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  1. Survey of Preventable Disaster Deaths at Medical Institutions in Areas Affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake: Retrospective Survey of Medical Institutions in Miyagi Prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Mase, Tomohiko; Otomo, Yasuhiro; Koido, Yuichi; Kushimoto, Shigeki

    2017-10-01

    Introduction In 2015, the authors reported the results of a preliminary investigation of preventable disaster deaths (PDDs) at medical institutions in areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake (2011). This initial survey considered only disaster base hospitals (DBHs) and hospitals that had experienced at least 20 patient deaths in Miyagi Prefecture (Japan); therefore, hospitals that experienced fewer than 20 patient deaths were not investigated. This was an additional study to the previous survey to better reflect PDD at hospitals across the entire prefecture. Of the 147 hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture, the 14 DBHs and 82 non-DBHs that agreed to participate were included in an on-site survey. A database was created based on the medical records of 1,243 patient deaths that occurred between March 11, 2011 and April 1, 2011, followed by determination of their status as PDDs. A total of 125 cases of PDD were identified among the patients surveyed. The rate of PDD was significantly higher at coastal hospitals than inland hospitals (17.3% versus 6.3%; Pdisaster deaths in non-DBHs were most numerous in facilities with few general beds, especially among patients hospitalized before the disaster in hospitals with fewer than 100 beds. Categorized by area, the most frequent causes of PDD were: insufficient medical resources, disrupted lifelines, delayed medical intervention, and deteriorated environmental conditions in homes and emergency shelters in coastal areas; and were delayed medical intervention and disrupted lifelines in inland areas. Categorized by hospital function, the most frequent causes were: delayed medical intervention, deteriorated environmental conditions in homes and emergency shelters, and insufficient medical resources at DBHs; while those at non-DBHs were disrupted lifelines, insufficient medical resources, delayed medical intervention, and lack of capacity for transport within the area. Preventable disaster death at medical institutions in areas

  2. Multi-Institutional Survey of Medical Treatment for Late-Onset Hypogonadism in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Hisanori; Matsuda, Tadashi

    2017-03-01

    The adequate criteria for late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) diagnosis, including serum testosterone levels, type (total or free testosterone) and duration of androgen replacement therapy, and evaluations of treatment effectiveness remain controversial. To evaluate the current status of medical treatment for LOH in Japan, the first nationwide survey were performed. A total of 35 questionnaires answered by urologists in high-volume facilities were analyzed. The median numbers of patients with hypogonadism-related symptoms per month were 10. Aging Male Symptom Score, International Index of Erectile Function, and International Prostate Symptom Score questionnaires were widely used for questionnaires. The diagnostic criteria for LOH varied. Among the patients who presented with hypogonadism-related symptoms, the mean proportion of patients undergoing treatment for LOH was 62.3%. In Japan, LOH was treated not only with testosterone enanthate injections or testosterone ointment but also with Kampo medicine. In many facilities, LOH treatment effectiveness was assessed after a 3-month period. Efficacy was assessed in different ways. Treatment effectiveness rate ranged from 30% to 80%. The duration of LOH treatment was not fixed and was established individually by both the patient and treating physician. This study showed that the real clinical practices for LOH are very diverse, and a general consensus is needed.

  3. Working Conditions and Lifestyle of Female Surgeons Affiliated to the Japan Neurosurgical Society: Findings of Individual and Institutional Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimaki, Takamitsu; Shibui, Soichiro; Kato, Yoko; Matsumura, Akira; Yamasaki, Mami; Date, Isao; Hongo, Kazuhiro; Kuroda, Satoshi; Matsumae, Mitsunori; Nakao, Naoyuki; Sakurada, Kaori; Shimokawa, Shoko; Kayama, Takamasa

    2016-11-15

    To investigate the working conditions of female neurosurgeons in Japan, two surveys were conducted by The Japan Neurosurgical Society: one involving female neurosurgeons themselves and the other involving the chiefs of neurosurgical departments. The responses were received from 224 (43.8%) female neurosurgeons and 496 (61.2%) departmental chiefs. About half (50.2%) of the female neurosurgeons were married and 39.2% had children (average number of children, 1.27). Their work was full-time in 80.6% of cases; on average, they worked 51.9 h per week, had night duty 2.8 times per month, and had 5.7 days off per month. Many of them stated that they were satisfied with their job status, but about half of them reported difficulty in maintaining a correct work-life balance. Among the institutions surveyed, 29% had female neurosurgeons. The survey of departmental chiefs revealed that the proxies for maternity leave were not available at most institutions, and that there was only limited availability of night child care (41%) or sick child care (39%); female neurosurgeons did not appear to be well-informed of these support systems. These findings suggest that apart from systematic approaches already in place, female neurosurgeons would prefer to have more understanding from their peers and chiefs.

  4. Inverse correlation between coffee consumption and prevalence of metabolic syndrome: baseline survey of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study in Tokushima, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takami, Hidenobu; Nakamoto, Mariko; Uemura, Hirokazu; Katsuura, Sakurako; Yamaguchi, Miwa; Hiyoshi, Mineyoshi; Sawachika, Fusakazu; Juta, Tomoya; Arisawa, Kokichi

    2013-01-01

    It is unclear whether consumption of coffee and green tea is associated with metabolic syndrome. This cross-sectional study enrolled 554 adults who had participated in the baseline survey of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study in Tokushima Prefecture, Japan. Consumption of coffee and green tea was assessed using a questionnaire. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) and the Japan Society for the Study of Obesity (JASSO). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between consumption of coffee and green tea and prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components. After adjustment for sex, age, and other potential confounders, greater coffee consumption was associated with a significantly lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome, as defined by NCEP ATP III criteria (P for trend = 0.03). Participants who drank more coffee had a lower odds ratio (OR) for high serum triglycerides (P for trend = 0.02), but not for increased waist circumference or high blood pressure. Using JASSO criteria, moderate coffee consumption (1.5 to inversely correlated with metabolic syndrome diagnosed using NCEP ATP III criteria, mainly because it was associated with lower serum triglyceride levels. This association highlights the need for further prospective studies of the causality of these relationships.

  5. Working Conditions and Lifestyle of Female Surgeons Affiliated to the Japan Neurosurgical Society: Findings of Individual and Institutional Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    FUJIMAKI, Takamitsu; SHIBUI, Soichiro; KATO, Yoko; MATSUMURA, Akira; YAMASAKI, Mami; DATE, Isao; HONGO, Kazuhiro; KURODA, Satoshi; MATSUMAE, Mitsunori; NAKAO, Naoyuki; SAKURADA, Kaori; SHIMOKAWA, Shoko; KAYAMA, Takamasa

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the working conditions of female neurosurgeons in Japan, two surveys were conducted by The Japan Neurosurgical Society: one involving female neurosurgeons themselves and the other involving the chiefs of neurosurgical departments. The responses were received from 224 (43.8%) female neurosurgeons and 496 (61.2%) departmental chiefs. About half (50.2%) of the female neurosurgeons were married and 39.2% had children (average number of children, 1.27). Their work was full-time in 8...

  6. Survey of preventable disaster death at medical institutions in areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake: a retrospective preliminary investigation of medical institutions in Miyagi Prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Tsuruwa, Miho; Ueki, Yuzuru; Kohayagawa, Yoshitaka; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Otomo, Yasuhiro; Koido, Yuichi; Kushimoto, Shigeki

    2015-04-01

    The 2011, magnitude (M) 9, Great East Japan Earthquake and massive tsunami caused widespread devastation and left approximately 18,500 people dead or missing. The incidence of preventable disaster death (PDD) during the Great East Japan Earthquake remains to be clarified; the present study investigated PDD at medical institutions in areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake in order to improve disaster medical systems. A total of 25 hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture (Japan) that were disaster base hospitals (DBHs), or had at least 20 patient deaths between March 11, 2011 and April 1, 2011, were selected to participate based on the results of a previous study. A database was created using the medical records of all patient deaths (n=868), and PDD was determined from discussion with 10 disaster health care professionals. A total of 102 cases of PDD were identified at the participating hospitals. The rate of PDD was higher at coastal hospitals compared to inland hospitals (62/327, 19.0% vs 40/541, 7.4%; Pdeath at medical institutions in areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake occurred mainly at coastal hospitals. Insufficient resources (at GHs), environmental factors (at coastal hospitals), and delayed medical intervention (at all hospitals) constituted the major potential contributing factors. Further investigation of all medical institutions in Miyagi Prefecture, including those with fewer than 20 patient deaths, is required in order to obtain a complete picture of the details of PDD at medical institutions in the disaster area.

  7. Research Survey on the Therapeutic Use of Horticulture in Welfare Institutions and Psychiatric Hospitals in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    松尾, 英輔; 藤木, 雄二; 藤原, 勝紀; Matsuo, Eisuke; Fujiki, Yuji; Fujiwara, Katsunori

    1997-01-01

    A survey was conducted using a mailed questionnaire to investigate the use of horticulture in welfare institutions and psychiatric hospitals in Fukuoka Prefecture. Approximately 70% of the 230 surveyed institutions and hospitals responded. Sixty-two% of the responding institutions had the clients engaged in horticulture. All of them reported having sites for horticultural activities, including container gardening. It was found that farms and flower gardens were the most commonly used sites. H...

  8. Radioactivity survey data in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in Japan were determined in rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, total diet, rice, milk, vegetables, sea fish, shellfish, and seaweeds. The results were shown in tables. (J.P.N.)

  9. Radioactivity survey data in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in Japan were determined in rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, freshwater, soils, total diet, milk, vegetables, tea, sea fish, freshwater fish, shellfish, and seaweeds. The results were shown in tables. (J.P.N.)

  10. The law for the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The Act for Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has been promulgated anew. Contents are the following : general rules, officials, advisors and personnel, duties, financial affairs and accounts, supervision, miscellaneous rules, penal provisions, and additional rules. (In the additional rules, the merger into JAERI of Japan Nuclear Ship Research and Development Agency is treated.) Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute conducts research etc. for the development of atomic energy comprehensively and efficiently, thereby contributing to the promotion of atomic energy research, development and utilization, according to the Atomic Energy Fundamental Act. Duties are atomic energy basic and application research, reactor relation, training of the personnel, RIs relation, etc. (Mori, K.)

  11. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Major nuclear research institutes in Japan are the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC), National Research Institute of Radiological Science (NIRS), and the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN). In the 50s and 60s JAERI concentrated on the introduction of nuclear technology from overseas. Energy security issues led to the development of a strong nuclear power programme in the next two decades resulting in Japan having 50 light water cooled nuclear power plants in operation. Japan also worked on other reactor concepts. The current emphasis of JAERI is on advanced reactors and nuclear fusion. Its budget of 270 million US$ supports five research establishments. JAERI has strong collaboration with industry and university system on nuclear and other advanced research topics (neutron science, photon science). In many areas Japan has strong international links. JAERI has also been transferring know-how on radioisotope and radiation applications to the developing countries particularly through IAEA-RCA mechanisms. (author)

  12. Present status of marine environmental radioactivity survey in the sea of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, H.

    1994-01-01

    Science and Technology Agency has been conducting some Marine Environmental Radioactivity Surveys around Japan in cooperation with the relevant organizations (Maritime Safety Agency, Japan Meteorological Agency, Fishery Agency, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Japan Marine Science and Technology Center, Japan Chemical Analysis Center and Marine Ecology Research Institute). Several artificial radionuclides have been detected but the main origin is supposed to be fall-out. The level trend of marine environmental radioactivity has no anomalies excepting the effect of Chernobyl Accident. The data summarized here are as follows. 1. Marine Environmental Survey of Fisheries near the Nuclear Power Stations, 2. Past Data of Marine Environmental Radioactivity around Japan (Apr. 1982 - Mar. 1991), 3. Marine Environmental Survey of the Sea of Japan (spring, 1993), 4. Marine Environmental Survey of the Sea of Japan (autumn, 1993). In addition, JAPAN-KOREA-RUSSIA JOINT EXPEDITION in the Sea of Japan will start in the middle of March. We are expecting to get valuable data through the EXPEDITION. (J.P.N.)

  13. Reliability of telecommunications systems following a major disaster: survey of secondary and tertiary emergency institutions in Miyagi Prefecture during the acute phase of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Daisuke; Furukawa, Hajime; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Abe, Yoshiko; Washio, Toshikatsu; Arafune, Tatsuhiko; Sato, Dai; Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Ochi, Sae; Tominaga, Teiji; Kushimoto, Shigeki

    2014-04-01

    Telecommunication systems are important for sharing information among health institutions to successfully provide medical response following disasters. The aim of this study was to clarify the problems associated with telecommunication systems in the acute phase of the Great East Japan Earthquake (March 11, 2011). All 72 of the secondary and tertiary emergency hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture were surveyed to evaluate the telecommunication systems in use during the 2011 Great Japan Earthquake, including satellite mobile phones, multi-channel access (MCA) wireless systems, mobile phones, Personal Handy-phone Systems (PHS), fixed-line phones, and the Internet. Hospitals were asked whether the telecommunication systems functioned correctly during the first four days after the earthquake, and, if not, to identify the cause of the malfunction. Each telecommunication system was considered to function correctly if the hospital staff could communicate at least once in every three calls. Valid responses were received from 53 hospitals (73.6%). Satellite mobile phones functioned correctly at the highest proportion of the equipped hospitals, 71.4%, even on Day 0. The MCA wireless system functioned correctly at the second highest proportion of the equipped hospitals. The systems functioned correctly at 72.0% on Day 0 and at 64.0% during Day 1 through Day 3. The main cause of malfunction of the MCA wireless systems was damage to the base station or communication lines (66.7%). Ordinary (personal or general communication systems) mobile phones did not function correctly at any hospital until Day 2, and PHS, fixed-line phones, and the Internet did not function correctly at any area hospitals that were severely damaged by the tsunami. Even in mildly damaged areas, these systems functioned correctly at telecommunications systems do not function.

  14. Nuclear power supply (Japan Nuclear Safety Institute)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameyama, Masashi

    2013-01-01

    After experienced nuclear disaster occurred on March 11, 2011, role of nuclear power in future energy share in Japan became uncertain because most public seemed to prefer nuclear power phase out to energy security or costs. Whether nuclear power plants were safe shutdown or operational, technologies were requisite for maintaining their equipment by refurbishment, partly replacement or pressure proof function recovery works, all of which were basically performed by welding. Nuclear power plants consisted of tanks, piping and pumps, and considered as giant welded structures welding was mostly used. Reactor pressure vessel subject to high temperature and high pressure was around 200mm thick and made of low-alloy steels (A533B), stainless steels (308, 316) and nickel base alloys (Alloy 600, 690). Kinds of welding at site were mostly shielded-metal arc welding and TIG welding, and sometimes laser welding. Radiation effects on welding of materials were limited although radiation protection was needed for welding works under radiation environment. New welding technologies had been applied after their technical validation by experiments applicable to required regulation standards. Latest developed welding technologies were seal welding to prevent SCC propagation and temper-bead welding for cladding after removal of cracks. Detailed procedures of repair welding of Alloy 600 at the reactor outlet pipe at Oi Nuclear Power Plants unit 3 due to PWSCC were described as an example of crack removal and water jet peening, and then overlay by temper-bead welding using Alloy 600 and clad welding using Alloy 690. (T. Tanaka)

  15. Radioactivity survey data in Japan, Part 2. Dietary materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    This is a report on radioactivity in Japan issued by National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba on September, 1999. This data relates to some environmental materials such as rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water and freshwater, soil, sea water sea sediments, total diet, rice, milk, vegetables, tea, fish, shellfish and seaweeds, which were collected from October, 1997 to March, 1998. In the survey data, followings are contained: 1) Collection and pretreatment of samples, 2) Preparation of samples for analysis, 3) Separation of Strontium-90 and Cesium-137, 4) Determination of stable Strontium, Calcium, and Potassium, 5) Counting, 6) Results, and 7) Contents of Figure. (J.P.N.)

  16. Radioactivity survey data in Japan, Part 2. Dietary materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-02-01

    This is a report on radioactivity in Japan issued by National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba on September, 2001. This data relates to some environmental materials such as rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water and freshwater, soil, sea water sea sediments, total diet, rice, milk, vegetables, tea, fish, shellfish and seaweeds, which were collected from October, 1999 to March, 2000. In the survey data, followings are contained: 1) Collection and pretreatment of samples, 2) Preparation of samples for analysis, 3) Separation of Strontium-90 and Cesium-137, 4) Determination of stable Strontium, Calcium, and Potassium, 5) Counting, 6) Results, and 7) Contents of Figure. (J.P.N.)

  17. Radioactivity survey data in Japan. Pt. 2. Dietary materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    This is a report on radioactivity in Japan issued by National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba on August, 1998. This data relates to some environmental materials such as rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, freshwater, soil, sea water and sea sediments and some dietary materials such as rice, milk, vegetables, tea, fish, shellfish, and seaweeds, which were collected from April to September, 1995. In the survey data, followings are contained: 1) Collection and pretreatment of samples, 2) Preparation of samples for analysis, 3) Separation of Strontium 90 and Cesium 137, 4) Determination of stable Strontium, Calcium, and Potassium, 5) Counting, 6) Results, and 7) Contents of Figure. (J.P.N.)

  18. Radioactivity survey data in Japan, Part 2. Dietary materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-08-01

    This is a report on radioactivity in Japan issued by National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba on August, 2000. This data relates to some environmental materials such as rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water and freshwater, soil, sea water sea sediments, total diet, rice, milk, vegetables, tea, fish, shellfish and seaweeds, which were collected from April to September, 1998. In the survey data, followings are contained: 1) Collection and pretreatment of samples, 2) Preparation of samples for analysis, 3) Separation of Strontium-90 and Cesium-137, 4) Determination of stable Strontium, Calcium, and Potassium, 5) Counting, 6) Results, and 7) Contents of Figure. (J.P.N.)

  19. Radioactivity survey data in Japan, Part 2. Dietary materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-09-01

    This is a report on radioactivity in Japan issued by National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba on September, 2000. This data relates to some environmental materials such as rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water and freshwater, soil, sea water sea sediments, total diet, rice, milk, vegetables, tea, fish, shellfish and seaweeds, which were collected from October, 1998 to March, 1999. In the survey data, followings are contained: 1) Collection and pretreatment of samples, 2) Preparation of samples for analysis, 3) Separation of Strontium-90 and Cesium-137, 4) Determination of stable Strontium, Calcium, and Potassium, 5) Counting, 6) Results, and 7) Contents of Figure. (J.P.N.)

  20. Radioactivity survey data in Japan, Part 2. Dietary materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This is a report on radioactivity in Japan issued by National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba on August, 2001. This data relates to some environmental materials such as rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water and freshwater, soil, sea water sea sediments, total diet, rice, milk, vegetables, tea, fish, shellfish and seaweeds, which were collected from April to September, 1999. In the survey data, followings are contained: 1) Collection and pretreatment of samples, 2) Preparation of samples for analysis, 3) Separation of Strontium-90 and Cesium-137, 4) Determination of stable Strontium, Calcium, and Potassium, 5) Counting, 6) Results, and 7) Contents of Figure. (J.P.N.)

  1. Radioactivity survey data in Japan, Part 2. Dietary materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    This is a report on radioactivity in Japan issued by National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba on August, 1999. This data relates to some environmental materials such as rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water and freshwater, soil, sea water sea sediments, total diet, rice, milk, vegetables, tea, fish, shellfish and seaweeds, which were collected from April to September, 1997. In the survey data, followings are contained: 1) Collection and pretreatment of samples, 2) Preparation of samples for analysis, 3) Separation of Strontium-90 and Cesium-137, 4) Determination of stable Strontium, Calcium, and Potassium, 5) Counting, 6) Results, and 7) Contents of Figure. (J.P.N.)

  2. Radioactivity survey data in Japan, no. 56

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kiriko; Inoue, Yoshikazu; Iwakura, Tetsuo; Kasida, Yoshihiko.

    1981-03-01

    This report was drawn up by the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. In order to measure tritium levels and consequently to assess the significance of the tritium in the environmental water around nuclear facilities regarding public health, the tritium surveillance program began in 1967 locally in Tsuruga and Mihama districts. Now, it has been expanded to 12 nuclear power stations and 5 nuclear facilities. In this report, the data from 1977 to 1980 are presented. Though the frequency of sampling was limited to once or twice a year in most cases, the time and point of measurement were fixed in each station in order to know the annual variation of tritium levels. The water samples were land water such as rivers, reservoirs and ponds and wells, sea water for secondary cooling system, and tap water around nuclear facilities, and land water, sea water and tap water in the places remote from nuclear facilities as the criteria. The samples with less than 100 pCi/l of tritium were electrolytically enriched, and counted with liquid scintillation counters. The results in respective facilities are reported. The tritium concentration in rivers, streams and reservoirs decreased exponentially from 400 pCi/l in 1971 to 100 pCi/l in 1980 with the half life of about 5 years in northeast Japan. Sea water was not affected by the effluent from nuclear facilities, and the tritium concentration in tap water was almost same as rivers. (Kako, I.)

  3. National survey of hospital child protection teams in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanoue, Koji; Senda, Masayoshi; An, Byongmun; Tasaki, Midori; Taguchi, Megumi; Kobashi, Kosuke; Oana, Shinji; Mizoguchi, Fumitake; Shiraishi, Yuko; Yamada, Fujiko; Okuyama, Makiko; Ichikawa, Kotaro

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the penetration rate of child protection teams (CPTs) in medical institutions and associations between CPT functions and hospital services. We collected data in October of 2015 from 377 hospitals in Japan offering pediatric organ transplantation. The questionnaire included questions regarding the existence of a CPT, the number of child maltreatment cases discussed and reported per year, CPT functions including 21 items about staffing, manuals, meeting, prevention, education, and collaboration, and the services provided by the hospital. Of the 377 institutions, 122 (32.4%) answered the survey. There were significant associations between CPT functions and the number of pediatric beds (r = .27), number of pediatricians (r = .27), number of outpatients (r = .39), number of emergency outpatients (r = .28), and emergency medical care (p = .009). In a multiple regression analysis, CPT functions were significantly associated with the number of CPT members, pediatric outpatient numbers, and pediatric emergency outpatient numbers. Japan has no CPT guidelines that outline what CPTs should offer in terms of structure, staffing, functions, and systems. Hospitals with many pediatric and emergency outpatients are expected to play major roles in providing services such as specialty care, intensive care, and education. They are also expected to play a role in detecting and managing child maltreatment, and have, by their own initiative, improved their capacities to achieve these goals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Radioactivity survey data in Japan, part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    The publication is aimed at providing radioactivity survey data in environmental and dietary materials in Japan. Part 2 gives dietary materials, consisting of total diet, rice, milk, vegetables, sea fish, freshwater fish, shellfish, and seaweeds. Samples were collected from 37 sampling locations during the period between August 1988 and March 1989, and were sent to the Japan Chemical Analysis Center for radiochemical analysis. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in these dietary materials are tabulated. The maximum concentrations of strontium-90 and cesium-137 were as follows: 0.12±0.012 Bq/p·d and 0.16±0.012 Bq/p·d, respectively, for total diet; 0.0000±0.0084 Bq/Kgwet and 0.42±0.019 Bq/Kgwet for rice (producing districts); 0.0000±0.0084 Bq/Kgwet and 0.048±0.0091 Bq/Kgwet for rice (consuming districts); 0.059±0.008 Bq/l and 0.26±0.013 Bq/l for milk (producing districts for domestic program); 0.14±0.013 Bq/l and 0.19±0.011 Bq/l for milk (producing districts for WHO program); 0.057±0.008 Bq/l and 0.15±0.010 Bq/l for milk (consuming districts); 0.97±0.032 Bq/Kgwet and 0.062±0.010 Bq/Kgwet for vegetables (producing districts); 0.52±0.024 Bq/Kgwet and 0.051±0.009 Bq/Kgwet for vegetables (consuming districts); 0.043±0.010 Bq/Kgwet and 0.34±0.017 Bq/Kgwet for sea fish; 0.96±0.032 Bq/Kgwet and 0.066±0.009 Bq/Kgwet for freshwater fish; 0.017±0.019 Bq/Kgwet and 0.027±0.011 Bq/Kgwet for shellfish; and 0.031±0.011 Bq/Kgwet and 0.12±0.10 Bq/Kgwet for seaweeds. Yearly changes in the concentrations of both strontium-90 and cesium-137 from 1985 through 1989 are given in figures. (N.K.)

  5. Radioactivity survey data in Japan, Part 2. Dietary materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This is a report on radioactivity in Japan issued by National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba on March, 1999. This data relates to some environmental materials such as rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, freshwater, soil, sea water and sea sediments and some dietary materials such as rice, milk, vegetables, sea fish, freshwater fish, shellfish, and seaweeds, which were collected from October, 1996 to March, 1997. In the survey data, followings are contained: 1) Collection and pretreatment of samples, 2) Preparation of samples for analysis, 3) Separation of Strontium-90 and Cesium-137, 4) Determination of stable Strontium, Calcium, and Potassium, 5) Counting, 6) Results, and 7) Contents of Figure. (J.P.N.)

  6. Radioactivity survey data in Japan. Pt. 2. Dietary materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This is a report on radioactivity in Japan issued by National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba on September, 1998. This data relates to some environmental materials such as rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, freshwater, soil, sea water and sea sediments and some dietary materials such as rice, milk, vegetables, tea, fish, shellfish, and seaweeds, which were collected from Oct. 1995 to Mar. 1996. In the survey data, followings are contained: 1) Collection and pretreatment of samples, 2) Preparation of samples for analysis, 3) Separation of Strontium 90 and Cesium 137, 4) Determination of stable Strontium, Calcium, and Potassium, 5) Counting, 6) Results, and 7) Contents of Figure. (J.P.N.)

  7. Prime Minister of Japan speaks at Kurchatov Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    During his official visit to the Russian Federation, Mr. J. Koizumi, Prime Minister of Japan, was invited to speak on 11 January 2003 to the participants in the International Scientists Conference to commemorate the 100th birthday of Academician I.V. Kurchatov. When asked from people in the audience at the Kurchatov Institute, Prime Minister Koizumi confirmed that during his recent meeting with the President of the Russian Federation, Vladimir Putin, at the Kremlin, they have discussed the construction of a fusion installation, which is the ITER Project

  8. Report of evaluation of organization. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-08-01

    Various activities of JNC (Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute) from December in 2003 to July in 2004 are evaluated on management, practice and progressing of development of research by the committee on organization evaluation. The report includes abstract, purpose of evaluation, evaluation items, deliberation process, total results of evaluation, development of projects, the spread of results, international cooperation, management system, effort to safety, responsibility of explanation, live together with community and other suggestions. Main projects consists of practice of FBR, development of uranium enrichment, nuclear fuel reprocessing and MOX fuel processing technology, reopening of MONJU, development of high-level radioactive waste and environmental protection policy. (S.Y.)

  9. Survey of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Japan by the Japan 3-D Conformal External Beam Radiotherapy Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Yasushi; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Mizowaki, Takashi; Narita, Yuichiro; Matsuo, Yukinori; Norihisa, Yoshiki; Onishi, Hiroshi; Shirato, Hiroki

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To recognize the current status of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in Japan, using a nationwide survey conducted by the Japan 3-D Conformal External Beam Radiotherapy Group. Methods and Materials: The questionnaire was sent by mail to 117 institutions. Ninety-four institutions (80%) responded by the end of November 2005. Fifty-three institutions indicated that they have already started SBRT, and 38 institutions had been reimbursed by insurance. Results: A total of 1111 patients with histologically confirmed lung cancer were treated. Among these patients, 637 had T1N0M0 and 272 had T2N0M0 lung cancer. Metastatic lung cancer was found in 702 and histologically unconfirmed lung tumor in 291 patients. Primary liver cancer was found in 207 and metastatic liver cancer in 76 patients. The most frequent schedule used for primary lung cancer was 48Gy in 4 fractions at 22 institutions (52%), followed by 50Gy in 5 fractions at 11 institutions (26%) and 60Gy in 8 fractions at 4 institutions (10%). The tendency was the same for metastatic lung cancer. The average number of personnel involved in SBRT was 1.8 radiation oncologists, including 1.1 certified radiation oncologists, 2.8 technologists, 0.7 nurses, and 0.6 certified quality assurance personnel and 0.3 physicists. The most frequent amount of time for treatment planning was 61-120min, for quality assurance was 50-60min, and for treatment was 30min. There were 14 (0.6% of all cases) reported Grade 5 complications: 11 cases of radiation pneumonitis, 2 cases of hemoptysis, and 1 case of radiation esophagitis. Conclusion: The current status of SBRT in Japan was surveyed.

  10. The law for the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The law establishes the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute in accordance with the Basic Act on Atomic Energy as a government corporation for the purpose of promoting R and D and utilizations of atomic energy (first chapter). The second chapter concerns the directors, advisers and personnel of the institute, namely a chairman of the board of directors, a vice-chairman, directors not more than seven persons, and auditors not more than two persons. The chairman represents and supervises the intitute, whom the prime minister appoints with the agreement of Atomic Energy Commission. The vice-chairman and other directors are nominated by the chairman with the approval of the prime minister, while the auditors are appointed by the prime minister with the advice of the Atomic Energy Commission. Their terms of office are 4 years for directors and 2 years for auditors. The third chapter defines the scope of activities of the institute as follows: basic and applied researches on atomic energy; design, construction and operation of nuclear reactors; training of researchers and technicians; and import, production and distribution of radioisotopes. Those activities should be done in accordance with the basic development and utilization plans of atomic energy established by the prime minister with the determination of Atomic Energy Commission. The fourth chapter provides for the finance and accounting of the institute, and the fifth chapter requires the supervision of the institute by the prime minister. (Matsushima, A.)

  11. Radioactivity survey data in Japan, part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This is the data on dietary materials and human teeth reported by National Institute of Radiological Sciences in November, 1992. The collection and pretreatment of samples, the preparation of samples for analysis, the separation of Sr-90 and Cs-137, the determination of stable Sr, Ca and K, and counting are reported. The results of Sr-90 and Cs-137 in total diet, in rice in producing districts and consuming districts, in milk in producing districts for domestic program and WHO program and in consuming districts and in powdered milk, in vegetables in producing districts and consuming districts, in Japanese tea, in sea fish, in freshwater fish, in shellfish, in seaweeds, and in pine needles are given. Also the change of these data from 1987 to 1991 in some selected districts is shown in figures. As for the annual change in the level of Sr-90 in Japanese third molars, the objective of the survey, the materials, the methods, and the results are reported. (K.I.)

  12. Current status of portal vein thrombosis in Japan: Results of a questionnaire survey by the Japan Society for Portal Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Seiichiro; Watanabe, Norihito; Koizumi, Jun; Kokubu, Shigehiro; Murashima, Naoya; Matsutani, Shoichi; Obara, Katsutoshi

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the current status of portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in Japan, the Clinical Research Committee of the Japan Society of Portal Hypertension undertook a questionnaire survey. A questionnaire survey of 539 cases of PVT over the previous 10 years was carried out at institutions affiliated with the Board of Trustees of the Japan Society of Portal Hypertension. The most frequent underlying etiology of PVT was liver cirrhosis in 75.3% of patients. Other causes included inflammatory diseases of the hepatobiliary system and the pancreas, malignant tumors, and hematologic diseases. The most frequent site was the main trunk of the portal vein (MPV) in 70.5%, and complete obstruction of the MPV was present in 11.5%. Among the medications for PVT, danaparoid was given to 45.8%, warfarin to 26.2%, heparin to 17.3%, and anti-thrombin III to 16.9%. Observation of the course was practiced in 22.4%. Factors contributing to therapeutic efficacy were implementation of various medications, thrombi localized to either the right or left portal vein only, non-complete obstruction of the MPV and Child-Pugh class A liver function. A survival analysis showed that the prognosis was favorable with PVT disappearance regardless of treatment. The questionnaire survey showed the current status of PVT in Japan. Any appropriate medication should be given to a patient with PVT when PVT is recognized. It is necessary to compile a large amount of information and reach a consensus on safe and highly effective management of PVT. © 2017 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  13. International human cooperation in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Koreyuki; Kaieda, Keisuke; Makuuchi, Keizo; Takada, Kazuo; Nomura, Masayuki

    1997-01-01

    Rearing of talented persons in the area of nuclear energy is one of the important works in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. In this report, the present situations and future schedules of international human cooperation in this area wsere summarized. First, the recent activities of International Nuclear Technology Center were outlined in respect of international human cooperation. A study and training course which was started in cooperation with JICA and IAEA from the middle of eighties and the international nuclear safety seminar aiming at advancing the nuclear safety level of the world are now being put into practice. In addition, a study and training for rearing talented persons was started from 1996 to improve the nuclear safety level of the neighbouring countries. The activities of the nuclear research interchange system by Science and Technology Agency established in 1985 and Bilateral Co-operation Agreement from 1984 were explained and also various difficulties in the international cooperation were pointed out. (M.N.)

  14. [Nationwide survey on radioactive waste management related to positron emission tomography in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Kida, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Shinji

    2009-12-20

    A clearance system for medical radioactive solid waste has not yet been implemented in Japan. Since 2004 new regulations have allowed institutions using positron emission tomography(PET)to handle totally decayed radioactive waste as non-radioactive waste after decay-in-storage. It was expected that this new regulation would mediate the installation of clearance systems in Japan. In order to assess the current situation of radiation safety management in PET institutions, we conducted a nationwide survey. The study design was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted by questionnaire. The subjects of this survey were all the PET institutions in Japan. Among 224 institutes, 128 institutes are equipped with cyclotrons and 96 institutes are not. The number of returned questionnaires was 138. Among institutes that are using delivered radiopharmaceuticals, 80% treat their waste as non-radioactive according to the new regulation. The impact of new regulations for reducing radioactive waste in PET institutes without a cyclotron was estimated at about $400 thousand per year. The main concern of medical institutes was assessment of the contamination caused by by-products of radioactive nuclides generated in target water during the operation of a cyclotron. It was thought that a rational rule based on scientific risk management should be established because these by-products of radioactive nuclides are negligible for radiation safety. New regulation has had a good influence on medical PET institutes, and it is expected that a clearance system for medical radioactive waste will be introduced in the near future, following these recent experiences in PET institutes.

  15. Epidemiological Survey of Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration in Tottori Prefecture, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Wada-Isoe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD in Japan is unknown. An epidemiological survey study of FTLD was undertaken in Tottori Prefecture, a district in the western region of Japan. Methods: Hospitals in Tottori Prefecture were surveyed by a two-step questionnaire in 2010, and the prevalence of FTLD per 100,000 inhabitants was calculated using the actual number of patients and inhabitants in Tottori Prefecture on the prevalence day of October 1, 2010. Results: In this survey, 66 patients were diagnosed with FTLD. The subtypes of FTLD were as follows: 62 cases of frontotemporal dementia (FTD, 3 cases of progressive nonfluent aphasia, and 1 case of semantic dementia. Among the FTD cases, 5 cases were FTD with motor neuron disease and 1 case was FTD with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17. The prevalence of FTD in the total population of Tottori Prefecture was 11.2 per 100,000 inhabitants. Based on these results, the prevalence of FTLD in Japan in 2008 was estimated to be 9.5 per 100,000 individuals. Conclusions: Our epidemiological survey results suggest that there are at least 12,000 FTLD patients in Japan, indicating that FTLD is not a rare disease.

  16. Initial survey of predacious diptera on hemlocks in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisashi Ohishi; Shigehiko Shiyake; Yorio Miyatake; Ashley Lamb; Michael E. Montgomery

    2011-01-01

    Some species of Coleoptera and Diptera are specialist predators of adelgids. Previously, we reported our survey of predacious Coleoptera on hemlocks in Japan (Shiyake et al. 2008). Two of these beetles, Sasajiscymnus tsugae and Laricobius sp. nov., have been exported to the U.S. for biological control. Here, we provide the first...

  17. Howard Hughes Medical Institute dose assessment survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, S.L.; McDougall, M.M.; Barkley, W.E.

    1996-01-01

    Biomedical science researchers often express frustration that health physics practices vary widely between individual institutions. A survey examining both internal and external dose assessment practices was devised and mailed to fifty institutions supporting biomedical science research. The results indicate that health physics dose assessment practices and policies are highly variable. Factors which may contribute to the degree of variation are discussed. 2 tabs

  18. [Survey of pediatric sedation in Japan--results of questionnaire to universities of dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Lisa; Kuratani, Norifumi; Hoshijima, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Hirosato

    2010-12-01

    Despite widespread use of sedation for stress management during dental treatment in adults, its prevalence of use for pediatric in patients Japan has not been clarified. We investigated here, the present situation of pediatric sedation by the questionnaire sent to the dental anesthesia departments of university hospitals in Japan. Postal survey was conducted of the dental anesthesia departments of university hospitals (29 institutions) throughout the country. Information was requested on hospital policy of indication and technique of pediatric sedation for dental treatment. The causes for avoiding pediatric sedation were also investigated. The response rate was 86.2% (25/29 institutions). Of these respondents, 16 institutions (64%, 16/25 institutions) employ sedation for pediatric dental treatment stress management. The cases performed were around 1-5 cases every month. However, the criteria for employment of pediatric sedation during dental treatment varied among institutes. They preferred to provide general endotracheal anesthesia for pediatric dental procedures, and tended to avoid sedation without airway security for children. The present survey suggests that pediatric sedation for stress management during dental treatment are employed in more than half of the dental university hospitals. However, there was little consensus regarding pediatric sedation during dental treatment among dental anesthesiologists in Japan.

  19. Activities of Japan Nuclear Technology Institute Japanese TSO of Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, T.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear energy is a superior form of energy in that it delivers stable power supplies and counters global warming, and it is important to promote nuclear power generation as the core power sources for a nation. However, the Japanese environment surrounding nuclear energy is changing drastically, following the liberalization of market and recent series of troubles or falsifications shaking public confidence in nuclear energy. In the above mentioned situation, nuclear industries and organizations must fulfill their individual roles, and amass its strength to work toward enhancing industry initiatives for safety activities, securing safe / stable plant operations, restoring public confidence and initiate revitalization of nuclear energy operations. The Japan Nuclear Technology Institute (JANTI) has been established as a new entity for supporting and leading the industry's further progress in March 2005. Members of JANTI are not only utilities but also component manufacturers and constructors. JANTI enhance the technological foundation of nuclear energy based on scientific and rational data, coordinates its use among a wide range of relevant organizations, and helps members enhance their voluntary safety activities. At the same time, it is independent of utilities, and exercises a function of checking industry at the objective, third-party standpoint. As for the activities of JANTI itself, information disclosure and the establishment of a council comprising external members will enhance administration transparency. (author)

  20. Ultralow temperature helium compressor for Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, Hiroshi

    1988-01-01

    Ishikawajima Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. started the development of an ultralow temperature helium compressor for helium liquefaction in 1984 jointly with Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, and has delivered the first practical machine to the Superconductive Magnet Laboratory of JAERI. For a large superconductive magnet to be used in the stable state for a fusion reactor, conventional superconductive materials (NbTi, NbTi 3 Sn, etc.) must be used, being cooled forcibly with supercritical helium. The supercritical helium which is compressed above the critical pressure of 228 kPa has a stable cooling effect since the thermal conductivity does not change due to the evaporation of liquid helium. In order to maintain the temperature of the supercritical helium below 4 K before it enters a magnet, a heat exchanger is used. The compressor that IHI has developed has the ability to reduce the vapor pressure of liquid helium from atmospheric pressure to 50.7 kPa, and can attain the temperature of 3.5 K. The specification of this single stage centrifugal compressor is: mass flow rate 25 - 64 g/s, speed 80,000 rpm, adiabatic efficiency 62 - 69 %. The structure and the performance are reported. (K.I.)

  1. A cross-sectional survey of interprofessional education across 13 healthcare professions in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko Goto

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the rapid aging of the population, collaboration among the various medical professions throughout the country is becoming increasingly indispensable in Japan. To promote collaboration in medical care, it is necessary to introduce the concept of collaboration to students at an early stage of their professional education. Despite this need, there are no core medical, healthcare and welfare education curricula in Japan that include interprofessional education (IPE. Therefore, the status of IPE in Japanese schools of medicine and other healthcare-related services is unclear. Methods: We sent 3,430 questionnaires to 13 schools of medicine and related healthcare providers: doctors, nurses, physical therapists, registered dieticians, dentists, dental hygienists, social workers, pharmacists, occupational therapists, clinical psychologists, medical administrators, certified care workers, and speech therapists. The items addressed implementation rate of IPE, teaching methods and grading methods. Results: Of the 3,430 surveys distributed, 572 completed surveys were returned (response rate 17%. Of the completed surveys, 493 qualified as valid, resulting in a final response rate of 14%. Only 19% (n = 93 of the analysed medical educational institutions included IPE instruction in their curricula. Conclusion: While many educational institutions were conducting IPE, there were important inter-institutional differences with respect to attitudes towards IPE, teaching methods, and evaluation methods. This study was unprecedented in scale, and provides important basic information for the future development of IPE in Japan.

  2. Survey of teletherapy in Japan, 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasukochi, Hiroshi; Uno, Kimiichi

    1978-01-01

    The status of irradiation technique for breast cancer and esophageal cancer are surveyed and the results are as follows. 1) The techniques for irradiation of breast cancer are moving in 6% of hospitals, three anterior 37%, one anterior without pulmonary shield 14%, one anterior with pulmonary shield 10% and others 23%. 2) Decision makers of irradiation for breast cancer are radiologists in 73% of the hospitals, surgeons in 5% and technicians in 8%, as an average. In the case of the full time radiologists employed in the hospitals, the decision makers are radiologists in 83% of hospitals, surgeons in 1% and technicians in 5%. 3) Shoulder joints are full open during irradiation of breast cancer in 64% of the hospitals, moderately open in 20% and closed in 2% of the hospitals. 4) The technique for irradiation of esophageal cancer are moving in 18% of hospitals, three portal in 8% and opposite two portal 56%. (auth.)

  3. Quantitative Survey of Laypersons' Attitudes Toward Organ Transplantation in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, T; Hsu, E; Aizawa, K; Nakada, H; Toya, W; Matsui, K

    In comparison with foreign countries, living-organ transplantations (LOT) have been performed more frequently than dead organ transplants, including brain-dead organ transplantation (BOT) in Japan. This situation has given rise to organ transplantation tourism. Therefore, we clarify laypersons' preferences regarding organ transplantation that are producing the current situation in Japan, to suggest a possible framework for further efforts. Voluntary completion of a quantitative and anonymous survey was promoted online (a sample size of 1030). The questionnaire had two types of variables concerning demographic characteristics and organ transplantation-related issues. LOT was favored over BOT. However, for willingness to donate to family members, the participants showed a significantly more positive attitude toward brain-dead organ donors (BODs) than living organ donors (LODs). In the evaluation of each transplantation technology, BOT and LOT were positioned in the middle, between transplantation that does not depend on others and the utilization of animal organs. Although LOT was favored over BOT, for participants hypothesized to be in a position to donate and receive organs, BODs received a conversely better reputation than LODs. Our survey and discussion suggest that the present conditions of organ transplantation in Japan might be because there is a lack of deliberation on transplantation tourism and LOT. Therefore, more surveys concerning LOT cases and the implications of avoidance of organs from brain-dead bodies, coupled with more discussions based on these surveys, are necessary to formulate a Japanese transplantation policy for the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Radioactivity survey data in Japan, no. 55

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    Gamma-ray spectrometry with Ge (Li) detectors was applied to all samples. Artificial radionuclides such as Cs-137, Mn-54 and Co-60 were identified, and their concentrations were determined. Samples were cultured fish, caught fish and marine sediment. The important species were selected in consideration of their importance as ecological indicators and natural resources. The indicator species were selected in consideration of their significant characteristics of accumulating the radionuclides. The treatment of fish and sediment for the measurement is described. The radioactivity of the samples was measured with Ge (Li) detectors for 20 to 24 hours. Radioactive background was measured for 40 to 48 hours at intervals of one week. The radionuclides were identified by analyzing the observed gamma-ray spectra. The corresponding peak area of each radionuclide was calculated, and radioactive background was subtracted. The amounts of the radioactive nuclides were estimated from these net peak areas by correcting them with the counting efficiency of the detectors, sample geometry and others. Besides the detectors, a pulse height analyzer and data output equipments were used. The criteria for the precision of measurement are defined, and the results of analysis are reported for the samples collected from December, 1978, to February, 1980. This report was drawn up by the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. (Kako, I.)

  5. A questionnaire survey on attitude toward sperm cryopreservation among hematologists in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tomohiro; Shin, Takeshi; Nishio, Kojiro; Shimomura, Yukihito; Iwahata, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyata, Akane; Kobori, Yoshitomo; Arai, Gaku; Okada, Hiroshi

    2017-03-01

    Advances in multimodal treatment have led to dramatic improvement in cancer treatment outcomes. It is now necessary to consider cancer patients' holistic quality of life. Fertility preservation is the top concern for cancer survivors of reproductive age. Sperm cryopreservation before treatment is recommended for postpubescent men, but many patients lose fertility without having been informed about options for fertility preservation. To determine how sperm cryopreservation is perceived and practiced in Japan, we surveyed hematologists who often treat young males. A questionnaire about sperm cryopreservation was sent to 45 major hematology institutions. A total of 22 institutions responded before the deadline. All institutions but one responded that they felt sperm cryopreservation is necessary. Only 15 institutions responded that they inform patients about sperm cryopreservation, and 12 institutions responded that they perform sperm cryopreservation before chemotherapy. A total of 213 young males started their first course of chemotherapy during the survey period, of whom 61 (28.6%) had their sperm cryopreserved. Although almost all hematologists stated that sperm cryopreservation is necessary for fertility preservation, not all institutions informed patients about it. Our findings indicate that, to promote fertility preservation in Japan, it will be necessary to systematize sperm cryopreservation and build inter-hospital networks.

  6. Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in Japan: Results from the World Mental Health Japan Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Norito; Tsuchiya, Masao; Umeda, Maki; Koenen, Karestan C.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to report the prevalence of trauma exposure and PTSD, conditional risk of PTSD associated with each trauma exposure in the community population in Japan. An interview survey was conducted of a random sample of adult residents in 11 communities of Japan. Among 4134 respondents (response rate, 55%), data from those who completed the part 2 interview (n = 1682) were analyzed with a weight for this subsample. Lifetime experiences of 27 trauma events and PTSD were assessed using the WHO-Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0. Sixty percent of the part 2 sample reported exposure to at least one lifetime traumatic event. Lifetime and 12-month PTSD prevalences were 1.3% and 0.7%, respectively. Percentage of all months lived with PTSD in the population was predominantly accounted for by physical/sexual assaults and having a child with serious illness, and unexpected death of loved one. Ten percent of respondents reported “private events”, for which respondents did not have to describe the content, which accounted for 19% of months with PTSD. The lower prevalence of PTSD in Japan seems attributable to lower conditional risks of PTSD following these events, as well as different distributions of the events. The greater impact of events that occurred to loved ones rather than to oneself and “private events” on PTSD in Japan warrants further research of cross-cultural assessment of trauma exposure and cultural heterogeneity in the trauma-PTSD relationship. PMID:24572682

  7. Final survey reports on radon concentration in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    In order to grasp the present state of indoor radon concentration all over Japan, this survey was conducted in five years from Heisei 4 FY to 8 FY. Measurements were conducted using a radon and thoron separation apparatus so as to enable to develop radon and thoron separately. This was only one survey all over Japan obtained the only radon concentration by removing thoron perfectly. However, it was planned to obtain the mean indoor radon concentration all over Japan by limiting 20 houses for measurement aim because of limitation on numbers of the apparatus. In this survey, no extremely high region of the radon concentration was found. However, it was comparatively higher in Chugoku, Kinki and Kyushu-Okinawa areas, but was comparatively low in Kanto area. These results showed the same tendency as those of γ-ray level from the ground, and the radon concentration also showed temperature difference of a tendency of higher west and lower east. In this survey, seasonal variation of the radon concentration was found. In the third quarter (from October to December) maximum radon concentration (mean value: 15 Bq/cu m) and in the second quarter, the minimum concentration (mean value: 9 Bq/cu m) were observed, respectively. On comparing the indoor radon concentration of each housing structure used in enquete survey, concrete block house showed higher radon concentration. On its arithmetic mean, the radon concentration was high in order of concrete, steel frame, and wood constructions, and lowest in prefabricated house. The radon concentration of the concrete construction showed about 1.8 times higher than that of the wood construction. (G.K.)

  8. Commercial and institutional consumption of energy survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-12-15

    This paper presented the results of a survey on 2004 energy consumption data for commercial and institutional establishments in Canada. The objective of the survey was to enable Natural Resources Canada to develop programs to support institutions seeking to gain greater energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Data were published by energy source and region. Energy intensity data were presented by region amongst the following commercial and institutional sectors: retail trade including food and non-food; education including colleges and universities; health care including non-hospital health care and hospitals; and accommodation and food services. Data obtained on each establishment's energy consumption and floor area were used to calculate their energy intensity ratio which included accounting for weather conditions, age of buildings and energy sources. It was observed that commercial and institutional establishments consumed nearly 945 million gigajoules in 2004. The wholesale trade and warehousing sector used the highest amount of energy, accounting for 17 per cent of all commercial and institutional energy use. The education sector accounted for 16 per cent of energy use, while the office sector accounted for 14 per cent. The energy intensity rate of hospitals in Canada was the highest of all sectors and subsectors, due to their nearly constant use of lighting and medical equipment. Retail trade accounted for the largest share of establishments at 26 per cent of all establishments, followed by offices with 22 per cent. Education accounted for the largest percentage of floor area. 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  9. [Survey of the number of Acanthamoeba keratitis cases in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toriyama, Koji; Suzuki, Takashi; Ohashi, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the trend in the number of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) cases in Japan. A survey was conducted in 48 university hospitals. Patients who were diagnosed with AK from January 2007 to December 2011 were enrolled. The trend in the number of cases and the type of contact lenses (CLs) that patients used were studied. A total of 524 patients was studied. The numbers of AK cases in each year, from 2007 to 2011, were 105, 152, 155, 65, and 47. The number dropped markedly after 2009. The percentage of conventional soft CLs and frequent replacement soft CL users that needed daily care such as rubbing-washing also dropped after 2008. The number of AK cases in Japan has been decreasing in recent years. The cause is uncertain, but one possibility is that information about proper CL care promulgated by ophthalmic societies in recent years is producing results.

  10. Nationwide epidemiological survey of early chronic pancreatitis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masamune, Atsushi; Kikuta, Kazuhiro; Nabeshima, Tatsuhide; Nakano, Eriko; Hirota, Morihisa; Kanno, Atsushi; Kume, Kiyoshi; Hamada, Shin; Ito, Tetsuhide; Fujita, Motokazu; Irisawa, Atsushi; Nakashima, Masanori; Hanada, Keiji; Eguchi, Takaaki; Kato, Ryusuke; Inatomi, Osamu; Shirane, Akio; Takeyama, Yoshifumi; Tsuji, Ichiro; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2017-08-01

    The world's first diagnostic criteria for early CP were proposed in 2009 in Japan. This study aimed to clarify the clinico-epidemiological features of early CP in Japan. Patients with early CP who were diagnosed according to the diagnostic criteria for early CP and had visited the selected hospitals in 2011 were surveyed. The study consisted of two-stage surveys: the number of patients with early CP was estimated by the first questionnaire and their clinical features were assessed by the second questionnaire. The estimated number of early CP patients was 5410 (95% confidence interval 3675-6945), with an overall prevalence of 4.2 per 100,000 persons. The number of patients who were newly diagnosed with early CP was estimated to be 1330 (95% confidence interval 1058-1602), with an annual incidence of 1.0 per 100,000 persons. Detailed clinical information was obtained in 151 patients in the second survey. The male-to-female sex ratio was 1.32:1. The mean age was 60.4 and the mean age at disease onset was 55.4. Idiopathic (47.7%) and alcoholic (45.0%) were the two most common etiologies. Proportions of female and idiopathic cases were higher in early CP than in definite CP. Hyperechoic foci without shadowing and stranding were the most common findings on endoscopic ultrasonography. The clinical profiles of early CP patients who showed lobularity with honeycombing on endoscopic ultrasonography or previous episodes of acute pancreatitis were similar to those of definite CP patients. We clarified the current status of early CP in Japan.

  11. A nationwide survey of pediatric acquired demyelinating syndromes in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Y.; Kira, R.; Ishizaki, Y.; Sakai, Y.; Sanefuji, M.; Ichiyama, T.; Oka, A.; Kishi, T.; Kimura, S.; Kubota, M.; Takanashi, J.; Takahashi, Y.; Tamai, H.; Natsume, J.; Hamano, S.; Hirabayashi, S.; Maegaki, Y.; Mizuguchi, M.; Minagawa, K.; Yoshikawa, H.; Kira, J.; Kusunoki, S.; Hara, T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical and epidemiologic features of pediatric acquired demyelinating syndromes (ADS) of the CNS in Japan. Methods: We conducted a nationwide survey and collected clinical data on children with ADS aged 15 years or younger, who visited hospitals between 2005 and 2007. Results: Among 977 hospitals enrolled, 723 (74.0%) responded to our inquiries and reported a total of 439 patients as follows: 244 with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), 117 with multiple sclerosis (MS), 14 with neuromyelitis optica (NMO), and 64 with other ADS. We collected and analyzed detailed data from 204 cases, including those with ADEM (66), MS (58), and NMO (10). We observed the following: (1) the estimated annual incidence rate of pediatric ADEM in Japan was 0.40 per 100,000 children (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34–0.46), with the lowest prevalence in the north; (2) the estimated prevalence rate of MS was 0.69 per 100,000 children (95% CI, 0.58–0.80), with the lowest prevalence in the south; (3) NMO in Japan was rare, with an estimated prevalence of 0.06 per 100,000 children (95% CI, 0.04–0.08); and (4) the sex ratio and mean age at onset varied by ADS type, and (5) male/female ratios correlated with ages at onset in each ADS group. Conclusions: Our results clarify the characteristic clinical features of pediatric ADS in the Japanese population. PMID:27742816

  12. Nuclear medicine practice in Japan. A report of the sixth nationwide survey in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwabara, Yasuo; Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Ushijima, Yo

    2009-01-01

    The Subcommittee on the Survey of Nuclear Medicine Practice in Japan has performed a nationwide survey of nuclear medicine practice every 5 years since 1982 to provide detailed information on its present status. Questionnaires were sent to all institutions known to the Japan Radioisotope Association to conduct nuclear medicine examinations. The questionnaires addressed the number and kind of nuclear medicine examinations performed as well as the kind and dose of the radiopharmaceuticals used during the month of June 2007. The annual number of total or specific examinations was then estimated. Of the institutions sent questionnaires, 1219 were for in vivo study, 49 for in vitro study, and 212 for positron emission tomography (PET) study. Of these, 92.2% provided answers. A total of 1569 gamma cameras were installed in 1119 institutions, of which 70% were dual-head cameras. The estimated total annual number of in vivo examinations expressed by the number of administered radiopharmaceuticals was 1.41 million, representing a decrease of 11.5% when compared with that of the previous survey (2002). The frequency of study with respect to single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) slightly increased to 42.3% from 39.9% in the previous survey. The most frequently performed scintigraphy was bone (38.3%), followed by myocardium (26.2%) and brain perfusion (14.1%). Brain perfusion scintigraphy slightly increased, whereas tumor scintigraphy decreased by one-half when compared with the previous survey. The most commonly used radiopharmaceutical for each scintigraphy was 99m Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (HMDP) for bone, thallium-201 ( 201 Tl)-chloride for myocardium, gallium-67 ( 67 Ga)-citrate for tumor, and technetium-99m-ethylcysteinate dimmer ( 99m Tc-ECD) for brain. The number of PET institutes increased from 36 to 212. 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG)-PET dramatically increased 14.8-fold during the past 5 years. Radionuclide therapy also increased. 131 I

  13. Japan's Orientation towards Foreign Investments: Inertia Effects and Driving Force of Institutional Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Nir Kshetri; Ralf Bebenroth

    2012-01-01

    We use an institutional perspective to develop a framework for understanding the contexts, mechanisms and processes associated with institutions and institutional changes related to foreign investment in Japan. We examine power dynamics and relational boundaries between diverse actors and analyze why and how some components of institutions have changed and others have not. Also explored in this paper are the conflicting discourses that have been raised in regards to the participation of forei...

  14. Survey of radioactive contamination distribution in the Naka-Dori area, Tohoku, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohara, Sin-ya; Inagaki, Masayo; Yamanishi, Hirokuni; Wakabayashi, Genichiro; Sugiyama, Wataru; Itoh, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    The Kinki University Atomic Energy Research Institute investigated radioactive contamination due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in urban areas of the Fukushima Naka-Dori Area in the TOHOKU region, Japan. A specific activity measurement of the surface soil and a survey of the dose rate distribution in urban areas were performed. From the results of this research, a decrease in dose rate in paved areas became clear, and differences due to the “wash out effect” in paved areas for different paving materials was measured and verified. (author)

  15. Management of infection during chemotherapy for acute leukemia in Japan: a nationwide questionnaire-based survey by the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Shun-Ichi; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Kato, Hideaki; Hiramoto, Nobuhiro; Hosono, Naoko; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Shigeno, Kazuyuki; Hatsumi, Naoko; Minamiguchi, Hitoshi; Miyatake, Junichi; Handa, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Nobu; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Yoshida, Minoru; Kiyoi, Hitoshi; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Naoe, Tomoki

    2017-11-01

    We performed a nationwide questionnaire-based survey to evaluate the current clinical practices of infectious complications during chemotherapy for acute leukemia in Japan. We e-mailed a questionnaire to member institutions of the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group in September, 2013. The questionnaire consisted of 50 multiple-choice questions covering therapeutic environment, antimicrobial prophylaxis, screening test during neutropenia, empirical therapy for febrile neutropenia, and the use of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor. The results were compared to those of previous surveys conducted in 2001 and 2007, and also to the recommendations described in the guidelines. Usable responses were received from 141 out of 222 (63.5%) institutions. Chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia was performed in protective environment in 90% of the institutions, which increased compared to previous survey (76%). Fluoroquinolones and fluconazole were the most commonly used antimicrobial agents for antibacterial and antifungal prophylaxis, followed by sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and itraconazole, respectively. In empirical therapy for febrile neutropenia, monotherapy with β-lactum antibiotics was the first-line therapy in most of the institutions. While empirical antifungal therapy was adopted for persistent fever in more than half of the institutions, preemptive/presumptive therapy was also used in approximately 40% of the institutions. Most of the clinicians were reluctant to use granulocyte-colony stimulating factor routinely in chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia. This study clarified the current clinical practices of infectious complications during chemotherapy for acute leukemia and would provide important information for the development of a suitable guideline in Japan.

  16. Radioactivity survey data in Japan. Pt. 2. Dietary materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This issue is the special number on the radioactive survey data of dietary materials collected in 1996. The samples sent from 46 prefectures in Japan were analyzed for strontium-90 and cesium-137 by Japan Chemical Analysis Center. The collection of dietary materials were conducted as follows. A full one-day ordinary diet including three meals, water, tea and snack between meals was collected semiyearly from 5 persons as a total diet sample and ashed at 450degC in an electric muffle furnace. Polished rice was yearly collected in producing districts and consumer`s areas followed by ashing in a porcelain dish. Raw milk is producing districts and commercial one were collected semiyearly. Spinach and Japanese radish were chosen as the representatives for left vegetables and for non-starch roots, respectively. Yearly collected fish, shellfish and seaweed were ashed in an electric muffle furnace after carbonization. All samples were analyzed for strontium-90 and cesium-137 after radiochemical separation by the precipitation method with sodium carbonate. Counting of radioactivity was conducted by low background {beta}-counter and based on those results, the concentrations of the nuclides were estimated. The detail data are presented in this report. (M.N.)

  17. Radioactivity survey data in Japan. Pt. 2. Dietary materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    This issue is the special number on the radioactive survey data of dietary materials collected in 1996. The samples sent from 46 prefectures in Japan were analyzed for strontium-90 and cesium-137 by Japan Chemical Analysis Center. The collection of dietary materials were conducted as follows. A full one-day ordinary diet including three meals, water, tea and snack between meals was collected semiyearly from 5 persons as a total diet sample and ashed at 450degC in an electric muffle furnace. Polished rice was yearly collected in producing districts and consumer's areas followed by ashing in a porcelain dish. Raw milk is producing districts and commercial one were collected semiyearly. Spinach and Japanese radish were chosen as the representatives for left vegetables and for non-starch roots, respectively. Yearly collected fish, shellfish and seaweed were ashed in an electric muffle furnace after carbonization. All samples were analyzed for strontium-90 and cesium-137 after radiochemical separation by the precipitation method with sodium carbonate. Counting of radioactivity was conducted by low background β-counter and based on those results, the concentrations of the nuclides were estimated. The detail data are presented in this report. (M.N.)

  18. The law for the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The institute is established under the atomic energy basic law to make effectively research of development of atomic energy in general and help to promote investigation, development and utilization of it. The institute is a legal person and has its main office in Tokyo. Its capital is the amount of yen 2,500 million plus contributions by persons other than the government. The government invests the said yen 2,500 million at the time of its establishment. The articles of the institute shall prescribe matters, such as: capital, contributions and assets; officer and meeting; business and its execution; accounting, etc. The officers are consisted of a chief director, a deputy chief director and less than 7 directors and less than 2 auditors. The chief director is appointed by the Prime Minister with the consent of the atomic energy commission. The term of the chief director, the deputy chief director and directors is 4 years and that of auditors is 2 years. Functions of the institute include basic and application research of atomic energy, planning, building and operation of reactors, training of researchers and engineers of atomic energy, etc. The budget, the business program and the financial project shall be prepared each business year and authorized by the Prime Minister. The institute is subject to the supervision of the Prime Minister. (Okada, K.)

  19. Institutions and accounting standard transformation:Observations from Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naohiro; Urasaki

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the transformation of Japan’s accounting standards over the past 2 decades and the driving forces behind this transformation. It also analyzes the current state of Japan’s accounting standards, which are characterized by the dichotomy of accounting systems inherited from the country’s political, economic and legal institutions. The discussion in this paper emphasizes that a single set of accounting standards is not always effective for every entity.

  20. Institutions and accounting standard transformation: Observations from Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naohiro Urasaki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the transformation of Japan’s accounting standards over the past 2 decades and the driving forces behind this transformation. It also analyzes the current state of Japan’s accounting standards, which are characterized by the dichotomy of accounting systems inherited from the country’s political, economic and legal institutions. The discussion in this paper emphasizes that a single set of accounting standards is not always effective for every entity.

  1. Institutional trust in the national social security and municipal healthcare systems for the elderly in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Hiroshi; Taguchi, Atsuko; Ryu, Shuhei; Nagata, Satoko; Murashima, Sachiyo

    2012-09-01

    Japanese social security systems and institutions for the elderly, as well as the general attitude toward elderly care services among the Japanese population, have been undergoing a dramatic change. By examining the association between institutional trust, which is a representative element of social capital, and anxiety regarding receiving elderly care, we can uncover clues toward building a more robust social security system for the elderly. This study examines the relationship between institutional trust, in the national social security and municipal healthcare systems for the elderly, and anxiety with respect to receiving elderly care among the general Japanese population. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire that was returned by mail in January and February 2005. The target population was 4735 community residents aged 20-75 years, who lived in the city of Koka, Shiga, Japan. A total of 2264 questionnaires were included in the analysis. A binominal logistic regression analysis showed that responses of 'trust' [odds ratio (OR): 2.09, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.01-4.30] and 'strongly trust' (OR: 3.80, 95% CI: 1.55-9.31) for the national system were associated with not having anxiety regarding elderly care, compared with the reference category of feeling strongly distrust. However, trust in the municipal system showed no association with this anxiety. These results indicate the importance of developing strategies to increase a common trust in the national care services for the elderly to reduce the anxiety people feel regarding whether they will be able to receive elderly care when required.

  2. Nuclear medicine practice in Japan. A report of the 5th nationwide survey in 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Inoue, Tomio

    2004-01-01

    The Subcommittee on Survey of Nuclear Medicine Practice in Japan has performed a nationwide survey of nuclear medicine practice every five years since 1982 to provide detailed information on its current status. Questionnaires were sent to every institution known to the Japan Radioisotope Association to provide nuclear medicine examinations. The questionnaires address the number and kind of nuclear medicine examinations performed as well as the kind and dose of the radiopharmaceuticals used during the month of June 2002. The annual number of total or specific examinations was then estimated. Of the institutions sent questionnaires, 1,204 were for in vivo study, 124 were for in vitro study, and 36 were for positron emission tomography (PET) study. Out of these, 95.8% answered them. A total of 1,697 gamma cameras were installed in 1,160 facilities, of which 50% were dual-head cameras. The estimated total annual number of examinations expressed by the number of administered radiopharmaceuticals was 1.60 million, similar to that of the previous survey (1997). The frequency of study with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) increased to 40%, from 30% in the previous survey. The scintigraphy most frequently performed was bone (35%), followed by myocardium (24%) and brain perfusion (12%). All showed a continuous increase over the past 20 years. Tumor imaging, however, fell from third to fourth place. The most commonly used radiopharmaceutical for each scintigraphy was 99m Tc-HMDP for bone, 201 Tl-chloride for myocardium, 67 Ga-citrate for tumor, and 123 1-IMP for brain. A total of 29,376 PET studies were performed yearly. Among them, 18 F-FDG rapidly increased 3.7-fold. 131 I therapy for thyroid cancer and hyperthyroidism was conducted yearly in 1,647 and 3,347 patients, respectively. A total of 31.35 million in vitro radioassays were carried out yearly, the number of which has been decreasing continuously since 1992. It was proved that the content of nuclear

  3. Questionnaire survey on the process of specialty training in neurology in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoo, Masahiro; Nishiyama, Kazutoshi; Ando, Tetsuo; Shindo, Katsuro; Kanda, Takashi; Aoki, Masashi; Kamei, Satoshi; Kikuchi, Seiji; Kusunoki, Susumu; Suzuki, Norihiro; Sobue, Gen; Nakashima, Kenji; Hara, Hideo; Hirata, Koichi; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Murai, Hiroyuki; Murata, Miho; Mochizuki, Hideki; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Kira, Jun-Ichi

    2017-07-29

    Documentation of the current status of specialty training to become a neurologist in Japan would represent an important basis for constructing better neurology training program in the planned reform of the specialty training system in Japan. The committee for future neurology specialty system of Japanese Society of Neurology (JSN) conducted a questionnaire survey on the process of specialty training of each trainee for neurology in board-certified educational facilities and semi-educational facilities throughout Japan. The response rate was 46.2% in all facilities and 87.5% in medical universities. The training process of 905 trainees over 5 grades was clarified, which was estimated to be about 80% of all the relevant subjects. Specialty training dedicated to neurology was started at the 3rd year of residency in 87.8% of subjects. During the 3 years following junior residency, 51.3% of subjects ran the rotation training between university and city hospital, whereas 36.5% was trained within the same institution throughout the 3 years of training period.

  4. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities. Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The NEA has updated, in coordination with the Permanent Delegation of Japan to the OECD, the report on the Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities in Japan. This country report provides comprehensive information on the regulatory and institutional framework governing nuclear activities in Japan. It provides a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. Content: I - General Regulatory Regime: Introduction; Mining regime; Radioactive substances and equipment; Nuclear installations (Reactor Regulation, Emergency response); Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; Radiological protection; Radioactive waste management; Nuclear safeguards and nuclear security; Transport; Nuclear third party liability. II - Institutional Framework: Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Cabinet Office, Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA), Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI), The Agency for Natural Resources and Energy (ANRE), Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT), Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)); Advisory bodies (Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), Reactor Safety Examination Committee, Nuclear Fuel Safety Examination Committee, Radiation Council, Other advisory bodies); Public and semi-public agencies (Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology (QST), Nuclear Damage Compensation and Decommissioning Facilitation Corporation (NDF), Nuclear Waste Management Organisation (NUMO))

  5. Post-doctoral research work developed at the National Institute for Fusion Science - Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, M.

