuperación espontánea, el efecto subsiguiente al refuerzo, y el efecto en al adquisición de la magnitud del reforzamiento. Además, comenzamos el análisis de los efectos sobre el aprendizaje de las lesiones del pallium medial (estructura postulada como homóloga al hipocampo de los mamíferos. La lesión del paIlium medial no tuvo efectos sobre el desempeño ni sobre la tasa de captación de agua durante la adquisición. Pero retardó significativamente la extinción de la respuesta instrumental en un corredor recto. Estos datos sugieren que el palli um medial de los sapos juega un papel en la inhibición de respuestas previamente aprendidas. Los resultados de nuestros estudios en el sapo Bufo arenarum aportan datos origi na1es a la limitada información disponible sobre aprendizaje en anfibios.

  19. Vacuum technology Practice for scientific instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshimura, Nagamitsu

    2008-01-01

    Nanotechnology has reached a level where almost every new development and even every new product uses features of nanoscopic properties of materials. As a consequence, an enormous amount of scientific instruments is used in order to synthesize and analyze new structures and materials. Due to the surface sensitivity of such materials, many of these instruments require ultrahigh vacuum that has to be provided under extreme conditions like very high voltages. In this book, Yoshimura provides a review of the UHV related development during the last decades. His very broad experience in the design enables him to present us this detailed reference. After a general description how to design UHV systems, he covers all important issue in detail, like pumps, outgasing, Gauges, and Electrodes for high voltages. Thus, this book serves as reference for everybody using UVH in his scientific equipment

  20. Instrumental and Analytic Methods for Bolometric Polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, W C; Crill, B P; Contaldi, C R; Kisner, T S; Lange, A E; MacTavish, C J; Netterfield, C B; Ruhl, J E

    2006-01-01

    We discuss instrumental and analytic methods that have been developed for the first generation of bolometric cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimeters. The design, characterization, and analysis of data obtained using Polarization Sensitive Bolometers (PSBs) are described in detail. This is followed by a brief study of the effect of various polarization modulation techniques on the recovery of sky polarization from scanning polarimeter data. Having been successfully implemented on the sub-orbital Boomerang experiment, PSBs are currently operational in two terrestrial CMB polarization experiments (QUaD and the Robinson Telescope). We investigate two approaches to the analysis of data from these experiments, using realistic simulations of time ordered data to illustrate the impact of instrumental effects on the fidelity of the recovered polarization signal. We find that the analysis of difference time streams takes full advantage of the high degree of common mode rejection afforded by the PSB design. In ad...

  1. 北京市男男性行为人群多分类敏感问题的调查%Survey and analysis of multiple choices sensitive questions of men who have sex with men in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 高歌; 贺志龙; 陈向宇; 杜俏俏; 阮玉华

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解北京市男男性行为人群多分类敏感问题的特征.方法 采用二阶段抽样和多分类特征敏感问题的随机应答技术对北京市男男性行为人群多分类敏感问题进行现场调查.结果 北京市男男性行为人群非北京户籍人口占71.57%,30岁以下占58.39%,未婚单身者占82.26%,该人群呈现出高学历高收入的特征,最近一年无商业性性行为的比例为83.29%,有商业性性行为者中费用为每次200~400元及600元以上者占88.9%,性行为的方式主要为肛交,占64.45%(95% C1:56.81%~72.48%).26.94%的人上一年度生殖器检查1~2次,10.97%的人未做检查.结论 北京市男男性行为人群存在潜在流动性大、体检次数少、肛交为主、商业性性行为多发等艾滋病(AIDS)高危行为,应进一步加强对这类人群的健康教育,以遏制AIDS的传播.%Objective To acquire the state of sensitive affairs of men who have sex with men in Beijing. Methods We used multiple choices of sensitive questions model on two-stage sampling to carry a survey on these people. Results We found that 71. 57% of the participants are not local people, 58. 39% of them are under 30 years of age, 82.26% are single, 26.94% carried physical examination on their genital organ once or twice last year and 10. 97% carried none. 83. 29% didn' t have commercial sexual behavior. The anal sex is the mainly way of sexual behavior and its rate is 64.45% and its 95% confidence limit is 56.81% to 72. 48%. Conclusion The MSM in Beijing have several factors of high risk of AIDS infection such as potential movement of population, lack of physical examination, commercial sexual behavior. We should enhance the education on safe sexual behavior towards MSM to prevent AIDS spreading in China.

