WorldWideScience

Sample records for survey included items

  1. A Comprehensive List of Items to be Included on a Pediatric Drug Monograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Lauren E; Ito, Shinya; Woods, David; Nunn, Anthony J; Taketomo, Carol; de Hoog, Matthijs; Offringa, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Children require special considerations for drug prescribing. Drug information summarized in a formulary containing drug monographs is essential for safe and effective prescribing. Currently, little is known about the information needs of those who prescribe and administer medicines to children. Our primary objective was to identify a list of important and relevant items to be included in a pediatric drug monograph. Following the establishment of an expert steering committee and an environmental scan of adult and pediatric formulary monograph items, 46 participants from 25 countries were invited to complete a 2-round Delphi survey. Questions regarding source of prescribing information and importance of items were recorded. An international consensus meeting to vote on and finalize the items list with the steering committee followed. Pediatric formularies are most commonly the first resource consulted for information on medication used in children by 31 Delphi participants. After the Delphi rounds, 116 items were identified to be included in a comprehensive pediatric drug monograph, including general information, adverse drug reactions, dosages, precautions, drug-drug interactions, formulation, and drug properties. Health care providers identified 116 monograph items as important for prescribing medicines for children by an international consensus-based process. This information will assist in setting standards for the creation of new pediatric drug monographs for international application and for those involved in pediatric formulary development.

  2. 42 CFR 413.217 - Items and services included in the ESRD prospective payment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... payment system. 413.217 Section 413.217 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT....217 Items and services included in the ESRD prospective payment system. The following items and services are included in the ESRD prospective payment system effective January 1, 2011: (a) Renal dialysis...

  3. Reduced-Item Food Audits Based on the Nutrition Environment Measures Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partington, Susan N; Menzies, Tim J; Colburn, Trina A; Saelens, Brian E; Glanz, Karen

    2015-10-01

    The community food environment may contribute to obesity by influencing food choice. Store and restaurant audits are increasingly common methods for assessing food environments, but are time consuming and costly. A valid, reliable brief measurement tool is needed. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate reduced-item food environment audit tools for stores and restaurants. Nutrition Environment Measures Surveys for stores (NEMS-S) and restaurants (NEMS-R) were completed in 820 stores and 1,795 restaurants in West Virginia, San Diego, and Seattle. Data mining techniques (correlation-based feature selection and linear regression) were used to identify survey items highly correlated to total survey scores and produce reduced-item audit tools that were subsequently validated against full NEMS surveys. Regression coefficients were used as weights that were applied to reduced-item tool items to generate comparable scores to full NEMS surveys. Data were collected and analyzed in 2008-2013. The reduced-item tools included eight items for grocery, ten for convenience, seven for variety, and five for other stores; and 16 items for sit-down, 14 for fast casual, 19 for fast food, and 13 for specialty restaurants-10% of the full NEMS-S and 25% of the full NEMS-R. There were no significant differences in median scores for varying types of retail food outlets when compared to the full survey scores. Median in-store audit time was reduced 25%-50%. Reduced-item audit tools can reduce the burden and complexity of large-scale or repeated assessments of the retail food environment without compromising measurement quality. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The 1992 Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey : Phase 1 : Book 4 : Item-by-item Crosstabulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. End-Use Research Section; Applied Management & Planning Group (Firm)

    1993-06-01

    This book constitutes a portion of the primary documentation for the 1992 Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey, Phase I. The complete 33-volume set of primary documentation provides information needed by energy analysts and interpreters with respect to planning, execution, data collection, and data management of the PNWRES92-I process. Thirty of these volumes are devoted to different ``views`` of the data themselves, with each view having a special purpose or interest as its focus. Analyses and interpretations of these data will be the subjects of forthcoming publications. Conducted during the late summer and fall months of 1992, PNWRES92-I had the over-arching goal of satisfying basic requirements for a variety of information about the stock of residential units in Bonneville`s service region. Surveys with a similar goal were conducted in 1979 and 1983. This volume discerns the information by state. ``Selected crosstabulations`` refers to a set of nine survey items of wide interest (Dwelling Type, Ownership Type, Year-of-Construction, Dwelling Size, Primary Space-Heating Fuel, Primary Water-Heating Fuel, Household Income for 1991, Utility Type, and Space-Heating Fuels: Systems and Equipment) that were crosstabulated among themselves.

  5. Validity of Suicidality Items from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey in a High School Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Alexis; Klonsky, E. David

    2011-01-01

    The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is used by the United States Centers for Disease Control to estimate rates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in adolescents. This study investigated the validity of the YRBS suicidality items by examining their relationship to criterion variables including loneliness, anxiety, depression, substance use, and…

  6. Development and evaluation of CAHPS survey items assessing how well healthcare providers address health literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidmer, Beverly A; Brach, Cindy; Hays, Ron D

    2012-09-01

    The complexity of health information often exceeds patients' skills to understand and use it. To develop survey items assessing how well healthcare providers communicate health information. Domains and items for the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) Item Set for Addressing Health Literacy were identified through an environmental scan and input from stakeholders. The draft item set was translated into Spanish and pretested in both English and Spanish. The revised item set was field tested with a randomly selected sample of adult patients from 2 sites using mail and telephonic data collection. Item-scale correlations, confirmatory factor analysis, and internal consistency reliability estimates were estimated to assess how well the survey items performed and identify composite measures. Finally, we regressed the CAHPS global rating of the provider item on the CAHPS core communication composite and the new health literacy composites. A total of 601 completed surveys were obtained (52% response rate). Two composite measures were identified: (1) Communication to Improve Health Literacy (16 items); and (2) How Well Providers Communicate About Medicines (6 items). These 2 composites were significantly uniquely associated with the global rating of the provider (communication to improve health literacy: PLiteracy composite accounted for 90% of the variance of the original 16-item composite. This study provides support for reliability and validity of the CAHPS Item Set for Addressing Health Literacy. These items can serve to assess whether healthcare providers have communicated effectively with their patients and as a tool for quality improvement.

  7. Harmonizing Measures of Cognitive Performance Across International Surveys of Aging Using Item Response Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kitty S; Gross, Alden L; Pezzin, Liliana E; Brandt, Jason; Kasper, Judith D

    2015-12-01

    To harmonize measures of cognitive performance using item response theory (IRT) across two international aging studies. Data for persons ≥65 years from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS, N = 9,471) and the English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA, N = 5,444). Cognitive performance measures varied (HRS fielded 25, ELSA 13); 9 were in common. Measurement precision was examined for IRT scores based on (a) common items, (b) common items adjusted for differential item functioning (DIF), and (c) DIF-adjusted all items. Three common items (day of date, immediate word recall, and delayed word recall) demonstrated DIF by survey. Adding survey-specific items improved precision but mainly for HRS respondents at lower cognitive levels. IRT offers a feasible strategy for harmonizing cognitive performance measures across other surveys and for other multi-item constructs of interest in studies of aging. Practical implications depend on sample distribution and the difficulty mix of in-common and survey-specific items. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Poisson and negative binomial item count techniques for surveys with sensitive question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Guo-Liang; Tang, Man-Lai; Wu, Qin; Liu, Yin

    2017-04-01

    Although the item count technique is useful in surveys with sensitive questions, privacy of those respondents who possess the sensitive characteristic of interest may not be well protected due to a defect in its original design. In this article, we propose two new survey designs (namely the Poisson item count technique and negative binomial item count technique) which replace several independent Bernoulli random variables required by the original item count technique with a single Poisson or negative binomial random variable, respectively. The proposed models not only provide closed form variance estimate and confidence interval within [0, 1] for the sensitive proportion, but also simplify the survey design of the original item count technique. Most importantly, the new designs do not leak respondents' privacy. Empirical results show that the proposed techniques perform satisfactorily in the sense that it yields accurate parameter estimate and confidence interval.

  9. Factors affecting study efficiency and item non-response in health surveys in developing countries: the Jamaica national healthy lifestyle survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Franklyn

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health surveys provide important information on the burden and secular trends of risk factors and disease. Several factors including survey and item non-response can affect data quality. There are few reports on efficiency, validity and the impact of item non-response, from developing countries. This report examines factors associated with item non-response and study efficiency in a national health survey in a developing Caribbean island. Methods A national sample of participants aged 15–74 years was selected in a multi-stage sampling design accounting for 4 health regions and 14 parishes using enumeration districts as primary sampling units. Means and proportions of the variables of interest were compared between various categories. Non-response was defined as failure to provide an analyzable response. Linear and logistic regression models accounting for sample design and post-stratification weighting were used to identify independent correlates of recruitment efficiency and item non-response. Results We recruited 2012 15–74 year-olds (66.2% females at a response rate of 87.6% with significant variation between regions (80.9% to 97.6%; p Conclusion Informative health surveys are possible in developing countries. While survey response rates may be satisfactory, item non-response was high in respect of income and sexual practice. In contrast to developed countries, non-response to questions on income is higher and has different correlates. These findings can inform future surveys.

  10. Including Item Characteristics in the Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis Model for Collaborative Filtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kagie (Martijn); M.J.H.M. van der Loos (Matthijs); M.C. van Wezel (Michiel)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a new hybrid recommender system that combines some advantages of collaborative and content-based recommender systems. While it uses ratings data of all users, as do collaborative recommender systems, it is also able to recommend new items and provide an explanation of its

  11. Psychometric Evaluation of Chinese-Language 44-Item and 10-Item Big Five Personality Inventories, Including Correlations with Chronotype, Mindfulness and Mind Wandering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carciofo, Richard; Yang, Jiaoyan; Song, Nan; Du, Feng; Zhang, Kan

    2016-01-01

    The 44-item and 10-item Big Five Inventory (BFI) personality scales are widely used, but there is a lack of psychometric data for Chinese versions. Eight surveys (total N = 2,496, aged 18-82), assessed a Chinese-language BFI-44 and/or an independently translated Chinese-language BFI-10. Most BFI-44 items loaded strongly or predominantly on the expected dimension, and values of Cronbach's alpha ranged .698-.807. Test-retest coefficients ranged .694-.770 (BFI-44), and .515-.873 (BFI-10). The BFI-44 and BFI-10 showed good convergent and discriminant correlations, and expected associations with gender (females higher for agreeableness and neuroticism), and age (older age associated with more conscientiousness and agreeableness, and also less neuroticism and openness). Additionally, predicted correlations were found with chronotype (morningness positive with conscientiousness), mindfulness (negative with neuroticism, positive with conscientiousness), and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency (negative with conscientiousness, positive with neuroticism). Exploratory analysis found that the Self-discipline facet of conscientiousness positively correlated with morningness and mindfulness, and negatively correlated with mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Furthermore, Self-discipline was found to be a mediator in the relationships between chronotype and mindfulness, and chronotype and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Overall, the results support the utility of the BFI-44 and BFI-10 for Chinese-language big five personality research.

  12. Development of the Quantitative Reasoning Items on the National Survey of Student Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber D. Dumford

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As society’s needs for quantitative skills become more prevalent, college graduates require quantitative skills regardless of their career choices. Therefore, it is important that institutions assess students’ engagement in quantitative activities during college. This study chronicles the process taken by the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE to develop items that measure students’ participation in quantitative reasoning (QR activities. On the whole, findings across the quantitative and qualitative analyses suggest good overall properties for the developed QR items. The items show great promise to explore and evaluate the frequency with which college students participate in QR-related activities. Each year, hundreds of institutions across the United States and Canada participate in NSSE, and, with the addition of these new items on the core survey, every participating institution will have information on this topic. Our hope is that these items will spur conversations on campuses about students’ use of quantitative reasoning activities.

  13. Recommended core items to assess e-cigarette use in population-based surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Jennifer L; Hitchman, Sara C; Brose, Leonie S; Bauld, Linda; Glasser, Allison M; Villanti, Andrea C; McNeill, Ann; Abrams, David B; Cohen, Joanna E

    2018-05-01

    A consistent approach using standardised items to assess e-cigarette use in both youth and adult populations will aid cross-survey and cross-national comparisons of the effect of e-cigarette (and tobacco) policies and improve our understanding of the population health impact of e-cigarette use. Focusing on adult behaviour, we propose a set of e-cigarette use items, discuss their utility and potential adaptation, and highlight e-cigarette constructs that researchers should avoid without further item development. Reliable and valid items will strengthen the emerging science and inform knowledge synthesis for policy-making. Building on informal discussions at a series of international meetings of 65 experts from 15 countries, the authors provide recommendations for assessing e-cigarette use behaviour, relative perceived harm, device type, presence of nicotine, flavours and reasons for use. We recommend items assessing eight core constructs: e-cigarette ever use, frequency of use and former daily use; relative perceived harm; device type; primary flavour preference; presence of nicotine; and primary reason for use. These items should be standardised or minimally adapted for the policy context and target population. Researchers should be prepared to update items as e-cigarette device characteristics change. A minimum set of e-cigarette items is proposed to encourage consensus around items to allow for cross-survey and cross-jurisdictional comparisons of e-cigarette use behaviour. These proposed items are a starting point. We recognise room for continued improvement, and welcome input from e-cigarette users and scientific colleagues. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. 26 CFR 1.61-2 - Compensation for services, including fees, commissions, and similar items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (including Christmas bonuses), termination or severance pay, rewards, jury fees, marriage fees and other...). For the special rules relating to the includibility in an employee's gross income of an amount equal...

  15. Method of data mining including determining multidimensional coordinates of each item using a predetermined scalar similarity value for each item pair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Charles E.; Davidson, George S.; Johnson, David K.; Hendrickson, Bruce A.; Wylie, Brian N.

    1999-01-01

    A method of data mining represents related items in a multidimensional space. Distance between items in the multidimensional space corresponds to the extent of relationship between the items. The user can select portions of the space to perceive. The user also can interact with and control the communication of the space, focusing attention on aspects of the space of most interest. The multidimensional spatial representation allows more ready comprehension of the structure of the relationships among the items.

  16. 5 CFR 591.212 - How does OPM select survey items?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How does OPM select survey items? 591.212 Section 591.212 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Cost-of-Living Allowance and Post Differential-Nonforeign Areas Cost-Of-Living...

  17. Item-level psychometrics of the ADL instrument of the Korean National Survey on persons with physical disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ickpyo; Lee, Mi Jung; Kim, Moon Young; Park, Hae Yean

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the psychometrics of the 12 items of an instrument assessing activities of daily living (ADL) using an item response theory model. A total of 648 adults with physical disabilities and having difficulties in ADLs were retrieved from the 2014 Korean National Survey on People with Disabilities. The psychometric testing included factor analysis, internal consistency, precision, and differential item functioning (DIF) across categories including sex, older age, marital status, and physical impairment area. The sample had a mean age of 69.7 years old (SD = 13.7). The majority of the sample had lower extremity impairments (62.0%) and had at least 2.1 chronic conditions. The instrument demonstrated unidimensional construct and good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.95). The instrument precisely estimated person measures within a wide range of theta values (-2.22 logits  5.0%). Our findings indicate that the dressing item would need to be modified to improve its psychometrics. Overall, the ADL instrument demonstrates good psychometrics, and thus, it may be used as a standardized instrument for measuring disability in rehabilitation contexts. However, the findings are limited to adults with physical disabilities. Future studies should replicate psychometric testing for survey respondents with other disorders and for children.

  18. Recommended core items to assess e-cigarette use in population-based surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Jennifer L; Hitchman, Sara C; Brose, Leonie S; Bauld, Linda; Glasser, Allison M; Villanti, Andrea C; McNeill, Ann; Abrams, David B; Cohen, Joanna E

    2017-01-01

    Background: A consistent approach using standardized items to assess e-cigarette use in both youth and adult populations will aid cross-survey and cross-national comparisons of the effect of e-cigarette (and tobacco) policies and improve our understanding of the population health impact of e-cigarette use. Focusing on adult behavior, we propose a set of e-cigarette use items, discuss their utility and potential adaptation, and highlight e-cigarette constructs that researchers should avoid wit...

  19. Examining Multiple Sources of Differential Item Functioning on the Clinician & Group CAHPS® Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Hector P; Crane, Paul K

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate psychometric properties of a widely used patient experience survey. Data Sources English-language responses to the Clinician & Group Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CG-CAHPS®) survey (n = 12,244) from a 2008 quality improvement initiative involving eight southern California medical groups. Methods We used an iterative hybrid ordinal logistic regression/item response theory differential item functioning (DIF) algorithm to identify items with DIF related to patient sociodemographic characteristics, duration of the physician–patient relationship, number of physician visits, and self-rated physical and mental health. We accounted for all sources of DIF and determined its cumulative impact. Principal Findings The upper end of the CG-CAHPS® performance range is measured with low precision. With sensitive settings, some items were found to have DIF. However, overall DIF impact was negligible, as 0.14 percent of participants had salient DIF impact. Latinos who spoke predominantly English at home had the highest prevalence of salient DIF impact at 0.26 percent. Conclusions The CG-CAHPS® functions similarly across commercially insured respondents from diverse backgrounds. Consequently, previously documented racial and ethnic group differences likely reflect true differences rather than measurement bias. The impact of low precision at the upper end of the scale should be clarified. PMID:22092021

  20. Guideline appraisal with AGREE II: online survey of the potential influence of AGREE II items on overall assessment of guideline quality and recommendation for use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann-Eßer, Wiebke; Siering, Ulrich; Neugebauer, Edmund A M; Brockhaus, Anne Catharina; McGauran, Natalie; Eikermann, Michaela

    2018-02-27

    The AGREE II instrument is the most commonly used guideline appraisal tool. It includes 23 appraisal criteria (items) organized within six domains. AGREE II also includes two overall assessments (overall guideline quality, recommendation for use). Our aim was to investigate how strongly the 23 AGREE II items influence the two overall assessments. An online survey of authors of publications on guideline appraisals with AGREE II and guideline users from a German scientific network was conducted between 10th February 2015 and 30th March 2015. Participants were asked to rate the influence of the AGREE II items on a Likert scale (0 = no influence to 5 = very strong influence). The frequencies of responses and their dispersion were presented descriptively. Fifty-eight of the 376 persons contacted (15.4%) participated in the survey and the data of the 51 respondents with prior knowledge of AGREE II were analysed. Items 7-12 of Domain 3 (rigour of development) and both items of Domain 6 (editorial independence) had the strongest influence on the two overall assessments. In addition, Items 15-17 (clarity of presentation) had a strong influence on the recommendation for use. Great variations were shown for the other items. The main limitation of the survey is the low response rate. In guideline appraisals using AGREE II, items representing rigour of guideline development and editorial independence seem to have the strongest influence on the two overall assessments. In order to ensure a transparent approach to reaching the overall assessments, we suggest the inclusion of a recommendation in the AGREE II user manual on how to consider item and domain scores. For instance, the manual could include an a-priori weighting of those items and domains that should have the strongest influence on the two overall assessments. The relevance of these assessments within AGREE II could thereby be further specified.

  1. Validation of the MOS Social Support Survey 6-item (MOS-SSS-6) measure with two large population-based samples of Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Libby; Lee, Christina; Hockey, Richard; Ware, Robert S; Dobson, Annette J

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to validate a 6-item 1-factor global measure of social support developed from the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS) for use in large epidemiological studies. Data were obtained from two large population-based samples of participants in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. The two cohorts were aged 53-58 and 28-33 years at data collection (N = 10,616 and 8,977, respectively). Items selected for the 6-item 1-factor measure were derived from the factor structure obtained from unpublished work using an earlier wave of data from one of these cohorts. Descriptive statistics, including polychoric correlations, were used to describe the abbreviated scale. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess internal consistency and confirmatory factor analysis to assess scale validity. Concurrent validity was assessed using correlations between the new 6-item version and established 19-item version, and other concurrent variables. In both cohorts, the new 6-item 1-factor measure showed strong internal consistency and scale reliability. It had excellent goodness-of-fit indices, similar to those of the established 19-item measure. Both versions correlated similarly with concurrent measures. The 6-item 1-factor MOS-SSS measures global functional social support with fewer items than the established 19-item measure.

  2. Citizens' perceptions of political processes. A critical evaluation of preference consistency and survey items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengtsson, Åsa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The current state of research does not tell us much about citizens’ expectations of political decision making. Most surveys allow respondents to evaluate how the current system is working, but do not inquire about alternative political decision-making procedures. The lack of established survey items can be explained by the fact that radical changes in decision-making procedures have been hard to envisage, but also by a general scepticism regarding people’s ability to form opinions on these matters. Political processes are, without doubt, complex matters that do not lend themselves very well to simplistic survey questions. Moreover, previous research has convincingly shown that most people in general have difficulties forming single, coherent and stable attitudes even towards far more straightforward political issues. In order to determine if trying to grasp attitudes towards political decision-making in future empirical studies can be considered a fruitful endeavour, this study sets out to critically assess the extent to which people express coherent preferences on these matters, and if preferences are in line with expectations in previous, rather scattered research. The study is based on the Finnish National Election Study 2011; a study which, contrary to most other election studies, includes a rich variety of survey items on the topic, and utilises a combination of strategies in order to explore patterns in the opinions held by citizens.

    El estado actual de las investigaciones no nos dice mucho sobre las expectativas de los ciudadanos con respecto a la toma de decisiones políticas. La mayoría de las encuestas permiten que quienes las responden evalúen cómo funciona el sistema actual, pero no preguntan por procedimientos alternativos de decisión política. La falta de preguntas de encuesta contrastadas se puede explicar tanto por el hecho de que los cambios en los procedimientos de toma de decisiones han resultado difíciles de

  3. 41 CFR 302-7.20 - If my HHG shipment includes an item (e.g., boat, trailer, ultralight vehicle) for which a weight...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... includes an item (e.g., boat, trailer, ultralight vehicle) for which a weight additive is assessed by the...) General Rules § 302-7.20 If my HHG shipment includes an item (e.g., boat, trailer, ultralight vehicle) for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier, am I responsible for payment? If your HHG...

  4. U.S. Naval Unit Behavioral Health Needs Assessment Survey, Overview of Survey Items and Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-20

    all Soldiers. The BHNAS and MHAT surveys have yielded valuable information regarding the effects of combat and deployment on service members...and Barriers to Care • Amount of Sleep and Sleep Deficit • Sleep Difficulties • Military Specialty • Positive Effects of Assignment • Contribution...nonopioid prescription painkillers was added; (3) the definition of “constantly and frequent” was omitted in the question; and (4) the NUBHNAS

  5. A survey of anatomical items relevant to the practice of rheumatology: upper extremity, head, neck, spine, and general concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaseñor-Ovies, Pablo; Navarro-Zarza, José Eduardo; Saavedra, Miguel Ángel; Hernández-Díaz, Cristina; Canoso, Juan J; Biundo, Joseph J; Kalish, Robert A; de Toro Santos, Francisco Javier; McGonagle, Dennis; Carette, Simon; Alvarez-Nemegyei, José

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to identify the anatomical items of the upper extremity and spine that are potentially relevant to the practice of rheumatology. Ten rheumatologists interested in clinical anatomy who published, taught, and/or participated as active members of Clinical Anatomy Interest groups (six seniors, four juniors), participated in a one-round relevance Delphi exercise. An initial, 560-item list that included 45 (8.0 %) general concepts items; 138 (24.8 %) hand items; 100 (17.8 %) forearm and elbow items; 147 (26.2 %) shoulder items; and 130 (23.2 %) head, neck, and spine items was compiled by 5 of the participants. Each item was graded for importance with a Likert scale from 1 (not important) to 5 (very important). Thus, scores could range from 10 (1 × 10) to 50 (5 × 10). An item score of ≥40 was considered most relevant to competent practice as a rheumatologist. Mean item Likert scores ranged from 2.2 ± 0.5 to 4.6 ± 0.7. A total of 115 (20.5 %) of the 560 initial items reached relevance. Broken down by categories, this final relevant item list was composed by 7 (6.1 %) general concepts items; 32 (27.8 %) hand items; 20 (17.4 %) forearm and elbow items; 33 (28.7 %) shoulder items; and 23 (17.6 %) head, neck, and spine items. In this Delphi exercise, a group of practicing academic rheumatologists with an interest in clinical anatomy compiled a list of anatomical items that were deemed important to the practice of rheumatology. We suggest these items be considered curricular priorities when training rheumatology fellows in clinical anatomy skills and in programs of continuing rheumatology education.

  6. Phase I Marine and Terrestrial Cultural Resources Survey of 13 Project Items Located on Marsh Island, Iberia Parish, Louisiana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barr, William

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the results of Phase I cultural resources survey and archeological inventory of two marine and 11 terrestrial project items on and near Marsh Island in Iberia Parish, Louisiana...

  7. Behavioral Health Needs Assessment Survey (BHNAS): Overview of Survey Items and Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    medication use • Personal and unit morale • Unit cohesion • Attitudes toward leadership • Positive effects of deployment • Navy support during deployment...to select any of the following: • Over-the-counter drugs (including Aspirin, Tylenol, Motrin, Ibuprofen, Aleve) • Prescription painkillers that...are not opioids (including Celebrex, Vioxx, Bextra, topical lidocaine) • Prescription opioid/narcotic painkiller (including OxyContin, Percocet

  8. Intake of natural radioactivity through dietary items: a prelude to preoperational environmental survey at Kudankulam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varughese, K.G.; Kumar, M.; George, Thomas; Sunder Rajan, P.; Vijay Kumar, B.; Rajan, M.P.

    2008-01-01

    High background radiation are found in nature at some parts of Australia, Brazil, China, Iran, India etc. Kanyakumari district in the southern peninsular India is such a NHBRA (Natural high background radiation area) having monazite placers along the coast. Although general radiation levels in this area has been investigated by many researchers in the past, the impact of this high background radioactivity on the flora and fauna is scarce. In the present investigations radiation survey has been done at high background areas with special attention to vegetables and crops grown in this area. The studies are centered at the 2x1000 MWe, Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project site which is about 25 km from Kanyakumari. Samples of soil, sand, vegetations and other food items are collected from the 30 km radial zone of KKNPP site and analysed for naturally occurring radionuclides such as 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K. The intake of natural radioactivity through food items produced in this area is found to be very small, and the internal dose to general population staying at this high natural background area is insignificant. (author)

  9. Reliability of the Core Items in the General Social Survey: Estimates from the Three-Wave Panels, 2006–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hout

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We used standard and multilevel models to assess the reliability of core items in the General Social Survey panel studies spanning 2006 to 2014. Most of the 293 core items scored well on the measure of reliability: 62 items (21 percent had reliability measures greater than 0.85; another 71 (24 percent had reliability measures between 0.70 and 0.85. Objective items, especially facts about demography and religion, were generally more reliable than subjective items. The economic recession of 2007–2009, the slow recovery afterward, and the election of Barack Obama in 2008 altered the social context in ways that may look like unreliability of items. For example, unemployment status, hours worked, and weeks worked have lower reliability than most work-related items, reflecting the consequences of the recession on the facts of peoples lives. Items regarding racial and gender discrimination and racial stereotypes scored as particularly unreliable, accounting for most of the 15 items with reliability coefficients less than 0.40. Our results allow scholars to more easily take measurement reliability into consideration in their own research, while also highlighting the limitations of these approaches.

  10. Surveillance indicators for potential reduced exposure products (PREPs): developing survey items to measure awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogen, Karen; Biener, Lois; Garrett, Catherine A; Allen, Jane; Cummings, K Michael; Hartman, Anne; Marcus, Stephen; McNeill, Ann; O'Connor, Richard J; Parascandola, Mark; Pederson, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, tobacco companies have introduced cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products (known as Potential Reduced Exposure Products, PREPs) with purportedly lower levels of some toxins than conventional cigarettes and smokeless products. It is essential that public health agencies monitor awareness, interest, use, and perceptions of these products so that their impact on population health can be detected at the earliest stages. Methods This paper reviews and critiques existing strategies for measuring awareness of PREPs from 16 published and unpublished studies. From these measures, we developed new surveillance items and subjected them to two rounds of cognitive testing, a common and accepted method for evaluating questionnaire wording. Results Our review suggests that high levels of awareness of PREPs reported in some studies are likely to be inaccurate. Two likely sources of inaccuracy in awareness measures were identified: 1) the tendency of respondents to misclassify "no additive" and "natural" cigarettes as PREPs and 2) the tendency of respondents to mistakenly report awareness as a result of confusion between PREPs brands and similarly named familiar products, for example, Eclipse chewing gum and Accord automobiles. Conclusion After evaluating new measures with cognitive interviews, we conclude that as of winter 2006, awareness of reduced exposure products among U.S. smokers was likely to be between 1% and 8%, with the higher estimates for some products occurring in test markets. Recommended measurement strategies for future surveys are presented. PMID:19840394

  11. Surveillance indicators for potential reduced exposure products (PREPs: developing survey items to measure awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNeill Ann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past decade, tobacco companies have introduced cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products (known as Potential Reduced Exposure Products, PREPs with purportedly lower levels of some toxins than conventional cigarettes and smokeless products. It is essential that public health agencies monitor awareness, interest, use, and perceptions of these products so that their impact on population health can be detected at the earliest stages. Methods This paper reviews and critiques existing strategies for measuring awareness of PREPs from 16 published and unpublished studies. From these measures, we developed new surveillance items and subjected them to two rounds of cognitive testing, a common and accepted method for evaluating questionnaire wording. Results Our review suggests that high levels of awareness of PREPs reported in some studies are likely to be inaccurate. Two likely sources of inaccuracy in awareness measures were identified: 1 the tendency of respondents to misclassify "no additive" and "natural" cigarettes as PREPs and 2 the tendency of respondents to mistakenly report awareness as a result of confusion between PREPs brands and similarly named familiar products, for example, Eclipse chewing gum and Accord automobiles. Conclusion After evaluating new measures with cognitive interviews, we conclude that as of winter 2006, awareness of reduced exposure products among U.S. smokers was likely to be between 1% and 8%, with the higher estimates for some products occurring in test markets. Recommended measurement strategies for future surveys are presented.

  12. Using Localized Survey Items to Augment Standardized Benchmarking Measures: A LibQUAL+[TM] Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Bruce; Cook, Colleen; Kyrillidou, Martha

    2006-01-01

    The LibQUAL+[TM] protocol solicits open-ended comments from users with regard to library service quality, gathers data on 22 core items, and, at the option of individual libraries, also garners ratings on five items drawn from a pool of more than 100 choices selected by libraries. In this article, the relationship of scores on these locally…

  13. Further Investigating Method Effects Associated with Negatively Worded Items on Self-Report Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStefano, Christine; Motl, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    This article used multitrait-multimethod methodology and covariance modeling for an investigation of the presence and correlates of method effects associated with negatively worded items on the Rosenberg Self-Esteem (RSE) scale (Rosenberg, 1989) using a sample of 757 adults. Results showed that method effects associated with negative item phrasing…

  14. The anticipated costs analysis and benefit items survey against performing the maintenance rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, M. J.; Kim, K. Y.; Yang, Z. A.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we surveyed the cost and benefit items and evaluated the costs against performing the Maintenance Rule. In the past, only one electric power company had provided the electricity without free competition in Korea. In these days, however, the electric power company was divided into two parts by the sources: atomic and hydraulic generation and thermal-power generation. Therefore, the generation sources that done have competitiveness at the price will be weeded out in the electric power market. Although the preferential goal is on the safe operation at the Nuclear power Plants (NPPs), if too much money is required to maintain or improve the safety of the NPP, the licensee could hesitate to adopt the program related to the safety even though it is a good one. Since the Risk-Informed Applications (RIA) have been using for a plant operation in recent, the condition of a plant might be changed. Therefore, considering the affects of the RIA, a method to keep the capability through the monitoring the maintenance effectiveness has been proposed. However, to perform this, a number of works, continuous collecting data and monitoring the maintenance effectiveness and understanding the reason of degrading capability, should be preceded. Therefore, a lot of man-hour is needed to develop and to manage the application method, and the licensee should pay the costs. Therefore, in the domestic circumstance, it is necessary to evaluate the cost to monitor the maintenance effectiveness. Hence, we are going to examine the cost to perform the MR and its anticipated benefit lists

  15. Calibration of context-specific survey items to assess youth physical activity behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Maurice, Pedro F; Welk, Gregory J; Bartee, R Todd; Heelan, Kate

    2017-05-01

    This study tests calibration models to re-scale context-specific physical activity (PA) items to accelerometer-derived PA. A total of 195 4th-12th grades children wore an Actigraph monitor and completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ) one week later. The relative time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA % ) obtained from the Actigraph at recess, PE, lunch, after-school, evening and weekend was matched with a respective item score obtained from the PAQ's. Item scores from 145 participants were calibrated against objective MVPA % using multiple linear regression with age, and sex as additional predictors. Predicted minutes of MVPA for school, out-of-school and total week were tested in the remaining sample (n = 50) using equivalence testing. The results showed that PAQ β-weights ranged from 0.06 (lunch) to 4.94 (PE) MVPA % (P PAQ and accelerometer MVPA at school and out-of-school ranged from -15.6 to +3.8 min and the PAQ was within 10-15% of accelerometer measured activity. This study demonstrated that context-specific items can be calibrated to predict minutes of MVPA in groups of youth during in- and out-of-school periods.

  16. A Study of General Education Astronomy Students' Understandings of Cosmology. Part III. Evaluating Four Conceptual Cosmology Surveys: An Item Response Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Colin S.; Prather, Edward E.; Duncan, Douglas K.

    2012-01-01

    This is the third of five papers detailing our national study of general education astronomy students' conceptual and reasoning difficulties with cosmology. In this paper, we use item response theory to analyze students' responses to three out of the four conceptual cosmology surveys we developed. The specific item response theory model we use is…

  17. Survey indicated that core outcome set development is increasingly including patients, being conducted internationally and using Delphi surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggane, Alice M; Brading, Lucy; Ravaud, Philippe; Young, Bridget; Williamson, Paula R

    2018-02-17

    There are numerous challenges in including patients in a core outcome set (COS) study, these can vary depending on the patient group. This study describes current efforts to include patients in the development of COS, with the aim of identifying areas for further improvement and study. Using the COMET database, corresponding authors of COS projects registered or published from 1 January 2013 to 2 February 2017 were invited via a personalised email to participate in a short online survey. The survey and emails were constructed to maximise the response rate by following the academic literature on enhancing survey responses. Personalised reminder emails were sent to non-responders. This survey explored the frequency of patient input in COS studies, who was involved, what methods were used and whether or not the COS development was international. One hundred and ninety-two COS developers were sent the survey. Responses were collected from 21 February 2017 until 7 May 2017. One hundred and forty-six unique developers responded, yielding a 76% response rate and data in relation to 195 unique COSs (as some developers had worked on multiple COSs). Of focus here are their responses regarding 162 COSs at the published, completed or ongoing stages of development. Inclusion of patient participants was indicated in 87% (141/162) of COSs in the published completed or ongoing stages and over 94% (65/69) of ongoing COS projects. Nearly half (65/135) of COSs included patient participants from two or more countries and 22% (30/135) included patient participants from five or more countries. The Delphi survey was reported as being used singularly or in combination with other methods in 85% (119/140) of projects. Almost a quarter (16/65) of ongoing studies reported using a combination of qualitative interviews, Delphi survey and consensus meeting. These findings indicated that the Delphi survey is the most popular method of facilitating patient participation, while the combination of

  18. Survey of Public Understanding on Energy Resources including Nuclear Energy (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Se-Moon; Song, Sun-Ja

    2007-01-01

    Women in Nuclear-Korea (WINK) surveyed the public understanding on various energy resources in early September 2006 to offer the result for establishment of the nuclear communication policy. The reason why this survey includes other energy resources is because the previous works are only limited on nuclear energy, and also aimed to know the public's opinion on the present communication skill of nuclear energy for the public understanding. The present study is purposed of having data how public understands nuclear energy compared to other energies, such as fossil fuels, hydro power, and other sustainable energies. The data obtained from this survey have shown different results according to the responded group; age, gender, residential area, etc. Responded numbers are more than 2,000 of general public and university students. The survey result shows that nuclear understanding is more negative in women than in men, and is more negative in young than older age

  19. P values in display items are ubiquitous and almost invariably significant: A survey of top science journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristea, Ioana Alina; Ioannidis, John P A

    2018-01-01

    P values represent a widely used, but pervasively misunderstood and fiercely contested method of scientific inference. Display items, such as figures and tables, often containing the main results, are an important source of P values. We conducted a survey comparing the overall use of P values and the occurrence of significant P values in display items of a sample of articles in the three top multidisciplinary journals (Nature, Science, PNAS) in 2017 and, respectively, in 1997. We also examined the reporting of multiplicity corrections and its potential influence on the proportion of statistically significant P values. Our findings demonstrated substantial and growing reliance on P values in display items, with increases of 2.5 to 14.5 times in 2017 compared to 1997. The overwhelming majority of P values (94%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 92% to 96%) were statistically significant. Methods to adjust for multiplicity were almost non-existent in 1997, but reported in many articles relying on P values in 2017 (Nature 68%, Science 48%, PNAS 38%). In their absence, almost all reported P values were statistically significant (98%, 95% CI 96% to 99%). Conversely, when any multiplicity corrections were described, 88% (95% CI 82% to 93%) of reported P values were statistically significant. Use of Bayesian methods was scant (2.5%) and rarely (0.7%) articles relied exclusively on Bayesian statistics. Overall, wider appreciation of the need for multiplicity corrections is a welcome evolution, but the rapid growth of reliance on P values and implausibly high rates of reported statistical significance are worrisome.

  20. The Iranian version of 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12: factor structure, internal consistency and construct validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousavi Sayed

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12 as a shorter alternative of the SF-36 is largely used in health outcomes surveys. The aim of this study was to validate the SF-12 in Iran. Methods A random sample of the general population aged 15 years and over living in Tehran, Iran completed the SF-12. Reliability was estimated using internal consistency and validity was assessed using known groups comparison and convergent validity. In addition, the factor structure of the questionnaire was extracted by performing both exploratory factor analysis (EFA and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. Results: In all, 5587 individuals were studied (2721 male and 2866 female. The mean age and formal education of the respondents were 35.1 (SD = 15.4 and 10.2 (SD = 4.4 years respectively. The results showed satisfactory internal consistency for both summary measures, that are the Physical Component Summary (PCS and the Mental Component Summary (MCS; Cronbach's α for PCS-12 and MCS-12 was 0.73 and 0.72, respectively. Known-groups comparison showed that the SF-12 discriminated well between men and women and those who differed in age and educational status (P Conclusion In general the findings suggest that the SF-12 is a reliable and valid measure of health related quality of life among Iranian population. However, further studies are needed to establish stronger psychometric properties for this alternative form of the SF-36 Health Survey in Iran.

  1. Relationship between handling heavy items during pregnancy and spontaneous abortion: a cross-sectional survey of working women in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bokim; Jung, Hye-Sun

    2012-01-01

    The researchers conducted a cross-sectional survey to determine the relationship between handling heavy items during pregnancy and spontaneous abortion among working women in South Korea. One thousand working women were selected from a database of those eligible for maternity benefits under the National Employment Insurance Plan. Study results showed that handling heavy items during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion after adjusting for general characteristics of the participants and their work environment. A collective effort is needed on the parts of employers, employees, occupational health nurses, and the government to protect working women from lifting heavy items while pregnant. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. The Iranian version of 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12): factor structure, internal consistency and construct validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, Ali; Vahdaninia, Mariam; Mousavi, Sayed Javad; Omidvari, Speideh

    2009-09-16

    The 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) as a shorter alternative of the SF-36 is largely used in health outcomes surveys. The aim of this study was to validate the SF-12 in Iran. A random sample of the general population aged 15 years and over living in Tehran, Iran completed the SF-12. Reliability was estimated using internal consistency and validity was assessed using known groups comparison and convergent validity. In addition, the factor structure of the questionnaire was extracted by performing both exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). In all, 5587 individuals were studied (2721 male and 2866 female). The mean age and formal education of the respondents were 35.1 (SD = 15.4) and 10.2 (SD = 4.4) years respectively. The results showed satisfactory internal consistency for both summary measures, that are the Physical Component Summary (PCS) and the Mental Component Summary (MCS); Cronbach's alpha for PCS-12 and MCS-12 was 0.73 and 0.72, respectively. Known-groups comparison showed that the SF-12 discriminated well between men and women and those who differed in age and educational status (P < 0.001). In addition, correlations between the SF-12 scales and single items showed that the physical functioning, role physical, bodily pain and general health subscales correlated higher with the PCS-12 score, while the vitality, social functioning, role emotional and mental health subscales more correlated with the MCS-12 score lending support to its good convergent validity. Finally the principal component analysis indicated a two-factor structure (physical and mental health) that jointly accounted for 57.8% of the variance. The confirmatory factory analysis also indicated a good fit to the data for the two-latent structure (physical and mental health). In general the findings suggest that the SF-12 is a reliable and valid measure of health related quality of life among Iranian population. However, further studies are needed to

  3. A survey of the praying mantises of Rwanda, including new records (Insecta, Mantodea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedrow, Riley; Nathan, Kabanguka; Richard, Nasasira; Svenson, Gavin J

    2015-10-01

    We report the results of two surveys targeting praying mantises in four localities in Rwanda, specifically Akagera National Park, Nyungwe National Park, Volcanoes National Park, and the Arboretum de Ruhande at the National University of Rwanda. Using an assortment of collecting techniques, including metal halide light traps, sweep netting vegetation and general searching, we obtained 387 adult and 352 juvenile specimens, representing 41 species. A total of 28 novel species records for Rwanda are added to the 18 previously recorded species for the country, in addition to 20 novel species records for the broader region, including neighbouring Uganda and Burundi. This study provides high resolution images of the dorsal habitus of both sexes of representative species, both pinned and living. Species distribution records are presented and discussed. With a 155% increase in species recorded from Rwanda, this survey illustrates the need for further taxonomic work in the region.

  4. The Case to Include Brand of Moist Snuff in Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timberlake, David S

    2016-08-01

    Brand of smokeless tobacco was added to the most recent Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS), but deleted from the Centers for Disease Control's National Adult Tobacco Survey. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of brand in distinguishing users of moist snuff. The sample consisted of participants from the 2010-2011 TUS-CPS who reported having used one of 14 brands of moist snuff in the past month (n = 2334). The brands were categorized into one of three types: snus, discount snuff, premium snuff. Multinomial logistic regression was employed for testing for associations between brand type and a series of demographic and tobacco use measures. Females, metropolitan residents, current smokers, and moderate users of snuff had significantly greater odds of using snus relative to premium snuff in the adjusted model (P discount versus premium snuff. Separate analyses among current smokers (n = 470) and former smokers (n = 70) revealed positive associations between smoking cessation attempts and smokers' switch to discount snuff. Differences among the three categories of snuff users are likely attributed to variations in marketing campaigns. The differences are sufficient to warrant inclusion of snuff brand in health surveys because brand type could serve as a proxy measure for snuff use and dependence. Inclusion of brand of moist snuff in health surveys will enable researchers to categorize snuff users by brand type. Findings from this study indicate that brand type, defined according to cost (ie, discount vs. premium brands) and type of preferred snuff (ie, snus vs. other moist snuff), can distinguish snuff users by various demographic and tobacco use measures. Consequently, categorization by brand type could be used as a proxy measure for studies whose surveys do not include detailed information on snuff use and behavior. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on

  5. From Ethnography to Items: A Mixed Methods Approach to Developing a Survey to Examine Graduate Engineering Student Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crede, Erin; Borrego, Maura

    2013-01-01

    As part of a sequential exploratory mixed methods study, 9 months of ethnographically guided observations and interviews were used to develop a survey examining graduate engineering student retention. Findings from the ethnographic fieldwork yielded several themes, including international diversity, research group organization and climate,…

  6. Quality of life assessed with the medical outcomes study short form 36-item health survey of patients on renal replacement therapy: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.S. Liem (Ylian Serina); J.L. Bosch (Johanna); L.R. Arends (Lidia); M.H. Heijenbrok-Kal (Majanka); M.G.M. Hunink (Myriam)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: The Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36) is the most widely used generic instrument to estimate quality of life of patients on renal replacement therapy. Purpose of this study was to summarize and compare the published literature on quality of

  7. Test-retest reliability of selected items of Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC survey questionnaire in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children's health and health behaviour are essential for their development and it is important to obtain abundant and accurate information to understand young people's health and health behaviour. The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study is among the first large-scale international surveys on adolescent health through self-report questionnaires. So far, more than 40 countries in Europe and North America have been involved in the HBSC study. The purpose of this study is to assess the test-retest reliability of selected items in the Chinese version of the HBSC survey questionnaire in a sample of adolescents in Beijing, China. Methods A sample of 95 male and female students aged 11 or 15 years old participated in a test and retest with a three weeks interval. Student Identity numbers of respondents were utilized to permit matching of test-retest questionnaires. 23 items concerning physical activity, sedentary behaviour, sleep and substance use were evaluated by using the percentage of response shifts and the single measure Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC with 95% confidence interval (CI for all respondents and stratified by gender and age. Items on substance use were only evaluated for school children aged 15 years old. Results The percentage of no response shift between test and retest varied from 32% for the item on computer use at weekends to 92% for the three items on smoking. Of all the 23 items evaluated, 6 items (26% showed a moderate reliability, 12 items (52% displayed a substantial reliability and 4 items (17% indicated almost perfect reliability. No gender and age group difference of the test-retest reliability was found except for a few items on sedentary behaviour. Conclusions The overall findings of this study suggest that most selected indicators in the HBSC survey questionnaire have satisfactory test-retest reliability for the students in Beijing. Further test-retest studies in a large

  8. Methodological quality of diagnostic accuracy studies on non-invasive coronary CT angiography: influence of QUADAS (Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies included in systematic reviews) items on sensitivity and specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueler, Sabine; Walther, Stefan; Schuetz, Georg M. [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Charite Medical School, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Schlattmann, Peter [University Hospital of Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Department of Medical Statistics, Informatics, and Documentation, Jena (Germany); Dewey, Marc [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Charite Medical School, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Charite, Institut fuer Radiologie, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    To evaluate the methodological quality of diagnostic accuracy studies on coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography using the QUADAS (Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies included in systematic reviews) tool. Each QUADAS item was individually defined to adapt it to the special requirements of studies on coronary CT angiography. Two independent investigators analysed 118 studies using 12 QUADAS items. Meta-regression and pooled analyses were performed to identify possible effects of methodological quality items on estimates of diagnostic accuracy. The overall methodological quality of coronary CT studies was merely moderate. They fulfilled a median of 7.5 out of 12 items. Only 9 of the 118 studies fulfilled more than 75 % of possible QUADAS items. One QUADAS item (''Uninterpretable Results'') showed a significant influence (P = 0.02) on estimates of diagnostic accuracy with ''no fulfilment'' increasing specificity from 86 to 90 %. Furthermore, pooled analysis revealed that each QUADAS item that is not fulfilled has the potential to change estimates of diagnostic accuracy. The methodological quality of studies investigating the diagnostic accuracy of non-invasive coronary CT is only moderate and was found to affect the sensitivity and specificity. An improvement is highly desirable because good methodology is crucial for adequately assessing imaging technologies. (orig.)

  9. Methodological quality of diagnostic accuracy studies on non-invasive coronary CT angiography: influence of QUADAS (Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies included in systematic reviews) items on sensitivity and specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueler, Sabine; Walther, Stefan; Schuetz, Georg M.; Schlattmann, Peter; Dewey, Marc

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the methodological quality of diagnostic accuracy studies on coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography using the QUADAS (Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies included in systematic reviews) tool. Each QUADAS item was individually defined to adapt it to the special requirements of studies on coronary CT angiography. Two independent investigators analysed 118 studies using 12 QUADAS items. Meta-regression and pooled analyses were performed to identify possible effects of methodological quality items on estimates of diagnostic accuracy. The overall methodological quality of coronary CT studies was merely moderate. They fulfilled a median of 7.5 out of 12 items. Only 9 of the 118 studies fulfilled more than 75 % of possible QUADAS items. One QUADAS item (''Uninterpretable Results'') showed a significant influence (P = 0.02) on estimates of diagnostic accuracy with ''no fulfilment'' increasing specificity from 86 to 90 %. Furthermore, pooled analysis revealed that each QUADAS item that is not fulfilled has the potential to change estimates of diagnostic accuracy. The methodological quality of studies investigating the diagnostic accuracy of non-invasive coronary CT is only moderate and was found to affect the sensitivity and specificity. An improvement is highly desirable because good methodology is crucial for adequately assessing imaging technologies. (orig.)