    1992-05-01

    This is a research report report on the work developed at the National Institute for Fusion Science - Japan, involving study of Beam Emission Spectroscopy. It describes the use of a fast neutral lithium beam (8 KeV) to measure the density profile in a Compact Helical Device. (A.C.A.S.)

  6. Review of research institute library activity through the contributed papers. The case of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kiyoshi; Habara, Tadashi; Ishikawa, Masashi; Itabashi, Keizo; Yonezawa, Minoru

    2007-03-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) Library had contributed 312 papers through the library activities in half-century. We made the bibliography of these papers as well as categorized them into general', 'library functions', 'management and promotion of research results' and 'international exchange of information' and explained them under the four categories. A subject index, an author index of these papers and chronology of JAERI library activities were also compiled for reference. (author)

  7. A Survey on Infertility in Royan Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kamali

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility is defined as failure in pregnancy after one year of unprotected intercourse.Several centers have reported different causes of infertility. The most common causes of infertility are:male factor such as sperm disturbance, female factor such as ovulation dysfunction and tubal factor,both male and female factor, and unexplained infertility .The aim of this study was to survey theepidemiology of infertility in Royan institute.Material and Methods: In this descriptive retrospective study, 2492 infertile couples were studied.These couples were selected by systematic sampling among couples referred to Royan institutebetween 1995 and 2001.All existing demographic data and diagnostic methods were recorded inquestionnaires .Results were analyzed using SPSS version 11.5.Results: In this study, the frequency of primary and secondary infertility was 90.1% and 9.9%,respectively. Among 2492 couples, 50.5% had male factor, 28.6% had female factor, 11.6% had bothmale and female factors and in 9.3% of couples, the cause of infertility was unknown .Results showedthat 32.3% of men had normal spermogram, 23.6% of couples had azoospermia, and 40.3% had spermdisturbance including oligospermia, asthenospermia, oligoasthenospermia and teratospermia .3.8%were not able to collect sample for semen analysis. Among women, different infertility factors included:ovarian factor (20.36%, tubal factor (12.64%, uterine factor (4.13%, endometriosis (1.28% andrecurrent abortion (0.68%. 50.48% of women were normal.Conclusion: Although male factor was the most common cause of infertility in Royan institute, we cannot conclude that this factor is the most common cause of infertility in Iran since this center isconsidered referral especially for male infertility. We suggest performance of similar researches inother centers to evaluate the most common causes of infertility in Iran.

  8. [Current status of bacteriological studies at prefectural and municipal public health institutes in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinomiya, Hiroto; Seto, Kazuko; Kawase, Jun; Arikawa, Kentaro; Funatogawa, Keiji; Suzuki, Masahiro; Kubota, Hiroaki; Shirabe, Komei

    2015-01-01

    Prefectural and municipal public health institutes are located in prefectures and ordinance-designated cities in Japan, and play a vital role in the regional surveillance of infectious diseases and foodborne illnesses. These institutes, in close cooperation with national institutes such as the National Institute of Infectious Diseases and the National Institute of Health Sciences, construct the national surveillance network for infectious diseases and their causative agents. Bacteriological examinations and studies on a variety of infectious diseases and foodborne illnesses are core activities of prefectural and municipal public health institutes, through which novel and important bacteriological findings have been acquired. In this article, we report the latest findings regarding bacteriological examinations/studies and interesting cases at these institutes, especially concerning foodborne illnesses, tuberculosis, and antimicrobial resistances.

  9. Preservation of nuclear talented experts in Japan by cooperation of industries, research institutes and universities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, H.; Miura, K.

    2004-01-01

    Japan has enjoyed decades-long successful development of nuclear power generation and has a nuclear generating capacity of about 46,000,000 kilowatts at present. Construction of a commercial reprocessing plant in Rokkasho is nearing completion. The continuation of Japan's nuclear technology and experience, however, and the challenge of securing technically trained human resources for the future, present serious problems. Recognizing this, the nuclear industry, universities and research institutes have joined in new cooperative efforts to find network-oriented solutions. (author)

  10. Summary. The 19th quality control survey for radioisotope in vitro tests in Japan, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishiba, Yoshimasa; Shimizu, Taeko [Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Kousaka, Tadako; Kobayashi, Hisae; Tsushima, Toshio; Hoshino, Minoru; Mori, Mikio

    1998-11-01

    This summary concerns results of the survey in the title performed by the Subcommittee for Radioisotope in vitro Test in the Medical and Pharmaceutical Committee, Japan Radioisotope Association. The survey was conducted in 161 facilities in Japan including public and private hospitals, health institutes and reagent manufacturers. Samples were sent to the facilities and subjected to examinations of intra- and inter-day reproducibility, freeze-thawing effects and periodical changes of the measured values. Methods employed were RIA, IRMA, EIA, ELISA, LPIA, PAMIA, FIA, FPIA, NIA, LAT, CLIA and ECLIA. Results were analyzed by variation coefficients in the kit and between the kits. Samples were for: growth hormone, somatomedin C, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, thyroxine binding globulin, calcitonin, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, gastrin, testosterone, estradiol, progesterone, {beta}human chorionic gonadotropin, 17{alpha}-hydroxyprogesterone, aldosterone, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone, renin, immunogloblin E, digoxin, {alpha}-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, tissue polypeptide antigen, CA125, CA19-9, CA15-3, prostatic acid phosphatase, prostate specific antigen, {beta}{sub 2}-microgloblin and ferritin. Results were found rather unsatistactory for some products in the clinical practice, necessary for improvement of detection for some tests and needed for some kits for solving the problems of difference between kits and of matrix effect. (K.H)

  11. Radioactivity survey data in Japan, No.74, September 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This report presents survey data on radioactivity in environmental and dietary materials in Japan. Environmental materials collected include rain and dry fallout (monthly); airborne dust (quarterly); service water (source water and tap water collected semiyearly) and freshwater (yearly, fishing season); soil (yearly); and sea water (yearly) and sea sediments (yearly). Dietary material samples include total diet (semiyearly, June, November or December); rice (yearly, harvesting season); milk [quarterly (February, May, August and November) at producing districts for WHO program, simiyearly (February and August) at producing districts for domestic program, semiyearly (February and August) at consuming districts, and powdered milk collected semiyearly (April and October)]; vegetables [yearly (harvesting season) at producing and consuming districts]; tea (yearly, the first harvesting season); and fish, shellfish and seaweeds (yearly, fishing season). After being collected, these samples are pretreated and prepared to provide solutions for analysis. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 are separated from the solutions. Analysis of calcium is performed by titration with potassium permanganate. Stable strontium and potassium are determined by atomic absorption and flame emission spectrometry, respectively. After the radiochemical separation, the mounted precipitates are counted for activity using low background beta counters normally for 60 min. (Nogami, K.)

  12. Radioactivity survey data in Japan, No.76, March 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report presents survey data on radioactivity in environmental and dietary materials in Japan. Environmental materials collected include rain and dry fallout (monthly); airborne dust (quarterly); service water (source water and tap water collected semiyearly) and freshwater (yearly, fishing season); soil (yearly); and sea water (yearly) and sea sediments (yearly). Dietary material samples include total diet; rice (yearly, harvesting season); milk [quarterly (February, May, August and November) at producing districts for WHO program, simiyearly (February and August) at producing districts for domestic program, semiyearly (February and August) at consuming districts, and powdered milk collected semiyearly (April and October)]; vegetables [yearly (harvesting season) at producing and consuming districts]; tea (yearly, the first harvesting season); and fish, shellfish and seaweeds (yearly, fishing season). After being collected, these samples are pretreated and prepared to provide solutions for analysis. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 are separated from the solutions. Analysis of calcium is performed by titration with potassium permanganate. Stable strontium and potassium are determined by atomic absorption and flame emission spectrometry, respectively. After the radiochemical separation, the mounted precipitates are counted for activity using low background beta counters normally for 60 to 90 min. (Nogami, K.)

  13. Experts' attitudes towards medical futility: an empirical survey from Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asai Atsushi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current debate about medical futility is mostly driven by theoretical and personal perspectives and there is a lack of empirical data to document experts and public attitudes towards medical futility. Methods To examine the attitudes of the Japanese experts in the fields relevant to medical futility a questionnaire survey was conducted among the members of the Japan Association for Bioethics. A total number of 108 questionnaires returned filled in, giving a response rate of 50.9%. Among the respondents 62% were healthcare professionals (HCPs and 37% were non-healthcare professionals (Non-HCPs. Results The majority of respondents (67.6 % believed that a physician's refusal to provide or continue a treatment on the ground of futility judgment could never be morally justified but 22.2% approved such refusal with conditions. In the case of physiologically futile care, three-quarters believed that a physician should inform the patient/family of his futility judgment and it would be the patient who could decide what should be done next, based on his/her value judgment. However more than 10% said that a physician should ask about a patient's value and goals, but the final decision was left to the doctor not the patient. There was no statistically significant difference between HCPs and Non-HCPs (p = 0.676. Of respondents 67.6% believed that practical guidelines set up by the health authority would be helpful in futility judgment. Conclusion The results show that there is no support for the physicians' unilateral decision- making on futile care. This survey highlights medical futility as an emerging issue in Japanese healthcare and emphasizes on the need for public discussion and policy development.

  14. The management of radioactive wastes produced by medical institutions in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Akira

    1981-01-01

    The use of radiopharmaceuticals is faced with rather dark prospects. The reason is that the management of radioactive wastes does not work smoothly. In the present management system for low level radioactive wastes in Japan, the Japan Radioisotope Association (JRIA) plays the part of collecting them and the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) plays that of treating them. The volume of radioactive wastes collected, however, is far greater than that treated. Correspondingly, JRIA has to store the excessive radioactive wastes. The construction of a new treatment facility is urgently needed and the search for a building lot goes on. All those concerned, the users and suppliers of radiopharmaceuticals, and so on, should be aware of the situation and cooperate to resolve the various problems concerning the management of radioactive wastes generated by themselves. (author)

  15. Delphi survey of issues after the Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Yasunobu; Seo, Kami; Motoyoshi, Tadahiro; Okada, Shinya

    2011-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 has catastrophic impacts on Japan. Japan is currently on the way to recovery. However, as the damage on the country as well as society is so serious, Japanese society is urged to change some systems including hazard management, energy policy, information systems and city planning. These changes are accompanied with social group realignments, thus necessarily followed by various risks. To cope with these risk issues, SRA-Japan established the special research committee for the Great East Japan Earthquake. The aim of the committee is, from viewpoints of risk analysts, to create and relate messages about risk issues in 2-3 years, in ten years and in thirty years from the earthquake. To do this, the committee garners SRA-Japan member's opinions about possible risks in Japan by using Delphi method. In SRA-Japan, there are over 600 members in interdisciplinary fields from various backgrounds, thus the messages are expected to be helpful for Japanese society to lower its risks and to optimize the resource allocation. The research is now underway. An interim report will be presented. (author)

  16. Perceptions and impact of bipolar disorder in Japan: results of an Internet survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe K

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Koichiro Watanabe,1 Eiji Harada,2 Takeshi Inoue,3 Yuka Tanji,2 Toshiaki Kikuchi1 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, Kyorin University, School of Medicine, Tokyo, 2Medical Science, Medicines Development Unit-Japan, Eli Lilly Japan KK, Hyogo, 3Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Bipolar disorder is a recurrent and episodic illness. This survey study assessed experiences and identified clinical insights of individuals with bipolar disorder. An Internet-based monitor system database was screened for patients with bipolar disorder in Japan (February and March 2013. Of 1,050 patients, 457 completed surveys, and results were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Approximately one-fourth of respondents were diagnosed with bipolar disorder on their first visit to medical institutions, although the most common initial diagnosis was depression/depressive state (65%. Mean time lag between first-time visit to a medical institution and receipt of correct diagnosis of bipolar disorder was 4 years; one-third of patients experienced more than 5 years of lag time. Three perceived reasons for lapsed time before correct diagnosis were “(patients Did not consider manic symptoms as illness, and did not tell the doctor about them,” “I (patient did not know of bipolar disorder,” and “Lack of communication between my doctor and myself (patient.” Among participants who believed that they were initially incorrectly diagnosed and improperly treated, most experienced socioeconomic problems, such as having long-term inability to work or to study (65%. Sources of encouragement for participants included “To have someone to consult with” (41% followed by having “People around me treat me the same as before” (40%. Individuals with bipolar disorder reported a time lag of many years before accurate diagnosis, and substantial burden imposed by the illness. Encouragement should be provided for individuals to live positively

  17. The 21th quality control survey for radioisotope in vitro tests in Japan, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishiba, Yoshimasa; Shimizu, Taeko [Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Kousaka, Tadako; Kobayashi, Hisae; Tachibana, Katsuhiko; Tsushima, Toshio; Hoshino, Minoru; Mori, Mikio

    2000-10-01

    The quality control survey in the title has been conducted every year from 1978 to improve the quality of the in vitro tests and this report gives the survey results done in 1999. The survey was performed in 133 facilities out of 283 in Japan, which involved 18 national and public university hospitals, 16 private university hospitals, 19 national and public hospitals, 18 private hospitals, 41 hygiene test institutes and 21 reagent manufacturers. Tests examined were on 6 substances related to functions of pituitary, 5 of thyroid function, 1 of parathyroid, 4 of digestive-pancreas, 5 of gonad-placenta, 4 of adrenal and 1 of renal-blood pressure regulation, on IgE, on digoxin and on 11 tumor-related substances. Tests were done on 2 - 3 samples supplied from the Committee and for reproducibility for within-day, between-day, effects of freeze-thaw and periodic variation after thawing. Methods involved those using non-radioisotopes like enzyme immunoassay as well as those using radioactive isotopes like radioimmunoassay. Results given by the mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variation for each kit, were analyzed for within-kit (between-facility) variation and between-kit (between-reagent) variation by one way analysis of variance. Findings were similar to those previously reported without the particular new problem; however, the committee considered that the survey should be done with human serum as a matrix especially for samples with a high matrix effect in future. (K.H.)

  18. Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2013-01-01

    I 1500- og 1600-tallet dannedes tidligt moderne stater i Europa, men samtidig eksisterede der ligeså avancerede statsdannelser uden for Europa, bl.a. i Kina, Indien og Japan. I det følgende ser vi nærmere på dannelsen af den moderne stat i Japan. Hvorfor blev Japan aldrig en europæisk koloni......? Hvordan havde japanske magthavere igennem 300 år forberedt Japan og de mennesker, der boede på de japanske øer, til at kunne udvikle en nation, der skulle blive den stærkeste og rigeste i Asien i mere end 100 år? Hvem bestemte i Japan? Kejseren eller shogunen?...

  19. Current and anticipated uses of thermal hydraulic codes at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Hajime; Kukita; Ohnuki, Akira

    1997-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is conducting several research programs related to thermal-hydraulic and neutronic behavior of light water reactors (LWRs). These include LWR safety research projects, which are conducted in accordance with the Nuclear Safety Commission's research plan, and reactor engineering projects for the development of innovative reactor designs or core/fuel designs. Thermal-hydraulic and neutronic codes are used for various purposes including experimental analysis, nuclear power plant (NPP) safety analysis, and design assessment

  20. Summary of survey of SMR market potential in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, T.; Ochiai, M.

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear power generation in Japan has grown to more than 30% of the total electricity generation as of the end of 1995. Considering the increase of energy demand in the future, the steadily energy supply is requested. The paper presents the outlook of energy supply and consumption in the future, the status of nuclear power generation and market potentials of the small and medium nuclear power plants in Japan. (author)

  1. Survey of advanced radiation technologies used at designated cancer care hospitals in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikama, Naoto; Tsujino, Kayoko; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Ishikura, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Our survey assessed the use of advanced radiotherapy technologies at the designated cancer care hospitals in Japan, and we identified several issues to be addressed. We collected the data of 397 designated cancer care hospitals, including information on staffing in the department of radiation oncology (e.g. radiation oncologists, medical physicists and radiation therapists), the number of linear accelerators and the implementation of advanced radiotherapy technologies from the Center for Cancer Control and Information Services of the National Cancer Center, Japan. Only 53% prefectural designated cancer care hospitals and 16% regional designated cancer care hospitals have implemented intensity-modulated radiotherapy for head and neck cancers, and 62% prefectural designated cancer care hospitals and 23% regional designated cancer care hospitals use intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Seventy-four percent prefectural designated cancer care hospitals and 40% regional designated cancer care hospitals employ stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung cancer. Our multivariate analysis of prefectural designated cancer care hospitals which satisfy the institute's qualifications for advanced technologies revealed the number of radiation oncologists (P=0.01) and that of radiation therapists (P=0.003) were significantly correlated with the implementation of intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer, and the number of radiation oncologists (P=0.02) was correlated with the implementation of stereotactic body radiotherapy. There was a trend to correlate the number of medical physicists with the implementation of stereotactic body radiotherapy (P=0.07). Only 175 (51%) regional designated cancer care hospitals satisfy the institute's qualification of stereotactic body radiotherapy and 76 (22%) satisfy that of intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Seventeen percent prefectural designated cancer care hospitals and 13% regional designated cancer care hospitals

  2. National Institute of Informatics completes international expansion of Japan's first 10 Gbps academic research network "SuperSINET"

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "SuperSINET is Japan's first 10 Gbps Optical high-speed research network built to drive the academic research activities in Japan by establishing the strong cooperation between major high-tech research institutes, universities or other academic organizations across the world" (1/2 page).

  3. Radioactivity survey data in Japan, number 75 Dec. 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This paper provides radioactivity survey data in environmental and dietary materials as of December 1985. The concentrations of strontium-90 and cesium-137 are presented in terms of the following: total diet, rice, milk, vegetables, sea fish, freshwater fish, shellfish, and seaweeds. The samples were sent to the Japan Chemical Analysis Center from 32 contracted prefectures. The samples were prepared for radiochemical analysis. The concentrations of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in respective samples are tabulated. The maximum concentrations of strontium-90 and cesium-137 were 5.9 +- 0.42 pCi · p -1 · d -1 and 8.9 +- 0.47 pCi · p -1 · d -1 , respectively, for total diet; 0.7 +- 0.19 pCi/kg and 7.4 +- 0.40 pCi/kg for rice (producing districts); 1.0 +- 0.21 pCi/kg and 8.6 +- 0.38 pCi/kg for rice (consuming districts); 8.8 +- 0.44 pCi/l and 30 +- 0.7 pCi/l for milk (producing districts for WHO program); 7.0 +- 0.41 pCi/l and 6.9 +- 0.37 pCi/l for milk (producing districts for domestic program); 2.1 +- 0.25 pCi/l and 3.8 +- 0.29 pCi/l for milk (consuming districts); 31 +- 1.3 pCi/kg and 110 +- 2 pCi/kg for powdered milk; 38 +- 0.8 pCi/kg and 9.5 +- 0.36 pCi/kg for vegetables (producing districts); 15 +- 0.5 pCi/kg and 3.2 +- 0.23 pCi/kg for vegetables (consuming districts); 1.7 +- 0.36 pCi/kg and 8.2 +- 0.39 pCi/kg for sea fish; 110 +- 2 pCi/kg and 9.2 +- 0.61 pCi/kg for freshwater fish; 0.5 +- 0.66 pCi/kg and 2.5 +- 0.55 pCi/kg for shellfish; and 5.1 +- 0.55 pCi/kg and 1.9 +- 0.30 pCi/kg for seaweeds. (Namekawa, K.)

  4. Radioactivity survey data in Japan, number 77 June 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report provides radioactivity survey data in environmental and dietary materials as of June 1986. The concentrations of strontium-90 and cesium-137 are presented in terms of the following: total diet, rice, milk, vegetables, tea, sea fish, shellfish, and seaweeds. The samples were sent to the Japan Chemical Analysis Center from 32 contracted prefectures. The samples were prepared for radiochemical analysis. The concentrations of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in respective samples are tabulated. The maximum concentrations of strontium-90 and cesium-137 were 5.0 +- 0.40 pCi/p · d and 15 +- 0.5 pci/p · d, respectively, for total diet; 0.3 +- 0.19 pCi/Kg and 2.1 +- 0.22 pci/Kg for rice (producing districts); 0.5 +- 0.18 pCi/Kg and 6.7 +- 0.30 pci/Kg for rice (consuming districts); 2.4 +- 0.26 pCi/l and 7.9 +- 0.37 pci/l for milk (producing districts for domestic program); 5.2 +- 0.35 pCi/l and 98 +- 1.2 pci/l for milk (producing districts for WHO program); 2.4 +- 0.31 pCi/l and 23 +- 0.6 pci/l for milk (consuming districts); 34 +- 1.0 pCi/Kg and 310 +- 3 pci/Kg for powdered milk; 19 +- 0.8 pCi/Kg and 2.4 +- 0.21 pci/Kg for vegetables (producing districts); 3.9 +- 0.41 pCi/Kg and 1.5 +- 0.21 pci/Kg for vegetables (consuming districts); 150 +- 5 pCi/Kg and 4100 +- 21 pci/Kg for Japanese tea; 0.7 +- 0.26 pCi/Kg and 19 +- 0.6 pci/Kg for sea fish; 0.0 +- 1.5 pCi/Kg and 8.7 +- 0.76 pci/Kg for shellfish; and 1.3 +- 0.32 pCi/Kg and 8.5 +- 0.41 pci/Kg for seaweeds. (Namekawa, K.)

  5. Annual report of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, for fiscal 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has promoted the research on nuclear safety, the research and development of high temperature engineering and nuclear fusion which are the leading projects bringing about the breakthrough in atomic energy technology, the research on radiation utilization and the research and development of nuclear-powered ships, following the 'Plan of development and long term utilization of atomic energy' decided in 1987, as the central, general research institute in atomic energy field in Japan. Also the advanced basic research for opening atomic energy frontier and various international cooperation as well as the cooperation in Japan have been promoted. The engineering safety of nuclear facilities and environmental safety, the construction of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Facility, the design of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor and the various tests related to it, the reconstruction of JT-60 for increasing the current, the design of a nuclear fusion reactor, the high utilization of radiation using ion beam, the construction of Sekinehama Port for the nuclear-powered ship 'Mutsu', the power increasing test of the reactor of the Mutsu, the reconstruction of JRR-3 and others are reported. (K.I.)

  6. Government as Institutional Entrepreneur: Extending Working Life in the UK and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Matthew; Schröder, Heike; Higo, Masa; Yamada, Atsuhiro

    2014-07-01

    Through the lens of Institutional Entrepreneurship, this paper discusses how governments use the levers of power afforded through business and welfare systems to affect change in the organisational management of older workers. It does so using national stakeholder interviews in two contrasting economies: the United Kingdom and Japan. Both governments have taken a 'light-touch' approach to work and retirement. However, the highly institutionalised Japanese system affords the government greater leverage than that of the liberal UK system in changing employer practices at the workplace level.

  7. Current and anticipated uses of thermal hydraulic codes at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akimoto, Hajime; Kukita; Ohnuki, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is conducting several research programs related to thermal-hydraulic and neutronic behavior of light water reactors (LWRs). These include LWR safety research projects, which are conducted in accordance with the Nuclear Safety Commission`s research plan, and reactor engineering projects for the development of innovative reactor designs or core/fuel designs. Thermal-hydraulic and neutronic codes are used for various purposes including experimental analysis, nuclear power plant (NPP) safety analysis, and design assessment.

  8. Fiber optic transmission system delivered to Fusion Research Center of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashida, Mutsuo; Hiramoto, Kiyoshi; Yamazaki, Kunihiro

    1983-01-01

    In general there are many electromagnetically induced noises in the premises of factories, power plants and substations. Under such electrically bad environments, for the computer data transmission that needs high speed processing and high reliability, the optical fiber cable is superion to the coaxial cable or the flat-type cable in aspects of the inductionlessness and a wide bandwidth. Showa Electric Wire and Cable Co., Ltd. has delivered and installed a computer data transmission system consisting of optical modems and optical fiber cables for connecting every experiment building in the premises of Fusion Research Center of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This paper describes the outline of this system. (author)

  9. Multifractality in edge localized modes in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Tokamak-60 Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bak, P.E.; Asakura, N.; Miura, Y.; Nakano, T.; Yoshino, R.

    2001-01-01

    The temporal losses of confinement during edge localized modes in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Tokamak-60 Upgrade (JT-60U) show multifractal scaling and the spectra are generally smooth, but in some cases there are signs of discontinuous derivatives. Dynamics of the Sugama-Horton model, interpreted as edge localized modes, also display multifractal scaling. The spectra display singularities in the derivative, which can be interpreted as a phase transition. It is argued that the multifractal spectra of edge localized modes can be used to discriminate between different experimental discharges and validate edge localized mode models

  10. Evolution of Carbon Ion Radiotherapy at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Osama; Makishima, Hirokazu; Kamada, Tadashi

    2018-03-06

    Charged particles can achieve better dose distribution and higher biological effectiveness compared to photon radiotherapy. Carbon ions are considered an optimal candidate for cancer treatment using particles. The National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Chiba, Japan was the first radiotherapy hospital dedicated for carbon ion treatments in the world. Since its establishment in 1994, the NIRS has pioneered this therapy with more than 69 clinical trials so far, and hundreds of ancillary projects in physics and radiobiology. In this review, we will discuss the evolution of carbon ion radiotherapy at the NIRS and some of the current and future projects in the field.

  11. Nationwide Survey of Work Environment, Work-Life Balance and Burnout among Psychiatrists in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Kato, Takahiro A.; Kikuchi, Saya; Tateno, Masaru; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Jun

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psychiatry has been consistently shown to be a profession characterised by 'high-burnout'; however, no nationwide surveys on this topic have been conducted in Japan. AIMS: The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of burnout and to ascertain the relationship between work environment satisfaction, work-life balance satisfaction and burnout among psychiatrists working in medical schools in Japan. METHOD: We mailed anonymous questionnaires to all 80 psychiatry depart...

  12. Annual report of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute for fiscal 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) promotes some researches such as neutron science research, light quantum/synchrotron radiation science research, radiation application research, science research, advanced basic research, and so on, based on nuclear energy R and D and contributing to general development on scientific technology, along the Long-term program on research, development and application of nuclear energy' established on June, 1994, as a general organization on nuclear energy R and D in Japan. And, as an R and D on advanced energy system bringing breakthrough on nuclear energy technology, JAERI also promotes research on future type energy system, R and D on nuclear fusion, and trial research on high temperature engineering. Furthermore, JAERI progresses research on safety and health physics, as occupying both fields of general nuclear energy science and nuclear energy. In addition, by carrying out not only interdisciplinary cooperation in Japan but also versatile international one, various research assisting business and effective R and D are promoted. Here were described in details in fiscal year 2000, on 6 items on the neutron science research (SR), 13 items on light quantum/radiation light SR, 13 items on radiation application SR, 6 items on matter SR, 3 items on environment SR, 19 items on advanced basic SR, and so on. (G.K.)

  13. A summary report on the 23rd quality control survey for immunoassays in Japan, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of the survey is to improve the quality of in vitro tests and this report is its summary of immunoassays (the old name: RI in vitro tests) conducted in 2001. The survey was performed in 143 facilities out of 1,655 in Japan, which involved 20 national and public university hospitals, 16 private university hospitals, 21 national and public hospitals, 26 private hospitals, 41 hygiene test institutes and 19 reagent manufacturers. Tests examined were on 6 substances related to functions of pituitary, 5 of thyroid, 1 of parathyroid, 4 of gastro-intestine and pancreas, 5 of gonad and placenta, 4 of adrenal, 1 of renal-blood pressure regulation, on IgE, on digoxin and on 12 tumor-related substances. Tests were done on 2-3 samples supplied from the Committee and the mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variation were calculated for one way analysis of variance of within- and between-kit. Methods included those (65.4% vs 62.7% in 2000) with non-radioisotope like enzyme immunoassay (non-RI) and with radioisotopes like radioimmunoassay (RI). Dissociation between manufacturers of non-RI values without a common standard substance and between non-RI and RI values even with the same antibody was noted: the Committee considered these problems as their future task. (K.H.)

  14. Capacity Building for Institutional Development in Surveying and Land Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    for developing the basic capacity in terms of educational programs and professional organizations; and 3) Global development through cooperation with other international NGO´s such as the UN agencies, the World Bank and sister organizations in surveying. FIG, this way, plays a strong role, in improving...... for institutional development within surveying and land management. Finally the paper discusses the role of FIG in this regard. Three areas are identified: 1) Professional development through providing a global forum for exchange of experiences and new developments; 2) Institutional development through support...... the capacity in surveying and land management at a global scale....

  15. Decommissioning project feedback experience in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagihara, S.; Tachibana, M.; Miyajima, K.

    2003-01-01

    Since starting the research and development program for peaceful use of nuclear energy in 1950's, various research and demonstration facilities have been constructed in research organizations, universities and commercial sectors in Japan. Some of the nuclear facilities constructed in the early stage of research and development have been retired to be decommissioned because of completion of the initial objectives in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). On the other hand, since the first commercial operation of nuclear power plant (1968), the number of nuclear power plants has increased up to 52 plants operating as of August 2003 in Japan. The shear of nuclear energy accounts approximately for 35% of electricity generation in total at present time. However, several nuclear power plants have been operated for more than 25 years and two nuclear power plants are expected to be finally shutdown by 2010 to be eventually decommissioned. The Tokai Power Station, the oldest Japanese nuclear power plant operated by the Japan Atomic Power Company, was permanently shutdown from March 1998 and it is in decommissioning stage at this time. The Fugen, which is advanced thermal reactor operated by the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC), was finally shutdown on March, 2003 after 25 years operation to be decommissioned. In addition, relating to planned unification between JAERI and JNC in 2005, the studies have been in progress on decommissioning and radioactive waste treatment and disposal; the cost was estimated to be 10 to 30 billion Japanese yens per year during 80 years for decommissioning of nearly 200 nuclear facilities. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities is thus getting to be one of important issues in Japan. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities might be possible using conventional and/or partially improved technology. However, reviewing project feedback experience on decommissioning and decontamination might contribute to solve various issues

  16. Secondary Data Analysis of National Surveys in Japan Toward Improving Population Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Nayu

    2016-01-01

    Secondary data analysis of national health surveys of the general population is a standard methodology for health metrics and evaluation; it is used to monitor trends in population health over time and benchmark the performance of health systems. In Japan, the government has established electronic databases of individual records from national surveys of the population’s health. However, the number of publications based on these datasets is small considering the scale and coverage of the surveys. There appear to be two major obstacles to the secondary use of Japanese national health survey data: strict data access control under the Statistics Act and an inadequate interdisciplinary research environment for resolving methodological difficulties encountered when dealing with secondary data. The usefulness of secondary analysis of survey data is evident with examples from the author’s previous studies based on vital records and the National Health and Nutrition Surveys, which showed that (i) tobacco smoking and high blood pressure are the major risk factors for adult mortality from non-communicable diseases in Japan; (ii) the decrease in mean blood pressure in Japan from the late 1980s to the early 2000s was partly attributable to the increased use of antihypertensive medication and reduced dietary salt intake; and (iii) progress in treatment coverage and control of high blood pressure is slower in Japan than in the United States and Britain. National health surveys in Japan are an invaluable asset, and findings from secondary analyses of these surveys would provide important suggestions for improving health in people around the world. PMID:26902170

  17. A nationwide survey of factors influencing adherence to ocular hypotensive eyedrops in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumura, Toyoaki; Kashiwagi, Kenji; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Yoshikawa, Keiji; Suzumura, Hirotaka; Maeda, Toshine; Takeda, Ryuji; Saito, Hitomi; Araie, Makoto

    2018-01-12

    Few reports have investigated the status of adherence in Japan on a large scale. We aimed to investigate the status of adherence to topical glaucoma treatment and its associated factors. A nationwide survey was conducted as a prospective fashion. Participants in this survey were subjects with primary open-angle glaucoma, normal-tension glaucoma, or ocular hypertension or pseudoexfoliation glaucoma who had been prescribed anti-glaucoma ophthalmic eyedrops and whose ophthalmologist considered prescribing any fixed combination of ocular hypotensive eyedrops for the first time between 2011 and 2012. Subjects and their attending ophthalmologists independently completed a questionnaire by utilizing a fixed combination of ocular hypotensive eyedrops. A total of 1358 ophthalmologists from 1071 medical institutions participated in this survey. We registered 4430 subjects (2049 males and 2381 females). In total, data from 3853 subjects (87.6%) were analyzed after inclusion of subjects based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Good adherence was defined as not forgetting instillation during the past week. Rates of good adherence reported by subjects and ophthalmologists were 72.4 and 78.5%, respectively (P < 0.0001). The consistency of adherence evaluation between subjects and ophthalmologists was moderate [kappa score 0.5025 (95% confidence interval 0.4740-0.5309)]. Significant factors associated with adherence were size of clinic, age, gender, number of types of ocular hypotensive eyedrops, ease of instillation, preferred number of eyedrops, preferred frequency of instillation of eyedrops, and knowledge of glaucoma. Adherence to ocular hypotensive eyedrops among Japanese subjects was relatively good. Concordance of adherence between subjects' reports and ophthalmologists' responses was moderate. Size of clinic, number of types of ocular hypotensive eyedrops, ease of instillation, preferred number of eyedrops, preferred frequency of instillation of eyedrops, and knowledge

  18. Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, T.

    1975-01-01

    A report is given on the basic research and development in food irradiation in Japan. Two new irradiation facilities are extensively described. Basic research is performed in radiation chemistry of fruits, potatoes, fish products, meat products and model systems. Microbiological research is concerned with Clostridium botulinum and radicidation and radurization studies, as well as effects of combination treatment on Micrococcus radiodurans. Radiation treatment of grain, frutis, vegetables, potatoes, fish, meat and meat products and other commodities is performed. Wholesomeness studies are dealing with the nutritional value and animal feeding studies are carried out with irradiated potatoes, onions, rice, wheat, and sausages. Two short chapters are concerned with legislation and marketing. (MG) [de

  19. Radioactivity survey data in Japan, Part 1. Environmental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    The collection and pretreatment of samples are explained for rain and dry fall-out, airborne dust, service water and freshwater, soil, seawater, sea sediments, total diet, rice, milk, vegetables, tea, fish, shellfish and seaweeds. The preparation of samples for analysis is explained for rain, service water and freshwater, soil and sea sediments, rice, airborne dust, diet, milk, vegetables, tea, fish shellfish and seaweeds. The separation of strontium-90 and cesium-137, the determination of stable strontium, calcium and potassium, and the counting of activity using low background beta counters are described. As the results, the strontium-90 and cesium-137 in rain and dry fall-out, airborne dust, service water, freshwater, soil, seawater and sea sediments from April to September, 1997 are reported. The graphs showing the change of these data from 1993 to 1997 are shown. Finally, 47 sampling locations in Japan are shown. (J.P.N.)

  20. Radioactivity survey data in Japan, Part 1. Environmental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    The collection and pretreatment of samples are explained for rain and dry fall-out, airborne dust, service water and freshwater, soil, seawater, sea sediments, total diet, rice, milk, vegetables, tea, fish, shellfish and seaweeds. The preparation of samples for analysis is explained for rain, service water and freshwater, soil and sea sediment, rice, airborne dust, diet, milk, vegetables, fish and shellfish, seaweeds, tea and others. The separation of strontium-90 and cesium-137, the determination of stable strontium, calcium and potassium, and the counting of activity using low background beta counters are described. As the results, the strontium-90 and cesium-137 in rain and dry fall-out, airborne dust, service water, freshwater, soil, seawater and sea sediments from October, 1997 to March, 1998 are reported. The graphs showing the change of these data from 1993 to 1997 are shown. Finally, 47 sampling locations in Japan are shown. (J.P.N.)

  1. Radioactivity survey of 'health foods' (supplements) marketed in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Sadaaki; Yoshida, Terumitsu; Takahashi, Kunihiko; Iijima, Masao; Urabe, Ken-ichi

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of 134 Cs, 137 Cs and 40 K in 73 supplements marked in Japan were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. In all supplements, 134 Cs was not detected. On the other hand, 134 Cs was detected in 9 supplements, and the concentrations of 137 Cs in them were in the range of 2.3-190 Bq/kg. There was a tendency that concentrations of 137 Cs in supplements made from materials accumulating 137 Cs, such as mushrooms and blueberries, were high. Furthermore, 40 K was detected in 56 supplements at levels of 17.6-11600 Bq/kg. The committed effective dose of 137 Cs in adults by annually taking supplements was estimated to be about 2.9 μSv. (author)

  2. Internet-based survey on medical manga in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Yukiko; Matsumura, Tomoko; Murishige, Naoko; Kodama, Yuko; Hatanaka, Nobuyo; Takita, Morihito; Sakamoto, Kenjiro; Hamaki, Tamae; Kusumi, Eiji; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko; Yuji, Koichiro; Narimatsu, Hiroto; Kami, Masahiro

    2011-10-01

    The more manga (Japanese graphic novels) communicate medical information, the more people are likely to be influenced by manga. We investigated through an Internet search using Google the characteristics of medical manga published in Japan, defined as those in which the main character is a medical professional and that occur in a medical setting. As of December 2008, 173 medical manga had been published. For a period of time after the first medical manga by Osamu Tezuka in 1970, the number of publications maintained a steady level, but increased rapidly in the mid 1980s. The professions of the protagonist were 134 doctors, 19 nurses, 3 dentists, 3 medical students, and 1 nursing student. Although the main character was mostly a doctor, manga featuring paramedical professionals have increased since 1990s. Medical manga may be a powerful tool for increasing the awareness of the public regarding medicine.

  3. The Japan HOspice and Palliative Care Evaluation Study 3: Study Design, Characteristics of Participants and Participating Institutions, and Response Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Maho; Morita, Tatsuya; Kizawa, Yoshiyuki; Tsuneto, Satoru; Shima, Yasuo; Miyashita, Mitsunori

    2017-08-01

    This article describes the whole picture of Japan HOspice and Palliative Care Evaluation Study 3 (J-HOPE3 Study) including study design and demographic data. The aims of the J-HOPE3 study were to (1) evaluate the process, structure, and outcome of palliative care in the following care settings: acute hospitals, inpatient hospice/palliative care units (PCUs), and home hospice services; (2) examine bereaved family members' self-reported psychosocial conditions, such as grief and depression, as bereavement outcomes; (3) provide data to ensure and improve the quality of care provided by participating institutions through feedback concerning results for each institution; and (4) perform additional studies to explore specific clinical research questions. We conducted a cross-sectional, anonymous, self-report questionnaire survey involving patients' bereaved family members in 20 acute hospitals, 133 PCUs, and 22 home hospice services between May and July 2014. Two types of questionnaires were used: main and specific studies questionnaires. The questionnaire was sent to totally 13 584, and 10 157 returned the questionnaire. The analysis included 9126 family members' questionnaires from acute hospitals, PCUs, and home hospice services. Respondents' average age was 61.6 years, 55% were women, and 40% had been married to the deceased. With respect to the characteristics of participating institutions, most institutions did not have religious affiliations, and most PCUs and home hospice services provided bereavement care. These results of the analysis of common and additional questionnaires could play an important role in clinical settings, quality improvement, research, and public accountability.

  4. Technical report on the Piping Reliability Proving Tests at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) conducts Piping Reliability Proving Tests from 1975 to 1992 based upon the contracts between JAERI and Science and Technology Agency of Japan (STA) under the auspices of the special account law for electric power development promotion. The purpose of these tests are to prove the structural reliability of the primary cooling piping constituting a part of the pressure boundary in the light water reactor power plants. The tests with large experimental facilities had ended already in 1990. Presently piping reliability analysis by the probabilistic fracture mechanics method is being done. Until now annual reports concerning the proving tests were produced and submitted to STA, whereas this report summarizes the test results done during these 16 years. Objectives of the piping reliability proving tests are to prove that the primary piping of the light water reactor (1) be reliable throughout the service period, (2) have no possibility of rupture, (3) bring no detrimental influence on the surrounding instrumentations or equipments near the break location even if it ruptured suddenly. To attain these objectives (i) pipe fatigue tests, (ii) unstable pipe fracture tests, (iii) pipe rupture tests and also the analyses by computer codes were done. After carrying out these tests, it is verified that the piping is reliable throughout the service period. The authors of this report are T. Isozaki, K. Shibata, S. Ueda, R. Kurihara, K. Onizawa and A. Kohsaka. The parts they wrote are shown in contents. (author)

  5. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Solar Energy Research Institute, Golden, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-10-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings of the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), conducted December 14 through 18, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. The team includes outside experts supplied by private contractors. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with SERI. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SERI, and interviews with site personnel. 33 refs., 22 figs., 21 tabs.

  6. A Survey of the Awareness, Offering, and Adoption of OERs and MOOCs in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeta, Katsusuke; Koizumi, Mitsuyo; Sakai, Hiroyuki; Tsuji, Yasuhiro; Inaba, Rieko; Hiraoka, Naoshi

    2017-01-01

    Awareness about Open Educational Resources (OERs) and the purposes for offering and adopting OERs and Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) were analyzed using a detailed survey of higher education across Japan, which was conducted in 2015. A comparison with a similar study conducted in 2013 revealed that awareness of OERs has increased slightly and…

  7. Internet use and problematic Internet use among adolescents in Japan: A nationwide representative survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoko Mihara

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: A cross-sectional survey using YDQ of a large number of high school students yielded a PIU prevalence of 7.9% in Japan. This study showed that problems associated with Internet overuse have already become serious; therefore, planning and implementation of prevention and control measures is urgently required.

  8. Prevention of Status Epilepticus in Dravet Syndrome: Nationwide Survey in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Child neurologists and epileptologists at various university centers in Japan were surveyed by questionnaire to identify the most effective strategies for management of and prophylaxis against status epilepticus (SE in children with severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy (SMEI; Dravet syndrome, especially when associated with fever.

  9. Infectious waste management in Japan: A revised regulation and a management process in medical institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, M.; Une, H.

    2005-01-01

    In Japan, the waste management practice is carried out in accordance with the Waste Disposal Law of 1970. The first rule of infectious waste management was regulated in 1992, and infectious wastes are defined as the waste materials generated in medical institutions as a result of medical care or research which contain pathogens that have the potential to transmit infectious diseases. Revised criteria for infectious waste management were promulgated by the Ministry of Environment in 2004. Infectious waste materials are divided into three categories: the form of waste; the place of waste generation; the kind of infectious diseases. A reduction of infectious waste is expected. We introduce a summary of the revised regulation of infectious waste management in this article

  10. Accomplishments of LOCA/ECCS experimental research at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasaka, Kanji; Murao, Yoshio; Koizumi, Yasuo

    1984-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has investigated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA)/emergency core cooling system (ECCS) from 1970. Major results of the LOCA/ECCS research are summarized in this report. ROSA-II program was LOCA/ECCS research for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) and ROSA-III program was for a boiling water reactor (BWR). The both test facilities were scaled at approximately 1/400 of the respective reference PWR and BWR. Large scale reflood test is research on reflood phenomena during a large break LOCA of PWR. The test facility is scaled at approximately 1/20 of the reference PWR and the research is still being continued. (author)

  11. Integrated library system in the library of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, Minoru; Mineo, Yukinobu; Itabashi, Keizo

    1987-01-01

    Integrated library system has been developed using a stand-alone mini-computer in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute library. This system consists of three subsystems for serials control, books acquisition and circulation control. Serials control subsystem deals with subscription, acquisition, claiming and inquiry of journals. This has been operating since the beginning of 1985. Book acquisition sub-system, which has been started since April 1986, deals with accounting and cataloguing of books. Circulation control sub-system deals with circulation, statistics compilation, book inventory and retrieval, which has been operating since April 1987. This system contributes greatly not only to the reduction of the circulation work load but also to the promotion of the library services. However, the convenience in circulation processing should be improved for materials without catalogue information stored in the computer. The pertinence for maximum number of books retrieved has to be also reconsidered. (author)

  12. Current studies on the decommissioning materials recycling at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiki, K.; Nakamura, H.

    1993-01-01

    Rational treatment of a large volume of solid wastes resulting from the reactor dismantling is a key to success to carry out the decommissioning smoothly. From this viewpoint, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been conducting development of the recycling technology for metal waste and an investigation study on the rational recycling system for the dismantling wastes recycling. With respect to the development of the recycling technology, series of melting tests using non-contaminated metals, metal waste dismantled from JPDR or imitated waste using radioisotopes have been conducted. The basic characteristics of the radionuclides transport behavior during the melting have been understood. In the investigation study on the rational recycling system, a scenario of recycling the wastes was developed based on the amount of waste arising from decommissioning nuclear power plants, and necessary processing facilities were examined, and safety and economy of the process were evaluated

  13. Progress of fusion fuel processing system development at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Masataka; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Iwai, Yasunori; Isobe, Kanetsugu; O'Hira, Shigeru; Hayashi, Takumi; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Takumi; Yamada, Masayuki; Konishi, Satoshi

    2000-01-01

    The Tritium Process Laboratory (TPL) at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has been working on the development of fuel processing technology for fusion reactors as a major activity. A fusion fuel processing loop was installed and is being tested with tritium under reactor relevant conditions. The loop at the TPL consists of ZrCo based tritium storage beds, a plasma exhaust processing system using a palladium diffuser and an electrolytic reactor, cryogenic distillation columns for isotope separation, and analytical systems based on newly developed micro gas chromatographs and Raman Spectroscopy. Several extended demonstration campaigns were performed under realistic reactor conditions to test tritiated impurity processing. A sophisticated control technique of distillation column was performed at the same time, and integrated fuel circulation was successfully demonstrated. Major recent design work on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tritium plant at the TPL is devoted to water detritiation based on liquid phase catalytic exchange for improved tritium removal from waste water

  14. Studies of glass waste form performance at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banba, Tsunetaka; Kamizono, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Shinichi; Tashiro, Shingo

    1989-08-01

    The recent studies of glass waste form performance at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute can be classified into the following three categories; (1) Study on the volatilization of radionuclides from the waste glass, which is necessary to estimate the safety in relation to operation of a storage facility. (2) Study on the radiation (alpha-radiation) effects which have relation to the long-term stability of the waste glass. (3) Study on the leaching behavior of actinides under the repository conditions, which is necessary to predict the long-term release rate of radionuclides from the waste glass. In the present report, the recent results corresponding to the above categories are described. (author)

  15. Studies of high-level radioactive waste form performance at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banba, Tsunetaka; Kamizono, Hiroshi; Mitamura, Hisayoshi

    1992-02-01

    The recent studies of high-level radioactive waste form at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute can be classified into the following three categories; (1) Study on the leaching behavior of the nuclear waste glass placing the focus on the alteration layer and the chemical composition of leachant for the prediction of the long-term corrosion of the waste glass. (2) Study on the radiation (alpha-radiation) effects which have relation to the long-term stability of the nuclear waste glass. (3) Study on the long-term self-irradiation damage of a SYNROC waste form using a curium-doped sample. In the present report, the recent results corresponding to the above categories are described. (author)

  16. Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huttner, Kevin; Suzuki, Tatsujiro

    1987-01-01

    The Japanese nuclear power programme began with reactors imported from the United States. A natural uranium heavy water reactor using domestic materials was started in 1958. Subsequent progress was with light water reactors imported from the United States. Domestic reactor development was of a fast breeder reactor and an advanced thermal reactor. By March 1986 there were 32 commercial power plants in operation which produced approximately 23% of the electricity consumed in Japan. Ten more are under construction and six more are planned. Their location and comparative generating cost are tabulated. Energy demand and targets for nuclear power generation are discussed. The FBR advanced thermal reactor and high temperature reactor programmes are summarized. The Japanese nuclear fuel cycle - uranium prospecting, enrichment, reprocessing, the development of mixed oxide fuels, thermal recycling and radioactive waste management is also discussed. (U.K.)

  17. Survey of thorotrast-associated liver cancers in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, S; Hosoda, S; Tateno, H; Kido, C; Takahashi, S

    1983-01-01

    Data on 93 autopsy cases (group A) of thorotrast-associated liver cancers were obtained from the Annual of Pathological Autopsy Cases in Japan from 1958 to 1979, and data on 78 autopsy cases (group B) of thorotrast-associated liver cancers were obtained from the Japanese literature from 1953 to 1980. Cholangiocarcinoma (CLC) constituted 58% of group A and 55% of group B. The curve of the cumulative numbers of patients with CLC versus year in group A was almost linear, showing an increasing risk per surviving patients with advancing time. Angiosarcoma (AGS) occurred in 25% of group A and 24% of group B. The number of patients with AGS increased significantly after 1969 in both groups. In group B, age and years after thorotrast injection of patients with AGS were statistically higher than those of patients with CLC. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HPC) accounted for 17 and 21% of groups A and B, respectively. When yearly distribution, age, and time after thorotrast injection of patients with HPC were correlated with those of patients with other liver cancers, the only statistically significant difference between patients with HPC and patients with CLC was in the years after thorotrast administration. Since 1977 multiple primary liver cancers including AGS developed in thorotrast-administered patients in both groups.

  18. Patterns of Practice in Palliative Radiotherapy for Painful Bone Metastases: A Survey in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Naoki; Shikama, Naoto; Wada, Hitoshi; Harada, Hideyuki; Nozaki, Miwako; Nagakura, Hisayasu; Tago, Masao; Oguchi, Masahiko; Uchida, Nobue

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the current patterns of practice in Japan and to investigate factors that may make clinicians reluctant to use single-fraction radiotherapy (SF-RT). Methods and Materials: Members of the Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group (JROSG) completed an Internet-based survey and described the radiotherapy dose fractionation they would recommend for four hypothetical cases describing patients with painful bone metastasis (BM). Case 1 described a patient with an uncomplicated painful BM in a non-weight-bearing site from non-small-cell lung cancer. Case 2 investigated whether management for a case of uncomplicated spinal BM would be different from that in Case 1. Case 3 was identical with Case 2 except for the presence of neuropathic pain. Case 4 investigated the prescription for an uncomplicated painful BM secondary to oligometastatic breast cancer. Radiation oncologists who recommended multifraction radiotherapy (MF-RT) for Case 2 were asked to explain why they considered MF-RT superior to SF-RT. Results: A total of 52 radiation oncologists from 50 institutions (36% of JROSG institutions) responded. In all four cases, the most commonly prescribed regimen was 30 Gy in 10 fractions. SF-RT was recommended by 13% of respondents for Case 1, 6% for Case 2, 0% for Case 3, and 2% for Case 4. For Case 4, 29% of respondents prescribed a high-dose MF-RT regimen (e.g., 50 Gy in 25 fractions). The following factors were most often cited as reasons for preferring MF-RT: “time until first increase in pain” (85%), “incidence of spinal cord compression” (50%), and “incidence of pathologic fractures” (29%). Conclusions: Japanese radiation oncologists prefer a schedule of 30 Gy in 10 fractions and are less likely to recommend SF-RT. Most Japanese radiation oncologists regard MF-RT as superior to SF-RT, based primarily on the time until first increase in pain.

  19. Preservation of nuclear talented experts in Japan by co-operation of industries, research institutes and universities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, H.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear power accounts for about 35% electric power generation in Japan, playing an important role of energy supply. In addition, a commercial scale reprocessing plant is under construction. A real nuclear fuel cycle is imminently close at hand in Japan. COP3 in Kyoto in 1997 called for every country's fight against global warming. Nuclear power in Japan is expected to take another important role from this viewpoint, too. In order to play these expected roles, it is absolutely needed to preserve nuclear talented experts, by maintaining, succeeding and newly developing nuclear technologies. The Atomic Energy Commission of Japan also points out in its report on 'Long-Term Program for Research, Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy' that research-and development activities are very important to motivate young researchers and engineers who might choose to take nuclear careers. However, young generation capable students seem to avoid majoring nuclear engineering in view of nuclear industry uncertainties in future caused by stagnated Japanese economy since 1990, liberalization of electricity markets, future electricity demand modest forecasts, matured light water reactor technologies, and repeated nuclear accidents inside and outside the country, etc. Aging research facilities at universities are another de-motivating element of causing the reduction of qualifiable students. Consequently, preservation of knowledge and expertise is becoming a big concern for future. According to the survey conducted by the Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) over two years since 2002, participated by the members from nuclear industries, universities, research organizations, electricity industries, nuclear plant suppliers and construction contractors, as well as the questionnaire sent to students, there are various issues for preservation of nuclear talented experts in Japan. Although the number of graduates on nuclear engineering is actually about 350 every year, and

  20. Survey: Did the TFP Growth Rate in Japan Decline in the 1990s?(in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    INUI Tomohiko; KWON Hyeog Ug

    2004-01-01

    This paper surveys the body of research grounded on a basic question "Did the total factor productivity (TFP) growth rate in Japan decline in the 1990s?" In addition, using industry-level data of the Japan Industrial Productivity Database (JIP database) we estimate the mark-ups and the degree of returns to scale and then re-estimate TFP growth rates. Most of studies reviewed in this paper show a decline in TFP growth in the 1990s at the macro-level and the industry-level. There are some studi...

  1. Champion data comparison in nuclear research institutes in Europe, the U. S., and Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazuaki Yanagisawa; Cutler, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    Bibliometric analysis was carried out for champion data comparisons among prestigious nuclear research institutes (PNRI) existed in Japan, the U. S., France, and Germany. The analysis was relied on database INIS (IAEA), ECD (DOE), WOS (Thomson), and SCOPUS (Elsevier). INIS is advanced, key ex-post evaluating tool for determining general research paper-based champion. Over the 30-year time span of research paper publication, the world champion among 11 PNRI is JAERI confirmed by INIS but ORNL confirmed by ECD, WOS, and SCOPUS, the latter two collected journal submitted research paper. Five years ago JAERI is the 3rd ranked institutes following ORNL and ANL. INIS database results revealed that CEA/Grenoble is the French domestic champion regarding research paper publication. Five years ago it was CEA/Saclay. Results from analytical tools used in bibliometric studies should be viewed with careful consideration to learn of any influencing factors because different characteristics exhibited by individual databases can sometimes generate conflicting bibliometric results. This was true among INIS, ECD, WOS, and SCOPUS when looking at trends especially between 5-year periods. (author)

  2. Annual report of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute for fiscal 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has promoted some researches for contributing to general development of science and technology based on nuclear research and development such as neutron science research, light quantum and radiation beam science research, radiation application research, high level computational science research, advanced basic research, and so forth, along the 'Long-term plan on nuclear research, development and application' established on June, 1994. And, researches and developments on leading energy system bringing breakthrough of nuclear technology such as study on future type energy system, research and development of nuclear fusion, and high temperature engineering test research. In addition, as a research containing both fields of general nuclear science and nuclear energy, safety research and health and physics research were also promoted. Furthermore, together with not only inland co-operation with industry, university and institute, but also promotion of diverse international co-operation, effective research and development has been carried out by various research assistant business. Here were described in details on researches on neutron science, light quantum and radiation beam science, radiation application, material science, environmental science, advanced basic research, high level computational science, nuclear fusion, future type energy system, high-temperature engineering test, safety, and relative research, and on operation and safety management, relative technology and outsider operation, and construction arrangement. (G.K.)

  3. Annual report of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, for fiscal 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    At present, a half century has elapsed since the discovery of nuclear fission, and atomic energy has taken the position of basic energy already, accordingly the development and utilization of atomic energy is very important as the energy source which can supply energy for long term economically and stably. Along the long term plan of atomic energy development and utilization decided in 1987, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) advanced the research and development, thus it has borne the role as the nucleus general research institute in atomic energy fields. It has exerted efforts to obtain the understanding and trust of the nation on atomic energy, and has promoted the pioneering project research, such as safety research, high temperature engineering test and research, the research and development of nuclear fusion, the research on radiation utilization and the research and development of nuclear-powered ships. In the safety research, in order to contribute to the further rooting of LWRs and the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle, the research on the engineering safety of nuclear facilities and environmental safety has been advanced. The activities in respective research fields are summarized. Also the international cooperation with USA, FRG, China and others were carried out smoothly. (K.I.)

  4. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances, nuclear fuel and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Emergency response); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Nuclear security; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Cabinet Office; Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry - METI; Minister of Land, Infrastructure and Transport - MLIT; Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology - MEXT); 2. Advisory bodies (Atomic Energy Commission - AEC; Nuclear Safety Commission - NSC; Radiation Council; Special Committee on Energy Policy; Other advisory bodies); 3. Public and Semi-Public Agencies (Japan Atomic Energy Agency - JAEA)

  5. Annual report of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute for fiscal 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has promoted the research on high temperature engineering, the research and development of nuclear fusion, the research on radiation utilization and the research and development of nuclear powered ships as the advanced project researches which bring about the breakthrough of atomic energy technology as well as the research on the safety, following the long term plan of atomic energy development and utilization which was decided in 1987, as the general research institute in Japanese atomic energy field. The progress of the above mentioned researches in fiscal 1992 is reported. The operation of JRR-2, JRR-3M, JRR-4 and JMTR was carried out as scheduled. 9 cases of the medical irradiation on brain tumors were performed at JRR-2. As to the practical test of the disassembling of JPDR, the machinery and equipment in the reactor containment vessel were removed, and the development of a high performance decontamination testing device and others was advanced. The efficient operation of the large computer system, the production and sales of radioisotopes and radioactive waste business were continued. (K.I.)

  6. A molecular epidemiological survey of Babesia, Hepatozoon, Ehrlichia and Anaplasma infections of dogs in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    KUBO, Shotaro; TATENO, Morihiro; ICHIKAWA, Yasuaki; ENDO, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Tick-borne diseases are often encountered in canine clinical practice. In the present study, a molecular epidemiological survey of dogs in Japan was conducted to understand the prevalence and geographical distribution of Babesia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma spp. Pathogen-derived DNA in blood samples obtained from 722 dogs with a history of exposure to ticks and/or fleas was examined by PCR. The prevalence of Babesia gibsoni, Babesia odocoilei-like species, Hepatozoon canis and Ehrlichia spp./Anaplasma spp. was 2.4% (16/722), 0.1% (1/722), 2.5% (18/722) and 1.5% (11/722), respectively. While B. gibsoni and Ehrlichia spp./Anaplasma spp. were detected in the western part of Japan, H. canis was detected in Tohoku area in addition to western and central parts of Japan. PMID:25947226

  7. Risk management of radiation therapy. Survey by north Japan radiation therapy oncology group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Masahiko; Abe, Yoshinao; Yamada, Shogo; Hareyama, Masato; Nakamura, Ryuji; Sugita, Tadashi; Miyano, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    A North Japan Radiation Oncology Group (NJRTOG) survey was carried out to disclose the risk management of radiation therapy. During April 2002, we sent questionnaires to radiation therapy facilities in northern Japan. There were 31 replies from 27 facilities. Many incidents and accidents were reported, including old cases. Although 60% of facilities had a risk management manual and/or risk manager, only 20% had risk management manuals for radiation therapy. Eighty five percent of radiation oncologists thought that incidents may be due to a lack of manpower. Ninety percent of radiation oncologists want to know the type of cases happened in other facilities. The risk management system is still insufficient for radiation therapy. We hope that our data will be a great help to develop risk management strategies for radiation therapy for all radiation oncologists in Japan. (author)

  8. 78 FR 62660 - Non-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Germany, Japan, Korea, Sweden, and Taiwan Institution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... (Preliminary)] Non-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Germany, Japan, Korea, Sweden, and Taiwan Institution...) to determine whether there is a reasonable indication that an industry in the United States is materially injured or threatened with material injury, or the establishment of an industry in the United...

  9. Iron overload patients with unknown etiology from national survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikuta, Katsuya; Hatayama, Mayumi; Addo, Lynda; Toki, Yasumichi; Sasaki, Katsunori; Tatsumi, Yasuaki; Hattori, Ai; Kato, Ayako; Kato, Koichi; Hayashi, Hisao; Suzuki, Takahiro; Kobune, Masayoshi; Tsutsui, Miyuki; Gotoh, Akihiko; Aota, Yasuo; Matsuura, Motoo; Hamada, Yuzuru; Tokuda, Takahiro; Komatsu, Norio; Kohgo, Yutaka

    2017-03-01

    Transfusion is believed to be the main cause of iron overload in Japan. A nationwide survey on post-transfusional iron overload subsequently led to the establishment of guidelines for iron chelation therapy in this country. To date, however, detailed clinical information on the entire iron overload population in Japan has not been fully investigated. In the present study, we obtained and studied detailed clinical information on the iron overload patient population in Japan. Of 1109 iron overload cases, 93.1% were considered to have occurred post-transfusion. There were, however, 76 cases of iron overload of unknown origin, which suggest that many clinicians in Japan may encounter some difficulty in correctly diagnosing and treating iron overload. Further clinical data were obtained for 32 cases of iron overload of unknown origin; median of serum ferritin was 1860.5 ng/mL. As occurs in post-transfusional iron overload, liver dysfunction was found to be as high as 95.7% when serum ferritin levels exceeded 1000 ng/mL in these patients. Gene mutation analysis of the iron metabolism-related genes in 27 cases of iron overload with unknown etiology revealed mutations in the gene coding hemojuvelin, transferrin receptor 2, and ferroportin; this indicates that although rare, hereditary hemochromatosis does occur in Japan.

  10. Development and applicability of Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shinya; Seto, Kanako; Kigawa, Mika; Fujita, Shigeru; Hasegawa, Toshihiko; Hasegawa, Tomonori

    2011-02-07

    Patient safety culture at healthcare organizations plays an important role in guaranteeing, improving and promoting overall patient safety. Although several conceptual frameworks have been proposed in the past, no standard measurement tool has yet been developed for Japan. In order to examine possibilities to introduce the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS) in Japan, the authors of this study translated the HSOPS into Japanese, and evaluated its factor structure, internal consistency, and construct validity. Healthcare workers (n = 6,395) from 13 acute care general hospitals in Japan participated in this survey. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the Japanese HSOPS' 12-factor model was selected as the most pertinent, and showed a sufficiently high standard partial regression coefficient. The internal reliability of the subscale scores was 0.46-0.88. The construct validity of each safety culture sub-dimension was confirmed by polychoric correlation, and by an ordered probit analysis. The results of the present study indicate that the factor structures of the Japanese and the American HSOPS are almost identical, and that the Japanese HSOPS has acceptable levels of internal reliability and construct validity. This shows that the HSOPS can be introduced in Japan.

  11. Photovoltaic deployment strategy in Japan and the USA-an institutional appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shum, Kwok L.; Watanabe, Chihiro

    2007-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) is a renewable energy technology, along side with other modular energy generation technologies such as micro-turbines, fuel cells, etc., which will enable the alternative distributed generation paradigm compared to the incumbent fossil fuel based centralized generation paradigm. Distributed generation utilizing renewable energy resources offers opportunities for significant carbon dioxide and emissions reductions thus contributing solutions to broader climate change issues. Yet, renewable energy technologies like PV face various barriers for their widespread adoption. Aside from technical and cost issues, renewable technologies have to overcome the so-called carbon lock-in effects. This refers to the techno-institutional complex associated with the fossil-fuel based centralized generation regime that currently dominates energy production and use. Governmental interventions to address these issues usually can be seen as composed of research, development, demonstration and deployment or RD3 [PCAST, 1999. Panel on International Cooperation in Energy Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment]. This paper focused on comparing the deployment aspect of PV technology in Japan and the USA. While both governments promoted PV as part of their larger strategies to address various environmental and energy security issues, Japan has built a PV installation capacity three times that of the USA as of December 2003 with over 90% of PV installation in the grid-connected small residential system category. This is in marked contrast to the case in the USA in which the cumulative installation is spilt among different types of applications involving the grid and off the grid. We put forward two models to explain these differences in deployment strategies and their possible consequences. The first deployment model leverages upon PV as a manufactured technology with minimal customization to achieve massive deployment. The second deployment model leverages upon

  12. Present status of tandem accelerator in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Tadashi; Kanda, Susumu; Takeuchi, Suehiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1996-12-01

    The tandem accelerator in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute was made by NEC in USA. Since it is the accelerator of turning-up structure, it has large magnet at the high voltage terminal, and supplies electric power by driving a generator with large diameter shaft. The control is carried out by CAMUCK, and the electronic circuit is protected from the surging arising due to discharge. Since the experiment on full scale was begun, 14 years have elapsed, and at present, it became a very stable accelerator. As to the operation mode, the acceleration voltage is limited to below 17 MV. The operation voltage and the state of operation are shown. Recently, the troubles of chains originating in oil have occurred. The adjustment of the tandem accelerator requires more than one month. The adjustment is mainly related to the chains and shafts, and this is explained. The ion source used for the tandem accelerator at present is the negative ion source made by NEC. The installation of an ECR ion source is planned. The utilization of the tandem accelerator system is reported. (K.I.)

  13. Radiation dose registration and epidemiological study for workers of nuclear institutions in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumatori, T.

    1992-01-01

    The first nuclear reactor was operated in 1957 at Tokai-mura in Japan. Since then radiation dose of workers has been controlled by nuclear institutions according to the Law for the Regulations of Nuclear Source Material, Nuclear Fuel Material and Reactors. However, many nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities were built, resulting in the remarkable increase of workers in controlled areas. Further, periodical inspection and repair work at nuclear facilities were carried out by employees of subcontractors, who were engaged in such work at many different facilities, so that it was getting more and more difficult to obtain accurate information of radiation dose on these workers. In order to meet this situation, the open-quotes Radiation Dose Registration Center for Workersclose quotes (RADREC) was established in November 1977 within the open-quotes Radiation Effects Associationclose quotes (REA), which was founded in September 1960 for the purpose of supporting the research on radiation effects and radiation protection. In January 1978, RADREC was designated by the Government as an organization to preserve the records on exposure of radiation workers, which was linked up with the registration system

  14. Annual report of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute for fiscal 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is comprehensively promoting the research and development (R and D) activities to make the best use of variety of potentials of atomic energy. In the field of nuclear energy, researches on advanced nuclear engineering systems, high-temperature engineering experimentation and nuclear fusion are forwarded to realize long-range stable supply of energy. Researches on safety of nuclear facilities, health physics and science and technology for society have been conducted in the safety category mainly according to 'Annual Plan for Safety Research' to play and important part in long-range utilization of power generation by LWRs and to meet the expectations of people by maintaining reliability and openness associated with 'safety and confidence'. As a diversification of nuclear science and technology, various radiation application activities such as neutron science, advanced photon science and synchrotron radiation science and application research of charged particles and radioisotopes have been promoted, which contribute to drastic advance in the fields of materials and life science etc. and to establishment of new industries. Along with these activities, basic and fundamental researches including advanced basic research, materials science research, nuclear environmental science research and advanced computational science and engineering are in progress. In addition, JAERI is devoted to the technology development in radioactive waste management and nuclear facility dismantling and also to international cooperation and training activities etc. in the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The research activities for FY 2002 are reviewed in this issue. (J.P.N.)

  15. Nuclear calculation for employing medium enrichment in reactors of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyasaka, Yasuhiko

    1979-01-01

    The fuel used for the research reactors of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is presently highly enriched uranium of 93%. However, the U.S. government (the supplier of fuel) is claiming to utilize low or medium enriched uranium from the viewpoint of resistivity to nuclear proliferation, and the availability of highly enriched uranium is becoming hard owing to the required procedure. This report is described on the results of nuclear calculation which is the basis of fuel design in the countermeasures to the reduction of enrichment. The basic conception in the reduction of enrichment is three-fold: to lower the latent potential of nuclear proliferation as far as possible, to hold the present reactor performance as far as possible, and to limit the reduction in the range which is not accompanied by the modification of reactor core construction and cooling system. This time, the increase of the density and thickness of fuel plates and the effect of enrichment change to 45% on reactivity and neutron flux were investigated. The fuel of UAl sub(x) - Al system was assumed, which was produced by powder metallurgical method. The results of investigations on JRR-2 and JMTR reactors revealed that 45% enriched fuel does not affect the performances much. However, deterioration of the performances is not neglegible if further reduction is needed. In future, the influence of the burn-up effect of fuel on the life of reactor cores must be investigated. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  16. Annual report of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute for fiscal 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is comprehensively promoting the research and development (R and D) activities to make the best use of variety of potentials of atomic energy. In the field of nuclear energy, researches on advanced nuclear engineering systems, high-temperature engineering experimentation and nuclear fusion are forwarded to realize long-range stable supply of energy. Researches on safety of nuclear facilities, nuclear fuel cycles, radioactive waste processing/management and environmental radioactivities have been conducted in the safety category according to 'Annual Plan for Safety Research'. And researches on health physics have been implemented to establish the fundamentals of scientific and rational radiation protection. As a diversification of nuclear science and technology, various radiation application activities such as neutron science, advanced photon science and synchrotron radiation science and application research of charged particles and radioisotopes have been promoted, which contribute to drastic advance in the fields of materials and life science etc. and to establishment of new industries. Along with these activities, basic and fundamental researches including advanced basic research, materials science research, nuclear environmental science research and advanced computational science and engineering are in progress. In addition, operation management of JMTR, JRR-3 and JRR-4 were performed. And JAERI also implemented safety management and research information management activities etc. in the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The research activities for FY 2003 are reviewed in this issue. (J.P.N.)