  2. Assessing the local windfield with instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambrano, T.G.

    1980-10-01

    This report concerns the development and testing of a technique for the initial screening and evaluation of potential sites for wind-energy conversion systems (WECS). The methodology was developed through a realistic siting exercise. The siting exercise involved measurements of winds along the surface and winds aloft using a relatively new instrument system, the Tethered Aerodynamic Lifting Anemometer (TALA) kite; notation of ecological factors such as vegetation flagging, soil erosion and site exposure, and verification of an area best suited for wind-energy development by establishing and maintaining a wind monitoring network. The siting exercise was carried out in an approximately 100-square-mile region of the Tehachapi Mountains of Southern California. The results showed that a comprehensive site survey involving field measurements, ecological survey, and wind-monitoring can be an effective tool for preliminary evaluation of WECS sites.

  3. Intellective high-precision macromolecule resistance temperature/humidity instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guixiong; Zhou, Qinhe; Kuang, Yongcong; Xu, Jing; Zeng, Zhixin

    2001-09-01

    Considering that the resistance of macromolecule resistor varies in a wide range and humidity sensor component is sensitive to temperature as well, a intelligent high- precision macromolecule resistance temperature/humidity instrument was proposed in this paper, the instrument is based on the integration of frequency-and-period-measuring method, and sensing characteristic calculation and compensation using interpolation. Practical applications show that the instrument has the advantages of high precision, simple peripheral circuit, low cost, suitability for remote measurement, strong ability of anti-interference and wide operation range.

  4. Incidence of instrument separation using LightSpeed rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Kenneth I; Hammond, Nathan B; Biggs, Stephen G; Ibarrola, Jose L

    2006-01-01

    The use of nickel-titanium rotary instrument systems has gained popularity over the past 10 years. One of these instrument systems is the LightSpeed (LightSpeed Technology, Inc, San Antonio, TX). One drawback for all nickel-titanium rotary instruments is the incidence of instrument separation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of nonretrievable instrument separation using the LightSpeed system in a clinical setting. A total of 3543 canals were treated over a 24 month period and during that time, 46 LightSpeed instruments were separated and found to be nonretrievable, resulting in a separation rate of 1.30%. This rate was lower than previous reported studies.

  5. Tool – Material, Metaphor – Metonymy, Instrument(ness)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Breinbjerg, Morten; Pold, Søren

    2008-01-01

    This paper, presents in an abbreviated form the argument presented in an earlier paper[1], and tries to relate it to the theme, "retro in the interface". We introduce the concept instrumentness as a quality of human-computer interfaces. Instrumentness points to the way musical instruments are con...... pointing to alternative values, differing from traditional usability, which are also relevant in creative work outside art and music composition.......This paper, presents in an abbreviated form the argument presented in an earlier paper[1], and tries to relate it to the theme, "retro in the interface". We introduce the concept instrumentness as a quality of human-computer interfaces. Instrumentness points to the way musical instruments...... are controlled and conceptualized through values such as virtuosity and palyability, which are important for computer-mediated creative work supporting development in use beyond what is initially designed for. The papet performs a conceptual investigation into qualities in software interfaces that support...

  6. THOR Electric Field Instrument - EFI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khotyaintsev, Yuri; Bale, Stuart D.; Rothkaehl, Hanna; Bonnell, John; Åhlen, Lennart; Vaivads, Andris; Lindqvist, Per-Arne; Ivchenko, Nickolay; Soucek, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. The Electric Field Instrument (EFI) is to measure the electric field vector in the frequency range 0-200 kHz. EFI consists of two sets of sensors: Spin-plane Double Probes (EFI-SDP) providing high sensitivity DC electric field in the spacecraft spin plane (2D), and the High-Frequency Antenna (EFI-HFA) providing 3D electric field at frequencies above 1 kHz. EFI-SDP consists of 4 biased spherical probes extended on 50 m long wire booms, 90 degrees apart in the spin plane, giving a 100 m baseline for each of the two spin-plane electric field components. EFI-HFA consists of 6 x 1.25 m long monopoles, forming 3 dipolar antennas crossed at 90 degrees to each other. In addition to the sensors, EFI contains HFA and SDP pre-amplifiers, as well as bias electronics boards (BEBs) hosted in the man electronics box of the Field and Wave processor (FWP). As THOR spacecraft has a sun-pointing spin axis, EFI-SDP measures the electric field in the plane approximately orthogonal to the sun using long wire booms. The sun-pointing attitude greatly reduces errors due to wake effects and asymmetric photoelectron clouds, enabling the highly accurate in comparison to earlier missions ±0.1 mV/m near-DC electric field measurements. Interferometry using the electric field probes can be used to infer wavelengths and scale sizes at the smallest scales in the plasma. EFI also measures the floating potential of the satellite, which can be used to estimate the plasma density at very high time resolution (up to a few hundred Hz). The sun-pointing attitude greatly reduces changes in the illuminated area, and hence the associated spin-dependent errors. In combination with densities derived from the observed plasma frequency emission line, EFI monitors the plasma density from DC to a few hundred Hz. EFI measurements characterize electric field and density variations associated with kinetic