  10. What Do K-12 Teachers Think about Including Student Surveys in Their Performance Ratings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dretzke, Beverly J.; Sheldon, Timothy D.; Lim, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated K-12 teachers' opinions about the use of student surveys as a component of a teacher evaluation system. Surveys were administered to teachers at the beginning of the school year and again in the spring. Analyses of teachers' responses on the fall survey indicated tentative support for the inclusion of student feedback in…

  11. A randomised trial and economic evaluation of the effect of response mode on response rate, response bias, and item non-response in a survey of doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witt Julia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surveys of doctors are an important data collection method in health services research. Ways to improve response rates, minimise survey response bias and item non-response, within a given budget, have not previously been addressed in the same study. The aim of this paper is to compare the effects and costs of three different modes of survey administration in a national survey of doctors. Methods A stratified random sample of 4.9% (2,702/54,160 of doctors undertaking clinical practice was drawn from a national directory of all doctors in Australia. Stratification was by four doctor types: general practitioners, specialists, specialists-in-training, and hospital non-specialists, and by six rural/remote categories. A three-arm parallel trial design with equal randomisation across arms was used. Doctors were randomly allocated to: online questionnaire (902; simultaneous mixed mode (a paper questionnaire and login details sent together (900; or, sequential mixed mode (online followed by a paper questionnaire with the reminder (900. Analysis was by intention to treat, as within each primary mode, doctors could choose either paper or online. Primary outcome measures were response rate, survey response bias, item non-response, and cost. Results The online mode had a response rate 12.95%, followed by the simultaneous mixed mode with 19.7%, and the sequential mixed mode with 20.7%. After adjusting for observed differences between the groups, the online mode had a 7 percentage point lower response rate compared to the simultaneous mixed mode, and a 7.7 percentage point lower response rate compared to sequential mixed mode. The difference in response rate between the sequential and simultaneous modes was not statistically significant. Both mixed modes showed evidence of response bias, whilst the characteristics of online respondents were similar to the population. However, the online mode had a higher rate of item non-response compared

  12. The 6-item Kessler psychological distress scale to survey serious mental illness among Chinese undergraduates: Psychometric properties and prevalence estimate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yu-kun; Guo, Wan-jun; Xu, Hao; Chen, Yue-hui; Li, Xiao-jing; Tan, Zheng-ping; Li, Na; Gesang, Ze-Ren; Wang, Ying-mei; Liu, Chang-bo; Luo, Ying; Feng, Jia; Xu, Qiu-jie; Lee, Sing; Li, Tao

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the psychometric properties of the 6-item Kessler psychological distress scale (K6) in screening for serious mental illness (SMI) among undergraduates in a major comprehensive university in China. The K6 was self-completed by 8289 randomly sampled participants. A group of them (n=222) were re-assessed using K6 and interviewed using the Chinese version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.1 (CIDI-3.1). The test-retest reliability of the K6 scale was 0.79, the Cronbach's alpha was 0.84, and its area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) for diagnosing CIDI-3.1 SMI was 0.85 (95% CI=0.80-0.90). For the optimal cut-off of K6 (12/13), the sensitivity (SEN), specificity (SPE), positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and classification accuracy (AC) were 0.83, 0.79, 0.60, 0.93, and 0.80, respectively. The 12-month prevalence of SMI was estimated as 3.97% using this optimal cut-off. Binary logistic regression analysis (including gender, ethnicity, grade, number of siblings and family residency location) showed that only family residency location in rural areas compared to urban areas was significantly associated with more SMI. This study documented the value of using the K6 for detecting SMI in Chinese undergraduate populations and supported its cross-cultural reliability and validity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Psychometric Properties of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life 36-Item Short-Form Survey (KDQOL-36) in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peipert, John D; Bentler, Peter M; Klicko, Kristi; Hays, Ron D

    2018-04-01

    The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services require that dialysis patients' health-related quality of life be assessed annually. The primary instrument used for this purpose is the Kidney Disease Quality of Life 36-Item Short-Form Survey (KDQOL-36), which includes the SF-12 as its generic core and 3 kidney disease-targeted scales: Burden of Kidney Disease, Symptoms and Problems of Kidney Disease, and Effects of Kidney Disease. Despite its broad use, there has been limited evaluation of KDQOL-36's psychometric properties. Secondary analyses of data collected by the Medical Education Institute to evaluate the reliability and factor structure of the KDQOL-36 scales. KDQOL-36 responses from 70,786 dialysis patients in 1,381 US dialysis facilities that permitted data analysis were collected from June 1, 2015, through May 31, 2016, as part of routine clinical assessment. We assessed the KDQOL-36 scales' internal consistency reliability and dialysis facility-level reliability using coefficient alpha and 1-way analysis of variance. We evaluated the KDQOL-36's factor structure using item-to-total scale correlations and confirmatory factor analysis. Construct validity was examined using correlations between SF-12 and KDQOL-36 scales and "known groups" analyses. Each of the KDQOL-36's kidney disease-targeted scales had acceptable internal consistency reliability (α=0.83-0.85) and facility-level reliability (r=0.75-0.83). Item-scale correlations and a confirmatory factor analysis model evidenced the KDQOL-36's original factor structure. Construct validity was supported by large correlations between the SF-12 Physical Component Summary and Mental Component Summary (r=0.40-0.52) and the KDQOL-36 scale scores, as well as significant differences on the scale scores between patients receiving different types of dialysis, diabetic and nondiabetic patients, and patients who were employed full-time versus not. Use of secondary data from a clinical registry. The study provides

  14. Necessity of including medico-legal autopsy data in epidemiological surveys of individuals with major trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagher, A; Wingren, C J; Ottosson, A; Andersson, L; Wangefjord, S; Acosta, S

    2015-08-01

    It is rare that epidemiological surveys of patients with major trauma include both those admitted to the emergency department and those sent for medico-legal autopsy. The main aim of the present population-based study of major trauma was to examine the importance of medico-legal autopsy data. A new injury severity score (NISS)>15 or lethal outcome was used as criteria for major trauma and to identify patients at the emergency, anaesthesiology and forensic departments and/or being within the jurisdiction of the Malmö police authority and subjected to a medico-legal autopsy between 2011 and 2013. According to Swedish legislation all trauma related deaths should be reported to the police who refer these cases for medico-legal autopsy. Among the 174 individuals included, 92 (53%) died and 81 (47%) underwent medico-legal autopsy. One hundred twenty-six patients were primarily admitted to hospital and 48 died before admission to hospital and were sent directly for medico-legal autopsy. Forty-four in-hospital deaths occurred, of whom 33 (75%) were sent to medico-legal autopsy. In those sent directly to the department of forensic medicine the proportion of accidents was lower (pautopsies among trauma-related deaths at hospital were high age (pautopsy according to legislation, but did not. The high proportion of positive toxicological findings among fatalities examined at medico-legal autopsy implies that toxicology screening should be routine in major trauma patients, in order to improve treatment and prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Adult exposures from MDCT including multiphase studies: first Italian nationwide survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palorini, Federica; Origgi, Daniela [Fisica Sanitaria Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Milan (Italy); Granata, Claudio [UOC di Radiologia Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa (Italy); Matranga, Domenica [Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Dipartimento di Scienze per la Promozione della Salute e Materno-infantile ' ' G. D' Alessandro' ' , Palermo (Italy); Salerno, Sergio [Policlinico Universita di Palermo, Dipartimento di Scienze Radiologiche, Palermo (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    To evaluate the radiation dose in routine multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) examinations in Italian population. This was a retrospective multicentre study included 5,668 patients from 65 radiology departments who had undergone common CT protocols: head, chest, abdomen, chest-abdomen-pelvis (CAP), spine and cardiac. Data included patient characteristics, CT parameters, volumetric CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) and dose length product (DLP) for each CT acquisition phase. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and a multi-regression analysis was used to outline the main factors affecting exposure. The 75th percentiles of CTDI{sub vol} (mGy) and DLP (mGy cm) for whole head were 69 mGy and 1,312 mGy cm, respectively; for chest, 15 mGy and 569 mGy cm; spine, 42 mGy and 888 mGy cm; cardiac, 7 mGy and 131 mGy cm for calcium score, and 61 mGy and 1,208 mGy cm for angiographic CT studies. High variability was present in the DLP of abdomen and CAP protocols, where multiphase examinations dominated (71 % and 73 % respectively): for abdomen, 18 mGy, with 555 and 920 mGy cm in abdomen and abdomen-pelvis acquisitions respectively; for CAP, 17 mGy, with 508, 850 and 1,200 mGy cm in abdomen, abdomen-pelvis and CAP acquisitions respectively. The results of this survey could help in the definition of updated diagnostic reference levels (DRL). (orig.)

  16. Using the LOINC Semantic Structure to Integrate Community-based Survey Items into a Concept-based Enterprise Data Dictionary to Support Comparative Effectiveness Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Co, Manuel C; Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Quarles, Leigh; Wilcox, Adam; Bakken, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    In designing informatics infrastructure to support comparative effectiveness research (CER), it is necessary to implement approaches for integrating heterogeneous data sources such as clinical data typically stored in clinical data warehouses and those that are normally stored in separate research databases. One strategy to support this integration is the use of a concept-oriented data dictionary with a set of semantic terminology models. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the use of the semantic structure of Clinical LOINC (Logical Observation Identifiers, Names, and Codes) in integrating community-based survey items into the Medical Entities Dictionary (MED) to support the integration of survey data with clinical data for CER studies.

  17. 5 CFR 532.221 - Industries included in regular nonappropriated fund surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... nonappropriated fund surveys. 532.221 Section 532.221 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... wholesalers. 44132 Tire dealers. 44311 Appliance, television, and other electronic stores. 44411 Home centers. 44611 Pharmacies and drug stores. 4471 Gasoline stations. 44814 Family clothing stores. 4521 Department...

  18. Development of a Microsoft Excel tool for one-parameter Rasch model of continuous items: an application to a safety attitude survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsair-Wei Chien

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many continuous item responses (CIRs are encountered in healthcare settings, but no one uses item response theory’s (IRT probabilistic modeling to present graphical presentations for interpreting CIR results. A computer module that is programmed to deal with CIRs is required. To present a computer module, validate it, and verify its usefulness in dealing with CIR data, and then to apply the model to real healthcare data in order to show how the CIR that can be applied to healthcare settings with an example regarding a safety attitude survey. Methods Using Microsoft Excel VBA (Visual Basic for Applications, we designed a computer module that minimizes the residuals and calculates model’s expected scores according to person responses across items. Rasch models based on a Wright map and on KIDMAP were demonstrated to interpret results of the safety attitude survey. Results The author-made CIR module yielded OUTFIT mean square (MNSQ and person measures equivalent to those yielded by professional Rasch Winsteps software. The probabilistic modeling of the CIR module provides messages that are much more valuable to users and show the CIR advantage over classic test theory. Conclusions Because of advances in computer technology, healthcare users who are familiar to MS Excel can easily apply the study CIR module to deal with continuous variables to benefit comparisons of data with a logistic distribution and model fit statistics.

  19. Development of a Microsoft Excel tool for one-parameter Rasch model of continuous items: an application to a safety attitude survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Tsair-Wei; Shao, Yang; Kuo, Shu-Chun

    2017-01-10

    Many continuous item responses (CIRs) are encountered in healthcare settings, but no one uses item response theory's (IRT) probabilistic modeling to present graphical presentations for interpreting CIR results. A computer module that is programmed to deal with CIRs is required. To present a computer module, validate it, and verify its usefulness in dealing with CIR data, and then to apply the model to real healthcare data in order to show how the CIR that can be applied to healthcare settings with an example regarding a safety attitude survey. Using Microsoft Excel VBA (Visual Basic for Applications), we designed a computer module that minimizes the residuals and calculates model's expected scores according to person responses across items. Rasch models based on a Wright map and on KIDMAP were demonstrated to interpret results of the safety attitude survey. The author-made CIR module yielded OUTFIT mean square (MNSQ) and person measures equivalent to those yielded by professional Rasch Winsteps software. The probabilistic modeling of the CIR module provides messages that are much more valuable to users and show the CIR advantage over classic test theory. Because of advances in computer technology, healthcare users who are familiar to MS Excel can easily apply the study CIR module to deal with continuous variables to benefit comparisons of data with a logistic distribution and model fit statistics.

  20. A Third-Order Item Response Theory Model for Modeling the Effects of Domains and Subdomains in Large-Scale Educational Assessment Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijmen, Frank; Jeon, Minjeong; von Davier, Matthias; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    Second-order item response theory models have been used for assessments consisting of several domains, such as content areas. We extend the second-order model to a third-order model for assessments that include subdomains nested in domains. Using a graphical model framework, it is shown how the model does not suffer from the curse of…

  1. Assessing the Equivalence of Paper, Mobile Phone, and Tablet Survey Responses at a Community Mental Health Center Using Equivalent Halves of a 'Gold-Standard' Depression Item Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodey, Benjamin B; Gonzalez, Nicole L; Elkin, Kathryn Ann; Sasiela, W Jordan; Brodey, Inger S

    2017-09-06

    The computerized administration of self-report psychiatric diagnostic and outcomes assessments has risen in popularity. If results are similar enough across different administration modalities, then new administration technologies can be used interchangeably and the choice of technology can be based on other factors, such as convenience in the study design. An assessment based on item response theory (IRT), such as the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) depression item bank, offers new possibilities for assessing the effect of technology choice upon results. To create equivalent halves of the PROMIS depression item bank and to use these halves to compare survey responses and user satisfaction among administration modalities-paper, mobile phone, or tablet-with a community mental health care population. The 28 PROMIS depression items were divided into 2 halves based on content and simulations with an established PROMIS response data set. A total of 129 participants were recruited from an outpatient public sector mental health clinic based in Memphis. All participants took both nonoverlapping halves of the PROMIS IRT-based depression items (Part A and Part B): once using paper and pencil, and once using either a mobile phone or tablet. An 8-cell randomization was done on technology used, order of technologies used, and order of PROMIS Parts A and B. Both Parts A and B were administered as fixed-length assessments and both were scored using published PROMIS IRT parameters and algorithms. All 129 participants received either Part A or B via paper assessment. Participants were also administered the opposite assessment, 63 using a mobile phone and 66 using a tablet. There was no significant difference in item response scores for Part A versus B. All 3 of the technologies yielded essentially identical assessment results and equivalent satisfaction levels. Our findings show that the PROMIS depression assessment can be divided into 2 equivalent

  2. 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36) Versus Gait Speed As Predictor of Preclinical Mobility Disability in Older Women: The Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laddu, Deepika R; Wertheim, Betsy C; Garcia, David O; Woods, Nancy F; LaMonte, Michael J; Chen, Bertha; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Cauley, Jane A; Chlebowski, Rowan; Manson, JoAnn E; Thomson, Cynthia A; Stefanick, Marcia L

    2018-04-01

    To compare the value of clinically measured gait speed with that of the self-reported Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Survey Physical Function Index (SF-36 PF) in predicting future preclinical mobility disability (PCMD) in older women. Prospective cohort study. Forty clinical centers in the United States. Women aged 65 to 79 enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Clinical Trials with gait speed and SF-36 assessed at baseline (1993-1998) and follow-up Years 1, 3, and 6 (N = 3,587). Women were categorized as nondecliners or decliners based on changes (from baseline to Year 1) in gait speed and SF-36 PF scores. Logistic regression models were used to estimate incident PCMD (gait speed 36 PF with that of measured gait speed. Slower baseline gait speed and lower SF-36 PF scores were associated with higher adjusted odds of PCMD at Years 3 and 6 (all P 36, decliners were 1.42 times as likely to have developed PCMD by Year 3 and 1.49 times as likely by Year 6. Baseline gait speed (AUC = 0.713) was nonsignificantly better than SF-36 (AUC = 0.705) at predicting PCMD over 6 years (P = .21); including measures at a second time point significantly improved model discrimination for predicting PCMD (all P 36 PF did, although the results may be limited given that gait speed served as a predictor and to define the PCMD outcome. Nonetheless, monitoring trajectories of change in mobility are better predictors of future mobility disability than single measures. © 2018, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2018, The American Geriatrics Society.

  3. The Role of Item Models in Automatic Item Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierl, Mark J.; Lai, Hollis

    2012-01-01

    Automatic item generation represents a relatively new but rapidly evolving research area where cognitive and psychometric theories are used to produce tests that include items generated using computer technology. Automatic item generation requires two steps. First, test development specialists create item models, which are comparable to templates…

  4. A survey of canine haemoprotozoan parasites from Turkey, including molecular evidence of an unnamed Babesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Munir; Ozubek, Sezayi

    2017-06-01

    Canine tick-borne apicomplexan parasites have emerged in recent years, showing a wider geographic distribution and increased global prevalence. A reverse line blot assay was performed on 219 blood samples collected from domestic dogs for simultaneous detection of all named canine piroplasm species as well as Hepatozoon canis. Ten samples hybridized to the Theileria/Babesia and Babesia catch all probes but did not hybridize to any species-specific probe tested, suggesting the presence of an unrecognized Babesia species or genotype. Sequencing results showed 91.5%, 91.9%, 92.4%, 92.4%, and 89.2% similarity to B. canis, B. vogeli, B. rossi, B. gibsoni, and B. conradae, respectively. The highest homology (98.1-98.5%) observed was with unnamed Babesia sp. isolates (Ludhiana and Malbazar) described in dogs, Babesia sp. of buffalo origin, Babesia sp. Kashi 2, and Babesia orientalis, along with Babesia occultans of cattle origin. The partial cox1 sequence indicated that this isolate was most similar to Babesia sp. 1 HG-2012, with an identity of 86.5%. The survey revealed high prevalence of haemoprotozoans in domestic dogs (57.5%, CI 50.7-64.2), with Hepatozoon canis the most prevalent (54.3%, CI 47.5-61.117%), followed by Babesia sp. (4.6%, CI 2.2-8.2), B. vogeli (1.4%; CI 0.3-3.9), and B. canis (0.4%, CI 0-2.5). Combined infection of Hepatozoon canis and Babesia sp. was detected in five (2.3%, CI 0.7-5.2) samples and of H. canis and B. vogeli in two (0.9%, CI 0.1-3.2) dogs. The study contributes insight into the distribution and phylogenetic diversity of canine piroplasms in Turkey. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Cultural Resources Survey of Arlington Revetment and LSU Berm Levee Improvement Item, East Baton Rouge Parish Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    Light gm Slas 14 14 Lis Smm pmlew aumk Simm Milk glass 1 Modern brown glass I Olive glass _ Tin cm key 11 Shotg cartridge 1 Slate 1 Mortar 1 1 Piece of...Parish, Louisiana. Anthropological Report No. 1. Archaeological Survey and Antiquities Commission, Department of Culture, Recreation and Tourism , Baton

  6. 47 CFR 65.820 - Included items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Cash working capital. The average amount of investor-supplied capital needed to provide funds for a carrier's day-to-day interstate operations. Class A carriers may calculate a cash working capital... study or using the formula in paragraph (e) of this section, may calculate the cash working capital...

  7. Surveying for "artifacts": the susceptibility of the OCB-performance evaluation relationship to common rater, item, and measurement context effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsakoff, Nathan P; Whiting, Steven W; Welsh, David T; Mai, Ke Michael

    2013-09-01

    Despite the increased attention paid to biases attributable to common method variance (CMV) over the past 50 years, researchers have only recently begun to systematically examine the effect of specific sources of CMV in previously published empirical studies. Our study contributes to this research by examining the extent to which common rater, item, and measurement context characteristics bias the relationships between organizational citizenship behaviors and performance evaluations using a mixed-effects analytic technique. Results from 173 correlations reported in 81 empirical studies (N = 31,146) indicate that even after controlling for study-level factors, common rater and anchor point number similarity substantially biased the focal correlations. Indeed, these sources of CMV (a) led to estimates that were between 60% and 96% larger when comparing measures obtained from a common rater, versus different raters; (b) led to 39% larger estimates when a common source rated the scales using the same number, versus a different number, of anchor points; and (c) when taken together with other study-level predictors, accounted for over half of the between-study variance in the focal correlations. We discuss the implications for researchers and practitioners and provide recommendations for future research. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  8. Identifying the ‘red flags’ for unhealthy weight control among adolescents: Findings from an item response theory analysis of a national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utter Jennifer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight control behaviors are common among young people and are associated with poor health outcomes. Yet clinicians rarely ask young people about their weight control; this may be due to uncertainty about which questions to ask, specifically around whether certain weight loss strategies are healthier or unhealthy or about what weight loss behaviors are more likely to lead to adverse outcomes. Thus, the aims of the current study are: to confirm, using item response theory analysis, that the underlying latent constructs of healthy and unhealthy weight control exist; to determine the ‘red flag’ weight loss behaviors that may discriminate unhealthy from healthy weight loss; to determine the relationships between healthy and unhealthy weight loss and mental health; and to examine how weight control may vary among demographic groups. Methods Data were collected as part of a national health and wellbeing survey of secondary school students in New Zealand (n = 9,107 in 2007. Item response theory analyses were conducted to determine the underlying constructs of weight control behaviors and the behaviors that discriminate unhealthy from healthy weight control. Results The current study confirms that there are two underlying constructs of weight loss behaviors which can be described as healthy and unhealthy weight control. Unhealthy weight control was positively correlated with depressive mood. Fasting and skipping meals for weight loss had the lowest item thresholds on the unhealthy weight control continuum, indicating that they act as ‘red flags’ and warrant further discussion in routine clinical assessments. Conclusions Routine assessments of weight control strategies by clinicians are warranted, particularly for screening for meal skipping and fasting for weight loss as these behaviors appear to ‘flag’ behaviors that are associated with poor mental wellbeing.

  9. Using Cognitive Testing to Develop Items for Surveying Asian American Cancer Patients and Their Caregivers as a Pathway to Culturally Competent Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolcic-Jankovic, Dragana; Lu, Fengxin; Colten, Mary Ellen; McCarthy, Ellen P

    2016-02-01

    We report the results from cognitive interviews with Asian American patients and their caregivers. We interviewed seven caregivers and six patients who were all bilingual Asian Americans. The main goal of the cognitive interviews was to test a survey instrument developed for a study about perspectives of Asian American patients with advanced cancer who are facing decisions around end-of-life care. We were particularly interested to see whether items commonly used in White and Black populations are culturally meaningful and equivalent in Asian populations, primarily those of Chinese and Vietnamese ethnicity. Our exploration shows that understanding respondents' language proficiency, degree of acculturation, and cultural context of receiving, processing, and communicating information about medical care can help design questions that are appropriate for Asian American patients and caregivers, and therefore can help researchers obtain quality data about the care Asian American cancer patients receive. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Chromospheric activity of periodic variable stars (including eclipsing binaries) observed in DR2 LAMOST stellar spectral survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liyun; Lu, Hongpeng; Han, Xianming L.; Jiang, Linyan; Li, Zhongmu; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui; Wang, Yuefei; Cao, Zihuang

    2018-05-01

    The LAMOST spectral survey provides a rich databases for studying stellar spectroscopic properties and chromospheric activity. We cross-matched a total of 105,287 periodic variable stars from several photometric surveys and databases (CSS, LINEAR, Kepler, a recently updated eclipsing star catalogue, ASAS, NSVS, some part of SuperWASP survey, variable stars from the Tsinghua University-NAOC Transient Survey, and other objects from some new references) with four million stellar spectra published in the LAMOST data release 2 (DR2). We found 15,955 spectra for 11,469 stars (including 5398 eclipsing binaries). We calculated their equivalent widths (EWs) of their Hα, Hβ, Hγ, Hδ and Caii H lines. Using the Hα line EW, we found 447 spectra with emission above continuum for a total of 316 stars (178 eclipsing binaries). We identified 86 active stars (including 44 eclipsing binaries) with repeated LAMOST spectra. A total of 68 stars (including 34 eclipsing binaries) show chromospheric activity variability. We also found LAMOST spectra of 12 cataclysmic variables, five of which show chromospheric activity variability. We also made photometric follow-up studies of three short period targets (DY CVn, HAT-192-0001481, and LAMOST J164933.24+141255.0) using the Xinglong 60-cm telescope and the SARA 90-cm and 1-m telescopes, and obtained new BVRI CCD light curves. We analyzed these light curves and obtained orbital and starspot parameters. We detected the first flare event with a huge brightness increase of more than about 1.5 magnitudes in R filter in LAMOST J164933.24+141255.0.

  11. Item-focussed Trees for the Identification of Items in Differential Item Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutz, Gerhard; Berger, Moritz

    2016-09-01

    A novel method for the identification of differential item functioning (DIF) by means of recursive partitioning techniques is proposed. We assume an extension of the Rasch model that allows for DIF being induced by an arbitrary number of covariates for each item. Recursive partitioning on the item level results in one tree for each item and leads to simultaneous selection of items and variables that induce DIF. For each item, it is possible to detect groups of subjects with different item difficulties, defined by combinations of characteristics that are not pre-specified. The way a DIF item is determined by covariates is visualized in a small tree and therefore easily accessible. An algorithm is proposed that is based on permutation tests. Various simulation studies, including the comparison with traditional approaches to identify items with DIF, show the applicability and the competitive performance of the method. Two applications illustrate the usefulness and the advantages of the new method.

  12. Development and Validation of the 34-Item Disability Screening Questionnaire (DSQ-34 for Use in Low and Middle Income Countries Epidemiological and Development Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Trani

    Full Text Available Although 80% of persons with disabilities live in low and middle-income countries, there is still a lack of comprehensive, cross-culturally validated tools to identify persons facing activity limitations and functioning difficulties in these settings. In absence of such a tool, disability estimates vary considerably according to the methodology used, and policies are based on unreliable estimates.The Disability Screening Questionnaire composed of 27 items (DSQ-27 was initially designed by a group of international experts in survey development and disability in Afghanistan for a national survey. Items were selected based on major domains of activity limitations and functioning difficulties linked to an impairment as defined by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Face, content and construct validity, as well as sensitivity and specificity were examined. Based on the results obtained, the tool was subsequently refined and expanded to 34 items, tested and validated in Darfur, Sudan. Internal consistency for the total DSQ-34 using a raw and standardized Cronbach's Alpha and within each domain using a standardized Cronbach's Alpha was examined in the Asian context (India and Nepal. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA using principal axis factoring (PAF evaluated the lowest number of factors to account for the common variance among the questions in the screen. Test-retest reliability was determined by calculating intraclass correlation (ICC and inter-rater reliability by calculating the kappa statistic; results were checked using Bland-Altman plots. The DSQ-34 was further tested for standard error of measurement (SEM and for the minimum detectable change (MDC. Good internal consistency was indicated by Cronbach's Alpha of 0.83/0.82 for India and 0.76/0.78 for Nepal. We confirmed our assumption for EFA using the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling well above the accepted cutoff of 0.40 for India (0.82 and Nepal (0

  13. Development and Validation of the 34-Item Disability Screening Questionnaire (DSQ-34) for Use in Low and Middle Income Countries Epidemiological and Development Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, Jean-François; Babulal, Ganesh Muneshwar; Bakhshi, Parul

    2015-01-01

    Although 80% of persons with disabilities live in low and middle-income countries, there is still a lack of comprehensive, cross-culturally validated tools to identify persons facing activity limitations and functioning difficulties in these settings. In absence of such a tool, disability estimates vary considerably according to the methodology used, and policies are based on unreliable estimates. The Disability Screening Questionnaire composed of 27 items (DSQ-27) was initially designed by a group of international experts in survey development and disability in Afghanistan for a national survey. Items were selected based on major domains of activity limitations and functioning difficulties linked to an impairment as defined by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Face, content and construct validity, as well as sensitivity and specificity were examined. Based on the results obtained, the tool was subsequently refined and expanded to 34 items, tested and validated in Darfur, Sudan. Internal consistency for the total DSQ-34 using a raw and standardized Cronbach's Alpha and within each domain using a standardized Cronbach's Alpha was examined in the Asian context (India and Nepal). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) using principal axis factoring (PAF) evaluated the lowest number of factors to account for the common variance among the questions in the screen. Test-retest reliability was determined by calculating intraclass correlation (ICC) and inter-rater reliability by calculating the kappa statistic; results were checked using Bland-Altman plots. The DSQ-34 was further tested for standard error of measurement (SEM) and for the minimum detectable change (MDC). Good internal consistency was indicated by Cronbach's Alpha of 0.83/0.82 for India and 0.76/0.78 for Nepal. We confirmed our assumption for EFA using the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling well above the accepted cutoff of 0.40 for India (0.82) and Nepal (0.82). The

  14. Reliability and validity of 12-item Short-Form health survey (SF-12) for the health status of Chinese community elderly population in Xujiahui district of Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Juan; Ren, Limin; Wang, Haitang; Yan, Fei; Cao, Xiaoyun; Wang, Hui; Wang, Zhiliang; Zhu, Shanzhu; Liu, Yao

    2016-04-01

    The 12-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) is the abridged practical version of SF-36. This cross-sectional study was aimed to assess the reliability and validity of SF-12 for the health status of Chinese community elderly population. The Chinese community elderly people in Xujiahui district of Shanghai were investigated. The internal consistency reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha and split-half reliability coefficients. Construct validity was analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Spearman's correlation coefficient (ρ) was used for the evaluation of criterion, convergent, and discriminant validity with Spearman's ρ ≥ 0.4 as satisfactory. Comparisons of the SF-12 summary scores among populations that differed in demographics were performed for discriminant validity. Total 1343 individuals aged ≥60 and reliability coefficient (0.812) reflected satisfactory internal consistency reliability of SF-12. EFA extracted a two-factor model (physical and mental health). About 60.7 % of the total variance was explained by the two factors. CFA showed that the two-factor solution provided a good fit to the data. Good convergent validity and discriminant validity of SF-12 were proved by the correction analyses (Spearman's ρ > 0.4) and the comparisons of the SF-12 summary scores among populations (P  0.4, P reliability and validity in measuring health status of Chinese community elderly population in Xujiahui district of Shanghai.

  15. Quality of life and discriminating power of two questionnaires in fibromyalgia patients: Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assumpção, Ana; Pagano, Tatiana; Matsutani, Luciana A; Ferreira, Elizabeth A G; Pereira, Carlos A B; Marques, Amélia P

    2010-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a painful syndrome characterized by widespread chronic pain and associated symptoms with a negative impact on quality of life. Considering the subjectivity of quality of life measurements, the aim of this study was to verify the discriminating power of two quality of life questionnaires in patients with fibromyalgia: the generic Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the specific Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). A cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 participants divided into Fibromyalgia Group (FG) and Control Group (CG) (n=75 in each group). The participants were evaluated using the SF-36 and the FIQ. The data were analyzed by the Student t-test (α=0.05) and inferential analysis using the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) Curve--sensitivity, specificity and area under the curve (AUC). The significance level was 0.05. The sample was similar for age (CG: 47.8 ± 8.1; FG: 47.0 ± 7.7 years). A significant difference was observed in quality of life assessment in all aspects of both questionnaires (pquality of life in fibromyalgia patients, and we suggest that both should be used in parallel because they evaluate relevant and complementary aspects of quality of life.

  16. Item validity vs. item discrimination index: a redundancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjaitan, R. L.; Irawati, R.; Sujana, A.; Hanifah, N.; Djuanda, D.

    2018-03-01

    In several literatures about evaluation and test analysis, it is common to find that there are calculations of item validity as well as item discrimination index (D) with different formula for each. Meanwhile, other resources said that item discrimination index could be obtained by calculating the correlation between the testee’s score in a particular item and the testee’s score on the overall test, which is actually the same concept as item validity. Some research reports, especially undergraduate theses tend to include both item validity and item discrimination index in the instrument analysis. It seems that these concepts might overlap for both reflect the test quality on measuring the examinees’ ability. In this paper, examples of some results of data processing on item validity and item discrimination index were compared. It would be discussed whether item validity and item discrimination index can be represented by one of them only or it should be better to present both calculations for simple test analysis, especially in undergraduate theses where test analyses were included.

  17. Clinically important deterioration in patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery: a choice of evaluation methods using the Oswestry Disability Index, 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, and pain scales: clinical article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gum, Jeffrey L; Glassman, Steven D; Carreon, Leah Y

    2013-11-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measures have become the mainstay for outcome appraisal in spine surgery. Clinically meaningful interpretation of HRQOL improvement has centered on the minimum clinically important difference (MCID). The purpose of this study was to calculate clinically important deterioration (CIDET) thresholds and determine a CIDET value for each HRQOL measure for patients undergoing lumbar fusion. Seven hundred twenty-two patients (248 males, 127 smokers, mean age 60.8 years) were identified with complete preoperative and 1-year postoperative HRQOLs including the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and numeric rating scales (0-10) for back and leg pain following primary, instrumented, posterior lumbar fusion. Anchor-based and distribution-based methods were used to calculate CIDET for each HRQOL. Anchor-based methods included change score, change difference, and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The Health Transition Item, an independent item of the SF-36, was used as the external anchor. Patients who responded "somewhat worse" and "much worse" were combined and compared with patients responding "about the same." Distribution-based methods were minimum detectable change and effect size. Diagnoses included spondylolisthesis (n = 332), scoliosis (n = 54), instability (n = 37), disc pathology (n = 146), and stenosis (n = 153). There was a statistically significant change (p < 0.0001) for each HRQOL measure from preoperatively to 1-year postoperatively. Only 107 patients (15%) reported being "somewhat worse" (n = 81) or "much worse" (n = 26). Calculation methods yielded a range of CIDET values for ODI (0.17-9.06), SF-36 physical component summary (-0.32 to 4.43), back pain (0.02-1.50), and leg pain (0.02-1.50). A threshold for clinical deterioration was difficult to identify. This may be due to the small number of patients reporting being worse after surgery and the variability across

  18. Validation of Portuguese version of Quality of Erection Questionnaire (QEQ) and comparison to International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and RAND 36-Item Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Ana Luiza; Reis, Leonardo Oliveira; Saade, Ricardo Destro; Santos, Carlos Alberto; Lima, Marcelo Lopes de; Fregonesi, Adriano

    2015-01-01

    To validate the Quality of Erection Questionnaire (QEQ) considering Brazilian social-cultural aspects. To determine equivalence between the Portuguese and the English QEQ versions, the Portuguese version was back-translated by two professors who are native English speakers. After language equivalence had been determined, urologists considered the QEQ Portuguese version suitable. Men with self-reported erectile dysfunction (ED) and infertile men who had a stable sexual relationship for at least 6 months were invited to answer the QEQ, the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and the RAND 36-Item Health Survey (RAND-36). The questionnaires were presented together and answered without help in a private room. Internal consistency (Cronbach's α), test-retest reliability (Spearman), convergent validity (Spearman correlation) coefficients and known-groups validity (the ability of the QEQ Portuguese version to differentiate erectile dysfunction severity groups) were assessed. We recruited 197 men (167 ED patients and 30 non-ED patients), mean age of 53.3 and median of 55.5 years (23-82 years). The Portuguese version of the QEQ had high internal consistency (Cronbach α=0.93), high stability between test and retest (ICC 0.83, with IC 95%: 0.76-0.88, pPortuguese version presented good psychometric properties and high convergent validity in relation to IIEF. The low correlations between the QEQ and the RAND-36, as well as between the IIEF and the RAND-36 indicated IIEF and QEQ specificity, which may have resulted from the patients' psychological adaptations that minimized the impact of ED on Quality of Life (QoL) and reestablished the well-being feeling.

  19. Survey of independent inventors: An overview. [Includes information on demographics, gender, ethnicity, education, income, employment, areas of invention, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whalley, P.

    1992-01-01

    Independent inventors are important but little-researched members of the US technical community. The survey reported on here is the first in modern times to attempt to provide a profile of the US independent inventor that goes beyond a single geographical or organizational locale. The report that follows provides an overview of the demographics, practices and concerns of the modern US inventor as represented by the members of leading US inventor organizations. It is by no means comprehensive but seeks to be indicative of the issues raised in the survey each which will be dealt with more comprehensively in future publications.

  20. Neutrino masses and cosmological parameters from a Euclid-like survey: Markov Chain Monte Carlo forecasts including theoretical errors

    CERN Document Server

    Audren, Benjamin; Bird, Simeon; Haehnelt, Martin G.; Viel, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    We present forecasts for the accuracy of determining the parameters of a minimal cosmological model and the total neutrino mass based on combined mock data for a future Euclid-like galaxy survey and Planck. We consider two different galaxy surveys: a spectroscopic redshift survey and a cosmic shear survey. We make use of the Monte Carlo Markov Chains (MCMC) technique and assume two sets of theoretical errors. The first error is meant to account for uncertainties in the modelling of the effect of neutrinos on the non-linear galaxy power spectrum and we assume this error to be fully correlated in Fourier space. The second error is meant to parametrize the overall residual uncertainties in modelling the non-linear galaxy power spectrum at small scales, and is conservatively assumed to be uncorrelated and to increase with the ratio of a given scale to the scale of non-linearity. It hence increases with wavenumber and decreases with redshift. With these two assumptions for the errors and assuming further conservat...

  1. Fears of Children in the United States: An Examination of the American Fear Survey Schedule with 20 New Contemporary Fear Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Joy J.

    2005-01-01

    Twenty contemporary fears (e.g., terrorist attacks, drive-by shootings, having to fight in a war) were added to E. Gullone and N. J. King's (1992) Australian Fear Survey Schedule for Children-II for use in the United States. The revised survey, the American Fear Survey Schedule for Children (J. J. Burnham, 1995), was investigated. The component…

  2. Development of six PROMIS pediatrics proxy-report item banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Debra E; Gross, Heather E; Stucky, Brian D; Thissen, David; DeWitt, Esi Morgan; Lai, Jin Shei; Amtmann, Dagmar; Khastou, Leyla; Varni, James W; DeWalt, Darren A

    2012-02-22

    Pediatric self-report should be considered the standard for measuring patient reported outcomes (PRO) among children. However, circumstances exist when the child is too young, cognitively impaired, or too ill to complete a PRO instrument and a proxy-report is needed. This paper describes the development process including the proxy cognitive interviews and large-field-test survey methods and sample characteristics employed to produce item parameters for the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) pediatric proxy-report item banks. The PROMIS pediatric self-report items were converted into proxy-report items before undergoing cognitive interviews. These items covered six domains (physical function, emotional distress, social peer relationships, fatigue, pain interference, and asthma impact). Caregivers (n = 25) of children ages of 5 and 17 years provided qualitative feedback on proxy-report items to assess any major issues with these items. From May 2008 to March 2009, the large-scale survey enrolled children ages 8-17 years to complete the self-report version and caregivers to complete the proxy-report version of the survey (n = 1548 dyads). Caregivers of children ages 5 to 7 years completed the proxy report survey (n = 432). In addition, caregivers completed other proxy instruments, PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales Parent Proxy-Report version, PedsQL™ Asthma Module Parent Proxy-Report version, and KIDSCREEN Parent-Proxy-52. Item content was well understood by proxies and did not require item revisions but some proxies clearly noted that determining an answer on behalf of their child was difficult for some items. Dyads and caregivers of children ages 5-17 years old were enrolled in the large-scale testing. The majority were female (85%), married (70%), Caucasian (64%) and had at least a high school education (94%). Approximately 50% had children with a chronic health condition, primarily asthma, which was diagnosed or treated within 6

  3. Development of six PROMIS pediatrics proxy-report item banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwin Debra E

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pediatric self-report should be considered the standard for measuring patient reported outcomes (PRO among children. However, circumstances exist when the child is too young, cognitively impaired, or too ill to complete a PRO instrument and a proxy-report is needed. This paper describes the development process including the proxy cognitive interviews and large-field-test survey methods and sample characteristics employed to produce item parameters for the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS pediatric proxy-report item banks. Methods The PROMIS pediatric self-report items were converted into proxy-report items before undergoing cognitive interviews. These items covered six domains (physical function, emotional distress, social peer relationships, fatigue, pain interference, and asthma impact. Caregivers (n = 25 of children ages of 5 and 17 years provided qualitative feedback on proxy-report items to assess any major issues with these items. From May 2008 to March 2009, the large-scale survey enrolled children ages 8-17 years to complete the self-report version and caregivers to complete the proxy-report version of the survey (n = 1548 dyads. Caregivers of children ages 5 to 7 years completed the proxy report survey (n = 432. In addition, caregivers completed other proxy instruments, PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales Parent Proxy-Report version, PedsQL™ Asthma Module Parent Proxy-Report version, and KIDSCREEN Parent-Proxy-52. Results Item content was well understood by proxies and did not require item revisions but some proxies clearly noted that determining an answer on behalf of their child was difficult for some items. Dyads and caregivers of children ages 5-17 years old were enrolled in the large-scale testing. The majority were female (85%, married (70%, Caucasian (64% and had at least a high school education (94%. Approximately 50% had children with a chronic health condition, primarily

  4. A New Extension of the Binomial Error Model for Responses to Items of Varying Difficulty in Educational Testing and Attitude Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Wiley

    Full Text Available We put forward a new item response model which is an extension of the binomial error model first introduced by Keats and Lord. Like the binomial error model, the basic latent variable can be interpreted as a probability of responding in a certain way to an arbitrarily specified item. For a set of dichotomous items, this model gives predictions that are similar to other single parameter IRT models (such as the Rasch model but has certain advantages in more complex cases. The first is that in specifying a flexible two-parameter Beta distribution for the latent variable, it is easy to formulate models for randomized experiments in which there is no reason to believe that either the latent variable or its distribution vary over randomly composed experimental groups. Second, the elementary response function is such that extensions to more complex cases (e.g., polychotomous responses, unfolding scales are straightforward. Third, the probability metric of the latent trait allows tractable extensions to cover a wide variety of stochastic response processes.

  5. Implementation of the forced answering option within online surveys: Do higher item response rates come at the expense of participation and answer quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Décieux Jean Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Online surveys have become a popular method for data gathering for many reasons, including low costs and the ability to collect data rapidly. However, online data collection is often conducted without adequate attention to implementation details. One example is the frequent use of the forced answering option, which forces the respondent to answer each question in order to proceed through the questionnaire. The avoidance of missing data is often the idea behind the use of the forced answering option. However, we suggest that the costs of a reactance effect in terms of quality reduction and unit nonresponse may be high because respondents typically have plausible reasons for not answering questions. The objective of the study reported in this paper was to test the influence of forced answering on dropout rates and data quality. The results show that requiring participants answer every question increases dropout rates and decreases quality of answers. Our findings suggest that the desire for a complete data set has to be balanced against the consequences of reduced data quality.

  6. One hundred prime references on hydrogeochemical and stream sediment surveying for uranium as internationally practiced, including 60 annotated references

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, R.R. Jr.; Bolivar, S.L.

    1981-04-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE), formerly the US ERDA, has initiated a nationwide Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR). This program is part of the US National Uranium Resource Evaluation, designed to provide an improved estimate for the availability and economics of nuclear fuel resources and make available to industry information for use in exploration and development of uranium resources. The Los Alamos National Laboratory is responsible for completing the HSSR in Rocky Mountain states of New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana and in the state of Alaska. This report contains a compilation of 100 prime references on uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance as internationally practiced prior to 1977. The major emphasis in selection of these references was directed toward constructing a HSSR program with the purpose of identifying uranium in the Los Alamos National Laboratory area of responsibility. The context of the annotated abstracts are the authors' concept of what the respective article contains relative to uranium geochemistry and hydrogeochemical and stream sediment surveying. Consequently, in many cases, significant portions of the original articles are not discussed. The text consists of two parts. Part I contains 100 prime references, alphabetically arranged. Part II contains 60 select annotated abstracts, listed in chronological order

  7. Development of the PROMIS positive emotional and sensory expectancies of smoking item banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joan S; Shadel, William G; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Stucky, Brian D; Li, Zhen; Hansen, Mark; Cai, Li

    2014-09-01

    The positive emotional and sensory expectancies of cigarette smoking include improved cognitive abilities, positive affective states, and pleasurable sensorimotor sensations. This paper describes development of Positive Emotional and Sensory Expectancies of Smoking item banks that will serve to standardize the assessment of this construct among daily and nondaily cigarette smokers. Data came from daily (N = 4,201) and nondaily (N =1,183) smokers who completed an online survey. To identify a unidimensional set of items, we conducted item factor analyses, item response theory analyses, and differential item functioning analyses. Additionally, we evaluated the performance of fixed-item short forms (SFs) and computer adaptive tests (CATs) to efficiently assess the construct. Eighteen items were included in the item banks (15 common across daily and nondaily smokers, 1 unique to daily, 2 unique to nondaily). The item banks are strongly unidimensional, highly reliable (reliability = 0.95 for both), and perform similarly across gender, age, and race/ethnicity groups. A SF common to daily and nondaily smokers consists of 6 items (reliability = 0.86). Results from simulated CATs indicated that, on average, less than 8 items are needed to assess the construct with adequate precision using the item banks. These analyses identified a new set of items that can assess the positive emotional and sensory expectancies of smoking in a reliable and standardized manner. Considerable efficiency in assessing this construct can be achieved by using the item bank SF, employing computer adaptive tests, or selecting subsets of items tailored to specific research or clinical purposes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Usefulness of a single item in a mail survey to identify persons with possible dementia: a new strategy for finding high-risk elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Kathleen K; Maslow, Katie; Perrin, Nancy A; Crooks, Valerie; DellaPenna, Richard; Kuang, Daniel

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the characteristics of elderly persons who responded positively to a question about "severe memory problems" on a mailed health questionnaire yet were missed by the existing health risk algorithm to identify vulnerable elderly persons. A total of 324,471 respondents aged 65 and older completed a primary care health status questionnaire that gathered clinical information to quickly identify members with functional impairment, multiple chronic diseases, and higher medical care needs. The respondents were part of a large, integrated, not-for-profit managed care organization that implemented a model of care for elders using a uniform risk identification method across eight regions. Respondents with severe memory problems were compared to general respondents by morbidity, geriatric syndromes, functional impairments, service utilization, sensory impairments, sociodemographic characteristics, and activities of daily living. Of the respondents, 13,902 persons (4.3%) reported severe memory problems; the existing health risk algorithm missed 47.1% of these. When severe memory problems were included in the risk algorithm, identification increased from 11% to 13%, and risk prevalence by age groups ranged from 4.4% to 40.5%; one third had severe memory problems, a finding that was fairly consistent within age groups (28.4% to 36.5%). A question about severe memory problems should be incorporated into population risk-identification techniques. While false-negative rates are unknown, the false-positive rate of a self-report mail survey appears to be minimal. Persons reporting severe memory problems clearly have multiple comorbidities, higher prevalence of geriatric syndromes, and greater functional and sensory impairments.

  9. Survey of attitudes and practices of Irish nursing students towards hand hygiene, including handrubbing with alcohol-based hand rub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Liz M; O'Connell, Nuala H; Dunne, Colum P

    2017-05-01

    Hand hygiene is widely recognised as the most important measure a healthcare worker can take in preventing the spread of healthcare associated infections. As a member of the healthcare team, nursing students have direct patient contact during clinical practice; hence, good hand hygiene practice among nursing students is essential. Low to moderate levels of hand hygiene knowledge and poor attitudes and practices are reported among nursing students. However, less is known about their attitudes and practices of handrubbing with ABHR, even though handrubbing is the recommended optimum practice in most situations. The aim of this study was to explore attitudes and practices of hand hygiene, in particular handrubbing with alcohol-based hand rub, among nursing students in Ireland. This survey employed a descriptive, self-report design using a questionnaire to gather data. It was administered electronically to all undergraduate nursing students (n=342) in the Department of Nursing and Midwifery at the University of Limerick, Ireland in March and April 2015. Response rate was 66%. Attitudes towards hand hygiene were generally positive. Compliance with hand hygiene after contact with body fluid was high (99.5%) and before a clean or aseptic procedure (98.5%). However, suboptimal practices emerged, before touching a patient (85%), after touching a patient (87%) and after touching patients' surroundings (61%), with first year students more compliant than fourth year students. 16% of students were not aware of the clinical contraindications for using alcohol-based hand rub and 9% did not know when to use soap and water and when to use alcohol-based hand rub. Educators and practitioners play an important role in ensuring that nursing students develop appropriate attitudes towards hand hygiene and engage in optimal handrubbing practices. Raising awareness among nursing students of their responsibility in preventing the occurrence and reducing the transmission of HCAI as an on

  10. A statistical model for estimation of fish density including correlation in size, space, time and between species from research survey data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Kristensen, Kasper; Lewy, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Trawl survey data with high spatial and seasonal coverage were analysed using a variant of the Log Gaussian Cox Process (LGCP) statistical model to estimate unbiased relative fish densities. The model estimates correlations between observations according to time, space, and fish size and includes...

  11. Better assessment of physical function: item improvement is neglected but essential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Bonnie; Fries, James F; Ambrosini, Debbie; Lingala, Bharathi; Gandek, Barbara; Rose, Matthias; Ware, John E

    2009-01-01

    Physical function is a key component of patient-reported outcome (PRO) assessment in rheumatology. Modern psychometric methods, such as Item Response Theory (IRT) and Computerized Adaptive Testing, can materially improve measurement precision at the item level. We present the qualitative and quantitative item-evaluation process for developing the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Physical Function item bank. The process was stepwise: we searched extensively to identify extant Physical Function items and then classified and selectively reduced the item pool. We evaluated retained items for content, clarity, relevance and comprehension, reading level, and translation ease by experts and patient surveys, focus groups, and cognitive interviews. We then assessed items by using classic test theory and IRT, used confirmatory factor analyses to estimate item parameters, and graded response modeling for parameter estimation. We retained the 20 Legacy (original) Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI) and the 10 SF-36's PF-10 items for comparison. Subjects were from rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and healthy aging cohorts (n = 1,100) and a national Internet sample of 21,133 subjects. We identified 1,860 items. After qualitative and quantitative evaluation, 124 newly developed PROMIS items composed the PROMIS item bank, which included revised Legacy items with good fit that met IRT model assumptions. Results showed that the clearest and best-understood items were simple, in the present tense, and straightforward. Basic tasks (like dressing) were more relevant and important versus complex ones (like dancing). Revised HAQ-DI and PF-10 items with five response options had higher item-information content than did comparable original Legacy items with fewer response options. IRT analyses showed that the Physical Function domain satisfied general criteria for unidimensionality with one-, two-, three-, and four-factor models

  12. Grouping of Items in Mobile Web Questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavletova, Aigul; Couper, Mick P.

    2016-01-01

    There is some evidence that a scrolling design may reduce breakoffs in mobile web surveys compared to a paging design, but there is little empirical evidence to guide the choice of the optimal number of items per page. We investigate the effect of the number of items presented on a page on data quality in two types of questionnaires: with or…

  13. Survey of the situation of technology succession. Databases of articles including in industrial technology museums; Gijutsu keisho jokyo chosa. Sangyo gijutsu hakubutsukan shuzohin D.B. hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    To promote the succession of history of and the creative use of industrial science technologies, the paper made lists and databases of the articles of industrial technology museums and material halls in Japan. Record/preservation and collection/systematization of history of the industrial technology is useful for forming bases necessary for promotion of future research/development and international contribution. Museums and material halls are the fields for making comprehensive and practical activities. The data were made as one of the basic databases as the first step for promoting activities for examining the technical succession situation in a long term range continuously and systematically. In the classification of the data, the energy relation was divided into electric power, nuclear power, oil, coal, gas and energy in general. Others were classified into metal/mine, electricity/electronics/communication, chemistry/food, ship building/heavy machinery, printing/precision instrument, and textile/spinning. Moreover, the traffic relation was classified into railroad, automobiles/two-wheeled vehicles, airline/space, and ships. Items were also set of life relation, civil engineering/architecture, and general. The total number of the museums for the survey reached 208.

  14. A Reliability Generalization Study on the Survey of Perceived Organizational Support: The Effects of Mean Age and Number of Items on Score Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, Chan M.; Fuqua, Dale R.; Worley, Jody

    2006-01-01

    The Survey of Perceived Organizational Support (SPOS) is a unidimensional measure of the general belief held by an employee that the organization is committed to him or her, values his or her continued membership, and is generally concerned about the employee's well-being. In the interest of efficiency, researchers are often compelled to use a…

  15. Quality of life and discriminating power of two questionnaires in fibromyalgia patients: fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey A qualidade de vida e o poder de discriminação de dois questionários em pacientes com fibromialgia: fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire e Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Assumpção

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia is a painful syndrome characterized by widespread chronic pain and associated symptoms with a negative impact on quality of life. OBJECTIVES: Considering the subjectivity of quality of life measurements, the aim of this study was to verify the discriminating power of two quality of life questionnaires in patients with fibromyalgia: the generic Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36 and the specific Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 participants divided into Fibromyalgia Group (FG and Control Group (CG (n=75 in each group. The participants were evaluated using the SF-36 and the FIQ. The data were analyzed by the Student t-test (α=0.05 and inferential analysis using the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC Curve - sensitivity, specificity and area under the curve (AUC. The significance level was 0.05. RESULTS: The sample was similar for age (CG: 47.8±8.1; FG: 47.0±7.7 years. A significant difference was observed in quality of life assessment in all aspects of both questionnaires (pCONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A fibromialgia é uma síndrome dolorosa caracterizada por dor espalhada e crônica e sintomas associados com um impacto negativo na qualidade de vida. OBJETIVOS: Considerando a subjetividade da mensuração de qualidade de vida, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o poder de discriminação de dois questionários que avaliam a qualidade de vida de pacientes com fibromialgia: o genérico Medical Short Form Healthy Survey (SF-36 e o específico Questionário do Impacto da Fibromialgia (QIF. MÉTODOS: Foi conduzido um estudo transversal com 150 indivíduos, divididos em dois grupos: grupo fibromialgia (FM e grupo controle (GC (n=75 em ambos. Os pacientes foram avaliados pelo SF-36 e pelo QIF. Na análise dos dados, utilizou-se o teste "t de Student" com α=0,05 e a Curva ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristics Curve. RESULTADOS: As amostras

  16. Analysis of differential item functioning in the depression item bank from the Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS: An item response theory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSEPH P. EIMICKE

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this paper are to present findings related to differential item functioning (DIF in the Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS depression item bank, and to discuss potential threats to the validity of results from studies of DIF. The 32 depression items studied were modified from several widely used instruments. DIF analyses of gender, age and education were performed using a sample of 735 individuals recruited by a survey polling firm. DIF hypotheses were generated by asking content experts to indicate whether or not they expected DIF to be present, and the direction of the DIF with respect to the studied comparison groups. Primary analyses were conducted using the graded item response model (for polytomous, ordered response category data with likelihood ratio tests of DIF, accompanied by magnitude measures. Sensitivity analyses were performed using other item response models and approaches to DIF detection. Despite some caveats, the items that are recommended for exclusion or for separate calibration were "I felt like crying" and "I had trouble enjoying things that I used to enjoy." The item, "I felt I had no energy," was also flagged as evidencing DIF, and recommended for additional review. On the one hand, false DIF detection (Type 1 error was controlled to the extent possible by ensuring model fit and purification. On the other hand, power for DIF detection might have been compromised by several factors, including sparse data and small sample sizes. Nonetheless, practical and not just statistical significance should be considered. In this case the overall magnitude and impact of DIF was small for the groups studied, although impact was relatively large for some individuals.

  17. [Wing 1 radiation survey and contamination report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, K.

    1991-01-01

    We have completed the 5480.11 survey for Wing 1. All area(s)/item(s) requested by the 5480.11 committee have been thoroughly surveyed and documented. Decontamination/disposal of contaminated items has been accomplished. The wing 1 survey was started on 8/13/90 and completed 9/18/90. However, the follow-up surveys were not completed until 2/18/91. We received the final set of smear samples for wing 1 on 1/13/91. A total of 5,495 smears were taken from wing 1 and total of 465 smears were taken during the follow-up surveys. There were a total 122 items found to have fixed contamination and 4 items with smearable contamination in excess of the limits specified in DOE ORDER 5480.11 (AR 3-7). The following area(s)/item(s) were not included in the 5480.11 survey: Hallways, Access panels, Men's and women's change rooms, Janitor closets, Wall lockers and item(s) stored in wing 1 hallways and room 1116. If our contract is renewed, we will include those areas in our survey according to your request of April 15, 1991

  18. The 12-item medical outcomes study short form health survey version 2.0 (SF-12v2: a population-based validation study from Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omidvari Sepideh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The SF-12v2 is the improved version of the SF-12v1. This study aimed to validate the SF-12v2 in Iran. Methods A random sample of the general population aged 18 years and over living in Tehran, Iran completed the instrument. Reliability was estimated using internal consistency and validity was assessed using known-groups comparison and convergent validity. In addition the factor structure of the questionnaire was extracted by performing both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA. Results In all, 3685 individuals were studied (1887male and 1798 female. Internal consistency for both summary measures was satisfactory. Cronbach's α for the Physical Component Summary (PCS-12 was 0.87 and for the Mental Component Summary (MCS-12 it was 0.82. Known-groups comparison showed that the SF-12v2 discriminated well between men and women and those who differed in age and educational status (P Conclusion Although the findings could not be generalized to the Iranian population, overall the findings suggest that the SF-12v2 is a reliable and valid measure of health related quality of life among Iranians and now could be used in future health outcome studies. However, further studies are recommended to establish its stability, responsiveness to change, and concurrent validity for this health survey in Iran.