  17. Cost comparison of curative therapies for localized prostate cancer in Japan. A single-institution experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Takefumi; Ishiyama, Hiromichi; Matsumoto, Kazumasa

    2009-01-01

    In addition to open surgery, curative therapies for prostate cancer now include endoscopic surgery and radiation therapies. Because of the expansion and subdivision of treatment methods for prostate cancer, the medical fee point schedule in Japan was revised in fiscal year 2006. We examined changes in medical income and expenditure after this revision of the medical fee system. We studied income and expenditure, after institution of the new medical fee schedule, for the five types of therapies for prostate cancer performed at our hospital: two surgical therapies (radical retropubic prostatectomy and laparoscopic prostatectomy) and three radiation therapies (three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, 192 Ir high-dose-rate brachytherapy, and 125 I low-dose-rate brachytherapy). Low-dose-rate brachytherapy was found to be associated with a profit of 199 yen per patient. Laparoscopic prostatectomy, a highly advanced medical treatment that the fee revision changed from a partially insured to an insured procedure, yielded a profit of 75672 yen per patient. However, high-dose-rate brachytherapy was associated with a loss of 654016 yen per patient. Given the loss in hospital income per patient undergoing high-dose-rate brachytherapy, the medical fee point system for this procedure should be reassessed. (author)

  18. The law for the Independent Administrative Institution Japan Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-07-01

    The Law no.155 of 3 Dec. 2004(the latest revision, Law no.87 of 26 July 2005) is the law to define the objective, scope of activities, etc. of the independent administrative institution Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The agency is established under the atomic energy basic law to make comprehensive research and development associated with nuclear energy and establishment of nuclear fuel cycle and to contribute to promote research, development and utilization of it. The agency has its main office in Ibaraki prefecture and its capital is the amount of contributions by the government and persons other than the government. The officers are consisted of a president, an executive vice president, less than 7 executive directors and 2 auditors. The president is appointed by the Minister of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology with the consent of the atomic energy commission. The term of the president is from the day of the appointment to the end of midterm goal period and that of auditors is 2 years. Activities of the agency include basic and application research of nuclear energy, technical establishment of nuclear fuel cycle (R and D of Fast Breeder Reactor, nuclear fuel for FBR, reprocessing and treatment and disposal of HLW), promotion of application of R and D results of above areas, utilization sharing of facility and equipment, human resource development of nuclear energy field, collection, arrangement and dissemination of nuclear information and study and analysis requested by the government. (T. Tanaka)

  19. Commercial and institutional consumption of energy survey : summary report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fecteau, V.; Hulan, I.; McNabb, D. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Office of Energy Efficiency

    2007-06-15

    A survey was conducted on the energy consumption of Canada's commercial and institutional sectors. The primary purpose was to improve the understanding of various aspects of energy consumption in these sector and to enable Natural Resources Canada to develop programs to support institutions that seek to achieve greater energy efficiency and reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. Energy intensity data was presented by energy source and region amongst the following commercial and institutional sectors: retail trade including food and non-food; education including colleges and universities; health care including non-hospital health care and hospitals; and, accommodation and food services. Data obtained on each establishment's energy consumption and floor area were used to calculate their energy intensity ratio. In 2005, the commercial and institutional establishments consumed 1.04 billion gigajoules, nearly double the annual consumption of all private households in Ontario. The total energy intensity was 1.54 GJ per square metre. The lowest energy rating was found in social assistance establishments, while the highest energy rating was in food services and drinking places, followed by hospitals. Quebec and the Atlantic provinces had the lowest energy intensity levels, while the Prairie provinces had the highest energy intensity rate. The survey included data on the age of establishments; the energy sources used for space heating cooling and water heating; establishment spending on energy consumption; and, the use of auxiliary equipment. refs., tabs., figs.

  20. A nationwide survey of radon concentration in Japan. Indoor, outdoor and workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, Tetsuya; Oikawa, Shinji; Kanno, Nobuyuki; Abukawa, Johji; Higuchi, Hideo

    2004-01-01

    The nationwide indoor, outdoor and workplace radon concentrations were surveyed in Japan. These surveys were conducted to estimate the natural radiation dose due to radon and its progeny for the general public. The radon concentration was measured using passive type radon monitor. The number of radon monitors were installed at indoor, outdoor and workplace for 940 houses, 705 points and 705 sites, respectively. The radon concentration was measured for one year at each measurement site. Annual mean radon concentration was obtained from four quarters measurements of 47 prefectures in Japan. The nationwide indoor, outdoor and workplace annual mean radon concentration were 15.5 Bq m -3 , 6.1 Bq m -3 and 20.8 Bq m -3 , respectively. Their radon concentration shows approximately a logarithmic normal distribution. Workplace showed relatively high radon concentration compared with other environments, may be due to construction materials and low ventilation rate. The indoor radon concentration found to be seasonal variation and architectural dependences. Seasonal variation and regional distribution of outdoor radon concentration was also observed. From the results of these radon surveys, the annual effective dose to the general public due to radon and its progeny was estimated to be 0.49 mSv y -1 in Japan. (author)

  1. Extra-nodal lymphoma. A survey of Japan lymphoma radiation therapy group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguchi, Masahiko; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Shigeo

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine, retrospectively, national-wide clinical data of patients with localized extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) who were treated by radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy. The survey was carried out at 25 radiation oncology institutions in Japan in 1998. In 1999, according to the Revised European American Lymphoma (REAL) classification, central pathological review conducted at Aichi cancer center was carried out for the data from 7 radiation oncology institutions. The 5-year progression free survival rates (PFS) were calculated to identify prognostic factors. Survey: Data from 1, 141 patients with stage I and II NHL were recruited from 1988 through 1992. Of them, 787 patients, who were treated using definitive radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy for intermediate and high-grade lymphomas in Working Formulation, constituted the core of this study. Primary tumors arose mainly from extra-nodal organs (71%) in the head and neck (Waldeyer's ring: 41%, thyroid gland: 7%, nasal cavities: 5%, oral cavities: 4%, sinus: 3%, orbital structures: 3%, skin: 2% and etc.). The median age of 60 years for patients with extra-nodal NHL was higher than that of 56 years for patients with nodal NHL (p<0.01). Female were dominant in incidence of extra-nodal NHL arising from the thyroid gland, skin and gastrointestinal tract. The percentage of stage I to the extra-nodal NHL from orbit, sino-nasal presentation was higher than that of other NHLs. The percentage of stage II to the extra-nodal NHL from Waldeyer's ring and thyroid gland was higher than that of other NHLs. Central pathological review was carried out for pathological data from 79 patients (Waldeyer's ring: 45, thyroid gland: 19, sinonasal cavities: 15). Of these, diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) composed 63% of all patients, mucosa associated lyumphoid tissue lymphoma (MALT-L): 16%, Natural Killer/T cell lymphoma (NK/T-L): 11%, and mantle cell lymphoma: 5% in REAL

  2. Patterns of Practice in Palliative Radiotherapy for Painful Bone Metastases: A Survey in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Naoki, E-mail: naokinak@luke.or.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke' s International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Shikama, Naoto [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Hidaka (Japan); Wada, Hitoshi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Miyagi Cancer Center, Natori (Japan); Harada, Hideyuki [Division of Radiation Oncology, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Mishima (Japan); Nozaki, Miwako [Department of Radiology, Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital, Koshigaya (Japan); Nagakura, Hisayasu [Department of Radiology, KKR Sapporo Medical Center, Sapporo (Japan); Tago, Masao [Department of Radiology, Teikyo University Mizonokuchi Hospital, Kawasaki (Japan); Oguchi, Masahiko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute Hospital of the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan); Uchida, Nobue [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shimane University Hospital, Izumo (Japan)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To determine the current patterns of practice in Japan and to investigate factors that may make clinicians reluctant to use single-fraction radiotherapy (SF-RT). Methods and Materials: Members of the Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group (JROSG) completed an Internet-based survey and described the radiotherapy dose fractionation they would recommend for four hypothetical cases describing patients with painful bone metastasis (BM). Case 1 described a patient with an uncomplicated painful BM in a non-weight-bearing site from non-small-cell lung cancer. Case 2 investigated whether management for a case of uncomplicated spinal BM would be different from that in Case 1. Case 3 was identical with Case 2 except for the presence of neuropathic pain. Case 4 investigated the prescription for an uncomplicated painful BM secondary to oligometastatic breast cancer. Radiation oncologists who recommended multifraction radiotherapy (MF-RT) for Case 2 were asked to explain why they considered MF-RT superior to SF-RT. Results: A total of 52 radiation oncologists from 50 institutions (36% of JROSG institutions) responded. In all four cases, the most commonly prescribed regimen was 30 Gy in 10 fractions. SF-RT was recommended by 13% of respondents for Case 1, 6% for Case 2, 0% for Case 3, and 2% for Case 4. For Case 4, 29% of respondents prescribed a high-dose MF-RT regimen (e.g., 50 Gy in 25 fractions). The following factors were most often cited as reasons for preferring MF-RT: 'time until first increase in pain' (85%), 'incidence of spinal cord compression' (50%), and 'incidence of pathologic fractures' (29%). Conclusions: Japanese radiation oncologists prefer a schedule of 30 Gy in 10 fractions and are less likely to recommend SF-RT. Most Japanese radiation oncologists regard MF-RT as superior to SF-RT, based primarily on the time until first increase in pain.

  3. Survey of the actual state of the coal related research and development in Japan. 11; Nippon ni okeru sekitan kanren kenkyu kaihatsu jittai chosa. 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    NEDO is surveying the actual state of the coal related research/development in Japan to supply information on the coal related research/development in Japan to IEA`s coal research project database. This book of fiscal 1997 version includes 338 subjects. The details described are name of research institute, the section in charge, address, name of country, telephone No., name of joint researcher, research theme, classification, outline of research, project No., name of researcher, sponsor, the budget appropriated, term of research, remarks, etc. The books of data collected from each country in surveys of the actual state of the coal related R and D and IEA`s coal researches which have been made so far are submitted for general viewing at NEDO Information Center. Also, a part of those can be accessible from the energy database of which NEDO Information Center is performing on-line service for user members

  4. Questionnaire survey of treatment choice for breast cancer patients with brain metastasis in Japan. Results of a nationwide survey by the task force of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Koji; Ando, Masashi; Yamauchi, Chikako

    2009-01-01

    A nationwide survey was performed to investigate the current patterns of care for brain metastasis (BM) from breast cancer in Japan. A total of 351 survey questionnaires were sent to community or academic breast oncologists who were members of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society as of December 2005. The questionnaire consists of 40 multiple choice questions in eight categories. Of 240 institutions sent survey questionnaires, 161 (67.1%) answered; 60% of institutions answered with '<5' patients with BM every year; almost half (83 of 161) screened for BM in asymptomatic patients; surgical resection was rarely performed, as ∼75% of institutions (118 of 160 institutions) answered 'none or one case of surgery per year'; 27% (41 of 154) preferred stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) over whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) as the initial treatment in all cases, although ∼70% (100 of 154) of them answered 'depend on cases'. The preference for SRS over WBRT mainly depends on the impressions of breast oncologists about both safety (late normal tissue damage and dementia in WBRT) and efficacy (better local control by SRS). Eighty-one percent (117 of 144) of institutions did not limit the number of SRS sessions as far as technically applicable. SRS is widely used as the first choice for BM from breast cancer in Japan. Considerable numbers of Japanese breast oncologists prefer SRS over WBRT as the initial treatment for BM. A randomized trial comparing SRS and WBRT is warranted. (author)

  5. A qualitative comparative survey of First Cycle radiography programmes in Europe and Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Tatsuhito; Caruana, Carmel J.; Shimosegawa, Masayuki

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To qualitatively compare First Cycle Radiography programmes in Europe and Japan. Methods: This qualitative survey was conducted via a series of case-studies of university-based radiography curricula in Europe and Japan. Findings and conclusions: The main themes arising from the survey were that: (a) in Europe the freedom that most universities have in setting their own curricula and examinations means that in practice there is still a wide variability in curricula between and within states. On the other hand in Japan curricula are more uniform owing to central government guidelines regarding radiography education and a centrally administered national radiography examination. This means that student and worker mobility is much easier for Japanese radiographers. (b) in some countries in Europe principles of reporting and healthcare management are being expanded at the expense of the more technological aspects of radiography. Physical science competences on the other hand are considered highly in Japanese culture and form a major part of the curriculum. This may indicate that Japanese students would be in a much better position to cope with role developments linked to changes in imaging technology. Pragmatically oriented studies need to be carried out to determine ways in which radiographers can enhance their role without sacrificing their technological competences. The profession cannot afford to lose its technological expertise - it is neither in the interest of the profession itself and even less of the patient.

  6. Summary, the 20th quality control survey for radioisotopes in vitro tests in Japan, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    For advancement of radioisotope in vitro tests such as radioimmunoassay and immunoradiometric assay, the Subcommittee for Radioisotope in vitro Test in Medical and Pharmaceutical Committee of Japan Radioisotope Association has conducted the yearly quality control survey for the test facilities in Japan since 1978. This is the summary of the 20th survey in 1998 where non-radioisotope tests like enzyme-immunoassay were involved as well. The survey was done for 143 facilities: 20 national and public university hospitals, 18 private university hospitals, 8 national hospitals, 13 public hospitals, 21 private hospitals, 41 hygienic laboratories and 22 manufacturers of reagents. Facilities examined intra- and between day-reproducibility, freeze-thaw effect and time change of the measured values on the same samples. Assays were for: growth hormone (h), somatomedin C, follicle stimulating h, luteinizing h, prolactin, thyroid stimulating h, triiodothyronines, thyroxines, thyroxine binding protein, calcitonin, insulin, C-peptide, glucagons, gastrin, testosterones, estradiol, progesterone, gonadotropin, 17{alpha}-hydroxyprogesterone, aldosterone, cortisol, dehydroepiandorosterone sulfate, renin, IgE, digoxin, {alpha}-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, tissue polypeptide antigen, CA (125, 19-9 and 15-3), prostatic acid phosphatase, prostate specific antigen, {beta}2-microglobulin, ferritin, and neuron specific enolase. There was no great difference between this and last survey results although tendency of improvement was recognized. There were problems to be solved from the standpoint of clinical practice. (K.H.)

  7. Survey of CT practice in Japan and collective effective dose estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Kanae; Maruyama, Takashi; Matsumoto, Masaki; Iwai, Kazuo

    2004-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has been established as an important diagnostic tool in clinical medicine and has become a major source of medical exposure. A nationwide survey regarding CT examinations was carried out in Japan in 2000. CT units per million people in Japan numbered 87.8. The annual number of examinations was 0.1 million in those 0-14 years old, 3.54 million for those 15 years old and above, and 3.65 million in total. Eighty percent of examinations for those 0-14 years old were examinations of the head, as were 40% for those 15 years old and above. The number of examinations per 1000 population was 290. The collective effective dose was 295 x 10 3 person·Sv, and the effective dose per caput was evaluated as 2.3 mSv. (author)

  8. Expansion of discharge planning system in Japan: Comparison of results of a nationwide survey between 2001 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagata Satoko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to the rapid aging of the population in Japan, many care systems have been created in quick succession. Establishment of discharge planning departments (DPDs in hospitals is one of them. In this study, we compared the distribution and characteristics of DPDs and the characteristics of the hospitals that have DPDs between 2001 and 2010 in Japan. Methods We mailed a questionnaire about the characteristics of hospitals and existence and situation of DPDs to all general hospitals with 100 or more general beds in 2001 and in 2010. Results In 2001, of the 3,268 hospitals queried, 1,568 (48.0% responded and 1,357 (41.5% were selected for data analysis. In 2010, among 2,600 hospitals, 940 hospitals (36.1% responded and 913 (35.1% met the inclusion criteria. The percentage of hospitals with DPDs increased from 30% to more than 70% between the two surveys. More departments were under the direct control of the hospital director and more physicians participated in discharge planning activities in 2010 than in 2001. In 2001, private hospitals and hospitals with an affiliated institution or agency tended to have a DPD; however, the relationship between these factors and the presence of a DPD had disappeared in 2010. Larger hospitals and hospitals with more nurses per patient tended to have a DPD both in 2001 and 2010. Conclusions Since 2008, the establishment of a DPD has been directly connected to medical fees so hospital administrators might have recognized the DPD as a “necessary and paid for” department. Having a DPD was the majority’s policy in Japan, and we must recognize the importance of quality assurance through DPDs from now on, especially in small hospitals.

  9. Summary and statistical analysis of environmental monitoring data in the Oarai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Katsuhiro; Kitano, Kyoshiro; Sibanuma, Yukio; Takasaki, Koichi; Ohhata, Tsutomu

    1998-03-01

    In the Oarai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), the environmental monitoring has been conducted for about 29 years since April 1968. The results are discussed for evaluation of long-term and short-term fluctuation in the radiological conditions in the Oarai area. This report summarises the data of the environmental monitoring in Oarai, and statistical analyses were made of the data collected from 1985 through 1994. (author)

  10. Do you know 'food irradiation'?. A survey of consumer status toward food irradiation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Masakazu

    1998-01-01

    In Japan potatoes have been irradiated for the purpose of sprout inhibition for more than 20 years and more than ten thousand irradiated potatoes are circulated in Japanese market in recent years. Nevertheless, there are few surveys about the consumer status toward food irradiation in Japan. We have been held 'Radiation Fair -- The relationship between daily life and radiation--' during summer vacation season in August for more than 10 years in Osaka, the largest city of western Japan, for the purpose of public education and information transfer of radiation and radiation-related technology especially to school kids. We displayed 200 kg of irradiated potatoes together with explanatory panels. We distributed questionnaires to the senior high school students (16 years old) and upward visitor for recent 3 years to inquire their status toward radiation and irradiated products including irradiated potatoes as well as impression toward the displays. According to the survey results in 1997, the ratio of respondents who had heard of irradiated potatoes was 51% of 228 answers. This value was smaller than those of the Gallop survey conducted in the United States (73%). After viewing the display and description of irradiated potatoes, almost half of the respondents indicated a positive feeling for tasting the irradiated potatoes. Most of the respondents chose one of the following issues, Freshness' (37%), 'Open date' (13%), or 'Food additives' (34%) as the major concerns about food safety. Interestingly, 'Pesticide' and/or 'Foodborne pathogen' highly were chosen by only 15% of the respondents in total even though these issue were highly ranked in the US surveys. These results indicate that original methodology is necessary for distributing the information related food irradiation related food irradiation efficiently. (J.P.N)

  11. The present state of nuclear medicine practice in Japan. A report of the 6th nationwide survey in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Kuwabara, Yasuo; Ushijima, Yo

    2008-01-01

    The Subcommittee of Japan Radioisotope Association on Survey of Nuclear Medicine Practice in Japan has performed a nationwide survey every five years since 1982. The 6th survey was performed in June 2007. The estimated total annual number of examinations was 1.41 million, 11.5% less than the previous survey (2002). The scintigraphy most frequently performed was bone (38%), followed by myocardium and brain perfusion scintigraphy. 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) dramatically increased. 131 I therapy for thyroid cancer and hyperthyroidism has been also increasing steadily, while the number of in vitro radioassays has been decreasing continuously since 1992. (author)

  12. Responsibility for reporting patient death due to hospital error in Japan when an error occurred at a referring institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Shoichi; Starkey, Jay; Kamishiraki, Etsuko; Ikeda, Noriaki

    2013-12-01

    In Japan, physicians are required to report unexpected health care-associated patient deaths to the police. Patients needing to be transferred to another institution often have complex medical problems. If a medical error occurs, it may be either at the final or the referring institution. Some fear that liability will fall on the final institution regardless of where the error occurred or that the referring facility may oppose such reporting, leading to a failure to report to police or to recommend an autopsy. Little is known about the actual opinions of physicians and risk managers in this regard. The authors sent standardised, self-administered questionnaires to all hospitals in Japan that participate in the national general residency program. Most physicians and risk managers in Japan indicated that they would report a patient's death to the police where the patient has been transferred. Of those who indicated they would not report to the police, the majority still indicated they would recommend an autopsy

  13. A nationwide radon concentration survey project in Japan. Outdoor and workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, S.; Kanno, N.; Ohashi, N.; Abukawa, J.

    2003-01-01

    Nationwide survey for outdoor and workplace radon ( 222 Rn) concentration in Japan were carried out to evaluate the effective dose to the general public due to 222 Rn and its progeny. The 222 Rn concentration was measured by using passive-type radon/thoron discriminative monitor equipped with polycarbonate films. Concentration of 222 Rn was calculated from etch pit counts appeared on the polycarbonate film after chemical and electrochemical etching. For outdoor 222 Rn survey, the monitors were installed at about 700 points throughout Japan on every quarters of the fiscal year 1997 to 1999. The mean concentration of outdoor 222 Rn concentration was 6.1 Bq m -3 from the results of 696 measurement points. Seasonal variation of outdoor 222 Rn was found to be minimal in July to September, and maximal in October to December. For workplace 222 Rn survey, the monitors were installed at about 700 points in four categories (office, factory, school and hospital) on every quarters of the fiscal year 2000 to 2002. Nationwide mean 222 Rn concentration in workplaces was found to be 22.7 Bq m -3 for 2000 and 20.7 Bq m -3 for 2001, respectively. Seasonal variation of 222 Rn concentration measured at office, factory, school and hospital were also found to be minimal in July to September, and maximal in October to December. (author)

  14. A Survey of Orthodontic Treatment in Team Care for Patients With Syndromic Craniosynostosis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susami, Takafumi; Fukawa, Toshihiko; Miyazaki, Haruyo; Sakamoto, Teruo; Morishita, Tadashi; Sato, Yoshiaki; Kinno, Yoshiaki; Kurata, Kazuyuki; Watanabe, Keiichiro; Asahito, Toshikazu; Saito, Isao

    2018-04-01

    To understand the actual condition of orthodontic treatment in team care for patients with syndromic craniosynostosis (SCS) in Japan. A nationwide collaborative survey. Twenty-four orthodontic clinics in Japan. A total of 246 patients with SCS. Treatment history was examined based on orthodontic records using common survey sheets. Most patients first visited the orthodontic clinic in the deciduous or mixed dentition phase. Midface advancement was performed without visiting the orthodontic clinic in about a quarter of the patients, and more than a half of the patients underwent "surgery-first" midface advancement. First-phase orthodontic treatment was carried out in about a half of the patients, and maxillary expansion and protraction were performed. Tooth extraction was required in about two-thirds of patients, and the extraction of maxillary teeth was required in most patients. Tooth abnormalities were found in 37.8% of patients, and abnormalities of maxillary molars were frequently (58.3%) found in patients who had undergone midface surgery below the age of 6 years. Many patients underwent "surgery-first" midface advancement, and visiting the orthodontic clinic at least before advancement was considered desirable. First-phase orthodontic treatment should be performed considering the burden of care. Midface advancement below the age of 6 years had a high risk of injury to the maxillary molars. This survey is considered useful for improving orthodontic treatment in team care of patients with SCS.

  15. An epidemiologic internet survey of fibromyalgia and chronic pain in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ikuro; Nishioka, Kenya; Usui, Chie; Osada, Kenichi; Ichibayashi, Hisao; Ishida, Mitsuhiro; Turk, Dennis C; Matsumoto, Yoshifuji; Nishioka, Kusuki

    2014-07-01

    To determine the epidemiologic features and symptom characteristics of fibromyalgia (FM) in Japan, and compare them with those for other chronic pain (CP) diagnoses. An internet survey was conducted in June and July 2011. The questionnaire consisted of 111 questions, including assessments of the Japanese version of the 2010 American College of Rheumatology preliminary diagnostic criteria for FM, the Japanese Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, and additional questions regarding pain and lifestyle. The questionnaire was completed by 20,407 male and female respondents in all prefectures of Japan. Of the survey population, 2,524 respondents (12.4%) reported symptoms consistent with CP; of these, 425 (2.1%) reported symptoms consistent with FM. Among respondents with FM and CP, 61% and 53%, respectively, were women. Pain severity and Widespread Pain Index scores were significantly higher in respondents meeting the diagnostic criteria for FM than in those meeting the criteria for CP. In terms of symptom severity scores, the proportions of respondents reporting the 3 major symptoms as "highly applicable" and greater numbers of 41 somatic symptoms were higher among respondents with FM than among those with CP. The incidence of FM in the present survey was similar to that reported (1.7%) in a study of FM in Japan in 2003, despite the use of the newer, easier to use 2010 diagnostic criteria. Because FM usually presents with more severe and more widely distributed pain, as well as more nonpainful symptoms than CP, our results suggest that FM is a different clinical phenotype of CP. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  16. Nationwide survey of dental radiographic examination and estimation of collective effective dose in Japan, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Kazuo; Satomi, Chieko; Kawashima, Shoji; Hashimoto, Koji; Nishizawa, Kanae; Maruyama, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    A nationwide survey of dental X-ray examination in Japan was performed in 1999, and the effective exposure dose due to the dental X-ray examination was estimated. In Japan, most dental X-ray equipment are used at a tube voltage of 60 kV and a tube current of 10 mA. Dental film in speed group D is most frequently used for dental X ray examination. Fifty percent or more of dental clinics processed the films automatically. Seventy-five percent of dental clinics performed dental X-ray examinations in a separate X-ray room. The number of dental X-ray examinations in 1999 in Japan was estimated to be 82,301,000 for intra-oral radiography and 12,336,000 for panoramic radiography. The collective effective exposure dose in 1999 was estimated at 905.5 man·Sv, for intra-oral radiography and 128.9 man·Sv for panoramic radiography. (author)

  17. Nationwide survey of work environment, work-life balance and burnout among psychiatrists in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Kato, Takahiro A; Kikuchi, Saya; Tateno, Masaru; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Psychiatry has been consistently shown to be a profession characterised by 'high-burnout'; however, no nationwide surveys on this topic have been conducted in Japan. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of burnout and to ascertain the relationship between work environment satisfaction, work-life balance satisfaction and burnout among psychiatrists working in medical schools in Japan. We mailed anonymous questionnaires to all 80 psychiatry departments in medical schools throughout Japan. Work-life satisfaction, work-environment satisfaction and social support assessments, as well as the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), were used. Sixty psychiatric departments (75.0%) responded, and 704 psychiatrists provided answers to the assessments and MBI. Half of the respondents (n = 311, 46.0%) experienced difficulty with their work-life balance. Based on the responses to the MBI, 21.0% of the respondents had a high level of emotional exhaustion, 12.0% had a high level of depersonalisation, and 72.0% had a low level of personal accomplishment. Receiving little support, experiencing difficulty with work-life balance, and having less work-environment satisfaction were significantly associated with higher emotional exhaustion. A higher number of nights worked per month was significantly associated with higher depersonalisation. A low level of personal accomplishment was quite prevalent among Japanese psychiatrists compared with the results of previous studies. Poor work-life balance was related to burnout, and social support was noted to mitigate the impact of burnout.

  18. Patterns of Radiotherapy Practice for Pancreatic Cancer in Japan: Results of the Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group (JROSG) Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Ito, Yoshinori; Karasawa, Katsuyuki; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Onishi, Hiroshi; Kazumoto, Tomoko; Shibuya, Keiko; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Okuno, Yoshishige; Nishino, Shigeo; Ogo, Etsuyo; Uchida, Nobue; Karasawa, Kumiko; Nemoto, Kenji; Nishimura, Yasumasa

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the patterns of radiotherapy practice for pancreatic cancer in Japan. Methods and Materials: A questionnaire-based national survey of radiotherapy for pancreatic cancer treated between 2000 and 2006 was conducted by the Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group (JROSG). Detailed information on 870 patients from 34 radiation oncology institutions was accumulated. Results: The median age of all patients was 64 years (range, 36-88), and 80.2% of the patients had good performance status. More than 85% of patients had clinical Stage T3-T4 disease, and 68.9% of patients had unresectable disease at diagnosis. Concerning radiotherapy (RT), 49.8% of patients were treated with radical external beam RT (EBRT) (median dose, 50.4 Gy), 44.4% of patients were treated with intraoperative RT (median dose, 25 Gy) with or without EBRT (median dose, 45 Gy), and 5.9% of patients were treated with postoperative radiotherapy (median dose, 50 Gy). The treatment field consisted of the primary tumor (bed) only in 55.6% of the patients. Computed tomography-based treatment planning and conformal RT was used in 93.1% and 83.1% of the patients treated with EBRT, respectively. Chemotherapy was used for 691 patients (79.4%; before RT for 66 patients; during RT for 531; and after RT for 364). Gemcitabine was the most frequently used drug, followed by 5-fluorouracil. Conclusion: This study describes the general patterns of RT practice for pancreatic cancer in Japan. Most patients had advanced unresectable disease, and radical EBRT, as well as intraoperative RT with or without EBRT, was frequently used. Chemotherapy with gemcitabine was commonly used in conjunction with RT during the survey period.

  19. Survey on the state of nuclear power industry for fiscal 1974. [Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-05-01

    Results of the survey on the nuclear power industry in Japan for one year up to March 31, 1975 are presented. Carried out each year by JAIF, the survey covering expenditures, proceeds and employes aims to grasp the status of the nuclear power industry, thereby contributing to solid growth of the industry. Of the total 1,165 companies (mining and manufacturing 1,091, electric power 11 and trading 63), 760 answered the questionnaire. Expenditures and proceeds in the mining and manufacturing industry and expenditures in the electric power industry have risen significantly due to inflation. The total expenditures are 650,000 million (42% up); the proceeds in mining and manufacturing enterprises are 279,400 million (72% up) and the dealings by trading firms are 248,100 million (17% up). The total number of employes is 33,307 (17% up).

  20. Serological survey of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus infection in Sika deer and rodents in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Lundu, Tapiwa; Yoshii, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Shintaro; Morikawa, Shigeru; Tsubota, Toshio; Misawa, Naoaki; Hayasaka, Daisuke; Kariwa, Hiroaki

    2018-01-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is a newly recognized zoonosis that occurs in China, Japan, and South Korea and is caused by the SFTS virus (SFTSV), which is in the genus Phlebovirus, family Phenuiviridae. Since its discovery in Japan in 2013, SFTS has been reported in the western parts of the country. To elucidate the distribution of SFTSV, we conducted a serological survey of deer and rodents. Serum was screened using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and suspecte...

  1. What are the appropriate indicators of surgical difficulty during laparoscopic cholecystectomy? Results from a Japan-Korea-Taiwan multinational survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashita, Yukio; Ohyama, Tetsuji; Honda, Goro; Hibi, Taizo; Yoshida, Masahiro; Miura, Fumihiko; Takada, Tadahiro; Han, Ho-Seong; Hwang, Tsann-Long; Shinya, Satoshi; Suzuki, Kenji; Umezawa, Akiko; Yoon, Yoo-Seok; Choi, In-Seok; Huang, Wayne Shih-Wei; Chen, Kuo-Hsin; Watanabe, Manabu; Abe, Yuta; Misawa, Takeyuki; Nagakawa, Yuichi; Yoon, Dong-Sup; Jang, Jin-Young; Yu, Hee Chul; Ahn, Keun Soo; Kim, Song Cheol; Song, In Sang; Kim, Ji Hoon; Yun, Sung Su; Choi, Seong Ho; Jan, Yi-Yin; Sheen-Chen, Shyr-Ming; Shan, Yan-Shen; Ker, Chen-Guo; Chan, De-Chuan; Lee, King-Teh; Toyota, Naoyuki; Higuchi, Ryota; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Mizuguchi, Yoshiaki; Takeda, Yutaka; Ito, Masahiro; Norimizu, Shinji; Yamada, Shigetoshi; Matsumura, Naoki; Shindoh, Junichi; Sunagawa, Hiroki; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Rikiyama, Toshiki; Sata, Naohiro; Kano, Nobuyasu; Kitano, Seigo; Tokumura, Hiromi; Yamashita, Yuichi; Watanabe, Goro; Nakagawa, Kunitoshi; Kimura, Taizo; Yamakawa, Tatsuo; Wakabayashi, Go; Endo, Itaru; Miyazaki, Masaru; Yamamoto, Masakazu

    2016-09-01

    Serious complications continue to occur in laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). The commonly used indicators of surgical difficulty such as the duration of surgery are insufficient because they are surgeon and institution dependent. We aimed to identify appropriate indicators of surgical difficulty during LC. A total of 26 Japanese expert LC surgeons discussed using the nominal group technique (NGT) to generate a list of intraoperative findings that contribute to surgical difficulty. Thereafter, a survey was circulated to 61 experts in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. The questionnaire addressed LC experience, surgical strategy, and perceptions of 30 intraoperative findings listed by the NGT. The response rate of the survey was 100%. There was a statistically significant difference among nations regarding the duration of surgery and adoption rate of safety measures and recognition of landmarks. The criteria for conversion to an open or subtotal cholecystectomy were at the discretion of each surgeon. In contrast, perceptions of the impact of 30 intraoperative findings on surgical difficulty (categorized by factors related to inflammation and additional findings of the gallbladder and other intra-abdominal factors) were consistent among surgeons. Intraoperative findings are objective and considered to be appropriate indicators of surgical difficulty during LC. © 2016 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  2. A Survey of Introductory Statistics Courses at University Faculties of Pharmaceutical Sciences in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Mina; Nakayama, Takuto; Sozu, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    A survey of introductory statistics courses at Japanese medical schools was published as a report in 2014. To obtain a complete understanding of the way in which statistics is taught at the university level in Japan, it is important to extend this survey to related fields, including pharmacy, dentistry, and nursing. The current study investigates the introductory statistics courses offered by faculties of pharmaceutical sciences (six-year programs) at Japanese universities, comparing the features of these courses with those studied in the survey of medical schools. We collected relevant data from the online syllabi of statistics courses published on the websites of 71 universities. The survey items included basic course information (for example, the course names, the targeted student grades, the number of credits, and course classification), textbooks, handouts, the doctoral subject and employment status of each lecturer, and course contents. The period surveyed was July-September 2015. We found that these 71 universities offered a total of 128 statistics courses. There were 67 course names, the most common of which was "biostatistics (iryou toukeigaku)." About half of the courses were designed for first- or second-year students. Students earned fewer than two credits. There were 62 different types of textbooks. The lecturers held doctoral degrees in 18 different subjects, the most common being a doctorate in pharmacy or science. Some course content differed, reflecting the lecturers' academic specialties. The content of introductory statistics courses taught in pharmaceutical science programs also differed slightly from the equivalent content taught in medical schools.

  3. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence, severity and unmet need for treatment of common mental disorders in Japan: results from the final dataset of World Mental Health Japan Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, H.; Kawakami, N.; Kessler, R. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to estimate the lifetime and 12-month prevalence, severity, and treatment of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th ed. (DSM-IV) mental disorders in Japan based on the final data set of the World Mental Health Japan Survey conducted in 2002–2006. Methods Face-to-face household interviews of 4,130 respondents who were randomly selected from Japanese-speaking residents aged 20 years or older were conducted from 2002 to 2006 in 11 community populations in Japan (overall response rate, 56%). The World Mental Health version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI), a fully structured lay administered psychiatric diagnostic interview, was used for diagnostic assessment. Results Lifetime/12-month prevalence of any DSM-IV common mental disorders in Japan was estimated to be 20.3/7.6%. Rank-order of four classes of mental disorders was anxiety disorders (8.1/4.9%), substance disorders (7.4/1.0%), mood disorders (6.5/2.3%), and impulse control disorders (2.0/0.7%). The most common individual disorders were alcohol abuse/dependence (7.3/0.9%), major depressive disorder (6.1/2.2%), specific phobia (3.4/2.3%), and generalized anxiety disorder (2.6/1.3%). While the lifetime prevalence of any mental disorder was greater for males and the middle-aged, the persistence (proportion of 12-month cases among lifetime cases) of any mental disorder was greater for females and younger respondents. Among those with any 12-month disorder, 15.3% were classified as severe, 44.1% moderate, and 40.6% mild. Although a strong association between severity and service use was found, only 21.9% of respondents with any 12-month disorder sought treatment within the last 12 months; only 37.0% of severe cases received medical care. The mental health specialty sector was the most common resource used in Japan. Although the prevalence of mental disorders were quite low, mental disorders were the second

  4. Current status of total body irradiation in conditioning regimen for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Survey in the Japan Association of Childhood Leukemia Study (JACLS) Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Hara, Jun-ichi; Chayama, Kohsuke; Akiyama, Yuichi; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi

    2005-01-01

    We surveyed methods of total body irradiation (TB I) in conditioning regimens of stem cell transplantation (SCT) for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) at participating institutions of the Japan Association of Childhood Leukemia Study (JACLS) ALL-97 protocol. We obtained information about TBI from 25 institutions. Total dose of 12 Gy fractionated by four to six in two to three days for TBI was conducted in 22 of 25 institutions. High-risk patients, such as patients with Philadelphia positive ALL, received over 12 Gy in five institutions. Beam direction and patient's positioning were horizontal and lateral respectively in 15 institutions. Shielding of lung and/or eyes and boost irradiation to central nervous system and/or testis were done in 24 and 11 institutions respectively, but in various ways. We have to keep in mind that a great variety of TBI have been undergone in each institution when we intend to interpret multi-institutional trials of treatment including SCT for patients with ALL. (author)

  5. Radiation exposure and chromosome abnormalities. Human cytogenetic studies at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Japan, 1963-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, T.; Kohno, S.; Minamihisamatsu, M.

    1990-01-01

    The results of human cytogenetic studies performed at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba, Japan for about 25 years are described. The studies were pursued primarily under two major projects: one involving people exposed to radiation under various conditions and the other involving patients with malignant diseases, especially leukemias. Whereas chromosome abnormalities in radiation-exposed people are excellent indicators of radiation exposure, their behavior in bone marrow provide useful information for a better understanding of chromosome abnormalities in leukemias and related disorders. The role of chromosome abnormalities in the genesis and development of leukemia and related disorders is considered, suggesting a view for future studies in this field

  6. What determines medical students' career preference for general practice residency training?: a multicenter survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ie, Kenya; Murata, Akiko; Tahara, Masao; Komiyama, Manabu; Ichikawa, Shuhei; Takemura, Yousuke C; Onishi, Hirotaka

    2018-01-01

    Few studies have systematically explored factors affecting medical students' general practice career choice. We conducted a nationwide multicenter survey (Japan MEdical Career of Students: JMECS) to examine factors associated with students' general practice career aspirations in Japan, where it has been decided that general practice will be officially acknowledged as a new discipline. From April to December 2015, we distributed a 21-item questionnaire to final year medical students in 17 medical schools. The survey asked students about their top three career preferences from 19 specialty fields, their demographics and their career priorities. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the effect of each item. A total of 1264 responses were included in the analyses. The top three specialty choice were internal medicine: 833 (65.9%), general practice: 408 (32.3%), and pediatrics: 372 (29.4%). Among demographic factors, "plan to inherit other's practice" positively associated with choosing general practice, whereas "having physician parent" had negative correlation. After controlling for potential confounders, students who ranked the following items as highly important were more likely to choose general practice: "clinical diagnostic reasoning (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.65, 95% CI 1.40-1.94)", "community-oriented practice (aOR: 1.33, 95% CI 1.13-1.57)", and" involvement in preventive medicine (aOR: 1.18, 95% CI 1.01-1.38)". On the contrary, "acute care rather than chronic care", "mastering advanced procedures", and "depth rather than breadth of practice" were less likely to be associated with general practice aspiration. Our nationwide multicenter survey found several features associated with general practice career aspirations: clinical diagnostic reasoning; community-oriented practice; and preventive medicine. These results can be fundamental to future research and the development of recruitment strategies.

  7. Psychologists involved in cancer palliative care in Japan: A nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Kasumi; Iwamitsu, Yumi; Matsubara, Mei; Oba, Akira; Hirai, Kei; Morita, Tatsuya; Kizawa, Yoshiyuki

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify, using a nationwide survey, what is perceived as necessary knowledge and skills for psychologists involved in cancer palliative care in Japan, the expectations of medical staff members, and the degree to which these expectations are met. We conducted a questionnaire survey of psychologists involved in cancer palliative care. A total of 419 psychologists from 403 facilities were asked to fill out the questionnaire and return it anonymously. Some 401 psychologists (89 males, 310 females, and 2 unspecified; mean age, 37.2 ± 9.5 years) responded about necessary knowledge and skills for psychologists working in cancer palliative care, the necessity for training, expectations at their current workplace, and the degree to which expectations are met. More than 90% of participants responded that many kinds of knowledge and skills related to the field of cancer palliative care are necessary. Over 80% of participants indicated a necessity for training related to these knowledge and skills. Although more than 50% (range, 50.1-85.8%) of participants responded that such services as "cooperation with medical staff within a hospital," "handling patients for whom psychological support would be beneficial," and "assessment of patients' mental state" were expected at their workplace, fewer than 60% (31.4-56.9%) responded that they actually performed these roles. Our results show that many psychologists in cancer palliative care feel unable to respond to the expectations at their current workplace and that they require more adequate knowledge and skills related to cancer palliative care to work effectively. No other nationwide surveys have generated this type of information in Japan, so we believe that the results of our study are uniquely important.

  8. Unmanned aerial survey of fallen trees in a deciduous broadleaved forest in eastern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tomoharu; Nagai, Shin; Yamashita, Satoshi; Fadaei, Hadi; Ishii, Reiichiro; Okabe, Kimiko; Taki, Hisatomo; Honda, Yoshiaki; Kajiwara, Koji; Suzuki, Rikie

    2014-01-01

    Since fallen trees are a key factor in biodiversity and biogeochemical cycling, information about their spatial distribution is of use in determining species distribution and nutrient and carbon cycling in forest ecosystems. Ground-based surveys are both time consuming and labour intensive. Remote-sensing technology can reduce these costs. Here, we used high-spatial-resolution aerial photographs (0.5-1.0 cm per pixel) taken from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to survey fallen trees in a deciduous broadleaved forest in eastern Japan. In nine sub-plots we found a total of 44 fallen trees by ground survey. From the aerial photographs, we identified 80% to 90% of fallen trees that were >30 cm in diameter or >10 m in length, but missed many that were narrower or shorter. This failure may be due to the similarity of fallen trees to trunks and branches of standing trees or masking by standing trees. Views of the same point from different angles may improve the detection rate because they would provide more opportunity to detect fallen trees hidden by standing trees. Our results suggest that UAV surveys will make it possible to monitor the spatial and temporal variations in forest structure and function at lower cost.

  9. Nationwide survey of work environment, work-life balance and burnout among psychiatrists in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakako Umene-Nakano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psychiatry has been consistently shown to be a profession characterised by 'high-burnout'; however, no nationwide surveys on this topic have been conducted in Japan. AIMS: The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of burnout and to ascertain the relationship between work environment satisfaction, work-life balance satisfaction and burnout among psychiatrists working in medical schools in Japan. METHOD: We mailed anonymous questionnaires to all 80 psychiatry departments in medical schools throughout Japan. Work-life satisfaction, work-environment satisfaction and social support assessments, as well as the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI, were used. RESULTS: Sixty psychiatric departments (75.0% responded, and 704 psychiatrists provided answers to the assessments and MBI. Half of the respondents (n = 311, 46.0% experienced difficulty with their work-life balance. Based on the responses to the MBI, 21.0% of the respondents had a high level of emotional exhaustion, 12.0% had a high level of depersonalisation, and 72.0% had a low level of personal accomplishment. Receiving little support, experiencing difficulty with work-life balance, and having less work-environment satisfaction were significantly associated with higher emotional exhaustion. A higher number of nights worked per month was significantly associated with higher depersonalisation. CONCLUSIONS: A low level of personal accomplishment was quite prevalent among Japanese psychiatrists compared with the results of previous studies. Poor work-life balance was related to burnout, and social support was noted to mitigate the impact of burnout.

  10. Nationwide Survey of Work Environment, Work-Life Balance and Burnout among Psychiatrists in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Kato, Takahiro A.; Kikuchi, Saya; Tateno, Masaru; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychiatry has been consistently shown to be a profession characterised by ‘high-burnout’; however, no nationwide surveys on this topic have been conducted in Japan. Aims The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of burnout and to ascertain the relationship between work environment satisfaction, work-life balance satisfaction and burnout among psychiatrists working in medical schools in Japan. Method We mailed anonymous questionnaires to all 80 psychiatry departments in medical schools throughout Japan. Work-life satisfaction, work-environment satisfaction and social support assessments, as well as the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), were used. Results Sixty psychiatric departments (75.0%) responded, and 704 psychiatrists provided answers to the assessments and MBI. Half of the respondents (n = 311, 46.0%) experienced difficulty with their work-life balance. Based on the responses to the MBI, 21.0% of the respondents had a high level of emotional exhaustion, 12.0% had a high level of depersonalisation, and 72.0% had a low level of personal accomplishment. Receiving little support, experiencing difficulty with work-life balance, and having less work-environment satisfaction were significantly associated with higher emotional exhaustion. A higher number of nights worked per month was significantly associated with higher depersonalisation. Conclusions A low level of personal accomplishment was quite prevalent among Japanese psychiatrists compared with the results of previous studies. Poor work-life balance was related to burnout, and social support was noted to mitigate the impact of burnout. PMID:23418435

  11. Demand for CAM Practice at Hospitals in Japan: A Population Survey in Mie Prefecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro Togo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM therapies have been provided at hospitals along with conventional medicine in industrialized nations. Previous studies conducted in Japan revealed high proportion of Japanese had experience of using CAM, but failed to discuss how it should be provided. The present study aims to clarify the demand for CAM practice at hospitals in Japan. A questionnaire consisting of 41 questions was mailed to 10 000 adults randomly selected from the electoral roll of Mie prefecture, Japan in January 2007. The questionnaire asked the subjects about demand for CAM practice at hospitals, types of CAM therapy to be provided and associated reasons. Sociodemographic characteristics, perceived health status, experience and purpose of CAM use, and information resource for CAM were also surveyed. Completed answers were collected from 2824 (28.6% respondents. Two thousand and nineteen (71.5% of the respondents demanded CAM practice at hospitals with the most likely reason of “patients can receive treatment under the guidance of a physicians”. The three most popular CAM therapies were Kampo, acupressure/massage/Shiatsu and acupuncture/moxibustion. The demand was positively associated with gender, ages of 40–59 years, annual household incomes of 5–7 million yen, occupation of specialist and technical workers and sales workers and poor health status. Higher demand was observed among those who used both CAM and conventional medical therapies for curative purposes. In conclusion, Japanese show a high demand for CAM practice, hoping to use CAM for curative purposes with monitoring by physicians at hospitals.

  12. A nationwide survey of NDMA in raw and drinking water in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asami, Mari; Oya, Masami; Kosaka, Koji

    2009-05-15

    A nationwide survey of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in both raw and finished water samples from drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in Japan was conducted. NDMA was analyzed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). NDMA was detected in 15 of 31 raw water samples collected in the summer at concentrations up to 2.6 ng/L, and in 9 of 28 raw water samples collected in winter at concentrations up to 4.3 ng/L. The NDMA concentrations were higher in raw water samples collected from treatment plants with catchment areas that have high population densities. The NDMA concentrations were higher in river water samples collected from the east and west of Japan than in those collected from other areas. NDMA was detected in 10 of 31 finished samples collected in summer at reduced concentrations of up to 2.2 ng/L, while 5 of 28 finished samples collected in winter showed NDMA concentrations up to 10 ng/L. The highest NDMA levels were detected in finished water samples collected from the Yodo River basin DWTP, which uses ozonation. Furthermore, evaluation of the process water produced at six advanced water treatment plants was conducted. Influent from the Yodo River indicated that the NDMA concentration increased during ozonation to as high as 20 ng/L, and then decreased with subsequent biological activated carbon treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first nationwide evaluation of NDMA concentrations in water conducted in Japan to date.

  13. Workplace bullying among nurses and their related factors in Japan: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Mami; Suzuki, Miho; Takai, Yukari; Igarashi, Ayumi; Noguchi-Watanabe, Maiko; Yamamoto-Mitani, Noriko

    2016-09-01

    To explore the association between workplace bullying and workplace environment factors among nurses in Japan. Workplace bullying among nurses is increasing globally and occurs more frequently than among other professions. However, there is little information on the impact of workplace environment factors on nurse bullying in Japan. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire. Participants were 1152 nurses recruited at seminars or training courses outside of their workplaces in Tokyo. Workplace bullying was measured using the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised. Participants were considered to have been 'bullied' if they reported experiencing at least one negative act on a daily or weekly basis. Workplace environment factors were measured using the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index, which comprises five domains: nurse participation in hospital affairs; nursing foundations for quality of care; nurse manager ability, leadership and support of nurses; staffing and resource adequacy; and collegial nurse-physician relationships. A total of 898 (78·0%) questionnaires were returned, of which 825 (71·6%) were analysed. Altogether, 153 (18·5%) nurses were considered 'bullied.' The three most frequent negative acts reported as occurring on a weekly or daily basis were 'someone withholding information which affects your performance' (6·7%), 'being exposed to an unmanageable workload' (4·4%) and 'being shouted at or being the target of spontaneous anger (or rage)' (3·6%). Logistic regression analysis indicated that 'bullied' were associated with low scores on two work environment domains: nurse manager ability, leadership and support of nurses and staffing and resource adequacy. Effective nurse manager leadership and support as well as appropriate staffing management may positively influence workplace bullying among nurses in Japan. Authentic leadership styles and allowing nurses to easily request days off might also be important

  14. Submerged karst landforms observed by multibeam bathymetric survey in Nagura Bay, Ishigaki Island, southwestern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Hironobu; Urata, Kensaku; Nagao, Masayuki; Hori, Nobuyuki; Fujita, Kazuhiko; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Nakashima, Yosuke; Ohashi, Tomoya; Goto, Kazuhisa; Suzuki, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Submerged tropical karst features were discovered in Nagura Bay on Ishigaki Island in the southern Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The coastal seafloor at depths shallower than ~ 130 m has been subjected to repeated and alternating subaerial erosion and sedimentation during periods of Quaternary sea-level lowstands. We conducted a broadband multibeam survey in the central area of Nagura Bay (1.85 × 2.7 km) and visualized the high-resolution bathymetric results over a depth range of 1.6-58.5 m. Various types of humid tropical karst landforms were found to coexist within the bay, including fluviokarst, doline karst, cockpit karst, polygonal karst, uvalas, and mega-dolines. Although these submerged karst landforms are covered by thick postglacial reef and reef sediments, their shapes and sizes are distinct from those associated with coral reef geomorphology. The submerged landscape of Nagura Bay likely formed during multiple glacial and interglacial periods. According to our bathymetric results and the aerial photographs of the coastal area, this submerged karst landscape appears to have developed throughout Nagura Bay (i.e., over an area of approximately 6 × 5 km) and represents the largest submerged karst in Japan.

  15. Structure analysis of designated hospitals for cancer control in Japan from JASTRO census survey database 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Hiroshi; Kagami, Yoshikazu; Nishio, Masamichi; Kataoka, Masaaki; Matsumoto, Yasuo; Hatano, Kazuo; Ogino, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    The structures of 288 hospitals designated for cancer control and approved by Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in February 2006 were analyzed from radiotherapy aspects according to the Japanese Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (JASTRO) 2005 census survey data. The data were compiled from 266 hospitals. Overall 78,086 new patients were treated at these designated hospitals, which accounts for just a half the total number of patients in Japan. The structure of radiotherapy (RT) must be essential for cancer management, and our study showed the designated hospitals are insufficient in the RT requirement. No RT equipment is installed in 14 hospitals. Of 266, 109 hospitals treated less than 200 new patients, and 25 hospitals less than 100 in 2005. The data analysis revealed that academic hospitals, JACC hospitals and others are reasonable in terms of structures and capacity of radiotherapy. Moreover, both academic and JACC hospitals play similar roles to designated prefectural hospitals in cancer management by radiotherapy. (author)

  16. Survey on usage of electronic journals in Japan Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Masashi; Fukazawa, Takeyasu

    2008-05-01

    Survey on usage of electronic journals was performed quantitatively by analyzing downloads accesses data to the 1,783 journals titles published by Elsevier in Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2006. Although JAEA researchers are interested in 1,028 journal titles among physics, chemistry, engineering, medicine, social sciences etc., it is found that 80% of total downloads was occupied by only 102 journal titles. To satisfy researcher's needs for electronic journals effectively, identification the core journals by librarians based on user's needs is rational way in cost. By shifting from print to electronic journals, the number of users increased by 30% and the number of papers read by researchers increased by 7 times. It is also found that many of researchers do not use SD (Science Directs) useful functions such as searching, linking to other bibliographic records, and alerting new information of electronic journals. To inform the useful functions to researchers by librarians is necessary. (author)

  17. Lifetime comorbidities between phobic disorders and major depression in Japan: results from the World Mental Health Japan 2002-2004 Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Masao; Kawakami, Norito; Ono, Yutaka; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Tachimori, Hisateru; Iwata, Noboru; Uda, Hidenori; Nakane, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Makoto; Naganuma, Yoichi; Furukawa, Toshiaki A; Hata, Yukihiro; Kobayashi, Masayo; Miyake, Yuko; Takeshima, Tadashi; Kikkawa, Takehiko; Kessler, Ronald C

    2009-01-01

    Although often considered of minor significance in themselves, evidence exists that early-onset phobic disorders might be predictors of later more serious disorders, such as major depressive disorder (MDD). The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of phobic disorders with the onset of MDD in the community in Japan. Data from the World Mental Health Japan 2002-2004 Survey were analyzed. A total of 2,436 community residents aged 20 and older were interviewed using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0 (response rate, 58.4%). A Cox proportional hazard model was used to predict the onset of MDD as a function of prior history of DSM-IV specific phobia, agoraphobia, or social phobia, adjusting for gender, birth-cohort, other anxiety disorders, education, and marital status at survey. Social phobia was strongly associated with the subsequent onset of MDD (hazard ratio [HR]=4.1 [95% CI: 2.0-8.7]) after adjusting for sex, birth cohort, and the number of other anxiety disorders. The association between agoraphobia or specific phobia and MDD was not statistically significant after adjusting for these variables. Social phobia is a powerful predictor of the subsequent first onset of MDD in Japan. Although this finding argues against a simple neurobiological model and in favor of a model in which the cultural meanings of phobia play a part in promoting MDD, an elucidation of causal pathways will require more fine-grained comparative research.

  18. Modelling the adoption of industrial cogeneration in Japan using manufacturing plant survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonilla, David; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    2003-01-01

    Electric power deregulation in Japan opens opportunity for further penetration of on-site generation (cogeneration) otherwise known as distributed generation. In the paper the authors present a survey on Japanese industrial plants to fill existing gaps for the assessment of modern cogeneration (combined heat and power, CHP). The objective of the paper is to empirically examine CHP systems based on cross-sectional binary models; second to review diffusion trends of CHP by system vintage during the 1980-2000 period in the manufacturing sector. The econometric results point that the probabilities of embracing this technology increase, in declining importance, with on-site power consumption, and steam demand, operational hours as well as with payback period, purchased power. For example the survey shows that the CHP is used for the purpose of exporting power rather than meeting the plant's own consumption. Some of our results are in line with those of Dismukes and Kleit (Resource Energy Econ. 21 (1999) 153) as well with Rose and Macdonald (Energy J. 12(12) (1991) 47). We also find that a unit increase in satisfaction with CHP will lead to a 54% in CHP capacity. We find significant evidence on the cost effectiveness of CHP under conservative assumptions. Regarding the influence of satisfaction and performance indicators for the several plants, the survey threw some unexpected evidence on the nature of CHP

  19. [A nationwide survey for implementation of Health Japan 21 anti-smoking countermeasures in municipalities throughout Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinmura, Hiromi; Wakabayashi, Chihiro; Kunisawa, Naoko; Kayaba, Kazunori; Miura, Yoshihiko; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Yanagawa, Hiroshi

    2008-03-01

    Smoking cessation is one of the most important items for improvement of health in Japan. The Japanese government started a new campaign called the "Health Japan 21" to promote better health of Japanese citizens in the 21st century. The purpose of the present study was to observe the situation of the municipalities throughout Japan regarding implementation of anti-smoking countermeasures and setting of the level of target values to be achieved over the next ten years. Mail questionnaire forms were sent to 953 municipalities which had formulated specific local plans for the promotion of health. Of this total, 793 (83.2%) responded to the inquiry. The most commonly implemented countermeasure against smoking was restricting smoking only to limited areas in municipality offices (75%), followed by providing support for stopping smoking (35%), and providing a complete smoke free environment in municipality offices (32.4%). Proportions of local governments putting a ban on smoking on public roads (7.5%), giving publicity to restaurants with smoking restrictions (vending machines and restricting tobacco advertisement. Most municipalities have made much of anti-smoking activities. However, measures for school children were not satisfactorily implemented. The execution rates for anti-smoking activities are low in small-scale municipalities and therefore it is necessary to provide particular support in these cases.

  20. Clinical practice of acute respiratory distress syndrome in Japan: A nationwide survey and scientific evidences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaka, Sadatomo; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2017-07-01

    There has been limited information about epidemiology and clinical practice of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in Japan. An invitation letter to the web-based survey was mailed to all 871 board certified hospitals of the Japanese Respiratory Society. The questionnaires were designed to collect data on epidemiology and clinical practice of ARDS, including diagnostic measures and therapeutics. Within 4 months of the survey period, valid responses were obtained from 296 (34%) hospitals. The incidence of ARDS was estimated to be 3.13 cases/100 hospital beds or 1.91 cases/ICU bed per year. The most frequent underlying disease was pneumonia (34%), followed by sepsis (29%). In hospitals with fewer ICU beds, pulmonologists tended to be in charge of management of ARDS patients. Routine diagnostic measures included computed tomography of the chest (69.6% of the hospitals) and Swan-Ganz catheterization was rarely performed for diagnosis. In 87.4% of the hospitals, non-invasive ventilation was applied to management of ARDS patients, especially those with mild disease. Prone positioning and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for ARDS patients was more widely adopted in hospitals with larger numbers of ICU beds and intensivists. In 58.2% of the responding hospitals, corticosteroid was considered as a treatment option for ARDS, among which pulse therapy was routinely introduced to ARDS patients in 35.4%. The incidence of ARDS in Japan was estimated to be lower than that in the recent international study. The scale and equipment of hospitals and the number of intensivists might influence clinical practice of ARDS. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Seismic Observation in Deep Boreholes and Its Applications - Workshop Proceedings, Niigata Institute of Technology, Kashiwazaki, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Kashiwazaki WS was held to develop the recommendations made at the Tsukuba WS entitled 'Seismic Input Motions Incorporating Recent Geological Studies' which was held in November 2004 in Tsukuba City in Japan (hereinafter, the 'Tsukuba WS'). At the Tsukuba WS, the state of the art in defining realistic seismic input for the design and re-evaluation of nuclear facilities as well as advances in seismic source characterization of fault zones using data from deep geological investigations and their possible contribution to improving seismic input definitions were reviewed. Further, the importance and necessity of cooperation between seismology and geology in order to decrease uncertainty in seismic input definition were emphasized. After the Tsukuba WS, the Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake (NCOE, M=6.8) occurred near the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPP site. In this earthquake, a focusing effect of ground motion was observed at the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPP site, which caused locally amplified ground motion. Units 1 and 2 showed significantly higher responses of more than 50 percent compared to Units 3 to 7. This was thought to be caused by the fact that seismic waves were focused on Units 1 and 2 due to the irregular structure under the site. A similar effect was observed at the Hamaoka site in the earthquake that occurred in Suruga Bay in 2009. Only Unit 5 showed a double or larger response to this earthquake, and similar phenomena were found only for events with hypocenter in the narrow direction from the site. This was also thought to be caused by the irregular geological structure under the site. In the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake, the peak ground accelerations (PGA) of the Dai-ichi NPP site were about twice as large as those of the Dai-ni NPP site, although the distance between these sites is only slightly more than 10 km. Further, large differences in the PGAs were found among each of the units of the Dai-ichi NPP site. For example, the PGA of Unit

  2. The POETICs of industrial carbon dioxide emissions in Japan: an urban and institutional extension of the IPAT identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholz Stephan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study applies the POETICs framework (population, organization, environment, technology, institutions and culture to an analysis of industrial carbon dioxide emissions in Japanese cities. The inclusion of institutional variables in the form of International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives membership, ISO 14001 implementation, and non-profit sector activity addresses the ecological limitations of the often used IPAT (impact = population × affluence × technology approach. Results Results suggest the weak existence of an environmental Kuznets curve, in which the wealthiest cities are reducing their emissions through increased efficiency. Significant institutional impacts are also found to hold in the predicted directions. Specifically, panel and cross-sectional regressions indicate that membership in the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives and non-profit organizational presence have negative effects on industrial carbon dioxide emissions. Conclusion The presence of institutional drivers at the city level provides empirical support for the POETICs rubric, which recasts the ecological framing of the IPAT identity in a more sociological mold. The results also indicate that Japanese civil society has a role to play in carbon mitigation. More refined studies need to take into consideration an expanded set of methods, drivers, and carbon budgets, as applied to a broader range of cases outside of Japan, to more accurately assess how civil society can bridge the issue of scale that separates local level policy concerns from global level climate dynamics.

  3. The POETICs of industrial carbon dioxide emissions in Japan: an urban and institutional extension of the IPAT identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Stephan

    2006-01-01

    Background This study applies the POETICs framework (population, organization, environment, technology, institutions and culture) to an analysis of industrial carbon dioxide emissions in Japanese cities. The inclusion of institutional variables in the form of International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives membership, ISO 14001 implementation, and non-profit sector activity addresses the ecological limitations of the often used IPAT (impact = population × affluence × technology) approach. Results Results suggest the weak existence of an environmental Kuznets curve, in which the wealthiest cities are reducing their emissions through increased efficiency. Significant institutional impacts are also found to hold in the predicted directions. Specifically, panel and cross-sectional regressions indicate that membership in the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives and non-profit organizational presence have negative effects on industrial carbon dioxide emissions. Conclusion The presence of institutional drivers at the city level provides empirical support for the POETICs rubric, which recasts the ecological framing of the IPAT identity in a more sociological mold. The results also indicate that Japanese civil society has a role to play in carbon mitigation. More refined studies need to take into consideration an expanded set of methods, drivers, and carbon budgets, as applied to a broader range of cases outside of Japan, to more accurately assess how civil society can bridge the issue of scale that separates local level policy concerns from global level climate dynamics. PMID:17005049

  4. The POETICs of industrial carbon dioxide emissions in Japan: an urban and institutional extension of the IPAT identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Stephan

    2006-09-27

    This study applies the POETICs framework (population, organization, environment, technology, institutions and culture) to an analysis of industrial carbon dioxide emissions in Japanese cities. The inclusion of institutional variables in the form of International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives membership, ISO 14001 implementation, and non-profit sector activity addresses the ecological limitations of the often used IPAT (impact = population x affluence x technology) approach. Results suggest the weak existence of an environmental Kuznets curve, in which the wealthiest cities are reducing their emissions through increased efficiency. Significant institutional impacts are also found to hold in the predicted directions. Specifically, panel and cross-sectional regressions indicate that membership in the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives and non-profit organizational presence have negative effects on industrial carbon dioxide emissions. The presence of institutional drivers at the city level provides empirical support for the POETICs rubric, which recasts the ecological framing of the IPAT identity in a more sociological mold. The results also indicate that Japanese civil society has a role to play in carbon mitigation. More refined studies need to take into consideration an expanded set of methods, drivers, and carbon budgets, as applied to a broader range of cases outside of Japan, to more accurately assess how civil society can bridge the issue of scale that separates local level policy concerns from global level climate dynamics.

  5. High rate of awarding compensation for claims of injuries related to clinical trials by pharmaceutical companies in Japan: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Chieko; Kusuoka, Hideo; Ono, Shunsuke; Kakee, Naoko; Saito, Kazuyuki; Takehara, Kenji; Tsujide, Kiyokazu; Nabeoka, Yuzo; Sakuhiro, Takuya; Aoki, Hiroshi; Morishita, Noriko; Suzuki, Chieko; Kachi, Shigeo; Kondo, Emiko; Komori, Yukiko; Isobe, Tetsu; Kageyama, Shigeru; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    International norms and ethical standards have suggested that compensation for research-related injury should be provided to injured research volunteers. However, statistical data of incidence of compensation claims and the rate of awarding them have been rarely reported. Questionnaire surveys were sent to pharmaceutical companies and medical institutions, focusing on industry-initiated clinical trials aiming at new drug applications (NDAs) on patient volunteers in Japan. With the answers from pharmaceutical companies, the incidence of compensation was 0.8%, including 0.06% of monetary compensation. Of the cases of compensation claims, 99% were awarded. In turn, with the answers from medical institutions, the incidence of compensation was 0.6%, including 0.4% of serious but not death cases, and 0.04% of death cases. Furthermore, most claims for compensation were initiated by medical institutions, rather than by the patients. On the other hand, with the answers from clinical trial volunteers, 3% of respondents received compensations. These compensated cases were 25% of the injuries which cannot be ruled out from the scope of compensation. Our study results demonstrated that Japanese pharmaceutical companies have provided a high rate of compensation for clinical trial-related injuries despite the possibility of overestimation. In the era of global clinical development, our study indicates the importance of further surveys to find each country's compensation policy by determining how it is being implemented based on a survey of the actual status of compensation coming from statistical data.

  6. Survey of the general public's attitudes toward advance directives in Japan: How to respect patients' preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Ichiro

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Japanese people have become increasingly interested in the expression and enhancement of their individual autonomy in medical decisions made regarding medical treatment at and toward the end of life. However, while many Western countries have implemented legislation that deals with patient autonomy in the case of terminal illness, no such legislation exists in Japan. The rationale for this research is based on the need to investigate patient's preferences regarding treatment at the end of life in order to re-evaluate advance directives policy and practice. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 418 members of the general middle-aged and senior adults (aged between 40 and 65 in Tokyo, Japan. Respondents were asked about their attitudes toward advance directives, and preferences toward treatment options. Results Over 60% of respondents agreed that it is better to express their wishes regarding advance directives (treatment preferences in writing, appointment of proxy for care decision making, appointment of legal administrator of property, stating preferences regarding disposal of one's property and funeral arrangements but less than 10% of them had already done so. About 60% of respondents in this study preferred to indicate treatment preferences in broad rather than concrete terms. Over 80% would like to decide treatment preferences in consultation with others (22.2% with their proxy, 11.0% with the doctor, and 47.8% with both their proxy and the doctor. Conclusion This study revealed that many Japanese people indicate an interest in undertaking advance directives. This study found that there is a range of preferences regarding how advance directives are undertaken, thus it is important to recognize that any processes put into place should allow flexibility in order to best respect patients' wishes and autonomy.