  7. Demonstration of an instrumented patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M.; Renaud, G.; Backman, D.; Genest, M.; Delannoy, M.

    2007-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of various strain measurement techniques at detecting the disbonding of a composite repair patch and then using this information to validate a new capacitance based disbond detection technique. The instrumented repair patch was parametrically designed with the help of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software to have a stress concentration at its tip. This stress concentration was designed to produce a disbond during fatigue testing, without the need for the introduction of any foreign material to create an artificial disbond condition. The aluminum substrate was grit blasted and the instrumented patch was bonded using FM ®73 adhesive, and was cured following the recommendations of the manufacturer. The geometric characteristics of the patch followed standard repair guidelines for such variables as material selection, taper angles and loading conditions, with the exception of the area designed for premature disbond. All test specimens were inspected using non-destructive testing technique (ultrasound pulse echo) to guarantee that no disbonding had occurred during curing of the specimen. The specimens were placed under fatigue loading to induce a disbond condition between the aluminum substrate and the patch. The specimens were cyclically loaded and strain gauges bonded to strategic locations on the aluminum and composite patch surface to be able to measure changes in surface strains as the disbond progressed. A Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system was also used to measure full field strains over the gauge length of the coupon. The DIC results were compared with the strain gauge data and were used to provide a qualitative measure of the load transfer in the bonded specimen, which clearly demonstrated the change in surface strain that occurred as the composite patch disbonded from the aluminum substrate. Thermoelastic Stress Analysis (TSA) was also used to measure surface strains on the

  8. Student Engagement: Developing a Conceptual Framework and Survey Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Gerald F.; Heller, Nathan A.; Burch, Jana J.; Freed, Rusty; Steed, Steve A.

    2015-01-01

    Student engagement is considered to be among the better predictors of learning, yet there is growing concern that there is no consensus on the conceptual foundation. The authors propose a conceptualization of student engagement grounded in A. W. Astin's (1984) Student Involvement Theory and W. A. Kahn's (1990) employee engagement research where…

  9. Student Engagement: Developing a Conceptual Framework and Survey Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Gerald F.; Heller, Nathan A.; Burch, Jana J.; Freed, Rusty; Steed, Steve A.

    2015-01-01

    Student engagement is considered to be among the better predictors of learning, yet there is growing concern that there is no consensus on the conceptual foundation. The authors propose a conceptualization of student engagement grounded in A. W. Astin's (1984) Student Involvement Theory and W. A. Kahn's (1990) employee engagement research where…

  10. PEP surveying procedures and equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linker, F.

    1982-06-01

    The PEP Survey and Alignment System, which employs both laser-based and optical survey methods, is described. The laser is operated in conjunction with the Tektronix 4051 computer and surveying instruments such as ARM and SAM, system which is designed to automate data input, reduction, and production of alignment instructions. The laser system is used when surveying ring quadrupoles, main bend magnets, sextupoles, and is optional when surveying RF cavities and insertion quadrupoles. Optical methods usually require that data be manually entered into the computer for alignment, but in some cases, an element can be aligned using nominal values of fiducial locations without use of the computer. Optical surveying is used in the alignment of NIT and SIT, low field bend magnets, wigglers, RF cavities, and insertion quadrupoles.

  11. Ex-core instrumentation; Instrumentation hors coeur des reacteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burel, J.P. [Schneider Electric S.A., 92 - Boulogne-Billancourt (France)

    1999-01-01

    The safety and the control of the reactor need to master the nuclear power from the core radiation measurement. According to the reactor dimensions and conception, the nuclear parameters monitoring is realized through two instrumentation systems: the ex-core instrumentation system which use detector placed outside of the core and the in-core instrumentation system. This paper deals with the ex-core systems based on neutronic measurements and details the detectors choice, the treatment circuits, data processing, realizations in France and also example of the Wwr reactor instrumentation. (A.L.B.)