  19. Factoring handedness data: I. Item analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, H B; Messinger, M I

    1995-12-01

    Recently in this journal Peters and Murphy challenged the validity of factor analyses done on bimodal handedness data, suggesting instead that right- and left-handers be studied separately. But bimodality may be avoidable if attention is paid to Oldfield's questionnaire format and instructions for the subjects. Two characteristics appear crucial: a two-column LEFT-RIGHT format for the body of the instrument and what we call Oldfield's Admonition: not to indicate strong preference for handedness item, such as write, unless "... the preference is so strong that you would never try to use the other hand unless absolutely forced to...". Attaining unimodality of an item distribution would seem to overcome the objections of Peters and Murphy. In a 1984 survey in Boston we used Oldfield's ten-item questionnaire exactly as published. This produced unimodal item distributions. With reflection of the five-point item scale and a logarithmic transformation, we achieved a degree of normalization for the items. Two surveys elsewhere based on Oldfield's 20-item list but with changes in the questionnaire format and the instructions, yielded markedly different item distributions with peaks at each extreme and sometimes in the middle as well.

  20. The 12-item medical outcomes study short form health survey version 2.0 (SF-12v2): a population-based validation study from Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, Ali; Vahdaninia, Mariam; Mousavi, Sayed Javad; Asadi-Lari, Mohsen; Omidvari, Sepideh; Tavousi, Mahmoud

    2011-03-07

    The SF-12v2 is the improved version of the SF-12v1. This study aimed to validate the SF-12v2 in Iran. A random sample of the general population aged 18 years and over living in Tehran, Iran completed the instrument. Reliability was estimated using internal consistency and validity was assessed using known-groups comparison and convergent validity. In addition the factor structure of the questionnaire was extracted by performing both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA). In all, 3685 individuals were studied (1887 male and 1798 female). Internal consistency for both summary measures was satisfactory. Cronbach's α for the Physical Component Summary (PCS-12) was 0.87 and for the Mental Component Summary (MCS-12) it was 0.82. Known-groups comparison showed that the SF-12v2 discriminated well between men and women and those who differed in age and educational status (P < 0.05). Furthermore, as hypothesized the physical functioning, role physical, bodily pain and general health subscales correlated higher with the PCS-12, while the vitality, social functioning, role emotional and mental health subscales correlated higher with the MCS-12. Finally the exploratory factor analysis indicated a two-factor structure (physical and mental health) that jointly accounted for 59.9% of the variance. The confirmatory factory analysis also indicated a good fit to the data for the two-latent structure (physical and mental health). Although the findings could not be generalized to the Iranian population, overall the findings suggest that the SF-12v2 is a reliable and valid measure of health related quality of life among Iranians and now could be used in future health outcome studies. However, further studies are recommended to establish its stability, responsiveness to change, and concurrent validity for this health survey in Iran.

  1. Development of a comprehensive survey of sexuality issues including a self-report version of the International Spinal Cord Injury sexual function basic data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New, P W; Currie, K E

    2016-08-01

    Questionnaire development, validation and completion. Develop comprehensive survey of sexuality issues including validated self-report versions of the International Spinal Cord Injury male sexual function and female sexual and reproductive function basic data sets (SR-iSCI-sexual function). People with spinal cord damage (SCD) living in the community, Australia from August 2013 to June 2014. An iterative process involving rehabilitation medicine clinicians, a nurse specialising in sexuality issues in SCD and people with SCD who developed a comprehensive survey that included the SR-iSCI-sexual function. Participants recruitment through spinal rehabilitation review clinic and community organisations that support people with SCD. Surveys completed by 154 people. Most were male (n=101, 65.6%). Respondents' median age was 50 years (interquartile range (IQR) 38-58), and they were a median of 10 years (IQR 4-20) after the onset of SCD. Sexual problems unrelated to SCD were reported by 12 (8%) respondents, and 114 (n=75.5%) reported sexual problems because of SCD. Orgasms were much less likely (χ(2)=13.1, P=0.006) to be normal in males (n=5, 5%) compared with females (n=11, 22%). Males had significantly worse (χ(2)=26.0, P=0.001) psychogenic genital functioning (normal n=9, 9%) than females (normal n=13, 26%) and worse (χ(2)=10.8, P=0.013) reflex genital functioning. Normal ejaculation was reported in only three (3%) men. Most (n=26, 52%) women reported reduced or absent menstruation pattern since SCD. The SR-iSCI-sexual function provides a useful tool for researchers and clinicians to collect information regarding patient-reported sexual functioning after SCD and to facilitate comparative studies.

  2. 24 CFR 266.648 - Items included in total loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AUTHORITIES HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS... payments that the HFA made from its own funds and not from project income for: (1) Taxes, special... from project income for: (1) Preservation, operation and maintenance of the property; (2) Repairs...

  3. Development of Rasch-based item banks for the assessment of work performance in patients with musculoskeletal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Evelyn A; Bengel, Juergen; Wirtz, Markus A

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to develop a self-description assessment instrument to measure work performance in patients with musculoskeletal diseases. In terms of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), work performance is defined as the degree of meeting the work demands (activities) at the actual workplace (environment). To account for the fact that work performance depends on the work demands of the job, we strived to develop item banks that allow a flexible use of item subgroups depending on the specific work demands of the patients' jobs. Item development included the collection of work tasks from literature and content validation through expert surveys and patient interviews. The resulting 122 items were answered by 621 patients with musculoskeletal diseases. Exploratory factor analysis to ascertain dimensionality and Rasch analysis (partial credit model) for each of the resulting dimensions were performed. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in four dimensions, and subsequent Rasch analysis led to the following item banks: 'impaired productivity' (15 items), 'impaired cognitive performance' (18), 'impaired coping with stress' (13) and 'impaired physical performance' (low physical workload 20 items, high physical workload 10 items). The item banks exhibited person separation indices (reliability) between 0.89 and 0.96. The assessment of work performance adds the activities component to the more commonly employed participation component of the ICF-model. The four item banks can be adapted to specific jobs where necessary without losing comparability of person measures, as the item banks are based on Rasch analysis.

  4. Developing a weighting strategy to include mobile phone numbers into an ongoing population health survey using an overlapping dual-frame design with limited benchmark information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Margo L; Ferguson, Raymond A; Hughes, Phil J; Steel, David G

    2014-09-04

    In 2012 mobile phone numbers were included into the ongoing New South Wales Population Health Survey (NSWPHS) using an overlapping dual-frame design. Previously in the NSWPHS the sample was selected using random digit dialing (RDD) of landline phone numbers. The survey was undertaken using computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI). The weighting strategy needed to be significantly expanded to manage the differing probabilities of selection by frame, including that of children of mobile-only phone users, and to adjust for the increased chance of selection of dual-phone users. This paper describes the development of the final weighting strategy to properly combine the data from two overlapping sample frames accounting for the fact that population benchmarks for the different sampling frames were not available at the state or regional level. Estimates of the number of phone numbers for the landline and mobile phone frames used to calculate the differing probabilities of selection by frame, for New South Wales (NSW) and by stratum, were obtained by apportioning Australian estimates as none were available for NSW. The weighting strategy was then developed by calculating person selection probabilities, selection weights, applying a constant composite factor to the dual-phone users sample weights, and benchmarking to the latest NSW population by age group, sex and stratum. Data from the NSWPHS for the first quarter of 2012 was used to test the weighting strategy. This consisted of data on 3395 respondents with 2171 (64%) from the landline frame and 1224 (36%) from the mobile frame. However, in order to calculate the weights, data needed to be available for all core weighting variables and so 3378 respondents, 2933 adults and 445 children, had sufficient data to be included. Average person weights were 3.3 times higher for the mobile-only respondents, 1.3 times higher for the landline-only respondents and 1.7 times higher for dual-phone users in the mobile frame

  5. Treatment approach, delivery, and follow-up evaluation for cardiac rhythm disease management patients receiving radiation therapy: Retrospective physician surveys including chart reviews at numerous centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gossman, Michael S., E-mail: MGossman@TSRCC.com [Regulation Directive Medical Physics, Russell, KY (United States); Wilkinson, Jeffrey D. [Medtronic, Inc., Mounds View, MN (United States); Mallick, Avishek [Department of Mathematics, Marshall University, Huntington, WV (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In a 2-part study, we first examined the results of 71 surveyed physicians who provided responses on how they address the management of patients who maintained either a pacemaker or a defibrillator during radiation treatment. Second, a case review study is presented involving 112 medical records reviewed at 18 institutions to determine whether there was a change in the radiation prescription for the treatment of the target cancer, the method of radiation delivery, or the method of radiation image acquisition. Statistics are provided to illustrate the level of administrative policy; the level of communication between radiation oncologists and heart specialists; American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging and classification; National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines; tumor site; patient's sex; patient's age; device type; manufacturer; live monitoring; and the reported decisions for planning, delivery, and imaging. This survey revealed that 37% of patient treatments were considered for some sort of change in this regard, whereas 59% of patients were treated without regard to these alternatives when available. Only 3% of all patients were identified with an observable change in the functionality of the device or patient status in comparison with 96% of patients with normal behavior and operating devices. Documented changes in the patient's medical record included 1 device exhibiting failure at 0.3-Gy dose, 1 device exhibiting increased sensor rate during dose delivery, 1 patient having an irregular heartbeat leading to device reprogramming, and 1 patient complained of twinging in the chest wall that resulted in a respiratory arrest. Although policies and procedures should directly involve the qualified medical physicist for technical supervision, their sufficient involvement was typically not requested by most respondents. No treatment options were denied to any patient based on AJCC staging, classification, or NCCN practice standards.

  6. A malacological survey in the Manso Power Plant, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil: new records of freshwater snails, including transmitters of schistosomiasis and exotic species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Ammon Fernandez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease of public health concern in Brazil, and the construction of hydroelectric dams, in addition to increasing permanent human settlement and tourism, has created conditions suitable for the establishment of mollusks that can transmit schistosomiasis. Such areas require a number of actions to prevent the establishment of schistosomiasis. This paper reports on a freshwater malacological survey carried out in the geographical area of the Manso Power Plant. Methods Mollusks were collected in 18 municipalities in the State of Mato Grosso between February 2002 and February 2004 (qualitative study and from April 2009 to February 2011 (quantitative study. Results Thirty-one species of mollusks were collected, including newly recorded species (Antillorbis nordestensis and Burnupia ingae. In addition, the geographic distributions of known species, including Biomphalaria straminea, a snail vector of Schistosoma mansoni, were expanded. A total of 4,507 specimens were collected in the APM Manso reservoir (Usina Hidrelétrica de Aproveitamento Múltiplo de Manso during the quantitative study, and Biomphalaria amazonica was found in six of the 10 localities analyzed. The Afroasiatic species Melanoides tuberculata, introduced after February 2009, was the dominant species (relative abundance 94.96%. Conclusions The study area is epidemiologically important due to the occurrence of B. straminea and B. amazonica, which are vectors of schistosomiasis, and M. tuberculata, a snail host of Centrocestus formosanus, which is responsible for centrocestiasis transmission. Observations of M. tuberculata and the exotic freshwater clams Corbicula fluminea and Corbicula largillierti raise concerns about biodiversity.

  7. A statistical model for estimation of fish density including correlation in size, space, time and between species from research survey data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Rasmus Nielsen

    Full Text Available Trawl survey data with high spatial and seasonal coverage were analysed using a variant of the Log Gaussian Cox Process (LGCP statistical model to estimate unbiased relative fish densities. The model estimates correlations between observations according to time, space, and fish size and includes zero observations and over-dispersion. The model utilises the fact the correlation between numbers of fish caught increases when the distance in space and time between the fish decreases, and the correlation between size groups in a haul increases when the difference in size decreases. Here the model is extended in two ways. Instead of assuming a natural scale size correlation, the model is further developed to allow for a transformed length scale. Furthermore, in the present application, the spatial- and size-dependent correlation between species was included. For cod (Gadus morhua and whiting (Merlangius merlangus, a common structured size correlation was fitted, and a separable structure between the time and space-size correlation was found for each species, whereas more complex structures were required to describe the correlation between species (and space-size. The within-species time correlation is strong, whereas the correlations between the species are weaker over time but strong within the year.

  8. Item response theory analysis of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Health-Related Quality of Life (CDC HRQOL) items in adults with arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielenz, Thelma J; Callahan, Leigh F; Edwards, Michael C

    2016-03-12

    Examine the feasibility of performing an item response theory (IRT) analysis on two of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention health-related quality of life (CDC HRQOL) modules - the 4-item Healthy Days Core Module (HDCM) and the 5-item Healthy days Symptoms Module (HDSM). Previous principal components analyses confirm that the two scales both assess a mix of mental (CDC-MH) and physical health (CDC-PH). The purpose is to conduct item response theory (IRT) analysis on the CDC-MH and CDC-PH scales separately. 2182 patients with self-reported or physician-diagnosed arthritis completed a cross-sectional survey including HDCM and HDSM items. Besides global health, the other 8 items ask the number of days that some statement was true; we chose to recode the data into 8 categories based on observed clustering. The IRT assumptions were assessed using confirmatory factor analysis and the data could be modeled using an unidimensional IRT model. The graded response model was used for IRT analyses and CDC-MH and CDC-PH scales were analyzed separately in flexMIRT. The IRT parameter estimates for the five-item CDC-PH all appeared reasonable. The three-item CDC-MH did not have reasonable parameter estimates. The CDC-PH scale is amenable to IRT analysis but the existing The CDC-MH scale is not. We suggest either using the 4-item Healthy Days Core Module (HDCM) and the 5-item Healthy days Symptoms Module (HDSM) as they currently stand or the CDC-PH scale alone if the primary goal is to measure physical health related HRQOL.

  9. 38 CFR 3.1606 - Transportation items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transportation items. 3... Burial Benefits § 3.1606 Transportation items. The transportation costs of those persons who come within... shipment. (6) Cost of transportation by common carrier including amounts paid as Federal taxes. (7) Cost of...

  10. Evolution of a Test Item

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaan, Mary

    2007-01-01

    This article follows the development of test items (see "Language Assessment Quarterly", Volume 3 Issue 1, pp. 71-79 for the article "Test and Item Specifications Development"), beginning with a review of test and item specifications, then proceeding to writing and editing of items, pretesting and analysis, and finally selection of an item for a…

  11. Monitoring the health of transgender and other gender minority populations: validity of natal sex and gender identity survey items in a U.S. national cohort of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L; Conron, Kerith J; Tardiff, Laura Anatale; Jarvi, Stephanie; Gordon, Allegra R; Austin, S Bryn

    2014-11-26

    A barrier to monitoring the health of gender minority (transgender) populations is the lack of brief, validated tools with which to identify participants in surveillance systems. We used the Growing Up Today Study (GUTS), a prospective cohort study of U.S. young adults (mean age = 20.7 years in 2005), to assess the validity of self-report measures and implement a two-step method to measure gender minority status (step 1: assigned sex at birth, step 2: current gender identity). A mixed-methods study was conducted in 2013. Construct validity was evaluated in secondary data analysis of the 2010 wave (n = 7,831). Cognitive testing interviews of close-ended measures were conducted with a subsample of participants (n = 39). Compared to cisgender (non-transgender) participants, transgender participants had higher levels of recalled childhood gender nonconformity age gender nonconformity and were more likely to have ever identified as not completely heterosexual (p gender minority participants. Assigned sex at birth was interpreted as sex designated on a birth certificate; transgender was understood to be a difference between a person's natal sex and gender identity. Participants were correctly classified as male, female, or transgender. The survey items performed well in this sample and are recommended for further evaluation in languages other than English and with diverse samples in terms of age, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.

  12. Development of the Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire: constructing an item pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly L

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Laura Kelly, Crispin Jenkinson, Sarah Dummett, Jill Dawson, Ray Fitzpatrick, David Morley Health Services Research Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK Purpose: The Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire is a patient-reported outcome measure in development that is grounded on the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF. The study reported here aimed to inform and generate an item pool for the new measure, which is specifically designed for the assessment of participation and activity in patients experiencing a range of health conditions. Methods: Items were informed through in-depth interviews conducted with 37 participants spanning a range of conditions. Interviews aimed to identify how their condition impacted their ability to participate in meaningful activities. Conditions included arthritis, cancer, chronic back pain, diabetes, motor neuron disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and spinal cord injury. Transcripts were analyzed using the framework method. Statements relating to ICF themes were recast as questionnaire items and shown for review to an expert panel. Cognitive debrief interviews (n=13 were used to assess items for face and content validity. Results: ICF themes relevant to activities and participation in everyday life were explored, and a total of 222 items formed the initial item pool. This item pool was refined by the research team and 28 generic items were mapped onto all nine chapters of the ICF construct, detailing activity and participation. Cognitive interviewing confirmed the questionnaire instructions, items, and response options were acceptable to participants. Conclusion: Using a clear conceptual basis to inform item generation, 28 items have been identified as suitable to undergo further psychometric testing. A large-scale postal survey will follow in order to refine the instrument further and

  13. An avifaunal survey of the Istranca mountains, turkish thrace: novel breeding bird records including the first breeding record of Wood Warbler Phylloscopus sibilatrix in Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özkan, Korhan

    2011-01-01

    A breeding bird survey in the Istranca (Yıldız) mountains of Turkish Thrace seawards to the Black sea was conducted May–August 2009. Eighty-eight days of field work in 697 locations generated novel breeding evidence for several species. The survey provided the first certain evidence of Wood Warbl...

  14. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  15. Spare Items validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Carratala, L.

    1998-01-01

    There is an increasing difficulty for purchasing safety related spare items, with certifications by manufacturers for maintaining the original qualifications of the equipment of destination. The main reasons are, on the top of the logical evolution of technology, applied to the new manufactured components, the quitting of nuclear specific production lines and the evolution of manufacturers quality systems, originally based on nuclear codes and standards, to conventional industry standards. To face this problem, for many years different Dedication processes have been implemented to verify whether a commercial grade element is acceptable to be used in safety related applications. In the same way, due to our particular position regarding the spare part supplies, mainly from markets others than the american, C.N. Trillo has developed a methodology called Spare Items Validation. This methodology, which is originally based on dedication processes, is not a single process but a group of coordinated processes involving engineering, quality and management activities. These are to be performed on the spare item itself, its design control, its fabrication and its supply for allowing its use in destinations with specific requirements. The scope of application is not only focussed on safety related items, but also to complex design, high cost or plant reliability related components. The implementation in C.N. Trillo has been mainly curried out by merging, modifying and making the most of processes and activities which were already being performed in the company. (Author)

  16. Selecting Lower Priced Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinert, Harold L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A program used to teach moderately to severely mentally handicapped students to select the lower priced items in actual shopping activities is described. Through a five-phase process, students are taught to compare prices themselves as well as take into consideration variations in the sizes of containers and varying product weights. (VW)

  17. Item information and discrimination functions for trinary PCM items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, Wies; Muraki, Eiji

    1997-01-01

    For trinary partial credit items the shape of the item information and the item discrimination function is examined in relation to the item parameters. In particular, it is shown that these functions are unimodal if δ2 – δ1 < 4 ln 2 and bimodal otherwise. The locations and values of the maxima are

  18. Using a Multivariate Multilevel Polytomous Item Response Theory Model to Study Parallel Processes of Change: The Dynamic Association between Adolescents' Social Isolation and Engagement with Delinquent Peers in the National Youth Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chueh-An; von Eye, Alexander A.; Maier, Kimberly S.

    2010-01-01

    The application of multidimensional item response theory models to repeated observations has demonstrated great promise in developmental research. It allows researchers to take into consideration both the characteristics of item response and measurement error in longitudinal trajectory analysis, which improves the reliability and validity of the…

  19. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data of American Samoa since 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  20. An aerial radiological survey of the Tonopah Test Range including Clean Slate 1,2,3, Roller Coaster, decontamination area, Cactus Springs Ranch target areas. Central Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proctor, A.E.; Hendricks, T.J.

    1995-08-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted of major sections of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in central Nevada from August through October 1993. The survey consisted of aerial measurements of both natural and man-made gamma radiation emanating from the terrestrial surface. The initial purpose of the survey was to locate depleted uranium (detecting 238 U) from projectiles which had impacted on the TTR. The examination of areas near Cactus Springs Ranch (located near the western boundary of the TTR) and an animal burial area near the Double Track site were secondary objectives. When more widespread than expected 241 Am contamination was found around the Clean Slates sites, the survey was expanded to cover the area surrounding the Clean Slates and also the Double Track site. Results are reported as radiation isopleths superimposed on aerial photographs of the area

  1. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data of the Hawaiian Archipelago since 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  2. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data of the Mariana Archipelago since 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  3. Occurrence and impact of negative behaviour, including domestic violence and abuse, in men attending UK primary care health clinics: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, M; Ferrari, G; Jones, S K; Williamson, E; Bacchus, L J; Peters, T J; Feder, G

    2015-05-19

    To measure the experience and perpetration of negative behaviour, including domestic violence and abuse (DVA), and investigate its associations with health conditions and behaviours in men attending general practice. Cross-sectional questionnaire-based study conducted between September 2010 and June 2011. 16 general practices in the south west of England. Male patients aged 18 or older, attending alone, who could read and write English. A total of 1403 of eligible patients (58%) participated in the survey and 1368 (56%) completed the questions relevant to this paper. 97% of respondents reported they were heterosexual. Lifetime occurrence of negative behaviour consistent with DVA, perceived health impact of negative behaviours, associations with anxiety and depression symptoms, and cannabis use in the past 12 months and binge drinking. 22.7% (95% CI 20.2% to 24.9%) of men reported ever experiencing negative behaviour (feeling frightened, physically hurt, forced sex, ask permission) from a partner. All negative behaviours were associated with a twofold to threefold increased odds of anxiety and depression symptoms in men experiencing or perpetrating negative behaviours or both. 34.9% (95% CI 28.7% to 41.7%) of men who reported experiencing negative behaviour from a partner, and 30.8% (95% CI 23.7% to 37.8%) of men who perpetrated negative behaviours said they had been in a domestically violent or abusive relationship. No associations with problematic drinking were found; there was a weak association with cannabis use. DVA is experienced or perpetrated by a large minority of men presenting to general practice, and these men were more likely to have current symptoms of depression and anxiety. Presentation of anxiety or depression to clinicians may be an indicator of male experience or perpetration of DVA victimisation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Occurrence and impact of negative behaviour, including domestic violence and abuse, in men attending UK primary care health clinics: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, M; Ferrari, G; Jones, S K; Williamson, E; Bacchus, L J; Peters, T J; Feder, G

    2015-01-01

    Objective To measure the experience and perpetration of negative behaviour, including domestic violence and abuse (DVA), and investigate its associations with health conditions and behaviours in men attending general practice. Design Cross-sectional questionnaire-based study conducted between September 2010 and June 2011. Setting 16 general practices in the south west of England. Participants Male patients aged 18 or older, attending alone, who could read and write English. A total of 1403 of eligible patients (58%) participated in the survey and 1368 (56%) completed the questions relevant to this paper. 97% of respondents reported they were heterosexual. Main outcome measures Lifetime occurrence of negative behaviour consistent with DVA, perceived health impact of negative behaviours, associations with anxiety and depression symptoms, and cannabis use in the past 12 months and binge drinking. Results 22.7% (95% CI 20.2% to 24.9%) of men reported ever experiencing negative behaviour (feeling frightened, physically hurt, forced sex, ask permission) from a partner. All negative behaviours were associated with a twofold to threefold increased odds of anxiety and depression symptoms in men experiencing or perpetrating negative behaviours or both. 34.9% (95% CI 28.7% to 41.7%) of men who reported experiencing negative behaviour from a partner, and 30.8% (95% CI 23.7% to 37.8%) of men who perpetrated negative behaviours said they had been in a domestically violent or abusive relationship. No associations with problematic drinking were found; there was a weak association with cannabis use. Conclusions DVA is experienced or perpetrated by a large minority of men presenting to general practice, and these men were more likely to have current symptoms of depression and anxiety. Presentation of anxiety or depression to clinicians may be an indicator of male experience or perpetration of DVA victimisation. PMID:25991450

  5. Survey report for fiscal 1999. Evaluation and analysis on items applied for in high-performance industrial furnace introduction field test project in fiscal 1999; 1999 nendo koseino kogyoro donyu field test jigyo chosa hokokusho. Obo anken hyoka bunseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper describes comprehensive evaluation and analysis mainly on the 51 items adopted in the high-performance industrial furnace introduction field tests. The development of a high-performance industrial furnace has completed the fundamental development research in fiscal 1998, and the possibility was verified on energy saving of more than 30% and reduction of NOx emission by 50% over that by conventional furnaces. Upon this fundamental achievement, the field test project has started as the comprehensive approach to developing the practically usable technologies for three years from fiscal 1998 until fiscal 2000, which is being promoted as a joint research project. According to the survey on the actual state in fiscal 1998, a little less than 20,000 industrial furnaces having combustion capacity of more than 500,000 Kcal/hr (excepting boilers) are being used. If these furnaces are converted into the high-performance industrial furnace, energy conservation of 210,000 x 10{sup 6} Mcal (converted to crude oil of 22.7 x 10{sup 6} kl/year) can be achieved from the maximum annual energy consumption of 700,000 x 10{sup 6} Mcal (converted to crude oil of 75.7 x 10{sup 6} kl/year). This conservation amount corresponds to about 12% of the final energy consumption in the whole Japanese industrial departments in fiscal 1996. It is expected that the performance of the full-size high-performance industrial furnace will be verified, and this technology will be promoted for wide proliferation. (NEDO)

  6. Item Banking with Embedded Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCann, Robert G.; Stanley, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    An item banking method that does not use Item Response Theory (IRT) is described. This method provides a comparable grading system across schools that would be suitable for low-stakes testing. It uses the Angoff standard-setting method to obtain item ratings that are stored with each item. An example of such a grading system is given, showing how…

  7. Development and Validation of the Poverty Attributions Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Robert M.; Raiz, Lisa; Davis, Tamara S.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the process of developing and testing the Poverty Attribution Survey (PAS), a measure of poverty attributions. The PAS is theory based and includes original items as well as items from previously tested poverty attribution instruments. The PAS was electronically administered to a sample of state-licensed professional social…

  8. The Long-Term Conditions Questionnaire: conceptual framework and item development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michele; Potter, Caroline M; Kelly, Laura; Hunter, Cheryl; Gibbons, Elizabeth; Jenkinson, Crispin; Coulter, Angela; Forder, Julien; Towers, Ann-Marie; A'Court, Christine; Fitzpatrick, Ray

    2016-01-01

    To identify the main issues of importance when living with long-term conditions to refine a conceptual framework for informing the item development of a patient-reported outcome measure for long-term conditions. Semi-structured qualitative interviews (n=48) were conducted with people living with at least one long-term condition. Participants were recruited through primary care. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by thematic analysis. The analysis served to refine the conceptual framework, based on reviews of the literature and stakeholder consultations, for developing candidate items for a new measure for long-term conditions. Three main organizing concepts were identified: impact of long-term conditions, experience of services and support, and self-care. The findings helped to refine a conceptual framework, leading to the development of 23 items that represent issues of importance in long-term conditions. The 23 candidate items formed the first draft of the measure, currently named the Long-Term Conditions Questionnaire. The aim of this study was to refine the conceptual framework and develop items for a patient-reported outcome measure for long-term conditions, including single and multiple morbidities and physical and mental health conditions. Qualitative interviews identified the key themes for assessing outcomes in long-term conditions, and these underpinned the development of the initial draft of the measure. These initial items will undergo cognitive testing to refine the items prior to further validation in a survey.

  9. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate, preparation of the package and related paperwork). Large and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  10. Language-related differential item functioning between English and German PROMIS Depression items is negligible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, H Felix; Wahl, Inka; Nolte, Sandra; Liegl, Gregor; Brähler, Elmar; Löwe, Bernd; Rose, Matthias

    2017-12-01

    To investigate differential item functioning (DIF) of PROMIS Depression items between US and German samples we compared data from the US PROMIS calibration sample (n = 780), a German general population survey (n = 2,500) and a German clinical sample (n = 621). DIF was assessed in an ordinal logistic regression framework, with 0.02 as criterion for R 2 -change and 0.096 for Raju's non-compensatory DIF. Item parameters were initially fixed to the PROMIS Depression metric; we used plausible values to account for uncertainty in depression estimates. Only four items showed DIF. Accounting for DIF led to negligible effects for the full item bank as well as a post hoc simulated computer-adaptive test (German general population sample was considerably lower compared to the US reference value of 50. Overall, we found little evidence for language DIF between US and German samples, which could be addressed by either replacing the DIF items by items not showing DIF or by scoring the short form in German samples with the corrected item parameters reported. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. A survey of nematodes of the genus Cucullanus Müller, 1777 (Nematoda, Seuratoidea) parasitic in marine fishes off Brazil, including description of three new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Fabiano M; Pereira, Felipe B; Pantoja, Camila; Soares, Iris A; Pereira, Aldenice N; Timi, Juan T; Scholz, Tomáš; Luque, José L

    2015-11-05

    A taxonomic survey of six nematode species (including three new taxa) from the genus Cucullanus Müller, 1777, parasites of marine fishes off the Brazilian coast, is provided. Nematodes were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cucullanus gastrophysi n. sp. parasitic in Lophius gastrophysus Miranda Ribeiro differs from its congeners by the combination of the following features: shape and number of sclerotized structures in the oesophastome (a pair of lateral elongate structures and a single small reniform one), position of deirids and excretory pore (both anterior to oesophagus base), spicule length and spicule/body length ratio (0.97-1.29 mm and 6.5-10.5%, respectively), morphology and length of gubernaculum (V-shaped, 107-135 µm long). Cucullanus protrudens n. sp. from Pagrus pagrus (Linnaeus) has the cloacal lips broadly protruded, which differentiates it from several species of Cucullanus; other features, e.g., the length of spicules and gubernaculum (400-415 µm and 91-103 µm, respectively), arrangement of caudal papillae and position of excretory pore (slightly posterior to oesophagus-intestine junction) also characterize this species. Cucullanus pseudopercis n. sp. from Pseudopercis semifasciata (Cuvier) has deirids and excretory pore posterior to the oesophagus-intestine junction, which distinguishes the species from most of the congeners; furthermore, the arrangement of caudal papillae in combination with the length of spicules and gubernaculum (1.0-1.5 mm and 178-196 µm, respectively) separate this species from other taxa. Newly collected specimens of C. cirratus Müller, 1777 (type species of the genus) from Urophycis brasiliensis (Kaup), C. pedroi from Conger orbignianus Valenciennes (type host of the species) and C. genypteri Sardella, Navone & Timi, 1997 from Genypterus brasiliensis Regan, were studied as well. Comparisons between newly collected samples and the taxonomic data available for each respective species revealed

  12. THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE 350 MHz DRIFT-SCAN SURVEY II: DATA ANALYSIS AND THE TIMING OF 10 NEW PULSARS, INCLUDING A RELATIVISTIC BINARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, Ryan S.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Archibald, Anne M.; Karako-Argaman, Chen [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Boyles, Jason; Lorimer, Duncan R.; McLaughlin, Maura A.; Cardoso, Rogerio F. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, 111 White Hall, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Ransom, Scott M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Stairs, Ingrid H.; Berndsen, Aaron; Cherry, Angus; McPhee, Christie A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Hessels, Jason W. T.; Kondratiev, Vladislav I.; Van Leeuwen, Joeri [ASTRON, The Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990-AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Epstein, Courtney R. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Pennucci, Tim [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Roberts, Mallory S. E. [Eureka Scientific Inc., 2452 Delmer Street, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 94602 (United States); Stovall, Kevin, E-mail: rlynch@physics.mcgill.ca [Center for Advanced Radio Astronomy and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at Brownsville, Brownsville, TX 78520 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    We have completed a 350 MHz Drift-scan Survey using the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope with the goal of finding new radio pulsars, especially millisecond pulsars that can be timed to high precision. This survey covered {approx}10,300 deg{sup 2} and all of the data have now been fully processed. We have discovered a total of 31 new pulsars, 7 of which are recycled pulsars. A companion paper by Boyles et al. describes the survey strategy, sky coverage, and instrumental setup, and presents timing solutions for the first 13 pulsars. Here we describe the data analysis pipeline, survey sensitivity, and follow-up observations of new pulsars, and present timing solutions for 10 other pulsars. We highlight several sources-two interesting nulling pulsars, an isolated millisecond pulsar with a measurement of proper motion, and a partially recycled pulsar, PSR J0348+0432, which has a white dwarf companion in a relativistic orbit. PSR J0348+0432 will enable unprecedented tests of theories of gravity.

  13. Survey of wildlife, including aquatic mammals, associated with riparian habitat on the Syncrude Canada Ltd. Aurora Mine environmental impact assessment local study area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surrendi, D.C.

    1996-12-31

    A general overview of the wildlife associated with riparian habitats at Syncrude`s proposed Aurora Mine, located 70 km northeast of Fort McMurray, Alberta on the east side of the Athabasca River, was presented. The area is underlain by bitumen and is being considered for bitumen extraction and production of synthetic crude oil. Two surveys were conducted with the help of experienced trappers from the community at Fort McKay. One was an aerial survey on November 3, 1995, the other a ground survey on November 29-30, 1995. The two surveys yielded 248 observed tracks on four 500 metre transects. The study area was comprised of boreal forest with natural drainage via Stanley Creek into the Muskeg River and via Fort Creek into the Athabasca River. Beavers, fox, weasel, mink, rabbit, wolf, moose, deer, ptarmigan, sharp-tailed grouse and ruffed grouse, lynx, coyote, river otter and mice were associated with riparian habitat on the study area. There was no sign of muskrat in the study area. It was concluded that in order to develop an understanding of reclamation alternatives for mined areas in the region, future detailed examination of the site should be approached through the integration of traditional ecological knowledge and conventional scientific methodology. 26 refs., 12 tabs., 2 figs.

  14. Survey of wildlife, including aquatic mammals, associated with riparian habitat on the Syncrude Canada Ltd. Aurora Mine environmental impact assessment local study area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surrendi, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    A general overview of the wildlife associated with riparian habitats at Syncrude's proposed Aurora Mine, located 70 km northeast of Fort McMurray, Alberta on the east side of the Athabasca River, was presented. The area is underlain by bitumen and is being considered for bitumen extraction and production of synthetic crude oil. Two surveys were conducted with the help of experienced trappers from the community at Fort McKay. One was an aerial survey on November 3, 1995, the other a ground survey on November 29-30, 1995. The two surveys yielded 248 observed tracks on four 500 metre transects. The study area was comprised of boreal forest with natural drainage via Stanley Creek into the Muskeg River and via Fort Creek into the Athabasca River. Beavers, fox, weasel, mink, rabbit, wolf, moose, deer, ptarmigan, sharp-tailed grouse and ruffed grouse, lynx, coyote, river otter and mice were associated with riparian habitat on the study area. There was no sign of muskrat in the study area. It was concluded that in order to develop an understanding of reclamation alternatives for mined areas in the region, future detailed examination of the site should be approached through the integration of traditional ecological knowledge and conventional scientific methodology. 26 refs., 12 tabs., 2 figs

  15. EMAP/NOAA 2003 SURVEY OF ECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF THE WESTERN U.S. CONTINENTAL SHELF, INCLUDING GULF OF FARALLONES NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY

    Science.gov (United States)

    In June of 2003 a partnership between EPA, NOAA, and the western coastal states conducted a joint survey of ecological condition of aquatic resources along the U.S. western continental shelf (30-120 m), using multiple indicators of ecological condition. The study is an element o...

  16. CTTITEM: SAS macro and SPSS syntax for classical item analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Pui-Wa; Wu, Qiong

    2007-08-01

    This article describes the functions of a SAS macro and an SPSS syntax that produce common statistics for conventional item analysis including Cronbach's alpha, item difficulty index (p-value or item mean), and item discrimination indices (D-index, point biserial and biserial correlations for dichotomous items and item-total correlation for polytomous items). These programs represent an improvement over the existing SAS and SPSS item analysis routines in terms of completeness and user-friendliness. To promote routine evaluations of item qualities in instrument development of any scale, the programs are available at no charge for interested users. The program codes along with a brief user's manual that contains instructions and examples are downloadable from suen.ed.psu.edu/-pwlei/plei.htm.

  17. Gender-Based Differential Item Performance in Mathematics Achievement Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Allen E.; Cleary, T. Anne

    1987-01-01

    Eight randomly equivalent samples of high school seniors were each given a unique form of the ACT Assessment Mathematics Usage Test (ACTM). Signed measures of differential item performance (DIP) were obtained for each item in the eight ACTM forms. DIP estimates were analyzed and a significant item category effect was found. (Author/LMO)

  18. Ninth Triennial Toxicology Salary Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, Shayne Cox; Sullivan, Dexter Wayne

    2016-01-01

    This survey serves as the ninth in a series of toxicology salary surveys conducted at 3-year intervals and beginning in 1988. An electronic survey instrument was distributed to 5919 individuals including members of the Society of Toxicology, American College of Toxicology, and 23 additional professional organizations. Question items inquired about gender, age, degree, years of experience, certifications held, areas of specialization, society membership, employment and income. Overall, 1293 responses were received (response rate 21.8%). The results of the 2014 survey provide insight into the job market and career path for current and future toxicologists. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Effect of Differential Item Functioning on Test Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabasakal, Kübra Atalay; Kelecioglu, Hülya

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effect of differential item functioning (DIF) items on test equating through multilevel item response models (MIRMs) and traditional IRMs. The performances of three different equating models were investigated under 24 different simulation conditions, and the variables whose effects were examined included sample size, test…

  20. An emotional functioning item bank of 24 items for computerized adaptive testing (CAT) was established

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten Aa.; Gamper, Eva-Maria; Costantini, Anna

    2016-01-01

    of the widely used EORTC Quality of Life questionnaire (QLQ-C30). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: On the basis of literature search and evaluations by international samples of experts and cancer patients, 38 candidate items were developed. The psychometric properties of the items were evaluated in a large...... international sample of cancer patients. This included evaluations of dimensionality, item response theory (IRT) model fit, differential item functioning (DIF), and of measurement precision/statistical power. RESULTS: Responses were obtained from 1,023 cancer patients from four countries. The evaluations showed...... that 24 items could be included in a unidimensional IRT model. DIF did not seem to have any significant impact on the estimation of EF. Evaluations indicated that the CAT measure may reduce sample size requirements by up to 50% compared to the QLQ-C30 EF scale without reducing power. CONCLUSION...

  1. Location Indices for Ordinal Polytomous Items Based on Item Response Theory. Research Report. ETS RR-15-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Usama S.; Chang, Hua-Hua; Anderson, Carolyn J.

    2015-01-01

    Polytomous items are typically described by multiple category-related parameters; situations, however, arise in which a single index is needed to describe an item's location along a latent trait continuum. Situations in which a single index would be needed include item selection in computerized adaptive testing or test assembly. Therefore single…

  2. A survey of the Canadian public's attitudes towards the energy situation. Vol. 2. [Technical appendix included as a separate volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, G.; McDougall, D.H.G.

    1983-06-01

    Based on a telephone survey of ca 1,900 male and female heads-of-households in nine cities, a report was prepared in 1983 on the Canadian public's attitudes towards the energy situation. This report presents additional analyses of the 1983 data and provides some comparisons with the eight previous annual surveys conducted in this area. The major objective of this report is to provide an understanding of the relationship between Canadians' attitudes, behaviours, and program support with respect to the energy situation. Some conclusions were as follows. Energy shortage is not an issue, rising energy prices are. Surprisingly, in light of the perception of energy prices, self reported conservation actions and behaviours declined in 1983 compared to 1982. Awareness and participation levels in oil substitution and home insulation programs are high and continued government activity in these areas appears warranted. A detailed analysis of two conservation behaviors - adding insulation and weatherstripping/caulking - provided some interesting results. Those who had performed these behaviors tended to be knowledgeable about energy, were satisfied that the money was well spent, and planned to do mere. Those who didn't, felt they had sufficient insulation/weatherstipping and many did not plan to improve the energy efficiency of their home within the next year. There has been a modest trend towards downsizing cars between 1981 and 1983. However, multiple car households still remain as disproportionately heavy users of gasoline. 42 tabs.

  3. Practice of ultrasound-guided arthrocentesis and joint injection, including training and implementation, in Europe: results of a survey of experts and scientific societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandl, Peter; Naredo, Esperanza; Conaghan, Philip G

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To document the practice and training opportunities of US-guided arthrocentesis and joint injection (UGAJ) among rheumatologists in the member countries of the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR). Methods. An English-language questionnaire, containing questions on demographics......, clinical and practical aspects of UGAJ, training options in UGAJ for rheumatologists, UGAJ education in the rheumatology training curriculum and other structured education programmes in UGAJ was sent to three different groups: (i) all national rheumatology societies of EULAR; (ii) all national societies...... countries responded to the questionnaire (61.3% of national rheumatology societies, 25% of the national US societies and 100% of expert ultrasonographers). In the majority of countries (85%) 80%) rate of rheumatologists performing conventional joint injection in most of the surveyed countries. The reported...

  4. Development of a self-report physical function instrument for disability assessment: item pool construction and factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Christine M; Jette, Alan M; Ni, Pengsheng; Bogusz, Kara; Marfeo, Elizabeth E; Brandt, Diane E; Chan, Leighton; Meterko, Mark; Haley, Stephen M; Rasch, Elizabeth K

    2013-09-01

    To build a comprehensive item pool representing work-relevant physical functioning and to test the factor structure of the item pool. These developmental steps represent initial outcomes of a broader project to develop instruments for the assessment of function within the context of Social Security Administration (SSA) disability programs. Comprehensive literature review; gap analysis; item generation with expert panel input; stakeholder interviews; cognitive interviews; cross-sectional survey administration; and exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to assess item pool structure. In-person and semistructured interviews and Internet and telephone surveys. Sample of SSA claimants (n=1017) and a normative sample of adults from the U.S. general population (n=999). Not applicable. Model fit statistics. The final item pool consisted of 139 items. Within the claimant sample, 58.7% were white; 31.8% were black; 46.6% were women; and the mean age was 49.7 years. Initial factor analyses revealed a 4-factor solution, which included more items and allowed separate characterization of: (1) changing and maintaining body position, (2) whole body mobility, (3) upper body function, and (4) upper extremity fine motor. The final 4-factor model included 91 items. Confirmatory factor analyses for the 4-factor models for the claimant and the normative samples demonstrated very good fit. Fit statistics for claimant and normative samples, respectively, were: Comparative Fit Index=.93 and .98; Tucker-Lewis Index=.92 and .98; and root mean square error approximation=.05 and .04. The factor structure of the physical function item pool closely resembled the hypothesized content model. The 4 scales relevant to work activities offer promise for providing reliable information about claimant physical functioning relevant to work disability. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Guide to good practices for the development of test items

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    While the methodology used in developing test items can vary significantly, to ensure quality examinations, test items should be developed systematically. Test design and development is discussed in the DOE Guide to Good Practices for Design, Development, and Implementation of Examinations. This guide is intended to be a supplement by providing more detailed guidance on the development of specific test items. This guide addresses the development of written examination test items primarily. However, many of the concepts also apply to oral examinations, both in the classroom and on the job. This guide is intended to be used as guidance for the classroom and laboratory instructor or curriculum developer responsible for the construction of individual test items. This document focuses on written test items, but includes information relative to open-reference (open book) examination test items, as well. These test items have been categorized as short-answer, multiple-choice, or essay. Each test item format is described, examples are provided, and a procedure for development is included. The appendices provide examples for writing test items, a test item development form, and examples of various test item formats.

  6. Eating Well While Dining Out: Collaborating with Local Restaurants to Promote Heart Healthy Menu Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Linden M.; Pimentel, Daniela C.; Smith, Janice C.; Garcia, Beverly A.; Lee Sylvester, Laura; Kelly, Tammy; Johnston, Larry F.; Ammerman, Alice S.; Keyserling, Thomas C.

    2017-01-01

    Background As Americans commonly consume restaurant foods with poor dietary quality, effective interventions are needed to improve food choices at restaurants. Purpose To design and evaluate a restaurant-based intervention to help customers select and restaurants promote heart healthy menu items with healthful fats and high quality carbohydrates. Methods The intervention included table tents outlining 10 heart healthy eating tips, coupons promoting healthy menu items, an information brochure, and link to study website. Pre and post intervention surveys were completed by restaurant managers and customers completed a brief “intercept” survey. Results Managers (n = 10) reported the table tents and coupons were well received, and several noted improved personal nutrition knowledge. Overall, 4214 coupons were distributed with 1244 (30%) redeemed. Of 300 customers surveyed, 126 (42%) noticed the table tents and of these, 115 (91%) considered the nutrition information helpful, 42 (33%) indicated the information influenced menu items purchased, and 91 (72%) reported the information will influence what they order in the future. Discussion The intervention was well-received by restaurant managers and positively influenced menu item selection by many customers. Translation to Health Education Practice Further research is needed to assess effective strategies for scaling up and sustaining this intervention approach. PMID:28947925

  7. Results of chemical analysis from the 2008-2009 National Rivers and Streams Assessment Survey, including persistent organic pollutants and pharmaceuticals

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In 2008-2009, fish are were collected from approximately 560 national streams, which included a representative subset of 154 urban river sites, which were in close...

  8. FY 1997 report on the field survey on country situations including efficient energy consumption. Vietnam; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (energy shohi koritsuka nado chiiki josei genchi chosa). Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Field survey was made on the current state of and issues on energy in Vietnam. In Vietnam, firewood is in wide use as non-commercial energy, and sums to a half of total energy consumption. Other energies such as hydroelectric power, petroleum, natural gas and coal are self-sustainable. Commercial energy consumption in 1995 is estimated at 10,070,000t in oil equivalent, which is broken down into 23% for coal, 42% in oil, 5% for natural gas and 30% for electricity. Abundant water resources will form the mainstay of future electric power supply. Commercial production of oil started in 1986 becoming an oil exporting country. Several promising natural gas fields were discovered as the result of the exploration by foreign capital. Coal deposits are estimated to be nearly 3.5 billion tons, and most of them are anthracite. Electric power demand is growing at a higher rate than the economic growth of Vietnam. The growth rate of electric power demand is set to be 1.3 times that of GDP. Since construction funds for new plants cannot be satisfied with the national budget and domestic investment alone, the country is expecting foreign capitals. 21 figs., 36 tabs.

  9. Problems with the factor analysis of items: Solutions based on item response theory and item parcelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon P. De Bruin

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The factor analysis of items often produces spurious results in the sense that unidimensional scales appear multidimensional. This may be ascribed to failure in meeting the assumptions of linearity and normality on which factor analysis is based. Item response theory is explicitly designed for the modelling of the non-linear relations between ordinal variables and provides a strong alternative to the factor analysis of items. Items may also be combined in parcels that are more likely to satisfy the assumptions of factor analysis than do the items. The use of the Rasch rating scale model and the factor analysis of parcels is illustrated with data obtained with the Locus of Control Inventory. The results of these analyses are compared with the results obtained through the factor analysis of items. It is shown that the Rasch rating scale model and the factoring of parcels produce superior results to the factor analysis of items. Recommendations for the analysis of scales are made. Opsomming Die faktorontleding van items lewer dikwels misleidende resultate op, veral in die opsig dat eendimensionele skale as meerdimensioneel voorkom. Hierdie resultate kan dikwels daaraan toegeskryf word dat daar nie aan die aannames van lineariteit en normaliteit waarop faktorontleding berus, voldoen word nie. Itemresponsteorie, wat eksplisiet vir die modellering van die nie-liniêre verbande tussen ordinale items ontwerp is, bied ’n aantreklike alternatief vir die faktorontleding van items. Items kan ook in pakkies gegroepeer word wat meer waarskynlik aan die aannames van faktorontleding voldoen as individuele items. Die gebruik van die Rasch beoordelingskaalmodel en die faktorontleding van pakkies word aan die hand van data wat met die Lokus van Beheervraelys verkry is, gedemonstreer. Die resultate van hierdie ontledings word vergelyk met die resultate wat deur ‘n faktorontleding van die individuele items verkry is. Die resultate dui daarop dat die Rasch

  10. A Preliminary Analysis of the 1999 USMC Web-Based Exit Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hocevar, Susan

    2000-01-01

    .... Items included in the survey represented such factors as: pay and benefits, job characteristics, career issues, family and personal life, leadership, culture, standards, unit morale, personal freedom, and optempo...

  11. The impact of nurse working hours on patient safety culture: a cross-national survey including Japan, the United States and Chinese Taiwan using the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yinghui; Fujita, Shigeru; Seto, Kanako; Ito, Shinya; Matsumoto, Kunichika; Huang, Chiu-Chin; Hasegawa, Tomonori

    2013-01-01

    Background A positive patient safety culture (PSC) is one of the most critical components to improve healthcare quality and safety. The Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS), developed by the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, has been used to assess PSC in 31 countries. However, little is known about the impact of nurse working hours on PSC. We hypothesized that long nurse working hours would deteriorate PSC, and that the deterioration patterns would vary between coun...

  12. ITEM LEVEL DIAGNOSTICS AND MODEL - DATA FIT IN ITEM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    Item response theory (IRT) is a framework for modeling and analyzing item response ... data. Though, there is an argument that the evaluation of fit in IRT modeling has been ... National Council on Measurement in Education ... model data fit should be based on three types of ... prediction should be assessed through the.

  13. Item Response Data Analysis Using Stata Item Response Theory Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji Seung; Zheng, Xiaying

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce and review the capability and performance of the Stata item response theory (IRT) package that is available from Stata v.14, 2015. Using a simulated data set and a publicly available item response data set extracted from Programme of International Student Assessment, we review the IRT package from…

  14. MIMIC Methods for Assessing Differential Item Functioning in Polytomous Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Shih, Ching-Lin

    2010-01-01

    Three multiple indicators-multiple causes (MIMIC) methods, namely, the standard MIMIC method (M-ST), the MIMIC method with scale purification (M-SP), and the MIMIC method with a pure anchor (M-PA), were developed to assess differential item functioning (DIF) in polytomous items. In a series of simulations, it appeared that all three methods…

  15. Missing data methods for dealing with missing items in quality of life questionnaires. A comparison by simulation of personal mean score, full information maximum likelihood, multiple imputation, and hot deck techniques applied to the SF-36 in the French 2003 decennial health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyre, Hugo; Leplège, Alain; Coste, Joël

    2011-03-01

    Missing items are common in quality of life (QoL) questionnaires and present a challenge for research in this field. It remains unclear which of the various methods proposed to deal with missing data performs best in this context. We compared personal mean score, full information maximum likelihood, multiple imputation, and hot deck techniques using various realistic simulation scenarios of item missingness in QoL questionnaires constructed within the framework of classical test theory. Samples of 300 and 1,000 subjects were randomly drawn from the 2003 INSEE Decennial Health Survey (of 23,018 subjects representative of the French population and having completed the SF-36) and various patterns of missing data were generated according to three different item non-response rates (3, 6, and 9%) and three types of missing data (Little and Rubin's "missing completely at random," "missing at random," and "missing not at random"). The missing data methods were evaluated in terms of accuracy and precision for the analysis of one descriptive and one association parameter for three different scales of the SF-36. For all item non-response rates and types of missing data, multiple imputation and full information maximum likelihood appeared superior to the personal mean score and especially to hot deck in terms of accuracy and precision; however, the use of personal mean score was associated with insignificant bias (relative bias personal mean score appears nonetheless appropriate for dealing with items missing from completed SF-36 questionnaires in most situations of routine use. These results can reasonably be extended to other questionnaires constructed according to classical test theory.