  7. Nationwide survey of rotavirus-associated encephalopathy and sudden unexpected death in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Yoshiki; Ohashi, Masahiro; Ihira, Masaru; Hashimoto, Shuji; Taniguchi, Koki; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi

    2014-08-01

    Rotavirus can cause severe complications such as encephalopathy/encephalitis and sudden unexpected death. The incidence of rotavirus-associated encephalopathy/encephalitis or sudden unexpected death remains unknown. To clarify the clinical features of rotavirus-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy and sudden unexpected death, we conducted a nationwide survey in Japan. A two-part questionnaire was designed to determine the number of the cases and the clinical features of severe cases of rotavirus infection, including encephalitis/encephalopathy and sudden unexpected death, between 2009 and 2011. Of the 1365 questionnaires sent to hospitals, 963 (70.5%) were returned and eligible for analysis. We determined 58 cases of rotavirus-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy and 7 cases of sudden unexpected death. These patients were diagnosed with rotavirus infection by immunochromatography. Although 36/58 (62.1%) encephalitis/encephalopathy patients had no sequelae, 15/58 (25.9%) patients had neurological sequelae, and 7/58 (12.1%) patients had fatal outcomes. Pleocytosis was observed in 9/40 (22.5%) patients and cerebrospinal fluid protein levels were elevated in only 4/40 (10%) patients. Elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (>500 IU/L) or acidemia (pHdeath were 44.0 and 4.9 cases in Japan, respectively. Elevated LDH (>500 IU/L) or acidemia (pH<7.15) were related to a poor prognosis of the encephalitis/encephalopathy. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of gender-based differences among surgeons in Japan: results of a survey conducted by the Japan Surgical Society. Part 1: Working style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Kazumi; Nomura, Kyoko; Tominaga, Ryuji; Iwase, Hirotaka; Ogawa, Tomoko; Shibasaki, Ikuko; Shimada, Mitsuo; Taguchi, Tomoaki; Takeshita, Emiko; Tomizawa, Yasuko; Nomura, Sachiyo; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro; Hanashi, Tomoko; Yamashita, Hiroko; Kokudo, Norihiro; Maeda, Kotaro

    2018-01-01

    To assess the working styles of men and women working as surgeons in Japan. In July, 2014, the Japan Surgical Society invited all their members (n = 29,861), through an internet campaign, to participate in a nationwide survey of surgeons. The items investigated in this descriptive study included demographic information and working styles, based on a questionnaire. In total, 6211 surgeons participated (response rate 20.8%, 5586 men and 625 women). The largest age stratum was 40-49 years for men and 30-39 years for women. Overall, respondents identified their labor contract, including salary and work hours, as the highest priority for improvement. Women with children were more likely to be part-time employees, work fewer hours, and take fewer house calls/on-calls than their male counterparts. Moreover, women of all ages earned a lower annual income than men, irrespective of whether they had children. Perception scores for discrimination related to work and promotion were significantly higher among women than men (p working style was observed between men and women working as surgeons in Japan.

  9. Analysis of gender-based differences among surgeons in Japan: results of a survey conducted by the Japan Surgical Society. Part. 2: personal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Kazumi; Nomura, Kyoko; Tominaga, Ryuji; Iwase, Hirotaka; Ogawa, Tomoko; Shibasaki, Ikuko; Shimada, Mitsuo; Taguchi, Tomoaki; Takeshita, Emiko; Tomizawa, Yasuko; Nomura, Sachiyo; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro; Hanashi, Tomoko; Yamashita, Hiroko; Kokudo, Norihiro; Maeda, Kotaro

    2018-03-01

    To assess the true conditions and perceptions of the personal lives of men and women working as surgeons in Japan. In 2014, all e-mail subscribed members of the Japan Surgical Society (JSS, n = 29,861) were invited to complete a web-based survey. The questions covered demographic information, work environment, and personal life (including marital status, childcare, and nursing care for adult family members). In total, 6211 surgeons (5586 men and 625 women) returned the questionnaires, representing a response rate of 20.8%. Based on the questionnaire responses, surgeons generally prioritize work and spend most of their time at work, although women with children prioritize their family over work; men spend significantly fewer hours on domestic work/childcare than do their female counterparts (men 0.76 h/day vs. women 2.93 h/day, p women surgeons, regardless of their age or whether they have children, place more importance on the role of women in the family. The personal lives of Japanese surgeons differed significantly according to gender and whether they have children. The conservative idea that women should bear primary responsibility for the family still pertains for both men and women working as surgeons in Japan.

  10. Users manual on database of the Piping Reliability Proving Tests at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute(JAERI) conducted Piping Reliability Proving Tests from 1975 to 1992 based upon the contracts between JAERI and Science and Technology Agency of Japan under the auspices of the special account law for electric power development promotion. The purposes of those tests are to prove the structural reliability of the primary cooling piping constituting a part of the pressure boundary in the water reactor power plants. The tests with large experimental facilities had ended already in 1990. After that piping reliability analysis by the probabilistic method followed until 1992. This report describes the users manual on databases about the test results using the large experimental facilities. Objectives of the piping reliability proving tests are to prove that the primary piping of the water reactor (1) be reliable throughout the service period, (2) have no possibility of rupture, (3) bring no detrimental influence on the surrounding instrumentations or equipments near the break location. The research activities using large scale piping test facilities are described. The present report does the database about the test results pairing the former report. With these two reports, all the feature of Piping Reliability Proving Tests is made clear. Briefings of the tests are described also written in Japanese or English. (author)

  11. Medical Institutions and Twitter: A Novel Tool for Public Communication in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Yuya; Narimatsu, Hiroto; Tsuya, Atsushi; Tanaka, Atsushi; Fukao, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Twitter is a free social networking and microblogging service on the Internet. Medical professionals and patients have started to use Twitter in medicine. Twitter use by medical institutions can interactively and efficiently provide public health information and education for laypeople. This study examined Twitter usage by medical institutions. We reviewed all Japanese user accounts in which the names of medical institutions were described in the user's Twitter profile. We then classified medical institutions' tweets by content. We extracted 168 accounts for medical institutions with ≥500 followers. The medical specialties of those accounts were dentistry and oral surgery (n=73), dermatology (n=12), cosmetic surgery (n=10), internal medicine (n=10), ophthalmology (n=6), obstetrics and gynecology (n=5), plastic surgery (n=2), and others (n=50). Of these, 21 accounts tweeted medical knowledge and 45 accounts tweeted guidance about medical practice and consultation hours, including advertisements. In the dentistry and oral surgery accounts, individual behavior or thinking was the most frequent (22/71, 31%) content. On the other hand, consultation including advertisements was the most frequent (14/23, 61%) in cosmetic surgery, plastic surgery, and dermatology. Some medical specialties used Twitter for disseminating medical knowledge or guidance including advertisements. This indicates that Twitter potentially can be used for various purposes by different medical specialties.

  12. Medical Institutions and Twitter: A Novel Tool for Public Communication in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Yuya; Tsuya, Atsushi; Tanaka, Atsushi; Fukao, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Background Twitter is a free social networking and microblogging service on the Internet. Medical professionals and patients have started to use Twitter in medicine. Twitter use by medical institutions can interactively and efficiently provide public health information and education for laypeople. Objective This study examined Twitter usage by medical institutions. Methods We reviewed all Japanese user accounts in which the names of medical institutions were described in the user’s Twitter profile. We then classified medical institutions’ tweets by content. Results We extracted 168 accounts for medical institutions with ≥500 followers. The medical specialties of those accounts were dentistry and oral surgery (n=73), dermatology (n=12), cosmetic surgery (n=10), internal medicine (n=10), ophthalmology (n=6), obstetrics and gynecology (n=5), plastic surgery (n=2), and others (n=50). Of these, 21 accounts tweeted medical knowledge and 45 accounts tweeted guidance about medical practice and consultation hours, including advertisements. In the dentistry and oral surgery accounts, individual behavior or thinking was the most frequent (22/71, 31%) content. On the other hand, consultation including advertisements was the most frequent (14/23, 61%) in cosmetic surgery, plastic surgery, and dermatology. Conclusions Some medical specialties used Twitter for disseminating medical knowledge or guidance including advertisements. This indicates that Twitter potentially can be used for various purposes by different medical specialties. PMID:27227154

  13. Annual report of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Apr. 1987 - Mar. 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In fiscal 1987, the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan revised the 'Long term program for development and utilization of nuclear energy', which is done every five years. It determined the future direction of the research and development in JAERI. Three basic objectives are indicated in it, that is, to qualitatively upgrade nuclear technology, to tackle the frontiers of the technology, and to promote international collaboration. The new 'Long term task plan' of JAERI based on the 'Long term program' was established in August, 1987. The integral experiment on loss of coolant accident, the test on reactivity-initiated accident, the irradiation and post-irradiation examination of fuel, the development of safety analysis codes, the design and safety analysis of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Facility, the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes, the preparatory work for constructing the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor, the full scale plasma heating experiment with JT-60, the study on high efficiency confinement mode and current drive, the construction of the new home port for the nuclear ship 'Mutsu', the design of an advanced marine reactor, the reactor physics of FBRs and ATRs and other fundamental studies, and the operation of JRR-2, JRR-4 and JMTR are reported. (K.I.)

  14. Patient Safety Activity Under the Social Insurance Medical Fee Schedule in Japan: An Overview of the 2010 Nationwide Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Masahiro; Kawamura, Toshihiko; Igawa, Mikio; Imanaka, Yuichi

    2017-11-16

    Little is known about patient safety performance under the social insurance medical fee schedule in Japan. The Health Ministry in Japan introduced the preferential patient safety countermeasure fee (PPSCF) to promote patient safety in 2006 and revised the PPSCF system in 2010. This study aims to address the patient safety performance status at hospitals implementing the PPSCF. A nationwide questionnaire survey targeting 2674 hospitals with the PPSCF was performed in 2010 to 2011. The 627 participant hospitals were divided into the following three groups: 178 hospitals implementing PPSCF 1 with 400 beds or more (group A), 286 hospitals implementing PPSCF 1 with 399 beds or fewer (group B), and 163 hospitals implementing PPSCF 2 (group C). The mean numbers (standard errors) of patient safety managers were 1.45 (0.07) in group A, 1.12 (0.04) in group B, and 0.37 (0.12) in group C (P fee schedule in Japan.

  15. Working Hours and Satisfaction: A comparative analysis of Japan, the United Kingdom, and Germany (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    ASANO Hirokatsu; KENJOH Eiko

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between working hours and working-hour satisfaction and that between working hours and life satisfaction for white-collar permanent employees in Japan, the United Kingdom, and Germany. We use data obtained from the International Survey on Work-Life Balance , which was conducted by the Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI) and the Economic and Social Research Institute, Cabinet Office (ESRI) in Japan. The survey shows that Japan has the highe...

  16. Prospects and Problems of Expanding Trade with Japan: A Survey of Philippine Exporters

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Rosalina P.

    2004-01-01

    The paper looks at firm-level factors that affect Philippine exports to Japan with the main objective of recommending provisions for the proposed Japan-Philippines Economic Partnership Agreement (JPEPA) that will enable existing and prospective Philippine exporters to fully exploit the potential of the Japanese market. To this end, the study identifies Philippine products with export prospects in Japan and conducts a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) Analysis of these produ...

  17. Development of radioactive waste management at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyanaga, I.; Sakata, S.; Ito, A.; Amano, H.

    1977-01-01

    For low- and medium-level waste treatment, main efforts have been put on the reduction of waste volume. For high-level wastes, studies are being carried out on the solidification and partitioning techniques in preparation for completion of the fuel cycle in Japan. For sea disposal of low-level wastes planned by the JAEC, significant information has been obtained regarding integrity and leaching behavior of cement solidified wastes. This paper describes the present status of development of the techniques in the following sections; 1. Treatment of Low- and Medium-Level Wastes; an incinerator with two stage ceramic filters has been tested, and the decontamination factor was found to be 10 4 for various nuclides; reverse osmosis method with a cellulose acetate membrane has been tested for laundry liquid waste, and 60 Co was removed more than 99% together with detergents; and solidification products of spent ion-exchange resin with polyethylene have been proved to be superior in mechanical properties, water resistance and volume reduction to asphalt products. 2. Safety Evaluation of Cement Solidified Wastes for Sea Disposal; homogeneous cement-solidified wastes in 200 l sealed drums did not show any cracks or defects under high hydrostatic pressure; the leaching ratio of 137 Cs for the first one year was estimated to be lower than 0.3%. 3. Treatment of High-Level Wastes; vitrification using natural zeolite has been developed and properties of the products were proved to be excellent; and a partitioning procedure consisting mainly of solvent extraction and ion-exchange method has been studied; reduction of the amount of alkaline agent by introducing a denitration technique, and reduction of resin volume by adopting a porous type resin were achieved

  18. Summary, the 16th quality control survey for radioisotope in vitro tests in Japan, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The results of the 16th quality control survey for radioisotope in vitro tests in Japan (1994) are summarized. Of 399 medical facilities conducting radioisotope in vitro tests, 201 were enrolled in this study. Forty items including ACTH and {alpha}-fetoprotein were selected as the subjects. Freeze-drying samples were sent to the facilities. The quality of assay tubes, duration between fusion of the samples and assay, and the condition of preservation were examined, and those influence on the assay values were studied. Radioimmunoassay, immunoradiometric assay, and other procedures using enzymes, fluorescence, and chemiluminescense were conducted. The assay values of some of the items were significantly influenced by repeated freezing and fusion of the samples. Data were collected from individual items and kits used, and analyzed. The significant difference of values between different facilities and kits used were considered due to difference of assay principle, antibodies used, and standard items. The concentration of the samples needs to be improved. (S.Y.).

  19. A survey of 90Sr and 137Cs activity levels of retail foods in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abukawa, J.; Tsubuku, C.; Hayano, K.; Hirano, K.

    1998-01-01

    A comprehensive survey was conducted on 90 Sr and 137 Cs activity levels in retail foods purchased from retail markets all over Japan during the period 1989-1994, and the annual effective dose equivalent due to dietary ingestion was estimated. The concentrations of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the food samples were determined using γ-ray spectrometry and the radiochemical method. The following were clarified by this study: (1) The 90 Sr and 137 Cs activity concentration levels were below 1 Bq kg -1 for almost all food samples except for the dried foods. (2) The activity concentration levels of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in foods of animal origin were different from those of plant origin. Generally, the former had higher 137 Cs and lower 90 Sr activity concentrations than the latter. (3) The mean and maximum values of the annual effective dose equivalent from a dietary intake of 90 Sr and 137 Cs by the consumption of retail foods were estimated to be as low as 1·3 and 4·1 μSv, respectively. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  20. A survey of indoor pollution by volatile organo halogen compounds in Katsushika, Tokyo, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amagai, T.; Olansandan; Matsushita, H. [University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka (Japan); Ono, M. [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Ibaraki (Japan); Nakai, S. [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan); Tamura, K. [National Institute for Minamata Disease, Kumamoto (Japan); Maeda, K. [Tokyo Kasel University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    A survey of indoor and outdoor pollution by 10 volatile organo halogen compounds (VOHCs) was performed in Katsushika Ward, Tokyo, Japan. Thirteen houses in February and 30 houses in July were sampled. Four consecutive 24-hour samples were collected by passive sampling from living room, kitchen, bedroom, bathroom and outdoors in February and July 1995. Indoor concentrations of carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene were at nearly the same as outdoor concentrations; therefore, it was concluded that indoor pollution by these compounds was primarily due to penetration of outdoor pollutants. Indoor concentrations of some VOHCs were considerably higher than outdoor concentrations and they varied widely between households. The list included: p-dichlorobenzene, tetrachloroethylene and tri halomethanes, for which emission sources were insect repellents, dry-cleaned clothes, and tap water, showers and bathtub water, respectively. Indoor concentrations of these compounds were higher in reinforced concrete houses than in wooden houses or wooden houses with mortar walls. This suggests that airtightness of the rooms is responsible for high indoor VOHC concentrations. (author)

  1. Productivity loss of caregivers of schizophrenia patients: a cross-sectional survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sruamsiri, Rosarin; Mori, Yasuhiro; Mahlich, Jörg

    2018-04-27

    When a family member is diagnosed with schizophrenia, it causes stress to the caregiver that can eventually result in missed work days and lower work performance. This study aims at revealing productivity costs for caregivers of schizophrenia patients in Japan. A cross-sectional survey of caregivers was conducted and resulted in 171 respondents. The assessment of work productivity included calculating the costs of absenteeism, presenteeism and total productivity costs. This was accomplished using the "Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire" (WPAI). A relative majority of caregivers in the sample provided care for their spouse (47%), 18% cared for their brother or sister and 16% provided care for their child. Per capita productivity costs totaled JPY 2.42 million, with JPY 2.36 million (97%) of that amount being due to presenteeism. The burden on caregivers is substantial enough to warrant structured support programs aimed at maintaining careers' physical and mental health, helping them provide more effective care to schizophrenia patients and eventually increase productivity at work.

  2. A survey on the state on the use of conformation radiotherapy units in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaru, Teizo; Onai, Yoshio; Abe, Shunsuke

    1985-01-01

    A survey on the stage on the use of conformation radiotherapy units in Japan was performed by the Radiotherapy Equipments Committee of the Japanese Association for Radiotherapy Systems. The questionnaire was sent to 34 hospitals, which are all the hospitals equipped with these units, and 13 cancer and adult disease centers. The answers were collected from 42 hospitals, of which the 31 from formers and 11 from latters. In June, 1984, 27 conformation radiotherapy units (11 units with a pair of lower jaws and 16 units with multi-leaf collimators) were being used at 26 hospitals answered to questionnaire. During a month from May 16 to June 15 in 1984, conformation radiotherapy was performed at 10 hopsitals, and mean number of patients per day treated with these irradiation techniques was 3.7 +- 3.5. Fixed beam radiotherapy with irregular shape fields using multi-leaf collimators was also performed at 8 hospitals and mean number of patients per day treated with this fixed beam was 6.6 +- 3.9. Hollow-out irradiation technique was used at 4 hospitals, and 3.8 patients per day per hospital were treated with this technique. (author)

  3. 'Radiation Fair' for 15 years in Osaka, Japan, and survey of the participants attitude toward radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Masakazu; Asano, Takeyoshi; Hayashi, Toshio; Hosokawa, Yasushi; Kakefu, Tomohisa; Nishihara, Hideaki

    1999-01-01

    We have been successfully operating 'Radiation Fair--The relationship between daily life and radiation--' during summer vacation season in August every year for 15 years in Osaka, the largest city of western Japan. The purpose of this event is radiation education of public including school kids through efficient information transfer of radiation and radiation-related technology. Currently we set up the space of it on a floor of Kintetsu Department Store, one of the major department stores in downtown Osaka and display various irradiated products available in our daily life together with explanatory panels. We have been devising various attractions as efficient information transfer media so that even elementary-school kids understand the basic knowledge of radiation and irradiation technologies. The number of participants has increased year by year until more than 20,000 in recent years. We distributed questionnaires to the visitors for recent 3 years to inquire their status toward radiation and irradiated products as well as impression toward the displays. The survey results suggest that school education may contribute to establish the public image toward 'radiation' as well as mass media. (author)

  4. Political and environmental attitude toward participatory energy and environmental governance: A survey in post-Fukushima Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hidenori

    2017-10-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent Fukushima nuclear accident triggered citizen dialogue on energy and environmental management in Japan. However, an international survey has shown that the willingness of Japanese citizens to participate in political and social activities has declined since the Fukushima accident. Employing an internet-based survey in four urban or nuclear power plant-hosting prefectures in Japan, this study examines the willingness to participate in random sampling deliberation on post-disaster energy and environmental policy. It focuses on the effects of political, environmental, and social attitudes towards willingness to participate in citizen dialogue. The survey shows around 40% of respondents may participate in energy and environmental deliberation. Statistical analysis reveals that environmental consciousness raises the propensity to participate in deliberation, while political obedience and social hesitation decreases the will to participate. The effect of environmental attitudes is larger than that of political and social attitudes. The survey also finds that governmental response to deliberation, i.e., information generation and disclosure based on requests from citizen dialogue, encourages participation in deliberation in a conservative prefecture, when citizen dialogue is held at the national level. Random sampling deliberation opens a new mode of environmental governance regardless of local political and social characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Public attitudes toward practice by medical students: a nationwide survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kyoko; Sakuma, Mio; Seki, Susumu; Morimoto, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    It is essential for medical students to interact directly with patients. However, patients may be reluctant to be seen by medical students in settings in which they may also be seen by senior staff. To understand patients' attitudes toward practice by medical students and consider the factors involved in obtaining patients' cooperation, we conducted a nationwide cross-sectional survey. We randomly selected 2,400 adult participants from all over Japan. Trained research assistants inquired about participants' experiences and attitudes toward practice by medical students using a questionnaire. We compared differences in attitudes between participants who were accepting of practice by medical students and those who were not, as well as differences between participants who had experienced practice by a medical student versus those who had not. A total of 1,109 (46%) participants were included in the study. Eleven percent (117/1109) of the participants had experienced practice by a medical student. One fourth of participants were accepting of practice by medical students, and experienced participants were significantly more likely to be accepting of practice by medical students than inexperienced participants (45% vs. 24%, ppractice by medical students among accepting participants with previous experiences included "polite," "kind," and "hard-working." Fifty-nine percent (637/1088) of participants indicated that they would request a senior staff member's supervision when being seen by a medical student. The present nationwide survey suggests that education emphasizing bedside manner may be effective in promoting patients' cooperation of medical students. In addition, providing information to patients about medical students and efforts to increase supervision during clinical clerkship should be emphasized to foster the public's cooperation.

  6. Survey of environmental radiation dose rates in Kyoto and Shiga prefectures, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minamia, Kazuyuki; Shimo, Michikuni; Oka, Mitsuaki; Ejiri, Kazutaka; Sugino, Masato; Minato, Susumu; Hosoda, Masahiro; Yamada, Junya; Fukushi, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    We have measured environmental radiation dose rates in several Prefectures, such as Ai chi Prefecture, Gifu Prefecture, and Mie Prefecture, in central Japan. Recently, we measured the environmental radiation dose rates in Kyoto and Shiga Prefectures that are also located in central Japan with a car-borne survey system. At the time of measurement, Kyoto Prefecture (area: 4,613 km 2 ) had a total of 36 districts, and Shiga Prefecture (area: 3,387 km 2 ) a total of 26. Terrestrial gamma ray dose rates and secondary cosmic ray dose rates were measured by a 2 inches ψ x 2 inches NaI(Tl) scintillation counter and a handy-type altimeter (GPS eTrex Legend by Gamin), respectively. The following factors were taken into consideration the shielding effect of the car body, the effect of the road pavement, radon progeny borne by precipitation, and increases in tunnels and near the walls. Terrestrial gamma ray dose rates in Kyoto and Shiga Prefectures were estimated to be 51.7 ± 6.0 n Gy/h (district average: 52.4 ± 4.7 n Gy/h), 52.2 ± 10.5 n Gy/h (district average: 51.9 ± 8.1 n Gy/h), respectively. Secondary cosmic ray dose rates in Kyoto and Shiga Prefectures were 30.0 ± 0.6 n Gy/h (district average: 29.9 ±0.3 n Gy/h), 30.1 ± 0.3 n Gy/h (district average: 30.0 ± 0.2 n Gy/h), respectively. The environmental radiation dose rates due to the sum dose rates of terrestrial gamma ray and secondary cosmic ray in Kyoto and Shiga Prefectures were 81.7 ± 6.2 n Gy/h (district average: 82.3 ± 4.8 n Gy/h), 82.3 ± 10.6 n Gy/h (district average: 82.0 ± 8.1 n Gy/h), respectively. We confirmed that the environmental radiation dose rates in Kyoto and Shiga Prefectures mainly depended on the change of the terrestrial gamma ray dose rates, since the secondary cosmic ray dose rates had little change. Therefore, radiation dose-rate maps of the terrestrial gamma rays as well as maps of the environmental radiation dose-rate were drawn. (author)

  7. Association between pain severity, depression severity, and use of health care services in Japan: results of a nationwide survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vietri J

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey Vietri,1 Tempei Otsubo,2 William Montgomery,3 Toshinaga Tsuji,4 Eiji Harada5 1Health Outcomes Practice, Kantar Health, Milan, Italy; 2Tokyo Shinjuku Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan; 3Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd., West Ryde, Australia; 4Medical Affairs, Shionogi & Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan; 5Eli Lilly Japan KK, Kobe, Japan Background: Depression is often associated with painful physical symptoms. Previous research has seldom assessed the relationship between the severity of physical symptoms and the severity of mental and emotional symptoms of depression or other health outcomes, and no such studies have been conducted previously among individuals with depression in Japan. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the severity of physical pain and depression and other outcomes among individuals in Japan diagnosed with depression.Methods: Data for individuals aged 18 and older in Japan who reported being diagnosed with depression and also reported physical pain were obtained from the Japan National Health and Wellness Survey. These respondents were characterized on sociodemographics and health characteristics, and the relationship between ratings of severity on pain in the last week and health outcomes were assessed using bivariate correlations and generalized linear models. Measures included the Patient Health Questionnaire for depression severity, Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Short Form Survey Instrument for health-related quality of life, the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment for work and activity impairment, and 6-month report of health care use.Results: More severe physical pain in the past week was correlated with more severe depression, worse health-related quality of life, lower health utility, greater impairment at work, and more health care provider visits. These relationships remained significant after incorporating sociodemographics and health characteristics in the statistical models

  8. Current status of in-hospital donation coordinators in Japan: nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konaka, S; Shimizu, S; Iizawa, M; Ohkawara, H; Kato, O; Ashikari, J; Fukushima, N

    2013-05-01

    When the Japanese Organ Transplantation Act was issued, the Japanese Organ Transplantation Network (JOT) was established in 1997. JOT lists recipients, assesses and manages organ donors, and educates publics and headquarters for organ donations. JOT procurement transplant coordinators (PTC) play roles in obtaining consent from relatives for organ donation, donor evaluation and management, organ recovery management, organ transport, and care of donor families during and after donation. Every prefecture has at least one PTC who is mainly working in public education and hospital development. They also help the JOT PTC at the time of organ procurement. Most prefectures commission hospital staff in the procurement hospital to be an in-hospital PTC (In-Hp PTC), who make their hospital staff aware of organ donation and support organ procurement. Although the Act was revised in 2010 with brain-dead organ donation increased from 13 to 44 cases yearly, the number was still extremely smaller than other developed countries. In these circumstances, In-Hp PTC may play greater roles to increase donation and smooth procurement procedures Our primary aim was to describe the current status of In-Hp PTC in Japan. Between December 15, 2011, and January 31, 2012, we invited 1889 In-Hp PTC to complete a letter survey using a self-designed questionnaire. In all, 56 In-Hp PTC (40%) completed and returned it. The occupation of the respondents was nurse (66%), physician (18%), or other (16%). Although 52% of respondents belonged to the hospital, which was designated for brain-death organ donation by the government, only 46% had any experience with a cadaveric donor. Only 2% were full-time In-Hp PTC. They mainly played a role in preparing their own manual for organ procurement (57%), providing in-hospital lectures (44%) or their own simulation exercise (29%), as well as coordinating donation cases. Although 77% had attended seminar about organ donation provided by JOT or the prefecture PTC

  9. The present state of nuclear medicine practice in Japan. A report of the 7th nationwide survey in 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwahara, Yasuo; Kinuya, Seigo; Inoue, Kentaro

    2013-01-01

    The Subcommittee on Survey of Nuclear Medicine Practice in Japan has performed a nationwide questionnaire surveys every five years since 1982. The latest questionnaire survey was performed in June 2012. The estimated total number of the annual examinations was 1.15 millions, 19% less than that of the last survey in 2007. The scintigraphic examination most frequently performed was bone scintigraphy, followed by myocardial and brain perfusion scintigraphy in order. The number of positron emission tomography (PET) studies and radionuclide targeted therapies increased by 40% and 62%, respectively, as compared to the 2007's survey. The increase was attributable to growing uses of commercially delivered fluorodexyglucose (FDG), and the newly started radionuclide targeted therapy for patients with metastatic bone tumor or malignant lymphoma, in addition to 131 I therapy for patients with thyroid cancer or Graves' disease. The number of in vitro radioassays has been decreasing continuously since 1992. (author)

  10. A survey on selection, use, maintenance, and management of chemical protective gloves at workplaces in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabe, Isamu; Tsuruoka, Hiroko; Kochi, Takeshi; Koga, Yasuo; Eguchi, Masafumi; Matsui, Tomomi; Ito, Rie; Tokujitani, Yoko; Miyauchi, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Shigeru

    2017-10-05

    The aim of this study was to survey the selection, use, and maintenance of chemical protective gloves (CPGs) at real workplaces. Subjects comprised 817 workers using CPGs at seven domestic manufacturing plants in Japan. We administered an anonymous questionnaire survey comprising the following aspect related to CPGs: environment of use, conditions of use, method of selection, knowledge/awareness pertaining to their use, method of use, precautionary measures associated with their use, maximum time of use, and maintenance. We compared responses provided by management staff and field workers. Chi square test was used for the analysis. Respondents included 661 (80.9%) manufacturing workers, 121 (14.8%) managers or supervisors, and 35 (4.3%) others. In total, 70.5% organic solvents, 28.9% acid or/and alkali, 18.1% dust, and 10.3% carcinogenic substances were the chemical substances handled using CPGs. The reason for deciding to wear CPGs was "the use of chemical substances" for 46.5%, "notice in safety data sheet (SDS) " for 29.8%, and "management staffs' guidance" for 21.4% respondents. "The grasp of chemical substances" was 70.1% (91.1% excluding "not applicable" ). "Warning of caution on skin and eyes" was indicated by 69.5% (91.0%) and "educational reasons for use of CPGs" was accepted by 68.1% (90.7%) respondents. On the other hand, the rate of responses such as "obtaining permeability test results of target substances" and "mixed substances are selected considering substances with short permeation time" was 25.2% (38.4%) and 29.2% (48.4%), respectively. The rate of "yes" as a response in the item concerning "permeation test" was low. On comparing the response provided by the management staff and field workers, the rate of "the permeation test result of the target substance was obtained" was 27.7% for management staff and 41.2% for field workers (p = 0.022). Regarding the cuffs of CPGs, the rate of "to fold back and to prevent sagging" and "mounted with tape" were

  11. Survey of awareness and analyses of related factors to volunteer activities of pharmacy students after the Great East Japan Earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    小武家, 優子; 吉田, 健; 吉武, 毅人

    2012-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011. At the time of the earthquake, pharmacist and pharmacy students engaged in volunteer activities such as providing disaster medicine and relief supplies to disaster areas. Questionnaire survey for pharmacy students were carried out in order to clarify awareness to volunteer activities for disaster areas and to use data as a basis of Service-Learning in the 6 years pharmacy education. We divided subjects into pharmacy students those wo...

  12. Promoting institutional and organisational development in surveying and land administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Greenway, Iain

    2006-01-01

    development, and outlines some of the key tools and techniques to be used in the institutional reform process. This process will normally include four steps: Where are we now (assessment of the current situation and needs); Where do we want to be (design of vision and mission); How do we get there (strategies...

  13. Impact of mental disorders on work performance in a community sample of workers in Japan: the World Mental Health Japan Survey 2002-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Masao; Kawakami, Norito; Ono, Yutaka; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Fukao, Akira; Tachimori, Hisateru; Iwata, Noboru; Uda, Hidenori; Nakane, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Makoto; Oorui, Masashi; Naganuma, Yoichi; Furukawa, Toshiaki A; Kobayashi, Masayo; Ahiko, Tadayuki; Takeshima, Tadashi; Kikkawa, Takehiko

    2012-06-30

    Most studies that investigate the impact of mental disorders on work performance have been conducted in Western countries, but this study examines the impact of common mental disorders on sick leave and on-the-job work performance in a community sample of Japanese workers. Data from the World Mental Health Japan survey were analyzed. A subsample of 530 workers aged 20-60years were interviewed using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0. The WHO Health and Work Performance Questionnaire, was used to assess sick days and on-the-job work performance for the previous 30days. Linear regression was used to estimate the impact of mental disorders on these indicators of work performance over 12months. Mood disorders, including major depressive disorder, and alcohol abuse/dependence were significantly associated with decreased on-the-job performance. There were no significant associations between mental disorders and sick/absent days. Consistent with previous studies, major depression has a great impact on on-the-job work performance in Japan. The lost productivity was estimated at approximately 28-30 lost days per year. A similar decrease in on-the-job work performance was found for alcohol abuse/dependence, which is stronger than that in other countries, probably attributable to greater tolerance of problematic drinking at Japanese worksites. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Researches carried out by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute in the field of environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavakami, Yu.

    2000-01-01

    The results of works, accomplished by the Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute, related to evaluation of the nuclear facilities effect on the environmental medium, are considered. The analytical results of studies on the environmental radioactivity with an account of meteorological aspects, evaluation of the nuclear facilities impact on the environmental medium are presented. Studies on the radionuclide behavior in the environmental medium cover large range of problems: distribution of natural and artificial radionuclides in the surface medium and their migration; evaluation of the human radiation doses on the account of radionuclides; environmental medium protection and risk evaluation. The method for measuring the 90 Sr concentrations with application of ion-exchange tars and a simple method for determining the radon activity with application of liquid scintillators were developed in the process of the study on creation of the environmental medium monitoring. The studies, related to the content and behavior of tritium, Pu, 137 Cs, 247 Am, as well as mercury and other heavy metals in the environmental medium were carried out. The methods for evaluating the NPPs radiation effect on the population with an account of the radioactive substances releases both by normal operation and in the emergency situations, were developed. Attention is also paid to research programs and developed codes [ru

  15. Long working hours and pregnancy complications: women physicians survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Masumi; Rahman, Mahbubur; Ishiguro, Aya; Nomura, Kyoko

    2014-07-23

    Previous studies have investigated the impact of occupational risk factors on health outcomes among physicians. However, few studies have investigated the effects on pregnancy outcomes among physicians. In this study, we examined the association between working hours during pregnancy and pregnancy complications among physicians. A cross-sectional study was based on a survey conducted in 2009-2011 of 1,684 alumnae (mean age, 44 ± 8 years) who had graduated from 13 private medical schools in Japan. Data on threatened abortion (TA), preterm birth (PTB), and the number of working hours during the first trimester of pregnancy were obtained via retrospective assessments. Of the 939 physicians with a first pregnancy, 15% experienced TA and 12% experienced PTB. Women who experienced TA (mean weekly working hours: 62 h vs. 50 h, P working hours during the first trimester than did those without pregnancy complications. Compared with women who worked 40 hours or less per week, women who worked 71 hours or more per week had a three-fold higher risk of experiencing TA (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.7-6.0) even after adjusting for medical specialty, maternal age, and current household income. The risk of experiencing PTB was 2.5 times higher (95% CI:1.2-5.2) in women who worked 51-70 hours and 4.2 times higher (95% CI: 1.9-9.2) in women who worked 71 hours or more even after adjusting for specialty, maternal age, and current household income. The trend in the P statistic reflecting the effect of the quartile of hours worked per week (40 hours, 41-50 hours, 51-70 hours, ≥ 71 hours) on TA or PTB was 0.0001 in the multivariate logistic regression models. These results suggest that working long hours during the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with TA and PTB.

  16. The present status of I-131 therapy for Graves' hyperthyroidism in Japan. Survey by questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikekubo, Katsuji; Kusakabe, Kiyoko; Kanaya, Shinichi; Nakada, Kunihiro; Mori, Yutaka

    2003-01-01

    A survey on the I-131 therapy of Graves' hyperthyroidism was undertaken by questionnaire in 1,246 hospitals of Japan. One thousand and ninety seven of them (88.0%) responded to the questionnaire. In this paper, we report the results and analysis of the replies to the questionnaire. In the 121 hospitals (11.03%) of the respondents, I-131 therapy is being performed for Graves' hyperthyroidism. A gradual increase was observed in the annual number of I-131 treated Graves' disease patients during the period of 1998-2001, from 1,740 to 2,484. I-131 treatment was selected mainly for the cases with side effects from antithyroid drug (ATD) therapy, followed by the cases with complication of heart or hepatic diseases, recurrences of hyperthyroidism after surgery, radioiodine treatment, and long-term ATD treatment. The 41% of respondents used I-131 in order to restore euthyroidism, 34% aimed for hyperthyroidism and 41% used the dose properly between the two according to the patients. Administration dosage of I-131 was estimated mainly on the basis of thyroid uptake and volume in 93% of the respondents and 48% calculated the radiation dose by also determining the effective half-life in the thyroid gland. Thyroid size was estimated by scintigram (51%), ultrasonography (US) (33%), CT (22%) and palpation (12%). ATD treatment was used before I-131 administration by 70% of the respondents and 34% after radioiodine therapy. A low-iodine diet was given to the patients for a week (46%) or two weeks (47%) before I-131 administration. However, after treatment only 46% of the respondents continued low-iodine diet for a week. (author)

  17. The gender division of labor and second births: Labor market institutions and fertility in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuko Nagase

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research has examined how the gendered household division of labor may deter the transition to second birth. However, little research has investigated how workplace norms influence men's household work. Objective: This paper takes into account labor market structure, workplace norms, and the legal environment governing working conditions to contextualize men's contribution to household labor and its effect on transition to second birth. Methods: Using data from the Japanese Longitudinal Survey of Adults in the 21st Century (2002 Cohort, we employ fixed-effects models to estimate the effect of workplace norms on men's contribution to household work and the effect of men's household work hours on transition to second birth. Results: Japanese male university graduates in large firms do a smaller share of household labor than other men. These men are subject to workplace norms prevalent in firm-internal labor markets, which have been supported by Japanese Supreme Court rulings. These norms influence men's allocation of time between the workplace and the home. Moreover, analysis of the transition to second birth indicates that husband's share of household work is an important predictor of second birth, especially for dual-earner couples. Conclusions: Our empirical results suggest that unless changes are made in Japanese employment law and workplace norms, dual-earner couples in particular will continue to face difficulties proceeding to a second birth. Contribution: This paper demonstrates how the economic and cultural context can create disincentives for men to contribute to household labor, which in turn lowers the probability of transition to second birth.

  18. Results of primary central nervous system lymphoma treated by radiation and chemotherapy. Retrospective analysis of twelve institutions in the Tokai district of Japan, 1995-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Toshiki; Ishiguchi, Tsuneo; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed the therapeutic results and prognostic factors of 46 primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) patients who were treated at twelve institutions in the Tokai district of Japan between 1995 and 1999. We compared the results with those of a Japanese nationwide survey performed in the past. We sent each institution a questionnaire about the state of patients' disease, pathological type, method and doses of radiotherapy, regimen and intensity of chemotherapy, and patients' prognoses. The range of patients' ages was 33 to 93 years (median, 61 years). Thirty-one were men and 15 were women. The most prevalent histology was diffuse large B cell type (33 patients). We used the Kaplan-Meier method to calculate the survival rate and Cox's proportional hazards model to analyze the prognostic factors. The five-year cumulative survival rate was 25%, and the median survival time was 22.7 months. The five-year disease-free survival rate was 23%. In monovariate analysis, patients who were both younger than 60 years old and had a World Health Organization (WHO) performance status (PS) score equal to or less than 2 showed a better survival rate. Furthermore, the patients receiving systemic chemotherapy showed a significantly better local control rate. In addition, patients who received systemic chemotherapy achieved a higher complete remission rate than those not receiving it. However, no factors that significantly influenced survival rate were identified in multivariate analysis. We demonstrated that the therapeutic outcome of PCNSL patients has recently improved. In particular, patients with good PS showed better local control than those with poor PS. However, we could not identify any significant prognostic factors in PCNSL patients. (author)

  19. Postpartum tubal ligation: A retrospective review of anesthetic management at a single institution and a practice survey of academic institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Christine; Akdagli, Seden; Abir, Gillian; Carvalho, Brendan

    2017-12-01

    The primary aim was to evaluate institutional anesthetic techniques utilized for postpartum tubal ligation (PPTL). Secondarily, academic institutions were surveyed on their clinical practice for PPTL. An institutional-specific retrospective review of patients with ICD-9 procedure codes for PPTL over a 2-year period was conducted. Obstetric anesthesia fellowship directors were surveyed on anesthetic management of PPTL. Labor and delivery unit. Internet survey. 202 PPTL procedures were reviewed. 47 institutions were surveyed; 26 responses were received. Timing of PPTL, anesthetic management, postoperative pain and length of stay. There was an epidural catheter reactivation failure rate of 26% (18/69 epidural catheter reactivation attempts). Time from epidural catheter insertion to PPTL was a significant factor associated with failure: median [IQR; range] time for successful versus failed epidural catheter reactivation was 17h [10-25; 3-55] and 28h [14-33; 5-42], respectively (P=0.028). Epidural catheter reactivation failure led to significantly longer times to provide surgical anesthesia than successful epidural catheter reactivation or primary spinal technique: median [IQR] 41min [33-54] versus 15min [12-21] and 19min [15-24], respectively (P8h and >24h post-delivery, respectively. Epidural catheter reactivation failure increases with longer intervals between catheter placement and PPTL. Failed epidural catheter reactivation increases anesthetic and operating room times. Our results and the significant variability in practice from our survey suggest recommendations on the timing and anesthetic management are needed to reduce unfulfilled PPTL procedures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Institutional reforms of nuclear emergency preparedness in Japan and its challenges. Case studies on stakeholder involvement in establishing nuclear emergency preparedness in France and its implications for Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, Shin-etsu

    2013-01-01

    Based upon the experiences with the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Japan is now making a comprehensive review of nuclear emergency preparedness. The Nuclear Regulation Authority of Japan has changed drastically its basic concept of nuclear emergency arrangements from their dependence on the prediction methods to advance planning-oriented arrangements. In order to implement such changes in an effective enough manner, this report examines how to improve stakeholder involvement focusing on the French cases, where the Local Information Commissions (CLI) plays a critical role, and thereby derives concrete lessons for Japan. Case studies on CLI's involvement in French nuclear emergency preparedness revealed the following implications for Japan; 1. Improving continuously the disaster prevention plans of local governments and of nuclear utilities thorough recursive cycles of disaster-preparedness drill and its evaluation for the benefits of local inhabitants, 2. Setting appropriate ranges wherein local stakeholders involve constantly in establishing nuclear emergency preparedness without alienating completely other stakeholders, 3. Utilizing the prediction systems not as a means to support decision-making in emergency situations but as a tool for facilitating stakeholder involvement in the phase of advance planning, and 4. Integrating nuclear emergency preparedness into other disaster preventions for reducing complex and unrecognized risks. (author)

  1. Survey of the development of industrial technology in Japan; Sangyo gijutsu rekishi keisho chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Conditions for creating Japan`s type technologies have been investigated by extracting technologies and experiences meriting the succession to the next generation among the industrial technologies in Japan after World War II. Technological creativity of Japan began to appear from the 1970`s. Quartz watch of SEIKO, U-Matic VTR of SONY, ladle refinery method of DAIDO Steel, PAN-based carbon fiber of TORAY, continuous annealing of Nippon Steel, calculating machine using liquid crystal of SHARP, ASA-400 high sensitivity film of FUJI FILM, and Japanese word-processor of TOSHIBA are the examples. The basic ability to create those products and technology lays in the diversity of firms in electronic device and fine machinery industries consisting the boundary between general and electrical machinery, the systematizing ability and inter-industrial cooperation which were promoted through quality control, automatization of assembly and production control by computer, and the research and development capability which has been brought up during the high economic growth as a learning process of technology. The society and industries have to make efforts to create the new creative conditions for younger generations. Otherwise, Japan`s technology will not develop. 134 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. System design of a proton linac for the neutron science project at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Kazuo; Mizumoto, Motoharu; Ouchi, Nobuo; Honda, Yoichiro; Ino, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has been proposing the Neutron Science Project (NSP). The NSP requires pulse and CW proton beams with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average beam power up to 8MW. This paper describes design concepts and parameters of the linac. A front end part of the linac, which consists of RFQ, DTL and SDTL sections, uses normal conducting structures and a high energy part uses superconducting (SC) structures. The linac has two injector lines for the pulse and the CW modes, respectively, and the two lines merge at 7 MeV. The total linac length is approximately 900 m and most of the part (>75%) is the superconducting section. An equipartitioning design, which is a new idea to suppress an emittance growth for high power linacs, has been taken for the DTL, the SDTL and the SC sections. Compared with the conventional constant phase advance design scheme, the equipartitioning design scheme is proved to be a good approach to suppress the longitudinal emittance growth. (author)

  3. Japan: The institute for the economy of energy recommends a quick re-start of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese Institute for the Economy of the Energy (IEEJ) considers that the sooner the nuclear reactors will re-start, the better the Japanese economy and environment will be. The 48 Japanese reactors were stopped after the Fukushima accident and their restart is linked to the implementation of new measures for reinforcing safety. Until now only 2 reactors Sendai 1 and Sendai 2 have been allowed to re-start. The procedure for the safety assessment of the reactors is slower than expected. A study shows that only 7 reactors may be allowed to re-start before march 2015 and a total of 19 units may be operating in march 2016. In this scenario 2% of the electricity will come from nuclear energy in 2014 and 15% in 2015, natural gas imports will still be necessary for the production of electricity and their global cost is estimated to reach 56 billions euros while Japan's rate of energy independence will drop by 4.6%. (A.C.)

  4. Report of results of joint research using facilities in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute in fiscal year 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    The total themes of the joint research in fiscal year 1987 were 127. These are shown being classified into the general joint research in Tokai and Takasaki, neutron diffraction research and cooperative research. The general joint research is the standard utilization form using research reactors JRR-2 and JRR-4, Co-60 gamma irradiation facilities in Tokai and Takasaki, an electron beam irradiation facility in Takasaki, an electron beam linear accelator and hot laboratories, which are opened for common utilization by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The cooperative research is carried out by concluding research cooperation contracts between the researchers of universities and JAERI. In the general joint research, radioactivation analysis, radiation chemistry, irradiation effect, neutron diffraction and so on are the main themes, and in the cooperative research, reactor technology, reactor materials, nuclear physics measurement and others are the main themes. The total number of visitors was 2629 man-day, and decreased due to the stop of JRR-2. Also other activities are reported. The abstracts of respective reports are collected in this book. (Kako, I.)

  5. A survey of palliative medicine education in Japan's undergraduate medical curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoichi; Takamiya, Yusuke; Saito, Mari; Kuroko, Koichi; Shiratsuchi, Tatsuko; Oshima, Kenzaburo; Ito, Yuko; Miyake, Satoshi

    2017-06-07

    This study aimed to examine the status of undergraduate palliative care education among Japanese medical students using data from a survey conducted in 2015. A questionnaire was originally developed, and the survey forms were sent to universities. The study's objectives, methods, disclosure of results, and anonymity were explained to participating universities in writing. Responses returned by the universities were considered to indicate consent to participate. Descriptive statistical methodology was employed. The response rate was 82.5% (66 of 80 medical faculties and colleges). Palliative care lectures were implemented in 98.5% of the institutions. Regarding lecture titles, "palliative medicine," "palliative care," and "terminal care" accounted for 42.4, 30.3, and 9.1% of the lectures, respectively. Teachers from the Department of Anesthesia, Palliative Care, and Psychiatry administered 51.5, 47.0, and 28.8% of lectures, respectively. Subjects of lectures included general palliative care (81.8%), pain management (87.9%), and symptom management (63.6%). Clinical clerkship on palliative care was a compulsory and non-compulsory course in 43.9 and 25.8% of the schools, respectively; 30.3% had no clinical clerkship curriculum. Undergraduate palliative care education is implemented in many Japanese universities. Clinical clerkship combined with participation in actual medical practice should be further improved by establishing a medical education certification system in compliance with the international standards.

  6. The patterns of care study for breast-conserving therapy in Japan: Analysis of process survey from 1995 to 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsumori, Michihide; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Negoro, Yoshiharu; Yamauchi, Chikako; Shikama, Naoto; Sasaki, Shigeru; Yamamoto, Tokihiro; Teshima, Teruki; Inoue, Toshihiko

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To present the results of a process survey on breast-conserving therapy (BCT) in Japan from 1995 to 1997. Methods and Materials: From September 1998 to December 1999, data on the treatment process of 865 randomly selected BCT patients were collected by extramural audits. Results: For primary surgery, wide excision or tumorectomy was performed in 372 patients (43.0%), and quadrantectomy or segmental mastectomy was performed in 493 patients (57%). The extent of axillary dissection was equal or beyond Level II in 590 patients (68.2%). Systemic chemotherapy was administered to 103 of 160 node-positive patients (64.4%) and 180 of 569 node-negative patients (31.6%). Tamoxifen was administered to 234 of 323 hormone receptor-positive patients (72.5%) and 68 of 130 hormone receptor-negative patients (52.3%). Photon energy of 10 MV was administered for whole breast irradiation in 38 patients (4.4%) without bolus. Conclusions: The extent of surgical resection for BCT was large in Japan. Pathologic assessment and the technique of radiation therapy were apparently suboptimal in some cases. Information on prognostic/predictive factors was not fully utilized to individualize systemic adjuvant therapy. Establishment and widespread use of guidelines for BCT for in Japan are desirable. Repeated surveys will demonstrate how such guidelines affect clinical practices

  7. National survey of international electives for global health in undergraduate medical education in Japan, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tomio; Nishigori, Hiroshi

    2018-02-01

    Interest in global health in medical education is increasing in Western countries, whereas data from non-Western countries is scarce. Here, we conducted a nationwide study of international clinical electives at Japanese medical schools from 2011 to 2013. We constructed a 28-item cross-sectional survey in Japanese to investigate the rate and characteristics of both Japanese students going abroad and international students coming on exchange to Japan. The surveys were sent to the administrative offices of all 80 Japanese medical schools in each of the three years, through the Japan Medical Education Foundation. All 80 medical schools responded to the questionnaire (response rate, 100%). An average of 70 of the 80 medical universities provided exchange programs across the three years to allow students to travel abroad as part of the school curriculum and obtain academic credit. The schools provided support in the form of in- and outside-class preparatory programs, tuition fee exemptions and housing. The most popular destinations for Japanese students going abroad were Europe and North America, which may reflect the desire of Japanese students to acquire medical knowledge or experience through exposure to the English language. In contrast, the most common countries of origin of international exchange students coming to Japan were Asian countries such as South Korea, Thailand and Taiwan, with pediatrics being the most popular elective. Foreign exchange programs are becoming increasingly incorporated into the Japanese medical education curriculum and can help to strengthen international partnerships and collaborations.

  8. National survey of international electives for global health in undergraduate medical education in Japan, 2011–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tomio; Nishigori, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Interest in global health in medical education is increasing in Western countries, whereas data from non-Western countries is scarce. Here, we conducted a nationwide study of international clinical electives at Japanese medical schools from 2011 to 2013. We constructed a 28-item cross-sectional survey in Japanese to investigate the rate and characteristics of both Japanese students going abroad and international students coming on exchange to Japan. The surveys were sent to the administrative offices of all 80 Japanese medical schools in each of the three years, through the Japan Medical Education Foundation. All 80 medical schools responded to the questionnaire (response rate, 100%). An average of 70 of the 80 medical universities provided exchange programs across the three years to allow students to travel abroad as part of the school curriculum and obtain academic credit. The schools provided support in the form of in- and outside-class preparatory programs, tuition fee exemptions and housing. The most popular destinations for Japanese students going abroad were Europe and North America, which may reflect the desire of Japanese students to acquire medical knowledge or experience through exposure to the English language. In contrast, the most common countries of origin of international exchange students coming to Japan were Asian countries such as South Korea, Thailand and Taiwan, with pediatrics being the most popular elective. Foreign exchange programs are becoming increasingly incorporated into the Japanese medical education curriculum and can help to strengthen international partnerships and collaborations. PMID:29581617

  9. Science, institutional archives and open access: an overview and a pilot survey on the Italian cancer research institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltronieri, Elisabetta; Truccolo, Ivana; Di Benedetto, Corrado; Castelli, Mauro; Mazzocut, Mauro; Cognetti, Gaetana

    2010-12-20

    The Open Archive Initiative (OAI) refers to a movement started around the '90 s to guarantee free access to scientific information by removing the barriers to research results, especially those related to the ever increasing journal subscription prices. This new paradigm has reshaped the scholarly communication system and is closely connected to the build up of institutional repositories (IRs) conceived to the benefit of scientists and research bodies as a means to keep possession of their own literary production. The IRs are high-value tools which permit authors to gain visibility by enabling rapid access to scientific material (not only publications) thus increasing impact (citation rate) and permitting a multidimensional assessment of research findings. A survey was conducted in March 2010 to mainly explore the managing system in use for archiving the research finding adopted by the Italian Scientific Institutes for Research, Hospitalization and Health Care (IRCCS) of the oncology area within the Italian National Health Service (Servizio Sanitario Nazionale, SSN). They were asked to respond to a questionnaire intended to collect data about institutional archives, metadata formats and posting of full-text documents. The enquiry concerned also the perceived role of the institutional repository DSpace ISS, built up by the Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS) and based on a XML scheme for encoding metadata. Such a repository aims at acting as a unique reference point for the biomedical information produced by the Italian research institutions. An in-depth analysis has also been performed on the collection of information material addressed to patients produced by the institutions surveyed. The survey respondents were 6 out of 9. The results reveal the use of different practices and standard among the institutions concerning: the type of documentation collected, the software adopted, the use and format of metadata and the conditions of accessibility to the IRs. The

  10. Current status of collaborative relationships between dialysis facilities and dental facilities in Japan: results of a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Masami; Shirayama, Yasuhiko; Imoto, Issei; Hinode, Daisuke; Yanagisawa, Shizuko; Takeuchi, Yuko

    2015-02-12

    Recent studies have reported an association between periodontal disease and mortality among dialysis patients. Therefore, preventive dental care should be considered very important for this population. In Japan, no systematic education has been undertaken regarding the importance of preventive dental care for hemodialysis patients--even though these individuals tend to have oral and dental problems. The aim of this study was to investigate the current state of collaborative relationships between hemodialysis facilities and dental services in Japan and also to identify strategies to encourage preventive dental visits among hemodialysis outpatients. A nationwide questionnaire on the collaborative relationship between dialysis facilities and dental facilities was sent by mail to all medical facilities in Japan offering outpatient hemodialysis treatment. Responses were obtained from 1414 of 4014 facilities (35.2%). Among the 1414 facilities, 272 (19.2%) had a dental service department. Approximately 100,000 dialysis outpatients were receiving treatment at these participating facilities, which amounts to one-third of all dialysis patients in Japan. Of those patients, 82.9% received hemodialysis at medical facilities without dental departments. Only 87 of 454 small clinics without in-house dental departments (19.2%) had collaborative registered dental clinics. Medical facilities with registered dental clinics demonstrated a significantly more proactive attitude to routine collaboration on dental matters than facilities lacking such clinics. Our nationwide survey revealed that most dialysis facilities in Japan have neither an in-house dental department nor a collaborative relationship with a registered dental clinic. Registration of dental clinics appears to promote collaboration with dental facilities on a routine basis, which would be beneficial for oral health management in hemodialysis patients.

  11. Market-oriented institutions and policies and economic growth : A critical survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, J; Lundstrom, S; Sturm, JE

    This paper surveys recent evidence suggesting that market-oriented institutions and policies are strongly related to economic growth, focusing on studies using the economic freedom (EF) indicator of the Fraser Institute. This index is critically discussed. Also various serious shortcomings of

  12. Preparing for Success: One Institution's Aspirational and Student Focused Response to the National Student Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Abbi; Oxley, Anne; Helm, Paul; Bradley, Sally

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes quality enhancement (QE) focused response to the 2006 National Student Survey (NSS) by a post-1992 Higher Education Institution. Recognising the increasing importance of the NSS to a wide range of stakeholders, the University established a task team to explore, from a QE perspective, why the institution received particular…

  13. Nation-wide anthropometric survey data in Japan to determine dimensions of total-body phantom for Reference Japanese Man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togo, Masami

    1990-01-01

    In order to estimate radiation dose in Japanese population accurately, a Reference Japanese Man, whose stature and body weight are 170cm and 60kg respectively, is indispensable. The MIRD 5 total-body phantom has only 8 dimensions, i.e. total head height, head length, head breadth, trunk length, trunk breadth, leg length, and breadth and depth of a leg model at its lower end. Based on Japanese anthropometric data, the dimensions were determined and its mathematical descriptions were given. In Japan, annual statistical data of stature, body weight, chest circumference and sitting height for all Japan by sex and age are published. But other nation-wide survey data necessary for determining dimensions of total-body phantom of Reference Japanese Man, are unavailable. Much more national anthropometric data of every kind necessary for defining phantoms must be compiled. (author)

  14. Pregnancy and birth survey after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Fukushima prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Keiya; Kyozuka, Hyo; Yasuda, Shun; Goto, Aya; Yasumura, Seiji; Ota, Misao; Ohtsuru, Akira; Nomura, Yasuhisa; Hata, Kenichi; Suzuki, Kouta; Nakai, Akihito; Sato, Mieko; Matsui, Shiro; Nakano, Kyoko; Abe, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    On 11 March 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake followed by a powerful tsunami hit the Pacific Coast of Northeast Japan and damaged Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, causing a radiation hazard in Fukushima Prefecture. The objective of this report is to describe some results of a questionnaire-based pregnancy and birth survey conducted by the Radiation Medical Science Center for the Fukushima Health Management Survey. Questionnaires were sent to women who received maternal and child health handbooks from municipal officers in Fukushima Prefecture between 1 August 2010 and 31 July 2011, with the aim of reaching those who were pregnant at the time of the disaster. Mailing began 18 January 2012. Data were analyzed separately for six geographic areas in Fukushima Prefecture. The total number of women meeting survey criteria was 15,972. The number of responses received to date is 9,298 (58.2%). Data from 8602 respondents were analyzed after excluding 634 invalid responses and 5 induced and 57 spontaneous abortions (less than 22 gestational weeks). The incidences of stillbirth (over 22 completed gestational weeks), preterm birth, low birth weight and congenital anomalies were 0.25%, 4.4%, 8.7% and 2.72%, respectively. These incidences are similar to recent averages elsewhere in Japan. Considering the pregnancy and birth survey data in aggregate, our disaster seemed to provoke no significant adverse outcomes over the whole of Fukushima prefecture. But post-disaster prenatal care and support intended for patients' safety and security should be coupled with ongoing surveillance and rigorous data analysis.

  15. Increased financial burden among patients with chronic myelogenous leukaemia receiving imatinib in Japan: a retrospective survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodama Yuko

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The financial burden of medical expenses has been increasing for cancer patients. We investigated the relationship between household income and financial burden among patients with chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML who have been treated with imatinib. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to 1200 patients between May and August 2009. We retrospectively surveyed their household incomes, out-of-pocket medical expenses, final co-payments after refunds, and the perceived financial burden of their medical expenses in 2000, 2005 and 2008. Results A total of 577 patients completed the questionnaire. Their median age was 61 years (range, 15–94. A financial burden was felt by 41.2 % (28 of 68 of the patients treated with imatinib in 2000, 70.8 % (201 of 284 in 2005, and 75.8 % (400 of 528 in 2008. Overall, 182 patients (31.7 % considered its discontinuation because of the financial burden and 15 (2.6 % temporarily stopped their imatinib prescription. In 2000, 2005 and 2008, the patients’ median annual household incomes were 49,615 US Dollars (USD, 38,510 USD and 36,731 USD, respectively, with an average currency exchange rate of 104 Yen/USD in 2008. Their median annual out-of-pocket expenses were 11,548, 12,067 and 11,538 USD and their median final annual co-payments were 4,375, 4,327 and 3,558 USD, respectively. Older patients (OR = 0.96, 95 % CI: 0.95–0.98, p ≪ 0.0001 for 1-year increments, and patients with higher household incomes (OR = 0.92, 95 % CI: 0.85–0.99, p = 0.03 for 10,000 USD-increments were less likely to have considered discontinuing their imatinib treatment. Conversely, patients with higher annual final co-payments (OR = 2.21, 95 % CI: 1.28–4.28, p = 0.004 for 10,000 USD-increments were more likely to have considered discontinuing their imatinib treatment. Conclusions The proportion of CML patients who sensed a financial burden increased between 2000 and 2008

  16. Statistical Survey of Deaths from Non melanoma Skin Cancer in Japan during 54 Years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsuka, H.

    2011-01-01

    The author analyzed the annual trends in the number of deaths from non melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) from 1955 to 2008 in Japan on the basis of the data from the Vital Statistics of Japan. The general trends in the number of deaths from NMSC were downward between 1979 to 1994, but upward after 1995. The general trends in age-standardized death rates were roughly downward, although the death rates plateaued after 1995. The recent annual increased ratio of deaths from NMSC was 3.8% (95% confidence interval: 2.7∼4.9%). The number and proportion of deaths from NMSC among the elderly were increasing in Japan. For females, more than 50% of the deaths occurred recently at or after 85 years of age, whereas, for males, this proportion was at or after 75 years of age, nearly reaching at or after 80 years of age.

  17. Twelve-month use of herbal medicines as a remedy for mental health problems in Japan: A cross-national analysis of World Mental Health Survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Mai; Iwanaga, Hiroo; Kawakami, Norito

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the frequencies and sociodemographic and other characteristics around use of herbal medicine as a remedy for mental health problems in Japan. Data from the World Mental Health Japan (WMHJ) Survey and US National Comorbidity Survey Replications were analyzed. The WMHJ was conducted in 2002 to 2006, with 4129 respondents. National Comorbidity Survey Replications was conducted in 2002 to 2003, with 9282 respondents. The interview asked the respondents about their use of several types of herbs for mental health problems. Frequencies of use of herbal medicine were compared between Japan and the United States. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine sociodemographic and mental health-related correlates of 12-month herbal medicine use. Relevant sampling weights were used to adjust for the sampling designs. The proportion for use of herbal medicines as a remedy for mental health problems in the past 12 months was lower (0.4%) in Japan than that in the United States (3.7%). Low education in both countries (P herbal medicine. Any anxiety disorder in Japan was significantly associated with herbal medicine use (P herbal medicine among patients with mental health problems in the past 12 months was much lower in Japan compared to the United States. Persons with high educational attainment and anxiety disorders used herbal medicine as a remedy for mental health problems more frequently in Japan. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. The evaluation of data from the MACRO tracer experiment. The report for Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watari, Shingo

    1999-12-01

    On understanding the radionuclide transport in Natural Barrier in radioactive waste isolation research, the macroscopic dispersion in heterogeneous permeability field in the underground rock is regarded as an important process. Therefore, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) developed the MACRO experiment with an artificial heterogeneous permeability field and has been conducted lots of tracer experiments. To estimate the effect of characteristics of field on the macroscopic dispersion using data from those tracer experiments, the evaluation of dispersion coefficient is required. In this report, the macroscopic dispersion coefficients were evaluated for the results of the tracer experiments using the MACRO facility with a single well. The coefficients for the experiments of 18 cases were evaluated by the fitting of analytical solution to the breakthrough curve measured in the well. In the evaluations, the correction of data measured in the experiments and of the accuracy in the evaluation were considered. The conclusions are as follows. The macroscopic dispersion coefficients for 18 cases were evaluated using Least Square Method by fitting the analytical evaluation to the result of experiment. Consequently, the coefficients for 7 cases were evaluated with not enough accurate fitting results. Therefore, another evaluations for those 7 cases were required to be with more accuracy. Then, those coefficients were evaluated with enough accuracy. It was verified that the macroscopic dispersion coefficient tend to be increased with increase of the average radius of tracer front. In some cases, however, the trend was not verified because of the limit of accuracy for data measured in the experiment and for the evaluation method of the coefficient. It was found that the macroscopic dispersion coefficients evaluated for the cases with heterogeneous permeability field type B tend to be higher than those with heterogeneous permeability field type A. (author)

  19. The current status of treatment for oropharyngeal cancer in Japan. A multi-institutional retrospective observation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, Akihiro; Hayashi, Ryuichi; Kawabata, Kazuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the current status of the treatment for oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) in Japan to assist the planning of clinical trials in the future. The data for 523 patients with previously untreated OPC were obtained from 12 institutions from April 2005 to N/larch 2007. Of the 523 patients, 471 patients with squamous cell carcinoma and with curative intent were included in an analysis of the treatment and its results. Of the 471 patients with OPC treated with curative intent, 186 patients (39.5%) were treated with surgery, 118 (25.1%) with radiotherapy (RT) alone and 167 (355%) with CRT. Surgery was indicated for 60.4% of the patients with stage I, 47.8% in stage II, 29.4% in stage III, and 36.44% in stage IV. CRT was indicated for 8.3% in stage II, but the percentage increased with higher stage. The percentage of RT was around 30% among stage I-III, but in stage IV, 21.3% of the patients were indicated for RT. The median follow-up period was 4 years and 5 months. The 2-year and 5-year overall survival rates for the 471 patients were 85% and 69.9%, respectively. The 5-year overall survival rates for patients treated initially with surgery, RT and CRT were 73%, 69.1% and 65.6%, respectively. The 5-year overall survival rates for patients with stage I, II, III, IVA, and IVB were 78.9%. 87.3%, 69.7%, 66.6%, and 47.7%, respectively. Although this study was retrospective, we could understand the tendency of treatment choice according to various factors and treatment results. The information will be useful for planning clinical trials in the future. (author)

  20. A nationwide survey on the epidemiology and clinical features of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sada, Ken-Ei; Amano, Koichi; Uehara, Ritei; Yamamura, Masahiro; Arimura, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Yoshikazu; Makino, Hirofumi

    2014-07-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional nationwide survey to determine eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss) (EGPA) prevalence and clinical features in Japan. Data for EGPA patients in 2008 were collected from 1,564 hospitals. In total, 965 patients were reported from 365 departments. In a second survey, clinical data for 473 patients were obtained. We estimated that 1,866 (95% CI: 1,640-2,092) patients have EGPA in Japan (prevalence, 17.8/1,000,000). Of the 473 patients in the second survey, 315 fulfilled American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria or Lanham's criteria for EGPA. The mean age (± SD) of the 315 at onset was 55 ± 14 years, male to female ratio 1:2. 93% of patients had neurological manifestations, which were the organ system most frequently involved. Among 277 patients tested for myeloperoxidase (MPO)-/p anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA), 139 (50%) were positive, while only 6 of 238 were positive for proteinase3 (PR3)-/cANCA. MPO-ANCA-positive patients had renal involvement, mucous membrane or ophthalmological symptoms, and ENT symptoms more frequently, whereas cutaneous lesions and cardiovascular involvement were less common. The prevalence of EGPA and the frequency of MPO-/p-ANCA-positivity in Japanese EGPA patients were mostly similar to those of Western countries. However, female predominance and a high frequency of neurological manifestations characterized Japanese patients.

  1. Multiple surveys employing a new sample-processing protocol reveal the genetic diversity of placozoans in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Hideyuki; Nakano, Hiroaki

    2018-03-01

    Placozoans, flat free-living marine invertebrates, possess an extremely simple bauplan lacking neurons and muscle cells and represent one of the earliest-branching metazoan phyla. They are widely distributed from temperate to tropical oceans. Based on mitochondrial 16S rRNA sequences, 19 haplotypes forming seven distinct clades have been reported in placozoans to date. In Japan, placozoans have been found at nine locations, but 16S genotyping has been performed at only two of these locations. Here, we propose a new processing protocol, "ethanol-treated substrate sampling," for collecting placozoans from natural environments. We also report the collection of placozoans from three new locations, the islands of Shikine-jima, Chichi-jima, and Haha-jima, and we present the distribution of the 16S haplotypes of placozoans in Japan. Multiple surveys conducted at multiple locations yielded five haplotypes that were not reported previously, revealing high genetic diversity in Japan, especially at Shimoda and Shikine-jima Island. The observed geographic distribution patterns were different among haplotypes; some were widely distributed, while others were sampled only from a single location. However, samplings conducted on different dates at the same sites yielded different haplotypes, suggesting that placozoans of a given haplotype do not inhabit the same site constantly throughout the year. Continued sampling efforts conducted during all seasons at multiple locations worldwide and the development of molecular markers within the haplotypes are needed to reveal the geographic distribution pattern and dispersal history of placozoans in greater detail.

  2. [Possibilities and problems in the development of forensic nursing in Japan: a questionnaire survey of clinical nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Hiromi; Tsuntematsu, Kayoko; Yanai, Keiko

    2012-09-01

    Forensic nursing scientifically obtains and preserves the criminal damage from victims of domestic violence, child abuse, elder abuse, sexual violence and other related forms of violence. This was developed in North America in the 1980s, and has carried out appropriate nursing care while protecting the human rights of victims. Serious crime in Japan has been increasing, and it would seem that forensic nursing opportunities should expand as well. However, in Japan, there hasn't been much discussion about forensic nursing. Theorizing that support for clinical forensic nursing should be recognized and relevant, we carried out a survey of 581 clinical nurses to investigate the development of forensic nursing in Japan. 93 clinical nurses (16.0%) had a low level of familiarity with forensic nursing; however, 324 nurses (56.3%) had encountered patients who had suffered violence. 264 nurses (45.4%) had a feeling of wanting to be involved in forensic nursing, but were not confident with the knowledge and technology, while 144 nurses (24.8%) were concerned about the larger responsibility they would have. 400 nurses (68.8%) hoped to receive specialized knowledge and technical education. It is necessary to establish an education system for forensic nursing in accordance with the educational status-quo while considering the present state of forensic nursing education.