  12. Japanese infrared survey mission IRIS (ASTRO-F)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Hiroshi

    1998-08-01

    The IR Imaging Survey (IRIS) is the second IR astronomy mission of the Institute of Space and Astronomical Science (ISAS). The IRIS is a 70 cm cooled telescope dedicated for IR sky survey. This project has been approved as ISAS's 21st science mission 'ASTRO-F', and prototype model development has been ongoing since 1997. The IRIS will be launched with ISAS's launch vehicle M-V, into a sun-synchronous polar orbit with an altitude of 750 km. The IRIS telescope has a 70 cm aperture and is cooled to 6K using Stirling-cycle coolers and liquid helium. The primary and secondary mirrors are light-weight mirrors make of silicon carbide. Two focal- plane instruments are installed. One is the far-IR surveyor (FIS) which will survey the entire sky in the wavelength range from 50 to 200 micron with angular resolutions of 30- 50 arcsec. The other focal-plane instrument is the IR camera (IRC). It employs large-format detector arrays and will take deep images of selected sky regions in the near and mid IR range. The field of view of the IRC is 10 arcmin and the spatial resolution is approximately 2 arcsec. The IRIS has much higher sensitivity than that of the IRAS survey. The detection limits are 1-100 micro Jy in the near-MID IR and 10-100 mJy in the far IR. With the IRIS survey, great progress is expected in the research on evolution of galaxies, formation of stars and planets, dark matter and brown dwarfs. The IRIS is now scheduled to be launched in early 2003.

  13. Surveying the Bright Stars by Optical Interferometry I: A Search for Multiplicity Among Stars of Spectral Types F - K

    CERN Document Server

    Hutter, Donald; Tycner, Christopher; Benson, James; Hummel, Christian; Sanborn, Jason; Franz, Otto G; Johnston, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    We present the first results from an ongoing survey for multiplicity among the bright stars using the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer (NPOI). We first present a summary of NPOI observations of known multiple systems, including the first detection of the companion of $\\beta$ Scuti with precise relative astrometry, to illustrate the instrument's detection sensitivity for binaries at magnitude differences $\\Delta$$m$ $\\lessapprox$ 3 over the range of angular separation 3 - 860 milliarcseconds (mas). A limiting $\\Delta$$m_{700}$ $\\sim$ 3.5 is likely for binaries where the component spectral types differ by less than two. Model fits to these data show good agreement with published orbits, and we additionally present a new orbit solution for one of these stars, $\\sigma$ Her. We then discuss early results of the survey of bright stars at $\\delta$ $\\geq$ -20$\\deg$. This survey, which complements previous surveys of the bright stars by speckle interferometry, initially emphasizes bright stars of spectral types F...

  14. Sensitive innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Katia Dupret

    Present paper discusses sources of innovation as heterogenic and at times intangible processes. Arguing for heterogeneity and intangibility as sources of innovation originates from a theoretical reading in STS and ANT studies (e.g. Callon 1986, Latour 1996, Mol 2002, Pols 2005) and from field work...... in the area of mental health (Dupret Søndergaard 2009, 2010). The concept of sensitive innovation is developed to capture and conceptualise exactly those heterogenic and intangible processes. Sensitive innovation is therefore primarily a way to understand innovative sources that can be......, but are not necessarily, recognized and acknowledged as such in the outer organisational culture or by management. The added value that qualifies these processes to be defined as “innovative” are thus argued for along different lines than in more traditional innovation studies (e.g. studies that build on the classic...

  15. Considerations for conducting Web-based survey research with people living with human immunodeficiency virus using a community-based participatory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kelly K; Solomon, Patricia; Worthington, Catherine; Ibáñez-Carrasco, Francisco; Baxter, Larry; Nixon, Stephanie A; Baltzer-Turje, Rosalind; Robinson, Greg; Zack, Elisse