  16. 大型教育調查研究中的差別試題功能:次級分析中的核心概念及建模方法 Differential Item Functioning Analyses in Large-Scale Educational Surveys: Key Concepts and Modeling Approaches for Secondary Analysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    朱小姝 Xiao-Shu Zhu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available 大型教育評量研究常採用多階段抽樣的設計(multi-stage sampling design),透過對母群體之抽樣單位進行分層以抽取受測者。此外,還會採用複雜題本設計(complex booklet design)的方式將題目組成多份測驗題本。在此情況下,欲確保公正測量出不同受測群體的能力,關鍵在於能夠有效偵測所採用的題目是否具差別試題功能(differential item functioning, DIF)。本文旨在介紹探討在大型教育評量複雜設計之下能用以偵測差別試題功能的建模方法,並應用六種可用於偵測DIF 的多階層廣義線性模式(hierarchical generalized linear models, HGLMs),再透過電腦模擬比較它們偵測DIF 的效力。接著又將這些模式應用到國際數學與科學教育成就趨勢調查研究(TIMSS)的實證數據上,藉以探測是否存在一致性的性別DIF(uniform gender DIF)。 Many educational surveys employ a multi-stage sampling design for students, which makes use of stratification and/or clustering of population units, as well as a complex booklet design for items from an item pool. In these surveys, the reliable detection of item bias or differential item functioning (DIF across student groups is a key component for ensuring fair representations of different student groups. In this paper, we describe several modeling approaches that can be useful for detecting DIF in educational surveys. We illustrate the key ideas by investigating the performance of six hierarchical generalized linear models (HGLMs using a small simulation study and by applying them to real data from the Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS study where we use them to investigate potential uniform gender DIF.

  17. Molecular and Parasitological Survey of Bovine Piroplasms in the Black Sea Region, Including the First Report of Babesiosis Associated with Babesia divergens in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, M; Ozubek, S

    2015-11-01

    Clinical cases of babesiosis were evaluated, and the frequency of bovine Babesia and Theileria parasites was determined in cattle. Blood samples and thin blood smears were collected from 23 cattle exhibiting clinical signs of babesiosis. In addition, tick and blood samples were collected from 100 apparently healthy cattle cograzing from the same area. Egg masses obtained from fully engorged female ticks were included. DNA isolated from blood and tick samples was screened for Babesia and Theileria by reverse line blot assay. Piroplasms compatible with Babesia spp. were observed microscopically for symptomatic cattle as circular, oval, elongated, or pear-shaped bodies. Parasitemia ranged from 0.08 to 0.9% for Babesia bovis, 2.5 to 15.4% for Babesia bigemina, and 7.4% for Babesia divergens. Reverse line blot showed positivity in 13 (13%) of the sampled clinically normal cattle and revealed the presence of three Babesia species. Babesia bovis was the most prevalent (9/100, 9%), followed by Babesia occultans (3/100, 3%) and B. bigemina (1/100, 1%). One animal infected with B. bigemina was also infected with B. bovis. The single animal infected with B. divergens showed symptoms of babesiosis. Ticks were identified as Rhipicephalus annulatus, Rhipicephalus turanicus, and Ixodes ricinus. One female R. annulatus and its egg mass were infected with B. bigemina. Neither Theileria annulata nor Theileria buffeli/orientalis infections were observed in cattle or ticks. This is the first report of clinical babesiosis caused by B. divergens in cattle from Turkey. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Sources of interference in item and associative recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osth, Adam F; Dennis, Simon

    2015-04-01

    A powerful theoretical framework for exploring recognition memory is the global matching framework, in which a cue's memory strength reflects the similarity of the retrieval cues being matched against the contents of memory simultaneously. Contributions at retrieval can be categorized as matches and mismatches to the item and context cues, including the self match (match on item and context), item noise (match on context, mismatch on item), context noise (match on item, mismatch on context), and background noise (mismatch on item and context). We present a model that directly parameterizes the matches and mismatches to the item and context cues, which enables estimation of the magnitude of each interference contribution (item noise, context noise, and background noise). The model was fit within a hierarchical Bayesian framework to 10 recognition memory datasets that use manipulations of strength, list length, list strength, word frequency, study-test delay, and stimulus class in item and associative recognition. Estimates of the model parameters revealed at most a small contribution of item noise that varies by stimulus class, with virtually no item noise for single words and scenes. Despite the unpopularity of background noise in recognition memory models, background noise estimates dominated at retrieval across nearly all stimulus classes with the exception of high frequency words, which exhibited equivalent levels of context noise and background noise. These parameter estimates suggest that the majority of interference in recognition memory stems from experiences acquired before the learning episode. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. ABORTION ATTITUDES, 1984-1987-1988 - EFFECTS OF ITEM ORDER AND DIMENSIONALITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TENVERGERT, E; GILLESPIE, MW; KINGMA, J; KLASEN, H

    The comparability of surveys is often hampered by differences in the item order of presentation. The major focus of the present study was to investigate whether a general item or a specific item at the beginning of the questionnaire would affect the endorsement as well as the scalability of a set of

  20. Selecting Items for Criterion-Referenced Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellenbergh, Gideon J.; van der Linden, Wim J.

    1982-01-01

    Three item selection methods for criterion-referenced tests are examined: the classical theory of item difficulty and item-test correlation; the latent trait theory of item characteristic curves; and a decision-theoretic approach for optimal item selection. Item contribution to the standardized expected utility of mastery testing is discussed. (CM)

  1. Psychometric Properties of the Heart Disease Knowledge Scale: Evidence from Item and Confirmatory Factor Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Bee Chiu; Kueh, Yee Cheng; Arifin, Wan Nor; Ng, Kok Huan

    2016-07-01

    Heart disease knowledge is an important concept for health education, yet there is lack of evidence on proper validated instruments used to measure levels of heart disease knowledge in the Malaysian context. A cross-sectional, survey design was conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the adapted English version of the Heart Disease Knowledge Questionnaire (HDKQ). Using proportionate cluster sampling, 788 undergraduate students at Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia, were recruited and completed the HDKQ. Item analysis and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used for the psychometric evaluation. Construct validity of the measurement model was included. Most of the students were Malay (48%), female (71%), and from the field of science (51%). An acceptable range was obtained with respect to both the difficulty and discrimination indices in the item analysis results. The difficulty index ranged from 0.12-0.91 and a discrimination index of ≥ 0.20 were reported for the final retained 23 items. The final CFA model showed an adequate fit to the data, yielding a 23-item, one-factor model [weighted least squares mean and variance adjusted scaled chi-square difference = 1.22, degrees of freedom = 2, P-value = 0.544, the root mean square error of approximation = 0.03 (90% confidence interval = 0.03, 0.04); close-fit P-value = > 0.950]. Adequate psychometric values were obtained for Malaysian undergraduate university students using the 23-item, one-factor model of the adapted HDKQ.

  2. Merit Principles Survey 2016 Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Merit Systems Protection Board — MPS contains a combination of core items that MSPB tracks over time and special-purpose items developed to support a particular special study. This survey differs...

  3. Assessing item fit for unidimensional item response theory models using residuals from estimated item response functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Shelby J; Sinharay, Sandip; Chon, Kyong Hee

    2013-07-01

    Residual analysis (e.g. Hambleton & Swaminathan, Item response theory: principles and applications, Kluwer Academic, Boston, 1985; Hambleton, Swaminathan, & Rogers, Fundamentals of item response theory, Sage, Newbury Park, 1991) is a popular method to assess fit of item response theory (IRT) models. We suggest a form of residual analysis that may be applied to assess item fit for unidimensional IRT models. The residual analysis consists of a comparison of the maximum-likelihood estimate of the item characteristic curve with an alternative ratio estimate of the item characteristic curve. The large sample distribution of the residual is proved to be standardized normal when the IRT model fits the data. We compare the performance of our suggested residual to the standardized residual of Hambleton et al. (Fundamentals of item response theory, Sage, Newbury Park, 1991) in a detailed simulation study. We then calculate our suggested residuals using data from an operational test. The residuals appear to be useful in assessing the item fit for unidimensional IRT models.

  4. Binary classification of items of interest in a repeatable process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Jeffrey A.; Spicer, John Patrick; Wincek, Michael Anthony; Wang, Hui; Chakraborty, Debejyo

    2014-06-24

    A system includes host and learning machines in electrical communication with sensors positioned with respect to an item of interest, e.g., a weld, and memory. The host executes instructions from memory to predict a binary quality status of the item. The learning machine receives signals from the sensor(s), identifies candidate features, and extracts features from the candidates that are more predictive of the binary quality status relative to other candidate features. The learning machine maps the extracted features to a dimensional space that includes most of the items from a passing binary class and excludes all or most of the items from a failing binary class. The host also compares the received signals for a subsequent item of interest to the dimensional space to thereby predict, in real time, the binary quality status of the subsequent item of interest.

  5. Negative affect impairs associative memory but not item memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisby, James A; Burgess, Neil

    2013-12-17

    The formation of associations between items and their context has been proposed to rely on mechanisms distinct from those supporting memory for a single item. Although emotional experiences can profoundly affect memory, our understanding of how it interacts with different aspects of memory remains unclear. We performed three experiments to examine the effects of emotion on memory for items and their associations. By presenting neutral and negative items with background contexts, Experiment 1 demonstrated that item memory was facilitated by emotional affect, whereas memory for an associated context was reduced. In Experiment 2, arousal was manipulated independently of the memoranda, by a threat of shock, whereby encoding trials occurred under conditions of threat or safety. Memory for context was equally impaired by the presence of negative affect, whether induced by threat of shock or a negative item, relative to retrieval of the context of a neutral item in safety. In Experiment 3, participants were presented with neutral and negative items as paired associates, including all combinations of neutral and negative items. The results showed both above effects: compared to a neutral item, memory for the associate of a negative item (a second item here, context in Experiments 1 and 2) is impaired, whereas retrieval of the item itself is enhanced. Our findings suggest that negative affect impairs associative memory while recognition of a negative item is enhanced. They support dual-processing models in which negative affect or stress impairs hippocampal-dependent associative memory while the storage of negative sensory/perceptual representations is spared or even strengthened.

  6. The impact of nurse working hours on patient safety culture: a cross-national survey including Japan, the United States and Chinese Taiwan using the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yinghui; Fujita, Shigeru; Seto, Kanako; Ito, Shinya; Matsumoto, Kunichika; Huang, Chiu-Chin; Hasegawa, Tomonori

    2013-10-07

    A positive patient safety culture (PSC) is one of the most critical components to improve healthcare quality and safety. The Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS), developed by the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, has been used to assess PSC in 31 countries. However, little is known about the impact of nurse working hours on PSC. We hypothesized that long nurse working hours would deteriorate PSC, and that the deterioration patterns would vary between countries. Moreover, the common trends observed in Japan, the US and Chinese Taiwan may be useful to improve PSC in other countries. The purpose of this study was to clarify the impact of long nurse working hours on PSC in Japan, the US, and Chinese Taiwan using HSOPS. The HSOPS questionnaire measures 12 sub-dimensions of PSC, with higher scores indicating a more positive PSC. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using a generalized linear mixed model to evaluate the impact of working hours on PSC outcome measures (patient safety grade and number of events reported). Tukey's test and Cohen's d values were used to verify the relationships between nurse working hours and the 12 sub-dimensions of PSC. Nurses working ≥60 h/week in Japan and the US had a significantly lower OR for patient safety grade than those working working ≥40 h/week had a significantly higher OR for the number of events reported. The mean score on 'staffing' was significantly lower in the ≥60-h group than in the Japan and Chinese Taiwan. Patient safety grade deteriorated and the number of events reported increased with long working hours. Among the 12 sub-dimensions of PSC, long working hours had an impact on 'staffing' and 'teamwork within units' in Japan, the US and Chinese Taiwan.

  7. Survey research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Amy K; Salem, Barbara

    2010-10-01

    Survey research is a unique methodology that can provide insight into individuals' perspectives and experiences and can be collected on a large population-based sample. Specifically, in plastic surgery, survey research can provide patients and providers with accurate and reproducible information to assist with medical decision-making. When using survey methods in research, researchers should develop a conceptual model that explains the relationships of the independent and dependent variables. The items of the survey are of primary importance. Collected data are only useful if they accurately measure the concepts of interest. In addition, administration of the survey must follow basic principles to ensure an adequate response rate and representation of the intended target sample. In this article, the authors review some general concepts important for successful survey research and discuss the many advantages this methodology has for obtaining limitless amounts of valuable information.

  8. 48 CFR 852.214-72 - Alternate item(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 852.214-72... 2008) Bids on []* will be given equal consideration along with bids on []** and any such bids received... [].** * Contracting officer will insert an alternate item that is considered acceptable. ** Contracting officer will...

  9. Three controversies over item disclosure in medical licensure examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Soo Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In response to views on public's right to know, there is growing attention to item disclosure – release of items, answer keys, and performance data to the public – in medical licensure examinations and their potential impact on the test's ability to measure competence and select qualified candidates. Recent debates on this issue have sparked legislative action internationally, including South Korea, with prior discussions among North American countries dating over three decades. The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze three issues associated with item disclosure in medical licensure examinations – 1 fairness and validity, 2 impact on passing levels, and 3 utility of item disclosure – by synthesizing existing literature in relation to standards in testing. Historically, the controversy over item disclosure has centered on fairness and validity. Proponents of item disclosure stress test takers’ right to know, while opponents argue from a validity perspective. Item disclosure may bias item characteristics, such as difficulty and discrimination, and has consequences on setting passing levels. To date, there has been limited research on the utility of item disclosure for large scale testing. These issues requires ongoing and careful consideration.

  10. Analyzing force concept inventory with item response theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Bao, Lei

    2010-10-01

    Item response theory is a popular assessment method used in education. It rests on the assumption of a probability framework that relates students' innate ability and their performance on test questions. Item response theory transforms students' raw test scores into a scaled proficiency score, which can be used to compare results obtained with different test questions. The scaled score also addresses the issues of ceiling effects and guessing, which commonly exist in quantitative assessment. We used item response theory to analyze the force concept inventory (FCI). Our results show that item response theory can be useful for analyzing physics concept surveys such as the FCI and produces results about the individual questions and student performance that are beyond the capability of classical statistics. The theory yields detailed measurement parameters regarding the difficulty, discrimination features, and probability of correct guess for each of the FCI questions.

  11. Macrostructural Treatment of Multi-word Lexical Items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Vrbinc

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the macrostructural treatment of multi-word lexical items in mono- and bilingual dictionaries. First, the classification of multi-word lexical items is presented, and special attention is paid to the discussion of compounds – a specific group of multi-word lexical items that is most commonly afforded headword status but whose inclusion in the headword list may also depend on spelling. Then the inclusion of multi-word lexical items in monolingual dictionaries is dealt with in greater detail, while the results of a short survey on the inclusion of five randomly chosen multi-word lexical items in seven English monolingual dictionaries are presented. The proposals as to how to treat these five multi-word lexical items in bilingual dictionaries are presented in the section about the inclusion of multi-word lexical items in bilingual dictionaries. The conclusion is that it is most important to take the users’ needs into consideration and to make any dictionary as user friendly as possible.

  12. Students' approaches to learning in a clinical practicum: A psychometric evaluation based on item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Kuan, Hoi Kei; Chung, Joyce O K; Chan, Cecilia K Y; Li, William H C

    2018-07-01

    The investigation of learning approaches in the clinical workplace context has remained an under-researched area. Despite the validation of learning approach instruments and their applications in various clinical contexts, little is known about the extent to which an individual item, that reflects a specific learning strategy and motive, effectively contributes to characterizing students' learning approaches. This study aimed to measure nursing students' approaches to learning in a clinical practicum using the Approaches to Learning at Work Questionnaire (ALWQ). Survey research design was used in the study. A sample of year 3 nursing students (n = 208) who undertook a 6-week clinical practicum course participated in the study. Factor analyses were conducted, followed by an item response theory analysis, including model assumption evaluation (unidimensionality and local independence), item calibration and goodness-of-fit assessment. Two subscales, deep and surface, were derived. Findings suggested that: (a) items measuring the deep motive from intrinsic interest and deep strategies of relating new ideas to similar situations, and that of concept mapping served as the strongest discriminating indicators; (b) the surface strategy of memorizing facts and details without an overall picture exhibited the highest discriminating power among all surface items; and, (c) both subscales appeared to be informative in assessing a broad range of the corresponding latent trait. The 21-item ALWQ derived from this study presented an efficient, internally consistent and precise measure. Findings provided a useful psychometric evaluation of the ALWQ in the clinical practicum context, added evidence to the utility of the ALWQ for nursing education practice and research, and echoed the discussions from previous studies on the role of the contextual factors in influencing student choices of different learning strategies. They provided insights for clinical educators to measure

  13. Evaluating construct validity of the second version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire through analysis of differential item functioning and differential item effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorner, Jakob Bue; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the construct validity of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire II (COPSOQ II) by means of tests for differential item functioning (DIF) and differential item effect (DIE). METHODS: We used a Danish general population postal survey (n = 4,732 with 3,517 wage earners) with a ...

  14. Modelling sequentially scored item responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, W.

    2000-01-01

    The sequential model can be used to describe the variable resulting from a sequential scoring process. In this paper two more item response models are investigated with respect to their suitability for sequential scoring: the partial credit model and the graded response model. The investigation is

  15. The variety, popularity and nutritional quality of tuck shop items ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: A cross-sectional tuck shop survey. Nutritional analyses were conducted using the ... Results: Savoury pies were the most popular lunch item for all learners for both breaks (n = 5, 45%, and n = 3, 27.3%), selling the most number of units (43) per day at eight schools (72.7%). Iced popsicles were sold at almost every ...

  16. Item Response Theory in the context of Improving Student Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Chase; Davis, Jeremy; Pyper, Brian

    2011-10-01

    We are interested to see if Item Response Theory can help to better inform the development of reasoning ability in introductory physics. A first pass through our latest batch of data from the Heat and Temperature Conceptual Evaluation, the Lawson Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning, and the Epistemological Beliefs About Physics Survey may help in this effort.

  17. An Introduction to Item Response Theory for Health Behavior Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warne, Russell T.; McKyer, E. J. Lisako; Smith, Matthew L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To introduce item response theory (IRT) to health behavior researchers by contrasting it with classical test theory and providing an example of IRT in health behavior. Method: Demonstrate IRT by fitting the 2PL model to substance-use survey data from the Adolescent Health Risk Behavior questionnaire (n = 1343 adolescents). Results: An…

  18. Item level diagnostics and model - data fit in item response theory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Item response theory (IRT) is a framework for modeling and analyzing item response data. Item-level modeling gives IRT advantages over classical test theory. The fit of an item score pattern to an item response theory (IRT) models is a necessary condition that must be assessed for further use of item and models that best fit ...

  19. Communicating Quantitative Literacy: An Examination of Open-Ended Assessment Items in TIMSS, NALS, IALS, and PISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl W. Kosko

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative Literacy (QL has been described as the skill set an individual uses when interacting with the world in a quantitative manner. A necessary component of this interaction is communication. To this end, assessments of QL have included open-ended items as a means of including communicative aspects of QL. The present study sought to examine whether such open-ended items typically measured aspects of quantitative communication, as compared to mathematical communication, or mathematical skills. We focused on public-released items and rubrics from four of the most widely referenced assessments: the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS-95: the National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS; now the National Assessment of Adult Literacy, NAAL in 1985 and 1992, the International Adult Literacy Skills (IALS beginning in 1994; and the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA beginning in 2000. We found that open-ended item rubrics in these QL assessments showed a strong tendency to assess answer-only responses. Therefore, while some open-ended items may have required certain levels of quantitative reasoning to find a solution, it is the solution rather than the reasoning that was often assessed.

  20. Purchases of Consumable Items Transferred to the Defense Logistics Agency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Shelton

    1995-01-01

    Defense Management Report Decision 926, "Consolidation of Inventory Control Points," included a recommendation to transfer all consumable items managed by the Military Departments to the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA...

  1. FY 1996 report on the basic survey project on the enhancement of energy efficiency in developing countries - database construction project. Volume 1. Outline of the survey and collection of the data to be included in database; 1996 nendo hatten tojokoku energy koritsuka kiso chosa jigyo (database kochiku jigyo) hokokusho. 1. Chosa no gaiyo oyobi database ni shurokusuru data no shushu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Following the previous fiscal year, construction/study of database were carried out with the aim of energy conservation for 8 countries: Japan, China, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Taiwan and Korea. In the study of the items of the data included, the 192 data extracted in conceptual design were re-classified into 6 large-groups and 91 medium-groups. As to the data collection, in A group countries, counterparts were requested to collect data, and 1342-1740 data were newly collected. In B group countries, Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc. mostly collected 957 new data in Thailand, 814 data in Malaysia and 1312 data in Japan in cooperation with research institutes and investigating organizations in each country. In C group countries, 169 and 317 common data items were collected in Vietnam and India, respectively. Relating to plans for database promotion, as a result of the study with each country, 16 measures for promotion were extracted in terms of the leveling-up of NEDO-DB recognition, education of the use method, training of the operation method, etc. (NEDO)

  2. Psychometric Consequences of Subpopulation Item Parameter Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins-Manley, Anne Corinne

    2017-01-01

    This study defines subpopulation item parameter drift (SIPD) as a change in item parameters over time that is dependent on subpopulations of examinees, and hypothesizes that the presence of SIPD in anchor items is associated with bias and/or lack of invariance in three psychometric outcomes. Results show that SIPD in anchor items is associated…

  3. Generalizability theory and item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Eggen, T.J.H.M.; Veldkamp, B.P.

    2012-01-01

    Item response theory is usually applied to items with a selected-response format, such as multiple choice items, whereas generalizability theory is usually applied to constructed-response tasks assessed by raters. However, in many situations, raters may use rating scales consisting of items with a

  4. Dissociation between source and item memory in Parkinson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Panpan; Li Youhai; Ma Huijuan; Xi Chunhua; Chen Xianwen; Wang Kai

    2014-01-01

    Background Episodic memory includes information about item memory and source memory.Many researches support the hypothesis that these two memory systems are implemented by different brain structures.The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of item memory and source memory processing in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD),and to further verify the hypothesis of dual-process model of source and item memory.Methods We established a neuropsychological battery to measure the performance of item memory and source memory.Totally 35 PD individuals and 35 matched healthy controls (HC) were administrated with the battery.Item memory task consists of the learning and recognition of high-frequency national Chinese characters; source memory task consists of the learning and recognition of three modes (character,picture,and image) of objects.Results Compared with the controls,the idiopathic PD patients have been impaired source memory (PD vs.HC:0.65±0.06 vs.0.72±0.09,P=0.001),but not impaired in item memory (PD vs.HC:0.65±0.07 vs.0.67±0.08,P=0.240).Conclusions The present experiment provides evidence for dissociation between item and source memory in PD patients,thereby strengthening the claim that the item or source memory rely on different brain structures.PD patients show poor source memory,in which dopamine plays a critical role.

  5. Generalizability theory and item response theory

    OpenAIRE

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Eggen, T.J.H.M.; Veldkamp, B.P.

    2012-01-01

    Item response theory is usually applied to items with a selected-response format, such as multiple choice items, whereas generalizability theory is usually applied to constructed-response tasks assessed by raters. However, in many situations, raters may use rating scales consisting of items with a selected-response format. This chapter presents a short overview of how item response theory and generalizability theory were integrated to model such assessments. Further, the precision of the esti...

  6. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data at Jarvis Island from 2016-05-16 to 2016-05-22 (NCEI Accession 0157594)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surveys were conducted in the course of a reef fish survey cruise conducted by the NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) at the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries...

  7. Psychometric properties of the PROMIS Physical Function item bank in patients receiving physical therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine H P Crins

    Full Text Available The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS is a universally applicable set of instruments, including item banks, short forms and computer adaptive tests (CATs, measuring patient-reported health across different patient populations. PROMIS CATs are highly efficient and the use in practice is considered feasible with little administration time, offering standardized and routine patient monitoring. Before an item bank can be used as CAT, the psychometric properties of the item bank have to be examined. Therefore, the objective was to assess the psychometric properties of the Dutch-Flemish PROMIS Physical Function item bank (DF-PROMIS-PF in Dutch patients receiving physical therapy.Cross-sectional study.805 patients >18 years, who received any kind of physical therapy in primary care in the past year, completed the full DF-PROMIS-PF (121 items.Unidimensionality was examined by Confirmatory Factor Analysis and local dependence and monotonicity were evaluated. A Graded Response Model was fitted. Construct validity was examined with correlations between DF-PROMIS-PF T-scores and scores on two legacy instruments (SF-36 Health Survey Physical Functioning scale [SF36-PF10] and the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability-Index [HAQ-DI]. Reliability (standard errors of theta was assessed.The results for unidimensionality were mixed (scaled CFI = 0.924, TLI = 0.923, RMSEA = 0.045, 1th factor explained 61.5% of variance. Some local dependence was found (8.2% of item pairs. The item bank showed a broad coverage of the physical function construct (threshold-parameters range: -4.28-2.33 and good construct validity (correlation with SF36-PF10 = 0.84 and HAQ-DI = -0.85. Furthermore, the DF-PROMIS-PF showed greater reliability over a broader score-range than the SF36-PF10 and HAQ-DI.The psychometric properties of the DF-PROMIS-PF item bank are sufficient. The DF-PROMIS-PF can now be used as short forms or CAT to measure the level of

  8. Development of the Chicago Food Allergy Research Surveys: assessing knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongracic Jacqueline A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents of children with food allergy, primary care physicians, and members of the general public play a critical role in the health and well-being of food-allergic children, though little is known about their knowledge and perceptions of food allergy. The purpose of this paper is to detail the development of the Chicago Food Allergy Research Surveys to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among these three populations. Methods From 2006–2008, parents of food-allergic children, pediatricians, family physicians, and adult members of the general public were recruited to assist in survey development. Preliminary analysis included literature review, creation of initial content domains, expert panel review, and focus groups. Survey validation included creation of initial survey items, expert panel ratings, cognitive interviews, reliability testing, item reduction, and final validation. National administration of the surveys is ongoing. Results Nine experts were assembled to oversee survey development. Six focus groups were held: 2/survey population, 4–9 participants/group; transcripts were reviewed via constant comparative methods to identify emerging themes and inform item creation. At least 220 participants per population were recruited to assess the relevance, reliability, and utility of each survey item as follows: cognitive interviews, 10 participants; reliability testing ≥ 10; item reduction ≥ 50; and final validation, 150 respondents. Conclusion The Chicago Food Allergy Research surveys offer validated tools to assess food allergy knowledge and perceptions among three distinct populations: a 42 item parent tool, a 50 item physician tool, and a 35 item general public tool. No such tools were previously available.

  9. The medial temporal lobes distinguish between within-item and item-context relations during autobiographical memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Signy; Levine, Brian

    2015-12-01

    During autobiographical memory retrieval, the medial temporal lobes (MTL) relate together multiple event elements, including object (within-item relations) and context (item-context relations) information, to create a cohesive memory. There is consistent support for a functional specialization within the MTL according to these relational processes, much of which comes from recognition memory experiments. In this study, we compared brain activation patterns associated with retrieving within-item relations (i.e., associating conceptual and sensory-perceptual object features) and item-context relations (i.e., spatial relations among objects) with respect to naturalistic autobiographical retrieval. We developed a novel paradigm that cued participants to retrieve information about past autobiographical events, non-episodic within-item relations, and non-episodic item-context relations with the perceptuomotor aspects of retrieval equated across these conditions. We used multivariate analysis techniques to extract common and distinct patterns of activity among these conditions within the MTL and across the whole brain, both in terms of spatial and temporal patterns of activity. The anterior MTL (perirhinal cortex and anterior hippocampus) was preferentially recruited for generating within-item relations later in retrieval whereas the posterior MTL (posterior parahippocampal cortex and posterior hippocampus) was preferentially recruited for generating item-context relations across the retrieval phase. These findings provide novel evidence for functional specialization within the MTL with respect to naturalistic memory retrieval. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Teoria da Resposta ao Item Teoria de la respuesta al item Item response theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eutalia Aparecida Candido de Araujo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A preocupação com medidas de traços psicológicos é antiga, sendo que muitos estudos e propostas de métodos foram desenvolvidos no sentido de alcançar este objetivo. Entre os trabalhos propostos, destaca-se a Teoria da Resposta ao Item (TRI que, a princípio, veio completar limitações da Teoria Clássica de Medidas, empregada em larga escala até hoje na medida de traços psicológicos. O ponto principal da TRI é que ela leva em consideração o item particularmente, sem relevar os escores totais; portanto, as conclusões não dependem apenas do teste ou questionário, mas de cada item que o compõe. Este artigo propõe-se a apresentar esta Teoria que revolucionou a teoria de medidas.La preocupación con las medidas de los rasgos psicológicos es antigua y muchos estudios y propuestas de métodos fueron desarrollados para lograr este objetivo. Entre estas propuestas de trabajo se incluye la Teoría de la Respuesta al Ítem (TRI que, en principio, vino a completar las limitaciones de la Teoría Clásica de los Tests, ampliamente utilizada hasta hoy en la medida de los rasgos psicológicos. El punto principal de la TRI es que se tiene en cuenta el punto concreto, sin relevar las puntuaciones totales; por lo tanto, los resultados no sólo dependen de la prueba o cuestionario, sino que de cada ítem que lo compone. En este artículo se propone presentar la Teoría que revolucionó la teoría de medidas.The concern with measures of psychological traits is old and many studies and proposals of methods were developed to achieve this goal. Among these proposed methods highlights the Item Response Theory (IRT that, in principle, came to complete limitations of the Classical Test Theory, which is widely used until nowadays in the measurement of psychological traits. The main point of IRT is that it takes into account the item in particular, not relieving the total scores; therefore, the findings do not only depend on the test or questionnaire

  11. Sharing the cost of redundant items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moulin, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    We ask how to share the cost of finitely many public goods (items) among users with different needs: some smaller subsets of items are enough to serve the needs of each user, yet the cost of all items must be covered, even if this entails inefficiently paying for redundant items. Typical examples...... are network connectivity problems when an existing (possibly inefficient) network must be maintained. We axiomatize a family cost ratios based on simple liability indices, one for each agent and for each item, measuring the relative worth of this item across agents, and generating cost allocation rules...... additive in costs....

  12. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of individual participant data: the PRISMA-IPD Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Lesley A; Clarke, Mike; Rovers, Maroeska; Riley, Richard D; Simmonds, Mark; Stewart, Gavin; Tierney, Jayne F

    2015-04-28

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of individual participant data (IPD) aim to collect, check, and reanalyze individual-level data from all studies addressing a particular research question and are therefore considered a gold standard approach to evidence synthesis. They are likely to be used with increasing frequency as current initiatives to share clinical trial data gain momentum and may be particularly important in reviewing controversial therapeutic areas. To develop PRISMA-IPD as a stand-alone extension to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) Statement, tailored to the specific requirements of reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of IPD. Although developed primarily for reviews of randomized trials, many items will apply in other contexts, including reviews of diagnosis and prognosis. Development of PRISMA-IPD followed the EQUATOR Network framework guidance and used the existing standard PRISMA Statement as a starting point to draft additional relevant material. A web-based survey informed discussion at an international workshop that included researchers, clinicians, methodologists experienced in conducting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of IPD, and journal editors. The statement was drafted and iterative refinements were made by the project, advisory, and development groups. The PRISMA-IPD Development Group reached agreement on the PRISMA-IPD checklist and flow diagram by consensus. Compared with standard PRISMA, the PRISMA-IPD checklist includes 3 new items that address (1) methods of checking the integrity of the IPD (such as pattern of randomization, data consistency, baseline imbalance, and missing data), (2) reporting any important issues that emerge, and (3) exploring variation (such as whether certain types of individual benefit more from the intervention than others). A further additional item was created by reorganization of standard PRISMA items relating to interpreting results. Wording

  13. Utilização de medicamentos por aposentados brasileiros: 2 - Taxa de resposta e preenchimento de questionário postal em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil Use of medication by Brazilian retirees: 2 - Response rate and item completeness in a postal survey in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Queiroz Ribeiro

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available São descritos a taxa de resposta e o preenchimento de questionários auto-administrados num inquérito postal sobre o perfil de utilização de medicamentos por aposentados e pensionistas do INSS, de 60 anos ou mais de idade no Município de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, em 2003. Os questionários foram enviados duas vezes para os endereços de 800 indivíduos sorteados por amostragem aleatória simples, com base no banco de dados do INSS. A taxa de resposta ao inquérito postal foi de 47,8% e não houve diferença significativa tanto entre participantes e não participantes quanto entre respondentes iniciais e tardios em relação às características selecionadas. Para a maioria das variáveis sócio-demográficas e de saúde, os percentuais de omissão de respostas não ultrapassaram 5%, tanto no total da amostra, quanto em cada um dos subgrupos de respondentes. As informações mais omitidas ocorreram para as variáveis relativas ao uso de medicamentos, com destaque para a não-utilização de medicamentos que deveriam ser usados, a dose e laboratório fabricante do medicamento. Nossos resultados indicam que o detalhamento de aspectos relacionados ao uso de medicamentos deve ser reconsiderado em questionários de autopreenchimento.This paper reports on the response rate and completeness of item response in a self-administered postal survey questionnaire on use of medication by retirees 60 years or older under the Brazilian Social Security System, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, in 2003. Questionnaires were sent in two rounds to 800 postal addresses of subjects selected by simple random sampling. The response rate was 47.8%, and there were no significant differences in the selected characteristics between respondents and non-respondents, or between early and late respondents. For almost all socio-demographic and health variables, item omission was less than or equal to 5% for both the entire sample and early or late responders

  14. Can Item Keyword Feedback Help Remediate Knowledge Gaps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Richard A; Clauser, Amanda L

    2016-10-01

    In graduate medical education, assessment results can effectively guide professional development when both assessment and feedback support a formative model. When individuals cannot directly access the test questions and responses, a way of using assessment results formatively is to provide item keyword feedback. The purpose of the following study was to investigate whether exposure to item keyword feedback aids in learner remediation. Participants included 319 trainees who completed a medical subspecialty in-training examination (ITE) in 2012 as first-year fellows, and then 1 year later in 2013 as second-year fellows. Performance on 2013 ITE items in which keywords were, or were not, exposed as part of the 2012 ITE score feedback was compared across groups based on the amount of time studying (preparation). For the same items common to both 2012 and 2013 ITEs, response patterns were analyzed to investigate changes in answer selection. Test takers who indicated greater amounts of preparation on the 2013 ITE did not perform better on the items in which keywords were exposed compared to those who were not exposed. The response pattern analysis substantiated overall growth in performance from the 2012 ITE. For items with incorrect responses on both attempts, examinees selected the same option 58% of the time. Results from the current study were unsuccessful in supporting the use of item keywords in aiding remediation. Unfortunately, the results did provide evidence of examinees retaining misinformation.

  15. A Bifactor Multidimensional Item Response Theory Model for Differential Item Functioning Analysis on Testlet-Based Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Hirotaka; Kamata, Akihito

    2011-01-01

    A differential item functioning (DIF) detection method for testlet-based data was proposed and evaluated in this study. The proposed DIF model is an extension of a bifactor multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) model for testlets. Unlike traditional item response theory (IRT) DIF models, the proposed model takes testlet effects into…

  16. Emergency Power For Critical Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, William R.

    2009-07-01

    Natural disasters, such as hurricanes, floods, tornados, and tsunami, are becoming a greater problem as climate change impacts our environment. Disasters, whether natural or man made, destroy lives, homes, businesses and the natural environment. Such disasters can happen with little or no warning, leaving hundreds or even thousands of people without medical services, potable water, sanitation, communications and electrical services for up to several weeks. In our modern world, the need for electricity has become a necessity. Modern building codes and new disaster resistant building practices are reducing the damage to homes and businesses. Emergency gasoline and diesel generators are becoming common place for power outages. Generators need fuel, which may not be available after a disaster, but Photovoltaic (solar-electric) systems supply electricity without petroleum fuel as they are powered by the sun. Photovoltaic (PV) systems can provide electrical power for a home or business. PV systems can operate as utility interactive or stand-alone with battery backup. Determining your critical load items and sizing the photovoltaic system for those critical items, guarantees their operation in a disaster.

  17. Psychometric properties of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Health-Related Quality of Life (CDC HRQOL items in adults with arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeVellis Robert

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measuring health-related quality of life (HRQOL is important in arthritis and the SF-36v2 is the current state-of-the-art. It is only emerging how well the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC HRQOL measures HRQOL for people with arthritis. This study's purpose is to assess the psychometric properties of the 9-item CDC HRQOL (4-item Healthy Days Core Module and 5-item Healthy Days Symptoms Module in an arthritis sample using the SF-36v2 as a comparison. Methods In Fall 2002, a cross-sectional study acquired survey data including the CDC HRQOL and SF-36v2 from 2 North Carolina populations of adult patients reporting osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and fibromyalgia; 2182 (52% responded. The first item of both the CDC HRQOL and the SF-36v2 was general health (GEN. All 8 other CDC HRQOL items ask for the number of days in the past 30 days that respondents experienced various aspects of HRQOL. Exploratory principal components analyses (PCA were conducted on each sample and the combined samples of the CDC HRQOL. The multitrait-multimethod matrix (MTMM was used to compute correlations between each trait (physical health and mental health and between each method of measurement (CDC HRQOL and SF36v2. The relative contribution of the CDC HRQOL in predicting the physical component summary (PCS and the mental component summary (MCS was determined by regressing the CDC HRQOL items on the PCS and MCS scales. Results All 9 CDC HRQOL items loaded primarily onto 1 factor (explaining 57% of the item variance representing a reasonable solution for capturing overall HRQOL. After rotation a 2 factor interpretation for the 9 items was clear, with 4 items capturing physical health (physical, activity, pain, and energy days and 3 items capturing mental health (mental, depression, and anxiety days. All of the loadings for these two factors were greater than 0.70. The CDC HRQOL physical health factor correlated with PCS (r = -.78, p 2

  18. Using Likert-type and ipsative/forced choice items in sequence to generate a preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, L Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Collaboration and implementation of a minimum, standardized set of core global educational and professional competencies seems appropriate given the expanding international evolution of pharmacy practice. However, winnowing down hundreds of competencies from a plethora of local, national and international competency frameworks to select the most highly preferred to be included in the core set is a daunting task. The objective of this paper is to describe a combination of strategies used to ascertain the most highly preferred items among a large number of disparate items. In this case, the items were >100 educational and professional competencies that might be incorporated as the core components of new and existing competency frameworks. Panelists (n = 30) from the European Union (EU) and United States (USA) were chosen to reflect a variety of practice settings. Each panelist completed two electronic surveys. The first survey presented competencies in a Likert-type format and the second survey presented many of the same competencies in an ipsative/forced choice format. Item mean scores were calculated for each competency, the competencies were ranked, and non-parametric statistical tests were used to ascertain the consistency in the rankings achieved by the two strategies. This exploratory study presented over 100 competencies to the panelists in the beginning. The two methods provided similar results, as indicated by the significant correlation between the rankings (Spearman's rho = 0.30, P < 0.09). A two-step strategy using Likert-type and ipsative/forced choice formats in sequence, appears to be useful in a situation where a clear preference is required from among a large number of choices. The ipsative/forced choice format resulted in some differences in the competency preferences because the panelists could not rate them equally by design. While this strategy was used for the selection of professional educational competencies in this exploratory study, it is

  19. Memory for Items and Relationships among Items Embedded in Realistic Scenes: Disproportionate Relational Memory Impairments in Amnesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, Deborah E.; Tranel, Daniel; Allen, John S.; Kirchhoff, Brenda A.; Nickel, Allison E.; Cohen, Neal J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine the dependence of item memory and relational memory on medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures. Patients with amnesia, who either had extensive MTL damage or damage that was relatively restricted to the hippocampus, were tested, as was a matched comparison group. Disproportionate relational memory impairments were predicted for both patient groups, and those with extensive MTL damage were also expected to have impaired item memory. Method Participants studied scenes, and were tested with interleaved two-alternative forced-choice probe trials. Probe trials were either presented immediately after the corresponding study trial (lag 1), five trials later (lag 5), or nine trials later (lag 9) and consisted of the studied scene along with a manipulated version of that scene in which one item was replaced with a different exemplar (item memory test) or was moved to a new location (relational memory test). Participants were to identify the exact match of the studied scene. Results As predicted, patients were disproportionately impaired on the test of relational memory. Item memory performance was marginally poorer among patients with extensive MTL damage, but both groups were impaired relative to matched comparison participants. Impaired performance was evident at all lags, including the shortest possible lag (lag 1). Conclusions The results are consistent with the proposed role of the hippocampus in relational memory binding and representation, even at short delays, and suggest that the hippocampus may also contribute to successful item memory when items are embedded in complex scenes. PMID:25068665

  20. Using automatic item generation to create multiple-choice test items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierl, Mark J; Lai, Hollis; Turner, Simon R

    2012-08-01

    Many tests of medical knowledge, from the undergraduate level to the level of certification and licensure, contain multiple-choice items. Although these are efficient in measuring examinees' knowledge and skills across diverse content areas, multiple-choice items are time-consuming and expensive to create. Changes in student assessment brought about by new forms of computer-based testing have created the demand for large numbers of multiple-choice items. Our current approaches to item development cannot meet this demand. We present a methodology for developing multiple-choice items based on automatic item generation (AIG) concepts and procedures. We describe a three-stage approach to AIG and we illustrate this approach by generating multiple-choice items for a medical licensure test in the content area of surgery. To generate multiple-choice items, our method requires a three-stage process. Firstly, a cognitive model is created by content specialists. Secondly, item models are developed using the content from the cognitive model. Thirdly, items are generated from the item models using computer software. Using this methodology, we generated 1248 multiple-choice items from one item model. Automatic item generation is a process that involves using models to generate items using computer technology. With our method, content specialists identify and structure the content for the test items, and computer technology systematically combines the content to generate new test items. By combining these outcomes, items can be generated automatically. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  1. Differential item functioning of the UWES-17 in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne Goliath-Yarde

    2011-11-01

    Research purpose: This study assesses the Differential Item Functioning (DIF of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-17 for different South African cultural groups in a South African company. Motivation for the study: Organisations are using the UWES-17 more and more in South Africa to assess work engagement. Therefore, research evidence from psychologists or assessment practitioners on its DIF across different cultural groups is necessary. Research design, approach and method: The researchers conducted a Secondary Data Analysis (SDA on the UWES-17 sample (n = 2429 that they obtained from a cross-sectional survey undertaken in a South African Information and Communication Technology (ICT sector company (n = 24 134. Quantitative item data on the UWES-17 scale enabled the authors to address the research question. Main findings: The researchers found uniform and/or non-uniform DIF on five of the vigour items, four of the dedication items and two of the absorption items. This also showed possible Differential Test Functioning (DTF on the vigour and dedication dimensions. Practical/managerial implications: Based on the DIF, the researchers suggested that organisations should not use the UWES-17 comparatively for different cultural groups or employment decisions in South Africa. Contribution/value add: The study provides evidence on DIF and possible DTF for the UWES-17. However, it also raises questions about possible interaction effects that need further investigation.

  2. Cultural Resources Survey of Four Construction Items Below New Orleans

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    metal 2 2 Brick fragment 11 11 Asbestos tile 3 3 Slag 18 18 Coal 11 11 Gravel 1 1 Plastic 1 1 Styrofoam 1 1 Rangla 1 9 10 173 Twelve Mile Revetment ...supervision of Malcolm K. Shuman, Principal Investigator 17. COSATI CODES I. SUBJECT TERMS (Continu, on revere If uwcesry and identif by block num"ber...aboriginal contact, (cont.] 19. ABSTRACT (Cntinue on rve if necemiy and Identfy by block -ember) This report presents the results of field, archival, and

  3. Examining Job Embeddedness Survey Items for an Adventure Education Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jackson

    2010-01-01

    Dysfunctional voluntary employee turnover is an issue that leads to major direct and indirect costs (e.g., Sagie, Birati, & Tziner, 2002). Although job satisfaction has classically been the predominant construct used to explain turnover, recently a new construct, job embeddedness, has been relatively successful at helping explain additional…

  4. Cultural Resources Survey of Five Mississippi River Revetment Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    children’s shoes. 551.42 Lot No. Fourteen, Notions: pens, needles, thimbles, suspenders, handkerchiefs, trimmings, lace, gloves, tooth -brushes, fans, match...to produce a green opaque glaze. Usually, tin glazed, or tin enameled , earthenwares received hand painted decoration; this class of decoration is a...creamware gives a yellowish appearance, cobalt has the effect of whitening pearlware. Like creamware, pearlware was popular through the 163 a 7

  5. A Balance Sheet for Educational Item Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscox, Michael D.

    Educational item banking presents observers with a considerable paradox. The development of test items from scratch is viewed as wasteful, a luxury in times of declining resources. On the other hand, item banking has failed to become a mature technology despite large amounts of money and the efforts of talented professionals. The question of which…

  6. 76 FR 60474 - Commercial Item Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System Commercial Item Handbook AGENCY.... SUMMARY: DoD has updated its Commercial Item Handbook. The purpose of the Handbook is to help acquisition personnel develop sound business strategies for procuring commercial items. DoD is seeking industry input on...

  7. Towards an authoring system for item construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rikers, Jos H.A.N.

    1988-01-01

    The process of writing test items is analyzed, and a blueprint is presented for an authoring system for test item writing to reduce invalidity and to structure the process of item writing. The developmental methodology is introduced, and the first steps in the process are reported. A historical

  8. Obtaining a Proportional Allocation by Deleting Items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorn, B.; de Haan, R.; Schlotter, I.; Röthe, J.

    2017-01-01

    We consider the following control problem on fair allocation of indivisible goods. Given a set I of items and a set of agents, each having strict linear preference over the items, we ask for a minimum subset of the items whose deletion guarantees the existence of a proportional allocation in the

  9. Item Analysis in Introductory Economics Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinari, Frank D.

    1979-01-01

    Computerized analysis of multiple choice test items is explained. Examples of item analysis applications in the introductory economics course are discussed with respect to three objectives: to evaluate learning; to improve test items; and to help improve classroom instruction. Problems, costs and benefits of the procedures are identified. (JMD)

  10. Assessment of the psychometrics of a PROMIS item bank: self-efficacy for managing daily activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ickpyo; Velozo, Craig A; Li, Chih-Ying; Romero, Sergio; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L; Shulman, Lisa M

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the psychometrics of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System self-efficacy for managing daily activities item bank. The item pool was field tested on a sample of 1087 participants via internet (n = 250) and in-clinic (n = 837) surveys. All participants reported having at least one chronic health condition. The 35 item pool was investigated for dimensionality (confirmatory factor analyses, CFA and exploratory factor analysis, EFA), item-total correlations, local independence, precision, and differential item functioning (DIF) across gender, race, ethnicity, age groups, data collection modes, and neurological chronic conditions (McFadden Pseudo R (2) less than 10 %). The item pool met two of the four CFA fit criteria (CFI = 0.952 and SRMR = 0.07). EFA analysis found a dominant first factor (eigenvalue = 24.34) and the ratio of first to second eigenvalue was 12.4. The item pool demonstrated good item-total correlations (0.59-0.85) and acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.97). The item pool maintained its precision (reliability over 0.90) across a wide range of theta (3.70), and there was no significant DIF. The findings indicated the item pool has sound psychometric properties and the test items are eligible for development of computerized adaptive testing and short forms.

  11. New technologies for item monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, J.A.; Waddoups, I.G.

    1993-12-01

    This report responds to the Department of Energy's request that Sandia National Laboratories compare existing technologies against several advanced technologies as they apply to DOE needs to monitor the movement of material, weapons, or personnel for safety and security programs. The authors describe several material control systems, discuss their technologies, suggest possible applications, discuss assets and limitations, and project costs for each system. The following systems are described: WATCH system (Wireless Alarm Transmission of Container Handling); Tag system (an electrostatic proximity sensor); PANTRAK system (Personnel And Material Tracking); VRIS (Vault Remote Inventory System); VSIS (Vault Safety and Inventory System); AIMS (Authenticated Item Monitoring System); EIVS (Experimental Inventory Verification System); Metrox system (canister monitoring system); TCATS (Target Cueing And Tracking System); LGVSS (Light Grid Vault Surveillance System); CSS (Container Safeguards System); SAMMS (Security Alarm and Material Monitoring System); FOIDS (Fiber Optic Intelligence ampersand Detection System); GRADS (Graded Radiation Detection System); and PINPAL (Physical Inventory Pallet)

  12. New technologies for item monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, J.A. [EG & G Energy Measurements, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Waddoups, I.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This report responds to the Department of Energy`s request that Sandia National Laboratories compare existing technologies against several advanced technologies as they apply to DOE needs to monitor the movement of material, weapons, or personnel for safety and security programs. The authors describe several material control systems, discuss their technologies, suggest possible applications, discuss assets and limitations, and project costs for each system. The following systems are described: WATCH system (Wireless Alarm Transmission of Container Handling); Tag system (an electrostatic proximity sensor); PANTRAK system (Personnel And Material Tracking); VRIS (Vault Remote Inventory System); VSIS (Vault Safety and Inventory System); AIMS (Authenticated Item Monitoring System); EIVS (Experimental Inventory Verification System); Metrox system (canister monitoring system); TCATS (Target Cueing And Tracking System); LGVSS (Light Grid Vault Surveillance System); CSS (Container Safeguards System); SAMMS (Security Alarm and Material Monitoring System); FOIDS (Fiber Optic Intelligence & Detection System); GRADS (Graded Radiation Detection System); and PINPAL (Physical Inventory Pallet).

  13. Identifying predictors of physics item difficulty: A linear regression approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesic, Vanes; Muratovic, Hasnija

    2011-06-01

    Large-scale assessments of student achievement in physics are often approached with an intention to discriminate students based on the attained level of their physics competencies. Therefore, for purposes of test design, it is important that items display an acceptable discriminatory behavior. To that end, it is recommended to avoid extraordinary difficult and very easy items. Knowing the factors that influence physics item difficulty makes it possible to model the item difficulty even before the first pilot study is conducted. Thus, by identifying predictors of physics item difficulty, we can improve the test-design process. Furthermore, we get additional qualitative feedback regarding the basic aspects of student cognitive achievement in physics that are directly responsible for the obtained, quantitative test results. In this study, we conducted a secondary analysis of data that came from two large-scale assessments of student physics achievement at the end of compulsory education in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Foremost, we explored the concept of “physics competence” and performed a content analysis of 123 physics items that were included within the above-mentioned assessments. Thereafter, an item database was created. Items were described by variables which reflect some basic cognitive aspects of physics competence. For each of the assessments, Rasch item difficulties were calculated in separate analyses. In order to make the item difficulties from different assessments comparable, a virtual test equating procedure had to be implemented. Finally, a regression model of physics item difficulty was created. It has been shown that 61.2% of item difficulty variance can be explained by factors which reflect the automaticity, complexity, and modality of the knowledge structure that is relevant for generating the most probable correct solution, as well as by the divergence of required thinking and interference effects between intuitive and formal physics knowledge

  14. Identifying predictors of physics item difficulty: A linear regression approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasnija Muratovic

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale assessments of student achievement in physics are often approached with an intention to discriminate students based on the attained level of their physics competencies. Therefore, for purposes of test design, it is important that items display an acceptable discriminatory behavior. To that end, it is recommended to avoid extraordinary difficult and very easy items. Knowing the factors that influence physics item difficulty makes it possible to model the item difficulty even before the first pilot study is conducted. Thus, by identifying predictors of physics item difficulty, we can improve the test-design process. Furthermore, we get additional qualitative feedback regarding the basic aspects of student cognitive achievement in physics that are directly responsible for the obtained, quantitative test results. In this study, we conducted a secondary analysis of data that came from two large-scale assessments of student physics achievement at the end of compulsory education in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Foremost, we explored the concept of “physics competence” and performed a content analysis of 123 physics items that were included within the above-mentioned assessments. Thereafter, an item database was created. Items were described by variables which reflect some basic cognitive aspects of physics competence. For each of the assessments, Rasch item difficulties were calculated in separate analyses. In order to make the item difficulties from different assessments comparable, a virtual test equating procedure had to be implemented. Finally, a regression model of physics item difficulty was created. It has been shown that 61.2% of item difficulty variance can be explained by factors which reflect the automaticity, complexity, and modality of the knowledge structure that is relevant for generating the most probable correct solution, as well as by the divergence of required thinking and interference effects between intuitive and formal

  15. Approximation Preserving Reductions among Item Pricing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamane, Ryoso; Itoh, Toshiya; Tomita, Kouhei

    When a store sells items to customers, the store wishes to determine the prices of the items to maximize its profit. Intuitively, if the store sells the items with low (resp. high) prices, the customers buy more (resp. less) items, which provides less profit to the store. So it would be hard for the store to decide the prices of items. Assume that the store has a set V of n items and there is a set E of m customers who wish to buy those items, and also assume that each item i ∈ V has the production cost di and each customer ej ∈ E has the valuation vj on the bundle ej ⊆ V of items. When the store sells an item i ∈ V at the price ri, the profit for the item i is pi = ri - di. The goal of the store is to decide the price of each item to maximize its total profit. We refer to this maximization problem as the item pricing problem. In most of the previous works, the item pricing problem was considered under the assumption that pi ≥ 0 for each i ∈ V, however, Balcan, et al. [In Proc. of WINE, LNCS 4858, 2007] introduced the notion of “loss-leader, ” and showed that the seller can get more total profit in the case that pi < 0 is allowed than in the case that pi < 0 is not allowed. In this paper, we derive approximation preserving reductions among several item pricing problems and show that all of them have algorithms with good approximation ratio.