  3. Survey and analysis of radiation safety management systems at medical institutions. Second report. Radiation measurement, calibration of radiation survey meters, and periodic check of installations, equipment, and protection instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohba, Hisateru; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko; Aburano, Tamio

    2006-01-01

    We carried out a questionnaire survey to determine the actual situation of radiation safety management measures in all medical institutions in Japan that had nuclear medicine facilities. The questionnaire consisted of questions concerning the evaluation of shielding capacity; radiation measurement; periodic checks of installations, equipment, and protection instruments; and the calibration of radiation survey meters. The analysis was undertaken according to region, type of establishment, and number of beds. The overall response rate was 60 percent. For the evaluation of shielding capacity, the outsourcing rate was 53 percent of the total. For the radiation measurements of ''leakage radiation dose and radioactive contamination'' and contamination of radioactive substances in the air'', the outsourcing rates were 28 percent and 35 percent of the total, respectively (p<0.001, according to region and establishment). For the periodic check of radiation protection instruments, the implementation rate was 98 percent, and the outsourcing rate was 32 percent for radiation survey meters and 47 percent for lead aprons. The non-implemented rate for calibration of radiation survey meters was 25 percent of the total (p<0.001, according to region and establishment). The outsourcing rate for calibration of radiation survey meters accounted for 87 percent of the total, and of these medical institutions, 72 percent undertook annual calibration. The implementation rate for patient exposure measurement was 20 percent of the total (p<0.001, according to number of beds), and of these medical institutions 46 percent recorded measurement outcome. (author)

  4. A survey aimed at general citizens of the US and Japan about their attitudes toward electronic medical data handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Michio; Nakaya, Jun; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Toshiro; Nakayasu, Kazuyuki

    2014-04-25

    To clarify the views of the general population of two countries (US and Japan), concerning the handling of their medical records electronically. We contacted people nationwide in the United States at random via Random Digit Dialing (RDD) to obtain 200 eligible responders. The questionnaire was for obtaining the information on their attitudes towards handling of their medical records, disclosure of the name of disease, secondary usage of information, compiling their records into a lifelong medical record, and access to their medical records on the Internet. We had also surveyed people of Shizuoka prefecture in Japan using same questionnaires sent by mail, for which we obtained 457 valid answers. Even in an unidentifiable manner, US people feel profit-oriented usage of medical data without specific consent is not acceptable. There is a significant difference between usage of unidentifiable medical data for profit (about 50% feel negatively) and for official/research purposes (about 30% feel negatively). About 60% of the US responders have a negative view on the proposal that unidentifiable medical information be utilized for profit by private companies to attain healthcare cost savings. As regards compiling a lifelong medical record, positive answers and negative answers are almost equally divided in the US (46% vs. 38%) while more positive attitudes are seen in Japan (74% vs. 12%). However, any incentive measures aimed at changing attitudes to such a compiling including the discount of healthcare costs or insurance fees are unwelcomed by people regardless of their age or health condition in both surveys. Regarding the access to their own medical record via the Internet, 38% of the US responders feel this is unacceptable while 50.5% were willing to accept it. Participants from the US think that the extent of the sharing their identifiable medical records should be limited to the doctors-in-charge and specified doctors referred to by their own doctors. On the other

  5. A Survey Aimed at General Citizens of the US and Japan about Their Attitudes toward Electronic Medical Data Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michio Kimura

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To clarify the views of the general population of two countries (US and Japan, concerning the handling of their medical records electronically. Methods: We contacted people nationwide in the United States at random via Random Digit Dialing (RDD to obtain 200 eligible responders. The questionnaire was for obtaining the information on their attitudes towards handling of their medical records, disclosure of the name of disease, secondary usage of information, compiling their records into a lifelong medical record, and access to their medical records on the Internet. We had also surveyed people of Shizuoka prefecture in Japan using same questionnaires sent by mail, for which we obtained 457 valid answers. Results: Even in an unidentifiable manner, US people feel profit-oriented usage of medical data without specific consent is not acceptable. There is a significant difference between usage of unidentifiable medical data for profit (about 50% feel negatively and for official/research purposes (about 30% feel negatively. About 60% of the US responders have a negative view on the proposal that unidentifiable medical information be utilized for profit by private companies to attain healthcare cost savings. As regards compiling a lifelong medical record, positive answers and negative answers are almost equally divided in the US (46% vs. 38% while more positive attitudes are seen in Japan (74% vs. 12%. However, any incentive measures aimed at changing attitudes to such a compiling including the discount of healthcare costs or insurance fees are unwelcomed by people regardless of their age or health condition in both surveys. Regarding the access to their own medical record via the Internet, 38% of the US responders feel this is unacceptable while 50.5% were willing to accept it. Conclusions: Participants from the US think that the extent of the sharing their identifiable medical records should be limited to the doctors-in-charge and specified

  6. Opportunistic bilateral salpingectomy during benign gynecological surgery for ovarian cancer prevention: a survey of Gynecologic Oncology Committee of Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Mikio; Nagase, Satoru; Yamagami, Wataru; Ushijma, Kimio; Tashiro, Hironori; Katabuchi, Hidetaka

    2017-07-01

    Recent evidence has supported the concept that epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) arises from the cells of the fallopian tube or endometrium. This study investigated current practice in Japan with respect to performing opportunistic bilateral salpingectomy (OBS) during gynecological surgery for benign disease for Ovarian Cancer Prevention. We mailed a questionnaire to 767 hospitals and clinics, comprising 628 accredited training institutions of the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology (JSOG), Japan Society of Gynecologic Oncology (JSGO), or Japan Society of Gynecologic and Obstetric Endoscopy and Minimally Invasive Therapy (JSGOE) and 139 private institutions with at least one JSGOE-certified licensed gynecologic laparoscopist. Among the 767 institutions, 444 (57.9%) provided responses, including 91 (20.6%) that were both JSGOE and JSGO accredited, 71 (16.0%) that were only JSGO accredited, 88 (19.8%) that were only JSGOE accredited, and 194 (43.7%) that were unaccredited. It was found that awareness and performance of OBS largely depended on the JSGO and/or JSGOE accreditation status. OBS was only performed at 54.0% of responding institutions and just 6.8% of the institutions were willing to participate in randomized controlled trials to validate this method for reducing the incidence of ovarian cancer. The JSOG Gynecologic Tumor Committee will announce its opinion on salpingectomy for ovarian cancer prevention to all JSOG members and will develop a system for monitoring the number of OBS procedures in Japan. Copyright © 2017. Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology, Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology

  7. CT-guided needle biopsy of lung lesions: A survey of severe complication based on 9783 biopsies in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiyama, Noriyuki; Yasuhara, Yoshifumi; Nakajima, Yasuo; Adachi, Shuji; Arai, Yasuaki; Kusumoto, Masahiko; Eguchi, Kenji; Kuriyama, Keiko; Sakai, Fumikazu; Noguchi, Masayuki; Murata, Kiyoshi; Murayama, Sadayuki; Mochizuki, Teruhito; Mori, Kiyoshi; Yamada, Kozo

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of our study was to update the rate of severe complications following CT-guided needle biopsy in Japan via a mailed survey. Materials and methods: Postal questionnaires regarding CT-guided needle biopsy were sent out to multiple hospitals in Japan. The questions regarded: the total number and duration of CT-guided lung biopsies performed at each hospital, and the complication rates and numbers of pneumothorax, hemothorax, air embolism, tumor seeding, tension pneumothorax and other rare complications. Each severe complication was followed with additional questions. Results: Data from 9783 biopsies was collected from 124 centers. Pneumothorax was the most common complication, and occurred in 2412 (35%) of 6881 cases. A total of 39 (35%) hospitals reported 74 (0.75%) cases with severe complications. There were six cases (0.061%) with air embolism, six cases (0.061%) with tumor seeding at the site of the biopsy route, 10 cases (0.10%) with tension pneumothorax, six cases (0.061%) with severe pulmonary hemorrhage or hemoptysis, nine cases (0.092%) with hemothorax, and 27 cases (0.26%) with others, including heart arrest, shock, and respiratory arrest. From a total of 62 patients with severe complications, 54 patients (0.55%) recovered without sequela, however one patient (0.01%) recovered with hemiplegia due to cerebral infarction, and the remaining seven patients (0.07%) died. Conclusions: This is the first national study documenting severe complications with respect to CT-guided needle biopsy in Japan. The complication rate in Japan is comparable to internationally published figures. We believe this data will improve both clinicians as well as patients understanding of the risk versus benefit of CT-guided needle biopsy, resulting better decisions

  8. Treatment for Osteoporosis among Women in Japan: Associations with Patient Characteristics and Patient-Reported Outcomes in the 2008–2011 Japan National Health and Wellness Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayo Sato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to identify characteristics associated with treatment for osteoporosis among women aged 50 years and older in Japan and to explore differences among patients according to treatment regimen. Data were provided by a large annual survey representative of Japanese aged 18 and older; all measures were by self-report. Women aged 50 and older who reported diagnosed osteoporosis (N=900 were compared based on current treatment status using bivariate statistics and logistic regression. Approximately 1 in 3 women in this study reporting diagnosed osteoporosis were currently untreated. Factors associated with current treatment for osteoporosis included having ≥1 physician visit in the prior 6 months (OR = 5.4, P<0.001, self-rated moderate or severe osteoporosis (OR = 2.8, P<0.001, completion of menopause (OR = 1.6, P<0.05, and family history of osteoporosis (OR = 1.5, P<0.05, while longer duration of osteoporosis diagnosis (OR = 0.9, P<0.05 and arthritis (OR = 0.7, P<0.05 were associated with lower odds of treatment. These findings suggest that diagnosed patients are not being actively managed in the longer term, and efforts need to be made to ensure that patients stay engaged with their healthcare providers.

  9. Awareness and treatment of alcohol dependence in Japan: results from internet-based surveys in persons, family, physicians and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Yurie; Takei, Yoshiyuki; Sasai, Ryoko; Murteira, Susana

    2014-01-01

    To understand current awareness of, and views on, treatment of alcohol dependence in Japan. (a) Nationwide internet-based survey of 520 individuals, consisting of 52 diagnosed alcohol-dependent (AD) persons, 154 potentially alcohol-dependent (ADP) persons, 104 family members and 106 friends/colleagues of AD persons, and 104 general individuals, derived from a consumer panel where the response rate was 64.3%. We enquired into awareness about the treatment of alcohol dependence and patient pathways through the healthcare network. (b) Nationwide internet-based survey of physicians (response rate 10.1% (2395/23,695) to ask 200 physicians about their management of alcohol use disorders). We deduced that 10% of alcohol-dependent Japanese persons had ever been diagnosed with alcohol dependence, with only 3% ever treated. Regarding putative treatment goals, 20-25% of the AD and ADP persons would prefer to attempt to abstain, while 60-75% preferred 'reduced drinking.' A half of the responding physicians considered abstinence as the primary treatment goal in alcohol dependence, while 76% considered reduced drinking as an acceptable goal. AD and ADP persons in Japan have low 'disease awareness' defined as 'understanding of signs, symptoms and consequences of alcohol use disorders,' which is in line with the overseas situation. The Japanese drinking culture and stigma toward alcohol dependence may contribute to such low disease awareness and current challenging treatment environment. While abstinence remains the preferred treatment goal among physicians, reduced drinking seems to be an acceptable alternative treatment goal to many persons and physicians in Japan. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press.

  10. A nationwide survey of ixodid tick species recovered from domestic dogs and cats in Japan in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakami, Shinya; Ichikawa, Yasuaki; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2014-10-01

    A nationwide survey of ixodid ticks was performed in 2011, during which a total of 4237 and 298 ticks were recovered from 1162 dogs and 136 cats, respectively. Haemaphysalis longicornis was the most frequently found tick species on canine hosts (739 dogs), followed by H. flava (166), Ixodes ovatus (139), and Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (70). H. hystricis, H. japonica, H. megaspinosa, H. formosensis, H. campanulata, H. ias, I. nipponensis, I. persulcatus, and Amblyomma testudinarium were also recovered. H. longicornis was also the most frequently found species on feline hosts (52 cats), followed by I. ovatus (34), A. testudinarium (19), and H. flava (12). H. hystricis, H. japonica, H. megaspinosa, I. nipponensis, I. persulcatus, I. granulatus and R. sanguineus sensu lato were also recovered from cats. The three major species of ticks found on dogs and cats, H. longicornis, H. flava, and I. ovatus, displayed a wide geographical distribution, with specimens found throughout northern and southern Japan. R. sanguineus sensu lato was primarily recovered in Okinawa, but was also found in Kanagawa, Wakayama, Hiroshima, and Yamaguchi Prefectures. A. testudinarium was mainly distributed throughout western Japan, but small numbers were also recovered from Gumma and Shizuoka Prefectures. H. longicornis was more frequently found on dogs in rural areas than those in urban or suburban areas. Exposure to woodland environments was significantly associated with H. flava and I. ovatus in dogs. Dogs in urban or suburban areas encountered R. sanguineus sensu lato more often than other tick species. Most of the cats surveyed in the present study were from rural areas. In the present study, H. hystricis and R. sanguineus sensu lato were found on cats for the first time in Japan. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Survey on tick-borne pathogens in thoroughbred horses in the Hidaka district, Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybañez, Adrian Patalinghug; Sato, Fumio; Nambo, Yasuo; Fukui, Takashi; Masuzawa, Toshiyuki; Ohashi, Norio; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Kishimoto, Toshio; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2013-01-31

    A total of 87 Thoroughbred horses and 10 ixodid ticks from a ranch in Hidaka district, Hokkaido were tested for tick-borne diseases. Using the indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) method, 3.4, 92.0 and 97.7% of the horses showed antibody titers of ≥ 80 against Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia helvetica, and Borrelia garinii, respectively. This is the first report of infection with the 3 pathogens in horses in Japan. Using PCR, DNAs from the peripheral blood of all horses were found negative with any Anaplasma, Rickettsia and Borrelia spp., while those from Haemaphysalis megaspinosa ticks were found positive for Anaplasma sp. closely related to A. phagocytophilum in Japan, and A. bovis. B. japonica was also detected in an H. flava tick for the first time.

  12. Questionnaire survey on mumps vaccination for parents in Nara prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Taito; Nishikawa, Hiroki; Onaka, Masayuki; Ishihara, Mariko; Nishiyama, Atsuko; Yoshida, Sayaka

    2018-04-01

    Although the mumps vaccine has not been included in the national immunization program (NIP) in Japan, it has been shown that a two-dose routine vaccine program would be highly cost-effective. In this study, we carried outa questionnaire-based study to investigate how many Japanese parents want the mumps vaccine to be included in the NIP with proper information. The questionnaire was given to parents who visited the Pediatrics or neonatal intensive care unit of Nara Prefecture General Medical Center, Nara City, Japan, between 1 March 2017 and 31 August 2017. The questionnaire consisted of information about mumps and six questions, for example (i) do parents know that mumps can be prevented by vaccine; (ii) do they know that they need to pay for mumps vaccines; and (iii) do they hope that the government will resume routine mumps vaccination. In total, 1,224 parents answered the questionnaire. A total of 81% and 75.4% of parents knew that mumps can be prevented by vaccination and that mumps vaccine is not included in the NIP, respectively, before reading the information. After reading the information, 95.0% of parents thought that mumps vaccine should be included in the NIP. While 61.7% of parents answered that they would choose two-dose vaccination without governmental financial support, 92.1% of them would choose two-dose vaccination with governmental financial support (P mumps vaccine to be included in the NIP. Japan is able to start routine use of the mumps vaccine now. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  13. Results of an Institutional LGBT Climate Survey at an Academic Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Sean D; Ehrenfeld, Jesse M; Eckstrand, Kristen L

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the climate and culture experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) employees and students at one large academic medical center. An anonymous, online institutional climate survey was used to assess the attitudes and experiences of LGBT employees and students. There were 42 LGBT and 14 non-LGBT survey participants. Results revealed that a surprisingly large percentage of LGBT individuals experienced pressure to remain "closeted" and were harassed despite medical center policies of non-discrimination. Continuing training, inclusive policies and practices, and the development of mechanisms to address LGBT-specific harassment are necessary for improving institutional climate.

  14. Imaging Differences between Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders and Multiple Sclerosis: A Multi-Institutional Study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatekawa, H; Sakamoto, S; Hori, M; Kaichi, Y; Kunimatsu, A; Akazawa, K; Miyasaka, T; Oba, H; Okubo, T; Hasuo, K; Yamada, K; Taoka, T; Doishita, S; Shimono, T; Miki, Y

    2018-05-03

    Both clinical and imaging criteria must be met to diagnose neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders and multiple sclerosis. However, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders are often misdiagnosed as MS because of an overlap in MR imaging features. The purpose of this study was to confirm imaging differences between neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders and MS with visually detailed quantitative analyses of large-sample data. We retrospectively examined 89 consecutive patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (median age, 51 years; range, 16-85 years; females, 77; aquaporin 4 immunoglobulin G-positive, 93%) and 89 with MS (median age, 36 years; range, 18-67 years; females, 68; relapsing-remitting MS, 89%; primary-progressive MS, 7%; secondary-progressive MS, 2%) from 9 institutions across Japan (April 2008 to December 2012). Two neuroradiologists visually evaluated the number, location, and size of all lesions using the Mann-Whitney U test or the Fisher exact test. We enrolled 79 patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders and 87 with MS for brain analysis, 57 with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders and 55 with MS for spinal cord analysis, and 42 with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders and 14 with MS for optic nerve analysis. We identified 911 brain lesions in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders, 1659 brain lesions in MS, 86 spinal cord lesions in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders, and 102 spinal cord lesions in MS. The frequencies of periventricular white matter and deep white matter lesions were 17% and 68% in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders versus 41% and 42% in MS, respectively (location of brain lesions, P optica spectrum disorders (cervical versus thoracic, 29% versus 71%), whereas they were equally distributed in MS (46% versus 54%). Furthermore, thoracic lesions were significantly longer than cervical lesions in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders ( P = .001), but not in MS ( P = .80). Visually detailed

  15. Patient perspectives on Parkinson’s disease therapy in Japan and the United States: results of two patient surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hattori N

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nobutaka Hattori,1 Kenichi Fujimoto,2 Tomoyoshi Kondo,3 Miho Murata,4 Mark Stacy51Department of Neurology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo; 2Department of Neurology, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi; 3Department of Neurology, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama; 4Department of Neurology, National Center Hospital of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan; 5Division of Neurology, Duke University, Durham, NC, USABackground: Despite evidence suggesting that patient attitudes towards therapy may influence treatment outcomes, the impact of these factors on treatment for Parkinson’s disease is poorly understood. These two surveys, based in Japan and the US, investigated the attitudes of patients towards antiparkinsonian medications, the complications of these therapies, and how these differ across geographies.Methods: The US PRELUDE survey collected data from May 13 to May 20, 2003, from 300 interviews with patients with Parkinson’s disease from the National Parkinson Foundation. The Japanese survey was carried out from June to December 2008 in a stepwise manner using questionnaires (n = 3548 followed by interviews with those who had consented to participate in the questionnaire (n = 407. Both surveys assessed the attitudes of patients towards therapies for Parkinson’s disease and associated complications.Results: Dyskinesia was not a major challenge of therapy for Parkinson’s disease, and wearing-off caused greater concern in the US, while hallucinations had a greater emphasis in Japan. Patients who had previously experienced dyskinesia were less concerned about this side effect than those who had not. Although pill burden was thought to be a concern in the US, Japanese patients did not indicate that pill burden would limit their drug intake. There were also discrepancies between the perspectives and concerns of patients and those of their treating physicians.Conclusion: Recognizing patient perspectives regarding therapies for

  16. Visit of Mr. Susumu Yoda, Japanese Atomic Energy Commission, Mr. Nobuo Natsume, Vice-President, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Japan (CRIEPI), Mr. Nobuya Yoshiki, CRIEPI, Mrs. Seiko Ichikawa, Interpreter, with Mr. Taylor of CERN, visiting SM18

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    Visit of Mr. Susumu Yoda, Japanese Atomic Energy Commission, Mr. Nobuo Natsume, Vice-President, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Japan (CRIEPI), Mr. Nobuya Yoshiki, CRIEPI, Mrs. Seiko Ichikawa, Interpreter, with Mr. Taylor of CERN, visiting SM18

  17. Report of evaluation on socio-economic effects of R and D results in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-08-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), as a core organization devoted to comprehensive nuclear energy research, has steadily promoted nuclear energy research aiming at long-term and stable supply of energy supporting the basis of national existence, advanced nuclear science and engineering leading to increase in Japanese industrial competitive power, etc. Through these undertaking, JAERI has produced a lot of remarkable achievements to contribute the national requests mentioned above. In total, about 1.8 trillion-yen of national funds and over 60,000 person · years of researchers and technical staffs have been invested in the R and D's for the past 45 years. Recently it has been argued and recognized to evaluate how the profits of R and D results in public research institutes supported by national funds are returned to the Japanese people as taxpayers and society as part of an administrative and financial reform. Then, seeing its 45th anniversary, JAERI has tried to evaluate the effects of the R and D achievements on the Japanese society and economy apart from the reviews on the management of the organization and research results by the ex-house experts from the viewpoints of specialty and technical aspects. In order to execute the aforementioned evaluation, JAERI established the in-house Ad hoc Committee for Evaluation of R and D Achievements where decision of the evaluation plan is made, in July 2001, and executed the evaluation followed by assembling the necessary database collected from individual branches. Results obtained from these activities were finally summarized in the Ad hoc Committee. Because a methodology for quantitative evaluation of the economical effects, i.e. cost-benefit effects of R and D's was not established yet, the evaluation was prudently carried out with the assistance of three think tanks and under advices by three ex-house experts. R and D's in JAERI are not limited to the ones where benefits corresponding to profits can be

  18. Helicopter-borne geophysical survey over the areas struck by the tsunami of March 11, 2011, in northeast Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuma, S.; Ueda, T.; Mitsuhata, Y.; Uchida, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Geological Survey of Japan, AIST conducted a helicopter-borne EM and magnetic survey over tsunami invaded areas in northeast Japan 15 months after the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. The purpose of the survey is to map the electrical resistivity of the ground intruded by seawater during the tsunami on March 11, 2011 for its reutilization as farming lands and water assessment of the area. The survey was flown in June 2012 at an altitude of 60m above ground with a speed of 50km/h along survey and traverse lines spaced 100m and 1,000m apart, respectively. The airborne EM system (Fuguro Airborne Surveys' RESOLVE system) was installed in a bird and towed 30m below the helicopter. This is a frequency-domain system operated at five frequencies (340, 1,500, 6,900, 31,000, 140,000 Hz) in a horizontal coplanar configuration and at a frequency (3,300 Hz) in a coaxial configuration. The survey area is located at the border of Miyagi and Fukushima Prefectures along the Pacific coast in the southern part of the Sendai Plain and is divided into two sub-areas: Watari-Yamamoto-Shinchi area (area A) and Matsukawa-ura Bay area (area B). The area A is known for its production of high-quality strawberries on beach ridges and much fresh groundwater has been used for irrigation of strawberries and warming of strawberry greenhouses by water curtain. However, the salinity of groundwater from shallow irrigation wells in this area increased dramatically after the tsunami (Mori et al., 2012). Since it still remains at high level, there is an urgent need to find new water resources. Whereas, the area B is characterized by a beautiful lagoon called the Matsukawa-ura which is preserved as one of prefectural parks of Fukushima Prefecture. Rice fields occupy the areas west of the Matsukawa-ura and most of them were covered by seawater during the attack of the tsunami. Desalinization of the rice fields is being conducted intensively to resume rice farming in these fields. The

  19. An epidemiological survey of hepatitis E virus in Shika deer, Cervus nippon, in Nara Park, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    萩原, 克郎; 辻, 正義; 川渕, 貴子; 鳥居, 春己; 小林, 朋子; 浅川, 満彦; 石原, 智明

    2008-01-01

    Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) infections have been reported in deer as well as in domestic animals; however, the precise epidemiological information regarding HEV infections in the Shika Deer in Nara Park in Japan remains to be investigated. In this study, we examined the anti-HEV antibodies and HEV-RNA in sera from 173 of female sika deer in the park. The reactivity to HEV antigen in the serum samples were low levels. The detection of HEV-RNA in sera from the deer revealed no positive samples by R...

  20. Challenges to expanding the clinical application of musculoskeletal ultrasonography (MSUS) among rheumatologists: from a second survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, Maasa; Takase, Kaoru; Ihata, Atsushi; Ohno, Shigeru; Ueda, Atsuhisa; Takeno, Mitsuhiro; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki

    2012-04-01

    Our previous survey in 2008 revealed that only 22% of Japanese rheumatologists used musculoskeletal ultrasonography (MSUS) for patient management, because of insufficient educational opportunities. To clarify the current state of MSUS usage and to identify further challenges, we conducted a second survey between October 2010 through January 2011 by sending questionnaires to 200 randomly selected Japanese rheumatologists, consisting of 100 participants in a meeting in 2009 on imaging in rheumatic diseases and 100 board-certified rheumatologists. Among the respondents, a majority (85 and 67%, respectively) used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MSUS users had increased from 32 to 60% of meeting participants and from 11 to 27% of other rheumatologists. The majority of MSUS users had begun using MSUS within the previous 3 years. Whereas most respondents in the previous survey had been self-taught, in the current survey many had attended training courses or had received informal training from skilled users. Despite an increase in skills and equipment ownership, obstacles to implementing MSUS remained, most prominently a lack of time. In conclusion, training courses and informal training have contributed to the popularization of MSUS in Japan. To further increase MSUS usage, additional training opportunities and education about the advantages of MSUS will be needed.

  1. A Survey of AASCU Institutions: Compliance with Selected NCATE Standards at the Advanced Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparapani, Ervin; Nelson, David

    This report presents the results of a survey of advanced programs in teacher education at member institutions of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU). It is the opinion of researchers that several of the NCATE criteria apply more appropriately to basic programs than to advanced, especially in the categories related…

  2. Asking for Permission: A Survey of Copyright Workflows for Institutional Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Ann; Ramirez, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    An online survey of institutional repository (IR) managers identified copyright clearance trends in staffing and workflows. The majority of respondents followed a mediated deposit model, and reported that library personnel, instead of authors, engaged in copyright clearance activities for IRs. The most common "information gaps" pertained to the…

  3. Nationwide survey of urological specialists regarding male infertility: results from a 2015 questionnaire in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumura, Yasushi; Tsujimura, Akira; Imamoto, Takashi; Umemoto, Yukihiro; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Shiraishi, Koji; Shin, Takeshi; Taniguchi, Hisanori; Chiba, Koji; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Iwamoto, Teruaki

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the incidence, etiology, treatment indications, and outcomes regarding infertile male patients in Japan. Between April, 2014 and March, 2015, the authors contacted 47 clinical specialists in male infertility who had been certified by the Japan Society for Reproductive Medicine. The participating clinicians were sent a questionnaire regarding information on their infertile patients, according to etiology and the number and success rates of male infertility operations that had been performed in their practice. Thirty-nine specialists returned the questionnaire and provided information regarding 7268 patients. The etiology of infertility included testicular factors, sexual disorders, and seminal tract obstruction. During the study year, the clinicians performed varicocelectomies, testicular sperm extractions (TESEs), and re-anastomoses of the seminal tract. The rate of successful varicocelectomies was >70%. The sperm retrieval rates with conventional TESE and microdissection TESE were 98.3% and 34.0%, respectively, while the patency rates with vasovasostomy and epididymovasostomy were 81.8% and 61.0%, respectively. Surgical outcomes for infertile male patients are favorable and can be of great clinical benefit for infertile couples. To achieve this, urologists should work in collaboration with gynecological specialists in order to optimize the treatment of both partners.

  4. Survey on the SSAC in Japan from the aspect of quality management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakubo, Yoko; Kuno, Yusuke; Dosho, Hisaharu; Kimura, Hiroshi; Madarame, Haruki

    2008-01-01

    In 2004 Integrated Safeguards was introduced in Japan following 'the broad safeguards conclusion' by IAEA. The frequency of IAEA inspection is rationalized by the introduction of IS, however, SSAC (State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material) still remains the foundation of IAEA safeguards. In order to maintain IS for a long time, a close cooperation between IAEA and SSAC is crucial. Therefore reliability of SSAC turns out to be more and more important because it is the prerequisite of that cooperation. It is essential to establish a quality management system for maintenance and improvement of the SSAC and for gaining international understanding. Based on the requirements of ISO 9001 and 17025, paying attention to managerial aspects on human and organization, we interviewed those who were in charge of nuclear material accountancy (mainly in bulk handling facilities) in the nuclear facilities in Japan. Based on those interviews we discuss, in this paper, the current issues of the SSAC and its appropriate future direction under IS. (author)

  5. Nationwide survey of energy conservation in public school districts: Institutional, organizational, and technical characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, N.E.; Ettinger, G.A.; Gaines, L.L.; Kier, P.H.; Miller, K.L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Kammerud, R.C. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1987-09-01

    This report summarizes the responses to a mail survey sent to superintendents and other administrators of public school districts. The survey was part of an evaluation project for the USDOE Institutional Conservation Program (ICP). The goal of the project is to identify the most successful energy conservation measures (equipment and activities) available to the institutional buildings sector. To accomplish this goal, four specific research objectives were defined: To determine the impact of the ICP grants program on fostering energy efficiency and saving energy; to determine key characteristics of institutional conservation efforts outside the federal program; To determine the technical, organizational, and Institutional conditions that create the opportunity for energy conservation measures (ECMS) to be most effective; and to identify key technology transfer opportunities. This report focuses on those characteristics of school districts (and the schools within those districts) that might influence the identification, implementation, operation, and impacts of institutional energy conservation efforts. Information about institutional characteristics was gathered through a mail survey of public school districts and private schools. The first mailing resulted in responses from 90 of the 823 public school districts selected through a combination cluster-and-stratification sampling technique and 64 of the 1,700 private schools selected as a stratified random sample. Remaining project resources were used to collect data to achieve a statistically sound sample of a total of 250 public school districts by telephone interviews. In doing so, some questions had to be dropped. Responses from both the mall surveys and the telephone interviews of public school districts were combined into one data set. This report describes results for all 250 districts.

  6. Maternal work conditions, socioeconomic and educational status, and vaccination of children: a community-based household survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Michiko; Kondo, Naoki; Takada, Misato; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2014-09-01

    This study examined how maternal work-related factors, including the availability of paid maternal leave, affect childhood vaccination status. Relatively little is known about the association between the employment status of mothers and the vaccination status of their children. We examined data from the Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood (J-SHINE), an ongoing epidemiologic household panel study in Japan. We used surveys taken in 2010-2011 in this study. We found that mothers who returned to work after giving birth were much less likely to follow recommended vaccine schedules for their children compared with mothers who stayed at home and those who had left the workforce by the time of childbirth. However, taking parental leave significantly reduced the risk of not being up-to-date with the vaccination schedule at 36 months of age. We also found that children whose mother was younger and less educated, and those from an economically deprived family were at a high risk of not being up-to-date with the vaccination status at 36 months of age. Because vaccination is free and widely available in Japan, our findings indicate that provision of free vaccinations is not sufficient to achieve high vaccination rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Medical facility statistics in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Sugimoto, Takuya; Hasebe, Ryo; Myat Cho, Su; Khaing, Moe; Kariya, Tetsuyoshi; Mon Saw, Yu; Yamamoto, Eiko

    2017-11-01

    Medical facility statistics provide essential information to policymakers, administrators, academics, and practitioners in the field of health services. In Japan, the Health Statistics Office of the Director-General for Statistics and Information Policy at the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare is generating these statistics. Although the statistics are widely available in both Japanese and English, the methodology described in the technical reports are primarily in Japanese, and are not fully described in English. This article aimed to describe these processes for readers in the English-speaking world. The Health Statistics Office routinely conduct two surveys called the Hospital Report and the Survey of Medical Institutions. The subjects of the former are all the hospitals and clinics with long-term care beds in Japan. It comprises a Patient Questionnaire focusing on the numbers of inpatients, admissions, discharges, and outpatients in one month, and an Employee Questionnaire, which asks about the number of employees as of October 1. The Survey of Medical Institutions consists of the Dynamic Survey, which focuses on the opening and closing of facilities every month, and the Static Survey, which focuses on staff, facilities, and services as of October 1, as well as the number of inpatients as of September 30 and the total number of outpatients during September. All hospitals, clinics, and dental clinics are requested to submit the Static Survey questionnaire every three years. These surveys are useful tools for collecting essential information, as well as providing occasions to implicitly inform facilities of the movements of government policy.

  8. Clinical epidemiology of eosinophilic pustular folliculitis: results from a nationwide survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yosuke; Nomura, Takashi; Kabashima, Kenji; Miyachi, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    No epidemiological study has examined the clinical characteristics, including medication use, of patients with eosinophilic pustular folliculitis (EPF). To describe the clinical characteristics for EPF and to examine the factors associated with the effectiveness of oral indomethacin for EPF. A cross-sectional study was performed of patients with EPF who visited the dermatology departments of the 67 main teaching facilities in Japan. We documented the patient characteristics and examined factors associated with the effectiveness of oral indomethacin. A total of 145 patients with EPF were enrolled; 62.8% were prescribed oral indomethacin. A multivariable analysis revealed that female patients were more likely to exhibit complete response to oral indomethacin after adjustment for confounders (adjusted proportion ratio = 1.93, p = 0.04). Oral indomethacin has been accepted as a first-line treatment in EPF. Our results suggest that there is a sex difference in the treatment response to oral indomethacin. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Survey of damage to 602 MR scanners after the Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Toshiharu; Yamaguchi-Sekino, Sachiko; Tsuchihashi, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    An earthquake of 9.0 magnitude, the largest in modern Japanese history, struck east Japan on March 11, 2011. We investigated hazards and observations related to magnetic resonance (MR) scanners in this earthquake to evaluate potential risks and consider further prevention or minimization of damage from and injury of patients in such large earthquakes. The investigation team funded by MHLW sent questionnaires to the 984 facilities with installed MR scanners in the 7 prefectures of east Japan (Iwate, Miyagi, Fukushima, Ibaraki, Chiba, Tokyo, Saitama) and collected 458 responses (46.6%) with information on 602 MR scanners (144 units≤0.5 tesla; 31 one-T units; 371 1.5-T units; and 56 units≥3 T). Significant differences in damage were observed between seismic scale 5 and 6 (χ 2 test, P<0.001 for all items of damage checked). The frequencies of typical damage were displacement of magnets (12.4%), failure of the chiller or air conditioning (9.6%), rapid decrease in liquid helium (8.4%), damage to magnet enclosure and its equipment (7.6%), damage to shielding of the MR scanner room (6.1%), damage to the quench duct (4.5%), breakage of devices anchoring system cabinets (4.4%), damage to the magnet base (3.9%), and flying of metal components (1.5%). Twelve facilities reported flooding by the subsequent tsunami, and quench was confirmed in 19 facilities. No fire damage was reported. It was confirmed that no one was severely injured in MR scanners, and base isolation of the building was very useful in completely preventing damage even at seismic scale 7. In the future, training for evacuation and establishment of a standard protocol for emergency shutdown of MR scanners, onsite checking by MR operators, and emergency power plant equipment to maintain chiller for MR scanners will further ensure MR safety in an earthquake. (author)

  10. Relation between social network and psychological distress among middle-aged adults in Japan: Evidence from a national longitudinal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Rong; Noguchi, Harkuo; Tachikawa, Hirokazu; Aiba, Miyuki; Nakamine, Shin; Kawamura, Akira; Takahashi, Hideto; Tamiya, Nanako

    2017-02-01

    It is widely documented that psychological distress is negatively associated with social networks involvement. However, despite the theoretical postulations that social networks are crucial for alleviating psychological distress, no study has yet empirically confirmed the causality of this relationship. Thus, we used the random-effects generalized least squares method to investigate the effect of one- and two-year lagged values for involvement in social networks on psychological distress. Nine years of longitudinal data were extracted from a nationally representative survey in Japan ("The Longitudinal Survey of Middle-aged and Older Persons"). We utilized the Kessler 6 (K6) score to measure psychological distress among 15,242 respondents aged 50-59 years in the baseline year (2005), and stratified participants into three layers of social networks: inner (well-established friendship ties and participating in hobby activates), intermediary (neighborly ties), and outer (involvement in community activities). We found highly significant and negative associations between all three layers and K6 scores, with the strongest association being for the inner layer. We further observed that one-year lagged involvement in the inner and intermediary layers led to significantly lower K6 scores. However, the protective influences of social networks generally diminished over time. In addition, the protective influences of social network involvement on psychological distress were stronger for women than for men. Furthermore, involvement in social networks was especially important for improving mental health among people with psychological distress. These findings would be important for policymaking to prevent mental health deterioration among middle-aged adults in Japan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A multicenter retrospective survey of poisoning after consumption of products containing novel psychoactive substances from 2013 to 2014 in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamijo, Yoshito; Takai, Michiko; Fujita, Yuji; Sakamoto, Tetsuya

    2016-09-01

    In Japan, fatalities among patients who experienced an acute reaction following self-administration of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) have been more frequently reported since June 2014. This survey aimed to document and analyze trends in NPS consumption in emergency patients. We conducted a multicenter retrospective survey of patients who were transported to emergency facilities after consuming NPS-containing products between January 2013 and December 2014. Letters requesting participation were sent to 467 emergency facilities, and questionnaires were mailed to facilities that agreed to participate. We surveyed 589 patients from 85 (18.2%) facilities. Most patients were male (89.6%) and young (median age, 30 years), and inhaled (88%) NPS contained in herbal products (80.5%). Harmful behavior was observed at the scene of acute reaction, including violence (6.9%), traffic accidents (4.9%), and self-injury or suicidal attempts (1.1%). Other than neuropsychiatric and physical symptoms, many patients also had physical complications such as rhabdomyolysis (17.5%), liver injury (12.4%), acute kidney injury (9%), and physical injury (1.9%). Of the 256 patients (43.5%) admitted to hospitals, 35 (5.9%) were hospitalized for seven or more days. Most patients (93.2%) completely recovered, although a few (1.4%) died. However, synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones were only detected in the blood of five patients. Consumption of NPS-containing products have been associated with harmful behaviors such as violence and traffic accidents, physical complications (e.g., rhabdomyolysis, liver injury), death, or physical and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Compared to a previous survey (2006-2012), the present survey revealed more severe toxicity.

  12. Current status and future perspectives of research and development cooperation between utilities, research institutions and universities in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekine, Yasuji [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents the research and development activity in the field of electric power production, transmission and distribution in Japan. Organizations participating in the research and development are described with emphasis on theirs roles and cooperation between them. Next described are the R and D subjects and projects carried out by respective organizations. The needs and motivations of respective R and D programs are reviewed briefly together with the financial and human resources put into implementation. The R and D activities in the electric power industry are compared with those in other industrial sectors such as automobile, steel, telecommunication, etc. Mainly in terms of R and D fund. A similar comparison is made with the electric power industry in countries other than Japan. Importance of the international cooperation in stressed for further development of electric power industry and economic progress worldwide. (author) 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. A multi-institutional joint study of contact dermatitis related to hair colouring and perming agents in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akiko; Nishioka, Kazue; Kanto, Hiromi; Yagami, Akiko; Yamada, Shigeki; Sugiura, Mariko; Yasunaga, Chihiro; Yoshii, Keiko; Kobayashi, Hiromi; Adachi, Atsuko; Ikezawa, Yuko; Washizaki, Kumiko; Inui, Shigeki; Miyazawa, Hitoshi; Oiso, Naoki; Nakata, Tokio; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2017-07-01

    In Japan, allergic contact dermatitis caused by hair colouring agents is a considerable problem for those occupationally exposed and also for consumers. Over the last 20 years, p-phenylenediamine (PPD) has been a common allergen, with ∼7% positive patch test reactions. To investigate which ingredients caused allergic contact dermatitis related to hair dye and perming solutions in Japan, to assess whether PPD is suitable for screening for hair dye allergy, and to propose allergens for a Japanese hairdresser series. We selected 19 hair cosmetic allergens, including PPD, Bandrowski's base, cysteamine HCl, and ammonium thioglycolate. Altogether 203 patients (26 males and 177 females) with suspected contact allergy to hair colouring or perming solutions at 14 hospitals in Japan were included. The highest prevalence of positive reactions (35.1%) was for PPD. p-Methylaminophenol and o-aminophenol were often positive, both in the PPD-positive and in the PPD-negative patients. Moreover, cysteamine HCl often yielded positive test reactions. PPD is insufficient to diagnose contact allergy caused by to hair dyes. We recommend 13 allergens to be included in a Japanese hairdresser series. © 2017 The Authors. Contact Dermatitis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Treatment and management of thyroid storm: analysis of the nationwide surveys: The taskforce committee of the Japan Thyroid Association and Japan Endocrine Society for the establishment of diagnostic criteria and nationwide surveys for thyroid storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isozaki, Osamu; Satoh, Tetsurou; Wakino, Shu; Suzuki, Atsushi; Iburi, Tadao; Tsuboi, Kumiko; Kanamoto, Naotetsu; Otani, Hajime; Furukawa, Yasushi; Teramukai, Satoshi; Akamizu, Takashi

    2016-06-01

    Thyroid storm (TS) is a life-threatening endocrine emergency. This study aimed to achieve a better understanding of the management of TS by analyzing therapeutic modalities and prognoses reported by nationwide surveys performed in Japan. Retrospective analyses were performed on clinical parameters, outcomes, and treatments in 356 TS patients. Patient disease severities assessed via Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores significantly correlated with mortality. Free triiodothyronine (FT3) and the FT3/free thyroxine (FT4) ratio inversely correlated with disease severity. Methimazole (MMI) was used in the majority of patients (78·1%), and there were no significant differences in mortality or disease severity between those treated with MMI and those receiving propylthiouracil (PTU). Patients who received inorganic iodide (KI) demonstrated higher disease severity but no change in mortality compared to those who did not. Patients treated with corticosteroids (CSs) demonstrated significantly higher disease severity and mortality than those who were not. Disease severity in patients treated with intravenous administration of beta-adrenergic antagonists (AAs) was significantly higher than those treated with oral preparations, although no significant difference in mortality was observed between these groups. In addition, mortality was significantly higher in patients treated with non-selective beta-AAs as compared with other types of beta-AAs. In Japan, MMI was preferentially used in TS and showed no disadvantages compared to PTU. In severe TS, multimodal treatment, including administration of antithyroid drugs, KI, CSs and selective beta1 -AAs may be preferable to improve outcomes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The 12th quality control survey for radioisotope in vitro tests in Japan, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    The results of the 12th quality control nationwide survey is presented. Of 670 selected facilities, 405 (60.4%) participated in this survey. Myoglobin and trypsin were added as new items to be examined. The other conventional items were as follows: alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), aldosterone, {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin, carbohydrate angigen 15-3, C-peptide, digoxin, elastase 1, free triiodothyronine, growth hormone, immunoglobulin E, prostatic acid phosphatase, pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor, progesterone, prolactin, thyroglobulin, triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}), T{sub 3} uptake, tissue polypeptide antigen, thyroid stimulating hormone, and testosterone. There was a great coefficient of variation (CV) between kits in AFP, aldosterone, progesterone, and prolactin. These results were analogous to those in the previous surveys. For T{sub 3}, there was a great difference between CV by radioimmunoassay and by non-isotopic method. Both myoglobin and trypsin had a great difference between kits. (N.K.).

  16. Mass survey of gastric cancer and leukemia in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakka, Masatoshi; Sasano, Nobuaki; Uzuka, Yoshiro [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine; Hisamichi, Shigeru; Takano, Akira; Hashizume, Tadashi

    1982-11-01

    A little more than 20,000 examinees of x-ray mass survey of gastric cancer and the controls were followed up from 1960 to 1977. Cumulative doses of x-rays were calculated for each examinee, and a collective dose in person-year-rads was constructed. Incidence of leukemia was ascertained from Miyagi Prefectural Cancer Registry. Seven cases of leukemia were found out of 242,689 person-year-rads in the irradiated population, and 9 cases out of 273,344 person-years in the controls. Incidence rate in the two groups was identical. Therefore, the risk of this mass survey was disproved.

  17. Pediatric CT scan usage in Japan. Results of a hospital survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghotbi, N; Morishita, Mariko; Norimatsu, Nana; Namba, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Shunichi [Nagasaki Univ., Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki, Nagasaki (Japan); Ohtsuru, Akira [Nagasaki Univ., Hospital, Takashi Nagai Memorial International Hibakusha Medical Center, Nagasaki, Nagaski (Japan); Ogawa, Yoji; Uetani, Masataka; Moriuchi, Hiroyuki [Nagasaki Univ., Hospital, Nagasaki, Nagasaki (Japan)

    2006-10-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the usage parameters of diagnostic computed tomography (CT) in children because of concerns of possible overuse in Japanese hospitals, including the ''technical'' CT exposure settings and the ''clinical'' grounds for CT requests. We examined the methodology at the radiology department to reduce radiation exposure to children and performed a retrospective study on pediatric CT requests during a 1-year period at Nagasaki University Hospital. The parameters of diagnostic CT usage for minor head trauma and acute appendicitis were studied in detail. CT radiation dose settings are adjusted for children based on guidelines issued by the Japan Radiological Society, with few limitations. CT requests were made for 62% of minor head trauma cases and 76% of cases clinically suspected to be acute appendicitis. These figures are considerably higher than those reported by studies in the United Kingdom, Canada, or the United States. No specific guidelines are advocated regarding CT usage for minor head trauma. The diagnosis of acute appendicitis in children is almost routinely referred for confirmation'' by CT. CT radiation risks to children at Japanese hospitals need to be considered more seriously. Physicians should be encouraged to follow diagnostic algorithms that help avoid unnecessary CT usage in children. (author)

  18. Pediatric CT scan usage in Japan. Results of a hospital survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghotbi, N.; Morishita, Mariko; Norimatsu, Nana; Namba, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Shunichi; Ohtsuru, Akira; Ogawa, Yoji; Uetani, Masataka; Moriuchi, Hiroyuki

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the usage parameters of diagnostic computed tomography (CT) in children because of concerns of possible overuse in Japanese hospitals, including the ''technical'' CT exposure settings and the ''clinical'' grounds for CT requests. We examined the methodology at the radiology department to reduce radiation exposure to children and performed a retrospective study on pediatric CT requests during a 1-year period at Nagasaki University Hospital. The parameters of diagnostic CT usage for minor head trauma and acute appendicitis were studied in detail. CT radiation dose settings are adjusted for children based on guidelines issued by the Japan Radiological Society, with few limitations. CT requests were made for 62% of minor head trauma cases and 76% of cases clinically suspected to be acute appendicitis. These figures are considerably higher than those reported by studies in the United Kingdom, Canada, or the United States. No specific guidelines are advocated regarding CT usage for minor head trauma. The diagnosis of acute appendicitis in children is almost routinely referred for confirmation'' by CT. CT radiation risks to children at Japanese hospitals need to be considered more seriously. Physicians should be encouraged to follow diagnostic algorithms that help avoid unnecessary CT usage in children. (author)

  19. A Nationwide Random Sampling Survey of Potential Complicated Grief in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yasunao; Kishimoto, Junji; Asukai, Nozomu

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of significant loss, potential complicated grief (CG), and its contributing factors, we conducted a nationwide random sampling survey of Japanese adults aged 18 or older (N = 1,343) using a self-rating Japanese-language version of the Complicated Grief Brief Screen. Among them, 37.0% experienced their most significant…

  20. Recent surveys and researches on pollinosis in Japan; Kafunsho ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shido, T. [The Inst. of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-31

    In this paper, recent investigations and researches on pollinosis are summarized as centering on the investigation entrusted by the Ministry of Health and Welfare and executed since 1992, and especially the surveys on Japanese cedar pollinosis during 1995 to 1996. The quantity of pollen surveyed in 1995 is the greatest in the survey history of nationwide flying pollen. Particularly, the quantity of cedar and hinoki pollen is 10 to 40 times as many as that in the year before. Consequently, since the sensitization and onset due to the cedar pollen increased greatly, the objects of the surveys and the researches were mainly in respect to the analysis of onset factors of pollinosis, clarification of its natural process, evaluation on the effectiveness of desensitization therapy, the clinical subjects including the confirmation of pharynx symptom and asthma symptom, and the discovery of naturally sensitizing dog. A fact that the quantity of flying pollen concerns the occurrence and degree of the clinical symptom has already been indicated by a clinical observation carried out for a long period of time. In respect to specific prophylaxis and therapy, for the first time the pollen masks and glasses sold on the market are investigated, and the necessity of the verification thereof is described. 27 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Predictors and Extent of Institutional Trust in Government, Banks, the Media and Religious Organisations: Evidence from Cross-Sectional Surveys in Six Asia-Pacific Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R Ward

    Full Text Available Building or maintaining institutional trust is of central importance in democratic societies since negative experiences (potentially leading to mistrust with government or other institutions may have a much more profound effect than positive experiences (potentially maintaining trust. Healthy democracy relies on more than simply trusting the national government of the time, and is mediated through other symbols of institutional power, such as the legal system, banks, the media and religious organisations. This paper focuses on institutional trust-the level and predictors of trust in some of the major institutions in society, namely politics, the media, banks, the legal system and religious organisations. We present analyses from a consolidated dataset containing data from six countries in the Asia Pacific region-Australia, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan and Thailand.Cross-sectional surveys were undertaken in each country in 2009-10, with an overall sample of 6331. Analyses of differences in overall levels of institutional trust between countries were undertaken using Chi square analyses. Multivariate binomial logistic regression analysis was undertaken to identify socio-demographic predictors of trust in each country.Religious institutions, banks and the judicial system had the highest overall trust across all countries (70%, 70% and 67% respectively, followed by newspapers and TV (59% and 58% and then political leaders (43%. The range of levels of higher trust between countries differed from 43% for banks (range 49% in Australia to 92% in Thailand to 59% for newspapers (28% in Australia to 87% in Japan. Across all countries, except for Australia, trust in political leaders had the lowest scores, particularly in Japan and South Korea (25% in both countries. In Thailand, people expressed the most trust in religious organisations (94%, banks (92% and in their judicial/legal system (89%. In Hong Kong, people expressed the highest level of

  2. Predictors and Extent of Institutional Trust in Government, Banks, the Media and Religious Organisations: Evidence from Cross-Sectional Surveys in Six Asia-Pacific Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Paul R; Miller, Emma; Pearce, Alex R; Meyer, Samantha B

    2016-01-01

    Building or maintaining institutional trust is of central importance in democratic societies since negative experiences (potentially leading to mistrust) with government or other institutions may have a much more profound effect than positive experiences (potentially maintaining trust). Healthy democracy relies on more than simply trusting the national government of the time, and is mediated through other symbols of institutional power, such as the legal system, banks, the media and religious organisations. This paper focuses on institutional trust-the level and predictors of trust in some of the major institutions in society, namely politics, the media, banks, the legal system and religious organisations. We present analyses from a consolidated dataset containing data from six countries in the Asia Pacific region-Australia, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan and Thailand. Cross-sectional surveys were undertaken in each country in 2009-10, with an overall sample of 6331. Analyses of differences in overall levels of institutional trust between countries were undertaken using Chi square analyses. Multivariate binomial logistic regression analysis was undertaken to identify socio-demographic predictors of trust in each country. Religious institutions, banks and the judicial system had the highest overall trust across all countries (70%, 70% and 67% respectively), followed by newspapers and TV (59% and 58%) and then political leaders (43%). The range of levels of higher trust between countries differed from 43% for banks (range 49% in Australia to 92% in Thailand) to 59% for newspapers (28% in Australia to 87% in Japan). Across all countries, except for Australia, trust in political leaders had the lowest scores, particularly in Japan and South Korea (25% in both countries). In Thailand, people expressed the most trust in religious organisations (94%), banks (92%) and in their judicial/legal system (89%). In Hong Kong, people expressed the highest level of trust in

  3. Institutional racism in public health contracting: Findings of a nationwide survey from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Came, H; Doole, C; McKenna, B; McCreanor, T

    2018-02-01

    Public institutions within New Zealand have long been accused of mono-culturalism and institutional racism. This study sought to identify inconsistencies and bias by comparing government funded contracting processes for Māori public health providers (n = 60) with those of generic providers (n = 90). Qualitative and quantitative data were collected (November 2014-May 2015), through a nationwide telephone survey of public health providers, achieving a 75% response rate. Descriptive statistical analyses were applied to quantitative responses and an inductive approach was taken to analyse data from open-ended responses in the survey domains of relationships with portfolio contract managers, contracting and funding. The quantitative data showed four sites of statistically significant variation: length of contracts, intensity of monitoring, compliance costs and frequency of auditing. Non-significant data involved access to discretionary funding and cost of living adjustments, the frequency of monitoring, access to Crown (government) funders and representation on advisory groups. The qualitative material showed disparate provider experiences, dependent on individual portfolio managers, with nuanced differences between generic and Māori providers' experiences. This study showed that monitoring government performance through a nationwide survey was an innovative way to identify sites of institutional racism. In a policy context where health equity is a key directive to the health sector, this study suggests there is scope for New Zealand health funders to improve their contracting practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Seasonal and Diel Activity Patterns of Eight Sympatric Mammals in Northern Japan Revealed by an Intensive Camera-Trap Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Ikeda

    Full Text Available The activity patterns of mammals are generally categorized as nocturnal, diurnal, crepuscular (active at twilight, and cathemeral (active throughout the day. These patterns are highly variable across regions and seasons even within the same species. However, quantitative data is still lacking, particularly for sympatric species. We monitored the seasonal and diel activity patterns of terrestrial mammals in Hokkaido, Japan. Through an intensive camera-trap survey a total of 13,279 capture events were recorded from eight mammals over 20,344 camera-trap days, i.e., two years. Diel activity patterns were clearly divided into four categories: diurnal (Eurasian red squirrels, nocturnal (raccoon dogs and raccoons, crepuscular (sika deer and mountain hares, and cathemeral (Japanese martens, red foxes, and brown bears. Some crepuscular and cathemeral mammals shifted activity peaks across seasons. Particularly, sika deer changed peaks from twilight during spring-autumn to day-time in winter, possibly because of thermal constraints. Japanese martens were cathemeral during winter-summer, but nocturnal in autumn. We found no clear indication of predator-prey and competitive interactions, suggesting that animal densities are not very high or temporal niche partitioning is absent among the target species. This long-term camera-trap survey was highly cost-effective and provided one of the most detailed seasonal and diel activity patterns in multiple sympatric mammals under natural conditions.

  5. Use of radioisotopes in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foeldiak, G.

    1974-01-01

    A survey of the following general data on the use of radioisotopes in Japan is given (from the material of the 11th Japan Conference on Radioisotopes): 1. number of the organizations using radioactive isotopes, grouped according to special working fields and instruments; 2. amount of the unsealed sources (Ci) used in the different special working fields in 1971, 4. amount of the sealed sources (Ci) used between 1966 and 1971. 5. number of the institutions using sealed sources, grouped according to special working fields (March, 1972), 6. number of the accelerators applied, grouped according to special working fields (March, 1972), 7. number of the nuclear instruments in the education and research institutes (March, 1972), 8. amount of the collected radioactive waste material between 1960 and 1971 (number of containers). (K.A.)

  6. Submerged Humid Tropical Karst Landforms Observed By High-Resolution Multibeam Survey in Nagura Bay, Ishigaki Island, Southwestern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, H.; Urata, K.; Nagao, M.; Hori, N.; Fujita, K.; Yokoyama, Y.; Nakashima, Y.; Ohashi, T.; Goto, K.; Suzuki, A.

    2014-12-01

    Submerged tropical karst features were discovered in Nagura Bay on Ishigaki Island in the South Ryukyu Islands, Japan. This is the first description of submerged humid tropical karst using multibeam bathymetry. We conducted a broadband multibeam survey in the central area of Nagura Bay (1.85 × 2.7 km) and visualized the high-resolution bathymetric results with a grid size of 1 m over a depth range of 1.6-58.5 m. Various types of humid tropical karst landforms were found to coexist within the bay, including fluviokarst, doline karst, cockpit karst, polygonal karst, uvalas, and mega-dolines. We assume that Nagura Bay was a large karst basin in which older limestone remained submerged, thus preventing corrosion and the accumulation of reef sediments during periods of submersion, whereas the limestone outcropping on land was corroded during multiple interglacial and glacial periods. Based on our bathymetric result together with aerial photographs of the coastal area, we conclude that the submerged karst landscape has likely developed throughout the whole of Nagura Bay, covering an area of ~6 × 5 km. Accordingly, this area hosts the largest submerged karst in Japan. We also observed abundant coral communities during our SCUBA observations. The present marine conditions of Nagura Bay are characterized by low energy (calm sea) and low irradiance owing to the terrestrial influence. Such conditions have been emphasized by the presence of large undulating landforms, which cause decreases in wave intensity and irradiance with depth. These characteristics have acted to establish unique conditions compared to other coral reef areas in the Ryukyu Islands. It may play an important role in supporting the regional coral reef ecosystem.

  7. National Medical Care System May Impede Fostering of True Specialization of Radiation Oncologists: Study Based on Structure Survey in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numasaki, Hodaka [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Shibuya, Hitoshi [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Nishio, Masamichi [Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization Hokkaido Cancer Center, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Ikeda, Hiroshi [Department of Radiology, Sakai Municipal Hospital, Sakai, Osaka (Japan); Sekiguchi, Kenji [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke' s International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kamikonya, Norihiko [Department of Radiology, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Hyogo (Japan); Koizumi, Masahiko [Oncology Center, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Tago, Masao [Department of Radiology, Teikyo University School of Medicine University Hospital, Mizonokuchi, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan); Ando, Yutaka [Department of Medical Informatics, Heavy Ion Medical Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Tsukamoto, Nobuhiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Saitama (Japan); Terahara, Atsuro [Department of Radiology, Toho University Omori Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Nakamura, Katsumasa [Department of Radiology, Kyushu University Hospital at Beppu, Oita (Japan); Mitsumori, Michihide [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Graduate School of Medicine Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Nishimura, Tetsuo [Division of Radiation Oncology, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Shizuoka (Japan); Hareyama, Masato [Department of Radiology, Sapporo Medical University, Hokkaido (Japan); Teshima, Teruki, E-mail: teshima@sahs.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the actual work environment of radiation oncologists (ROs) in Japan in terms of working pattern, patient load, and quality of cancer care based on the relative time spent on patient care. Methods and Materials: In 2008, the Japanese Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology produced a questionnaire for a national structure survey of radiation oncology in 2007. Data for full-time ROs were crosschecked with data for part-time ROs by using their identification data. Data of 954 ROs were analyzed. The relative practice index for patients was calculated as the relative value of care time per patient on the basis of Japanese Blue Book guidelines (200 patients per RO). Results: The working patterns of RO varied widely among facility categories. ROs working mainly at university hospitals treated 189.2 patients per year on average, with those working in university hospitals and their affiliated facilities treating 249.1 and those working in university hospitals only treating 144.0 patients per year on average. The corresponding data were 256.6 for cancer centers and 176.6 for other facilities. Geographically, the mean annual number of patients per RO per quarter was significantly associated with population size, varying from 143.1 to 203.4 (p < 0.0001). There were also significant differences in the average practice index for patients by ROs working mainly in university hospitals between those in main and affiliated facilities (1.07 vs 0.71: p < 0.0001). Conclusions: ROs working in university hospitals and their affiliated facilities treated more patients than the other ROs. In terms of patient care time only, the quality of cancer care in affiliated facilities might be worse than that in university hospitals. Under the current national medical system, working patterns of ROs of academic facilities in Japan appear to be problematic for fostering true specialization of radiation oncologists.

  8. Radical External Beam Radiotherapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer in Japan: Changing Trends in the Patterns of Care Process Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Kazuhiko, E-mail: kogawa@med.u-ryukyu.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Nakamura, Katsumasa [Department of Clinical Radiology, Kyushu University Hospital at Beppu, Oita (Japan); Sasaki, Tomonari [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Kyushu Center, Fukuoka (Japan); Onishi, Hiroshi [Department of Radiology, Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan); Koizumi, Masahiko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Araya, Masayuki [Department of Radiology, Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan); Mukumoto, Nobutaka; Teshima, Teruki [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Mitsumori, Michihide [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-Applied Therapy, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To delineate changing trends in radical external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer in Japan. Methods and Materials: Data from 841 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer treated with EBRT in the Japanese Patterns of Care Study (PCS) from 1996 to 2005 were analyzed. Results: Significant increases in the proportions of patients with stage T1 to T2 disease and decrease in prostate-specific antigen values were observed. Also, there were significant increases in the percentages of patients treated with radiotherapy by their own choice. Median radiation doses were 65.0 Gy and 68.4 Gy from 1996 to 1998 and from 1999 to 2001, respectively, increasing to 70 Gy from 2003 to 2005. Moreover, conformal therapy was more frequently used from 2003 to 2005 (84.9%) than from 1996 to 1998 (49.1%) and from 1999 to 2001 (50.2%). On the other hand, the percentage of patients receiving hormone therapy from 2003 to 2005 (81.1%) was almost the same as that from 1996 to 1998 (86.3%) and from 1999 to 2001 (89.7%). Compared with the PCS in the United States, patient characteristics and patterns of treatments from 2003 to 2005 have become more similar to those in the United States than those from 1996 to 1998 and those from 1999 to 2001. Conclusions: This study indicates a trend toward increasing numbers of patients with early-stage disease and increasing proportions of patients treated with higher radiation doses with advanced equipment among Japanese prostate cancer patients treated with EBRT during 1996 to 2005 survey periods. Patterns of care for prostate cancer in Japan are becoming more similar to those in the United States.

  9. National medical care system may impede fostering of true specialization of radiation oncologists: study based on structure survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numasaki, Hodaka; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Nishio, Masamichi; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Kenji; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Koizumi, Masahiko; Tago, Masao; Ando, Yutaka; Tsukamoto, Nobuhiro; Terahara, Atsuro; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Mitsumori, Michihide; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Hareyama, Masato; Teshima, Teruki

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the actual work environment of radiation oncologists (ROs) in Japan in terms of working pattern, patient load, and quality of cancer care based on the relative time spent on patient care. In 2008, the Japanese Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology produced a questionnaire for a national structure survey of radiation oncology in 2007. Data for full-time ROs were crosschecked with data for part-time ROs by using their identification data. Data of 954 ROs were analyzed. The relative practice index for patients was calculated as the relative value of care time per patient on the basis of Japanese Blue Book guidelines (200 patients per RO). The working patterns of RO varied widely among facility categories. ROs working mainly at university hospitals treated 189.2 patients per year on average, with those working in university hospitals and their affiliated facilities treating 249.1 and those working in university hospitals only treating 144.0 patients per year on average. The corresponding data were 256.6 for cancer centers and 176.6 for other facilities. Geographically, the mean annual number of patients per RO per quarter was significantly associated with population size, varying from 143.1 to 203.4 (p working mainly in university hospitals between those in main and affiliated facilities (1.07 vs 0.71: p working in university hospitals and their affiliated facilities treated more patients than the other ROs. In terms of patient care time only, the quality of cancer care in affiliated facilities might be worse than that in university hospitals. Under the current national medical system, working patterns of ROs of academic facilities in Japan appear to be problematic for fostering true specialization of radiation oncologists. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Long term survey on food pollution and contamination by radioactive fallout in Fukuoka, Japan (1961 - 1976)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishige, Toshiko; Ishinishi, Noburu; Cho, Tetsuji.

    1977-01-01

    The contamination and the pollution of foodstuffs by radioactive fallout have been investigated since 1961 in Fukuoka city and its suburban area. The results obtained were as follows. 1) Recently, the degree of the contamination of greens by radioactive fallout which fell on the leaves decreased to one thousandth in the early stage of the investigation (1961 - 1962). In the period of the investigation, the remarkable increase of the radioactivity of fallout was observed within a week after the Chinese nuclear bomb explosion in the atmosphere (1st, 2nd, 5th, 12th, 13th, and 15th). The radioactivity was 2 to 300 times higher than the usual level. 2) The radioactivity was not remarkable in vegetables which were washed with soap, but it decreased gradually year by year. The increase of the radioactivity was also observed a few days after the atmospheric nuclear explosion. 3) In milk, there were no remarkable yearly decreases of the radioactivity from the beginning of the investigation, but the seasonal variations of the radioactivity, such as higher in April and May, were observed. 4) The radioactivity in diets based on the standard food production in Japan was the highest in 1967. It decreased gradually from 1967 to 1971 and after that the remarkable variation of the activity was not observed. 5) 137 Cs contamination of foodstuffs has been observed quantitatively by the method of gamma spectrometry, while sometimes 95 Zr- 95 Nb, 103 Ru, and 131 I were also detected from the specimens obtained immediately after the nuclear explosions. (auth.)

  11. Mental Health Services for Students at Postsecondary Institutions: A National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, Natalia; De Somma, Elisea; Fonseka, Bernice; Heck, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although the high prevalence of mental health issues among postsecondary students is well documented, comparatively little is known about the adequacy, accessibility, and adherence to best practices of mental health services (MHSs)/initiatives on postsecondary campuses. We evaluated existing mental health promotion, identification, and intervention initiatives at postsecondary institutions across Canada, expanding on our previous work in one Canadian province. Methods: A 54-question online survey was sent to potential respondents (mainly front-line workers dealing directly with students [e.g., psychologists/counsellors, medical professionals]) at Canada’s publicly funded postsecondary institutions. Data were analyzed overall and according to institutional size (small [students], medium [2000–10 000 students], large [>10 000 students]). Results: In total, 168 out of 180 institutions were represented, and the response rate was high (96%; 274 respondents). Most institutions have some form of mental health promotion and outreach programs, although most respondents felt that these were not a good use of resources. Various social supports exist at most institutions, with large ones offering the greatest variety. Most institutions do not require incoming students to disclose mental health issues. While counselling services are typically available, staff do not reliably have a diverse complement (e.g., gender or race diversity). Counselling sessions are generally limited, and follow-up procedures are uncommon. Complete diagnostic assessments and the use of standardized diagnostic systems are rare. Conclusions: While integral MHSs are offered at most Canadian postsecondary institutions, the range and depth of available services are variable. These data can guide policy makers and stakeholders in developing comprehensive campus mental health strategies. PMID:27310230

  12. APPLICATION OF MOBILE LIDAR MAPPING FOR DAMAGE SURVEY AFTER GREAT EAST JAPAN EARTHQUAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ariyasu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A massive earthquake of magnitude 9.0 hit off Tohoku region, the east coast of the Japanese main land, on 11 March, 2011. It was one of the historically powerful earthquakes in the world. The earthquake triggered powerful tsunami and broad-scale subsidence, so that, residential areas and infrastructures were catastrophically damaged. After that, it is necessary to renew a new map for reconstruction, such as cadastral map. In the critical situation, Mobile LiDAR Mapping system is efficient to rapidly collect fine data at once and capture more details of terrain features than data from airborne. In this paper, we would like to introduce procured instruments in our company and implemented survey several areas after the event, and suggest how to survey for cadastral map by Mobile LiDAR Mapping System.

  13. Control survey of normal reference ranges adopted for serum thyroxine binding globulin, thyroxine, triiodothyronine in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugisaki, Hajime; Kameyama, Mayumi; Shibata, Kyoko

    1985-01-01

    A survey using questionnaires was made on 152 facilities from July through September 1984 to examine normal reference ranges of serum thyroxine binding globulin (TBG), thyroxine (TT 4 ), and triiodothyronine (TT 3 ). Normal reference ranges of TBG were in good agreement with each other, with the exception of four facilities showing high upper limits. An average value of the upper and lower limits in 83 facilities was 13.7 +- 1.9 μg/ml; and the standard deviation was 28.6 +- 2.8 μg/ml. Differences (approximately 10 %) in coefficient of variation were comparable to those (5.7-9.6 %) obtained from the previous survey. There were approximately 10 % differences in coefficient of variation for both TT 4 and TT 3 . (Namekawa, K.)