    2014-03-13

    Web or Internet-based surveys are increasingly popular in health survey research. However, the strengths and challenges of Web-based surveys with people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are unclear. The aim of this article is to describe our experience piloting a cross-sectional, Web-based, self-administered survey with adults living with HIV using a community-based participatory research approach. We piloted a Web-based survey that investigated disability and rehabilitation services use with a sample of adults living with HIV in Canada. Community organizations in five provinces emailed invitations to clients, followed by a thank you/reminder one week later. We obtained survey feedback in a structured phone interview with respondents. Participant responses were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using directed content analysis. Of 30 people living with HIV who accessed the survey link, 24/30 (80%) initiated and 16/30 (53%) completed the survey instrument. A total of 17 respondents participated in post-survey interviews. Participants described the survey instrument as comprehensive, suggesting content validity. The majority (13/17, 76%) felt instruction and item wording were clear and easy to understand, and found the software easy to navigate. Participants felt having a pop-up reminder directing them to missed items would be useful. Strengths of implementing the Web-based survey included: our community-based participatory approach, ease of software use, ability for respondents to complete the questionnaire on one's own time at one's own pace, opportunity to obtain geographic variation, and potential for respondent anonymity. Considerations for future survey implementation included: respondent burden and fatigue, the potentially sensitive nature of HIV Web-based research, data management and storage, challenges verifying informed consent, varying computer skills among respondents, and the burden on community organizations. Overall, results provide

  16. Industrial instrumentation principles and design

    CERN Document Server

    Padmanabhan, Tattamangalam R

    2000-01-01

    Pneumatic, hydraulic and allied instrumentation schemes have given way to electronic schemes in recent years thanks to the rapid strides in electronics and allied areas. Principles, design and applications of such state-of-the-art instrumentation schemes form the subject matter of this book. Through representative examples, the basic building blocks of instrumentation schemes are identified and each of these building blocks discussed in terms of its design and interface characteristics. The common generic schemes synthesized with such building blocks are dealt with subsequently. This forms the scope of Part I. The focus in Part II is on application. Displacement and allied instrumentation, force and allied instrumentation and process instrumentation in terms of temperature, flow, pressure level and other common process variables are dealt with separately and exhaustively. Despite the diversity in the sensor principles and characteristics and the variety in the applications and their environments, it is possib...

  17. Instruments to assess integrated care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Anne Marie; Godtfredsen, Nina Skavlan; Høst, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    abstracts were independently reviewed by two investigators. RESULTS: We identified 23 measurement instruments and, within these, eight organisational elements were found. No measurement instrument covered all organisational elements, but almost all studies include well-defined structural and process aspects......INTRODUCTION: Although several measurement instruments have been developed to measure the level of integrated health care delivery, no standardised, validated instrument exists covering all aspects of integrated care. The purpose of this review is to identify the instruments concerning how...... to measure the level of integration across health-care sectors and to assess and evaluate the organisational elements within the instruments identified. METHODS: An extensive, systematic literature review in PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, Web of Science for the years 1980-2011. Selected...

  18. An Examination of Secondary Wind Instrument Methods Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, Cynthia L.; Juchniewicz, Jay

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate current secondary woodwind, brass, and combined wind instrument methods courses for preservice music teachers across the United States. Two-hundred eleven (N = 211) wind methods course instructors from National Association of Schools of Music-accredited institutions completed an online survey that…

  19. Effect of Sex Identification on Instrument Assignment by Band Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher M.; Stewart, Erin E.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of sex identification on the assignment of instruments to beginning band students. Participants were band directors solicited at music conferences and music education students solicited from major universities across the United States. Participants completed an online survey about instrument…

  20. The Clementine instrument complement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucey, Paul G.

    1993-01-01

    The recent successes of the Galileo solid-state imaging (SSI) experiment at the Moon and Gaspra show the utility of multispectral imaging of planetary objects. 'Clementine' is the planetary community's 'code name' for the SDIO (Space Defense Initiative Organization), mission to the Moon and the asteroid Geographos. This mission is designed as a long term stressing test on sensors and space systems developed for SDIO. In the course of this test Clementine will obtain science data using a varied and powerful array of remote sensing instruments which were developed by or for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California. Clementine carries five cameras, one for navigation and four for science experiments. In addition, a laser ranger is included which will serve as a laser altimeter. The Clementine cameras cover a wider range of spatial resolutions and wavelength range than did Galileo and are almost ideally suited to mapping of mafic rock types as are present on the Moon and expected at Geographos. Calibration of the cameras will occur at the sensor calibration laboratory at LLNL. In flight calibrations, using standard stars and other standards should improve the stated accuracies. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) include the following noise sources: shot noise, calibration error, digitization noise, readout noise, and frame transfer noise (where applicable). The achieved SNRs are a balance between detector saturation and acceptable image smear. The 'worst' case uses the longest possible integration times.