  16. Item Modeling Concept Based on Multimedia Authoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Stergar

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a modern item design framework for computer based assessment based on Flash authoring environment will be introduced. Question design will be discussed as well as the multimedia authoring environment used for item modeling emphasized. Item type templates are a structured means of collecting and storing item information that can be used to improve the efficiency and security of the innovative item design process. Templates can modernize the item design, enhance and speed up the development process. Along with content creation, multimedia has vast potential for use in innovative testing. The introduced item design template is based on taxonomy of innovative items which have great potential for expanding the content areas and construct coverage of an assessment. The presented item design approach is based on GUI's – one for question design based on implemented item design templates and one for user interaction tracking/retrieval. The concept of user interfaces based on Flash technology will be discussed as well as implementation of the innovative approach of the item design forms with multimedia authoring. Also an innovative method for user interaction storage/retrieval based on PHP extending Flash capabilities in the proposed framework will be introduced.

  17. Losing Items in the Psychogeriatric Nursing Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Hoof PhD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Losing items is a time-consuming occurrence in nursing homes that is ill described. An explorative study was conducted to investigate which items got lost by nursing home residents, and how this affects the residents and family caregivers. Method: Semi-structured interviews and card sorting tasks were conducted with 12 residents with early-stage dementia and 12 family caregivers. Thematic analysis was applied to the outcomes of the sessions. Results: The participants stated that numerous personal items and assistive devices get lost in the nursing home environment, which had various emotional, practical, and financial implications. Significant amounts of time are spent on trying to find items, varying from 1 hr up to a couple of weeks. Numerous potential solutions were identified by the interviewees. Discussion: Losing items often goes together with limitations to the participation of residents. Many family caregivers are reluctant to replace lost items, as these items may get lost again.

  18. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Benthic Habitat, Key Benthic Species, including Marine Debris Sightings, of the U.S. Pacific Reefs from 2000 to 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct benthic surveys, assessing large-scale disturbances (e.g., bleaching) and quantifying benthic components such as habitat...

  19. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data of the U.S. Pacific Reefs from 2008-01-27 to 2012-09-13 (NCEI Accession 0162472)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (nSPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  20. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data of American Samoa from 2016-04-15 to 2016-05-05 (NCEI Accession 0157597)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  1. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data of American Samoa from 2015-02-15 to 2015-03-30 (NCEI Accession 0157588)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  2. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data at Wake Island from 2014-03-16 to 2014-03-20 (NCEI Accession 0157572)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  3. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data of the Mariana Archipelago from 2017-05-03 to 2017-06-20 (NCEI Accession 0166381)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  4. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data of Guam from 2014-09-29 to 2014-10-31 (NCEI Accession 0157592)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  5. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data at Jarvis and Wake from 2017-04-02 to 2017-04-23 (NCEI Accession 0163747)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  6. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Benthic Habitat, Key Benthic Species, including Marine Debris Sightings, of American Samoa from 2015-02-15 to 2015-03-23 (NCEI Accession 0157566)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct benthic surveys, assessing large-scale disturbances (e.g., bleaching) and quantifying benthic components such as habitat...

  7. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Benthic Habitat, Key Benthic Species, including Marine Debris Sightings, of the Hawaiian Archipelago from 2016-07-13 to 2016-09-26 (NCEI Accession 0157565)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct benthic surveys, assessing large-scale disturbances (e.g., bleaching) and quantifying benthic components such as habitat...

  8. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Benthic Habitat, Key Benthic Species, including Marine Debris Sightings, of the Pacific Remote Island Areas from 2015-01-26 to 2015-04-26 (NCEI Accession 0157564)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct benthic surveys, assessing large-scale disturbances (e.g., bleaching) and quantifying benthic components such as habitat...

  9. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data of the Hawaiian Archipelago from 2015-0614 to 2015-08-13 (NCEI Accession 0157591)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  10. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data of the Hawaiian Archipelago from 2016-07-13 to 2016-09-27 (NCEI Accession 0157590)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  11. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data of the Pacific Remote Island Areas from 2015-01-26 to 2015-04-28 (NCEI Accession 0157595)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  12. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data of the Hawaiian Archipelago from 2013-08-02 to 2013-10-31 (NCEI Accession 0157589)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  13. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data at Coral Reef Sites across the Pacific Ocean from 2008 to 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (nSPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  14. Using Differential Item Functioning Procedures to Explore Sources of Item Difficulty and Group Performance Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuneman, Janice Dowd; Gerritz, Kalle

    1990-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) methodology for revealing sources of item difficulty and performance characteristics of different groups was explored. A total of 150 Scholastic Aptitude Test items and 132 Graduate Record Examination general test items were analyzed. DIF was evaluated for males and females and Blacks and Whites. (SLD)

  15. Instructional Topics in Educational Measurement (ITEMS) Module: Using Automated Processes to Generate Test Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierl, Mark J.; Lai, Hollis

    2013-01-01

    Changes to the design and development of our educational assessments are resulting in the unprecedented demand for a large and continuous supply of content-specific test items. One way to address this growing demand is with automatic item generation (AIG). AIG is the process of using item models to generate test items with the aid of computer…

  16. Clusters of cultures: diversity in meaning of family value and gender role items across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vlimmeren, Eva; Moors, Guy B D; Gelissen, John P T M

    2017-01-01

    Survey data are often used to map cultural diversity by aggregating scores of attitude and value items across countries. However, this procedure only makes sense if the same concept is measured in all countries. In this study we argue that when (co)variances among sets of items are similar across countries, these countries share a common way of assigning meaning to the items. Clusters of cultures can then be observed by doing a cluster analysis on the (co)variance matrices of sets of related items. This study focuses on family values and gender role attitudes. We find four clusters of cultures that assign a distinct meaning to these items, especially in the case of gender roles. Some of these differences reflect response style behavior in the form of acquiescence. Adjusting for this style effect impacts on country comparisons hence demonstrating the usefulness of investigating the patterns of meaning given to sets of items prior to aggregating scores into cultural characteristics.

  17. 7 CFR 65.220 - Processed food item.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... extruding). Examples of items excluded include teriyaki flavored pork loin, roasted peanuts, breaded chicken... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS... includes cooking (e.g., frying, broiling, grilling, boiling, steaming, baking, roasting), curing (e.g...

  18. Comparison of Self-Reported Telephone Interviewing and Web-Based Survey Responses: Findings From the Second Australian Young and Well National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Alyssa C; Ellis, Louise A; Davenport, Tracey A; Burns, Jane M; Hickie, Ian B

    2017-09-26

    Web-based self-report surveying has increased in popularity, as it can rapidly yield large samples at a low cost. Despite this increase in popularity, in the area of youth mental health, there is a distinct lack of research comparing the results of Web-based self-report surveys with the more traditional and widely accepted computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI). The Second Australian Young and Well National Survey 2014 sought to compare differences in respondent response patterns using matched items on CATI versus a Web-based self-report survey. The aim of this study was to examine whether responses varied as a result of item sensitivity, that is, the item's susceptibility to exaggeration on underreporting and to assess whether certain subgroups demonstrated this effect to a greater extent. A subsample of young people aged 16 to 25 years (N=101), recruited through the Second Australian Young and Well National Survey 2014, completed the identical items on two occasions: via CATI and via Web-based self-report survey. Respondents also rated perceived item sensitivity. When comparing CATI with the Web-based self-report survey, a Wilcoxon signed-rank analysis showed that respondents answered 14 of the 42 matched items in a significantly different way. Significant variation in responses (CATI vs Web-based) was more frequent if the item was also rated by the respondents as highly sensitive in nature. Specifically, 63% (5/8) of the high sensitivity items, 43% (3/7) of the neutral sensitivity items, and 0% (0/4) of the low sensitivity items were answered in a significantly different manner by respondents when comparing their matched CATI and Web-based question responses. The items that were perceived as highly sensitive by respondents and demonstrated response variability included the following: sexting activities, body image concerns, experience of diagnosis, and suicidal ideation. For high sensitivity items, a regression analysis showed respondents who were male

  19. A Comparison of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) in General Population Surveys in nine European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomfield, Kim; Knibbe, Ronald; Derickx, Mieke

    2006-01-01

    Aims: This study explored the suitability of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) for cross-national comparable estimates of problem drinking in general populations. On the item level the focus is on responsiveness to cross-national and gender differences. For the set of items...... the focus is on intercorrelations between items, indicating to what extent the AUDIT constitutes a scale. Methods: General population surveys from nine European countries were included. Cross-tabulations were used to analyse cross-national and gender differences in scores on the items. Reliability analysis...... was used to analyse intercorrelations between the items. Results: The items ‘blackouts' (men and women) and ‘guilt and remorse' (women) are the most frequently reported consequences. Gender differences tended to be smaller for ‘guilt and remorse' and ‘concern of others', and largest for ‘morning drinking...

  20. Exploring differential item functioning in the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollard Beth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC is a widely used patient reported outcome in osteoarthritis. An important, but frequently overlooked, aspect of validating health outcome measures is to establish if items exhibit differential item functioning (DIF. That is, if respondents have the same underlying level of an attribute, does the item give the same score in different subgroups or is it biased towards one subgroup or another. The aim of the study was to explore DIF in the Likert format WOMAC for the first time in a UK osteoarthritis population with respect to demographic, social, clinical and psychological factors. Methods The sample comprised a community sample of 763 people with osteoarthritis who participated in the Somerset and Avon Survey of Health. The WOMAC was explored for DIF by gender, age, social deprivation, social class, employment status, distress, body mass index and clinical factors. Ordinal regression models were used to identify DIF items. Results After adjusting for age, two items were identified for the physical functioning subscale as having DIF with age identified as the DIF factor for 2 items, gender for 1 item and body mass index for 1 item. For the WOMAC pain subscale, for people with hip osteoarthritis one item was identified with age-related DIF. The impact of the DIF items rarely had a significant effect on the conclusions of group comparisons. Conclusions Overall, the WOMAC performed well with only a small number of DIF items identified. However, as DIF items were identified in for the WOMAC physical functioning subscale it would be advisable to analyse data taking into account the possible impact of the DIF items when weight, gender or especially age effects, are the focus of interest in UK-based osteoarthritis studies. Similarly for the WOMAC pain subscale in people with hip osteoarthritis it would be worthwhile to analyse data taking into account the

  1. Combining item and bulk material loss-detection uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggers, R.F.

    1982-01-01

    Loss detection requirements, such as five formula kilograms with 99% probability of detection, which apply to the sum of losses from material in both item and bulk form, constitute a special problem for the nuclear material statistician. Requirements of this type are included in the Material Control and Accounting Reform Amendments described in the Advance Notice of Proposed Rule Making (Federal Register, 46(175):45144-46151). Attribute test sampling of items is the method used to detect gross defects in the inventory of items in a given control unit. Attribute sampling plans are designed to detect a loss of a specificed goal quantity of material with a given probability. In contrast to the methods and statistical models used for item loss detection, bulk material loss detection requires all the material entering and leaving a control unit to be measured and the calculation of a loss estimator that will be tested against an appropriate alarm threshold. The alarm threshold is determined from an estimate of the error inherent in the components of the loss estimator. In this paper a simple grahical method of evaluating the combined capabilities of bulk material loss detection methods and item attribute testing procedures will be described. Quantitative results will be given for several cases, indicating how a decrease in the precision of the item loss detection method tends to force an increase in the precision of the bulk loss detection procedure in order to meet the overall detection requirement. 4 figures

  2. Suspect/Counterfeit Items Information Guide for Subcontractors/Suppliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessmar, Nancy D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salazar, Michael J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-18

    Counterfeiting of industrial and commercial grade items is an international problem that places worker safety, program objectives, expensive equipment, and security at risk. In order to prevent the introduction of Suspect/Counterfeit Items (S/CI), this information sheet is being made available as a guide to assist in the implementation of S/CI awareness and controls, in conjunction with subcontractor's/supplier's quality assurance programs. When it comes to counterfeit goods, including industrial materials, items, and equipment, no market is immune. Some manufactures have been known to misrepresent their products and intentionally use inferior materials and processes to manufacture substandard items, whose properties can significantly cart from established standards and specifications. These substandard items termed by the Department of Energy (DOE) as S/CI, pose immediate and potential threats to the safety of DOE and contractor workers, the public, and the environment. Failure of certain systems and processes caused by an S/CI could also have national security implications at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Nuclear Safety Rules (federal Laws), DOE Orders, and other regulations set forth requirements for DOE contractors to implement effective controls to assure that items and services meet specified requirements. This includes techniques to implement and thereby minimizing the potential threat of entry of S/CI to LANL. As a qualified supplier of goods or services to the LANL, your company will be required to establish and maintain effective controls to prevent the introduction of S/CI to LANL. This will require that your company warrant that all items (including their subassemblies, components, and parts) sold to LANL are genuine (i.e. not counterfeit), new, and unused, and conform to the requirements of the LANL purchase orders/contracts unless otherwise approved in writing to the Los Alamos National Security (LANS) contract administrator

  3. Normative data for the 12 item WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Andrews

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0 measures disability due to health conditions including diseases, illnesses, injuries, mental or emotional problems, and problems with alcohol or drugs. METHOD: The 12 Item WHODAS 2.0 was used in the second Australian Survey of Mental Health and Well-being. We report the overall factor structure and the distribution of scores and normative data (means and SDs for people with any physical disorder, any mental disorder and for people with neither. FINDINGS: A single second order factor justifies the use of the scale as a measure of global disability. People with mental disorders had high scores (mean 6.3, SD 7.1, people with physical disorders had lower scores (mean 4.3, SD 6.1. People with no disorder covered by the survey had low scores (mean 1.4, SD 3.6. INTERPRETATION: The provision of normative data from a population sample of adults will facilitate use of the WHODAS 2.0 12 item scale in clinical and epidemiological research.

  4. Investigation of the Performance of Multidimensional Equating Procedures for Common-Item Nonequivalent Groups Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu ATAR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the performance of the multidimensional extentions of Stocking-Lord, mean/mean, and mean/sigma equating procedures under common-item nonequivalent groups design was investigated. The performance of those three equating procedures was examined under the combination of various conditions including sample size, ability distribution, correlation between two dimensions, and percentage of anchor items in the test. Item parameter recovery was evaluated calculating RMSE (root man squared error and BIAS values. It was found that Stocking-Lord procedure provided the smaller RMSE and BIAS values for both item discrimination and item difficulty parameter estimates across most conditions.

  5. An Investigation of Item Type in a Standards-Based Assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Hollingworth

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale state assessment programs use both multiple-choice and open-ended items on tests for accountability purposes. Certainly, there is an intuitive belief among some educators and policy makers that open-ended items measure something different than multiple-choice items. This study examined two item formats in custom-built, standards-based tests of achievement in Reading and Mathematics at grades 3-8. In this paper, we raise questions about the value of including open-ended items, given scoring costs, time constraints, and the higher probability of missing data from test-takers.

  6. Structural Validation of a French Food Frequency Questionnaire of 94 Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazan, Rozenn; Vieux, Florent; Darmon, Nicole; Maillot, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) are used to estimate the usual food and nutrient intakes over a period of time. Such estimates can suffer from measurement errors, either due to bias induced by respondent's answers or to errors induced by the structure of the questionnaire (e.g., using a limited number of food items and an aggregated food database with average portion sizes). The "structural validation" presented in this study aims to isolate and quantify the impact of the inherent structure of a FFQ on the estimation of food and nutrient intakes, independently of respondent's perception of the questionnaire. A semi-quantitative FFQ ( n  = 94 items, including 50 items with questions on portion sizes) and an associated aggregated food composition database (named the item-composition database) were developed, based on the self-reported weekly dietary records of 1918 adults (18-79 years-old) in the French Individual and National Dietary Survey 2 (INCA2), and the French CIQUAL 2013 food-composition database of all the foods ( n  = 1342 foods) declared as consumed in the population. Reference intakes of foods ("REF_FOOD") and nutrients ("REF_NUT") were calculated for each adult using the food-composition database and the amounts of foods self-reported in his/her dietary record. Then, answers to the FFQ were simulated for each adult based on his/her self-reported dietary record. "FFQ_FOOD" and "FFQ_NUT" intakes were estimated using the simulated answers and the item-composition database. Measurement errors (in %), spearman correlations and cross-classification were used to compare "REF_FOOD" with "FFQ_FOOD" and "REF_NUT" with "FFQ_NUT". Compared to "REF_NUT," "FFQ_NUT" total quantity and total energy intake were underestimated on average by 198 g/day and 666 kJ/day, respectively. "FFQ_FOOD" intakes were well estimated for starches, underestimated for most of the subgroups, and overestimated for some subgroups, in particular vegetables. Underestimation were

  7. Structural Validation of a French Food Frequency Questionnaire of 94 Items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozenn Gazan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundFood frequency questionnaires (FFQs are used to estimate the usual food and nutrient intakes over a period of time. Such estimates can suffer from measurement errors, either due to bias induced by respondent’s answers or to errors induced by the structure of the questionnaire (e.g., using a limited number of food items and an aggregated food database with average portion sizes. The “structural validation” presented in this study aims to isolate and quantify the impact of the inherent structure of a FFQ on the estimation of food and nutrient intakes, independently of respondent’s perception of the questionnaire.MethodsA semi-quantitative FFQ (n = 94 items, including 50 items with questions on portion sizes and an associated aggregated food composition database (named the item-composition database were developed, based on the self-reported weekly dietary records of 1918 adults (18–79 years-old in the French Individual and National Dietary Survey 2 (INCA2, and the French CIQUAL 2013 food-composition database of all the foods (n = 1342 foods declared as consumed in the population. Reference intakes of foods (“REF_FOOD” and nutrients (“REF_NUT” were calculated for each adult using the food-composition database and the amounts of foods self-reported in his/her dietary record. Then, answers to the FFQ were simulated for each adult based on his/her self-reported dietary record. “FFQ_FOOD” and “FFQ_NUT” intakes were estimated using the simulated answers and the item-composition database. Measurement errors (in %, spearman correlations and cross-classification were used to compare “REF_FOOD” with “FFQ_FOOD” and “REF_NUT” with “FFQ_NUT”.ResultsCompared to “REF_NUT,” “FFQ_NUT” total quantity and total energy intake were underestimated on average by 198 g/day and 666 kJ/day, respectively. “FFQ_FOOD” intakes were well estimated for starches, underestimated for most of the subgroups, and

  8. Development of a survey tool to assess and monitor the influence of food budget restraint on healthy eating, food related climate impact and quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Holm, Lotte; Lund, Thomas Bøker

    This documentation describes the development of a survey tool designed to: 1) measure how different levels of constraints on food budgets are associated to outcomes of healthy eating, environmental sustainability and life quality for individuals in Denmark, and 2) explore how these different...... outcomes are related to strategies people employ to cope with restricted food budgets. The resulting survey consists of a total of 63 question items. The paper lays out the various steps involved in the process of developing the survey tool, presents the final survey items included in the tool...

  9. Understanding and quantifying cognitive complexity level in mathematical problem solving items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSAN E. EMBRETSON

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The linear logistic test model (LLTM; Fischer, 1973 has been applied to a wide variety of new tests. When the LLTM application involves item complexity variables that are both theoretically interesting and empirically supported, several advantages can result. These advantages include elaborating construct validity at the item level, defining variables for test design, predicting parameters of new items, item banking by sources of complexity and providing a basis for item design and item generation. However, despite the many advantages of applying LLTM to test items, it has been applied less often to understand the sources of complexity for large-scale operational test items. Instead, previously calibrated item parameters are modeled using regression techniques because raw item response data often cannot be made available. In the current study, both LLTM and regression modeling are applied to mathematical problem solving items from a widely used test. The findings from the two methods are compared and contrasted for their implications for continued development of ability and achievement tests based on mathematical problem solving items.

  10. A symptom profile of depression among Asian Americans: is there evidence for differential item functioning of depressive symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalibatseva, Z; Leong, F T L; Ham, E H

    2014-09-01

    Theoretical and clinical publications suggest the existence of cultural differences in the expression and experience of depression. Measurement non-equivalence remains a potential methodological explanation for the lower prevalence of depression among Asian Americans compared to European Americans. This study compared DSM-IV depressive symptoms among Asian Americans and European Americans using secondary data analysis of the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES). The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used for the assessment of depressive symptoms. Of the entire sample, 310 Asian Americans and 1974 European Americans reported depressive symptoms and were included in the analyses. Measurement variance was examined with an item response theory differential item functioning (IRT DIF) analysis. χ2 analyses indicated that, compared to Asian Americans, European American participants more frequently endorsed affective symptoms such as 'feeling depressed', 'feeling discouraged' and 'cried more often'. The IRT analysis detected DIF for four out of the 15 depression symptom items. At equal levels of depression, Asian Americans endorsed feeling worthless and appetite changes more easily than European Americans, and European Americans endorsed feeling nervous and crying more often than Asian Americans. Asian Americans did not seem to over-report somatic symptoms; however, European Americans seemed to report more affective symptoms than Asian Americans. The results suggest that there was measurement variance in a few of the depression items.

  11. Safety classification of items in Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yongbin

    2005-01-01

    The principle of integrality, moderation and equilibrium should be considered in the safety classification of items in nuclear power plant. The basic ways for safety classification of items is to classify the safety function based on the effect of the outside enclosure damage of the items (parts) on the safety. Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant adopts Russian VVER-1000/428 type reactor, it safety classification mainly refers to Russian Guidelines and standards. The safety classification of the electric equipment refers to IEEE-308(80) standard, including 1E and Non 1E classification. The safety classification of the instrumentation and control equipment refers to GB/T 15474-1995 standard, including safety 1E, safety-related SR and NC non-safety classification. The safety classification of Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant has to be approved by NNSA and satisfy Chinese Nuclear Safety Guidelines. (authors)

  12. 34 CFR 299.11 - What items are included in the complaint procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... violations of section 14503 (participation of private school children), the Secretary will follow the procedures in section 14505(b). (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under OMB control number... complaint procedures to parents of students, and appropriate private school officials or representatives...

  13. CERN Running Club – Sale of Items

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Running club

    2018-01-01

    The CERN Running Club is organising a sale of items  on 26 June from 11:30 – 13:00 in the entry area of Restaurant 2 (504 R-202). The items for sale are souvenir prizes of past Relay Races and comprise: Backpacks, thermos, towels, gloves & caps, lamps, long sleeve winter shirts and windproof vest. All items will be sold at 5 CHF.

  14. 1998 Annual Study Report. Surveys on seeds for global environmental technologies, including those for energy saving; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Sho energy nado chikyu kankyo taisaku gijutsu no seeds ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The energy-saving and other global environmental technologies are surveyed by collecting relevant information from various institutes, both abroad and domestic, to contribute to development of ceramic gas turbines. USA has announced a climate change plan, based on the five principles, to promote utilization of high-efficiency technologies and development of new clean technologies. UK is promoting to improve energy efficiency, along with liberalization of its energy markets. Germany concentrates its efforts in the 'Program for Energy Research and Energy Technologies.' France places emphasis on prevention of air pollution and rational use of energy. The R and D trends at public institutes, e.g., universities, for global environmental technologies are surveyed, from which a total of 14 themes are extracted as the seed technologies. At the same time, a total of 9 techniques potentially applicable to the seeds are extracted by mainly reviewing JICST and patent information, and assessed. The R&D trends of the IPCC-related researchers are also surveyed, but provide no theme directly applicable to the seeds. Most of the related themes at the private and public institutes surveyed, both domestic and abroad, are concentrated on carbon dioxide. (NEDO)

  15. A study on the establishment of safety assessment guidelines of commercial grade item dedication in digitalized safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, H. S.; Kim, B. R.; Oh, S. H.

    1999-01-01

    Because of obsolescing the components used in safety related systems of nuclear power plants, decreasing the number of suppliers qualified for the nuclear QA program and increasing maintenance costs of them, utilities have been considering to use commercial grade digital computers as an alternative for resolving such issues. However, commercial digital computers use the embedded pre-existing software, including operating system software, which are not developed by using nuclear grade QA program. Thus, it is necessary for utilities to establish processes for dedicating digital commercial grade items. A regulatory body also needs guidance to evaluate the digital commercial products properly. This paper surveyed the regulations and their regulatory guides, which establish the requirements for commercial grade items dedication, industry standards and guidances applicable to safety related systems. This paper provides some guidelines to be applied in evaluating the safety of digital upgrades and new digital plant protection systems in Korea

  16. Procurement Engineering Process for Commercial Grade Item Dedication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong-Hyuck; Park, Jong-Eun; Kwak, Tack-Hun; Yoo, Keun-Bae; Lee, Sang-Guk; Hong, Sung-Yull

    2006-01-01

    Procurement Engineering Process for commercial grade item dedication plays an increasingly important role in operation management of Korea Nuclear Power Plants. The purpose of the Procurement Engineering Process is the provision and assurance of a high quality and quantity of spare, replacement, retrofit and new parts and equipment while maximizing plant availability, minimizing downtime due to parts unavailability and providing reasonable overall program and inventory cost. In this paper, we will review the overview requirements, responsibilities and the process for demonstrating with reasonable assurance that a procured item for potential nuclear safety related services or other essential plant service is adequate with reasonable assurance for its application. This paper does not cover the details of technical evaluation, selecting critical characteristics, selecting acceptance methods, performing failure modes and effects analysis, performing source surveillance, performing quality surveys, performing special tests and inspections, and the other aspects of effective Procurement Engineering and Commercial Grade Item Dedication. The main contribution of this paper is to provide the provision of an overview of Procurement Engineering Process for commercial grade item

  17. Using item response theory to address vulnerabilities in FFQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazman, Josh B; Scott, Jonathan M; Deuster, Patricia A

    2017-09-01

    The limitations for self-reporting of dietary patterns are widely recognised as a major vulnerability of FFQ and the dietary screeners/scales derived from FFQ. Such instruments can yield inconsistent results to produce questionable interpretations. The present article discusses the value of psychometric approaches and standards in addressing these drawbacks for instruments used to estimate dietary habits and nutrient intake. We argue that a FFQ or screener that treats diet as a 'latent construct' can be optimised for both internal consistency and the value of the research results. Latent constructs, a foundation for item response theory (IRT)-based scales (e.g. Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System) are typically introduced in the design stage of an instrument to elicit critical factors that cannot be observed or measured directly. We propose an iterative approach that uses such modelling to refine FFQ and similar instruments. To that end, we illustrate the benefits of psychometric modelling by using items and data from a sample of 12 370 Soldiers who completed the 2012 US Army Global Assessment Tool (GAT). We used factor analysis to build the scale incorporating five out of eleven survey items. An IRT-driven assessment of response category properties indicates likely problems in the ordering or wording of several response categories. Group comparisons, examined with differential item functioning (DIF), provided evidence of scale validity across each Army sub-population (sex, service component and officer status). Such an approach holds promise for future FFQ.

  18. An evaluation of computerized adaptive testing for general psychological distress: combining GHQ-12 and Affectometer-2 in an item bank for public mental health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stochl, Jan; Böhnke, Jan R; Pickett, Kate E; Croudace, Tim J

    2016-05-20

    Recent developments in psychometric modeling and technology allow pooling well-validated items from existing instruments into larger item banks and their deployment through methods of computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Use of item response theory-based bifactor methods and integrative data analysis overcomes barriers in cross-instrument comparison. This paper presents the joint calibration of an item bank for researchers keen to investigate population variations in general psychological distress (GPD). Multidimensional item response theory was used on existing health survey data from the Scottish Health Education Population Survey (n = 766) to calibrate an item bank consisting of pooled items from the short common mental disorder screen (GHQ-12) and the Affectometer-2 (a measure of "general happiness"). Computer simulation was used to evaluate usefulness and efficacy of its adaptive administration. A bifactor model capturing variation across a continuum of population distress (while controlling for artefacts due to item wording) was supported. The numbers of items for different required reliabilities in adaptive administration demonstrated promising efficacy of the proposed item bank. Psychometric modeling of the common dimension captured by more than one instrument offers the potential of adaptive testing for GPD using individually sequenced combinations of existing survey items. The potential for linking other item sets with alternative candidate measures of positive mental health is discussed since an optimal item bank may require even more items than these.

  19. Method of locating related items in a geometric space for data mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Bruce A.

    1999-01-01

    A method for locating related items in a geometric space transforms relationships among items to geometric locations. The method locates items in the geometric space so that the distance between items corresponds to the degree of relatedness. The method facilitates communication of the structure of the relationships among the items. The method is especially beneficial for communicating databases with many items, and with non-regular relationship patterns. Examples of such databases include databases containing items such as scientific papers or patents, related by citations or keywords. A computer system adapted for practice of the present invention can include a processor, a storage subsystem, a display device, and computer software to direct the location and display of the entities. The method comprises assigning numeric values as a measure of similarity between each pairing of items. A matrix is constructed, based on the numeric values. The eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the matrix are determined. Each item is located in the geometric space at coordinates determined from the eigenvectors and eigenvalues. Proper construction of the matrix and proper determination of coordinates from eigenvectors can ensure that distance between items in the geometric space is representative of the numeric value measure of the items' similarity.

  20. Comparison of Self-Reported Telephone Interviewing and Web-Based Survey Responses: Findings From the Second Australian Young and Well National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Tracey A; Burns, Jane M; Hickie, Ian B

    2017-01-01

    Background Web-based self-report surveying has increased in popularity, as it can rapidly yield large samples at a low cost. Despite this increase in popularity, in the area of youth mental health, there is a distinct lack of research comparing the results of Web-based self-report surveys with the more traditional and widely accepted computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI). Objective The Second Australian Young and Well National Survey 2014 sought to compare differences in respondent response patterns using matched items on CATI versus a Web-based self-report survey. The aim of this study was to examine whether responses varied as a result of item sensitivity, that is, the item’s susceptibility to exaggeration on underreporting and to assess whether certain subgroups demonstrated this effect to a greater extent. Methods A subsample of young people aged 16 to 25 years (N=101), recruited through the Second Australian Young and Well National Survey 2014, completed the identical items on two occasions: via CATI and via Web-based self-report survey. Respondents also rated perceived item sensitivity. Results When comparing CATI with the Web-based self-report survey, a Wilcoxon signed-rank analysis showed that respondents answered 14 of the 42 matched items in a significantly different way. Significant variation in responses (CATI vs Web-based) was more frequent if the item was also rated by the respondents as highly sensitive in nature. Specifically, 63% (5/8) of the high sensitivity items, 43% (3/7) of the neutral sensitivity items, and 0% (0/4) of the low sensitivity items were answered in a significantly different manner by respondents when comparing their matched CATI and Web-based question responses. The items that were perceived as highly sensitive by respondents and demonstrated response variability included the following: sexting activities, body image concerns, experience of diagnosis, and suicidal ideation. For high sensitivity items, a regression

  1. PENGEMBANGAN TES BERPIKIR KRITIS DENGAN PENDEKATAN ITEM RESPONSE THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajrianthi Fajrianthi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menghasilkan sebuah alat ukur (tes berpikir kritis yang valid dan reliabel untuk digunakan, baik dalam lingkup pendidikan maupun kerja di Indonesia. Tahapan penelitian dilakukan berdasarkan tahap pengembangan tes menurut Hambleton dan Jones (1993. Kisi-kisi dan pembuatan butir didasarkan pada konsep dalam tes Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA. Pada WGCTA, berpikir kritis terdiri dari lima dimensi yaitu Inference, Recognition Assumption, Deduction, Interpretation dan Evaluation of arguments. Uji coba tes dilakukan pada 1.453 peserta tes seleksi karyawan di Surabaya, Gresik, Tuban, Bojonegoro, Rembang. Data dikotomi dianalisis dengan menggunakan model IRT dengan dua parameter yaitu daya beda dan tingkat kesulitan butir. Analisis dilakukan dengan menggunakan program statistik Mplus versi 6.11 Sebelum melakukan analisis dengan IRT, dilakukan pengujian asumsi yaitu uji unidimensionalitas, independensi lokal dan Item Characteristic Curve (ICC. Hasil analisis terhadap 68 butir menghasilkan 15 butir dengan daya beda yang cukup baik dan tingkat kesulitan butir yang berkisar antara –4 sampai dengan 2.448. Sedikitnya jumlah butir yang berkualitas baik disebabkan oleh kelemahan dalam menentukan subject matter experts di bidang berpikir kritis dan pemilihan metode skoring. Kata kunci: Pengembangan tes, berpikir kritis, item response theory   DEVELOPING CRITICAL THINKING TEST UTILISING ITEM RESPONSE THEORY Abstract The present study was aimed to develop a valid and reliable instrument in assesing critical thinking which can be implemented both in educational and work settings in Indonesia. Following the Hambleton and Jones’s (1993 procedures on test development, the study developed the instrument by employing the concept of critical thinking from Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA. The study included five dimensions of critical thinking as adopted from the WGCTA: Inference, Recognition

  2. Measurement Equivalence in ADL and IADL Difficulty Across International Surveys of Aging: Findings From the HRS, SHARE, and ELSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Judith D.; Brandt, Jason; Pezzin, Liliana E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To examine the measurement equivalence of items on disability across three international surveys of aging. Method. Data for persons aged 65 and older were drawn from the Health and Retirement Survey (HRS, n = 10,905), English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA, n = 5,437), and Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE, n = 13,408). Differential item functioning (DIF) was assessed using item response theory (IRT) methods for activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) items. Results. HRS and SHARE exhibited measurement equivalence, but 6 of 11 items in ELSA demonstrated meaningful DIF. At the scale level, this item-level DIF affected scores reflecting greater disability. IRT methods also spread out score distributions and shifted scores higher (toward greater disability). Results for mean disability differences by demographic characteristics, using original and DIF-adjusted scores, were the same overall but differed for some subgroup comparisons involving ELSA. Discussion. Testing and adjusting for DIF is one means of minimizing measurement error in cross-national survey comparisons. IRT methods were used to evaluate potential measurement bias in disability comparisons across three international surveys of aging. The analysis also suggested DIF was mitigated for scales including both ADL and IADL and that summary indexes (counts of limitations) likely underestimate mean disability in these international populations. PMID:22156662

  3. Psychometric aspects of item mapping for criterion-referenced interpretation and bookmark standard setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Huynh

    2010-01-01

    Locating an item on an achievement continuum (item mapping) is well-established in technical work for educational/psychological assessment. Applications of item mapping may be found in criterion-referenced (CR) testing (or scale anchoring, Beaton and Allen, 1992; Huynh, 1994, 1998a, 2000a, 2000b, 2006), computer-assisted testing, test form assembly, and in standard setting methods based on ordered test booklets. These methods include the bookmark standard setting originally used for the CTB/TerraNova tests (Lewis, Mitzel, Green, and Patz, 1999), the item descriptor process (Ferrara, Perie, and Johnson, 2002) and a similar process described by Wang (2003) for multiple-choice licensure and certification examinations. While item response theory (IRT) models such as the Rasch and two-parameter logistic (2PL) models traditionally place a binary item at its location, Huynh has argued in the cited papers that such mapping may not be appropriate in selecting items for CR interpretation and scale anchoring.

  4. Evaluation of psychometric properties and differential item functioning of 8-item Child Perceptions Questionnaires using item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, David T W; Wong, May C M; Lam, K F; McGrath, Colman

    2015-08-19

    Four-factor structure of the two 8-item short forms of Child Perceptions Questionnaire CPQ11-14 (RSF:8 and ISF:8) has been confirmed. However, the sum scores are typically reported in practice as a proxy of Oral health-related Quality of Life (OHRQoL), which implied a unidimensional structure. This study first assessed the unidimensionality of 8-item short forms of CPQ11-14. Item response theory (IRT) was employed to offer an alternative and complementary approach of validation and to overcome the limitations of classical test theory assumptions. A random sample of 649 12-year-old school children in Hong Kong was analyzed. Unidimensionality of the scale was tested by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), principle component analysis (PCA) and local dependency (LD) statistic. Graded response model was fitted to the data. Contribution of each item to the scale was assessed by item information function (IIF). Reliability of the scale was assessed by test information function (TIF). Differential item functioning (DIF) across gender was identified by Wald test and expected score functions. Both CPQ11-14 RSF:8 and ISF:8 did not deviate much from the unidimensionality assumption. Results from CFA indicated acceptable fit of the one-factor model. PCA indicated that the first principle component explained >30 % of the total variation with high factor loadings for both RSF:8 and ISF:8. Almost all LD statistic items suggesting little contribution of information to the scale and item removal caused little practical impact. Comparing the TIFs, RSF:8 showed slightly better information than ISF:8. In addition to oral symptoms items, the item "Concerned with what other people think" demonstrated a uniform DIF (p Items related to oral symptoms were not informative to OHRQoL and deletion of these items is suggested. The impact of DIF across gender on the overall score was minimal. CPQ11-14 RSF:8 performed slightly better than ISF:8 in measurement precision. The 6-item short forms

  5. Binomial test models and item difficulty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    1979-01-01

    In choosing a binomial test model, it is important to know exactly what conditions are imposed on item difficulty. In this paper these conditions are examined for both a deterministic and a stochastic conception of item responses. It appears that they are more restrictive than is generally

  6. Comparison on Computed Tomography using industrial items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angel, Jais Andreas Breusch; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    In a comparison involving 27 laboratories from 8 countries, measurements on two common industrial items, a polymer part and a metal part, were carried out using X-ray Computed Tomography. All items were measured using coordinate measuring machines before and after circulation, with reference...

  7. Item Information in the Rasch Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, Ron J.H.; van der Linden, Willem J.; Oosterloo, Sebe J.

    1988-01-01

    Fisher's information measure for the item difficulty parameter in the Rasch model and its marginal and conditional formulations are investigated. It is shown that expected item information in the unconditional model equals information in the marginal model, provided the assumption of sampling

  8. Refinement of the Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale: Recommendation for a 14-item EBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Segall-Corrêa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review and refine Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale structure. METHODS: The study analyzed the impact of removing the item "adult lost weight" and one of two possibly redundant items on Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale psychometric behavior using the one-parameter logistic (Rasch model. Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale psychometric behavior was analyzed with respect to acceptable adjustment values ranging from 0.7 to 1.3, and to severity scores of the items with theoretically expected gradients. The socioeconomic and food security indicators came from the 2004 National Household Sample Survey, which obtained complete answers to Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale items from 112,665 households. RESULTS: Removing the items "adult reduced amount..." followed by "adult ate less..." did not change the infit of the remaining items, except for "adult lost weight", whose infit increased from 1.21 to 1.56. The internal consistency and item severity scores did not change when "adult ate less" and one of the two redundant items were removed. CONCLUSION: Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale reanalysis reduced the number of scale items from 16 to 14 without changing its internal validity. Its use as a nationwide household food security measure is strongly recommended.

  9. A hierarchy of distress and invariant item ordering in the General Health Questionnaire-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, F; Watson, R; Morgan, K; McBride, O

    2012-06-01

    Invariant item ordering (IIO) is defined as the extent to which items have the same ordering (in terms of item difficulty/severity - i.e. demonstrating whether items are difficult [rare] or less difficult [common]) for each respondent who completes a scale. IIO is therefore crucial for establishing a scale hierarchy that is replicable across samples, but no research has demonstrated IIO in scales of psychological distress. We aimed to determine if a hierarchy of distress with IIO exists in a large general population sample who completed a scale measuring distress. Data from 4107 participants who completed the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) from the Northern Ireland Health and Social Wellbeing Survey 2005-6 were analysed. Mokken scaling was used to determine the dimensionality and hierarchy of the GHQ-12, and items were investigated for IIO. All items of the GHQ-12 formed a single, strong unidimensional scale (H=0.58). IIO was found for six of the 12 items (H-trans=0.55), and these symptoms reflected the following hierarchy: anhedonia, concentration, participation, coping, decision-making and worthlessness. The cross-sectional analysis needs replication. The GHQ-12 showed a hierarchy of distress, but IIO is only demonstrated for six of the items, and the scale could therefore be shortened. Adopting brief, hierarchical scales with IIO may be beneficial in both clinical and research contexts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A Comparison of Item Fit Statistics for Mixed IRT Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Kyong Hee; Lee, Won-Chan; Dunbar, Stephen B.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we examined procedures for assessing model-data fit of item response theory (IRT) models for mixed format data. The model fit indices used in this study include PARSCALE's G[superscript 2], Orlando and Thissen's S-X[superscript 2] and S-G[superscript 2], and Stone's chi[superscript 2*] and G[superscript 2*]. To investigate the…

  11. 48 CFR 46.709 - Warranties of commercial items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Warranties of commercial... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Warranties 46.709 Warranties of commercial items. The contracting officer should take advantage of commercial warranties, including extended warranties, where appropriate...

  12. 17 CFR 229.903 - (Item 903) Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... effect on investors, including, but not limited to: (i) Changes in the business plan, voting rights, cash... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false (Item 903) Summary. 229.903 Section 229.903 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION STANDARD...

  13. The 12 item Social and Economic Conservatism Scale (SECS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Jim A C

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen a surge in psychological research on the relationship between political ideology (particularly conservatism) and cognition, affect, behaviour, and even biology. Despite this flurry of investigation, however, there is as yet no accepted, validated, and widely used multi-item scale of conservatism that is concise, that is modern in its conceptualisation, and that includes both social and economic conservatism subscales. In this paper the 12-Item Social and Economic Conservatism Scale (SECS) is proposed and validated to help fill this gap. The SECS is suggested to be an important and useful tool for researchers working in political psychology.

  14. The 12 item Social and Economic Conservatism Scale (SECS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim A C Everett

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen a surge in psychological research on the relationship between political ideology (particularly conservatism and cognition, affect, behaviour, and even biology. Despite this flurry of investigation, however, there is as yet no accepted, validated, and widely used multi-item scale of conservatism that is concise, that is modern in its conceptualisation, and that includes both social and economic conservatism subscales. In this paper the 12-Item Social and Economic Conservatism Scale (SECS is proposed and validated to help fill this gap. The SECS is suggested to be an important and useful tool for researchers working in political psychology.

  15. Development and psychometric evaluation of the PROMIS Pediatric Life Satisfaction item banks, child-report, and parent-proxy editions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Christopher B; Devine, Janine; Bevans, Katherine B; Becker, Brandon D; Carle, Adam C; Teneralli, Rachel E; Moon, JeanHee; Tucker, Carole A; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike

    2018-01-01

    To describe the psychometric evaluation and item response theory calibration of the PROMIS Pediatric Life Satisfaction item banks, child-report, and parent-proxy editions. A pool of 55 life satisfaction items was administered to 1992 children 8-17 years old and 964 parents of children 5-17 years old. Analyses included descriptive statistics, reliability, factor analysis, differential item functioning, and assessment of construct validity. Thirteen items were deleted because of poor psychometric performance. An 8-item short form was administered to a national sample of 996 children 8-17 years old, and 1294 parents of children 5-17 years old. The combined sample (2988 children and 2258 parents) was used in item response theory (IRT) calibration analyses. The final item banks were unidimensional, the items were locally independent, and the items were free from impactful differential item functioning. The 8-item and 4-item short form scales showed excellent reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity. Life satisfaction decreased with declining socio-economic status, presence of a special health care need, and increasing age for girls, but not boys. After IRT calibration, we found that 4- and 8-item short forms had a high degree of precision (reliability) across a wide range (>4 SD units) of the latent variable. The PROMIS Pediatric Life Satisfaction item banks and their short forms provide efficient, precise, and valid assessments of life satisfaction in children and youth.

  16. Development and Evaluation of the PROMIS® Pediatric Positive Affect Item Bank, Child-Report and Parent-Proxy Editions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Christopher B; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Devine, Janine; Becker, Brandon D; Teneralli, Rachel; Moon, JeanHee; Carle, Adam; Tucker, Carole A; Bevans, Katherine B

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the psychometric evaluation and item response theory calibration of the PROMIS Pediatric Positive Affect item bank, child-report and parent-proxy editions. The initial item pool comprising 53 items, previously developed using qualitative methods, was administered to 1,874 children 8-17 years old and 909 parents of children 5-17 years old. Analyses included descriptive statistics, reliability, factor analysis, differential item functioning, and construct validity. A total of 14 items were deleted, because of poor psychometric performance, and an 8-item short form constructed from the remaining 39 items was administered to a national sample of 1,004 children 8-17 years old, and 1,306 parents of children 5-17 years old. The combined sample was used in item response theory (IRT) calibration analyses. The final item bank appeared unidimensional, the items appeared locally independent, and the items were free from differential item functioning. The scales showed excellent reliability and convergent and discriminant validity. Positive affect decreased with children's age and was lower for those with a special health care need. After IRT calibration, we found that 4 and 8 item short forms had a high degree of precision (reliability) across a wide range of the latent trait (>4 SD units). The PROMIS Pediatric Positive Affect item bank and its short forms provide an efficient, precise, and valid assessment of positive affect in children and youth.

  17. The Effects of Item Format and Cognitive Domain on Students' Science Performance in TIMSS 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Pey-Yan; Bulut, Okan

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine eighth-grade students' science performance in terms of two test design components, item format, and cognitive domain. The portion of Taiwanese data came from the 2011 administration of the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), one of the major international large-scale assessments in science. The item difficulty analysis was initially applied to show the proportion of correct items. A regression-based cumulative link mixed modeling (CLMM) approach was further utilized to estimate the impact of item format, cognitive domain, and their interaction on the students' science scores. The results of the proportion-correct statistics showed that constructed-response items were more difficult than multiple-choice items, and that the reasoning cognitive domain items were more difficult compared to the items in the applying and knowing domains. In terms of the CLMM results, students tended to obtain higher scores when answering constructed-response items as well as items in the applying cognitive domain. When the two predictors and the interaction term were included together, the directions and magnitudes of the predictors on student science performance changed substantially. Plausible explanations for the complex nature of the effects of the two test-design predictors on student science performance are discussed. The results provide practical, empirical-based evidence for test developers, teachers, and stakeholders to be aware of the differential function of item format, cognitive domain, and their interaction in students' science performance.

  18. ‘Forget me (not?’ – Remembering forget-items versus un-cued items in directed forgetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian eZwissler

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Humans need to be able to selectively control their memories. Here, we investigate the underlying processes in item-method directed forgetting and compare the classic active memory cues in this paradigm with a passive instruction. Typically, individual items are presented and each is followed by either a forget- or remember-instruction. On a surprise test of all items, memory is then worse for to-be-forgotten items (TBF compared to to-be-remembered items (TBR. This is thought to result from selective rehearsal of TBR, or from active inhibition of TBF, or from both. However, evidence suggests that if a forget instruction initiates active processing, paradoxical effects may also arise. To investigate the underlying mechanisms, four experiments were conducted where un-cued items (UI were introduced and recognition performance was compared between TBR, TBF and UI stimuli. Accuracy was encouraged via a performance-dependent monetary bonus. Across all experiments, including perceptually fully matched variants, memory accuracy for TBF was reduced compared to TBR, but better than for UI. Moreover, participants used a more conservative response criterion when responding to TBF stimuli. Thus, ironically, the F cue results in active processing, but this does not have inhibitory effects that would impair recognition memory beyond a un-cued baseline condition. This casts doubts on inhibitory accounts of item-method directed forgetting and is also difficult to reconcile with pure selective rehearsal of TBR. While the F-cue does induce active processing, this does not result in particularly successful forgetting. The pattern seems most consistent with the notion of ironic processing.

  19. Item response theory - A first approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Sandra; Oliveira, Teresa; Oliveira, Amílcar

    2017-07-01

    The Item Response Theory (IRT) has become one of the most popular scoring frameworks for measurement data, frequently used in computerized adaptive testing, cognitively diagnostic assessment and test equating. According to Andrade et al. (2000), IRT can be defined as a set of mathematical models (Item Response Models - IRM) constructed to represent the probability of an individual giving the right answer to an item of a particular test. The number of Item Responsible Models available to measurement analysis has increased considerably in the last fifteen years due to increasing computer power and due to a demand for accuracy and more meaningful inferences grounded in complex data. The developments in modeling with Item Response Theory were related with developments in estimation theory, most remarkably Bayesian estimation with Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms (Patz & Junker, 1999). The popularity of Item Response Theory has also implied numerous overviews in books and journals, and many connections between IRT and other statistical estimation procedures, such as factor analysis and structural equation modeling, have been made repeatedly (Van der Lindem & Hambleton, 1997). As stated before the Item Response Theory covers a variety of measurement models, ranging from basic one-dimensional models for dichotomously and polytomously scored items and their multidimensional analogues to models that incorporate information about cognitive sub-processes which influence the overall item response process. The aim of this work is to introduce the main concepts associated with one-dimensional models of Item Response Theory, to specify the logistic models with one, two and three parameters, to discuss some properties of these models and to present the main estimation procedures.

  20. Item response theory, computerized adaptive testing, and PROMIS: assessment of physical function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, James F; Witter, James; Rose, Matthias; Cella, David; Khanna, Dinesh; Morgan-DeWitt, Esi

    2014-01-01

    Patient-reported outcome (PRO) questionnaires record health information directly from research participants because observers may not accurately represent the patient perspective. Patient-reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) is a US National Institutes of Health cooperative group charged with bringing PRO to a new level of precision and standardization across diseases by item development and use of item response theory (IRT). With IRT methods, improved items are calibrated on an underlying concept to form an item bank for a "domain" such as physical function (PF). The most informative items can be combined to construct efficient "instruments" such as 10-item or 20-item PF static forms. Each item is calibrated on the basis of the probability that a given person will respond at a given level, and the ability of the item to discriminate people from one another. Tailored forms may cover any desired level of the domain being measured. Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) selects the best items to sharpen the estimate of a person's functional ability, based on prior responses to earlier questions. PROMIS item banks have been improved with experience from several thousand items, and are calibrated on over 21,000 respondents. In areas tested to date, PROMIS PF instruments are superior or equal to Health Assessment Questionnaire and Medical Outcome Study Short Form-36 Survey legacy instruments in clarity, translatability, patient importance, reliability, and sensitivity to change. Precise measures, such as PROMIS, efficiently incorporate patient self-report of health into research, potentially reducing research cost by lowering sample size requirements. The advent of routine IRT applications has the potential to transform PRO measurement.

  1. Software Note: Using BILOG for Fixed-Anchor Item Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMars, Christine E.; Jurich, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    The nonequivalent groups anchor test (NEAT) design is often used to scale item parameters from two different test forms. A subset of items, called the anchor items or common items, are administered as part of both test forms. These items are used to adjust the item calibrations for any differences in the ability distributions of the groups taking…

  2. The randomly renewed general item and the randomly inspected item with exponential life distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneeweiss, W.G.

    1979-01-01

    For a randomly renewed item the probability distributions of the time to failure and of the duration of down time and the expectations of these random variables are determined. Moreover, it is shown that the same theory applies to randomly checked items with exponential probability distribution of life such as electronic items. The case of periodic renewals is treated as an example. (orig.) [de

  3. Computerized Adaptive Test (CAT) Applications and Item Response Theory Models for Polytomous Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aybek, Eren Can; Demirtasli, R. Nukhet

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to provide a theoretical framework for computerized adaptive tests (CAT) and item response theory models for polytomous items. Besides that, it aims to introduce the simulation and live CAT software to the related researchers. Computerized adaptive test algorithm, assumptions of item response theory models, nominal response…

  4. Evaluation of Northwest University, Kano Post-UTME Test Items Using Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichi, Ado Abdu; Hafiz, Hadiza; Bello, Samira Abdullahi

    2016-01-01

    High-stakes testing is used for the purposes of providing results that have important consequences. Validity is the cornerstone upon which all measurement systems are built. This study applied the Item Response Theory principles to analyse Northwest University Kano Post-UTME Economics test items. The developed fifty (50) economics test items was…

  5. Asymptotic Standard Errors for Item Response Theory True Score Equating of Polytomous Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cher Wong, Cheow

    2015-01-01

    Building on previous works by Lord and Ogasawara for dichotomous items, this article proposes an approach to derive the asymptotic standard errors of item response theory true score equating involving polytomous items, for equivalent and nonequivalent groups of examinees. This analytical approach could be used in place of empirical methods like…

  6. The Effects of Test Length and Sample Size on Item Parameters in Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Alper; Anil, Duygu

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of sample size and test length on item-parameter estimation in test development utilizing three unidimensional dichotomous models of item response theory (IRT). For this purpose, a real language test comprised of 50 items was administered to 6,288 students. Data from this test was used to obtain data sets of…

  7. Investigating Separate and Concurrent Approaches for Item Parameter Drift in 3PL Item Response Theory Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce-Ferrer, Alvaro J.; Bulut, Okan

    2017-01-01

    This study examines separate and concurrent approaches to combine the detection of item parameter drift (IPD) and the estimation of scale transformation coefficients in the context of the common item nonequivalent groups design with the three-parameter item response theory equating. The study uses real and synthetic data sets to compare the two…

  8. The Technical Quality of Test Items Generated Using a Systematic Approach to Item Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siskind, Theresa G.; Anderson, Lorin W.