  14. Analysis of national representative opinion surveys concerning gestational surrogacy in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kohta; Hoshi, Kazuhiko; Minai, Junko; Yanaihara, Takumi; Takeda, Yasuhisa; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2006-05-01

    Although gestational surrogacy offers several advantages, this procedure has given rise to some ethical and legal issues. We aimed to clarify the factors affecting the attitude of the Japanese toward gestational surrogacy. Cross-sectional study. Nationwide opinion surveys concerning assisted reproductive technologies (ART) were carried out in 1999 and 2003. Participants included 2568 and 3647 people from the general public surveyed in 1999 and 2003, respectively (1564 people received only the questionnaire, and 2083 people received a questionnaire and brochure about ART). Multivariate-adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval from logistic regression models for factors affecting the attitude toward gestational surrogacy. In both surveys, approximately half of respondents approved of gestational surrogacy; 20-30% disapproved of the procedure. People with high socioeconomic status clearly expressed their opinion on this issue. A liberal attitude toward gender role promoted approval of gestational surrogacy; a liberal attitude toward family had the opposite effect. Our findings suggest that socioeconomic status affects people's expression of their opinion regarding this issue, while attitudes toward this procedure were influenced by individual belief. Considering socioeconomic status and diversity of individual belief is required for further discussion on this topic.

  15. The 11th quality control survey for radioisotopes in vitro tests in Japan, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    This report presents the results of the 11th quality control nationwide survey. Of 730 facilities performing radioisotopes in vitro tests in November 1989, 422 facilities (60.5%) participated in the present survey. The following 23 items were examined: adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), albumin, carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA 125), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), calcitonin, cortisol, estradiol, ferritin, free thyroxine (FT{sub 4}), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), gastrine, cholylglycine, glucagon, insulin, anti-DNA antibody, luteinizing hormone (LH), neuron specific enolase (NSE), parathyroid hormone (PTH), squamous cell carcinoma associated antigen (SCC), thyroxine (T{sub 4}), thyroxine binding globulin (TBG), and antithyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibody. 'Within kit variation' between facilities showed large coefficient of variation for ACTH, CA125, CEA, estradiol, ferritin, FSH, glucagon, anti-DNA antibody, LH, PTH, and TSH receptor antibody. Both 'within kit variation' and 'between kit variation' showed small coefficient of variation for cortisol, free T{sub 4}, NSE, SCC, T{sub 4}, and TBG. The present survey was characterized by using immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) and non-isotope techniques, as well as radioimmunoassay. Kits for IRMA greatly varied from facility to facility. (N.K.).

  16. Diffusion trajectory of self-propagating innovations interacting with institutions-incorporation of multi-factors learning function to model PV diffusion in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamatsu, Akira; Watanabe, Chihiro; Shum, Kwok L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper first proposes a modeling framework to study diffusion of innovations which exhibit strong interaction with the institution systems across which they diffuse. A unique character of such generic innovation is that specific applications are continually developed during its diffusion. This self-propagation in continual applications generation, which is dependent upon the cumulative installed base of the technological innovation, can be modeled to lead to a dynamic changing carrying capacity in an otherwise simple logistic diffusion curve. The cumulative installed base is dependent upon the price of technology and the cost learning dynamics. This paper utilizes a multi-factors learning function to represent such learning dynamics. Empirical estimates from our model are compared with those from other logistics curve formulations and are shown to better fit the annual PV production data during the past quarter century in the case of Japan. The very fact that the potential of this class of innovation can be leveraged only if it interacts closely with the institution highlights the importance of institutional determinants of adoption and diffusion of such innovations like PV. We therefore attempt to put forward an institutional framework, based on viewing PV as a technology platform, to consider PV diffusion beyond mathematical and empirical modeling. Some future research directions are also proposed. (author)

  17. The seventh nationwide epidemiological survey for chronic pancreatitis in Japan: clinical significance of smoking habit in Japanese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Morihisa; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Masamune, Atsushi; Kikuta, Kazuhiro; Kume, Kiyoshi; Hamada, Shin; Kanno, Atsushi; Kimura, Kenji; Tsuji, Ichiro; Kuriyama, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    A nationwide survey was conducted to clarify the epidemiological features of patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) in Japan. In the first survey, both the prevalence and the incidence of CP in 2011 were estimated. In the second survey, the clinicoepidemiological features of the patients were clarified by mailed questionnaires. Patients were diagnosed by the Japanese diagnostic criteria for chronic pancreatitis 2009. The estimated annual prevalence and incidence of CP in 2011 were 52.4/100,000 and 14.0/100,000, respectively. The sex ratio (male/female) of patients was 4.6, with a mean age of 62.3 years. Alcoholic (67.5%) was the most common and idiopathic (20.0%) was the second most common cause of CP. Comorbidity with diabetes mellitus (DM) and pancreatic calcifications (PC) occurred more frequent in ever smokers independently of their drinking status. Among patients without drinking habit, the incidences of DM and PC were significantly higher in ever smokers than in never smokers. The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed smoking was an independent factor of DM and PC in CP patients: DM, Odds ratio (OR) 1.644, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.202 to 2.247 (P = 0.002): PC, OR 2.010, 95% CI 1.458 to 2.773 (P smoking was not identified as an independent factor for the appearance of abdominal pain by this analysis. The prevalence of Japanese patients with CP has been increasing. Smoking was identified as an independent factor related to DM and PC in Japanese CP patients. Copyright © 2014 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Awareness and behavior of oncologists and support measures in medical institutions related to ongoing employment of cancer patients in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Koji; Ohtsu, Mayumi; Aizawa, Yoshiharu; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Tagaya, Nobumi; Takahashi, Miyako

    2012-04-01

    Improved outcomes of cancer treatment allow patients to undergo treatment while working. However, support from oncologists and medical institutions is essential for patients to continue working. This study aimed to clarify oncologists' awareness and behavior regarding patients who work during treatment, support in medical institutions and their association. A questionnaire was mailed to all 453 diplomates and faculty of the subspecialty board of medical oncology in the Japanese Society of Medical Oncology and all 1016 surgeons certified by the Japanese Board of Cancer Therapy living in the Kanto area. The questionnaire assessed demographics, oncologist awareness and behavior regarding patient employment and support measures at their medical institutions. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of awareness and behavior of oncologists with support measures at their institutions. A total of 668 individuals participated. The overall response rate was 45.5%. Only 53.6% of respondents advised patients to tell their supervisors about prospects for treatment and ask for understanding. For medical institutions, 28.8% had a nurse-involved counseling program and adjustments in radiation therapy (28.0%) and chemotherapy (41.9%) schedules to accommodate patients' work. There was a significant correlation between awareness and behavior of oncologists and medical institutions' measures to support employed cancer patients. There is room for improvement in awareness and behavior of oncologists and support in medical institutions for cancer patients continuing to work. Oncologists could support working patients by exerting influence on their medical institutions. Conversely, proactive development of support measures by medical institutions could alter the awareness and behavior of oncologists.

  19. Awareness and behavior of oncologists and support measures in medical institutions related to ongoing employment of cancer patients in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Koji; Aizawa, Yoshiharu; Ohtsu, Mayumi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Tagaya, Nobumi; Takahashi, Miyako

    2012-01-01

    Improved outcomes of cancer treatment allow patients to undergo treatment while working. However, support from oncologists and medical institutions is essential for patients to continue working. This study aimed to clarify oncologists' awareness and behavior regarding patients who work during treatment, support in medical institutions and their association. A questionnaire was mailed to all 453 diplomates and faculty of the subspecialty board of medical oncology in the Japanese Society of Medical Oncology and all 1016 surgeons certified by the Japanese Board of Cancer Therapy living in the Kanto area. The questionnaire assessed demographics, oncologist awareness and behavior regarding patient employment and support measures at their medical institutions. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of awareness and behavior of oncologists with support measures at their institutions. A total of 668 individuals participated. The overall response rate was 45.5%. Only 53.6% of respondents advised patients to tell their supervisors about prospects for treatment and ask for understanding. For medical institutions, 28.8% had a nurse-involved counseling program and adjustments in radiation therapy (28.0%) and chemotherapy (41.9%) schedules to accommodate patients' work. There was a significant correlation between awareness and behavior of oncologists and medical institutions' measures to support employed cancer patients. There is room for improvement in awareness and behavior of oncologists and support in medical institutions for cancer patients continuing to work. Oncologists could support working patients by exerting influence on their medical institutions. Conversely, proactive development of support measures by medical institutions could alter the awareness and behavior of oncologists. (author)

  20. 2008 Key Student Outcomes Indicators for BC Diploma, Associate Degree, and Certificate Programs: Survey Results by Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The BC Diploma, Associate Degree, and Certificate Student Outcomes (DACSO) Survey (formerly the BC College and Institute Student Outcomes Survey) collects and disseminates information about former students' post-secondary experiences and their subsequent labour market and further education experiences. The survey is administered annually to former…

  1. Does initial job status affect midlife outcomes and mental health? Evidence from a survey in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Oshio, Takashi; Inagaki, Seiichi

    2013-01-01

    This article examines how initial job status following graduation affects the midlife outcomes and mental health of Japanese workers, using micro data from a nationwide online survey of 3,117 men and 2,818 women aged 30-60. The focus was the impact of initial job status on socioeconomic/marital status and mental health during the person's midlife period. It was found that failure to obtain regular employment at the time of graduation raised the probabilities of unstable job status throughout ...

  2. Dr Fijiwara, Head of the Internet research Institute, Mr Ogino, Executive and Head of Ubiquitous Lab of IRI, Japan

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Japanese delegation from the Internet Research Institute visiting the ATLAS assembly hall in building 180 with Dr. Akira Yamaguchi, KEK laboratory, ATLAS experiment (first from left) and Dr. Masaya Ishino, University of Tokyo, ATLAS experiment (third from left).

  3. The 13th quality control survey for radioisotopes in vitro tests in Japan, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    This paper presents the results of the 13th quality control nationwide survey. Of 568 hospitals performing RI in vitro tests as of December 1991, 280 (49.3%) participated in this survey. The following 37 items were examined: ACTH, 17[alpha]-hydroxyprogesterone, [alpha]-fetoprotein, aldosterone, [beta]2-microglobulin, CA 125, CA 15-3, CA 19-9, calcitonin, CEA, cortisol, C-peptide, digoxin, esteradiol, ferritin, free triiodothyronine (T[sub 3]), free thyroxine (T[sub 4]), FSH, gastrin, GH, glucagon, IgE, insulin, LH, PAP, progesterone, prolactin, PTH, somatomedin C, T[sub 3], T[sub 4], T[sub 3] uptake, TBG, testosterone, thyroglobulin, tissue polypeptide antigen, and TSH. Reliability and safety of measurement values were evaluated based on protein components of serum samples, spontaneous reliability test, time-dependent reliability test, repeated freezing-dissolution test, and serial change test after freezing. 'Within kit variation' between facilities was great especially for ACTH, CA 15-3, CA 19-9, free T[sub 4], calcitonin, gastrin, and testosterone, and was favorable for [beta][sub 2]-microglobulin, CA 125, digoxin, cortisol, IgE, T[sub 3], T[sub 4], T[sub 3] uptake, and TBG. It was noted that there was a great difference in measurement values of free T[sub 3] and free-T[sub 4] between RIA kits and non-isotopic kits. (N.K.).

  4. Usage and Attitudes of Physicians in Japan Concerning Traditional Japanese Medicine (Kampo Medicine: A Descriptive Evaluation of a Representative Questionnaire-Based Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Moschik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Kampo medicine has been the primary medical model in Japan until the mid 1800s, regained a prominent role in today's Japanese medical system. Today, 148 herbal Kampo formulas can be prescribed under the national health insurance system, allowing physicians to integrate Kampo in their daily practice. This article aims to provide information about the extent to which Kampo is now used in clinics throughout Japan and about physician's current attitudes toward Kampo. We used the results of a 2008 survey that was administered to physicians throughout Japan (n = 684. The data showed that 83.5% of physicians currently use Kampo in the clinic, although the distribution of physicians who use Kampo differ widely depending on the specialty and provided a breakdown of Kampo usage by specialty. It will be interesting to see how each specialty incorporates Kampo into its respective field as Kampo continues to play a pertinent role in Japanese medical system.

  5. Long-Term Survey of Cadmium and Lead Contamination in Japanese Black Bears Captured in Iwate Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Itaru; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi; Tsuda, Shuji

    2016-12-01

    Cadmium and lead were measured in liver and kidney samples of 242 Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) captured from 1999 to 2014 from two local populations in Japan. The median concentration of cadmium was 0.54 (mean: 0.80) mg/kg-w.w. in liver and 7.7 (mean: 11.8) mg/kg-w.w. in kidney. The median concentration of lead was 0.24 (mean: 0.40) and 0.21 (mean: 0.32) mg/kg-w.w. in liver and kidney, respectively. Bears in the Kita-ou local population had higher concentrations of cadmium and lead than those in the Kitakami Highlands local population. No chronological change was observed in cadmium levels in tissues, but the percentage of bears whose lead levels exceeded 0.5 mg/kg-w.w. has been decreasing in recent years. Countermeasures against lead poisoning in wildlife, which were instituted in 2002, may have contributed to the decrease in lead contamination of the Japanese black bear.

  6. Japanese Structure Survey of Radiation Oncology in 2005 Based on Institutional Stratification of Patterns of Care Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshima, Teruki; Numasaki, Hodaka; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Nishio, Masamichi; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Ito, Hisao; Sekiguchi, Kenji; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Koizumi, Masahiko; Tago, Masao; Nagata, Yasushi; Masaki, Hidekazu; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Yamada, Shogo

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the structure of radiation oncology in Japan in terms of equipment, personnel, patient load, and geographic distribution to identify and improve any deficiencies. Methods and Materials: A questionnaire-based national structure survey was conducted between March 2006 and February 2007 by the Japanese Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. These data were analyzed in terms of the institutional stratification of the Patterns of Care Study. Results: The total numbers of new cancer patients and total cancer patients (new and repeat) treated with radiotherapy in 2005 were estimated at approximately 162,000 and 198,000, respectively. In actual use were 765 linear accelerators, 11 telecobalt machines, 48 GammaKnife machines, 64 60 Co remote-controlled after-loading systems, and 119 192 Ir remote-controlled after-loading systems. The linear accelerator systems used dual-energy function in 498 systems (65%), three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in 462 (60%), and intensity-modulated radiotherapy in 170 (22%). There were 426 Japanese Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology-certified radiation oncologists, 774 full-time equivalent radiation oncologists, 117 medical physicists, and 1,635 radiation therapists. Geographically, a significant variation was found in the use of radiotherapy, from 0.9 to 2.1 patients/1,000 population. The annual patient load/FTE radiation oncologist was 247, exceeding the Blue Book guidelines level. Patterns of Care Study stratification can clearly discriminate the maturity of structures according to their academic nature and caseload. Conclusions: The Japanese structure has clearly improved during the past 15 years in terms of equipment and its use, although the shortage of manpower and variations in maturity disclosed by this Patterns of Care Study stratification remain problematic. These constitute the targets for nationwide improvement in quality assurance and quality control

  7. The 14th quality control survey for radioisotope in vitro tests in Japan, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This report presents the results of the 14th quality control nationwide survey. Of 490 facilities performing RI in vitro tests as of December 1992, 261 (53.3%) participated in the present 1992 survey. Free testosterone and renin were added to the following conventional 37 test items: adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), growth hormone (GH), somatomedin C, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T[sub 3]), free T[sub 3], thyroxine (T[sub 4]), free T[sub 4], T[sub 3] uptake, thyroglobulin, T[sub 3] binding globulin (TBG), parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, gastrin, testosterone, estradiol, progesterone, 17[alpha]-hydroxyprogesterone, aldosterone, cortisol, immunoglobulin E (IgE), digoxin, [alpha]-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA), CA125, CA19-9, CA15-3, prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), [beta][sub 2]-microglobulin, and ferritin. Measurement data for each kit were analyzed by a mean value of measurements, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation (CV). Both 'within kit variation' between facilities and 'between kit variation' showed a CV of 20% or less for GH, somatomedin C, TSH, T[sub 3], T[sub 4], T[sub 3] uptake, TBG, cortisol, IgE, CA125, PAP, and [beta][sub 2]-microglobulin, revealing satisfactory results. There was a great 'within kit variation' between facilities in ACTH, free T[sub 4], and calcitonin; and there was a great 'between kit variation' in ACTH, LH, free T[sub 4], thyroglobulin, PTH, calcitonin, and [alpha]-fetoprotein. (N.K.).

  8. Real-time environmental monitoring at the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute O-arai Engineering Center. Using the internet to promote safety and environmental transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motomatsu, Sheila; Nakashima Inoue, Naoko

    2000-12-01

    The report documents the results of an effort at the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute O-arai Engineering Center (JNC/OEC) to provide via the Internet, in real-time, environmental monitoring data to promote safety and environmental transparency. Provided in Japanese as well as in English, the Internet site provides assurance that OEC nuclear operations are being conducted in a manner that is safe to both people in the surrounding area and the environment. This work conducted by Environmental Monitoring Team of the OEC Safety Administration Section fulfilled the assignment to release data real-time via the Internet tasked by the Information Disclosure Section of the JNC Headquarters Public Relations Division. The work conducted by the visiting exchange scientist fulfilled the experimental portion of Action Sheet 34 of the Agreement between JNC and DOE for Cooperation in Research and Development Concerning Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Measures for Safeguards and Nonproliferation. In Japan, the project for Action Sheet 34 Personnel Exchange on Remote Monitoring and Transparency' entailed both a study and an experiment on how remote monitoring technologies can be used to promote nonproliferation, environmental and safety transparency. Environmental airborne radionuclide monitoring falls under the definition of remote monitoring technology more broadly defined as 'remotely accessed unattended monitoring system technology'. (author)

  9. Tumor bulk as a prognostic factor for the management of localized aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a survey of the Japan lymphoma radiation therapy group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguchi, Masahiko; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Isobe, Kouichi; Hirota, Saeko; Hasegawa, Masatoshi; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Sasai, Keisuke; Hayabuchi, Naofumi

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To identify the prognostic factors that specifically predict survival rates of patients with localized aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Methods and Materials: The survey was carried out at 25 radiation oncology institutions in Japan in 1998. The 5-year event-free (EFS) and overall survival rates (OAS) were calculated, and univariate and multivariate analyses were done to identify which of the following factors, namely, gender, age, performance status (PS), serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level, Stage (I vs. II), tumor bulk (maximum diameter), and treatment, were significant from the viewpoint of prognosis. Results: A total of 1141 patients with Stage I and II NHL were treated by the Japanese Lymphoma Radiation Therapy Group between 1988 and 1992. Of them, 787 patients, who were treated using definitive radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy for intermediate- and high-grade lymphomas in working formulation, constituted the core of this study. Primary tumors arose mainly from extranodal organs (71%) in the head and neck (Waldeyer's ring: 36% and sinonasal cavities: 9%). The factors associated with poorer prognosis were age over 60 years old (p < 0.0001), radiation therapy alone (p < 0.0001), PS = 2-4 (p = 0.0011), (sex male, p = 0.0078), a bulky tumor more than 6 cm in maximum diameter (p 0.0088), elevated LDH (p = 0.0117), and stage II (p = 0.0642). A median dose of 42 Gy was delivered mainly to the involved fields. Short-course chemotherapy was provided in 549 (70%) patients. The 5-year OAS and EFS rates for all patients were 71% and 67%, respectively. According to the stage-modified International Prognostic Index, the 5-year EFS of the patients with risk factors from 0 to 1 was 76%, 61% for patients with two risk factors, and 26% for patients with three or more risk factors. Conclusion: Extranodal presentation, especially Waldeyer's ring and sinonasal cavities, is encountered more frequently in Japan than in Western countries. Tumor bulk is

  10. 'Radiation Fair' for 15 years in Osaka, Japan, and survey of the participants attitude toward radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Masakazu; Asano, Takeyoshi; Hayashi, Toshio; Hosokawa, Yasushi [Research Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, Osaka Prefecture Univ., Sakai, Osaka (Japan); Kakefu, Tomohisa; Nishihara, Hideaki

    1999-09-01

    We have been successfully operating 'Radiation Fair--The relationship between daily life and radiation--' during summer vacation season in August every year for 15 years in Osaka, the largest city of western Japan. The purpose of this event is radiation education of public including school kids through efficient information transfer of radiation and radiation-related technology. Currently we set up the space of it on a floor of Kintetsu Department Store, one of the major department stores in downtown Osaka and display various irradiated products available in our daily life together with explanatory panels. We have been devising various attractions as efficient information transfer media so that even elementary-school kids understand the basic knowledge of radiation and irradiation technologies. The number of participants has increased year by year until more than 20,000 in recent years. We distributed questionnaires to the visitors for recent 3 years to inquire their status toward radiation and irradiated products as well as impression toward the displays. The survey results suggest that school education may contribute to establish the public image toward 'radiation' as well as mass media. (author)

  11. Drinking Behavior and Mental Illness Among Evacuees in Fukushima Following the Great East Japan Earthquake: The Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Yuka; Yabe, Hirooki; Maeda, Masaharu; Ohira, Tetsuya; Fujii, Senta; Niwa, Shin-ichi; Ohtsuru, Akira; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Harigane, Mayumi; Yasumura, Seiji

    2016-03-01

    Recent evidence from alcohol and trauma studies suggests that disasters are associated with increases in the consumption of alcohol. The Great East Japan Earthquake and the associated nuclear disaster have continued to affect the mental health of evacuees from Fukushima. This study aimed to extend these findings by examining the relationship between drinking behaviors and the risk of mental illness after the compound disaster. We conducted the Mental Health and Lifestyle Survey with 56,543 evacuees. Kessler's K6 was used to assess the risk of mental illness, and logistic regression models were applied to analyze how drinking behavior patterns influence the risk of serious mental illness after adjustment for confounding variables. Logistic regression analysis evidenced that beginning heavy and light drinkers had the highest and a higher risk of serious mental illness, respectively. Individuals who were nondrinkers pre- and postdisaster had the lowest proportional risk of mental illness. Abstainers also had some risk to their mental health after the compound disaster. The results of this study highlight that beginning drinkers have a high risk of serious mental illness. Thus, mental health professionals should pay attention to the drinking behaviors of evacuees, which might predict increased risk of serious mental illness and consequently indicate a need for psychological intervention. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  12. Safe use of iodinated and gadolinium-based contrast media in current practice in Japan: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, Yoshito; Ishiguchi, Tsuneo; Murakami, Takamichi; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Hayakawa, Katsumi; Fukuda, Kunihiko; Korogi, Yukunori; Sugimoto, Hideharu; Takehara, Yasuo; Narumi, Yoshifumi; Arai, Yasuaki; Kuwatsuru, Ryohei; Yoshimitsu, Kengo; Awai, Kazuo; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Takagi, Ryo

    2016-02-01

    To help establish consensus on the safe use of contrast media in Japan. Questionnaires were sent to accredited teaching hospitals with radiology residency programs. The reply rate was 45.4% (329/724). For contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), chronic and acute kidney diseases were considered a risk factor in 96.7 and 93.6%, respectively, and dehydration in 73.9%. As preventive actions, intravenous hydration (89.1%) and reduction of iodinated contrast media dose (86.9%) were commonly performed. For nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), chronic and acute kidney diseases were considered risk factors in 98.5 and 90.6%, respectively, but use of unstable gadolinium-based contrast media was considered a risk factor in only 55.6%. A renal function test was always (63.5% in iodinated; 65.7% in gadolinium) or almost always (23.1; 19.8%) performed, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was the parameter most frequently used (80.8; 82.6%). For the patients with risk factors for acute adverse reaction (AAR), steroid premedication or/and change of contrast medium were frequent preventive actions, but intravenous steroid administration immediately before contrast media use was still performed. Our questionnaire survey revealed that preventive actions against CIN were properly performed based on patients' eGFR. Preventive actions against NSF and AAR still lacked consensus.

  13. [Awareness survey of Healthcare Number System pros and cons according to medical doctors in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Uryuhara, Yoko; Inoue, Machiko; Okamoto, Shigeru; Kashihara, Hidenori; Kito, Kumiko; Shinohara, Keiko; Mandai, Marie; Morioka, Miho; Tanaka, Shiro; Kawakami, Koji; Nakayama, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    After bills to launch the Social Security and Tax Number System were enacted in 2013, health and political officials have considered the Healthcare Number System (the System). However, little is known about doctors' awareness and concerns about the System. This study aimed to measure how many doctors disagree with the System, examine the doctors' characteristics, and analyze the benefits and harms of the System that they identified. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of doctors via the Internet. The participants were selected from a convenience sample of a panel of doctors based on stratified sampling including four groups: working at a hospital and content analysis. There were 562 respondents (68%). By group, 16/143 (11%), 25/138 (18%), 31/132 (23%), and 43/149 (29%) doctors, respectively, thought that the System was unnecessary. The variables that correlated with the main outcome were age (per 5 years; odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.14 [1.01-1.29]) and type of medical facility (working at a clinic; 1.99 [1.30-3.08]). The doctors identified that unifying information could decrease administrative duties, facilitate inter-facility collaboration, and prevent inappropriate medical consultations. This could result in decreased healthcare costs and personalized healthcare. However, the doctors also identified that integrating information and dealing with big data could increase information leakage and information management, cause over-monitoring of doctors, and enable the inappropriate use of integrated information. This could result in deteriorating healthcare. Since some information should not be integrated, the System raises ethical considerations about privacy. Among the doctors surveyed here, 10-30% thought the System was unnecessary. These respondents tended to be older and work at a clinic. The System could decrease the cost of healthcare and enable personalized healthcare but could also increase information leakage and information management, cause

  14. Influenza vaccination uptake among the working age population of Japan: results from a national cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Wada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza vaccination rates among Japanese people of working age (20-69 years is currently suboptimal, and the reasons for this have not been clearly elucidated. This study examined factors associated with vaccination intention among the working age population in Japan during September 2011, one-month prior to influenza vaccination becoming available. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A web-based survey of intention to be vaccinated against influenza in the coming season was undertaken among 3,129 Japanese aged 20 to 69 years. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to explore the associations between vaccination intent and other variables. Influenza vaccination intent was associated with having been vaccinated in the previous year (Odds Ratio (OR: 3.81; 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 3.75-3.86, the number of children per household (one compared with zero; OR: 1.37; 95%CI: 1.11-1.65, and household income ($50,000 to <$100,000 compared with $0 to <$50,000; OR: 1.30; 95%CI: 1.07-1.54. Smoking was inversely associated with influenza vaccine uptake (current smokers compared with non-smokers; OR: 0.79; 95%CI: 0.61-0.98. A history of either the survey respondent or a household member having being medically diagnosed with influenza in the previous year was not statistically associated with future influenza vaccination intent. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, this suggests that intention to be vaccinated among working age Japanese is associated with a past history of influenza vaccination, having children, and the household's income. As such, consideration of these factors should now form the cornerstone of strategies to encourage increased uptake of vaccination against influenza in future years.

  15. Inquiry relating to safety due to modification of usage of nuclear fuel material (establishment of waste safety testing facility) in Tokai Laboratory, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Application was made to the director of the Science and Technology Agency (STA) for the license relating to the modification of usage of nuclear fuel material (the establishment of waste safety testing facility) from the director of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute on November 30, 1978. After passing through the safety evaluation in the Nuclear Safety Bureau of STA, inquiry was conducted to the head of the Atomic Energy Safety Commission (AESC) on June 6, 1979, from the director of the STA. The head of AESC directed to conduct the safety examination to the head of the Nuclear Fuel Safety Examination Specialist Committee on June 7, 1979. The content of the modification of usage of nuclear fuel material is the establishment of waste safety testing facility to study and test the safety relating to the treatment and disposal of high level radioactive liquid wastes due to the reprocessing of spent fuel. As for the results of the safety examination, the siting of the waste safety testing facility which is located in the Tokai Laboratory, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), and the test plan of the glass solidification of high level radioactive liquid are presented as the outline of the study plan. The building, main equipments including six cells, the isolation room and the glove box, the storage, and the disposal facilities for gas, liquid and solid wastes are explained as the outline of the facilities. Concerning the items from the viewpoint of safety, aseismatic design, slightly vacuum operation, shielding, decay heat removal, fire protection, explosion protection, criticality management, radiation management and environmental effect were evaluated, and the safety was confirmed. (Nakai, Y.)

  16. Relationships between academic institutions and industry in the life sciences--an industry survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, D; Causino, N; Campbell, E; Louis, K S

    1996-02-08

    Despite growing acceptance of relationships between academia and industry in the life sciences, systematic, up-to-date information about their extent and the consequences for the parties involved remains scarce. We attempted to collect information about the prevalence, magnitude, commercial benefits, and potential risks of such relationships by surveying a representative sample of life-science companies in the United States to determine their relationships with academic institutions. We collected data by telephone from May through September 1994 from senior executives of 210 life-science companies (of 306 companies surveyed; response rate, 69 percent). The sample contained all Fortune 500 companies in the fields of agriculture, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals; all international pharmaceutical companies with sales volumes similar to those of the Fortune 500 companies; and a random sample of non-Fortune 500 companies in the life sciences drawn from multiple commercial and noncommercial directories. Both the survey instrument and the survey methods resembled those of our 1984 study of 106 biotechnology companies, allowing us to assess the evolution of relationships between academia and industry over the past decade. Ninety percent of companies conducting life-science research in the United States had relationships involving the life sciences with an academic institution in 1994. Fifty-nine percent supported research in such institutions, providing an estimated $1.5 billion, or approximately 11.7 percent of all research-and-development funding received that year. The agreements with universities tended to be short-term and to involve small amounts, implying that most such relationships supported applied research or development. Over 60 percent of companies providing support for life-science research in universities had received patents, products, and sales as a result of those relationships. At the same time, the companies reported that their relationships with

  17. Response Burden in Official Business Surveys: Measurement and Reduction Practices of National Statistical Institutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bavdaž Mojca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Response burden in business surveys has long been a concern for National Statistical Institutes (NSIs for three types of reasons: political reasons, because response burden is part of the total administrative burden governments impose on businesses; methodological reasons, because an excessive response burden may reduce data quality and increase data-collection costs; and strategic reasons, because it affects relations between the NSIs and the business community. This article investigates NSI practices concerning business response burden measurement and reduction actions based on a survey of 41 NSIs from 39 countries. Most NSIs monitor at least some burden aspects and have implemented some actions to reduce burden, but large differences exist between NSIs’ methodologies for burden measurement and actions taken to reduce burden. Future research should find ways to deal with methodological differences in burden conceptualization, operationalization, and measurement, and provide insights into the effectiveness and efficiency of burden-reduction actions.

  18. Organizational climate survey: management model tool on continuous improvement promotion in Finantial Institutional Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Amancio da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The organizational climate survey has been an important tool in the corporate world, the way in which the institutions can assess and ascertain through the results, the degree of satisfaction of its employees and look through plan of action, achieve better results in both performance and production. Through an empirical research, exploratory qualitative research, with collection of secondary data, it was found that the implementation of the organizational climate survey, "Speak Frankly" from Itaú Unibanco, it could analyze data and make a plan of effective action aiming at continuous improvement in the organizational environment, serving as personnel management model. The results were favorable in the period from year 2012 to 2014 with an increase of the degree of satisfaction in four 4% and maintained excellent adherence to answer questions reaching 90% the number of employees.

  19. [Association between evacuation condition and habitual physical activity in Great East Japan Earthquake evacuees: The Fukushima Health Management Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Masato; Ohira, Tetsuya; Yasumura, Seiji; Takahashi, Hideto; Yuki, Michiko; Nakano, Hironori; Wen, Zhang; Yabe, Hirooki; Ohtsuru, Akira; Maeda, Masaharu; Takase, Kanae

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Prevalence of life-style disease has increased dramatically in evacuees due to the Great East Japan Earthquake. One reason may be that physical activity level decreased from life environment changes due to evacuation. However, associations between evacuation condition and habitual physical activity have not been studied. We examined this association in Fukushima residents who participated in the Fukushima Health Management Survey. Methods: In this study, 37,843 evacuees from 13 municipal evacuation zones from the nuclear-power accident caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake, born before April 1, 1995, were included in the analysis. Evacuation condition was defined by disaster living place (13 zones), evacuation place (inside or outside the prefecture), and current living status (evacuation shelter or temporary housing, rental housing/ apartment, and relative's home or own home). Habitual physical activity was defined from self-administered questionnaires as participants who responded "almost every day" and "2-4 times/week" of regular exercise. In the analysis, habitual physical activity prevalence was aggregated by gender and variables (living place in the disaster, evacuation place, and current living status). Prevalence was adjusted for age, disaster living place, evacuation place, and current living status by standard analysis of covariance methods. Results: Adjusted prevalences of habitual physical activity were: men, 27.9-46.5%; women, 27.0-43.7% in each disaster living place. The differences were 18.6% point in men and 16.7% point in women. For evacuation place, physical activity outside the prefecture for men (37.7%) and inside the prefecture for women (32.1%) were higher, but those differences were only 2.2% point and 1.8% point in men and women, respectively. For current living status, physical activity of those in rental housing/ apartment was the lowest; evacuation shelter or temporary housing was the highest in both genders (men: 38

  20. Study of Duchenne muscular dystrophy long-term survivors aged 40 years and older living in specialized institutions in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Toshio; Kawai, Mitsuru; Kimura, En; Ogata, Katsuhisa; Takahashi, Toshiaki; Kobayashi, Michio; Takada, Hiroto; Kuru, Satoshi; Mikata, Takashi; Matsumura, Tsuyoshi; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Fujimura, Harutoshi; Sakoda, Saburo

    2017-02-01

    The national muscular dystrophy wards database of Japan lists 118 long-term Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients who were at least 40 years old as of October 1, 2013. To elucidate the clinical features of DMD patients aged 40 years and older, we obtained gene analysis and muscle biopsy findings, as well as medical condition information. Ninety-four of the registered patients consented to participate, of whom 55 meeting genetic or biochemical criteria confirming DMD were analyzed. The mean age at the time of the study was 43.6 ± 3.0 years, while at the time of independent ambulation loss it was 10.6 ± 1.5 years and at mechanical ventilation introduction it was 24.1 ± 5.5 years. All were receiving continuous ventilation support, 27 with non-invasive positive pressure ventilation and 28 with tracheal intermittent positive pressure ventilation. Thirty-eight were receiving β-blockers or a renin-angiotensin system inhibitor, while 9 were free from those agents. Forty had maintained oral nutrition. The 55 analyzed patients had survived into their 40s by receiving multidisciplinary intervention. Our findings emphasize the need of future studies to investigate disease modifiers and the mechanism of long-term survival. In addition, establishment of a worldwide care standard with focus on quality of life for adult males with DMD is important. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Current status of geoscientific studies being conducted by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute in regard to geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Pt. 2. Horonobe Underground Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eki, Nobuhiro; Yamazaki, Shinichi

    2004-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has been conducting two Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Projects. 'The Long-term Program for Research, Development and Utilization of Atomic Energy (Atomic Energy Commission, 2000)' states their technical and social importance for the Japan's program for the Geological Disposal (GD) of HLW and shows an expectation of earlier execution of the projects. One of the URL projects is Neogene argillaceous sedimentary formation hosted Horonobe URL Project. The aims of the Horonobe URL project are; Presenting concrete geological environment as an example of sedimentary formation, Confirming reliability of technologies for geological disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) by applying them to actual geological condition of sedimentary formation, Providing opportunities to experience the actual deep underground circumstance for the general public. The project is composed of six subjects; 1) development of site characterization methodology, 2) development of monitoring techniques, 3) development of engineering techniques for underground development, 4) neotectonic characterization of the area, 5) development of engineering techniques for designing, construction and operation of a repository, 6) development of safety assessment methodology. The project consists of three phases: investigations form the surface (Phase 1), investigations during construction of the underground facility (Phase 2) and researches using the facility (Phase 3). The total duration is about 20 years. From 2000, surface-based site investigations are going on. In course of the investigations, a series of geophysical surveys has been employed. Along with the town-wide investigation, an area for site-scale investigation was selected, a land for facilities construction was acquired in the area and the land preparation has started in 2003. Geological information gave more detailed and concrete figure of URL, which is composed of three shafts down to

  2. The impact of institutional ethics on academic health sciences library leadership: a survey of academic health sciences library directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooey, Mary Joan M J; Arnold, Gretchen N

    2014-10-01

    Ethical behavior in libraries goes beyond service to users. Academic health sciences library directors may need to adhere to the ethical guidelines and rules of their institutions. Does the unique environment of an academic health center imply different ethical considerations? Do the ethical policies of institutions affect these library leaders? Do their personal ethical considerations have an impact as well? In December 2013, a survey regarding the impact of institutional ethics was sent to the director members of the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries. The objective was to determine the impact of institutional ethics on these leaders, whether through personal conviction or institutional imperative.

  3. Psychosocial profiles of children with achondroplasia in terms of their short stature-related stress: a nationwide survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Naoko; Hanaki, Keiichi

    2014-11-01

    To assess psychosocial profiles of children with achondroplasia using a nationwide survey. Achondroplasia, showing short stature and disproportionately short limbs, causes physical inconvenience such as difficulty in reaching high objects. It is, however, still controversial whether the condition is associated with psychological problems, especially in childhood. A cross-sectional descriptive design was employed. To evaluate psychosocial profiles and adaptation processes in children with achondroplasia, we developed an inventory of scales based on the psychological stress model of which conceptual framework was comprised of stressor, coping process, coping resource and adaptation outcome domains. Participants were recruited nationwide through the largest advocacy support group for achondroplasia in Japan. Of the 130 group members, 73 X-ray-diagnosed patients, aged 8-18 years, completed the inventory of questionnaires to be analysed. As for the stressor domain, patients experienced short stature-related unpleasant experiences more frequently (z-score: +1·3 in average, +3·9 in physical inconvenience). Nevertheless, these experiences had little effect on the coping process (threat appraisal: -0·2, control appraisal: +0·1) and the adaptation outcome (stress response: +0·3, self-concept: 0·0). Interestingly, self-efficacy in the coping resource domain was noticeably increased (+3·1) and was strongly correlated with most variables in the coping process and in adaptation outcome domains. Although the children with achondroplasia experienced more short stature-related stressors, there was no evidence of any psychosocial maladaptation. This finding suggests that coping process as well as coping resources such as self-efficacy could be important targets for promoting psychological adjustment in children with achondroplasia. To help children with achondroplasia adapt socially, nurses and other healthcare providers should routinely assess their psychological adaptation

  4. Crustal characteristic variation in the central Yamato Basin, Japan Sea back-arc basin, deduced from seismic survey results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takeshi; No, Tetsuo; Miura, Seiichi; Kodaira, Shuichi

    2018-02-01

    The crustal structure of the Yamato Bank, the central Yamato Basin, and the continental shelf in the southern Japan Sea back-arc basin is obtained based on a seismic survey using ocean bottom seismographs and seismic shot to elucidate the back-arc basin formation processes. The central Yamato Basin can be divided into three domains based on the crustal structure: the deep basin, the seamount, and the transition domains. In the deep basin domain, the crust without the sedimentary layer is about 12-13 km thick. Very few units have P-wave velocity of 5.4-6.0 km/s, which corresponds to the continental upper crust. In the seamount and transition domains, the crust without the sedimentary layer is about 12-16 km thick. The P-wave velocities of the upper and lower crusts differs among the deep basin, the seamount, and the transition domains. These results indicate that the central Yamato Basin displays crustal variability in different domains. The crust of the deep basin domain is oceanic in nature and suggests advanced back-arc basin development. The seamount domain might have been affected by volcanic activity after basin opening. In the transition domain, the crust comprises mixed characters of continental and oceanic crust. This crustal variation might represent the influence of different processes in the central Yamato Basin, suggesting that crustal development was influenced not only by back-arc opening processes but also by later volcanic activity. In the Yamato Bank and continental shelf, the upper crust has thickness of about 17-18 km and P-wave velocities of 3.3-4.1 to 6.6 km/s. The Yamato Bank and the continental shelf suggest a continental crustal character.

  5. Null association between workplace social capital and body mass index. Results from a four-wave panel survey among employees in Japan (J-HOPE study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboya, Toru; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2016-02-01

    Research on the longitudinal association of workplace social capital and obesity is limited. We sought to investigate the prospective association of social capital in the workplace with body mass index (BMI) among employees in Japan. We used repeat panel surveys from 12 private companies in Japan. In the present study, four annual surveys waves were used, including 8811, 10,608, 9766, and 6249 participants, respectively. The first survey was conducted between October 2010 and December 2011 (response rate = 77.4%), and the following three surveys were conducted at approximately annual intervals. Questionnaires inquiring about workplace social capital, and other characteristics were administered at each survey. Height and weight were objectively measured in 11 companies, and self-reported in one company. Cross-sectional as well as fixed effects analysis of change in social capital and change in BMI were conducted. Analyses were stratified by age, sex, BMI at baseline, and companies. The analysis was conducted in 2015. Over 3 years, approximately 32% of the participants changed their BMI by more than 1 unit, while workplace social capital changed for approximately 78% of the sample. We found no associations between change in workplace social capital and change in BMI. The null association was preserved across analyses stratified by sex, age, overweight/obesity status at baseline, and company. Workplace social capital is not associated with changes in employee BMI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Detailed magnetic and gravity surveys around the hydrothermal area off Kumejima Island in the Mid-Okinawa Trough, southwestern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitada, K.; Kasaya, T.; Iwamoto, H.; Nogi, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The Okinawa Trough is an active back-arc basin formed by the rifting associated with extension of the continental margin behind the Ryukyu trench. New hydrothermal sites were recently discovered off Kumejima Island in the Mid-Okinawa Trough and the hydrothermal mineral deposits were identified by seafloor surveys and rock samplings by ROV (e.g., JOGMEC, 2015). In order to characterize the sub-seafloor structures and the spatial distribution of the magmatic activity around the sites, we conducted the dense magnetic, gravity and bathymetric surveys with a line spacing of 0.5 nmi aboard the R/Vs Yokosuka and Kairei, operated by the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) in 2016. The geophysical data collected during the previous cruises in the area by JAMSTEC were additionally used for this study. Magnetic anomaly was calculated by subtracting the IGRF model and the magnetization intensity was estimated by the method of Parker and Huestis (1974). Free-air gravity anomaly was calculated with subtracting the normal gravity field and with corrections of the drift and of the Eötvös effect. Bouguer gravity anomaly was calculated based on the method of Parker (1972). The magnetization intensity and the Bouguer gravity anomaly reveal three characteristics of the hydrothermal area off Kumejima Island: 1) The distribution of magnetization around the hydrothermal sites shows two different types of sub-seafloor magnetic features. One is corresponded to the submarine knolls with a relatively high magnetization of 4 A/M. The other is an ENE-WSW trending magnetization distribution with relatively high and low intensities, which is consistent with the trend of the bathymetric lineament. These features are considered to be formed by magmatism associated with submarine volcanoes and back-arc rifting. 2) The reduced magnetization zone corresponding to the hydrothermal area probably attributes to hydrothermal alteration of the host rock. 3) The hydrothermal

  7. An Ecological Survey of Mosquitoes and the Distribution of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan, between 2010 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Manabu; Hori, Kiyoe; Kitagawa, Yoko; Oikawa, Yosaburo; Kamimura, Kiyoshi; Takegami, Tsutomu

    2017-07-24

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a flavivirus, responsible for over 30,000 annual cases of encephalitis worldwide, with a mortality rate of approximately 30%. Therefore, it is important to examine the distribution of mosquitos carrying JEV in the fields, even though recently, the number of Japanese encephalitis cases has been approximately 5 per year in Japan. We report the seasonal dynamics of mosquitoes between 2010 and 2014 in Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan. We collected 39,308 female adult mosquitoes, 98.2% of which were classified as Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles. We identified JEV genomic RNA belonging to genotype 1 from the homogenate of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, collected during our study using reverse transcription-PCR and nucleotide sequencing techniques. Our results indicate that mosquito vectors for JEV are distributed not only in areas in Ishikawa, but also throughout Japan, and the results suggest that we must be careful regarding JEV outbreaks in Japan in the future.

  8. English Loanwords in the 1990's in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Akira

    A sociolinguistic analysis of English loan words in use in the 1990s in the discourse of young Japanese people is presented. The study drew data from a 1993 survey of undergraduate students at two Osaka (Japan) higher education institutions, one for men and one for women, which asked what loanwords students used and heard often. The report first…

  9. Gender Salary Differences in Economics Departments in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ana Maria; Takahashi, Shingo

    2011-01-01

    By using unique survey data, we conduct a detailed study of the gender salary gap within economics departments in Japan. Despite the presence of rigid pay scales emphasizing age and experience, there is a 7% gender salary gap after controlling for rank and detailed personal, job, institutional and human capital characteristics. This gender salary…

  10. Present state of the monitoring for internal contamination at Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaishi, J.; Fukuda, H.; Mizushita, S.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented of internal contamination surveys carried out since 1969 at Tokai Research Establishment. Routine monitoring sometimes revealed significant internal contamination for tritium workers, but almost never for others. The number of subjects for special monitoring varied according to the activities. In 1965, the number of subjects for special monitoring was nearly 300, due to a reactor repair that year. In recent years, the number or special monitoring has been several tens or so. With regard to special monitoring, the workers with significant internal contamination were less than 50%. The internal dose (50 years) estimated for the majority of subjects was of mrem order. During the past 15 years, only several cases of exposure of rem order were found. The highest dose experienced was about 4 rems ( 131 I thyroid) (U.K.)

  11. Research report for fiscal 1998. Survey on the researchers and research institutes for the effects of global warming and its countermeasures; 1998 nendo onshitsu koka gas ni yoru kankyo eikyo nado ni kansuru kenkyusha kenkyu kikan chosa chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Researchers and research institutes across the world (except those in Japan), engaged in the study of global warming and measures to deal with the phenomenon, are extracted in compliance with certain specified standards, and the latest information on them is appropriately arranged and listed. It is further developed into an electronic database for the convenience of users. The collected information includes more than 230 research institutes and more than 1,000 researchers. The endeavor is exerted by extracting essays and institutes mainly out of the on-line databases. More than 1,000 essays and 130 institutes are covered. Visits are made to five institutes in the U.S. and four in Europe who are most actively engaged in the study of global warming, and detailed researches are conducted and information is exchanged. The Argonne National Institute copes with all energy problems related to global warming. Descriptions are given about environmental impact surveys and CO2 isolation in the ocean at the Center for Global Science of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the visitors heard explanations of technologies related to renewable energies and so forth. Researches are made into ecosystems at the University of California, and into natural energies at the University of Hawaii. Also visited are research institutes in Australia, Germany, Netherlands, and Britain. (NEDO)

  12. Data management, documentation and analysis systems in radiation oncology: a multi-institutional survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessel, Kerstin A.; Combs, Stephanie E.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, information availability has become more elaborate and widespread, and treatment decisions are based on a multitude of factors. Gathering relevant data, also referred to as Big Data, is therefore critical for reaching the best patient care, and enhancing interdisciplinary and clinical research. Combining patient data from all involved systems is essential to prepare unstructured data for analyses. This demands special coordination in data management. Our study aims to characterize current developments in German-speaking hospital departments and practices. We successfully conducted the survey with the members of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Radioonkologie (DEGRO). A questionnaire was developed consisting of 17 questions related to data management, documentation and clinical trial analyses, reflecting the clinical topics such as basic patient information, imaging, follow-up information as well as connection of documentation tools with radiooncological treatment planning machines. A total of 44 institutions completed the online survey (University hospitals n = 17, hospitals n = 13, practices/institutes n = 14). University hospitals, community hospitals and private practices are equally equipped concerning IT infrastructure for clinical use. However, private practices have a low interest in research work. All respondents stated the biggest obstacles about introducing a documentation system into their unit lie in funding and support of the central IT departments. Only 27 % (12/44) of responsible persons are specialists for documentation and data management. Our study gives an understanding of the challenges and solutions we need to be looking at for medical data storage. In the future, inter-departmental cross-links will enable the radiation oncology community to generate large-scale analyses. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13014-015-0543-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  13. Radiation effects on non-human biota and ecosystems. Researches in National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Satoshi; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Ishikawa, Yuuji

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes research activities in National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) for evaluation of the radiation effects on selected terrestrial and aquatic organisms as well as the ecosystems. Seven organisms, conifers, fungi, earthworms, springtails, algae, daphnia and Medaka are presently selected to study. Most of them play important roles in Japanese ecosystems and are possibly useful for bio-indicator of the radiation effects. For the estimation of possible radiation dose, transfers of radionuclides and related elements from medium to organisms are evaluated. Dose-effect relationships of acute gamma radiation on the survival, growth, and reproduction of selected organisms have been studied. Studies on the effect of chronic gamma radiation at low dose rate were also started. In order to understand the mechanism of radiation effects and to find possible indicators of the effects, information of genome- and metagenome-wide gene expression obtained by the High Coverage Expression Profiling (HiCEP) has been collected. Evaluation of ecological effects of radiation is more challenging task. Study methods by using three-species microcosm were established, and an index for the holistic evaluation of effects on various ecological parameters was proposed. The microcosm has been simulated for its population dynamics, and mass and energy budgets as a computer simulation code. Developments of more complicated and practical model ecosystems have been started. The Denaturant Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) has been applied on soil bacterial community in order to evaluate the radiation effects on soil ecosystems. (author)

  14. Institutional Level Identity Control Strategies in the Distance Education Environment: A Survey of Administrative Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Amigud

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical separation of students and instructors creates the gap of anonymity and limited control over the remote learning environment. The ability of academic institutions to authenticate students and validate authorship of academic work at various points during a course is necessary for preserving not only perceived credibility but also public safety. With the growing scope of distance education programs that permeate critical areas such as healthcare, airspace, water management, and food solutions, universities have a moral obligation to employ secure measures to verify learning outcomes. This study examines the measures universities with large distance education programs employ to align identity of learners with the academic work they do, as well as the effectiveness of and challenges and barriers to their implementation. The research was undertaken using a multiple case approach and examined survey responses from five academic administrators at five officially accredited post secondary institutions in three countries. The cases examined in the study include: Athabasca University, Open University UK, Penn State University World Campus, University of Maryland University College, and eConcordia, Concordia University’s distance learning facility. This study is not an exhaustive attempt to examine all aspects of academic integrity, but rather to create awareness about various learner authentication strategies. This study confirms that secure learner authentication in the distance education environment is possible. However, with greater pressure to enhance security of learner authentication, the openness of open learning is challenged and may change as we know it.

  15. Social Surveys about Solid Waste Management within Higher Education Institutes: A Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro Ferronato

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste mismanagement is a social burden that requires the introduction of reliable public policies, including recycling principles and technological facilities. However, the development of recycling plans is a real issue for municipal governments, since it involves psychological and cultural factors, both in developed and developing countries. Questionnaire survey is an important tool for evaluating which solid waste management policy is suited for each specific study area, involving citizens and stakeholders. The aim of this paper is to evaluate what approach should be applied for social surveys in higher education institutes, comparing developing and developed countries. Italy is the developed country analyzed, where two universities in different cities are compared, while La Paz (Bolivia is the emerging reality considered. The research conducted in La Paz led us to understand that, although recycling rates are low (about 8%, many students (56.96% separate up to half of the waste produced at home. At the same time, about 53% of those interviewed do not know the recycling practices implemented by the informal sector which is the one that constantly act for improving the recycling rates of the city. Low technological acceptance is instead underlined in the high income country, since there is a common negative opinion concerning the introduction of landfills and incinerators near residential areas (49% disagree. A comparison of the methodologies adopted for the two case studies is introduced whereas investigations results are presented.

  16. Japan 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørstrup, Finn Rude; Hvass, Sven

    2003-01-01

    Kompendium udarbejdet til en studierejse til Japan  2003 Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Studieafdeling 10......Kompendium udarbejdet til en studierejse til Japan  2003 Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Studieafdeling 10...

  17. A Survey Study of Institutional Review Board Thought Processes in the United States and South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Kyung Jung

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the last several decades, South Korea has rapidly adopted Western customs and practices. Yet, cultural differences between South Korea and the United States exist. The purpose ofthis study was to identify and characterize potential cultural differences in the Korean and US institutional review board (IRB approach to certain topics.Methods: A qualitative analysis of a 9-item survey, describing 4 research study case scenarios, sent to IRB members from the United States and South Korea. The case scenarios involved the followingissues: (1 the need for consent for retrospective chart review when research subjects receive their care after the study is conceived; (2 child assent; (3 individual versus population benefit; and (4 exception from informed consent in emergency resuscitation research. The free-text responses were analyzed and abstracted for recurrent themes.Results: Twenty-three of the 45 survey recipients completed the survey, for an overall response rate of 51%. The themes that emerged were as follows: (1 the importance of parental authority among Korean participants versus the importance of child autonomy and child assent among US participants; (2 the recognition of the rights of a proxy or surrogate who can represent an individual’s values by all participants; and (3 the importance of the community, expressed by the Korean respondents, versus individualism, expressed by US respondents.Conclusion: Whereas US participants appear to emphasize the importance of the individual and the autonomy of a child, the Korean respondents stressed the importance of parental authority andbenefiting the community, above and beyond that of the individual person. However, there was substantial overlap in the themes expressed by respondents from both countries.

  18. Conflict-of-interest disclosure at medical journals in Japan: a nationwide survey of the practices of journal secretariats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Takako; Green, Joseph; Barron, J Patrick

    2015-08-26

    Medical journals in Japan generally have appropriate policies regarding disclosure of conflicts of interest (COI). However, COI management depends on the staff members of each journal's editorial secretariat. This study's objectives were to find out (A) whether COI disclosure and the journal's role in it are clearly understood by the journal's secretariat staff, (B) how much experience the editorial secretariat has in actually handling issues related to disclosure and (C) what kind of help or support they need. In January 2014, questionnaires were sent to the editorial secretariats of journal-publishing societies belonging to the Japanese Association of Medical Sciences (JAMS). The response rate was 100%, and the respondents represented 121 journals published by the 118 JAMS member societies (at the time of the survey). Information was collected on the history of COI policies and on how those policies were implemented. At the end of the questionnaire, there was an open-ended call for comments. Compulsory COI disclosure began between 2010 and 2013 for 60.3% of the journals (73/121). Handling of COI issues was not uniform: 17.4% (21/121) of respondents do not pursue cases of dubious disclosure, and 47.9% (58/121) do not require COI disclosures from editorial board members. Very few of the editorial secretariats had clearly-stated consequences for violations of COI-disclosure policy (33/121, 27.3%), and only 28.9% offered COI education (35/121). Respondents' comments indicated that uniform, easily-searchable guidance regarding COI policies and implementation would be welcome. Although commitment is widespread, policy implementation is inconsistent and COI experience is lacking. Clear, easy-to-use guidelines are desired by many societies. The JAMS is to be commended for supporting this country-wide investigation; other countries and regions are encouraged to perform similar investigations to respond to needs regarding COI management. Published by the BMJ Publishing

  19. Interim report on research between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute on neutron-capture cross sections by long-lived fission product nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furutaka, Kazuyoshi; Nakamura, Shoji; Harada, Hideo

    2004-03-01

    Neutron capture cross sections of long-lived fission products (LLFP) are important quantities as fundamental data for the study of nuclear transmutation of radioactive wastes. Previously obtained thermal-neutron capture gamma-ray data were analyzed to deduce the partial neutron-capture cross sections of LLFPs including 99 Tc, 93 Zr, and 107 Pd for thermal neutrons. By comparing the decay gamma-ray data and prompt gamma-ray data for 99 Tc, the relation between the neutron-capture cross section deduced by the two different methods was studied. For the isotopes 93 Zr and 107 Pd, thermal neutron-capture gamma-ray production cross sections were deduced for the first time. The level schemes of 99 Tc, 93 Zr, and 107 Pd have also been constructed form the analyzed data and compared with previously reported levels. This work has been done under the cooperative program 'Neutron Capture Cross Sections of Long-Lived Fission products (LLFPs)' by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). (author)

  20. The current status of the treatment for T4 maxillary sinus cancer in Japan. A multi-institutional retrospective observation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, Akihiro; Hayashi, Ryuichi; Matsuura, Kazuto

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the current status in Japan of the treatment for squamous cell carcinoma of the T4 maxillary sinus (MS-SCC) and its use to plan clinical trials in the future. The data for 128 patients with previously untreated MS-SCC were obtained from 28 institutions from 2006 to 2007. Of the 128 patients, 118 patients with curative intent were included in an analysis of the treatment and its results. Of the 118 patients, 73 patients had T4a disease, and 45 with T4b. Thirty-nine patients (33.1%) were treated with total maxillectomy, 25 (21.2%) with partial maxillectomy, 22 patients (18.6%) with RADPLAT, 19 patients (16.1%) with IV-CRT, and 13 patients (11.0%) with others. The 5-year overall survival rate and local control rate for 118 patients were 49.8% and 48.9%, respectively. The 5-year overall survival rates for patients with T4aN0M0 and T4bN0M0 were 67.5% and 29.8%, respectively. This study was retrospective, but we could understand the tendency of treatment choice and treatment results. It will be useful information to plan clinical trials in the future. (author)

  1. State of opening the cover and carrying out the checkup of the reactor vessel of the nuclear-powered ship 'Mutsu' by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    In the checkup by opening the cover of the reactor vessel of the nuclear-powered ship 'Mutsu', Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute carried out the checkup and maintenance for the reactor proper, control system and primary coolant facilities including the secondary side of steam generators and the pressure balancing valve of the containment vessel. The works were classified into the opening of the reactor, checkup, maintenance and restoration. The opening was begun on August 4, 1988, and finished on December 5. The checkup and maintenance were begun on September 22, and are still continued now. The maximum radiation dose rate on the surfaces of fuel assemblies and control rods and at the positions 1 m distant from them was measured. The results of the checkup of various components are reported. In 290 absorbent rods of control rods, spot corrosion and discoloration were observed, of which the spot corrosion penetrated the walls of 4 rods. Also in 12 fuel rods, spot corrosion was observed near the welded end plugs, but leak was not observed. (K.I.)

  2. Summary report on development of bilateral servo manipulator (BSM) for nuclear fuel cycle facilities in the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Yasuo; Koizumi, Tsutomu; Aoshima, Atsushi; Kawanobe, Kazunori; Kobayashi, Yuichi

    2000-03-01

    In order to improve availability of nuclear fuel cycle facilities such as fuel reprocessing plants, reduce occupational radiation exposure, the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has been developing an advanced remote manipulative system for fully remote maintenance and repair tasks in large volume repair cells. Fully remote maintenance and repair task is performed primarily by the utilization of overhead bridge cranes, mechanical master-slave manipulators and electro-mechanical power manipulators. This system requires also that plant process and remote processing equipment should be designed to provide modular or unit replacement based on the potential mode of system failures. Repair of equipment is performed following removal of the failed component from process line and transfer to the repair cell. Equipment repair in the cell is commonly carried out by the use of remote manipulators. However, the realization of fully remote maintenance facility requires so remote manipulative systems as to provide excellent controllability, durability and remote maintenance capability, development of a bilateral servo-manipulator was initiated in 1982. Two of BSM were installed in the Tokai Vitrification Facility (TVF) cell and their remote maintenance feasibility was evaluated. Following installation in the TVF, developing efforts toward achieving advanced remote maintenance capability for the Recycle Equipment Test Facility (RETF) have been made. This report summarizes mainly mechanical and control system design for improvement, particularly upgrading controllability. (Itami, H.)

  3. Research of fault activity in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohara, T.; Nakatsuka, N.; Takeda, S.

    2004-01-01

    Six hundreds and eighty earthquakes causing significant damage have been recorded since the 7. century in Japan. It is important to recognize faults that will or are expected to be active in future in order to help reduce earthquake damage, estimate earthquake damage insurance and siting of nuclear facilities. Such faults are called 'active faults' in Japan, the definition of which is a fault that has moved intermittently for at least several hundred thousand years and is expected to continue to do so in future. Scientific research of active faults has been ongoing since the 1930's. Many results indicated that major earthquakes and fault movements in shallow crustal regions in Japan occurred repeatedly at existing active fault zones during the past. After the 1995 Southern Hyogo Prefecture Earthquake, 98 active fault zones were selected for fundamental survey, with the purpose of efficiently conducting an active fault survey in 'Plans for Fundamental Seismic Survey and Observation' by the headquarters for earthquake research promotion, which was attached to the Prime Minister's office of Japan. Forty two administrative divisions for earthquake disaster prevention have investigated the distribution and history of fault activity of 80 active fault zones. Although earthquake prediction is difficult, the behaviour of major active faults in Japan is being recognised. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) submitted a report titled 'H12: Project to Establish the. Scientific and Technical Basis for HLW Disposal in Japan' to the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) of Japan for official review W. The Guidelines, which were defined by AEC, require the H12 Project to confirm the basic technical feasibility of safe HLW disposal in Japan. In this report the important issues relating to fault activity were described that are to understand the characteristics of current fault movements and the spatial extent and magnitude of the effects caused by these movements, and to

  4. Survey and analysis of satellite-based telemedicine projects involving Japan and developing nations: investigation of transmission rates, channel numbers, and node numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, I; Natori, M; Takizawa, M; Kaihara, S

    2001-01-01

    We surveyed interactive telemedicine projects via telecommunications satellite (AMINE-PARTNERS, Post-PARTNERS, and Shinshu University Project using Inmarsat satellites) offered by Japan as assistance to developing countries. The survey helped clarify channel occupation time and data transfer rates. Using our survey results, we proposed an optimized satellite model with VSATs simulating the number of required channels and bandwidth magnitude. For future implementation of VSATs for medical use in developing nations, design of telecommunication channels should take into consideration TCP/IP-based operations. We calculated that one hub station with 30-76 VSATs in developing nation can be operated on bandwidth 6 Mbps using with 128 Kbps videoconferencing system for teleconsultation and teleconference, and linking with Internet.

  5. Cross-cultural comparisons of attitudes toward schizophrenia amongst the general population and physicians: a series of web-based surveys in Japan and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Misty; Hori, Hiroaki; Sartorius, Norman; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2014-02-28

    Cross-cultural differences in attitudes toward schizophrenia are suggested, while no studies have compared such attitudes between the United States and Japan. In our previous study in Japan (Hori et al., 2011), 197 subjects in the general population and 112 physicians (excluding psychiatrists) enrolled in a web-based survey using an Internet-based questionnaire format. Utilizing the identical web-based survey method in the United States, the present study enrolled 172 subjects in the general population and 45 physicians. Participants' attitudes toward schizophrenia were assessed with the English version of the 18-item questionnaire used in our previous Japanese survey. Using exploratory factor analysis, we identified four factors labeled "social distance," "belief of dangerousness," "underestimation of patients' abilities," and "skepticism regarding treatment." The two-way multivariate analysis of covariance on the four factors, with country and occupation as the between-subject factors and with potentially confounding demographic variables as the covariates, revealed that the general population in the US scored significantly lower than the Japanese counterparts on the factors "social distance" and "skepticism regarding treatment" and higher on "underestimation of patients' abilities." Our results suggest that culture may have an important role in shaping attitudes toward mental illness. Anti-stigma campaigns that target culture-specific biases are considered important. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical features and outcomes of patients with primary myelofibrosis in Japan: report of a 17-year nationwide survey by the Idiopathic Disorders of Hematopoietic Organs Research Committee of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Katsuto; Shimoda, Kazuya; Uchida, Naoyuki; Shimomura, Taizo; Nagafuji, Koji; Kondo, Tadakazu; Shibayama, Hirohiko; Mori, Takehiko; Usuki, Kensuke; Azuma, Taichi; Tsutsumi, Yutaka; Tanaka, Junji; Dairaku, Hitomi; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ozawa, Keiya; Kurokawa, Mineo; Arai, Shunya; Akashi, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a 17-year nationwide survey (1999-2015) to elucidate the clinical outcomes of patients with primary myelofibrosis (PMF) in Japan. Questionnaires were sent annually to approximately 500 hematology departments. Newly diagnosed patients with PMF were enrolled in this study, and were followed up annually to collect prognostic information. Approximately 50 patients were enrolled per year, yielding a total of 780 patients with PMF included in this study. The median age at diagnosis was 66 years. At the time of analysis, the median survival duration was 47 months, and the 3-year overall survival rate was 59 %. Infection and disease transformation into acute leukemia were the most frequent causes of death. Of the proposed prognostic models for predicting the outcomes of PMF patients in Japan, the Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System of PMF plus model was the most feasible. Forty-three patients received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) at a median of 343 days after diagnosis. This treatment significantly prolonged the survival of PMF patients, and the 3-year overall survival rate after first alloSCT was 84 %. A long-term registration study is required for further evaluation of prognosis and the impact of treatments on survival.

  7. Fiscal 1997 report on the feasibility survey of Japan`s cooperation into energy/environment related fields in Asian countries; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Asia shokoku ni okeru energy kankyo kanren bun`ya eno kyoryoku kanosei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    A survey was made to study possibilities of Japan`s cooperation in tackling energy/environment problems in Asian countries. In 1995 the GNP growth rate was 2.6% in the world, while it was 7.9% in Asia showing a rapid growth. With the accelerating industrialization and urbanization, energy demand is now over three times as much as that in the 1980s. This means increases in waste and environmental pollution. Especially, the use of firewood in non-electrified areas is a serious problem the same as the slash-and-burn farming and deforestation. Also relating to the production of electric power, it is inevitable to choose hydroelectric power and renewable energy in addition to fossil fuels. Therefore, the necessity is heightening of various technologies for it and environmental protection technologies such as coal cleaning. Local areas, where the population density is extremely low and the electrification cost is high, became victims of elecrification. There the power system should be shifted from the central supply system to the local distributed one. For it, it is necessary to recognize an importance of the distributed type renewable energy which is friendly to the environment. The paper outlined the state of each country and energy by policy and environment. 10 figs., 83 tabs.

  8. The incidence and outcome of allied disorders of Hirschsprung's disease in Japan: Results from a nationwide survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoaki Taguchi

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Almost all Japanese cases of ADHD in the past 10 years were collected. Congenital HG and CIIP showed relatively high incidence, whereas acquired HG and IASA were extremely rare in Japan. The criteria of each disorder were also collected and summarized. Prognosis was poor in congenital HG, MMIHS, and CIIP.

  9. Co-Contamination of DON and NIV in Domestic Flour in Japan: Survey, Intake, Reduction and Rapid Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivalenol (NIV) and Deoxynivalenol (DON) are trichothecene mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. that contaminate mainly cereal crops, such as wheat, barley, and maize. These mycotoxins are serious health hazards to humans and domestic animals. In Japan, there have been many reports of DON and NIV ...

  10. Tombs, tunnels, and terraces a cultural resources survey of a former ammunition supply point in Okinawa, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhaaren, B. T.; Levenson, J. B.; Komine, G.

    2000-02-09

    U.S. forces serving at military bases on foreign soil are obligated to act as good stewards of the cultural and natural resources under their control. However, cultural resources management presents special challenges at U.S. bases in other countries where cultural properties laws differ in emphasis and detail from those in the United States and issues of land ownership and occupancy are not always clear. Where status of forces agreements (SOFAs) exist, environmental governing standards bridge the gap between U.S. and host nation cultural priorities. In Japan, the Department of Defense Japan Environmental Governing Standards (JEGS) fill this function. Under Criteria 12-4.2 and 12-4.3 of the JEGS, U.S. Forces Japan commit themselves to inventory and protect cultural properties found on the lands they control or use. Cultural properties include archaeological sites, tombs, historic buildings, and shrines. Natural monuments, such as landscape features or plant and animal species, may also be designated as cultural properties. As part of this commitment, in February 1999 a cultural resources inventory was conducted in Area 1, part of Kadena Air Base (AB), Okinawa, Japan. Area 1, the former U.S. army Ammunition Supply Point 1, is currently used primarily for training exercises and recreational paint ball.