    The study was designed to examine the similarity of response options generated by different item writers using a systematic approach to item writing. The similarity of response options to student responses for the same item stems presented in an open-ended format was also examined. A non-systematic (subject matter expertise) approach and a…

  9. Validade e confiabilidade do Inventário de Atitudes frente à Dor Crônica (IAD-28 itens em lingua portuguesa Validez y confiabilidad del Inventario de Actitudes frente al Dolor Crónico (IAD-28 ítems en lengua portuguesa Validity and reliability of the Survey of Pain Attitudes (SOPA-28 items in the portuguese language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Andrucioli de Mattos Pimenta

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se da reavaliação da confiabilidade e validade do Inventário de Atitudes frente à Dor Crônica-versão breve, (IAD-breve com 183 pacientes com dor crônica não oncológica. O IAD-breve 28 itens avalia as crenças sobre dor crônica relacionadas ao controle, emoção, solicitude, cura médica, dano físico, incapacidade e medicação. A análise mostrou sete domínios e 28 itens. Houve diferenças na alocação de dois itens e, após análises, optou-se por retirá-los. Quatro domínios apresentaram valores de alfa de Cronbach considerados bons (entre 0,74 e 0,85 e em três, foram moderados (entre 0,58 e 0,65. O IAD-breve 28 itens em língua portuguesa é superior à primeira versão.Este estudio trata la reevaluación de la confiabilidad y validez del Inventario de Actitudes frente al Dolor Crónico-versión breve, (IAD-breve con 183 pacientes con dolor crónico no oncológico. El IAD-breve 28 ítems evalúa las creencias en el dolor crónico relacionadas al control, emoción, solicitud, cura médica, daño físico, incapacidad y medicación. El análisis resultó en siete dominios y 28 ítems. Hubo diferencias en la ubicación de dos ítems y, después de análisis, se decidió removerlos. Cuatro dominios presentaron valores de alfa de Cronbach considerados buenos (entre 0,74 y 0,85 y en tres, moderados (entre 0,58 y 0,65. El IAD-breve 28 ítems en lengua portuguesa es superior a la primera versión.This is the re-assessment of reliability and validity of Survey of Pain Attitudes-brief (SOPA-brief version, with 183 chronic non-cancer pain patients. The SOPA-brief assesses the chronic pain beliefs related to emotion, control, solicitude, medical cure, harm, disability and medication. The analysis showed seven domains and 28 items. There were differences in the allocation of two items and after analyses they were excluded. Four domains had good Cronbach's alpha values (between 0.74 and 0.85 and three had moderate (between 0.58 and 0

  10. Automated Item Generation with Recurrent Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Davier, Matthias

    2018-03-12

    Utilizing technology for automated item generation is not a new idea. However, test items used in commercial testing programs or in research are still predominantly written by humans, in most cases by content experts or professional item writers. Human experts are a limited resource and testing agencies incur high costs in the process of continuous renewal of item banks to sustain testing programs. Using algorithms instead holds the promise of providing unlimited resources for this crucial part of assessment development. The approach presented here deviates in several ways from previous attempts to solve this problem. In the past, automatic item generation relied either on generating clones of narrowly defined item types such as those found in language free intelligence tests (e.g., Raven's progressive matrices) or on an extensive analysis of task components and derivation of schemata to produce items with pre-specified variability that are hoped to have predictable levels of difficulty. It is somewhat unlikely that researchers utilizing these previous approaches would look at the proposed approach with favor; however, recent applications of machine learning show success in solving tasks that seemed impossible for machines not too long ago. The proposed approach uses deep learning to implement probabilistic language models, not unlike what Google brain and Amazon Alexa use for language processing and generation.

  11. Improving Measurement Efficiency of the Inner EAR Scale with Item Response Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Annika; Ho, Andrew D; Corrales, C Eduardo; Yueh, Bevan; Shin, Jennifer J

    2018-02-01

    Objectives (1) To assess the 11-item Inner Effectiveness of Auditory Rehabilitation (Inner EAR) instrument with item response theory (IRT). (2) To determine whether the underlying latent ability could also be accurately represented by a subset of the items for use in high-volume clinical scenarios. (3) To determine whether the Inner EAR instrument correlates with pure tone thresholds and word recognition scores. Design IRT evaluation of prospective cohort data. Setting Tertiary care academic ambulatory otolaryngology clinic. Subjects and Methods Modern psychometric methods, including factor analysis and IRT, were used to assess unidimensionality and item properties. Regression methods were used to assess prediction of word recognition and pure tone audiometry scores. Results The Inner EAR scale is unidimensional, and items varied in their location and information. Information parameter estimates ranged from 1.63 to 4.52, with higher values indicating more useful items. The IRT model provided a basis for identifying 2 sets of items with relatively lower information parameters. Item information functions demonstrated which items added insubstantial value over and above other items and were removed in stages, creating a 8- and 3-item Inner EAR scale for more efficient assessment. The 8-item version accurately reflected the underlying construct. All versions correlated moderately with word recognition scores and pure tone averages. Conclusion The 11-, 8-, and 3-item versions of the Inner EAR scale have strong psychometric properties, and there is correlational validity evidence for the observed scores. Modern psychometric methods can help streamline care delivery by maximizing relevant information per item administered.

  12. FY 2000 report on the potential survey of the environmental friendly type coal utilization system. Survey for digging up items for the model project on spread type circulating fluid bed boilers in China; 2000 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Chugoku ni okeru fukyugata junkan ryudo yukaboira setsubi model jigyo no anken hakkutsu chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    For the purpose of spreading/promoting circulating fluidized bed boilers in China, survey was conducted on the confirmation of effectiveness of implementation of the model project on spread type circulating fluidized bed boilers and the appropriateness of the sites proposed for implementation. As to the model of spread type 35t/h-CFB boilers, local products are more integrated into it, taking cost reduction of equipment and secure performance/quality into consideration, and the wider-ranging technical guidance/transfer are conducted also in design/production. In China, where environmental regulations are not strict, and there are many restrictions on funds, the size of the initial investment is an important element for selection of type. Further, the market is very big, about 200 units/year. It is highly possible to realize the competitive cost level by the quantity production effect by increasing local production. Two companies, Southeast Electrochemical Co. and Fujian Prime Pharmaceutical Group Co., which were proposed as sites are financially good and are achieving substantial results. Both companies are located in the urban area, and therefore, environmental measures should urgently be taken, and PR activities for spread are highly effective. It was confirmed that the companies were fully appropriate as sites proposed for the spread type model project. (NEDO)

  13. Engaging Community Leaders in the Development of a Cardiovascular Health Behavior Survey Using Focus Group–Based Cognitive Interviewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwenyth R Wallen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Establishing the validity of health behavior surveys used in community-based participatory research (CBPR in diverse populations is often overlooked. A novel, group-based cognitive interviewing method was used to obtain qualitative data for tailoring a survey instrument designed to identify barriers to improved cardiovascular health in at-risk populations in Washington, DC. A focus group–based cognitive interview was conducted to assess item comprehension, recall, and interpretation and to establish the initial content validity of the survey. Thematic analysis of verbatim transcripts yielded 5 main themes for which participants (n = 8 suggested survey modifications, including survey item improvements, suggestions for additional items, community-specific issues, changes in the skip logic of the survey items, and the identification of typographical errors. Population-specific modifications were made, including the development of more culturally appropriate questions relevant to the community. Group-based cognitive interviewing provided an efficient and effective method for piloting a cardiovascular health survey instrument using CBPR.

  14. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of the total phosphorus by a Kjeldahl digestion method and an automated colorimetric finish that includes dialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Charles J.; Truitt, Earl P.

    1992-01-01

    A method to determine total phosphorus (TP) in the same digests prepared for total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) determinations is desribed. The batch, high-temperature (block digester), HG(II)-catalyzed digestion step is similar to U.S. Geological Survey methods I-2552-85/I-4552-85 and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency method 365.4 except that sample and reagent volumes are halved. Prepared digests are desolvated at 220 degrees Celsius and digested at 370 degrees Celsius in separate block digesters set at these temperatures, rather than in a single, temperature-programmed block digester. This approach is used in the method escribed here, which permits 40 calibrants, reference waters, and smaples to be digested and resolvated in about an hour. Orthophosphate ions originally present in samples, along with those released during the digestion step, are determined colorimetrically at a rate of 90 tests per hour by an automated version of the phosphoantimonylmolybdenum blue procedure. About 100 microliters of digest are required per determination. The upper concentration limit is 2 milligrams per liter (mg/L) with a method detection limt of 0.01 mg/L. Repeatability for a sample containing approximately 1.6 mg/L of TP in a high suspended-solids matrix is 0.7 percent. Between-day precision for the same sample is 5.0 percent. A dialyzer in the air-segmented continuous flow analyzer provides on-line digest cleanup, eliminated particulates that otherwise would interfere in the colorimetric finish. An single-channel analyzer can process the resolvated digests from two pairs of block digesters each hour. Paired t-test analysis of TP concentrations for approximately 1,600 samples determined by the new method (U.S. Geologial Survey methods I-2610-91 and I-4610-91) and the old method (U.S. Geological Survey methods I-2600-85 and I-4600-85) revealed positive bias in the former of 0.02 to 0.04 mg/L for surface-water samples in agreement with previous studies. Concentrations of total

  15. Calorie Changes in Large Chain Restaurants: Declines in New Menu Items but Room for Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N; Wolfson, Julia A; Jarlenski, Marian P

    2016-01-01

    Large chain restaurants reduced the number of calories in newly introduced menu items in 2013 by about 60 calories (or 12%) relative to 2012. This paper describes trends in calories available in large U.S. chain restaurants to understand whether previously documented patterns persist. Data (a census of items for included restaurants) were obtained from the MenuStat project. This analysis included 66 of the 100 largest U.S. restaurants that are available in all three of the data years (2012-2014; N=23,066 items). Generalized linear models were used to examine: (1) per-item calorie changes from 2012 to 2014 among items on the menu in all years; and (2) mean calories in new items in 2013 and 2014 compared with items on the menu in 2012 only. Data were analyzed in 2014. Overall, calories in newly introduced menu items declined by 71 (or 15%) from 2012 to 2013 (p=0.001) and by 69 (or 14%) from 2012 to 2014 (p=0.03). These declines were concentrated mainly in new main course items (85 fewer calories in 2013 and 55 fewer calories in 2014; p=0.01). Although average calories in newly introduced menu items are declining, they are higher than items common to the menu in all 3 years. No differences in mean calories among items on menus in 2012, 2013, or 2014 were found. The previously observed declines in newly introduced menu items among large restaurant chains have been maintained, which suggests the beginning of a trend toward reducing calories. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Examining the Effect of Reverse Worded Items on the Factor Structure of the Need for Cognition Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xijuan Zhang

    Full Text Available Reverse worded (RW items are often used to reduce or eliminate acquiescence bias, but there is a rising concern about their harmful effects on the covariance structure of the scale. Therefore, results obtained via traditional covariance analyses may be distorted. This study examined the effect of the RW items on the factor structure of the abbreviated 18-item Need for Cognition (NFC scale using confirmatory factor analysis. We modified the scale to create three revised versions, varying from no RW items to all RW items. We also manipulated the type of the RW items (polar opposite vs. negated. To each of the four scales, we fit four previously developed models. The four models included a 1-factor model, a 2-factor model distinguishing between positively worded (PW items and RW items, and two 2-factor models, each with one substantive factor and one method factor. Results showed that the number and type of the RW items affected the factor structure of the NFC scale. Consistent with previous research findings, for the original NFC scale, which contains both PW and RW items, the 1-factor model did not have good fit. In contrast, for the revised scales that had no RW items or all RW items, the 1-factor model had reasonably good fit. In addition, for the scale with polar opposite and negated RW items, the factor model with a method factor among the polar opposite items had considerably better fit than the 1-factor model.

  17. Large Item Disposal At The Drigg Low Level Waste Repository, United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Currently the UK operates only one repository for low level radioactive waste, the LLWR near Drigg in Cumbria. It is located on the West Cumbrian coast near the village of Drigg. LLWR is designed for the management of solid LLW and has operated as the principal national disposal facility for LLW since 1959. LLWR is managed and operated on behalf of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) by UK Nuclear Waste Management Ltd. (UKNWM), parent body of LLW Repository Ltd. UKNWM is a consortium led by URS, Studsvik and AREVA. Waste is accepted at LLWR based on conditions for acceptance (1). Although there is some history of disposal of non-containerised 'large items' at the Drigg site these are anecdotally described as 'not quite fitting into an ISO container (2)' and enquiries indicate that their disposal was restricted to the legacy times when items were tumble-tipped into open trenches at the site, a practise now long ceased. The feasibility of true single large item disposal at the LLWR presents complex problems arising from the poor suitability of both rail and road infrastructure in UK. LLWR is serviced both by road and rail links. The static weight of large items being taken nominally as up to ∼300 metric tons would not necessarily preclude transportation by rail but the practicalities of this route are limited. The ageing rail infrastructure includes numerous tunnels, bridges and sections of line with overhead electrification. All these would require either careful justification or significant work to ensure the safe transit of large loads. Nuclear facilities in UK are by design in remote locations, not all of which are serviced by rail connections and the rail network itself has evolved to service inter-city transportation rather than heavy freight and as such tends to route through town centres, exacerbating the tunnel, bridge and pantograph concerns already identified. Within only a few miles of the LLWR itself there are requirements to pass both over and

  18. NHRIC (National Health Related Items Code)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health Related Items Code (NHRIC) is a system for identification and numbering of marketed device packages that is compatible with other numbering...

  19. Basic Stand Alone Carrier Line Items PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Carrier Line Items Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare Carrier claims. The CMS BSA Carrier Line...

  20. Extending item response theory to online homework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Kortemeyer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Item response theory (IRT becomes an increasingly important tool when analyzing “big data” gathered from online educational venues. However, the mechanism was originally developed in traditional exam settings, and several of its assumptions are infringed upon when deployed in the online realm. For a large-enrollment physics course for scientists and engineers, the study compares outcomes from IRT analyses of exam and homework data, and then proceeds to investigate the effects of each confounding factor introduced in the online realm. It is found that IRT yields the correct trends for learner ability and meaningful item parameters, yet overall agreement with exam data is moderate. It is also found that learner ability and item discrimination is robust over a wide range with respect to model assumptions and introduced noise. Item difficulty is also robust, but over a narrower range.

  1. Reliability and validity of the International Spinal Cord Injury Basic Pain Data Set items as self-report measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, M P; Widerström-Noga, E; Richards, J S

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the psychometric properties of a subset of International Spinal Cord Injury Basic Pain Data Set (ISCIBPDS) items that could be used as self-report measures in surveys, longitudinal studies and clinical trials....

  2. Investigation of Science Inquiry Items for Use on an Alternate Assessment Based on Modified Achievement Standards Using Cognitive Lab Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickenson, Tammiee S.; Gilmore, Joanna A.; Price, Karen J.; Bennett, Heather L.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the benefits of item enhancements applied to science-inquiry items for incorporation into an alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards for high school students. Six items were included in the cognitive lab sessions involving both students with and without disabilities. The enhancements (e.g., use of visuals,…

  3. Survey of drug use among young people in Ife, Nigeria | Afolabi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relevant data were obtained using a modified version of a questionnaire designed by the United Nations for conducting school surveys on drug abuse. The toolkit had been previously validated in Nigeria. The questionnaire items solicited information on students' drug use practices including the types of drugs, sources, ...

  4. Validation of a mobility item bank for older patients in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrero-García, Julio; Ramos-Pichardo, Juan Diego; Muñoz-Mendoza, Carmen Luz; Cabañero-Martínez, María José; González-Llopis, Lorena; Reig-Ferrer, Abilio

    2012-12-05

    To develop and validate an item bank to measure mobility in older people in primary care and to analyse differential item functioning (DIF) and differential bundle functioning (DBF) by sex. A pool of 48 mobility items was administered by interview to 593 older people attending primary health care practices. The pool contained four domains based on the International Classification of Functioning: changing and maintaining body position, carrying, lifting and pushing, walking and going up and down stairs. The Late Life Mobility item bank consisted of 35 items, and measured with a reliability of 0.90 or more across the full spectrum of mobility, except at the higher end of better functioning. No evidence was found of non-uniform DIF but uniform DIF was observed, mainly for items in the changing and maintaining body position and carrying, lifting and pushing domains. The walking domain did not display DBF, but the other three domains did, principally the carrying, lifting and pushing items. During the design and validation of an item bank to measure mobility in older people, we found that strength (carrying, lifting and pushing) items formed a secondary dimension that produced DBF. More research is needed to determine how best to include strength items in a mobility measure, or whether it would be more appropriate to design separate measures for each construct.

  5. Inventions on presenting textual items in Graphical User Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Umakant

    2014-01-01

    Although a GUI largely replaces textual descriptions by graphical icons, the textual items are not completely removed. The textual items are inevitably used in window titles, message boxes, help items, menu items and popup items. Textual items are necessary for communicating messages that are beyond the limitation of graphical messages. However, it is necessary to harness the textual items on the graphical interface in such a way that they complement each other to produce the best effect. One...

  6. Development and psychometric testing of the childhood obesity perceptions (COP) survey among African American caregivers: A tool for obesity prevention program planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Dayna S; Alfonso, Moya L; Cao, Chunhua

    2016-12-01

    Currently, public health practitioners are analyzing the role that caregivers play in childhood obesity efforts. Assessing African American caregiver's perceptions of childhood obesity in rural communities is an important prevention effort. This article's objective is to describe the development and psychometric testing of a survey tool to assess childhood obesity perceptions among African American caregivers in a rural setting, which can be used for obesity prevention program development or evaluation. The Childhood Obesity Perceptions (COP) survey was developed to reflect the multidimensional nature of childhood obesity including risk factors, health complications, weight status, built environment, and obesity prevention strategies. A 97-item survey was pretested and piloted with the priority population. After pretesting and piloting, the survey was reduced to 59-items and administered to 135 African American caregivers. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to test how well the survey items represented the number of Social Cognitive Theory constructs. Twenty items were removed from the original 59-item survey and acceptable internal consistency of the six factors (α=0.70-0.85) was documented for all scales in the final COP instrument. CFA resulted in a less than adequate fit; however, a multivariate Lagrange multiplier test identified modifications to improve the model fit. The COP survey represents a promising approach as a potentially comprehensive assessment for implementation or evaluation of childhood obesity programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Item selection via Bayesian IRT models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, Serena

    2015-02-10

    With reference to a questionnaire that aimed to assess the quality of life for dysarthric speakers, we investigate the usefulness of a model-based procedure for reducing the number of items. We propose a mixed cumulative logit model, which is known in the psychometrics literature as the graded response model: responses to different items are modelled as a function of individual latent traits and as a function of item characteristics, such as their difficulty and their discrimination power. We jointly model the discrimination and the difficulty parameters by using a k-component mixture of normal distributions. Mixture components correspond to disjoint groups of items. Items that belong to the same groups can be considered equivalent in terms of both difficulty and discrimination power. According to decision criteria, we select a subset of items such that the reduced questionnaire is able to provide the same information that the complete questionnaire provides. The model is estimated by using a Bayesian approach, and the choice of the number of mixture components is justified according to information criteria. We illustrate the proposed approach on the basis of data that are collected for 104 dysarthric patients by local health authorities in Lecce and in Milan. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Validation of a 15-item care-related regret coping scale for health-care professionals (RCS-HCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courvoisier, Delphine Sophie; Cullati, Stephane; Ouchi, Rieko; Schmidt, Ralph Eric; Haller, Guy; Chopard, Pierre; Agoritsas, Thomas; Perneger, Thomas V

    2014-01-01

    Coping with difficult care-related situations is a common challenge for health-care professionals. How these professionals deal with the regrets they may experience following one of the many decisions and interventions they must make every day can have an impact on their own health and quality of life, and also on their patient care practices. To identify professionals most at need for extra support, development and validation of a tool measuring coping style are needed. We performed a survey of physicians and nurses of a French-speaking University hospital; 469 health-care professionals responded to the survey, and 175 responded to the same survey one-month later. Regret was assessed with the regret coping scale developed for this study, self-report questions on the frequency of regretted situations and the intensity of regret. Construct validity was assessed using measures of health-care professionals' quality of life (including job and life satisfaction, and self-reported health) as well as sleep problems and depression. Based on factor analysis and item response analysis, the initial 31-item scale was shortened to 15 items, which measured three types of strategies: problem-focused strategies (i.e., trying to find solutions, talking to colleagues) and two types of emotion-focused strategies, A (i.e., self-blame, rumination) and B (e.g., acceptance, emotional distance). All subscales showed high internal consistency (α >0.85). Overall, as expected, problem-focused and emotion-focused B strategies correlated with higher quality of life, fewer sleep problems and less depression, and emotion-focused A strategies showed the opposite pattern. The regret coping scale (RCS-HCP) is a valid and reliable measure of coping abilities of hospital-based health-care professionals.

  9. Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cleaned and QCd data for the Fishing Effort Survey. Questions on fishing and other out are asked on weather and outdoor activity, including fishing trips. Used for...

  10. The role of attention in item-item binding in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Dwight J; Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe

    2017-09-01

    An important yet unresolved question regarding visual working memory (VWM) relates to whether or not binding processes within VWM require additional attentional resources compared with processing solely the individual components comprising these bindings. Previous findings indicate that binding of surface features (e.g., colored shapes) within VWM is not demanding of resources beyond what is required for single features. However, it is possible that other types of binding, such as the binding of complex, distinct items (e.g., faces and scenes), in VWM may require additional resources. In 3 experiments, we examined VWM item-item binding performance under no load, articulatory suppression, and backward counting using a modified change detection task. Binding performance declined to a greater extent than single-item performance under higher compared with lower levels of concurrent load. The findings from each of these experiments indicate that processing item-item bindings within VWM requires a greater amount of attentional resources compared with single items. These findings also highlight an important distinction between the role of attention in item-item binding within VWM and previous studies of long-term memory (LTM) where declines in single-item and binding test performance are similar under divided attention. The current findings provide novel evidence that the specific type of binding is an important determining factor regarding whether or not VWM binding processes require attention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Investigating the Impact of Item Parameter Drift for Item Response Theory Models with Mixture Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoon Soo; Lee, Young-Sun; Xing, Kuan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of item parameter drift (IPD) on parameter and ability estimation when the underlying measurement model fits a mixture distribution, thereby violating the item invariance property of unidimensional item response theory (IRT) models. An empirical study was conducted to demonstrate the occurrence of both IPD and an underlying mixture distribution using real-world data. Twenty-one trended anchor items from the 1999, 2003, and 2007 administrations of Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) were analyzed using unidimensional and mixture IRT models. TIMSS treats trended anchor items as invariant over testing administrations and uses pre-calibrated item parameters based on unidimensional IRT. However, empirical results showed evidence of two latent subgroups with IPD. Results also showed changes in the distribution of examinee ability between latent classes over the three administrations. A simulation study was conducted to examine the impact of IPD on the estimation of ability and item parameters, when data have underlying mixture distributions. Simulations used data generated from a mixture IRT model and estimated using unidimensional IRT. Results showed that data reflecting IPD using mixture IRT model led to IPD in the unidimensional IRT model. Changes in the distribution of examinee ability also affected item parameters. Moreover, drift with respect to item discrimination and distribution of examinee ability affected estimates of examinee ability. These findings demonstrate the need to caution and evaluate IPD using a mixture IRT framework to understand its effects on item parameters and examinee ability.

  12. Investigating the Impact of Item Parameter Drift for Item Response Theory Models with Mixture Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Soo ePark

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of item parameter drift (IPD on parameter and ability estimation when the underlying measurement model fits a mixture distribution, thereby violating the item invariance property of unidimensional item response theory (IRT models. An empirical study was conducted to demonstrate the occurrence of both IPD and an underlying mixture distribution using real-world data. Twenty-one trended anchor items from the 1999, 2003, and 2007 administrations of Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS were analyzed using unidimensional and mixture IRT models. TIMSS treats trended anchor items as invariant over testing administrations and uses pre-calibrated item parameters based on unidimensional IRT. However, empirical results showed evidence of two latent subgroups with IPD. Results showed changes in the distribution of examinee ability between latent classes over the three administrations. A simulation study was conducted to examine the impact of IPD on the estimation of ability and item parameters, when data have underlying mixture distributions. Simulations used data generated from a mixture IRT model and estimated using unidimensional IRT. Results showed that data reflecting IPD using mixture IRT model led to IPD in the unidimensional IRT model. Changes in the distribution of examinee ability also affected item parameters. Moreover, drift with respect to item discrimination and distribution of examinee ability affected estimates of examinee ability. These findings demonstrate the need to caution and evaluate IPD using a mixture IRT framework to understand its effect on item parameters and examinee ability.

  13. Evaluation of item candidates for a diabetic retinopathy quality of life item bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Eva K; Pesudovs, Konrad; Khadka, Jyoti; Rees, Gwyn; Wong, Tien Y; Lamoureux, Ecosse L

    2013-09-01

    We are developing an item bank assessing the impact of diabetic retinopathy (DR) on quality of life (QoL) using a rigorous multi-staged process combining qualitative and quantitative methods. We describe here the first two qualitative phases: content development and item evaluation. After a comprehensive literature review, items were generated from four sources: (1) 34 previously validated patient-reported outcome measures; (2) five published qualitative articles; (3) eight focus groups and 18 semi-structured interviews with 57 DR patients; and (4) seven semi-structured interviews with diabetes or ophthalmic experts. Items were then evaluated during 3 stages, namely binning (grouping) and winnowing (reduction) based on key criteria and panel consensus; development of item stems and response options; and pre-testing of items via cognitive interviews with patients. The content development phase yielded 1,165 unique items across 7 QoL domains. After 3 sessions of binning and winnowing, items were reduced to a minimally representative set (n = 312) across 9 domains of QoL: visual symptoms; ocular surface symptoms; activity limitation; mobility; emotional; health concerns; social; convenience; and economic. After 8 cognitive interviews, 42 items were amended resulting in a final set of 314 items. We have employed a systematic approach to develop items for a DR-specific QoL item bank. The psychometric properties of the nine QoL subscales will be assessed using Rasch analysis. The resulting validated item bank will allow clinicians and researchers to better understand the QoL impact of DR and DR therapies from the patient's perspective.

  14. Converging evidence for control of color-word Stroop interference at the item level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugg, Julie M; Hutchison, Keith A

    2013-04-01

    Prior studies have shown that cognitive control is implemented at the list and context levels in the color-word Stroop task. At first blush, the finding that Stroop interference is reduced for mostly incongruent items as compared with mostly congruent items (i.e., the item-specific proportion congruence [ISPC] effect) appears to provide evidence for yet a third level of control, which modulates word reading at the item level. However, evidence to date favors the view that ISPC effects reflect the rapid prediction of high-contingency responses and not item-specific control. In Experiment 1, we first show that an ISPC effect is obtained when the relevant dimension (i.e., color) signals proportion congruency, a problematic pattern for theories based on differential response contingencies. In Experiment 2, we replicate and extend this pattern by showing that item-specific control settings transfer to new stimuli, ruling out alternative frequency-based accounts. In Experiment 3, we revert to the traditional design in which the irrelevant dimension (i.e., word) signals proportion congruency. Evidence for item-specific control, including transfer of the ISPC effect to new stimuli, is apparent when 4-item sets are employed but not when 2-item sets are employed. We attribute this pattern to the absence of high-contingency responses on incongruent trials in the 4-item set. These novel findings provide converging evidence for reactive control of color-word Stroop interference at the item level, reveal theoretically important factors that modulate reliance on item-specific control versus contingency learning, and suggest an update to the item-specific control account (Bugg, Jacoby, & Chanani, 2011).

  15. Health Information National Trends Survey in American Sign Language (HINTS-ASL): Protocol for the Cultural Adaptation and Linguistic Validation of a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushalnagar, Poorna; Harris, Raychelle; Paludneviciene, Raylene; Hoglind, TraciAnn

    2017-09-13

    The Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) collects nationally representative data about the American's public use of health-related information. This survey is available in English and Spanish, but not in American Sign Language (ASL). Thus, the exclusion of ASL users from these national health information survey studies has led to a significant gap in knowledge of Internet usage for health information access in this underserved and understudied population. The objectives of this study are (1) to culturally adapt and linguistically translate the HINTS items to ASL (HINTS-ASL); and (2) to gather information about deaf people's health information seeking behaviors across technology-mediated platforms. We modified the standard procedures developed at the US National Center for Health Statistics Cognitive Survey Laboratory to culturally adapt and translate HINTS items to ASL. Cognitive interviews were conducted to assess clarity and delivery of these HINTS-ASL items. Final ASL video items were uploaded to a protected online survey website. The HINTS-ASL online survey has been administered to over 1350 deaf adults (ages 18 to 90 and up) who use ASL. Data collection is ongoing and includes deaf adult signers across the United States. Some items from HINTS item bank required cultural adaptation for use with deaf people who use accessible services or technology. A separate item bank for deaf-related experiences was created, reflecting deaf-specific technology such as sharing health-related ASL videos through social network sites and using video remote interpreting services in health settings. After data collection is complete, we will conduct a series of analyses on deaf people's health information seeking behaviors across technology-mediated platforms. HINTS-ASL is an accessible health information national trends survey, which includes a culturally appropriate set of items that are relevant to the experiences of deaf people who use ASL. The final HINTS

  16. Qualitative Development and Content Validation of the PROMIS Pediatric Sleep Health Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevans, Katherine B; Meltzer, Lisa J; De La Motte, Anna; Kratchman, Amy; Viél, Dominique; Forrest, Christopher B

    2018-04-25

    To develop the Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Pediatric Sleep Health item pool and evaluate its content validity. Participants included 8 expert sleep clinician-researchers, 64 children ages 8-17 years, and 54 parents of children ages 5-17 years. We started with item concepts and expressions from the PROMIS Sleep Disturbance and Sleep Related Impairment adult measures. Additional pediatric sleep health concepts were generated by expert (n = 8), child (n = 28), and parent (n = 33) concept elicitation interviews and a systematic review of existing pediatric sleep health questionnaires. Content validity of the item pool was evaluated with item translatability review, readability analysis, and child (n = 36) and parent (n = 21) cognitive interviews. The final pediatric Sleep Health item pool includes 43 items that assess sleep disturbance (children's capacity to fall and stay asleep, sleep quality, dreams, and parasomnias) and sleep-related impairments (daytime sleepiness, low energy, difficulty waking up, and the impact of sleep and sleepiness on cognition, affect, behavior, and daily activities). Items are translatable and relevant and well understood by children ages 8-17 and parents of children ages 5-17. Rigorous qualitative procedures were used to develop and evaluate the content validity of the PROMIS Pediatric Sleep Health item pool. Once the item pool's psychometric properties are established, the scales will be useful for measuring children's subjective experiences of sleep.

  17. Risk Factors for Obesity at Age 3 in Alaskan Children, Including the Role of Beverage Consumption: Results from Alaska PRAMS 2005-2006 and Its Three-Year Follow-Up Survey, CUBS, 2008-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, Janet M.; Young, Margaret B.; Perham-Hester, Katherine A.; de Schweinitz, Peter; Gessner, Bradford D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal and early life risk factors are associated with childhood obesity. Alaska Native children have one of the highest prevalences of childhood obesity of all US racial/ethnic groups. Methods Using the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) and the follow-up survey at 3 years of age (CUBS), we evaluated health, behavioral, lifestyle and nutritional variables in relation to obesity (95th percentile for body mass index (BMI)) at 3 years of age. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was conducted using Stata 12.0 to evaluate independent risk factors for obesity in non-Native and Alaska Native children. Results We found an obesity prevalence of 24.9% in all Alaskan and 42.2% in Alaska Native 3 year olds. Among Alaska Native children, obesity prevalence was highest in the Northern/Southwest part of the state (51.6%, 95%CI (42.6-60.5)). Independent predictive factors for obesity at age 3 years in Alaska non-Native children were low income (obesity (OR 2.01, 95%CI 1.01-4.01) and longer duration of breastfeeding was protective (OR 0.95, 95%CI 0.91-0.995). Among Alaska Native children, predictive factors were witnessing domestic violence/abuse as a 3 year-old (OR 2.28, 95%CI 1.17-7.60). Among obese Alaska Native children, there was an increased daily consumption of energy dense beverages in the Northern/Southwest region of the state, which may explain higher rates of obesity in this part of the state. Conclusions The high prevalence of obesity in Alaska Native children may be explained by differences in lifestyle patterns and food consumption in certain parts of the state, specifically the Northern/Southwest region, which have higher consumption of energy dense beverages. PMID:25793411

  18. Identifying the Source of Misfit in Item Response Theory Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Maydeu-Olivares, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    When an item response theory model fails to fit adequately, the items for which the model provides a good fit and those for which it does not must be determined. To this end, we compare the performance of several fit statistics for item pairs with known asymptotic distributions under maximum likelihood estimation of the item parameters: (a) a mean and variance adjustment to bivariate Pearson's X(2), (b) a bivariate subtable analog to Reiser's (1996) overall goodness-of-fit test, (c) a z statistic for the bivariate residual cross product, and (d) Maydeu-Olivares and Joe's (2006) M2 statistic applied to bivariate subtables. The unadjusted Pearson's X(2) with heuristically determined degrees of freedom is also included in the comparison. For binary and ordinal data, our simulation results suggest that the z statistic has the best Type I error and power behavior among all the statistics under investigation when the observed information matrix is used in its computation. However, if one has to use the cross-product information, the mean and variance adjusted X(2) is recommended. We illustrate the use of pairwise fit statistics in 2 real-data examples and discuss possible extensions of the current research in various directions.

  19. No evidence for an item limit in change detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaiyan Keshvari

    Full Text Available Change detection is a classic paradigm that has been used for decades to argue that working memory can hold no more than a fixed number of items ("item-limit models". Recent findings force us to consider the alternative view that working memory is limited by the precision in stimulus encoding, with mean precision decreasing with increasing set size ("continuous-resource models". Most previous studies that used the change detection paradigm have ignored effects of limited encoding precision by using highly discriminable stimuli and only large changes. We conducted two change detection experiments (orientation and color in which change magnitudes were drawn from a wide range, including small changes. In a rigorous comparison of five models, we found no evidence of an item limit. Instead, human change detection performance was best explained by a continuous-resource model in which encoding precision is variable across items and trials even at a given set size. This model accounts for comparison errors in a principled, probabilistic manner. Our findings sharply challenge the theoretical basis for most neural studies of working memory capacity.

  20. Racial differences in hypertension knowledge: effects of differential item functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotte, Brian J; Trivedi, Ranak; Bosworth, Hayden B

    2009-01-01

    Health-related knowledge is an important component in the self-management of chronic illnesses. The objective of this study was to more accurately assess racial differences in hypertension knowledge by using a latent variable modeling approach that controlled for sociodemographic factors and accounted for measurement issues in the assessment of hypertension knowledge. Cross-sectional data from 1,177 participants (45% African American; 35% female) were analyzed using a multiple indicator multiple causes (MIMIC) modeling approach. Available sociodemographic data included race, education, sex, financial status, and age. All participants completed six items on a hypertension knowledge questionnaire. Overall, the final model suggested that females, Whites, and patients with at least a high school diploma had higher latent knowledge scores than males, African Americans, and patients with less than a high school diploma, respectively. The model also detected differential item functioning (DIF) based on race for two of the items. Specifically, the error rate for African Americans was lower than would be expected given the lower level of latent knowledge on the items, on the questions related to: (a) the association between high blood pressure and kidney disease, and (b) the increased risk African Americans have for developing hypertension. Not accounting for DIF resulted in the difference between Whites and African Americans to be underestimated. These results are discussed in the context of the need for careful measurement of health-related constructs, and how measurement-related issues can result in an inaccurate estimation of racial differences in hypertension knowledge.

  1. Assessing Impact, DIF, and DFF in Accommodated Item Scores: A Comparison of Multilevel Measurement Model Parameterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretvas, S. Natasha; Cawthon, Stephanie W.; Lockhart, L. Leland; Kaye, Alyssa D.

    2012-01-01

    This pedagogical article is intended to explain the similarities and differences between the parameterizations of two multilevel measurement model (MMM) frameworks. The conventional two-level MMM that includes item indicators and models item scores (Level 1) clustered within examinees (Level 2) and the two-level cross-classified MMM (in which item…

  2. Optimising the selection of food items for food frequency questionnaires using Mixed Integer Linear Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmen-Gerdessen, van J.C.; Souverein, O.W.; Veer, van 't P.; Vries, de J.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To support the selection of food items for FFQs in such a way that the amount of information on all relevant nutrients is maximised while the food list is as short as possible. Design Selection of the most informative food items to be included in FFQs was modelled as a Mixed Integer Linear

  3. 17 CFR 210.3A-04 - Intercompany items and transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Financial Statements § 210.3A-04 Intercompany items and transactions. In general, there shall be eliminated intercompany items and transactions between persons included in the (a) consolidated financial statements being... FORM AND CONTENT OF AND REQUIREMENTS FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES...

  4. Practice of radiation dose control for tech-modification items in Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; Chen Zhongyu; Xu Hongming; Fan Liguang; Jiang Jianqi; Bu Weidong

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve the safety and reliability of nuclear power plant operation, many tech-modifications related to system or equipment have been completed since operation in Qinshan NPP. this paper introduces radiation dose control for mainly tech-modifications items related to radiation, including radiation protection optimization measures and experience in aspects of item planning, program writing, process control, etc. (authors)

  5. An NCME Instructional Module on Polytomous Item Response Theory Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfield, Randall David

    2014-01-01

    A polytomous item is one for which the responses are scored according to three or more categories. Given the increasing use of polytomous items in assessment practices, item response theory (IRT) models specialized for polytomous items are becoming increasingly common. The purpose of this ITEMS module is to provide an accessible overview of…

  6. Loglinear multidimensional IRT models for polytomously scired Items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelderman, Henk

    1988-01-01

    A loglinear item response theory (IRT) model is proposed that relates polytomously scored item responses to a multidimensional latent space. Each item may have a different response function where each item response may be explained by one or more latent traits. Item response functions may follow a

  7. A strategy for optimizing item-pool management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariel, A.; van der Linden, Willem J.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2006-01-01

    Item-pool management requires a balancing act between the input of new items into the pool and the output of tests assembled from it. A strategy for optimizing item-pool management is presented that is based on the idea of a periodic update of an optimal blueprint for the item pool to tune item

  8. Individuals with knee impairments identify items in need of clarification in the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) pain interference and physical function item banks - a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Andrew D; Dodds, Nathan E; Yu, Lan; Pilkonis, Paul A; Irrgang, James J

    2016-05-11

    The content and wording of the Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Physical Function and Pain Interference item banks have not been qualitatively assessed by individuals with knee joint impairments. The purpose of this investigation was to identify items in the PROMIS Physical Function and Pain Interference Item Banks that are irrelevant, unclear, or otherwise difficult to respond to for individuals with impairment of the knee and to suggest modifications based on cognitive interviews. Twenty-nine individuals with knee joint impairments qualitatively assessed items in the Pain Interference and Physical Function Item Banks in a mixed-methods cognitive interview. Field notes were analyzed to identify themes and frequency counts were calculated to identify items not relevant to individuals with knee joint impairments. Issues with clarity were identified in 23 items in the Physical Function Item Bank, resulting in the creation of 43 new or modified items, typically changing words within the item to be clearer. Interpretation issues included whether or not the knee joint played a significant role in overall health and age/gender differences in items. One quarter of the original items (31 of 124) in the Physical Function Item Bank were identified as irrelevant to the knee joint. All 41 items in the Pain Interference Item Bank were identified as clear, although individuals without significant pain substituted other symptoms which interfered with their life. The Physical Function Item Bank would benefit from additional items that are relevant to individuals with knee joint impairments and, by extension, to other lower extremity impairments. Several issues in clarity were identified that are likely to be present in other patient cohorts as well.

  9. 2005 AdvanceVT Work/Life Survey Leadership Report

    OpenAIRE

    Glass, Valerie Q.

    2005-01-01

    The AdvanceVT Faculty Work-Life Survey, distributed to all teaching and research faculty in January 2005, addressed, among other things, leadership issues at Virginia Tech. This report presents findings from tenured and tenure- track faculty members (N=816) about items on the questionnaire related to leadership including: aspirations of Virginia Tech faculty members towards leadership positions, their views about the possibility of maintaining a balance between leadership and other responsibi...

  10. Counterfeit and Fraudulent Items - Mitigating the risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannenbaum, Marc

    2011-01-01

    This presentation (slides) provides an overview of the industry's challenges and activities. Firstly, it outlines the differences between counterfeit, fraudulent, suspect, and also substandard items. Notice is given that items could be found not to meet the standard, but the difference in the intent to deceive with counterfeit and fraudulent items is the critical element. Examples from other industries are used which also rely heavily on the assurance of quality for safety. It also informs that EPRI has just completed a report in October 2009 in coordination with other US government agencies and industry organizations; this report, entitled Counterfeit, Substandard and Fraudulent Items, number 1019163, is available for free on the EPRI web site. As a follow-up to this report, EPRI is developing a CFSI Database; any country interested in a collaborative agreement is invited to use and contribute to the database information. Finally, it stresses the importance of the oversight of contractors, training to raise the awareness of the employees and the inspectors, and having a response plan for identified items

  11. New seismograph includes filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-02

    The new Nimbus ES-1210 multichannel signal enhancement seismograph from EG and G geometrics has recently been redesigned to include multimode signal fillers on each amplifier. The ES-1210F is a shallow exploration seismograph for near subsurface exploration such as in depth-to-bedrock, geological hazard location, mineral exploration, and landslide investigations.

  12. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Totero Gongora, Juan Sebastian; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Candeloro, Patrizio; Cuda, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  13. Saskatchewan resources. [including uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    The production of chemicals and minerals for the chemical industry in Saskatchewan are featured, with some discussion of resource taxation. The commodities mentioned include potash, fatty amines, uranium, heavy oil, sodium sulfate, chlorine, sodium hydroxide, sodium chlorate and bentonite. Following the successful outcome of the Cluff Lake inquiry, the uranium industry is booming. Some developments and production figures for Gulf Minerals, Amok, Cenex and Eldorado are mentioned.

  14. Verification of Differential Item Functioning (DIF) Status of West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated test item bias and Differential Item Functioning (DIF) of West African ... items in chemistry function differentially with respect to gender and location. In Aba education zone of Abia, 50 secondary schools were purposively ...

  15. A confirmative clinimetric analysis of the 36-item Family Assessment Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerby, Nina; Cosci, Fiammetta; Watson, Maggie; Csillag, Claudio; Schmitt, Florence; Steck, Barbara; Bech, Per; Thastum, Mikael

    2018-02-07

    The Family Assessment Device (FAD) is a 60-item questionnaire widely used to evaluate self-reported family functioning. However, the factor structure as well as the number of items has been questioned. A shorter and more user-friendly version of the original FAD-scale, the 36-item FAD, has therefore previously been proposed, based on findings in a nonclinical population of adults. We aimed in this study to evaluate the brief 36-item version of the FAD in a clinical population. Data from a European multinational study, examining factors associated with levels of family functioning in adult cancer patients' families, were used. Both healthy and ill parents completed the 60-item version FAD. The psychometric analyses conducted were Principal Component Analysis and Mokken-analysis. A total of 564 participants were included. Based on the psychometric analysis we confirmed that the 36-item version of the FAD has robust psychometric properties and can be used in clinical populations. The present analysis confirmed that the 36-item version of the FAD (18 items assessing 'well-being' and 18 items assessing 'dysfunctional' family function) is a brief scale where the summed total score is a valid measure of the dimensions of family functioning. This shorter version of the FAD is, in accordance with the concept of 'measurement-based care', an easy to use scale that could be considered when the aim is to evaluate self-reported family functioning.

  16. Comparison of Alternate and Original Items on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeva, Elena; Huang, Mei; Koski, Lisa

    2016-03-01

    The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a screening tool for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in elderly individuals. We hypothesized that measurement error when using the new alternate MoCA versions to monitor change over time could be related to the use of items that are not of comparable difficulty to their corresponding originals of similar content. The objective of this study was to compare the difficulty of the alternate MoCA items to the original ones. Five selected items from alternate versions of the MoCA were included with items from the original MoCA administered adaptively to geriatric outpatients (N = 78). Rasch analysis was used to estimate the difficulty level of the items. None of the five items from the alternate versions matched the difficulty level of their corresponding original items. This study demonstrates the potential benefits of a Rasch analysis-based approach for selecting items during the process of development of parallel forms. The results suggest that better match of the items from different MoCA forms by their difficulty would result in higher sensitivity to changes in cognitive function over time.

  17. Assessment of the Item Selection and Weighting in the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score for Wegener's Granulomatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAHR, ALFRED D.; NEOGI, TUHINA; LAVALLEY, MICHAEL P.; DAVIS, JOHN C.; HOFFMAN, GARY S.; MCCUNE, W. JOSEPH; SPECKS, ULRICH; SPIERA, ROBERT F.; ST.CLAIR, E. WILLIAM; STONE, JOHN H.; MERKEL, PETER A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score for Wegener's Granulomatosis (BVAS/WG) with respect to its selection and weighting of items. Methods This study used the BVAS/WG data from the Wegener's Granulomatosis Etanercept Trial. The scoring frequencies of the 34 predefined items and any “other” items added by clinicians were calculated. Using linear regression with generalized estimating equations in which the physician global assessment (PGA) of disease activity was the dependent variable, we computed weights for all predefined items. We also created variables for clinical manifestations frequently added as other items, and computed weights for these as well. We searched for the model that included the items and their generated weights yielding an activity score with the highest R2 to predict the PGA. Results We analyzed 2,044 BVAS/WG assessments from 180 patients; 734 assessments were scored during active disease. The highest R2 with the PGA was obtained by scoring WG activity based on the following items: the 25 predefined items rated on ≥5 visits, the 2 newly created fatigue and weight loss variables, the remaining minor other and major other items, and a variable that signified whether new or worse items were present at a specific visit. The weights assigned to the items ranged from 1 to 21. Compared with the original BVAS/WG, this modified score correlated significantly more strongly with the PGA. Conclusion This study suggests possibilities to enhance the item selection and weighting of the BVAS/WG. These changes may increase this instrument's ability to capture the continuum of disease activity in WG. PMID:18512722

  18. INVESTIGATION OF MIS ITEM 011589A AND 3013 CONTAINERS HAVING SIMILAR CHARACTERISTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friday, G

    2006-08-23

    Recent testing has identified the presence of hydrogen and oxygen in MIS Item 011589A. This isolated observation has effectuated concern regarding the potential for flammable gas mixtures in containers in the storage inventory. This study examines the known physicochemical characteristics of MIS Item 011589A and queries the ISP Database for items that are most similar or potentially similar. Items identified as most similar are believed to have the highest probability of being chemically and structurally identical to MIS Item 011589A. Items identified as potentially like MIS Item 011589A have some attributes in common, have the potential to generate gases, but have a lower probability of having similar gas generating characteristics. MIS Item 011589A is an oxide that was generated prior to 1990 at Rocky Flats in Building 707. It was associated with foundry processing and had an actinide assay of approximately 77%. Prompt gamma analysis of MIS Item 011589A indicated the presence of chloride, fluorine, magnesium, sodium, and aluminum. Queries based on MIS representation classification and process of origin were applied to the ISP Database. Evaluation criteria included binning classification (i.e., innocuous, pressure, or pressure and corrosion), availability of prompt gamma analyses, presence of chlorine and magnesium, percentage of chlorine by weight, peak ratios (i.e., Na:Cl and Mg:Na), moisture, and percent assay. These queries identified 15 items that were most similar and 106 items that were potentially like MIS Item 011589A. Although these queries identified containers that could potentially generate flammable gases, verification and confirmation can only be accomplished by destructive evaluation and testing of containers from the storage inventory.

  19. Conjunctive and Disjunctive Item Response Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    fed set ofvaluesof a, b, AI , B1 A2 2 . 2 A3 , and 13 , the f ’. g ’a. nd h’a in (7) are fied. Equation (7) must still hold for S - e19029e3,..* . Thus...for Item I Is -- b ?(a:1 , b1 ,O) (1 + ’)(I + e4 (22 where a and pi are arbitrary constants. These constants mst be the sam for all Items In a given...NETHERLIS I E3I1 Focility-Acquisitions 4133 Rugby Avnue 1 Lee Cronbach Bethesda, NO 20014 16 Laburnue Road Atherton, CA 94205 1 Dr. Benjamin A. Fairbank

  20. Assessing nicotine dependence in adolescent E-cigarette users: The 4-item Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Nicotine Dependence Item Bank for electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morean, Meghan E; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; S O'Malley, Stephanie

    2018-04-26

    Adolescent e-cigarette use (i.e., "vaping") likely confers risk for developing nicotine dependence. However, there have been no studies assessing e-cigarette nicotine dependence in youth. We evaluated the psychometric properties of the 4-item Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Nicotine Dependence Item Bank for E-cigarettes (PROMIS-E) for assessing youth e-cigarette nicotine dependence and examined risk factors for experiencing stronger dependence symptoms. In 2017, 520 adolescent past-month e-cigarette users completed the PROMIS-E during a school-based survey (50.5% female, 84.8% White, 16.22[1.19] years old). Adolescents also reported on sex, grade, race, age at e-cigarette use onset, vaping frequency, nicotine e-liquid use, and past-month cigarette smoking. Analyses included conducting confirmatory factor analysis and examining the internal consistency of the PROMIS-E. Bivariate correlations and independent-samples t-tests were used to examine unadjusted relationships between e-cigarette nicotine dependence and the proposed risk factors. Regression models were run in which all potential risk factors were entered as simultaneous predictors of PROMIS-E scores. The single-factor structure of the PROMIS-E was confirmed and evidenced good internal consistency. Across models, larger PROMIS-E scores were associated with being in a higher grade, initiating e-cigarette use at an earlier age, vaping more frequently, using nicotine e-liquid (and higher nicotine concentrations), and smoking cigarettes. Adolescent e-cigarette users reported experiencing nicotine dependence, which was assessed using the psychometrically sound PROMIS-E. Experiencing stronger nicotine dependence symptoms was associated with characteristics that previously have been shown to confer risk for frequent vaping and tobacco cigarette dependence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Universal Authenticated Item Monitoring System (AIMS) second generation equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoeneman, J.L.; Baumann, M.J.; Fox, L.J.; Jenkins, C.D.; Perlinsk, A.W.

    1992-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is in the final stages of developing a Universal Authenticated Item Monitoring System (AIMS). When completed, AIMS will provide applicable agencies in the US government, and those in the International arena, with a secure and convenient method of monitoring the physical status of selected items. The benefit derived from this development activity will be the commercial availability of an item monitoring system with the capability for ''quick set-up'' monitoring, as well as long-term unattended monitoring. The AIMS includes a variety of sensors, a robust and authenticated radio frequency (RF) communication link, a Receiver Processing Unit (RPU), and an inspector-friendly personal computer (PC) interface for collecting, sorting, viewing and archiving pertinent event histories. The system will provide the capability to monitor selected items in a real-time mode, a remotely interrogated mode, and a stand-alone, unattended data collection mode. The sensor suite under development includes advanced motion sensors, interior volumetric intrusion sensors, Re-usable, In-situ Verifiable Authenticated (RIVA) fiber-optic seal sensors, generic utility sensors (to accommodate contact closure inputs), and radiation and environmental sensors. A new generation authentication algorithm recently has been developed that provides a high degree of system security 121. The AIMS has potential safeguards applications in the areas of arms control and treaty verification military asset control, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Euratom safeguards verification activities, as well as domestic nuclear safeguard activities. Commercial applications could include high-value inventory control and security systems. This paper describes the second-generation AIMS along with its recently expanded sensor suite and enhanced data collection capabilities

  2. A Comparison of the 27-Item and 12-Item Intolerance of Uncertainty Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Nigar G.; Yu, Lai Ngo Heidi

    2010-01-01

    The 27-item Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS) has become one of the most frequently used measures of Intolerance of Uncertainty. More recently, an abridged, 12-item version of the IUS has been developed. The current research used clinical (n = 50) and non-clinical (n = 56) samples to examine and compare the psychometric properties of both…

  3. Modeling Local Item Dependence in Cloze and Reading Comprehension Test Items Using Testlet Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghaei, Purya; Ravand, Hamdollah

    2016-01-01

    In this study the magnitudes of local dependence generated by cloze test items and reading comprehension items were compared and their impact on parameter estimates and test precision was investigated. An advanced English as a foreign language reading comprehension test containing three reading passages and a cloze test was analyzed with a…

  4. What should be included in the assessment of laypersons' paediatric basic life support skills? Results from a Delphi consensus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselager, Asbjørn Børch; Lauritsen, Torsten; Kristensen, Tim; Bohnstedt, Cathrine; Sønderskov, Claus; Østergaard, Doris; Tolsgaard, Martin Grønnebæk

    2018-01-18

    Assessment of laypersons' Paediatric Basic Life Support (PBLS) skills is important to ensure acquisition of effective PBLS competencies. However limited evidence exists on which PBLS skills are essential for laypersons. The same challenges exist with respect to the assessment of foreign body airway obstruction management (FBAOM) skills. We aimed to establish international consensus on how to assess laypersons' PBLS and FBAOM skills. A Delphi consensus survey was conducted. Out of a total of 84 invited experts, 28 agreed to participate. During the first Delphi round experts suggested items to assess laypersons' PBLS and FBAOM skills. In the second round, the suggested items received comments from and were rated by 26 experts (93%) on a 5-point scale (1 = not relevant to 5 = essential). Revised items were anonymously presented in a third round for comments and 23 (82%) experts completed a re-rating. Items with a score above 3 by more than 80% of the experts in the third round were included in an assessment instrument. In the first round, 19 and 15 items were identified to assess PBLS and FBAOM skills, respectively. The ratings and comments from the last two rounds resulted in nine and eight essential assessment items for PBLS and FBAOM skills, respectively. The PBLS items included: "Responsiveness"," Call for help", "Open airway"," Check breathing", "Rescue breaths", "Compressions", "Ventilations", "Time factor" and "Use of AED". The FBAOM items included: "Identify different stages of foreign body airway obstruction", "Identify consciousness", "Call for help", "Back blows", "Chest thrusts/abdominal thrusts according to age", "Identify loss of consciousness and change to CPR", "Assessment of breathing" and "Ventilation". For assessment of laypersons some PBLS and FBAOM skills described in guidelines are more important than others. Four out of nine of PBLS skills focus on airway and breathing skills, supporting the major importance of these skills for

  5. Differential item functioning magnitude and impact measures from item response theory models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Marjorie; Teresi, Jeanne A

    2016-01-01

    Measures of magnitude and impact of differential item functioning (DIF) at the item and scale level, respectively are presented and reviewed in this paper. Most measures are based on item response theory models. Magnitude refers to item level effect sizes, whereas impact refers to differences between groups at the scale score level. Reviewed are magnitude measures based on group differences in the expected item scores and impact measures based on differences in the expected scale scores. The similarities among these indices are demonstrated. Various software packages are described that provide magnitude and impact measures, and new software presented that computes all of the available statistics conveniently in one program with explanations of their relationships to one another.

  6. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...... community politics. On the one hand, their mobility and decision-making powers decrease with the increase in the labor mobility of men and their newly gained education is politically devalued when compared to the informal education that men gain through mobility, but on the other hand, schooling strengthens...

  7. 47 CFR 32.7600 - Extraordinary items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions For Other Income Accounts § 32.7600 Extraordinary items... extraordinary. Extraordinary events and transactions are distinguished by both their unusual nature and by the infrequency of their occurrence, taking into account the environment in which the company operates. This...

  8. Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items, Number Thirteen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Wade B.

    An issue of "Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items" consists of English translations of the leading recent Soviet contributions to the study of cybernetics. Articles deal with cybernetics in the 21st Century; the Soviet State Committee on Science and Technology; economic reforms in Rudnev's ministry; an interview with Rudnev; Dnepr-2; Dnepr-2…

  9. Random Item Generation Is Affected by Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multani, Namita; Rudzicz, Frank; Wong, Wing Yiu Stephanie; Namasivayam, Aravind Kumar; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Random item generation (RIG) involves central executive functioning. Measuring aspects of random sequences can therefore provide a simple method to complement other tools for cognitive assessment. We examine the extent to which RIG relates to specific measures of cognitive function, and whether those measures can be estimated using RIG…

  10. In-Process Items on LCS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Thyra K.

    Morris Library at Southern Illinois University computerized its technical processes using the Library Computer System (LCS), which was implemented in the library to streamline order processing by: (1) providing up-to-date online files to track in-process items; (2) encouraging quick, efficient accessing of information; (3) reducing manual files;…

  11. Algorithmic test design using classical item parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.; Adema, Jos J.

    Two optimalization models for the construction of tests with a maximal value of coefficient alpha are given. Both models have a linear form and can be solved by using a branch-and-bound algorithm. The first model assumes an item bank calibrated under the Rasch model and can be used, for instance,

  12. Item Effects in Recognition Memory for Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Emily; Heathcote, Andrew; Chalmers, Kerry; Hockley, William

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the effects of word characteristics on episodic recognition memory using analyses that avoid Clark's (1973) "language-as-a-fixed-effect" fallacy. Our results demonstrate the importance of modeling word variability and show that episodic memory for words is strongly affected by item noise (Criss & Shiffrin, 2004), as measured by the…

  13. Extending Item Response Theory to Online Homework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortemeyer, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Item response theory (IRT) becomes an increasingly important tool when analyzing "big data" gathered from online educational venues. However, the mechanism was originally developed in traditional exam settings, and several of its assumptions are infringed upon when deployed in the online realm. For a large-enrollment physics course for…

  14. Item Response Theory: A Basic Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Jumailiyah

    2017-01-01

    With the development in computing technology, item response theory (IRT) develops rapidly, and has become a user friendly application in psychometrics world. Limitation in classical theory is one aspect that encourages the use of IRT. In this study, the basic concept of IRT will be discussed. In addition, it will briefly review the ability…

  15. Item Response Theory for Peer Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uto, Masaki; Ueno, Maomi

    2016-01-01

    As an assessment method based on a constructivist approach, peer assessment has become popular in recent years. However, in peer assessment, a problem remains that reliability depends on the rater characteristics. For this reason, some item response models that incorporate rater parameters have been proposed. Those models are expected to improve…

  16. 77 FR 59339 - Acquisition of Commercial Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 212 Acquisition of Commercial Items CFR Correction 212.504 [Corrected] In Title 48 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Chapter 2 (Parts 201--299), revised as of October 1, 2011, on page 73, in section 212.504, paragraph (a) is...

  17. Bayesian item selection criteria for adaptive testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    1996-01-01

    R.J. Owen (1975) proposed an approximate empirical Bayes procedure for item selection in adaptive testing. The procedure replaces the true posterior by a normal approximation with closed-form expressions for its first two moments. This approximation was necessary to minimize the computational

  18. Aging and Confidence Judgments in Item Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskuilen, Chelsea; Ratcliff, Roger; McKoon, Gail

    2018-01-01

    We examined the effects of aging on performance in an item-recognition experiment with confidence judgments. A model for confidence judgments and response time (RTs; Ratcliff & Starns, 2013) was used to fit a large amount of data from a new sample of older adults and a previously reported sample of younger adults. This model of confidence…

  19. 10 CFR 74.55 - Item monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Quantities of Strategic Special Nuclear Material § 74.55 Item monitoring. (a) Licensees subject to § 74.51... quantitatively measured, the validity of that measurement independently confirmed, and that additionally have..., except for reactor components measuring at least one meter in length and weighing in excess of 30...

  20. Identify, Organize, and Retrieve Items Using Zotero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brian; Stierman, John

    2009-01-01

    Librarians build collections. To do this they use tools that help them identify, organize, and retrieve items for the collection. Zotero (zoh-TAIR-oh) is such a tool that helps the user build a library of useful books, articles, web sites, blogs, etc., discovered while surfing online. A visit to Zotero's homepage, www.zotero.org, shows a number of…

  1. Design of Web Questionnaires : A Test for Number of Items per Screen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toepoel, V.; Das, J.W.M.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents results from an experimental manipulation of one versus multiple-items per screen format in a Web survey.The purpose of the experiment was to find out if a questionnaire s format influences how respondents provide answers in online questionnaires and if this is depending on

  2. Nonparametric Bounds in the Presence of Item Nonresponse, Unfolding Brackets and Anchoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vazquez-Alvarez, R.; Melenberg, B.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2001-01-01

    Household surveys often suffer from nonresponse on variables such as income, savings or wealth.Recent work by Manski shows how bounds on conditional quantiles of the variable of interest can be derived, allowing for any type of nonrandom item nonresponse.The width between these bounds can be reduced

  3. Using item response theory to measure extreme response style in marketing research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Martijn G.; Steenkamp, Jan-Benedict E.M.; Fox, Gerardus J.A.; Baumgartner, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Extreme response style (ERS) is an important threat to the validity of survey-based marketing research. In this article, the authors present a new item response theory–based model for measuring ERS. This model contributes to the ERS literature in two ways. First, the method improves on existing

  4. Method effects: the problem with negatively versus positively keyed items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindwall, Magnus; Barkoukis, Vassilis; Grano, Caterina; Lucidi, Fabio; Raudsepp, Lennart; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie

    2012-01-01

    Using confirmatory factor analyses, we examined method effects on Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES; Rosenberg, 1965) in a sample of older European adults. Nine hundred forty nine community-dwelling adults 60 years of age or older from 5 European countries completed the RSES as well as measures of depression and life satisfaction. The 2 models that had an acceptable fit with the data included method effects. The method effects were associated with both positively and negatively worded items. Method effects models were invariant across gender and age, but not across countries. Both depression and life satisfaction predicted method effects. Individuals with higher depression scores and lower life satisfaction scores were more likely to endorse negatively phrased items.

  5. Optimal pricing and marketing planning for deteriorating items.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Reza Moosavi Tabatabaei

    Full Text Available Optimal pricing and marketing planning plays an essential role in production decisions on deteriorating items. This paper presents a mathematical model for a three-level supply chain, which includes one producer, one distributor and one retailer. The proposed study considers the production of a deteriorating item where demand is influenced by price, marketing expenditure, quality of product and after-sales service expenditures. The proposed model is formulated as a geometric programming with 5 degrees of difficulty and the problem is solved using the recent advances in optimization techniques. The study is supported by several numerical examples and sensitivity analysis is performed to analyze the effects of the changes in different parameters on the optimal solution. The preliminary results indicate that with the change in parameters influencing on demand, inventory holding, inventory deteriorating and set-up costs change and also significantly affect total revenue.

  6. Optimal pricing and marketing planning for deteriorating items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi Tabatabaei, Seyed Reza; Sadjadi, Seyed Jafar; Makui, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Optimal pricing and marketing planning plays an essential role in production decisions on deteriorating items. This paper presents a mathematical model for a three-level supply chain, which includes one producer, one distributor and one retailer. The proposed study considers the production of a deteriorating item where demand is influenced by price, marketing expenditure, quality of product and after-sales service expenditures. The proposed model is formulated as a geometric programming with 5 degrees of difficulty and the problem is solved using the recent advances in optimization techniques. The study is supported by several numerical examples and sensitivity analysis is performed to analyze the effects of the changes in different parameters on the optimal solution. The preliminary results indicate that with the change in parameters influencing on demand, inventory holding, inventory deteriorating and set-up costs change and also significantly affect total revenue. PMID:28306750

  7. Optimal pricing and marketing planning for deteriorating items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi Tabatabaei, Seyed Reza; Sadjadi, Seyed Jafar; Makui, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Optimal pricing and marketing planning plays an essential role in production decisions on deteriorating items. This paper presents a mathematical model for a three-level supply chain, which includes one producer, one distributor and one retailer. The proposed study considers the production of a deteriorating item where demand is influenced by price, marketing expenditure, quality of product and after-sales service expenditures. The proposed model is formulated as a geometric programming with 5 degrees of difficulty and the problem is solved using the recent advances in optimization techniques. The study is supported by several numerical examples and sensitivity analysis is performed to analyze the effects of the changes in different parameters on the optimal solution. The preliminary results indicate that with the change in parameters influencing on demand, inventory holding, inventory deteriorating and set-up costs change and also significantly affect total revenue.

  8. Overview of Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory for Quantitative Assessment of Items in Developing Patient-Reported Outcome Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelleri, Joseph C.; Lundy, J. Jason; Hays, Ron D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s patient-reported outcome (PRO) guidance document defines content validity as “the extent to which the instrument measures the concept of interest” (FDA, 2009, p. 12). “Construct validity is now generally viewed as a unifying form of validity for psychological measurements, subsuming both content and criterion validity” (Strauss & Smith, 2009, p. 7). Hence both qualitative and quantitative information are essential in evaluating the validity of measures. Methods We review classical test theory and item response theory approaches to evaluating PRO measures including frequency of responses to each category of the items in a multi-item scale, the distribution of scale scores, floor and ceiling effects, the relationship between item response options and the total score, and the extent to which hypothesized “difficulty” (severity) order of items is represented by observed responses. Conclusion Classical test theory and item response theory can be useful in providing a quantitative assessment of items and scales during the content validity phase of patient-reported outcome measures. Depending on the particular type of measure and the specific circumstances, either one or both approaches should be considered to help maximize the content validity of PRO measures. PMID:24811753

  9. Nurse Religiosity and Spiritual Care: An Online Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Elizabeth Johnston; Gober-Park, Carla; Schoonover-Shoffner, Kathy; Mamier, Iris; Somaiya, Chintan K; Bahjri, Khaled

    2017-08-01

    This study measured the frequency of nurse-provided spiritual care and how it is associated with various facets of nurse religiosity. Data were collected using an online survey accessed from the home page of the Journal of Christian Nursing. The survey included the Nurse Spiritual Care Therapeutics Scale, six scales quantifying facets of religiosity, and demographic and work-related items. Respondents ( N = 358) indicated high religiosity yet reported neutral responses to items about sharing personal beliefs and tentativeness of belief. Findings suggested spiritual care was infrequent. Multivariate analysis showed prayer frequency, employer support of spiritual care, and non-White ethnicity were significantly associated with spiritual care frequency (adjusted R 2 = .10). Results not only provide an indication of spiritual care frequency but empirical encouragement for nurse managers to provide a supportive environment for spiritual care. Findings expose the reality that nurse religiosity is directly related, albeit weakly, to spiritual care frequency.

  10. Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR): an item response theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkonis, Paul A; Kim, Yookyung; Yu, Lan; Morse, Jennifer Q

    2014-01-01

    The Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR) include 3 scales for anxious, ambivalent attachment (excessive dependency, interpersonal ambivalence, and compulsive care-giving), 3 for avoidant attachment (rigid self-control, defensive separation, and emotional detachment), and 1 for secure attachment. The scales include items (ranging from 6-16 in their original form) scored by raters using a 3-point format (0 = absent, 1 = present, and 2 = strongly present) and summed to produce a total score. Item response theory (IRT) analyses were conducted with data from 414 participants recruited from psychiatric outpatient, medical, and community settings to identify the most informative items from each scale. The IRT results allowed us to shorten the scales to 5-item versions that are more precise and easier to rate because of their brevity. In general, the effective range of measurement for the scales was 0 to +2 SDs for each of the attachment constructs; that is, from average to high levels of attachment problems. Evidence for convergent and discriminant validity of the scales was investigated by comparing them with the Experiences of Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R) scale and the Kobak Attachment Q-sort. The best consensus among self-reports on the ECR-R, informant ratings on the ECR-R, and expert judgments on the Q-sort and the AAR emerged for anxious, ambivalent attachment. Given the good psychometric characteristics of the scale for secure attachment, however, this measure alone might provide a simple alternative to more elaborate procedures for some measurement purposes. Conversion tables are provided for the 7 scales to facilitate transformation from raw scores to IRT-calibrated (theta) scores.

  11. Single-Item Measurement of Suicidal Behaviors: Validity and Consequences of Misclassification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J Millner

    Full Text Available Suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide. Although research has made strides in better defining suicidal behaviors, there has been less focus on accurate measurement. Currently, the widespread use of self-report, single-item questions to assess suicide ideation, plans and attempts may contribute to measurement problems and misclassification. We examined the validity of single-item measurement and the potential for statistical errors. Over 1,500 participants completed an online survey containing single-item questions regarding a history of suicidal behaviors, followed by questions with more precise language, multiple response options and narrative responses to examine the validity of single-item questions. We also conducted simulations to test whether common statistical tests are robust against the degree of misclassification produced by the use of single-items. We found that 11.3% of participants that endorsed a single-item suicide attempt measure engaged in behavior that would not meet the standard definition of a suicide attempt. Similarly, 8.8% of those who endorsed a single-item measure of suicide ideation endorsed thoughts that would not meet standard definitions of suicide ideation. Statistical simulations revealed that this level of misclassification substantially decreases statistical power and increases the likelihood of false conclusions from statistical tests. Providing a wider range of response options for each item reduced the misclassification rate by approximately half. Overall, the use of single-item, self-report questions to assess the presence of suicidal behaviors leads to misclassification, increasing the likelihood of statistical decision errors. Improving the measurement of suicidal behaviors is critical to increase understanding and prevention of suicide.

  12. A Model for Predicting the Repair Costs of U.S. Navy Inventory Items

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tan, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    .... Navy inventory items. The thesis examines several prediction methodologies, including a ratio-estimator prediction method that is a modification of the methodology currently in use, as well as regression analysis...

  13. Methodology for the development and calibration of the SCI-QOL item banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsky, David S; Kisala, Pamela A; Victorson, David; Choi, Seung W; Gershon, Richard; Heinemann, Allen W; Cella, David

    2015-05-01

    To develop a comprehensive, psychometrically sound, and conceptually grounded patient reported outcomes (PRO) measurement system for individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Individual interviews (n=44) and focus groups (n=65 individuals with SCI and n=42 SCI clinicians) were used to select key domains for inclusion and to develop PRO items. Verbatim items from other cutting-edge measurement systems (i.e. PROMIS, Neuro-QOL) were included to facilitate linkage and cross-population comparison. Items were field tested in a large sample of individuals with traumatic SCI (n=877). Dimensionality was assessed with confirmatory factor analysis. Local item dependence and differential item functioning were assessed, and items were calibrated using the item response theory (IRT) graded response model. Finally, computer adaptive tests (CATs) and short forms were administered in a new sample (n=245) to assess test-retest reliability and stability. A calibration sample of 877 individuals with traumatic SCI across five SCI Model Systems sites and one Department of Veterans Affairs medical center completed SCI-QOL items in interview format. We developed 14 unidimensional calibrated item banks and 3 calibrated scales across physical, emotional, and social health domains. When combined with the five Spinal Cord Injury--Functional Index physical function banks, the final SCI-QOL system consists of 22 IRT-calibrated item banks/scales. Item banks may be administered as CATs or short forms. Scales may be administered in a fixed-length format only. The SCI-QOL measurement system provides SCI researchers and clinicians with a comprehensive, relevant and psychometrically robust system for measurement of physical-medical, physical-functional, emotional, and social outcomes. All SCI-QOL instruments are freely available on Assessment CenterSM.

  14. Exploring differential item functioning (DIF) with the Rasch model: a comparison of gender differences on eighth grade science items in the United States and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiar, Tasha Calvert

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, women and minorities have not been fully represented in science and engineering. Numerous studies have attributed these differences to gaps in science achievement as measured by various standardized tests. Rather than describe mean group differences in science achievement across multiple cultures, this study focused on an in-depth item-level analysis across two countries: Spain and the United States. This study investigated eighth-grade gender differences on science items across the two countries. A secondary purpose of the study was to explore the nature of gender differences using the many-faceted Rasch Model as a way to estimate gender DIF. A secondary analysis of data from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) was used to address three questions: 1) Does gender DIF in science achievement exist? 2) Is there a relationship between gender DIF and characteristics of the science items? 3) Do the relationships between item characteristics and gender DIF in science items replicate across countries. Participants included 7,087 eight grade students from the United States and 3,855 students from Spain who participated in TIMSS. The Facets program (Linacre and Wright, 1992) was used to estimate gender DIF. The results of the analysis indicate that the content of the item seemed to be related to gender DIF. The analysis also suggests that there is a relationship between gender DIF and item format. No pattern of gender DIF related to cognitive demand was found. The general pattern of gender DIF was similar across the two countries used in the analysis. The strength of item-level analysis as opposed to group mean difference analysis is that gender differences can be detected at the item level, even when no mean differences can be detected at the group level.

  15. A 67-Item Stress Resilience item bank showing high content validity was developed in a psychosomatic sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obbarius, Nina; Fischer, Felix; Obbarius, Alexander; Nolte, Sandra; Liegl, Gregor; Rose, Matthias

    2018-04-10

    To develop the first item bank to measure Stress Resilience (SR) in clinical populations. Qualitative item development resulted in an initial pool of 131 items covering a broad theoretical SR concept. These items were tested in n=521 patients at a psychosomatic outpatient clinic. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), as well as other state-of-the-art item analyses and IRT were used for item evaluation and calibration of the final item bank. Out of the initial item pool of 131 items, we excluded 64 items (54 factor loading .3, 2 non-discriminative Item Response Curves, 4 Differential Item Functioning). The final set of 67 items indicated sufficient model fit in CFA and IRT analyses. Additionally, a 10-item short form with high measurement precision (SE≤.32 in a theta range between -1.8 and +1.5) was derived. Both the SR item bank and the SR short form were highly correlated with an existing static legacy tool (Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale). The final SR item bank and 10-item short form showed good psychometric properties. When further validated, they will be ready to be used within a framework of Computer-Adaptive Tests for a comprehensive assessment of the Stress-Construct. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Calibration of Automatically Generated Items Using Bayesian Hierarchical Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew S.; Sinharay, Sandip

    For complex educational assessments, there is an increasing use of "item families," which are groups of related items. However, calibration or scoring for such an assessment requires fitting models that take into account the dependence structure inherent among the items that belong to the same item family. C. Glas and W. van der Linden…

  17. Applying Hierarchical Model Calibration to Automatically Generated Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, David M.; Johnson, Matthew S.; Sinharay, Sandip; Bejar, Isaac I.

    This study explored the application of hierarchical model calibration as a means of reducing, if not eliminating, the need for pretesting of automatically generated items from a common item model prior to operational use. Ultimately the successful development of automatic item generation (AIG) systems capable of producing items with highly similar…

  18. 10 CFR 835.605 - Labeling items and containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling items and containers. 835.605 Section 835.605... items and containers. Except as provided at § 835.606, each item or container of radioactive material... information to permit individuals handling, using, or working in the vicinity of the items or containers to...

  19. 41 CFR 101-27.404 - Review of items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Review of items. 101-27.404 Section 101-27.404 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...-Elimination of Items From Inventory § 101-27.404 Review of items. Except for standby or reserve stocks, items...

  20. Australian Chemistry Test Item Bank: Years 11 & 12. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commons, C., Ed.; Martin, P., Ed.

    Volume 1 of the Australian Chemistry Test Item Bank, consisting of two volumes, contains nearly 2000 multiple-choice items related to the chemistry taught in Year 11 and Year 12 courses in Australia. Items which were written during 1979 and 1980 were initially published in the "ACER Chemistry Test Item Collection" and in the "ACER…

  1. ACER Chemistry Test Item Collection. ACER Chemtic Year 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    The chemistry test item banks contains 225 multiple-choice questions suitable for diagnostic and achievement testing; a three-page teacher's guide; answer key with item facilities; an answer sheet; and a 45-item sample achievement test. Although written for the new grade 12 chemistry course in Victoria, Australia, the items are widely applicable.…

  2. Utilizing Response Time Distributions for Item Selection in CAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhewen; Wang, Chun; Chang, Hua-Hua; Douglas, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Traditional methods for item selection in computerized adaptive testing only focus on item information without taking into consideration the time required to answer an item. As a result, some examinees may receive a set of items that take a very long time to finish, and information is not accrued as efficiently as possible. The authors propose two…

  3. A Review of Classical Methods of Item Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Christine L.

    Item analysis is a very important consideration in the test development process. It is a statistical procedure to analyze test items that combines methods used to evaluate the important characteristics of test items, such as difficulty, discrimination, and distractibility of the items in a test. This paper reviews some of the classical methods for…

  4. Differential item functioning analysis with ordinal logistic regression techniques. DIFdetect and difwithpar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Paul K; Gibbons, Laura E; Jolley, Lance; van Belle, Gerald

    2006-11-01

    We present an ordinal logistic regression model for identification of items with differential item functioning (DIF) and apply this model to a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) dataset. We employ item response theory ability estimation in our models. Three nested ordinal logistic regression models are applied to each item. Model testing begins with examination of the statistical significance of the interaction term between ability and the group indicator, consistent with nonuniform DIF. Then we turn our attention to the coefficient of the ability term in models with and without the group term. If including the group term has a marked effect on that coefficient, we declare that it has uniform DIF. We examined DIF related to language of test administration in addition to self-reported race, Hispanic ethnicity, age, years of education, and sex. We used PARSCALE for IRT analyses and STATA for ordinal logistic regression approaches. We used an iterative technique for adjusting IRT ability estimates on the basis of DIF findings. Five items were found to have DIF related to language. These same items also had DIF related to other covariates. The ordinal logistic regression approach to DIF detection, when combined with IRT ability estimates, provides a reasonable alternative for DIF detection. There appear to be several items with significant DIF related to language of test administration in the MMSE. More attention needs to be paid to the specific criteria used to determine whether an item has DIF, not just the technique used to identify DIF.

  5. An Effective Multimedia Item Shell Design for Individualized Education: The Crome Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Cheng

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several advantages to creating multimedia item types and applying computer-based adaptive testing in education. First is the capability to motivate learning by making the learners feel more engaged and in an interactive environment. Second is a better concept representation, which is not possible in conventional multiple-choice tests. Third is the advantage of individualized curriculum design, rather than a curriculum designed for an average student. Fourth is a good choice of the next question, associated with the appropriate difficulty level based on a student's response to the current question. However, many issues need to be addressed when achieving these goals, including: (a the large number of item types required to represent the current multiple-choice questions in multimedia formats, (b the criterion used to determine the difficulty level of a multimedia question item, and (c the methodology applied to the question selection process for individual students. In this paper, we propose a multimedia item shell design that not only reduces the number of item types required, but also computes difficulty level of an item automatically. The concept of question seed is introduced to make content creation more cost-effective. The proposed item shell framework facilitates efficient communication between user responses at the client, and the scoring agents integrated with a student ability assessor at the server. We also describe approaches for automatically estimating difficulty level of questions, and discuss preliminary evaluation of multimedia item types by students.

  6. Behavioral decoding of working memory items inside and outside the focus of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Remington; Lewis-Peacock, Jarrod A

    2018-03-31

    How we attend to our thoughts affects how we attend to our environment. Holding information in working memory can automatically bias visual attention toward matching information. By observing attentional biases on reaction times to visual search during a memory delay, it is possible to reconstruct the source of that bias using machine learning techniques and thereby behaviorally decode the content of working memory. Can this be done when more than one item is held in working memory? There is some evidence that multiple items can simultaneously bias attention, but the effects have been inconsistent. One explanation may be that items are stored in different states depending on the current task demands. Recent models propose functionally distinct states of representation for items inside versus outside the focus of attention. Here, we use behavioral decoding to evaluate whether multiple memory items-including temporarily irrelevant items outside the focus of attention-exert biases on visual attention. Only the single item in the focus of attention was decodable. The other item showed a brief attentional bias that dissipated until it returned to the focus of attention. These results support the idea of dynamic, flexible states of working memory across time and priority. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. Nickel and cobalt release from jewellery and metal clothing items in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Seung Hyun; Choi, You Won; Choi, Hae Young; Byun, Ji Yeon

    2014-01-01

    In Korea, the prevalence of nickel allergy has shown a sharply increasing trend. Cobalt contact allergy is often associated with concomitant reactions to nickel, and is more common in Korea than in western countries. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of items that release nickel and cobalt on the Korean market. A total of 471 items that included 193 branded jewellery, 202 non-branded jewellery and 76 metal clothing items were sampled and studied with a dimethylglyoxime (DMG) test and a cobalt spot test to detect nickel and cobalt release, respectively. Nickel release was detected in 47.8% of the tested items. The positive rates in the DMG test were 12.4% for the branded jewellery, 70.8% for the non-branded jewellery, and 76.3% for the metal clothing items. Cobalt release was found in 6.2% of items. Among the types of jewellery, belts and hair pins showed higher positive rates in both the DMG test and the cobalt spot test. Our study shows that the prevalence of items that release nickel or cobalt among jewellery and metal clothing items is high in Korea. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. [Effectiveness of mental health training including active listening for managers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Kazunori; Tagawa, Yoshimasa; Mafune, Kosuke; Hiro, Hisanori; Nagata, Shoji

    2008-07-01

    We carried out mental health training with Active Listening for managers of A company, which was the electronics manufacturing company with 1,900 employees. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect on managers and employees in the workplace on the training. The subjects were all persons who managed regular employees directly in A company. We performed the investigation from May 2006 to February 2007 and carried out the training from September to November in 2006. The contents of the training were from the chapter on "The education and training of managers" in the "The guideline for maintenance and promotion of mental health for workers" issued by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan in 2006. We divided the contents and implemented them in two sessions. "Responding to worker consultation" was one of the contents of Active Listening. In the first session, we explained about Active Listening, and in the second session we ran a practical involving Inventive Experiential Listening. One month later, we distributed material summarizing the training to all the participants. To evaluate the effect of the training, we conducted surveys of the participants using the Active Listening Attitude Scale (ALAS), prior to and after the training, and distributed questionnaires, post-training about the contents of the training and changes of consciousness and action. Furthermore, we performed surveys pre- and post-training using the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ) 12 items version, distributed to all employees. We evaluated the effect of the training on 124 managers and 908 workers by the investigation. The score of each subscale was analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance. There were no significant differences in the scores of both the "Listening attitude" and "Listening skill" subscales of ALAS between pre-training and post-training, but the mean scores post-training were higher than those pre-training on both subscales. There were

  9. Surveying Future Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstrom, John E.

    2016-06-01

    The now standard model of cosmology has been tested and refined by the analysis of increasingly sensitive, large astronomical surveys, especially with statistically significant millimeter-wave surveys of the cosmic microwave background and optical surveys of the distribution of galaxies. This talk will offer a glimpse of the future, which promises an acceleration of this trend with cosmological information coming from new surveys across the electromagnetic spectrum as well as particles and even gravitational waves.

  10. Item analysis and evaluation in the examinations in the faculty of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-05

    Nov 5, 2014 ... Key words: Classical test theory, item analysis, item difficulty, item discrimination, item response theory, reliability ... the probability of answering an item correctly or of attaining ..... A Monte Carlo comparison of item and person.

  11. Development of the Open Items Tracking System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riggi, V.

    1994-01-01

    The West Valley Demonstration Project, located on the site of the only commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing facility to have operated in USA, has the directed objectives of solidifying the high-level radioactive waste into a durable, solid form for shipment; decontaminating and decommissioning the tanks and facilities; and disposing of the resulting low-level and transuranic wastes. Since an escalating trend of open work items was noticed in the Fall of 1988, and there was no control mechanism for tracking and closing the open items, a Work Control System was developed for this purpose. It is self-contained system on a mainframe ARTEMIS 9000, which tracks, monitors, and closes out external commitments in a timely manner. Audits, surveillances, site appraisals, preventive maintenance, instrument calibration recall, and scheduling are covered

  12. Item calibration in incomplete testing designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman D. Verhelst

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the justifiability of item parameter estimation in incomplete testing designs in item response theory. Marginal maximum likelihood (MML as well as conditional maximum likelihood (CML procedures are considered in three commonly used incomplete designs: random incomplete, multistage testing and targeted testing designs. Mislevy and Sheenan (1989 have shown that in incomplete designs the justifiability of MML can be deduced from Rubin's (1976 general theory on inference in the presence of missing data. Their results are recapitulated and extended for more situations. In this study it is shown that for CML estimation the justification must be established in an alternative way, by considering the neglected part of the complete likelihood. The problems with incomplete designs are not generally recognized in practical situations. This is due to the stochastic nature of the incomplete designs which is not taken into account in standard computer algorithms. For that reason, incorrect uses of standard MML- and CML-algorithms are discussed.

  13. Effect of study context on item recollection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Erin I; Fernandes, Myra A

    2010-07-01

    We examined how visual context information provided during encoding, and unrelated to the target word, affected later recollection for words presented alone using a remember-know paradigm. Experiments 1A and 1B showed that participants had better overall memory-specifically, recollection-for words studied with pictures of intact faces than for words studied with pictures of scrambled or inverted faces. Experiment 2 replicated these results and showed that recollection was higher for words studied with pictures of faces than when no image accompanied the study word. In Experiment 3 participants showed equivalent memory for words studied with unique faces as for those studied with a repeatedly presented face. Results suggest that recollection benefits when visual context information high in meaningful content accompanies study words and that this benefit is not related to the uniqueness of the context. We suggest that participants use elaborative processes to integrate item and meaningful contexts into ensemble information, improving subsequent item recollection.

  14. Vending Machines: A Narrative Review of Factors Influencing Items Purchased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Sophia V; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2016-10-01

    Vending machines are a ubiquitous part of our food environments. Unfortunately, items found in vending machines tend to be processed foods and beverages high in salt, sugar, and/or fat. The purpose of this review is to describe intervention and case studies designed to promote healthier vending purchases by consumers and identify which manipulations are most effective. All studies analyzed were intervention or case studies that manipulated vending machines and analyzed sales or revenue data. This literature review is limited to studies conducted in the United States within the past 2 decades (ie, 1994 to 2015), regardless of study population or setting. Ten articles met these criteria based on a search conducted using PubMed. Study manipulations included price changes, increase in healthier items, changes to the advertisements wrapped around vending machines, and promotional signs such as a stoplight system to indicate healthfulness of items and to remind consumers to make healthy choices. Overall, seven studies had manipulations that resulted in statistically significant positive changes in purchasing behavior. Two studies used manipulations that did not influence consumer behavior, and one study was equivocal. Although there was no intervention pattern that ensured changes in purchasing, price reductions were most effective overall. Revenue from vending sales did not change substantially regardless of intervention, which will be important to foster initiation and sustainability of healthier vending. Future research should identify price changes that would balance healthier choices and revenue as well as better marketing to promote purchase of healthier items. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Acceptance issues for large items and difficult waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, J.; Lock, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Peter Lock described some particular cases which had given rise to difficult acceptance issues at NIREX, ranging from large size items to the impacts of chemicals used during decontamination on the mobility of radionuclides in a disposal facility: The UK strategy for intermediate level and certain low level radioactive waste disposal is based on production of cementitious waste-forms packaged in a standard range of containers as follows: 500 litre Drum - the normal container for most operational ILW (0.8 m diameter x 1.2 m high); 3 m"3 Box - a larger container for solid wastes (1.72 m x 1.72 m plan x 1.2 m high); 3 m"3 Drum - a larger container for in-drum mixing and immobilisation of sludge waste-forms (1.72 m diameter x 1.2 m high); 4 m Box - for large items of waste, especially from decommissioning (4.0 m x 2.4 m plan x 2.2 m high); 2 m LLW Box - for higher-density wastes (2.0 m x 2.4 m plan x 2.2 m high). In addition the majority of LLW is packaged by supercompaction followed by grouting in modified ISO freight containers (6 m x 2.5 m x 2.5 m). Some wastes do not fit easily into this strategy. These wastes include: very large items, (too big for the 4 m box) which, if dealt with whole, pose transport and disposal problems. These items are discussed further in Section 2; waste whose characteristics make packaging difficult. Such wastes are described in more detail in Section 3

  16. Multiple sensitive estimation and optimal sample size allocation in the item sum technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Pier Francesco; Rueda García, María Del Mar; Cobo Rodríguez, Beatriz

    2018-01-01

    For surveys of sensitive issues in life sciences, statistical procedures can be used to reduce nonresponse and social desirability response bias. Both of these phenomena provoke nonsampling errors that are difficult to deal with and can seriously flaw the validity of the analyses. The item sum technique (IST) is a very recent indirect questioning method derived from the item count technique that seeks to procure more reliable responses on quantitative items than direct questioning while preserving respondents' anonymity. This article addresses two important questions concerning the IST: (i) its implementation when two or more sensitive variables are investigated and efficient estimates of their unknown population means are required; (ii) the determination of the optimal sample size to achieve minimum variance estimates. These aspects are of great relevance for survey practitioners engaged in sensitive research and, to the best of our knowledge, were not studied so far. In this article, theoretical results for multiple estimation and optimal allocation are obtained under a generic sampling design and then particularized to simple random sampling and stratified sampling designs. Theoretical considerations are integrated with a number of simulation studies based on data from two real surveys and conducted to ascertain the efficiency gain derived from optimal allocation in different situations. One of the surveys concerns cannabis consumption among university students. Our findings highlight some methodological advances that can be obtained in life sciences IST surveys when optimal allocation is achieved. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Rasch analysis of the Persian version of PedsQLTM Oral Health Scale: further psychometric evaluation on item validity including differential item functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Ying Lin

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: PedsQL Oral Health Scale is a valid instrument to measure OHRQoL. However,our results indicated that the parent-proxy report was inferior to the student self-report, and healthcare providers should primarily use the student self-report.

  18. 17 CFR 260.7a-16 - Inclusion of items, differentiation between items and answers, omission of instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inclusion of items, differentiation between items and answers, omission of instructions. 260.7a-16 Section 260.7a-16 Commodity and... INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Formal Requirements § 260.7a-16 Inclusion of items, differentiation between items and...

  19. Dissociating the neural correlates of intra-item and inter-item working-memory binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carinne Piekema

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Integration of information streams into a unitary representation is an important task of our cognitive system. Within working memory, the medial temporal lobe (MTL has been conceptually linked to the maintenance of bound representations. In a previous fMRI study, we have shown that the MTL is indeed more active during working-memory maintenance of spatial associations as compared to non-spatial associations or single items. There are two explanations for this result, the mere presence of the spatial component activates the MTL, or the MTL is recruited to bind associations between neurally non-overlapping representations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The current fMRI study investigates this issue further by directly comparing intrinsic intra-item binding (object/colour, extrinsic intra-item binding (object/location, and inter-item binding (object/object. The three binding conditions resulted in differential activation of brain regions. Specifically, we show that the MTL is important for establishing extrinsic intra-item associations and inter-item associations, in line with the notion that binding of information processed in different brain regions depends on the MTL. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that different forms of working-memory binding rely on specific neural structures. In addition, these results extend previous reports indicating that the MTL is implicated in working-memory maintenance, challenging the classic distinction between short-term and long-term memory systems.

  20. An improved non-Markovian degradation model with long-term dependency and item-to-item uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xiaopeng; Chen, Maoyin; Zhang, Hanwen; Zhou, Donghua

    2018-05-01

    It is widely noted in the literature that the degradation should be simplified into a memoryless Markovian process for the purpose of predicting the remaining useful life (RUL). However, there actually exists the long-term dependency in the degradation processes of some industrial systems, including electromechanical equipments, oil tankers, and large blast furnaces. This implies the new degradation state depends not only on the current state, but also on the historical states. Such dynamic systems cannot be accurately described by traditional Markovian models. Here we present an improved non-Markovian degradation model with both the long-term dependency and the item-to-item uncertainty. As a typical non-stationary process with dependent increments, fractional Brownian motion (FBM) is utilized to simulate the fractal diffusion of practical degradations. The uncertainty among multiple items can be represented by a random variable of the drift. Based on this model, the unknown parameters are estimated through the maximum likelihood (ML) algorithm, while a closed-form solution to the RUL distribution is further derived using a weak convergence theorem. The practicability of the proposed model is fully verified by two real-world examples. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively reduce the prediction error.

  1. Applying modern psychometric techniques to melodic discrimination testing: Item response theory, computerised adaptive testing, and automatic item generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Peter M C; Collins, Tom; Müllensiefen, Daniel

    2017-06-15

    Modern psychometric theory provides many useful tools for ability testing, such as item response theory, computerised adaptive testing, and automatic item generation. However, these techniques have yet to be integrated into mainstream psychological practice. This is unfortunate, because modern psychometric techniques can bring many benefits, including sophisticated reliability measures, improved construct validity, avoidance of exposure effects, and improved efficiency. In the present research we therefore use these techniques to develop a new test of a well-studied psychological capacity: melodic discrimination, the ability to detect differences between melodies. We calibrate and validate this test in a series of studies. Studies 1 and 2 respectively calibrate and validate an initial test version, while Studies 3 and 4 calibrate and validate an updated test version incorporating additional easy items. The results support the new test's viability, with evidence for strong reliability and construct validity. We discuss how these modern psychometric techniques may also be profitably applied to other areas of music psychology and psychological science in general.

  2. Secondary Psychometric Examination of the Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale: Classical Testing, Item Response Theory, and Differential Item Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Michel A; Leonard, Rachel C; Abramowitz, Jonathan S; Riemann, Bradley C

    2015-12-01

    The Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (DOCS) is a promising measure of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms but has received minimal psychometric attention. We evaluated the utility and reliability of DOCS scores. The study included 832 students and 300 patients with OCD. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the originally proposed four-factor structure. DOCS total and subscale scores exhibited good to excellent internal consistency in both samples (α = .82 to α = .96). Patient DOCS total scores reduced substantially during treatment (t = 16.01, d = 1.02). DOCS total scores discriminated between students and patients (sensitivity = 0.76, 1 - specificity = 0.23). The measure did not exhibit gender-based differential item functioning as tested by Mantel-Haenszel chi-square tests. Expected response options for each item were plotted as a function of item response theory and demonstrated that DOCS scores incrementally discriminate OCD symptoms ranging from low to extremely high severity. Incremental differences in DOCS scores appear to represent unbiased and reliable differences in true OCD symptom severity. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. What proportion of prescription items dispensed in community pharmacies are eligible for the New Medicine Service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Katharine M; Boyd, Matthew J; Thornley, Tracey; Boardman, Helen F

    2014-03-07

    The payment structure for the New Medicine Service (NMS) in England is based on the assumption that 0.5% of prescription items dispensed in community pharmacies are eligible for the service. This assumption is based on a theoretical calculation. This study aimed to find out the actual proportion of prescription items eligible for the NMS dispensed in community pharmacies in order to compare this with the theoretical assumption. The study also aimed to investigate whether the proportion of prescription items eligible for the NMS is affected by pharmacies' proximity to GP practices. The study collected data from eight pharmacies in Nottingham belonging to the same large chain of pharmacies. Pharmacies were grouped by distance from the nearest GP practice and sampled to reflect the distribution by distance of all pharmacies in Nottingham. Data on one thousand consecutive prescription items were collected from each pharmacy and the number of NMS eligible items recorded. All NHS prescriptions were included in the sample. Data were analysed and proportions calculated with 95% confidence intervals used to compare the study results against the theoretical figure of 0.5% of prescription items being eligible for the NMS. A total of 8005 prescription items were collected (a minimum of 1000 items per pharmacy) of which 17 items were eligible to receive the service. The study found that 0.25% (95% confidence intervals: 0.14% to 0.36%) of prescription items were eligible for the NMS which differs significantly from the theoretical assumption of 0.5%. The opportunity rate for the service was lower, 0.21% (95% confidence intervals: 0.10% to 0.32%) of items, as some items eligible for the NMS did not translate into opportunities to offer the service. Of all the prescription items collected in the pharmacies, 28% were collected by patient representatives. The results of this study show that the proportion of items eligible for the NMS dispensed in community pharmacies is lower than

  4. Assessing the Validity of Single-item Life Satisfaction Measures: Results from Three Large Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Felix; Lucas, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The present paper assessed the validity of single-item life satisfaction measures by comparing single-item measures to the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) - a more psychometrically established measure. Methods Two large samples from Washington (N=13,064) and Oregon (N=2,277) recruited by the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and a representative German sample (N=1,312) recruited by the Germany Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) were included in the present analyses. Single-item life satisfaction measures and the SWLS were correlated with theoretically relevant variables, such as demographics, subjective health, domain satisfaction, and affect. The correlations between the two life satisfaction measures and these variables were examined to assess the construct validity of single-item life satisfaction measures. Results Consistent across three samples, single-item life satisfaction measures demonstrated substantial degree of criterion validity with the SWLS (zero-order r = 0.62 – 0.64; disattenuated r = 0.78 – 0.80). Patterns of statistical significance for correlations with theoretically relevant variables were the same across single-item measures and the SWLS. Single-item measures did not produce systematically different correlations compared to the SWLS (average difference = 0.001 – 0.005). The average absolute difference in the magnitudes of the correlations produced by single-item measures and the SWLS were very small (average absolute difference = 0.015 −0.042). Conclusions Single-item life satisfaction measures performed very similarly compared to the multiple-item SWLS. Social scientists would get virtually identical answer to substantive questions regardless of which measure they use. PMID:24890827

  5. Assessing the validity of single-item life satisfaction measures: results from three large samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Felix; Lucas, Richard E

    2014-12-01

    The present paper assessed the validity of single-item life satisfaction measures by comparing single-item measures to the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS)-a more psychometrically established measure. Two large samples from Washington (N = 13,064) and Oregon (N = 2,277) recruited by the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and a representative German sample (N = 1,312) recruited by the Germany Socio-Economic Panel were included in the present analyses. Single-item life satisfaction measures and the SWLS were correlated with theoretically relevant variables, such as demographics, subjective health, domain satisfaction, and affect. The correlations between the two life satisfaction measures and these variables were examined to assess the construct validity of single-item life satisfaction measures. Consistent across three samples, single-item life satisfaction measures demonstrated substantial degree of criterion validity with the SWLS (zero-order r = 0.62-0.64; disattenuated r = 0.78-0.80). Patterns of statistical significance for correlations with theoretically relevant variables were the same across single-item measures and the SWLS. Single-item measures did not produce systematically different correlations compared to the SWLS (average difference = 0.001-0.005). The average absolute difference in the magnitudes of the correlations produced by single-item measures and the SWLS was very small (average absolute difference = 0.015-0.042). Single-item life satisfaction measures performed very similarly compared to the multiple-item SWLS. Social scientists would get virtually identical answer to substantive questions regardless of which measure they use.

  6. Barriers in the path of yoga practice: An online survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H V Dayananda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Clinical benefits of yoga have been well explored, but factors contributing to adherence to regular yoga practice are not well studied. Aims: To study the factors influencing adherence to yoga practices on those participants who have completed 1-month Yoga Instructors′ course from a yoga university. Settings and Design: Online survey was conducted on participants who had finished 1-month Yoga Instructors′ course at a yoga university. Materials and Methods: Online survey was conducted using Survey Monkey web portal with response rate of 42.5%. A total of 1355 participants were approached. Demographic items and a checklist of 21 items on a 5-point likert scale were prepared based on traditional yoga texts. A few items to assess modern lifestyle barriers were also included. Statistical Analysis: One-sample proportion test with chi square statistics was used for analysis. Results: Irregularity in lifestyle, family commitments, and occupational commitments are perceived as significant strong barriers. Dullness, excessive talking, strictly adhering to rules, laziness, physical and mental overexertion, fickleness and wandering of mind, unsteadiness of mind, procrastination, and oversleeping are considered as significant barriers of moderate nature. Conclusions: Modern lifestyle is the major challenge for yoga practitioners to adhere to regular practice of yoga. To address this, attention is required in strengthening the lifestyle management and the spiritual dimension of yoga practice as the spiritual component seems to be side-tracked.

  7. Development and validation of a ten-item questionnaire with explanatory illustrations to assess upper extremity disorders: favorable effect of illustrations in the item reduction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurimoto, Shigeru; Suzuki, Mikako; Yamamoto, Michiro; Okui, Nobuyuki; Imaeda, Toshihiko; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a short and valid measure for upper extremity disorders and to assess the effect of attached illustrations in item reduction of a self-administered disability questionnaire while retaining psychometric properties. A validated questionnaire used to assess upper extremity disorders, the Hand20, was reduced to ten items using two item-reduction techniques. The psychometric properties of the abbreviated form, the Hand10, were evaluated on an independent sample that was used for the shortening process. Validity, reliability, and responsiveness of the Hand10 were retained in the item reduction process. It was possible that the use of explanatory illustrations attached to the Hand10 helped with its reproducibility. The illustrations for the Hand10 promoted text comprehension and motivation to answer the items. These changes resulted in high acceptability; more than 99.3% of patients, including 98.5% of elderly patients, could complete the Hand10 properly. The illustrations had favorable effects on the item reduction process and made it possible to retain precision of the instrument. The Hand10 is a reliable and valid instrument for individual-level applications with the advantage of being compact and broadly applicable, even in elderly individuals.

  8. Software for MUF evaluating in item nuclear material accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dong; Zhang Quanhu; He Bin; Wang Hua; Yang Daojun

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear material accounting is a key measure for nuclear safeguard. Software for MUF evaluation in item nuclear material accounting was worked out in this paper. It is composed of several models, including input model, data processing model, data inquiring model, data print model, system setting model etc. It could be used to check the variance of the measurement and estimate the confidence interval according to the MUF value. To insure security of the data multi-user management function was applied in the software. (authors)

  9. AVOID BECOMING A VICTIM OF COUNTERFEIT ITEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WARRINER RD

    2011-07-13

    In today's globalized economy, we cannot live without imported products. Most people do not realize how thin the safety net of regulation and inspection really is. Less than three percent of imported products receive any form of government inspection prior to sale. Avoid flea markets, street vendors and deep discount stores. The sellers of counterfeit wares know where to market their products. They look for individuals who are hungry for a brand name item but do not want to pay a brand name price for it. The internet provides anonymity to the sellers of counterfeit products. Unlike Europe, U.S. law does not hold internet-marketing organizations, responsible for the quality of the products sold on their websites. These organizations will remove an individual vendor when a sufficient number of complaints are lodged, but they will not take responsibility for the counterfeit products you may have purchased. EBay has a number of counterfeit product guides to help you avoid being a victim of the sellers of these products. Ten percent of all medications taken worldwide are counterfeit. If you do buy medications on-line, be sure that the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy Verified Internet Pharmacy Practice Sites (VIPPS) recommends the pharmacy you choose to use. Inspect all medication purchases and report any change in color, shape, imprinting or odor to your pharmacist. If you take generic medications these attributes may change from one manufacturer to another. Your pharmacist should inform you of any changes when you refill your prescription. If they do not, get clarification prior to taking the medication. Please note that the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate supplements. The FDA only steps in when a specific supplement proves to cause physical harm or contains a regulated ingredient. Due to counterfeiting, Underwriters Laboratories (UL) changed their label design three times since 1996. The new gold label should be attached to the cord

  10. The importance of rating scale design in the measurement of patient-reported outcomes using questionnaires or item banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Jyoti; McAlinden, Colm; Gothwal, Vijaya K; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Pesudovs, Konrad

    2012-06-26

    To investigate the effect of rating scale designs (question formats and response categories) on item difficulty calibrations and assess the impact that rating scale differences have on overall vision-related activity limitation (VRAL) scores. Sixteen existing patient-reported outcome instruments (PROs) suitable for cataract assessment, with different rating scales, were self-administered by patients on a cataract surgery waiting list. A total of 226 VRAL items from these PROs in their native rating scales were included in an item bank and calibrated using Rasch analysis. Fifteen item/content areas (e.g., reading newspapers) appearing in at least three different PROs were identified. Within each content area, item calibrations were compared and their range calculated. Similarly, five PROs having at least three items in common with the Visual Function (VF-14) were compared in terms of average item measures. A total of 614 patients (mean age ± SD, 74.1 ± 9.4 years) participated. Items with the same content varied in their calibration by as much as two logits; "reading the small print" had the largest range (1.99 logits) followed by "watching TV" (1.60). Compared with the VF-14 (0.00 logits), the rating scale of the Visual Disability Assessment (1.13 logits) produced the most difficult items and the Cataract Symptom Scale (0.24 logits) produced the least difficult items. The VRAL item bank was suboptimally targeted to the ability level of the participants (2.00 logits). Rating scale designs have a significant effect on item calibrations. Therefore, constructing item banks from existing items in their native formats carries risks to face validity and transmission of problems inherent in existing instruments, such as poor targeting.