  11. Laparoscopy for bowel obstruction--a contradiction? Results of a multi-institutional survey in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, M; Hoffmann, M; Laubert, T; Bruch, H P; Keck, T; Benecke, C; Schlöricke, E

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate on the acceptance and frequency of laparoscopic surgery for the management of acute and chronic bowel obstruction in a general patient population in German hospitals. To receive an authoritative opinion on laparoscopic treatment of bowel obstruction in Germany, a cross-sectional online study was conducted. We designed an online-based survey, supported by the German College of Surgeons (Berufsverband der Deutschen Chirurgen, BDC) to get multi-institutional-based data from various level providers of patient care. Between January and February 2014, we received completed questionnaires from 235 individuals (16.7 %). The participating surgeons were a representative sample of German hospitals with regard to hospital size, level of center size, and localization. A total of 74.9 % (n = 176) of all responders stated to use laparoscopy as the initial step of exploration in expected bowel obstruction. This procedure was highly statistically associated with the frequency of overall laparoscopic interventions and laparoscopic experience. The overall conversion rate was reported to be 29.4 %. This survey, investigating on the use of laparoscopic exploration or interventions in bowel obstruction, was able to show that by now, a majority of the responding surgeons accept laparoscopy as an initial step for exploration of the abdomen in the case of bowel obstruction. Laparoscopy was considered to be at least comparable to open surgery in an emergency setting. Furthermore, data analysis demonstrated generally accepted advantages and disadvantages of the laparoscopic approach. Indications for or against laparoscopy are made after careful consideration in each individual case.

  12. Fiscal 1998 research report. Feasibility survey on offshore wind power generation in Japan; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Nippon ni okeru yojo furyoku hatsuden no donyu kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This survey studied the feasibility of large-scale offshore wind power generation in Japan. Attempt was also made on preparation of outline maps of offshore wind around Japan. The cost of future offshore wind power generation systems is roughly dependent on technical issues and environmental issues. As technical issues, 'installation site,' 'foundation,' 'system interconnection' and 'maintenance/management' were summarized based on applications in Europe. As a result, it was clarified that technical issues can be solved with existing technologies to a certain extent, however, those relate to economical problems closely. The previous environment impact assessments say that wind power generation has no problems on the environmental issues. As relatively strong wind coastal areas, the outline maps of offshore wind point out Western Hokkaido area, Japan Sea area of Tohoku district, Pacific ocean area of the central part of Honshu, Genkai Nada area, Western Kyushu area and Southwest islands area, and suggest that these areas are promising for offshore wind power generation. (NEDO)

  13. Fiscal 1998 research report. Feasibility survey on offshore wind power generation in Japan; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Nippon ni okeru yojo furyoku hatsuden no donyu kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This survey studied the feasibility of large-scale offshore wind power generation in Japan. Attempt was also made on preparation of outline maps of offshore wind around Japan. The cost of future offshore wind power generation systems is roughly dependent on technical issues and environmental issues. As technical issues, 'installation site,' 'foundation,' 'system interconnection' and 'maintenance/management' were summarized based on applications in Europe. As a result, it was clarified that technical issues can be solved with existing technologies to a certain extent, however, those relate to economical problems closely. The previous environment impact assessments say that wind power generation has no problems on the environmental issues. As relatively strong wind coastal areas, the outline maps of offshore wind point out Western Hokkaido area, Japan Sea area of Tohoku district, Pacific ocean area of the central part of Honshu, Genkai Nada area, Western Kyushu area and Southwest islands area, and suggest that these areas are promising for offshore wind power generation. (NEDO)

  14. Web Evaluation at the US National Institutes of Health: Use of the American Customer Satisfaction Index Online Customer Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Fred B; Siegel, Elliot R; Feldman, Sue; Love, Cynthia B; Rodrigues, Dennis; Malamud, Mark; Lagana, Marie; Crafts, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Background The National Institutes of Health (NIH), US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), realized the need to better understand its Web users in order to help assure that websites are user friendly and well designed for effective information dissemination. A trans-NIH group proposed a trans-NIH project to implement an online customer survey, known as the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) survey, on a large number of NIH websites—the first “enterprise-wide” ACSI applicat...

  15. 76 FR 31633 - Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet from Japan; Institution of a Five-Year Review Concerning the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-860 (Second Review)] Tin- and Chromium... Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet from Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... the antidumping duty order on tin- and chromium-coated steel sheet from Japan would be likely to lead...

  16. A multi-institutional survey evaluating patient related QA – phase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teichmann Tobias

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In phase I of the survey a planning intercomparison of patient-related QA was performed at 12 institutions. The participating clinics created phantom based IMRT and VMAT plans which were measured utilizing the ArcCheck diode array. Mobius3D (M3D was used in phase II. It acts as a secondary dose verification tool for patient-specific QA based on average linac beam data collected by Mobius Medical Systems. All Quasimodo linac plans will be analyzed for the continuation of the intercomparison. We aim to determine if Mobius3D is suited for use with diverse treatment techniques, if beam model customization is needed. Initially we computed first Mobius3D results by transferring all plans from phase I to our Mobius3D server. Because of some larger PTV mean dose differences we checked if output factor customization would be beneficial. We performed measurements and output factor correction to account for discrepancies in reference conditions. Compared to Mobius3D's preconfigured average beam data values, these corrected output factors differed by ±1.5% for field sizes between 7x7cm2 and 30x30cm2 and to −3.9% for 3x3cm2. Our method of correcting the output factors turns out good congruence to M3D's reference values for these medium field sizes.

  17. The impact of nurse working hours on patient safety culture: a cross-national survey including Japan, the United States and Chinese Taiwan using the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yinghui; Fujita, Shigeru; Seto, Kanako; Ito, Shinya; Matsumoto, Kunichika; Huang, Chiu-Chin; Hasegawa, Tomonori

    2013-10-07

    A positive patient safety culture (PSC) is one of the most critical components to improve healthcare quality and safety. The Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS), developed by the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, has been used to assess PSC in 31 countries. However, little is known about the impact of nurse working hours on PSC. We hypothesized that long nurse working hours would deteriorate PSC, and that the deterioration patterns would vary between countries. Moreover, the common trends observed in Japan, the US and Chinese Taiwan may be useful to improve PSC in other countries. The purpose of this study was to clarify the impact of long nurse working hours on PSC in Japan, the US, and Chinese Taiwan using HSOPS. The HSOPS questionnaire measures 12 sub-dimensions of PSC, with higher scores indicating a more positive PSC. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using a generalized linear mixed model to evaluate the impact of working hours on PSC outcome measures (patient safety grade and number of events reported). Tukey's test and Cohen's d values were used to verify the relationships between nurse working hours and the 12 sub-dimensions of PSC. Nurses working ≥60 h/week in Japan and the US had a significantly lower OR for patient safety grade than those working working ≥40 h/week had a significantly higher OR for the number of events reported. The mean score on 'staffing' was significantly lower in the ≥60-h group than in the Japan and Chinese Taiwan. Patient safety grade deteriorated and the number of events reported increased with long working hours. Among the 12 sub-dimensions of PSC, long working hours had an impact on 'staffing' and 'teamwork within units' in Japan, the US and Chinese Taiwan.

  18. Upward Transfer in STEM Fields of Study: A New Conceptual Framework and Survey Instrument for Institutional Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueli

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes a new conceptual framework that informs research on factors influencing transfer in STEM fields of study from 2-year to 4-year institutions, presents a new survey instrument based on the framework, and offers directions for future research in this area.

  19. Current technological clinical practice in breast radiotherapy; results of a survey in EORTC-Radiation Oncology Group affiliated institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, Hans Paul; Hurkmans, Coen W; Kuten, Abraham; Westenberg, Helen A

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the current technological clinical practice of radiation therapy of the breast in institutions participating in the EORTC-Radiation Oncology Group (EORTC-ROG). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey was conducted between August 2008 and January 2009 on behalf of the Breast Working

  20. Acceptance and use of health information technology in Slovenian public health institutions: a national survey based on UTAUT model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Vinko

    2013-04-01

    Conclusions: The results show a positive attitude toward IT among Slovenian healthcare professionals. These findings are especially relevant in view of the fact that all types of healthcare professionals from all kinds of public healthcare institutions across the country were included in the survey.

  1. The current status of education and career paths of students after completion of medical physicist programs in Japan: a survey by the Japanese Board for Medical Physicist Qualification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadoya, Noriyuki; Karasawa, Kumiko; Sumida, Iori; Arimura, Hidetaka; Yamada, Syogo

    2015-07-01

    To standardize educational programs and clinical training for medical physics students, the Japanese Board for Medical Physicist Qualification (JBMP) began to accredit master's, doctorate, and residency programs for medical physicists in 2012. At present, 16 universities accredited by the JBMP offer 22 courses. In this study, we aimed to survey the current status of educational programs and career paths of students after completion of the medical physicist program in Japan. A questionnaire was sent in August 2014 to 32 universities offering medical physicist programs. The questionnaire was created and organized by the educational course certification committee of the JBMP and comprised two sections: the first collected information about the university attended, and the second collected information about characteristics and career paths of students after completion of medical physicist programs from 2008 to 2014. Thirty universities (16 accredited and 14 non-accredited) completed the survey (response rate 94 %). A total of 209, 40, and 3 students graduated from the master's, doctorate, and residency programs, respectively. Undergraduates entered the medical physicist program constantly, indicating an interest in medical physics among undergraduates. A large percentage of the students held a bachelor's degree in radiological technology (master's program 94 %; doctorate program 70 %); graduates obtained a national radiological technologist license. Regarding career paths, although the number of the graduates who work as medical physicist remains low, 7 % with a master's degree and 50 % with a doctorate degree worked as medical physicists. Our results could be helpful for improving the medical physicist program in Japan.

  2. Conflict-of-interest disclosure at medical journals in Japan: a nationwide survey of the practices of journal secretariats

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Takako; Green, Joseph; Barron, J Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Medical journals in Japan generally have appropriate policies regarding disclosure of conflicts of interest (COI). However, COI management depends on the staff members of each journal's editorial secretariat. This study's objectives were to find out (A) whether COI disclosure and the journal's role in it are clearly understood by the journal’s secretariat staff, (B) how much experience the editorial secretariat has in actually handling issues related to disclosure and (C) what kind...

  3. Survey data for the application to Japan of international ideas on safety of works involving radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    In order to apply ICRP Publication 27 to Japan, various concerned data in the nation were collected and analyzed. The data are the following: (1) for the respective industries, the number of deaths, age distribution of deaths, and frequency of injuries with seriousness and occupational diseases; and (2) for industries involving radiation exposure, the average reduction of life span due to radiation-induced deaths, and bodily, genetic and pregnancy effects of radiation exposure. (Mori, K.)

  4. Food intake patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese adults: analyses from the 2012 National Health and nutrition survey, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Htun, Nay Chi; Suga, Hitomi; Imai, Shino; Shimizu, Wakana; Takimoto, Hidemi

    2017-01-01

    Background There is an increasing global interest in the role of Japanese diet as a possible explanation for the nation?s healthy diet, which contributes to the world?s highest life-expectancy enjoyed in Japan. However, nationwide studies on current food intake status among general Japanese population have not been established yet. This study examined the association between food intake patterns and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) such as waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), bl...

  5. Molecular survey of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae in pet cats across Japan by species-specific nested-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, S; Kabeya, H; Negishi, A; Tsujimoto, H; Nishigaki, K; Endo, Y; Maruyama, S

    2017-10-01

    Cats are known to be the main reservoir for Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae, which are the agents of 'cat-scratch disease' in humans. In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of the two Bartonella species on 1754 cat bloods collected from all prefectures in Japan during 2007-2008 by a nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer region. Overall, Bartonella DNA was detected in 4·6% (80/1754) of the cats examined. The nested-PCR showed that 48·8% (39/80) of the positive cats were infected with B. henselae mono-infection, 33·8% (27/80) with B. clarridgeiae mono-infection and 17·5% (14/80) were infected with both species. The prevalence (5·9%; 65/1103) of Bartonella infection in the western part of Japan was significantly higher than that (2·3%; 15/651) of eastern Japan (P < 0·001). Statistical analysis of the cats examined suggested a significant association between Bartonella infection and FeLV infection (OR = 1·9; 95% CI = 1·1-3·4), but not with FIV infection (OR = 1·6; 95% CI = 1·0-2·6).

  6. Survey of Individual and Institutional Risk Associated with the Use of Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Manish; Pearson, David A; Bond, Michael C; Runyon, Michael; Pillow, M Tyson; Hopson, Laura; Cooney, Robert R; Khadpe, Jay; Nomura, Jason T; Inboriboon, Pholaphat C

    2016-05-01

    Residents and faculty in emergency medicine (EM) residency programs might be unaware of the professional and legal risks associated with the use of social media (SM). The objective of this study was to identify and characterize the types and reported incidence of unprofessional SM behavior by EM residents, faculty, and nurses and the concomitant personal and institutional risks. This multi-site study used an 18-question survey tool that was distributed electronically to the leaders of multiple EM residency programs, members of the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors (CORD), and the residents of 14 EM programs during the study period May to June 2013. We received 1,314 responses: 772 from residents and 542 from faculty. Both groups reported encountering high-risk-to-professionalism events (HRTPE) related to SM use by residents and non-resident providers (NRPs), i.e., faculty members and nurses. Residents reported posting of one of the following by a resident peer or nursing colleague: identifiable patient information (26%); or a radiograph, clinical picture or other image (52%). Residents reported posting of images of intoxicated colleagues (84%), inappropriate photographs (66%), and inappropriate posts (73%). Program directors (PDs) reported posting one of the following by NRPs and residents respectively: identifiable patient information (46% and 45%); a radiograph, clinical picture or other image (63% and 58%). PDs reported that NRPs and residents posted images of intoxicated colleagues (64% and 57%), inappropriate photographs (63% and 57%), or inappropriate posts (76% and 67%). The directors also reported that they were aware of or issued reprimands or terminations at least once a year (30% NRPs and 22% residents). Residents were more likely to post photos of their resident peers or nursing colleagues in an intoxicated state than were NRPs (p=0.0004). NRPs were more likely to post inappropriate content (p=0.04) and identifiable patient information

  7. Aerial radiological survey of the United States Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratories and Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Date of survey: April 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyns, P.K.

    1982-05-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Sandia National Laboratories (SNLA) and the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI) was carried out in April 1981 by EG and G, Inc. for the United States Department of Energy. The survey consisted of an airborne measurement of both natural and man-made gamma radiation from the terrain surface in and around the SNLA and ITRI site. These measurements allowed a determination of the surface terrestrial spatial distribution of isotope concentrations. Results are reported as exposure rates and man-made isopleths and are superimposed on 240 m/cm scale map of the area. Gamma ray energy spectra are also presented for the net man-made radioelements. Several areas of man-made activity were detected in the SNLA and ITRI survey. These areas were associated with normal operations at the SNLA, ITRI and Kirtland Air Force Base. The presence of 241 Am was not detected in any of the areas surveyed

  8. SU-E-T-84: A Survey On Radiotherapy Table Tolerances and Couch Overrides of Over 350 Institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinsky, B; Patel, R; Panfil, J; Surucu, M; Roeske, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Table overrides are relatively common in radiotherapy, yet are a potential safety concern. The goal of this study was to survey current departmental policies on treatment couch overrides and table tolerance values used clinically. Methods: A 25 question electronic survey on couch overrides and tolerances was sent to full members of the AAPM. In the first part of the survey, participants were asked: if table overrides were allowed at their institution, who was allowed to perform these overrides, and if imaging was required with overrides. In the second part of the survey, individuals were asked to provide table tolerance data for the following sites: brain/head & neck, lung, breast, abdomen/pelvis and prostate. Each site was further divided into IMRT/VMAT and 3D conformal techniques. Free-text spaces were provided, allowing respondents to enter any table tolerance data they were unable to specify under the treatment sites listed. Results: A total of 361 individuals responded, of which approximately half participated in the couch tolerances portion of the survey. Overall, 86% of respondents’ institutions allow couch tolerance overrides at treatment. Therapists were the most common staff members permitted to perform overrides, followed by physicists, dosimetrists, and physicians, respectively. Of the institutions allowing overrides, 34% reported overriding daily. More than half of the centers require documentation of the override and/or a setup image (acquired after override) to radiographically verify the treatment site. With respect to table tolerances, groups resulting from the free-text responses were at the two extremes; SRS/SBRT were the tightest, while clinical setup/mets/extremities were the most generous. There was no qualitative difference between IMRT/VMAT and 3D conformal table tolerances. Conclusion: This work is intended to stimulate a discussion within the radiotherapy community. This discussion, supplemented by the survey results provides an

  9. SU-E-T-84: A Survey On Radiotherapy Table Tolerances and Couch Overrides of Over 350 Institutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinsky, B; Patel, R; Panfil, J; Surucu, M; Roeske, J [Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Table overrides are relatively common in radiotherapy, yet are a potential safety concern. The goal of this study was to survey current departmental policies on treatment couch overrides and table tolerance values used clinically. Methods: A 25 question electronic survey on couch overrides and tolerances was sent to full members of the AAPM. In the first part of the survey, participants were asked: if table overrides were allowed at their institution, who was allowed to perform these overrides, and if imaging was required with overrides. In the second part of the survey, individuals were asked to provide table tolerance data for the following sites: brain/head & neck, lung, breast, abdomen/pelvis and prostate. Each site was further divided into IMRT/VMAT and 3D conformal techniques. Free-text spaces were provided, allowing respondents to enter any table tolerance data they were unable to specify under the treatment sites listed. Results: A total of 361 individuals responded, of which approximately half participated in the couch tolerances portion of the survey. Overall, 86% of respondents’ institutions allow couch tolerance overrides at treatment. Therapists were the most common staff members permitted to perform overrides, followed by physicists, dosimetrists, and physicians, respectively. Of the institutions allowing overrides, 34% reported overriding daily. More than half of the centers require documentation of the override and/or a setup image (acquired after override) to radiographically verify the treatment site. With respect to table tolerances, groups resulting from the free-text responses were at the two extremes; SRS/SBRT were the tightest, while clinical setup/mets/extremities were the most generous. There was no qualitative difference between IMRT/VMAT and 3D conformal table tolerances. Conclusion: This work is intended to stimulate a discussion within the radiotherapy community. This discussion, supplemented by the survey results provides an

  10. Polish credit institutions within the European Union: a cross-country survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Dybał

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of the Polish financial system, with regard to both the number of financial institutions and their assets over the last two decades. Data on the structure of household assets are also presented. According to the study, banks are the most important institutions in the Polish financial system. Analyzed in order to compare Polish credit institutions with all other members of the European Union were total assets of credit institutions, assets of the 25 largest banks in the European Union, as well as in Central and East Europe, share of the five largest credit institutions in total assets (CR5, asset share of credit institutions with majority foreign equity ownership, number of credit institutions, number of local units (branches, number of residents per credit institution local unit, number of employees of credit institutions, assets of credit institutions per employee and GDP per capita in PPS. The data demonstrate that over the past decade Polish credit institutions have largely strengthened their position within the European Union.

  11. Alterations in physique among young children after the Great East Japan Earthquake: Results from a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuya, Masahiro; Matsubara, Hiroko; Ishikuro, Mami; Sato, Yuki; Obara, Taku; Metoki, Hirohito; Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Yokoya, Susumu; Kato, Noriko; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Chida, Shoichi; Ono, Atsushi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Yamagata, Zentaro; Tanaka, Soichiro; Kure, Shigeo; Kuriyama, Shinichi

    2017-10-01

    Data for earthquake-related alterations in physique among young children in developed countries is lacking. The Great East Japan Earthquake caused severe damage in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures in northeastern Japan. We retrospectively obtained anthropometric measurements in nursery school from 40,046 (cohort 1, historical control) and 53,492 (cohort 2) children aged 3.5-4.5 years without overweight in October 2008, and in October 2010, respectively. At the time of the earthquake in March, 2011, children in cohort 1 had already graduated from nursery school; however, children in cohort 2 were still enrolled in nursery school at this time. We compared the onset of overweight at 1 year after the baseline between children enrolled in their school located in one of the three target prefectures versus those in other prefectures using a logistic regression model, with adjustment for sex, age, history of disease, and obesity index at baseline. Overweight was defined as an obesity index of >+15%, which was calculated as (weight minus sex- and height-specific standard weight)/sex- and height-specific standard weight. The odds ratio (OR) for the onset of overweight in the three target prefectures was significant in cohort 2 (OR 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.55) but not in cohort 1. When the two cohort were pooled (n = 93,538), the OR of the interaction term for school location × cohort was significant (OR 1.56; 95% CI, 1.09-2.23). Incident overweight in young children was significantly more common in the three prefectures affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake than in other prefectures after the disaster. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Current status of "hospital-clinic" and "hospital-pharmacy" cooperation for inhalation therapy -based on hospital surveys throughout Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Chie; Momose, Yasuyuki; Horie, Takeo; Komase, Yuko; Niimi, Akio; Dobashi, Kunio; Fujimoto, Keisaku; Tohda, Yuuji; Ohta, Ken; Adachi, Mitsuru

    2014-02-01

    The "zero death from asthma strategy" in the medical treatment for bronchial asthma has been promoted by the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare from 2006, and it indicates that medical and non-medical specialists, as well as pharmacists, should cooperate, and strives to build cooperation which is suited the actual conditions of an area. It is also important for COPD. Although hospitals in some areas cooperate with clinics and pharmacies, the overall concept of cooperation appears to be absent in most Japanese hospitals. A questionnaire was administered in early March, 2012 to 477 allergology institutions, and was authorized by an educational establishment. Among 246 replies from the institutions, cooperation between hospitals and clinics was carried out by 98 institutions (39.8%) specializing in bronchial asthma, and in 64 institutions (37.2%) specializing in COPD. However, cooperation tools were used in only 37 of these institutions (15.0%). The ability to fill prescriptions outside the hospital was available in 209 institutions (85.0%). One-hundred and seventeen institutions (47.6%) replied that they have no tools for hospital-pharmacy cooperation. Direct indications were written in prescriptions by 82 institutions (33.3). In order to build inter-regional association and to equalize medical treatment, we suggest that developing tools and organization for cooperation between health professionals who treat patients with bronchial asthma and COPD is necessary.

  13. How Possibly Do Leisure and Social Activities Impact Mental Health of Middle-Aged Adults in Japan?: An Evidence from a National Longitudinal Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumi Takeda

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate longitudinal relations between leisure and social activities and mental health status, considering the presence or absence of other persons in the activity as an additional variable, among middle-aged adults in Japan. This study used nationally representative data in Japan with a five-year follow-up period.This study focused on 16,642 middle-aged adults, age 50-59 at baseline, from a population-based, six-year panel survey conducted by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. To investigate the relations between two leisure activities ('hobbies or cultural activities' and 'exercise or sports' and four social activities ('community events', 'support for children', 'support for elderly individuals' and 'other social activities' at baseline and mental health status at follow-up, multiple logistic regression analysis was used. We also used multiple logistic regression analysis to investigate the association between ways of participating in these activities ('by oneself', 'with others', or 'both' (both 'by oneself' and 'with others' at baseline and mental health status at follow-up.Involvement in both leisure activity categories, but not in social activities, was significantly and positively related to mental health status in both men and women. Furthermore, in men, both 'hobbies or cultural activities' and 'exercise or sports' were significantly related to mental health status only when conducted 'with others'. In women, the effects of 'hobbies or cultural activities' on mental health status were no differences regardless of the ways of participating, while the result of 'exercise or sports' was same as that in men.Leisure activities appear to benefit mental health status among this age group, whereas specific social activities do not. Moreover, participation in leisure activities would be effective especially if others are present. These findings should be useful for preventing the deterioration of mental

  14. How Possibly Do Leisure and Social Activities Impact Mental Health of Middle-Aged Adults in Japan?: An Evidence from a National Longitudinal Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Fumi; Noguchi, Haruko; Monma, Takafumi; Tamiya, Nanako

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate longitudinal relations between leisure and social activities and mental health status, considering the presence or absence of other persons in the activity as an additional variable, among middle-aged adults in Japan. This study used nationally representative data in Japan with a five-year follow-up period. This study focused on 16,642 middle-aged adults, age 50-59 at baseline, from a population-based, six-year panel survey conducted by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. To investigate the relations between two leisure activities ('hobbies or cultural activities' and 'exercise or sports') and four social activities ('community events', 'support for children', 'support for elderly individuals' and 'other social activities') at baseline and mental health status at follow-up, multiple logistic regression analysis was used. We also used multiple logistic regression analysis to investigate the association between ways of participating in these activities ('by oneself', 'with others', or 'both' (both 'by oneself' and 'with others')) at baseline and mental health status at follow-up. Involvement in both leisure activity categories, but not in social activities, was significantly and positively related to mental health status in both men and women. Furthermore, in men, both 'hobbies or cultural activities' and 'exercise or sports' were significantly related to mental health status only when conducted 'with others'. In women, the effects of 'hobbies or cultural activities' on mental health status were no differences regardless of the ways of participating, while the result of 'exercise or sports' was same as that in men. Leisure activities appear to benefit mental health status among this age group, whereas specific social activities do not. Moreover, participation in leisure activities would be effective especially if others are present. These findings should be useful for preventing the deterioration of mental health

  15. Early Detection and Treatment of Neuroblastic Tumor with Opsoclonus-Myoclonus Syndrome Improve Neurological Outcome: A Review of Five Cases at a Single Institution in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takama, Yuichi; Yoneda, Akihiro; Nakamura, Tetsuro; Nakaoka, Tatsuo; Higashio, Atsushi; Santo, Kenji; Kuki, Ichiro; Kawawaki, Hisashi; Tomiwa, Kiyotaka; Hara, Junichi

    2016-02-01

    Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a paraneoplastic neurological disorder associated with neuroblastic tumor (NT) in childhood. Half of patients have neurological sequelae after the neurological and oncological treatment. We reviewed the neurological and oncological outcomes of NT with OMS, and discussed whether the treatment of NT would contribute to improving the neurological prognosis. We retrospectively assessed NT patients with OMS from January 2001 to December 2013 at a single institution in Japan. Demographic data, neurological and oncological status, histopathology, treatments, prognosis, and diagnosis and treatment timing were retrospectively reviewed from the records. The timings assessed were the interval between OMS onset and NT detection, initial NT therapy, and initial OMS therapy, the interval between NT therapy and OMS remission, and duration of OMS. A total of 73 patients with NT were treated during the study period, and 5 of 73 patients were diagnosed as having NT with OMS. The median age at onset of OMS was 22 months (range, 18-30 months). The median age at detection of NT was 29 months (range, 21-33 months). Three of five cases showed no uptake on meta-iodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy. The tumor histopathology was neuroblastoma in two patients, ganglioneuroblastoma in two patients, and ganglioneuroma in one patient. Primary resection was performed in three cases. All patients survived. Two of five cases presented with atypical neurological symptoms without opsoclonus. The initial neurological therapy was started within a mean of 20 days (range, 3-76 days) from the onset of OMS in all cases. Four patients received intravenous immunoglobulin, and one with persistent neurological problems received rituximab. Neurological symptoms resolved in three cases. The mean interval between the onset of OMS and the detection of NT in case without neurological sequelae was 57 days (range, 25-113 days), while in case with neurological sequelae it was 365

  16. A web-based survey of erection hardness score and its relationship to aging, sexual behavior, confidence, and risk factors in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Masaki; Shimura, Satoru; Tai, Toshihiro; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Baba, Shiro; Kano, Munehide; Nagao, Koichi

    2013-12-01

    Erection hardness is an elemental component of men's sexual quality of life that can be easily measured by the Erection Hardness Score (EHS). However, there are few published data regarding EHS, and there is little understanding of its relationships to aging, men's sexual behavior, sexual confidence, and risk factors in Japan. To assess EHS and how it correlates to aging, sexual behaviors, sexual self-confidence, and risk factors in a Japanese population database. A web-based cross-sectional nationwide survey conducted between March and May 2009 in Japan. EHS, lifestyle factors, comorbidities, general health, sexual confidence, frequency of sexual behaviors, and attitudes toward treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). A total of 7,710 men with a mean age of 39.3 ± 13.0 years participated in this survey. In 6,528 participants who were not using phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, 3,540 (54.2%) had EHS ≤ 3 and 1,196 (18.3%) had EHS ≤ 2. We found a significant age-dependent decrease in EHS, sexual confidence, and frequency of sexual activities. Sexual confidence was strongly associated with higher EHS but was also associated with older age groups, presence of offspring, awareness of better general health, and greater frequency of sexual activity. In age-adjusted multivariate logistic regression, risk factors for a lower EHS (defined as EHS ≤ 2) were heavy smoking, which was defined as more than two packs per day (odds ratio [OR], 1.7) or a history of metabolic syndrome (OR, 1.4), hypertension (OR, 1.2), and diabetes mellitus (OR, 1.4). EHS correlates to various elements, such as aging, sexual behaviors, sexual confidence, and ED-related risk factors, and can be a valuable tool in clinical practice for monitoring and treating ED and thereby improving the quality of life for men and their sexual partners. Kimura M, Shimura S, Tai T, Kobayashi H, Baba S, Kano M, and Nagao K. A web-based survey of Erection Hardness Score and its relationship to aging, sexual

  17. Association between perception of dentist oversupply and expectations of dentistry: a survey of dental graduates in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takeshi; Hanioka, Takashi; Yamamoto, Mito; Haresaku, Satoru; Shimada, Kaoru; Naito, Toru

    2013-06-01

    The perception that there is a surplus of dentists may be an opportunity to explore attractive career options in dentistry in Japan. A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to 2,114 graduates of a private dental school in Japan. We asked about the perception of oversupply, rated by a visual analogue scale, work environment factors, potential areas of dentistry and necessary medical subjects for their dental practice. The association of a strong perception of dentist oversupply with work environment factors, dental areas and medical subjects was examined by multivariate logistic regression analyses. The response rate was 66%, and data from 1,203 community dentists were analysed. Most respondents (76%) perceived either a strong or very strong surplus of dentists. A very strong perception was significantly associated with work environment factors, including practising in large cities and earning the second lowest of four levels of annual income, but no further associations were found with either the number of patients treated or with the other two ranges of income. This perception was negatively associated with the number of necessary medical subjects, specifically otorhinolaryngology, but no significant association was seen with the number of potential areas of dentistry. The negative correlation between the aspiration to acquire medical knowledge and the perception of dentist oversupply under the circumstance of the possibly excessive perception among community dentists invites further research on the benefits of teaching oral medicine to graduate entry students to build future working satisfaction. © 2013 FDI World Dental Federation.

  18. Epidemiologic survey of feline leukemia virus in domestic cats on Tsushima Island, Japan: management strategy for Tsushima leopard cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makundi, Isaac; Koshida, Yushi; Kuse, Kyohei; Hiratsuka, Takahiro; Ito, Jumpei; Baba, Takuya; Watanabe, Shinya; Kawamura, Maki; Odahara, Yuka; Miyake, Ariko; Yamamoto, Hanae; Kuniyoshi, Sawako; Onuma, Manabu; Nishigaki, Kazuo

    2017-11-01

    The Tsushima leopard cat (TLC) Prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus, a subspecies of P. bengalensis, is designated a National Natural Monument of Japan, and lives only on Tsushima Island, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. TLCs are threatened by various infectious diseases. Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) causes a serious infectious disease with a poor prognosis in cats. Therefore, the transmission of FeLV from Tsushima domestic cats (TDCs) to TLCs may threaten the TLC population. We investigated the FeLV infection status of both TDCs and TLCs on Tsushima Island by screening blood samples for FeLV p27 antigen and using PCR to amplify the full-length FeLV env gene. The prevalence of FeLV was 6.4% in TDCs and 0% in TLCs. We also demonstrated that the virus can replicate in the cells of TLCs, suggesting its potential cross-species transmission. The viruses in TDCs were classified as genotype I/clade 3, which is prevalent on a nearby island, based on previous studies of FeLV genotypes and FeLV epidemiology. The FeLV viruses identified on Tsushima Island can be further divided into 2 lineages within genotype I/clade 3, which are geographically separated in Kamijima and Shimojima, indicating that FeLV may have been transmitted to Tsushima Island at least twice. Monitoring FeLV infection in the TDC and TLC populations is highly recommended as part of the TLC surveillance and management strategy.

  19. Using Institutional Survey Data to Jump-Start Your Benchmarking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Timothy K. C.

    2012-01-01

    Guided by the missions and visions, higher education institutions utilize benchmarking processes to identify better and more efficient ways to carry out their operations. Aside from the initial planning and organization steps involved in benchmarking, a matching or selection step is crucial for identifying other institutions that have good…

  20. How do bioethics teachers in Japan cope with ethical disagreement among healthcare university students in the classroom? A survey on educators in charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itai, K; Asai, A; Tsuchiya, Y; Onishi, M; Kosugi, S

    2006-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to demonstrate how educators involved in the teaching of bioethics to healthcare university students in Japan would cope with ethical disagreement in the classroom, and to identify factors influencing them. Methods A cross sectional survey was conducted using self administered questionnaires mailed to a sample of university faculty in charge of bioethics curriculum for university healthcare students. Results A total of 107 usable questionnaires were returned: a response rate of 61.5%. When facing ethical disagreement in the classroom, coping behaviour differed depending on the topic of discussion, was influenced by educators' individual clear ethical attitudes regarding the topic of discussion, and was independent of many respondents' individual and social backgrounds. Among educators, it was commonly recognised that the purpose of bioethics education was to raise the level of awareness of ethical problems, to provide information about and knowledge of those issues, to raise students' sensitivity to ethical problems, and to teach students methods of reasoning and logical argument. Yet, despite this, several respondents considered the purpose of bioethics education to be to influence students about normative ethical judgments. There was no clear relationship, however, between ways of coping with ethical disagreement and educators' sense of the purpose of bioethics education. Conclusions This descriptive study suggests that educators involved in bioethics education for healthcare university students in Japan coped in various ways with ethical disagreement. Further research concerning ethical disagreement in educational settings is needed to provide better bioethics education for healthcare students. PMID:16648283

  1. Lifestyle factors and social ties associated with the frequency of laughter after the Great East Japan Earthquake: Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirosaki, Mayumi; Ohira, Tetsuya; Yasumura, Seiji; Maeda, Masaharu; Yabe, Hirooki; Harigane, Mayumi; Takahashi, Hideto; Murakami, Michio; Suzuki, Yuriko; Nakano, Hironori; Zhang, Wen; Uemura, Mayu; Abe, Masafumi; Kamiya, Kenji

    2018-03-01

    Although mental health problems such as depression after disasters have been reported, positive psychological factors after disasters have not been examined. Recently, the importance of positive affect to our health has been recognised. We therefore investigated the frequency of laughter and its related factors among residents of evacuation zones after the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011. In a cross-sectional study on 52,320 participants aged 20 years and older who were included in the Fukushima Health Management Survey in Japan's fiscal year 2012, associations of the frequency of laughter with changes in lifestyle after the disaster, such as a changed work situation, the number of family members, and the number of address changes, and other sociodemographic, psychological, and lifestyle factors were examined using logistic regression analysis. The frequency of laughter was assessed using a single-item question: "How often do you laugh out loud?" The proportion of those who laugh almost every day was 27.1%. Multivariable models adjusted for sociodemographic, psychological, and lifestyle factors demonstrated that an increase in the number of family members and fewer changes of address were significantly associated with a high frequency of laughter. Mental health, regular exercise, and participation in recreational activities were also associated with a high frequency of laughter. Changes in lifestyle factors after the disaster were associated with the frequency of laughter in the evacuation zone. Future longitudinal studies are needed to examine what factors can increase the frequency of laughter.

  2. IMMEDIATE MENTAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE GREAT EAST JAPAN EARTHQUAKE AND FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT ON MOTHERS EXPERIENCING MISCARRIAGE, ABORTION, AND STILLBIRTH: THE FUKUSHIMA HEALTH MANAGEMENT SURVEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida-Komiya, Hiromi; Goto, Aya; Yasumura, Seiji; Fujimori, Keiya; Abe, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    The Fukushima Pregnancy and Birth Survey was launched to monitor pregnant mothers' health after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident. Several lines of investigations have indicated that a disaster impacts maternal mental health with childbirth. However, there is no research regarding mental health of mothers with fetal loss after a disaster. In this report, we focus on those women immediately after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima NPP accident and discuss their support needs. Data regarding 61 miscarriages, 5 abortions, and 22 stillbirths were analyzed among the women who were pregnant at the time of the accident in the present study. We used a two-item case-finding instrument for depression screening, and compared the childbirth group with the fetal loss groups. We also analyzed mothers' opinions written as free-form text. Among the three fetal loss groups, the proportion of positive depression screens was significantly higher in the miscarriage and stillbirth group than in the childbirth group. Mothers' opinions were grouped into six categories, with pregnancy-related items being most common, especially in the miscarriage and stillbirth groups. A higher proportion of Fukushima mothers with fetal loss, especially those with miscarriage and stillbirth, had depressive symptoms compared to those who experienced childbirth. Health care providers need to pay close attention to this vulnerable group and respond to their concerns regarding the effects on their fertility.

  3. The Impact of Leisure and Social Activities on Activities of Daily Living of Middle-Aged Adults: Evidence from a National Longitudinal Survey in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takafumi Monma

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of leisure and social activities on the ability of middle-aged adults to maintain activities of daily living (ADL, and whether performing these activities alone or with others contributed to the ability to perform ADL. The study used nationally representative longitudinal data of 22,770 adults in Japan, aged 50-59 years, who did not have limitations in performing ADL at the beginning of the 5-year survey period. The study considered six activity categories: two leisure activities ("hobbies or cultural activities" and "exercise or sports" and four social activities ("community events," "support for children," "support for elderly individuals," and "other social activities". Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relation between participation in these categories at baseline and difficulties in ADL at the 5-year follow-up. The association between the extent of social interaction during these activities ("by oneself," "with others," or "both" and difficulties in ADL was also investigated. The analysis yielded significant negative correlations between "exercise or sports" and difficulties in ADL for both men and women, and between "hobbies or cultural activities" and difficulties in ADL for women. However, these significant relationships occurred only when activities were conducted "with others." The present findings might help prevent deterioration in middle-aged adults' performance of ADL in Japan.

  4. Determinants of institutional delivery among young married women in Nepal: Evidence from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabuddin, ASM; De Brouwere, Vincent; Adhikari, Ramesh; Delamou, Alexandre; Bardaj, Azucena; Delvaux, Therese

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To identify the determinants of institutional delivery among young married women in Nepal. Design Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) data sets 2011 were analysed. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed using a subset of 1662 ever-married young women (aged 15–24 years). Outcome measure Place of delivery. Results The rate of institutional delivery among young married women was 46%, which is higher than the national average (35%) among all women of reproductive age. Young women who had more than four antenatal care (ANC) visits were three times more likely to deliver in a health institution compared with women who had no antenatal care visit (OR: 3.05; 95% CI: 2.40 to 3.87). The probability of delivering in an institution was 69% higher among young urban women than among young women who lived in rural areas. Young women who had secondary or above secondary level education were 1.63 times more likely to choose institutional delivery than young women who had no formal education (OR: 1.626; 95% CI: 1.171 to 2.258). Lower use of a health institution for delivery was also observed among poor young women. Results showed that wealthy young women were 2.12 times more likely to deliver their child in an institution compared with poor young women (OR: 2.107; 95% CI: 1.53 to 2.898). Other factors such as the age of the young woman, religion, ethnicity, and ecological zone were also associated with institutional delivery. Conclusions Maternal health programs should be designed to encourage young women to receive adequate ANC (at least four visits). Moreover, health programs should target poor, less educated, rural, young women who live in mountain regions, are of Janajati ethnicity and have at least one child as such women are less likely to choose institutional delivery in Nepal. PMID:28408543

  5. RESULTS OF THE SURVEY CONDUCTED AMONG OPHTHALMOLOGISTS ON THE ISSUE OF EQUIPMENT OF MEDICAL INSTITUTIONS WITH OPHTHALMOLOGY DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Seraphimov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The problem of limited accessibility and quality of ophthalmic medical care remains one of the leading ones in the national healthcare. This article presents results of the survey conducted among ophthalmologists about the effect of large-scale equipment of all medical institutions in the Leningrad Region with modern ophthalmologic devices over the recent years.Objective is to determine the contribution of the health care modernization program to equipping the medical institutions of the Leningrad Region with modern ophthalmologic medical devices, and to identify the main areas for improving the ophthalmologic care for residents of the Leningrad region with cataracts.Materials and methods. According to a specially developed questionnaire, 105 ophthalmologists from the Leningrad Region were interviewed. The survey was conducted among physicians working both in out-patient medical facilities and in medical facilities with in-patient modalities.Results. The results of the study confirmed positive changes that occurred in recent years as a result of equipping medical institutions with modern medical devices. Almost two-thirds (59.9% of respondents noted that equipping with modern medical devices had a significant impact on the quality of the medical and diagnostic measures carried out in healthcare facilities of the region.Conclusions. The equipment had a significant impact on the diagnosis and treatment of all kinds of diseases of the eye and its appendages, especially such eye disease which is so common among the population of the Leningrad Region as cataracts (75.0 per 100 ophthalmologists surveyed. At the same time, in spite of these efforts, the standard for equipping ophthalmologic departments in individual medical institutions has not been fully provided. Only every fifth (20.9% ophthalmologist noted during the survey that the list of available ophthalmic devices was sufficient, and that they all worked properly.

  6. [Introduction of the psychoprophylactic method and its influence on the prenatal care program for institutional parturition in Japan: the practice in the Central Hospital of Maternity of the Japanese Red Cross Society and Oomori Red Cross Hospital, 1953-1964].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujihara, Satoko; Tsukisawa, Miyoko

    2014-03-01

    The psychoprophylactic method is one of the methods for providing 'painless childbirth without drugs' and was invented by applying I. Pavlov's theory of higher nervous activity. In 1951, it was adopted as a national policy in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. This method was then introduced in the People's Republic of China in 1952. In 1953, it was brought to Japan by Masatomo SUGAI, an obstetrician, and was introduced into the Central Hospital of Maternity of the Japanese Red Cross Society with the support of the director, Naotarou KUJI. The practice of this method by the research team, which consisted of the obstetricians and midwives of the Central Hospital of Maternity of the Japanese Red Cross Society and Oomori Red Cross Hospital, resulted in the initiation and characterization of the prenatal care program to encourage the autonomy of the pregnant women for normal parturition in the institutions of Japan.

  7. SU-F-P-13: NRG Oncology Medical Physics Manpower Survey Quantifying Support Demands for Multi Institutional Clinical Trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroe, J [St. Anthony’s Cancer Center, St. Louis, MO (United States); Case Western Reserve University (United States); Boparai, K [ACR, Reston, VA (United States); Xiao, Y [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Followill, D [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Galvin, J [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Newtown, PA (United States); Sohn, J [Case Western University, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: A survey was taken by NRG Oncology to assess Full Time Equivalent (FTE) contributions to multi institutional clinical trials by medical physicists.No current quantification of physicists’ efforts in FTE units associated with clinical trials is available. The complexity of multi-institutional trials increases with new technologies and techniques. Proper staffing may directly impact the quality of trial data and outcomes. The demands on physics time supporting clinical trials needs to be assessed. Methods: The NRG Oncology Medical Physicist Subcommittee created a sixteen question survey to obtain this FTE data. IROC Houston distributed the survey to their list of 1802 contact physicists. Results: After three weeks, 363 responded (20.1% response). 187 (51.5%) institutions reporting external beam participation were processed. There was a wide range in number of protocols active and supported at each institution. Of the 187 clinics, 134 (71.7%) participate in 0 to 10 trials, 28 (15%) in 11 to 20 trials, 10 (5.3%) in 21 to 30 trials, 9 (4.8%) had 40 to 75 trials. On average, physicist spent 2.7 hours (SD: 6.0) per week supervising or interacting with clinical trial staff. 1.25 hours (SD: 3.37), 1.83 hours (SD: 4.13), and 0.64 hours(SD: 1.13) per week were spent on patient simulation, reviewing treatment plans, and maintaining a DICOM server, respectively. For all protocol credentialing activities, physicist spent an average of 37.05 hours (SD: 96.94) yearly. To support dosimetrists, clinicians, and therapists, physicist spend on average 2.07 hours (SD: 3.52) per week just reading protocols. Physicist attended clinical trial meetings for on average 1.13 hours (SD: 1.85) per month. Conclusion: Responding physicists spend a nontrivial amount of time: 8.8 hours per week (0.22 FTE) supporting, on average, 9 active multi-institutional clinical trials.

  8. Ichthyofauna of the Kubo, Tochikura, and Ichinono river systems (Kitakami River drainage, northern Japan), with a comparison of predicted and surveyed species richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakae, Masanori; Senou, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The potential fish species pool of the Kubo, Tochikura, and Ichinono river systems (tributaries of the Iwai River, Kitakami River drainage), Iwate Prefecture, northern Japan, was compared with the observed ichthyofauna by using historical records and new field surveys. Based on the literature survey, the potential species pool comprised 24 species/subspecies but only 20, including 7 non-native taxa, were recorded during the fieldwork. The absence during the survey of 11 species/subspecies from the potential species pool suggested either that sampling effort was insufficient, or that accurate determination of the potential species pool was hindered by lack of biogeographic data and ecological data related to the habitat use of the species. With respect to freshwater fish conservation in the area, Lethenteron reissneri, Carassius auratus buergeri, Pseudorasbora pumila, Tachysurus tokiensis, Oryzias latipes, and Cottus nozawae are regarded as priority species, and Cyprinus rubrofuscus, Pseudorasbora parva, and Micropterus salmoides as targets for removal. PMID:25425932

  9. FY 2000 report on the survey of energy conservation technology in Japan; 2000 nendo chosa hokoku. Nihon kokunai no sho energy gijutsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of supporting self-help efforts to deal with energy environmental problems in developing countries in the Asian region, etc. and making the transfer of the energy conservation technology and petroleum substituting energy technology that are at a practical stage and are owned by Japan, evaluation of each technology was conducted in terms mainly of applicability for a model project. The existing survey data were supplemented/deleted. As the model project supposing the application to developing countries in Asia, types of industry for survey were selected as follows: iron/steel, nonferrous metal, chemical industry, oil refining, ceramics/earthware, paper/pulp, foodstuffs, textile/spinning, electricity (power generation)/gas, technologies common to all industry types. Technologies for survey were energy saving production facilities and energy saving equipment at plant with a regular scale to which the applicability as the model project was supposed. The energy saving effect was all calculated in TOE, and the method to calculate the effect was also described. The paper further described possibilities of introduction/spread of the said technologies to developing countries in Asia, introduction limitation/preconditions, cost vs. effect, etc. (NEDO)

  10. Public appraisal of government efforts and participation intent in medico-ethical policymaking in Japan: a large scale national survey concerning brain death and organ transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hajime; Akabayashi, Akira; Kai, Ichiro

    2005-01-01

    Background Public satisfaction with policy process influences the legitimacy and acceptance of policies, and conditions the future political process, especially when contending ethical value judgments are involved. On the other hand, public involvement is required if effective policy is to be developed and accepted. Methods Using the data from a large-scale national opinion survey, this study evaluates public appraisal of past government efforts to legalize organ transplant from brain-dead bodies in Japan, and examines the public's intent to participate in future policy. Results A relatively large percentage of people became aware of the issue when government actions were initiated, and many increasingly formed their own opinions on the policy in question. However, a significant number (43.3%) remained unaware of any legislative efforts, and only 26.3% of those who were aware provided positive appraisals of the policymaking process. Furthermore, a majority of respondents (61.8%) indicated unwillingness to participate in future policy discussions of bioethical issues. Multivariate analysis revealed the following factors are associated with positive appraisals of policy development: greater age; earlier opinion formation; and familiarity with donor cards. Factors associated with likelihood of future participation in policy discussion include younger age, earlier attention to the issue, and knowledge of past government efforts. Those unwilling to participate cited as their reasons that experts are more knowledgeable and that the issues are too complex. Conclusions Results of an opinion survey in Japan were presented, and a set of factors statistically associated with them were discussed. Further efforts to improve policy making process on bioethical issues are desirable. PMID:15661080

  11. [Fact-finding survey on regional healthcare services for patients with epilepsy based on a questionnaire administered to public health centers in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Masami; Ishimaru, Yasutaka; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Egami, Hirofumi; Nishida, Hideki; Oka, Shinji; Shirabe, Komei

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. The prevalence of epilepsy is about 1%, and its incidence is increasing with the aging population. In addition to their medical problems, epilepsy patients face many social problems, including schooling, working, and maintaining their driver's licenses. However, these problems are not fully recognized by the regional healthcare centers (HCCs), and the inadequacy of collaboration between medical services, healthcare, and welfare is sometimes pointed out. Under these circumstances, this fact-finding survey was administered in the form of a questionnaire to HCCs across the nation for the purpose of improving the support system and educational activities for epilepsy in Japan. A mail-back survey on regional healthcare services for epilepsy patients was sent out to 490 HCCs across the nation. Public health nurses (PHNs) responded to the self-completed questionnaire on behalf of each HCC. The questionnaire was comprised of the presence or absence of consultations on epilepsy, content of the consultations, and holding of workshops, lectures, or conferences in the community covered by the HCC. We obtained responses from 347 HCCs (response rate 71%). Seventy-three percent of the PHNs had experience with consultations regarding the medical and healthcare issues associated with epilepsy. However, only 10% of the PHNs responded that they could provide appropriate consultation for these issues. The content of the consultations mainly included medical services, clinical symptoms of epilepsy, and anxieties about their social life and their future. Workshops, lectures, or conferences on epilepsy were held for residents or health and welfare professionals in only 8% of the communities. This percentage is lower than those (21-70%) for other intractable or mental disorders that are mainly managed by HCCs (Prestrictions. To improve these situations, regional education programs for

  12. Institutional Care for Long-Term Mechanical Ventilation in Canada: A National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Rose

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: No national Canadian data define resource requirements and care delivery for ventilator-assisted individuals (VAIs requiring long-term institutional care. Such data will assist in planning health care services to this population.

  13. Quality Assurance Peer Review Chart Rounds in 2011: A Survey of Academic Institutions in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, Yaacov Richard; Whiton, Michal A.; Symon, Zvi; Wuthrick, Evan J.; Doyle, Laura; Harrison, Amy S.; Dicker, Adam P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In light of concerns regarding the quality of radiation treatment delivery, we surveyed the practice of quality assurance peer review chart rounds at American academic institutions. Methods and Materials: An anonymous web-based survey was sent to the chief resident of each institution across the United States. Results: The response rate was 80% (57/71). The median amount of time spent per patient was 2.7 minutes (range, 0.6–14.4). The mean attendance by senior physicians and residents was 73% and 93%, respectively. A physicist was consistently present at peer review rounds in 66% of departments. There was a close association between attendance by senior physicians and departmental organization: in departments with protected time policies, good attendance was 81% vs. 31% without protected time (p = 0.001), and in departments that documented attendance, attending presence was 69% vs. 29% in departments without documentation (p 75% of institutions, whereas dosimetric details (beams, wedges), isodose coverage, intensity-modulated radiation therapy constraints, and dose–volume histograms were always peer reviewed in 63%, 59%, 42%, and 50% of cases, respectively. Chart rounds led to both minor (defined as a small multileaf collimator change/repeated port film) and major (change to dose prescription or replan with dosimetry) treatment changes. Whereas at the majority of institutions changes were rare (<10% of cases), 39% and 11% of institutions reported that minor and major changes, respectively, were made to more than 10% of cases. Conclusion: The implementation of peer review chart rounds seems inconsistent across American academic institutions. Brachytherapy and radiosurgical procedures are rarely reviewed. Attendance by senior physicians is variable, but it improves when scheduling clashes are avoided. The potential effect of a more thorough quality assurance peer review on patient outcomes is not known.

  14. Impact of the great east Japan earthquake on the body mass index of preschool children: a nationwide nursery school survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Zheng, Wei; Matsubara, Hiroko; Ishikuro, Mami; Kikuya, Masahiro; Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Yokoya, Susumu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kato, Noriko; Chida, Shoichi; Ono, Atsushi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Tanaka, Soichiro; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Kure, Shigeo; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of the 2011 great east Japan earthquake on body mass index (BMI) of preschool children. Design Retrospective cohort study and ecological study. Setting Affected prefectures (Fukushima, Miyagi and Iwate) and unaffected prefectures in northeast Japan. Participants The cohort study assessed 2033 and 1707 boys and 1909 and 1658 girls in 3 affected prefectures and unaffected prefectures, respectively, all aged 3–4 years at the time of the earthquake. The ecological study examined random samples of schoolchildren from the affected prefectures. Primary and secondary outcome measures The cohort study compared postdisaster changes in BMIs and the prevalence of overweight and obese children. The ecological study evaluated postdisaster changes in the prevalence of overweight children. Results 1 month after the earthquake, significantly increased BMIs were observed among girls (+0.087 kg/m2 vs unaffected prefectures) in Fukushima and among boys and girls (+0.165 and +0.124 kg/m2, respectively vs unaffected prefectures) in Iwate. 19 months after the earthquake, significantly increased BMIs were detected among boys and girls (+0.137 and +0.200 kg/m2, respectively vs unaffected prefectures) in Fukushima, whereas significantly decreased BMIs were observed among boys and girls (−0.218 and −0.082 kg/m2, respectively vs unaffected prefectures) in Miyagi. 1 month after the earthquake, Fukushima, Miyagi and Iwate had a slightly increased prevalence of overweight boys, whereas Fukushima had a slightly decreased prevalence of overweight girls, compared with the unaffected prefectures. The ecological study detected increases in the prevalence of overweight boys and girls in Fukushima who were 6–11 and 6–10 years of age, respectively. Conclusions These results suggest that in the affected prefectures, preschool children gained weight immediately after the earthquake. The long-term impact of the earthquake on early childhood

  15. Impact of the great east Japan earthquake on the body mass index of preschool children: a nationwide nursery school survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Zheng, Wei; Matsubara, Hiroko; Ishikuro, Mami; Kikuya, Masahiro; Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Yokoya, Susumu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kato, Noriko; Chida, Shoichi; Ono, Atsushi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Tanaka, Soichiro; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Kure, Shigeo; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2016-04-07

    To evaluate the impact of the 2011 great east Japan earthquake on body mass index (BMI) of preschool children. Retrospective cohort study and ecological study. Affected prefectures (Fukushima, Miyagi and Iwate) and unaffected prefectures in northeast Japan. The cohort study assessed 2033 and 1707 boys and 1909 and 1658 girls in 3 affected prefectures and unaffected prefectures, respectively, all aged 3-4 years at the time of the earthquake. The ecological study examined random samples of schoolchildren from the affected prefectures. The cohort study compared postdisaster changes in BMIs and the prevalence of overweight and obese children. The ecological study evaluated postdisaster changes in the prevalence of overweight children. 1 month after the earthquake, significantly increased BMIs were observed among girls (+0.087 kg/m(2) vs unaffected prefectures) in Fukushima and among boys and girls (+0.165 and +0.124 kg/m(2), respectively vs unaffected prefectures) in Iwate. 19 months after the earthquake, significantly increased BMIs were detected among boys and girls (+0.137 and +0.200 kg/m(2), respectively vs unaffected prefectures) in Fukushima, whereas significantly decreased BMIs were observed among boys and girls (-0.218 and -0.082 kg/m(2), respectively vs unaffected prefectures) in Miyagi. 1 month after the earthquake, Fukushima, Miyagi and Iwate had a slightly increased prevalence of overweight boys, whereas Fukushima had a slightly decreased prevalence of overweight girls, compared with the unaffected prefectures. The ecological study detected increases in the prevalence of overweight boys and girls in Fukushima who were 6-11 and 6-10 years of age, respectively. These results suggest that in the affected prefectures, preschool children gained weight immediately after the earthquake. The long-term impact of the earthquake on early childhood growth was more variable among the affected prefectures, possibly as a result of different speeds of

  16. Positioning Indian Emigration to Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Costa, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    as other IT-strong developing countries, are to supply technical talent, whose availability in Japan is constrained by the secular demographic crisis and changing educational and occupational preferences. The challenges for India are the institutional barriers, in particular, Japanese business practices...... that act as significant barriers to the entry of foreign skilled professionals. The paper brings out the source and pattern of foreign professionals and students in Japan as a proxy for talent. Though India’s presence in Japan is currently limited, its share of technical professionals to the total number....... For Japan, it means access to technical professionals and managed interfacing with the global economy....

  17. Role of Database Management Systems in Selected Engineering Institutions of Andhra Pradesh: An Analytical Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutty Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the function of database management systems from the perspective of librarians working in engineering institutions in Andhra Pradesh. Ninety-eight librarians from one hundred thirty engineering institutions participated in the study. The paper reveals that training by computer suppliers and software packages are the significant mode of acquiring DBMS skills by librarians; three-fourths of the librarians are postgraduate degree holders. Most colleges use database applications for automation purposes and content value. Electrical problems and untrained staff seem to be major constraints faced by respondents for managing library databases.

  18. 75 FR 38119 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan. SUMMARY: The... on polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  19. Cybersecurity Education in Community Colleges across America: A Survey of Four Approaches by Five Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Robert D.; Hawthorne, Elizabeth K.

    This document describes four distinct approaches to education in the area of cybersecurity currently taught at community colleges across America. The four broad categories of instruction are: (1) degree program--four semesters of study leading to an associate's degree; (2) certificate program--two semesters leading to an institution-conferred…

  20. Attitudes toward clinical autopsy in unexpected patient deaths in Japan: a nation-wide survey of the general public and physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamishiraki, Etsuko; Maeda, Shoichi; Starkey, Jay; Ikeda, Noriaki

    2012-12-01

    Autopsy is a useful tool for understanding the cause and manner of unexpected patient death. However, the attitudes of the general public and physicians in Japan about clinical autopsy are limited. To describe the beliefs of the general public about whether autopsy should be performed and ascertain if they would actually request one given specific clinical situations where patient death occurred with the additional variable of medical error. To compare these attitudes with previously obtained attitudes of physicians practising at Japanese teaching hospitals. We conducted a cross-sectional study of the general public. We sent standardised questionnaires in 2010 to a randomly selected non-physician adult population using a survey company for participant selection. Respondents gave their opinions about the necessity of autopsy and how they might act given various clinical scenarios of patient death. We compared these results with those of a previous survey of Japanese physicians conducted in 2009. Of the 2300 eligible general adult population, 1575 (68.5%) responded. The majority of the general public indicated they believed an autopsy was necessary. However, in cases of unclear medical error or unclear cause and effect relationship of medical care and patient death, the general public were much less likely to indicate they would actually request an autopsy than were physicians (pcase of error related to death is underway. The results from this study will be important in informing related decisions.

  1. Generalized Trust and Trust in Institutions in Confucian Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Soo Jiuan; Tambyah, Siok Kuan

    2011-01-01

    This study examines generalized trust and trust in institutions in Confucian Asia, covering six countries namely, China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam, and one dependent region, Hong Kong. Using data from the 2006 AsiaBarometer Survey, our study affirms the reliability and validity of using a two-item scale to measure…

  2. Impact of caring for persons with Alzheimer's disease or dementia on caregivers' health outcomes: findings from a community based survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, Amir; Montgomery, William; Kahle-Wrobleski, Kristin; Nakamura, Tomomi; Ueda, Kaname

    2016-06-10

    This study assessed how family caregivers for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or dementia in Japan differed from non-caregivers in characteristics and health outcomes (i.e., comorbidities, health-related quality of life [HRQoL], productivity, and resource use). Caregivers were hypothesized to experience significantly poorer outcomes than non-caregivers. Data were combined from the 2012 and 2013 National Health and Wellness Survey in Japan (n = 60000). Caregivers for adult relatives with AD or dementia were compared with non-caregivers on: comorbidities (including Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) cutoff scores suggesting presence/absence of major depressive disorder (MDD)), Work Productivity and Activity Impairment (WPAI), SF-36v2-based HRQoL, and healthcare resource utilization. Sociodemographic characteristics, health characteristics and behaviors, and Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) scores were compared across groups. Propensity matching, based on scores generated from a logistic regression predicting caregiving, was used to match caregivers with non-caregivers with similar likelihood of being caregivers. Bivariate comparisons across matched groups served to estimate outcomes differences due to caregiving. Among 55060 respondents, compared with non-caregivers (n = 53758), caregivers (n = 1302) were older (52.6 vs. 47.5 years), more frequently female (53 % vs. 49 %), married/partnered, frequent alcohol drinkers, current smokers, exercisers, and not employed, and they averaged higher CCI scores (0.37 vs. 0.14), all p marital status, CCI, insured status, education, employment, income, and children in household. A greedy matching algorithm produced 1297 exact matches, excluding 5 non-matched caregivers. Health utilities scores were significantly lower among caregivers (0.724) vs. non-caregivers (0.764), as were SF-36v2 Physical and Mental Component Summary scores. Caregivers vs. non-caregivers had significantly higher absenteeism

  3. The Impact of Leisure and Social Activities on Activities of Daily Living of Middle-Aged Adults: Evidence from a National Longitudinal Survey in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monma, Takafumi; Takeda, Fumi; Noguchi, Haruko; Takahashi, Hideto; Tamiya, Nanako

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of leisure and social activities on the ability of middle-aged adults to maintain activities of daily living (ADL), and whether performing these activities alone or with others contributed to the ability to perform ADL. The study used nationally representative longitudinal data of 22,770 adults in Japan, aged 50–59 years, who did not have limitations in performing ADL at the beginning of the 5-year survey period. The study considered six activity categories: two leisure activities (“hobbies or cultural activities” and “exercise or sports”) and four social activities (“community events,” “support for children,” “support for elderly individuals,” and “other social activities”). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relation between participation in these categories at baseline and difficulties in ADL at the 5-year follow-up. The association between the extent of social interaction during these activities (“by oneself,” “with others,” or “both”) and difficulties in ADL was also investigated. The analysis yielded significant negative correlations between “exercise or sports” and difficulties in ADL for both men and women, and between “hobbies or cultural activities” and difficulties in ADL for women. However, these significant relationships occurred only when activities were conducted “with others.” The present findings might help prevent deterioration in middle-aged adults’ performance of ADL in Japan. PMID:27788163

  4. Nursing ward managers' perceptions of pain prevalence at the aged-care facilities in Japan: a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Yukari; Yamamoto-Mitani, Noriko; Fukahori, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Sayuri; Chiba, Yumi

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to examine nursing ward managers' perceptions of pain prevalence among older residents and the strategies of pain management at the Health Service Facilities for the Elderly Requiring Care (HSFERC) in Japan and to investigate the factors related to the prevalence. Nursing ward managers in 3,644 HSFERC were asked to participate in this study. Questionnaires were sent to them regarding pain prevalence among the older residents in their wards, their provisions for pain care, and other pain management strategies. The perceived pain prevalence factors were examined statistically. The final sample comprised 439 participants (12.0%). A total of 5,219 residents (22.3%) were recognized as suffering from pain on the investigation day. Only 8 wards (1.8%) used pain management guidelines or care manuals, and 14 (3.2%) used a standardized pain scale. The ward managers' age (p = .008) and nursing experience (p = .006) showed a significant negative association with pain prevalence estimation. Moreover, there was a significant association between the groups' pain prevalence estimation and the nursing managers' beliefs that older adults were less sensitive to pain (p = .01), that pain was common among older people (p = .007), and that the time to treat residents' pain was insufficient (p = .001). The ward managers' perceptions regarding pain prevalence varied; the perceived pain rates were possibly lower than the actual percentages. Insufficient pain management strategies at the HSFERC were also suggested. An appropriate pain management strategy for Japanese aged care and its dissemination are urgently required. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Community structures and activity of denitrifying microbes in a forested catchment in central Japan: survey using nitrite reductase genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohte, N.; Aoki, M.; Katsuyama, C.; Suwa, Y.; Tange, T.

    2012-12-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms of denitrification processes in the forested catchment, microbial ecological approaches have been applied in an experimental watershed that has previously investigated its hydrological processes. The study catchment is located in the Chiba prefecture in central Japan under the temperate Asian monsoon climate. Potential activities of denitrification of soil samples were measured by incubation experiments under anoxic condition associated with Na15NO3 addition. Existence and variety of microbes having nitrite reductase genes were investigated by PCR amplification, cloning and sequencings of nirK and nirS fragments after DNA extraction. Contrary to our early expectation that the potential denitrification activity was higher at deeper soil horizon with consistent groundwater residence than that in the surface soil, denitrification potential was higher in shallower soil horizons than deeper soils. This suggested that the deficiency of NO3- as a respiratory substrate for denitrifier occurred in deeper soils especially in the summer. However, high denitrification activity and presence of microbes having nirK and nirS in surface soils usually under aerobic condition was explainable by the fact that the majority of denitrifying bacteria have been recognized as a facultative anaerobic bacterium. This also suggests the possibility of that denitrification occurs even in the surface soils if the wet condition is provided by rainwater during and after a storm event. Community structures of microbes having nirK were different between near surface and deeper soil horizons, and ones having nirS was different between saturated zone (under groundwater table) and unsaturated soil horizons. These imply that microbial communities with nisK are sensitive to the concentration of soil organic matters and ones with nirS is sensitive to soil moisture contents.

  6. Fiscal 1999 technical survey report. Survey of energy conservation technologies in Japan; 1999 nendo kokunai no sho energy gijutsu ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization), in its effort to implement a joint project with importing countries, endeavors to popularize energy conservation technologies by introducing them into plants in the importing countries and by demonstrating their validity on real systems. Energy conservation technologies in use in Japan's steelmaking, cement making, chemical, and oil refining industries were reassessed in view of their usefulness in the above-said project. During the reassessment, they were analyzed also for cost effectiveness for the scales on which they would possibly be introduced. Ninety-four technologies were reassessed, which involved the top pressure recovery facilities, continuous casting facilities, high frequency melting furnace, and high efficiency sintering furnace ignition device, these for the steelmaking industry; the materials crushing vertical roller mill, NSP (new suspension preheater) type cement calcination kiln, finishing process preliminary crusher, urban wastes conversion into materials for cement making or into fuel, these for the cement making industry; the multi-effect evaporator for an ammonia manufacturing process and the device for collecting waste heat at the outlet of a synthetic gas compressor, these for the chemical industry; and reduction in the amount of injection steam by use of vacuum distillation tower top steam recycling, etc., these in relation with oil refining facilities. (NEDO)

  7. 75 FR 22101 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey: Institutional Remittances to Foreign...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ...), which BEA publishes quarterly in news releases, on its Web site, and in its monthly journal, the Survey of Current Business. These accounts provide a statistical summary of all U.S. international... record. Dated: April 21, 2010. Glenna Mickelson, Management Analyst, Office of Chief Information Officer...

  8. Preliminary Country Reports on Feasibility Survey: Policy Research and Education Institutions for Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James M.; Luikart, F. W.