  11. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Criticality Alarm System Commercial Grade Item (CGI) Critical Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WHITE, W.F.

    1999-01-01

    This document specifies the critical characteristics for Commercial Grade Items (CGI) procured for PFP's criticality alarm system as required by HNF-PRO-268 and HNF-PRO-1819. These are the minimum specifications that the equipment must meet in order to properly perform its safety function. There may be several manufacturers or models that meet the critical characteristics for any one item. PFP's Criticality Alarm System includes the nine criticality alarm system panels and their associated hardware. This includes all parts up to the first breaker in the electrical distribution system. Specific system boundaries and justifications are contained in HNF-SD-CP-SDD-003, ''Definition and Means of Maintaining the Criticality Detectors and Alarms Portion of the PFP Safety Envelope.'' The procurement requirements associated with the system necessitates procurement of some system equipment as Commercial Grade Items in accordance with HNF-PRO-268, ''Control of Purchased Items and Services.''

  12. Pengendalian Persediaan Primary Items dalam Logistik Konstruksi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lady Lisya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Construction logistics are activities that consist of ordering, storage and transportation of materials of construction projects. Storage material is logistics activity that ensure the availability of materials in project site. Generally, material storage activities have been conducted at the project site. Logistics construction is aimed to support the project activities that the completion schedule has been set. Construction logistics issues is determining the schedule of ordering materials so that the project can be implemented on schedule. The purpose of research is to determine the optimum ordering period for the primary items on the main building structure construction and designing inventory control cards as a mechanism for monitoring procurement of materials. This research has been obtained optimal ordering period for the primary items of main building structure with elements of the work using Fixed Period Requirement method. Inventories were already meet the material requirement of each period. Material management has been conducted based grouping approach as many as 31 groups. In addition, this research has proposed the inventory control cards as an instrument for material procurement monitoring. The implications of inventory control cards are coordinate contracting parties with vendors to plan the replenishment  of materials to meet the work schedule. Further research can be developed with other aspects such as integrated material order system between contractors and vendors to consider the safety stock. In addition, the information system for planning material is an important consideration for construction projects with large scale so that the companies can plan primary items inventory and other materials in the projects completion more easily, quickly and accurately.

  13. A new Integrated Negative Symptom structure of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) in schizophrenia using item response analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Anzalee; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre; Opler, Mark; Yavorsky, Christian; Rothman, Brian; Lucic, Luka

    2013-10-01

    Debate persists with regard to how best to categorize the syndromal dimension of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. The aim was to first review published Principle Components Analysis (PCA) of the PANSS, and extract items most frequently included in the negative domain, and secondly, to examine the quality of items using Item Response Theory (IRT) to select items that best represent a measurable dimension (or dimensions) of negative symptoms. First, 22 factor analyses and PCA met were included. Second, using a large dataset (n=7187) of participants in clinical trials with chronic schizophrenia, we extracted items loading on one or more PCA. Third, items not loading with a value of ≥ 0.5, or loading on more than one component with values of ≥ 0.5 were discarded. Fourth, resulting items were included in a non-parametric IRT and retained based on Option Characteristic Curves (OCCs) and Item Characteristic Curves (ICCs). 15 items loaded on a negative domain in at least one study, with Emotional Withdrawal loading on all studies. Non-parametric IRT retained nine items as an Integrated Negative Factor: Emotional Withdrawal, Blunted Affect, Passive/Apathetic Social Withdrawal, Poor Rapport, Lack of Spontaneity/Conversation Flow, Active Social Avoidance, Disturbance of Volition, Stereotyped Thinking and Difficulty in Abstract Thinking. This is the first study to use a psychometric IRT process to arrive at a set of negative symptom items. Future steps will include further examination of these nine items in terms of their stability, sensitivity to change, and correlations with functional and cognitive outcomes. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The staging area concept for item control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Accounting for special nuclear material contained in fabricated nuclear fuel rod items has been completely automated at the Westinghouse Nuclear Fuel Division facility in Columbia, South Carolina. Experience with the automated system has shown substantial difficulty in maintaining current knowledge of the precise locations of rods pulled out of the ''normal'' processing cycle. This has been resolved by creation of two tightly controlled staging areas for handling and distribution of all ''deviant'' rods by two specially trained expeditors. Thus, coupling automated data collection with centralized expert handling and distribution has created a viable system for control of large numbers of fuel rods in a major fabrication plant

  15. Pattern analysis of total item score and item response of the Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6 in a nationally representative sample of US adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro Tomitaka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Several recent studies have shown that total scores on depressive symptom measures in a general population approximate an exponential pattern except for the lower end of the distribution. Furthermore, we confirmed that the exponential pattern is present for the individual item responses on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. To confirm the reproducibility of such findings, we investigated the total score distribution and item responses of the Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6 in a nationally representative study. Methods Data were drawn from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS, which comprises four subsamples: (1 a national random digit dialing (RDD sample, (2 oversamples from five metropolitan areas, (3 siblings of individuals from the RDD sample, and (4 a national RDD sample of twin pairs. K6 items are scored using a 5-point scale: “none of the time,” “a little of the time,” “some of the time,” “most of the time,” and “all of the time.” The pattern of total score distribution and item responses were analyzed using graphical analysis and exponential regression model. Results The total score distributions of the four subsamples exhibited an exponential pattern with similar rate parameters. The item responses of the K6 approximated a linear pattern from “a little of the time” to “all of the time” on log-normal scales, while “none of the time” response was not related to this exponential pattern. Discussion The total score distribution and item responses of the K6 showed exponential patterns, consistent with other depressive symptom scales.

  16. Comparative survey of comprehensiveness of literature collection between two information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narui, Shigeko; Habara, Tadashi; Izawa, Michiyo; Naramoto, Miyoko; Kajiro, Tadashi

    1983-01-01

    To make clear a feature of INIS database for the subject areas of plasma physics and thermonuclear reactions (the INIS category A14), the overlap literature was surveyedwhich had been collected into both INIS and INSPEC databases. All of 4,454 items of literature inputted into that category of INIS during 1980 were checked on whether they had also been included in INSPEC or not. The overlap ratio of the items to those in INIS was found to be 50 % and the ratios for types of literature were 96%, 42%, 28%, 3% and 0% for journals, books, pamphlets, technical reports, and patent dissertations, respectively. Journal articles not included into INSPEC were found to be derived from the journals which were not central to INSPEC. These facts show that INIS covers various types of literature, which INSPEC collected mainly journal literature. For more warrantable conclusion, it needs further survey on those items which are collected into INSPEC but not into INIS. (author)

  17. A review of the effects on IRT item parameter estimates with a focus on misbehaving common items in test equating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalis P Michaelides

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have investigated the topic of change or drift in item parameter estimates in the context of Item Response Theory. Content effects, such as instructional variation and curricular emphasis, as well as context effects, such as the wording, position, or exposure of an item have been found to impact item parameter estimates. The issue becomes more critical when items with estimates exhibiting differential behavior across test administrations are used as common for deriving equating transformations. This paper reviews the types of effects on IRT item parameter estimates and focuses on the impact of misbehaving or aberrant common items on equating transformations. Implications relating to test validity and the judgmental nature of the decision to keep or discard aberrant common items are discussed, with recommendations for future research into more informed and formal ways of dealing with misbehaving common items.

  18. A Review of the Effects on IRT Item Parameter Estimates with a Focus on Misbehaving Common Items in Test Equating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelides, Michalis P

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the topic of change or drift in item parameter estimates in the context of item response theory (IRT). Content effects, such as instructional variation and curricular emphasis, as well as context effects, such as the wording, position, or exposure of an item have been found to impact item parameter estimates. The issue becomes more critical when items with estimates exhibiting differential behavior across test administrations are used as common for deriving equating transformations. This paper reviews the types of effects on IRT item parameter estimates and focuses on the impact of misbehaving or aberrant common items on equating transformations. Implications relating to test validity and the judgmental nature of the decision to keep or discard aberrant common items are discussed, with recommendations for future research into more informed and formal ways of dealing with misbehaving common items.

  19. Selection of useful items for fall risk screening for community dwelling Japanese elderly from the perspective of fall experience, physical function, and age level differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demura, Shinichi; Yamada, Takayoshi; Uchiyama, Masanobu; Sugiura, Hiroki; Hamazaki, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to examine useful items for screening the fall risk of community dwelling elderly from various perspectives, including fall experience, physical function level, and age level difference. 968 independently living elderly persons over the age of 60 (age: 70.0 ± 7.0) responded to 80 fall risk items representing 7 factors (physical function, fall history, using devices, fear of falling and inactivity, dosing, disease and disability, and environment) and an ADL questionnaire. The high fall risk response rate was calculated for each item and tested for statistical significance among age groups and those with and without fall experience. Cramer's V was calculated to examine the relationship between each item and the ADL. In addition, we selected items with significant differences in the high fall risk response rates between the faller and the non-faller groups, a significant relationship with ADL, and a significant difference among age groups. A total of 40 useful items were selected from each fall risk factor (decrease in physical function: 21 items, fall history: 2 items, device usage: 3 items, fear of falling and inactivity: 5 items, dosing: 0 items, disease and disability: 8 items, and environment: 1 item). Selected items can comprehensively and properly assess the fall risk of the healthy elderly as compared with existing questionnaires. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The impact of item order on ratings of cancer risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kathryn L; Shelby, Rebecca A; Schwartz, Marc D; Ackerman, Josh; LaSalle, V Holland; Gelmann, Edward P; McGuire, Colleen

    2002-07-01

    Although perceived risk is central to most theories of health behavior, there is little consensus on its measurement with regard to item wording, response set, or the number of items to include. In a methodological assessment of perceived risk, we assessed the impact of changing the order of three commonly used perceived risk items: quantitative personal risk, quantitative population risk, and comparative risk. Participants were 432 men and women enrolled in an ancillary study of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Three groups of consecutively enrolled participants responded to the three items in one of three question orders. Results indicated that item order was related to the perceived risk ratings of both ovarian (P Perceptions of risk were significantly lower when the comparative rating was made first. The findings suggest that compelling participants to consider their own risk relative to the risk of others results in lower ratings of perceived risk. Although the use of multiple items may provide more information than when only a single method is used, different conclusions may be reached depending on the context in which an item is assessed.

  1. Negative effects of item repetition on source memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungmi; Yi, Do-Joon; Raye, Carol L; Johnson, Marcia K

    2012-08-01

    In the present study, we explored how item repetition affects source memory for new item-feature associations (picture-location or picture-color). We presented line drawings varying numbers of times in Phase 1. In Phase 2, each drawing was presented once with a critical new feature. In Phase 3, we tested memory for the new source feature of each item from Phase 2. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated and replicated the negative effects of item repetition on incidental source memory. Prior item repetition also had a negative effect on source memory when different source dimensions were used in Phases 1 and 2 (Experiment 3) and when participants were explicitly instructed to learn source information in Phase 2 (Experiments 4 and 5). Importantly, when the order between Phases 1 and 2 was reversed, such that item repetition occurred after the encoding of critical item-source combinations, item repetition no longer affected source memory (Experiment 6). Overall, our findings did not support predictions based on item predifferentiation, within-dimension source interference, or general interference from multiple traces of an item. Rather, the findings were consistent with the idea that prior item repetition reduces attention to subsequent presentations of the item, decreasing the likelihood that critical item-source associations will be encoded.

  2. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2007-01-01

    Engineering surveying involves determining the position of natural and man-made features on or beneath the Earth's surface and utilizing these features in the planning, design and construction of works. It is a critical part of any engineering project. Without an accurate understanding of the size, shape and nature of the site the project risks expensive and time-consuming errors or even catastrophic failure.Engineering Surveying 6th edition covers all the basic principles and practice of this complex subject and the authors bring expertise and clarity. Previous editions of this classic text have given readers a clear understanding of fundamentals such as vertical control, distance, angles and position right through to the most modern technologies, and this fully updated edition continues that tradition.This sixth edition includes:* An introduction to geodesy to facilitate greater understanding of satellite systems* A fully updated chapter on GPS, GLONASS and GALILEO for satellite positioning in surveying* Al...

  3. Retention of Esperanto Is Affected by Delay-Interval Task and Item Closure: A Partial Resolution of the Delay-Retention Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosvic, Gary M.; Epstein, Michael L.; Dihoff, Roberta E.; Cook, Michael L.

    2006-01-01

    The present studies were undertaken to examine the effects of manipulating delay-interval task (Study 1) and timing of feedback (Study 2) on acquisition and retention. Participants completed a 100-item cumulative final examination, which included 50 items from each laboratory examination, plus 50 entirely new items. Acquisition and retention were…

  4. An item-response theory approach to safety climate measurement: The Liberty Mutual Safety Climate Short Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Lee, Jin; Chen, Zhuo; Perry, MacKenna; Cheung, Janelle H; Wang, Mo

    2017-06-01

    Zohar and Luria's (2005) safety climate (SC) scale, measuring organization- and group- level SC each with 16 items, is widely used in research and practice. To improve the utility of the SC scale, we shortened the original full-length SC scales. Item response theory (IRT) analysis was conducted using a sample of 29,179 frontline workers from various industries. Based on graded response models, we shortened the original scales in two ways: (1) selecting items with above-average discriminating ability (i.e. offering more than 6.25% of the original total scale information), resulting in 8-item organization-level and 11-item group-level SC scales; and (2) selecting the most informative items that together retain at least 30% of original scale information, resulting in 4-item organization-level and 4-item group-level SC scales. All four shortened scales had acceptable reliability (≥0.89) and high correlations (≥0.95) with the original scale scores. The shortened scales will be valuable for academic research and practical survey implementation in improving occupational safety. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Use of indicator items to monitor marine debris on a New Jersey beach from 1991 to 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribic, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    The US National Marine Debris Monitoring Program is using indicator items from beach surveys to identify whether amounts of marine debris are changing over time. Indicator items were selected through expert opinion and assumed to reflect the trend of all debris. We used monthly data from a 1991-1996 study of debris on a New Jersey beach to determine if indicator and non-indicator items showed similar trends. Total indicator debris levels did not change; this was true regardless of probable source. Non-indicator debris increased about 40% annually. Plastic non-indicator items increased regardless of whether items were whole items, cigarette filters, or pieces. Of the whole items, almost 50% were plastic lids, cups, and utensils, and about 25% were drug-related paraphernalia, tobacco-related products, plastic stirrers, pull rings, and fireworks. When indicator items are used in a monitoring programme to reflect total debris patterns, concordance of trends in indicator and non-indicator debris should be checked.

  6. Benthic marine debris, with an emphasis on fishery-related items, surrounding Kodiak Island, Alaska, 1994-1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, N.A.; Ribic, C.A.; Vining, I.

    1999-01-01

    Composition and abundance of benthic marine debris were investigated during three bottom trawl surveys in inlet and offshore locations surrounding Kodiak Island, Alaska, 1994-1996. Debris items were primarily plastic and metal regardless of trawl location. Plastic bait jars, fishing line, and crab pots were the most common fishery-related debris items and were encountered in large amounts in inlets (20-25 items km-2), but were less abundant outside of inlets (4.5-11 items km-2). Overall density of debris was also significantly greater in inlets than outside of inlets. Plastic debris densities in inlets ranged 22-31.5 items km-2, 7.8-18.8 items km-2 outside of inlets. Trawls in inlets contained almost as much metal debris as plastic debris. Density of metal debris ranged from 21.2 to 23.7 items km-2 in inlets, a maximum of 2.7 items km-2 outside of inlets. Inlets around the town of Kodiak had the highest densities of fishery-related and total benthic debris. Differences in benthic debris density between inlets and outside of inlets and differences by area may be due to differences in fishing activity and water circulation patterns. At the current reduced levels of fishing activity, however, yearly monitoring of benthic debris appears unnecessary. Copyright (C) 1999.

  7. Evaluation of the Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 (MSWS-12) in a Dutch sample: Application of item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokkink, Lidwine Brigitta; Galindo-Garre, Francisca; Uitdehaag, Bernard Mj

    2016-12-01

    The Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 (MSWS-12) measures walking ability from the patients' perspective. We examined the quality of the MSWS-12 using an item response theory model, the graded response model (GRM). A total of 625 unique Dutch multiple sclerosis (MS) patients were included. After testing for unidimensionality, monotonicity, and absence of local dependence, a GRM was fit and item characteristics were assessed. Differential item functioning (DIF) for the variables gender, age, duration of MS, type of MS and severity of MS, reliability, total test information, and standard error of the trait level (θ) were investigated. Confirmatory factor analysis showed a unidimensional structure of the 12 items of the scale, explaining 88% of the variance. Item 2 did not fit into the GRM model. Reliability was 0.93. Items 8 and 9 (of the 11 and 12 item version respectively) showed DIF on the variable severity, based on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). However, the EDSS is strongly related to the content of both items. Our results confirm the good quality of the MSWS-12. The trait level (θ) scores and item parameters of both the 12- and 11-item versions were highly comparable, although we do not suggest to change the content of the MSWS-12. © The Author(s), 2016.

  8. SURVEY, BUFFALO COUNTY, NE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  9. Survey, OCONEE COUNTY, SC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  10. SURVEY, DOUGLAS COUNTY, MN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  11. SURVEY, KENAI PENINSULSA, AK

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  12. SURVEY, BROADWATER COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  13. SURVEY, OSCEOLA COUNTY, FLORIDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  14. SURVEY, POTTAWATTAMIE COUNTY, IA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  15. MAX and Survey Linkages

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS is interested in linking MAX files with survey data, including four surveys conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) - the National Health...

  16. SURVEY, LAKE COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  17. SURVEY, Lowndes County, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  18. SURVEY, REFUGIO COUNTY, TEXAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  19. SURVEY, FAIRFIELD COUNTY, CT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  20. SURVEY, MISSOULA COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  1. SURVEY, Northumberland County, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  2. SURVEY, BARNSTABLE COUNTY, MA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  3. SURVEY, CASCADE COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  4. SURVEY, NATCHITOCHES PARISH, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  5. SURVEY, HOLMES COUNTY, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  6. SURVEY, MONO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  7. Cash Impact of the Consumable Item Transfer, Phase II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    ...). This report is the third in a series of reports regarding the consumable item transfer (CIT), phase II. The Deputy Secretary of Defense directed the transfer of the management of consumable items to Defense Logistics Agency...

  8. [Impact of passing items above the ceiling on the assessment results of Peabody developmental motor scales].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gai; Bian, Yang; Li, Ming

    2013-12-18

    To analyze the impact of passing items above the roof level in the gross motor subtest of Peabody development motor scales (PDMS-2) on its assessment results. In the subtests of PDMS-2, 124 children from 1.2 to 71 months were administered. Except for the original scoring method, a new scoring method which includes passing items above the ceiling were developed. The standard scores and quotients of the two scoring methods were compared using the independent-samples t test. Only one child could pass the items above the ceiling in the stationary subtest, 19 children in the locomotion subtest, and 17 children in the visual-motor integration subtest. When the scores of these passing items were included in the raw scores, the total raw scores got the added points of 1-12, the standard scores added 0-1 points and the motor quotients added 0-3 points. The diagnostic classification was changed only in two children. There was no significant difference between those two methods about motor quotients or standard scores in the specific subtest (P>0.05). The passing items above a ceiling of PDMS-2 isn't a rare situation. It usually takes place in the locomotion subtest and visual-motor integration subtest. Including these passing items into the scoring system will not make significant difference in the standard scores of the subtests or the developmental motor quotients (DMQ), which supports the original setting of a ceiling established by upassing 3 items in a row. However, putting the passing items above the ceiling into the raw score will improve tracking of children's developmental trajectory and intervention effects.

  9. Development of an assessment tool to measure students′ perceptions of respiratory care education programs: Item generation, item reduction, and preliminary validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazi Alotaibi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Students who perceived their learning environment positively are more likely to develop effective learning strategies, and adopt a deep learning approach. Currently, there is no validated instrument for measuring the educational environment of educational programs on respiratory care (RC. The aim of this study was to develop an instrument to measure students′ perception of the RC educational environment. Materials and Methods: Based on the literature review and an assessment of content validity by multiple focus groups of RC educationalists, potential items of the instrument relevant to RC educational environment construct were generated by the research group. The initial 71 item questionnaire was then field-tested on all students from the 3 RC programs in Saudi Arabia and was subjected to multi-trait scaling analysis. Cronbach′s alpha was used to assess internal consistency reliabilities. Results: Two hundred and twelve students (100% completed the survey. The initial instrument of 71 items was reduced to 65 across 5 scales. Convergent and discriminant validity assessment demonstrated that the majority of items correlated more highly with their intended scale than a competing one. Cronbach′s alpha exceeded the standard criterion of >0.70 in all scales except one. There was no floor or ceiling effect for scale or overall score. Conclusions: This instrument is the first assessment tool developed to measure the RC educational environment. There was evidence of its good feasibility, validity, and reliability. This first validation of the instrument supports its use by RC students to evaluate educational environment.

  10. Item Analysis of Multiple Choice Questions at the Department of Paediatrics, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deena Kheyami

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The current study aimed to carry out a post-validation item analysis of multiple choice questions (MCQs in medical examinations in order to evaluate correlations between item difficulty, item discrimination and distraction effectiveness so as to determine whether questions should be included, modified or discarded. In addition, the optimal number of options per MCQ was analysed. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in the Department of Paediatrics, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain. A total of 800 MCQs and 4,000 distractors were analysed between November 2013 and June 2016. Results: The mean difficulty index ranged from 36.70–73.14%. The mean discrimination index ranged from 0.20–0.34. The mean distractor efficiency ranged from 66.50–90.00%. Of the items, 48.4%, 35.3%, 11.4%, 3.9% and 1.1% had zero, one, two, three and four nonfunctional distractors (NFDs, respectively. Using three or four rather than five options in each MCQ resulted in 95% or 83.6% of items having zero NFDs, respectively. The distractor efficiency was 91.87%, 85.83% and 64.13% for difficult, acceptable and easy items, respectively (P <0.005. Distractor efficiency was 83.33%, 83.24% and 77.56% for items with excellent, acceptable and poor discrimination, respectively (P <0.005. The average Kuder-Richardson formula 20 reliability coefficient was 0.76. Conclusion: A considerable number of the MCQ items were within acceptable ranges. However, some items needed to be discarded or revised. Using three or four rather than five options in MCQs is recommended to reduce the number of NFDs and improve the overall quality of the examination.

  11. Differential Item Functioning (DIF) among Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners (ELLs) in State Science Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilich, Maria O.

    Psychometricians and test developers evaluate standardized tests for potential bias against groups of test-takers by using differential item functioning (DIF). English language learners (ELLs) are a diverse group of students whose native language is not English. While they are still learning the English language, they must take their standardized tests for their school subjects, including science, in English. In this study, linguistic complexity was examined as a possible source of DIF that may result in test scores that confound science knowledge with a lack of English proficiency among ELLs. Two years of fifth-grade state science tests were analyzed for evidence of DIF using two DIF methods, Simultaneous Item Bias Test (SIBTest) and logistic regression. The tests presented a unique challenge in that the test items were grouped together into testlets---groups of items referring to a scientific scenario to measure knowledge of different science content or skills. Very large samples of 10, 256 students in 2006 and 13,571 students in 2007 were examined. Half of each sample was composed of Spanish-speaking ELLs; the balance was comprised of native English speakers. The two DIF methods were in agreement about the items that favored non-ELLs and the items that favored ELLs. Logistic regression effect sizes were all negligible, while SIBTest flagged items with low to high DIF. A decrease in socioeconomic status and Spanish-speaking ELL diversity may have led to inconsistent SIBTest effect sizes for items used in both testing years. The DIF results for the testlets suggested that ELLs lacked sufficient opportunity to learn science content. The DIF results further suggest that those constructed response test items requiring the student to draw a conclusion about a scientific investigation or to plan a new investigation tended to favor ELLs.

  12. Negative affect impairs associative memory but not item memory.

    OpenAIRE

    Bisby, J. A.; Burgess, N.

    2014-01-01

    The formation of associations between items and their context has been proposed to rely on mechanisms distinct from those supporting memory for a single item. Although emotional experiences can profoundly affect memory, our understanding of how it interacts with different aspects of memory remains unclear. We performed three experiments to examine the effects of emotion on memory for items and their associations. By presenting neutral and negative items with background contexts, Experiment 1 ...

  13. 26 CFR 301.6501(o)-3 - Partnership items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Partnership items. 301.6501(o)-3 Section 301... § 301.6501(o)-3 Partnership items. (a) Partnership item defined. For purposes of section 6501(o) (as it..., and § 301.6511(g)-1, the term “partnership item” means— (1) Any item required to be taken into account...

  14. On multidimensional item response theory -- a coordinate free approach

    OpenAIRE

    Antal, Tamás

    2007-01-01

    A coordinate system free definition of complex structure multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) for dichotomously scored items is presented. The point of view taken emphasizes the possibilities and subtleties of understanding MIRT as a multidimensional extension of the ``classical'' unidimensional item response theory models. The main theorem of the paper is that every monotonic MIRT model looks the same; they are all trivial extensions of univariate item response theory.

  15. Identifying the most efficient items from the Mini-Mental State Examination for cognitive function assessment in older Taiwanese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Meei-Fang; Dai, Yu-Tzu; Huang, Guey-Shiun; Yu, Po-Jui

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the most efficient items from the Mini-Mental State Examination for assessment of cognitive function. The Mini-Mental State Examination is the most frequently used cognitive screening instrument. However, the Mini-Mental State Examination has been criticized for insensitivity to mild cognitive dysfunction, limited memory assessment and variability in level of difficulty of the individual items. This study used secondary data analysis. Item response theory two-parameter model was used to analyse the data from the admission assessment of mental status by the Mini-Mental State Examination for 801 patients. By using item response analysis, 16 items were selected from the original 30-item Mini-Mental State Examination. The 16 items included mainly the measures of orientation, recall and attention and calculation. The internal consistency of the 16-item Mini-Mental State Examination was 0.84. The proposed new cut-off point for the 16-item Mini-Mental State Examination was 11. The correct classification rate was 0.94, the sensitivity was 100% and the specificity was 97.4%, when compared with the original 30-item Mini-Mental State Examination from the cut-off point of 24. This new cut-off point was determined for the purpose of over-identifying patients at risk so as to ensure early detection of and prevention from the onset of cognitive disturbance. Only a few items are needed to describe the subject's cognitive status. Using item response theory analysis, the study found that the Mini-Mental State Examination could be simplified. Deleting the items with less variation makes this assessment tool not only shorter, easier to administer and less strenuous for respondents, but also enables one to maintain validity as a cognitive function test for clinical setting.

  16. Tailored Cloze: Improved with Classical Item Analysis Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean

    1988-01-01

    The reliability and validity of a cloze procedure used as an English-as-a-second-language (ESL) test in China were improved by applying traditional item analysis and selection techniques. The 'best' test items were chosen on the basis of item facility and discrimination indices, and were administered as a 'tailored cloze.' 29 references listed.…

  17. Electronics. Criterion-Referenced Test (CRT) Item Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Diane, Ed.

    This document contains 519 criterion-referenced multiple choice and true or false test items for a course in electronics. The test item bank is designed to work with both the Vocational Instructional Management System (VIMS) and the Vocational Administrative Management System (VAMS) in Missouri. The items are grouped into 15 units covering the…

  18. Assessing difference between classical test theory and item ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing difference between classical test theory and item response theory methods in scoring primary four multiple choice objective test items. ... All research participants were ranked on the CTT number correct scores and the corresponding IRT item pattern scores from their performance on the PRISMADAT. Wilcoxon ...

  19. 41 CFR 101-27.209-1 - GSA stock items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true GSA stock items. 101-27.209-1 Section 101-27.209-1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.209-1 GSA stock items. Shelf-life items that meet the criteria...

  20. ACER Chemistry Test Item Collection (ACER CHEMTIC Year 12 Supplement).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    This publication contains 317 multiple-choice chemistry test items related to topics covered in the Victorian (Australia) Year 12 chemistry course. It allows teachers access to a range of items suitable for diagnostic and achievement purposes, supplementing the ACER Chemistry Test Item Collection--Year 12 (CHEMTIC). The topics covered are: organic…

  1. Computerized adaptive testing item selection in computerized adaptive learning systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggen, Theodorus Johannes Hendrikus Maria; Eggen, T.J.H.M.; Veldkamp, B.P.

    2012-01-01

    Item selection methods traditionally developed for computerized adaptive testing (CAT) are explored for their usefulness in item-based computerized adaptive learning (CAL) systems. While in CAT Fisher information-based selection is optimal, for recovering learning populations in CAL systems item

  2. 12 CFR 210.8 - Presenting noncash items for acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for acceptance. (a) A Reserve Bank or a subsequent collecting bank may, if instructed by the sender, present a noncash item for acceptance in any manner authorized by law if— (1) The item provides that it... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Presenting noncash items for acceptance. 210.8...

  3. Writing, Evaluating and Assessing Data Response Items in Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotman-Dickenson, D. I.

    1989-01-01

    Describes some of the problems in writing data response items in economics for use by A Level and General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) students. Examines the experience of two series of workshops on writing items, evaluating them and assessing responses from schools. Offers suggestions for producing packages of data response items as…

  4. A scale purification procedure for evaluation of differential item functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalid, Muhammad Naveed; Glas, Cornelis A.W.

    2014-01-01

    Item bias or differential item functioning (DIF) has an important impact on the fairness of psychological and educational testing. In this paper, DIF is seen as a lack of fit to an item response (IRT) model. Inferences about the presence and importance of DIF require a process of so-called test

  5. Comparing Two Versions of the MEOCS Using Differential Item Functioning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Truhon, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    ...) from item response theory (IRT). DIF was found for the majority of the 40 items examined, although in many cases the DIF indicated improvements in the revised items. Implications for these scales and for the use of IRT with the MEOCS are discussed.

  6. Item Response Theory Models for Performance Decline during Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Kuan-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Sometimes, test-takers may not be able to attempt all items to the best of their ability (with full effort) due to personal factors (e.g., low motivation) or testing conditions (e.g., time limit), resulting in poor performances on certain items, especially those located toward the end of a test. Standard item response theory (IRT) models fail to…

  7. Vegetable parenting practices scale: Item response modeling analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a vegetable parenting practices scale using multidimensional polytomous item response modeling which enables assessing item fit to latent variables and the distributional characteristics of the items in comparison to the respondents. We al...

  8. Examination of the PROMIS upper extremity item bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Man; Voss, Maren W; Bounsanga, Jerry; Crum, Anthony B; Tyser, Andrew R

    Clinical measurement. The psychometric properties of the PROMIS v1.2 UE item bank were tested on various samples prior to its release, but have not been fully evaluated among the orthopaedic population. This study assesses the performance of the UE item bank within the UE orthopaedic patient population. The UE item bank was administered to 1197 adult patients presenting to a tertiary orthopaedic clinic specializing in hand and UE conditions and was examined using traditional statistics and Rasch analysis. The UE item bank fits a unidimensional model (outfit MNSQ range from 0.64 to 1.70) and has adequate reliabilities (person = 0.84; item = 0.82) and local independence (item residual correlations range from -0.37 to 0.34). Only one item exhibits gender differential item functioning. Most items target low levels of function. The UE item bank is a useful clinical assessment tool. Additional items covering higher functions are needed to enhance validity. Supplemental testing is recommended for patients at higher levels of function until more high function UE items are developed. 2c. Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. DIF Trees: Using Classification Trees to Detect Differential Item Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Brandon K.; Wang, Qiu

    2010-01-01

    A nonparametric tree classification procedure is used to detect differential item functioning for items that are dichotomously scored. Classification trees are shown to be an alternative procedure to detect differential item functioning other than the use of traditional Mantel-Haenszel and logistic regression analysis. A nonparametric…

  10. A simple and fast item selection procedure for adaptive testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerkamp, W.J.J.; Veerkamp, Wim J.J.; Berger, Martijn; Berger, Martijn P.F.

    1994-01-01

    Items with the highest discrimination parameter values in a logistic item response theory (IRT) model do not necessarily give maximum information. This paper shows which discrimination parameter values (as a function of the guessing parameter and the distance between person ability and item

  11. Optimal item discrimination and maximum information for logistic IRT models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerkamp, W.J.J.; Veerkamp, Wim J.J.; Berger, Martijn P.F.; Berger, Martijn

    1999-01-01

    Items with the highest discrimination parameter values in a logistic item response theory model do not necessarily give maximum information. This paper derives discrimination parameter values, as functions of the guessing parameter and distances between person parameters and item difficulty, that

  12. Guideline for the seismic technical evaluation of replacement items for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, S.P.; Cushing, R.W.; Johnson, H.W.; Abeles, J.M.

    1993-02-01

    Seismic qualification for equipment originally installed in nuclear power plants was typically performed by the original equipment suppliers or manufactures (OES/OEM). Many of the OES/OEM no longer maintain quality assurance programs with adequate controls for supplying nuclear equipment. Utilities themselves must provide reasonable assurance in the continued seismic adequacy of such replacement items. This guideline provides practical, cost-effective techniques which can be used to provide reasonable assurance that replacement items will meet seismic performance requirements necessary to maintain the seismic design basis of commercial nuclear power plants. It also provides a method for determining when a seismic technical evaluation of replacement items (STERI) is required as part of the procurement process for spare and replacement items. Guidance on supplier program requirements necessary to maintain continued seismic adequacy and on documentation of maintaining required seismic adequacy is also included

  13. Guidelines for the technical evaluation of replacement items in nuclear power plants (NCIG-11)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, W.E.; Fakhar, A.A.; Shulman, M.N.

    1989-12-01

    This document presents guidelines and supporting information for the technical evaluation of replacement items in nuclear power plants. These guidelines contain six major sections which provide the practical knowledge and a programmatic approach to determine the technical and quality requirements necessary to generate purchase documents to procure the proper replacement items. The technical evaluation methodology includes the following steps. (1) Identification of the need for a technical evaluation. (2) Component/part functional classification procedures. (3) Performance of a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis. (4) Selection of Critical Characteristics for Design Determination. (5) Performance of a ''Like-For-Like'' or ''Alternate'' item Evaluation. (6) Preparation of the Technical and Quality Requirements Specification. Work on this document was initiated in response to the increased emphasis by the utilities owning nuclear power plants and nuclear industry on procurement of replacement items for use in safety related applications at nuclear power plants. 20 refs., 9 figs., 14 tabs

  14. Cleaning and disinfection of patient care items, in relation to small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weese, J Scott

    2015-03-01

    Patient care involves several medical and surgical items, including those that come into contact with sterile or other high-risk body sites and items that have been used on other patients. These situations create a risk for infection if items are contaminated, and the implications can range from single infections to large outbreaks. To minimize the risk, proper equipment cleaning, disinfection/sterilization, storage, and monitoring practices are required. Risks posed by different items; the required level of cleaning, disinfection, or sterilization; the methods that are available and appropriate; and how to ensure efficacy, must be considered when designing and implementing an infection control program. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Item Banks for Substance Use from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®): Severity of Use and Positive Appeal of Use*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkonis, Paul A.; Yu, Lan; Dodds, Nathan E.; Johnston, Kelly L.; Lawrence, Suzanne; Hilton, Thomas F.; Daley, Dennis C.; Patkar, Ashwin A.; McCarty, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Background Two item banks for substance use were developed as part of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®): severity of substance use and positive appeal of substance use. Methods Qualitative item analysis (including focus groups, cognitive interviewing, expert review, and item revision) reduced an initial pool of more than 5,300 items for substance use to 119 items included in field testing. Items were written in a first-person, past-tense format, with 5 response options reflecting frequency or severity. Both 30-day and 3-month time frames were tested. The calibration sample of 1,336 respondents included 875 individuals from the general population (ascertained through an internet panel) and 461patients from addiction treatment centers participating in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network. Results Final banks of 37 and 18 items were calibrated for severity of substance use and positive appeal of substance use, respectively, using the two-parameter graded response model from item response theory (IRT). Initial calibrations were similar for the 30-day and 3-month time frames, and final calibrations used data combined across the time frames, making the items applicable with either interval. Seven-item static short forms were also developed from each item bank. Conclusions Test information curves showed that the PROMIS item banks provided substantial information in a broad range of severity, making them suitable for treatment, observational, and epidemiological research in both clinical and community settings. PMID:26423364

  16. The environmental survey manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide guidance to the Survey and Sampling and Analysis teams that conduct the one-time Environmental Survey of the major US Department of Energy (DOE) operating facilities. This manual includes a discussion of DOE's policy on environmental issues, a review of statutory guidance as it applies to the Survey, the procedures and protocols to be used by the Survey teams, criteria for the use of the Survey teams in evaluating existing environmental data for the Survey effort, generic technical checklists used in every Survey, health and safety guidelines for the personnel conducting the Survey, including the identification of potential hazards, prescribed protective equipment, and emergency procedures, the required formats for the Survey reports, guidance on identifying environmental problems that need immediate attention by the Operations Office responsible for the particular facility, and procedures and protocols for the conduct of sampling and analysis

  17. Brief Sensation Seeking Scale: Latent structure of 8-item and 4-item versions in Peruvian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino-Soto, Cesar; Salas Blas, Edwin

    2018-01-01

    This research intended to validate two brief scales of sensations seeking with Peruvian adolescents: the eight item scale (BSSS8; Hoyle, Stephenson, Palmgreen, Lorch, y Donohew, 2002) and the four item scale (BSSS4; Stephenson, Hoyle, Slater, y Palmgreen, 2003). Questionnaires were administered to 618 voluntary participants, with an average age of 13.6 years, from different levels of high school, state and private school in a district in the south of Lima. It analyzed the internal structure of both short versions using three models: a) unidimensional (M1), b) oblique or related dimensions (M2), and c) the bifactor model (M3). Results show that both instruments have a single dimension which best represents the variability of the items; a fact that can be explained both by the complexity of the concept and by the small number of items representing each factor, which is more noticeable in the BSSS4. Reliability is within levels found by previous studies: alpha: .745 = BSSS8 and BSSS4 =. 643; omega coefficient: .747 in BSSS8 and .651 in BSSS4. These are considered suitable for the type of instruments studied. Based on the correlation between the two instruments, it was found that there are satisfactory levels of equivalence between the BSSS8 and BSSS4. However, it is recommended that the BSSS4 is mainly used for research and for the purpose of describing populations.

  18. Non-ignorable missingness item response theory models for choice effects in examinee-selected items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen-Wei; Wang, Wen-Chung

    2017-11-01

    Examinee-selected item (ESI) design, in which examinees are required to respond to a fixed number of items in a given set, always yields incomplete data (i.e., when only the selected items are answered, data are missing for the others) that are likely non-ignorable in likelihood inference. Standard item response theory (IRT) models become infeasible when ESI data are missing not at random (MNAR). To solve this problem, the authors propose a two-dimensional IRT model that posits one unidimensional IRT model for observed data and another for nominal selection patterns. The two latent variables are assumed to follow a bivariate normal distribution. In this study, the mirt freeware package was adopted to estimate parameters. The authors conduct an experiment to demonstrate that ESI data are often non-ignorable and to determine how to apply the new model to the data collected. Two follow-up simulation studies are conducted to assess the parameter recovery of the new model and the consequences for parameter estimation of ignoring MNAR data. The results of the two simulation studies indicate good parameter recovery of the new model and poor parameter recovery when non-ignorable missing data were mistakenly treated as ignorable. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  19. An NCME Instructional Module on Item-Fit Statistics for Item Response Theory Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Allison J.; Penfield, Randall D.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing valid inferences from item response theory (IRT) models is contingent upon a good fit of the data to the model. Violations of model-data fit have numerous consequences, limiting the usefulness and applicability of the model. This instructional module provides an overview of methods used for evaluating the fit of IRT models. Upon completing…

  20. Methods for Assessing Item, Step, and Threshold Invariance in Polytomous Items Following the Partial Credit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfield, Randall D.; Myers, Nicholas D.; Wolfe, Edward W.

    2008-01-01

    Measurement invariance in the partial credit model (PCM) can be conceptualized in several different but compatible ways. In this article the authors distinguish between three forms of measurement invariance in the PCM: step invariance, item invariance, and threshold invariance. Approaches for modeling these three forms of invariance are proposed,…

  1. Detection of Uniform and Nonuniform Differential Item Functioning by Item-Focused Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Moritz; Tutz, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Detection of differential item functioning (DIF) by use of the logistic modeling approach has a long tradition. One big advantage of the approach is that it can be used to investigate nonuniform (NUDIF) as well as uniform DIF (UDIF). The classical approach allows one to detect DIF by distinguishing between multiple groups. We propose an…

  2. Random selection of items. Selection of n1 samples among N items composing a stratum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaech, J.L.; Lemaire, R.J.

    1987-02-01

    STR-224 provides generalized procedures to determine required sample sizes, for instance in the course of a Physical Inventory Verification at Bulk Handling Facilities. The present report describes procedures to generate random numbers and select groups of items to be verified in a given stratum through each of the measurement methods involved in the verification. (author). 3 refs

  3. Reliability of a computer and Internet survey (Computer User Profile) used by adults with and without traumatic brain injury (TBI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilov, Andrea M; Togher, Leanne; Power, Emma

    2015-01-01

    To determine test-re-test reliability of the 'Computer User Profile' (CUP) in people with and without TBI. The CUP was administered on two occasions to people with and without TBI. The CUP investigated the nature and frequency of participants' computer and Internet use. Intra-class correlation coefficients and kappa coefficients were conducted to measure reliability of individual CUP items. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize content of responses. Sixteen adults with TBI and 40 adults without TBI were included in the study. All participants were reliable in reporting demographic information, frequency of social communication and leisure activities and computer/Internet habits and usage. Adults with TBI were reliable in 77% of their responses to survey items. Adults without TBI were reliable in 88% of their responses to survey items. The CUP was practical and valuable in capturing information about social, leisure, communication and computer/Internet habits of people with and without TBI. Adults without TBI scored more items with satisfactory reliability overall in their surveys. Future studies may include larger samples and could also include an exploration of how people with/without TBI use other digital communication technologies. This may provide further information on determining technology readiness for people with TBI in therapy programmes.

  4. Reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (10-item CD-RISC in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Campayo Javier

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (10-item CD-RISC is an instrument for measuring resilience that has shown good psychometric properties in its original version in English. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Spanish version of the 10-item CD-RISC in young adults and to verify whether it is structured in a single dimension as in the original English version. Findings Cross-sectional observational study including 681 university students ranging in age from 18 to 30 years. The number of latent factors in the 10 items of the scale was analyzed by exploratory factor analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to verify whether a single factor underlies the 10 items of the scale as in the original version in English. The convergent validity was analyzed by testing whether the mean of the scores of the mental component of SF-12 (MCS and the quality of sleep as measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Index (PSQI were higher in subjects with better levels of resilience. The internal consistency of the 10-item CD-RISC was estimated using the Cronbach α test and test-retest reliability was estimated with the intraclass correlation coefficient. The Cronbach α coefficient was 0.85 and the test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.71. The mean MCS score and the level of quality of sleep in both men and women were significantly worse in subjects with lower resilience scores. Conclusions The Spanish version of the 10-item CD-RISC showed good psychometric properties in young adults and thus can be used as a reliable and valid instrument for measuring resilience. Our study confirmed that a single factor underlies the resilience construct, as was the case of the original scale in English.

  5. Dependability of technical items: Problems of standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotova, G. A.; Voropai, N. I.; Kovalev, G. F.

    2016-12-01

    This paper is concerned with problems blown up in the development of a new version of the Interstate Standard GOST 27.002 "Industrial product dependability. Terms and definitions". This Standard covers a wide range of technical items and is used in numerous regulations, specifications, standard and technical documentation. A currently available State Standard GOST 27.002-89 was introduced in 1990. Its development involved a participation of scientists and experts from different technical areas, its draft was debated in different audiences and constantly refined, so it was a high quality document. However, after 25 years of its application it's become necessary to develop a new version of the Standard that would reflect the current understanding of industrial dependability, accounting for the changes taking place in Russia in the production, management and development of various technical systems and facilities. The development of a new version of the Standard makes it possible to generalize on a terminological level the knowledge and experience in the area of reliability of technical items, accumulated over a quarter of the century in different industries and reliability research schools, to account for domestic and foreign experience of standardization. Working on the new version of the Standard, we have faced a number of issues and problems on harmonization with the International Standard IEC 60500-192, caused first of all by different approaches to the use of terms and differences in the mentalities of experts from different countries. The paper focuses on the problems related to the chapter "Maintenance, restoration and repair", which caused difficulties for the developers to harmonize term definitions both with experts and the International Standard, which is mainly related to differences between the Russian concept and practice of maintenance and repair and foreign ones.

  6. U.S. Army Concept of Operations and Standard Operating Procedure for Acquisition Program Managers Using Item Unique Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    a pop up screen will ask to file save as Figure 88. the form on my documents or desktop . Source: Department of the Army (n.d.-e...77 Open the form from desktop or mydocuments in Adobe Acrobat...policy was published as Army Directive 2016–21 in May 2016. Army items requiring serial number management will require IUID. This includes items

  7. Effect of Clinically Discriminating, Evidence-Based Checklist Items on the Reliability of Scores from an Internal Medicine Residency OSCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Vijay J.; Bordage, Georges; Gierl, Mark J.; Yudkowsky, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) are used worldwide for summative examinations but often lack acceptable reliability. Research has shown that reliability of scores increases if OSCE checklists for medical students include only clinically relevant items. Also, checklists are often missing evidence-based items that high-achieving…

  8. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Eight. Mastery Testing Program. Series 3 & 4 Supplements to Introduction and Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    Continuing a series of short tests aimed at measuring student mastery of specific skills in the natural sciences, this supplementary volume includes teachers' notes, a users' guide and inspection copies of test items 27 to 50. Answer keys and test scoring statistics are provided. The items are designed for grades 7 through 10, and a list of the…

  9. The 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II: a nonparametric item response analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Ana

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have analyzed the psychometric properties of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II using classical omnibus measures of scale quality. These analyses are sample dependent and do not model item responses as a function of the underlying trait level. The main objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the WHO-DAS II items and their options in discriminating between changes in the underlying disability level by means of item response analyses. We also explored differential item functioning (DIF in men and women. Methods The participants were 3615 adult general practice patients from 17 regions of Spain, with a first diagnosed major depressive episode. The 12-item WHO-DAS II was administered by the general practitioners during the consultation. We used a non-parametric item response method (Kernel-Smoothing implemented with the TestGraf software to examine the effectiveness of each item (item characteristic curves and their options (option characteristic curves in discriminating between changes in the underliying disability level. We examined composite DIF to know whether women had a higher probability than men of endorsing each item. Results Item response analyses indicated that the twelve items forming the WHO-DAS II perform very well. All items were determined to provide good discrimination across varying standardized levels of the trait. The items also had option characteristic curves that showed good discrimination, given that each increasing option became more likely than the previous as a function of increasing trait level. No gender-related DIF was found on any of the items. Conclusions All WHO-DAS II items were very good at assessing overall disability. Our results supported the appropriateness of the weights assigned to response option categories and showed an absence of gender differences in item functioning.

  10. Factors affecting physical therapists' job satisfaction: questionnaire survey targeting first-year physical therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kota, Munetsugu; Kudo, Hiroyuki; Okita, Kazuhiko

    2018-04-01

    [Purpose] The survey aimed to clarify the factors that affect physiotherapists' job satisfaction. [Subjects and Methods] To examine factors affecting physical therapists' job satisfaction using a cross-sectional study with a questionnaire survey. Subjects were 193 first-year physical therapists who participated in a newcomer orientation at Hiroshima Prefectural Physical Therapy Association. The questionnaire comprised items concerning physical therapists' satisfaction with their work, motives for becoming physical therapists, education in school, internships, the workplace, and comfort in the workplace. [Results] Subjects were divided into two groups according to their satisfaction with their occupation. The "high satisfaction" group included 157 subjects, and the group "low satisfaction" group included 36 subjects. Using logistic regression analysis, items concerning comfort in the workplace, motives for becoming physical therapists, and learning in school were analysed. [Conclusion] Factors affecting physical therapists' job satisfaction were primarily influenced by previous experience and working conditions.

  11. Are great apes able to reason from multi-item samples to populations of food items?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Johanna; Rakoczy, Hannes; Call, Josep

    2017-10-01

    Inductive learning from limited observations is a cognitive capacity of fundamental importance. In humans, it is underwritten by our intuitive statistics, the ability to draw systematic inferences from populations to randomly drawn samples and vice versa. According to recent research in cognitive development, human intuitive statistics develops early in infancy. Recent work in comparative psychology has produced first evidence for analogous cognitive capacities in great apes who flexibly drew inferences from populations to samples. In the present study, we investigated whether great apes (Pongo abelii, Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, Gorilla gorilla) also draw inductive inferences in the opposite direction, from samples to populations. In two experiments, apes saw an experimenter randomly drawing one multi-item sample from each of two populations of food items. The populations differed in their proportion of preferred to neutral items (24:6 vs. 6:24) but apes saw only the distribution of food items in the samples that reflected the distribution of the respective populations (e.g., 4:1 vs. 1:4). Based on this observation they were then allowed to choose between the two populations. Results show that apes seemed to make inferences from samples to populations and thus chose the population from which the more favorable (4:1) sample was drawn in Experiment 1. In this experiment, the more attractive sample not only contained proportionally but also absolutely more preferred food items than the less attractive sample. Experiment 2, however, revealed that when absolute and relative frequencies were disentangled, apes performed at chance level. Whether these limitations in apes' performance reflect true limits of cognitive competence or merely performance limitations due to accessory task demands is still an open question. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Differential Item Functioning of Pathological Gambling Criteria: An Examination of Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and Age

    OpenAIRE

    Sacco, Paul; Torres, Luis R.; Cunningham-Williams, Renee M.; Woods, Carol; Unick, G. Jay

    2011-01-01

    This study tested for the presence of differential item functioning (DIF) in DSM-IV Pathological Gambling Disorder (PGD) criteria based on gender, race/ethnicity and age. Using a nationally representative sample of adults from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), indicating current gambling (n = 10,899), Multiple Indicator-Multiple Cause (MIMIC) models tested for DIF, controlling for income, education, and marital status. Compared to the reference grou...

  13. 2012 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Reserve Component Members (Survey Note No. 2013-002)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    items regarding unwanted attempts to establish a sexual relationship – Sexual Coercion – four items regarding classic quid pro quo instances of...Department of Defense (DoD) continues to emphasize sexual assault and sexual harassment response and prevention in the Reserve components. This survey...survey assesses the prevalence of sexual assault and sexual harassment and other gender-related issues in the National Guard and Reserves. This

  14. 2012 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Active Duty Members (Survey Note No. 2013-002)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    Attention – four items regarding unwanted attempts to establish a sexual relationship – Sexual Coercion – four items regarding classic quid pro quo ...of Defense (DoD) continues to emphasize sexual assault and sexual harassment response and prevention in the military. This survey note discusses...assault and sexual harassment in the active duty force. This survey note and accompanying briefing (Appendix) provide information on the prevalence

  15. 2012 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Active Duty Members. Survey Note and Briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    items regarding unwanted attempts to establish a sexual relationship – Sexual Coercion – four items regarding classic quid pro quo instances of special...continues to emphasize sexual assault and sexual harassment response and prevention in the military. This survey note discusses findings from the... harassment in the active duty force. This survey note and accompanying briefing (Appendix) provide information on the prevalence rates of sexual

  16. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Twenty-Two. A Collection of Multiple Choice Test Items Relating Mainly to Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests or term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection was reviewed for content validity and reliability. The test items meet syllabus…

  17. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Eighteen. A Collection of Multiple Choice Test Items Relating Mainly to Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests or term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection was reviewed for content validity and reliability. The test items meet syllabus…

  18. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Twenty. A Collection of Multiple Choice Test Items Relating Mainly to Physics, 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests or term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection was reviewed for content validity and reliability. The test items meet syllabus…

  19. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Seventeen. A Collection of Multiple Choice Test Items Relating Mainly to Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests or term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection was reviewed for content validity and reliability. The test items meet syllabus…

  20. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Nineteen. A Collection of Multiple Choice Test Items Relating Mainly to Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests or term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection was reviewed for content validity and reliability. The test items meet syllabus…