    The feasibility of creating independent research and education centers that deal with public policy issues in developing countries is assessed. Countries that were surveyed include Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, South Korea, Philippines, Pakistan, and Nepal. For each country, a report describes the social and political climate…

  9. FY 1999 survey report on the survey to grasp new technologies for destruction of freons, etc. in Japan; 1999 nendo Nippon no atarashii freon nado hakai gijutsu no haaku chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    At the end of 1995, a total abolition of the production of the specified freons (CFC) was achieved. In future, it will be important to proceed with the appropriate recovery/destruction of the CFC, etc. which has been used so far, not only for the protection of ozone layer, but for the prevention of global warming. For the international study of facilities (technology) for destruction CFC, etc., the Technical Assessment Committee (TAC) was installed for destruction technology of ozone layer depletion substances (ODS) under the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and the destruction efficiency (DE) of ODS was set up. In Japan, more than 30 facilities are already handling the destruction of CFC on a commercial basis. The number is expected to increase by the promotion of protection of ozone layer and prevention of global warming. This survey indicated quantitatively and qualitatively based on the TAC DE what the facilities for destruction of CFC should be which were considered of domestic laws in Japan, and was made a guide for existing facilities and ones to be newly installed. (NEDO)

  10. A study on the factors that contribute to the practice of organizational behavior as coping with unexpected events. Exploration of the factors through the case survey of the Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayase, Kenichi

    2016-01-01

    In the organizations in the face of unexpected events in the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, the organizational behavior which was coped with by their members was seen. It is important to prepare emergency that the backgrounds of those organizational behavior were understood. This study aimed to explore the factors that contribute to the practice of organizational behavior as coping with unexpected events through the case survey of the Great East Japan Earthquake. This study carried out literature survey and interview survey of personnel in charge of disaster prevention, BCP in the 10 organizations which coped with the earthquake. As the result, the following two outcomes were obtained. 1) Factors that contribute to the practice of the 13 kinds of the organizational behavior were clarified. 2) Discussion from the view point of the factors classification indicated the importance of the factors which are classified into normal business and features of organization. (author)

  11. Gaps in Radiation Therapy Awareness: Results From an Educational Multi-institutional Survey of US Internal Medicine Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaverdian, Narek; Yoo, Sun Mi; Cook, Ryan; Chang, Eric M; Jiang, Naomi; Yuan, Ye; Sandler, Kiri; Steinberg, Michael; Lee, Percy

    2017-08-01

    Internists and primary care providers play a growing role in cancer care. We therefore evaluated the awareness of radiation therapy in general and specifically the clinical utility of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) among current US internal medicine residents. A web-based institutional review board-approved multi-institutional survey was distributed to US internal medicine residency programs. The survey evaluated trainee demographic characteristics, baseline radiation oncology awareness, knowledge of the role of SBRT for early-stage NSCLC, and whether the survey successfully improved awareness. Thirty US internal medicine programs participated, with an overall participant response rate of 46% (1177 of 2551). Of the trainees, 93% (n=1076) reported no radiation oncology education in their residency, 39% (n=452) reported confidence in knowing when to consult radiation oncology in an oncologic emergency, and 26% (n=293) reported confidence in knowing when to consult radiation oncology in the setting of a newly diagnosed cancer. Of the participants, 76% (n=850) correctly identified that surgical resection is the standard treatment in operable early-stage NSCLC, but only 50% (n=559) of participants would recommend SBRT to a medically inoperable patient, followed by 31% of participants (n=347) who were unsure of the most appropriate treatment, and 10% (n=117) who recommended waiting to offer palliative therapy. Ninety percent of participants (n=1029) agreed that they would benefit from further training on when to consult radiation oncology. Overall, 96% (n=1072) indicated that the survey increased their knowledge and awareness of the role of SBRT. The majority of participating trainees received no education in radiation oncology in their residency, reported a lack of confidence regarding when to consult radiation oncology, and overwhelmingly agreed that they would benefit from further training. These findings

  12. Risk Perception of Pregnancy Promotes Disapproval of Gestational Surrogacy: Analysis of a Nationally Representative Opinion Survey in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kohta; Sawa, Rintaro; Muto, Kaori; Kusuda, Satoshi; Banno, Kouji; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2011-01-01

    Background To clarify the relationship between the general attitude towards gestational surrogacy and risk perception about pregnancy and infertility treatment. Materials and Methods This study analysed the data of nationally representative cross-sectional surveys from 2007 concerning assisted reproductive technologies. The participants represented the general Japanese population. We used this data to carry out multivariate analysis. The main outcome measures were adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals from logistic regression models for factors including the effect of pregnancy risk perception on the attitude toward gestational surrogacy. Results In this survey, 3412 participants responded (response rate of 68.2%). With regard to the attitude towards gestational surrogacy, 54.0% of the respondents approved of it, and 29.7% stated that they were undecided. The perception of a high level of risk concerning ectopic pregnancy, threatened miscarriage or premature birth, and pregnancy-induced hypertension influenced the participants’ attitudes towards gestational surrogacy. Moreover, this perception of risk also contributed to a disapproval of the technique. Conclusion Our findings suggest that a person who understands the risks associated with pregnancy might clearly express their disapproval of gestational surrogacy. PMID:24963363

  13. Willingness to pay for health care services in common cold, retinal detachment, and myocardiac infarction: an internet survey in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imamura Tomoaki

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of Willingness To Pay (WTP measurement with Contingent Valuation Method (CVM to medical services is gradually increasing. Knowing what influences WTP is an important matter because validity of CVM in medical services remains controversial. The objective of this survey is to measure WTP for the treatment of typical acute illnesses and to analyze the factors affecting WTP. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted over the Internet, in which 795 men and women between 40 and 59 years old responded to questions about WTP for medical expenses in three hypothetical scenarios: common cold (CC, retinal detachment (RD and myocardiac infarction (MI. Results Mean WTP was $29.9 for CC, $2,233 for RD, and $8,976 for MI. WTP for RD and MI was lower in the low-income group. While WTP for CC did not vary with income, WTP was higher in groups whose current subjective fitness levels were low. Conclusion Although WTP measurements are criticized frequently for their validity and reliability, they are still useful for determining the economic value of medical services. Based on the results of this study, it is deemed necessary to enhance safety nets for low-income earners in regards to serious illnesses that incur high medical expenses. Further, it is recommended that the rate of co-payments be set relatively high with respect to mild illnesses for which alternative services are available.

  14. Willingness to pay for health care services in common cold, retinal detachment, and myocardiac infarction: an internet survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunaga, Hideo; Ide, Hiroo; Imamura, Tomoaki; Ohe, Kazuhiko

    2006-02-20

    The application of Willingness To Pay (WTP) measurement with Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) to medical services is gradually increasing. Knowing what influences WTP is an important matter because validity of CVM in medical services remains controversial. The objective of this survey is to measure WTP for the treatment of typical acute illnesses and to analyze the factors affecting WTP. A questionnaire survey was conducted over the Internet, in which 795 men and women between 40 and 59 years old responded to questions about WTP for medical expenses in three hypothetical scenarios: common cold (CC), retinal detachment (RD) and myocardiac infarction (MI). Mean WTP was $29.9 for CC, $2,233 for RD, and $8,976 for MI. WTP for RD and MI was lower in the low-income group. While WTP for CC did not vary with income, WTP was higher in groups whose current subjective fitness levels were low. Although WTP measurements are criticized frequently for their validity and reliability, they are still useful for determining the economic value of medical services. Based on the results of this study, it is deemed necessary to enhance safety nets for low-income earners in regards to serious illnesses that incur high medical expenses. Further, it is recommended that the rate of co-payments be set relatively high with respect to mild illnesses for which alternative services are available.

  15. Survey of credit risk models in relation to capital adequacy framework for financial institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poomjai Nacaskul

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article (i iterates what is meant by credit risks and the mathematical-statistical modelling thereof, (ii elaborates the conceptual and technical links between credit risk modelling and capital adequacy framework for financial institutions, particularly as per the New Capital Accord (Basel II’s Internal Ratings-Based (IRB approach, (iii proffer a simple and intuitive taxonomy on contemporary credit risk modelling methodologies, and (iv discuses in some details a number of key models pertinent, in various stages of development, to various application areas in the banking and financial sector.

  16. Evaluation of socio-economic effects of R and D results at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. 2. Socio-economic evaluation of the basic research at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), as a core organization devoted to comprehensive nuclear energy research, has steadily promoted various types of research and development (R and D) studies since its establishment in June 1956. Research activities are aimed at performing (1) R and D for nuclear energy, (2) the utilization and application of radiation-based technologies, and (3) the establishment of basic and fundamental research in the nuclear field. Last year, the socio-economic effects on items (1) and (2) were qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated. The quantitative evaluation of item (3) from the viewpoint of a socio-economic effect, however, calls for a different concept and methodology than previously used cost-benefit approach. Achievements obtained from the activities conducted over the last 10 years implied that socio-economics in basic research funded by the public could contribute to the (1) increase in useful intellectual stocks, (2) upbringing of highly skilled college graduates, (3) construction of new scientific facilities and creation of methodologies, (4) stimulation and promotion of social interrelations by networking, (5) increase of one's ability to solve scientific problems, and (6) establishment of venture companies. In this study, we focused on item (4) for the analysis because it assumed that the external economic effect has a link with the socio-economic effects accompanying the networking formation. For the criteria of socio-economic effects we assume that the external effect becomes significant in proportion to the width of networking and/or the magnitude of cooperation measured by numbers of co-writing studies between JAERI and the research bodies, namely private and governmental sectors and universities. Taking these criteria into consideration, the subsequent four items are prepared for quantitative study. They are (1) to clarify the basic research fields where JAERI has been established a significant effort to

  17. Surveying multiple health professional team members within institutional settings: an example from the nursing home industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melissa A; Roman, Anthony; Rogers, Michelle L; Tyler, Denise A; Mor, Vincent

    2014-09-01

    Quality improvement and cost containment initiatives in health care increasingly involve interdisciplinary teams of providers. To understand organizational functioning, information is often needed from multiple members of a leadership team since no one person may have sufficient knowledge of all aspects of the organization. To minimize survey burden, it is ideal to ask unique questions of each member of the leadership team in areas of their expertise. However, this risks substantial missing data if all eligible members of the organization do not respond to the survey. Nursing home administrators (NHA) and directors of nursing (DoN) play important roles in the leadership of long-term care facilities. Surveys were administered to NHAs and DoNs from a random, nationally representative sample of U.S. nursing homes about the impact of state policies, market forces, and organizational factors that impact provider performance and residents' outcomes. Responses were obtained from a total of 2,686 facilities (response rate [RR] = 66.6%) in which at least one individual completed the questionnaire and 1,693 facilities (RR = 42.0%) in which both providers participated. No evidence of nonresponse bias was detected. A high-quality representative sample of two providers in a long-term care facility can be obtained. It is possible to optimize data collection by obtaining unique information about the organization from each provider while minimizing the number of items asked of each individual. However, sufficient resources must be available for follow-up to nonresponders with particular attention paid to lower resourced, lower quality facilities caring for higher acuity residents in highly competitive nursing home markets. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Signal Validation: A Survey of Theoretical and Experimental Studies at the KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racz, A.

    1996-07-01

    The aim of this survey paper is to collect the results of the theoretical and experimental work that has been done on early failure and change detection, signal/detector validation, parameter estimation and system identification problems in the Applied Reactor Physics Department of the KFKI-AEI. The present paper reports different applications of the theoretical methods using real and computer simulated data. The final goal is two-sided: 1) to better understand the mathematical/physical background of the applied methods and 2) to integrate the useful algorithms into a large, complex diagnostic software system. The software is under development, a preliminary version (called JEDI) has already been accomplished. (author)

  19. A comparison of the structure of radiation oncology in the United States and Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, Jean B.; Hanks, Gerald E.; Teshima, Teruki; Sato, Shinichiro; Tsunemoto, Hiroshi; Inoue, Toshihiko

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The United States and Japan have very different backgrounds in their medical care systems. In the field of radiation oncology, national surveys on structure have been conducted for both countries and compared to illustrate any similarities and differences present from 1989-1990. Methods and Materials: The Patterns of Care Study Facility Survey conducted in 1989 in the United States and the National Survey of Structure in Japan in 1990 were compared to evaluate the equipment pattern, staffing pattern, compliance rate with the 'blue book' (3) guideline, and the geographic distribution of institutions. Results: In the United States, a total of 598,184 (49% of the total of newly diagnosed) patients were treated with radiation therapy. In Japan, 62,829 (approximately 15% of the total of newly diagnosed) patients were treated. The numbers of external megavoltage treatment machines were 2,397 in the United States and 494 in Japan. The numbers of full time equivalent (FTE) radiation oncologists were 2,335 in the United States and 366 in Japan. Only 15% of United States facilities and 11% of Japan facilities complied with the narrow blue book guideline for the patients per FTE radiation oncologist (200-250), while the most common ratio was 151-200 patients/FTE in the United States and 51-100 in Japan. In Japan, more than 60% of institutions were staffed by a part-time radiation oncologist (FTE < 1.0). Between geographic regions, there was variation in the percentage of cancer patients treated with radiation therapy for both the United States (42-56%) and Japan (6-25%). Conclusion: There is a major difference in the usage of radiation therapy for treating cancer between the United States and Japan with 49% of all new cancer patients treated in the United States and approximately 15% treated in Japan. Equipment structure in the United States is more complete than in Japan with important differences in treatment simulators, treatment planning computers, and support

  20. FY 2000 report on the survey of the overseas geological structure. Japan-China joint coal exploration - Yu Xian project; 2000 nendo kaigai chishitsu kozo nado chosa hokokusho. Nippon Chugoku sekitan kyodo tansa Yu Xian project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The geological survey was carried out which is needed for coal mine design in the Yu Xian coal mine area, Yu Xian coal field, Hebei province, China. The term of survey was 5 years from 1996 to 2000. Activities are mainly for seismic survey and boring survey. Japan was in charge of the seismic survey, and China in charge of the boring survey. Both attained the goal. The results of the activities were summed up in the following 7 items: 1) outline of the survey; 2) general investigation; 3) state of the exploration related materials/machinery; 4) field survey; 5) items of survey; 6) results of the survey; 7) conclusion. In 6), the geological analysis, coal quality survey and coal amount survey were conducted. In the geological analysis, analyzed were the succession of strata, geological structure, and the situation of existence of coal seams. In 7), the following were made clear: geological structure of the survey area, coal seam, coal quality, hydrological geology, other conditions of drilling technology, and coal amount. The coal amount was 328.34 million tons in a total of A/B/C class coals. The total coal amount of Nos. 1 and 5 coal seams was 259.79 million tons, which was 79.1% of the total coal amount in all area. The average thickness of Nos. 1 and 5 coal seams, which are the main minable coal seams, was 3.10m and 2.66m, respectively. (NEDO)

  1. Utilization of information technology in medical education: a questionnaire survey of students in a Malaysian institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurjahan, M I; Lim, T A; Yeong, S W; Foong, A L S; Ware, J

    2002-12-01

    The objective of this survey was to obtain a self-reported assessment of the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) by medical students at the International Medical University, Malaysia. Students' perceived skills and extent of usage of ICT were evaluated using a questionnaire. Chi-square analysis were performed to ascertain the association between variables. Further statistical testing using Chi-square test for trend was done when one of the variables was ordered, and Spearman rank correlation when both variables were ordered. Overall, (98%) of students responded to the questionnaire. Twenty seven students (5.7%) did not use a computer either in the university or at home. Most students surveyed reported adequate skills at word processing (55%), e-mailing (78%) and surfing the internet (67%). The results suggests that in order to increase the level of computer literacy among medical students, positive steps would need to be taken, for example the formal inclusion of ICT instruction in the teaching of undergraduate medicine. This will enhance medical students' ability to acquire, appraise, and use information in order to solve clinical and other problems quickly and efficiently in the course of their studies, and more importantly when they graduate.

  2. Magnetic fusion energy technology fellowship: Report on survey of institutional coordinators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    In 1980, the Magnetic Fusion Energy Technology (MFET) Fellowship program was established by the US Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy, to encourage outstanding students interested in fusion energy technology to continue their education at a qualified graduate school. The basic objective of the MFET Fellowship program is to ensure an adequate supply of scientists in this field by supporting graduate study, training, and research in magnetic fusion energy technology. The program also supports the broader objective of advancing fusion toward the realization of commercially viable energy systems through the research by MFET fellows. The MFET Fellowship program is administered by the Science/Engineering Education Division of Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education. Guidance for program administration is provided by an academic advisory committee

  3. Networking Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    Human Resource Development was the first and remains an important pillar in Japanese foreign aid. I will argue that Japan has access to a global network of alumni who will co-define Japanese foreign aid in the future, because Japan has encouraged alumni societies and networking since 1965. A total...... of more than a million people in more than 100 countries have attended courses in Japan funded fully or partly by Japanese ODA since the inception of the technical assistance programs in 1954 through the Colombo Plan and since 1959 through the Association of Overseas Technical Scholarships (AOTS from 2009...... HIDA). Many of these alumni have and will in the future exchange ideas and keep contact not only to Japan, but also to fellow alumni around the globe and, thereby, practice south-south exchanges, which are made possible and traceable by their established alumni network and the World Network of Friends...

  4. Comparison of Community Response to Road Traffic Noise in Japan and SWEDEN—PART i: Outline of Surveys and DOSE-RESPONSE Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    SATO, T.; YANO, T.; BJÖRKMAN, M.; RYLANDER, R.

    2002-02-01

    To investigate cross-cultural differences in the community response to road traffic noise, social surveys were conducted in Gothenburg, Sweden, and Kumamoto and Sapporo, Japan, using the same questionnaire and noise measurement method. Typical residential areas with detached houses and apartments were selected as the target areas in each city. The questionnaire comprised 40 questions relating to environmental, housing and personal factors. The key questions concerned annoyance caused by road traffic noise. The total numbers of respondents were 1142 in Gothenburg, 837 in Kumamoto and 780 in Sapporo. The response rates were 68·8, 69·3 and 57·5% respectively. After the questionnaires were completed, noise measurements were made in each area. Community responses were compared on the basis of the dose-response relationships. There were no systematic differences between community responses in Sapporo and Kumamoto, which have the same culture. People living in detached houses in Gothenburg were more annoyed by the same road traffic noise than the people living in Japanese cities. There were no systematic differences among the three cities with regard to activity disturbances indoors, but significant disturbance of activities and resting in gardens or on balconies was noted in Gothenburg. The difference in activity disturbance was due to the differences between lifestyles in the two countries. People living in detached houses were more annoyed by the house vibration caused by road traffic than those living in apartments and people were annoyed by the exhaust from road traffic to the same extent as noise.

  5. High resolution aeromagnetic and radiometric survey in the Hokusatsu district, Japan; Hokusatsu Kushikino chiiki ni okeru kobunkaino kuchu jiki hoshano tansa kekka ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hishida, H; Yoshioka, K [Metal Mining Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    In FY 1996, aeromagnetic and radiometric survey was performed in the whole area of Hokusatsu district using a helicopter fixed with a stinger mount system with high density 200 m line spacing at low altitude of 80 m, which was the first in Japan. Based on the existing geological maps, Landsat TM data and radiometric data, lithologies and geological structures were extracted in response to individual magnetic characteristics in the whole magnetic map. Obtained geological characteristics are as follows. Straight magnetic anomalies suggested volcanic lava flows. Isolated ring-shaped magnetic anomalies suggested intrusive rocks. Ring-shaped weak magnetic anomalies suggested the centers of volcanoes. Wide range intense magnetic anomalies were caused by deep intrusive rocks. Wide range weak magnetic anomalies were caused by dissipation of magnetite due to hydrothermal alteration. Faults and fracture zones were recognized as linear configurations of magnetic anomaly and divided magnetic anomalies. Based on these results, local geological structures, hydrothermal alterations, and mineralization of known ore deposits were interpreted. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  6. The Relationship between Starting to Drink and Psychological Distress, Sleep Disturbance after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Nuclear Disaster: The Fukushima Health Management Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatsugu Orui

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This longitudinal study aimed to investigate the prevalence of newly-started drinkers and their continuing drinking behaviors after the Great East Japan earthquake. Moreover, the relationships between newly-started drinking and psychological factor, disaster-related experience, and perceived radiation risk were examined. We used data from 37,687 pre-disaster non-drinkers who participated in the 2012 and 2013 surveys conducted in Fukushima. We defined newly-started drinkers as those who did not drink before the disaster but who began drinking after the disaster, based on information collected retrospectively. In 2012, 9.6% of non-drinkers began drinking, of which the prevalence of heavy drinkers was 18.4%. The prevalence of continued drinking among newly-started drinkers in 2013 was 53.8%. Logistic regression analyses revealed post-disaster newly-started drinking was significantly associated with being male, less than 65 years old, sleep dissatisfaction and psychological distress (Kessler 6 ≤ 13 when this model was adjusted for disaster-related experience and perceived radiation risk. Moreover, psychological distress and heavy drinking were significant risk factors for continued drinking among newly-started drinkers. Newly-started drinkers might use alcohol to cope with disaster-related stress. Thus, they may be targeted for disaster-related health services. Moreover, early intervention should encourage responsible drinking, since post-disaster heavy drinkers were likely to continue heavy drinking.

  7. An epidemiologic survey of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by combined use of mec-HVR genotyping and toxin genotyping in a university hospital in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Junichiro; Yoshinaga, Masao; Miyanohara, Hiroaki; Kawahara, Motoshi; Kawabata, Masaharu; Motoya, Toshiro; Owaki, Tetsuhiro; Oiso, Shigeru; Kawakami, Masayuki; Kamewari, Shigeko; Koyama, Yumiko; Wakimoto, Naoko; Tokuda, Koichi; Manago, Kunihiro; Maruyama, Ikuro

    2002-09-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of an assay using two polymerase chain reaction-based genotyping methods in the practical surveillance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Nosocomial infection and colonization were surveyed monthly in a university hospital in Japan for 20 months. Genotyping with mec-HVR is based on the size of the mec-associated hypervariable region amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Toxin genotyping uses a multiplex polymerase chain reaction method to amplify eight staphylococcal toxin genes. Eight hundred nine MRSA isolates were classified into 49 genotypes. We observed differing prevalences of genotypes for different hospital wards, and could rapidly demonstrate the similarity of genotype for outbreak isolates. The incidence of genotype D: SEC/TSST1 was significantly higher in isolates causing nosocomial infections (49.5%; 48 of 97) than in nasal isolates (31.4%; 54 of 172) (P = .004), suggesting that this genotype may represent the nosocomial strains. The combined use of these two genotyping methods resulted in improved discriminatory ability and should be further investigated.

  8. The effects of symptoms, diagnostic labels, and education in psychiatry on the stigmatization towards schizophrenia: a questionnaire survey among a lay population in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asami Matsunaga

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This questionnaire survey was conducted to study the determinants of stigmatization toward schizophrenia in Japan. A total of 1003 persons living in Kumamoto Prefecture (mean age 25.5; SD=14.1 participated in this study through convenience sampling. They read one of four case vignettes about a person with mental illness and answered questions about their attitudes toward the case. Vignettes varied in terms of descriptions of symptoms (schizophrenia vs. depression and presentation of the diagnostic label of schizophrenia (yes or no. A path analysis was performed to examine the effects of symptoms, diagnostic label, experience of education in psychiatry, and demographic features on stigmatizing attitudes. Results showed that schizophrenic symptoms, diagnostic label of schizophrenia, and experience of education in psychiatry were significantly associated with stigmatization toward the case. Interaction terms of these variables did not show significant association with stigmatization. These results highlight the importance of optimizing education techniques about mental illness so as to avoid cultivating stigmatizing attitudes toward schizophrenia.

  9. Web evaluation at the US National Institutes of Health: use of the American Customer Satisfaction Index online customer survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Fred B; Siegel, Elliot R; Feldman, Sue; Love, Cynthia B; Rodrigues, Dennis; Malamud, Mark; Lagana, Marie; Crafts, Jennifer

    2008-02-15

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH), US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), realized the need to better understand its Web users in order to help assure that websites are user friendly and well designed for effective information dissemination. A trans-NIH group proposed a trans-NIH project to implement an online customer survey, known as the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) survey, on a large number of NIH websites-the first "enterprise-wide" ACSI application, and probably the largest enterprise Web evaluation of any kind, in the US government. The proposal was funded by the NIH Evaluation Set-Aside Program for two years at a cost of US $1.5 million (US $1.275 million for survey licenses for 60 websites at US $18000 per website; US $225,000 for a project evaluation contractor). The overall project objectives were to assess the value added to the participating NIH websites of using the ACSI online survey, identify any NIH-wide benefits (and limitations) of the ACSI, ascertain any new understanding about the NIH Web presence based on ACSI survey results, and evaluate the effectiveness of a trans-NIH approach to Web evaluation. This was not an experimental study and was not intended to evaluate the ACSI survey methodology, per se, or the impacts of its use on customer satisfaction with NIH websites. The evaluation methodology included baseline pre-project websites profiles; before and after email surveys of participating website teams; interviews with a representative cross-section of website staff; observations of debriefing meetings with website teams; observations at quarterly trans-NIH Web staff meetings and biweekly trans-NIH leadership team meetings; and review and analysis of secondary data. Of the original 60 NIH websites signed up, 55 implemented the ACSI survey, 42 generated sufficient data for formal reporting of survey results for their sites, and 51 completed the final project survey. A broad cross-section of websites

  10. Web Evaluation at the US National Institutes of Health: Use of the American Customer Satisfaction Index Online Customer Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Elliot R; Feldman, Sue; Love, Cynthia B; Rodrigues, Dennis; Malamud, Mark; Lagana, Marie; Crafts, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Background The National Institutes of Health (NIH), US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), realized the need to better understand its Web users in order to help assure that websites are user friendly and well designed for effective information dissemination. A trans-NIH group proposed a trans-NIH project to implement an online customer survey, known as the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) survey, on a large number of NIH websites—the first “enterprise-wide” ACSI application, and probably the largest enterprise Web evaluation of any kind, in the US government. The proposal was funded by the NIH Evaluation Set-Aside Program for two years at a cost of US $1.5 million (US $1.275 million for survey licenses for 60 websites at US $18,000 per website; US $225,000 for a project evaluation contractor). Objective The overall project objectives were to assess the value added to the participating NIH websites of using the ACSI online survey, identify any NIH-wide benefits (and limitations) of the ACSI, ascertain any new understanding about the NIH Web presence based on ACSI survey results, and evaluate the effectiveness of a trans-NIH approach to Web evaluation. This was not an experimental study and was not intended to evaluate the ACSI survey methodology, per se, or the impacts of its use on customer satisfaction with NIH websites. Methods The evaluation methodology included baseline pre-project websites profiles; before and after email surveys of participating website teams; interviews with a representative cross-section of website staff; observations of debriefing meetings with website teams; observations at quarterly trans-NIH Web staff meetings and biweekly trans-NIH leadership team meetings; and review and analysis of secondary data. Results Of the original 60 NIH websites signed up, 55 implemented the ACSI survey, 42 generated sufficient data for formal reporting of survey results for their sites, and 51 completed the final project survey. A

  11. Employee stress status during the past decade (1982-1992) based on a nation-wide survey conducted by the Ministry of Labour in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Y; Makino, S; Takata, T

    1997-07-01

    In this paper we will report the results of nation-wide surveys on employee health conducted and published by the Ministry of Labour in 1982, 1987, and 1992. The subjects were approximately 20,000 employees in 1982, approximately 15,000 in 1987, and approximately 16,000 in 1992, from throughout Japan. Using the results of the surveys, we will show trends in the status of employee work-related stress, as well as trends in means of relaxation over the past decade. The percentage of employees with work-related stress among all subjects gradually increased as follows: 50.6% in 1982, 55.0% in 1987, and 57.3% in 1992. The percentage of employees with work-related stress increased remarkably from 1982 through 1992 among the following groups: the 50-59 age group in males; employees in the electricity, gas, heat and water-supply industries; those in the real estate industry; administrative and managerial workers; employees of large establishments with more than 5,000 employees; and employees performing shift work involving no night duty. The problem of "human relationships in the workplace" was associated with the increasing stress levels among 50-59-year-old males, 40-49-year-old females, employees of large establishments with more than 5,000 employees, those in the real estate industry, and service workers. In terms of means of relaxing to relieve fatigue and stress, employees tended to engage in active pursuits such as "eating out and shopping" and "driving and traveling" over the past decade. In 1992, on the other hand, 22.0% of males and 5.9% of females selected "smoking" as a means of relaxation. This shows the need for stress management in the workplace in order to prevent health problems related to smoking.

  12. Exposure-response relationship of wind turbine noise with self-reported symptoms of sleep and health problems: A nationwide socioacoustic survey in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Kageyama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of wind turbine noise (WTN with sleep and physical/mental health has not been fully investigated. To investigate the relationship of WTN with the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of sleep and health problems, a socioacoustic survey of 1079 adult residents was conducted throughout Japan (2010-2012: 747 in 34 areas surrounding wind turbine plants and 332 in 16 control areas. During face-to-face interviews, the respondents were not informed of the purpose of the survey. Questions on symptoms such as sleeplessness and physical/mental complaints were asked without specifying reasons. Insomnia was defined as having one or any combination of the following that occurs three or more times a week and bothers a respondent: Difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, premature morning awakening, and feeling of light overnight sleep. Poor health was defined as having high scores for health complaints, as determined using the Total Health Index, exceeding the criteria proposed by the authors of the index. The noise descriptor for WTN was LAeq,n outdoor, estimated from the results of actual measurement at some locations in each site. Multiple logistic analysis was applied to the LAeq,n and insomnia or poor health. The odds ratio (OR of insomnia was significantly higher when the noise exposure level exceeded 40 dB, whereas the self-reported sensitivity to noise and visual annoyance with wind turbines were also independently associated with insomnia. OR of poor health was not significant for noise exposure, but significant for noise sensitivity and visual annoyance. The above two moderators appear to indicate the features of respondents who are sensitive to stimuli or changes in their homeostasis.

  13. Exposure-response relationship of wind turbine noise with self-reported symptoms of sleep and health problems: A nationwide socioacoustic survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Takayuki; Yano, Takashi; Kuwano, Sonoko; Sueoka, Shinichi; Tachibana, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The association of wind turbine noise (WTN) with sleep and physical/mental health has not been fully investigated. To investigate the relationship of WTN with the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of sleep and health problems, a socioacoustic survey of 1079 adult residents was conducted throughout Japan (2010-2012): 747 in 34 areas surrounding wind turbine plants and 332 in 16 control areas. During face-to-face interviews, the respondents were not informed of the purpose of the survey. Questions on symptoms such as sleeplessness and physical/mental complaints were asked without specifying reasons. Insomnia was defined as having one or any combination of the following that occurs three or more times a week and bothers a respondent: Difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, premature morning awakening, and feeling of light overnight sleep. Poor health was defined as having high scores for health complaints, as determined using the Total Health Index, exceeding the criteria proposed by the authors of the index. The noise descriptor for WTN was LAeq,n outdoor, estimated from the results of actual measurement at some locations in each site. Multiple logistic analysis was applied to the LAeq,n and insomnia or poor health. The odds ratio (OR) of insomnia was significantly higher when the noise exposure level exceeded 40 dB, whereas the self-reported sensitivity to noise and visual annoyance with wind turbines were also independently associated with insomnia. OR of poor health was not significant for noise exposure, but significant for noise sensitivity and visual annoyance. The above two moderators appear to indicate the features of respondents who are sensitive to stimuli or changes in their homeostasis.

  14. [Deaths from propofol abuse : Survey of institutes of forensic medicine in Germany, Austria and Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, C; Iwunna, J; Tsokos, M; Mußhoff, F

    2017-02-01

    Previous references suggesting a high mortality of propofol addiction in medical personnel were mostly based on surveys of the heads of medical departments or case reports; therefore, a questionnaire was sent to 48 forensic medicine departments in Germany, Austria and Switzerland concerning the number of autopsies carried out between 2002-2112 on medical personnel with the suspicion of abuse of propofol or other analgesics. The response rate was 67%. In 16 out of the 32 responding departments 39 deaths (27 males) were observed with previous connections to anesthesiology, intensive care or emergency departments of which 22 were physicians, 13 nurses, 2 other personnel and 2 were unknown. Propofol was the major cause of death in 33 cases (85%), in 8 cases including 7 with propofol, an unintentional accident was recorded and 29 were determined to be suicide. In 14 cases chronic abuse was denied but actually excluded by toxicological analysis in only 2 cases. In 11 cases involving suicide the question of abuse was not investigated. This survey confirmed previous data about the central role of propofol for the fatal outcome of addiction and suicide of anesthetists and other medical personnel. A dual prevention strategy with low-threshold offers for persons at risk and strategies for early detection is urgently needed including a stricter control of dispensing, improvement in forensic medical documentation and the use of toxicological investigations in every case of suspected abuse.

  15. Institutional authorisation and accreditation of Transfusion Services and Blood Donation Sites: results of a national survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liumbruno, Giancarlo Maria; Panetta, Valentina; Bonini, Rosaria; Chianese, Rosa; Fiorin, Francesco; Lupi, Maria Antonietta; Tomasini, Ivana; Grazzini, Giuliano

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the survey described in this article was to determine decisional and strategic factors useful for redefining minimum structural, technological and organisational requisites for transfusion structures, as well as for the production of guidelines for accreditation of transfusion structures by the National Blood Centre. Materials and methods A structured questionnaire containing 65 questions was sent to all Transfusion Services in Italy. The questions covered: management of the quality system, accreditation, conformity with professional standards, structural and technological requisites, as well as potential to supply transfusion medicine-related health care services. All the questionnaires returned underwent statistical analysis. Results Replies were received from 64.7% of the Transfusion Services. Thirty-nine percent of these had an ISO 9001 certificate, with marked differences according to geographical location; location-related differences were also present for responses to other questions and were confirmed by multivariate statistical analysis. Over half of the Transfusion Services (53.6%) had blood donation sites run by donor associations. The statistical analysis revealed only one statistically significant difference between these donation sites: those connected to certified Transfusion Services were more likely themselves to have ISO 9001 certification than those connected to services who did not have such certification. Conclusions The data collected in this survey are representative of the Italian national transfusion system. A re-definition of the authorisation and accreditation requisites for transfusion activities must take into account European and national legislation when determining these requisites in order to facilitate their effective applicability, promote their efficient fulfilment and enhance the development of homogeneous and transparent quality systems. PMID:21839026

  16. Risk Perception of Pregnancy Promotes Disapproval of Gestational Surrogacy: Analysis of a Nationally Representative Opinion Survey in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohta Suzuki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To clarify the relationship between the general attitude towards gestational surrogacyand risk perception about pregnancy and infertility treatment.Materials and Methods: This study analysed the data of nationally representative cross-sectionalsurveys from 2007 concerning assisted reproductive technologies. The participants represented thegeneral Japanese population. We used this data to carry out multivariate analysis. The main outcomemeasures were adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals from logistic regression modelsfor factors including the effect of pregnancy risk perception on the attitude toward gestationalsurrogacy.Results: In this survey, 3412 participants responded (response rate of 68.2%. With regard to theattitude towards gestational surrogacy, 54.0% of the respondents approved of it, and 29.7% statedthat they were undecided. The perception of a high level of risk concerning ectopic pregnancy,threatened miscarriage or premature birth, and pregnancy-induced hypertension influencedthe participants’ attitudes towards gestational surrogacy. Moreover, this perception of risk alsocontributed to a disapproval of the technique.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that a person who understands the risks associated with pregnancymight clearly express their disapproval of gestational surrogacy.

  17. A National Survey of Spanish Language Testing for Placement of Outcome Assessment at B.A. -Granting Institutions in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wherritt, Irene; Cleary, T. Anne

    1990-01-01

    Describes the results of a national survey that was conducted to determine the current state of Spanish-language testing for placement and outcome assessments. The survey was undertaken in the United States in the departments of Spanish in B.A.-granting institutions. (Author/VWL)

  18. Long-Term Nuclear Knowledge Management (NKM) on Nuclear Production of Hydrogen - A Case Study of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Kazuaki

    2007-01-01

    In Japan, so-called a formal nuclear policy; The Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy is built up by Japan Atomic Energy Commission at every 5-year, in which not only a conventional light water reactor (LWR) but also a fast breeder reactor (FBR), HTGR and a fusion reactor (FR) is referred as a prominent candidate of long-term (<100 years) nuclear energy source. The policy makers might have multi-purpose scenarios for a future of innovated nuclear energy systems through results of various discussions at their level. According to long-term nuclear knowledge management, the author made ex ante evaluation of HTGR known as the intellectual assets of JAERI 1, from the viewpoint of hypothetical benefits under conditions of substantial uncertainty. Nuclear knowledge management (NKM) is an integrated, systematic approach to identifying, managing and sharing an organization's nuclear knowledge, and enabling persons to create new nuclear knowledge collectively and thereby helping achieve the objectives. NKM identifies, optimizes, and actively manages intellectual assets either in the form of explicit knowledge held in intangible products or tacit knowledge possessed by individuals or communities in the nuclear fields. In the present study the authors wish not only to show the validity of long-term NKM as a key factor of HTGR but also to assess their hypothetical benefits through the year 2050 under conditions of substantial uncertainty. It should be stressed that those factors are important intellectual assets of JAERI developed to date. Additionally, in the Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy constructed up by the Japan Atomic Energy Commission, a LWR, a fast breeder reactor (FBR), a HTGR, and a fusion reactor (FR) are all defined as eligible and prominent candidates for long-term nuclear energy sources. In this sense, we estimate here a direct market creation of (1) hydrogen energy production and (2) electricity generation, by commercialized HTGR through the year 2050 with

  19. Re-evaluation of Assay Data of Spent Nuclear Fuel obtained at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute for validation of burnup calculation code systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suyama, Kenya, E-mail: suyama.kenya@jaea.go.jp [Office of International Relations, Nuclear Safety Division, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology - Japan, 3-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8959 (Japan); Murazaki, Minoru; Ohkubo, Kiyoshi [Fuel Cycle Safety Research Group, Nuclear Safety Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata Shirane, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Nakahara, Yoshinori [Research Group for Analytical Science, Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata Shirane, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Uchiyama, Gunzo [Fuel Cycle Safety Research Group, Nuclear Safety Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata Shirane, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    Highlights: > The specifications required for the analyses of the destructive assay data taken from irradiated fuel in Ohi-1 and Ohi-2 PWRs were documented in this paper. > These data were analyzed using the SWAT2.1 code, and the calculation results showed good agreement with experimental results. > These destructive assay data are suitable for the benchmarking of the burnup calculation code systems. - Abstract: The isotopic composition of spent nuclear fuels is vital data for studies on the nuclear fuel cycle and reactor physics. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been active in obtaining such data for pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) fuels, and some data has already been published. These data have been registered with the international Spent Fuel Isotopic Composition Database (SFCOMPO) and widely used as international benchmarks for burnup calculation codes and libraries. In this paper, Assay Data of Spent Nuclear Fuel from two fuel assemblies irradiated in the Ohi-1 and Ohi-2 PWRs in Japan are shown. The destructive assay data from Ohi-2 have already been published. However, these data were not suitable for the benchmarking of calculation codes and libraries because several important specifications and data were not included. This paper summarizes the details of destructive assay data and specifications required for analyses of isotopic composition from Ohi-1 and Ohi-2. For precise burnup analyses, the burnup values of destructive assay samples were re-evaluated in this study. These destructive assay data were analyzed using the SWAT2.1 code, and the calculation results showed good agreement with experimental results. This indicates that the quality of destructive assay data from Ohi-1 and Ohi-2 PWRs is high, and that these destructive assay data are suitable for the benchmarking of burnup calculation code systems.

  20. Electronic cigarette use in restaurants and workplaces where combustible tobacco smoking is not allowed: an Internet survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyohara, Kosuke; Tabuchi, Takahiro

    2018-05-01

    The present study aimed to examine the experience of actual electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use in smoke-free areas of restaurants and workplaces and to explore the determinants associated with such use among Japanese adults who reported any experience using e-cigarettes (e-cigarette ever-users). An Internet-based self-reported questionnaire survey was conducted in 2015 on Japanese e-cigarette ever-users. The proportion of the respondents who had ever used or frequently used e-cigarettes in smoke-free restaurants and/or workplaces was calculated. Potential factors associated with e-cigarette use in those smoke-free areas were also examined by using multivariable logistic regression analyses. In total, 1243 e-cigarette ever-users (662 current and 581 former e-cigarette users) were analysed. The majority of them (1020/1243, 82.1%) were male and their mean age ± SD was 47.0±10.4 years. The proportion of those who had ever used e-cigarettes in smoke-free restaurants was 28.8% (358/1243) and that in smoke-free workplaces was 25.5% (317/1243), respectively. The proportion of those who had frequently used e-cigarettes in smoke-free restaurants was 18.5% (230/1243) and that in smoke-free workplaces was 16.3% (202/1243), respectively. In general, the proportion of e-cigarette use in those smoke-free areas was higher among those having a higher educational level than those having a lower educational level. Among adult Japanese e-cigarette ever-users, approximately 26%-29% had ever used and 16%-19% had frequently used e-cigarettes in restaurants and/or workplaces where combustible tobacco smoking is not allowed. Policy-makers may need to establish explicit rules as to e-cigarette use in smoke-free environments. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Substance use and sexual behaviours of Japanese men who have sex with men: A nationwide internet survey conducted in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura Hirokazu

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Japanese men who have sex with men (MSM, especially those living in large metropolitan areas such as Tokyo and Osaka, are facing a growing HIV/AIDS epidemic. Although the Internet is used as a new venue for meeting sex partners, it can also serve as a useful research tool for investigating the risk behaviours of Japanese MSM. This Internet survey explored the extent of substance use and its association with sexual risk behaviours among Japanese MSM. Methods Between 28 February 2003 and 16 May 2003 MSM were recruited through 57 Japanese gay-oriented Web sites, gay magazines, and Internet mailing lists. Participants completed a structured questionnaire anonymously through the Internet. Results In total, 2,062 Japanese MSM completed the questionnaire. The average age of participants was 29.0 years and 70.5% identified as gay, 20.8% as bisexual, and 8.7% as other. Overall, 34.5% reported never using a substance, 45% reported ever using one type of substance (lifetime reported single substance users, and 19.6% had used more than 1 type of substance (lifetime reported multiple substance users in their lifetimes. The substances most commonly used were amyl nitrite (63.2%, 5-methoxy-N, N-diisopropyltryptamine (5MEO-DIPT (9.3%, and marijuana (5.7%. In the multivariate analysis, unprotected anal intercourse, having had 6 or more sexual partners, visiting a sex club/gay venue in the previous 6 months, a lower education level, and being 30 to 39 years of age were associated with both lifetime single and lifetime multiple substance use. Lifetime reported multiple substance use was also correlated with having a casual sex partner, having symptoms of depression, being diagnosed as HIV-positive, and greater HIV/AIDS-related knowledge. Conclusion This is the first Internet-based research focused on the sexual and substance use behaviours of MSM in Asia. Our findings suggest a compelling need for prevention interventions to reduce HIV risk

  2. Exploring the missing link - Empathy among dental students: An institutional cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Pal Aggarwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Empathy plays an important role in healthy dentist and patient relationship. Hence, the aim of the study is to (a to measure the self-reported empathy levels among dental undergraduate and postgraduate students. (b To review the trend of changes in empathy level with experience, age, and gender among dental undergraduate and postgraduate students. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was carried out in two private dental institutions situated in Sri Ganganagar, India, with a sample size of 978. Data were obtained from the 1 st to final year (BDS, interns, and postgraduate students from January to March 2015. An empathy level of students was assessed by the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy - Health Profession Students Version Questionnaire. An exploratory factor analysis using Kaiser′s criteria was undertaken to appraise the construct validity and dimensionality. Based on the results of the factor analysis, three factors were selected; labeled as "perspective taking," "compassionate care," and "standing in patient′s shoes." Results: The majority of the students was female in a equivalent  ratio of 1338:618. There were significant differences in empathy scores by gender and age (P < 0.01. The lowest and highest mean empathy scores were found in postgraduate (mean = 108.77, standard deviation [SD] =9.12 and 1 st year (mean = 117.23, SD = 14.19 dental students, respectively. Conclusion: Dental educators should consider the likely decline in empathy among students as early as possible and adopt communication teaching strategies to promote the development of empathy and reduce the risk of further decline.

  3. Reproducibility and Validity of Dietary Patterns Assessed by a Food Frequency Questionnaire Used in the 5-Year Follow-Up Survey of the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nanri, Akiko; Shimazu, Taichi; Ishihara, Junko; Takachi, Ribeka; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2012-01-01

    Background Analysis of dietary pattern is increasingly popular in nutritional epidemiology. However, few studies have examined the validity and reproducibility of dietary patterns. We assessed the reproducibility and validity of dietary patterns identified by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used in the 5-year follow-up survey of the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study (JPHC Study). Methods The participants were a subsample (244 men and 254 women) from the JPHC Study. Princ...

  4. Real Conditions and Themes of Gender Diversity in Management in Japan, China, and South Korea: 605 results from the "Corporate Survey of Human Resource Utilization (China and Korea)" (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    ISHIZUKA Hiromi

    2014-01-01

    Japan, China, and South Korea, as neighboring countries in northeast Asia, have a Confucian-rooted orientation toward the separation of labor among women and men, and they share the perception of having gender disparities in the workplace. Hereafter, their various roles in serving the world economy will increase, as will corporate expansion and employee movements. The purpose of this paper is to use the company survey data of the three countries to compare the real conditions of gender divers...

  5. Psychological distress after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: results of a mental health and lifestyle survey through the Fukushima Health Management Survey in FY2011 and FY2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, Hirooki; Suzuki, Yuriko; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Nakayama, Yoko; Hisata, Mitsuru; Niwa, Shin-Ichi; Yasumura, Seiji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    On 11 March 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake followed by a gigantic tsunami hit the Pacific coast of Northeast Japan (Tohoku) and damaged Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, causing a radiation hazard in the entire Fukushima Prefecture. The radiation dose exposed either externally and internally in Fukushima residents have been evaluated to be low so far and it is hardly believed that they may have any direct radiation risk on physical condition. The purpose of this report is, therefore, to describe results of a mental health and lifestyle survey intended to facilitate adequate care for residents who are at a higher risk of developing mental health problems after the complicated accident. The target population of this survey is the residents of evacuation zones including Hirono Town, Naraha Town, Tomioka Town, Kawauchi Village, Okuma Town, Futaba Town, Namie Town, Katsurao Village, Minamisoma City, Tamura City, Yamakiya district of Kawamata Town, and Iitate Village. The targeted population was 210,189 in fiscal year 2011 (FY2011) and 211,615 in fiscal year 2012 (FY2012). Questionnaires have been mailed since January 2012, and subsequently, January 2013, 10 and 22 months after the disaster. Among of them, children 63.4%, adults 40.7% for FY2011, and children 41.0%, adults 29.7% for FY2012 responded to the questionnaires mailed. Sociodemographic data showed that many evacuee households were separated after the disaster and had to move several times. K6 was used in this survey to estimate general mental health. The proportion (14.6% in FY2011 and 11.9% inFY2012) of adults who scored above the K6 cut-off (≥13) for general mental health was higher than usual, indicating severe mental health problems among evacuees. The proportion (21.6% in FY2011 and 18.3% inFY2012) of adults who scored above the cut-off (≥44) of PTSD checklist (PCL), reflecting traumatic symptoms, was almost equal to that of the workers after the 9.11 World

  6. A newly introduced comprehensive consultation fee in the national health insurance system in Japan: a promotive effect of multidisciplinary medical care in the field of radiation oncology--results from a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igaki, Hiroshi; Onishi, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Dokiya, Takushi; Nemoto, Kenji; Shigematsu, Naoyuki; Nishimura, Yasumasa; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2013-12-01

    The consultation fee for outpatient radiotherapy was newly introduced in the national health insurance system in Japan in April 2012. We conducted a survey on the use of this consultation fee and its effect on clinical practices. The health insurance committee of the Japanese Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology conducted a questionnaire survey. The questionnaire form was mailed to 160 councilors of the Society, the target questionees. A total of 94 answers (58% of the target questionees) sent back were used for analyses. The analyses revealed that 75% of the hospitals charged most of the patients who receive radiotherapy in an outpatient setting a consultation fee. The introduction of the consultation fee led to some changes in radiation oncology clinics, as evidenced by the response of 'more careful observations by medical staff' in 37% of questionees and a 12% increase in the number of full-time radiation oncology nurses. It was also shown that the vast majority (92%) of radiation oncologists expected a positive influence of the consultation fee on radiation oncology clinics in Japan. Our questionnaire survey revealed the present status of the use of a newly introduced consultation fee for outpatient radiotherapy, and the results suggested its possible effect on promoting a multidisciplinary medical care system in radiation oncology departments in Japan.

  7. A newly introduced comprehensive consultation fee in the national health insurance system in Japan. A promotive effect of multidisciplinary medical care in the field of radiation oncology. Results from a questionnaire survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igaki, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Onishi, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The consultation fee for outpatient radiotherapy was newly introduced in the national health insurance system in Japan in April 2012. We conducted a survey on the use of this consultation fee and its effect on clinical practices. The health insurance committee of the Japanese Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology conducted a questionnaire survey. The questionnaire form was mailed to 160 councilors of the Society, the target questionees. A total of 94 answers (58% of the target questionees) sent back were used for analyses. The analyses revealed that 75% of the hospitals charged most of the patients who receive radiotherapy in an outpatient setting a consultation fee. The introduction of the consultation fee led to some changes in radiation oncology clinics, as evidenced by the response of 'more careful observations by medical staff' in 37% of questionees and a 12% increase in the number of full-time radiation oncology nurses. It was also shown that the vast majority (92%) of radiation oncologists expected a positive influence of the consultation fee on radiation oncology clinics in Japan. Our questionnaire survey revealed the present status of the use of a newly introduced consultation fee for outpatient radiotherapy, and the results suggested its possible effect on promoting a multidisciplinary medical care system in radiation oncology departments in Japan. (author)

  8. Deceased Donor Intervention Research: A Survey of Transplant Surgeons, Organ Procurement Professionals, and Institutional Review Board Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigue, J R; Feng, S; Johansson, A C; Glazier, A K; Abt, P L

    2016-01-01

    Innovative deceased donor intervention strategies have the potential to increase the number and quality of transplantable organs. Yet there is confusion over regulatory and legal requirements, as well as ethical considerations. We surveyed transplant surgeons (n = 294), organ procurement organization (OPO) professionals (n = 83), and institutional review board (IRB) members (n = 317) and found wide variations in their perceptions about research classification, risk assessment for donors and organ transplant recipients, regulatory oversight requirements, and informed consent in the context of deceased donor intervention research. For instance, when presented with different research scenarios, IRB members were more likely than transplant surgeons and OPO professionals to feel that study review and oversight were necessary by the IRBs at the investigator, donor, and transplant center hospitals. Survey findings underscore the need to clarify ethical, legal, and regulatory requirements and their application to deceased donor intervention research to accelerate the pace of scientific discovery and facilitate more transplants. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  9. Report on survey in fiscal 2000 on the survey on succession of history of industrial technologies. Survey edition of industrial technologies in Japan that have contributed largely to development of industries; 2000 nendo sangyo gijutsu rekishi keisho chosa hokokusho. Sangyo no hatten ni okiku kiyoshita kokunai sangyo gijutsu no chosahen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Surveys and researches have been performed to serve as reference for the future research and development policies by clarifying the innovation process of industrial technologies in Japan and the originality and creativity seen in that process. The surveys have focused on processes born in Japan and evaluated as 'world class' in significance of some kind, and summarized the technology history. The current fiscal year has surveyed newly the following nine processes: industrialization of the sodium glutamate and fructose manufacturing technologies, development of solar cell technologies, industrialization of the manufacturing process of cyclohexnol via cyclohexene, development of the MEK manufacturing process, development and industrialization of hollow fiber reverse osmosis membrane modules for single stage sea water desalination, development and industrialization of the new vitamin B1 intermediate process, development of HSG-Si capacitors for semiconductor memories, and development and industrialization of 4-ethylene fluoride/ethylene copolymer (ETFE). The surveys are considered to have obtained the results abound in suggestions toward original and creative technological developments. (NEDO)

  10. Current situation regarding central venous port implantation procedures and complications: a questionnaire-based survey of 11,693 implantations in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiono, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Shin; Takahashi, Masanobu; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Ishioka, Chikashi

    2016-12-01

    We conducted a nationwide questionnaire-based survey to understand the current situation regarding central venous port implantation in order to identify the ideal procedure. Questionnaire sheets concerning the number of implantation procedures and the incidence of complications for all procedures completed in 2012 were sent to 397 nationwide designated cancer care hospitals in Japan in June 2013. Venipuncture sites were categorized as chest, neck, upper arm, forearm, and others. Methods were categorized as landmark, cut-down, ultrasound-mark, real-time ultrasound guided, venography, and other groups. We received 374 responses (11,693 procedures) from 153 centers (38.5 %). The overall complication rates were 7.4 % for the chest (598/8,097 cases); 6.8 % for the neck (157/2325); 5.2 % for the upper arm (54/1,033); 7.3 % for the forearm (9/124); and 6.1 % for the other groups (7/114). Compared to the chest group, only the upper arm group showed a significantly lower incidence of complications (P = 0.010), and multivariate logistic regression (odds ratio 0.69; 95 % confidence interval 0.51-0.91; P = 0.008) also showed similar findings. Real-time ultrasound-guided puncture was most commonly used in the upper arm group (83.8 %), followed by the neck (69.8 %), forearm (53.2 %), chest (41.8 %), and other groups (34.2 %). Upper arm venipuncture with ultrasound guidance seems the most promising technique to prevent complications of central venous port implantation.

  11. Gender role stereotype and poor working condition pose obstacles for female doctors to stay in full-time employment: alumnae survey from two private medical schools in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Miki; Nomura, Kyoko; Higaki, Yuko; Akaishi, Yu; Seki, Masayasu; Kobayashi, Shizuko; Komoda, Takayuki; Otaki, Junji

    2013-03-01

    The shortage of physicians has become a serious problem in Japan. It has been pointed out that an increase in the number of female doctors may contribute to the aggravation of this shortage because it is known that women work fewer hours than male doctors. Here, we investigated how many female doctors had ever resigned from a full-time position, and elucidated the reasons why female doctors find it difficult to stay in full-time employment. An alumnae survey of 2 private medical schools was conducted in 2007. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to 1423 graduates and 711 responded with informed consent (response rate, 50%; mean age, 39 years). Overall, 55% of the respondents had previously resigned from full-time employment, of which 90% resigned within 10 years of graduating from medical school. The difficulty in balancing work, childbirth and child rearing (45%) were the top 2 reasons for resignation, followed by physical problems (12%) and long working hours (8%). Among those who resigned, only 33% returned to full-time employment. Women who had at least 1 child were only 30% of those who had never resigned and 84% of those who had previously resigned. The majority of study subjects, regardless of experience of resignation (88%), agreed that women should continue to work even after childbirth. In conclusion, the results of this study suggested that many female doctors resigned from a full-time position within 10 years of graduating from medical school, largely because of the gender role stereotype and poor working conditions.

  12. Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on feeding methods and newborn growth at 1 month postpartum: results from the Fukushima Health Management Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyozuka, Hyo; Yasuda, Shun; Kawamura, Makoto; Nomura, Yasuhisa; Fujimori, Keiya; Goto, Aya; Yasumura, Seiji; Abe, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of three disasters (the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011, followed by a tsunami and the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident) on feeding methods and growth in infants born after the disasters. Using results from the Fukushima Health Management Survey, Soso District (the affected area where the damaged nuclear power plant is located) and Aizu District (a less-affected area located farthest from the plant) were compared. In this study, newborn and maternal background characteristics were examined, as well as feeding methods, and other factors for newborn growth at the first postpartum examination for 1706 newborns born after the disaster in the affected (n = 836) and less-affected (n = 870) areas. Postpartum examinations took place 1 month after birth. Feeding method trends were examined, and multivariate regression analyses were used to investigate effects on newborn mass gain. There were no significant differences in background characteristics among newborns in these areas. When birth dates were divided into four periods to assess trends, no significant change in the exclusive breastfeeding rate was found, while the exclusive formula-feeding rate was significantly different across time periods in the affected area (p = 0.02). Multivariate analyses revealed no significant independent associations of maternal depression and change in medical facilities (possible disaster effects) with other newborn growth factors in either area. No area differences in newborn growth at the first postpartum examination or in exclusive breastfeeding rates were found during any period. Exclusive formula-feeding rates varied across time periods in the affected, but not in the less-affected area. It is concluded that effective guidance to promote breast-feeding and prevent exclusive use of formula is important for women in post-disaster circumstances. (orig.)

  13. Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on feeding methods and newborn growth at 1 month postpartum: results from the Fukushima Health Management Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyozuka, Hyo; Yasuda, Shun; Kawamura, Makoto; Nomura, Yasuhisa; Fujimori, Keiya [Fukushima Medical University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Fukushima (Japan); Goto, Aya; Yasumura, Seiji [Radiation Medical Science Center for the Fukushima Health Management Survey, Fukushima (Japan); Fukushima Medical University, Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, Fukushima (Japan); Abe, Masafumi [Radiation Medical Science Center for the Fukushima Health Management Survey, Fukushima (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    This study examined the effects of three disasters (the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011, followed by a tsunami and the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident) on feeding methods and growth in infants born after the disasters. Using results from the Fukushima Health Management Survey, Soso District (the affected area where the damaged nuclear power plant is located) and Aizu District (a less-affected area located farthest from the plant) were compared. In this study, newborn and maternal background characteristics were examined, as well as feeding methods, and other factors for newborn growth at the first postpartum examination for 1706 newborns born after the disaster in the affected (n = 836) and less-affected (n = 870) areas. Postpartum examinations took place 1 month after birth. Feeding method trends were examined, and multivariate regression analyses were used to investigate effects on newborn mass gain. There were no significant differences in background characteristics among newborns in these areas. When birth dates were divided into four periods to assess trends, no significant change in the exclusive breastfeeding rate was found, while the exclusive formula-feeding rate was significantly different across time periods in the affected area (p = 0.02). Multivariate analyses revealed no significant independent associations of maternal depression and change in medical facilities (possible disaster effects) with other newborn growth factors in either area. No area differences in newborn growth at the first postpartum examination or in exclusive breastfeeding rates were found during any period. Exclusive formula-feeding rates varied across time periods in the affected, but not in the less-affected area. It is concluded that effective guidance to promote breast-feeding and prevent exclusive use of formula is important for women in post-disaster circumstances. (orig.)

  14. Who was concerned about radiation, food safety, and natural disasters after the great East Japan earthquake and Fukushima catastrophe? A nationwide cross-sectional survey in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Takashi; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Naruse, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yuki

    2014-01-01

    Disaster-related concerns by sub-populations have not been clarified after the great East Japan earthquake and the Fukushima nuclear power plant incidents. This paper assesses who was concerned about radiation, food safety, and natural disasters among the general population in order to buffer such concerns effectively. The hypothesis that women, parents, and family caregivers were most concerned about radiation, food safety, and natural disaster was tested using a varying-intercept multivariable logistic regression with 5809 responses from a nationwide cross-sectional survey random-sampled in March 2012. Many people were at least occasionally concerned about radiation (53.5%), food safety (47.3%), and about natural disaster (69.5%). Women were more concerned than men about radiation (OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.35-2.06), food safety (1.70; 1.38-2.10), and natural disasters (1.74; 1.39-2.19). Parents and family care needs were not significant. Married couples were more concerned about radiation (1.53; 1.33-1.77), food safety (1.38; 1.20-1.59), and natural disasters (1.30; 1.12-1.52). Age, child-cohabitation, college-completion, retirement status, homemaker status, and the house-damage certificate of the last disaster were also associated with at least one concern. Participants from the Kanto region were more concerned about radiation (2.08; 1.58-2.74) and food safety (1.30; 1.07-1.59), which demonstrate similar positive associations to participants from Tohoku where a disaster relief act was invoked (3.36; 2.25-5.01 about radiation, 1.49; 1.08-2.06 about food safety). Sectioning the populations by gender and other demographics will clarify prospective targets for interventions, allow for a better understanding of post-disaster concerns, and help communicate relevant information effectively.

  15. Training at a faith-based institution matters for obstetrics and gynecology residents: results from a regional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiahi, Maryam; Westhoff, Carolyn L; Summers, Sondra; Kenton, Kimberly

    2013-06-01

    Prior data suggest that opportunities in family planning training may be limited during obstetrics and gynecology (Ob-Gyn) residency training, particularly at faith-based institutions with moral and ethical constraints, although this aspect of the Ob-Gyn curriculum has not been formally studied to date. We compared Ob-Gyn residents' self-rated competency and intentions to provide family planning procedures at faith-based versus those of residents at non-faith-based programs. We surveyed residents at all 20 Ob-Gyn programs in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Wisconsin from 2008 to 2009. Residents were queried about current skills and future plans to perform family planning procedures. We examined associations based on program and residents' personal characteristics and performed multivariable logistic regression analysis. A total of 232 of 340 residents (68%) from 17 programs (85%) returned surveys. Seven programs were faith-based. Residents from non-faith-based programs were more likely to be completely satisfied with family planning training (odds ratio [OR]  =  3.4, 95% confidence limit [CI], 1.9-6.2) and to report they "understand and can perform on own" most procedures. Most residents, regardless of program type, planned to provide all surveyed family planning services. Despite similar intentions to provide family planning procedures after graduation, residents at faith-based training programs were less satisfied with their family planning training and rate their ability to perform family planning services lower than residents at non-faith-based training programs.

  16. 1989 Joint convention record of institutes of electrical and information engineers, Japan (Part 1). Heisei gannen denki joho kanren gakkai rengo taikai koen ronbunshu (Bunsatsu 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-08-25

    In this volume, part 1, reports are included on protection of communication equipment for power supply against thunderbolt, status quo of thunderbolt observation, etc. in the field of 'Protection of information communication equipment against thunderbolt and thunderbolt observation.' In the area of 'Latest trend for practical use of linear motorcars,' there are reports on the world trend for practical use, present and future aspect of superconductive magnetic levitation railway, present state and future aspect of HSST, status quo and future aspect of transrapid Maglev, present state and future aspect of linear subway, present state and future aspect of M bahn, etc. In conncetion with 'Expert system for power network system,' status quo in Japan and foreign countries and future trend are reported. Other reports are also included concerning the control of 'Present state of control theory application to the control of electric motor,' 'Technological trend for the reliability improvement in control system,' 'Superconduction and precision measurement,' and 'Latest trend of fuzzy information processing technology.' 370 refs., 224 figs., 32 tabs.

  17. Associations between contractual status, part-time work, and intent to leave among professional caregivers for older people: results of a national cross-sectional survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachi, Yuko; Inoue, Kazuo; Toyokawa, Satoshi

    2010-08-01

    Despite a growing number of studies on leaving the organization or long-term care among professional caregivers for older people, little is known about the impact of types of employment on leaving. To examine the association between the type of employment and intent to leave among Japanese professional caregivers. Secondary analysis of data from the 2006 Working Conditions Survey in Long-term Care, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey done in Japan. 10,107 professional caregivers aged 18 years and older. Predictor of intent to leave was type of employment (full-time permanent, full-time precarious, and part-time precarious). Precarious work was defined as employment that failed to meet the standard of full-time permanent employment, including fixed-term, temporary agency, and part-time work. Covariates included demographics, home or facility care, tenure in the profession, national qualification for caregivers, having other jobs, overtime work, and night shift work. We used multinomial logit models to estimate the strength of the association between the type of employment and intent to leave and to explore the possible mechanisms explaining this association. In the unadjusted model, when compared to part-time precarious workers, full-time permanent workers (OR=2.37; 95% CI=2.06, 2.72) and full-time precarious workers (OR=2.41; 95% CI=2.01, 2.88) were more likely to report intent to leave. After adjustment for covariates, these odds ratios were attenuated, but nevertheless remained significant. Overtime work greatly attenuated these odds ratios in both full-time precarious and full-time permanent workers, and having national qualification for caregivers only did in the case of full-time permanent workers. In contrast to people in other professions, full-time caregivers are more likely to have intent to leave than part-time caregivers. This study highlights the importance of policy strategies for retaining full-time workers by reducing their overtime

  18. Internet Use for Health-Related Information via Personal Computers and Cell Phones in Japan: A Cross-Sectional Population-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Ohura, Tomoko; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Okamoto, Shigeru; Miki, Kenji; Naito, Mariko; Akamatsu, Rie; Sugimori, Hiroki; Yoshiike, Nobuo; Miyaki, Koichi; Shimbo, Takuro

    2011-01-01

    Background The Internet is known to be used for health purposes by the general public all over the world. However, little is known about the use of, attitudes toward, and activities regarding eHealth among the Japanese population. Objectives This study aimed to measure the prevalence of Internet use for health-related information compared with other sources, and to examine the effects on user knowledge, attitudes, and activities with regard to Internet use for health-related information in Japan. We examined the extent of use via personal computers and cell phones. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a quasi-representative sample (N = 1200) of the Japanese general population aged 15–79 years in September 2007. The main outcome measures were (1) self-reported rates of Internet use in the past year to acquire health-related information and to contact health professionals, family, friends, and peers specifically for health-related purposes, and (2) perceived effects of Internet use on health care. Results The prevalence of Internet use via personal computer for acquiring health-related information was 23.8% (286/1200) among those surveyed, whereas the prevalence via cell phone was 6% (77). Internet use via both personal computer and cell phone for communicating with health professionals, family, friends, or peers was not common. The Internet was used via personal computer for acquiring health-related information primarily by younger people, people with higher education levels, and people with higher household incomes. The majority of those who used the Internet for health care purposes responded that the Internet improved their knowledge or affected their lifestyle attitude, and that they felt confident in the health-related information they obtained from the Internet. However, less than one-quarter thought it improved their ability to manage their health or affected their health-related activities. Conclusions Japanese moderately used the Internet via

  19. Internet use for health-related information via personal computers and cell phones in Japan: a cross-sectional population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Ohura, Tomoko; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Okamoto, Shigeru; Miki, Kenji; Naito, Mariko; Akamatsu, Rie; Sugimori, Hiroki; Yoshiike, Nobuo; Miyaki, Koichi; Shimbo, Takuro; Nakayama, Takeo

    2011-12-14

    The Internet is known to be used for health purposes by the general public all over the world. However, little is known about the use of, attitudes toward, and activities regarding eHealth among the Japanese population. This study aimed to measure the prevalence of Internet use for health-related information compared with other sources, and to examine the effects on user knowledge, attitudes, and activities with regard to Internet use for health-related information in Japan. We examined the extent of use via personal computers and cell phones. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a quasi-representative sample (N = 1200) of the Japanese general population aged 15-79 years in September 2007. The main outcome measures were (1) self-reported rates of Internet use in the past year to acquire health-related information and to contact health professionals, family, friends, and peers specifically for health-related purposes, and (2) perceived effects of Internet use on health care. The prevalence of Internet use via personal computer for acquiring health-related information was 23.8% (286/1200) among those surveyed, whereas the prevalence via cell phone was 6% (77). Internet use via both personal computer and cell phone for communicating with health professionals, family, friends, or peers was not common. The Internet was used via personal computer for acquiring health-related information primarily by younger people, people with higher education levels, and people with higher household incomes. The majority of those who used the Internet for health care purposes responded that the Internet improved their knowledge or affected their lifestyle attitude, and that they felt confident in the health-related information they obtained from the Internet. However, less than one-quarter thought it improved their ability to manage their health or affected their health-related activities. Japanese moderately used the Internet via personal computers for health purposes, and rarely

  20. Screening and management of gestational diabetes in Mexico: results from a survey of multilocation, multi-health care institution practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dainelli L

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Livia Dainelli,1 Alberto Prieto-Patron,1 Irma Silva-Zolezzi,1 Sandra G Sosa-Rubi,2 Salvador Espino y Sosa,3 Enrique Reyes-Muñoz,4 Ruy Lopez-Ridaura,5 Patrick Detzel1 1Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland; 2Health Economics Department, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico; 3Clinical Research Branch, National Institute of Perinatology Isidro Espinosa de los Reyes, Mexico City, CDMX, Mexico; 4Endocrinology Department, National Institute of Perinatology Isidro Espinosa de los Reyes, Mexico City, CDMX, Mexico; 5Center for Research on Population Health, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico Purpose: To identify the most common practices implemented for the screening and treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM and to estimate the GDM clinician-reported proportion as a proxy of the incidence in Mexico. Materials and methods: Three hundred fifty-seven physicians in four major cities were asked about their practices regarding GDM screening, treatment, clinical exams, and health care staff involved in case of GDM diagnosis, as well as the percentage of women with GDM they care for. Data management and statistical analyses were done with Stata 13. Results: The overall GDM clinician-reported proportion was 23.7%. Regional differences were expected and consistent with the data on the epidemiology of the obesity in the country. The most common screening test was the oral glucose tolerance test 75 g one step (46.6% of total cases. Diet and exercise were sufficient to treat GDM in 40.6% of cases; the rest of the sample relied on some form of medication, especially oral hypoglycemic agents (63.0% of cases, insulin (22.0%, or a combination of these (13.0%. To educate women on how to measure glycemia and eventually take medications, an average of 2–3 hours were necessary. The three most common prenatal screening tests were the “no stress”, the “Doppler ultrasound”, and the